SEMI Draft Doc

SEMI Draft Doc
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AUXILIARY INFORMATION
SEMI S2-93A AND KOSHA S-MARKING COMPARISON MATRIX
FOREWORD
Publication of this document as Auxiliary Information independent of any standards was authorized by a 2/3majority vote of the North American Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) Committee at a meeting on March
22, 2001. This action was subsequently approved by the EHS Global Coordinating Subcommittee by email on
March 30, 2001 and by the NA Regional Standards Committee by electronic ballot on April 30, 2001.
The information in this document has been furnished by SEMI Standards and the “S” Mark Comparison Task
Force for informational use only and is subject to change without notice.
The comparison matrix between KOSHA S-Marking requirements and SEMI S2-93A is a valuable tool to
equipment suppliers, third parties and device manufacturers. It identifies the similarities and differences between
those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA S-Marking.
The KOSHA S-Marking Comparison Task Force’s objective is to compile a full comparison matrix of the
requirements for KOSHA S-Marking and related sections of SEMI S2-93A. This comparison will allow
equipment suppliers to make good decisions regarding compliance with worldwide requirements.
LIMITATION
This document is intended to be used as background information only. It is not the intent of this document to alter
the criteria of SEMI S2. This information is the opinion of the Task Force and is not meant to imply agreement by
staff at KOSHA.
NOTICE: By publication of this document, SEMI takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights or copyrights asserted
in connection with any item mentioned herein. Users of this document are expressly advised that determination of any such patent
rights or copyrights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 2
Comparison Matrix Between SEMI S2-93A and KOSHA “S” Mark
KOSHA’s S-Mark Requirements
SEMI S2-93A
Comments
Occupational Safety and Health Law, Article 34-2 to 34-6
KOSHA Specific Requirements
Article 34-2 Safety certification of machinery and equipment
•
The Minister of Labor can approve the use of safety mark for the
machinery and equipment which comply with the safety and health
standard prescribed by the ministerial decree.
•
The Manufacture of machinery and equipment who wishes to get a
certification according to paragraph 1 shall apply to the Minister of
Labor.
•
Certification items, application procedures and administrative matters
necessary for certification shall be specified in the ministerial decree.
Article 34-3 The use of safety mark
The manufacturer who had obtained a certificate according to the
paragraph 1, Article 34-2 can affix safety mark on the machines and
equipment, on package and on containers specified in the ministerial
decree or can advertise the certification of the use of safety mark.
Article 34-4 Prohibition of use of safety mark
It is prohibited to affix safety mark or similar mark on the package and
containers of machinery and equipment, or to advertise the use of safety
mark unless manufacturer is anyone who had obtained certification for the
use of safety mark.
Article 34-5 Certification cancellation of safety mark
The Minister of Labor shall cancel the use of safety mark certification and
shall notify the cancelled matters to the manufacturer in accordance with
ministerial decree in case the manufacturer who had obtained a certificate
according to the Law, Article 34-2, Paragraph 1 had obtained certification
by one of the following paragraphs;
1. Certification proved false.
2. Machinery and equipment carried with certification mark become not to
be complied with the standard according to the Article 34-2, Paragraph 1.
Article 34-6 Removal of certification mark etc.
The Minister of labor shall take a necessary action including removal order
of certification mark in case machinery and equipment which certification
mark of similar mark has been affixed without getting a certificate
according to the Article 34-2 or in case machinery and equipment which
tifi ti h b
ll d
di t th A ti l 34 5
KOSHA Specific Requirements
KOSHA Specific Requirements
KOSHA Specific Requirements
KOSHA Specific Requirements
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 3
certification has been cancelled according to the Article 34-5.
Article 66 Fee, etc.
Any person who falls under any of the following Subparagraphs, shall pay
the fee under the conditions as prescribed by the Order of the Ministry of
Labor:
KOSHA Specific Requirements
Person who desires to receive the certification of use of the safety
certificate under Article 34-2.
Enforcement Decree
mission of administrative authority
Matters which are commissioned to the Korea Occupational Safety and
Health Agency or not-for-profit corporation are as follows;
Receiving and deliberating the applicants for the license of the use of
safety marks and certificating them pursuant to the Article 34-2.
KOSHA Specific Requirements
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 4
Enforcement Regulation
Article 46-2 Inspection of Performance of Protection Equipment
For the following protection equipment, the inspection of the performance
may be exempted:
1~7.
1. Protection equipment incorporated with the machines, equipment or
facilities which have been inspected of their design, completion and
performance as set forth in the Paragraph 3 of the Article of the Act.
2. The protection equipment which have been granted the use of safety
marks pursuant to the Paragraph 1 of the Article 34-2 of the Act including
the protection equipment incorporated with the machines, equipment or
facilities which have been granted the use of safety marks with the
protection equipment being incorporated.
Article 59 Exemption of double inspections
The design and performance inspections as set in the paragraph 3 of the
article 34 may be exempted for the machines and equipment which have
been allowed the use of safety marks pursuant to the paragraph 1 of the
article 34-2 of the act.
Article 59-2 Machinery and equipment to have certification of use of safety
mark
Machinery and equipment to which the use of safety marks may be
allowed pursuant to the article 34-2 of the act shall be as follows:
1. Machinery and equipment in annexed table 7 of the decree.
•
Press or shearing machine
•
Acetylene welder or gas collective welder
•
Explosion proof electrical machine and equipment
•
Alternating current arc welder
•
Crane, Elevator, Gondola, Lift
•
Pressure vessel
•
Boiler
•
Roller
•
Grinder
•
Wood-working circular saw
•
Portable power planer
•
Industrial robot which complex movement can be performed
•
Insulation equipment for electrical line work
•
Temporary construction equipment for the prevention of fall or
collapse
2. Electro-sensitive, two-hand control and gate guard protective device,
etc.
3. Machinery and equipment which the Minister of Labor determined after
listening opinion of the body commissioned (hereinafter called
"Certification Body") as the industrial machinery and equipment which
industrial accidents had been occurred frequently.
KOSHA Specific Requirements
KOSHA Specific Requirements
These requirements are similar to
the Annex IV requirements from the
Machinery Directive, establishing
the types of equipment that require
Certification and S-Marking.
The industry holds the position that
Semiconductor Manufacturing
Equipment should not be included
in the list of Mandatory
Certification. These requirements
may be applicable to the subcomponents of the system.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 5
Article 59-3 (Standards of safety certifications)
The "machines and equipment which meet the safety and health
standards as set forth by the Ordinances of the Ministry of Labor" in the
Paragraph 1 of the Article 32-2 of the Law shall mean the machines and
equipment as set forth in the Article 59-2 herein which meet the following
requirements :
SEMI S2-93A Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.5
1. The design and production shall be such that the danger and hazard
which are possible during the use or handling may be eliminated or
protected to reduce the danger.
SEMI S2-93A Section 14, SEMI S8
This establishes the basic
requirements for equipment
to meet the Korean Law.
2. The design and production shall consider the fatigue, stress and
inconvenient posture during the use and handling.
3~9.
10. The quality control and after sales maintenance system will be
established.
SEMI S2-93A Section 4.4, 18.1
Article 59-4 (Application for Safety Certification)
Those who wish to apply for the safety certification pursuant to the
paragraph 2 of the Article 34-2 of the Law shall submit to the Safety
Certification Organizations following document:
1. Copies of the business register
2. Descriptions on the structure, materials, dimensions, performance and
manual for the use of the products concerned;
3. Data on the safety inspection including the design standards, safety
testing methods and quality control methods;
4. Results of safety tests performed by the manufacturers and
independent institutes(if any tests have been performed) ;
5. Copies of the performance inspection as set forth in the Paragraph 3 of
the Article 33 of the Law and of the test conformity certificates as set forth
in the Article 34 of the Law(if any) ;
6. Documents proving any certifications from domestic or foreign
institutes (if any) ; and
7. Manuals for safe use of the products including the safety checklists,
etc.
If the Safety Certification Organizations view the documents provided with
the application as insufficient, the Organizations may have the applicable
applicant supplement them.
Article 59-5 (Issue of Safety Certificates)
The Safety Certification Organizations shall examine the applied items
within 6 months from the reception of the application and, if the
Organizations judge that the items satisfy the safety and health standards
as set forth in the Article 59-3, issue the safety certificates in the amended
form no. 10-3.
KOSHA Specific Requirements
These establish instructions for
applying to KOSHA for Certification
Industry feels that the
information related to the
EH&S aspect of the
equipment
should
be
included in the TCF. Any
information related to the
unique technology of the
product shall not be
included in the TCF.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 6
Article 59-6 (Method of Examination)
The examination for the safety certification shall be conducted for each
different type and model of machines and equipment.
The examination as mentioned in the preceding Paragraph 1 may include
the field examination and inspection on the products, as well as the
document examination.
With regard to the products which have been recognized by domestic and
foreign certifications which are enumerated by the Minister of Labor, the
whole or part of the examination as set forth in the preceding Paragraph 1
may be exempted.
Article 59-7 (Safety Marking, etc.)
The marking of the safety marks pursuant to the Article 34-3 of the Law
shall follow the methods in the annexed Table 8-3.
When the advertising is made with regard to the safety certifications
pursuant to the Article 34-3 of the law, the contents of the certifications
shall be specifically and distinctively indicated.
Article 59-8 (Follow-up Control for safety Certifications) ? In order to
confirm that the certified items satisfy the safety and health standards as
set forth in the Paragraph 1 of the Article 34-2, the Minister of Labor shall
have the Safety Certification Organizations conduct the follow-up
examination at least once a year.
If the heads of the local labor offices view that the safety of any certified
products should be confirmed including the occurrence of any serious
accidents related to the certified products, they may request the Safety
Certification Organizations to perform the follow-up examination to confirm
if any certified products still satisfy the safety and health standards as set
forth in the Paragraph 1 of the Article 34-2 of the Act.
Article 59-9 (Cancellation of Safety Certifications)
When the heads of the Safety Certification Organizations have found any
machines or equipment for which the safety certifications should be
cancelled pursuant to the Article 34-5 of the Act, they shall report such
machines or equipment to the heads of the local labor offices.
If the heads of the local labor offices have cancelled the safety
certifications, they shall notify to the Safety Certification Organizations the
said cancellation within 10 days therefrom and the heads of the Safety
Certification Organizations shall announce the followings on a daily
newspaper, etc. within 30 days from the notice of the cancellation :
1. Safety certificate number ;
2. Product names and model number of the products for which the
certificate has been cancelled ;
3. Manufacturers ;
4. Dates of cancellations ; and
5. Reasons for cancellations
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
These set the expectations for
applicants that the Certifying
Organization will evaluate the
equipment quickly.
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
Outlining basic premises for
evaluation of equipment and the
exemption of previously certified
equipment.
The industry would like to
see
acceptance
of
Certifications in the US or
elsewhere for equipment
that has been approved.
The industry would like to
know what parts can be
exempted if they are
approved.
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
Establishes requirements for
application and use of the S-mark.
Also establishes reinspection
procedures when equipment is
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 7
The manufactures whose safety certifications have been cancelled
pursuant to the Article 34-5 of the Act shall immediately return to the
heads of the local labor offices the safety certificates as set forth in the
Article 59-5 herein.
procedures when equipment is
found to be involved in an incident.
Article 59-10 (Support for the Safety Certified Products)
In order to promote the use of safety certified products, the Minister of
Labor may request the related and other public authorities to provide
necessary co-operation including the preferred purchase of the safety
certified products.
Article 59-11 (Detailed Rules)
The Safety Certification Organizations may determine the detailed rules
for the standard of the safety certifications, certification fees and others
with the approval from the Minister of Labor.
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
Establishes procedures for
revoking S-mark privileges for nonconforming equipment.
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
Establishes the possibility for
public authorities to require or
prefer S-Marked equipment.
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
Gives scope of authority for
Certification Organizations.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 8
Safety Certification Regulation
Enacted Regulation No. 214, November 15, 1997
Amended Regulation No. 225, March 4, 1998
Amended Regulation No. 252, January 8,1999
Amended Regulation No. 284, January 18,2000
Chapter 1. General Provisions
Article 1 (Purpose)
The purpose of this regulation is to define issues commissioned by the
Occupational Safety and Health Law(hereinafter referred to as “OSH
Law”, Article 34-2, and Enforcement Regulation of Law(hereinafter
referred to as “Enforcement Regulation”), Chapter 7-2 for the
implementation of safety certification process.
KOSHA Specific Requirements
Article 2 (Scope of Application)
This regulation shall be applied to all safety certification process such as
the decision of S mark and surveillance examination unless prescribed in
the OSH Law, Enforcement Decree(hereinafter referred to as “Decree”),
Enforcement Regulation.
KOSHA Specific Requirements
Article 3 (Definition)
The definitions of the terminology used in this regulation are as follows;
KOSHA Specific Requirements –
General Definitions of Terms
1. ”Safety Certification” means the identification procedures which
KOSHA verifies objectively whether safety certification items are
conformed with the safety certification standards(hereinafter referred to as
”certification standards”) according to the safety certification regulation.
2. “S Mark” means the safety mark according to the Paragraph 1, Article
34-2 of the OSH Law.
3. “Kind of type ” means the safety certification modules described in
Annex1 according to the Paragraph 1, Article 59-6 of Enforcement
Regulation.
4. “Machine” means an assembly of linked parts or components at least
one of which moves, with the
appropriate actuators, control and power circuits, etc., joined together for a
specific application, in particular for the processing treatment, moving or
packing of a material.
5. “Equipment” means devices or apparatus which it cannot work
themselves, but can support for human’s function.
6. “Machinery” means machine, equipment and similar facility.
7. “Danger Zone” means any zone within and/or around machinery in
which an exposed person is subject to a risk to his health or safety.
8. “Assessor” means the person who carries the assessment of S mark
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 9
according to the paragraph 1, Article 106 of Safety Certification
Regulation.
9. “Exposed person” means any person wholly or partially in a danger
zone.
10. “Operator” means the person or persons to be given the task of
installing, operating, adjusting, maintaining, cleaning, repairing or
transporting machinery.
11. “Electromagnetic Compatibility” means the ability of a device, unit of
equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic
environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances
to anything in that environment.
12. “Electromagnetic Disturbances” means any electromagnetic
phenomenon which may degrade the safety of a device, unit of equipment
or system.
13. “Electromagnetic Immunity” means the ability of a device, unit of
equipment or system to perform without degradation of safety in the
presence of an electromagnetic disturbance.
Unless otherwise defined hereunder, the terms used in this regulations
shall have the meanings as defined in the OSH Law, the Enforcement
Regulation and Decree.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 10
Chapter 2. Safety Certification Requirements
Section 1. Essential Safety and Health Requirements for Design and
Production of Products
Sub-section 1. General Principles
Article 4 (Safety Intergration Principles)
Machinery must be so constructed that it is fitted for its function, and can
be adjusted and maintained without putting persons at risk when these
operations are carried out under the conditions foreseen by the
manufacturer. The aim of measures must be taken to eliminate any risk of
accident throughout the foreseeable lifetime of the machinery, including
the phases of assembly and dismantling, even where risks of accident
arise from foreseeable abnormal situations.
Equivalent to SEMI S2-93A Sections 3 and 4 inclusive
In selecting the most appropriate methods, the manufacturer must apply
the following principles, in the order given.
1. Eliminate or reduce risks as far as possible.
2. Take the necessary protection measures in relation to risks that cannot
be eliminated.
3. Inform users of the residual risks due to any shortcomings of the
protection measures adopted, indicate, and present the necessity of
training for specific subject and personal protective equipment(hereinafter
referred to as “PPE”).
SEMI S2 considers eliminating risk in Normal and Single fault only,
KOSHA requires that they be reduced as far as possible
When designing and constructing machinery, and when drafting the
instructions, the manufacturer must consider following requirements.
1. The machinery must be designed to prevent not only normal use but
also abnormal use which would engender a risk.
2. The instructions which employees have to be observed must be
included in the user’s manual, if there are any possibilities of risk.
Under the intended conditions of use, the discomfort, fatigue and
psychological stress faced by the operator must be reduced to the
minimum possible taking ergonomic principles into account.
When designing and constructing machinery, the manufacturer must take
account of the constraints to which the operator is subject as a result of
the necessary or foreseeable use of PPE(such as footwear, gloves, etc).
Machinery must be supplied with all the essential special equipment and
accessories to enable it to be adjusted, maintained and used without risk.
Article 5 (Materials and Products)
The materials used to construct machinery or products used and created
during its use must not endanger exposed persons' safety or health.
Sections 13 - SEMI S3; All paragraphs Section 20, Environmental.
Equivalent to Machinery Directive
“Safety Integration Principles” in
Annex I
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 11
In particular, where fluids are used, machinery must be designed and
constructed for use without risks due to filling, use, re-filling or draining.
13 Heated Chemical Baths
Use SEMI S3 as the minimum safety design considerations. All baths
should have the following:
Grounded or GFCI heaters
Power interrupt
Manual reset
Automatic temperature controller
Liquid level sensor
Fail-safe over-temperature protection
Proper construction materials
Exhaust failure interlock
Overcurrent protection
20 Environmental
20.1 Introduction - The end user has a responsibility to employees and
the community to minimize the environmental impact of processes and
operations. The equipment suppliers have a responsibility to assist the
end users in achieving this goal. Minimization of chemical consumption,
characterization of air emissions and waste water effluent, minimization
of waste, and control of chemical spills should be addressed during
equipment design.
If the end user's specific process chemistry is not defined, the equipment
manufacturer's baseline process may be used for evaluation pursuant to
this guideline
.
20.2 General Requirements
20.2.1 Upon request, the equipment manufacturer should supply
information to the customer's environmental engineer as soon as is
possible for the development of necessary permit applications. This
information should include raw material chemical consumption
requirements, wastewater effluent quality, hazardous waste generation
and collection quantities, solid waste generation, exhaust effluent
characterization, on-board control technologies, chemical process
efficiencies, and a chemical mass balance.
20.2.2 The equipment supplier should identify spill prevention features
of the equipment.
20.2.3 The equipment supplier should identify any maintenance,
ancillary equipment, or peripheral operations that require chemicals (e.g.,
lubricants, cleaners, coolants). The supplier should specify anticipated
change-out frequency, quantity, and potential for contamination by
process.
20.2.4 Using the baseline process, supplier should notify end user of
environmental regulatory restrictions (current and potential future) on
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 12
chemicals used in the equipment.
20.2.5 Upon receipt of the supplier's evaluation, a qualified end user
environmental engineer should complete the environmental component
of an Environmental/Health/Safety Impact Appraisal. This appraisal
should determine if the equipment meets or exceeds the environmental
guidelines presented here, considering specific process chemistries
which will be used and site-specific requirements. Information from the
evaluation should be used to negotiate any design changes necessary to
provide the end user with environmentally acceptable equipment. The
supplier should consider integrating these modifications into future units
of the model in question.
20.3 Hazardous Materials Use - Use of hazardous materials should be
kept to a minimum or eliminated wherever possible.
20.3.1 Prior to final design, chemicals used with the equipment should
be reviewed jointly by the supplier and end user to determine if specific
regulatory restrictions exist. As part of the evaluation process, a
Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each of the chemicals should be
available.
20.3.2 Chemical delivery to the equipment and use of chemicals in the
equipment should be carefully controlled to avoid excess chemical
consumption, waste generation, and chemical losses to the exhaust
system. The equipment and process should have provisions to minimize
chemical usage when no processing is occurring.
20.3.3 A less hazardous chemical should be used wherever possible for
process chemistries, equipment maintenance, and utility uses (cleaners,
lubricants, and coolants).
20.3.4 Recycling or reusing chemicals in the equipment, rather than
consuming only virgin materials, should be evaluated.
20.4 Air Emissions
20.4.1 Process by-products, fugitive emissions, and exhaust effluent
should be characterized. The equipment manufacturer should provide
the end user with pertinent information necessary to address the best
method of handling (controlling or treating) process by-products and
exhaust effluent.
20.4.2 The equipment supplier should specify exhaust flow rates and
differentiate among the types of exhaust required for various applications
(heat, scrubbed, solvent, pyrophoric, etc.).
20.4.3 The manufacturer should evaluate on-board controls for process
chamber exhaust effluent treatment or external point-of-use abatement
methods and provide alternatives to the equipment end users.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 13
20.4.3.1 In the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions,
on-board controls, such as thermal destruction or physical capture
should be evaluated and the possible abatement alternatives described
to the equipment end user for their choice on implementation.
20.4.3.2 The equipment, equipment maintenance, and process should
be designed to operate without the use of Ozone Depleting Substances
(ODS), such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), methylchloroform, and
carbon tetrachloride.
20.4.3.3 In the case of emissions of toxic compounds, on-board controls
such as physical capture should be evaluated and the possible
abatement alternatives described to the end user.
20.5 Wastewater Effluent - Contaminant concentrations in the waste
water discharges from the equipment should be as low as practical and
controlled as to terms of contaminant type.
20.5.1 Discharge of regulated substances, such as organic compounds
and heavy metals, should be avoided or minimized through waste stream
segregation or by-product reduction. Reduction activities may include
process changes, such as lower chemical concentrations in the process
and mechanical separation methods, such as diverter valves and
increased dwell time over chemical baths prior to rinsing.
20.5.2 Methods to minimize the amounts of corrosive materials entering
the waste water effluent should be evaluated and alternatives described
to the equipment end user for potential implementation.
20.5.3 Dilution with water or other dilute stream, in the excess of
process requirements, solely to meet any categorical pretreatment limits
as set by EPA or local sanitary sewer ordinances, is not acceptable.
20.5.4 The equipment/process should avoid unnecessary deionized
water use when no processing is occurring.
20.6 Waste Generation - Solid and hazardous waste generation should
be kept to a minimum, and dissimilar waste chemicals should not be
mixed.
20.6.1 Methods of collection of chemical wastes generated in the form of
liquids and solids should be designed into the equipment for temporary
accumulation within the unit, or connections should be provided to permit
central collection (dependent on facility installation).
20.6.2 In-equipment collection should be designed to avoid evaporative
or spill-over losses or mixing of dissimilar waste streams.
20.6.3 Provisions should be made to allow operators to determine the
collection containers' remaining available capacity conveniently without
having to open the containers. Collection containers should be readily
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 14
accessible and designed to allow their contents to be transferred to
another container or to allow them to be disposed of and replaced. Level
detectors and alarms should be considered for in-equipment collection
20.6.4 The equipment should be designed such that any clean-up,
maintenance, and repair generates the least amount of by-products
possible. This requirement should include deposits in drains, ducts
(which may be minimized by equipment design), and on replaceable
parts.
20.6.5 The equipment should be designed to facilitate machine clean up
or disposal after its useful life has expired. Parts which become
contaminated with hazardous materials should be kept to a minimum.
Use of removable liners or modular parts should be considered.
20.7 Secondary Containment - All equipment feed, storage, and waste
collection systems should be protected against an unwanted chemical
release.
20.7.1 Secondary containment should be provided to collect releases
(110% of capacity) and to allow any material released in the secondary
containment to be easily removed.
20.7.2 Detection and alarm systems should be incorporated into units
that use automated or pressured chemical feeds to provide automated
shutdown of the unit if an unwanted release occurs and should be
capable of providing alarms.
Article 6 (Lighting)
The manufacturer must supply integral lighting suitable for the operations
concerned where its lack is likely to cause a risk despite ambient lighting
of normal intensity.
The manufacturer must ensure that there is no area of shadow likely to
cause nuisance, that there is no irritating dazzle and that there are no
dangerous stroboscopic effects due to the lighting provided by the
manufacturer.
Internal parts requiring frequent inspection, and adjustment and
maintenance areas, must be provided with appropriate lighting.
20.7.3 Equipment design should eliminate potential direct unwanted
release routes to the environment, or cross contamination of waste
streams due to an emergency condition or a control failure.
Recommendations for mitigating emergency releases should be provided
to the end user if applicable.
Section 14, Specifically 14.1 reference to SEMI S-8 SESC (Supplier
Ergonomic Success Criteria) Appendix 1 Section 7.1
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 15
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
14.3 Human Characteristics - Equipment should be designed to fit the
physical characteristics of 90 percent of the user population (from 5th
percentile Asian female through 95th percentile American male). User
population design considerations include: (a) ensuring that frequently
performed physical task requirements are located within the functional
reach envelope of small operators; (b) providing sufficient access and
clearance for large operators; (c) ensuring that manual handling
requirements are within the strength capability of all operators; (e)
locating displays for ease of viewing. Control and display operation
should be compatible with user expectations (e.g., behavioral
stereotypes).
14.4 Operability
14.4.1 System controls and displays should promote ease of use.
Equipment design should consider both routine and non-routine (e.g.,
emergency or fault) operation. Risk to operators should be minimized by
decreasing both the likelihood and consequence of procedural errors.
14.4.2 Visual and/or auditory signals should alert operators to conditions
that are unsafe or require immediate intervention.
14.4.3 Prompt and consistent feedback should be provided to indicate
system status, control inputs, and changes in system condition.
14.5 Maintainability/Serviceability - Equipment design and installation
should facilitate maintenance and service. Specific considerations should
include: (a) design for positive malfunction detection and isolation of
faulty components; (b) unit packaging of component parts for ease of
removal and replacement; (c) access to components that require testing,
servicing, maintenance, or replacement; (d) lifting aids for heavy or bulky
components.
Article 7 (Design of machinery to facilitate its handling)
Machinery or each component part thereof must be capable of being
handled safely, be packaged or designed so that it can be stored safely
and without damage (e.g. adequate stability, special supports, etc).
Where the weight, size or shape of machinery or its various component
parts prevents them from being moved by hand, the machinery or each
component part must be as follows;
1. Lifting accessory shall be fitted to the machinery or the machinery shall
has the structure which lifting accessory can be fitted firmly.
14.6 Training - System design should minimize personnel and training
requirements considering time, cost, and performance trade-offs.
14.7 Documentation - Documentation should describe and validate the
ergonomics/human factors design features of the equipment. Accepted
methods and practices should be used when evaluating the
human-machine interface.
Same response as Article 6
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 16
2. It has to be the structure such as threaded holes which allowing lifting
accessory to be fitted easily.
Machinery or components to be moved by hand shall be as follows;
1. It must be easily movable.
2. It must be equipped for picking up (e.g. hand-grips etc) and moving in
complete safety.
Special arrangements must be made for the handling of tools and/or
machinery parts, even if lightweight, which could be dangerous (shape,
material, etc).
Sub-section 2 Controls
Article 8 (Safety and reliability of control systems)
Control systems must be designed and constructed so that they are safe
and reliable, in a way that will prevent a dangerous situation arising.
Above all they must be designed and constructed in such a way that as
follows.
1. They can withstand the rigours of normal use and external factors.
2. Errors in logic do not lead to dangerous situations.
Article 9 (Control devices)
3.2 The safety philosophy set forth in these guidelines is that potential
hazards in the operation and maintenance of equipment be identified and
engineered out of equipment during the design and construction phases.
Where identified hazards cannot be eliminated, no single point failure or
operational error should allow immediate exposure of personnel, facilities
or community to hazards or directly result in injury, death or equipment
Loss. All equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant design.
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
5.1 All equipment should use fail-safe hardware safety interlocks to
protect against hazards inherent in the operation of the equipment.
5.8 Computer hardware failure should automatically place the equipment
in a safe standby mode. Software safety interlocks should be backed up
by hardware safety interlocks in all cases.
8.3 Where supplemental administrative controls are needed to limit the
non-ionizing radiation exposures, these procedures should be described
in detail in the suppliers operation and maintenance manuals. A
description of supplemental monitoring and alarms should also be
required.
12.1 The equipment should have an emergency off (EMO) circuit
which, when activated, places the equipment into a safe shutdown
condition. A safe shutdown should not increase the level of hazard in the
system.
EXCEPTION: Components which are not intended to be used as
stand-alone equipment, but rather within an overall end-use system (and
receive their power from the end-user system), need not be provided
with an emergency off circuit. The component installation manual,
however, should need to provide clear instruction to the end-user system
manufacturing to connect the component to the end-user system's
emergency off circuit.
Equivalent
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 17
Control devices must be as follows.
1. Clearly visible and identifiable and appropriately marked where
necessary.
2. Positioned for safe operation without hesitation or loss of time, and
without ambiguity.
3. Designed so that the movement of the control is consistent with its
effect.
4. Located outside the danger zones, except for certain controls where
necessary, such as emergency stop or a console for training of robots.
5. Positioned so that their operation cannot cause additional risk.
6. Designed or protected so that the desired effect, where a risk is
involved, cannot occur without an intentional operation.
7. Made so as to withstand foreseeable strain; particular attention must be
paid to emergency stop devices liable to be subjected to considerable
strain.
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.3 (e) Locating displays for ease of viewing. Control and display
operation should be compatible with use expectations ( e.g., behavioral
stereotypes)
14.4 Operability
14.4.1 System controls and displays should promote ease of use.
Equipment design should consider both routine and non-routine (e.g.,
emergency or fault) operation. Risk to operators should be minimized by
decreasing both the likelihood and consequence of procedural errors.
Where a control is designed and constructed to perform several different
actions, namely where there is no one-to-one correspondence (e.g.
keyboards, etc). the action to be performed must be clearly displayed and
subject to confirmation where necessary.
Controls must be so arranged that their layout, travelling route and
resistance to operation are compatible with the action to be performed,
taking account of ergonomic principles. Constraints due to the necessary
or foreseeable use of PPE must be taken into account.
Machinery must be fitted with indicators (dials, signals, etc) as required for
safe operation. The operator must be able to read them from the control
position.
Where operator can be exposed to danger zone, machinery must be as
follows.
1. From the main control position the operator must be able to ensure that
there are no exposed persons in the danger zones.
2. If this is impossible, the control system must be designed and
constructed so that an acoustic and/or visual warning signal is given
whenever the machinery is about to start. The exposed person must have
the time and the means to take rapid action to prevent the machinery
starting up.
Article 10 (Starting)
It must be possible to start machinery only by actuation of a control
provided for the purpose.
The same requirement applies to Paragraph 1 when restarting the
machinery after a stoppage, whatever the cause, and when effecting a
significant change in the operating conditions (e.g. speed, pressure, etc)
unless such restarting or change in operating conditions is without risk to
exposed persons. This essential requirement does not apply to the
11.2 Equipment should be provided with means to allow the user to
comply with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 (Control of Hazardous Energies,
Lockout/Tagout) and 29 CFR 1910.331-335 (Electrical Safety-Related
Work Practices) as related to lockout/tagout. Recommended
lockout/tagout procedures should be supplied and installation
instructions for user-supplied lockout devices provided as part of the
maintenance/installation instructions.
11.3 Electrical Design - The supplier should meet the following electrical
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 18
restarting of the machinery or to the change in operating conditions
resulting from the normal sequence of an automatic cycle.
Where machinery has several starting controls and the operators can
therefore put each other in danger, additional devices (e.g. enabling
devices or selectors allowing only one part of the starting mechanism to
be actuated at any one time) must be fitted to rule out such risks.
It must be possible for automated plant functioning in automatic mode to
be restarted easily after a stoppage once the safety conditions have been
fulfilled.
Article 11 (Stopping device)
Normal stopping devices shall be as follows.
1. Each machine must be fitted with a control whereby the machine can be
design guidelines. (See NFPA 79 for specific detail of design.)
11.3.1 The equipment manufacturer should provide non-conductive
and/or grounded conductive physical barriers on all areas where
exposed circuits are greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.4 volts peak.
Barriers concealing hazards should be labeled identifying the hazards
concealed. Visual hazard alerts should be in accordance with SEMI S1,
ANSI Z535, or an equivalent.
11.3.2 The equipment design should minimize the probability of electrical
shock during maintenance, repair, modification, calibration, or
adjustment. Exposed energized circuits, components, and terminal strips
should have removable non-conductive and non-combustible covers to
protect personnel from incidental contact.
EXCEPTION: Covers are not required for enclosures which require a tool
to open and are properly labeled and designed to minimize accidental
contact with energized circuits.
11.3.8 Incoming electrical power from the facility to the process
equipment should come from a single feed location and should terminate
at the main disconnect defined in 11.3.7. This disconnect should have
the lockout capabilities specified in 11.2. (For additional information, see
OSHA 29 CFR 1019.147.)
EXCEPTION 1: Internal power distribution to support modules and
sub-panels is acceptable.
EXCEPTION 2: Equipment with more than one feed should be provided
with provisions for lockout and be marked with the following
text, DANGER, RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK. DISCONNECT ALL
(number of feed locations) SOURCES OF SUPPLY PRIOR TO
SERVICING at each disconnect.
EXCEPTION 3: A second power feed may be used when power is
supplied from a facilities UPS system to maintain critical equipment
system, but not the entire system. Power supplied from an external UPS
will be removed when the emergency off circuit is activated or the main
equipment breaker is opened.
12.2 The emergency off circuit (EMO) should be a fail safe circuit that
shuts off all electrical power to the equipment so that only the safe
voltage EMO circuit (typically 24 volts) and its supply may be energized.
The EMO should be designed to ensure that it cannot be disabled
without causing the main power circuit to open. The EMO should be
hardwired to the equipment's operating system. The EMO circuit should
require manual resetting so that power cannot be restored automatically.
Resetting of the EMO switch should not re-energize the equipment.
NOTE: The EMO should perform its function by de-energizing rather
than energizing control components.
5.7 When triggered, each affected safety interlock should require
individual manual reset or restart before the equipment function can
be restored.
12. Emergency Shutdown
12.1 The equipment should have an Emergency off (EMO) circuit
which, when activated, places the equipment into a safe shutdown
condition. A safe shutdown should not increase the level of hazard in the
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 19
brought safely to a complete stop.
2. Each work station must be fitted with a control to stop some or all of the
moving parts of the machinery, depending on the type of hazard, so that
the machinery is rendered safe. The machinery's stop control must have
priority over the start controls.
3. Once the machinery or its dangerous parts have stopped, the energy
supply to the actuators concerned must be cut off.
Each machine must be fitted with one or more emergency stop devices to
enable actual or impending danger to be averted. The following
exceptions apply:
1. Machines in which an emergency stop device would not lessen the
risk, either because it would not reduce the stopping time or because it
would not enable the special measures required to deal with the risk to be
taken;
2. Hand-held portable machines and hand-guided machines.
This device must be as follows.
1. Emergency devices have clearly identifiable, clearly visible and quickly
accessible controls.
2. Emergency devices must stop the dangerous process as quickly as
possible, without creating additional hazards.
3. Emergency devices must, where necessary, trigger or permit the
triggering of certain safeguard movements.
4. Once active operation of the emergency stop control has ceased
following a stop command, that command must be sustained by
engagement of the emergency stop device until that engagement is
specifically overridden.
5. It must not be possible to engage the device without triggering a stop
command.
6. It must be possible to disengage the device only by an appropriate
operation, and disengaging the device must not restart the machinery but
only permit restarting.
In the case of machinery or parts of machinery designed to work together,
the manufacturer must so design and construct the machinery that the
stop controls including the emergency stop, can stop not only the
machinery itself but also all the movement of interlocked machines if its
continued operation can be dangerous.
system.
Exception: Components which are not intended to be used as a stand
alone equipment, but rather within an overall end-use system ( and
receive their power form the end-user system), need not be provided
with an emergency off circuit.
12.2 The emergency off circuit (EMO) should be a fail safe circuit that
shuts off all electrical power to the equipment so that only the safe
voltage EMO circuit (typically 24 volts) and its supply may be energized.
The EMO should be designed to ensure that it cannot be disabled
without causing the main power circuit to open. The EMO should be
hardwired to the equipment's operating system. The EMO circuit should
require manual resetting so that power cannot be restored automatically.
Resetting of the EMO switch should not re-energize the equipment.
NOTE: The EMO should perform its function by de-energizing rather
than energizing control components.
12.3 The emergency off function and hardware configuration should be
clearly described in the facilities installation instructions and maintenance
manuals.
12.4 All emergency off buttons should be clearly labeled and easily
accessible from operating and maintenance locations.
12.5 The emergency off button should be red, palm or mushroom
shaped and located to minimize accidental activation. lockable types
should be considered at the rear of the equipment and maintenance
areas
11.4.2 UPS should be located within the main power enclosure. If not, it
must be physically isolated from other equipment systems.
5.8 Computer hardware failure should automatically place the
equipment in a safe standby mode. Software safety interlocks should be
backed up by hardware safety interlocks in all cases.
3.2 The safety philosophy set forth in these guidelines is that potential
hazards in the operation and maintenance of equipment be
identified and engineered out of equipment during the design and
construction phases. Where identified hazards cannot be
eliminated, no single point failure or operational error should allow
immediate exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to
hazards or directly result in injury, death, or equipment loss. All
equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant design.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 20
Article 12 (Mode selection)
The control mode selected must override all other control systems with the
exception of the emergency stop.
If machinery has been designed and built to allow for its use in several
control or operating modes presenting different safety levels (e.g. to allow
for repair, adjustment, maintenance, inspection etc), it must be fitted with a
mode selector which can be locked in each position. Each position of the
selector must correspond to a single operating or control mode.
If, for certain operations, the machinery must be able to operate with its
protection devices neutralised, the mode selector must simultaneously:
1. Disable the automatic control mode;
2. Permit movements only by controls requiring sustained action;
3. Permit the operation of dangerous moving parts only in enhanced
safety conditions (eg reduced speed, reduced power, step-by-step, or
other adequate provision) while preventing hazards from linked
sequences;
4. Prevent any movement liable to pose a danger by acting voluntarily or
involuntarily on the machine's internal sensors.
11.3 Electrical Design - The supplier should meet the following electrical
design guidelines. (See NFPA 79 for specific detail of design.)
11.3.1 The equipment manufacturer should provide non-conductive
and/or grounded conductive physical barriers on all areas where
exposed circuits are greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.4 volts peak.
Barriers concealing hazards should be labeled identifying the hazards
concealed. Visual hazard alerts should be in accordance with SEMI S1,
ANSI Z535, or an equivalent.
11.3.2 The equipment design should minimize the probability of electrical
shock during maintenance, repair, modification, calibration, or
adjustment. Exposed energized circuits, components, and terminal strips
should have removable non-conductive and non-combustible covers to
protect personnel from incidental contact.
EXCEPTION: Covers are not required for enclosures which require a tool
to open and are properly labeled and designed to minimize accidental
contact with energized circuits.
11.3.9 All equipment should be provided with a nameplate, located
adjacent to the input power connection, containing, as a minimum, the
manufacturer's name, model number, serial number, and electrical
ratings (voltage, current, frequency, and, for multi-phase systems, the
number of phases and number of wires. For more information, see NEC
670-3 and NFPA 79, Chapter 2-7.)
Equivalent
3.2 The safety philosophy set forth in these guidelines is that potential
hazards in the operation and maintenance of equipment be identified and
engineered out of equipment during the design and construction phases.
Where identified hazards cannot be eliminated, no single point failure or
operational error should allow immediate exposure of personnel,
facilities, or community to hazards or directly result in injury, death, or
equipment loss. All equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant
design.
11.4 UPS, Uninterrupted Power Supplies - Applies to UPS with outputs
greater than 30 volts ac or dc or energy level in the excess of 500 voltamperes and integrated inside equipment footprint ( for additional info
see NFPA 110A)
11.4.1 Output of the UPS should be removed when the emergency off
circuit is activated or the main equipment breaker is opened. The
emergency off circuit or the main equipment breaker should be a
hardware-based fail-safe circuit.
11.4.2 UPS should be located within the main power enclosure. If not, it
must be physically isolated from other equipment systems.
Equivalent
In addition, the operator must be able to control operation of the parts he
is working on at the adjustment point.
Article13 (Failure of the power supply)
The interruption, re-establishment after an interruption or fluctuation in
whatever manner of the power supply to the machinery must not lead to a
dangerous situation. And following requirements must be complied.
1. The machinery must not start unexpectedly.
2. The machinery must not be prevented from stopping if the command
has already been given.
3. No moving part of the machinery or piece held by the machinery must
fall or be ejected.
4. Automatic or manual stopping of the moving parts whatever they may
be must be unimpeded.
5. The protection devices must remain fully effective.
Article 14 (Failure of the control circuit)
A fault in the control circuit logic, or failure of or damage to the control
circuit must not lead to dangerous situations. And following requirements
must be complied.
1. The machinery must not start unexpectedly.
5.7
5.8 computer hardware failure should automatically place the
equipment in a safe standby mode. Software safety interlocks
should be backed up by hardware safety interlocks in all cases.
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 21
2. The machinery must not be prevented from stopping if the command
has already been given.
3. No moving part of the machinery or piece held by the machinery must
fall or be ejected.
4. A automatic or manual stopping of the moving parts whatever they may
be must be unimpeded.
5. The protection devices must remain fully effective.
Article15 (Software)
Interactive software between the operator and the command or control
system of a machine must be user-friendly.
Sub-section 3 Protection against mechanical hazards
14.4.2 Visual and/or auditory signals should alert operators to conditions
that are unsafe or require immediate intervention.
14.4.3 Prompt and consistent feedback should be provided to indicate
system status, control inputs, and changes in system condition.
14.4.1 System controls and displays should promote ease of use.
Equipment design should consider both routine and non-routine (e.g.,
emergency or fault) operation. Risk to operators should be minimized by
decreasing both the likelihood and consequence of procedural errors
SEMI S2-93A reference
Article 16 (Stability)
Machinery, components and fittings thereof must be so designed and
constructed that they are stable enough, under the foreseen operating
conditions (if necessary taking climatic conditions into account) for use
without risk of overturning, falling or unexpected movement. If the shape
of the machinery itself or its intended installation does not offer sufficient
stability, appropriate means of anchorage must be incorporated and
indicated in the instructions.
17.1 The equipment and its sub-assemblies should have protection from
movement during earthquakes.
17.2 All tie-ins and attachments to equipment should be able to
accommodate the expected displacement of the equipment
Article 17 (Risk of break-up during operation)
The various parts of machinery and their linkages must be able to
withstand the stresses to which they are subject when used as foreseen
by the manufacturer.
3.2 The safety philosophy set forth in these guidelines is that potential
hazards in the operation and maintenance of equipment be identified and
engineered out of equipment during the design and construction phases.
Where identified hazards cannot be eliminated, no single point failure or
operational error should allow immediate exposure of personnel,
facilities, or community to hazards or directly result in injury, death, or
equipment loss. All equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant
design.
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
18.2 Potential safety hazards, safety controls, and safety procedures
should be documented and clearly communicated through the use of
pictorial hazard alerts (warnings) in the supplier's operation and
maintenance manuals. These manuals should be available in the
national language of the end user.
The durability of the materials used must be adequate for the nature of the
work place foreseen by the manufacturer, in particular as regards the
phenomena of fatigue, ageing, corrosion and abrasion.
The manufacturer must indicate in the instructions the type and frequency
of inspection and maintenance required for safety reasons. He must,
where appropriate, indicate the parts subject to wear and the criteria for
replacement.
Where a risk of rupture or disintegration remains despite the measures
taken (e.g. as with grinding wheels) the moving parts must be mounted
and positioned in such a way that in case of rupture their fragments will be
contained.
Both rigid and flexible pipes carrying fluids, particularly those under high
pressure, must be able to withstand the foreseen internal and external
stresses and must be firmly attached and/or protected against all manner
of external stresses and strains: precautions must be taken to ensure that
no risk is posed by a rupture (sudden movement, high pressure jets, etc).
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 22
Where the material to be processed is fed to the tool automatically, the
following conditions must be fulfilled
to avoid risks to the persons exposed (e.g. tool breakage).
1. when the workpiece comes into contact with the tool the latter must
have attained its normal working conditions;
2. when the tool starts and/or stops (intentionally or accidentally) the feed
movement and the tool movement must be co-ordinated.
Article 18 (Risks due to falling or ejected objects)
Precautions must be taken to prevent risks from falling or ejected objects
(e.g. workpieces, tools, cuttings, fragments, waste, etc).
Article 19 (Risks due to surfaces, edges or angles)
In so far as their purpose allows, accessible parts of the machinery must
have no sharp edges, no sharp angles, and no rough surfaces likely to
cause injury.
Article 20 (Risks related to combined machinery)
Where the machinery is intended to carry out several different operations
with the manual removal of the piece between each operation(combined
machinery), it must be designed and constructed in such a way as to
enable each element to be used separately without the other elements
constituting a danger or risk for the exposed person. For this purpose it
must be possible to start and stop separately any elements that are not
protected.
Article 21 (Risks relating to variations in the rotational speed of tools)
When the machine is designed to perform operations under different
conditions of use (e.g. different speeds or energy supply), it must be
designed and constructed in such a way that selection and adjustment of
these conditions can be carried out safely and reliably.
Related Information 1 - 1.3.3
Risks due to falling objects
Precautions must be taken to prevent risks from falling or ejected objects
(e.g., workpieces, tools, cuttings, fragments, waste, etc.)
SEMI S8 Sections
9.1.6 Exposed edges or corners in contact with users should be rounded
and surfaces smooth.
10.1.6 Sharp edges and corners that present a personnel safety hazard
or potential damage to clothing or equipment should be suitably
protected or rounded.
Related information section 1.3.5
4.2 The design of the completed equipment and its options should be
examined and a risk analysis performed and documented by a qualified
product-safety professional or other qualified engineering/technical
professional. The risk analysis and documentation should be issued in
the form of a report no later than 30 days prior to system shipment. This
report should state that the equipment, including its components and
sub-assemblies, conforms to applicable laws, regulations, and codes in
effect at the time of purchase, and to the guidelines presented here or
other applicable product safety standards. An independent laboratory or
product safety consulting firm may be commissioned to supply additional
testing, listings, or evaluations of conformance to this document.
EXCEPTIONS: All hazards that cannot be engineered out of the product
should be clearly identified and controlled to reduce personnel exposure
and/or property damage. These hazards should be addressed
specifically in the product operations and maintenance manual or in an
accompanying notice. The manufacturer should continue to work to
eliminate these hazards.
Related Information section 1.3.6
5.2 The safety interlock scheme should be designed to minimize the
need to override automatic fail-safe safety interlock systems during
maintenance activities. Safety interlocks in conjunction with physical
barriers that operate at the point of the hazard are preferred (for
example, a safety interlocked cover over a laser beam). When access to
hazards that cannot be eliminated is required during maintenance,
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 23
defeatable safety interlocks should be provided. Upon exiting the
maintenance mode, all safety interlocks should be automatically
restored.
Article 22(Prevention of risks related to moving parts)
The moving parts of machinery must be designed, built and laid out to
avoid hazards or, where hazards persist, fixed with guards or protective
devices in such a way as to prevent all risk of contact which could lead to
accidents.
In cases where, despite the precautions taken, a blockage is likely to
occur, specific protection devices or tools, the instruction handbook and
important sign on the machinery should be provided by the manufacturer .
Article 23 (Choice of protection against risks related to moving parts)
Guards or protection devices used to protect against the risks related to
moving parts must be selected on the basis of the type of risk.
The following guidelines must be used to help make the choice.
1. Guards designed to protect exposed persons against the risks
associated with moving transmission parts (such as pulleys, belts, gears,
rack and pinions, shafts, etc) must be either fixed, complying with
requirements Article 24 and paragraph 1 of Article 25 or movable,
complying with requirements Article 24 and paragraph 2 of Article 25.
2. Guards or protection devices designed to protect exposed persons
against the risks associated with moving parts contributing to the work
(such as cutting tools, moving parts of presses, cylinders, parts in the
process of being machined, etc) must be fulfilled as following
requirements.
A. Wherever possible fixed guards shall be complied with
requirements in the Article 24 and paragraph 1 of Article 25.
B. Otherwise, movable guards shall be complied with requirements
Article 24 and type A in paragraph 2 of Article 25.
C. Protection devices such as sensing devices, position controlled
protection devices (e.g. two-hand controls), or protection devices in
accordance with requirements Article 24 and paragraph 4 of Article
25 shall be installed.
However, when certain moving parts directly involved in the process
5.4 Equipment using greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.2 volts peak, rf
power, hazardous chemicals, lasers, and uv light, as well as
radiation-generating equipment, should be provided with physical
barriers (labeled as to the hazards they protect) or safety interlocks, at
the point of hazard, which effectively protect from personnel exposure. If
the physical barrier does not require a tool to obtain access, the interlock
is mandatory.
hazardous chemicals, lasers, and uv light, as well as
radiation-generating
18.2 Potential safety hazards, safety controls, and safety procedures
should be documented and clearly communicated through the use of
pictorial hazard alerts (warnings) in the supplier's operation and
maintenance manuals. These manuals should be available in the
national language of the end user.
Related Information section 1.3.8
5.1 All equipment should use fail-safe hardware safety interlocks to
protect against hazards inherent in the operation of the equipment.
Hardware safety interlocks should back up the equipment's operating
system to ensure that, upon activation, the equipment is brought to a
safe standby condition automatically and the operator alerted
immediately. The operator notification should provide an explanation of
the cause.
5.2 The safety interlock scheme should be designed to minimize the
need to override automatic fail-safe safety interlock systems during
maintenance activities. Safety interlocks in conjunction with physical
barriers that operate at the point of the hazard are preferred (for
example, a safety interlocked cover over a laser beam). When access to
hazards that cannot be eliminated is required during maintenance,
defeatable safety interlocks should be provided. Upon exiting the
maintenance mode, all safety interlocks should be automatically
restored.
