kpt shapeshifter

kpt shapeshifter
®
User Guide
for Windows and Macintosh®
®
Trademarks
MetaCreations and the MetaCreations logo
are trademarks of MetaCreations
Corporation. Kai’s Power Tools and KPT are
trademarks of MetaCreations Corporation.
Core Flame fractal technology © 1998
Scott Draves (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/
~spot).
“Windows” is a registered trademark of
Microsoft Corporation. “Pentium” is a
registered trademark and “i486” is a
trademark of Intel Corporation. “Macintosh”
is a registered trademark of Apple
Computer, Incorporated. Adobe and
Photoshop are registered trademarks of
Adobe Systems, Incorporated. All other
product names mentioned in the manual
and other documentation are used for
identification purposes only and may be
trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective companies. Registered and
unregistered trademarks used herein are the
exclusive property of their respective
owners. MetaCreations Corporation makes
no claim to any such marks, nor willingly or
knowingly misused or misapplied such
marks.
Copyright
This manual, as well as the software
described in it, is furnished under license
and may only be used or copied in
accordance with the terms of such license.
Program ©1998 MetaCreations Corporation,
including the look and feel of the product.
MetaCreations KPT 5 User Guide ©1998
MetaCreations Corporation. No part of this
guide may be reproduced in any form or by
any means without the prior written
permission of MetaCreations Corporation.
Notice
Before using this software or reading this
user guide, make sure you have read,
understood and agreed to the license
contained in the back of the KPT Quick
Reference Card.
Credits
Kai’s Power Tools was conceived by Kai
Krause; Engineering by Todd Bogdan,
Michael Herf, Moe Doucet, Josh Bates,
Ben Weiss, Andrew Bearsley, Ken Musgrave,
Matt Fox Wilson and Scott Draves; User
Interface Design by Kai Krause with
additional contributions from
Chris Livingston.
Quality Assurance testing by Steve Yatson,
Meredith Keiser, Fernando Corrado,
Kevin Prendergast, and Brian Romero.
Product Management by Chris Livingston
and Stuart Torzewski.
The KPT 5 User Guide was written by Erick
Vera; edited by Stuart Torzewski,
Chris Livingston and Vicki Wong; project
management by Erick Vera; illustrated by
Jackson Ting and Erick Vera.
Photos provided by PhotoSpin Inc. and
PhotoDisc.
Welcome to KPT 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Customer Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
What’s New? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Web Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Phone Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
KPT® ShapeShifter .
KPT® Orb-It . . . .
KPT® FiberOptix . .
KPT® Blurrrr . . . .
KPT® FraxPlorer . .
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10
10
10
10
10
Who Is MetaCreations?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
For More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Installing KPT 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
About Your User Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Windows 95/98/NT 4 Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Power Macintosh Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Installing KPT 5 with Painter® 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Conventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Modifier Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
A LITTLE THEORY....
What are Masks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
What are Fractals? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Masks and Alpha Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Creating Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Using Masks in Painter 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Fractal Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
KPT BASICS
Accessing Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
The KPT Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Setting Workspace Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Setting Global Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Setting Filter Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Using Common Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Using Memory Dots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Working with the Main Preview Window . . . . . . . . 24
Working with Preview Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Setting KPT 5 Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
iii
TA BLE OF CONTENTS
WELCOME TO KPT 5
Working with the Presets Library . . . . . . . . 38
Working with Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Using the Color Picker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Loading Presets . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Deleting Presets . . .
Editing Preset Information . . . .
Importing and Exporting Presets .
Using Common Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3D Lighting Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Environment Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Color Gradient Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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. 39
. 39
. 40
. 40
Applying KPT Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Applying KPT Effects to Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
KPT 5 TUTORIALS
Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1: Setting Orb Material . . . . . .
Lesson 2: Applying an Environment Map
Lesson 3: Setting Sphere Properties . . .
Lesson 4: Lighting Spheres . . . . . . . .
KPT ShapeShifter Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1: Creating a Shape . . . . . . .
Lesson 2: Adjusting Bevels. . . . . . . .
Lesson 3: Adding a Top Mask . . . . . .
Lesson 4: Adding an Environment Map .
Lesson 5: Adding Texture to a Shape . .
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42
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. 46
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. 49
KPT FiberOptix Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . .
Lesson 1: Adding a Mask. . . . . .
Lesson 2: Setting Fiber Parameters
Lesson 3: Coloring Fibers . . . . . .
KPT Orb-It Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
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. 49
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. 51
KPT BLURRRR
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Kraussian Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Switching between Blurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Previewing Blurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Setting Kraussian Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Hi-Speed Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Camera Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Setting Hi-Speed Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
iv
Spiral Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Motion Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Setting Spiral Rotation Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Setting Motion Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Setting Blur Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Gaussian Weave Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Spin Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Spiral Weave Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Zoom Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Setting Spiral Rotation Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Setting Blur Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
KPT FIBEROPTIX
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Scaling a Noise Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Blending Noise Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Previewing your Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Setting Fiber Surface Properties . . . . . . . . . 70
Creating Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Setting Fiber Density . . .
Setting Fiber Length . . .
Adjusting Fiber Tapering .
Setting Fiber Flatness. . .
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Using a Gradient as a Tint .
Using a Tint Color . . . . . .
Setting Luma Variance . . .
Setting Fiber Transparency .
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. 71
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Lighting Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Setting Fiber Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Using Masks with KPT FiberOptix . . . . . . . . 72
Setting Direction Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Setting Direction Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Setting Bevel Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Setting Background Surface Properties . . . . . . . . . 73
Adjusting Growth Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Previewing Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Using Noise Maps with KPT FiberOptix . . . . . 69
Loading a Noise Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
v
TA BLE OF CONTENTS
Controlling the Blow-Out Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
KPT FRAXFLAME
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Coloring your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Setting up a Flame Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Rendering your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Choosing a Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Mutating a Flame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Setting Gamma . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Intensity . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Preset Rendering Options .
Setting Custom Rendering Options
Viewing your Flame Fractal. . . . . . . . . . . . 79
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. 80
. 80
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. 81
Repositioning your View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Zooming into your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
KPT KPT FRAXPLORER
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Setting Preview Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Setting Preview Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Exploring Fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Exploring Julia Variations . . . . .
Exploring Polar Variations . . . . .
Exploring M-Julia Polar Variations.
Using the Universe Mapper . . . .
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Coloring a Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
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85
Setting the Inside Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Using a Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Using Coloring Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Navigating in a Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Rendering Your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Using Navigation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Setting Fractal Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Previewing Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
KPT FRAX4D
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4D vs. 3D Fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Using the 2D Slice of 4D Space Panel . . . . . . . . . . 98
Choosing R and I Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Creating a KPT Frax4D Object . . . . . . . . . . 97
vi
Adding an Environment Map . . . . . . . . . . 100
Exploring your 4D Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Rendering your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Zooming into a Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Viewing a Fractal in the Main Preview window . . . . 100
Setting Fractal Iterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Extremely Technical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Setting Up Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
KPT NOIZE
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Setting Up Noise Components . . . . . . . . . 105
Generating Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Generating RGB Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Using a Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Generating Alpha Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Using the Noise Mutator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Scaling Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
KPT ORB-IT
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Using a Tint Color . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Tint Amount . . . . . . .
Tint to Background . . . . . . . . . .
Using Glass Refraction . . . . . . . .
Turning Metallic Reflections On/Off .
Creating Orbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Setting Orb Packing Density . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Orb Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Size Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Z-Axis Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Orb Density using Alpha Information.
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112
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113
Adding an Environment Map . . . . . . . . . . 113
Blending the Environment Map with the Orbs . . . . 114
Lighting Orbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Setting Up Orb Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
vii
TA BLE OF CONTENTS
Choosing J and K parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Viewing your Fractal using a W Slice . . . . . . . . . . 99
Setting Fractal Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
KPT RADWARP
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Adjusting Warp Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Setting Warp Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Setting Horizontal Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Setting Vertical Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Rotating your Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Setting Warp Alpha Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Setting Warp Beta Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
KPT SHAPESHIFTER
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Working with Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Setting Shadow Color . . . . .
Setting Shadow Position . . .
Setting Shadow Size . . . . .
Setting Shadow Transparency
Creating a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Working with Bevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Bevel Modes . . . . .
Using Bevel Masking .
Setting Bevel Scale . .
Setting Bevel Height .
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121
124
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124
Blending an Environment Map .
Using a Tint Color . . . . . . . .
Applying Glass Refraction . . .
Setting Internal Reflections . . .
Adding a Glow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
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130
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131
Adding an Environment Map to your Shape . 131
Importing a Bump Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Setting Bump Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Setting Bump Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
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Using a Tint Color with the Top Mask
Noise Masking . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Transparency. . . . . . . .
Emboss Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emboss Height . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Texture to your Shape . . . . . . . . . 125
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Adding an Embossing Layer to your Shape . . 130
Lighting your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Setting Glow Color . .
Setting Transparency .
Setting Glow Size . . .
Setting Glow Position.
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132
132
133
133
Previewing Your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
viii
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
A Little History... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Previewing your KPT Smoothie Effect . . . . . . . . . 135
Smoothing an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Working with Outer Edges . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Working with Inner Edges . . . . . . . . . . . 138
ix
TA BLE OF CONTENTS
KPT SMOOTHIE
Refer to “KPT ORB-IT” on page 108 for a complete explanation of
this filter.
Kai’s Power Tools is a collection of image filters that let you alter
images from a host application. With Kai’s Power Tools, you’ll
produce incredible effects in seconds.
KPT® FiberOptix
KPT FiberOptix creates anything from furry text, green shag
carpet, pink plastic silly string, to lush creeping vines. Every
strand and fiber is a true 3D object. Masks are generated from
the 3D data, enabling easy compositing.
What’s New?
The new version of KPT is a collection of new filters that can
turn any image into a work of art. You’ll find filters that make
fractals, filters that provide vast improvements over standard
image processing effects, and all new filter that explore
technology you just won’t find anywhere else.
Refer to “KPT FiberOptix” on page 64 for a complete explanation of
this filter.
Listed below are descriptions of just some of the filters you’ll
find in KPT 5.
KPT® Blurrrr
KPT®
KPT Blurrrr is a professional suite of filters including the classic
zoom, spin, and other indispensable blurs updated with
real-time previews, pro-precision 64-bit color, and 128-bit math
with new algorithms and variations.
ShapeShifter
KPT ShapeShifter creates shapes and objects with refracting
glass edges, 3D light sources on beveled metallic surfaces, soft,
curved and lit Web buttons, and text. Resulting elements carry
their masks with them, which makes compositing a snap.
Refer to “KPT Blurrrr” on page 54 for a complete explanation of
this filter.
Refer to “KPT ShapeShifter” on page 119 for a complete explanation
of this filter.
KPT® FraxPlorer
KPT®
KPT FraxPlorer is the new, definitive Fractal Explorer featuring
real-time fly-throughs, 1000% larger previews, and
never-before-seen fractal styles.
Orb-It
KPT Orb-It explodes a source image into thousands of spheres
with variations in size, density, and realistic 3D lighting. Produce
fields of bubbles, raindrops, and giant lenses, incredible text
effects, and mind-boggling distortions.
Refer to “KPT KPT FraxPlorer” on page 82 for a complete
explanation of this filter.
10
WE LCOME TO KPT 5
Welcome to KPT 5
Modifier Keys
This guide provides all the information you’ll need to get the
most out of Kai’s Power Tools. It will help you learn the
application and serve as a reference as you attempt more
sophisticated techniques.
When a modifier key differs between the Macintosh and
Windows platform, the Macintosh modifier is listed first followed
by a slash and the Windows modifier key. Option/Alt means
Macintosh users press the Option key and Windows users
press Alt.
This guide assumes you are already familiar with basic
Macintosh ® and Windows ® concepts—menus, dialogs, and
mouse operations, such as clicking and dragging. If you need
more information on these subjects, or on the Macintosh Finder
or the Windows desktop, refer to the Macintosh User’s Manual
or the Microsoft Windows User’s Guide, respectively.
Conventions
The KPT Users Guide is for both Macintosh and Windows. By
convention, Macintosh commands precede Windows commands
in the text. For example, Command/Ctrl+I, is equivalent to the
Macintosh Command-I and the Windows Ctrl+I. For simplicity,
the term “folder” refers to directories as well as folders. The KPT
interface for Macintosh and Windows platforms is identical,
unless otherwise specified.
There are also several conventions used to identify paths to
certain tools and controls. The convention to a menu follows the
rules of the menu name> menu item.
Who Is MetaCreations?
MetaCreations is a major force in 2D and 3D graphic software,
developing and marketing next generation products that unite
traditional art and design techniques with digital technology.
MetaCreations products are engineered to deliver real-time
interaction, intuitive functionality, and creativity to design
professionals, graphics hobbyists, and consumers who work on
desktop computers.
MetaCreations’ focus is maintained by three product values:
• Faithfully replicate Natural-Media and real world looks in the
digital medium.
• Facilitate and extend the range of creativity by allowing artists
to do things they couldn’t do before.
• Capture human expression and allow the artist’s perspective
and intent to show through.
For More Information
For more information about MetaCreations’ products, see our
Web site on the Internet:
http://www.metacreations.com
11
WE LCOME TO KPT 5
About Your User Guide
Kai’s Power Tools 5 requires a host application to run. The host
application can be any program that fully supports Adobe®
Photoshop ® -compatible plug-ins.
KPT 5 must be installed in the same folder where your host
application looks for plug-ins. In the case of Photoshop, this is
the Plug-ins folder within the Photoshop application folder.
Windows 95/98/NT 4 Installation
2
Choose Start menu> Run.
3
Type the letter that corresponds to your CD-ROM drive
followed by “:\setup”. For example if your CD-ROM drive is
drive D, type d:\setup.
4
Click OK and follow the instructions displayed.
5
The installer prompts you to locate your Adobe Photoshop
Plug-ins folder. This folder can be a part of the Photoshop
application, or any application that accepts 100%
compatible Photoshop plug-ins.
6
Click Install.
When the install is complete, you can access the plug-ins
from within the host application.
System Requirements
The following are necessary to run KPT 5 on your PC:
Installation Tips
• Pentium 166 MHz (or compatible) or faster. Pentium 266 MHz
or faster recommended
Make sure that:
• Windows 95/98/NT4
• Your operating system is Win95/98/NT 4. Kai’s Power Tools
will not run in Win 3.x. or NT 3 x.x.
• Photoshop 3/4/5 or 100% compatible host
• Your display is set to a minimum of 24-bit color (true color).
• 32MB RAM. 64MB or greater recommended
• 50MB free hard disk space
• You are using a Pentium processor or Pentium class
processor. Kai’s Power Tools will not run on a 486.
• 24-bit color video, color monitor
• There are no open applications.
• CD-ROM drive
• There are NO applications running in the background. This
includes anti-virus, crash-monitoring software, or system
diagnostic software.
Installation
Installing Kai’s Power Tools:
1
Insert the Kai’s Power Tools 5 CD into your CD-ROM drive.
13
INSTA LLATION
Installing KPT 5
Troubleshooting
However, your system may reboot when you press End Task, or a
program may not close the way it should. If this happens, try
leaving it on the Close Program list and install anyway.
Win 95/98
Closing applications running in the background is very
important for a successful install.
Win NT 4
To make sure all background programs are closed:
Closing applications running in the background is very
important for a successful install.
1
Press Ctrl + Alt + Delete once.
To make sure all background programs are closed:
Don’t press the key combination twice in a row as this will
reboot your computer.
1
Do not hit this key combination two times in a row as this
will reboot your computer.
The Close Program window appears.
•
2
•
•
Press Ctrl + Alt + Delete and choose the Task Manager.
The basic Windows 95 components are Explorer and
Systray. All other items you see on the list are the result
of installing hardware or software.
You can close all unnecessary background programs by
selecting one item at a time and clicking the End Task
button. This does not change any settings on your system.
If you reboot your machine, all the programs will return.
