null  User manual
CHAPTER
Programmable
timer/counter
8
Chapter 8 Programmable counter/timer
49
The Intel 8254
The PCL-818L provides an Intel 8254 programmable interval timer/
counter, version 2. The popular 8254 offers three independent 16-bit
down counters. Each counter has a clock input, control gate and an
output. You can program each counter for maximum count values from
2 to 65535.
Version 2 of the 8254 has a maximum input clock frequency of 10 MHz.
The PCL-818L provides 1 MHz and 10 MHz input frequencies to the
8254 from an on-board crystal oscillator. Jumper JP2 controls the input
frequency. See Chapter 2 for more information.
Counters 1 and 2 on the 8254 are cascaded and operated in a fixed
divider configuration. Counter 1 input connects to the 1 MHz or 10
MHz clock frequency, and the output of Counter 1 connects to the
input of Counter 2. The output of Counter 2 is internally configured to
provide trigger pulses to the A/D converter, but you can also access it
for your own use from connector CN3 pin 37. Counter 0 is not used by
the PCL-818L and is available for your use. You can access it through
CN3 pin 18.
Counter read/write and control
registers
The 8254 programmable interval timer uses four registers at addresses
BASE+12, BASE+13, BASE+14 and BASE+15. Register functions
appear below:
Register
BASE+12
Function
Counter 0 read/write
BASE+13
Counter 1 read/write
BASE+14
Counter 2 read/write
BASE+15
Counter control word
Since the 8254 counter uses a 16 bit structure, each section of read/
write data is split into a least significant byte (LSB) and most significant byte (MSB). To avoid errors it is important that you make read/
write operations in pairs and keep track of the byte order.
50
PCL-818L User's Manual
The data format for the control register appears below:
BASE+15 – 8254 control, standard mode
Bit
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Value
SC1
SC0
RW1
RW0
M2
M1
M0
BCD
SC1 & SC0
Select counter.
Counter
0
SC1
0
SC0
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
Read-back command
1
1
RW1 & RW0
Select read/write operation
Operation
Counter latch
RW1
0
RW0
0
Read/write LSB
0
1
Read/write MSB
1
0
Read/write LSB first,
then MSB
1
1
M2, M1 & M0
Select operating mode
M2
0
M1
0
M0
0
Mode
0 interrupt on terminal count
0
0
1
1 programmable one shot
X
1
0
2 Rate generator
X
1
1
3 Square wave rate generator
1
0
0
4 Software triggered strobe
1
0
1
5 Hardware triggered strobe
Chapter 8 Programmable counter/timer
51
BCD
Select binary or BCD counting.
BCD
0
Type
Binary counting 16-bits
1
Binary coded decimal (BCD) counting
If you set the module for binary counting, the count can be any
number from 0 up to 65535. If you set it for BCD (Binary Coded
Decimal) counting, the count can be any number from 0 to 9999.
If you set both SC1 and SC0 bits to 1, the counter control register is in
read-back command mode. The control register data format then
becomes:
BASE+15 – 8254 control, read-back mode
Bit
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Value
C1
C0
X
1
1
CNT
STA
C2
CNT = 0 Latch count of selected counter(s).
STA = 0
Latch status of selected counter(s).
C2, C1 & C0
Select counter for a read-back operation.
C2 = 1 select Counter 2
C1 = 1 select Counter 1
C0 = 1 select Counter 0
If you set both SC1 and SC0 to 1 and STA to 0, the register selected by
C2 to C0 contains a byte which shows the status of the counter. The
data format of the counter read/write register then becomes:
BASE+12/13/14 – status read-back mode
52
Bit
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Value
OUT
NC
RW1
RW0
M2
M1
M0
BCD
PCL-818L User's Manual
OUT
Current state of counter output
NC
Null count is 1 when the last count written to the counter
register has been loaded into the counting element
The counter enable register, located at address BASE+10, has a close
relationship with the counter operation. Refer to Chapter 4, Timer/
counter enable register, for the register data format. The TC0 bit
enables and disables the pacer. If TC0 = 0, the pacer is enabled. If
TC0 = 1, the pacer is disabled and trigger pulses from the pacer are
kept from the A/D until TRIG0 is taken high. The TC1 bit controls the
input source for Counter 0. If TC1 = 0, Counter 0 is configured to
accept external clock pulses. If TC1 = 1, Counter 0 is internally
connected to the 100 KHz clock source.
Counter operating modes
MODE 0 – Stop on terminal count
The output will be initially low after this mode of operation is set.