5.4 Equipment using greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.2 volts peak, rf
power, hazardous chemicals, lasers, and uv light, as well as
radiation-generating equipment, should be provided with physical
barriers (labeled as to the hazards they protect) or safety interlocks, at
the point of hazard, which effectively protect from personnel exposure. If
the physical barrier does not require a tool to obtain access, the interlock
is mandatory.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 24
cannot be made completely or partially inaccessible during operation
owing to operations requiring nearby operator intervention, where
technically possible such parts must be fitted with following guards.
1. Fixed guards, complying with requirements Article 24 and paragraph 1
of Article 25 preventing access to those sections of the parts that are not
used in the work.
2. Adjustable guards, complying with requirements Article 24 and
paragraph 3 of Article 25 restricting access to those sections of the
moving parts that are strictly for the work.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 25
Sub-section 4 Guards and protection devices
Article 24 (General requirement)
Guards and protection devices must be fulfilled following requirements.
1. It must be of robust construction.
2. It shall not give rise to any additional risk.
3. It shall not be easy to remove the function.
4. It shall be located at an adequate distance from the danger zone.
5. It shall cause minimum obstruction to the view of the production
process.
6. It shall enable essential work to be carried out on installation and/or
replacement of tools and also for maintenance by restricting access
only to the area where the work has to be done, if possible without the
guard or protection device having to be dismantled.
Article 25 (Special requirements for guards)
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
5 Safety-Related Interlocks...(entire section)
6.5 Components used in systems designed to contain hazardous
production
materials under pressure should be rated for the service in which they
are used. Mechanical connections are to be enclosed in such a way as
to prevent exposure of personnel should a leak occur. (For additional
information, see UFC Article 51.)
7.4 All point-of-hazard panels and shields, when removed or accessed,
should be safety-interlocked to prevent operation of x-ray sources or
exposures of personnel to sealed radioactive sources. These interlocks,
by design, should not be defeatable.
8.5 All point-of-hazard panels and shields should be rigidly affixed and
require a tool for removal and be labeled as outlined by the preceding
standards.
10.5.2 The secondary containment should control emissions into the
work room air to less than 25% of ACGIH recommended TLV or PEL
during a delivery system failure.
10.6 The size of the enclosure, the removable panels, and the openings
should be minimized.
11.3.1 The equipment manufacturer should provide non-conductive
and/or grounded conductive physical barriers on all areas where
exposed circuits are greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.4 volts peak.
Barriers concealing hazards should be labeled identifying the hazards
concealed. Visual hazard alerts should be in accordance with SEMI S1,
ANSI Z535, or an equivalent.
11.3.2 The equipment design should minimize the probability of
electrical shock during maintenance, repair, modification, calibration, or
adjustment. Exposed energized circuits, components, and terminal strips
should have removable non-conductive and non-combustible covers to
protect personnel from incidental contact.
EXCEPTION: Covers are not required for enclosures which require a tool
to open and are properly labeled and designed to minimize accidental
contact with energized circuits.
11.3.6 Electrical enclosures should be constructed to National Electrical
Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards or equivalent.
14.5 Maintainability/Serviceability - Equipment design and installation
should facilitate maintenance and service. Specific considerations should
include: (a) design for positive malfunction detection and isolation of
faulty components; (b) unit packaging of component parts for ease of
removal and replacement; (c) access to components that require testing,
servicing, maintenance, or replacement; (d) lifting aids for heavy or bulky
components.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 26
Fixed guards must be fulfilled following requirements.
1. It must be securely held in place.
2. They must be fixed by systems that can be opened only with tools.
3. Where possible, guards must be unable to remain in place without their
fixings.
8.5 All point-of-hazard panels and shields should be rigidly affixed and
require a tool for removal and be labeled as outlined by the preceding
standards.
Movable guards shall be fulfilled following requirements.
1. Type A movable guards must as far as possible remain fixed to the
machinery when open and must be associated with a locking device to
prevent moving parts starting up as long as these parts can be accessed
and to give a stop command whenever they are no longer closed.
2. Type B movable guards must be designed and incorporated into the
control system so that:
A. moving parts cannot start up while they are within the operator's
reach;
B. the exposed person cannot reach moving parts once they have
started up;
C. they can be adjusted only by means of an intentional action, such
as the use of a tool, key, etc;
D. the absence or failure of one of their components prevents starting
or stops the moving parts;
E. protection against any risk of ejection is provided by means of an
appropriate barrier.
Adjustable guards restricting access such as cover for sawing blades shall
be fulfilled following requirements.
1. It must be adjustable manually or automatically according to the type of
work involved.
2. It must be readily adjustable without the use of tools.
3. It must reduce as far as possible the risk of ejection.
Protection devices must be designed and incorporated into the control
system so that:
1. moving parts cannot start up while they are within the operator's reach;
2. the exposed person cannot reach moving parts once they have started
up;
3. they can be adjusted only by means of an intentional action, such as
the use of a tool, key, etc;
4. the absence or failure of one of their components prevents starting or
stops the moving parts.
Related Information 1:
Movable guards
Type A movable guards must:
- as far as possible remain fixed to the machinery when open;
- be associated with a locking device to prevent moving parts starting
ups as long as these parts can be accessed and to give a stop command
whenever they are no longer closed.
Type B movable guards must be designed and incorporated into the
control system so that:
- moving parts cannot start up while they are within the operators reach;
- the exposed person cannot reach moving parts once they have started
up;
- they can be adjusted only by means of an intentional action, such as
the use of a tool, key etc.;
- the absence or failure of one of their components prevents starting or
stops the moving parts;
- protection against any risk of ejection is provided by means of an
appropriate barrier.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 27
Sub-section.5 Protection against other hazards
Article 26 (Electricity supply)
Where machinery has an electricity supply it must be designed,
constructed and equipped so that all hazards of an electrical nature are or
can be prevented.
The specific rules in force relating to electrical equipment designed for use
within certain voltage limits must apply to machinery which is subject to
those limits.
Article 27 (Static electricity)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed as to prevent or limit the
build-up of potentially dangerous electrostatic charges and/or be fitted with
a discharging system.
Article28 (Energy supply other than electricity)
Where machinery is powered by an energy other than electricity (e.g.
hydraulic, pneumatic or thermal energy, etc), it must be so designed,
constructed and equipped as to avoid all potential hazards associated with
these types of energy.
Article 29 (Errors of fitting)
Errors likely to be made when fitting or refitting certain parts which could
be a source of risk must be made impossible by the design of such parts
or, failing this, by information given on the parts themselves and/or the
housings.
The same information must be given on moving parts and/or their
housings where the direction of movement must be known to avoid a risk.
Any further information that may be necessary must be given in the
instructions.
Where a faulty connection can be the source of risk, incorrect fluid
connections, including electrical conductors, must be made impossible by
the design or, failing this, by information given on the pipes, cables, etc
and/or connector blocks.
Article 30 (Dangerous temperatures)
Steps must be taken to eliminate any risk of injury caused by contact with
or proximity to machinery parts or materials at high or very low
temperatures.
The risk of hot or very cold material being ejected should be assessed.
Where this risk exists, the necessary steps must be taken to prevent it or,
if this is not technically possible, to render it non-dangerous.
11.3.4 All electrical components and wiring should designed to conform
with the most recent electrical code for the country of use at the time of
the equipment’s assembly
- US; NEC/NFPA 70, NFPA 79
- Japan; JIS
- Europe; IEC 950, IEC 204
Critical electrical/electronic components (whose
failure could increase the risk of electrical shock, fire,
or personal injury) should be listed or recognized by
a nationally recognized testing laboratory, or
otherwise enclosed and protected by a protection
device which is listed or recognized by a nationally
recognized testing laboratory
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
Equivalent
Not Equivalent. Task force opinion:
equipment that meets EMC Directive
requirements would meet the
requirements of Article 27.
Not Equivalent. To address the
hazards presented by these energy
sources, a hazard analysis of the
equipment should be performed.
Equivalent
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.5 Maintainability/Serviceability - Equipment design and installation
should facilitate maintenance and service. Specific considerations should
include: (a) design for positive malfunction detection and isolation of
faulty components; (b) unit packaging of component parts for ease of
removal and replacement; (c) access to components that require testing,
servicing, maintenance, or replacement; (d) lifting aids for heavy or bulky
components.
18. Documentation (entire section)
16. Hazard Warning
All electrical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical hazards should be
identified on the equipment. All chemical hazards should be identified by
descriptive labels. All other hazard labels should conform with SEMI S1
or ANSI Z535, IEC 417, or an equivalent. All hazards should also be
identified in the operation and maintenance manuals The use of the
Not Equivalent. Hazard analysis
should be performed to determine the
degree of risk and appropriate control
should be used.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 28
identified in the operation and maintenance manuals. The use of the
words CAUTION, WARNING, and DANGER should conform to the
requirements of 29 CFR 1910.144-147 and ANSI Z535.
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
Equivalent
Article 32 (Fire)
Machinery must be designed and constructed to avoid all risk of fire or
overheating posed by the machinery itself or by gases, liquids, dusts,
vapours or other substances produced or used by the machinery.
Article 32 (Explosion)
Machinery must be designed and constructed to avoid any risk of
explosion posed by the machinery itself or by gases, liquids, dusts,
vapours or other substances produced or used by the machinery.
The manufacturer must take as following steps.
1. Manufacturer shall take steps to avoid a dangerous concentration of
hazardous substances.
2. Manufacturer shall take steps to prevent ignition sources within the
19.1 The use of combustible and smoke-generating materials in the
construction of the process equipment should be limited. No flammable
or combustible material should come in contact with potential ignition
sources such as electrical components or heated surfaces.
19.2 A materials flammability test report should be available upon
request. The use of combustible plastics, rated less than UL 94V-0,
should be limited to less than 20% of the surface area and protected
from such sources of ignition. (For additional information, see Flame
Spread per ASTM E-84, Limited Oxygen Index per ASTM D-2863 and
Heat Deflection Temperature per ASTM D-648 or other technical
reference which address combustible plastics.)
19.2.1 Circuit boards should be UL 94V-1 rated or better.
19.3 Equipment with enclosures greater than 1.4 m3 (50 ft3) should be
evaluated for fire detection system. All fire detection systems should be
listed or recognized by a nationally recognized testing lab. The supplier
should consider fire suppression systems.
19.3.1 The fire detection systems should be capable of interfacing with
the user's facility alarm systems.
13 Heated Chemical Baths (entire section)
10.3 Equipment that uses process materials with an NFPA 704 hazard
rating in health, flammability, or reactivity of 3 or 4, should place
non-welded connections handling such materials in an exhausted
enclosure. The equipment supplier should document when external
exhaust is required and specify the requirements.
10.4 Secondary enclosure and exhaust systems for gas plumbing should
be designed to ensure that a "realistic worst case" leak will be
contained or captured.
19.1 The use of combustible and smoke-generating materials in the
construction of the process equipment should be limited. No flammable
or combustible material should come in contact with potential ignition
sources such as electrical components or heated surfaces.
19.2 A materials flammability test report should be available upon
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 29
potentially explosive atmosphere.
3. Manufacturer shall take steps to minimise any explosion which may
occur so that it does not endanger the surroundings.
The same precautions in paragraph 2 must be taken if the manufacturer
foresees the use of the machinery in a potentially explosive atmosphere.
Electrical equipment forming part of the machinery must conform, as far
as the risk from explosion is concerned, to the provision of the specific
legislation in force.
Article 33 (Noise)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that risks resulting from
the emission of airborne noise are reduced to the lowest level taking
account of technical progress and the availability of means of reducing
noise, in particular at source.
Article 34 (Vibration)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that risks resulting from
vibrations produced by the machinery are reduced to the lowest level,
taking account of technical progress and the availability of means of
reducing vibration, in particular at source.
Article 35 (Radiation)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that any emission of
radiation is limited to the extent necessary for its operation and that the
effects on exposed persons are nonexistent or reduced to non-dangerous
proportions.
request. The use of combustible plastics, rated less than UL 94V-0,
should be limited to less than 20% of the surface area and protected
from such sources of ignition. (For additional information, see Flame
Spread per ASTM E-84, Limited Oxygen Index per ASTM D-2863 and
Heat Deflection Temperature per ASTM D-648 or other technical
reference which address combustible plastics.)
19.2.1 Circuit boards should be UL 94V-1 rated or better.
19.3 Equipment with enclosures greater than 1.4 m3 (50 ft3) should be
evaluated for fire detection system. All fire detection systems should be
listed or recognized by a nationally recognized testing lab. The supplier
should consider fire suppression systems.
19.3.1 The fire detection systems should be capable of interfacing with
the user's facility alarm systems.
10.3 Equipment that uses process materials with an NFPA 704 hazard
rating in health, flammability, or reactivity of 3 or 4, should place
non-welded connections handling such materials in an exhausted
enclosure. The equipment supplier should document when external
exhaust is required and specify the requirements.
10.4 Secondary enclosure and exhaust systems for gas plumbing
should be designed to ensure that a "realistic worst case" leak will be
contained or captured.
9 Audio Noise
9.1 The equipment should be designed to operate at the lowest practical
dB(A) level but in no case greater than 80 dB(A). (For additional
information, see 29 CFR 1910.95.) Test results indicating conformance
to requirements should be available to the equipment user upon request.
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
7 Ionizing Radiation
7.1 Ionizing radiation emissions during operation and maintenance
activities should be limited to the lowest practical level. Shielding, safety
interlocks, and other safeguards should be used to ensure the lowest
Equivalent
Not Equivalent
Due to the nature of the
semiconductor manufacturing
technology, high vibrations will result
in a performance issue.
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 30
Article 36 (Electromagnetic compatibility)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that electromagnetic
disturbances shall not interfere safe operation of machinery, or safe
operation of machinery shall not be affected from the external
electromagnetic radiation.
practical leakage level. Under normal operating conditions, the
equipment should meet or exceed all requirements of OSHA (29 CFR
1910), NRC, FDA (21 CFR 1000 through 1050), or local regulations,
whichever is most stringent.
7.2 Suppliers of radiation-producing equipment should be registered
with the NRC and the state (if an agreement state). If required by
government regulations, documentation stating the type of ionizing
radiation and levels of external radiation from the equipment at time of
manufacture should be furnished to the user. (For additional information,
see 29 CFR 1910.96.) Documentation that provides a performance
guarantee may be submitted by the supplier, if based on established
ratings for the same type of equipment and allowed by regulations.
7.3 Where supplemental administrative controls are needed to limit
radiation exposures, these procedures should be described in detail in
the supplier's operation and maintenance manuals.
7.4 All point-of-hazard panels and shields, when removed or accessed,
should be safety-interlocked to prevent operation of x-ray sources or
exposures of personnel to sealed radioactive sources. These interlocks,
by design, should not be defeatable.
7.5 Labeling of radiation-producing equipment should be provided by the
equipment manufacturer or supplier in accordance with 21 CFR 1020.40,
NRC Part 20, 29 CFR 1910 or state and local regulations, whichever is
most stringent
8 Non-Ionizing Radiation
8.1 During operation or maintenance activities, exposure to non-ionizing
radiation and fields (ranging from static electric and magnetic fields
through ultra-violet radiation, including: ultraviolet, infrared, visible light,
radio frequency, laser, and microwave), should be limited to the lowest
practical level and should not exceed applicable standards or guidelines.
Shielding, safety interlocks, and other safeguards should be used to
ensure the lowest practical leakage level. The equipment design should
minimize potential non-ionizing radiation exposure to persons performing
routine operations, maintenance, and service procedures. Under no
circumstances should non-ionizing radiation levels exceed the maximum
permissible exposure in the areas occupied by personnel. (For additional
information, see ANSI Z-136.1 and C95.1 or OSHA 29 CFR 1046.10.)
8.2 Documentation showing the frequency/wavelength and the energy
level of non-ionizing radiation from the equipment and its fields should be
available to the user for all portions of the equipment that contains
sources of non-ionizing radiation. (For additional information, see ANSI
Z-136.1 and C95.1.)
8.3 Where supplemental administrative controls are needed to limit the
non-ionizing radiation exposures, these procedures should be described
in detail in the supplier's operation and maintenance manuals. A
description of supplemental monitoring and alarms should also be
required.
1000 through 1050.)