2
You can you can close all unnecessary back ground
programs by clicking the Applications tab, selecting all the
items on the list and then clicking the End Task button.
This does not change any settings on your system. If you
reboot your machine, all the programs will return.
A dialog that says: ” This program is not responding. It may
be busy“ may appear. Press the End Task button to finish
closing the program.
Don’t select Explorer, (or Systray if you see it on the list).
Don’t hit the Shut Down button as this will reboot your
system.
Once you close an item, the Close Program window
disappears. You’ll have to hit Ctrl + Alt + Delete again to
get it back.
Power Macintosh Installation
A dialog that says: ”This program is not responding. It may
be busy “ may appear. Press the End Task button to finish
closing the program.
System Requirements
The following requirements are needed to run KPT 5 on your
Macintosh:
By design you should be able to close all background
applications this way.
• PowerPC based Macintosh
• MacOS 7.6.1 or later
14
Troubleshooting
• 32MB RAM. 64MB host application RAM or greater
recommended.
If you’re having problems installing, you may be having an
extension conflict. Try installing with a limited extension set. Try
using only the extensions you need for your CD-ROM. Then go
back to your regular extension set after the install.
• 50MB hard disk space
• 24-bit color video, color monitor
• CD-ROM drive
Installing KPT 5 with Painter® 5
Installation
If you want to use KPT 5 with Painter 5, you have 2 choices:
Installing KPT 5:
• If you’ve already installed KPT 5 in the Photoshop Plug-ins
folder, you can direct Painter to look to this folder for
plug-ins. Refer to page 37 of the Painter 5 User Guide for
instructions.
1
Insert the Kai’s Power Tools 5 CD into your CD-ROM drive.
2
Double-click the Kai’s Power Tools 5 Installer icon.
3
The installer prompts you to locate your Plug-ins folder.
This folder can be a part of the Photoshop application, or
any application that accepts 100% Photoshop-compatible
plug-ins.
4
Click Install.
• If you want to install KPT 5 for use with Painter 5 only, you
should make a new folder before beginning the install.
Give the folder a unique name and place it wherever it’s
convenient. If you want to make it a sub-folder of Painter,
make sure you give it a unique name, like “raster plugins “.
When the install’s done, you can access the plug-ins from
within the host application.
NoTe
Installation Tips
Make sure that:
• Your operating system is System 7.6.1 or higher.
• Your display is set to minimum of 24-bit color (true color).
• You’re not running Virtual Memory or any RAM-enhancing
programs like RAM Doubler.
15
Don’t install KPT 5 to the Other Plugins or Plugin
Brushes folders.
INSTA LLATION
• Photoshop 3/4/5 or 100% compatible host
A Little Theory....
Masks are usually used to protect areas of your image while
editing. In this case, any changes you make to your image are
applied everywhere except the area inside the mask.
To help you get the most out of KPT, there are two topics you
should know a little bit about: Masks and Fractals.
Masks can also be used to define the area where an image
effect is applied. When you use it this way, the mask actually
protects everything outside the mask area.
Many of the filters in KPT use masks extensively to determine
how the filter is applied to your image. So to get the most out of
these filters, you should know how to create and apply masks.
Several of the filters deal exclusively with Fractals. These are the
filters with Frax in their title. Knowing something about what
fractals are, and how they work, will help you when you’re using
these filters.
What are Masks?
Basically, a mask is a black and white image that defines which
areas of your image can be changed and which areas can’t.
A mask used to protect an area and to limit an effect.
An image and its mask.
16
Creating Masks
Creating a mask can be as easy as creating a 32-bit black and
white image. However, in most cases you’ll want to create a
mask from an existing image. Most image-editing applications
let you convert selections into masks and then store them as an
additional channel with the file.
Creating Masks in Painter 5
In Painter, you can save a selection using the Save Selection
button in the Objects: Mask List palette. Refer to the Painter 5
User Guide for more information on creating masks.
Using Masks in Painter 5
A mask used with two of the KPT 5 filters.
Masks and Alpha Channels
An alpha channel is an additional channel in an image (i.e. in
addition to the RGB channels) that stores a mask or a selection.
In KPT, you can use the alpha channel to create a selection
before entering a filter, or make a mask image out of the alpha
channel and then import it into a filter.
Masks work differently in Painter than they do in Photoshop. In
Painter, the white areas are considered the background while
the black areas are used to define the shape. Since KPT uses the
white areas to create shapes and define areas, you’ll need to
invert the mask before entering a KPT filter.
To invert a grayscale image in Painter:
17
1
Load the mask image into Painter.
2
Choose Effects menu> Tonal Control> Negative.
A L IT TLE THEORY
In KPT, masks are used to create shapes and to define which
areas of your image are affected by the filter.
What are Fractals?
Fractals are mathematical equations that result in incredibly
beautiful patterns when they’re mapped out on a computer.
One of the distinguishing features of a fractal is self-similarity;
this means that reduced versions of the fractal appear
throughout a fractal’s pattern.
Most fractals are infinitely detailed, so you can zoom in closer
and closer to see more detail. As you zoom, you’ll see the same
patterns recurring.
A zoomed in view of the fractal. Notice that the pattern here is similar to
the larger view.
KPT’s fractal filters, like KPT FraxPlorer, are designed to help you
see these repeating patterns. The filter lets you explore fractals
by zooming into their pattern. The further in you go, the more
patterns you’ll see. Normally, this requires a large number of
calculations that takes a long time to process, but with KPT you
can zoom into any fractal in real-time.
Fractal Types
Over the years, several brilliant mathematicians and scientists
have studied fractals and have advanced the knowledge of these
patterns. Several of these pioneers created their own formulas
for generating fractals, which resulted in different fractal types.
A Mandelbrot fractal.
18
A L IT TLE THEORY
For example, Benoit B. Mandelbrot, sometimes called the father
of fractals, created a formula that generated fractals with
bulb-like patterns. The Julia Set of fractals are produced by a
specific type of chaotic function named after Gaston Julia for his
work in this field.
A Mandelbrot and Julia Set fractal.
Besides these two, there are several other types of fractals. Each
creates a breath-taking array of infinite patterns.
19
KPT Basics
The KPT Workspace
This section provides basic information you’ll need to use all the
filters. It covers the general procedure for using the controls
you’ll find in the various filters, as well as suggestions on how to
get the most out of Kai’s Power Tools.
All the KPT 5 filters are based on the same user interface.
There’s a main workspace with panels that float over it. The
workspace has a number of controls that you can use in any
filter.
Accessing Filters
Web Button
Global Options
Filter Options
Help
KPT filters can be applied to any selection or layer of your image
file.
NoTe
KPT only works with RGB images.
To apply a filter:
1
Mem Dots
In the host application, open the image you want to apply
the filter to.
•
Panels
If you want to apply the filter to the entire image, make
sure nothing is selected.
•
If you want to apply the filter to a specific area, make a
selection.
•
If you want to apply the filter to a specific layer, select it.
Main Preview
Cancel/OK
Presets
The KPT workspace.
2
KPT 5 Title
From the Filter menu, choose the KPT 5 sub-menu and then
the effect you want to use.
The KPT logo accesses global options that let you change how
the workspace looks. You can also open the About box.
When you select a filter, its window appears.
20
Setting Workspace Size
The title of each filter lets you access options for the current
filter. These options only affect the active filter. The types of
preferences available vary between filters.
You can control the size of the KPT 5 workspace using the
keyboard keys. If you make the workspace smaller than your
display, you’ll be able to see your desktop.
Web Button
Resize to 640 x 480
Ctrl/Command - 1
The @ symbol lets you jump to the Kai’s Power Tools Web page
on the MetaCreations Website.
Resize to 800 x 600
Ctrl/Command - 2
Resize to 1024 x 768
Ctrl/Command - 3
MetaCreations Logo
Resize to 1152 x 870
Ctrl/Command - 4
Accesses the on-line documentation for the current filter.
Resize to 1280 x 1024
Ctrl/Command - 5
Resize to Full Screen
Ctrl/Command - 0
Presets
The heart-shaped button at the bottom of the workspace lets
you access the Presets Library. Refer to “Working with the Presets
Library” on page 38 for more on using presets.
Cancel/OK
The checkmark at the bottom of the workspace is the OK button.
The X is the Cancel button.
Memory Dots
The memory dots that appear on the main workspace let you
store the positions of the filter panels and all the values in a
filter (i.e. all the values in all the panels.) Refer to “Using Memory
Dots” on page 23 for more on memory dots.
21
KP T BA SICS
Filter Title
Setting KPT 5 Options
About KPT 5
This option displays the KPT 5 About box.
KPT 5 lets you set several options that control how all the KPT 5
filters appears, as well as providing options that only affect
specific filters.
Setting Filter Options
The Filter Option menu lets you control how a filter’s panels
behave in the workspace. These options only affect the current
filter.
Setting Global Options
The Global Options control how the appearance of the KPT
Workspace. These options affect all the filters in KPT 5.
Click the filter title to access the Filter Options menu.
Click the KPT 5 title to access the Global Options menu.
Panel Auto Popup
Black Out Screen
When this option is enabled, panels automatically expand as you
pass your cursor over them. When you move the cursor to a
different location, the panel automatically collapses to its
Preview-Only state.
This option lets you black out the desktop of your operating
system.
Smileys!
This option toggles between Cancel/OK buttons. When the
option is enabled, Cancel is represented by a sad face and OK is
a happy face (cute no?). When disabled, the standard
checkmark and X icons appear.
22
When this option is enabled, panels only expand and contract
when you click them. A cycler icon appears that lets you cycle
through the panel states.
The Layout memory dots that appear on the KPT workspace
store the state of the interface. You can use them to setup
different working environments. For example, you could have all
the advanced controls for a filter displayed so that you don’t
have to expand each control individually.
Layout dots.
Click the cycler icon to move between panel states.
Panel Solo Mode
When this option is enabled, only the panel you’re currently
working with expands. All the other panels are collapsed. This
helps you isolate the controls you’re working with.
The Recall memory dots let you retrieve all the values for all the
panels in the filter. You can quickly set up all your panels by just
clicking a dot. You can also use the Recall dots to store the
various stages of your effect as you change settings.
Using Common Controls
Although each KPT filter is unique, they all share similar
controls. This section describes some of the controls you’ll find
in the various KPT filters.
Recall dots.
Each panel also has a set of memory dots that let you store
values for an individual control. You can use these dots to return
to different stages of an effect.
Using Memory Dots
Memory dots let you store and recall values with a single click of
your mouse. There are three types of memory dots in KPT:
Layout, Recall and panel dots.
Memory dots on a panel.
To store interface positions in a memory dot:
1
23
Set up the interface the you want it.
KP T BA SICS
Panel Manual Popup
2
Working with the Main Preview Window
Click an empty Layout dot. Empty dots are grey.
The Main Preview window is the area that displays the results of
the filter. As you change settings, the preview window updates
to show you the results.
To store all filter values in a memory dot:
1
Set up the values in each of the panels you want to store.
2
Click an empty Recall dot. Empty dots are grey.
The behavior of the Main Preview window changes from one
filter to another. In most cases, it displays a preview of the
effect. However, in some filters, you can click-and-drag inside
the Main Preview window to change your view of the effect or
rotate an object. These unique behaviors are explained in the
filter sections.
To store a panel’s values:
1
Enter the values you want to store in the panel.
2
Click an empty dot on the panel.
To recall a memory dot setting:
1
Click on a full dot. Full dots appear green.
2
The selected dot turns yellow.
To clear a memory dot:
✤
Option/Alt-click a full memory dot. It turns grey to indicate
that it’s empty.
Restoring Panels to Default
The memory dots on a panel have a reset button. The dot in the
center lets you reset all the values in the panel to their factory
default values.
To restore a panel to default:
✤
Click the center memory dot. The recall dot has a black dot
in the middle.
The Main Preview window in different filters.
The bar across the bottom of the window can contain navigation
controls, like those found in KPT FraxPlorer. Refer to “Using
Navigation Controls” on page 86 for more on these controls.
24
✤
Drag the window’s title bar to any position on the screen.
Preview Window Options
The Main Preview window has three size options: Small, Medium
and Large.
Working with Preview Modes
Usually, when you enter a filter, the filter effect is previewed on
top of the background image. For some of the more complex
filters, this can slow down preview render time. To help you
speed up your preview, some filters have preview modes that
can replace the background image with flat patterns or colors
that make previewing faster.
The different sizes are designed to let you see the largest
possible preview within your display.
NoTe
NoTe
The options menu can also contain output options
or rendering options. Refer to “Applying KPT
Effects” on page 40 for more on output options.
Preview modes do not affect the final render, only
the preview of the effect.
To choose a preview mode:
✤
Click the triangle icon at the top of the Main Preview
window and choose a mode from the menu.
To set Main Preview window size:
✤
Click the triangle icon at the top of the Main Preview
window and choose either Small, Medium or Large from the
menu.
The Preview Option menu on the Main Preview window.
25
KP T BA SICS
To reposition the Main Preview window:
Preview Against Black
Preview Against Checkerboard
The filter effect is displayed on a solid black background.
The background image is replaced by a pattern of gray squares.
KPT Blurrrrr using the Preview Against Black mode.
KPT Blurrrr using the Preview Against Checkerboard mode.
Preview Against White
Preview Against Dark Checkerboard
The filter effect is displayed on a solid white background.
The background is replaced by a pattern of dark gray squares.
KPT Blurrrrr using the Preview Against White mode.
KPT Blurrrr using the Preview Against Dark Checkerboard mode.
26
Collapsed State
The background is replaced by a grayscale gradient.
A Collapsed panel appears as a small black bar with the name of
the control. This is the state you’ll use to store controls you’re
not currently using.
KPT filter panels in their Collapsed state.
To collapse a panel:
✤
Double-click the panel’s title bar.
Preview-Only State
KPT Blurrrr using the Preview Against Gradient mode.
In Preview-Only state, the panel displays a preview thumbnail of
any imported images, masks or presets you’re currently using.
The name of the file appears below the preview.
Working with Panels
All of the controls for a filter are divided into panels. These
panels float over the filter window and can be repositioned to
best suit the way you work.
Setting Panel States
Each panel has four states: collapsed, preview-only, standard
and expanded. The states are designed to help you focus on a
task by hiding unrecquired controls.
A KPT panel in Preview-Only state.
27
KP T BA SICS
Preview Against Gradient
Standard State
Expanded State
In the Standard state, the panel displays a preview of any
imported images, as well as any parameter controls available.
In the Expanded state a panel displays two controls that let you
set precise values for each control in the panel.
A KPT panel in its Standard state.
A KPT panel in its Expanded state.
The vertical ruler acts a precise slider. It lets you adjust the
value of a control in minute increments. The small ghosted
arrow indicates the last value you entered.
To adjust a control in small increments:
28
1
Click the control you want to set.
2
Drag the marker up or down. The ticks on the ruler let you
see the amount of adjustment you’re applying.
Save Preset
This option lets you save the image or object currently in the
panel’s preview window to the Presets Library.
Using the Color Picker
Click the numerical display on the extended slider to enter a value
manually.
The Color Picker lets you set a color for an object. If you see a
color dot next to an item in a panel, it means that you can set
the item’s color using the Color Picker.
To enter numerical values for a control:
1
Click the control you want to set.
2
Click the number displayed on the panel.
3
Enter the desired value.
Setting Panel Options
Each panel has an Options menu. The contents of the menu vary
from panel to panel. However, there are several options that are
common to all panels.
Load
When this option appears, you can use it to load a file into the
panel. For example, in the Environment panel you can load an
image to use as an environment map.
The KPT Color Picker.
The picker appears as three floating bars. The top bar displays
shades of gray from black to white. The center bar displays a
spectrum of colors and shades. The bottom bar displays opacity
settings.
The grayscale bar is divided into two sections. The top area of
the sections is broken down into increments of grayscale values
to make it easier to choose precise grayscale shades. The
bottom of the bar is a continuous blend of grays.
Load Preset
This option let you load a file from the Presets Library. Refer to
“Working with the Presets Library” on page 38 for more on the library.
The two sections of the grayscale bar.
29
KP T BA SICS
The numerical value act as a text entry field. You can type any
value you want to replace the displayed numbers.
Using Common Panels
To choose a color:
✤
Click a color dot on a panel. The Color Picker appears. While
holding down the mouse button, drag over the color you
want to use from the center bar.
Several of the panels in KPT are common to several filters. For
the most part, these panels work the same wherever they
appear. In some cases, a panel may have one or two extra
controls that are unique to a filter.
When you release the mouse button, the color is selected.
As you move over the colors, the color dot shows you both
the new color and the original color.
3D Lighting Panel
To choose a shade of gray:
✤
The 3D Lighting panel lets you position light sources in 3D
space and set their colors and brightness. The panel appears in
any filter that renders objects in 3D, like KPT Orb-It and
KPT Frax4D.
Drag the cursor along the top bar in the Color Picker.
To choose an opacity setting:
✤
Drag your cursor along the bottom bar in the Color Picker.
The 3D Lighting panel.
30
Highlight Types
When you first access the 3D Lighting panel, it has a number of
lights. You can add more lights to illuminate the image from a
number of different angles, or to mix light colors on the surface
of your object.
The two Highlight types determine how your light source casts
light. Soft Highlights cast soft-edged, or fuzzy, highlights on
your objects. Sharp Highlights cast hard-edged highlights.
To set a light type:
To add a light source:
✤
Click the Add Light icon.
1
Click on a light.
2
Click the Sharp/Soft toggle button.
Highlight type toggle.
Add Light icon.
To delete a light source:
1
Select a light source in the light preview.
2
Press Option/Alt and click the Add Light icon or press
Delete.
Setting Up Light Properties
KPT’s light model not only lets you add a light source, but it also
offers different types of lights that can be used to create a much
more complex lighting effect. Your lights can be either Soft or
Sharp, Positive or Negative.
Positive and Negative Lights
The Positive/Negative toggle button lets you control a light’s
behavior. A positive light source projects regular light that
produces highlights.
A negative light source draws light out of an object. The amount
of light drawn out is determined by the light’s brightness
settings. A negative light’s color draws out a specific color,
leaving its spectral opposite in its place.
To set a light as negative or positive:
1
Click on a light.
2
Click the Positive/Negative toggle button.
Positive/Negative light toggle.
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Adding and Deleting Lights
Positioning Lights
To send a light to the back of an object:
The graphic in the center of the control represents your object
in three-dimensional space. The balls surrounding the large
graphic in the center represent light sources.
1
Click on a light.
2
Click the Front/Back button.
Front/Back light button.
Setting Light Color
A light’s color can tint the color of all the objects you’re working
with. Light color appears in object highlights.
You can also mix light colors. For example, if you have a blue
light source and a yellow light, your objects will have a greenish
highlight.
Drag the circles to reposition lights.
By dragging these light sources to different positions around the
ball, you can adjust the lighting angle on your object.
To change a light’s color:
TiPS
You can also drag the large sphere to reposition all
the lights at once.
Sending Lights to the Back or Front of an Object
1
Click one of the light sources in the light control.
2
Click the color dot. The Color Picker appears. While
pressing the mouse button, drag over the color you want to
use.
When you release the mouse button, the color is selected.
The Front/Back button lets you quickly move the light to the
front or the back of your object.
Light color dot.
32
To set highlight size:
The overall brightness of a light is controlled by the brightness
of the light itself as well as the brightness and size of the
highlight.
The Light Brightness slider controls the intensity of the light. The
Highlight Spread slider controls the size of the highlight that
appears on objects. The Highlight Sheen slider controls the
intensity of the highlight.
1
Click a light source.
2
Drag the Highlight Spread slider. Drag to the right to
increase highlight size, or left to decrease it.
To set highlight brightness:
1
Click a light source.
2
Drag the Highlight Sheen slider. Drag to the right to
increase highlight brightness, or left to decrease it.
Setting Ambient Glow
Use these sliders to set light properties.
By combining these three settings, you can completely control
how a light affects your objects. For example, larger highlights
combined with higher Brightness values can make your objects
appear very bright.
When there are no specific light sources selected, the 3D
lighting panel lets you control the brightness of the ambient
light. Unlike light cast from a light source, ambient light comes
from all directions.
To set ambient glow:
You can also create different types of effects with these
controls. For example, small bright highlights can make your
objects look very shiney or metallic.
To set light brightness:
1
Click a light source.
2
Drag the Light Brightness slider. Drag to the right to
increase brightness, or left to decrease it.
33
1
Make sure there are no lights selected.
2
Drag the Ambient Glow slider.
KP T BA SICS
Setting Light Brightness
Environment Panel
Loading an Environment Map Image
The Environment panel lets you load images that are used as
environment reflection maps. An environment map image is
reflected in an object’s surface.
An environment map image can be any RGB or grayscale image
stored on your system. If you want a more natural-looking effect,
use a photo-realistic image. You can also load presets from the
Environment library.
TiPS
Because of the way KPT maps images onto an
object, it’s not necessary to create large
environment map images for larger objects. Your
environment map should be no larger than
512 x 512 pixels. In fact, a 256 x 256 pixel image
will work fine in most cases.
To load an environment map image:
1
In the Environment panel, click the preview window. The
Open dialog appears.
You can also click the arrow icon at the top of the panel
and choose Load from the options menu.
2
Locate the file you want to use and click OK. A preview of
the image appears in the panel.
Blending an Environment Map
The Mix Environment control on the panel controls how much
the environment map affects the surface of your object. At high
settings the image is completely visible in any reflection. At
lower settings the image appears faded.
Tinting an Environment Map
A tint shifts all the colors in an image toward a uniform color.
For example, if you use blue as a tint color, the more tint you
apply, the more blue you’ll see in your image until the entire
image is just shades of blue.
The Environment panel.
This panel appears in any filter that renders 3D objects with a
surface, like KPT ShapeShifter and KPT Frax4D. It may have
additional controls that are unique to a particular filter. This
section describes the common controls. For descriptions of
unique panel controls, see the sections on specific filters.
The Mix Tinting Color value controls how much tint is applied to
your image. The higher the tint value, the more the image shifts
towards the tint color. At 100%, the image is completely made up
of shades of the tint color.
34
✤
Click the color dot on the panel. The Color Picker appears.
While holding down the mouse button, drag over the color
you want to use from the center bar.
When you release the mouse button, the color is selected.
Color Gradient Panel
The Color Gradient panel lets you design color gradients.
Gradients can be used to color many of the objects generated by
the filters such as fibers in KPT FiberOptix or fractals in
KPT FraxPlorer and KPT Frax4D.
Adding a Metallic Surface
When you enable the Metallic Surface option, the reflections
from the surface of your objects are tinted with the Tint color
giving them a metallic look. When it’s disabled, reflections look
dull, like those made by a plastic surface.
To give objects a metallic surface:
✤
Click the Metallic Surface toggle button. When “Plastic” is
displayed on the button, metallic surface is disabled.
Metallic Surface toggle button.
Adding Refraction to a Surface
When Refraction is applied to an object’s surface, it distorts the
reflections, giving it a glass-like look.
The Color Gradient panel.
With the Color Gradient panel, you can create blends of up to
512 colors, including 256 levels of opacity. The current gradient
is displayed in the bar at the center of the panel. As you choose
different colors, the bar updates to show the new gradient.
You can also load gradient presets to use in the panel, or you
can save the contents of the panel as a new preset.
To increase the size of the panel:
To add refraction to a surface:
✤
Adjust the position of the Glass Refraction slider. The higher
the refraction value, the more distorted the reflections
appear.
✤
Click the triangle icon at the top of the panel and choose
Large Gradient Bar from the menu.
Choosing Colors for a Gradient
The bar that appears at the top of the panel, called the Gradient
bar, is where you’ll choose colors and edit your gradient.
35
KP T BA SICS
To choose a tint color:
To resize the bracket:
When selecting a new color for your gradient, remember that
you’re not just selecting a color for the gradient, but also its
position within the blend.
✤
If you drag one end of the bracket past the other end, it
pivots, leaving one end exactly where it began.
If you add a color on the far left side of the Gradient bar, you’re
setting the color for the beginning of your gradient. If you press
on the far right side of the bar, you are setting the color for the
end of your gradient.
To reset the bracket:
✤
To select a color:
1
Drag either end of the bracket.
Double-click on the center of the bracket.
To reposition the bracket:
Click a point on the Gradient bar and drag the cursor over
the color you want.
✤
In addition to the colors in the Color Picker, you can also
drag the cursor over any color visible on your monitor, and
select that as your color.
Click the center of the bracket and drag to the left or right.
To cut and paste parts of a gradient:
Editing a Gradient
The Gradient bracket, located above the Gradient bar, can be
used to isolate an area of your gradient for editing. Any changes
you make to a gradient only affect the area within the bracket.
You can use this feature to create more complex gradients. For
example, you can create several smaller gradients within a
gradient.
1
Make sure the part of the gradient you want to copy is
within the Gradient bracket.
2
Click the triangle icon at the top of the panel and choose
Copy from the menu.
3
Reposition the bracket and choose Paste from the menu.
To flip a gradient:
✤
Choose Flip from the Gradient panel options menu. KPT flips
everything within the Gradient bracket.
Gradient Modifiers
There are eight “tweaking” controls you can use to modify the
colors and other parameters of your gradient or a portion of your
gradient.
The Gradient bracket.
By default, the bracket encompasses the entire gradient, but you
can resize it and move it to work with a smaller portion of your
gradient.
To use a modifier:
✤
36
Drag over the text label for the control you want to use.
As you drag, the expanded slider appears to help you set
the modifier values precisely.
Blur
This control increase or decreases the blurriness of your
gradient. Increasing the blurriness of a gradient effectively
smudges the edges of your colors.
Hue
Squeeze
This control rotates the hues for your gradient. Each hue
occupies a unique spot on a virtual color wheel. As you rotate
your hues, all of the colors within your gradient rotate, allowing
you to cycle through all of the possible colors in the spectrum,
but maintaining each color’s relative distance from every other
color.
Dragging over this control squeezes your gradient to one side or
the other. The “squeeze” always starts at the center of the
Gradient bracket and moves to either end. If you want to
squeeze your gradient starting from somewhere other than the
center you have to do it manually: hold down Option/Alt and
drag within the Gradient bar itself.
Saturation
Cycle
This control is used to modify the saturation (or intensity) of the
colors within your gradient.
Dragging over this control lets you reposition the entire gradient
so that colors appear in different locations.
Brightness
This control determines the brightness of your colors (i.e. how
much white is mixed with each color). Pressing on this control
and dragging to the right will increase the brightness, while
dragging to the left will decrease the brightness.
Contrast
This control works by comparing the color values of individual
pixels with the color values of neighboring pixels. Increasing the
contrast exaggerates the differences between colors.
Decreasing the contrast homogenizes your colors. You can
actually reduce the contrast to the point where your entire
gradient would be a uniform gray.
Colors repositioned using the Cycle control.
Frequency
This control sets how many iterations of the gradient appear
within the gradient itself.
A gradient with a high Frequency setting.
37
KP T BA SICS
Drag to the right to increase a modifier’s effect, or to the
left to decrease it.
Working with the Presets Library
Global vs. Component Presets
The KPT Presets Library stores preset images you can use as
backgrounds, environment maps, masks, bump maps and more.
Depending on how you access the Presets Library, it will display
global presets for the entire filter, or component presets for a
specific panel.
Presets are divided into categories. Each category contains 24
presets. Presets are displayed as thumbnail images. The
currently selected preset appears in a larger preview at the top
of the library. Its name and description appears across the top of
the library.
If you access the Presets Library from the main KPT Workspace,
the library contains Global presets which, when loaded, set the
values in all the filter’s panels and load all the images necessary
to reproduce the preset exactly.
Click this icon to open the Presets Library.
For example, if you load a global preset for KPT ShapeShifter, all
the masks, background images, bump maps, and environment
maps that make up the shape are automatically loaded. Also, all
the values and options needed to recreate the preset are also
loaded in the various panels.
If you access the Presets Library from a panel, it displays
presets specifically suited to that control. For example, if you
access the Presets Library from the Bump Map panel, a series of
bump map images are displayed.
The Presets Library window.
You can add or delete categories, and import or export presets.
The library is a great way of saving your own images for later
use in other filters.
Accessing the Presets Library from a panel’s Options menu.
38
Loading either a global or a component preset is only a matter of
locating the preset you want to use and clicking its thumbnail.
To load a preset:
1
To add a global preset:
Click the heart-shaped icon in the KPT Workspace to load a
global preset.
•
2
When you add files you can also add a title and comments to
each image. This information appears every time you click the
preset.
To load a component preset, click the triangle icon at the
top of a panel and choose Load Preset from the options
menu. The Presets Library appears.
Click on a category name on the right side of the library. A
set of 24 thumbnails appears.
3
Click the preset you want to use.
4
Click the OK icon.
Adding and Deleting Presets
NoTe
Click the heart-shaped button. The Presets Library appears.
2
Click the category where you want to add the preset.
3
Click the Add Preset text label. The Add Preset dialog
appears.
4
Enter a name for the new preset and click OK. The new
preset appears at the end of the category.
To add a new preset from a panel:
✤
Open the panel options menu and choose Save Preset.
The current image in the preview window is saved as a
preset.
To add a new category in the Presets Library:
As with loading presets, you can save global presets, by
accessing the Presets Library from the KPT workspace or you
can save a specific component by accessing the library from a
panel.
The library lets you save any files into a specific category or you
can create your own.
1
1
In the Presets Library, click the options menu icon and
choose Add New Category. The Add Category dialog
appears.
2
Enter a name for the category and click OK.
To delete a preset:
You can only save 24 presets in a category. If there
are no open spots in a specific category, you’ll have
to save your new preset to another category or
create a new category.
39
1
In the Presets Library, choose the category and preset you
want to delete.
2
Click the Delete Preset text label. The preset is removed
from the library.
KP T BA SICS
Loading Presets
Editing Preset Information
5
You can edit the name of any preset or change the comments
attached to an image.
The image appears in the selected spot.
To export a preset:
To edit a preset’s title or comment:
1
Click the category for the preset you want to export.
2
Click the preset’s thumbnail.
1
Click the preset you want to edit. Click the title and a text
field appears.
3
Click the Export text label at the bottom of the library. A
Save dialog appears.
2
Enter a new name or comment.
4
Select a name and location for the preset and click Save.
Applying KPT Effects
Importing and Exporting Presets
By default, KPT 5 filters are applied to the background image. If
you made a selection before entering the filter, than the effect is
applied only to the selection.
You can import images to use as components in a filter, or
export completed effects as complete images.
The Import command lets you choose a file to import from any
location on your system.
NoTe
Applying KPT Effects to Layers
The images you import must be RGB, Black and
White, or Grayscale.
KPT ShapeShifter, KPT FiberOptix, and KPT Orb-It have different
output options that control how KPT applies the results of a
filter to a layer:
• Composite in Layer
The Export command lets you export any of the presets in the
library as images.
The result of the filter is added to the other elements in the
layer.
To import a preset:
1
If you want to import the image into a specific category,
click the category name to make it active.
2
Click an empty spot in the category.
3
Click the Import text label at the bottom of the library. An
Open dialog appears.
4
Locate the file you want to import and click Open.
• Clear Layer before Render
The results of the filter replace all the other elements in the
layer.
To choose an output option:
✤
40
Click the arrow icon at the top of the Main Preview window
and choose an option from the menu that appears.
What’s in this Section:
Welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
KPT ShapeShifter Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
KPT Orb-It Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
KPT FiberOptix Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
41
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KPT 5 TUTORIALS
Welcome
2
There are two ways to use this image:
•
The tutorials in this section lead you through the basic features
and functions you’ll need to get the most out of the KPT 5 filters.
•
The techniques you’ll learn in these tutorials can be applied to
other filters since they share some of the same controls.
If you want to start with a plain background, make sure
the background layer is active.
If you want to start with a discreet shape, like you would
for buttons, make sure the Zuni layer is active.
Lesson 1: Creating a Shape
KPT ShapeShifter Tutorial
First, you'll load a mask to create a shape from the background
image.
Welcome to KPT ShapeShifter, the filter that makes 3D shapes
from masks. In this tutorial you'll learn how to import
components and set controls to make a 3D button.
To load a shape mask:
1
In the Main Shape panel, click the preview window. The
Open dialog appears.
Getting Started
Begin by loading the background image for your shape.
To load the tutorial file:
1
Choose File menu > Open and locate the file
Tutorial: Shapeshifter: ShapeShifter Tutorial.PSD on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM.
The mask image.
2
The background image.
42
Locate the file Tutorial: Shapeshifter: ZuniMask on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM and click Open.
If you make a selection before entering the filter,
the selected area becomes the mask.
To add a top mask:
1
In the Top Mask panel, click the preview window. The Open
dialog appears.
2
Locate the file Tutorial: Shapeshifter: Zuni Arrow on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM and click Open.
Lesson 2: Adjusting Bevels
The Bevel controls let you adjust the size and severity of the
bevel along the edges of the shape. The bevel is what makes
your shape look 3D.
To set bevel scale:
✤
In the Main Shape panel, set the Bevel Scale slider to 30%.
The top mask image.
To set top mask properties:
The shape created after you apply a bevel.
Lesson 3: Adding a Top Mask
A top mask lets you add other shapes on top of the main shape.
These new shapes can have an embossed look.
43
1
In the Top Mask panel, set Transparency = 60%.
2
Set Emboss Scale = 12%.
3
Set Emboss Height = 50%.
KP T TUTORIALS
TiPS
4
Click the color dot and choose a green color from the Color
Picker.
2
Locate the file Tutorial: Shapeshifter: Cool Kitchen on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM and click Open.
The environment map image.
The shape with a top mask applied.
To set environment properties:
Lesson 4: Adding an Environment Map
1
An environment map is an image that's projected onto your
shape to create reflections.
In the Environment panel, click the Tint color dot and
choose a blue color.
2
Set Mix Tinting Color = 20%.
3
Set Mix Environment = 35%.
To add an environment map:
1
In the Environment panel, click the preview window. The
Open dialog appears.
The shape after you apply an environment map.
44
2
Set Bump Height = 3%.
You can use a bump map to add texture to the surface of your
shape.
To add a bump map:
1
In the Bump Map panel, click the text label beneath the
preview window and choose Perlin from the menu.
The noise map used to create texture on the shape’s surface.
TiPS
You can also import your own noise map by
clicking the panel's preview window.
The completed button.
Your button is complete. For a complete description of
KPT ShapeShifter, refer to “KPT ShapeShifter” on page 119.
To set bump map properties:
1
In the Bump Map panel, set Bump Scale = -25%.
45
KP T TUTORIALS
Lesson 5: Adding Texture to a Shape
KPT Orb-It Tutorial
2
Welcome to KPT Orb-it, the filter that makes 3D spheres over
your background image. In this tutorial, you'll learn how to
import components and set controls to put a number of orbs
over an image.
In the host application, load the file’s alpha channel as a
selection. Refer to your host application’s User Guide for
instructions.
Getting Started
First, you’ll need to load a background image.
To load the tutorial file:
1
Choose File menu > Open and locate the file
Tutorial: Orb-it: Orb-it Tutorial.PSD on the KPT 5 CD-ROM.
The background image with a selection created using the alpha channel.
3
Access the KPT Orb-it filter from your host application.
When the filter appears, it automatically generates an orb
field.
The background image.
Usually, you would just apply the orbs to the entire image.
However, you can create much more interesting Orb-It
effects by applying the orbs to a specific selection.
The default orb field generated when first access the filter.
46
2
Locate the file Tutorial: Orb-It: Cool Kitchen.JPG on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM and click Open.
Since each orb is a 3D object, you can change its material
properties to create different looks.
To set sphere color using the background:
✤
In the Orb Color panel, set Tint to Background = 100%.
When you use this setting, orb color is picked up from the
background image. At 100% the orbs are colored entirely
using colors in the image.
The environment map image.
To set environment properties:
1
In the Orb Color panel, set Mix Environment = 60%.
The orb field colored using the colors in the background image.
Lesson 2: Applying an Environment Map
You can make the surface of your sphere reflective by importing
an Environment map. The map is projected onto the surface of
each sphere to create reflections.
The image after you apply an environment map.
To add an environment map:
1
In the Orb Color panel, click the preview window. The Open
dialog appears.
47
KP T TUTORIALS
Lesson 1: Setting Orb Material
Lesson 3: Setting Sphere Properties
4
Set Z Spread = 75%.
You can control the size and number of orbs generated in your
sphere field using the controls on the Orb Controls panel. By
adjusting a few parameters, you can create vastly different
effects.
Example 1:
1
In the Orb Controls panel, set Average Size = 4%.
2
Set Size Variance = 6%.
3
Set Packing Density = 90%.
4
Set Z Spread = 80%.
The image after you apply Orb Controls settings.
Example 3:
1
In the Orb Controls panel, set Average Size = 2.8%.
2
Set Size Variance = 3%.
3
Set Packing Density = 75%.
4
Set Z Spread = 80%.
The image after you apply Orb Controls settings.
Example 2:
1
In the Orb Controls panel, set Average Size = 17%.
2
Set Size Variance = 25%.
3
Set Orb Packing Density = 90%.
The image after you apply Orb Controls settings.
48
KPT FiberOptix Tutorial
Since spheres are 3D objects, they can be highlighted using a
variety of light sources and colors.
Welcome to KPT FiberOptix, the filter that lets you create
amazingly realistic fibers on any image. You can use
KPT FiberOptix to make hair, fur, rugs or even really creepy
vines.
To set up 3D lighting:
✤
Using the 3D Lighting panel, add, position and color your
lights to match those shown below.
In this tutorial you’ll learn the basics of setting up
KPT FiberOptix parameters and working with the images and
mask.
Getting Started
Begin by loading the background image for your shape.
To load the tutorial file:
1
Choose File menu > Open and locate the file
Tutorial: FiberOptix: Fiberoptix tutorial.PSD on the KPT 5
CD-ROM.
The 3D lighting panel.
Your final image should look like the one shown.
The finished image.
The background image.
49
KP T TUTORIALS
Lesson 4: Lighting Spheres
2
Notice that the fibers now grow out of the teddy’s body and
not the entire image.
Access KPT FiberOptix from your host application.
Lesson 1: Adding a Mask
You’ll notice that the minute you enter KPT FiberOptix, it
generates a number of fibers and applies them your image. This
is the type of effect you’d want if you were creating a rug.
However, one of the most unique things about the filter is its
ability to apply fibers to a specific part of an image. Specific
areas are defined using masks.
To add a mask to your image:
1
In the Mask panel, click the preview window. An Open
dialog appears.
2
Locate the file Tutorial: FiberOptix: TeddyMask.JPG on the
KPT 5 CD-ROM and click Open. The image appears in the
panel.
The effect applied to the masked image.
To set mask parameters:
1
The mask image.
50
Set Bevel Width = 75%.
Set Blend Noise to Mask = 88%.
3
Set Direction Angle = 314°.
4
Set Intensity = 15%.
To set fiber noise parameters:
1
In the Noise panel, set Noise Scale =0%.
The results of adjusting Mask parameters.
Lesson 2: Setting Fiber Parameters
Now that you’ve got the fibers growing where you want, you’re
ready to adjust the parameters of the fibers themselves. The
Fiber Controls panel lets you set everything from the length of
the fibers to the direction in which they grow.
To set fiber parameters:
1
In the Fiber Controls panel, set Fiber Density = 89.7%.
2
Set Length = 8%.
The results of adjusting fiber and noise parameters.
Lesson 3: Coloring Fibers
Fibers can be colored by a number of sources. Their color
usually comes from the background image. However, that color
can be affected by the light color, a tint color. It can also be
replaced altogether by a gradient.
51
KP T TUTORIALS
2
To color fibers using light sources:
✤
To apply a gradient:
In the 3D Lighting panel, set up your lights as shown.
✤
In the Fiber Color panel, set Mix Gradient Color = 20%.
If you don’t know how to use the 3D Lighting panel, refer to
“3D Lighting Panel” on page 30 for instructions.
Your 3D Lighting panel should look like the one shown.
To color fibers using a gradient:
✤
In the Gradient panel, choose the colors shown.
If you don’t know how to use the Gradient panel, refer to
“Color Gradient Panel” on page 35 for instructions.
The results of adjusting Fiber Color parameters.
Your Gradient panel should look like the one shown.
52
KP T TUTORIALS
From here you can use the techniques you’ve just learned to add
other parts to the teddy. You can also use other filters like
KPT ShapeShifter to add more elements to the image.
This final teddy was created by using another mask to make different
colored hair, then using KPT ShapeShifter to make the eyes and nose.
53
KPT BLURRRR
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Hi-Speed Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Kraussian Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Camera Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Motion Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Spin Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Zoom Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Spiral Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Gaussian Weave Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Spiral Weave Blur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
54
Switching between Blurs
KPT Blurrrr is a collection of blur effects. Some of the blurs work
like those found in many host applications, but they’ve been
greatly enhanced. Others are effects you can’t find anywhere
else.
The Blur Types palette lists all the available blurs and lets you
switch between them with the click of a mouse. As you switch
blurs, the controls in the Parameters palette change.
All the blurs are controlled by the same set of palettes. The
controls available change as you switch to different blurs. The
Main Preview window automatically updates as you change
settings to provide you with a real-time preview of your blur
effect.
Blurs are applied to any image or selection you have currently
selected in the host application.
The Blur Types palette.
Previewing Blurs
The thumbnail preview window of the Parameters palette shows
you a 1:1 representation (i.e. actual size) of a portion of your
image. The rectangular area in the Main Preview window lets
55
KP T BLURRRR
Overview
you change the area displayed in the palette preview. You can
use this feature to see the effects of the blur on different parts
of your image.
Setting Hi-Speed Blur Radius
As you drag the rectangle in the Main Preview window, the palette
preview changes to show a 1:1 portion of the effect.
Hi-Speed Blur applied horizontally (X axis) and vertically (Y axis).
Using the X Radius and Y Radius sliders in the Parameters
palette, you can apply the blur either horizontally, vertically or in
both directions.
Hi-Speed Blur
The Hi-Speed Blur works just like the standard blur in your host
application (like the Blur filter in Photoshop) except that this
blur is much faster and its blur effect leaves more of the original
image intact. Hi-Speed Blur works just as fast on the 2 x 2 inch
image as it does on a 300 x 300 image.
56
Setting Kraussian Options
The Kraussian Blur works like a standard Gaussian blur. The
difference is that the Kraussian Blur applies a dithering
technique that makes colors blend smoothly. This results in a
higher quality blur that retains many of the artifacts from the
original image.
The six options available for the Kraussian Blur give you
complete control over how it’s applied. You can enable or
disable any or all of the following options:
Fading the Blur
The Fade option lets you fade the blur effect so that more of the
original image shows through.
Wrapping the Blur
The Wrap option lets you create seamless blurs. When the option
is enabled, the blur effect bleeds off the edges of the image.
Using a Mask with the Blur
The Alpha option uses the alpha channel from the original image
to modify the effect of the blur.
Before and after a Kraussian Blur.
Setting Blur Radius
The Blur Radius slider controls the intensity of the effect. The
higher the setting, the more blur is applied.
Setting Dithering Attributes
The Dither option lets you control how the color in the original
image is dithered to produce the blur effect. When the option is
enabled, you’ll get a higher quality blur as colors blend more
smoothly.
57
KP T BLURRRR
Kraussian Blur
Apply the Blur Horizontally or Vertically
TiPS
When the X Only option is enabled, the blur is only applied
horizontally. When the Y Only option is enabled, the blur is only
applied vertically. If you turn both options off, the blur is applied
in both directions.
By using selections to apply the Camera Optics blur
to specific areas, you can create depth of field
effects.
Camera Optics
The Camera Optics blur simulates the look you get when you
take a picture that’s out of focus.
An example of a depth of field effect created using Camera Optics.
Before and after a Camera Optics blur.
58
Motion Blur
The Blur Radius slider sets the intensity of the camera blur.
Higher settings make the image more blurry.
Motion Blur is a gaussian directional wrapping blur. This means
that, unlike standard motion blurs, KPT’s blur effect extends off
the edges of the image. So, if you use a Motion Blurred image as
a pattern, it would appear seamless.
Controlling the Blow-Out Effect
The Blow-Out setting highlights the light areas of the image,
creating the type of fuzzy bright spots you see in an out-of-focus
photo.
Before and after a Motion Blur.
Blow-Out at low and high settings.
If you create a pattern out of the final Motion Blur image, you’ll
see how the blur extends outside the image, creating a seamless
pattern.
Refer to your host application’s User Guide for more on creating
patterns.
59
KP T BLURRRR
Setting Blur Radius
Spin Blur
The Spin Blur works just like a radial blur. All the colors in the
image bleed together in a radial pattern. The result looks like
you placed your image on a record player.
Unlike most radial blurs, KPT’s Spin Blur draws in color from all
over the image including the edges. f
A pattern created using a Motion Blur image.
Before and after a Spin Blur.
Setting Motion Blur Radius
Setting Blur Radius
The Radius slider controls the amount of blurring applied to the
image.
The Blur Radius slider controls the intensity of the effect. At
higher values the color bleed is more severe, making it harder to
see the original image.
Setting Blur Direction
The Direction slider sets the angle of the color bleed. Basically
you’re setting the direction of the motion.
60
Spiral Blur
The Zoom Blur simulates the look you’d get if you zoomed in on
an area while taking a picture. All the colors in the original
image bleed together at a single point.
The Spiral Blur works like a radial blur, except that it has an
extra control that lets you bleed colors together at an angle. The
result is that your image looks like it’s being sucked towards a
single point.
Before and after a Zoom Blur.
Setting Blur Radius
The Blur Radius slider controls the intensity of the zoom effect.
At higher values more color is sucked into the middle of the
image.
Before and after a Spiral Blur.
Setting Blur Radius
As with the other blurs, the Blur Radius slider controls the
intensity of the spiral effect. The more blur you apply, the more
the colors bleed together.
61
KP T BLURRRR
Zoom Blur
Setting Spiral Rotation Angle
Setting Blur Radius
The Rotation Angle slider lets you control the severity of the
spiral.
As with the other blurs, the Blur Radius slider controls the
intensity of the Gaussian effect. The more blur you apply, the
more the colors bleed together. The weave effect also becomes
more apparent at higher settings.
Gaussian Weave Blur
Spiral Weave Blur
The Gaussian Weave blur works just like a regular Gaussian blur
except that it’s applied both horizontally and vertically, and then
generates a weave effect.
The Spiral Weave blur works much like the spiral blur, except
that once it’s applied, it generates a weave effect. The result is
an image that contains overlapping spiral patterns.
Before and after a Gaussian Weave blur.
Before and after a Spiral Weave blur.
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KP T BLURRRR
Setting Blur Radius
As with the other blurs, the Blur Radius slider controls the
intensity of the blurring effect. The more blur you apply, the
more the colors bleed together.
Setting Spiral Rotation Angle
The Spiral Rotation Angle slider lets you control the severity of
the spiral. The weave effect becomes more apparent at higher
Angle settings.
63
KPT FIBEROPTIX
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Creating Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Setting Fiber Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Adjusting Growth Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Using Noise Maps with KPT FiberOptix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Setting Fiber Surface Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Lighting Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Using Masks with KPT FiberOptix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
64
KPT FiberOptix grows fibers that look like real hair or fur. Each
fiber is rendered separately and can have its own color and tint.
The KPT FiberOptix panels let you control the growth, color and
lighting of fibers.
Using a mask, you can make fibers grow in a specific shape. For
example, you can make hair grow out of text.
Previewing your Fibers
The preview in the Fiber Controls panel can be used to control
the Main Preview. The preview in the panel displays a thumbnail
of your entire image. The rectangle inside this preview
represents the portion of the image displayed in the Main
Preview window. You can drag this rectangle to change the
portion of your image displayed in the Main Preview.
Use the Fiber Controls preview to control the Main Preview display.
65
KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Overview
Creating Fibers
Setting Fiber Density
Fibers are automatically generated when you enter the filter.
Every time you change a parameter, new fibers are rendered. The
Fiber Controls panel lets you control how fibers grow. You can
control their length, the direction in which they grow and the
amount of fibers generated.
The Fiber Density slider controls the amount of fibers generated.
At high density values, the entire image is filled with fibers
creating a furry look. At lower settings, you’ll be able to see
individual fibers.
High and low Fiber Density settings.
Setting Fiber Length
Fiber Length controls the length of the fibers that grow from
your image or mask. Higher length values take longer to render.
The Fiber Controls panel.
66
Setting Fiber Direction
As the fibers grow, you can apply a direction effect to alter their
growth patterns. The direction setting pushes fibers in a specific
angle as if they were being blown by the wind.
Direction settings on the Fiber Control panel.
Low and high Fiber Length settings.
Setting Direction Angle
Adjusting Fiber Tapering
The Tapering setting defines where along the length of the fiber
it starts to become transparent. The value of the setting defines
how much of the fiber is solid and when the transparency begins
to take affect. For example, at 60%, sixty percent of the fiber is
solid and forty is transparent.
The Direction Angle sets the general direction for fiber growth.
Direction angle is set in degrees. For example, at 45°, the fibers
tend to grow up and to the right.
The setting becomes more important when you’re using a
gradient to color your fibers. You’ll be able to see more of the
gradient colors, the higher the Tapering value, since there’s fiber
to color.
Setting Fiber Flatness
Flatness controls the depth of the fibers. At higher settings,
fibers grow out in all three dimensions. At lower values, fibers
grow more two-dimensionally.
Examples of different Direction Angle settings.
67
KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Longer fibers are also affected more by the Direction setting.
Setting Direction Intensity
Natural
The Direction Intensity slider controls the intensity of the
direction effect. It’s like setting wind strength. The higher the
Intensity setting, the stronger the wind and the more the fibers
bend toward the wind direction.
When the Natural option is enabled, fibers grow towards areas
of light in the image.
Adjusting Growth Patterns
The Flow Styles let you control the direction of the fiber growth
pattern. There are three styles you can use: Natural, Whorls, and
Loop.
To change growth pattern modes:
✤
In the Fiber Controls panel, click the arrow icon next to the
Flow Style text label beneath the panel preview window and
choose a style from the menu.
Example of Natural mode.
Whorls
When the Whorls option is enabled, fibers bend as they grow,
creating whirling patterns.
The Flow Style setting on the Fiber Control panel.
Example of Whorls mode.
68
The Loop option works like the Natural option, fibers grow
towards areas of light, but the effect is more severe, creating
pools of fibers.
Using Noise Maps with
KPT FiberOptix
A noise map is a mathematically generated pattern of turbulence
that disrupts the growth pattern of fibers. When you apply a
noise map, you get wavy tendrils instead of hair-like fibers.
A noise map can either be a large random pattern, or a specific
pattern. Since the noise affects how fibers grow, you can design
a specific noise map image to create a unique effect.
Example of Loop mode.
In this example, a very specific noise map image was used to create the
growth pattern shown. The dark areas in and around the arrow cause the
arrow fibers to grow more toward the center.
69
KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Loop
Loading a Noise Map
Scaling a Noise Map
A noise map can be any black and white image. However, noise
works better when its a randomly generated pattern. The
algorithmic noise presets provide excellent patterns for creating
various types of fibers.
The scale of your noise map determines how often the noise
pattern is repeated within a map. A map that’s scaled down
creates more turbulence since it repeats more often within the
map. A larger noise map produces less turbulence.
Blending Noise Maps
The Blend Noise to Mask slider in the Mask panel controls how
much of the noise is applied to the fibers. The higher the value,
the more turbulence is added to the growth pattern.
Setting Fiber Surface Properties
Normally, fibers take their color from the original background
image. An individual fiber takes its color from the pixels directly
beneath it in the original image. However, you can enhance or
replace this color using the controls on the Fiber Color panel.
The Noise panel.
To load algorithmic noise:
✤
Click the title below the preview window and choose a noise
from the menu.
To load a noise map:
1
In the Noise panel, click the thumbnail preview. The Open
dialog appears.
2
Locate the image you want to use as a noise map and click
Open. You can also use the panel’s Option menu to load a
map.
The Fiber Color panel.
70
Using a Tint Color
When you apply a tint using a gradient, each fiber is colored
using the colors in the Gradient panel.
When you apply a tint, the colors in the image shift towards a
specific uniform color. For example, if you choose Blue as your
tint color, the more tint you apply, the more blue is added to the
background image.
Use the controls on the Gradient panel to choose colors and set
up a gradient. Refer to “Color Gradient Panel” on page 35 for more
on designing a gradient.
To choose a tint color:
✤
In the Fiber Color panel, click the tint color dot and choose
a color from the Color Picker.
The tint color dot.
To apply a tint color:
✤
The Mix Flat Color slider lets you gradually apply the tint
color to the original image.
The higher the value, the more the image colors shift
toward the tint color.
Setting Luma Variance
An image with colored fibers and the gradient used to create it.
To apply a gradient to your fibers:
✤
The Luma Variance slider controls the color variance between
fibers. At low values, the fibers are colored using the same color
value. At higher values, color values vary more between fibers.
In the Fiber Color panel, drag the Mix Gradient Color slider.
Setting Fiber Transparency
The Fiber Transparency slider controls the opacity of your fibers.
At high settings, fibers appear almost invisible. At lower settings,
fibers are opaque.
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KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Using a Gradient as a Tint
Lighting Fibers
TiP
Fibers are three dimensional objects, meaning that you can light
them from any angle. The 3D Lighting panel contains all the
controls you’ll need to set light color and angles. Refer to “3D
Lighting Panel” on page 30 for more on using the panel.
If you make a selection before entering the filter,
the fibers will grow out of the selection.
To use a mask with KPT FiberOptix:
Using Masks with KPT FiberOptix
1
In the Mask panel, click the preview. The Open dialog
appears.
When you apply a mask to your image, the fibers grow out of the
mask. The origin of each fiber is directly affected by the shape of
the mask. Fibers grow to match the contours of the mask.
The Mask panel.
2
A mask and the fibers grown out of the mask.
Locate the image you want to use and click Open.
Setting Bevel Width
The mask you use can be the same shape as the background
image, or it can be a completely different shape. A mask can be
any black and white image on your system. You can also use one
of the presets in the Presets Library. Refer to “Working with the
Presets Library” on page 38 for more on using the library.
The Mask Bevel Width setting adds height to the fibers. Higher
bevel settings bend fibers, creating a dome-like effect.
72
It’s easier to see how the Mask Rendering options affect your
image when the fibers are sparse.
Fibers grow out of an imaginary surface, like hair growing out of
skin. The Mask Rendering options control this surface’s
appearance.
To set surface properties:
When you’re working with a mask, the surface is the size of the
mask. In this case, the rendering options control how the mask
itself is colored. When you’re working with just the image, the
rendering options apply to the imaginary skin layer that covers
the entire image.
✤
Click the text label beneath the Mask panel’s preview and
choose an option from the menu. A checkmark appears
next to the currently active option.
Shaded
When the Shaded option is active, a shaded gradient is applied
to the surface.
An example of the Shaded option and the original image.
The Mask Rendering: Material option applied to an image without a mask,
and the same setting applied to an image using a mask.
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KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Setting Background Surface Properties
Dark
White
When the Dark option is active, the surface acts like a Darken
channel operation. The result is a surface colored using the
darkest colors in the original image.
When you use this option, the background is white.
An example of the White option.
An example of the Dark option.
Black
Ambient
When you use this option, the background is black.
The Ambient option does not apply any special properties to the
surface. Fibers appear to grow out of the background image.
An example of the Black option.
An example of the Ambient option.
74
The Material option sets the background to the material color.
You can choose a material color using the color dot.
Previewing Fibers
KPT FiberOptix has three preview options that control how your
fiber preview is rendered.
Fast Edge Render
This mode renders the least amount of fiber detail. However, it is
very fast. Use it when you’re experimenting with settings.
Average Edge Render
This mode produces a good quality render of your image and is
faster than Accurate Edge.
An example of the Material option. A yellow material color was used.
Accurate Edge Render
Transparent
When this option is active, the image is transparent so in the
final render all you’ll see are the fibers.
This is the slowest render, but the most precise. Use it when you
want to see what your final effect will look like.
To choose a render preview mode:
✤
An example of the Transparent option.
75
Click the arrow icon at the top of the Main Preview window
and choose a mode from the options menu.
KP T FIBE ROPTIX
Material
KPT FRAXFLAME
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Setting up a Flame Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Viewing your Flame Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Coloring your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Rendering your Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
76
Choosing a Style
Flame fractals have been around for quite some time, but have
never been used in a filter. These exquisite fractals look like real
natural phenomena, but unlike anything you’ve ever seen.
They’re fractals, but not like those in KPT Frax4D. They are sort
of ethereal, like crystal clouds. KPT FraxFlame lets you explore
these fractals and render them as images.
The Style palette lists seven different flame fractal styles. These
styles are only a very small subset of the types of flame fractals
that exist, but they’re a good starting point for exploration.
Setting up a Flame Fractal
KPT FraxFlame is basically an exploratory filter. It lets you
explore the infinite variety of fractals by random generation of
fractal patterns.
The setup process is rather straight-forward. First, you select a
flame fractal style and then you randomly mutate the pattern
until you find one you like. When you’ve decided on a specific
fractal, you can explore your choice further, by repositioning
your view or zooming into different areas. After all that’s done,
you can set rendering options and that’s it—you have a flame
fractal.
The KPT FraxFlame Style panel.
Styles are mutually exclusive, so you can only use one style at a
time.
77
KP T FRA XFLAME
Overview
Linear
Bent
Sinusodial
An example of a flame style.
To choose a style:
✤
In the Style palette, click the fractal style you want to use.
Mutating a Flame
Spherical
The Mutator lets you randomize a flame fractal within a specific
set. So, once you’ve selected a style, you can use the Mutator to
see other fractals within the set.
Swirl
Flame fractals are generated using complex mathematical
equations with a wide number of parameters. These parameters
are like genes that go into making the final fractal. You can
change the pattern of the fractal through genetic mutation (i.e.
mutating parameters).
The preview at the center of the Mutator palette represents the
parent fractal and the smaller windows that surround it are
derivatives, or cousins, of the parent. Every time you mutate the
Horseshoe
Polar
Examples of the different flame styles.
78
4
Click the center preview again to generate derivatives of
the selected flame.
5
Continue clicking the Mutator and selecting derivatives
until you get the look you want.
Viewing your Flame Fractal
Once you generate the flame you want, you can explore it further
by changing your view of the fractal. The Pan, Zoom and Reset
controls on the Main Preview window let you move to different
parts of the fractal and explore its infinite detail
The KPT FraxFlame Mutator.
To mutate a fractal:
1
Click the preview in the center of the Mutator until you see
a flame pattern you like.
2
Click the small preview of the pattern you want to explore.
Your selection becomes the parent fractal and is displayed
in the center of the Mutator.
3
The Main Preview window.
Adjust the position of the Genetic Mutation slider.
NoTe
At high values, the derivatives are more random. At lower
settings, the derivatives look more like the parent fractal.
79
If you notice that the preview slows dramatically
when you switch your preview to Large, increase
the amount of memory allocated to the application.
KP T FRA XFLAME
parent, you generate different derivatives. The Genetic Mutation
slider controls how closely related the new derivatives are to the
parent fractal.
Repositioning your View
Rendering your Fractal
The Pan control lets you move your view of the fractal along the
X and Y axes.
The Render palette lets you adjust the flame image for the final
rendering process. Many of these controls work just like the
image-enhancing features found in most host applications.
To pan your fractal:
1
Click the Pan text label.
2
Drag inside the Main Preview window or the text label
itself.
Click Reset to restore the view to its default position.
The Rendering panel.
Zooming into your Fractal
Setting Gamma
The Zoom control lets you enlarge an area of your fractal to see
more detail. Since the flame fractal is infinitely detailed, you can
zoom continuously to see more patterns.
The Gamma control lets you adjust the tonal range of your
image. At higher values, colors appear more saturated. At lower
values, colors appear washed-out.
To zoom in/out of your fractal:
1
Click the Zoom text label.
2
Drag inside the Main Preview window. Drag right to zoom
in or left to zoom out. You can also drag on the text label to
zoom.
Setting Intensity
The Intensity slider lets you adjust the intensity of the colors in
the flame. Higher values make the flame brighter and more
vibrant. Lower values make the flame look faded.
Click Reset to restore the view to its default position.
Coloring your Fractal
Setting Preset Rendering Options
Flame fractals are colored using gradients of color. Gradients
are drawn from the Gradient palette. Refer to “Color Gradient
Panel” on page 35 for more on designing gradients.
The six preset rendering options available on the Rendering
panel menu are designed to give you the highest quality render
without making rendering too slow.
80
The Sharp rendering presets are designed to improve the quality
of fractals with well-defined elements that are tightly packed,
like Linear fractals.
The two groups are mutually exclusive, so you should apply the
group that best suits the fractal type you select.
Setting Oversampling
Oversampling sets how many times a fractal is sampled to
generate each pixel in your image. High values of this setting
can greatly increase the quality of the final render. However,
your fractal takes much longer to render.
Setting Filter Radius
The Filter Radius control blurs the edges of the fibers in a flame
fractal. The higher the radius, the fuzzier the edges appear.
Setting Custom Rendering Options
The Custom render option lets you setup your own rendering
settings using Sample Density, Oversampling and Filter Radius
values.
NoTe
Adjust these settings in small increments. Some
controls can greatly increase rendering time. Large
adjustments may result in an extremely long wait
when you apply the fractal.
Setting Sample Density
Sample Density controls the complexity of the fractal. At higher
settings, you’ll be a able to see more detail in the fractal.
However, more detail requires more rendering time. Use this
setting carefully or you may end up waiting a long time for an
image.
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KP T FRA XFLAME
The rendering options are divided into two groups. The Sparse
group options are designed to improve the quality of cloudy,
disperse or pixelated flame fractals, like Sinusodial fractals.
KPT FRAX PLORER
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Exploring Fractals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Navigating in a Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Coloring a Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
82
KPT FraxPlorer is the next generation of the Fractal Explorer
from KPT 2.1. It adds new fractal algorithms, and coloring styles.
These three fractal types are fairly common and unvaried. You
can explore them by moving to different points in the fractal or
by zooming in and out of different areas. Like all fractals, they
all have infinite detail so there’s plenty to see.
We’ve also broken entirely new ground in the world of fractal
mathematics by coming up with a new way to do near infinite
zooms. This isn’t possible anywhere else!
h
If you want a little background on fractals, refer to “What are
Fractals?” on page 18.
Exploring Fractals
KPT FraxPlorer lets you explore fractal space using the Universe
Mapper panel. You begin exploring by choosing from one of
three base fractal families: Mandelbrot, Mandelcube and
Newtonbrot.
h
Exploring a Newtonbrot set.
Mandelbrot
Mandelcube
Examples of the three main fractal types.
Newtonbrot
The base fractals are only three of the twelve fractal spaces you
can explore with KPT FraxPlorer. For each base fractal you can
explore three other spaces: Julia Variations, M-Polar variations,
and Julia Polar variations.
83
KP T FRA XPLORER
Overview
Exploring Julia Variations
Exploring Polar Variations
A Julia Set fractal exists at every point in a base fractal. Julia Set
fractals are simpler than Mandelbrot or Newtonbrot fractals, but
there are an infinite number of Julia Sets while there is only one
Mandelbrot.
To generate a polar variation, KPT FraxPlorer takes a point on
the base fractal and turns it inside out. So, if you move to a point
on the base fractal where the inside is black and the outside is
colored, the polar variation will have color in the inside and
black on the outside.
As you move around the general base fractal (for example, a
Mandelbrot), you’ll find the Julia Set that exists at that point.
Since one derives from the other, there’s a visual
correspondence between the base fractal and the Julia
variation. For example, when you move to a black area of the
base fractal, the Julia will have a black center and so forth.
h
h
Exploring the M-Polar set variations in a Mandelcube fractal.
Exploring the Julia Set variations in a Mandelbrot fractal.
84
Using the Universe Mapper
To generate M-Julia Polar variations, KPT FraxPlorer finds the
Julia Set at the point on the base fractal and then turns it
inside-out. So, for every point on the base fractal, you’ll get an
inverted Julia Set fractal.
The top portion of the Universe Mapper panel lets you choose
one of the three base fractal types. The top preview window is
both a preview and a locator. The locator icon tells you the
current source of the Julia variation displayed in the bottom
preview.
h
Julia Variation at the same point
Exploring the Julia Polar set variations in a Newtonbrot fractal.
When you first access the Universe Mapper only the top portion is visible.
When you click the arrow icon, the bottom portion appears.
The bottom portion of the panel displays the variations. The
three icons along the left let you choose which variation of the
base fractal you want to explore.
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Exploring M-Julia Polar Variations
Navigating in a Fractal
To choose a fractal type:
1
Click one of the three base fractal types.
Since fractals have infinite detail, the default preview of a fractal
is not all there is to see. When you explore the infinite patterns
within the fractal, you’ll see what makes fractals really unique.
If you want to explore the base fractal further, click the OK
button and use the Navigator controls to zoom into the
fractal.
2
Click the arrow icon at the bottom of the panel to display
the variations.
3
Click one of the three variation types. The new variation
appears in the bottom preview window.
4
Drag the location icon over the base fractal, in the top
portion of the panel, to explore the variations.
The Main Preview window acts like a large view-finder, allowing
you to zoom in and out of different parts of the fractal.
Location Icon
Use the controls in the Main Preview window to explore your fractal.
Drag the location icon to explore different variations.
5
When you have a fractal you’re happy with, click the OK
button. The new fractal appears in the Main Preview
window.
Using Navigation Controls
The controls along the bottom of the Main Preview window
control the speed and direction of your zoom as well as provide
controls for rotating, color cycling and fractal detail.
In general, you can start zooming by clicking anywhere in the
Main Preview window. During a zoom, you can change direction
by dragging the cursor in the direction you want to move.
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Zooms out of a location at a slower rate.
Zooms out of the location one click at a time.
Drag a selection area to zoom out of a specific
area.
Suspends zooming. When zooming stops, you
can drag inside the preview window to pan
your fractal.
Zooms in to a location one click at a time.
Drag a selection area to zoom into a specific
area.
Zooms in to a location at a slower rate.
Zooms in to a location quickly.
Rotates fractal. Click the tool, then drag in the
Main Preview window.
When you click a control, the expanded slider appears.
Resets the view.
Setting Fractal Detail
Enables animated color cycling. Cycles
through gradient colors.
The Details control sets how many times KPT FraxPlorer loops
through the fractal equation. Each time it loops through, it
calculates more of the fractal. So, the higher the Detail setting,
the more detail you’ll see in the fractal.
Zooms out of a location quickly
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KP T FRA XPLORER
When you click one of the tools, an expanded slider appears that
lets you set the zoom or rotate value precisely.
If you find blank areas in your fractal, it’s probably because
KPT FraxPlorer is not calculating the fractal at that point (this
usually happens when you zoom in really far). Try increasing the
Detail value. After a few calculations, you’ll be able to see the
portion of the fractal that exists at the current location.
Setting Preview Size
Setting Preview Options
KPT FraxPlorer’s preview sizes are as follows:
KPT FraxPlorer’s Main Preview window has two preview options
that let you control the quality of the rendered preview. The
options are mutually exclusive. You can use one or the other, not
both.
• Small = 320 x 240 pixels
The Main Preview window can be set to three different sizes.
These size settings are different from those commonly used in
KPT filters. The sizes in KPT FraxPlorer are designed to let you
achieve the best possible preview for your system.
• Medium = 400 x 300 pixels
• Large = 512 x 384 pixels
• X-Large = 640 x 480 pixels
Smoother Zooming
Coloring a Fractal
When this option is enabled, the zooming animation in the Main
Preview window is smoother. However, the fractal display is
slightly decayed. Use this option while you’re exploring the
entire fractal.
Fractals are colored using Coloring modes. The mode you
choose can greatly alter the look and feel of your fractal. A lot of
the fun of exploring fractals is seeing how the Coloring mode
changes the patterns inside a fractal.
When it’s disabled, the fractal rendering in the window is more
precise, resulting in an image with smoother edges. However,
zooming animation is more staggered.
Large Cursors
When this option is enabled, the cursor the main preview
window changes to indicate the direction of the zoom.
The controls on the panel change as you switch coloring modes.
The various large cursors.
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The interior of a fractal is the dead space where no patterns
exist. This area is usually colored black. However, you can create
different visual effects by changing its color. You can choose a
color that compliments one of the Coloring modes or pick a
color that makes it easier to see the fractal’s pattern. The inside
color can also have transparency.
To choose an inside color:
1
In the Frax Style palette, click the small fractal icon. The
Color Picker appears.
TiPS
You can quickly scroll through gradient presets
using Command/Ctrl + Left and Right arrow keys.
Drag over the panel’s title bar while you’re selecting
colors to select nothing.
Using Coloring Modes
The fractals in KPT FraxPlorer are pure mathematical objects,
often in four or higher dimensions. KPT FraxPlorer displays,
two-dimensional slices of these objects, which are in essence
just shapes with a well-defined inside and outside.
The inside component is called the set. This region is usually
shown in black. Points outside the set (but in the general
vicinity) are affected by its presence, analogous to the way an
airplane creates turbulence in the airflow around it.
Click the icon to set a fractal’s inside color.
2
Choose a color, grayscale value or transparency setting.
Refer to “Using the Color Picker” on page 29 for more on using
the Color Picker.
The different Coloring modes in KPT FraxPlorer are just different
representations of this turbulence effect, much as there are
several ways to represent the flow of air over an airplane wing.
NoTe
Using a Gradient
Also, when zooming, a special high-precision
algorithm kicks in, and only the basic Potential
Rendering coloring mode is supported.
Each of the coloring modes available in the Frax Style panel uses
gradients to apply colors to a fractal. Gradients are drawn from
the Gradient panel.
Refer to “Color Gradient Panel” on page 35 for more on designing
gradients.
For mathematical reasons, Newton-based fractals
only work with the following modes: Normal,
Decomposition, Mosaic, and Threads.
To choose a coloring mode:
✤
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In the Fractal Style panel, click the coloring mode circle, or
click the text label under the circle and choose a mode from
the menu.
KP T FRA XPLORER
Setting the Inside Color
Potential Rendering
Dendrite Rendering
Potential rendering is the simplest coloring mode to compute,
which is why it’s become the standard for drawing fractals.
This mode uses a single pixel line to trace the edges of the
fractal. It tends to bring out the detail of the fractal that may be
obscured by color noise.
If you think of the inside of the set (black area) as being
electrically charged, this coloring mode would represent the
electrostatic potential of the surrounding electromagnetic field.
An example of a fractal colored using Dendrite Rendering.
An example of a fractal colored using Potential Rendering.
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Binary Decomposition
This mode uses a special algorithm to compute an approximate
distance from each point to the boundary of the set. Though
Distance seems similar to Potential Rendering, it can actually
produce a very different visual feel, and is often less noisy than
the Potential Rendering near the set. Try cranking up the
gradient frequency and see what happens!
This mode exploits a computational artifact of the Potential
Rendering, which splits up the outside area into separate
squarish shapes. The sharp lines in these renderings define a
sort of polar coordinate system for the set.
An example of a fractal colored using Binary Decomposition.
An example of a fractal colored using Distance.
Setting Decomposition Amount
The Decomposition amount controls the difference in coloration
between adjacent squares.
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Distance
Twist
Thorns, Ribbons, Bubbles
If you think of a map of the North Pole, with latitude lines in
circles and longitude lines leading away from the pole, then the
standard Potential Rendering colors the set according to latitude
only (circular lines). The Twist style computes both latitude and
longitude for each point, and colors the outside of the set with a
combination, yielding swirly or twisty results.
If you think of coloring modes as turbulence representation,
each pixel is computed by following its trajectory until it gets to
a certain safe distance away from the set. These three coloring
modes operate by placing barriers in the path of the airflow, and
coloring points differently depending on which barriers they hit
on their way to escaping.
This mode works best when you’re zoomed out, looking at the
whole set. When you zoom in too far, it ends up looking just like
the Potential Rendering, though it computes slower. Switch back
to the standard rendering mode for deep zooms.
Thorns uses long lines as barriers, Ribbons uses concentric
rings, and Bubbles uses spherical shapes. The sliders control
various properties of these barriers, which can affect the final
rendering in unexpected ways. Play around, who knows what
you'll find.
An example of a fractal colored using Twist.
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This mode is loosely based on the Binary Decomposition, but
draws smooth pyramid shapes instead of solid-color squares.
An example of a fractal colored using Mosaic.
Setting Mosaic Bevel
The Mosaic Bevel slider controls the bevel width on the edge of
each pyramid.
An example of a fractal colored using Thorns, Ribbons, and Bubbles.
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Mosaic
Cilia
Plasma Threads
This mode is another Binary Decomposition spin-off. Pick a tile,
and see how far you can follow it in.
This mode simulates a plasma ball effect, by tracing out the
electrical paths of least resistance in the Potential rendering.
This mode requires more memory than the other modes. Be sure
to allocate lots of memory to the host application before you try
to render really huge fractals.
An example of a fractal colored using Cilia.
Setting Cilia Bevel Amount
An example of a fractal colored using Plasma Threads.
The Cilia Bevel slider controls the bevel width on the edge of
each tile.
Setting Thread Density
The Thread Density parameter controls the number of threads
that are calculated.
Setting Thread Angle
The Thread Angle parameter controls thread twistiness.
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Anti-Aliasing On Always
The Color dot lets you choose a color for the threads using the
Color Picker.
When this option is enabled, anti-aliasing is applied to all
renders, regardless of the coloring mode selected. Adding
anti-aliasing to some of the more complicated coloring modes
can greatly increase rendering time.
Rendering Your Fractal
KPT FraxPlorer has three output modes that let you control the
quality of your final rendered fractal. KPT FraxPlorer uses
anti-aliasing to enhance fractal elements. The three modes let
you turn anti-aliasing off, apply it selectively, or apply it to all
renders.
Anti-Aliasing Off
This option disables anti-aliasing.
Anti-Aliasing Adaptive
Previewing Output
You can preview your final output in one of two ways:
• By viewing it in a small window using the Preview Apply
option
• By viewing at full screen size using the Preview Full Screen
option
When you select the Preview Apply option, KPT FraxPlorer
renders a version of your final fractal, with anti-aliasing, and
displays it in a window. Rendering your fractal at full screen size
also applies anti-aliasing.
When this option is enabled, anti-aliasing is only applied when
you’re using one of the following coloring modes:
• Potential Rendering
• Binary Decomposition
• Twist
• Thorns
• Ribbons
• Bubbles
Applying anti-aliasing to the other modes increases rendering
time.
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Setting Thread Color
KPT FRAX4D
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Creating a KPT Frax4D Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Exploring your 4D Fractal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Adding an Environment Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Setting Up Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
96
KPT Frax4D is a beautiful new way to look at fractals. It creates
3D sculptures out of fractal space at the click of a mouse. These
sculptures can then be wrapped with any environment map. In
other words, you can make 3D fractal sculptures out of gold,
silver, green gel, or whatever you come up with.
The other mode, called Quaternion, lets you explore 4D fractal
space. The point you’re exploring is defined by setting four
parameters. The final 3D object is created by taking a 3D slice of
a 4D fractal.
Creating a KPT Frax4D Object
KPT Frax4D lets you create a 3D object by choosing a number of
parameters or dragging in the Frax4D preview windows. As you
change these parameters, you’re actually exploring fractal space
encountering different fractal patterns as you go. The fractals
you find are displayed in the Main Preview window. Once you
have a fractal you like, you can rotate it, add an environment
map to it, and finally, render it as an image.
4D vs. 3D Fractals
KPT Frax4D has two modes. The first mode, called Cogiternion,
lets you explore 3D fractal space by combining three
parameters.
Examples of 3D and 4D fractals.
The number of parameters available in the Control panel
depends on the type of fractal you’re creating.
To switch modes:
✤
Click the 3D/4D toggle button in the center of the 2D Slice
of 4D Space panel.
Click the 3D/4D toggle button to switch between 4D and 3D fractals.
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Overview
Using the 2D Slice of 4D Space Panel
Choosing R and I Parameters
The 2D Slice of 4D Space panel lets you view your fractal by
taking slices of it and displaying them in 2D previews. Basically,
what you’re seeing is the inside of the object. The sliders on the
panel let you adjust the coordinates of the fractal slices.
The R and I Coefficient controls let you set the position of the R
and I slice of your fractal. The R I slice is a roughly horizontal
plane cutting through 3D or 4D space. As you adjust the
coefficients, the preview shows you a horizontal slice of the
fractal object you’re exploring.
The 2D Slice of 4D Space panel.
A graphic representation of the R I preview.
You can also explore the fractal by dragging inside the panel’s
preview windows. As you drag, you’re adjusting two parameters
at once.
The number of controls available depends on the type of fractal
you’re creating. For a 3D fractal, you’ll have R, I, and J controls.
For a 4D fractal, you’ll have R, I, J, and K controls, plus a W slice
control.
98
This control is only available when you’re working with a 4D
fractal.
The J and K Slice Coordinate sliders control the position of the J
K slice. This plane is roughly vertical. As you change the
position, the preview shows you a vertical slice of the fractal
object.
4D Space
W Slice
A graphic representation of the W slice.
A graphic representation of the J K preview.
Viewing your Fractal using a W Slice
Since you can’t actually display a four dimensional fractal on a
computer, 4D fractals are sliced along their origin, either
horizontally or vertically, to produce a three-dimensional object
that you can see on screen. The Slicing Offset W slider controls
how the slice is taken from the 4D fractal.
Setting Fractal Complexity
Fractals in KPT Frax4D are actually volume renders. As the filter
renders, it moves through 3D space, rendering your fractal as it
goes. The Complexity parameter tells the filter how many steps
to take for a render. The more steps the filter takes, the more
detail it will encounter, which in turn results in a higher quality
object.
If you find that your fractal has some unwanted noise in it,
increase the Complexity value.
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KP T FRA X4D
Choosing J and K parameters
Exploring your 4D Fractal
The Reset control lets you clear all the rotations you’ve applied
to the fractal so that it appears in its default position.
Once you have a fractal you’re happy with, you can explore its
patterns to see if there are any areas of the fractal you want to
render as the final image.
Setting Fractal Iterations
The Detail control sets the sharpness of the fractal. Lower
values produce smoother-edged fractals. Higher values produce
more jaggy-edged fractals. As well, the higher the detail value,
the longer the fractal takes to render.
Adding an Environment Map
An environment map is an image that is projected onto your
fractal to create reflections. It can be used to simulate different
surfaces like gold or silver. The map is controlled using the
Environment panel.
Refer to “Environment Panel” on page 34 for instructions on loading
environment maps.
Setting Up Lighting
The KPT Frax4D Main Preview window.
Zooming into a Fractal
Like other fractals, a 4D fractal is infinitely detailed. The Zoom
control lets you enlarge a portion of your fractal so you can see
more detail.
KPT Frax4D sculptures are three-dimensional objects, which
means that you can light them from any angle. The 3D Lighting
panel contains all the controls you’ll need to set light color and
angles. Refer to “3D Lighting Panel” on page 30 for more on using
the panel.
Rendering your Fractal
Viewing a Fractal in the Main Preview window
Depending on whether you’re working with a 3D or 4D fractal,
you can change the render quality of the fractal before you turn
it into an image.
The Main Preview window lets you rotate your rendered
sculpture by dragging it in any direction.
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KP T FRA X4D
4D fractals can be rendered using the High Quality option which
uses enhanced raytracing to produce a cleaner image.
To choose a render mode:
✤
Click the option arrow at the top of the 2D Slice of 4D Space
panel and choose either Quaternion: Normal or
Quaternion: High Quality from the menu.
Extremely Technical Notes
The general description provided earlier in this chapter explains
how KPT Frax4D works in laymen’s terms. What follows is a more
technically accurate description. Be fore-warned, the
paragraphs that follow provide information that won’t really
enhance your use of the filter, but it may give you a mild
headache.
KPT Frax4D lets you choose parameters that define a point in 4D
space. What you’re seeing in the preview windows is the fractal
that exists at that point. As you change parameters, you’re
exploring either 3D or 4D space locating either more of the same
fractal, or completely new fractals.
When you’re working with a 3D fractal, you’re defining a point in
3D space using R, I, and J parameters, which result in a 3D
object.
When you’re working with a 4D fractal, you’re defining a point in
4D space using R, I, J and K. The W slice parameter is then used
to fix the L parameter. This results in a R, I and J object which
can then be converted into a 3D object you can work with.
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KPT NOIZE
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Generating Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Setting Up Noise Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
102
KP T NOIZE
Overview
The KPT Noize filter lets you explore a wide variety of noise
patterns. Noise patterns are mathematically generated
turbulence. Noise can be used as textures, patterns, or as noise
maps in one of the other KPT filters, like KPT FiberOptix.
Generating Noise
The KPT Noize filter is set up like an explorer utility. Noise is
divided into a number of families, listed in the Style panel. After
you select a noise family, you can explore its many variations
using the Mutator. When you’ve got a noise you like, you can use
one of the apply options to add it to your image.
Examples of different noise families.
To choose a noise family:
✤
Click a family name in the Style panel.
Choose Random if you want to randomize the families
themselves.
The KPT Noize Style panel.
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Using the Noise Mutator
The preview at the center of the Mutator represents the parent
noise and the smaller windows that surround it are derivatives,
or cousins, of the parent. Every time you mutate the parent, you
generate different derivatives.
Noise is generated using complex mathematical equations with
a wide number of parameters. These parameters are like genes
that go into making the final noise. You can change the noise
pattern through genetic mutation (i.e. mutating parameters).
Examples of mutated noise.
To mutate a noise pattern:
The noise in the center is the parent noise. The smaller previews display
derivatives.
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1
In the Noise Mutation panel, click the center preview until
you see a noise pattern you like.
2
Click the small preview of the noise you want to explore.
Your selection becomes the parent noise and is displayed
in the center of the Mutator.
3
Click the center preview again to generate derivatives of
the selected noise.
4
Continue clicking the Mutator and selecting derivatives
until you get the look you want.
The Frequency slider controls how many times the noise is
repeated within an image. Higher scale values create more
turbulence in the noise pattern.
Noise using low and high Frequency values.
Setting Up Noise Components
RGB noise can be colored either randomly or using a gradient. It
can also be transparent or opaque. When you turn it off, any
alpha noise you generated is combined with the source image.
RGB noise colored using a gradient.
Alpha noise creates transparency within the source image.
Noise is only applied in opaque areas.
Noise can have different components, depending on the
contents of the source image:
• If your source image is flat (i.e. without layers), KPT Noize can
generate RGB noise that can be colored using a gradient.
• If your source image has more than one layer, KPT Noize can
generate both RGB noise and Alpha noise.
An image with both RGB and Alpha noise.
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KP T NOIZE
Scaling Noise
If you use RGB noise combined with a gradient and alpha noise,
you’ll get a noise that not only has mathematically generated
turbulence, but also a wide variety of colors and transparency
patterns as well!
The Main Preview window displays the final noise. If you’re
combining noise types, the window shows the final result. If you
turn off RGB, the window shows how the alpha noise combines
with the background image.
Generating RGB Noise
By default, KPT Noize generates RGB noise. The Mutator sets
the type of noise you generate.
Setting RGB Noise Opacity
The Opacity slider lets you control how much the generated
noise affects the background image. The more transparent the
noise, the less it affects the image. Setting RGB Noise Opacity to
0%, is like turning the noise off.
Using a Gradient
When this component is enabled, the RGB noise is colored using
the colors in the Gradient panel.
The Gradient panel appears when you select this component.
Use the panel to choose and mix colors. Refer to “Color Gradient
Panel” on page 35 for more on creating gradients.
The Main Preview window displaying a combination of RGB and Alpha
noise.
To choose noise components:
✤
Click the arrow icon at the top of the Noise Component
panel and choose a component from the menu.
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KP T NOIZE
Generating Alpha Noise
When this component is enabled, KPT Noize generates alpha
noise that creates transparency in the noise pattern.
T he Noise Component panel expands when you enable the Using Alpha
Noise option.
To generate alpha noise:
1
Click the Alpha Noise preview.
2
Use the Mutator to generate a noise pattern.
Setting Alpha Noise Opacity
Like RGB Noise, you can control how much the alpha noise
affects the image, by setting is transparency. Setting Alpha
Noise Opacity to 0% is like turning alpha noise off. The RGB
Noise you generated is completely opaque.
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KPT ORB-IT
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Creating Orbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Lighting Orbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Setting Up Orb Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Adding an Environment Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
108
Setting Orb Packing Density
KPT Orb-It creates a field of 3D orbs over a background image.
Each orb is an individual object with its own surface properties
and position in space. Since the spheres exist in 3D space, they
appear to have depth. As well, they can be lit from any direction
using various light sources.
Packing Density controls how many spheres are produced. Low
values produce an orb field with few orbs spaced farther apart.
High values have the opposite affect.
Spheres can be colored using lights, tint colors, or by picking up
color from a background image.
Creating Orbs
A sphere field is automatically generated the minute you enter
KPT Orb-It. Every time you change a parameter, a new field is
created. The Orb Controls panel lets you control how that field is
generated. The panel’s controls let you set the size of individual
spheres as well as the density of the sphere field.
Examples of high and low Packing Density values.
The Orb Controls palette.
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KP T ORB-IT
Overview
Setting Orb Size
Setting Z-Axis Distribution
Orb Average Size controls the relative size of spheres. High
values produce larger spheres, while low values produce smaller
ones.
Orb Z Spread controls the depth of the sphere field. What the
control does is adjust the position of spheres along the Z plane.
Higher values result in spheres that are more spread out along
the plane, creating a sense of depth. Lower values result in a
flatter looking sphere field.
Examples of low and high Orb Average Size values.
Examples of low and high Orb Z Spread values.
Size Variation
Orb Size Variance controls the amount of difference in sphere
sizes. Higher values result in spheres that range from very large
to very small. Lower values result in orbs that are all closer in
size.
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The Alpha Maksing option lets you use the grayscale values of
an image to control orb density. When the option is enabled,
larger orbs appear in areas of light and smaller orbs appears in
dark areas.
Lighting Orbs
Since the spheres created by the filter are 3D, they can be lit
from any angle. You can have as many lights as your system’s
memory allows. Each light can be positioned separately and it
can have its own color.
The effect of different lighting angles.
An orb field with Alpha Masking disabled and enabled.
To enable/disable the Alpha Maksing option:
✤
In the Orb Controls panel, click the Alpha Maksing label.
When the checkmark appears, the option is enabled.
Lights are controlled by the 3D Lighting panel. Refer to “3D
Lighting Panel” on page 30 for more on using this control.
Setting Up Orb Surfaces
An orb’s surface is made up of several properties. Its material
color, which is drawn from the background image; its tint color,
which can be used to alter the material color and create metallic
The Alpha Masking label .
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KP T ORB-IT
Controlling Orb Density using Alpha
Information
effects; its refraction setting, which can make a surface look like
glass, and finally its environment map, which can create a
realistic-looking reflective surface.
To set the tint color:
✤
In the Material panel, click the color dot and choose a color
from the Color Picker.
Refer to “Using the Color Picker” on page 29 for more on using
the Color Picker.
Setting the Tint Amount
The Mix Tinting Color slider in the Orb Color panel controls how
much of the tint color is applied to the orbs. Higher values shift
all orb colors closer to the tint color.
Orb surface properties are controlled by the Orb Color panel.
Using a Tint Color
The base color of spheres comes from either the original
background image or the Tint Color.
High and low Mix Tinting Color values.
Usually a sphere’s color is picked up from the image beneath it.
However, if there is no color, the sphere’s color is the Tint color.
This is rarely the case; more often the Tint color is used to wash
all the orbs in a uniform color.
112
Turning Metallic Reflections On/Off
The Tint to Background slider controls how much of an orb’s
surface color is taken from the pixel directly below it. At high
values, orb color is taken more from the background image. At
lower settings, orbs are colored more by the light and tint colors.
The Metallic Render option lets you tint orb reflections using the
material color, giving them a metallic look.
To turn Metallic Render on/off:
✤
In the Material panel, click the Plastic button. The option is
disabled when the button is labeled “Plastic”.
Adding an Environment Map
An environment map is an image that’s projected onto the
surface of your spheres to produce realistic reflections. The map
is applied to each sphere separately, so you can see the
reflection again and again.
The effect of setting Tint to Background to 100.
Using Glass Refraction
When you apply Glass refraction, the orbs refract light causing
distortions in any reflection coming off their surface. Distortions
appear when the orbs are refracting parts of the background
image.
An image applied as an environment map.
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KP T ORB-IT
Tint to Background
Blending the Environment Map with the Orbs
The Mix Environment slider lets you control how much the
environment map affects the surface of an orb. At lower
settings, the environment map appears faded. At higher settings,
the map is completely visible.
114
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Setting Warp Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Adjusting Warp Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
115
KP T RA DWARP
KPT RA DWARP
Overview
effect. All you have to know to use this effect is that adjusting
the parameter values creates a completely different distortion
effect.
KPT RadWarp simulates a camera effect known as a barrel
distortion. The distortion causes the edges of your image to
become warped as if you were looking through a “fish-eyed”
lens. This filter can be used both to correct a barrel distortion
and to create it.
TiP
KPT RadWarp is a quick way of creating cool text
effects.
Different X Center values.
The Warp Parameters panel.
Setting Warp Parameters
The KPT RadWarp effect is created by adding
mathematically-calculated distortions to your image. The two
parameters control variables in equations used to calculate the
116
Setting Warp Beta Controls
The Alpha slider controls how much of an alpha curve is added
to your image. The net result is that you should continue
adjusting this control until you get the effect you want.
The Beta slider controls how much of a beta curve is added to
your image. Again, experimentation is the key to using this filter
effectively. Adjust the position of the slider until you get the
effect you want.
An example of a high Alpha setting.
An example of a high Beta setting.
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KP T RA DWARP
Setting Warp Alpha Controls
Adjusting Warp Center
Setting Vertical Center
The KPT RadWarp filter can reposition the center of your image
so that the center of the warping effect appears on different
parts of your image. By trying different center positions, you can
add a kind of perspective warp to the image.
The Y Center slider lets you position the center of the effect
vertically.
Setting Horizontal Center
The X Center slider lets you control the horizontal center of the
warping effect.
TiP
You can also adjust the center by dragging inside
the Main Preview window.
Different Y Center settings.
Rotating your Image
The Rotation slider lets you rotate the image in real-time. The
slider sets the angle in degrees.
Different X Center values.
118
What’s in this section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Creating a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Working with Bevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Lighting your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Adding Texture to your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Adding a Glow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Working with Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Adding an Embossing Layer to your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Adding an Environment Map to your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Previewing Your Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
119
KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
KPT SHAPESHIFTER
Overview
Using this feature, you can load a mask that has shapes for each
letter in a font set, and instantly turn them all into 3D objects, or
you can load a mask with all shapes for each of the buttons in
your website and instantly create all the 3D buttons you’ll need.
KPT ShapeShifter is the ideal tool for creating text effects, Web
or software buttons and 3D artwork.
By applying bevels to your shape, KPT ShapeShifter gives it that
3D look. The filter provides incredible control over the shape and
size of the bevels. You can even design your own bevel profile.
The filter also lets you add a second layer to a shape for adding
things like graphics or text. In addition, you can add
environment maps for reflections and bump maps for surface
texture.
A mask with three discrete shapes and the objects created using
KPT ShapeShifter.
Creating a Shape
KPT ShapeShifter makes 3D shapes from masks. It takes the
outline of the mask and adds a bevel, making it look 3D.
A mask and the object created using KPT ShapeShifter.
The mask can be either an imported mask or a selection created
in the host application.
One of KPT ShapeShifter’s most impressive features is its ability
to make hundreds of objects simultaneously. For example, if you
load a mask that looks like swiss cheese, each hole forms it’s
own shape. Each shape has exactly the same settings.
If you use a mask image, it has to be black and white. The black
areas of the mask are considered the background, while the
white areas are used to make the shape.
KPT ShapeShifter creates an object for each discrete shape in
the mask. So if you use a mask with two circles in it, you’ll get
two objects. Shapes created from a single mask all have exactly
the same properties.
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To import a shape mask:
1
In the Main Shape panel, click the triangle icon in the title
bar to open the options menu and choose Load Mask.
or
Working with Bevels
A bevel is the profile of your shape. It’s what makes it look 3D.
The size of the bevel determines how thick your shape is, while
the shape of the bevel can produce ridges and creases in the
shape’s surface. Bevels are controlled using the Main Shape
panel.
Click the thumbnail preview window.
2
Locate the file you want to use as a mask and click OK.
The mask appears in the preview window as a 3D shape.
You can also use the Load Preset option to load a preset
mask. Refer to “Working with the Presets Library” on page 38 for
more on the Presets Library.
Use the Main Shape panel to import a shape mask or set up bevels.
Bevel Modes
KPT ShapeShifter has three bevel modes you can use when
applying a bevel to your shapes. The first two, Arc and Diagonal,
are presets, while the third lets you create your own bevel
profile.
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KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
If you’re using a selection, your 3D object is the same shape as
the selection.
Diagonal
To switch Bevel Modes:
✤
In the Main Shape panel, enable one of the bevel options.
This profile creates smooth angled plateaus along the edges of
your shape.
Bevel option buttons.
