JO 7110.10X - Flight Services

JO 7110.10X - Flight Services
ORDER
JO 7110.10X
Air Traffic Organization Policy
Effective Date:
April 3, 2014
SUBJ:
Flight Services
This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by personnel providing
air traffic control services. Controllers are required to be familiar with the provisions of this order that
pertain to their operational responsibilities and to exercise judgment if they encounter situations not
covered by it.
Distribution: ZAT-710, ZAT-464
Initiated By: AJV-0
Vice President, System Operations Services
RECORD OF CHANGES
CHANGE
TO
BASIC
SUPPLEMENTS
FAA Form 1320−5
OPTIONAL
(6−80) USE PREVIOUS EDITION
JO 7110.10X
DIRECTIVE NO.
CHANGE
TO
BASIC
SUPPLEMENTS
OPTIONAL
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Flight Services Explanation of Changes
Basic
Direct questions through appropriate facility/service center office staff
to the Office of Primary Interest (OPI)
a. 2−1−2. SPEECH RATE AND
PHRASEOLOGY
This change amends FAA Order JO 7110.10,
paragraph 2-1-2 in response to an update to the FAA
Order JO 7210.3, Facility Operations, paragraph
10-4-1.c in 2012.
b. 6−2−5. SUFFIX TO AIRCRAFT TYPE
TBL 6−2−5
This change eliminates use of the /R and /Q suffixes
and provides guidance for positive identification of
GNSS−equipped aircraft. This change cancels and
incorporates N JO 7110.640 Global Navigation
Satellite System (GNSS) Equipped Aircraft
Operating
on
Random
and
Random
(Impromptu)Routes, effective October 24, 2013
Explanation of Changes
c. 9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA)
SCHEDULE
This change is proposed in response to NWS
Technical Implementation Notice 13­21. The change
will be reflected in FAA JO 7110.10 paragraph 9­5­2.
The paragraph will now state that the Alaska Area
Forecasts will be issued three times a day effective
October 15, 2013. Concurrently, Table 9­5­2 will be
updated to reflect the new issuance times for NWS
Alaska Area Forecasts.
d. 9−7−1. GENERAL - TBL 9-7-1
This change is proposed to Table 9-7-1 is needed to
reflect the new issuance times for NWS Alaska
Airmets which are scheduled for 615 am, 1215 pm,
615pm and 1215am local time.
e. Entire Publication
Additional editorial/format changes were made
where necessary. Revision bars were not used
because of the insignificant nature of these changes.
E of C−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. General
Section 1. Introduction
Paragraph
Page
1−1−1. PURPOSE OF THIS ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−2. AUDIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−3. WHERE TO FIND THIS ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−4. WHAT THIS ORDER CANCELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−5. EXPLANATION OF CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−6. SUBMISSION CUTOFF AND EFFECTIVE DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−7. DELIVERY DATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−8. RECOMMENDATION FOR PROCEDURAL CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−9. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−10. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−1
1−1−2
Section 2. Terms of Reference
1−2−1.
1−2−2.
1−2−3.
1−2−4.
1−2−5.
1−2−6.
1−2−7.
WORD MEANINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABBREVIAITONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
JO 7110.10 CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−2−1
1−2−1
1−2−1
1−2−1
1−2−1
1−2−1
1−2−2
Section 3. Responsibility
1−3−1. PROCEDURAL APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−3−2. DUTY PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1−3−3. DUTY FAMILIARIZATION AND TRANSFER OF POSITION RESPONSIBILITY
1−3−1
1−3−1
1−3−1
Chapter 2. Broadcast Procedures
Section 1. General
2−1−1.
2−1−2.
2−1−3.
2−1−4.
2−1−5.
TYPES OF BROADCASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPEECH RATE AND PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REDUCING RECORDED WEATHER INFORMATION SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . .
CURRENT DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATED BROADCAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−1−1
2−1−1
2−1−1
2−1−1
2−1−1
Section 2. Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB) (Alaska Only)
2−2−1.
2−2−2.
2−2−3.
2−2−4.
2−2−5.
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TESTING TWEB EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SERVICE MAY BE SUSPENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−2−1
2−2−1
2−2−2
2−2−2
2−2−2
Section 3. Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)
2−3−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
2−3−1
i
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4/3/14
Paragraph
Page
2−3−2. AREA/ROUTE BRIEFING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−3. MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−3−1
2−3−2
Section 4. Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
2−4−1.
2−4−2.
2−4−3.
2−4−4.
2−4−5.
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BROADCAST PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUSPENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−4−1
2−4−1
2−4−1
2−4−1
2−4−2
Section 5. Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
(Alaska Only)
2−5−1. AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE (AFIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2−5−1
Chapter 3. Pilot Briefing
Section 1. General
3−1−1.
