Stage Programming - AutomationDirect

Stage Programming - AutomationDirect
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
17
In This Chapter. . . .
— Introduction to Stage Programming
— Learning to Draw State Transition Diagrams
— Using the Stage Jump Instruction for State Transitions
— Stage Program Example: Toggle On/Off Lamp Controller
— Four Steps to Writing a Stage Program
— Stage Program Example: A Garage Door Opener
— Stage Program Design Considerations
— RLL PLUS Stage Instructions
— Questions and Answers about Stage Programs
7--2
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Introduction to Stage Programming
Overcoming
“Stage Fright”
Stage Programming provides a way to organize and program complex applications
with relative ease, when compared to purely relay ladder logic (RLL) solutions.
Stage programming does not replace or negate the use of traditional boolean ladder
programming. This is why Stage Programming is also called RLL PLUS. You won’t
have to discard any training or experience you already have. Stage programming
simply allows you to divide and organize a RLL program into groups of ladder
instructions called stages. This allows quicker and more intuitive ladder program
development than traditional RLL alone provides.
Many PLC programmers in the industry
have become comfortable using RLL for
X0
C0
every PLC program they write... but often
RST
remain skeptical or even fearful of learning
X4
C1
new techniques such as stage
Y0
programming. While RLL is great at
SET
solving boolean logic relationships, it has
disadvantages as well:
STAGE!
S Large programs can become almost
unmanageable, because of a lack of
structure.
Y2
X3
S In RLL, latches must be tediously
OUT
created from self-latching relays.
S When a process gets stuck, it is
difficult to find the rung where the
error occurred.
S Programs become difficult to modify
later, because they do not intuitively
resemble the application problem
they are solving.
It’s easy to see that these inefficiencies consume a lot of additional time, and time is
money. Stage programming overcomes these obstacles! We believe a few
moments of studying the stage concept is one of the greatest investments in
programming speed and efficiency a PLC programmer can make!
So, we encourage you to study stage programming and add it to your “toolbox” of
programming techniques. This chapter is designed as a self-paced tutorial on stage
programming. For best results:
S Start at the beginning and do not skip over any sections.
S Study each stage programming concept by working through each
example. The examples build progressively on each other.
S Read the stage Questions and Answers at the end of the chapter for a
quick review.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
7--3
Learning to Draw State Transition Diagrams
Introduction to
Process States
Inputs
Ladder
Program
Outputs
PLC Scan
1) Read
Execute
Write
2) Read
Execute
Write
3) Read
(etc....)
Most manufacturing processes consist of a series of activities or conditions , each
lasting for several seconds. minutes, or even hours. We might call these “process
states”, which are either active or inactive at any particular time. A challenge for RLL
programs is that a particular input event may last for just a brief instant. We typically
create latching relays in RLL to preserve the input event in order to maintain a
process state for the required duration.
We can organize and divide ladder logic into sections called “stages”, representing
process states. But before we describe stages in detail, we will reveal the secret to
understanding stage programming: state transition diagrams.
The Need for State Sometimes we need to forget about the scan nature of PLCs, and focus our thinking
toward the states of the process we need to identify. Clear thinking and concise
Diagrams
analysis of an application gives us the best chance at writing efficient, bug-free
programs. State diagrams are just a tool to help us draw a picture of our process!
You’ll discover that if we can get the picture right, our program will also be right!
Inputs
Outputs
A 2--State Process Consider the simple process shown to the
right, which controls an industrial motor.
On
We will use a green momentary SPST
X0
Motor
pushbutton to turn the motor on, and a red
Ladder Y0
one to turn it off. The machine operator will
Program
Off
X1
press the appropriate pushbutton for just a
second or so. The two states of our
process are ON and OFF.
Transition condition
The next step is to draw a state transition
State
diagram, as shown to the right. It shows
X0
the two states OFF and ON, with two
transition lines in-between. When the
OFF
ON
event X0 is true, we transition from OFF to
X1
ON. When X1 is true, we transition from
Output equation: Y0 = ON
ON to OFF.
If you’re following along, you are very close to grasping the concept and the
problem-solving power of state transition diagrams. The output of our controller is
Y0, which is true any time we are in the ON state. In a boolean sense, Y0=ON state.
Next, we will implement the state diagram first as RLL, then as a stage program. This
will help you see the relationship between the two methods in problem solving.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Those familiar with ladder program
execution know that the CPU must scan
the ladder program repeatedly, over and
over. Its three basic steps are:
1. Read the inputs
2. Execute the ladder program
3. Write the outputs
The benefit is that a change at the inputs
can affect the outputs in just a few
milliseconds.
7--4
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
The state transition diagram to the right is
a picture of the solution we need to create.
The beauty of it is this: it expresses the
problem
independently
of
the
programming language we may use to
realize it. In other words, by drawing the
diagram we have already solved the
control problem!
X0
OFF
ON
X1
Output equation: Y0 = ON
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
First, we’ll translate the state diagram to traditional RLL. Then we’ll show how easy it
is to translate the diagram into a stage programming solution.
RLL Equivalent
Stage Equivalent
The RLL solution is shown to the right. It
consists of a self-latching control relay,
C0. When the On pushbutton (X0) is
pressed, output coil C0 turns on and the
C0 contact on the second row latches
itself on. So, X0 sets the latch C0 on, and
it remains on after the X0 contact opens.
The motor output Y0 also has power flow,
so the motor is now on.
When the Off pushbutton (X1) is pressed,
it opens the normally-closed X1 contact,
which resets the latch. Motor output Y0
turns off when the latch coil C0 goes off.
The stage program solution is shown to
the right. The two inline stage boxes S0
and S1 correspond to the two states OFF
and ON. The ladder rung(s) below each
stage box belong to each respective
stage. This means that the PLC only has
to scan those rungs when the
corresponding stage is active!
For now, let’s assume we begin in the OFF
State, so stage S0 is active. When the On
pushbutton (X0) is pressed, a stage
transition occurs. The JMP S1 instruction
executes, which simply turns off the stage
bit S0 and turns on stage bit S1. So on the
next PLC scan, the CPU will not execute
stage S0, but will execute stage S1!
In the On State (stage S1), we want the
motor to always be on. The special relay
contact SP1 is defined as always on, so Y0
turns the motor on.
Set
Reset
X0
X1
Latch
Latch
C0
OUT
Output
C0
Y0
OUT
SG
S0
OFF State
Transition
S1
X0
JMP
SG
S1
ON State
SP1 Always on
Output
Y0
OUT
Transition
X1
S0
JMP
When the Off pushbutton (X1) is pressed, a transition back to the Off State occurs.
The JMP S0 instruction executes, which simply turns off the stage bit S1 and turns on
stage bit S0. On the next PLC scan, the CPU will not execute stage S1, so the motor
output Y0 will turn off. The Off state (stage 0) will be ready for the next cycle.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Let’s Compare
7--5
Right now, you may be thinking “I don’t see the big advantage to Stage
Programming... in fact, the stage program is longer than the plain RLL program”.
Well, now is the time to exercise a bit of faith. As control problems grow in complexity,
stage programming quickly out-performs RLL in simplicity, program size, etc.
For example, consider the diagram below.
Notice how easy it is to correlate the OFF SG
OFF State
S0
and ON states of the state transition diagram
below to the stage program at the right. Now,
S1
X0
we challenge anyone to easily identify the
JMP
same states in the RLL program on the
previous page!
X0
OFF
ON State
SP1
Y0
OUT
X1
S0
ON
X1
JMP
Initial Stages
At powerup and Program-to-Run Mode
transitions, the PLC always begins with all
normal stages (SG) off. So, the stage
programs shown so far have actually had no
way to get started (because rungs are not
scanned unless their stage is active).
Assume that we want to always begin in the
Off state (motor off), which is how the RLL
program works. The Initial Stage (ISG) is
defined to be active at powerup. In the
modified program to the right, we have
changed stage S0 to the ISG type. This
ensures the PLC will scan contact X0 after
powerup, because Stage S0 is active. After
powerup, an Initial Stage (ISG) works just
like any other stage!
We can change both programs so that the
motor is ON at powerup. In the RLL below, we
must add a first scan relay SP0, latching C0
on. In the stage example to the right, we
simply make Stage S1 an initial stage (ISG)
instead of S0.
Powerup in OFF State
ISG
S0
Initial Stage
S1
X0
JMP
SG
S1
SP1
Y0
OUT
X1
S0
JMP
Powerup in ON State
SG
S0
S1
X0
JMP
Powerup in ON State
X0
X1
C0
SP0
C0
OUT
Y0
OUT
ISG
S1
Initial Stage
SP1
X1
First Scan
Y0
OUT
S0
JMP
NOTE: If the ISG is within the retentive range for stages, the ISG will remain in the
state it was in before power down and will NOT turn itself on during the first scan.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
SG
S1
7--6
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
We can mark our desired powerup state
as shown to the right, which helps us
remember to use the appropriate Initial
Stages when creating a stage program. It
is permissible to have as many initial
stages as the process requires.
Powerup
X0
OFF
ON
X1
What Stage Bits Do You may recall that a stage is just a section of ladder program which is either active or
inactive at a given moment. All stage bits (S0 to S77) reside in the PLC’s image
register as individual status bits. Each stage bit is either a boolean 0 or 1 at any time.
Program execution always reads ladder rungs from top to bottom, and from left to
right. The drawing below shows the effect of stage bit status. The ladder rungs below
the stage instruction continuing until the next stage instruction or the end of program
belong to stage 0. Its equivalent operation is shown on the right. When S0 is true, the
two rungs have power flow.
S If Stage bit S0 = 0, its ladder rungs are not scanned (executed).
S If stage bit S0 = 1, its ladder rungs are scanned (executed).
Actual Program Appearance
SG
S0
Functionally Equivalent Ladder
S0
(includes all rungs in stage)
Stage Instruction
Characteristics
The inline stage boxes on the left power
rail divide the ladder program rungs into
stages. Some stage rules are:
S Execution -- Only logic in active
stages are executed on any scan.
S Transitions -- Stage transition
instructions take effect on the next
occurrence of the stages involved.
S Octal numbering -- Stages are
numbered in octal, like I/O points,
etc. So “S8” is not valid.
S Total Stages -- The DL105 offers up
to 256 stages (S0 to S377 in octal).
S No duplicates -- Each stage number
is unique and can be used just once.
S Any order -- You can skip numbers
and sequence the stage numbers in
any order.
S Last Stage -- the last stage in the
ladder program includes all rungs
from its stage box until the end coil.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
SG
S0
SG
S1
SG
S2
END
7--7
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Using the Stage Jump Instruction for State Transitions
Stage Jump, Set,
and Reset
Instructions
The stage JMP instruction we have used deactivates the stage in which the
instruction occurs, while activating the stage in the JMP instruction. Refer to the
state transition shown below. When contact X0 energizes, the state transition from
S0 to S1 occurs. The two stage examples shown below are equivalent. So, the stage
Jump instruction is equal to a Stage Reset of the current stage, plus a Stage Set
instruction for the stage to which we want to transition.
X0
S1
SG
S0
SG
S0
Equivalent
S1
X0
S0
X0
JMP
RST
S1
SET
Please Read Carefully -- The jump instruction is easily misunderstood. The “jump”
does not occur immediately like a GOTO or GOSUB program control instruction
when executed. Here’s how it works:
S The jump instruction resets the stage bit of the stage in which it occurs.
All rungs in the stage still finish executing during the current scan, even
if there are other rungs in the stage below the jump instruction!
S The reset will be in effect on the following scan, so the stage that
executed the jump instruction previously will be inactive and bypassed.
S The stage bit of the stage named in the Jump instruction will be set
immediately, so the stage will be executed on its next occurrence. In the
left program shown below, stage S1 executes during the same scan as
the JMP S1 occurs in S0. In the example on the right, Stage S1
executes on the next scan after the JMP S1 executes, because stage
S1 is located above stage S0.
SG
S0
Executes on next
scan after Jmp
SG
S1
X0
S1
S1
JMP
Executes on same
scan as Jmp
SG
S1
S1
Y0
OUT
Y0
OUT
SG
S0
X0
S1
JMP
NOTE: Assume we start with Stage 0 active and Stage 1 inactive for both examples.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
S0
7--8
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Stage Program Example: Toggle On/Off Lamp Controller
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
A 4--State Process
In the process shown to the right, we use
an ordinary momentary pushbutton to
control a light bulb. The ladder program
will latch the switch input, so that we will
push and release to turn on the light, push
and release again to turn it off (sometimes
called toggle function). Sure, we could just
buy a mechanical switch with the alternate
on/off action built in... However, this
example is educational and also fun!
Next we draw the state transition diagram.
A typical first approach is to use X0 for
both transitions (like the example shown
to the right). However, this is incorrect
(please keep reading).
Inputs
Toggle
X0
Outputs
Ladder
Program
Powerup
Y0
X0
OFF
ON
X0
Output equation: Y0 = ON
Note that this example differs from the motor example, because now we have just
one pushbutton. When we press the pushbutton, both transition conditions are met.
We would just transition around the state diagram at top speed. If implemented in
stage, this solution would flash the light on or off each scan (obviously undesirable)!
The solution is to make the the push and the release of the pushbutton separate
events. Refer to the new state transition diagram below. At powerup we enter the
OFF state. When switch X0 is pressed, we enter the Press-ON state. When it is
released, we enter the ON state. Note that X0 with the bar above it denotes X0 NOT.
Powerup
X0
Push--ON
X0
OFF
ISG
S0
Push--OFF
X0
JMP
SG
S1
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
Push--On State
S2
X0
Output equation: Y0 = ON
When in the ON state, another push and
release cycle similarly takes us back to the
OFF state. Now we have two unique states
(OFF and ON) used when the pushbutton is
released, which is what was required to solve
the control problem.
The equivalent stage program is shown to the
right. The desired powerup state is OFF, so
we make S0 an initial stage (ISG). In the ON
state, we add special relay contact SP1,
which is always on.
Note that even as our programs grow more
complex, it is still easy to correlate the state
transition diagram with the stage program!
S1
X0
ON
X0
OFF State
JMP
SG
S2
ON State
SP1
Output
Y0
OUT
S3
X0
JMP
SG
S3
Push--Off State
X0
S0
JMP
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
7--9
Four Steps to Writing a Stage Program
By now, you’ve probably noticed that we follow the same steps to solve each
example problem. The steps will probably come to you automatically if you work
through all the examples in this chapter. It’s helpful to have a checklist to guide us
through the problem solving. The following steps summarize the stage program
design procedure:
1. Write a Word Description of the application.
2. Draw the Block Diagram.
Inputs represent all the information the process needs for decisions, and outputs
connect to all devices controlled by the process.
S Make lists of inputs and outputs for the process.
S Assign I/O point numbers (X and Y) to physical inputs and outputs.
3. Draw the State Transition Diagram.
The state transition diagram describes the central function of the block diagram,
reading inputs and generating outputs.
S Identify and name the states of the process.
S Identify the event(s) required for each transition between states.
S Ensure the process has a way to re-start itself, or is cyclical.
S Choose the powerup state for your process.
S Write the output equations.
4. Write the Stage Program.
Translate the state transition diagram into a stage program.
S Make each state a stage. Remember to number stages in octal. Up to
256 total stages are available in the DL105, numbered 0 to 377 in octal.
S Put transition logic inside the stage which originates each transition (the
stage each arrow points away from).
S Use an initial stage (ISG) for any states that must be active at powerup.
S Place the outputs or actions in the appropriate stages.
You’ll notice that Steps 1 through 3 just prepare us to write the stage program in Step
4. However, the program virtually writes itself because of the preparation
beforehand. Soon you’ll be able to start with a word description of an application and
create a stage program in one easy session!
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Describe all functions of the process in your own words. Start by listing what
happens first, then next, etc. If you find there are too many things happening at once,
try dividing the problem into more than one process. Remember, you can still have
the processes communicate with each other to coordinate their overall activity.
7--10
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Stage Program Example: A Garage Door Opener
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Garage Door
Opener Example
In this next stage programming example
we’ll create a garage door opener
controller. Hopefully most readers are
familiar with this application, and we can
have fun besides!
The first step we must take is to describe
how the door opener works. We will start
by achieving the basic operation, waiting
to add extra features later. Stage
programs are very easy to modify.
Our garage door controller has a motor
which raises or lowers the door on
command. The garage owner pushes and
releases a momentary pushbutton once to
raise the door. After the door is up, another
push-release cycle will lower the door.
In order to identify the inputs and outputs
of the system, it’s sometimes helpful to
sketch its main components, as shown in
the door side view to the right. The door
has an up limit and a down limit switch.
Each limit switch closes only when the
door has reach the end of travel in the
corresponding direction. In the middle of
travel, neither limit switch is closed.
The motor has two command inputs: raise
and lower. When neither input is active,
the motor is stopped.
The door command is just a simple
pushbutton. Whether wall-mounted as
shown, or a radio-remote control, all door
control commands logical OR together as
one pair of switch contacts.
Draw the Block
Diagram
Up limit switch
Door
Command
Down limit switch
The block diagram of the controller is Inputs
shown to the right. Input X0 is from the
pushbutton door control. Input X1 Toggle X0
energizes when the door reaches the full
up position. Input X2 energizes when the
Up limit
door reaches the full down position. When
X1
the door is positioned between fully up or
down, both limit switches are open.
Down limit
The controller has two outputs to drive the
X2
motor. Y1 is the up (raise the door)
command, and Y2 is the down (lower the
door) command.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
Raise
Lower
Motor
Outputs
To motor:
Ladder
Program Y1
Raise
Y2
Lower
7--11
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Draw the State
Diagram
Push--UP
X0
RAISE
X1
ISG
S0
DOWN State
S1
X0
DOWN
UP
JMP
SG
S1
X2
LOWER
Push--DOWN
X0
Push--UP State
S2
X0
X0
JMP
Output equations: Y1 = RAISE Y2 = LOWER
The equivalent stage program is shown to the
right. For now, we will assume the door is down at
powerup, so the desired powerup state is DOWN.
We make S0 an initial stage (ISG). Stage S0
remains active until the door control pushbutton
activates. Then we transition (JMP) to Push-UP
stage, S1.
A push-release cycle of the pushbutton takes us
through stage S1 to the RAISE stage, S2. We use
the always-on contact SP1 to energize the
motor’s raise command, Y1. When the door
reaches the fully-raised position, the up limit
switch X1 activates. This takes us to the UP
Stage S3, where we wait until another door
control command occurs.
In the UP Stage S3, a push-release cycle of the
pushbutton will take us to the LOWER Stage S5,
where we activate Y2 to command the motor to
lower the door. This continues until the door
reaches the down limit switch, X2. When X2
closes, we transition from Stage S5 to the DOWN
stage S0, where we began.
NOTE: The only special thing about an initial stage
(ISG) is that it is automatically active at powerup.
Afterwards, it is just like any other.
SG
S2
RAISE State
SP1
Y1
OUT
S3
X1
JMP
SG
S3
UP State
S4
X0
JMP
SG
S4
Push--DOWN State
S5
X0
JMP
SG
S5
LOWER State
SP1
X2
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
Y2
OUT
S0
JMP
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Powerup
X0
Now we are ready to draw the state transition diagram. Like the previous light bulb
controller example, this application also has just one switch for the command input.
Refer to the figure below.
S When the door is down (DOWN state), nothing happens until X0
energizes. Its push and release brings us to the RAISE state, where
output Y1 turns on and causes the motor to raise the door.
S We transition to the UP state when the up limit switch (X1) energizes,
and turns off the motor.
S Then nothing happens until another X0 press-release cycle occurs. That
takes us to the LOWER state, turning on output Y2 to command the
motor to lower the door. We transition back to the DOWN state when the
down limit switch (X2) energizes.
7--12
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Add Safety
Light Feature
Next we will add a safety light feature to
the door opener system. It’s best to get the
main function working first as we have
done, then adding the secondary features.
The safety light is standard on many
commercially-available garage door
openers. It is shown to the right, mounted
on the motor housing. The light turns on
upon any door activity, remaining on for
approximately 3 minutes afterwards.
This part of the exercise will demonstrate
the use of parallel states in our state
diagram. Instead of using the JMP
instruction, we’ll use the set and reset
commands.
Safety light
To control the light bulb, we add an output Inputs
Modify the
Block Diagram and to our controller block diagram, shown to
Toggle
the right, Y3 is the light control output.
State Diagram
X0
In the diagram below, we add an additional
state called “LIGHT”. Whenever the
garage owner presses the door control Up limit
X1
switch and releases, the RAISE or
LOWER state is active and the LIGHT
state is simultaneously active. The line to
Down limit
the Light state is dashed, because it is not
X2
the primary path.
Outputs
Y1
Ladder
Program Y2
Y3
Raise
Lower
Light
We can think of the Light state as a parallel process to the raise and lower state. The
paths to the Light state are not a transition (Stage JMP), but a State Set command. In
the logic of the Light stage, we will place a three-minute timer. When it expires, timer
bit T0 turns on and resets the Light stage. The path out of the Light stage goes
nowhere, indicating the Light stage just becomes inactive, and the light goes out!
Output equations:
X0
X0
RAISE
Push--UP
X1
Y1 = RAISE
Y2 = LOWER
Y3 = LIGHT
X0
DOWN
LIGHT
UP
T0
X0
X2
LOWER
Push--DOWN
X0
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
X0
7--13
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Using a Timer
Inside a Stage
K=1800 counts
The timer has power flow whenever stage
S6 is active. The corresponding timer bit
T0 is set when the timer expires. So three
minutes later, T0=1 and the instruction
Reset S6 causes the stage to be inactive.
While Stage S6 is active and the light is on,
stage transitions in the primary path
continue normally and independently of
Stage 6. That is, the door can go up, down,
or whatever, but the light will be on for
precisely 3 minutes.
ISG
S0
DOWN State
S1
X0
JMP
SG
S1
Push--UP State
S2
X0
JMP
S6
SET
SG
S2
RAISE State
SP1
Y1
OUT
S3
X1
JMP
SG
S3
UP State
S4
X0
JMP
SG
S4
Push--DOWN State
S5
X0
JMP
S6
SET
SG
S5
LOWER State
SP1
Y2
OUT
X2
S0
JMP
SG
S6
LIGHT State
SP1
Y3
OUT
TMR T0
K1800
T0
S6
RST
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
The finished modified program is shown to
the right. The shaded areas indicate the
program additions.
In the Push-UP stage S1, we add the Set
Stage Bit S6 instruction. When contact X0
opens, we transition from S1 and go to two
new active states: S2 and S6. In the
Push-DOWN state S4, we make the same
additions. So, any time someone presses
the door control pushbutton, the light turns
on.
Most new stage programmers would be
concerned about where to place the Light
Stage in the ladder, and how to number it.
The good news is that it doesn’t matter!
S Just choose an unused stage
number, and use it for the new stage
and as the reference from other
stages.
S Placement in the program is not
critical, so we place it at the end.
You might think that each stage has to be
directly under the stage that transitions to
it. While it is good practice, it is not
required (that’s good, because our two
locations for the Set S6 instruction make
that impossible). Stage numbers and how
they are used determines the transition
paths.
In stage S6, we turn on the safety light by
energizing Y3. Special relay contact SP1
is always on. Timer T0 times at 0.1 second
per count. To achieve 3 minutes time
period, we calculate:
3 min. x 60 sec/min
K=
0.1 sec/count
7--14
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Add Emergency
Stop Feature
Some garage door openers today will
detect an object under the door. This halts
further lowering of the door. Usually
implemented
with
a
photocell
(“electric-eye”), a door in the process of
being lowered will halt and begin raising.
We will define our safety feature to work in
this way, adding the input from the
photocell to the block diagram as shown to
the right. X3 will be on if an object is in the
path of the door.
Next, we make a simple addition to the
state transition diagram, shown in shaded
areas in the figure below. Note the new
transition path at the top of the LOWER
state. If we are lowering the door and
detect an obstruction (X3), we then jump
to the Push-UP State. We do this instead
of jumping directly to the RAISE state, to
give the Lower output Y2 one scan to turn
off, before the Raise output Y1 energizes.
Inputs
Toggle
Outputs
X0
Y1
X1
Ladder Y2
Program
Down limit
X2
Y3
Up limit
Raise
Lower
Light
Obstruction
X3
X0
X0
RAISE
Push--UP
X1
X0
DOWN
X2 and X3
X3
LIGHT
UP
T0
X0
LOWER
Push--DOWN
X0
X0
Exclusive
Transitions
It is theoretically possible that the down limit (X2) and the obstruction input (X3)
could energize at the same moment. In that case, we would “jump” to the Push-UP
and DOWN states simultaneously, which does not make sense.
Instead, we give priority to the obstruction
by changing the transition condition to the
SG
LOWER State
DOWN state to [X2 AND NOT X3]. This
S5
ensures the obstruction event has the
SP1
Y2
priority. The modifications we must make
OUT
to the LOWER stage (S5) logic are shown
to the right. The first rung remains
X2
X3 to Push-UP S0
unchanged. The second and third rungs
JMP
implement the transitions we need. Note
S2
X3
to DOWN
the opposite relay contact usage for X3,
which ensures the stage will execute only
JMP
one of the JMP instructions.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
7--15
Stage Program Design Considerations
Stage Program
Organization
Main Process
XXX
= ISG
Idle
Powerup Initialization
Powerup
Fill
Agitate
E-Stop and Alarm Monitoring
Rinse
Spin
Operator Interface
Monitor
Recipe
Control
Status
In a typical application, the separate stage sequences above operate as follows:
S Powerup Initialization -- This stage contains ladder rung tasks done
just once at powerup. Its last rung resets the stage, so this stage is only
active for one scan (or only as many scans that are required).
S Main Process -- this stage sequence controls the heart of the process
or machine. One pass through the sequence represents one part cycle
of the machine, or one batch in the process.
S E-Stop and Alarm Monitoring -- This stage is always active because it
is watching for errors that could indicate an alarm condition or require an
emergency stop. It is common for this stage to reset stages in the main
process or elsewhere, in order to initialize them after an error condition.
S Operator Interface -- this is another task that must always be active
and ready to respond to an operator. It allows an operator interface to
change modes, etc. independently of the current main process step.
Although we have separate processes,
there can be coordination among them.
For example, in an error condition, the
Status Stage may want to automatically
switch the operator interface to the status
mode to show error information as shown
to the right. The monitor stage could set
the stage bit for Status and Reset the
stages Control and Recipe.
Operator Interface
Recipe
Control
Monitor
Set
Status
E-Stop and
Alarm Monitoring
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
The examples so far in this chapter used one self-contained state diagram to
represent the main process. However, we can have multiple processes
implemented in stages, all in the same ladder program. New stage programmers
sometimes try to turn a stage on and off each scan, based on the false assumption
that only one stage can be on at a time. For ladder rungs that you want to execute
each scan, just put them in a stage that is always on.
The following figure shows a typical application. During operation, the primary
manufacturing activity Main Process, Powerup Initialization, E-Stop and Alarm
Monitoring, and Operator Interface are all running. At powerup, three initial stages
shown begin operation.
7--16
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
We can think of states or stages as simply dividing up our ladder program as
How Instructions
Work Inside Stages depicted in the figure below. Each stage contains only the ladder rungs which are
needed for the corresponding state of the process. The logic for transitioning out of a
stage is contained within that stage. It’s easy to choose which ladder rungs are active
at powerup by using an “initial” stage type (ISG).
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Stage 0
Stage 1
Stage 2
Most all instructions work just like they do in standard RLL. You can think of a stage
just like a miniature RLL program which is either active or inactive.
Output Coils -- As expected, output coils in active stages will turn on or off outputs
according to power flow into the coil. However, note the following:
S Outputs work as usual, provided each output reference (such as “Y3”) is
used in only one stage.
S An output can be referenced from more than one stage, as long as only
one of the stages is active at a time.
S If an output coil is controlled by more than one stage simultaneously, the
active stage nearest the bottom of the program determines the final
output status during each scan. Therefore, use the OROUT instruction
instead when you want multiple stages to have a logical OR control of
an output.
One-Shot or PD coils -- Use care if you must use a Positive Differential coil in a
stage. Remember that the input to the coil must make a 0--1 transition. If the coil is
already energized on the first scan when the stage becomes active, the PD coil will
not work. This is because the 0--1 transition did not occur.
PD coil alternative: If there is a task which you want to do only once (on 1 scan), it can
be placed in a stage which transitions to the next stage on the same scan.
Counter -- In using a counter inside a stage, the stage must be active for one scan
before the input to the counter makes a 0--1 transition. Otherwise, there is no real
transition and the counter will not count.
The ordinary Counter instruction does have a restriction inside stages: it may not be
reset from other stages using the RST instruction for the counter bit. However, the
special Stage Counter provides a solution (see next paragraph).
Stage Counter -- The Stage Counter has the benefit that its count may be globally
reset from other stages by using the RST instruction. It has a count input, but no reset
input. This is the only difference from a standard counter.
Drum -- Realize that the drum sequencer is its own process, and is a different
programming method than stage programming. If you need to use a drum with
stages, be sure to place the drum instruction in an ISG stage that is always active.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
7--17
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Using a Stage as a You may recall the light bulb on-off
controller example from earlier in this
Supervisory
chapter. For the purpose of illustration, Toggle X0
Process
suppose we want to monitor the
“productivity” of the lamp process, by
counting the number of on-off cycles
which occurs. This application will require
the addition of a simple counter, but the
key decision is in where to put the counter.
Ladder
Program
Y0
Powerup
Supervisor
Supervisor Process
OFF State
S1
X0
JMP
Powerup
X0
Push--ON
Main Process
OFF
X0
Push--OFF
SG
S1
X0
S2
X0
ON
JMP
SG
S2
X0
New stage programming students will
typically try to place the counter inside one the
the stages of the process they are trying to
monitor. The problem with this approach is
that the stage is active only part of the time. In
order for the counter to count, the count input
must transition from off to on at least one scan
after its stage activates. Ensuring this
requires extra logic that can be tricky.
In this case, we only need to add another
supervisory stage as shown above, to “watch”
the main process. The counter inside the
supervisor stage uses the stage bit S1 of the
main process as its count input. Stage bits
used as a contact let us monitor a process!
Note that both the Supervisor stage and the
OFF stage are initial stages. The supervisor
stage remains active indefinitely.
Stage Counter
Push--On State
ON State
SP1
Y0
OUT
S3
X0
JMP
SG
S3
Push--Off State
S0
X0
JMP
ISG
S4
Supervisor State
S1
SGCNT
CT0
K5000
The counter in the above example is a special Stage Counter. Note that it does not
have a reset input. The count is reset by executing a Reset instruction, naming the
counter bit (CT0 in this case). The Stage Counter has the benefit that its count may
be globally reset from other stages. The standard Counter instruction does not have
this global reset capability. You may still use a regular Counter instruction inside a
stage... however, the reset input to the counter is the only way to reset it.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
ISG
S0
7--18
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Our discussion of state transitions has shown how the stage JMP instruction makes
the current stage inactive and the next stage (named in the JMP) active. As an
alternative way to enter this in DirectSOFT, you may use the power flow method for
stage transitions.
The main requirement is that the current stage be located directly above the next
(jump-to) stage in the ladder program. This arrangement is shown in the diagram
below, by stages S0 and S1, respectively.
Power Flow
Transition
Technique
X0
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
S0
S1
SG
S0
SG
S0
S1
X0
Equivalent
All other rungs in stage...
JMP
X0
SG
S1
Power flow
transition
SG
S1
Recall that the stage JMP instruction may occur anywhere in the current stage, and
the result is the same. However, power flow transitions (shown above) must occur as
the last rung in a stage. All other rungs in the stage will precede it. The power flow
transition method is also achievable on the handheld programmer, by simply
following the transition condition with the stage instruction for the next stage.
The power flow transition method does eliminate one stage JMP instruction, its only
advantage. However, it is not as easy to make program changes as using the stage
JMP. Therefore, we advise using stage JMP transitions for most programmers.
Stage View in
DirectSOFT
SG
The stage View option in DirectSOFT will let you view the ladder program as a flow
chart. The figure below shows the symbol convention used in the diagrams. You may
find the stage view useful as a tool to verify that your stage program has faithfully
reproduced the logic of the state transition diagram you intend to realize.
Stage
Reference to
a stage
Transition
Logic
J
Jump
S
Set Stage
R
Reset Stage
The following diagram is a typical stage view of a ladder program containing stages.
Note the left-to-right direction of the flow chart.
ISG
S0
J
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
SG
S1
J
SG
S2
S
SG
S4
J
SG
S3
J
SG
S5
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
7--19
RLL PLUS Stage Instructions
Stage
(SG)
The Stage instructions are used to create
structured RLL PLUS programs. Stages are
program segments which can be activated
by transitional logic, a jump or a set stage
that is executed from an active stage.
Stages are deactivated one scan after
transitional logic, a jump, or a reset stage
instruction is executed.
S aaa
DL130 Range
aaa
Stage
S
0--377
The following example is a simple RLL PLUS Stage program. This program utilizes an
initial stage, and jump instructions to create a structured program.
DirectSOFT
ISG
Handheld Programmer Keystrokes
U
S0
$
X0
Y0
OUT
X1
S2
SET
X5
S1
JMP
SG
S1
Y1
OUT
SG
S2
X6
Y2
OUT
X7
S1
STR
A
A
GX
OUT
A
$
B
STR
0
0
0
1
X
SET
SHFT
$
F
STR
K
JMP
B
2
B
$
X2
ISG
SG
STR
C
GX
OUT
B
2
C
$
SG
STR
G
GX
OUT
C
$
H
STR
5
1
1
2
1
2
6
2
7
V
AND
SHFT
K
JMP
A
0
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
S
RST
C
2
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
S
RST
B
1
ENT
ENT
S0
JMP
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Operand Data Type
SG
7--20
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
Initial Stage
(ISG)
The Initial Stage instruction is normally used
as the first segment of an RLL PLUS Stage
program. Multiple Initial Stages are allowed in
a program. They will be active when the CPU
enters the Run mode allowing for a starting
point in the program. Initial Stages are also
activated by transitional logic, a jump or a set
stage executed from an active stage.
Operand Data Type
ISG
S aaa
DL130 Range
aaa
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Stage
S
0--377
NOTE: If the ISG is within the retentive range for stages, the ISG will remain in the
state it was in before power down and will NOT turn itself on during the first scan.
JUMP
(JMP)
The Jump instruction allows the program to
transition from an active stage containing
the jump instruction to another stage
(specified in the instruction). The jump
occurs when the input logic is true. The
active stage containing the Jump will
deactivate 1 scan later.
Operand Data Type
S aaa
JMP
DL130 Range
aaa
Stage
S
0--377
In the following example, only stage ISG0 will be active when program execution.
begins. When X1 is on, program execution will jump from Initial Stage 0 to Stage 1.
DirectSOFT
Handheld Programmer Keystrokes
ISG
S0
X1
U
S1
JMP
SG
S1
$
X7
STR
B
2
B
SG
C
Y5
STR
OUT
GX
OUT
F
$
H
S2
JMP
X7
B
K
JMP
$
X2
A
ISG
S3
JMP
STR
K
JMP
SHFT
C
N
TMR
0
1
1
1
2
5
7
2
SHFT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
ENT
K
JMP
D
3
ENT
S
S
S
NOTE: The F1--130 CPU does not have the Not Jump instruction (as does other
PLC families). You may still achieve the same result by using the Jump instruction,
while inverting the sense of contact logic that activates that instruction.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
7--21
Questions and Answers about Stage Programming
We include the following commonly-asked questions about Stage Programming as
an aid to new students. All question topics are covered in more detail in this chapter.
Q. Isn’t a stage really just like a software subroutine?
A. No, it is very different. A subroutine is called by a main program when needed, and
executes just once before returning to the point from which it was called. A stage,
however, is part of the main program. It represents a state of the process, so an
active stage executes on every scan of the CPU until it becomes inactive.
Q. What are Stage Bits?
A. A stage bit is just a single bit in the CPU’s image register, representing the
active/inactive status of the stage in real time. For example, the bit for Stage 0 is
referenced as “S0”. If S0 = 0, then the ladder rungs in Stage 0 are bypassed (not
executed) on each CPU scan. If S0 = 1, then the ladder rungs in Stage 0 are
executed on each CPU scan. Stage bits, when used as contacts, allow one part of
your program to monitor another part by detecting stage active/inactive status.
Q. How does a stage become active?
A. There are three ways:
S If the Stage is an initial stage (ISG), it is automatically active at powerup.
S Another stage can execute a stage JMP instruction naming this stage,
which makes it active upon its next occurrence in the program.
S A program rung can execute a Set Stage Bit instruction (such as Set
S0).
Q. How does a stage become inactive?
A. There are three ways:
S Standard Stages (SG) are automatically inactive at powerup.
S A stage can execute a stage JMP instruction, resetting its Stage Bit to 0.
S Any rung in the program can execute a Reset Stage Bit instruction (such
as Reset S0).
Q. What about the power flow technique of stage transitions?
A. The power flow method of connecting adjacent stages (directly above or below in
the program) actually is the same as the stage Jump instruction executed in the
stage above, naming the stage below. Power flow transitions are more difficult to edit
in DirectSOFT, we list them separately from two preceding questions.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Q. What does stage programming do that I can’t do with regular RLL programs?
A. Stages allow you to identify all the states of your process before you begin
programming. This approach is more organized, because you divide up a ladder
program into sections. As stages, these program sections are active only when they
are actually needed by the process. Most processes can be organized into a
sequence of stages, connected by event-based transitions.
7--22
RLL PLUS Stage Programming
RLL PLUS
Stage Programming
Q. Can I have a stage which is active for only one scan?
A. Yes, but this is not the intended use for a stage. Instead, just make a ladder rung
active for 1 scan by including a stage Jump instruction at the bottom of the rung.
Then the ladder will execute on the last scan before its stage jumps to a new one.
Q. Isn’t a stage JMP just like a regular GOTO instruction used in software?
A. No, it is very different. A GOTO instruction sends the program execution
immediately to the code location named by the GOTO. A stage JMP simply resets
the stage Bit of the current stage, while setting the stage Bit of the stage named in the
JMP instruction. Stage bits are 0 or 1, determining the inactive/active status of the
corresponding stages. A stage JMP has the following results:
S When the JMP is executed, the remainder of the current stage’s rungs
are executed, even if they reside past(under) the JMP instruction. On
the following scan, that stage is not executed, because it is inactive.
S The stage named in the stage JMP instruction will be executed upon its
next occurrence. If located past (under) the current stage, it will be
executed on the same scan. If located before (above) the current stage,
it will be executed on the following scan.
Q. How can I know when to use stage JMP, versus a Set Stage Bit or Reset Stage Bit?
A. These instructions are used according to the state diagram topology you have
derived:
S Use a stage JMP instruction for a state transition... moving from one
state to another.
S Use a Set Stage Bit instruction when the current state is spawning a
new parallel state or stage sequence, or when a supervisory state is
starting a state sequence under its command.
S Use a Reset Bit instruction when the current state is the last state in a
sequence and its task is complete, or when a supervisory state is
ending a state sequence under its command.
Q. What is an initial stage, and when do I use it?
A. An initial stage (ISG) is automatically active at powerup. Afterwards, it works just
like any other stage. You can have multiple initial stages, if required. Use an initial
stage for ladder that must always be active, or as a starting point.
Q. Can I have place program ladder rungs outside of the stages, so they are always on?
A. It is possible, but it’s not good software design practice. Place ladder that must
always be active in an initial stage, and do not reset that stage or use a stage JMP
instruction inside it. It can start other stage sequences at the proper time by setting
the appropriate stage Bit(s).
Q. Can I have more than one active stage at a time?
A. Yes, and this is a normal occurrence for many programs. However, it is important
to organize your application into separate processes, each made up of stages. And a
good process design will be mostly sequential, with only one stage on at a time.
However, all the processes in the program may be active simultaneously.
DL105 PLC User Manual, 3rd Edition
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