Arc
When you use the Arc profile, your shapes have a smooth
rounded edge.
A bevel created using Diagonal mode.
User-Defined Profile
This bevel option lets you create your own bevel profile by
editing the graphic representation of a bevel.
A bevel created using Arc mode.
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To edit the bevel profile:
1
In the Main Shape panel, click the User Defined button. The
panel preview displays the current bevel.
Drag inside the preview to change the bevel profile.
2
Drag any point on the graph up or down.
3
Once you have a shape you like, use the smoothing tools to
soften the curve.
Sharp points in the graph produce hard ridges in the bevel.
The Smoothing option lets you make the bevel more
rounded, while maintaining the ridges you created.
As you adjust the graph, your changes are applied to the
shape in the Main Preview window so you can see what it
looks like.
A bevel created using a user-defined profile.
To smooth a user-defined bevel:
✤
Press the Option/Alt key while your bevel is displayed in the
Main Shape preview window.
The longer you hold down the key, the more smoothing is
applied.
To magnetize the bevel curve:
✤
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Shift-click a point on the curve to draw the curve to the
point where clicked.
KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Think of the graph as a side view of the bevel. A straight line
results in a flat bevel. An arc results in a rounded bevel. A profile
shaped like a wave results in a bevel with grooves in it and so
on.
Setting Bevel Scale
To reset the bevel curve:
✤
Control-drag to reset the curve to a flat line.
The scale of the bevel determines your shape’s 3D depth. The
larger the bevel, the smaller the flat plateau on the top of your
shape and the more 3D it looks.
Using Bevel Masking
The Bevel masking options let you control how the bevel is
applied to the object in relation to the original mask.
Drag inside the preview to change the bevel profile.
Normally, KPT ShapeShifter uses the mask to generate the bevel
contour. Depending on your Bevel Profile and Size settings, the
bevel may extend outside the area of the original mask. This
helps create a smoother drop-off.
The effects of low and high Bevel Scale settings.
Setting Bevel Height
The Bevel Height control determines the sharpness of the bevel
angle. The higher the setting, the more pronounced the bevel
becomes.
However, when you enable the Bevel Masking option, the final
3D shape will be exactly the same size as the mask.
You’ll want to enable this option if you’re creating a shape that’s
going to be composited precisely with another image. You’ll also
want to enable masking when you’re designing elements on a
web page that need to be an exact size.
Low and high Bevel Height values.
124
Texture can be added in one of two ways:
Since the shapes created by the filter are 3D, they can be lit
from any angle. You can have as many lights as your system’s
memory allows. Each light can be positioned separately and can
have its own color.
• By using a noise algorithm, which creates a texture by
applying mathematically generated bumps and dents.
Algorithmic noise creates a more grainy surface with random
bump patterns.
The lighting you apply to the object can greatly enhance its 3D
look. Lighting is controlled using the 3D Lighting panel. Refer to
“3D Lighting Panel” on page 30 for more on this panel.
• By using a bump map which adds bumps and dents to a
surface based on the light and dark values in the map image.
Maps are good for creating specific patterns on your object.
To choose a preset noise as a bump map:
Adding Texture to your Shape
✤
By default, your shape has a smooth surface. That may be fine
for some purposes, but you can create much more interesting
effects by adding some texture to your shape’s surface.
In the Bump Map panel, click the text label beneath the
preview window and choose a noise from the menu that
appears.
Importing a Bump Map
A bump map is a black and white image that is used as a height
map to create bumps in the surface of your shape. A height map
creates bumps based on the light and dark values in an image.
Light values create bumps and dark values create dents.
To import a bump map:
1
In the Bump Map panel, click the triangle icon in the title
bar to open the options menu and choose Load Mask.
or
Click the thumbnail preview window.
2
Locate the file you want to use as a map and click OK.
The image appears in the preview window.
Texture is controlled using the Bump Map panel.
You can also use the Load Preset option to load a preset
mask. Refer to “Working with the Presets Library” on page 38 for
more on presets.
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KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Lighting your Shape
Setting Bump Scale
Setting Bump Height
The scale of your bump map can greatly alter the texture you
finally create. A larger bump map creates a smoother texture. A
smaller map creates a very grainy texture since the map is
repeated more frequently to cover the surface of your shape.
The Bump Height slider determines how pronounced the bumps
in the bump map appear on the shape’s surface. Positive values
create bumps. Negative values create dents.
Texture created using a low Bump Scale value and the bump map used to
create the texture.
Texture created using a high Bump Height value and the bump map used
to create the texture.
126
To turn the glow on/off:
✤
The Glow controls let you place a colored highlight around your
shape. This feature is great for creating highlight states on
buttons.
In the Glow panel, click the eye icon. When the eye’s open,
the glow is enabled.
Glow properties are controlled using the Glow panel.
A shape with a glow applied.
Setting Glow Color
You can pick a glow color using the Color Picker. The color you
choose won’t affect the color of the shape, but it should
compliment it. Refer to “Using the Color Picker” on page 29 for more
on choosing colors.
To choose a glow color:
✤
127
In the Glow panel, click the Glow Color dot and choose a
color from the Color Picker.
KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Adding a Glow
Setting Transparency
Working with Shadows
The Transparency slider controls how opaque your glow appears.
The higher the setting, the stronger the glow effect.
The Shadow controls let you set the attributes for the shape’s
drop shadow. Using these controls, you can set the shadow’s
position, size and opacity. Shadows are controlled using the
Shadow panel.
Setting Glow Size
The Glow Softness slider controls the size of the glow around
the shape. Higher settings make the glow grow larger and
fuzzier.
Setting Glow Position
The Glow X Offset and Y Offset let you control the glow’s
position along the X and Y planes.
TiPS
You can also position the glow by dragging inside
the panel’s preview window.
If you hold down Shift, there’s a 1:1 correlation
between your movements in the preview and the
position of the glow in the Main Preview window. If
you move your glow 5 pixels in the preview, the
glow in the Main Preview also moves 5 pixels.
A shape with a shadow.
To turn a shadow on/off:
✤
128
In the Shadow panel, click the eye icon. When the eye’s
open, the shadow is enabled.
TiPS
You can pick a shadow color using the Color Picker. The color
you choose only applies to the shadow. Refer to “Using the Color
Picker” on page 29 for more on choosing colors.
You can also position the shadow by dragging
inside the panel’s preview window.
If you hold down Shift, there’s a 1:1 correlation
between your movements in the preview and the
position of the shadow in the Main Preview
window. If you move your shadow 5 pixels in the
preview, the glow in the Main Preview also moves 5
pixels.
Setting Shadow Size
The Shadow Softness slider lets you control the size of the
shadow. Higher values increase the radius of the shadow,
making it more blurred. Lower values decrease its size.
Setting Shadow Transparency
The Shadow Transparency control sets how opaque your shadow
appears. Lower values make your shadow more transparent.
Shadow properties are controlled by the Shadow panel.
To choose a shadow color:
✤
In the Shadow panel, click the Shadow Color dot and choose
a color from the Color Picker.
Setting Shadow Position
The Shadow X Offset and Y Offset let you control the
drop-shadow’s position along the X and Y planes.
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KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Setting Shadow Color
Adding an Embossing Layer to your
Shape
KPT ShapeShifter lets you add a second layer to your shape that
can be used to create an engraving effect. Using this second
layer, called the Top Mask, you can add shapes on top of your
shape or text onto a button. The embossing effects can make
your second layer look like it’s been engraved into the shape.
You can also load a mask from the Presets Library. Refer to
“Working with the Presets Library” on page 38 for more on
presets.
To position the top mask:
✤
Shift-drag the mask in the Main Preview window.
Using a Tint Color with the Top Mask
Tint applies a uniform color to the shape. This tint color only
affects the shapes on the top mask.
To choose a tint color:
✤
Click the color dot and choose a color from the Color Picker.
Refer to “Using the Color Picker” on page 29 for more on
choosing colors.
Noise Masking
Noise masking protects your top mask from the texture below it.
This helps make text more readable since it won’t have any
texture applied to it.
The second layer is controlled by the Top Mask panel.
To turn noise masking on:
To turn the top mask on/off:
✤
✤
In the Top Mask panel, click the eye icon. When the eye’s
open, the top mask is enabled.
To load a top mask:
1
In the Top Mask panel, click the preview window. The Open
dialog appears.
2
Locate the mask you want to use and click Open.
130
In the Top Mask panel, click the Noise Masking toggle
button.
The Transparency control lets you set the opacity of the second
layer. The higher the setting, the more transparent the layer.
To adjust transparency:
✤
Adding an Environment Map to
your Shape
An environment map is used to create a pattern in the
reflections of your shape.
In the Top Mask panel, drag the Transparency slider.
Emboss Scale
Emboss Scale controls the radius of the embossing effect. The
higher the value, the softer the effect.
Emboss Height
The Emboss Height slider controls the intensity of the embossing
effect. Positive values create bumps in the shape of the mask.
Negative values create dents in the surface.
Environment maps are controlled by the Environment panel.
To understand how an environment map works, imagine that
your shape is made out of a shiny material. It would reflect
everything around it. So, if it was in the middle of a park, you
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KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Adjusting Transparency
would be able to see a reflected view of the trees and grass. The
environment map simulates this effect. It’s used to project a
surrounding environment onto the surface of your shape.
Blending an Environment Map
The Mix Environment slider lets you control how much of the
map is visible in the shape’s reflection. The higher the setting,
the more of the map you can see. At lower settings, the map
appears faded.
Using a Tint Color
Tint applies a uniform color to the shape. This color is in
addition to any color the shape picked up from a background
image.
Before
When you apply a metallic surface to your shape, the tint color is
used to color all the reflections that come off its surface.
Once you have a tint color you can control how much it affects
the base color of your shape. The higher the tint value, the more
the colors shift toward the tint color.
After
An object before and after an environment map was applied.
To choose a tint color:
You can load any RGB or grayscale image as an environment
map, or you can use a preset from the library. Refer to “Working
with the Presets Library” on page 38 for more on presets.
✤
Click the color dot and choose a color from the Color Picker.
Refer to “Using the Color Picker” on page 29 for more on
choosing colors.
To set tint value:
Once you’ve loaded an environment map, you can control how
much it affects the shape by using the Mix Environment slider.
✤
To load an environment map:
1
Click the thumbnail preview window. The Open dialog
appears.
2
Locate an image you want to use as a map and click Open.
Choose a photo-realistic image if you want to reflect a
natural environment.
132
Drag the Mix Tinting Color slider. At higher values you’ll see
more of the tint color and less of the base colors.
Setting Internal Reflections
The Glass Refraction control can be used to create a glass-type
effect. When you apply refraction, the shape’s surface bends
light causing distortions in the reflections.
Internal Reflections cause the inside of the object to reflect light,
making it look brighter.
An example of Internal Reflections.
An example of Glass Refraction.
The control can have both positive and negative values.
Previewing Your Shape
The render options in the Main Preview window let you control
the quality and speed of the preview. The options are a trade-off
between speed and quality. Faster previews have lower quality
and higher quality previews take longer to render.
To choose a render preview option:
✤
133
Click the triangle icon at the top of the Main Preview
window and choose an option from the menu.
KP T SHA P ESHIFTER
Applying Glass Refraction
KPT SMOOTHIE
What’s in this Section:
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Smoothing an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Working with Outer Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Working with Inner Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
134
Previewing your KPT Smoothie Effect
The KPT Smoothie filter lets you blur the edges of any image and
then clip it, giving the final image a smooth-edged, rounded
look. The smoothing effect is created by applying a Gaussian
Blur to the edges of the mask and then clipping it to make the
edges cleaner.
The thumbnail preview window in the Edges panel shows you a
1:1 representation (i.e. actual size) of a portion of your image.
The rectangular area in the Main Preview window lets you
change the area displayed in the panel preview. You can use this
feature to see the effects of the smoothing on different parts of
your image.
A Little History...
KPT Smoothie is the evolution of a tip Kai wrote a couple of
years back called “How to Clean Up...a Fax or a Scan”. In it, he
described how to fix up a badly scanned image in Photoshop.
The process went something like this:
• First, you take the image and apply a Gaussian Blur. This
makes the image appear smoother which also results in
anti-aliased edges.
• Then, you go into the Levels dialog and adjust the grayscale
values to fix up any shading that may have been eliminated
when the image was faxed. You also use Levels to clean up
the edges.
Well, KPT Smoothie does all that and more. You don’t have to go
to a variety of dialogs and apply different effects. It’s all in one
place. What’s more, KPT Smoothie goes further than simply
consolidating controls, it provides a way to fix up specific edges.
Not only does KPT Smoothie simplify the touch-up process, but
it can also be used to make special effects like outlines and
rounded rectangles.
As you drag the rectangle in the Main Preview window, the panel preview
changes to show a 1:1 portion of the effect.
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KP T SMOOTHIE
Overview
Smoothing an Image
Smoothing Amount
Before you start working with the specific edges in your image,
you should apply the smoothing effect to the whole image. Then
you can use the Inner and Outer Edge controls to refine the
effect.
Smoothing Amount controls how much smoothing is applied to
the entire image. This control has the same affect as adding a
Gaussian blur to your image, except that you can control how
the blur is applied in real-time.
Smoothing Amount at low and high settings.
TiPS
Applying a high Smoothing Amount to a solid
square is a quick way of making a rounded
rectangle.
The Edges panel controls all the settings for KPT Smoothie.
A rounded rectangle created using a high Smoothing Amount.
136
TiPS
If you’re trying to fix a specific edge, use the
rectangle in the preview area to display it in the
Edge panel. That way, you can see if your settings
are making the edge cleaner.
Extremely high values of Grayscale Inversion actually invert the
shades in the image so that what was light is now dark and vice
versa.
Original
Image
Smoothed
Image
The effects of applying Smoothing to a sharp-edged image.
Grayscale Inversion
A completely inverted image.
This control adjusts the balance between the light and dark
grayscale values in your image (just like the Levels dialog in
Photoshop). Again, the advantage here is that you can see your
adjustments in real-time.
Grayscale Inversion can smooth out the transitions between
grayscale values to make edges cleaner, or it can eliminate
unwanted elements from your image.
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KP T SMOOTHIE
You can really see the effects of Smoothing Amount when you
apply it to an image with sharp edges. On closer inspection, you
can see how the edges are rounded as you apply more
smoothing.
Working with Outer Edges
Working with Inner Edges
As their names suggest, the Outer Edge controls let you apply
the KPT Smoothie effect specifically to the outside edges of your
image.
The Inner Edge controls let you apply the KPT Smoothie effect to
the inside edges of your image.
These are the controls you’ll use to clean-up images with thin
lines. The smoothing process can distort or eliminate lines, the
Inner Edge size can help you redefine them.
Outer Edge Smoothing
Outer Edge Smoothing determines how much smoothing is
applied to the outside edges of the image.
Low and high settings of Outer Edge Smoothing.
The effects of using the Inner Edge controls to redefine lines within the
image.
Outer Edge Size
Outer Edge Size sets how much of the outer edge of the image is
trimmed. Use this control after you’ve set the Smoothing
Amount. That way, you can see how much of the smoothing
effect you’re clipping.
138
Inner Edge Size
Inner Edge Smoothing sets how much smoothing is applied to
the inside edges of the image. If you use Inner Edge Size to
hollow out the shape, this setting applies smoothing to the
inside of the shape.
Inner Edge Size sets how much of the image’s interior is
trimmed. This can clean up inside edges distorted by Inner Edge
Smoothing. The higher the setting, the more hollow the image
appears.
Low and high settings of Inner Edge Size.
TiPS
An example of Inner Edge Smoothing.
Inner Edge Size is great for creating outlines out of
solid shapes.
An outline created by applying Inner Edge Size.
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KP T SMOOTHIE
Inner Edge Smoothing
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