3−1−2.
3−1−3.
3−1−4.
3−1−5.
3−1−6.
3−1−7.
3−1−8.
DEFINITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRE-DUTY REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREFLIGHT BRIEFING DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WEATHER DISPLAY PRODUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FORECASTS, WARNINGS, AND ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNAVAILABILITY OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPE OF BRIEFING TO BE CONDUCTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOGGING PILOT BRIEFINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−1−1
3−1−1
3−1−1
3−1−1
3−1−2
3−1−3
3−1−3
3−1−3
Section 2. Preflight Pilot Briefing
3−2−1. CONDUCT OF STANDARD BRIEFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−2. CONDUCT OF ABBREVIATED BRIEFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−3. CONDUCT OF OUTLOOK BRIEFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3−2−1
3−2−2
3−2−3
Chapter 4. Inflight Services
Section 1. General
4−1−1.
4−1−2.
4−1−3.
4−1−4.
4−1−5.
4−1−6.
INFLIGHT SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATIONAL PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFLIGHT WEATHER BRIEFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT-REPORTED NAVAID MALFUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NAVAID FLIGHT CHECK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−1−1
4−1−1
4−1−1
4−1−1
4−1−1
4−1−2
Section 2. Data Recording
4−2−1.
4−2−2.
4−2−3.
4−2−4.
4−2−5.
ii
TYPES OF DATA RECORDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS OF RECORDING DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR/VFR/DVFR FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIPS (FAA FORMS 7230-21 AND 7233-5) . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIPS AND ENTRY DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2−1
4−2−1
4−2−2
4−2−2
4−2−2
Table of Contents
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Paragraph
Page
4−2−6. AIRCRAFT CONTACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−2−6
Section 3. Radio Communications
4−3−1. FREQUENCY USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−2. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−3. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−4. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−5. ROUTINE RADIO CONTACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−6. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS TRANSFER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−7. ATC CLEARANCES, ADVISORIES, OR REQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−8. DEPARTURE REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−9. IFR FLIGHT PROGRESS REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−10. ARRIVAL/MISSED APPROACH REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−11. NONDELIVERY OF MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−12. BROADCAST (BLIND TRANSMISSION) OF MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−13. PENETRATION OF CLASS A AIRSPACE OR PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−3−1
4−3−1
4−3−1
4−3−2
4−3−2
4−3−4
4−3−4
4−3−4
4−3−5
4−3−5
4−3−5
4−3−5
4−3−5
Section 4. Airport Advisory Services
4−4−1.
4−4−2.
4−4−3.
4−4−4.
4−4−5.
4−4−6.
4−4−7.
TYPES OF AIRPORT ADVISORY SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRPORT ADVISORY/RAIS ELEMENTS AND PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTHORIZED FREQUENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRAFFIC CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CHECKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−4−1
4−4−1
4−4−2
4−4−4
4−4−4
4−4−5
4−4−5
Section 5. Special VFR Operation
4−5−1.
4−5−2.
4−5−3.
4−5−4.
AUTHORIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REQUESTS FOR SPECIAL VFR CLEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISIBILITY BELOW 1 MILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREDESIGNED SPECIAL VFR CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−5−1
4−5−1
4−5−2
4−5−3
Section 6. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
4−6−1.
4−6−2.
4−6−3.
4−6−4.
4−6−5.
4−6−6.
4−6−7.
4−6−8.
4−6−9.
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATING PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FREQUENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NWS SUPPORT TO EFAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PILOT WEATHER REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GRAPHIC WEATHER DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERRUPTIONS TO SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMERGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4−6−1
4−6−1
4−6−1
4−6−1
4−6−1
4−6−2
4−6−2
4−6−3
4−6−3
Chapter 5. Emergency Services
Section 1. General
5−1−1. EMERGENCY DETERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
5−1−1
iii
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Paragraph
5−1−2.
5−1−3.
5−1−4.
5−1−5.
5−1−6.
5−1−7.
Page
RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OBTAINING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROVIDING ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RECORDING INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAFE ALTITUDES FOR ORIENTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−1−1
5−1−1
5−1−1
5−1−1
5−1−2
5−1−2
Section 2. Operations
5−2−1. INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−2. FREQUENCY CHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−3. AIRCRAFT ORIENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−4. ALTITUDE CHANGE FOR IMPROVED RECEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−5. ALERTING CONTROL FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−6. VFR AIRCRAFT IN WEATHER DIFFICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−7. AIRCRAFT POSITION PLOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−8. EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT) SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−9. EXPLOSIVE CARGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−10. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION DOG HANDLER TEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−11. INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−12. NAVY FLEET SUPPORT MISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−13. COUNTRIES IN THE SPECIAL INTEREST FLIGHT PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−14. MINIMUM FUEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−15. AIRCRAFT BOMB THREATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−16. EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) . . . . . . . . . . .
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−1
5−2−2
5−2−2
5−2−2
5−2−2
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−3
5−2−5
Section 3. ADF/VOR Orientation
5−3−1.
5−3−2.
5−3−3.
5−3−4.
ACTIONS REQUIRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VOR ORIENTATION/VOR CROSS-FIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GUIDANCE TO AIRPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−3−1
5−3−1
5−3−2
5−3−4
Section 4. Global Positioning System (GPS)
5−4−1. ACTIONS REQUIRED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−2. GPS ORIENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−3. GUIDANCE TO AIRPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5−4−1
5−4−1
5−4−1
Chapter 6. Flight Data
Section 1. General
6−1−1.
6−1−2.
6−1−3.
6−1−4.
6−1−5.
6−1−6.
6−1−7.
6−1−8.
COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLIGHT PLAN DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TYPES OF DATA RECORDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS OF RECORDING DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR/VFR/DVFR FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PART-TIME FSS CLOSURE ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TELEPHONE REQUESTS FOR ATC CLEARANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−1−1
6−1−1
6−1−2
6−1−2
6−1−2
6−1−3
6−1−3
6−1−3
Section 2. Flight Plan Proposals
6−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6−2−2. OUTBOUNDS DEPARTING FROM OUTSIDE FLIGHT PLAN AREA . . . . . . . . . .
6−2−3. FLIGHT PLANS WITH AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) ROUTES IN DOMESTIC
U.S. AIRSPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−2−3
6−2−4
Section 3. IFR Flight Plan Handling
6−3−1.
6−3−2.
6−3−3.
6−3−4.
6−3−5.
6−3−6.
IFR FLIGHT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NOTIFYING ARTCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR FLIGHT PLAN CONTROL MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IFR FLIGHT PLAN CONTROL MESSAGE FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADDITIONAL MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COORDINATE RNAV ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−3−1
6−3−1
6−3−1
6−3−2
6−3−6
6−3−8
Section 4. Flight Plan Handling
6−4−1. FLIGHT PLAN ACTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−2. DEPARTURE REPORT MESSAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−3. ACKNOWLEDGING NUMBERED MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−4. FLIGHT NOTIFICATION MESSAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−5. SUSPENDING FLIGHT NOTIFICATION MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−6. ACKNOWLEDGING FLIGHT NOTIFICATION MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−7. ACTION BY ADDRESSEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−8. MAJOR FLIGHT PLAN CHANGES FROM EN ROUTE AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−9. CHANGE IN ETA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−10. FLIGHT PLAN CLOSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−11. MILITARY FLIGHTS TO/FROM U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−4−1
6−4−1
6−4−1
6−4−1
6−4−2
6−4−3
6−4−3
6−4−3
6−4−4
6−4−4
6−4−5
Section 5. Military Operations
6−5−1.
6−5−2.
6−5−3.
6−5−4.
SPECIAL MILITARY FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MILITARY FOREIGN FLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
USAF/USN UNDERGRADUATE PILOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MESSAGE HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−5−1
6−5−1
6−5−1
6−5−1
Section 6. IFR/DVFR ADIZ Flight Plans
6−6−1. AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT INFORMATION SERVICES (AMIS) WITHIN AN
ADIZ-IFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−2. AMIS WITHIN AN ADIZ-DVFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−3. FORWARDING DVFR INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−4. STOPOVER DVFR FLIGHT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−6−1
6−6−1
6−6−1
6−6−1
Section 7. Law Enforcement Messages
6−7−1. LAW ENFORCEMENT ALERT MESSAGES (LEAM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−7−2. INITIATING LEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−7−1
6−7−1
Section 8. Non−Emergency Parachute Jumping
6−8−1. COORDINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−8−2. PRE-JUMP RADIO COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−8−1
6−8−1
Section 9. SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT)
6−9−1. SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−9−2. ACTION UPON RECEIVING A SECNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
6−9−1
6−9−1
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6−9−3. CANCELING A SECNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6−9−1
Chapter 7. International Operations
Section 1. Messages and Formats
7−1−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−2. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−3. CATEGORIES OF MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−4. SERVICE MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−5. TRANSMISSION VIA NADIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−6. TRANSMISSION OF ATS MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−7. ORIGINATING MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−8. ADDRESSING MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−9. FLIGHT PLAN FORMS AND INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−10. ICAO ATS MESSAGE FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−11. FLIGHT PLAN CHANGES AND CANCELLATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−12. AIR MOBILE SERVICE (AMS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−13. AIREPS (POSITION REPORTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−14. AIREP SPECIALS (ARS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−15. ARTCC RELAY OF VFR MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−1−1
7−1−1
7−1−1
7−1−2
7−1−2
7−1−3
7−1−4
7−1−4
7−1−4
7−1−5
7−1−5
7−1−5
7−1−6
7−1−8
7−1−9
Section 2. Customs Notification and ADIZ Requirements
7−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN/CUSTOMS REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2−2. INBOUND AIRCRAFT: CUSTOMS REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2−3. INBOUND AIRCRAFT: ADIZ REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−2−1
7−2−1
7−2−2
Section 3. Alerting Service
7−3−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3−2. ALERTING PHASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3−3. ALERTING MESSAGE CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−3−1
7−3−1
7−3−1
Section 4. Canadian Movement and Control Messages (Transborder
Flights Only)
7−4−1.
7−4−2.
7−4−3.
7−4−4.
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INBOUNDS FROM CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTBOUNDS TO CANADA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTBOUNDS TO CANADA DEPARTING FROM OUTSIDE FLIGHT PLAN
AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4−5. IFR FLIGHT PLANS DEPARTING CANADIAN AIRPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4−6. SEARCH AND RESCUE MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−4−1
7−4−1
7−4−1
7−4−2
7−4−3
7−4−3
Section 5. Mexican Movement and Control Messages (Transborder
Flights Only)
7−5−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−5−2. INBOUNDS FROM MEXICO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−5−3. OUTBOUNDS TO MEXICO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7−5−1
7−5−1
7−5−1
Chapter 8. Search and Rescue (SAR) Procedures
Section 1. General
8−1−1. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SAR ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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8−1−2. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT ON FLIGHT PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−1−3. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT NOT ON FLIGHT PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−1−1
8−1−1
Section 2. Overdue Aircraft Action
8−2−1.
8−2−2.
8−2−3.
8−2−4.
COMMUNICATIONS SEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
QALQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACTION BY DEPARTURE STATION ON RECEIPT OF QALQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CANCELLATION OF THE QALQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−2−1
8−2−1
8−2−1
8−2−2
Section 3. Information Requests (INREQs)
8−3−1. INREQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−2. ACTION UPON RECEIPT OF INREQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−3. CANCELLATION OF INREQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−3−1
8−3−1
8−3−1
Section 4. Alert Notices (ALNOTs)
8−4−1.
8−4−2.
8−4−3.
8−4−4.
ALNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACTION UPON RECEIPT OF ALNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REPORTING ALNOT STATUS TO RCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CANCELLATION OF ALNOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−4−1
8−4−1
8−4−1
8−4−2
Section 5. Other SAR Actions
8−5−1. CONTACT WITH AIRCRAFT CROSSING HAZARDOUS AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−5−2. CANADIAN TRANSBORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8−5−1
8−5−1
Chapter 9. FAA Weather Services
Section 1. General
9−1−1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−2. SCHEDULED TRANSMISSION TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−3. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−1−1
9−1−1
9−1−1
Section 2. Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
9−2−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−2. PREPARATION FOR TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−3. RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−4. PIREP DISPLAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−5. SOLICITING PIREPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−6. DATA TO BE INCLUDED IN PIREPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−7. REPORTING TURBULENCE IN PIREPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−8. REPORTING ICING CONDITIONS IN PIREPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−9. MEANS USED TO SOLICIT PIREPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−10. PIREP CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−11. PIREP HANDLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−12. OFFSHORE COASTAL ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−13. PIREP PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−14. PIREP FORMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−15. PIREP ENCODING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−1
9−2−2
9−2−2
9−2−2
9−2−3
9−2−3
9−2−3
9−2−3
9−2−4
9−2−8
Section 3. Wind and Temperature Aloft Forecast (FB)
9−3−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
9−3−1
vii
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Paragraph
Page
9−3−2. LEVELS FORECAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−3−3. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−3−1
9−3−1
Section 4. Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
9−4−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−4−2. TERMINAL AERODROME FORECAST SCHEDULES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−4−1
9−4−1
Section 5. Area Forecast (FA)
9−5−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−5−3. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−5−1
9−5−1
9−5−2
Section 6. Severe Weather Forecasts
9−6−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6−2. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6−3. CONVECTIVE OUTLOOK NARRATIVE (AC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−6−1
9−6−1
9−6−1
Section 7. Flight Advisories
(SIGMET/WS−Airmet/WA−Convective SIGMET/WST)
9−7−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−7−2. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−7−1
9−7−1
Section 8. Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
9−8−1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−8−2. CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−8−3. DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9−8−1
9−8−1
9−8−1
Chapter 10. Airport Lighting and Visibility Aids
(Alaska Only)
Section 1. General
10−1−1. AIRPORT LIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−2. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−3. ROTATING BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−4. APPROACH LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−5. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM NTENSITY SETTINGS (ALS) . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−6. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS (SFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−1
10−1−7. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−2
10−1−8. CHANGING LIGHTED RUNWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−2
10−1−9. SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION . . .
10−1−2
10−1−10. MEDIUMINTENSITY APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH RUNWAY
ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHTS (MALSR)/OMNIDIRECTIONAL APPROACH
LIGHTING SYSTEM (ODALS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−2
10−1−11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS (HIRL) ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR .
10−1−3
10−1−12. MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS (MIRL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−3
10−1−13. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY, RUNWAY CENTERLINE (RCLS), AND
TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTS (TDZL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−3
10−1−14. HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−3
viii
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Paragraph
10−1−15.
10−1−16.
10−1−17.
10−1−18.
10−1−19.
10−1−20.
10−1−21.
Page
HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS (REIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAXIWAY LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATORS (VASIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISIBILITY AIDS - GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RVR/RVV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION OF LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10−1−3
10−1−3
10−1−4
10−1−4
10−1−4
10−1−5
10−1−5
Chapter 11. Interphone Communications
Section 1. General
11−1−1.
11−1−2.
11−1−3.
11−1−4.
11−1−5.
PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERPHONE TRANSMISSION PRIORITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRIORITY INTERRUPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MESSAGE INITIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MESSAGE TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11−1−1
11−1−1
11−1−1
11−1−1
11−1−2
Chapter 12. Phraseology
Section 1. General
12−1−1. PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−2. PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−3. WORDS AND PHRASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−4. ANNOUNCING MISSING ITEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−5. ICAO PHONETICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−6. RELAY OF ATC COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−7. EXPEDITIOUS COMPLIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−8. WEATHER PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−9. WEATHER REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−10. WEATHER ADVISORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−11. RADAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−12. WINDS AND TEMPERATURES ALOFT FORECAST (FB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−13. NUMBER USAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−15. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−16. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−17. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−18. AIRWAYS AND ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−19. NAVAID TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−20. NAVAID FIXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−21. RUNWAY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−1
12−1−2
12−1−2
12−1−2
12−1−6
12−1−8
12−1−9
12−1−9
12−1−9
12−1−11
12−1−12
12−1−15
12−1−15
12−1−15
12−1−16
12−1−16
12−1−16
Chapter 13. Data Communication Systems
Section 1. General
13−1−1. TYPES OF DATA ACCEPTABLE ON FAA DATA COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−2. PRIORITY MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
13−1−1
13−1−1
ix
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Paragraph
13−1−3.
13−1−4.
13−1−5.
13−1−6.
Page
GROUP CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MESSAGE FORMATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WMSCR NEGATIVE RESPONSE MESSAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Q SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13−1−1
13−1−2
13−1−3
13−1−3
Appendices
APPENDIX A. ICAO FLIGHT PLANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDIX B. FSS FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PILOT/CONTROLLER GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDEX
.................................................................
x
APPENDIX A−1
APPENDIX B−1
PCG−1
I−1
Table of Contents
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 1. General
Section 1. Introduction
1−1−1. PURPOSE OF THIS ORDER
This order prescribes procedures and phraseology for
use by air traffic personnel providing flight services.
Flight service specialists are required to be familiar
with the provisions of this order that pertain to their
operational responsibilities and to exercise their best
judgment if they encounter situations that are not
covered.
1−1−2. AUDIENCE
This order applies to all ATO personnel and anyone
using ATO directives.
1−1−3. WHERE TO FIND THIS ORDER
This order is available on the FAA Web site at
http://faa.gov/air_traffic/publications and http://em­
ployees.faa.gov/tools_resources/orders_notices/.
1−1−4. WHAT THIS ORDER CANCELS
FAA Order 7110.10W, Flight Services, dated
March 7, 2013, and all changes to it are canceled.
1−1−5. EXPLANATION OF CHANGES
The significant changes to this order are identified in
the Explanation of Changes page(s). It is advisable to
retain the page(s) throughout the duration of the basic
order. If further information is desired, direct
questions through the appropriate facility/service
area office staff to Flight Services Safety and
Operations Policy Group.
1−1−6. SUBMISSION CUTOFF AND
EFFECTIVE DATES
This order and its changes are scheduled to be
published to coincide with AIRAC dates. The
effective dates will be:
Introduction
Publication Schedule
Basic
or
Change
Cutoff Date Effective Date
for Submission of Publication
JO 7110.10X
8/22/13
4/3/14
Change 1
4/3/14
7/24/14
Change 2
7/24/14
3/5/15
Change 3
3/5/15
8/20/15
JO 7110.10Y
8/20/15
2/4/16
1−1−7. DELIVERY DATES
If an FAA facility has not received the order/changes
at least 30 days before the above effective dates, the
facility must notify its service area office distribution
officer.
1−1−8. RECOMMENDATION FOR
PROCEDURAL CHANGES
Any changes to this order must be submitted to the
VP, Mission Support Services, attn.: ATC Procedures
Office, AJV-11:
a. Personnel should submit recommended
changes in procedures to facility management.
b. Recommendations from other sources should
be submitted through appropriate FAA, military, or
industry/user channels.
c. Procedural changes will not be made to this
order until the operational system software has been
adapted to accomplish the revised procedures.
1−1−9. SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION
This publication may be purchased from the U.S.
Government Printing Office. Address subscription
inquiries to:
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
P.O. Box 979050
St. Louis, MO 63197−9000
Online: http://bookstore.gpo.gov
1−1−1
JO 7110.10X
FAA air traffic publications are also available on the
FAA’s web site at: http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/
publications/
1−1−2
4/3/14
1−1−10. DISTRIBUTION
This order is distributed to selected offices in
Washington headquarters, regional offices, service
area offices, the William J. Hughes Technical Center,
the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center, all air
traffic field facilities, international aviation field
offices, and interested aviation public.
Introduction
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Terms of Reference
1−2−1. WORD MEANINGS
As used in this order:
a. “Must” means a procedure is mandatory.
b. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
c. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is
optional.
d. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for
application of a procedure.
e. “Must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
f. Singular words include the plural.
g. Plural words include the singular.
h. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members,
or both.
i. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea
level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
j. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise
specified and means statute miles in conjunction with
visibility.
k. “Time,” when used for ATC operational
activities, is the hour and the minute/s in Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is
made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time
checks are given to the nearest quarter minute. The
word “local” or the time zone equivalent must be
stated when local time is given during radio and
telephone communications. The term “ZULU” may
be used to denote UTC.
l. “Sector,” when used in conjunction with flight
service station (FSS) functions, means a specifically
described geographic area that is assigned a National
Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN)
address.
m. “Tie−in facility,” as indicated in FAA Order
JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers, for the purposes of
this order, designates the responsible facility/sector
for sending/receiving flight plans, flight notification
messages, and performing search and rescue duties
for the listed location.
Terms of Reference
n. “Shared database” is a database within an FSS
operational system that is accessible by specialists in
other geographical locations.
o. “Transmit” means to send data via NADIN or
Weather Message Switching Center Replacement
(WMSCR) to an outside recipient or to process data
internally within an operational system that shares a
global database.
p. “Form” means a paper record or an automated
equivalent. Both must be retained in accordance with
FAA directives.
q. “History files” means one or more digital or
paper repositories of data that must be retained in
accordance with FAA directives.
r. “Pertinent” means relating directly and
significantly to the matter at hand.
1−2−2. NOTES
Statements of fact or of an explanatory nature and
relating to the use of directive material have been
identified and worded as “Notes.”
1−2−3. EXAMPLES
Any illustration used which serves to explain subject
material is identified as an “Example.”
1−2−4. PHRASEOLOGY
Phraseology depicted in this order is mandatory.
NOTE−
Exceptions to this paragraph are referenced in para 5-1-1.
Emergency Determination
1−2−5. ABBREVIAITONS
Abbreviations authorized for use in the application of
the procedures in this order are those contained in
FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions.
1−2−6. JO 7110.10 CHANGES
a. Each reprinted, revised, or additional page will
show the change number and the effective date of the
change.
b. Bold lines in the margin of the text will mark the
location of all changes except editorial corrections.
1−2−1
JO 7110.10X
1−2−7. SYSTEM INSTRUCTIONS
Different operational systems are used to provide
flight services within the United States. Each
individual operational system must have instructions
in the form of a user’s manual or guide, either
1−2−2
4/3/14
electronically or in paper form, that provide the
necessary steps to accomplish the requirements set
forth in this order.
Where databases are shared, local procedures may be
used to facilitate the handling of flight data across the
flight plan area boundaries.
Terms of Reference
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Responsibility
1−3−1. PROCEDURAL APPLICATIONS
Apply the procedures in this order, except when other
procedures are contained in a letter of agreement
(LOA) or other appropriate FAA documents,
provided they only supplement this order and any
standards they specify are not less than those in this
order.
NOTE−
1. Pilots are required to abide by applicable provisions of
14 Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) or any other
pertinent regulations regardless of the application of any
procedure in this order.
2. FAA Order JO 7210.3, Facility Operation and
Administration, contains administrative instructions
pertaining to these letters and documents.
1−3−2. DUTY PRIORITY
Because there are many variables involved, it is
impossible to provide a standard list of duty priorities
that apply to every situation. Each set of
circumstances must be evaluated on its own merit,
and when more than one action is required, personnel
must exercise their best judgment based on the facts
and circumstances known to them. Action which
appears most critical from a safety standpoint should
be performed first.
a. The following order of duty priorities is offered
as a guideline.
1. Emergency Situations. Emergency situations
are those where life or property is in immediate
danger.
2. Inflight Services. Inflight services are those
provided to or affecting aircraft in flight or otherwise
operating on the airport surface. This includes
services to airborne aircraft, airport advisories,
delivery of air traffic control (ATC) clearances,
advisories or requests, issuance of military flight
advisory messages, en route flight advisory service
(EFAS), notices to airmen (NOTAM), search and
rescue (SAR) communications searches, flight plan
handling, transcribed or live broadcasts, weather
observations, pilot weather reports (PIREP), and
pilot briefings.
3. Preflight Services. Preflight services are
those which directly affect aircraft operations but
Responsibility
which are provided prior to actual departure and
usually by telephone. These include pilot briefings,
recorded data, flight plan filing/processing, and
aircraft operational reservations.
1−3−3. DUTY FAMILIARIZATION AND
TRANSFER OF POSITION
RESPONSIBILITY
The transfer of position responsibility must be
accomplished in accordance with appropriate facility
directives each time the operational responsibility for
a position is transferred from one specialist to
another. The relieving specialist and the specialist
being relieved must share equal responsibility for the
completeness and accuracy of the position relief
briefing.
a. Purpose. This paragraph prescribes the method
and the step-by-step process for conducting a
position relief briefing and transferring position
responsibility from one specialist to another.
b. Discussion.
1. In all operational facilities, the increase in
traffic density and the need for the expeditious
movement of air traffic without compromising safety
have emphasized the importance of the position relief
process. Major problems occur whenever there is a
heavy reliance upon memory unsupported by
routines or systematic reminders. This procedure
addresses the complete task of transferring position
responsibility and the associated relief briefing.
2. Position relief unavoidably provides added
workload for specialists at the time of relief. The
intent of this procedure is to make the transfer of
position responsibility take place smoothly and to
ensure a complete transfer of information with a
minimum amount of workload. The method takes
advantage of a self-briefing concept in which the
relieving specialist obtains needed status information
by reading from the Status Information Areas to
begin the relief process. Up-to-the-minute informa­
tion relating to the provision of flight services to
pilots and aircraft in flight requires verbal exchanges
between specialists during the relief process. The
method also specifies the point when the transfer of
position responsibility occurs.
1−3−1
JO 7110.10X
3. In the final part of the relief process, the
specialist being relieved monitors and reviews the
position to ensure that nothing has been overlooked
or incorrectly displayed and that the transfer of
position responsibility occurred with a complete
briefing.
c. Terms. The following terms are important for a
complete understanding of this procedure:
1. Status Information Areas. Manual or
automated displays of the current status of
position−related equipment and operational
conditions or procedures.
2. Written Notes. Manually recorded items of
information kept at designated locations on the
positions of operation are elements of Status
Information Areas.
3. Checklist. An ordered listing of items to be
covered in a position relief briefing.
d. Precautions.
1. Specialists involved in the position relief
process should not rush or be influenced to rush.
2. During position operation, each item of status
information which is or may be an operational factor
for the relieving specialist should be recorded as soon
as it is operationally feasible so that it will not be
forgotten or incorrectly recorded.
3. Extra care should be taken when more than
one specialist relieves or is being relieved from a
position at the same time; for example, combining or
decombining positions.
e. Responsibilities. The specialist being relieved
must be responsible for ensuring that any pertinent
status information of which he/she is aware is relayed
to the relieving specialist and is either:
1. Accurately displayed in the Status
Information Areas for which he/she has
responsibility, or
2. Relayed to the position having responsibility
for accurately displaying the status information. Prior
to accepting responsibility for a position, the
relieving specialist must be responsible for ensuring
that any unresolved questions pertaining to the
operation of the position are resolved. The specialists
engaged in a position relief must conduct the relief
process at the position being relieved, unless other
1−3−2
4/3/14
procedures have been established and authorized by
the facility air traffic manager.
f. Step−By−Step Process of Position Relief.