Not Equivalent. The equipment that
meets the EMC Directive requirements
of the CE marking, should be in
compliance with these requirements.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 31
Tests for electromagnetic compatibility according to Paragraph 1 are
divided into test for electromagnetic disturbances and test for
electromagnetic immunity. And test items are as follows;
1. Machinery and equipment to be tested for electromagnetic
disturbances
A.
B.
C.
Processing machine using high frequency energy such as
industrial electrical induction heater, industrial high frequency
heater, RF excited welder
Arc or spark producing machines during work process such as
electro discharge machine, electrical welding machine.
Machinery and equipment which applicants want to get test for
electromagnetic disturbances.
2. Machinery and equipment to be tested for electromagnetic immunity
A. Industrial robot
B. Machinery and equipment using numerical control such as
numerical machine tool
C. Machinery and equipment using wireless remote control device
D. Machinery and equipment which applicants want to get test for
electromagnetic immunity.
3. Machinery and equipment to be tested for electromagnetic disturbances
and immunity
A. The machinery and equipment applied to both requirements
Number 1 and 2 of Paragraph 2.
B. Machinery and equipment which applicants want to get test for
electromagnetic disturbances and immunity.
Article 37 (Laser equipment)
Where laser equipment is used, the following provisions should be taken
into account.
1. Laser equipment on machinery must be designed and constructed
so as to prevent any accidental radiation.
2. Laser equipment on machinery must be protected so that effective
radiation, radiation produced by reflection or diffusion and
secondary radiation do not damage health.
3. Optical equipment for the observation or adjustment of laser
equipment on machinery must be such that no health risk is
created by the laser rays.
Article 38 (Emissions of dust, gases, etc)
Machinery must be so designed, constructed and/or equipped that risks
Equivalent
8.1 During operation or maintenance activities, exposure to non-ionizing
radiation and fields (ranging from static electric and magnetic fields
through ultra-violet radiation, including: ultraviolet, infrared, visible
light, radio frequency, laser, and microwave), should be limited to
the lowest practical level and should not exceed applicable
standards or guidelines. Shielding, safety interlocks, and other
safeguards should be used to ensure the lowest practical leakage
level. The equipment design should minimize potential non-ionizing
radiation exposure to persons performing routine operations,
maintenance, and service procedures. Under no circumstances
should non-ionizing radiation levels exceed the maximum
permissible exposure in the areas occupied by personnel. (For
additional information, see ANSI Z-136.1 and C95.1 or OSHA 29
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 32
due to gases, liquids, dust, vapours and other waste materials which it
produces can be avoided.
Where a hazard exists, the machinery must be so equipped that the said
substances can be contained and/or evacuated.
Where machinery is not enclosed during normal operation, the devices for
containment and/or evacuation must be situated as close as possible to
the source of the emission.
Article 39 (Risk of being trapped in a machine)
Machinery must be designed, constructed or fitted with a means of
CFR 1046.10.)
Equivalent
10.5.1 The goal is zero leakage, and under normal operating conditions,
should not exceed 1% of ACGIH-recommended TLV, PEL, or the lower
detectable limit.
10.5.2 The secondary containment should control emissions into the
work room air to less than 25% of ACGIH recommended TLV or PEL
during a delivery system failure.
6.1 Operation and maintenance manuals should contain descriptions or
diagrams of potential key failure points and trouble spots in equipment
that use hazardous process materials or contain hazardous by-products.
Text should be highlighted with such words as CAUTION, WARNING, or
DANGER. (The use of these words should conform to the requirements
of 29 CFR 1910.144-147 [OSHA] and ANSI Standard Z535.)
10.1 Ventilation enclosures should be designed and test validated for
efficient and safe control of chemical emissions during routine operation
and maintenance, and during the failure of other control systems. These
systems should optimize the use of air flow, as far as practical, directing
escaping chemicals so they do not impinge on the equipment. These
means should be based on application-specific design principles as
specified in the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation - A Manual of
Recommended Practice, OSHA Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, SEMI S6 for
ventilation, or the model mechanical codes applicable at the site of
installation.
10.2 Equipment that uses hazardous materials or that generates
hazardous chemical by-products should be designed to use local
exhaust ventilation as the primary safety control. Exhaust loads that
require continuous flow external treatment should be minimized.
Supplementary exhaust to support maintenance should be used where
appropriate to reduce the continuous exhaust requirements for the
equipment.
20.4 Air Emissions
20.4.1 Process by-products, fugitive emissions, and exhaust effluent
should be characterized. The equipment manufacturer should provide
the end user with pertinent information necessary to address the best
method of handling (controlling or treating) process by-products and
exhaust effluent.
20.4.2 The equipment supplier should specify exhaust flow rates and
differentiate among the types of exhaust required for various applications
(heat, scrubbed, solvent, pyrophoric, etc.).
20.4. 3 The manufacturer should evaluate on-board controls for process
chamber exhaust effluent treatment or external point-of-use abatement
methods and provide alternatives to the equipment end users.
20.4.3.1 In the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions,
on-board controls, such as thermal destruction or physical capture
should be evaluated and the possible abatement alternatives described
to the equipment end user for their choice on implementation.
4.5 No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
Not Equivalent. A Hazard analysis of
the equipment should be performed to
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 33
preventing an exposed person from being enclosed within it or, if that is
impossible, with a means of summoning help.
determine the risk and to design the
control methods.
Article 40 (Risk of slipping, tripping or falling)
Parts of the machinery where persons are liable to move about or stand
must be designed and constructed to prevent persons slipping, tripping or
falling on or off these parts.
Not Equivalent. A Hazard analysis of
the equipment should be performed to
determine the risk and to design the
control methods.
Sub-section 6 Maintenance
Article 41 (Machinery maintenance)
Adjustment, lubrication and maintenance must be carried out outside
danger zones. It must be possible to carry out adjustment, maintenance,
repair, cleaning and servicing operations while machinery is at a standstill.
If one or more of the above conditions cannot be satisfied for technical
reasons, these operations must be possible without risk.
In the case of automated machinery and, where necessary, other
machinery, the manufacturer must make provision for a connecting device
for mounting diagnostic fault-finding equipment.
Automated machine components which have to be changed frequently, in
particular for a change in manufacture or where they are liable to wear or
likely to deteriorate following an accident, must be capable of being
removed and replaced easily and in safety. Access to the components
must enable these tasks to be carried out with the necessary technical
means (tools, measuring instruments, etc) in accordance with an
operating method specified by the manufacturer.
3 Safety Philosophy
3.1 Few safety standards exist that specifically address the design and
construction of process equipment used in the manufacturing of
semiconductors. Because of the expense and disruptive effects of safely
retro-fitting equipment, these guidelines should be used, during design
and construction of process equipment, to help eliminate known safety
and health hazards inherent in operation and maintenance. Industry
standards; building, electrical and fire codes; government regulatory
requirements; and good practice should be considered in all equipment
development programs.
3.2 The safety philosophy set forth in these guidelines is that potential
hazards in the operation and maintenance of equipment be identified and
engineered out of equipment during the design and construction phases.
Where identified hazards cannot be eliminated, no single point failure or
operational error should allow immediate exposure of personnel,
facilities, or community to hazards or directly result in injury, death, or
equipment loss. All equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant
design.
3.3 These guidelines define the minimum safety considerations for
semiconductor manufacturing equipment. The areas of concern in the
operation and maintenance of equipment are:
Chemical hazards
Radiation hazards
Electrical hazards
Physical hazards
Mechanical hazards
Environmental hazards
Fire and explosions
Seismic activity hazards
Ventilation
Ergonomics
4 General Guidelines
This section describes the general safety guidelines for all
semiconductor manufacturing process and test equipment.
4.2 The design of the completed equipment and its options should be
examined and a risk analysis performed and documented by a qualified
product-safety professional or other qualified engineering/technical
professional. The risk analysis and documentation should be issued in
Equivalent
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 34
the form of a report no later than 30 days prior to system shipment. This
report should state that the equipment, including its components and
sub-assemblies, conforms to applicable laws, regulations, and codes in
effect at the time of purchase, and to the guidelines presented here or
other applicable product safety standards. An independent laboratory or
product safety consulting firm may be commissioned to supply additional
testing, listings, or evaluations of conformance to this document.
EXCEPTIONS: All hazards that cannot be engineered out of the product
should be clearly identified and controlled to reduce personnel exposure
and/or property damage. These hazards should be addressed
specifically in the product operations and maintenance manual or in an
accompanying notice. The manufacturer should continue to work to
eliminate these hazards.
5 Safety-Related Interlocks
5.2 The safety interlock scheme should be designed to minimize the
need to override automatic fail-safe safety interlock systems during
maintenance activities. Safety interlocks in conjunction with physical
barriers that operate at the point of the hazard are preferred (for
example, a safety interlocked cover over a laser beam). When access to
hazards that cannot be eliminated is required during maintenance,
defeatable safety interlocks should be provided. Upon exiting the
maintenance mode, all safety interlocks should be automatically
restored.
5.3 Each type of safety interlock and its operation should be fully
explained in the operations and maintenance manuals.
5.4 Equipment using greater than 30 volts RMS or 42.2 volts peak, rf
power, hazardous chemicals, lasers, and uv light, as well as
radiation-generating equipment, should be provided with physical
barriers (labeled as to the hazards they protect) or safety interlocks, at
the point of hazard, which effectively protect from personnel exposure. If
the physical barrier does not require a tool to obtain access, the interlock
is mandatory.
5.5 All equipment using hazardous gas requiring detection should be
able to interface with gas monitoring equipment. The output from gas
monitoring equipment should initiate automatic shutdown of gas flows
and place the equipment in a safe state.
5.6 When triggered, safety interlocks should place the point of hazard
area in a safe state.
When triggered, each affected safety interlock should require individual
manual reset or restart before the equipment function can be
restored.
6 Chemicals
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 35
6.2 Equipment that uses hazardous production materials requiring
detection based on regulations (such as federal, state, and local
codes) should have sample points mounted in the equipment, or
have recommended sampling points identified in the product
literature. The equipment should be able to interface with an
external monitoring device and shut down the supply of the
hazardous process materials.
7 Ionizing Radiation
7.1 Ionizing radiation emissions during operation and maintenance
activities should be limited to the lowest practical level. Shielding, safety
interlocks, and other safeguards should be used to ensure the lowest
practical leakage level. Under normal operating conditions, the
equipment should meet or exceed all requirements of OSHA (29 CFR
1910), NRC, FDA (21 CFR 1000 through 1050), or local regulations,
whichever is most stringent.
7.3 Where supplemental administrative controls are needed to limit
radiation exposures, these procedures should be described in detail
in the supplier's operation and maintenance manuals
8 Non-Ionizing Radiation
8.1 During operation or maintenance activities, exposure to non-ionizing
radiation and fields (ranging from static electric and magnetic fields
through ultra-violet radiation, including: ultraviolet, infrared, visible light,
radio frequency, laser, and microwave), should be limited to the lowest
practical level and should not exceed applicable standards or guidelines.
Shielding, safety interlocks, and other safeguards should be used to
ensure the lowest practical leakage level. The equipment design should
minimize potential non-ionizing radiation exposure to persons performing
routine operations, maintenance, and service procedures. Under no
circumstances should non-ionizing radiation levels exceed the maximum
permissible exposure in the areas occupied by personnel. (For additional
information, see ANSI Z-136.1 and C95.1 or OSHA 29 CFR 1046.10.)
8.3 Where supplemental administrative controls are needed to limit the
non-ionizing radiation exposures, these procedures should be described
in detail in the supplier's operation and maintenance manuals. A
description of supplemental monitoring and alarms should also be
required.
8.5 All point-of-hazard panels and shields should be rigidly affixed and
require a tool for removal and be labeled as outlined by the preceding
standards.
8.6 Removable shielding or filtering material (such as film shielding used
on windows) should be designed or arranged to prevent reverse or faulty
installation and labeled as outlined by ANSI Z-136.1, and C95.1, and
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 36
Center for Device and Radiological Health, 21 CFR 1000 through 1050.
10 Ventilation and Exhaust
10.1 Ventilation enclosures should be designed and test validated for
efficient and safe control of chemical emissions during routine operation
and maintenance, and during the failure of other control systems. These
systems should optimize the use of air flow, as far as practical, directing
escaping chemicals so they do not impinge on the equipment. These
means should be based on application-specific design principles as
specified in the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation - A Manual of
Recommended Practice, OSHA Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, SEMI S6 for
ventilation, or the model mechanical codes applicable at the site of
installation.
10.2 Equipment that uses hazardous materials or that generates
hazardous chemical by-products should be designed to use local
exhaust ventilation as the primary safety control. Exhaust loads that
require continuous flow external treatment should be minimized.
Supplementary exhaust to support maintenance should be used where
appropriate to reduce the continuous exhaust requirements for the
equipment.
10.3 Equipment that uses process materials with an NFPA 704 hazard
rating in health, flammability, or reactivity of 3 or 4, should place
non-welded connections handling such materials in an exhausted
enclosure. The equipment supplier should document when external
exhaust is required and specify the requirements.
10.4 Secondary enclosure and exhaust systems for gas plumbing
should be designed to ensure that a “realistic worst case” leak will be
contained or captured.
10.7 The equipment supplier should specify static pressure, volumetric
flow rate, the location where exhaust measurements should be made,
and the duct material requirements for the user's exhaust systems.
10.9 Exhaust flow interlocks should be provided by the equipment
manufacturer (but the actual exhaust system is part of the facilities,
and its monitoring system should be supplied by the end user) on
all equipment that use hazardous process materials. When the
exhaust falls below the prescribed set point a visual and audible
alarm should be provided in visual and audible range of the
operator, and the process equipment should be placed in a safe
stand-by mode.
11 Electrical
11.1 Energized Electrical Work (“Hot Work”) - The supplier should
design the equipment to minimize the need to conduct calibration,
testing, or maintenance on equipment that may be energized and to
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 37
minimize work that must be performed on components near exposed
energized circuits. The supplier is expected to move as many tasks as
possible from the “Hot Work” categories type 3, 4, and 5 to type 1 or 2.
This can be accomplished through such hardware changes as remote
safe testing points for high-voltage measurements. Work in types 3, 4,
and 5 should have specific written instructions in the maintenance
manuals.
The following are the five types of energized electrical work:
Type 1 - Equipment is fully de-energized (electrically “cold”).
Type 2 - Equipment is energized. Live circuits are covered or insulated.
Work is performed at a remote location to preclude accidental
shock.
Type 3 - Equipment is energized. Live circuits are exposed and
accidental contact is possible. Potential exposures are less
than 30 volts RMS, 42.2 volts peak, 240 volt-amps, and 20
Joules. (See NFPA 79-14.3, IEC 204, UL 1950 & 1262, IEC
950.)
Type 4 - Equipment is energized. Live circuits are exposed and
accidental contact is possible. Voltage potentials are greater
than 30 volts RMS, 42.2 volts peak, 240 volt-amps, 20 Joules,
or radio frequency (rf) is present.
Type 5 - Equipment is energized and measurements and adjustment
require physical entry into the equipment, or equipment
configuration will not allow the use of clamp-on probes.
The supplier should list type 3 or higher electrical hazard tasks by their
type (as defined in Section 11.1) in its equipment operation and
maintenance manuals.
11.3.2 The equipment design should minimize the probability of
electrical shock during maintenance, repair, modification, calibration, or
adjustment. Exposed energized circuits, components, and terminal strips
should have removable non-conductive and non-combustible covers to
protect personnel from incidental contact.
EXCEPTION: Covers are not required for enclosures which require a tool
to open and are properly labeled and designed to minimize accidental
contact with energized circuits.
15 Robotics and Automation
ANSI/RIA R15.06 should be used as the minimum safety design
considerations. Robotics and automation should not add to the overall
degree of hazard presented by the equipment and should be designed in
a manner that minimizes pre-existing procedural, chemical, electrical,
and mechanical hazards.
18 Documentation
18.2 Potential safety hazards, safety controls, and safety procedures
should be documented and clearly communicated through the use of
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 38
pictorial hazard alerts (warnings) in the supplier's operation and
maintenance manuals. These manuals should be available in the
national language of the end user.
20 Environmental
20.7.2 Detection and alarm systems should be incorporated into units
that use automated or pressured chemical feeds to provide automated
shutdown of the unit if an unwanted release occurs and should be
capable of providing alarms.
Article 42 (Operating position, etc.)
The manufacturer must provide means of access (stairs, ladders,
catwalks,
etc) to allow access in safety to all areas used for production, adjustment
and maintenance operations.
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
14.3 Human Characteristics - Equipment should be designed to fit the
physical characteristics of 90 percent of the user population (from 5th
percentile Asian female through 95th percentile American male). User
population design considerations include: (a) ensuring that frequently
performed physical task requirements are located within the functional
reach envelope of small operators; (b) providing sufficient access and
clearance for large operators; (c) ensuring that manual handling
requirements are within the strength capability of all operators; (e)
locating displays for ease of viewing. Control and display operation
should be compatible with user expectations (e.g., behavioral
stereotypes).
Article 43 (Isolation of energy sources)
All machinery must be fitted with as following means to isolate it from
all energy sources. In the case of machinery supplied with electricity
through a plug capable of being plugged
11 Electrical
11.2 Equipment should be provided with means to allow the user to
comply with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 (Control of Hazardous Energies,
Lockout/Tagout) and 29 CFR 1910.331-335 (Electrical Safety-Related
Work Practices) as related to lockout/tagout. Recommended
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 39
into a circuit, separation of the plug is sufficient.
1. Such isolators must be clearly identified.
2. They must be capable of being locked if reconnection could
endanger exposed persons.
3. The isolator must be capable of being locked also where an
operator is unable, from any of the points to which he has access,
to check that the energy is still cut off.
4. After the energy is cut off, it must be possible to dissipate normally
any energy remaining or stored in the circuits of the machinery
without risk to exposed persons. As an exception to the above
requirements, certain circuits may remain connected to their
energy sources in order, for example, to hold parts, protect
information, light interiors, etc. In this case, special steps must be
taken to ensure operator safety.
lockout/tagout procedures should be supplied and installation
instructions for user-supplied lockout devices provided as part of the
maintenance/installation instructions.
11.3.8 Incoming electrical power from the facility to the process
equipment should come from a single feed location and should terminate
at the main disconnect defined in 11.3.7. This disconnect should have
the lockout capabilities specified in 11.2. (For additional information, see
OSHA 29 CFR 1019.147.)
EXCEPTION 1: Internal power distribution to support modules and
sub-panels is acceptable.
EXCEPTION 2: Equipment with more than one feed should be provided
with provisions for lockout and be marked with the following text,
“DANGER, RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK. DISCONNECT ALL (number
of feed locations) SOURCES OF SUPPLY PRIOR TO SERVICING” at
each disconnect.
EXCEPTION 3: A second power feed may be used when power is
supplied from a facilities UPS system to maintain critical equipment
system, but not the entire system. Power supplied from an external UPS
will be removed when the emergency off circuit is activated or the main
equipment breaker is opened.
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.5 Maintainability/Serviceability - Equipment design and installation
should facilitate maintenance and service. Specific considerations should
include: (a) design for positive malfunction detection and isolation of
faulty components; (b) unit packaging of component parts for ease of
removal and replacement; (c) access to components that require testing,
servicing, maintenance, or replacement; (d) lifting aids for heavy or bulky
components.
Article 44 (Operator intervention)
Machinery must be so designed, constructed and equipped that the need
for operator intervention is limited. If operator intervention cannot be
avoided, it must be possible to carry it out easily and in safety.
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 40
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
14.4 Operability
14.4.1 System controls and displays should promote ease of use.
Equipment design should consider both routine and non-routine (e.g.,
emergency or fault) operation. Risk to operators should be minimized by
decreasing both the likelihood and consequence of procedural errors.
14.4.2 Visual and/or auditory signals should alert operators to conditions
that are unsafe or require immediate intervention.
Prompt and consistent feedback should be provided to indicate system
status, control inputs, and changes in system condition.
Article 45 (Cleaning of internal parts)
The machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that it is
possible to clean internal parts which have contained dangerous
substances or preparations without entering them; any necessary
unblocking must also be possible from the outside. If it is absolutely
impossible to avoid entering the machinery, the manufacturer must take
steps during its construction to allow cleaning to take place with the
minimum of danger.
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
14.3 Human Characteristics - Equipment should be designed to fit the
physical characteristics of 90 percent of the user population (from 5th
percentile Asian female through 95th percentile American male). User
population design considerations include: (a) ensuring that frequently
performed physical task requirements are located within the functional
reach envelope of small operators; (b) providing sufficient access and
clearance for large operators; (c) ensuring that manual handling
requirements are within the strength capability of all operators; (e)
locating displays for ease of viewing. Control and display operation
should be compatible with user expectations (e.g., behavioral
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 41
stereotypes).
20 Environmental
20.4.3 The manufacturer should evaluate on-board controls for process
chamber exhaust effluent treatment or external point-of-use abatement
methods and provide alternatives to the equipment end users.
20.4.3.1 In the case of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions,
on-board controls, such as thermal destruction or physical capture
should be evaluated and the possible abatement alternatives described
to the equipment end user for their choice on implementation.
20.6.3 Provisions should be made to allow operators to determine the
collection containers' remaining available capacity conveniently without
having to open the containers. Collection containers should be readily
accessible and designed to allow their contents to be transferred to
another container or to allow them to be disposed of and replaced. Level
detectors and alarms should be considered for in-equipment collection
containers.
20.6.4 The equipment should be designed such that any clean-up,
maintenance, and repair generates the least amount of by-products
possible. This requirement should include deposits in drains, ducts
(which may be minimized by equipment design), and on replaceable
parts.
20.6.5 The equipment should be designed to facilitate machine clean up
or disposal after its useful life has expired. Parts which become
contaminated with hazardous materials should be kept to a
minimum. Use of removable liners or modular parts should be
considered.
20.7.1 Secondary containment should be provided to
collect releases (110% of capacity) and to allow any
material released in the secondary containment to be
easily removed.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 42
Sub-section 7 Indicators
Article 46 (Information devices)
The information needed to control machinery must be unambiguous and
easily understood.
It must not be excessive to the extent of overloading the operator.
Where the health and safety of exposed persons may be endangered by a
fault in the operation of unsupervised machinery, the machinery must be
equipped to give an appropriate acoustic or light signal as a warning.
Semi S2-93a, section 4.5:
No single point failure or equipment operational error should allow
exposure of personnel, facilities, or community to hazards or directly
result in injury, death, or equipment loss.
Semi S2-93a, section 3.2:
…”All equipment should be fail-safe or of a fault-tolerant design.”
Semi S2-93a, section 18.2:
Potential safety hazards, safety controls, and safety procedures should
be documented and clearly communicated through the use of pictorial
hazard alerts (warnings) in the supplier's operation and maintenance
manuals. These manuals should be available in the national language of
the end user.
14 Ergonomics/Human Factors
14.1 General - Process equipment should be designed to prevent
personal injury and equipment damage and to minimize procedural
errors. Equipment design features should ensure that operator workload,
information processing requirements, and physical demands do not
exceed user capabilities or compromise safety. The following sections
provide general guidelines that are further explained or detailed in SEMI
S8 and applicable references in Appendix 2.
14.2 Ergonomic Hazards - Ergonomic hazards should be designed out
or otherwise reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Ergonomic
hazards exist whenever the system design or installation results in task
demands that exceed the information processing and/or physical
capabilities of trained personnel. Hazards may result from: (a) controls
that are confusing to operate; (b) displays that are difficult to read or
understand; (c) lifting of heavy or bulky components; (d) repetitive
motion; (e) static and/or awkward postures; (f) poor access, inadequate
clearance, and excessive reaching, bending, or stooping.
14.3 Human Characteristics - Equipment should be designed to fit the
physical characteristics of 90 percent of the user population (from 5th
percentile Asian female through 95th percentile American male). User
population design considerations include: (a) ensuring that frequently
performed physical task requirements are located within the functional
reach envelope of small operators; (b) providing sufficient access and
clearance for large operators; (c) ensuring that manual handling
requirements are within the strength capability of all operators; (e)
locating displays for ease of viewing. Control and display operation
should be compatible with user expectations (e.g., behavioral
stereotypes).
Article 47 (Warning devices)
Where machinery is equipped with warning devices (such as signals, etc),
these must be unambiguous and easily perceived.
The operator must have facilities to check the operation of such warning
devices at all times.
Semi S2-93a, Related section 1.7.1:
Warning Devices
Where machinery is equipped with warning devices (such as signals,
etc.), these must be unambiguous and easily perceived.
The operator must have facilities to check the operation of such warning
devices at all times.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 43
The requirements of the specific relevant standards concerning colours
and safety signals must be complied with.
The requirements of the specific Directives concerning colours and
safety signals must be complied with.
Article 48 (Warning of residual risks)
Where risks remain despite all the measures adopted or in the case of
potential risks which are not evident (e.g. electrical cabinets, radioactive
sources, bleeding of a hydraulic circuit, hazard in an unseen area, etc),
the manufacturer must provide warnings.
Semi S2-93a, section 4.2, Exceptions:
All hazards that cannot be engineered out of the product should be
clearly identified and controlled to reduce personnel exposure and/or
property damage. These hazards should be addressed specifically in
the product operations and maintenance manual or in an accompanying
notice. The manufacturer should continue to work to eliminate these
hazards.
Such warnings should preferably use readily understandable pictograms
and/or be drawn up in one of the languages of the country in which the
machinery is to be used, accompanied, on request, by the languages
understood by the operators.
Semi S2-93a, section 18.2:
Potential hazards, safety controls, and safety procedures should be
documented and clearly communicated through the use of pictorial
hazard alerts (warnings) in the supplier’s operation and maintenance
manuals. These manuals should be available in the national language of
the end user.
Article 49 (Marking)
All machinery must be marked legibly and indelibly with the following
minimum particulars.
Semi S2-93a, related 1.7.3: Marking
All machinery must be marked legibly and indelibly with the following
particulars:
1. Name and address of the manufacturer.
2. The year of construction.
3. Name and designation of series or type.
4. Serial number
5. Necessary matters, if any.
- name and address of the manufacturer,
- the CE marking, (see Annex III)
- designation of series or type,
- serial number, if any,
- the year of construction.
Furthermore, where the manufacturer constructs machinery intended for
use in a potentially explosive atmosphere, this must be indicated on the
machinery.
Machinery must also bear full information relevant to its type and
essential to its safe use (e.g., maximum speed of certain rotating parts,
maximum diameter of tools to be fitted, mass, etc.)
Furthermore, where the manufacturer constructs machinery intended for
use in a potentially explosive atmosphere, this must be indicated on the
machinery.
Machinery must also bear full information relevant to its type and essential
to its safe use (e.g. maximum speed of certain rotating parts, maximum
diameter of tools to be fitted, mass, etc).
Where a machine part must be handled during use with lifting equipment,
its mass must be indicated legibly, indelibly and unambiguously.
Article 50 (Instructions)
All machinery must be accompanied by instructions including at least the
following information.
1. The information with which the machinery is marked, except the
serial number, together with any appropriate additional
information to facilitate maintenance.
Where a machine part must be handled during use with lifting equipment,
its mass must be indicated legibly, indelibly and unambiguously. The
interchangeable equipment referred to in Article 1 (2), third paragraph
must bear the same information.
Semi S2-93a, Related Information 1.7.4 (a): Instructions
All machinery must be accompanied by instructions
including at least the following:
- A repeat of the information with which the machinery is marked, except
the serial number, (see 1.7.3), together with any appropriate additional
information to facilitate maintenance (e.g., addresses of the importer
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 44
2. Foreseen use of the machinery within the meaning of paragraph 3
of Article 4.
3. Work station(s) likely to be occupied by operators; this can be a
drawing showing operator positions.
4. Instructions for safe.
5. Instruction for use.
6. Handling, giving the mass of the machinery and in various parts
where they are regularly to be transported separately.
7. Assembly, dismantling.
8. Adjustment.
9. Maintenance (servicing and repair).
10.Where necessary, training instructions.
11.Where necessary, the essential characteristics of tools which may
be fitted to the machinery.
12.Where necessary, the instructions should draw attention to ways
in which the machinery should not be used.
The instructions must contain the drawings and diagrams necessary for
use, maintenance, inspection, checking of correct operation and, where
appropriate, repair of the machinery, and all useful instructions in
particular with regard to safety.
Any literature describing the machinery must not contradict the
instructions as regards safety aspects. The technical documentation
describing the machinery must give information regarding the airborne
noise emissions referred to in paragraph 5 and, in the case of hand-held
and/or hand-guided machinery, information regarding vibration.
Where necessary, the instructions must give the requirements relating to
installation and assembly for reducing noise or vibration (e.g. use of
dampers, type and mass of foundation block, etc).
The instructions must give the following information concerning airborne
noise emissions by the machinery, either the actual value or a value
established on the basis of measurements made on identical machinery.
1. Equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level at work
stations, where this exceeds 70 dB(A); where this level does not
exceed 70 dB(A), this fact must be indicated.
2. Peak C-weighted instantaneous sound pressure value at work stations,
where this exceeds 63 Pa (130 dB in relation to 20 µPa).
3. Sound power level emitted by the machinery where the equivalent
continuous A-weighted sound pressure level at work stations exceeds
repairers, etc.)
- Foreseen use of the machinery within the meaning of 1.1.2 (c)
- Workstation(s) likely to be occupied by operators
- Instructions for safe
- Putting into service
- Use;
- Handling, giving the mass of the machinery and its various parts where
they are regularly to be transported separately.
- Installation
- Assembly, dismantling
- Adjustment
- Maintenance (servicing and repair)
- Where necessary, training instructions
- Where necessary, the essential characteristics of tools which may be
fitted to the machinery.
Where necessary, the instructions should draw attention to ways in
which the machinery should not be used.
Related 1.7.4 (c)
The instructions must contain the drawings and diagrams necessary for
putting into service, maintenance, inspection, checking of correct
operation, and, where appropriate, repair of the machinery, and all useful
instructions in particular with regard to safety.
Related 1.7.4 (d):
Any literature describing the machinery must not contradict the
instructions as regards safety aspects.
The technical documentation describing the machinery must give
information regarding the airborne noise emissions referred to in (f) and,
in the case of hand-held and/or hand-guided machinery, information
regarding vibration as referred to in 2.2.
Semi S2-93a, Related 1.7.4 (e):
Where necessary, the instructions must give the requirements relating to
installation and assembly for reducing noise or vibration (e.g., use of
dampers, type and mass of foundation block, etc.)
Semi S2-93a, Related 1.7.4 (f):
The instructions must give the following information concerning airborne
noise emission by the machinery, either the actual value or a value
established on the basis of measurements made on identical machinery:
- equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level at workstations,
where this exceeds 70 dB(A); where this level does not exceed 70 dB(A),
this fact must be indicated,
- peak C-weighted instantaneous sound pressure value at workstations,
where this exceeds 63 Pa (130 dB in relations to 20 mPa), relation to
20 mPa,
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 45
85 dB(A).
In the case of very large machinery, instead of the sound power level in
provision 2 in paragraph 5, the equivalent continuous sound pressure
levels at specified positions around the machinery may be indicated.
The manufacturer must indicate the operating conditions of the machinery
during measurement and what methods have been used for the
measurement according to the paragraph 5.
Where the work station(s) are undefined or cannot be defined, sound
pressure levels must be measured at a distance of 1 metre from the
surface of the machinery and at height of 1.60 metres from the floor or
access platform. The position and value of the maximum sound pressure
must be indicated.
If the manufacturer foresees that the machinery will be used in a
potentially explosive atmosphere, the instructions must give all the
necessary information.
In the case of machinery which may also be intended for use by
non-professional operators, the wording and layout of the instructions for
use, whilst respecting the other essential requirements mentioned above,
must take into account the level of general education and acumen that
can reasonably be expected from such operators.
Section 2 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN CATEGORIES
OF MACHINERY
Article51(Agri-foodstuffs machinery)
In addition to the essential health and safety requirements set out in
section 1 above, where machinery is intended to prepare and process
foodstuffs (e.g. cooking, refrigeration, thawing, washing, handling,
packaging, storage, transport or distribution), it must be so designed and
constructed as to avoid any risk of infection, sickness or contagion and the
following hygiene rules must be observed.
1. Materials in contact, or intended to come into contact, with the
foodstuffs must satisfy the conditions set down in the relevant
legislations. The machinery must be so designed and constructed that
these materials can be cleaned before each use.
- sound power level emitted by the machinery where the equivalent
continuous A-weighted sound pressure level at workstations exceeds 85
dB(A).
In the case of very large machinery, instead of the sound power level,
the equivalent continuous sound pressure levels at specified positions
around the machinery may be indicated.
Where the harmonized standards are not applied, sound levels must be
measured using the most appropriate method for the machinery.
The manufacturer must indicate the operating conditions of the
machinery during measurements and what methods have been used for
the measurement.
Where the workstation(s) are undefined or cannot be defined, sound
pressure levels must be measured at a distance of 1 metre from the
surface of the machinery and at a height of 1.60 metre from the floor or
access platform.
The positions and value of the maximum sound pressure must be
indicated.
Semi S2-93a, Related 1.7.4 (g):
If the manufacturer foresees that the machinery
will be used in a potentially explosive atmosphere,
the instructions must give all the necessary
information.
Semi S2-93a, Related 1.7.4 (h):
In the case of machinery which may also be intended for use by nonprofessional operators, the wording and layout of the instructions for use,
while respecting the other essential requirements mentioned above,
must take into account the level of the general education and acumen
that can reasonably be expected from such operators.
Not applicable to the Semiconductor
Equipment
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 46
2. All surfaces including their joining must be smooth, and must have
neither ridges nor crevices which could harbour organic materials.
3. Assemblies must be designed in such a way as to reduce projections,
edges and recesses to a minimum. (They should preferably be made
by welding or continuous bonding. Screws, screw heads and rivets may
not be used except where technically unavoidable.)
4. All surfaces in contact with foodstuffs must be easily cleaned and
disinfected, where possible after removing easily dismantled parts. The
inside surfaces must have curves of a radius sufficient to allow thorough
cleaning.
5. Liquid deriving from foodstuffs as well as cleaning, disinfecting and
rinsing fluids should be able to be easily discharged from the machine.
6. Machinery must be so designed and constructed as to prevent any
liquids or living creatures, in particular insects, entering, or any organic
matter accumulating in areas that cannot be cleaned.
7. Machinery must be so designed and constructed that no ancillary
substances (e.g. lubricants, etc.) can come into contact with foodstuffs.
Where necessary machinery must be designed and constructed so that
continuing compliance with this requirement can be checked.
The instructions must indicate recommended products and methods for
cleaning, disinfecting and rinsing (not only for easily accessible areas but
also where areas to which access is impossible or unadvisable, such as
piping, have to be cleaned in situ).
Article 52 (Portable hand-held and/or hand-guided machinery)
In addition to the essential health and safety requirements set out in
section 1 above, portable hand-held and/or hand-guided machinery must
conform
To the following essential health and safety requirements.
1. According to the type of machinery, it must have a supporting surface of
sufficient size and have a sufficient number of handles and supports of
an appropriate size and arranged to ensure the stability of the
machinery under the operating conditions foreseen by the
manufacturer.
2. Except where technically impossible or where there is an independent
control, in the case of handles which cannot be released on complete
safety, it must be fitted with start and stop controls arranged in such a
way that the operator can operate them without releasing the handles.
3. It must be designed, constructed or equipped to eliminate the risks of
accidental starting and/or continued operation after the operator has
released the handles. Equivalent steps must be taken if this
requirement is not technically feasible.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 47
4. Portable hand-held machinery must be designed and constructed to
allow, where necessary, a visual check of the contact of the tool with the
material being processed.
The instructions must give the information concerning vibrations
transmitted by hand-held and hand-guided machinery; the weighted root
mean square acceleration value to which the arms are subjected, if it
exceeds 2.5 m/s2 as determined by the appropriate test code. Where the
acceleration does not exceed 2.5 m/s2, this must be mentioned. If there is
no applicable test code, the manufacturer must indicate the measurement
methods and conditions under which measurements were made.
Article 53 (Machinery for working wood and analogous materials)
In addition to the essential and safety requirements set out in section 1
above, machinery for working wood and machinery for working materials
with physical and technological characteristics similar to those of wood,
such as cork, bone, hardened rubber, hardened plastic material and other
similar stiff material must conform to the following essential health and
safety requirements.
Not applicable to the Semiconductor
Equipment
1. The machinery must be designed, constructed or equipped so that the
piece being machined can be placed and guided in safety; where the
piece is hand-held on a work-bench the latter must be sufficiently
stable during the work and must not impede the movement of the
piece.
2. Where the machinery is likely to be used in conditions involving the risk
of ejection of pieces of wood, it must be designed, constructed or
equipped to eliminate this ejection, or, if this is not the case, so that the
ejection does not engender risks for the operator and/or exposed
persons.
3. The machinery must be equipped with an automatic brake that stops
the tool in a sufficiently short time if there is a risk of contact with the
tool whilst it runs down.
4. Where the tool is incorporated into a non-fully automated machine, the
latter must be so designed and constructed as to eliminate or reduce
the risk of serious accidental injury, for example by using cylindrical
cutter blocks, restricting depth of cut, etc.
Section 3 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MOBILITY OF
MACHINERY
Sub-section 1 General Provisions
Article 54 (Safety of movable machinery)
If intended by the manufacturer to be used in dark places, self-propelled
machinery must be fitted with a lighting device appropriate to the work to
be carried out, without prejudice to any other regulations applicable (road
traffic regulations, navigation rules, etc).
May be applicable to UTV’s
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 48
During the handling of the machine and/or its parts there must be no
possibility of sudden movements or of hazards due to instability as long as
the machine and/or its parts are handled in accordance with instruction.
Sub-section 2 Work stations
Article 55 (Driving position)
The driving position or location must be complied following requirements.
1. It must be designed with due regard to ergonomic principles.
2. There may be two or more driving positions and, in such cases, each
driving position must be provided with all the requisite controls.
3. Where there is more than one driving position, the machinery must be
designed so that the use of one of them precludes the use of the
others, except in emergency stops.
4. Visibility from the driving position must be such that the driver can in
complete safety for himself and the exposed persons, operate the
machinery and its tools in their intended conditions of use.
5. Where necessary, appropriate devices must be provided to remedy
hazards due to inadequate direct vision.
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that, from the driving
position, there can be no risk to the driver and operators on board from
inadvertent contact with the wheels or tracks.
The driving position must be designed and constructed so as to avoid any
health risk due to exhaust gases and/or lack of oxygen.
The driving position of ride-on drivers must be so designed and
constructed that a driver's cab may be fitted as long as there is room. In
that case, the cab must incorporate a place for the instructions needed for
the driver and/or operators. The driving position must be fitted with an
adequate cab where there is a hazard due to a dangerous environment.
Where the machinery is fitted with a cab, this must be designed,
constructed and/or equipped to ensure that the driver has good operating
conditions and is protected against any hazards that might exist (for
instance: inadequate heating and ventilation, inadequate visibility,
excessive noise and vibration, falling objects, penetration by objects,
rolling over, etc). The exit must allow rapid evacuation. Moreover, an
emergency exit must be provided in a direction which is different from the
usual exit.
The materials used for the cab and its fittings must be fire-resistant.
Article 56 (Seating)
The driving seat of any machinery must fulfilled following requirements.
1. The driving seat of any machinery must enable the driver to maintain a
stable position and be designed with due regard to ergonomic
Following Sections are Not applicable
to the Semiconductor Equipment
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 49
principles.
2. The seat must be designed to reduce vibrations transmitted to the
driver to the lowest level that can be reasonably achieved.
3. The seat mountings must withstand all stresses to which they can be
subjected, notably in the event of roll over.
4. Where there is no floor beneath the driver's feet, the driver must have
footrests covered with a slip-resistant material.
5. Where machinery is fitted with provision for a roll over protection
structure, the seat must be equipped with a safety belt or equivalent
device which keeps the driver in his seat without restricting any
movements necessary for driving or any movements caused by the
suspension.
Article 57 (Other places)
If the conditions of use provide that operators other than the driver are
occasionally or regularly transported by the machinery, or work on it,
appropriate places must be provided which enable them to be transported
or to work on it without risk particularly the risk of falling.
Where the working conditions so permit, these work places must be
equipped with seats.
Should the driving position have to be fitted with a cab, the other places
must also be protected against the hazards which justified the protection
of the driving position in Article 54.
Sub-section 3 Controls
Article 58 (Control devices)
The driver must be able to actuate all control devices required to operate
the machinery from the driving position, except for functions which can be
safely activated only by using control devices located away from the
driving position.
Where there are pedals they must be so designed, constructed and fitted
to allow operation by the driver in safety with the minimum risk of
confusion, and they must have a slip-resistant surface and be easy to
clean.
Where their operation can lead to hazards, notably dangerous
movements, the machinery's controls, except for those with preset
positions, must return to the neutral position as soon as they are released
by the operator.
In the case of wheeled machinery, the steering system must be designed
and constructed to reduce the force of sudden movements of the steering
lever caused by shocks to the guide wheels.
Any control that locks the differential must be so designed and arranged
that it allows the differential to be unlocked when the machinery is moving.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 50
Where the machinery is moving, paragraph 5, Article 9 does not apply to
the mobility function.
Article 59 (Starting/moving)
Self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver must be so equipped as to
deter unauthorised persons from starting the engine. Travel movements of
self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver must be possible only if the
driver is at the controls.
Where, for operating purposes, machinery must be fitted with devices
which exceed its normal clearance zone (e.g. stabilisers, jib, etc), the
driver must be provided with the means of checking easily, before moving
the machinery, that such devices are in a particular position which allows
safe movement.
It must not be possible for movement of the machinery to occur while the
engine is being started.
Article 60 (Travelling function)
Without prejudice to the provisions of road traffic regulations,
self-propelled machinery and its trailers must meet the requirements for
slowing down, stopping, braking and immobilisation so as to ensure safety
under all the operating, loading, speed, ground and gradient conditions
allowed for by the manufacturer and corresponding to conditions
encountered in normal use.
The driver must be able to slow down and stop self-propelled machinery
by means of a main device. Where safety so requires in the event of a
failure of the main device, or in the absence of the energy supply to
actuate the main device, an emergency device with fully independent and
easily accessible controls must be provided for slowing down and
stopping.
Where safety so requires, a parking device must be provided to render
stationary machinery immobile. This device may be combined with one of
the devices referred to in the second paragraph, provided that it is purely
mechanical.
Remote-controlled machinery must be designed and constructed to stop
automatically if the driver loses control.
Article 11 does not apply to the travelling function of self-propelled
machinery.
Article 61 (Movement of pedestrian-controlled machinery)
Movement of pedestrian-controlled self-propelled machinery must be
possible only through sustained action on the relevant control by the
driver. In particular, it must not be possible for movement to occur while
the engine is being started.
The control systems for pedestrian-controlled machinery must be
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 51
designed to minimise the hazards, in particular crushing and injury from
rotating tools, arising from inadvertent movement of the machine towards
the driver. Also, the speed of normal travel of the machine must be
compatible with the pace of a driver on foot.
In the case of machinery on which a rotary tool may be fitted, it must not
be possible to actuate that tool when the reversing control is engaged,
except where movement of the machinery results from movement of the
tool. In the latter case, the reversing speed must be such that it does not
endanger the driver.
Article 62 (Control circuit failure)
A failure in the power supply to the power-assisted steering, where fitted,
must not prevent machinery from being steered during the time required to
stop it.
Sub-section 4 Protection against mechanical hazards
Article 63 (Uncontrolled movements)
When a part of a machine has been stopped, any drift away from the
stopping position, for whatever reason other than action at the controls,
must be such that it is not a hazard to exposed persons.
Machinery must be so designed, constructed and where appropriate
placed on its mobile support as to ensure that when moved the
uncontrolled oscillations of its centre of gravity do not affect its stability or
exert excessive strain on its structure.
Article 64 (Risk of break-up during operation)
Parts of machinery rotating at high speed which, despite the measures
taken, may break up or disintegrate, must be mounted and guarded in
such a way that, in case of breakage, their fragments will be contained or,
if that is not possible, cannot be projected towards the driving and/or
operation positions.
Article 65 (Roll over)
Where, in the case of self-propelled machinery with a ride-on driver and
possibly ride-on operators, there is a risk of rolling over, the machinery
must be designed for and be fitted with anchorage points allowing it to be
equipped with a roll over protective structure (ROPS).
This structure must be such that in case of rolling over it affords the
ride-on driver and where appropriate the ride-on operators an adequate
deflection-limiting volume (DLV).
Article 66 (Falling objects)
Where, in the case of machinery with a ride-on driver and possibly ride-on
operators, there is a risk due to falling objects or material, the machinery
should be designed for, and fitted with if its size allows anchorage points
allowing it to be equipped with a falling-object protective structure (FOPS).
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 52
This structure must be such that in the case of falling objects or material, it
guarantees the ride-on operators an adequate deflection-limiting volume
(DLV).
Article 67(Means of access)
Handholds and steps must be designed, constructed and arranged in
such a way that the operators use them instinctively and do not use the
controls for that purpose.
Article 68 (Towing devices)
All machinery used to tow or to be towed must be fitted with towing or
coupling devices designed, constructed and arranged to ensure easy and
safe connection and disconnection, and to prevent accidental
disconnection during use.
Article 69 (Transmission of power between self-propelled machinery (or
tractor) and recipient machinery)
Transmission shafts with universal joints linking self-propelled machinery
(or tractor) to the first fixed bearing of recipient machinery must be
guarded on the self-propelled machinery side and the recipient machinery
side over the whole length of the shaft and associated universal joints.
Torque limiters or freewheels may be fitted to universal joint transmissions
only on the side adjoining the driven machine. The universal-joint
transmission shaft must be marked accordingly.
The outside parts of the guard must be so designed, constructed and
arranged that they cannot turn with the transmission shaft. The guard
must cover the transmission shaft to the ends of the inner jaws in the case
of simple universal joints and at least to the centre of the outer joint or
joints in the case of "wide-angle" universal joints.
Manufacturers providing means of access to working positions near to the
universal joint transmission shaft must ensure that shaft guards as
described in the sixth paragraph cannot be used as steps unless designed
and constructed for that purpose.
Sub-section 5 Protection against other hazards
Article 70 (Batteries)
The battery housing must be constructed and located and the battery
installed so as to avoid as far as possible the chance of electrolyte being
ejected on to the operator in the event of roll over and/or to avoid the
accumulation of vapours in places occupied by operators.
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that the battery can be
disconnected with the aid of an easily accessible device provided for that
purpose.
Article 71(Fire)
Depending on the hazards anticipated by the manufacturer when in use,
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 53
machinery must, where its size permits either allow easily accessible fire
extinguishers to be fitted or be provided with built-in extinguisher systems.
Article 72 (Emissions of dust, gases, etc.)
Where such hazards exist, the containment equipment provided for in
Article 38 may be replaced by other means, for example precipitation by
water spraying. The second and third paragraph of Article 38 do not apply
where the main function of the machinery is the spraying of products.
Sub-section 6 Indications
Article 73 (Signs and warning)
Machinery must have means of signalling and/or instruction plates
concerning use, adjustment and maintenance, wherever necessary, to
ensure the health and safety of exposed persons. They must be chosen,
designed and constructed in such a way as to be clearly visible and
indelible.
Without prejudice to the requirements to be observed for travelling on the
public highway, machinery with a ride-on driver must have the following
devices.
1. An acoustic warning device to alert exposed persons.
2. A system of light signals relevant to the intended conditions of use
such as stop lamps, reversing lamps and rotating beacons. This
requirement does not apply to machinery intended solely for
underground working and having no electrical power.
Remote-controlled machinery which under normal conditions of use
exposes persons to the hazards of impact or crushing must be fitted with
appropriate means to signal its movements or with means to protect
exposed persons against such hazards. The same applies to machinery
which involves, when in use, the constant repetition of a forward and
backward movement on a single axis where the back of the machine is not
directly visible to the driver.
Machinery must be so constructed that the warning and signalling devices
cannot all be disabled unintentionally. Where this is essential for safety,
such devices must be provided with the means to check that they are in
good working order and their failure must be made apparent to the
operator.
Where the movement of machinery or its tools is particularly hazardous,
signs on the machinery must be provided to warn against approaching the
machinery while it is working; the signs must be legible at a sufficient
distance to ensure the safety of persons who have to be in the vicinity.
Article 74 (Marking)
In addition to the minimum requirements set out in Article 49, the following
information must be marked on the machinery.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 54
1. Nominal power expressed in kW.
2. Mass in kg of the most usual configuration and, where appropriate.
3. Maximum drawbar pull provided for by the manufacturer at the coupling
hook, in N.
4. Maximum vertical load provided for by the manufacturer on the
coupling hook, in N.
Article 75 (Instruction handbook)
Apart from the minimum requirements set out in Article50, the instruction
handbook must contain the following information.
1. Regarding the vibrations emitted by the machinery, either the actual
value or a figure calculated from measurements performed on identical
machinery. The weighted root mean square acceleration value to
which the arms are subjected, if it exceeds 2.5 m/s2, should it not
exceed 2.5 m/s2, this must be mentioned. The weighted root mean
square acceleration value to which the body (feet or posterior) is
subjected, if it exceeds 0.5 m/s2, should it not exceed 0.5 m/s2, this
must be mentioned(The manufacturer must indicate the operating
conditions of the machinery during measurement and which methods
were used for taking the measurements)
2. In the case of machinery allowing several uses depending on the
equipment used, manufacturers of basic machinery to which
interchangeable equipment may be attached and manufacturers of the
interchangeable equipment must provide the necessary information to
enable the equipment to be fitted and used safely.
Section 4 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A LIFTING OPERATION
Not applicable to the Semiconductor
Equipment
Article 76 (Scope)
Machinery presenting hazards due to lifting operations - mainly hazards of
load falls and collisions or hazards of tipping caused by a lifting operation must be designed and constructed to meet the requirements of section 2
and section 3.
Risks due to a lifting operation exist particularly in the case of machinery
designed to move a unit load involving a change in level during the
movement. The load may consist of objects, materials or goods.
Sub-section 1 General provisions
Article 77 (Definitions)
The definition of the terminology used in this section are as follows;
1. "Lifting accessories" means components or equipment not attached to
the machine and placed between the machinery and the load or on the
load in order to attach it.
Not applicable to Semiconductor
Equipment
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 55
2. "Separate lifting accessories" means accessories which help to make
up or use a slinging device, such as eye hooks, shackles, rings, eyebolts,
etc.
3. "Guided load" means the load where the total movement is made along
rigid or flexible guides, whose position is determined by fixed points.
4. "Working coefficient" means the arithmetic ratio between the load
guaranteed by the manufacturer up to which a piece of equipment, and
accessory or machinery is able to hold it and the maximum working load
marked on the equipment, accessory or machinery respectively.
5. "Test coefficient" means the arithmetic ratio between the load used to
carry out the static or dynamic tests on a piece of equipment, an
accessory or machinery and the maximum working load marked on the
piece of equipment, accessory or machinery.
6. "Static test" means the test during which the machinery or the lifting
accessory is first inspected and then subjected to a force corresponding to
the maximum working load multiplied by the appropriate static test
coefficient and then re-inspected once the said load has been released to
ensure no damage has occurred.
7. "Dynamic test" means the test during which the machinery is operated
in all its possible configurations at maximum working load with account
being taken of the dynamic behaviour of the machinery in order to check
that the machinery and safety features are functioning properly.
Article 78 (Protection against mechanical hazards)
Machinery must be so designed and constructed that the stability required
in Article 16 is maintained both in service and out of service, including all
stages of transportation, assembly and dismantling, during foreseeable
component failures and also during the tests carried out in accordance
with the instruction handbook.
To that end, machinery must be provided with devices which act on the
guide rails or tracks to prevent derailment. However, if derailment occurs
despite such devices, or if there is a failure of a rail or a running
component, devices must be provided which prevent the equipment,
component or load from falling or the machine overturning.
Mechanical strength shall be complied with the following requirements.
1. Machinery, lifting accessories and removable components must be
capable of withstanding the stresses to which they are subjected, both
in and, where applicable, out of use, under the installation and
operating conditions provided for by the manufacturer, and in all
relevant configurations, with due regard, where appropriate, to the
effects of atmospheric factors and forces exerted by persons(This
requirement must also be satisfied during transport, assembly and
dismantling).
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 56
2. Machinery and lifting accessories must be designed and constructed
so as to prevent failure from fatigue or wear, taking due account of
their intended use.
3. The materials used must be chosen on the basis of the working
environments provided for by the manufacturer, with special reference
to corrosion, abrasion, impacts, cold brittleness and ageing.
4. The machinery and the lifting accessories must be designed and
constructed to withstand the overload in the static tests without
permanent deformation or patent defect. The calculation must take
account of the values of the static test coefficient chosen to guarantee
an adequate level of safety. That coefficient has 1.5, as a general rule,
in case of manually-operated machinery and lifting accessories, and
1.25 in case of other machinery.
5. Machinery must be designed and constructed to undergo, without
failure, the dynamic tests carried out using the maximum working load
multiplied by the dynamic test coefficient. This dynamic test coefficient
is chosen so as to guarantee an adequate level of safety: the
coefficient is, as a general rule, equal to 1.1.
6. The dynamic tests must be performed on machinery ready to be put
into service under normal conditions of use. As a general rule, the
tests will be performed at the nominal speeds laid down by the
manufacturer. Should the control circuit of the machinery allow for a
number of simultaneous movements (for example, rotation and
displacement of the load), the tests must be carried out under the least
favourable conditions, i.e. as a general rule by combining the
movements concerned.
Article 79 (Pulleys, etc.)
Pulleys, drums and wheels or ropes must be satisfied with the following
requirements.
1. Pulleys, drums and wheels must have a diameter commensurate with
the size of rope or chains with which they can be fitted.
2. Drums and wheels must be so designed, constructed and installed that
the ropes or chains with which they are equipped can wind round
without falling off.
3. Ropes used directly for lifting or supporting the load must not include
any splicing other than at their ends (splicings are tolerated in
installations which are intended from their design to be modified
regularly according to needs for use). Complete ropes and their
endings have a working coefficient chosen so as to guarantee an
adequate level of safety; as a general rule, this coefficient is equal to
five.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 57
4. Lifting chains have a working coefficient chosen so as to guarantee an
adequate level of safety; as a general rule, this coefficient is equal to
four.
5. In order to verify that an adequate working coefficient has been
attained, the manufacturer or his authorised representative established
within the Community must, for each type of chain and rope used
directly for lifting the load, and for the rope ends, perform the
appropriate tests or have such tests performed.
Article 80 (Separate lifting accessories)
Lifting accessories must be sized with due regard to fatigue and ageing
processes for a number of operating cycles consistent with their expected
life-span as specified in the operating conditions for a given application,
and must be fulfilled with the following requirements.
1. The working coefficient of the metallic rope/rope-end combination is
chosen so as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; this coefficient
is, as a general rule, more than five.
2. Ropes must not comprise any splices or loops other than at their ends.
3. Where chains with welded links are used, they must be of the short link
type. The working coefficient of chains of any type is chosen so as to
guarantee an adequate level of safety; this coefficient is, as a general
rule, more than four.
4. The working coefficient for textile ropes or slings is dependent on the
material, method of manufacture, dimensions and use. This coefficient
is chosen so as to guarantee an adequate level of safety; it is, as a
general rule, more than seven, provided the materials used are shown
to be of very good quality and the method of manufacture is
appropriate to the intended use. Should this not be the case, the
coefficient is, as a general rule, set at a higher level in order to secure
an equivalent level of safety. Textile ropes and slings must not include
any knots, connections or splicing other than at the ends of the sling,
except in the case of an endless sling.
5. All metallic components making up, or used with a sling must have a
working coefficient chosen as to guarantee an adequate level of
safety; this coefficient is, as a general rule, more than four.
6. The maximum working capacity of a multi-legged sling is determined
on the basis of the safety coefficient of the weakest leg, the number of
legs and a reduction factor which depends on the slinging
configuration.
7. In order to verify that an adequate working coefficient has been
attained, the manufacturer must, for each type of component referred
to in paragraph 1 to 5 perform the appropriate tests or have such tests
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 58
performed.
Article 81 (Control of movements)
Devices for controlling movements must act in such a way that the
machinery on which they are installed is kept safe:
1. Machinery must be so designed or fitted with devices that the
amplitude of movement of its components is kept within the specified
limits. The warning signs shall be provided at appropriated places.
2. Where the collision hazards are existed during operation, due to
several machinery in the same line, the collision prevention device
shall be provided.
3. The mechanisms of machinery must be so designed and constructed
that the loads cannot creep dangerously or fall freely and
unexpectedly, even in the event of partial or total failure of the power
supply or when the operator stops operating the machine.
4. It must not be possible, under normal operating conditions, to lower the
load solely by friction brake, except in the case of machinery, whose
function requires it to operate in that way.
5. It must be so designed and constructed that inadvertent dropping of
the loads is avoided.
Article 82 (Handling of loads)
The driving position of machinery must be located in such a way as to
ensure that widest possible view of trajectories of the moving parts, in
order to avoid possible collisions with persons or equipment or other
machinery which might be manoeuvring at the same time and liable to
constitute a hazard.
Machinery with guided loads fixed in one place must be designed and
constructed so as to prevent exposed persons from being hit by the load
or the counter-weights.
Article 83 (Lightning)
Machinery in need of protection against the effects of lightning while being
used must be fitted with a system for conducting the resultant electrical
charges to earth.
Sub-section 2 Special requirements for machinery whose power source is
other than manual effort
Article 84 (Controls)
The requirements laid down in Article 55, paragraph 1 and 2 of Article 56,
and Article 57 also apply to non-mobile machinery.
The devices controlling movements of the machinery or its equipment
must return to their neutral position as soon as they are released by the
operator. However, for partial or complete movements in which there is no
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 59
risk of the load or the machinery colliding, the said devices may be
replaced by controls authorising automatic stops at pre-selected levels
without holding a hold-to-run control device.
Machinery with a maximum working load of not less than 1000 kilograms
or an overturning moment of not less than 40,000Nm must be fitted with
devices to warn the driver and prevent dangerous movements of the load
in the following events.
1. Overloading the machinery either as a result of maximum working
loads being exceeded or as a result of the moments due to the loads
being exceeded.
2. The moments conducive to overturning being exceeded as a result of
the load being lifted.
Cable carriers, tractors or tractor carriers must be held by counter-weights
or by a device allowing permanent control of the tension.
Article 85 (Risks to exposed persons)
Machinery with guided loads and machinery whose load supports follow a
clearly defined path must be equipped with devices to prevent any risks to
exposed persons.
Article 86 (Fitness of purposes)
When machinery is placed on the market or is first put into service, the
manufacturer or his authorised representative must ensure, by taking
appropriate measures or having them taken, that lifting accessories and
machinery which are ready for use - whether manually or power-operated
- can fulfil their specified functions safely.
Sub-section 3 Marking
Article 87 (Chains and ropes)
Each length of lifting chain, rope or webbing not forming part of an
assembly must bear a mark or, where this is not possible, a plate or
irremovable ring bearing the name and address of the manufacturer and
the identifying reference of the relevant certificate. The certificate should
show at least the following information.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Its nominal size.
Its construction.
The material from which it is made.
Any special metallurgical treatment applied to the material.
If tested, the standard used.
A maximum load to which the chain or rope should be subjected in
service. A range of values may be given for specified applications.
Article 88 (Lifting accessories)
The following information shall be marked on lifting accessories.
1. Identification of the manufacturer.
2. Identification of the material (e.g. international classification) where this
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 60
information is needed for dimensional compatibility.
3. Identification of the maximum working load.
In the case of accessories including components such as cables or ropes,
on which marking is physically impossible, the particulars referred to in the
first paragraph must be displayed on a plate or by some other means and
securely affixed to the accessory.
The particulars must be legible and located in a place where they are not
liable to disappear as a result of machining, wear, etc, or jeopardise the
strength of the accessory.
Article 89 (Machinery)
In addition to the minimum information provided for in Article 49, each
machine must bear the information in a manner of following, legibly and
indelibly, to identify the nominal load.
1. Displayed in uncoded form and prominently on the equipment in the
case of machinery which has only one possible value.
2. Where the nominal load depends on the configuration of the machine,
each driving position must be provided with a load plate indicating,
preferably in diagrammatic form or by means of tables, the nominal
loads for each configuration.
Machinery equipped with a load support which allows access to persons
and involves a risk of falling must bear a clear and indelible warning
prohibiting the lifting of persons. This warning must be visible at each
place where access is possible.
Sub-section 4 Instruction handbook
Article 90 (Lifting accessories)
Each lifting accessory or each commercially indivisible batch of lifting
accessories must be accompanied with an instruction handbook setting
out at least the following particulars.
1. Normal conditions of use.
2. Instructions for use, assembly and maintenance.
3. The limits of use (particularly for the accessories which cannot comply
with paragraph 5 of Article 81).
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 61
Article 91(Machinery)
In addition to Article 50, the instruction handbook must include the
following information.
1. The technical characteristics of the machinery, and in particular, where
appropriate, a copy of the load table described in Number 2 of
paragraph 1 of Article 89.the reactions at the supports or anchors and
characteristics of the tracks, and , where appropriate, the definition
and the means of installation of the ballast.
2. The contents of the logbook(if it is not supplied with the machinery).
3. Advice for use, particularly to offset the lack of direct sight of the load
by the operator.
The necessary instructions for performing the tests before first putting into
service machinery which is not assembled on the manufacturer's premises
in the form in which it is to be used.
Chapter 5 REQUIREMENTS FOR ELEVATORS
Sub-section 1 General provisions
Article 92 (Definition)
For the purposes of this Chapter, 'carrier' means the device by which
persons are supported in order to be lifted, lowered or moved.
Article 93 (Mechanical Strength)
The working coefficients defined in Article 78 and Article 79 are
inadequate for machinery intended for the lifting or moving of persons and
must, as a general rule, be doubled.
The floor of the carrier must be designed and constructed to offer the
space and strength corresponding to the maximum number of persons
and the maximum working load set by the manufacturer.
Article 94 (Loading control )
The requirements of Article 84 apply regardless of the maximum working
load figure. This requirement does not apply to machinery in respect of
which the manufacturer can demonstrate that there is no risk of
overloading and/or overturning.
Sub-section 2 Controls
Article 95 (Control devices)
The carrier must, as a general rule, be designed and constructed so that
persons inside have means of controlling movements upwards and
downwards, if appropriate, of moving the carrier horizontally in relation to
the machinery.
In operation, those controls must override the other devices controlling the
same movement, with the exception of the emergency stop devices.
The controls for these movements must be of the maintained command
Not applicable to the Semiconductor
Equipment
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 62
type, except in the case of machinery serving specific levels.
Article 96 (Safety during operation)
If machinery for the lifting or moving of persons can be moved with the
carrier in a position other than the rest position, it must be designed and
constructed so that the person or persons in the carrier have the means of
preventing hazards produced by the movement of the machinery.
Article 97 (Prevention of overspeed)
Machinery for the lifting or moving of persons must be designed,
constructed or equipped so that excess speeds of the carrier do not cause
hazards.
Article 98 (Risks of persons falling from the carrier)
If the measures referred to in Article 40 are not adequate, carriers must be
fitted with a sufficient number of anchorage points for the number of
persons possibly using the carrier, strong enough for the attachment of
personal protective equipment against the danger of falling.
Any trap-doors in floors or ceilings or side doors must open in a direction
which obviates any risk of falling should they open unexpectedly.
Machinery for lifting or moving must be designed and constructed to
ensure that the floor of the carrier does not tilt to an extent which creates a
risk of the occupants falling, including when moving. The floor of the
carrier must be slip-resistant.
Article 99 (Risks of the carrier falling or overturning)
Machinery for the lifting or moving of persons must be designed and
constructed to prevent the carrier falling or overturning.
Acceleration and braking of the carrier or carrying vehicle, under the
control of the operator or triggered by a safety device and under the
maximum load and speed conditions laid down by the manufacturer, must
not cause any danger to exposed persons.
Article 100 (Markings)
Where necessary to ensure safety, the carrier must bear the relevant
essential information.
Sub-section 6 Safety and Quality management of Manufactures
Article 101(Products safety management)
The manufactures shall establish the management policy and operate
systematically it, based on the awareness of safety and the quality control.
For the safety of products, manufactures must make checklists showing
the following matters and inspect them.
1. Matters on the control of external products.
2. Matters on inspection of manufacturing process in each steps.
NOTE: The comments in the column titled “Comments” are not intended to alter the requirements of the S2 guidelines. Instead, these comments are provided by the Task Force members with the
intent of identifying the similarities and differences between those technical requirements in S2-93A and those required for KOSHA “S” Marking.
Page 63
3. Matters on inspection of the final products.
4. Others on products safety and quality control. One-off products are
excluded from this paragraph.
Article 102 (Technical resources)
Deleted
Article 103(Equipment for production and inspection)
Deleted
NOTICE: These standards do not purport to address safety issues, if any, associated with their use. It is the responsibility of the user of these standards to
establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. SEMI makes no warranties or
representations as to the suitability of the standards set forth herein for any particular application. The determination of the suitability of the standard is solely the
responsibility of the user. Users are cautioned to refer to manufacturer’s instructions, product labels, product data sheets, and other relevant literature respecting
any materials mentioned herein. These standards are subject to change without notice.
The user’s attention is called to the possibility that compliance with this standard may require use of copyrighted material or of an invention covered by patent
rights. By publication of this standard, SEMI takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights or copyrights asserted in connection with any item
mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of any such patent rights or copyrights, and the risk of infringement of
such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
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