After you load the count into the selected count register, the output
will remain low and the counter will count. When the counter reaches
the terminal count, its output will go high and remain high until you
reload it with the mode or a new count value. The counter continues to
decrement after it reaches the terminal count. Rewriting a counter
register during counting has the following results:
1. Writing to the first byte stops the current counting.
2. Writing to the second byte starts the new count.
MODE 1 – Programmable one-shot
The output is initially high. The output will go low on the count
following the rising edge of the gate input. It will then go high on the
terminal count. If you load a new count value while the output is low,
the new value will not affect the duration of the one-shot pulse until
the succeeding trigger. You can read the current count at any time
without affecting the one-shot pulse. The one-shot is retriggerable,
thus the output will remain low for the full count after any rising edge
at the gate input.
Chapter 8 Programmable counter/timer
53
MODE 2 – Rate generator
The output will be low for one period of the input clock. The period
from one output pulse to the next equals the number of input counts in
the counter register. If you reload the counter register between output
pulses, the present period will not be affected, but the subsequent
period will reflect the value.
The gate input, when low, will force the output high. When the gate
input goes high, the counter will start from the initial count. You can
thus use the gate input to synchronize the counter.
With this mode the output will remain high until you load the count
register is loaded. You can also synchronize the output by software.
MODE 3 – Square wave generator
This mode is similar to Mode 2, except that the output will remain high
until one half of the count has been completed (for even numbers), and
will go low for the other half of the count. This is accomplished by
decreasing the counter by two on the falling edge of each clock pulse.
When the counter reaches the terminal count, the state of the output is
changed, the counter is reloaded with the full count and the whole
process is repeated.
If the count is odd and the output is high, the first clock pulse (after
the count is loaded ) decrements the count by 1. Subsequent clock
pulses decrement the count by 2. After timeout, the output goes low
and the full count is reloaded. The first clock pulse (following the
reload) decrements the counter by 3. Subsequent clock pulses
decrement the count by two until timeout, then the whole process is
repeated. In this way, if the count is odd, the output will be high for
(N+1)/2 counts and low for (N-1)/2 counts.
MODE 4 – software triggered strobe
After the mode is set, the output will be high. When the count is
loaded, the counter will begin counting. On terminal count, the output
will go low for one input clock period then go high again.
54
PCL-818L User's Manual
If you reload the count register during counting, the new count will be
loaded on the next CLK pulse. The count will be inhibited while the
GATE input is low.
MODE 5 – Hardware triggered strobe
The counter will start counting after the rising edge of the trigger input
and will go low for one clock period when the terminal count is
reached. The counter is retriggerable.
Counter operations
Read/write operation
Before you write the initial count to each counter, you must first
specify the read/write operation type, operating mode and counter
type in the control byte and write the control byte to the control
register (BASE+15).
Since the control byte register and all three counter read/write registers
have separate addresses and each control byte specifies the counter it
applies to (by SC1 & SC0), no instructions on the operating sequence
are required. Any programming sequence following the 8254 convention is acceptable.
There are three types of counter operation: read/load LSB, read/load
MSB and read/load LSB followed by MSB. It is important that you
make your read/write operations in pairs and keep track of the byte
order.
Counter read-back command
The 8254 counter read-back command lets you check the count value,
programmed mode and current states of the OUT pin and Null Count
flag of the selected counter(s). You write this command to the control
word register. Format is as shown at the beginning of the chapter.
The read-back command can latch multiple counter output latches.
Simply set the CNT bit to 0 and select the desired counter(s). This
single command is functionally equivalent to multiple counter latch
commands, one for each counter latched.
Chapter 8 Programmable counter/timer
55
The read-back command can also latch status information for selected
counter(s) by setting STA bit = 0. The status must be latched to be
read; the status of a counter is accessed by a read from that counter.
The counter status format appears at the beginning of the chapter.
Counter latch operation
Users often want to read the value of a counter without disturbing the
count in progress. You do this by latching the count value for the
specific counter, then reading the value.
The 8254 supports the counter latch operation in two ways. The first
way is to set bits RW1 and RW0 to 0. This latches the count of the
selected counter in a 16-bit hold register. The second way is to perform
a latch operation under the read-back command. Set bits SC1 and SC0
to 1 and CNT = 0. The second method has the advantage of operating
several counters at the same time. A subsequent read operation on the
selected counter will retrieve the latched value.
Counter applications
The 8254 programmable interval timer/counter on your PCL-818L
interface card is a very useful device. You can program counters 1 and
2 to serve as a pacer to generate A/D conversion trigger pulses.
Counter 0 is not committed to any internal use. You can configure it for
any supported function; e.g., a square wave generator.
56
PCL-818L User's Manual
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement