5540 User Manual RevC

5540 User Manual RevC
USER’S
GUIDE
The Berek Polarization
Compensator
Model 5540
U.S. Patent # 5,245,478
3635 Peterson Way • Santa Clara, CA 95054 • USA
phone: (408) 980-5903 • fax: (408) 987-3178
e-mail: [email protected] • www.newfocus.com
Warranty
Newport Corporation guarantees its products to be free of defects for one year
from the date of shipment. This is in lieu of all other guarantees, expressed or
implied, and does not cover incidental or consequential loss.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Copyright 2012, 2001-1998, Newport Corporation. All rights reserved.
The New Focus logo and symbol are registered trademarks of Newport
Corporation
Document Number 554000 Rev. C
Contents
Operation
5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Using the Compensator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Applications
15
Characteristics
17
Compensator Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Customer Service
19
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Appendix I: Determining Compensator Settings
Model 5540
21
Contents • 3
4 • Contents
NEW FOCUS
Operation
Introduction
The Model 5540 Berek polarization compensator
can convert the polarization of a collimated laser
beam from any state to any other state with the
flexibility and precision previously characteristic only
of expensive and lossy Soleil-Babinet
compensators. Used as a variable waveplate, the
Berek compensator can impose 1/4-wave or 1/2wave retardance at any wavelength between 200
nm and 1600 nm, dramatically reducing the number
of different plates necessary in the laboratory.
The Model 5540 polarization compensator can fit in
a variety of 2" mirror mounts, or you can mount it
directly to a post. With its 10-mm aperture, this
compensator will accept beams from almost any
commercially available laser system.
Model 5540
Operation • 5
Using the Compensator
Initial Alignment
1. Set the Retardation indicator on the compensator to zero. This also sets the tilt angle to
zero.
2. Place the compensator in your setup. Make
sure that the collimated laser beam is centered on
the 12-mm diameter aperture.
3. Mount the compensator housing. It should be
mounted such that the “0” on the Orientation
indicator is at a convenient angle.
We recommend mounting the Model 5540 in a
gimbal-type mirror mount such as the Model
9852 shown in Figure 1.
4. Align the compensator. Leaving the Retardation
indicator set to “0”, use the two tilt controls of the
mirror mount to align the compensator so that it is
normal to the propagation direction of the light.
To do this, find the reflection from the
compensator plate and force it to propagate back
along the direction of the incident beam.
When the compensator is properly aligned and
the Retardation indicator is set to “0”, the
reflected beam will not move away from the
incident beam direction when the compensator
is rotated around its axis.
5. Rotate the compensator. The compensator is
rotated by turning the Orientation knurled ring.
When the initial alignment has been done
properly, the polarization compensator transmits
the incident polarization unchanged, whatever the
orientation angle.
The indicator setting for Retardation is NOT the actual
value of the tilt angle. See “Appendix: Determining
Compensator Settings” for the relationship between
Retardation indicator setting and tilt angle.
6 • Operation
NEW FOCUS
Figure 1: Initial
alignment of
the Berek
compensator
Patent #5,245,478
“Orientation”
This ring controls the tilt angle. (See
Appendix 1 for the relationship
between tilt angle and the settings
of this indicator.) Set this control to
zero for initial alignment.
This ring rotates the waveplate.
It is usually convenient to set the
waveplate so the zero for this
control is horizontal or vertical.
3
60
“Retardation”
40
0
2
0
0
2
1
20
2
RETARDATION
SEE MANUAL
320
16
BRAKE
15
“Brake”
300
ORIENTATION
340
17
To align the compensator, force the
light reflecting back from the
compensator to propagate along the
direction of the incident beam.
This setscrew locks the orientation
ring to prevent accidental
re-adjustment after the
compensator has been set.
Setting the Actual Retardance
The Retardation indicator controls the compensator
plate tilt angle and hence the actual retardance value.
Setting the Retardation indicator to “0” gives zero tilt
and zero retardance. At nonzero values, the Berek
polarization compensator can be set to either a singleorder or a multiple-order waveplate. The smaller the
retardance, the more accurately it can be set. To a good
approximation, the tilt angle R that gives retardance R
(in waves) is
(
θ R ≅ sin −1 0.284 λR
)
where  is the wavelength in microns.
Model 5540
Operation • 7
The Retardation indicator setting (I) is related to the tilt
angle by
π
I = 50.22 - 71sin − θ R
4
π
1 50 22 - I
Approximate Retardation indicator settings are shown
in Figure 3. More accurate values can be obtained using
the formulas in “Appendix: Determining Compensator
Settings”.
When setting the Retardation, make sure that the
entire compensator housing (and therefore the
orientation angle) does not rotate.
Setting the Orientation Angle
The knurled Orientation ring rotates the entire
housing to properly orient the slow axis of the
compensator plate with respect to the incident
polarization. If the compensator has been mounted
with the “0” on the orientation scale vertical, you can
read the orientation angle directly.
To make circular polarization from linear
polarization, you must set the retardance to 1/4 wave
and the orientation angle to the incident linear
polarization direction plus 45°. If the retardance is set
to 1/2 wave, a 45° orientation angle will rotate the plane
of polarization by 90°. In general, a /2-wave plate
rotation causes the plane of polarization to rotate by
twice the orientation angle.
After adjusting the orientation angle, it may be
convenient to lock the orientation adjustment ring.
This can be done by tightening the set screw marked
“Brake” on the ring itself. (See Figure 1.)
Verifying the Output Polarization
When using a waveplate, one should always verify that
it has produced the desired polarization. There are
various methods, some of extreme precision.
8 • Operation
NEW FOCUS
Linear Polarization
Since linear polarization can be blocked to better than
0.01% with a calcite polarizer, it is easy to verify that
the output of the Model 5540 Berek polarization
compensator is linear and oriented properly.
1. Place a calcite polarizer, such as a Model 5524 or
5525, after the compensator.
2. Orient the polarizer to block the desired output
polarization.
3. Fine-tune the polarization. Both the tilt angle (see
“Setting the Actual Retardance” on page 7) and
orientation angle of the compensator can be used
to do this. At this stage, do not use the mounting
to adjust the tilt of the compensator housing.
If the laser beam is not perfectly collimated, you may
see a narrow absolutely dark line through the center of
a very dim beam transmitted through the polarizer. If
too much light is transmitted through the polarizer,
even when tilt and orientation have been optimized,
consider reducing the retardance by one full wave or
improving the collimation. The smaller the retardance,
the less sensitive is the polarization to imperfect
collimation due to the angular dependence of the
birefringence.
Circular Polarization
To verify circular polarization, reflect the output light
back through the compensator. The polarization of the
wave that goes through the compensator twice will be
exactly orthogonal to the incident polarization for the
circularly-polarized light.
If the incident polarization is linear, this can best be
achieved by setting a calcite polarizer in front of the
Model 5540 polarization compensator oriented to
transmit the incident beam perfectly. If the
compensator is set to produce perfect circular
Model 5540
Operation • 9
polarization, the reflected wave should be blocked by
the calcite polarizer to 0.01%.
Slight adjustments to the compensator Orientation
and Retardation (and hence to the tilt angle) can
improve the purity of the circular polarization and
reduce the transmitted intensity in this test. For best
precision, the plane containing the forward and
backward propagating beams should be orthogonal to
the plane of incidence of the incident beam on the tilt
plate.
Elliptical Polarization
To verify elliptical polarization, you must measure the
major and minor axes of the polarization ellipse, or use
a second compensator as is found in an ellipsometer.
Special cases (such as produced by N/2 waves of
retardance, where N is an integer) can be verified in a
way similar to circular polarization, but with the light
making N passes through the compensator plate.
Theory
Invented in 1913,* the Berek polarization compensator
has long been used in microscopy and other technical
applications. It consists of a single plate of a uniaxial
material with its extraordinary axis perpendicular to
the plate. Therefore, when light is at normal incidence
to the plate, it propagates through the device with a
velocity independent of polarization. It sees an
isotropic material in this configuration, and the Berek
polarization compensator has no effect on its
polarization.
*
10 • Operation
Berek, M., Zbl. Miner. Geol. Paläont. 388, 427, 464,
580 (1913) (quoted in Born, M. and Wolf, E., Principles of Optics, 6th edition, Pergamon Press, London,
1980, p.694.)
NEW FOCUS
However, when the plate is tilted with respect to the
direction of the incident light, the plane of incidence
becomes the plane of the extraordinary index of
refraction. Light polarized in this plane propagates at a
different velocity. The wave is slowed or retarded by an
amount that depends on the angle of tilt and on the
wavelength. Light in the polarization perpendicular to
the plane of incidence continues to propagate as an
ordinary wave with velocity independent of tilt angle.
Thus, the light in the two planes of polarization
accumulates a relative phase shift or retardance. For
example, Figure 2 shows the slow axis being retarded
by 90° relative to the fast axis resulting in linearly
polarized light being converted to circularly polarized
light when the device is oriented at 0°.
Figure 2:
Conversion of
linearly
polarized to
circularly
polarized light
A. Linearly polarized light at the
input of the Berek compensator
B. Circular polarization at the output of
the Berek compensator when the
retardance is tuned to 90°
Model 5540
Operation • 11
The Model 5540 Berek compensator allows the
retardance and the orientation of the plane of
incidence to be adjusted conveniently and
independently using two knurled rings, one on each
end of the housing. Once the tilt angle is set correctly
with the Retardation knob, rotating the housing with
the Orientation knob rotates the variable wave plate
just like a conventional compensator or retarder.
Precision scales allow both tilt angle and orientation
angle to be set accurately. The axis of rotation for the
plane of incidence can be conveniently set parallel to
the propagation direction using a conventional optic
mount.
Near normal incidence, the retardance increases
quadratically with tilt angle, allowing very precise
compensation of small phase shifts due to other
optical elements. Figure 3 shows the actual retardance
versus the Retardation indicator setting for the New
Focus Berek compensator at 488 nm, 632.8 nm, and
1060 nm. Figure 4 shows Retardation indicator setting
versus wavelength to achieve precise /2 and /4
retardance.
For an in-depth discussion on calculating these curves,
see “Appendix: Determining Compensator Settings”. It
contains the equations necessary to determine the
actual retardance required to convert an arbitrary
input polarization state into a specified output
polarization state. It also contains both the exact
expression for actual retardance versus Retardation
indicator setting and the relationship between tilt
angle and Retardation indicator setting.
12 • Operation
NEW FOCUS
Figure 3:
Retardance (in
waves) versus
indicator
setting at 488
nm, 632.8 nm,
and 1060 nm
2.50
2.00
488 nm
1.50
1.00
632.8 nm
0.50
1060 nm
0.00
0.0
Figure 4:
Indicator
setting versus
wavelength for
/2 and /4
retardance
5.0
10.0
15.0
15
λ
−
2
13
11
9
λ
−
4
7
5
3
0.4
Model 5540
0.8
1.2
1.6
Operation • 13
14 • Operation
NEW FOCUS
Applications
The Model 5540 polarization compensator can be used
as a 1/2-wave plate to rotate the plane of polarization of
a linearly-polarized laser beam.
input
Γ =π
θ=0
output
It can be used as a 1/4-wave plate to make a planepolarized laser beam circularly polarized. When used
with a linear polarizer, this will provide isolation
which protects the laser from feedback.
input
π
2
π
θ=
4
output
Γ=
Model 5540
Applications • 15
3
60
By placing a linear polarizer after the Berek
compensator, you can conveniently vary the attenuation
of a beam without changing its polarization.
40
0
2
0
0
2
1
20
2
RETARDATION
SEE MANUAL
300
15
input
320
16
ORIENTATION
340
17
Iout
 = 
 = varies
0
output

--2

--4
polarizer

3
60
By varying the retardance and orientation, you can
produce arbitrary states of elliptical polarization
which is especially useful in spectroscopy.
40
0
2
0
0
2
1
20
2
RETARDATION
SEE MANUAL
15
320
300
16
ORIENTATION
340
17
input
output
 = User Defined
 = User Defined
16 • Applications
NEW FOCUS
Characteristics
Compensator Characteristics
Model # 5540
Wavelength Range
Clear Aperture
Wavefront Distortion
Model 5540
200–1600 nm
10 mm
<1/8 wave
Retardance
0–5.8 @ 300 nm
0– @ 1600 nm
Resolution
0.001 wave @ null
0.01 wave @ 2
Characteristics • 17
18 • Characteristics
NEW FOCUS
Customer Service
Technical Support
Information and advice about the operation of any
New Focus product is available from our applications
engineers. For quickest response, ask for “Technical
Support” and know the model and serial numbers for
your product.
Hours: 8:00–5:00 PST, Monday through Friday
(excluding holidays).
Toll Free: 1-866-NUFOCUS (1-866-683-6287)
(from the USA & Canada only)
Phone: (408) 980-5903
Support is also available by fax and email:
Fax: (408) 987-3178
Email: [email protected]
We typically respond to faxes and email within one
business day.
Service
In the event that the compensator malfunctions or
becomes damaged, please contact New Focus for a
return authorization number and instructions on
shipping the unit back for evaluation and repair.
Model 5540
Customer Service • 19
20 • Customer Service
NEW FOCUS
Appendix: Determining Compensator
Settings
The most general application which uses a
compensator is one in which the input and desired
output polarization states are known and the
compensator settings need to be determined. The
actual desired retardance and orientation angle can be
determined in a straightforward manner by first
defining the input and output states in terms of the
ellipticity (=minor axis a/major axis b) and the
orientation  of the major axis in the lab frame.
Figure 5:
Arbitrary
elliptically
polarized light
can be defined
in terms of 
and 
Model 5540
a
α
b
ε=a/b
Appendix: Determining Compensator Settings • 21
From these parameters the retardance and orientation
can be determined using the equations associated with
the Poincaré sphere:
A1 = 2α 1
A 2 = 2α 2
-1
-1
E1 = 2tan ε1
E2 = 2tan ε 2
x1 = cos A1 cos E1
x 2 = cos A2 cos E2
y1 = sin A1cos E1
y 2 = sin A2 cos E2
x - x
k = - tan-1 y2 - y1
2
1
( x2 - x1)2 + ( y2 - y1)2
I 1 = cosA1 sin ( k - A1)
L=
h1 = sinE1
h2 = sinE2
2
2
I 2 = h 1 + I1
M = L2 + (h2 − h1)
-1
Γ = 2sin
2
M
2 I2
The solutions to these equations can then be used to
determine the actual retardance (R ) and orientation (Z ).
R=
Γ
2π
Z= 05
. k
These results are completely general and can be used to
determine the settings to convert any input
polarization into any output polarization assuming
the states can be defined in terms of their ellipticity and
orientation.
22 • Appendix: Determining Compensator Settings
NEW FOCUS
The relationship between retardance (R) and tilt
angle can be determined from the angular
dependence of the birefringence in MgF2. The
extraordinary index of refraction, as seen by the
optical beam, is given by
where R is the tilt angle and no and ne are the
indices of refraction. These are, in general,
wavelength dependent and their dispersion
relations are given by*
Thus, the retardance R (in waves) is related to the
tilt angle by
The relationship between tilt angle (R) and
Retardation indicator setting ( I ) is given by
θR =
50.22 - I
π
- sin - 1
71
4
or
I = 50.22 - 71sin
*
Model 5540
π
−θR
4
Dodge, M., Appl. Opt. 23,12 1980-85 (1984)
Appendix: Determining Compensator Settings • 23
24 • Appendix: Determining Compensator Settings
NEW FOCUS
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