RoboLab Reference Guide - Utah State 4-H

RoboLab Reference Guide - Utah State 4-H
ROBOLAB™ Reference
Guide
Version 1.4
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2
Preface: Getting Help with ROBOLAB
ROBOLAB is a growing application for which users can
receive support in many different ways. Embedded in
ROBOLAB are context help and extended help information and
examples. A PDF is available on the ROBOLAB CD that focuses
on teaching readers how to use different components of the
software.
Several books have been written that focus on tips and
tricks for using ROBOLAB and LEGO bricks and accompanying
activities for use with students. These books include
Physics by Design by Barbara Bratzel
(http://www.collegehousebooks.com/physics_by_design.htm)
and Engineering with LEGO Bricks and ROBOLAB by Eric L.
Wang (http://www.collegehousebooks.com/lego_bricks.htm).
Carnegie Mellon’s Robotic Institute has developed
additional support. Their “NXT Mobile Robotics Curriculum”
and “NXT Engineering Projects Curriculum” is available at
from your LEGO Education distributor.
The web also serves as a means of finding information, new
capabilities, suggested ways to use the software, classroom
curriculum, and additional tutorials on using ROBOLAB. The
web component is a continually growing environment where we
update and add new material and sample curriculum all the
time.
This guide is designed to serve as an extended reference
resource for the ROBOLAB software. It aims to supplement
the other support and help components that already exist.
With nearly 300 pages of information, the ROBOLAB Reference
Guide is best used as an interactive electronic document
from which pages or sections can be printed if needed. The
Guide is a dynamic project, continually growing and being
updated. The most current version is available for download
at www.legoengineering.com.
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© 2006 The LEGO Group.
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3
Help in ROBOLAB
The first place to look for help
versions of ROBOLAB have context
environment. Help can be turned
Button or via keyboard shortcuts
is within ROBOLAB. All
help for the software
on and off using the Help
(CTRL-H)
Context Help
Box
Help Button
After turning on the help, placing your mouse over any
object in a window or icon the context help will present a
description of the item or directions on how to use it.
This type of help can be useful for learning how to use the
Administrator, Pilot, or Investigator sections of ROBOLAB.
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4
The ‘Click
here for
more help’
link
When programming in Inventor or higher levels of
Investigator, context help is also available for each of
the icons. This help that comes up describes the
functionality of the command, default settings, and the
elements of it that can be modified. In ROBOLAB 2.5 and
higher, the ‘Click here for more help’ link appears in the
Context Help window. This brings up extended help
information and a sample program that uses the command
(that can be opened and downloaded). The extended help
allows the user to see examples.
The Using ROBOLAB guide
For a more detailed introduction to using the software,
step by step directions, and more examples and challenges,
the Using ROBOLAB guide is very useful. This PDF is
available through your LEGO Education distributor or in
electronic (pdf) format at www.legoengineering.com.
Topics in the User’s Manual Include
The Pilot and Inventor levels of programming in the
PROGRAMMER component of ROBOLAB. This is all one needs
to program a LEGO robot.
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5
The INVESTIGATOR component that is used for data logging.
This section adds scientific investigation to the
robot’s capabilities, allowing the RCX to become a
smart and mobile data logging tool. The Investigator
component also includes a Journal Area for documenting
a project in text and photographs or illustrations and
a Publish feature for sharing results.
The enhanced Media features: the Piano Player and Camera
available in ROBOLAB 2.5.1 and higher. The manual also
shows how to use some of the higher level capabilities
including Vision Center and subroutines.
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6
ROBOLAB Web Sites
ROBOLAB has a growing web based community that has
information, ideas, and examples of users in action. Two
web sites that have learning resources, developer
information and SDKs, new downloads, more documentation and
support are:
http://www.legoengineering.com
and
http://www.lego.com/education
These sites are a great place to visit for up to the minute
patches, new features, additions, and tutorials. Both sites
also maintain a large number of links to curriculum
resources, activity databases, and information on classroom
materials. The Lego Users Group Network (LUGNET) at
www.lugnet.com (not officially supported by LEGO) also
provides a great resource for discussing ROBOLAB and other
LEGO issues and locating additional information.
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7
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface: Getting Help with ROBOLAB ........................ 2
Help in ROBOLAB ......................................... 3
ROBOLAB Web Sites ....................................... 6
TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................... 7
1. About ROBOLAB .......................................... 9
1. About ROBOLAB .......................................... 9
Low Entry --High Ceiling ................................ 9
ROBOLAB and LabVIEW .................................... 10
2. Programming Icons and Examples ........................ 15
Basic Outputs .......................................... 16
Behaviors .............................................. 28
Wait Fors .............................................. 39
Tasks & Subroutines (Structures) ....................... 67
Forks .................................................. 71
Jumps ................................................. 102
Loops ................................................. 105
Events ................................................ 133
Task Priority ......................................... 171
Music ................................................. 172
Investigator .......................................... 176
Reset ................................................. 198
Containers ............................................ 212
RCX Communications .................................... 255
Modifiers ............................................. 264
Direct Functions ...................................... 295
Internet .............................................. 300
Advanced .............................................. 302
Control Lab Interface ................................. 305
NXT Commands .......................................... 310
G-Code ................................................ 326
Multimedia ............................................ 345
3. How To… .............................................. 358
3.1 Using Vision Sensors Outside of Vision Center ..... 359
3.2 Containers in ROBOLAB ............................. 363
3.3 User Data in ROBOLAB .............................. 364
4. Customizing ROBOLAB .................................. 366
4.1 Editing the Default.prf file ...................... 367
4.2 Creating your own Sensor Definition Files ......... 372
4.3 Customizing Investigator .......................... 378
5. Help & Idea Sources .................................. 384
Appendix ................................................ 387
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8
Troubleshooting Programming Problems .................. 388
Tips and Tricks ....................................... 394
Related Web Sites and Resources ....................... 397
Acknowledgements ........................................ 398
Index ................................................... 399
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9
1. About ROBOLAB
ROBOLAB is the software that provides the tools and
environment for programming, creating, learning and
exploring with the LEGO RCX and NXT. With an intuitive,
graphical interface, students of all ages are able to
create autonomous robotic creations, collect data, compose
music, and snap pictures.
The RCX & NXT– The Programmable LEGO Bricks
Low Entry --High Ceiling
LEGO elements can be a powerful teaching tool for students
of all ages. Using LEGO bricks a kindergarten student can
explore the concept of numbers and sorting. Add a few
motors and sensors to those LEGO bricks and a college
student can learn about engineering and physics by building
a robot or a set-up to measure spring constants. Having
students from 5 - 25 use the same toolset to learn allows
more time to be focused on learning and exploring and less
on learning how to use software.
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10
ROBOLAB and LabVIEW
ROBOLAB is built on top of a robust piece of software
called LabVIEW. LabVIEW is a powerful programming
environment used by engineers and scientists in colleges
and industry. It is the leading software development tool
for measurement and control. Created by National
Instruments (Texas, US) in 1997, LabVIEW is used to analyze
and compute real results for biomedical, aerospace, energy
research applications and numerous other applications.
NASA, for example, monitored the Mars Sojourner Rover's
location and position in relation to the landing craft, its
orientation to the ground, its overall physical health and
more using LabVIEW.
LabVIEW is a graphical programming development environment
that allows scientists and engineers to write programs and
create user interfaces. A basic LabVIEW program, called a
virtual instrument (vi) has 2 components to it – a front
panel and a diagram. The front panel is where standard
user interface options like buttons, dials, and graphs are
displayed.
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11
Run Button
A Simple LabVIEW Front Panel
The simple LabVIEW front panel for the vi,
addtwonumbers.vi, above allows the user to enter two
numbers (Number 1 and Number 2) when the program is
executed by pressing the run button. What happens when the
run button is pressed is defined in the diagram. The
diagram defines the logic and operations of the vi (LabVIEW
program).
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12
A Simple LabVIEW Diagram
The diagram above takes Number 1 and Number 2 and adds them
together and displays the result in Answer.
Addtwonumbers.vi is an overly simple example of LabVIEW’s
capabilities but helps to demonstrate the graphical
interface and basic concepts.
ROBOLAB makes use of LabVIEW’s capabilities and interface
in several ways. LabVIEW’s intuitive graphical interface
makes it easy for the developers of ROBOLAB to program
quickly and easily. All the customized screens and
templates, including the Administrator, the Pilot Levels,
Investigator, Vision Center, and Piano Player are LabVIEW
front panels. Behind those front panels are diagrams that
contain the complicated programming that provides their
functionality.
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13
The Pilot 1 Front Panel
The Pilot 1 Diagram
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14
At the Inventor Level and the higher programming levels of
Investigator, users are actually doing modified LabVIEW
programming. The bottom purple window that appears is
actually a LabVIEW diagram.
Front
Panel
Diagram
When the run button is pressed, the code is compiled and
sent to the RCX or NXT. A window will pop-up asking if you
are using the RCX, the NXT, or the Control Lab? The
majority of ROBOLAB programming doesn’t require the front
panel so it is presented in a smaller format and used to
display additional directions and information (like the
‘Welcome to Inventor’ message).
The similarities between the upper levels of ROBOLAB and
LabVIEW mean that ROBOLAB users have much of the power of
LabVIEW at their disposal allowing them to perform nearly
any task or challenge they can conceive. It also means
that users who wish to go further with programming have a
solid foundation in this type of graphical programming
environment and can easily transition to using LabVIEW.
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15
2. Programming Icons and Examples
This chapter provides additional hints and example programs
for all of the ROBOLAB icons (excluding a few higher level
palettes). The examples can also be accessed through the
extended help in ROBOLAB 2.5 and higher (using the ‘Click
here for more help’ link in the Help Window). The sections
were created using the highest, most comprehensive level of
ROBOLAB (Investigator – Program Level 5). Hence, if you
are using lower levels of Inventor or Investigator some of
the icons listed may not appear on your Functions Palette.
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16
Basic Outputs
Begin
Always start an Inventor program with this
command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for one second and
then turn it off.
End
Always end an Inventor program with this command.
Each task will need its own end command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for one second and
then turn it off.
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17
Motor A
Forward
Motor A
Reverse
Motor B
Forward
Motor B
Reverse
Motor C
Forward
Motor C
Reverse
Use this if you have a motor connected to port A, B,
or C that will be spinning in the forward or reverse
direction. Use the power level modifier to change how
fast the motor spins, from 1 (slow) to 5 (fast).
Without a modifier, the power level will be 5 (fast).
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A in the forward
direction for one second and then turn it off.
Lamp A
Lamp B
Lamp C
Use this if you want the lamps connected to port A, B,
or C to turn on. Use the power level modifier to
change it from bright (5) to dim (1). Without a
modifier, the power level will be 5 (bright).
Example
This piece of code would turn on the lamp connected to port
A for one second and then turn it off.
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18
Stop A
Stop B
Stop C
Stop all
Outputs
Use this to stop the motor or lamp connected to ports
A, B, and C by braking (abrupt stop). To get a more
gradual stop, use the float command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on the lamp connected to port
A for one second and then turn it off.
Play
Sound
Use this command to get an audio response from
the RCX. Change sounds using the sound type
modifier. This modifier must be an integer from 1
to 6. Each represents a pre-programmed sound. 1:
Key-click, 2: Beep Beep, 3: Descending Sweep, 4:
Rising Sweep, 5: Buzz, 6: Fast Rising Sweep.
Example
This piece of code would play a fast rising sweep sound
(the default).
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19
Flip
Direction
Use this command to flip the directions of the
motors once they are on. Use the ports modifier
to flip specific ports. Without a modifier,
this command will flip the direction of all
ports. This does NOT turn the motor on. It
needs to be used in combination with a command
that starts the motor or at a point in your
program where the motor is already on.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A in the forward
direction, wait one second, flip the direction of motor A
(to reverse), wait one second, and then turn motor A off.
Float
Outputs
Use this command if you want motors to come to a
more gradual stop. This command will simply stop
powering the motors. Use the ports modifier to
float specific ports. Without a modifier, this
command will float all ports.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A in the forward
direction for one second then it would float the motor.
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20
Use this command to turn on lamps. The ports
modifier allows you to choose which lamps you
want to turn on. If no modifier is used, this
command will turn on all ports. Use the power
level command to change from 5 (bright) to 1
(dim). Without a modifier, the power level will
be 5.
Lamp
Example
This piece of code would turn on lamps connected to ports A
and C at power level 3. After 6 seconds, it would turn them
off.
Stop
Outputs
Use this to stop motors or turn off lamps. This
command abruptly stops motors by braking. To get
a more gradual stop, use the float command. Use
modifiers to choose which ports to stop. Without
a modifier, this command stops all ports.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motors A and B in the
forward direction for two seconds and then stop both
motors.
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21
Motor
Forward
Motor
Reverse
Use this to turn on the motor(s) in the forward
direction. Use the ports modifier to choose which
motors to turn on. Without a modifier, this command
will turn on all ports. Use the power level modifier
to change how fast the motor spins, from 1 (slow) to 5
(fast). Without a modifier, the power level will be 5
(fast).
Example
This piece of code would turn on motors connected to ports
A and B in the forward direction. After 4 seconds, it would
turn them off.
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22
Motor
Random
Use this icon when you want the motor to turn on
in a random direction. This icon DOES turn the
motor on. The default is to turn on all ports to
power level 5.
Example
This piece of code turns motor A on in a random direction.
The motor runs for 10 seconds, and then stops.
Change
Motor
Speed
Use this icon when you want to change or assign
motor speeds. This does NOT turn the motor on. It
needs to be used in combination with a command
that starts the motor or at a point in your
program where the motor is already on.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A in the forward
direction at full power for one second, then it changes to
power level 3 for ten seconds and turns off.
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23
Reverse
Forward
This command just sets the direction of the motor to
forward or reverse. It does NOT turn the motor on. It
needs to be used in combination with a command that
starts the motor or at a point in your program where
the motor is already on. If the motor is already going
in the reverse or forward direction, there will be no
change.
Example
This piece of code assigns the speed of motor B to 3, and
the direction of motor B to reverse, and then turns it on.
After 2 seconds it turns the motor off.
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24
Use this icon when you want the direction of
the motor to be randomly selected. This does
NOT turn the motor on. It needs to be used in
combination with a command that starts the
motor or at a point in your program where the
motor is already on.
Random
Direction
Example
This piece of code turns motor A on in the forward
direction and then randomly selects a direction for the
motor (forward or backward), the motor runs for 10 seconds
and is then stopped.
Turn
Outputs
On
Use this command to turn on motors and lamps with
their last power and direction settings.
Example
This piece of code assigns the speed of motor B to 3, and
the direction of motor B to forward, and then turns it on.
After 2 seconds it turns motor B off.
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25
Motor
Forward
or Back
Use this command when you want the speed and
direction of the motor related to positive and
negative numbers.
Example
This piece of code puts the value -5 in the red container.
It then loops 11 times running the motor at the speed in
the red container for 1 second , beeping and then
augmenting the value of the container by 1. Hence, the
motor runs backwards from speeds 5 - 1, stops while the
power is equal to 0, and the runs forward from speeds 1-5.
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26
Motor
Power
This command will turn on motors at specified
power level. Indicate the motors by using the
port A, B, or C icons. To specify a power level,
string in a numeric constant. 1to 100 are
forward, 0 is stopped (no power), and -1 to -100
are backward.
Example
Motors A and C will turn on in the forward direction at
speed 50. After 4 seconds, the motors will be turned off.
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27
Motor
Forward
Or
Back
String
This command will turn on motors at a power level
specified by a string. Indicate the motors by
using the port A, B, or C icons (or encoder A, B,
or C in the NXT commands menu). To specify a
power level, right-click (control-click for Mac
users) on the lower right corner and choose
Create Constant. This will allow you to type in
the name of a string variable to use to control
motor speed.
Example
In this example, an NXT motor is trying to remain in the
same position. The value of the encoder on NXT motor A is
placed in a string container called rotation. The value
speed is calculated using the Evaluate Expression command.
Then, the variable speed is used as the power level for
Motor A. This process repeats indefinitely as it is inside
jump commands. Depending on the desired sensitivity and
direction the motor is connected, the values in the speed
expression may need to be modified.
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28
Behaviors
Go
Straight
This behavior is Go Straight. This behavior is
written for a two motor car. In any behavior,
you can modify the code to fit your needs.
Example
This code turns motors A and C on in the forward direction
for 1 second, then turns off the motors.
Turn
This behavior is Turn. This behavior is written
for a two motor car. In any behavior, you can
modify the code to fit your needs.
Example
This code turns motor A on forward and motor C on backward.
After 0.25 seconds, the motors are turned off.
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29
Lurch
This behavior is Lurch. It makes the car go
forward then stop then go forward again a
number of times. This behavior is written for a
two motor car. In any behavior, you can modify
the code to fit your needs.
Example
In this code, motors A and C are set to go in the forward
direction. Then a loop begins that turns the motors on for
one second, then off for one second. This loop repeats 10
times.
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30
Snake
This behavior is Snake. It makes the car turn
from side to side a number of times. This
behavior is written for a two motor car. In any
behavior, you can modify the code to fit your
needs.
Example
This code first sets the motors for a power level of 5 (the
default). Then it sets motor A's direction to backward and
motor C's direction to forward. It then enters a loop which
turns the motors on for one second, then reverses their
directions. This loop repeats 10 times.
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31
Drive To
Bump
This behavior is Drive to Bump. It makes the
car drive forward until a touch sensor is
pushed. This behavior is written for a two
motor car. In any behavior, you can modify the
code to fit your needs.
Example
This code turns on motors A and C in the forward direction.
When touch sensor 1 is pushed, motors A and C turn off.
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32
Drive To
Dark
This behavior is Drive to Dark. It makes the car
drive forward until the light sensor reading
drops. This behavior is written for a two motor
car. In any behavior, you can modify the code to
fit your needs.
Example
This code turns on motors A and C in the forward direction.
When the light sensor reading falls by five (the default),
motors A and C turn off.
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33
Two
Button
Remote
This behavior is Two Button Remote. It allows you
to control the direction your car drives with two
touch sensors. This behavior is written for a two
motor car. In any behavior, you can modify the
code to fit your needs.
Example
This code is written for the motors to be connected to
ports A and C and touch sensors to be connected to ports 1
and 2. A task split is used so that each motor is
controlled by one touch sensor in a separate task. Each
task consists of a forever loop and a touch sensor fork.
When a touch sensor is pressed, that motor turns on in the
forward direction. So, when both touch sensors are pressed,
both motors go forward, causing the car to drive straight.
When neither touch sensor is pressed, both motors are
stopped, causing the car to stay still. If only touch
sensor 1 is pressed, then only motor A is on, causing the
car to turn.
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34
Stay
Still
This behavior is Stay Still. It makes the car
stay in the same place. If you push it, it will
return to the original spot. This behavior is
written for a one motor car with an angle sensor
attached to a second set of wheels. In any
behavior, you can modify the code to fit your
needs.
Example
This program begins by resetting the angle sensor (which
sets the original spot the car will try to return to). Then
a forever loop begins. In this loop, The value of the
rotation sensor is multiplied by 5, and this value is used
for motor speed. In this way, the car will return to the
original spot (0 rotations, moving at speed 0, or stopped)
if it is pushed. If you find that your car runs away from
you - reverse the direction of the motor of change the
container multiplier to a negative number. You can adjust
the sensitivity of the proportional control by adjusting
the multiplier.
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35
Drive And
Sing
This behavior is Drive and Sing. It makes the car
drive forward while playing a song. This behavior
is written for a two motor car. In any behavior,
you can modify the code to fit your needs.
Example
This program uses a task split so that the car can drive
and play a song at the same time. The top task turns on
motors A and C in the forward direction. After 5 seconds,
it turns the motors off. The bottom task plays the red
scroll. After the red scroll finishes, all outputs (the
default) are turned off.
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36
Sing
Until
Dark
This behavior is Sing until Dark. It causes the
RCX to repeat a song until the light sensor
reading drops below a specified value. The code
uses an event to monitor for the drop in light
sensor reading. Therefore, the reading must begin
or rise above the cutoff before an event can be
triggered by the drop in light sensor reading. In
any behavior, you can modify the code to fit your
needs.
Example
This program uses an event to trigger the end of the song.
A light sensor event is set up as the red event and is
looking for the light sensor reading to fall below 55.
Next, the program begins monitoring for the red event. The
red scroll is played in a forever loop. When the light
sensor reading falls below 55, the event will be triggered,
ending the program and the song.
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37
Sample
Light
This behavior is Sample Light. Use this to
behavior to collect light sensor data. In any
behavior, you can modify the code to fit your
needs.
Example
This program initializes light sensor data logging, then
logs data every 0.1 seconds. This continues until 50 data
points have been collected, then data logging stops.
Sample
And Drive
This behavior is Sample and Drive. Use this to
behavior to collect light sensor data while
driving. This behavior is written for a two motor
car. In any behavior, you can modify the code to
fit your needs.
Example
This program turns on motors A and C in the forward
direction. It then initializes light sensor data logging,
and logs data every 0.1 seconds. This continues until 50
data points have been collected, then data logging stops.
Finally, the outputs are turned off.
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38
Position
Control
This behavior is Position Control. It allows for
much greater precision in car movement. The
constant and distance can be varied. This
behavior is written for a one motor car. In any
behavior, you can modify the code to fit your
needs.
Example
This program begins by optimizing RCX behavior and
resetting the angle sensor. The proportionality constant,
Kp, is set up as 10.5. Then a loop begins in which the
value of the angle sensor is placed in the red container,
and motor A is turned on by a power level that is computed
by subtracting the red contained from 32 and multiplying by
the proportionality constant, Kp. After a 0.05 delay, the
loop is repeated. The loop repeats 400 times and then motor
A is turned off.
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39
Wait Fors
Wait for
1 second
Wait for
2
seconds
Wait for
4
seconds
Wait for
6
seconds
Wait for
8
seconds
Wait for
10
seconds
Use these icons if you want to wait for the specified
amount of time before moving on to the next command.
Useful to choose duration of motor and lamp activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A in the reverse
direction for 2 seconds, and then turn it off.
Wait for
Time
Use this icon if you want to specify the number
of seconds to wait before moving on to the next
command. Useful to choose duration of motor and
lamp activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for the number of
seconds specified on the control panel and then turn it
off.
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40
Wait for
Random
Time
Use this if you want to wait a random amount of
time before moving on to the next command. Use
modifier to change the max random time from 5
seconds. Useful to choose duration of motor and
lamp activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for a random
amount of time between 0 and 5 seconds and then turn it
off.
Wait for
n
thousandths
of a
second
Use this if you want to wait a certain number
of thousandths of seconds before moving on to
the next command. Useful to choose duration
of motor and lamp activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on Motor A and C for a the
number of thousandths of seconds specified on the control
panel, then run Motor A forward and B backward until a
touch sensor was pressed, in which case both motors would
turn off.
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41
Wait for N
hundredths
of a second
Use this if you want to wait a certain number
of hundredths of seconds before moving on to
the next command. Useful to choose duration
of motor and lamp activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for the number of
hundredths of seconds specified on the control panel and
then turn it off.
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42
Wait for
Time
(min)
Use this if you want to wait a certain number of
minutes before moving on to the next command.
Useful to choose duration of motor and lamp
activity.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for the number of
minutes specified on the control panel and then turn it
off.
Wait for 10
Points
Wait for 100
Points
Wait for 500
Points
Most useful in Investigator. Use these icons when you
want to collect the specified number of data points
before moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code clears the data memory, then logs 500
points of rotation sensor data.
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43
Wait for
N Points
Most useful in Investigator. Use this icon when
you want to collect a certain number of data
points before moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code would take 50 data points from the
mailbox.
Wait for
Push
Use this icon to wait for something to push in
the touch sensor before moving on to the next
command.
Example
If an IP number was strung onto the Begin icon, this piece
of code would be sent over the Internet. It would turn on
motor A until a touch sensor was pressed and then shut it
off.
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44
Wait for
Let Go
Use this icon to wait for something to release
the touch sensor before moving on to the next
command. If the touch sensor is not pressed to
begin with, the touch sensor must be pressed then
released.
Example
If an IP number was strung onto the Begin direct icon, this
piece of code would control an RCX in direct mode over the
Internet. It would turn on motor A on the remote RCX until
a touch sensor was released and then turn it off.
Wait for
Light
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
become greater than a certain value before moving
on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light sensor to read a value greater than 55 (the default).
Then, it turns off the motor.
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45
Wait for
Dark
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
become less than a certain value before moving on
to the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light sensor to read a value less than 55 (the default).
Then, it turns off the motor.
Wait for
Brighter
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
increase by a certain value before moving to the
next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light reading to increase by 5 (the default). Then, it
turns off the motor.
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46
Wait for
Darker
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
decrease by a certain value before moving to the
next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light reading to decrease by 5 (the default). Then, it
turns off the motor.
Wait for
Rotation
w/o Reset
Use this icon to wait for a number of
rotations (or a fraction of a rotation) to be
completed but do NOT want to reset the
rotation sensor to 0. (The general wait for
rotation sensor resets to 0 and then waits for
the cutoff rotation.) The angle sensor value
is measured in sixteenths, so a reading of 16
is one rotation.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A, waits for 1 rotation (a
reading of 16, the default) from the sensor, then turns
lamp A off.
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47
Wait for
Angle
Use this icon to wait for the angle sensor value
to be greater than the cutoff value before moving
on to the next command. The rotation can be
either forward or backward. The default is 180
degrees, or half a rotation.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A. Once the angle sensor
reads a value of greater than 180 degrees (the default),
lamp A turns off.
Wait for
Rotation
Use this icon to wait for the angle sensor value
to be greater than the value specified before
moving on to the next command. The angle sensor
value is measured in sixteenths, so a reading of
16 is one rotation.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A. Once the angle sensor
value reaches 16 (or one rotation, the default), lamp A
turns off.
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48
NXT
Wait
for
Push
Use this icon to wait for something to push in
the touch sensor before moving on to the next
command.
Example
This piece of code waits until the NXT touch sensor on Port
1 is pressed, in which case Motors A and C go forward until
the touch sensor is pressed again. When it is pressed,
Motor A will continue forward and Motor C will go backward
for 2 seconds, then both motors will stop.
NXT
Wait
For
Let
Go
Use this icon to wait for something to release
the new NXT touch sensor before moving on to the
next command. If the touch sensor is not pressed
to begin with, the touch sensor must be pressed
then released.
Example
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49
This piece of code waits until the NXT touch sensor on Port
1 is pressed. While it is pressed, Motors A and C go
forward until the touch sensor is released. When it is
released, Motor A will continue forward and Motor C
will go backward for 2 seconds, then both motors will stop.
NXT
Wait
for
Light
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
become greater than a certain value before
moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A, then waits for the
light sensor on Port 1 to read a value greater than 36.
Then, it turns off the motor.
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50
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
become less than a
certain value before moving on to the next
command.
NXT
Wait
for
Dark
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light sensor to read a value less than 30. Then, it turns
off the motor.
NXT
Wait
for
Brighter
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
increase by a certain value before moving to the
next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light reading to increase by 10. Then, it turns off the
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51
motor.
NXT Wait
for
Darker
Use this icon to wait for the light reading to
decrease by a certain value before moving to the
next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A, then waits for the
light reading to decrease by 10. Then, it turns off the
motor.
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52
NXT
Forward
Distance
X
Use this icon to wait for the distance sensor to
read a distance (in cm) that is greater than the
number specified before moving onto the next
command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A, then waits for the
distance sensor to have a value of greater than 10, in
which case it stops. It then waits for the distance sensor
to read a value less than 10. Next, it jumps back to the
beginning of the program and starts again.
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53
NXT
Reverse
Distance
X
Use this icon to wait for the distance sensor to
read a distance (in cm) that is less than the
number specified before moving onto the next
command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A, then waits for the
distance sensor to have a value of greater than 10, in
which case it stops. It then waits for the distance sensor
to read a value less than 10. Next, it jumps back to the
beginning of the program and starts again.
NXT
Wait
for
Loud
Use this icon to wait for the sound sensor to
notice a volume greater than the specified cutoff
before moving onto the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motors A and C, then waits for
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54
the sound sensor to notice a volume greater than 70, in
which case Motors A and C reverse. It then waits for the
sound sensor to read a value less than 35. Next, it
jumps back to the beginning of the program and starts
again.
NXT
Wait
for
Quiet
Use this icon to wait for the sound sensor to
notice a volume less than the specified cutoff
before moving onto the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motors A and C, then waits for
the sound sensor to notice a volume greater than 70, in
which case Motors A and C reverse. It then waits for the
sound sensor to read a value less than 35. Next, it jumps
back to the beginning of the program and starts again.
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55
NXT
Louder
Use this icon to wait for the volume to increase
by the cutoff value before moving onto the next
command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motors A and C, then waits for
the volume to increase by 15, in which case Motors A and C
reverse. It then waits for the volume to decrease by 20.
Next, it jumps back to the beginning of the program and
starts again.
Use this icon to wait for the volume to decrease
by the cutoff value, before moving onto the next
command.
NXT
Quieter
Example
This piece of code turns on Motors A and C, then waits for
the volume to increase by 15, in which case Motors A and C
reverse. It then waits for the volume to decrease by 20.
Next, it jumps back to the beginning of the program and
starts again.
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56
NXT
Wait
for
Rotation
Use this icon to wait for the NXT angle sensor
value to be greater than the value specified
before moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on Lamp A. Once the angle sensor,
on Port B, value reaches 180 degrees (one half a rotation),
the default), Lamp A turns off.
NXT
Wait
for
Angle
Use this icon to wait for the angle sensor value
to be greater than the cutoff value before moving
on to the next command. The rotation can be
either forward or backward.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A. Once the angle sensor,
on Port B, reads a value of greater than 720 degrees (two
rotations), lamp A turns off.
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57
NXT
Wait
for
Rotation
w/o
Reset
Use this icon to wait for a number of degrees to
be completed but do NOT want to reset the
rotation sensor to 0. (The general wait for
rotation sensor resets to 0 and then waits for
the cutoff degree.)
Example
This piece of code turns on Lamp A, waits for 720 degrees
from the sensor, then turns Lamp A off.
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58
Wait for
Decreasing
Temp (C)
Wait for
Increasing
Temp (C)
Wait for
Decreasing
Temp (F)
Wait for
Increasing
Temp (F)
Use these icons to wait for the temperature sensor to
read a value less (Wait for Increase) or greater than
(Wait for Decrease) than the cutoff temperature
specified before moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A,then waits for the
temperature sensor to read above 30 degrees Celsius (the
default). After that it plays a sound and turns off the
lamp.
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59
Use this icon to wait for the value of a
container to be equal to some number before
moving on to the next command.
Wait for
Container
Example
This piece of code empties the red (default) container.
Then it turns on motor A. It waits for the container value
to equal 1 (the default), and when it does, it turns off
motor A and stops all tasks. At the same time, a second
task is filling the container with the value of the touch
sensor. In essence, this program waits for the touch sensor
to be pressed, and then turns off the motor.
Use this icon to wait for mail before moving on
to the next command.
Wait for
Mail
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A and waits to receive
mail. Once the mail is received, it turns off motor A.
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60
Wait for
Clock
Use this icon to wait for the clock on the RCX to
reach a certain time value in minutes before
moving on to the next command. Useful if you do
not want the RCX to stay on too long to conserve
batteries.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A and waits for the RCX
clock to reach 1 minute (the default), then turns off the
lamp.
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61
Wait for
Timer
Use this icon to wait until the clock reaches a
certain time (measured in tenths of seconds)
before moving on to the next command. Always use
a zero timer command prior to this command.
Example
This program zeros the red timer and turns on motor A. Then
it waits for the red timer to reach 1 second (the default),
after which it stops motor A.
Wait
for
Timer
Use this icon to wait until the timer (read in
hundredths of seconds) reaches a certain time
before moving on to the next command. Always use
a zero timer command prior to this command.
Example
This program zeros the red timer then it waits for the red
timer to reach 600 hundredths of seconds, after which it
beeps.
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62
Wait for Increase
in Camera Sensor
Wait for Decrease
in Camera Sensor
Use these icons to wait until the camera sensor reads
a value higher (Increase icon) or lower (Decrease
icon) than the compare to number before moving on to
the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the camera
sensor reads a value of greater than 55 (the default), The
motor would turn off and the RCX would play a sound.
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63
Wait for Decrease
in Voltage
(Generic)
Wait for Increase
in Voltage
(Generic)
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a
voltage of less than (Wait for Decrease icon) or
greater than (Wait for Increase icon) the cutoff
voltage specified before moving on to the next
command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 2 Volts (the default), motor A
would turn off.
Wait for
Decreasing
Humidity
Wait for
Increasing
Humidity
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Decrease icon) or a value of
greater than (Wait for Increase icon) the cutoff
humidity percentage before moving on to the next
command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 50% humidity (the default),
motor A would be shut off.
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64
Wait for
Decreasing pH
Wait for
pH
Decreasing
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Decrease) or greater than (Wait
for Increase) the cutoff pH before moving on to the
next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of greater than 7 (the default), motor A
would be shut off.
Wait for Position
Increase
Wait for Position
Decrease
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Position Increase icon) or
greater than (Wait for Position Decrease icon) the
cutoff position before moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 180 degrees (the default), the
motor would be shut off.
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65
Wait for
Increasing
Pressure
Wait for
Decreasing
Pressure
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than the cutoff pressure before moving on to
the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 100 kPa (the default), the motor
would be shut off.
Wait for
Increasing Sound
Level
Wait for
Decreasing Sound
Level
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Increase icon) or greater than
(Wait for Decrease icon) the cutoff sound level before
moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 60 decibels (the default), the
motor would be shut off.
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66
Wait for
Increasing
Temperature (C)
Wait for Decrease
in Temperature (C)
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Increase icon) or greater than
(Wait for Decrease icon) the cutoff temperature before
moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 30 degrees Celsius (the
default), the motor would be shut off.
Wait for Increase
in Voltage
Wait for Decrease
in Voltage
Use these icons to wait until the sensor reads a value
of less than (Wait for Increase icon) or greater than
(Wait for Decrease icon) the cutoff voltage before
moving on to the next command.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A. When the sensor
reads a value of less than 2V (the default), the motor
would be shut off.
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67
Tasks & Subroutines
(Structures)
Task
Split
Use this icon to start a new task. The tasks run
simultaneously. Each task needs an End icon
(stoplight).
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A. After 2 seconds it
flips directions, and after 4 seconds from the beginning (2
seconds from flip) it turns off motor A.
Start
Task
Use this to restart tasks after they have been
completed or stopped. The Task Number modifier is
only necessary if you only wish to restart a
certain task and not all tasks.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A and lamp B. If 6
seconds pass and the touch sensor has not been pressed, the
RCX will play a noise and turn off lamp B. Then both tasks
will be restarted from the task split. If the touch sensor
is pressed within 6 seconds, both tasks will be stopped and
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68
the program ends.
Delete
Tasks
Use this in direct mode ONLY. Use this icon to
clear the RCX of any tasks it previously had. The
Task Number modifier is only necessary if you
want to delete only a certain task and not all
tasks.
Example
This piece of code deletes all tasks then turns on motor A
for 2 seconds and turns it off.
Stop
Tasks
Use this to stop tasks that may still be in
progress. The Task Number modifier is only
necessary if you want to stop a certain task and
not all tasks.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A and lamp B. If 6
seconds pass and the touch sensor has not been pressed, the
RCX will play a noise and turn off lamp B. Then both tasks
will be restarted from the task split. If the touch sensor
is pressed within 6 seconds, both tasks will be stopped and
the program ends.
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69
Create
Subroutine
Use this to define a subroutine. This does NOT
start the subroutine. Each subroutine needs
its own end (stoplight) icon. The main task
will continue running by itself until a Run
Subcommand is reached.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A. After 4 seconds it
plays 3 notes and then turns off the motor.
Start
Subroutine
Use this to start a subroutine. You must
define the subroutine before using this
command.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A. After 4 seconds it
plays 3 notes and then turns off the motor.
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70
Delete
Subroutine
Use this in direct mode ONLY. Use this icon to
clear the RCX of any subroutines it previously
had.
Example
This piece of code clears the RCX of any subroutines and
then turns on motor A for 2 seconds and turns it off.
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71
Forks
Touch
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a touch sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code
seconds, the touch
sound and shut off
just be turned off
would turn on motor A. If, after 4
sensor is pushed, the RCX will play a
the motor. Otherwise, the motor will
(no sound).
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72
NXT Touch
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a touch sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn on Motor A. If, after 4 seconds,
the NXT touch sensor is pushed, the RCX will play a sound and
shut off the motor. Otherwise, the motor will just be turned
off (no sound).
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73
NXT
Sound
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on volume, as read by the
NXT sound sensor fork. A fork merge is required
at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code checks the volume of a room as read by the NXT
sound sensor. If the volume is greater than 40, a sound is played; i
it is less than 40, Motor A runs in reverse for two seconds. It then
jumps back to the beginning of the code to start again.
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74
NXT
Distance
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on distance from the
sensor (in cm), as read by the NXT distance
sensor fork. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code runs Motor A in reverse if the distance
sensor reads a value of less than 10. It continues going
backward (because of the red jump and land) until the
distance sensor reads a value greater than 10, in which
case it will run Motor A forward until a distance of 10 is
reached again. This process continues over-and-over.
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75
NXT
Rotation
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the NXT rotation
sensor. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon.
Example
This program waits 1 second, then if the rotation sensor on
Port A reads less than 720 degrees, Motor A goes forward.
This continues (because of the red jump and land) until the
rotation sensor reads above 720 degrees, in which case it
will stop Motor A, play a sound, and reset the angle sensor
to zero.
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76
NXT Light
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a light sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A for 4 seconds if the
NXT light sensor (on Port 2) reads a value of below 55. If
the value is greater than 55, a sound is played.
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77
NXT Click
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of clicks
on a touch sensor. A fork merge is required at
some point after this icon. Also, a zero clicks
sensor command should be used sometime before
this icon.
Example
This piece of code first resets the click counter to zero.
It then turns on Motor A for 10 seconds, and will shut it
off for two seconds if the click counter has a value of
less than 5. If it is greater than five, it plays a sound.
It then jumps back to the beginning and starts again.
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78
NXT
Touch And
Release
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of touches
and releases on a touch sensor. A fork merge is
required at some point after this icon. Also, a
zero touch and release sensor command should be
used sometime before this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A for 4 seconds, and if
the touch and release sensor reads a value of greater than
10, it will stop the motor. If the value is less than 10,
it will first play a sound and then stop the motor.
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79
Celsius
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a temperature sensor.
A fork merge is required at some point after this
icon.
Example
This piece of code waits one second and reads the
temperature. If the temperature is 30 degrees Celsius or
less, it will play a sound.
Container
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of a
container. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code fills a container with a random number.
If that number is less than the number specified by the
compare to control, the RCX plays a sound.
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80
Timer
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of a timer.
A fork merge is required at some point after this
icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A for a random amount of
time, and then turns it off. If the time is less than 3
seconds, the RCX plays a sound.
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81
Light
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a light sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A for 4 seconds if the
light sensor reads a value of below 55 (the default).
Fahrenheit
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a temperature
sensor. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A for 4 seconds. The
direction is determined by the temperature. If it reads
above 80 degrees, the motor will go forward. Otherwise, it
will go in reverse.
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82
Mailbox
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the
mailbox. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon. Also, an empty mailbox command
should be used sometime before this icon.
Example
This piece of code would empty the mailbox. After ten
seconds, it checks to see if it has received mail whose
value is greater than 1 (the default). If it has, the RCX
plays a sound.
Rotation
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a rotation sensor. A
fork merge is required at some point after this
icon. Also, a zero angle sensor command should
be used sometime before this icon. Reminder:
rotation sensor reads in sixteenths, so a
reading of 16 equals one rotation. Rotation can
be either forward or backward.
Example
This program zeros the angle sensor then waits 10 seconds.
If at that point the rotation sensor reads greater than 1
rotation (a reading of 16), then the RCX plays a sound.
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83
Click
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of clicks
on a touch sensor. A fork merge is required at
some point after this icon. Also, a zero clicks
sensor command should be used sometime before
this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A for 10 seconds, then
shuts it off. If after 10 seconds the touch sensor has been
clicked more than 10 times, it plays a sound.
Touch
and
Release
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of touches
and releases on a touch sensor. A fork merge is
required at some point after this icon. Also, a
zero touch and release sensor command should be
used sometime before this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A for 10 seconds, and
then shuts it off. If after 10 seconds the touch sensor has
been touched and releases more than 10 times, it plays a
sound.
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84
Data
Points
Fork
Use with
you want
based on
merge is
Investigator commands. Use this fork if
to take different courses of action
the number of points gathered. A fork
required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code logs light sensor data points for a
random time. If after that time there are 5 (the default)
or fewer data points, it logs data for 2 more seconds
before stopping. If after the random time there are greater
than 5 data points, it stops logging points.
Clock
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the RCX
clock. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would check the value of the RCX clock.
If the clock read 1 minute (the default) or less, then
motor A would turn on for 8 seconds.
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85
Camera
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the
camera sensor. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for 4 seconds,
then turn it off. The direction of the motor is determined
by the value of the camera sensor. If the camera value is
over 55 (the default), the motor goes forward. Otherwise,
the motor goes in the reverse direction.
Random
Fork
Use this if you want different courses of action
to be decided on randomly. A fork merge is
required at some point following this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for 4 seconds. The
direction would be decided on randomly.
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86
ALWAYS needed at the end of a fork to merge two
branches back together.
Fork
Merge
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for 4 seconds. The
direction would be decided on randomly.
Generic
Sensor
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of a generic
sensor adapter. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would play a sound if the value of the
generic sensor adapter was less than or equal to 2 volts
(the default).
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87
Humidity
Sensor Fork
pH Sensor
Fork
Pressure
Sensor
Fork
Temperature
Sensor Fork
Position
Sensor
Fork
Voltage Fork
Sound Level
Sensor Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different courses of
action based on the value of a LogIT sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would play a sound if the value of the
humidity sensor was less than or equal to 50% (the
default).
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88
Celsius
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a temperature sensor.
A fork merge is required at some point after this
icon.
Example
This piece of code waits one second and reads the
temperature. If the temperature is not 30 degrees Celsius
(the default), it will play a sound.
Container
Equal Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of a
container. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code fills a container with a random number.
If that number is not equal to 1 (the default), the RCX
plays a sound.
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89
Timer
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of a timer.
A fork merge is required at some point after this
icon. Reminder: Comparison value is measured in
tenths of seconds.
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A for a random amount of
time, and then turns it off. If the time is not equal to 5
seconds (the default), the RCX plays a sound.
Light
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a light sensor. A fork
merge is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A. If the light sensor
does not read a value of 55, then the RCX plays a sound.
After 2 seconds, the motor is shut off.
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90
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a temperature
sensor. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Fahrenheit
Equal Fork
Example
This piece of code waits one second and reads the
temperature. If the temperature is not 80 degrees
Fahrenheit (the default), it will play a sound.
Mailbox
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the
mailbox. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon. Also, an empty mailbox command
should be used sometime before this icon.
Example
This piece of code empties the mailbox and then waits 10
seconds. If after those 10 seconds the mailbox has a value
of 1 (the default), the RCX plays a sound.
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91
Rotation
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a rotation sensor. A
fork merge is required at some point after this
icon. Also, a zero angle sensor command should be
used sometime before this icon. Reminder:
rotation sensor reads in sixteenths, so a reading
of 16 equals one rotation. Rotation can be either
forward or backward.
Example
This piece of code zeros the angle sensor. If after 10
seconds the angle sensor reads 16 (one rotation, the
default), then the RCX plays a sound.
Click
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of clicks
on a touch sensor. A fork merge is required at
some point after this icon. Also, a zero clicks
sensor command should be used sometime before
this icon.
Example
This piece of code zeros the click sensor. If after 10
seconds the click sensor reads 10 (the default), the RCX
plays a sound.
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92
Touch
and
Release
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of touches
and releases on a touch sensor. A fork merge is
required at some point after this icon. Also, a
zero touch and release sensor command should be
used sometime before this icon.
Example
This piece of code zeros the touch and release sensor. If
after 10 seconds the touch and release sensor reads 10 (the
default), the RCX plays a sound.
NXT
Sound
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the volume of a room,
as measured by the NXT sound sensor. A fork merge
is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A. If the sound sensor
does not read a value of 55, then the RCX plays a sound.
After 2 seconds, the motor is shut off.
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93
NXT
Distance
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the volume of a room,
as measured by the NXT sound sensor. A fork merge
is required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on Motor A in reverse if the
volume is not equal to 10. If the volume is equal to 10, a
sound is played. The code then jumps back to the beginning
to start again.
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94
NXT
Rotation
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a rotation sensor. A
fork merge is required at some point after this
icon.
This piece of code will turn Motor A on at Power Level 10
for 1 second if the value of the rotation sensor is not
equal to 720. If it is equal to 720, Motor A will stop for
1 second, and a sound will play. This code then jumps back
to the beginning to begin again.
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95
NXT
Light
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on a light sensor. A
fork merge is required at some point after
this icon.
This piece of code turns on motor A. If the light sensor
does not read a value of 55, then the RCX plays a sound.
After 2 seconds, the motor is shut off.
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96
NXT
Click
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of clicks
on a touch sensor. A fork merge is required at
some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code will turn Motor A on at Power Level 10
for 1 second if the value of the click count sensor is not
equal to 10. If it is equal to 10, Motor A will stop for 1
second, a sound will played, and the click sensor will be
reset to zero. This code then jumps back to the beginning
to begin again.
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97
NXT
Touch
And
Release
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the number of touches
and releases on a touch sensor. A fork merge is
required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code will turn Motor A on for 1 second if the
value of the touch and release sensor is not equal to 10. If it
is equal to 10, Motor A will stop for 1 second, a sound will
played, and the touch and release sensor will be reset to zero.
This code then jumps back to the beginning to begin again.
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98
Data
Points
Equal
Fork
Use with
you want
based on
merge is
Investigator commands. Use this fork if
to take different courses of action
the number of points gathered. A fork
required at some point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code logs light sensor data points for 6
seconds. If after that time there are not 5 (the default)
data points, the RCX plays a sound before stopping. If
after the 6 seconds there are 5 data points, it stops
logging points (no sound).
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99
Clock
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the RCX
clock. A fork merge is required at some point
after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would check the value of the RCX clock.
If the clock did not read 1 minute (the default), then
motor A would turn on for 8 seconds.
Camera
Sensor
Equal
Fork
Use this fork if you want to take different
courses of action based on the value of the
camera sensor. A fork merge is required at some
point after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor A for 4 seconds,
then turn it off. The direction of the motor is determined
by the value of the camera sensor. If the camera value is
55 (the default), the motor goes forward. Otherwise, the
motor goes in the reverse direction.
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100
Event
Fork
Use this fork to take different actions based on
whether an event has occurred or not. Useful if
you are monitoring for multiple events and wish
to take different actions for different events.
Example
This piece of code (part of a larger program) would play a
D note if the red event had occurred. If the red event had
not occurred it would play an E note.
Timer
(.01)
Fork
Use this fork to take different actions based on
whether the Timer (reading in hundredths of a
second) is greater than or less than or equal to
to an amount of time.
Example
This piece of code will beep for 600 hundredths of a second
(6 seconds) and then jump to the blue land.
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101
Timer
(.01)
Equal
Fork
Use this fork to take different actions based on
whether the Timer (reading in hundredths of a
second) is equal to an amount of time or not.
Example
This piece of code (part of a larger program) will add 1 to
the container while the timer (reading in hundredths of
seconds) is not equal to 600. The value of the container is
shown on the display.
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102
Jumps
Black
Jump
Red
Jump
Blue
Jump
Green
Jump
Yellow
Jump
Jumping is useful when certain commands are to be
repeated. Each Land command needs to be used in
conjunction with its same-colored Jump command.
Example
This piece of code will play the fast rising sweep sound
until the touch sensor is pressed. The pressing of the
touch sensor is set up as a red event.
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103
Black
Red
Blue
Green
Yellow
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Jumping is useful when certain commands are to be
repeated. Place the Land command where you want to
start after a jump. Each Land command needs to be used
in conjunction with its same-colored Jump command.
Example
This piece of code will play the fast rising sweep sound
until the touch sensor is pressed. The pressing of the
touch sensor is set up as a red event.
Jumping
Jumping is useful when certain commands are to be
repeated. A modifier from 1-20 can be strung into
this jump icon to denote which jump the program
is executing. A Landing command with the same
number needs to be used in conjunction with its
corresponding Jumping command.
Example
This piece of code will play the fast rising sweep sound
until the touch sensor is pressed. The pressing of the
touch sensor is set up as a red event.
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104
Landing
Jumping is useful when certain commands are to be
repeated. Place the Landing command where you
want to start after a jump. A modifier from 1-20
can be strung to this landing icon to denote
which number jump the program is executing. A
Landing command with the same number needs to be
used in conjunction with its corresponding
Jumping command.
Example
This piece of code will play the fast rising sweep sound
until the touch sensor is pressed. The pressing of the
touch sensor is set up as a red event.
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105
Loops
Loop
While
Touch
Sensor
is
Pushed
Use this to start a loop while the touch sensor
is pressed. The loop will end when the touch
sensor is released. If the touch sensor is not
pressed when the program reaches this command, it
skips the loop. To avoid this, add a Wait for
Push icon before this icon. An End of Loop icon
is needed somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would wait until the touch sensor was
pushed, then start a loop that would continuously play the
note C and a rest while the touch sensor remained pushed.
When the touch sensor was released, it would play a sound.
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106
Loop
While
Touch
Sensor
is
Pushed
Use this to start a loop while the touch sensor
is NOT being pressed. The loop will end when the
touch sensor is pressed. If the touch sensor is
pressed when the program reaches this command, it
skips the loop. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would start a loop that would
continuously play the note C and a rest while the touch
sensor remained released. When the touch sensor was
pressed, it would play a sound.
NXT Loop
While
Touch
Sensor
is
Pushed
Use this to start a loop while the NXT touch
sensor is pressed. The loop will end when the
touch sensor is release. If the touch sensor is
not pressed when the program reaches this
command, it skips the loop. To avoid this, add a
Wait for Push icon before this icon. An End of
Loop icon is needed somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would wait until the touch sensor was
pushed, then start a loop that would continuously play the
note C and a rest while the touch sensor remained pushed.
When the touch sensor is released, it will play a sound.
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107
NXT Loop
While
Touch
Sensor
is Let
Go
Use this to start a loop while the NXT touch
sensor is NOT being pressed. The loop will end
when the touch sensor is pressed. If the touch
sensor is pressed when the program reaches this
command, it skips the loop. An End of Loop icon
is needed somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would start a loop that would
continuously play the note C and a rest while the touch
sensor remained released. When the touch sensor is pressed,
it will play a sound.
Loop While
Number of
Touches and
Releases is
Less Than
Use this to start a loop while the number of
touches and releases is less than a certain
value. It may be helpful to zero the touch and
release sensor before this command. An End of
Loop icon is needed somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would start a loop that would
continuously play the note C and a rest until the number of
touches and releases was 10 (the default).
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108
Loop
While
Number
of
Clicks
is Less
Than
Use these to start a loop while the number of
clicks is less than a certain value. It may be
helpful to zero the clicks sensor before the
command. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere
after this icon.
Example
This piece of code zeros the clicks sensor and then starts
a loop that would continuously play the note C and a rest
until the number of clicks was 10 (the default).
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109
Loop While Light
Sensor is Less
Than
Loop While Light
Sensor is Greater
Than
Use these to start a loop while the light sensor value
is less than or greater than a certain number. The
loop will end when the light sensor value goes above
(Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than icon) that
number. With respect to the Less Than icon, if the
light sensor value is above that number when the
program reaches this command, it will skip the loop.
With respect to the Greater Than icon, if the light
sensor value is below that number when the program
reaches this command, it will skip the loop. An End
of Loop icon is needed somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code starts a loop that would continuously
play the note C and a rest until the light sensor value
became 55 (the default) or higher.
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110
Loop While
Container is Less
Than
Loop While
Container is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the container value is
less than or greater than a certain number. The loop
will end when the container value gets to that number
or above (Less Than icon) or to that number and below
(Greater Than icon). If the container value is above
that number (Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than
icon) when the program reaches this command, it will
skip the loop. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere
after each icon.
Example
This piece of code would zero the container. Then it would
start a loop that plays the note C and adds one to the
container. The program plays the note C five times.
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111
Loop While
Rotation Sensor is
Less Than
Loop While
Rotation Sensor is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the rotation sensor
reads below or above a certain value. The loop will
end when the angle sensor gets to or goes beyond (Less
Than icon) or to or below (Greater Than icon) that
value. It is helpful to use a zero angle sensor icon
before this command. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code zeros the angle sensor then starts a
loop that continuously plays the note C and a rest until
the rotation sensor reads a value of 16 (one rotation, the
default).
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112
Loop While Timer
is Less Than
Loop While Timer
is Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the timer value is
less than or greater than a certain number. The loop
will end when the timer gets to that number (Less Than
icon) or gets to or below the number (Greater Than
icon). It is helpful to use a zero timer value before
this command. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere
after each icon.
Example
This piece of code zeros the timer then starts a loop that
plays the note C and a rest until the time reaches 5
seconds (the default).
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113
Loop While Celsius
is Less Than
Loop While Celsius
is Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the temperature is
below or above a certain value. The loop will end when
the temperature rises to or above (Less Than icon) or
drops to or below (Greater Than icon) that value. If
the temperature is above that value (Less Than icon)
or below the value (Greater Than icon) when the
program gets to this command, it will skip the loop.
An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after each
icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A in the forward
direction then starts a loop which continuously flips the
direction of the motor and waits 1 second until the
temperature gets to or goes below 30 degrees Celsius. When
this happens, motor A is shut off.
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114
Loop While Mail is
Less Than
Loop While Mail is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the value of the mail
is below or above a certain number. The loop will end
when the value of the mail becomes that number or
higher (Less Than icon) or when the mail becomes that
number or lower (Greater Than icon). With respect to
the Less Than icon, if the value of the mail is higher
than that number when the program reaches this
command, it will skip the loop. When using the Greater
Than icon, if the value of the mail is less than that
number when the program reaches this command, it will
skip the loop. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code fills the mailbox with the value of 5
then starts a loop which turns on lamp A. The loop ends
when the RCX receives mail whose value is 4 or less. Then
the RCX plays a sound and turns off the lamp.
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115
Loop While
Fahrenheit is Less
Than
Loop While
Fahrenheit is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the temperature is
below or above a certain value. The loop for the Less
Than icon will end when the temperature rises to or
above that value. The loop for the Greater Than icon
will end when the temperature drops to or below that
value. If the temperature is above that value with
the Less Than icon or below the value for the Greater
Than icon when the program gets to this command, it
will skip the loop. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A in the forward
direction then starts a loop which continuously flips the
direction of the motor and waits one second until the
temperature gets to or goes above 80 degrees Fahrenheit.
When this happens, motor A is shut off.
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116
Loop While Clock
Value is Less Than
Loop While Clock
Value is Greater
Than
Use these to start a loop while the RCX clock value is
less than or greater than a certain number. The loop
will end when the clock goes above (Less Than icon) or
below (Greater Than icon) that number. An End of Loop
icon is needed somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code plays notes C and D continuously until
the RCX clock goes above 1 minute (the default). Then it
turns the RCX power off.
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117
Loop While NXT Light
Sensor is Less Than
Loop While NXT Light
Sensor is Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the NXT light sensor
value is below a certain number. The loop will end
when the light sensor value goes above that number. If
the light sensor value is above that number when the
program reaches this command, it will skip the loop.
An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after this
icon.
Example
This piece of code starts a loop that would continuously
play the note C and a rest until the light sensor value
became 50 or higher. It would then turn on Motor A for 2
seconds, stop Motor A for 1 second, and then jump back to
the beginning of the code to start again.
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118
Loop While NXT
Distance Sensor is
Less Than
Loop While NXT
Distance Sensor is
Greater Than
Use this to start a loop while the NXT distance sensor
value is above a certain number. The loop will end
when the distance sensor value goes below that number.
If the distance sensor value is below that number when
the program reaches this command, it will skip the
loop. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after
this icon.
This piece of code starts a loop that would continuously
play the note C and a rest until the distance sensor value
became 50 or greater. It would then turn on Motor A for 2
seconds, stop Motor A for 1 second, and then jump back to
the beginning of the code to start again.
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119
Loop While NXT
Loop While NXT Motor
Motor Angle Sensor Angle Sensor is Greater
is Less Than
Than
Use this to start a loop while the NXT rotation sensor
reads below a certain value. The loop will end when
the angle sensor gets to or goes beyond that value. It
is helpful to use a zero angle sensor icon before this
command. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after
this icon.
This piece of code starts a loop that would continuously run
Motor A while the rotation sensor value was 720 or less. When the
rotation value is greater than 720, Motor A stops for 2 seconds,
then Motor A runs in reverse for 2 seconds. Next, Motor A stops
for 4 seconds before jumping back to the beginning to start
again.
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120
Loop While Camera
Sensor is Less
Than
Loop While Camera
Sensor is Greater
Than
Use this to start a loop while the value of the camera
container is less than or greater than some number.
The loop will end when the container goes above (Less
Than icon) or below (Greater Than icon) that number.
An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after each
icon.
Example
This piece of code starts a loop while the camera container
value is less than 1 (the default). It turns on motor A.
When the container value is greater than 1, the loop stops
and turns off motor A.
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121
Loop While
Container Value
Is Equal To
Loop While
Container Value
Is Not Equal To
Use this to start a loop while the value of a
container is equal to or not equal to a number. An End
of Loop icon is needed somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code fills the red container with the number
10. The loop runs (plays a sound) while the red container
is not equal to zero. If the touch sensor is pressed the
red container is set to zero and the loop stops running.
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122
Loop While
Points in
Data Set
are Less
Than
Use in Investigator. Use this to start a loop
while the number of data points is less than
some number. The loop will end when the number
of data points gets to or goes above that
number. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after this.
Example
This piece of code begins logging light sensor points and
enters a loop. Inside the loop it adds a time stamp to the
data set and waits for 10 more points. This continues until
there are 150 points or more, then the data logging stops.
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123
Start of
Loop
Use this piece of code to start a loop that is
going to be repeated a certain number of times.
An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after
this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn lamp A on for 2 seconds and
then off for 2 seconds and repeat this 9 more times. In
total, the light blinks 10 times.
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124
ALWAYS end loops of any kind with this icon.
End of
Loop
Example
This piece of code would turn lamp A on for 2 seconds and
then off for 2 seconds and repeat this 9 more times. In
total, the light blinks 10 times.
Loop While Value
of Generic Sensor
is Less Than
Loop While Value
of Generic Sensor
is Greater Than
Use this to start a loop while the value of the
generic sensor adapter is less than or greater than
some number. The loop will stop when the value goes
above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than icon)
that number. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere
after each icon.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the generic sensor
adapter is less than 2V (the default). When the reading
goes above this, the loop will stop.
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125
Loop While
Humidity is Less
Than
Loop While
Humidity is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the value of the
humidity sensor adapter (LogIT) is less or greater
than some number. The loop will stop when the value
goes above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than
icon) that number. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after each icon.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the humidity sensor
adapter is less than 50% (the default). When the reading
goes above this, the loop will stop.
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126
Loop While pH is
Less Than
Loop While pH is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the value of the pH
sensor adapter (LogIT) is less than or greater than
some number. The loop will stop when the value goes
above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than icon)
that number. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere
after each icon.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the pH sensor adapter is
less than 7 (the default). When the reading goes above
this, the loop will stop.
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127
Loop While
Pressure is Less
Than
Loop While
Pressure is
Greater Than
Use these to start a loop while the value of the
pressure sensor adapter (LogIT) is less than or
greater than some number. The loop will stop when the
value goes above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater
Than icon) that number. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after these icons.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the pressure sensor
adapter is less than 100 kPa (the default). When the
reading goes above this, the loop will stop.
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128
Loop While Sound
Level is Less Than
Loop While Sound
Level is Greater
Than
Use these to start a loop while the value of the sound
level sensor adapter (LogIT) is less than or greater
than some number. The loop will stop when the value
goes above that number (Less Than icon) or below
(Greater Than icon). An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after these icons.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the sound level sensor
adapter is less than 60 dB (the default). When the reading
goes above this, the loop will stop.
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129
Loop While
Temperature (C) is
Less Than
Loop While
Temperature (C) is
Greater Than
Use these icons to start a loop while the value of the
temperature sensor adapter (LogIT) is less than or
greater than some number. The loop will stop when the
value goes above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater
Than icon) that number. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after these icons.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the temperature sensor
adapter is less than 30 degrees Celsius (the default). When
the reading goes above this, the loop will stop.
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130
Loop While
Position is Less
Than
Loop While
Position is
Greater Than
Use these icons to start a loop while the value of the
position sensor adapter (LogIT) is less than or
greater than some number. The loop will stop when the
value goes above (Less Than icon) or below (Greater
Than icon) that number. An End of Loop icon is needed
somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the position sensor
adapter is less than 180 degrees (the default). When the
reading goes above this, the loop will stop.
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131
Loop While Voltage
Sensor is Less
Than
Loop While Voltage
Sensor is Greater
Than
Use these icons to start a loop while the value of the
voltmeter (LogIT) is less than or greater than some
number. The loop will stop when the value goes above
(Less Than icon) or below (Greater Than icon) that
number. An End of Loop icon is needed somewhere after
both icons.
Example
This piece of code will start a loop that plays notes C and
D continuously while the value of the voltmeter is less
than 2V (the default). When the reading goes above this,
the loop will stop.
RCX Loop
Forever
Use this piece of code to start a forever loop
that is going to be repeated a certain number of
times. An End of Forever Loop icon is needed
somewhere after this icon.
Example
This piece of code would turn lamp A on for 2 seconds and
then off for 2 seconds and repeat this 9 more times. In
total, the light blinks 10 times.
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132
ALWAYS end loops with this icon.
RCX End
of Loop
Forever
Example
This piece of code would turn lamp A on for 2 seconds and
then off for 2 seconds and repeat this 9 more times. In
total, the light blinks 10 times.
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133
Events
Start
Monitoring
for an
Event
Use this command to begin watching for an
event. This command must be used in every
event program.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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134
Stop Event
Monitoring
This command stops the program from watching
for events.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is touched and released. The Monitor
Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A
sound will be played over and over again until the touch
sensor is pushed in and released. This will force the
program out of the jump sequence and make it land where the
Event Landing is located. The program then stops monitoring
for events because of the Stop Event Monitoring icon.
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135
Event
Landing
This command marks the place where your program
will jump to when an event is triggered. Every
event goes to the same land. If you are using
more than one event, you will have to use the
Event Register Container to determine what event
was triggered.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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136
Set Up
Pressed
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
touch sensor is pressed. The default waits for a
touch sensor pressed connected to port one. This
command must appear before the Begin Monitoring
command in your program. You can string in a
yellow, blue, red, or generic modifier to have
several events. You can also string in an event
source, source of information, such as sensor
values of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or
mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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137
Set Up
Released
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
touch sensor is pressed and released. The
default waits for a touch sensor pressed
connected to port one. This command must appear
before the Begin Monitoring command in your
program. You can string in a yellow, blue, red,
or generic modifier to have several events. You
can also string in an event source, source of
information, such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is released. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in and released. This will force the program out of
the jump sequence and make it land where the Event Landing
is located.
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138
Set Up
Light
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the light sensor goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a light reading higher than 55 from
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the light value goes above the threshold. The Monitor
Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A
sound will be played over and over again until the light
value goes above the threshold. This will force the program
out of the jump sequence and make it land where the Event
Landing is located.
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139
Set Up
Dark
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the light sensor goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a light equal to or below 55 from port
one. This command must appear before the Begin
Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the light value goes below the threshold. The Monitor
Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A
sound will be played over and over again until the light
value goes below the threshold. This will force the program
out of the jump sequence and make it land where the Event
Landing is located.
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140
Set Up
Increase
in Temp
(C) Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the temperature sensor goes above the
threshold in Celsius. The threshold can be
modified with an event modifier. The default is
a red event that waits for a temperature
reading above 30(C) from port one. This command
must appear before the Begin Monitoring command
in your program. You can string in a yellow,
blue, red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event source
(source of information), such as sensor values
of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or mail
values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the temperature value goes above the threshold in
Celsius. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such
an event to occur. A sound will be played over and over
again until the temperature value goes above the threshold.
This will force the program out of the jump sequence and
make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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141
Set Up
Increase
in Temp
(F) Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the temperature sensor goes above the
threshold in Fahrenheit. The threshold can be
modified with an event modifier. The default is a
red event that waits for a temperature reading
above 80(F) from port one. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow, blue,
red, or generic modifier to have several events.
You can also string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the temperature value goes above the threshold in
Fahrenheit. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the temperature value goes above the
threshold. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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142
Set Up
Decrease
in Temp
(C)
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the temperature sensor goes below the
threshold in Celsius. The threshold can be
modified with an event modifier. The default is
a red event that waits for a temperature
reading below 30(C) from port one. This command
must appear before the Begin Monitoring command
in your program. You can string in a yellow,
blue, red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event source
(source of information), such as sensor values
of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or mail
values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the temperature value goes below the threshold in
Celsius. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such
an event to occur. A sound will be played over and over
again until the temperature value goes below the threshold.
This will force the program out of the jump sequence and
make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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143
Set Up
Decrease
in Temp
(F) Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the temperature sensor goes below the
threshold in Fahrenheit. The threshold can be
modified with an event modifier. The default is a
red event that waits for a temperature reading
below 80(F) from port one. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow, blue,
red, or generic modifier to have several events.
You can also string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the temperature value goes below the threshold in
Fahrenheit. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the temperature value goes below the
threshold. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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144
Set Up
Mail
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the mail equals 10. The default is a red
event that waits for the mail to equal 10. This
command must appear before the Begin Monitoring
command in your program. You can string in a
yellow, blue, red, or generic modifier to have
several events. You can also string in an event
source (source of information), such as sensor
values of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or
mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the mail value being sent to the RCX equals that of
the value of the mailbox. The Monitor Event icon begins
monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will be
played over and over again until the value of the mailbox
equals the mail the RCX is receiving. This will force the
program out of the jump sequence and make it land where the
Event Landing is located.
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145
Set Up
Enter
Low
Event
This command sets up an event to be triggered
when the value of the Event Source goes below the
lower threshold. This command should be followed
by the Define Setting Command which is where you
define your lower and upper thresholds. Event
Sources can come from sensor values from ports
1,2 & 3, container values, mail values, and timer
values. If using a sensor value, the sensor
should be zeroed prior to setting up the event.
Example
This piece of code defines the thresholds for the Enter Low
Event icon. It then sets up the red Enter Low Event and
begins monitoring. The program will play a sound over and
over again until the value of the mailbox goes below 5.
This event will force the program to the place where the
Event Landing icon is located. Make sure you define a
lower, upper, or normal threshold event before you set them
up.
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146
Set Up
Enter
Normal
Event
This command sets up an event to be triggered
when the value of the Event Source is between the
lower and upper threshold. This command should be
followed by the Define Setting Command which is
where you define your lower and upper thresholds.
Event Sources can come from sensor values from
ports 1,2,3, container values, mail values, and
timer values. If using a sensor value, the sensor
should be zeroed prior to setting up the event.
Example
This piece of code defines the thresholds for the Enter Low
Event icon. It then sets up the red Enter Low Event and
begins monitoring. The program will play a sound over and
over again until the value of the mailbox goes above 10 or
below 5. This event will force the program to the place
where the Event Landing icon is located. Make sure you
define a lower, upper, or normal threshold event before you
set them up.
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147
Set Up
Enter Hi
Event
This command sets up an event to be triggered
when the value of the Event Source is above the
upper threshold. This command should be followed
by the Define Setting Command which is where you
define your lower and upper thresholds. Event
Sources can come from sensor values from ports
1,2 & 3, container values, mail values, and timer
values. If using a sensor value, the sensor
should be zeroed prior to setting up the event.
Example
This piece of code defines the thresholds for the Enter Low
Event icon. It then sets up the red Enter Low Event and
begins monitoring. The program will play a sound over and
over again until the value of the mailbox goes above 10.
This event will force the program to the place where the
Event Landing icon is located. Make sure you define a
lower, upper, or normal threshold event before you set them
up.
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148
Reset
Event
This command resets monitoring for an event. The
default is to reset the red event with the value
of port 1. Event Sources can come from sensor
values from ports 1,2 & 3, container values, mail
values, and timer values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located. The program then resets all events and begins
monitoring for the red event to happen again. A different
sound will keep playing until the touch sensor is pushed
again.
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149
Force An
Event
This command forces an event to be triggered. It
basically overrides the system in order to make
an event occur. String in the yellow, blue, or
red event modifier in order to force that
particular event.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is touched and released. The Monitor
Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to occur. In
this case, the Force Event icon will the program into
thinking that the event has really happened (even thought
the touch sensor was never pressed) and force it out of the
jump loop.
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150
Set Up
Clicks
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
number of clicks equals the clicks threshold. The
default is a red event that waits for 10 clicks
on port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source, source of information,
such as sensor values of ports 1, 2, & 3,
container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the number of clicks equals the clicks threshold. The
Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to
occur. A sound will be played over and over again until the
number of clicks equals the clicks threshold. This will
force the program out of the jump sequence and make it land
where the Event Landing is located.
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151
Set Up
Touch
and
Release
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
number of touch and releases equals the touch and
release (TR) threshold. The default is a red
event that waits for 10 touch and releases on
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source, source of information,
such as sensor values of ports 1, 2, & 3,
container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the number of touch and releases of the touch sensor
equals the clicks threshold. The Monitor Event icon begins
monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will be
played over and over again until the number of touch and
releases of the touch sensor equals the clicks threshold.
This will force the program out of the jump sequence and
make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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152
Set Up
Increase
in
Rotation
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the rotation sensor goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with
an event modifier. The default is a red event
that waits for a rotation reading of 16
(rotation sensor is in 16ths of a rotation)
from port one. This command must appear before
the Begin Monitoring command in your program.
You can string in a yellow, blue, red, or
generic modifier to have several events. You
can also string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the rotation value goes above the threshold. The
Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to
occur. A sound will be played over and over again until the
rotation value goes above the threshold. This will force
the program out of the jump sequence and make it land where
the Event Landing is located.
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153
NXT Set up
Pressed
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
NXT touch sensor is pressed. The default waits
for a touch sensor pressed connected to port
one. This command must appear before the Begin
Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source, source of
information, such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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154
NXT Set Up
Released
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when
the NXT touch sensor is pressed and released.
The default waits for a touch sensor pressed
connected to port one. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow,
blue, red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event
source, source of information, such as sensor
values of ports 1, 2, and 3, container values,
or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is touched and released. The Monitor
Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A
sound will be played over and over again until the touch
sensor is pushed in and released. This will force the
program out of the jump sequence and make it land where the
Event Landing is located.
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155
NXT Set
Up Clicks
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
number of NXT clicks equals the clicks threshold.
The default is a red event that waits for 10
clicks on port one. This command must appear
before the Begin Monitoring command in your
program. You can string in a yellow, blue, red,
or generic modifier to have several events. You
can also string in an event source, source of
information, such as sensor values of ports 1, 2,
and 3, container values, or mail values.
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the number of clicks equals the clicks threshold. The
Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to
occur. A sound will be played over and over again until the
number of clicks equals the clicks threshold. This will
force the program out of the jump sequence and make it land
where the Event Landing is located.
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156
NXT Set
Up
Release
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
number of NXT touch and releases equals the touch
and release (TR) threshold. The default is a red
event that waits for 10 touch and releases on
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source, source of information,
such as sensor values of ports 1, 2, and 3,
container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the number of touch and releases of the touch sensor
equals the clicks threshold. The Monitor Event icon begins
monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will be
played over and over again until the number of touch and
releases of the touch sensor equals the clicks threshold.
This will force the program out of the jump sequence and
make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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157
NXT Set
Up Light
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT light sensor goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a light reading higher than 55 from
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the value of the light sensor goes above 10 (the light
threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the value of the light sensor goes above
10. This will force the program out of the jump sequence
and make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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158
NXT Set
Up Dark
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT light sensor goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a light equal to or below 55 from port
one. This command must appear before the Begin
Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a blue event that is triggered
when the value of the light sensor goes below 10 (the light
threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the value of the light sensor goes below
10. This will force the program out of the jump sequence
and make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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159
NXT Set
Up
Increase
In Volume
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT sound sensor goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a sound reading higher than 55 from
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the value of the volume sensor goes above 40 (the
sound threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring
for such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the value of the light sensor goes above
40. This will force the program out of the jump sequence
and make it land where the Event Landing is located.
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160
NXT Set
Up
Decrease
In Volume
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT sound sensor goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a sound equal to or below 55 from port
one. This command must appear before the Begin
Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the value of the light sensor goes below 40 (the sound
threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the value of the light sensor goes below
40. This will force the program out of the jump sequence
and make it land where the event landing is located. Motor
A will then go forward for 2 seconds and then stop.
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161
NXT Set
Up
Increase
In
Distance
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT distance sensor goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a distance reading higher than 16 from
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the value of the distance sensor goes above 15 (the
distance threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins
monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will be
played over and over again until the value of the distance
sensor goes above 15. This will force the program out of
the jump sequence and make it land where the event landing
is located. Motor A will then go forward for 2 seconds and
then stop.
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162
NXT Set
Up
Decrease
In
Distance
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the NXT distance sensor goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with an
event modifier. The default is a red event that
waits for a distance equal to or below 16 from
port one. This command must appear before the
Begin Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, and 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the value of the light sensor goes below 15 (the
distance threshold). The Monitor Event icon begins
monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will be
played over and over again until the value of the distance
sensor goes below 15. This will force the program out of
the jump sequence and make it land where the event landing
is located. Motor A will then go forward for 2 seconds and
then stop.
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163
Set Up
Decrease
in
Rotation
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the rotation sensor goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with
an event modifier. The default is a red event
that waits for a rotation reading equal to or
below 16 (rotation sensor is in 16ths of a
rotation) from port one. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow, blue,
red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event source
(source of information), such as sensor values
of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or mail
values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a yellow event that is triggered
when the rotation value goes below the threshold. The
Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to
occur. A sound will be played over and over again until the
rotation value goes below the threshold. This will force
the program out of the jump sequence and make it land where
the Event Landing is located.
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164
Set Up
Increase
in
Container
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the container goes above the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with
an event modifier. The default is a red event
that waits for a red container value greater
than 1 from port one. This command must appear
before the Begin Monitoring command in your
program. You can string in a yellow, blue, red,
or generic modifier to have several events. You
can also string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a generic event that is
triggered when the red container value goes above the
threshold. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the red container value goes above the
threshold. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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165
Set Up
Decrease
in
Container
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the container goes below the
threshold. The threshold can be modified with
an event modifier. The default is a red event
that waits for a red container value equal to
or less than 1 from port one. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow, blue,
red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event source
(source of information), such as sensor values
of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or mail
values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a generic event that is
triggered when the red container value goes below the
threshold. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the red container value goes below the
threshold. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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166
Set
Generic
Up Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the sensor goes above the threshold. The
threshold can be modified with an event modifier.
The default is a red event that waits for a
sensor value greater than 2V from port one. This
command must appear before the Begin Monitoring
command in your program. You can string in a
yellow, blue, red, or generic modifier to have
several events. You can also string in an event
source (source of information), such as sensor
values of ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or
mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a generic event that is
triggered when the generic sensor value goes above the
threshold. The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for
such an event to occur. A sound will be played over and
over again until the generic sensor value goes above the
threshold. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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167
Set
Generic
Down
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the sensor goes below the threshold. The
threshold can be modified with an event modifier.
The default is a red event that waits for a
sensor value equal to or less than 2V from port
one. This command must appear before the Begin
Monitoring command in your program. You can
string in a yellow, blue, red, or generic
modifier to have several events. You can also
string in an event source (source of
information), such as sensor values of ports 1,
2, & 3, container values, or mail values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the generic sensor value goes below the threshold. The
Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event to
occur. A sound will be played over and over again until the
generic sensor value goes below the threshold. This will
force the program out of the jump sequence and make it land
where the Event Landing is located.
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168
Set Up
Increase
in Timer
Event
This command sets up an event to occur when the
value of the timer goes above the threshold.
The default is a red event that waits for a
timer value of one second. This command must
appear before the Begin Monitoring command in
your program. You can string in a yellow, blue,
red, or generic modifier to have several
events. You can also string in an event source,
source of information, such as sensor values of
ports 1, 2, & 3, container values, or mail
values.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the value of the red timer goes above the threshold.
The Monitor Event icon begins monitoring for such an event
to occur. A sound will be played over and over again until
the red timer value goes above the threshold. This will
force the program out of the jump sequence and make it land
where the Event Landing is located.
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169
Define
Event
This command is used for defining the thresholds
for the Enter Low, Normal, and High Events
commands. If a certain specification is not being
used, it will be ignored. For example, the upper
threshold will be ignored if you only set up an
Enter Low Event command. You can string in an
event modifier to determine what event you are
dealing with. Also, you can string in a duration
modifier which sets a limit of the length of time
a condition must be occurring to count as an
event.
Example
This piece of code defines the thresholds for the Enter Low
Event icon. It then sets up the red Enter Low Event and
begins monitoring. The program will play a sound over and
over again until the value of the mailbox goes above 10 or
below 5. This event will force the program to the place
where the Event Landing Icon is located. Make sure you
define a lower, upper, or normal threshold event before you
set them up.
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170
Clear
All
Events
This command clears ALL events. Tasks that are
actively monitoring or awaiting for events are
not alerted to this fact.
Example
This piece of code empties the data buffer, zeros the
mailbox, and clears all events currently configured on the
RCX..
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171
Task
Priority
Task
Priority
Use this icon to assign a task priority over
other tasks. The highest priority is the default,
0. The lowest is 255. An access monitoring
command should follow this icon
Example
In this program, the top task has a higher priority (255)
than the lower task (0). When the program is run, motor A
will turn on in the backward direction. If the touch sensor
is pressed within 8 seconds, the motor will then turn on in
the forward direction for two seconds and then shut off.
After 8 seconds (total) a sound will play.
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172
Music
C
C#
D
D#
E
F#
G
G#
A
A#
Use these icons to play individual notes.
F
B
Example
This piece of code plays C, C#, D, D#, E and F as quarter
notes in the standard scale.
Use this to play a rest, or pause.
Rest
Example
This piece of code would start a loop that would
continuously play the note C and a rest (the default is a
quarter rest) until the number of touches and releases was
10 (the default).
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173
Use this to play any note by choosing a frequency
and duration.
Play Any
Note
Example
This piece of code plays a whole note A the frequency is
specified by the constant (540) wired in.
Red Scroll
Blue Scroll
Yellow Scroll
Use this to play the music stored on the scrolls. If
you haven't stored any music to the scrolls in piano
player, the default songs will play. The red scroll
plays Frere Jacques. The blue scroll plays Row, Row,
Row your Boat. The yellow scroll plays Twinkle,
Twinkle, Little Star.
Example
This piece of code plays the music on the red scroll then a
quarter rest and the note C.
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174
Use this to play a song file you have saved.
Load
Scroll
From
File
Example
This piece of code brings up a dialog box for you to choose
a song. Then, it plays that song.
.
Up an Octave
Down an Octave
Use this to play a note in octaves above or below the
standard octave. String several of these together to play
several octaves above or below standard. These icons are
used as modifiers.
Example
This piece of code plays C one octave above standard, then
in the standard octave, then one octave below standard.
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175
Sixteenth
Eighth
Quarter
Half Note
Whole Note
Note
Note
Note
Use these to play notes. These icon are used as modifiers.
Example
This piece of code plays C as a sixteenth note, D as an
eighth note, E as a quarter note, F as a half note, and G
as a whole note in the standard scale.
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176
Investigator
Initialize
Light
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to collect light data using
the light sensor. The data returned is a
number between 1 (dark) and 100 (bright).
Example
This piece of code resets the light sensor and then logs 10
light data points.
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177
Initialize
Touch
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to collect data from the touch
sensor. If pressed, the sensor returns a 1,
otherwise, it returns a zero.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the touch
sensor.
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178
Use this command to collect temperature data
in Celsius from the temperature sensor.
Initialize
Temperature
Sensor Logging
Example
This piece of code resets the temperature sensor and then
logs 10 temperature data points.
Use this command to collect temperature data
in Fahrenheit from the temperature sensor.
Initialize
Temperature
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
temperature sensor.
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179
Initialize
Rotation
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to collect rotation data from
the rotation sensor. Data is in sixteenths of
a rotation so a reading of 16 is equal to one
rotation. Rotation can either be in either
direction.
Example
This piece of code clears the data memory, then logs 500
points of rotation sensor data.
Initialize
Click Sensor
Logging
Use this command to collect data from the
click sensor. It might be helpful to zero the
click sensor at the beginning of the code.
Example
This piece of code zeros the click sensor. Then it logs
click sensor data for 4 seconds and stops.
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180
Initialize
Touch and
Release Sensor
Logging
Use this command to collect data from the
touch and release sensor. It might be
helpful to zero the touch and release sensor
at the beginning of the code.
Example
This piece of code zeros the touch and release sensor. Then
it logs touch and release sensor data for 8 seconds and
stops.
NXT Initialize
Light Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT light sensor. If you do not add
a Data Set modifier, the data will be
collected as the Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code initiates light sensor logging on the
NXT light sensor on port 1. It begins data collection,
logging light sensor data every 1 second to the Red Data
Set until it collects 50 data points.
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181
NXT Initialize
Touch Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT touch sensor. If you do not add
a Data Set modifier, the data will be
collected as the Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code initiates touch sensor logging on the
NXT touch sensor on port 2. It begins data collection,
logging light sensor data every 1 minute to the Blue Data
Set until for 30 minutes.
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182
NXT Initialize
Distance
Sensor Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT distance sensor. If you do not
add a Data Set modifier, the data will be
collected as the Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code initiates distance sensor logging on the
NXT distance sensor on port 1. It begins data collection,
logging distance sensor data every 0.1 seconds. Motors A
and C turn on. After 4 seconds, data collection and the
motors stop.
NXT Initialize
Sound Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT sound sensor. It might be
helpful to zero the NXT sound sensor at the
beginning of the code. If you do not add a
Data Set modifier, the data will be
collected as the Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code initiates sound sensor logging on the
NXT sound sensor on port 2. It begins data collection,
logging sound sensor data every 0.1 seconds for 30 seconds.
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183
NXT
Initialize
Rotation
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the encoder in an NXT motor. It might be
helpful to zero the NXT angle sensor at the
beginning of the code. If you do not add a Data
Set modifier, the data will be collected as the
Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code initiates rotation sensor logging on the
NXT angle sensor on motor A. It begins data collection,
logging angle sensor data every 0.1 seconds. Motor A and C
turn on and continue for 4 seconds. Then data collection
and the motor stop.
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184
NXT
Initialize
Clicks
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT clicks sensor. It might be
helpful to zero the NXT clicks sensor at the
beginning of the code. If you do not add a
Data Set modifier, the data will be collected
as the Red Data Set (default).
Example
This piece of code zeros the NXT clicks sensor. It then
initiates click sensor logging on port 1. It begins data
collection, logging clicks sensor data every 0.1 seconds.
Motor A turns on and continues for 8 seconds. Then data
collection and Motor A stop.
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185
NXT
Initialize
Touch And
Release
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to initiate data collection
from the NXT touch and release sensor. It
might be helpful to zero the NXT touch and
release sensor at the beginning of the code.
If you do not add a Data Set modifier, the
data will be collected as the Red Data Set
(default).
Example
This piece of code zeros the NXT touch and release sensor.
Then it logs touch and release sensor data every second for
45 seconds and stops.
Use this command to collect data from a
container.
Initialize
Container
Logging
Example
This piece of code empties the container, then logs
container data for 4 seconds and then stops.
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186
Use this command to collect data from the
mailbox.
Initialize
Mail
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 50 data points from the
mailbox.
Use this command to initialize logging of the
RCX clock.
Initialize
Clock
Example
This piece of code logs 100 data points from the clock.
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187
Initialize
Timer
Logging
This initializes logging of the regular timer
(timer that increases in .1 second increments
versus the fast timer which increases in .01
second increments).
Example
This piece of code initializes the red (default) timer to
zero, initializes regular timer logging, starts data
logging every .1 seconds, logs for 4 seconds, and then
stops data logging.
Initialize
Fast Timer
Logging
This initializes logging of the fast timer
(timer that increases in .01 second
increments versus the regular timer that
increases in .1 second increments).
Example
This piece of code initializes the red (default) timer to
zero, initializes fast timer logging, starts data logging
every .01 seconds, logs for 4 seconds, and then stops data
logging.
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188
Use this command to collect data from the
camera sensor.
Initialize
Camera
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
camera sensor.
Write
Data
Point to
Data Set
Use this command to add a data point to a data
set. MUST have both Initialize Logging and Start
Logging commands before this command.
Example
This piece of code would log rotation sensor data until the
light sensor reading increases by 5. It would then add the
light sensor reading to the data set and stop logging data.
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189
Use this to start taking data points. There MUST
be an initialize command before this.
Start
Data
Logging
Example
This piece of code resets the light sensor and then logs 10
light data points.
Start
Data
Logging
with
Clicks
Use this command to log click data along with
another type of data. An Initialize Logging
command must come before this icon. This command
WILL start logging data.
Example
This piece of code would log rotation data with clicks for
10 seconds and then stop.
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190
Use this to stop taking data points.
Stop
Logging
Example
This piece of code resets the light sensor and then logs 10
light data points.
Use this command to start data logging again
after it has been stopped.
Resume
Logging
Example
This piece of code would log data from the rotation sensor
until the touch sensor was pushed in. Then it would stop
until the touch sensor was released. Then it would resume
data logging for 2 seconds.
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191
Use this command to find out how much time has
passed since you began taking data.
Log Time
Stamp
Example
This piece of code would log data from the rotation sensor
until the touch sensor on port 2 is pressed. Then it would
log how much time has passed since data logging began, and
stop logging data.
Use this command to take voltage data from a
generic powered sensor.
Initialize
Generic
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from a generic
powered sensor.
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192
Initialize
Humipro
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take humidity data from a
humidity sensor adapter (LogIT). The data is
returned as a percentage between 1 and 100.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
humidity sensor.
Initialize
pH Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take pH data from the pH
sensor (LogIT). The data is returned as a
number between 1 and 14.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the pH
sensor.
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193
Initialize
Pressure
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take pressure data from
the pressure sensor adapter (LogIT). The data
is returned in kPa.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
pressure sensor.
Initialize
Sound Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take sound data from the
sound level sensor (LogIT). The data is
returned in dB.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the sound
level sensor.
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194
Initialize
proTemp
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take temperature data in
Celsius from the temperature sensor adapter
(LogIT). You cannot take data in Fahrenheit
with this sensor.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
temperature sensor.
Initialize
Position
Sensor
Logging
Use this command to take position data in
degrees from the position sensor adapter
(LogIT).
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
position sensor.
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195
Use this command to take voltage data from
the voltmeter (LogIT).
Initialize
Voltmeter
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
voltmeter.
Use this command to take voltage data from
the acceleration sensor.
Initialize
Acceleration
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
acceleration sensor.
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196
Use this command to take voltage data from the
LUX sensor.
Initialize
LUX
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the lux
sensor.
Use this command to take voltage data from the
barometric sensor.
Initialize
Barometric
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
barometric sensor.
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197
Use this command to take voltage data from the
redox sensor.
Initialize
Redox
Sensor
Logging
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the redox
sensor.
Initialize
Current
Sensor
Logging
Hints: Use this command to
take voltage data from the
current sensor.
Example
This piece of code would take 10 data points from the
current sensor.
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198
Reset
Use this to reset the touch sensor. Helpful if
taking touch sensor data.
Zero
Touch
Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the touch sensor then turns on
motor A. When the touch sensor is pressed, motor A is shut
off. This program could run without the reset, however, the
reset works to ensure accurate touch sensor data.
Use this to reset the click count sensor. Helpful
if taking clicks data.
Zero
Clicks
Sensor
Example
This piece of code zeros the clicks sensor and then starts
a loop that would continuously play the note C and a rest
until the number of clicks was 10 (the default).
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199
Zero Touch
and Release
Sensor
Use this to reset the touch and release
sensor. Helpful if taking touch and release
data.
Example
This piece of code turns on motor A for 10 seconds, and
then shuts it off. If after 10 seconds the touch sensor has
been touched and released more than 10 times (the default),
it plays a sound.
Use this to reset the light sensor. Helpful if
taking light sensor data.
Zero
Light
Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the light sensor and then logs 10
data points.
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200
Use this to reset the temperature sensor.
Helpful if taking temperature data.
Zero
Temperature
(C) Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the temperature sensor and then
logs 10 data points.
Use this to reset the temperature sensor.
Helpful if taking temperature data.
Zero
Temperature
(F) Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the temperature sensor. Then it
turns on motor A. When the temperature falls below 80
degrees Fahrenheit (the default), motor A is shut off.
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201
Use this to reset the angle sensor. Helpful if
taking angle or rotation data.
Zero
Angle
Sensor
Example
This piece of code zeros the angle sensor then waits 10
seconds. If at that point the rotation sensor reads greater
than 1 rotation (a reading of 16, the default), then the
RCX plays a sound.
Use this to empty a container. Helpful whenever
you are placing new values in a container.
Zero
Container
Example
This piece of code would zero the container. Then it would
start a loop that plays the note C and adds one to the
container. The loop would end when the container reaches 5.
In total, it will play the note C five times.
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202
Use to reset timer. Helpful whenever you use the
timers.
Zero
Timer
Example
This piece of code turns on lamp A for a random amount of
time, and then turns it off. If the time is less than 3
seconds (the timer measures tenths of seconds, so the
modifier 30 is equivalent to 3 seconds), the RCX plays a
sound.
Zero
Mailbox
Use this to empty the mailbox. Helpful when you
are planning to receive new mail or want to check
for new mail.
Example
This piece of code would empty the mail box. After 10
seconds, it checks to see if it has received mail whose
value is greater than 1 (the default). If it has, the RCX
plays a sound.
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203
Use this to reset the RCX clock.
Zero
Clock
Example
This piece of code resets the clock to zero and turns on
motor A. When the clock gets to 1 minute (the default),
motor A turns off.
Clears data logging memory. Helpful if you're
taking lots of data or have a lengthy program.
Clear
Data
Logging
Memory
Example
This piece of code clears the data memory, then logs 500
points of rotation sensor data.
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204
Use this to reset the NXT touch sensor. Helpful
if taking touch sensor data.
NXT Zero
Touch
Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the NXT touch sensor on port 2
and then initiates touch sensor logging on the NXT touch
sensor on port 2. It begins data collection, logging light
sensor data every 1 minute to the Blue Data Set until for
30 minutes.
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205
Use this to reset the NXT click count sensor.
Helpful if taking clicks data.
NXT Zero
Clicks
Sensor
Example
This piece of code zeros the NXT clicks sensor. It then
initiates click sensor logging on port 1. It begins data
collection, logging clicks sensor data every 0.1 seconds.
Motor A turn on and continues for 8 seconds. Then data
collection and Motor A stop.
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206
Use this to reset the NXT touch and release
sensor. Helpful if taking clicks data.
NXT Zero
Touch And
Release
Sensor
Example
This piece of code zeros the NXT touch and release sensor.
Then it logs touch and release sensor data every second for
45 seconds and stops.
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207
Use this to reset the NXT light sensor. Helpful
if taking light data.
NXT Zero
Light
Sensor
This piece of code resets the light sensor and
initiates light sensor logging on the NXT sound sensor
on port 1. It begins data collection, logging light
sensor data every 1 second to the Red Data Set until
it collects 50 data points.
Example
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208
Use this to reset the NXT distance sensor.
Helpful if taking distance data.
NXT Zero
Distance
Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the NXT distance sensor on port 1
and then initiates distance sensor logging on the NXT
distance sensor on port 1. It begins data collection,
logging distance sensor data every 0.1 seconds. Motors A
and C turn on. After 4 seconds, data collection and the
motors stop.
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209
Use this to reset the NXT sound sensor. Helpful
if taking sound data.
NXT Zero
Sound
Sensor
Example
This piece of code resets the NXT sound sensor on port 2,
then initiates sound sensor logging on the NXT sound sensor
on port 2. It begins data collection, logging sound sensor
data every 0.1 seconds for 30 seconds.
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210
NXT Zero
Angle
Sensor
Use this to reset the NXT angle sensor. This is
useful at the beginning of any program using the
encoders (rotation sensors) built in to the NXT
motors.
Example
This piece of code resets the NXT angle sensor on motor A.
Motors A and C turn on until the angle sensor reads 30.
Then the motors turn off.
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211
Configure
Generic
Sensor
Allows you to programmatically configure the
type, mode and slope of the Generic Sensor
(settings of which are specified in
101Generic.sa sensor file) Calibrations must be
altered in the actual sensor file.
Example
This piece of code sets up a sensor with as type 'None',
mode 'Raw', with a slope of 2. It waits for the value to
read below 3 and then beeps.
Reset
Sensor
Ports
Allows you to reset the sensor ports so you can
use two different sensors on the same port. Note:
This should be used carefully by advanced users
and can only be implemented with compatible
sensors.
Example
This piece of code waits for the touch sensor to be pressed
and the resets the sensor ports, waits for one second, and
then beeps until the light value is greater than 50.
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212
Containers
Fill
Container
Use this command to fill a container with a
value of your choice which can be controlled by
a modifier. The default is to set the Red
Container to a value of 1.
Example
This piece of code first zeroes the container, then fills
the Red Container with a value of 2. A sound is played, and
then the motor is run at the speed of the Red Container,
which is 2.
ABS
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
absolute value of a number. The default is to
put the absolute value of zero into the Red
Container.
Example
This piece of code takes absolute value of whatever is put
into the container. In this case, the absolute value of -2
is put into the Blue Container, and the RCX will display 2.
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213
AND
Container
This command ANDs a bitwise value to the
bitwise value of the container. This is NOT a
Boolean operation.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with a value of
5. It then ANDs that number with 1. The resulting number
after the bitwise operation is 1.
5 = 0101
1 = 0001
1 = 0001
OR
Container
This command ORs a bitwise value to the bitwise
value of the container. This is NOT a Boolean
operation.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with a value of
5. It then ORs that number with 1. The resulting number
after the bitwise operation is 5.
5 = 0101
1 = 0001
5 = 0101
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214
Sign
Container
Use this command to put the sign (positive or
negative) into a container. The default is to
put a zero in the Red Container.
Example
This piece of code takes the sign of the number you put
into the container. In this case, -2 is put into the Blue
Container. The RCX will then display -1. If the number was
2, then 1 would be put into the container.
Add to
Container
Use this command to add a value to the current
value of the container. The default is to add
one to the Red Container.
Example
This piece of code fills the Blue Container with a value of
1. It then adds 2 to the Blue Container. The value of the
Blue Container would then be displayed on the RCX as 3.
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215
Remove from
Container
Use this command to subtract a value from the
current value of the container. The default is
to subtract one from the Red Container.
Example
This piece of code fills the Blue Container with a value of
1. It then subtracts 2 from the Blue Container. The value
of the Blue Container would then be displayed on the RCX as
-1.
Multiply to
Container
Use this command to multiply the value of a
container by a certain number. The default is
to multiply the Red Container by two.
Example
This piece of code fills the Blue Container with a value of
1. It then multiplies 2 by the value of the Blue Container.
The value of the Blue Container would then be displayed on
the RCX as 2.
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216
Divide
Container
Use this command to divide the value of a
container by a certain number. The default is to
divide the Red Container by two. User can only
use integers (1,2,3....). Non-integer numbers
will be rounded to the nearest integer. The
result also can only be an integer. Non-integer
results will be truncated (the decimal parts of
the number will be removed).
Example
This piece of code fills the Blue Container with a value of
1. It then divides the value of the Blue Container by 2.
The value of the Blue Container would then be displayed on
the RCX as 0 (0.5 truncated = 0).
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217
Touch
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the touch sensor. This value will either
be a zero or a one. The default is to set the Red
Container to the value of the touch sensor on
port 1. In your program, be sure to specify what
port your touch sensor is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the touch sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
touch sensor was 1 (meaning it was pressed in), the RCX
would read 1.
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218
Light
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the light sensor. The default is to
set the Red Container to the value of the light
sensor on port 1. In your program, be sure to
specify what port your light sensor is
connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Yellow Container with the
value of the light sensor. A sound is played and the value
of the Yellow Container is shown on the RCX. If the value
of the light sensor was 41, the RCX would read 41.
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219
Temp (C)
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the temperature (Celsius) sensor. The
default is to set the Red Container to the value
of the temperature sensor on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
temperature sensor is connected to with a
modifier. Rounds value to nearest integer value
(20.7 goes to 21)
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the Temperature sensor in Celsius. A sound is played and
the value of the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the
value of the sensor was 25 deg, the RCX would read 25.
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220
Temp (F)
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the temperature (Fahrenheit) sensor. The
default is to set the Red Container to the value
of the temperature sensor on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
temperature sensor is connected to with a
modifier. Rounds value to nearest integer value
(70.7 goes to 71)
Example
This piece of code fills the Generic Container with the
value of the Temperature sensor in Fahrenheit. A sound is
played and the value of the Generic Container is shown on
the RCX. If the value of the sensor was 75 deg, the RCX
would read 75.
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221
Angle
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the rotation sensor. The default is to
set the Red Container to the value of the
rotation sensor on port 1. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your rotation sensor
is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the Rotation sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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222
Mail
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the mailbox. The default is to set the
Red Container to the value of the mailbox.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the mailbox. A sound is played and the value of the Red
Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the mail was
2, the RCX would read 2.
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223
Timer
Value
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the timer. The default is to set the
Red Container to the value of the red timer.
You can use modifiers to determine what
container you're using as well as what timer
value you're using.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the timer. A sound is played and the value of the Red
Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the sensor
was 10, the RCX would read 10.
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224
Timer
(.01)
Value
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the Timer (.01) reading time in
hundredths of seconds.
Example
This piece of code zeros the red time beeps and then puts
the value of the Timer (.01) reading in hundredths of
seconds into the red container. It then shows the value of
the red container on the display for 2 seconds. (In general
it takes 100-110 hundreds of a second to play the beep).
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225
Fill
Container
With
Variable
Use this command to convert a floating point
number into an integer to store in a regular
ROBOLAB container.
Example
This code zeros the rotation sensor on port 1, then it runs
motor A forward for 4 seconds and turns off the motor. The
value of the rotation sensor on port 1 in a container that
is named rotations. Then the rate is computed by dividing
the rotations by 4 (the number of seconds the motor ran).
Next, the rate is place in the red container. Finally, this
value is displayed on the RCX.
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226
Fill String
Container
This VI allows you to name a variable and set
it equal to a numeric constant or the value of
any modifier.
Example
This code zeros the rotation sensor on port 1, then it runs
motor A forward for 4 seconds and turns off the motor. The
value of the rotation sensor on port 1 in a container that
is named rotations. Then the rate is computed by dividing
the rotations by 4 (the number of seconds the motor ran).
Next, the rate is place in the red container. Finally, this
value is displayed on the RCX.
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227
NXT Light
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the NXT light sensor. The default is
to set the Red Container to the value of the
NXT light sensor on port 1. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your NXT light sensor
is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code takes the current value of the NXT light
sensor on port 4 and places it in the red container. That
value is then multiplied by 10 and used as the frequency
for a quarter note.
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228
NXT
Distance
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the NXT distance sensor. The default
is to set the Red Container to the value of the
NXT distance sensor on port 1. In your program,
be sure to specify what port your NXT distance
sensor is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code initializes the NXT distance sensor on
port 4. It then enters a jump where it will continuously
take the value of the distance sensor on port 4 and place
it into a container, multiply that by 5, and use that value
as the power level for motor A. This will allow the NXT to
follow an object in front of it.
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229
NXT Touch
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the NXT touch sensor. The default is
to set the Red Container to the value of the
NXT touch sensor on port 1. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your NXT touch sensor
is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code takes the current value of the NXT touch
sensor on port 1 and places it in the red container. It
uses this value to determine the number of loops to run.
Because the touch sensor will either read 1 (pressed) or 0
(not pressed), this program will either play a note once or
not at all.
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230
NXT Sound
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the NXT sound sensor. The default is
to set the Red Container to the value of the
NXT sound sensor on port 1. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your NXT sound sensor
is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code initializes the NXT sound sensor on port
2. It then enters a jump where it will continuously take
the value of the sound sensor on port 2 and place it into
the blue container, and use that value as the power level
for motor A. This code will make the NXT move quickly when
it hears a sound.
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231
NXT Motor
Angle
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the NXT angle sensor. The default is
to set the Red Container to the value of the
NXT light sensor on port A. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your NXT angle sensor
is connected to with a modifier. Modifiers for
the NXT angle sensors are found in the NXT
commands menu.
Example
This piece of code initializes the NXT angle sensor on port
A. It then enters a jump where it will continuously take
the value of the angle sensor on port A and place it into
the yellow container. The absolute value of the yellow
container is placed in the red container, which is then
multiplied by 10. This value is used as the frequency for a
sixteenth note. This code turns the NXT rotation sensor
into a musical instrument.
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232
Evaluate
Expression
This VI allows you to evaluate formulas. This
command allows floating point math. You can
declare floating point variables using this
command.
Example
This code zeros the rotation sensor on port 1, then it runs
motor A forward for 4 seconds and turns off the motor. The
value of the rotation sensor on port 1 in a container that
is named rotations. Then the rate is computed by dividing
the rotations by 4 (the number of seconds the motor ran).
Next, the rate is place in the red container. Finally, this
value is displayed on the RCX.
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233
Random
Fill
Container
Use this command to fill the container with a
random value between zero and a max random
number (determined by a modifier). The default
is to fill the Red Container with a random
number between 0 and 8.
Example
This piece of
number from 0
Red Container
sensor was 8,
code fills the Red Container with a random
to 8. A sound is played and the value of the
is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
the RCX would read 8.
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234
Clicks
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
number of clicks of the touch sensor. The
default is to set the Red Container to the
number of clicks from the touch sensor on port
1. In your program, be sure to specify what
port your touch sensor is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the number
of clicks of the touch sensor. A sound is played and the
value of the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the
number of clicks was 3, the RCX would read 3.
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235
Touch and
Release
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
number of touch and releases of the touch
sensor. The default is to set the Red
Container to the number of touch and releases
from the touch sensor on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
touch sensor is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the number
of touch and releases of the touch sensor. A sound is
played and the value of the Red Container is shown on the
RCX. If the number of touch and releases was 3, the RCX
would read 3.
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236
Points
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
number of data points collected in a data set.
The default is to set the Red Container to the
number of data points from the Red Data Set.
Example
This piece of code initializes the touch sensor on Port 1
on the Red Data Set then begins taking data. It waits 10
seconds and then fills the Red Container with the number of
points on the Red Data Set after that time. It then
displays this number on the RCX and continues to wait until
35 data points are collected on the Red Data Set.
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237
Clock
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the clock. The default is to set the
Red Container to the value of the clock.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the clock. A sound is played and the value of the Red
Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the clock
was 30 minutes (the amount of time the RCX was on), the RCX
would read 30.
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238
Formula
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
result of a mathematical formula. The default
is to set the Red Container to a value of one.
In order to create a string (the area where the
formula is written), you must right click on
the lower right hand corner of the icon and
click on create→constant. You can then type in
your formula in the pink box.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the light sensor on port 1. It then divides the value of
the Red Container by 10, adds 8 (4 times 2), and then puts
the resulting value into the Red Container. This value is
then displayed on the RCX.
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239
Event
Register
Container
This command sets the container to an event
state. The event states are as follows: 0-low,
1-medium, 2-high, 3-undefined, 4-start
calibrating, 5-calibrating in process.
Example
This piece of code (where an event was configured earlier)
takes the current event state, puts it in the Red Container
and displays it on the RCX's LCD and then beeps. This
process loops continuously until the event has been
triggered.
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240
Event State
Container
Set the container to a copy of the bit
register of the successful event(s) of the
current task. The default is to set the Red
Container to the register.
Example
This piece of code is a part of a larger program. The Event
State icon lets the user discover what event was triggered
and react accordingly.
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241
Camera
Sensor
Container
This command sets the container to the value of
the camera sensor. The value of the camera
sensor is defined by the user in Vision Center.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
that is returned from the camera and displays it on the
RCX. In order for this icon to work, you must be running
Vision Center which can be found under the Project menu on
the ROBOLAB toolbar.
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242
Generic
Sensor
Container
This command sets the container to the value of
the generic sensor adapter. The default is to
set the value of the generic sensor adapter to
the Red Container.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the generic sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
generic sensor was 32, the RCX would read 32.
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243
Humidity
Container
(HumiPro
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the humidity sensor. The default is
to set the Red Container to the value of the
humidity sensor on port 1. In your program, be
sure to specify what port your humidity sensor
is connected to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the humidity sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
humidity sensor was 32, the RCX would read 32.
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244
pH Container
(pH LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the pH sensor. The default is to set
the Red Container to the value of the pH
sensor on port 1. In your program, be sure to
specify what port your pH sensor is connected
to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the pH sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the pH
sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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245
Pressure
Container
(Pressure
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the pressure sensor adapter. The
default is to set the Red Container to the
value of the pressure sensor adapter on port
1. In your program, be sure to specify what
port your pressure sensor adapter is connected
to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the pressure sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
pressure sensor was 4, the RCX would read 4.
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246
Sound Level
Container
(Sound
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the sound level sensor. The default
is to set the Red Container to the value of
the sound level sensor on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
sound level sensor is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the sound sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
sound sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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247
Temperature
Container
(TempPro
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the temperature sensor adapter. The
default is to set the Red Container to the value
of the temperature sensor adapter on port 1. In
your program, be sure to specify what port your
temperature sensor adapter is connected to with
a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the ProTemp sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
ProTemp sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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248
Position
Container
(Position
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the position sensor adapter. The default
is to set the Red Container to the value of the
position sensor adapter on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
position sensor adapter is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the position sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
position sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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249
Voltage
Container
(Voltmeter
LogIT)
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the voltage sensor adapter. The
default is to set the Red Container to the
value of the voltage sensor adapter on port 1.
In your program, be sure to specify what port
your voltage sensor adapter is connected to
with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the voltage sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
voltage sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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250
Acceleration
Sensor
Container
Use this command to fill a container with
the value of the acceleration sensor. The
default is to set the Red Container to the
value of the acceleration sensor on port 1.
In your program, be sure to specify what
port your acceleration sensor is connected
to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the accelerometer. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
accelerometer was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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251
Lux Sensor
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the Lux sensor. The default is to set
the Red Container to the value of the Lux sensor
on port 1. In your program, be sure to specify
what port your Lux sensor is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the LUX sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the LUX
sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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252
Barometric
Sensor
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the barometric sensor. The default
is to set the Red Container to the value of
the barometric sensor on port 1. In your
program, be sure to specify what port your
barometric sensor is connected to with a
modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the barometer sensor. A sound is played and the value of
the Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
barometer sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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253
Redox
Sensor
Container
Use this command to fill a container with the
value of the Redox sensor. The default is to set
the Red Container to the value of the Redox
sensor on port 1. In your program, be sure to
specify what port your Redox sensor is connected
to with a modifier.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the Redox sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
Red Container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
Redox sensor was 8, the RCX would read 8.
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254
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255
RCX Communications
Use this icon to send mail (numbers) to another
RCX. There must be a continuous line of site
between the 2 RCXs when the program is run.
Send
Mail
Example
This piece of code would send a value of 10 to the mailbox
of another RCX.
Set
Display
Use the icon to control the LCD display on your
RCX. You can display any modifier in this area.
This can be useful for debugging mail or
container issues as well as monitoring sensors.
The display is only set to view the modifier
while the program is running.
Example
This piece of code would display the value of the yellow
container for 4 seconds.
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256
Change
View on
RCX
Use this to change the display on the RCX to
information from the inputs (1,2,3), outputs
(4,5,6), or clock (0). The default is to display
the clock.
Example
This piece of code will turn on motor A, then change the
RCX display to input 2. Then it will wait for the value of
light sensor on port 2 to increase by 5 (the default). Then
the motor will be shut off.
Use this to change the number of the program in
the RCX.
Change
Program
on RCX
Example
This piece of code would run program 1.
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257
Use this to turn off the RCX's power.
Turn RCX
Power
Off
Example
This piece of code would wait for the RCX clock to reach 5
minutes, and then it would turn off power to the RCX.
Use this to run a program.
Run
Program
on RCX
Example
This piece of code would run program 1.
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258
Fill
Remote
Container
This sets the value of a container on another
RCX to the specified value. This is similar to
the send mail command. It is useful if you have
multiple values you want to send to another
RCX.
Example
This piece of code will set the Blue Container on another
RCX to 1 (the default).
Start Direct RCX
Communication
This icon is used to start direct
communication between 2 RCXs. Commands
that appear between this icon and the End
Direct RCX Communication icon are sent to
another RCX in direct mode (there must be
a continuous line of site between the 2
RCXs).
Example
This piece of code would tell another RCX (in line of site)
to play each of the 3 notes. Because the RCXs are talking
in direct mode the other RCX would immediately play the
notes.
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259
End Direct RCX
Communication
This icon is used to end direct
communication between 2 RCXs. Commands
that appear between this icon and the
Begin Direct RCX Communication icon are
sent to another RCX in direct mode (there
must be a continuous line of site between
the 2 RCXs).
Example
This piece of code would tell another RCX (in line of site)
to play each of the 3 notes. Because the RCXs are talking
in direct mode the other RCX would immediately play the
notes.
Start
Remote
Program
This icon is used to start the downloading of a
program from one RCX to another. The commands
that are between this icon and the Download
Remote Program icon would be downloaded to a 2nd
RCX as a program (there must be a continuous line
of site between the 2 RCXs during the download).
Example
This piece of code would download a program containing only
the three notes to another RCX. The 2nd RCX would NOT play
the notes until the Run button was pressed (or the program
was told to run programmatically).
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260
End
Remote
Program
This icon is used to end the downloading of a
program from one RCX to another. The commands
that are between this icon and the Start Remote
Program icon would be downloaded to a 2nd RCX as
a program (there must be a continuous line of
site between the 2 RCXs during the download).
Example
This piece of code would download a program containing only
the three notes to another RCX. The 2nd RCX would NOT play
the notes until the Run button was pressed (or the program
was told to run programmatically).
Set RCX
Powerdown
Time
Use this piece of code to change the powerdown
time on the RCX. This can also be done with
the Robolab Administrator.
Example
This piece of code sets the powerdown time to 10 minutes.
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261
Use this to snap an image during a program.
Snap
Image
Example
This piece of code waits until the light sensor reading
increases by 5 (the default), and then it snaps an image.
Fill
Mailbox
Use this icon to fill the mailbox on an RCX with
a specific value. Can be used in a program or in
direct mode.
Example
This piece of code fills the mailbox with the value of 5
then starts a loop which turns on lamp A. The loop ends
when the RCX receives mail whose value is 4 or less. Then
the RCX plays a sound and turns off the lamp.
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262
Clear
Sound
Buffer
Use this command to clear sounds and reset sound
settings. This icon can be helpful before events
requiring sound input.
Example
This piece of code would clear the RCX sound buffer.
Mute
Sound
Use the Mute Sound icon to put your RCX into
silent mode. Mute Sound suppresses all sounds
(notes or sounds in a running program, download
sounds) except for the sounds made when pressing
run, stop, view and On Off buttons. Useful when
you want to programmatically create a stealth RCX
or when you want to program your RCX in the
library.
Example
This piece of code, when run, will mute all further sound
(except of those made by pressing RCX buttons). This mute
applies to other programs (existing or newly download). The
only way to get sound is to include or run the Unmute Sound
command.
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263
Unmute
Sound
Use the Unmute Sound icon to restore the sound
capabilities to your RCX. (This is the opposite
of Mute Sound).
Example
This piece of code, when run, will unmute sound on the RCX.
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264
Modifiers
Output A
Output B
Output C
Use these modifiers to indicate to which port your output
device is connected.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motors connected to Ports
A and B in the forward direction. After 4 seconds, it would
turn them off.
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265
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Use these modifiers to indicate to which ports your input
device is connected.
Example
This piece of code runs motor A forward at power level one
until the touch sensor that is connected to Port 1 is
pressed in. It then plays a sound and stops motor A.
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266
Hints: The numeric constant is used to modify many
icons. Use the text tool to edit the number.
Example
This piece of code runs motor A and motor C forward for 1.5
seconds, then the motors are turned off.
Red
Container
Blue Container
Yellow
Container
Use these modifiers to indicate that you are using values
associated with the specific Containers.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the touch sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
red container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
touch sensor was 1 (meaning it was pressed in), the RCX
would read 1.
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267
Generic
Container
Use this modifier to indicate that you are
using values associated with the Generic
Container. Zero (0) corresponds with the Red
Container, 1 with the Yellow Container, and 2
with the Blue Container. Containers 3-20 can
be used by string in a numeric constant for
the container #.
Example
This piece of code fills the Generic Container with the
value of the temperature sensor in Fahrenheit. A sound is
played and the value of the Generic Container is shown on
the RCX. If the value of the sensor was 75 degrees, the RCX
would read 75.
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268
Container’s
Container
This command takes the value in the container
specified (Container #) and uses that to
choose the container specified. This is the
ROBOLAB equivalent of a C Pointer.
Example
This piece of code zeroes both the generic container (3)
and the Red Container. It then takes the value of the
generic container(0) and uses that to determine what
container should be filled with the value of 4. Zero (0)
corresponds to the Red Container so the Red Container is
filled with a value of 4 and that is then displayed on the
RCX. The program then waits 4 seconds and then shows the
value of the Generic Container that is still 0.
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269
Container
Use this icon to name a generic container. Use
the pointer tool to choose a container name
from the drop down menu. For example, container
3 can be used by selecting "User3".
Example
This piece of fills container 3 with a value of 5. It then
displays the value of the container 3 (which was just set
to 5). The display will then show "5" for eight
seconds.
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270
This modifier allows you to access the
container where a variable is stored. Type the
variable name in the string constant.
Variable
Modifier
Example
This code zeros the NXT rotation sensor on Motor A, then
turns motor A on, waits 4 seconds and turns it off. The
value of the rotation sensor is placed in a variable
container called rotations. This container is divided by 4
and its value displayed on the NXT followed by rot/sec.
This will be displayed for 2 seconds before the program
ends.
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271
This modifier allows you to access the value of
a container where a variable is stored. Type
the variable name in the string constant.
Value Of
Variable
Modifier
Example
This code zeros the NXT rotation sensor on Motor A, then
turns motor A on, waits 4 seconds and turns it off. The
value of the rotation sensor is placed in a variable
container called rotations. This container is divided by 4
and its value displayed on the NXT followed by rot/sec.
This will be displayed for 2 seconds before the program
ends.
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272
Red Timer
Blue Timer
Yellow Timer
Use this modifier to indicate that you are using values
associated with the Red Timer.
Example
This piece of code zeroes the Red Timer and then waits for
10 seconds. The value of the Red Timer is put into the Red
Container and then displayed on the RCX.
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273
Red Data Set
Blue Data Set
Yellow Data Set
Use this modifier to indicate that you are using values
associated with the Red, Blue, or Yellow Data Set. You can wire
in additional Data Sets.
Example
This piece of code will initialize the light sensor on port
one, and will begin data logging on the Red Data Set for 10
points. This code captures data every second.
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274
Sample one
tenth sec
Sample one
sec
Sample ten
sec
Sample one
minute
Sample one
hour
Use this modifier in a data acquisition program to take a
sample for a specified amount of time.
Example
This piece of code will initialize the light sensor on port
one, and will begin data logging on the Red Data Set for 10
points. This code captures data every second.
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275
Touch
Sampling
Use this modifier in a data acquisition program
to take a sample every time the touch sensor is
pressed on port two.
Example
First, this piece of code zeroes the touch
2. It then initializes the light sensor on
begins to take data points in the Red Data
the touch sensor on port 2 is pressed. The
data logging when the user gets 10 points.
sensor on Port
port one and
Set every time
program stops
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276
Free Sampling
with Time
Stamp
String this modifier to a Start Data Logging
subroutine to capture data points every time
you write to the data set and marks the data
with time. The time will rollover every 2^16
tenths of a second.
Example
This piece of code initializes the light sensor on port
one, takes 10 data points on the Red Data Set, and then
stops taking data points. It captures data every time you
write to the data set and marks the data with time.
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277
String this modifier to a Start Data Logging
subroutine to capture data points every time
you write to the data set.
Free
Sampling
Example
This piece of code initializes the light sensor on port
one, takes 10 data points on the Red Data Set, and then
stops taking data points. It captures data every time you
write to the data set.
Use this modifier to use the value of the clock
since 00:00 in minutes.
Value of
Clock
Example
This piece of code sets the clock to 0 hours and 0 minutes
and then waits 12 minutes. A sound is played and the value
of the clock is displayed on the RCX.
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278
Use this command when you want to see the value
of the firmware in your RCX.
Value of
Firmware
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the firmware in your RCX and then displays it on your
RCX screen.
Value of
Battery
Use this command when you want to use or
monitor the battery value in your program.
(Battery Power is represented as 1000 times the
battery power so 7.654 = 7654).
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the battery and then displays the value on the RCX.
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279
Power Level
1
Power Level
2
Power Level
3
Power Level
4
Power Level
5
String these modifiers to a motor command to control the
speed of the motor. Speed 1 is the slowest and speed 5 is
the fastest.
Example
This piece of code runs motor A forward at power level one
until the touch sensor that is connected to Port one is
pressed in. It then plays a sound and stops motor A.
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280
Value of Port 1 Value of Port 2 Value of Port 3
Use these modifiers to use the value of ports 1, 2, and 3.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the light sensor on Port 1. It then plays a sound and
displays the value of the red container on the RCX.
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281
Value of
Red Container
Value of
Blue Container
Value of
Yellow Container
Use these modifiers to use the value of the red, blue, and
yellow containers.
Example
This piece of code fills the Red Container with the value
of the touch sensor. A sound is played and the value of the
red container is shown on the RCX. If the value of the
touch sensor was 1 (meaning it was pressed in), the RCX
would read 1.
Use this modifier to generate a random number
from 0-8.
Random
Number
Example
This piece of code will fill the Red Container with a
random number from 0-8. The RCX will then play a sound and
display the value of the red container on its screen.
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282
Value of
Container’s
Container
The value in the container specified
(Container #) is used to choose a container
and the value in that container is passed
out.
Example
This piece of code fills the blue container (also known as
container #1) with the value 10 and fills the User 4
container with the value 1. It then displays the value of
the container specified in User 4. User 4 contains the
value 1 (which indicates the Blue container) and the Blue
container contains the value 10 -- hence 10 is displayed
for 4 seconds. Then the value of User 4 (which is 1) is
displayed for 4 seconds.
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283
Value of
Generic
Container
This modifier represents the value of the
generic container. You can have up to 21
containers. Zero (0) is red, 1 is yellow, 2 is
blue, and 3-20 are user defined.
Example
This piece of code fills the Generic Container with the
value of the temperature sensor in Fahrenheit. A sound is
played and the value of the Generic Container is shown on
the RCX. If the value of the sensor was 75 degrees, the RCX
would read 75.
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284
Value of
Red Timer
Value of
Blue Timer
Value of Yellow
Timer
Use this modifier to use the value of the red, blue, and
yellow timers.
Example
This piece of code zeroes the Red Timer and then waits for
10 seconds. The value of the Red Timer is put into the Red
Container and then displayed on the RCX.
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285
Use this modifier to use the value of the mail in
the mailbox.
Value of
Mail
Example
This piece of code will fill the Red Container with the
value of the mailbox. The RCX will then play a sound and
display the value of the red container on its screen.
Use this modifier to use the value of the red
timer in thousandths of a second.
Value of
Red
Timer
(.001)
Example
This piece of code zeroes the Red Timer and then waits for
the touch sensor to be pressed. The value of the Red Timer
in thousandths of a second is put into the Blue Container
and then displayed on the RCX to 3 decimal places.
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286
Value of
Red Data Set
Value of
Blue Data Set
Value of
Yellow Data Set
Use these modifiers to use the value of the red data set.
Example
This piece of code initializes the light sensor on Port 1,
begins data logging in the Red Data Set for 10 points, and
then fills the Blue Container with the last value taken in
the Red Data Set. The value of the blue container is then
displayed on the RCX.
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287
Red
Event
Blue
Event
Yellow
Event
Generic
Event
String these modifiers to an event definition or monitor
command to select the Red, Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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Value of
Red
Event
Value of
Blue
Event
Value of
Yellow
Event
Value of
Generic
Event
Use these modifiers to represent the value of the Red,
Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets up a red event that is triggered
when the touch sensor is pressed. The Monitor Event icon
begins monitoring for such an event to occur. A sound will
be played over and over again until the touch sensor is
pushed in. This will force the program out of the jump
sequence and make it land where the Event Landing is
located.
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289
Value of
Red
Upper
Threshold
Value of
Blue
Upper
Threshold
Value of
Yellow
Upper
Threshold
Value of
Generic
Upper
Threshold
Use this modifier to represent the value of the upper
threshold of the Red, Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets the red event to be a normal event
with an upper threshold of 60, a lower threshold of 40,
duration of 10 seconds, and hysteresis of 2. The program
will beep repeatedly until the sensor on channel 1 fulfills
the event requirements. It will then display the value of
the red upper threshold on the RCX LCD for 4 seconds.
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290
Value of
Red
Lower
Threshold
Value of
Blue
Lower
Threshold
Value of
Yellow
Lower
Threshold
Value of
Generic
Lower
Threshold
Use these modifiers to represent the value of the lower
threshold of the Red, Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets the red event to be a normal event
with an upper threshold of 60, a lower threshold of 40,
duration of 10 seconds, and hysteresis of 2. The program
will beep repeatedly until the sensor on channel 1 fulfills
the event requirements. It will then display the value of
the red lower threshold on the RCX LCD for 4 seconds.
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Value of Red
Hysteresis
Value of
Blue
Hysteresis
Value of
Yellow
Hysteresis
Value of
Generic
Hysteresis
Use these modifiers to represent the value of the
Hysteresis of the Red, Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets the red event to be a normal event
with an upper threshold of 60, a lower threshold of 40,
duration of 10 seconds, and hysteresis of 2. The program
will beep repeatedly until the sensor on channel 1 fulfills
the event requirements. It will then display the value of
the red hysteresis on the RCX LCD for 4 seconds.
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Value of
Red
Duration
Value of
Blue
Duration
Value of
Yellow
Duration
Value of
Generic
Duration
Use these modifiers to represent the value of the duration
of the Red, Blue, Yellow, or Generic Event.
Example
This piece of code sets the red event to be a normal event
with an upper threshold of 60, a lower threshold of 40,
duration of 10 seconds, and hysteresis of 2. The program
will beep repeatedly until the sensor on channel 1 fulfills
the event requirements. It will then display the value of
the red duration on the RCX LCD for 4 seconds.
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Loop
Counter
Container
The loop iteration is stored in a variable. Use
this modifier, as you would use the Red
Container, to set or manipulate the loop
iteration value.
Example
This piece of code sets a loop to run for 6 iterations. If
the touch sensor is pressed the loop iteration is set to
zero and therefore the loops stops running.
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Value Of
Loop
Counter
Container
The loop iteration is stored in a variable. Use
this modifier, as you would use the Red
Container Value, to view the loop iteration
value.
Example
This piece of code sets a loop to iterate 4 times. The
value of the loop iteration is wired into the Play Sound
icon (which plays different sounds depending which number
is wired into it). As the loop iteration changes different
sounds are played (Play Sound does not have a sound for the
0 state so the sound for the 1 state is played twice).
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Direct Functions
Begin,
End
direct
mode
These two icons are used to start and end direct
communication between the RCX and the tower.
Commands that appear between the two icons are
sent to the RCX in direct mode (there must be
continuous line of site between the RCX and the
tower).
Example
This piece of code would turn motor A on for 2 seconds, and
then turn motor A off.
Is RCX
in view?
If you are running a direct mode program it can
be useful to know if the RCX is in view of the
tower and can receive commands. This command
updates a Boolean (true / false) indicator with a
true if the tower can talk to the RCX and a false
if the tower cannot talk to the RCX.
Example
This piece of code looks to see if the RCX is in view of
the tower. It updates the Boolean indicator Exists? with
the current status.
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Memory
Map
The memory map icon gives you a reading of the
memory contents of the RCX. It MUST be used in
direct mode and outputted to the front panel.
Example
This piece of code will read the RCX memory contents and
display the readings on an indicator on the front panel.
Read Run
Status
Use this icon to determine whether your RCX is
still running a program (i.e. is the person
running?). Should be used in direct mode.
Example
This piece of code displays on the front panel whether the
RCX is running and whether it is in range.
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Read
tower
power
Use this icon to determine the power setting of
the tower (little and big arrows equal high and
low power mode). Most usable in direct mode
programming.
Example
This piece of code reads the tower power and displays a
true state on the front panel if it is in high state (and a
false state if it is in low power mode).
Set RCX
Tower
Power
Use this icon to set the IR power of your RCX
(high or low - usually done in Administrator).
Can be done in any (direct, remote, local)
programming mode. The Power modifier is a Boolean
(true / false) control. If true is selected, the
RCX IR power is set to High. If false is
selected, it is set to Low.
Example
This piece of code sets the RCX IR power to High when the
program is run.
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Read
Battery
Power
Use this command in direct mode to determine the
remaining battery power of your RCX. Useful if
your battery power significantly impacts RCX
performance.
Example
This piece of code will display the Battery Power level on
the front panel (between 0-9 Volts).
Read
Value
Use this command in direct mode to read the value
of any memory location. This command will NOT
automatically display that value. To display
automatically use the Read and Display Value
command. To display using the Read Value command,
string an indicator to the Value read terminal.
Also, you can choose which port to poll using the
modifier to read terminal.
Example
This piece of code reads the value of sensor 1 in direct
mode and displays it to the control panel.
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299
Read and
Display
Value
Use this command in direct mode to read and
display the value of any memory location. This
command displays automatically. Choose which port
to poll using the modifier to read terminal.
Example
This piece of code waits until the RCX is in view of the
tower, then reads and displays the value of sensor 1.
Use this command if you need the RCX to be in
view of the tower before moving on.
Wait for
RCX to
be in
view
Example
This piece of code waits until the RCX is in view of the
tower, then reads and displays the value of sensor 1.
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Internet
ALWAYS start an Internet program with this icon.
Internet
Begin
Example
If an IP number was strung onto the Begin icon, this piece
of code could be sent over the Internet. It would be stored
as a program in a remote RCX that would turn on motor A
until a touch sensor was pressed, and then shut it off.
ALWAYS end an Internet program with this icon.
Each task needs its own End icon.
Internet
End
Example
If an IP number was strung onto the Begin icon, this piece
of code could be sent over the Internet. It would be stored
as a program in a remote RCX that would turn on motor A
until a touch sensor was pressed, and then shut it off.
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301
ALWAYS start a direct Internet program with
this icon.
Begin
Internet
Direct
Mode
Example
If an IP number was strung onto the Begin Direct icon, this
piece of code could control an RCX in direct mode over the
Internet. It would turn on motor A on the remote RCX until
a touch sensor was released and then turn it off.
ALWAYS end a direct Internet program with this
icon. Each task needs its own Esnd icon.
End
Internet
Direct
Mode
Example
If an IP number were strung onto the Begin Direct icon,
this piece of code could control an RCX in direct mode over
the Internet. It would turn on motor A on the remote RCX
until a touch sensor was released and then turn it off.
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Advanced
Begin
RCX
Use this icon when you want to send a program to
a specific tower (if you have multiple towers) on
your computer and an RCX is in front of that
tower.
Example
This piece of code would send the program to the default
port specified.
Begin
LASM
Use this icon when you want to initiate the LASM
interface (text based program representation)
before downloading.
Example
This piece of code would launch the LASM interface with
these commands.
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Begin
direct
mode
Use this icon to send direct mode commands to a
specific tower (if you have multiple towers) on
your computer and an RCX is in front of that
tower.
Example
This piece of code would run motor A for 1 second in direct
mode (RCX in front of tower).
Generate
LASM
command
Use this icon to send direct mode commands to a
specific tower (if you have multiple towers) on
your computer and an RCX is in front of that
tower.
Example
This piece of code would send the LASM command ‘plays 5’ to
the RCX.
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Use this to change the value of any modifier to
any value you want.
Set
modifier
value
Example
This piece of code waits for a random amount of time, then
sets the blue container to the value of the yellow timer.
It then turns on motor A and waits for the value of the
blue container. It then turns off motor A.
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305
Control Lab Interface
Output A
Output B
Output G
Output C
Output D
Output E
Output F
Output H
These are output modifiers for the Control Lab
interface. String them onto motors, lamps, etc. that
are connected to the Control Lab board.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motors connected to all 8
outputs for 2 seconds, and then turn them off.
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Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Input 4
These are input modifiers for the Control Lab
interface. String them onto sensors, etc. that are
connected to the Control Lab board.
Example
This piece of code would wait until the reading on the
light sensor attached to port 4 increased by 5. Then it
would display the value of port 4 on the control panel.
Input 5
Input 6
Input 7
Input 8
These are input modifiers for the Control Lab
interface. String them onto sensors, etc. that are
connected to the Control Lab board.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor D and wait until a
touch sensor connected to port 5 was pushed. Then motor D
would turn off.
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Value of
Port 1
Value of
Port 2
Value of
Port 3
Value of
Port 6
Value of
Port 7
Value of
Port 8
Value of
Port 4
Value of
Port 5
These are input value modifiers. String them onto
containers, events, etc.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motor D, wait until the
reading on the light sensor on port 7 increased by 5, then
turn off motor D. Then it would take the light sensor
reading from port 7 and put it in a container.
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Begin
Control
Lab
Interface
ALWAYS use this to begin a Control Lab program
when not in direct mode. You need to string in
a number that corresponds to the computer port
the Control Lab interface is connected to.
Example
This piece of code would turn on motors connected to all 8
outputs for 2 seconds, and then turn them off.
Begin
Direct
Mode
ALWAYS use this to begin a direct mode Control
Lab program. You need to string in a number that
corresponds to the computer port the Control Lab
interface is connected to.
Example
This piece of code would wait until the reading on the
light sensor attached to port 4 increased by 5. Then it
would display the value of port 4 on the control panel.
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ALWAYS use this to end a direct mode Control Lab
program. Each task will need its own End icon.
End
Direct
Mode
Example
This piece of code would wait until the reading on the
light sensor attached to port 4 increased by 5. Then it
would display the value of port 4 on the control panel.
Use this to read a value during direct mode
while using the Control Lab interface.
Poll
Interface
Box
Example
This piece of code would wait until the reading on the
light sensor attached to port 4 increased by 5. Then it
would display the value of port 4 on the control panel.
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310
NXT Commands
Use this command to start an inventor program
when using an NXT.
Begin NXT
Example
This code is for the NXT. It will turn on motors A and C
for 4 seconds, and then stop.
ALWAYS start direct NXT programs with this
command. By running in direct mode, you need to
have the NXT continually connected to the
computer.
Being
Direct
Mode
Example
This is an NXT direct code. It will turn on motors A and C
for 4 seconds, and then stop. The NXT must be connected to
the computer to run this code.
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Use this modifier when a sensor is connected to
port 4 of the NXT. It works in the same way as
the Port 1, 2, and 3 modifiers.
Input 4
Example
This program turns on motors A and C and then waits for the
NXT touch sensor on port 4 to be pressed. Once the touch
sensor is pressed, the motors are turned off.
Use this modifier to get the value of a sensor
connected to port 4 of the NXT. It works in the
same way as the value of Port 1, 2, and 3
modifiers.
Value of
Port 4
Example
This program takes the value from the NXT light sensor on
port 4 and places it in the Red Container. Then, the red
container is multiplied by 10 and that number is used as
the frequency of a quarter note.
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NXT
Change
View
This command allows you to programmatically
change views on the NXT display. The values of
the NXT screens 0=standard, 1=sensor values,
2=motor speeds, 3=data log graph. To choose a
view, right click (control click for Mac users)
on the lower right corner and choose create
constant.
Example
This program turns on motor A at power level 3. It then
switches the NXT screen to view the value of the motor
speeds (and encoders). When the encoder on motor A goes
above 720, then motor is turned off.
Use this modifier to indicate you are using the
encoder in Motor A. This can only be used with
the NXT motors.
Encoder A
Example
This program turns on motor B and then waits for the NXT
encoder in the motor on port B to reach 720 (2 rotations at
360 for each rotation). Then, the motor is turned off.
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Use this modifier to indicate you are using the
encoder in Motor B. This can only be used with
the NXT motors.
Encoder B
Example
This program turns on motor B and then waits for the NXT
encoder in the motor on port B to reach 720 (2 rotations at
360 for each rotation). Then, the motor is turned off.
Use this modifier to indicate you are using
the encoder in Motor C. This can only be used
with the NXT motors.
Encoder C
Example
This program turns on motors A and C and then waits for the
NXT encoder in the motor on port C to reach 720 (2
rotations at 360 for each rotation). Then, the motors are
turned off.
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Use this modifier to get the value of the angle
sensor built into the NXT motor connected to port
A. It works in the same way as the value of Port
1, 2, 3, and 4 modifiers.
Value of
Encoder A
Example
This program is run in direct mode, so the NXT needs to be
connected to the computer. This code will turn on motors A
and C until the touch sensor on port 1 is pressed. Then the
value of the rotation sensor built into motor A will be
placed in a container and the motors will be stopped.
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Use this modifier to get the value of the angle
sensor built into the NXT motor connected to port
B. It works in the same way as the value of Port
1, 2, 3, and 4 modifiers.
Value of
Encoder B
Example
This code will turn on motors A and C until the touch
sensor on port 1 is pressed. Then the value of the rotation
sensor built into motor B will be placed in a container and
the motors will be stopped.
Use this modifier to get the value of the angle
sensor built into the NXT motor connected to port
B. It works in the same way as the value of Port
1, 2, 3, and 4 modifiers.
Value of
Encoder C
Example
This code will turn on motors A and C until the touch
sensor on port 1 is pressed. Then the value of the rotation
sensor built into motor B will be placed in a container and
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316
the motors will be stopped.
This command clears the NXT display. This is
useful to use before any of the other NXT display
commands.
NXT Clear
Display
Example
This code clears the display on the NXT and then writes
Laura and Erin on row 3 and are awesome! on row 4. This
will display for 2 seconds before the program ends.
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NXT Draw
Pixel
This command allows you to draw (darken) a pixel
on the NXT display. To locate the pixel, you need
to give coordinates for its (x,y) position on the
NXT display. The display's dimensions are 100 by
64. Position (0,0) is in the lower left corner of
the NXT display. To provide the x and y
locations, right click (control click for Mac
users) on the lower left and right corners and
choose create constant, or get numeric constants
from the modifiers menu. Also, you can use the
value of sensors or containers as coordinates.
Example
This program will create a graph of light sensor data on
the NXT display. First, it clears the display, empties the
red container, and initializes the NXT light sensor on port
3. Next it enters a loop which draws a pixel on the NXT
display with the value of the red container as the X
coordinate and the value of the light sensor as the Y
coordinate. It waits .05 seconds before adding one to the
red container and repeating. In this way, the NXT will
display a graph of the light sensor value over time (the
red container acts as a counter, and allows pixels to be
displayed at equal time intervals). This will display for 2
seconds before the program ends.
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NXT Draw
Rectangle
This command allows you to draw a rectangle on
the NXT display. To locate the rectangle, you
need to give coordinates for the (x,y) position
of two of its corners. The display's dimensions
are 100 by 64. Position (0,0) is in the lower
left corner of the NXT display. To provide the
x and y locations, right click (control click
for Mac users) on the lower left and right
corners and choose create constant, or get
numeric constants from the modifiers menu.
Also, you can use the value of sensors or
containers as coordinates.
Example
This program will draw a rectangle on the NXT display, and
then erase half of it. First, clears the NXT display. Then
it draws a rectangle that from (10,10) to (80, 50). After 2
seconds, it will erase a rectangle from (40,1) to (80,50).
Then, the NXT will be displaying the left half of the
rectangle (it will look like the letter C). This will
display for 2 seconds before the program ends.
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319
NXT Draw
Line
This command allows you to draw a line on the NXT
display. To locate the line, you need to give
coordinates for the (x,y) position of its start
and end point. The display's dimensions are 100
by 64. Position (0,0) is in the lower left corner
of the NXT display. To provide the x and y
locations, right click (control click for Mac
users) on the lower left and right corners and
choose create constant, or get numeric constants
from the modifiers menu. Also, you can use the
value of sensors or containers as coordinates.
Example
This program will draw a diagonal line across the NXT
display. First, clears the NXT display. Then it draws a
line from (1,1) to (99, 60). In this way, the NXT will
display a line from the lower left corner to the upper
right of the NXT display. This will display for 2 seconds
before the program ends.
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NXT Write
Text
This command allows you to write text to the NXT
display. To create the string to write on the NXT
display, right click (control click for Mac
users) on the lower right corner and choose
create constant. To choose the row to display the
text, right click on the lower left corner and
choose create constant. Row 0 is at the top of
the screen, and row 7 is at the bottom.
Example
This code clears the display on the NXT and then writes
Laura and Erin on row 3 and are awesome! on row 4. This
will display for 2 seconds before the program ends.
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NXT
Play
Sound
File
This command allows you to play NXT sound files.
To specify a file, right click (control click for
Mac users) on the lower left corner and choose
create constant. You can view the sound files on
the NXT by choosing My files, Sound files. The
file extension for NXT sound files is .rso
Example
This program plays the NXT sound file woops.rso.
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NXT Clear
Pixel
This command allows you to clear (erase) a pixel
on the NXT display. To locate the pixel, you need
to give coordinates for its (x,y) position on the
NXT display. The display's dimensions are 100 by
64. Position (0,0) is in the lower left corner of
the NXT display. To provide the x and y
locations, right click (control click for Mac
users) on the lower left and right corners and
choose create constant, or get numeric constants
from the modifiers menu. Also, you can use the
value of sensors or containers as coordinates.
Example
This program will move a dot (pixel) across the NXT
display. First, it makes the red container equal to 5. Next
it enters a loop which draws a pixel on the NXT display
with the value of the red container as the X coordinate and
30 as the Y coordinate. It waits 0.2 seconds before erasing
that pixel. Then 2 is added to the red container and the
loop repeats. In this way, the NXT will display a dot
(pixel) moving across the display.
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NXT Draw
Bitmap
This command allows you to display a bitmap on
the NXT display. To create the file path to
locate the .bmp file on your computer, right
click (control click for Mac users) on the lower
left corner and choose create constant. If you
leave the path blank, you will be able to browse
for the file.
Example
This program clears the NXT display, and then loads the
bitmap file smile.bmp onto the display. This will display
for 2 seconds before the program ends.
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NXT
Expanded
Formatted
Text
This command allows you to write formatted text
to the NXT display, and display multiple
variables. Formatted text allows you to display
values of containers. To display an integer,
use %d, to display a floating point number, use
%f with 0. then the number of decimals to
display between the % and the f. For example,
%0.1f would display one number behind the
decimal point. To create the string to write on
the NXT display, right click (control click for
Mac users) on the lower right corner and choose
create constant. To choose the row to display
the text, right click on the lower left corner
and choose create constant. Row 0 is at the top
of the screen, and row 7 is at the bottom.
Example
This program takes the value of the NXT light sensor on
port 1 and places it in the red container. The value of the
NXT rotation sensor on motor A is placed in the blue
container, and the value of the distance sensor on port 3
in the yellow container. These values are then displayed on
row 2 on the NXT display.
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NXT Erase
Rectangle
This command allows you to erase a rectangle on
the NXT display. To locate the rectangle, you
need to give coordinates for the (x,y) position
of two of its corners. The display's dimensions
are 100 by 64. Position (0,0) is in the lower
left corner of the NXT display. To provide the
x and y locations, right click (control click
for Mac users) on the lower left and right
corners and choose create constant, or get
numeric constants from the modifiers menu.
Also, you can use the value of sensors or
containers as coordinates.
Example
This program will draw a rectangle on the NXT display, and
then erase half of it. First, clears the NXT display. Then
it draws a rectangle that from (10,10) to (80, 50). After 2
seconds, it will erase a rectangle from (40,1) to (80,50).
Then, the NXT will be displaying the left half of the
rectangle (it will look like the letter C). This will
display for 2 seconds before the program ends.
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G-Code
View All
This command is used at the start of G Code
programs (Compute Level 4 & 5) in which you want
to manipulate data sets that have already been
uploaded to your project.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Red Bin, fits a line
to it, and puts the plot in the Brown Bin.
Extract
Use this command to extract the X and Y axis from
a data set so that you can perform operations on
the independent data.
Example
This piece of code extracts the first (0) data set from the
blue bin, subtracts 10 from the X axis, recombines the 2
axes, and plots the result in the Yellow Bin.
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Use this to combine independent axes or arrays
into a graph.
Combine
Example
This piece of code extracts the first (0) data set from the
blue bin, subtracts 10 from the X axis, recombines the 2
axes, and plots the result in the Yellow Bin.
Combine
Bins
Use this command to put to separate plots on the
same graph. This is useful for combining data
averages collected from different sensors or for
creating custom views of data.
Example
This piece of code averages all the lines in the Red Bin
and averages all the lines in the blue bin. It then
combines them into one plot that is plotted in the lavender
bin.
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Use this to combine independent axes or arrays
into a graph.
XY Plot
Example
This piece of code separates the data in the lavender bin
into separate X and Y arrays. 10 is added to the Y array
and the result is plotted to the lavender bin. When viewed
in the View and Compare area, the lavender bin will have 2
plots -- the original data and the adjusted data created
with the code above.
Use this command to put a plot into a bin.
Bin
Plots
Example
This piece of code would take data from the Red Bin, fit a
line to it, and put the plot in the Brown Bin.
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This command takes a bin with multiple plots and
averages them into a single plot.
Average
Lines
Example
This piece of code creates a graph that is the average of
all the lines in the light blue bin and plots it to the
olive bin. Use the Compare template in the View and Compare
area to see the original data in light blue bin and the
averaged data in the olive bin.
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Well
Time
Well Time is the time between two peaks (peaks
are defined as values above a threshold or cutoff
value). Use this command to determine the amount
of time between peaks (below the cutoff value) of
a data set. If you have multiple peaks on your
graph, this command will return a graph of the
well times between each one. Useful for measuring
for time between touch sensor presses or light
sensor spikes.
Example
This piece of code creates a graph of all the well times
below the cutoff value for the red data set and plots it in
the purple bin.
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Peak
Time
Peak time is the time between two wells (wells
are defined as values below a threshold or
cutoff value). Use this command to determine the
amount of time between peaks (above the cutoff
value) of a data set. If you have multiple peaks
on your graph, this command will return a graph
of the well times between each one. Useful for
measuring for time between touch sensor presses
or light sensor spikes.
Example
This piece of code creates a graph of all the peak times
above the cutoff value for the red data set and plots it in
the purple bin.
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Threshold
The threshold command allows you to extract data
from a data set based on bounds within the data
set or bound of a second data set.
Example
This piece of code extracts the values from the data set in
the purple bin if the data in the orange bin is between 70
and 101 and plots the result to the green bin.
Fit Line
Use this command to fit a line to your data. If
you need other information about your line
(Offsets and Slopes) these can be displayed on
the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Red Bin, fits a line
to it, and puts the plot in the Brown Bin.
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Fit
Curve
Use this command to fit a curve to your data. You
can specify the curve order fit (using a numeric
constant). The coefficients and equation of the
line can be displayed on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes the data in the Red Bin, fits a
3rd order curve to it, and plots the result in the Brown
Bin. The equation of the curve is displayed on the front
panel using an indictor.
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Use this command to fit an exponential curve
to your data. The damping, amplitude, and
equation of the line can be displayed on the
front panel.
Fit
Exponential
Example
This piece of code takes the data in the Red Bin, fits an
exponential curve to it, and plots the result in the Brown
Bin. The equation of the curve is displayed on the front
panel using an indicator.
Histogram
Histograms are useful for plotting the
distribution of your data (how often you
measured certain values or certain ranges of
values).
Example
This piece of code takes the data from the Red Bin, creates
a histogram of the data (using 15 bins), and plots the
result to the Brown Bin.
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Integrate
Use this command to integrate data. If multiple
plots are input each one will be integrated
separately.
Example
This piece of code takes the data from the Yellow Bin,
integrates it, and plots the result in the Brown Bin.
Differentiate
Use this command to differentiate data. If
multiple plots are input each one will be
differentiated separately.
Example
This piece of code takes the data from the Yellow Bin,
differentiates it, and plots the result in the Brown Bin.
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Maximum
Use this command to create a plot of the maximum
value in a data set. The value can also be
displayed on an indicator on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, creates
a plot of the maximum value, and plots the result in the
purple bin. The maximum value is also displayed in numeric
form as an indicator on the front panel.
Mean
Use this command to create a plot of the mean
value in a data set. The value can also be
displayed on an indicator on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, creates
a plot of the mean value, and plots the result in the
purple bin. The mean value is also displayed in numeric
form as an indicator on the front panel.
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Minimum
Use this command to create a plot of the minimum
value in a data set. The value can also be
displayed on an indicator on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, creates
a plot of the minimum value, and plots the result in the
purple bin.
Line
Slope
Use this command to create a plot of the slope of
the data set. The value can also be displayed on
an indicator on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, creates
a plot of the slope, and plots the result in the purple
bin. The slope value is also displayed in numeric form as
an indicator on the front panel.
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Area Under
Curve
Use this command to find the area under the
curves of a graph. The area is displayed best
as an indicator on the front panel.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin and
calculates the area under the curves. The result is
displayed as an indicator on the front panel.
Use this command to find the standard
deviation of data.
Standard
Deviation
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin,
calculates the standard deviation, and plots the result to
the purple data bin. To view the original data and the
standard deviation at the same time use the Compare
template in the View and Compare section of Investigator.
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Fit Ln
Use this command to fit a y=AlnX + B line to the
desired Data Set. The equation of the fit line,
offsets, and slopes can be displayed on the front
panel using indicators.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, fits a
y=AlnX + B line to the data, plots the result in the purple
bin and displays the equation of the fit on the front
panel. To view the original data and the fit data at the
same time use the Compare template in the View and Compare
section of Investigator.
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Fit
Spline
Use this command to fit a spline to the desired
Data Sets. Choose 'Spline fit to Data Sets' to
display ONLY the spline fit or choose Original
and fitted curve to display both. The
coefficients and equation string can be displayed
on the front panel using indicators.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Yellow Bin, fits a
spline to the data, plots the result in the purple bin and
displays the equation of the fit on the front panel. To
view the original data and the fit data at the same time
use the Compare template in the View and Compare section of
Investigator
Spectrum
Use this command to find the Power Spectrum of a
data set. Useful for determining the frequency of
a waveform in a data set.
Example
This piece of code takes data from the blue bin, finds the
power spectrum of it and plots the result in the green bin
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Upload
Data
Use this command to upload data directly from the
RCX. Useful if you often work in levels 4 & 5 of
G-Code or if you are using data logging functions
in Inventor.
Example
This piece of code uploads data from the RCX, takes the
second data set, finds the histogram, and plots the result
in the green bin.
Load
Data
Use this command to load data into Investigator
from an external file. When a program is run
containing this command, you will be prompted to
find the location of the file you wish to load.
This can be useful if you want to transfer data
from one Investigator project to another (export
the data from one project and load it into
another).
Example
This piece of code prompts the user to specify a file to
load, fits a curve to it and plots the result in the Brown
Bin.
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Save
Data
Use this command to save Investigator into an
external file. When a program is run containing
this command, you will be prompted to specify a
name and location for the file you wish to save.
This can be useful if you want to transfer data
from one Investigator project to another (export
the data from one project and load it into
another).
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Red Bin, averages
the line, and then saves the result to a file specified by
the user.
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Red Bin
Blue Bin
Yellow Bin
Lavender Bin
Green
Bin
Olive Bin
Light Blue
Bin
Orange Bin
All Bins
Brown Bin
Purple
Bin
Use the bins to organize and retrieve data. Bins
can contain multiple plots. It is best to use one
bin per type of data you are collecting (Use the
Red Bin for light data, the Blue Bin for
temperature data etc...)
Example
This piece of code takes data from the Red Bin, fits a line
to it, and puts the plot in the Brown Bin.
Example
This piece of code extracts the first (0) data set from the
blue bin, subtracts 10 from the X axis, recombines the 2
axes, and plots the result in the Yellow Bin.
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Example
This piece of code averages all the lines in the Red Bin
and averages all the lines in the blue bin. It then
combines them into one plot that is plotted in the lavender
bin.
Example
This piece of code extracts the values from the data set in
the purple bin if the data in the orange bin is between 70
and 101 and plots the result to the green bin.
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Multimedia
Init Small
Image
Use this like a Start icon. This does NOT take
pictures, it just initializes the camera. Use
this if you want a smaller image.
Example
This piece of code initializes a small image, allows the
user to adjust camera options, takes a color image, and
saves it as a .bmp file.
Init Large
Image
Use this like a Start icon. This does NOT take
pictures, it just initializes the camera. Use
this if you want a larger image.
Example
This piece of code initializes a medium image, snaps a red
image, and converts that image to a picture to be displayed
on the control panel.
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Init
Internet
Image
Use this like an Internet Start icon. This does
NOT take pictures, it just initializes the
camera. Use this if you want to take pictures
over the Internet.
Example
This piece of code initializes an Internet image, takes a
green image from a remote camera, and converts it to an
array which is displayed as an intensity graph on the front
panel.
Use this like an End icon. This is required at
the end of all camera program strings.
Close
Camera
Example
This piece of code initializes a small image, allows the
user to adjust camera options, takes a color image, and
saves it as a .bmp file.
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Use this to set up camera properties, options,
etc.
QT Setup
Example
This piece of code initializes a small image, allows the
user to adjust camera options, takes a color image, and
saves it as a .bmp file.
Use this to grab a full color image.
Grab RGB
Example
This piece of code initializes a small image, allows the
user to adjust camera options, takes a color image, and
saves it as a .bmp file.
Use this to grab a red image.
Grab Red
Example
This piece of code initializes a medium image, snaps a red
image, and converts that image to a picture to be displayed
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on the control panel.
Use this to grab a green image.
Grab Green
Example
This piece of code initializes an Internet image, takes a
green image from a remote camera, and converts it to an
array which is displayed as an intensity graph on the front
panel.
Use this to grab a blue image.
Grab Blue
Example
This piece of code initializes a medium image, takes a blue
image, and shrinks it to a small image.
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Use this to grab an image in grayscale.
Grab Grey
Example
This piece of code takes a small gray image and then
determines the value of the pixel in the specified position
and prints it as a number to the I indicator.
Use this to extract a single plane (red, green,
blue or grayscale) from a color image.
Extract
Plane
Example
This piece of code takes a medium color image and extracts
the blue plane from it.
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Use this to convert your image to a picture you
can place on the control panel, etc.
Convert to
Picture
Example
This piece of code initializes a medium image, snaps a red
image, and converts that image to a picture to be displayed
on the control panel.
Use this to shrink image. Go from medium size to
small size.
Shrink
Image
Example
This piece of code initializes a medium image, takes a blue
image, and shrinks it to a small image.
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Get
Pixel
Value
Use this to determine the color of an individual
pixel. If image is black and white the number
will be 0 or 1. If image is color, the number
will range from 0 to 255.
Example
This piece of code takes a small gray image and then
determines the value of the pixel in the specified position
and prints it as a number to the I indicator.
Convert
to Array
Images are strings of numbers (which represent
colors) put together. Use this to turn an image
into an array of numbers.
Example
This piece of code initializes an Internet image, takes a
green image from a remote camera, and converts it to an
array which is displayed as an intensity graph on the front
panel.
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Convert
to Image
Images are strings of numbers (which represent
colors) put together. Use this to turn an array
of numbers into an image.
Example
This piece of code reads an array from an intensity graph
and converts it into an image. That image is then saved as
a .bmp file along the indicated file path.
Use this to read a bitmap (.bmp) file and create
an image.
Read BMP
Example
This piece of code reads a .bmp file from the designated
file path and converts it to an image. It then converts
that image into an array which is displayed on the front
panel as an intensity graph.
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Use this to save your image as a bitmap (.bmp)
file.
Save BMP
Example
This piece of code initializes a small image, allows the
user to adjust camera options, takes a color image, and
saves it as a .bmp file.
Use this icon to select a subset of an image you
have grabbed.
Get
Image
Subset
Example
This piece of code saves a subset of the image to a .bmp
file.
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Use this icon to select a region of interest in
an image you have grabbed.
Select
ROI
Example
This piece of code grabs a grayscale image from the camera,
allows the user to select a region of interest (ROI),
extracts that subset from the image and displays the
histogram of that subset on the front panel.
Use this like a Begin icon. This does NOT grab
sound, it only initializes the microphone.
Init Mic
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, grabs a
sound, and saves it as a .wav file.
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Grab Sound
Continuously
Use this to continuously grab sounds from the
microphone. This is the same as running a
grab sound command in continuous mode.
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, continuously
grabs a sound and analyzes its frequency.
Use this to grab a sound from the microphone.
Grab
Sound
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, grabs a
sound, and saves it as a .wav file.
Use this to analyze a sound you have taken.
Frequency
Analysis
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, continuously
grabs a sound and analyzes its frequency.
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Use this like an End icon. Each string of a
microphone program will need one of these.
Close
Mic
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, continuously
grabs a sound and analyzes its frequency.
Use this to save a sound from the microphone as a
.wav file.
Save
Sound
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, grabs a
sound, and saves it as a .wav file.
Use this icon to load a sound from a .wav file.
Load
Sound
Example
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This piece of code initializes the microphone, loads a
sound from the indicated file path, and then plays it.
Use this icon to play a sound you have grabbed or
saved.
Play
Sound
Example
This piece of code initializes the microphone, loads a
sound from the indicated file path, and then plays it.
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3. How To…
The sections of this chapter explain how to perform a selection
of more advanced ROBOLAB tasks and features ranging from sending
information between 2 RCXs to extracting data to a spreadsheet
from Investigator.
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3.1 Using Vision Sensors Outside of Vision
Center
Using Vision Center, you can create custom vision sensors.
These sensors use various image processing functions to
reduce an image down to a single number. This number may
represent one of many image properties (e.g. the area of
white space in a portion of an image, the number of blobs
in an image, etc.). With Vision Center running, you can
assign a vision sensor (one of the 8 default sensors, or a
custom sensor you create) to a container on the RCX. With
the RCX in view, you can continually update this container
value with the value of your vision sensor as the image
changes. This way the RCX’s actions can be linked to what
the Lego camera sees while connected to your computer.
Another useful tool is to implement vision sensors without
having Vision Center running. Once you understand how
Vision Center works, you can create an Inventor program
that grabs an image, applies your sensor to that image,
then updates the value on the RCX using direct mode. This
method allows you to process images from within your own
program, without using Vision Center.
Vision Sensors
Vision sensors are saved the Vision →
Video_Sensors (by default – see section 3.3
for the location of your Vision folder). To
include a vision sensor in your Inventor
program, use Select a vi… and browse to the
folder where your sensor is saved (you will
have to look for “All File Types”). When
you have dropped the sensor on the diagram
of your program, it will look like this:
Select a vi…
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Of the available connections, you will need to use Image
In, Image Out, Sensor # (0,1,2) and Values. The image on
which the sensor operation will be performed should be
connected to Image In, and the processed image is returned
in Image Out.
Values is an array of three numbers that contains the
result of the vision sensor. If your sensor measures either
Max Info or Min Info the array will be filled with the
three values that represent this result:
1. Pixel Intensity (0-255)
2. Row number where the maximum (or minimum) value
occurred
3. Column number where the maximum (or minimum)
value occurred
If the sensor is of the type that returns only one number
(pixel sum, pixel average, blob count, etc.), Sensor #
(0,1,2) will determine which index of the Values array gets
updated with the result.
Example 1
This program demonstrates how to include a custom vision
sensor in an Inventor program. The custom sensor used here
is called “Brick Size,” was created in vision center, and
performs a blob area operation on a masked portion of the
image where a Lego brick is known to be. The image is also
converted to a ROBOLAB picture before and after the vision
sensor to clarify what is going on.
On the front panel of this program, we therefore have a
picture of the grabbed image, the processed image and the
sensor result (in this case, the area of the blob located
within the mask). Here a 2x8 brick is placed in front of
the camera, and the resulting area is shown, in pixels:
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Grabbed Image
Processed Image
Result
If we place a smaller brick (2x4) in front of the camera,
we get the corresponding images and result for the area,
which we would expect to be approximately half that of the
2x8 brick:
Result
Grabbed Image
Processed Image
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Example 2
This program shows how to download the information received
from the vision sensor to a container on the RCX. This
example uses Direct Mode to continually update the Red
Container on the RCX. It also refreshes the image once per
loop and applies the vision sensor to the new image:
See Vision Center and Direct Mode sections for more
information on creating vision sensors and communicating
with the RCX.
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3.2 Containers in ROBOLAB
There are 47 available containers (variables) on board the
RCX. The following table outlines how they are generally
allocated in ROBOLAB. It is recommended that most users
only utilize 0 – 22 for programs. Addressing containers
above 22 can result in conflicts and execution problems.
Only advanced users should work directly with variables
above 22.
0
1
2
3 –22
23 – 25
Red Container
Blue Container
Yellow Container
Generic User Containers
Data Pad (Red, Blue, Yellow) Values (last value
logged)
26 – 28
Data Pad (Red, Blue, Yellow) Counts (number of
points acquired)
47
47
Wait for brightness or darkness
Play System Sound
46/47
33 - 47
Wait for Angle
For Loop iterations (Accessible through the Loop
Counter Container Modifier
•
Variables above 22 cannot currently be directly
displayed on the RCX’s LCD panel
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3.3 User Data in ROBOLAB
ROBOLAB user data and examples are stored in a set of
folders that allows the user to organize their information
and the ROBOLAB software access customized settings and
programs.
User Data
Program Vault (All Versions of ROBOLAB)
The Program Vault contains programs created in the
Programmer section of ROBOLAB in Pilot and Inventor.
Programs are stored in the My Programs folder of the
section and level they were created (i.e. A level 3
Inventor Program would be stored in Program Vault>Inventor->My Programs->Level 3->myprogram.vi). Examples
that correspond to different LEGO sets are also stored in
the Program Vault under the corresponding theme names.
Investigator Themes (ROBOLAB 2.0 and higher)
Investigator Themes contains the programs and data
created in the Investigator section of ROBOLAB. The folder
contains two sub folders – Examples and My Projects.
Examples contains the locked sample programs that ROBOLAB
ships with. My Projects is where user programs are stored.
HTML (ROBOLAB 2.0 and higher)
Within Investigator, users can publish their project
as a set of web pages with pictures of their pages and a
downloadable version of their project. Published projects
are stored in folders in the HTML project (folders are
named with the original project and the date the web pages
were created).
Songs (ROBOLAB 2.5 and higher)
The songs and sounds shipped with ROBOLAB as well as
user created songs (generated from Piano Player) are stored
with in the Song folder. The subfolders Classical,
SoundFX, and Misc contain the music and sounds shipped with
ROBOLAB. Users should save the songs they create to the
subfolder My Songs. Songs saved in the My Songs folder
appear in the Pilot pull down menu of song choices.
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Vision (ROBOLAB 2.5 and higher)
The Vision folder contains two subfolders Pictures and
Video_Sensors. The Pictures subfolder contains any images
acquired by using the snap or grab pictures buttons or
commands (in Pilot, Vision Center or the corresponding
Inventor icon). The Video_Sensors subfolder contains the
default Video Sensors that ROBOLAB ships with that are used
in Vision Center. Any user created Video Sensors should
also be saved in this folder so that they can be used in
Vision Center.
Path to User Data
As ROBOLAB has evolved the method and structure of storing
data has changed. To see where your user data is stored
check the paths for your version.
REMINDER: Always Back UP DATA before upgrading or
installing new versions of ROBOLAB
ROBOLAB 1.0-2.0
User Data is stored directly in the ROBOLAB folder in the
Program Vault, Investigator Themes, and HTML folders. All
user data is saved to these folders unless otherwise
specified.
ROBOLAB 2.5.0-2.5.2
The User Data is stored within the ROBOLAB folder in a
folder entitled My Data (which contains the folders Program
Vault, Investigator Themes, HTML, Vision, Songs). All user
data is saved to these folders unless otherwise specified.
ROBOLAB 2.5.3 and higher
ROBOLAB 2.5.3 was designed to accommodate multiple users
and security settings. User data is stored in a folder
entitled ROBOLAB Data. The folder is placed into the
location designated by the system for user data to be saved
(on the PC this is most often My Documents and on the MAC
it is typically in the user’s documents folder). If the
logon to a computer has been customized to use a network
location for saving user data, ROBOLAB will use that
location for the ROBOLAB Data folder.
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4. Customizing ROBOLAB
ROBOLAB has been designed to support the widest audience of
users possible. While the majority of the features are
configured to make it easy for the majority of users to
work with, many elements of the software can be customized
or altered by advanced users by editing text files or
writing some code. These alterations range from the very
simple, like changing ROBOLAB to use another LEGO interface
by default, to the creation of custom sensors and palettes.
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4.1 Editing the Default.prf file
The Default.prf file is a text file that holds preferences
for the copy of ROBOLAB. It contains the information on
which port is being used for communication, the path for
saving program data, and many other items. The file is
created the first time ROBOLAB is run after a new install
(if you upgrade an old installation your Default.prf file
will be preserved) and is updated every time ROBOLAB is
run.
The Default.prf file is located in different placed
depending on your version of ROBOLAB.
Version 1.0 – ROBOLAB->Vi.lib->Splash->Default.prf
Version 1.5 – 2.0 – ROBOLAB->Default.prf
Version 2.5 – ROBOLAB->Engine->Default.prf
Version 2.5.3 -> The default.prf is located in the ROBOLAB
Data folder (see section 3.3 for location explanation)
The Default.prf file can be edited in any basic text editor
(Notepad, Simpletext, Wordpad). However, the file should
only be edited by advanced users or those trying to fix a
communication problem. Most of the settings can be altered
from within ROBOLAB. ROBOLAB should NOT be running while
you are editing the Default.prf file. If while editing the
file, you manage to corrupt the file or are unable to
correctly configure a setting, the file should be deleted.
A new file will be created the next time ROBOLAB is run
with the default factory settings.
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Preference File: Last modified at 15:34 on 04/12/2001
Path to Program Vault:=My Computer:Robolab:My Data:Program Vault
Locked:=TRUE(hi)
Port:=2
Admin:=TRUE(hi)
Power:=FALSE(lo)
Powerdown Time:=15
Number of Retries:=10
Serial Wait Time (msec):=10
Path to Investigator Vault:=LGM I:Desktop Folder:Robolab94:My
Data:Investigator Themes
Network Address:=somewhere.outthere.com
Network Port:=3237
Init each time:=TRUE(hi)
Bytes/Upload:=10
Level 3 Steps:=3
Investigator State:=1
ID:=2
(0=Error, 1=Text, 2=RCX, 3=Scout, 4=Control Lab)
Camera:=KritterUSB
Sample Default.prf File
Summary of Tags
Preference File:
Indicates the last time ROBOLAB modified the file.
should not be edited outside of ROBOLAB.
It
Path to Program Vault:
Indicates where User Data is stored on the computer. This
tag is changed from within ROBOLAB in Administrator in the
ROBOLAB settings section.
Locked:
Indicates whether or not Programs 1 & 2 on the RCX are
locked (new programs are unable to be downloaded to these
slots). This tag should be changed from within ROBOLAB in
Administrator in the RCX Settings section.
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Admin:
Specifies whether the Administrator button on the front
panel is visible or not. This tag can be changed in the
main section of Administrator.
TRUE(hi) – means the Administrator Button is visible
FALSE(low) –means the Administrator Button is NOT visible
If the button is hidden, hit F5 when in the main ROBOLAB
splash page.
Power:
Specifies whether the RCX is transmitting IR signals in
high or low power mode. This setting can be changed from
within ROBOLAB in Administrator in the RCX Settings Section
FALSE(low) – RCX is transmitting in low power mode
TRUE (hi) - RCX is transmitting in high power mode
Powerdown Time:
Specifies the amount of time (in minutes) that the RCX will
remain on before shutting down. This setting can be changed
from within ROBOLAB in Administrator in the RCX Settings
Section.
Number of Retries:
Specifies the number of times ROBOLAB will attempt to talk
with the RCX via the tower. If ROBOLAB completes the
number of retries without successfully communicating an
error will be reported. This number can be increased if
you are having difficulties communicating with the tower
(it can also be decreased for those wanting the RCX
communication to time out faster, for instance when the RCX
is moving in and out of tower range).
Serial Wait Time (msec):
Specifies the time between retries. This number should be
increased if you are working with a slower computer that is
having difficulties with the serial communication.
Path to Investigator Vault:
Specifies the path to the folder where Investigator
Projects are stored. This tag is changed from within
ROBOLAB in Administrator in the ROBOLAB Settings section.
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Network Address:
Specifies the default address used to communicate when
Internet mode is selected from Select COM Port in the
Project Menu or from the Administrator menu. This should be
changed in Select COM port.
Network Port:
Specifies the TCP/IP port over which Internet commands are
sent and received. Don’t change this number or you will not
be able to communicate via the Internet with ROBOLAB
software.
Init each time:
Allows you to configure the serial port to every time
ROBOLAB – RCX communication is attempted. Mainly a
debugging feature for older PC computers and is not used in
the latest versions of ROBOLAB.
Bytes/Upload:
The computer sends the information down to the RCX in
batches. This tag specifies the amount of information (in
bytes) in these batches. This number can be decreased if
you are having difficulties communicating with the RCX or
increased to make the download speeds faster. The larger
the batch size the faster the download if the tower and RCX
are communicating well. If batches have to be resent,
large batch sizes will slow the communication down.
Level 3 Steps:
Specifies the number of steps in Investigator Program Level
3. This number can be increased if you wish to have
additional steps in this Pilot-like interface.
Investigator State:
Specifies the component (Programmer or Investigator) of
ROBOLAB that is loaded into memory when ROBOLAB first
starts up.
ID:
Specifies which mode ROBOLAB is running in.
0=Error ~ this mode creates a text log that can be used to
troubleshoot problems
1=Text ~ this mode outputs lists commands in text form
instead of downloading them to an interface
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2=RCX ~ this mode configures all communication and settings
for the RCX
3=Scout ~ this mode configures all communication and
settings for the Scout
4=Control Lab ~ this mode configures all communication and
settings for the Control Lab Interface
If the user sets this tag to be 4 (Control Lab mode), for
example, then all of the Pilots, Investigator pages, and
Inventor programs will work directly with the Control Lab
Interface instead of the RCX.
Camera:
Specifies which camera is being used by ROBOLAB. This can
be selected from within ROBOLAB by choosing the ‘Select
Camera’ option from the project menu.
Note: If there are any problems with any of these commands
simply delete the line and ROBOLAB will replace the line
with the default factory setting
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4.2 Creating your own Sensor Definition
Files
Sensor definition files allow ROBOLAB
configured for a variety of different
provide all the information needed to
data – from sensor name and the units
calibration equations and tables.
to be correctly
sensors. These files
collect and display
measured to
What makes up a sensor definition file?
Name:=ProTemp LogIT
Number:=200
Units:=Celsius
Resolution:=1
Make:=DCP
Types: 0:none 1:switch 2:Temp 3: Reflect 4: Angle 5: ID0 6: ID1
7:ID2
Modes: 0:raw 1:Boolean 2:Transition 3:Period 4:% 5: Celsius
6:Fahrenheit 7:Rotations
Type:=3
Mode:=0
Date of Calibration:=12
22
1999
Reset Each Time:=FALSE
Calib Type:=table
BeginTable
0
1.500000e+2
1
1.500000e+2
2
1.500000e+2
3
1.500000e+2
4
1.500000e+2
5
1.500000e+2
6
1.500000e+2
7
1.500000e+2
8
1.500000e+2
1023 -5.500000e+1
EndTable
Date of Calibration:=1 28
1999
Reset Each Time:=FALSE
Notes:= This is for a DCP/LogIT ProTemp Temperature sensor
Name:
Specifies the name of the sensor.
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Number:
Gives each sensor a unique number. This number is used in
upper level programming to specify the sensor in structure
commands (wait fors, loops etc…)
Resolution:
Increments the sensor measures in.
Make:
Manufacturer of the SENSOR (currently ROBOLAB officially
supports sensors made by LEGO and DCP Micro. However, the
RCX and ROBOLAB are capable of supporting any sensor that
requires 5v power).
Types:
This item simply lists the different kinds of sensors that
can be specified in the Type: field.
0:none
1:switch – Un-powered measurement.
2:Temp
3:Reflect – Powered (5v) measurement.
4:Angle
5:ID0
6:ID1
7:ID2
Modes:
This simply lists the different modes in which a sensor may
operate. This value is specified in the Mode: field.
0:raw – Sensor operates on the full scale of the 10-bit
A/D, and will return values from 0-1023 (for custom
sensors)
1:Boolean – Sensor returns only 1 or 0 (LEGO touch sensor)
2:Transition – Sensor returns 1 or 0 based on whether a
transition between high and low has occurred (LEGO
touch and release sensor)
3:Period
4:% - Sensor return value is a percentage of the total
range of the 10-bit A/D (0-100)
5: Celsius – Sensor return value is the total range
converted to a Celsius measurement
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6:Fahrenheit - Sensor return value is the total range
converted to a Celsius measurement
7:Rotations – Sensor value is the total range converted
into a Rotations measurement (16 per revolution)
Type: Define the sensor type (e.g., Type:=1)
Mode: Define the sensor mode (e.g., Mode:=0)
Calib Type:
This field specifies the type of calibration used to
convert the measured data into the required units. The two
options are Curve (applies a linearly interpolating
equation to the measured data) and Table (applies a lookup
table you specify to the measured data).
Calibration: This allows you to specify the line equation
if Calib Type is Curve or the lookup table if Calib Type is
Table.
If you are using the Curve type, specify the Calibration
field as follows:
Calibration (a0+a1X+….):=number1
number2
Where number1 is the y-intercept (or b from mx+b) and
number2 is the slope (or m from mx+b). These two numbers
should be separated by a tab.
If you are using the Table type, specify the Calibration
field as follows:
BeginTable
0
value0
1
value1
2
value2
…
…
1022 value1022
1023 value1023
EndTable
Where 0,1,2,…,1022,1023 are the measured data and value0,
value1, …, value1022, value1023 are the values of the
lookup table. Each number-value pair should be separated by
a tab, and each line should be separated by two tabs (see
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200Temp.sa in your ROBOLAB→Engine→Sensors folder for an
example). The effect of this table is to assign a specific
value for each of the possible measured values from the
sensor. If value0…value1023 were all set to 4, for example,
the sensor would always return the value 4, no matter what
value it measured.
Date of Calibration:
Specifies the data the calibration was last changed
(updated manually) in mm dd yyyy format
Reset Each Time:
This field specifies whether the sensor is reset
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Using your new sensor definition file in
Investigator
You can datalog a custom sensor in Program Levels 1, 2 and
3. You do this by first selecting the generic sensor icon:
Select the Generic
Sensor icon
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Then you can select your custom sensor adapter from the
list of available sensor definition files:
Select your sensor
adapter from the
list
For information on how to include your custom sensor
adapter in Inventor programs, please visit:
www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms or
www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo
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4.3 Customizing Investigator
There are two levels of creating custom features in the
Investigator component. The first (and easier) method does
not require any LabVIEW programming skills. The second
method requires working knowledge of LabVIEW.
The Simple Way
If you simply want to have some customized output from a
compute page, you can start using the front panel on a
compute level 4 or 5 palette. Every vi (or virtual
instrument) has two parts: a panel and a diagram. Inventor
level coding is all based only on the diagram and you never
use the panel. Pilot levels are all just panels with some
rather complicated Inventor-style diagrams. If you start
up a compute 4 page by clicking on: and move the diagram
down by moving the title bar. You should have something
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like: The upper long and thin box is the panel. Drag it up
and make it bigger so that you can see both a panel and a
diagram. Next add on the icon that finds the average area
and you can add an indicator on the front panel to show
that area. The easiest way to do this is to right click
(or click while holding the apple key down) on the lower
right corner of the icon and select “Create an Indicator”.
The help menu (Ctrl H) would tell you that the lower left
corner of the icon gives the calculated area. You can move
your indicator around on the panel and getting the paint
tool (hit the tab key a few times to get it) will allow you
to change the color of the panel as well. The completed
customized palette should look like:
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For instance, if you had measured the oscillations of a
pendulum by putting a light sensor on the RCX and then
swinging the whole thing you would get data that looks
something like:
You can then use a spectral analysis to determine the
natural frequency, find the peak, and then use a little
math to calculate and display g: the gravitational
acceleration. Your final panel and diagram might look like
the figure below. You can cut and paste pictures onto the
panel.
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The only real disadvantage of this method is that when the
user leaves the page and returns to it, you get the picture
below and the user has to click on the button to get the
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382
panel back. Therefore you might want to make your own
template; described in the next section.
The Hard Way
To make templates that look and act just like the templates
that came with ROBOLAB entails programming in LabVIEW.
However it is possible to create templates (like the ones
below) that are embedded in Investigator and can be
completely customized to the needs of specific application
or need. The template below allows for a customized
programming interface to be added to the Program area.
Developers interested in creating customized templates
should visit www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms or
www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo to download the latest
documentation and code needed for creating customized
templates. At the website are instructions on how to make a
title page in the journal area, a behavior-based
programming page in the programming area, an upload page
that uploads microphone measurements, and a View area page
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that returns the natural frequency of a data set. To learn
about programming in LabVIEW refer to either the LabVIEW
Student Edition or LabVIEW for Everyone, or a host of other
books on programming in LabVIEW ( See www.ni.com for more
information).
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5. Help & Idea Sources
The ROBOLAB developers and the general ROBOLAB community
are constantly coming up with new ways of learning how to
use the software as well as cool new ideas for classroom,
home, or after school projects. The best way to find the
latest news, downloads, and links is to visit
http://www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms (under
Support) or http://www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo.
Included with Your Installation of ROBOLAB
•
•
•
Setup describes the steps for preparing the hardware:
the LEGO RCX programmable brick and IR Transmitter
used for communication between the computer and the
RCX.
Training Missions provide step-by-step instructions so
that you and your students get started with Pilot and
Inventor styles of programming.
ROBOLAB Help is available as you are running ROBOLAB.
Help is activated by clicking Help in the menu or
pressing CTRL-H on your keyboard. Help provides
information about the object or icon on which your
mouse is placed.
Software Guide - Using ROBOLAB
For a more detailed introduction to using the software,
step by step directions, and more examples and challenges,
the Using ROBOLAB guide is very useful. This book is
available through your LEGO Education distributor or in
electronic (pdf) format at the website. If you would like
to find a distributor, visit
http://www.lego.com/education (under Where to Buy).
Topics in the User’s Manual Include
•
The Pilot and Inventor levels of programming in the
PROGRAMMER component of ROBOLAB. This is all one needs
to program a LEGO robot.
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•
The INVESTIGATOR component that is used for data
logging. This section adds scientific investigation to
the robot’s capabilities, allowing the RCX to become a
smart and mobile data logging tool. The Investigator
component also includes a Journal Area for documenting
a project in text and photographs or illustrations and
a Publish feature for sharing results.
•
The enhanced Media features: the Piano Player and
Camera available in ROBOLAB 2.5.1. It also shows how
to use some of the higher level capabilities including
Vision Center and subroutines.
Additional Help Resources, Developer Support, & Add Ins
Visit http://www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo for the
latest information and help on working with the ROBOLAB
environment.
Technical Support
For help in troubleshooting problems,
www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms (under Support) or
contact your Lego Education distributor.
Activities
There are many activities and building sets created for
LEGO MINDSTORMS FOR SCHOOLS. For information on these
materials, go to www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms and
then click on Classroom Solutions.
Activity ideas are also available online using the Invent &
Investigate database in the ROBOLAB website. You can sign
in, search and download student activity pages and teacher
notes for over two dozen activities. Go to
go to www.lego.com/eng/education/mindstorms and then click
on Classroom Solutions.
Partner Resources
ROBOLAB software was developed as a cooperative effort by
LEGO Education, Tufts University and National Instruments.
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The main website for LEGO Education is
www.lego.com/education.
Tufts University uses the RCX and ROBOLAB in its own
engineering curricula. The University also extends its work
to K-12 educators through the Center for Engineering
Educational Outreach (CEEO). For curriculum, teacher
workshops, student camps, and just for inspiration -- go to
www.ceeo.tufts.edu.
ROBOLAB software is powered by the National Instruments
LabVIEW programming environment. National Instruments
created LabVIEW for industry engineering applications. The
general National Instruments website is found at
www.natinst.com. If you would like to learn more about
LabVIEW programming, National Instruments has online and
instructor-led courses available. For details, see
www.ni.com/custed/.
Robotics Ideas
For inspiration on building different kinds of LEGO robots,
see the LEGO MINDSTORMS website, www.lego.com/robotics.
For robotics enthusiasts and information on programming in
other environments, try the online community
www.lugnet.com. To get to the ROBOLAB area on this site, go
to www.lugnet.com/robotics/rcx/robolab.
Note: This group is not affiliated with the LEGO Group.
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387
Appendix
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388
Troubleshooting Programming Problems
“My motors never stop running”
Sample Problem Code
A common mistake in Inventor level programming is to write
programs similar to the one above. The program above will turn
motors A and B on, wait for 6 seconds, and then the program will
stop running. However, the motors will continue to run and run.
Inventor level programming requires that you explicitly stop the
motors as in the program below.
Solution
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389
“I programmed my car to do X but it seems like it skips
over that part”
Sample Problem Code
A simple programming challenge would be to program a car to
drive forward for 4 seconds, beep, and then back-up. The above
program is an attempt at solving that challenge (assuming you
have a car with motors on ports A & C). However, there is a
problem – the car will never back-up. Why? Immediately after
the motors are set to run in reverse the program loops to the
beginning of the program and sets the motors to run forward.
The process happens so quickly (within 100ths of a second that
the car will never back-up (you may hear the motors click). The
solution is to add a Wait For Statement after you have set the
motors in reverse.
Solution
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390
“I programmed my motors to stop running after the touch
sensor is pressed but the motors keep running even after I
press the touch sensor”
Sample Problem Code
Often times programming problems are the result of how you have
built your robotic creation. In the above program there is no
modifier wired into the Wait For Touch icon, therefore it
defaults to waiting for a touch sensor to be pressed on Port 1.
However, if in your creation you have the touch sensor plugged
into Port 2 – no matter how much you press it your motors will
never be triggered to stop running. The programming solution to
this problem is to specify the port which your touch sensor is
plugged into (if your model allowed you could also physically
switch which port your touch sensor was plugged into).
Solution
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391
“Motor A should turn on when the yellow container (being
filled by the temperature sensor) has a value of 55 or
greater, but even when the RCX says the temperature sensor
is 60, nothing happens.”
Sample Problem Code
This program does not work because the temperature sensor data
is being put into the red container, but the program is waiting
for the Yellow Container to equal 55 or greater. Container
commands default to the Red Container if no other color
container is denoted. Changing the temperature container to
yellow or using the Red Container for the Wait for Container
will allow the program to run.
Solution
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392
“I programmed my car to drive for 4 seconds, stop for 2
seconds, and then repeat indefinitely, but nothing
happens.”
Sample Problem Code
The jump and land icons are in the wrong positions. The land
icon should be first. The first thing that happens in this
program is that the Jump icon tells the program to go directly
to the Land icon. This means that the rest of the program is
bypassed and thus, the car never moves.
Solution
“
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393
My program should run two motors, but Motor B never turns on.”
Sample Problem Code
Motor B is programmed to run as a Subroutine. It will not turn
on until you tell it to. Insert the Subroutine icon into the
top string when you want the motor to turn on.
Solution
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394
Tips and Tricks
Using the Space Bar to Switch between Tools
To quickly change
between the
Position/Size/
Select tool and the
Connect Wire tool
press the Space Bar
on the keyboard.
You can even do
this when the Tools
Palette is not
visible.
Auto Wiring and the Space Bar
Once you have placed
an item in your
program you can
reactivate auto
wiring by selecting
the item and
pressing the space
bar
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395
Using the Tab Key to Switch between Tools
Use the Tab Key to
switch between the
four most commonly
used tools – Operate
Value,
Position/Size/Select,
Edit Text, and
Connect Wire. This
can also be done
while the Tools
Palette is not
visible.
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396
Creating a Constant
Rather than selecting a modifier from Functions Palette you can
create modifiers for certain commands.
Using the Connect Wire tool
,
Right Click (or Apple Click) on the
connection you want to create a
constant for
From the menu
that appears
select ‘Create’
and the
‘Constant’
An appropriate constant will be
created. Immediately after it is
create you can type in the value you
wish (or modify the value later with
the Edit Text tool
). Reposition
the constant with the
Position/Size/Select Tool
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.
397
Related Web Sites and Resources
Aside from the official ROBOLAB (www.lego.com/education/robolab)
and LEGO resources (www.lego.com/robotics) there are lots of
great sites create by ambitious and talented RCX users.
ROBOLAB @ CEEO
(www.ceeo.tufts.edu/robolabatceeo)
This is Tufts University’s Center For Engineering Educational
Outreach’s site for all things ROBOLAB including patches, beta
features, activities, and other resources
Boulette's Robotics in Luxemburg
(www.convict.lu/Jeunes/RoboticsIntro.htm)
A fabulous site that features high end robotics and ROBOLAB
projects with great descriptions and the code used. Projects
address top
LUGNET (Lego Users Group Network)
(www.lugnet.com)
LUGNET has fabulous LEGO resources ranging from pieces in sets
to a wide array of discussion groups on robotics, education,
ROBOLAB and more
Mindstorms RCX Sensor Input Page
(www.plazaearth.com/usr/gasperi/lego.htm)
Michael Gaperi, one of the authors of Extreme Mindstorms: An
Advanced Guide to Lego Mindstorms, has a great web site on
sensors and the RCX.
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398
Acknowledgements
The ROBOLAB Reference Guide was written, compiled, and made
possible by Martha Cyr, Scott McNamara, Elissa Milto, Merredith
Portsmore, Erin Cejka, Laura Beals and Chris Rogers.
ROBOLAB for LabVIEW was developed by Tufts University with the
support of the National Science Foundation and the cooperation
of Lego Education and National Instruments
ROBOLAB for LabVIEW adds the ability to interface with numerous
LEGO products -- including the RCX, LEGO Camera, and Control Lab
Interface -- to LabVIEW Student Edition. It also provides an
interaction tutorial that provides instruction on learning basic
LabVIEW programming as well as data acquisition and analysis
techniques.
For more information on using ROBOLAB for Labview, supporting
curriculum, and additional materials visit:
http://wwww.ceeo.tufts.edu/.
ROBOLAB for LabVIEW is based upon work supported by the National
Science Foundation under Grant No. 9950741. Any opinions,
findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this
material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).
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399
Index
ABS Container ........................... 212
Acceleration Sensor
Container................................. 250
Add to Container .................... 214
All Bins ....................................... 343
AND Container ........................... 213
Angle Container ...................... 221
Area Under Curve .................... 338
Average Lines ........................... 329
Barometric Sensor Container
....................................................... 252
Begin ................................................ 16
Begin Control Lab Interface
....................................................... 308
Begin direct mode.................. 303
Begin Direct Mode.................. 308
Begin Internet......................... 301
Begin LASM .................................. 302
Begin NXT..................................... 310
Begin RCX..................................... 302
Begin, End Direct Mode...... 295
Being Direct Mode.................. 310
Bin Plots..................................... 328
Black Jump .................................. 102
Black Land .................................. 103
Blue ......................................... 102, 103
Blue Bin ....................................... 343
Blue Container......................... 266
Blue Data Set ........................... 273
Blue Event .................................. 287
Blue Scroll ................................ 173
Blue Timer .................................. 272
Brown Bin..................................... 343
Camera Sensor Container ... 241
Camera Sensor Equal Fork... 99
Camera Sensor Fork ................. 85
Celsius Equal Fork ................. 88
Celsius Fork................................ 79
Change Motor Speed ................. 22
Change Program on RCX ........ 256
Change View on RCX ............... 256
Clear All Events .................... 170
Clear Data Logging Memory
............................................... 203, 211
Clear Sound Buffer ............... 262
Click Equal Fork ...................... 91
Click Fork .................................... 83
Clicks Container .................... 234
Clock Container ...................... 237
Clock Equal Fork ...................... 99
Clock Fork .................................... 84
Close Camera.............................. 346
Close Mic..................................... 356
Combine.......................................... 327
Combine Bins.............................. 327
Container Equal Fork ............ 88
Container Fork........................... 79
Container’s Container ........ 268
context help........................................... 3
Convert to Array .................... 351
Convert to Image .................... 352
Convert to Picture ............... 350
Create Subroutine.................... 69
Data Points Equal Fork........ 98
Data Points Fork ...................... 84
Default.prf......................................... 367
Define Event.............................. 169
Delete Subroutine.................... 70
Delete Tasks................................ 68
Differentiate ........................... 335
Direct Functions................................ 295
Divide Container .................... 216
Down an Octave......................... 174
Drive And Sing........................... 35
Drive To Bump ............................. 31
Drive To Dark ............................. 32
Eighth Note ................................ 175
Encoder A..................................... 312
Encoder B..................................... 313
Encoder C..................................... 313
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400
End ..................................................... 16
End Direct RCX
Communication ....................... 259
End Internet Direct Mode. 301
End of Loop ................................ 124
End Remote Program ............... 260
Evaluate Expression............. 232
Event Fork .................................. 100
Event Landing ........................... 135
Event Register Container. 239
Event State Container ........ 240
Events................................................ 133
Extract.......................................... 326
Extract Plane ........................... 349
Fahren- heit Equal Fork ..... 90
Fahrenheit Fork ........................ 81
Fill Container......................... 212
Fill Container With
Variable ................................... 225
Fill Mailbox.............................. 261
Fill Remote Container ........ 258
Fill String ................................ 226
Fit Curve..................................... 333
Fit Exponential ...................... 334
Fit Line ....................................... 332
Fit Ln ............................................ 339
Fit Spline .................................. 340
Flip Direction........................... 19
Float Outputs ............................. 19
Force An Event......................... 149
Fork Merge .................................... 86
Formula Container.................. 238
Forward............................................ 23
Free Sampling ........................... 277
Free Sampling with Time
Stamp .......................................... 276
Frequency Analysis ............... 355
Generate LASM command ........ 303
Generic Container.................. 267
Generic Event ........................... 287
Generic Sensor Container. 242
Generic Sensor Fork............... 86
Get Image Subset .................... 353
Get Pixel Value ...................... 351
Go Straigh .................................... 28
Grab Blue..................................... 348
Grab Green .................................. 348
Grab Grey..................................... 349
Grab Red ....................................... 347
Grab RGB ....................................... 347
Grab Sound .................................. 355
Grab Sound Continuously ... 355
Green Bin..................................... 343
Green Jump .................................. 102
Green Land .................................. 103
Half Note..................................... 175
Histogram..................................... 334
Humidity Container (HumiPro
LogIT) ........................................ 243
Humidity Sensor Fork ............ 87
Init Internet Image............. 346
Init Large Image .................... 345
Init Mic ....................................... 354
Init Small Image .................... 345
Initialize Click Sensor ... 179
Initialize Clock .................... 186
Initialize Container
Logging...................................... 185
Initialize Fast Timer
Logging...................................... 187
Initialize Generic Sensor
Logging...................................... 191
Initialize Humipro Sensor
Logging...................................... 192
Initialize Light Sensor Logging ........ 176
Initialize Mail Logging ... 186
Initialize pH Sensor
Logging...................................... 192
Initialize Position Sensor
Logging...................................... 194
Initialize Pressure Sensor
Logging...................................... 193
Initialize proTemp Sensor
Logging...................................... 194
Initialize Rotation Sensor
Logging...................................... 179
Initialize Sound Sensor
Logging...................................... 193
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401
Initialize Temperature
Sensor Logging..................... 178
Initialize Timer Logging. 187
Initialize Touch and
Release Sensor Logging.. 180
Initialize Touch Sensor
Logging...................................... 177
Initialize Voltmeter Sensor
Logging...................................... 195
Input 1 ...................................... 265, 306
Input 2.................................. 265, 306
Input 3.................................. 265, 306
Input 4.................................. 306, 311
Input 5.......................................... 306
Input 6.......................................... 306
Input 7.......................................... 306
Input 8.......................................... 306
Integrate..................................... 335
Internet ....................................... 300
Investigator ....................................... 176
Is RCX in view? ...................... 295
Jumping.......................................... 103
Jumps ................................................ 102
Lamp ................................................... 20
Lamp A .............................................. 17
Lamp B .............................................. 17
Lamp C .............................................. 17
Landing.......................................... 104
Lavender Bin.............................. 343
Light Blue Bin......................... 343
Light Container ...................... 218
Light Sensor Equal Fork ..... 89
Light Sensor Fork.................... 81
Line Slope .................................. 337
Load Data..................................... 341
Load Scroll From File ........ 174
Load Sound .................................. 356
Log Time Stamp......................... 191
Loop Counter Container...... 293
Loop While .................................. 121
Loop While Camera Sensor is
Greater Than.......................... 120
Loop While Camera Sensor is
Less Than................................. 120
Loop While Celsius is
Greater Than.......................... 113
Loop While Celsius is Less
Than ............................................. 113
Loop While Clock Value is
Greater Than.......................... 116
Loop While Clock Value is
Less Than................................. 116
Loop While Container is
Greater Than.......................... 110
Loop While Container is
Less Than................................. 110
Loop While Container Value
Is Not Equal To .................. 121
Loop While Fahrenheit is
Greater Than.......................... 115
Loop While Fahrenheit is
Less Than................................. 115
Loop While Humidity is
Greater Than.......................... 125
Loop While Humidity is Less
Than ............................................. 125
Loop While Light Sensor is
Greater Than.......................... 109
Loop While Light Sensor is
Less Than................................. 109
Loop While Mail is Greater
Than ............................................. 114
Loop While Mail is Less
Than ............................................. 114
Loop While Number of Clicks
is Less Than.......................... 108
Loop While Number of
Touches and Releases is
Less Than................................. 107
Loop While NXT Distance
Sensor is Greater Than.. 118
Loop While NXT Distance
Sensor is Less Than......... 118
Loop While NXT Light Sensor
is Greater Than .................. 117
Loop While NXT Light Sensor
is Less Than.......................... 117
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402
Loop While NXT Motor Angle
Sensor is Greater Than.. 119
Loop While NXT Motor Angle
Sensor is Less Than......... 119
Loop While pH is Greater
Than ............................................. 126
Loop While pH is Less Than
....................................................... 126
Loop While Points in Data
Set are Less Than ........... 122
Loop While Position is
Greater Than.......................... 130
Loop While Position is Less
Than ............................................. 130
Loop While Pressure is
Greater Than.......................... 127
Loop While Pressure is Less
Than ............................................. 127
Loop While Rotation Sensor
is Greater Than .................. 111
Loop While Rotation Sensor
is Less Than.......................... 111
Loop While Sound Level is
Greater Than.......................... 128
Loop While Sound Level is
Less Than................................. 128
Loop While Temperature (C)
is Greater Than .................. 129
Loop While Temperature (C)
is Less Than.......................... 129
Loop While Timer is Greater
Than ............................................. 112
Loop While Timer is Less
Than ............................................. 112
Loop While Touch Sensor is
Pushed ................................ 105, 106
Loop While Value of Generic
Sensor is Greater Than.. 124
Loop While Value of Generic
Sensor is Less Than......... 124
Loop While Voltage Sensor
is Greater Than .................. 131
Loop While Voltage Sensor
is Less Than.......................... 131
Loops................................................. 105
Lurch ................................................ 29
Lux Sensor Container .......... 251
Mail Container......................... 222
Mailbox Equal Fork ................. 90
Mailbox Fork................................ 82
Maximum.......................................... 336
Mean ................................................. 336
Memory Map .................................. 296
Minimum.......................................... 337
Modifiers........................................... 264
Motor A Forward ........................ 17
Motor A Reverse ........................ 17
Motor B Forward ........................ 17
Motor B Reverse ........................ 17
Motor C Forward ........................ 17
Motor C Reverse ........................ 17
Motor Forward ............................. 21
Motor Forward or Back .......... 25
Motor Random................................ 22
Motor Reverse ............................. 21
Multiply to Container ........ 215
Music................................................. 172
Mute Sound .................................. 262
NXT Sound Sensor Fork........ 73
NXT Touch And Release Fork
......................................................... 78
NXT Change View ...................... 312
NXT Clear............................. 316, 322
NXT Click....................................... 77
NXT Distance Sensor Fork
......................................................... 74
NXT Distance Containe ........ 228
NXT Draw Bitmap ...................... 323
NXT Draw Line ........................... 319
NXT Draw Pixel......................... 317
NXT Draw Rectangle ............... 318
NXT Erase Rectangle............. 325
NXT Expanded Formatted Text
....................................................... 324
NXT Initialize Clicks
Sensor Logging..................... 184
NXT Initialize Distance
Sensor Logging..................... 182
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403
NXT Initialize Light Sensor
Logging...................................... 180
NXT Initialize Sound Sensor
Logging...................................... 182
NXT Initialize Touch And
Release Sensor Logging.. 185
NXT Initialize Touch Sensor
Logging...................................... 181
NXT Light Container............. 227
NXT Light Sensor Fork .......... 76
NXT Loop While Touch Sensor
is Let Go................................. 107
NXT Loop While Touch Sensor
is Pushed................................. 106
NXT Motor Angle Container
....................................................... 231
NXT Rotation Sensor Fork 75
NXT Set Up Clicks.................. 155
NXT Set Up Dark Event ........ 158
NXT Set Up Decrease In
Distance Event..................... 162
NXT Set Up Decrease In
Volume Event.......................... 160
NXT Set Up Increase In
Distance Event..................... 161
NXT Set Up Increase In
Volume Event.......................... 159
NXT Set Up Light Event...... 157
NXT Set up Pressed Event. 153
NXT Set Up Release Event. 156
NXT Set Up Released Event
....................................................... 154
NXT Sound Container............. 230
NXT Touch....................................... 72
NXT Touch Container............. 229
NXT Write..................................... 320
NXT Zero Angle......................... 210
NXT Zero Clicks Sensor...... 205
NXT Zero Distance Sensor. 208
NXT Zero Light Sensor ........ 207
NXT Zero Sound Sensor ........ 209
NXT Zero Touch And ............... 206
NXT Zero Touch Sensor ........ 204
Olive Bin..................................... 343
OR Container.............................. 213
Orange Bin .................................. 343
Output A ............................... 264, 305
Output B ............................... 264, 305
Output C ............................... 264, 305
Output D ....................................... 305
Output E ....................................... 305
Output F ....................................... 305
Output G ....................................... 305
Output H ....................................... 305
Peak Time..................................... 331
pH Container (pH LogIT) ... 244
pH Sensor Fork........................... 87
Play Any Note ........................... 173
Play Sound ............................ 18, 357
Points Container .................... 236
Position Container
(Position LogIT) ................ 248
Position Control ...................... 38
Position Sensor ........................ 87
Power Level ................................ 279
Power Level 2 ........................... 279
Power Level 3 ........................... 279
Power Level 4 ........................... 279
Power Level 5 ........................... 279
Pressure Container
(Pressure LogIT) ................ 245
Pressure Sensor ........................ 87
Purple Bin .................................. 343
QT Setup ....................................... 347
Quarter Note.............................. 175
Random ............................................ 281
Random Direction ...................... 24
Random Fill Container ........ 233
Random Fork .................................. 85
RCX End of Loop Forever. 132
RCX Loop ....................................... 131
Read and Display Value...... 299
Read Battery Power ............... 298
Read BMP ....................................... 352
Read Run Status ...................... 296
Read tower power .................... 297
Read Value .................................. 298
Red ........................................... 102, 103
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404
Red Bin.......................................... 343
Red Container ........................... 266
Red Data Set.............................. 273
Red Event..................................... 287
Red Scroll .................................. 173
Red Timer..................................... 272
Redox Sensor Container...... 253
Remove from Container ........ 215
Reset.................................................. 198
Reset Event ................................ 148
Reset Sensor Ports ............... 211
Rest ................................................... 172
Resume Logging......................... 190
Reverse............................................ 23
Rotation Sensor Equal Fork
......................................................... 91
Rotation Sensor Fork ............ 82
Run Program on RCX ............... 257
Sample And Drive ...................... 37
Sample Light................................ 37
Sample one .................................. 274
Sample one minute.................. 274
Sample one tenth sec .......... 274
Sample ten .................................. 274
Save BMP ....................................... 353
Save Data..................................... 342
Save Sound .................................. 356
Select ROI .................................. 354
Send Mail..................................... 255
Sensor Definition Files ..................... 372
Set Display ................................ 255
Set Generic Down Event...... 167
Set Generic Up Event .......... 166
Set modifer value.................. 304
Set RCX Powerdown Time...... 260
Set RCX Tower Power............. 297
Set Up Clicks Event............. 150
Set Up Dark Event.................. 139
Set Up Decrease in
Container Event .................. 165
Set Up Decrease in Rotation
Event .......................................... 163
Set Up Decrease in Temp (C)
Event .......................................... 142
Set Up Decrease in Temp (F)
Event .......................................... 143
Set Up Enter Hi Event ........ 147
Set Up Enter Low Event...... 145
Set Up Enter Normal Event
....................................................... 146
Set Up Increase in
Container Event .................. 164
Set Up Increase in Rotation
Event .......................................... 152
Set Up Increase in Temp (C)
Event .......................................... 140
Set Up Increase in Temp (F)
Event .......................................... 141
Set Up Increase in Timer
Event .......................................... 168
Set Up Light Event ............... 138
Set Up Mail Event.................. 144
Set Up Pressed Event .......... 136
Set Up Released Event ........ 137
Set Up Touch and Release
Event. ........................................ 151
Shrink Image.............................. 350
Sign Container......................... 214
Sing ................................................... 36
Sixteenth Note......................... 175
skips over ......................................... 389
Snake ................................................ 30
Snap Image .................................. 261
Sound Level Container(Sound
LogIT) ........................................ 246
Sound Level Sensor Fork ..... 87
Spectrum ....................................... 340
Standard Deviation ............... 338
Start Data Logging ............... 189
Start Data Logging with
Clicks ........................................ 189
Start Direct RCX
Communication ....................... 258
Start Monitoring for an
Event .......................................... 133
Start of Loop ........................... 123
Start Remote Program .......... 259
Start Subroutine ...................... 69
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405
Start Task .................................... 67
Stay Still .................................... 34
Stop A .............................................. 18
Stop all ......................................... 18
Stop B .............................................. 18
Stop C .............................................. 18
Stop Event Monitoring ........ 134
Stop Logging.............................. 190
Stop Outputs................................ 20
Stop Tasks .................................... 68
Task Priority ........................... 171
Task Split .................................... 67
Temp (C) Container ............... 219
Temp (F) Container ............... 220
Temperature Container
(TempPro LogIT) .................. 247
Temperature Sensor Fork ..... 87
Threshold..................................... 332
Timer .............................................. 224
Timer Equal Fork ...................... 89
Timer Fork .................................... 80
Timer Value Container ........ 223
Touch and Release Container
....................................................... 235
Touch and Release Equal
Fork ............................................... 92
Touch and Release Fork........ 83
Touch Container ...................... 217
Touch Sampling......................... 275
Touch Sensor Fork.................... 71
Troubleshooting ................................ 388
Turn ................................................... 28
Turn Outputs On ........................ 24
Turn RCX Power Off ............... 257
Two Button .................................... 33
Unmute Sound.............................. 263
Up an Octave.............................. 174
Upload Data ................................ 341
User Data .......................................... 364
Value of ............................... 281, 284
Value of Battery .................... 278
Value of Blue Container ... 281
Value of Blue Data Set...... 286
Value of Blue Duration...... 292
Value of Blue Event............. 288
Value of Blue Hysteresis. 291
Value of Blue Lower
Threshold................................. 290
Value of Blue Timer............. 284
Value of Blue Upper
Threshold................................. 289
Value of Clock......................... 277
Value of Container’s
Container................................. 282
Value of Encoder A ............... 314
Value of Encoder B ............... 315
Value of Encoder C ............... 315
Value of Firmware.................. 278
Value of Generic Container
....................................................... 283
Value of Generic Duration
....................................................... 292
Value of Generic Event...... 288
Value of Generic Hysteresis
....................................................... 291
Value of Generic Lower
Threshold................................. 290
Value of Generic Upper
Threshold................................. 289
Value Of Loop Counter
Container................................. 294
Value of Mail ........................... 285
Value of Port ........................... 280
Value of Port 1 ...................... 307
Value of Port 2 .............. 280, 307
Value of Port 3 .............. 280, 307
Value of Port 4 .............. 307, 311
Value of Port 5 ...................... 307
Value of Port 6 ...................... 307
Value of Port 7 ...................... 307
Value of Port 8 ...................... 307
Value of Red Data Set ........ 286
Value of Red Duration ........ 292
Value of Red Event ............... 288
Value of Red Hysteresis ... 291
Value of Red Lower
Threshold................................. 290
LEGO, the LEGO logo and MINDSTORMS are trademarks of the LEGO Group.
© 2006 The LEGO Group.
This page may be photocopied for non-commercial educational use.
All other rights reserved.
Visit www.MINDSTORMSeducation.com & www.LEGOengineering.com
406
Value of Red Timer (.001)
....................................................... 285
Value of Red Upper
Threshold................................. 289
Value Of Variable Modifier
....................................................... 271
Value of Yellow Container
....................................................... 281
Value of Yellow Data Set. 286
Value of Yellow Duration. 292
Value of Yellow Event ........ 288
Value of Yellow Hysteresis
....................................................... 291
Value of Yellow Lower
Threshold................................. 290
Value of Yellow Timer ........ 284
Value of Yellow Upper
Threshold................................. 289
Variable ....................................... 270
View All ....................................... 326
Vision Sensors .................................. 359
Voltage Container
(Voltmeter LogIT).............. 249
Voltage Fork................................ 87
Wait for Decreasing pH ..... 64
Wait for 10 Points ................. 42
Wait for 100 Points............... 42
Wait for 500 Points............... 42
Wait for Angle........................... 47
Wait for brighter.................... 45
Wait for Clock........................... 60
Wait for Container ................. 59
Wait for Dark ............................. 45
Wait for Darker ........................ 46
Wait for decrease in Camera
Sensor .......................................... 62
Wait for Decrease in
Temperature (C) .................... 66
Wait for Decrease in
Voltage........................................ 66
Wait for Decrease in
Voltage (Generic)................ 63
Wait for Decreasing
Humidity ..................................... 63
Wait for Decreasing pH........ 64
Wait for Decreasing
Pressure ..................................... 65
Wait for Decreasing Sound
Level ............................................ 65
Wait for Decreasing Temp
(C) ................................................. 58
Wait for Decreasing Temp
(F) ................................................. 58
Wait for increase in Camera
Sensor .......................................... 62
Wait for Increase in
Voltage........................................ 66
Wait for Increase in
Voltage (Generic)................ 63
Wait for Increasing
Humidity ..................................... 63
Wait for Increasing
Pressure ..................................... 65
Wait for Increasing Sound
Level ............................................ 65
Wait for Increasing Temp
(C) ................................................. 58
Wait for Increasing Temp
(F) ................................................. 58
Wait for Increasing
Temperature (C) .................... 66
Wait for Let Go ........................ 44
Wait for Light........................... 44
Wait for Mail ............................. 59
Wait for N hundredths of a
second .......................................... 41
Wait for N Points.................... 43
Wait for Position Decrease
......................................................... 64
Wait for Position Increase
......................................................... 64
Wait for Push ............................. 43
Wait for Random Time ............ 40
Wait for RCX to be in view
....................................................... 299
Wait for Rotation.................... 47
Wait for Rotation w/o Reset
......................................................... 46
LEGO, the LEGO logo and MINDSTORMS are trademarks of the LEGO Group.
© 2006 The LEGO Group.
This page may be photocopied for non-commercial educational use.
All other rights reserved.
Visit www.MINDSTORMSeducation.com & www.LEGOengineering.com
407
Wait for Time ............................. 39
Wait for Time (min)............... 42
Wait for Timer........................... 61
Wait Fors............................................. 39
Well Time..................................... 330
Whole Note .................................. 175
Write Data Point to Data
Set ............................................... 188
XY Plot.......................................... 328
Yellow ............................................ 102
Yellow Bin .................................. 343
Yellow Container .................... 266
Yellow Data Set ...................... 273
Yellow Event.............................. 287
Yellow Land ................................ 103
Yellow Scroll ........................... 173
Yellow Timer.............................. 272
Zero Angle Sensor.................. 201
Zero Clicks Sensor ............... 198
Zero Clock .................................. 203
Zero Container......................... 201
Zero Light Sensor.................. 199
Zero Mailbox.............................. 202
Zero Temperature (C) Sensor........ 200
Zero Temperature (F) Sensor ........ 200
Zero Timer .................................. 202
Zero Touch and Release
Sensor ........................................ 199
Zero Touch Sensor.................. 198
LEGO, the LEGO logo and MINDSTORMS are trademarks of the LEGO Group.
© 2006 The LEGO Group.
This page may be photocopied for non-commercial educational use.
All other rights reserved.
Visit www.MINDSTORMSeducation.com & www.LEGOengineering.com
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