1. Preview of the Position
RELIEVING SPECIALIST
(a) Follow the checklist and review the Status
Information Areas.
NOTE−
This substep may be replaced by an authorized preduty
briefing provided an equivalent review of checklist items
is accomplished.
(b) Observe position equipment, operational
situation, and the work environment.
(c) Listen to voice communications and
observe other operational actions.
(d) Observe current and pending aircraft and
vehicular traffic and correlate with flight and other
movement information.
(e) Indicate to the specialist being relieved
that the position has been previewed and that the
verbal briefing may begin.
NOTE−
Substeps (b), (c), and (d) may be conducted concurrently
or in order.
2. Verbal Briefing
SPECIALIST BEING RELIEVED
(a) Review with the relieving specialist the
checklist, Status Information Areas, written notes,
and other prescribed sources of information, and
advise of known omissions, updates, and inac­
curacies. Also, brief the relieving specialist on the
abnormal status of items not listed on the Status
Information Areas, as well as on any items of special
operational interest calling for verbal explanation or
additional discussion.
(b) Brief on traffic, if applicable.
(c) Completely answer any questions asked.
(d) Observe overall position operation. If
assistance is needed, provide or summon it as
appropriate.
(e) Sign off the position in accordance with
existing directives or otherwise indicate that the relief
process is complete.
Responsibility
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2­2­4, Duty Familiarization and the Transfer of
Position Responsibility
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2­2­6, Sign In/Out and On/Off Procedures
RELIEVING SPECIALIST
(f) Ask questions necessary to ensure a
complete understanding of the operations situation.
Responsibility
(g) Make a statement or otherwise indicate to
the specialist being relieved that position responsibil­
ity has been assumed.
(h) Sign on the position unless a facility
directive authorizes substep (g) above.
(i) Check, verify, and update the information
obtained in steps 1 and 2.
g. Check position equipment in accordance with
existing directives.
1−3−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 2. Broadcast Procedures
Section 1. General
2−1−1. TYPES OF BROADCASTS
Weather and flight information must be broadcast/
recorded by one or more of the following categories:
a. Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB).
(Alaska only.)
b. Telephone Information Briefing Service
(TIBS).
c. Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service
(HIWAS).
d. Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS).
(Alaska only.)
2−1−2. SPEECH RATE AND
PHRASEOLOGY
a. Data must be spoken such that:
1. The speech rate is not excessive,
2. The enunciation is of the highest quality, and;
3. Each part of the message is easily understood.
b. Standardized procedures and phraseology to be
used by FSS personnel and automated equipment are
to be conducted in accordance with Chapter 12,
Phraseology.
2−1−3. REDUCING RECORDED WEATHER
INFORMATION SERVICES
Recorded weather information services (TWEB and
TIBS) may be reduced during the hours of 1800-0600
local time only. Adjust full broadcast service times to
General
coincide with daylight hours. When a broadcast
period is reduced, record the time the broadcast will
be resumed, and advise users to contact flight service
for weather briefings and other services.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THE TIBS RECORDING IS SUSPENDED. REGULAR
RECORDED WEATHER SERVICE WILL BE RESUMED
AT (time) ZULU/ (time) LOCAL. FOR PILOT WEATHER
BRIEFINGS AND OTHER SERVICES, CONTACT
FLIGHT SERVICE (phone number or additional
telephone instructions, as appropriate).
THE TWEB RECORDING IS SUSPENDED. REGULAR
RECORDED WEATHER SERVICE WILL BE RESUMED
AT (time) ZULU/ (time) LOCAL. FOR PILOT WEATHER
BRIEFING AND OTHER SERVICES CONTACT
FLIGHT SERVICE (frequency or phone number, as
appropriate).
2−1−4. CURRENT DATA
An aviation surface report is considered current for 1
hour beyond the standard time of observation (H+00)
unless superseded by a special or local observation or
by the next hourly report. Do not broadcast obsolete
data.
2−1−5. AUTOMATED BROADCAST
Most broadcasts are automated products that are
available 24 hours a day. The products must adhere
to the requirements of this chapter. Specialists are
responsible for monitoring the product for accuracy,
speech rate, and proper enunciation before it is
transmitted.
2−1−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB)
(Alaska Only)
2−2−1. GENERAL
a. Transcribed weather broadcast service provides
continuous aeronautical and meteorological
information on low or medium frequency (L/MF) and
very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR)
facilities.
b. At TWEB equipment locations controlling two
or more VORs, the one used least for ground−to−air
communications, preferably the nearest VOR, may
be used as a TWEB outlet simultaneously with the
nondirectional radio beacon (NDB) facility. Where
this is accomplished, capability to manually override
the broadcast must be provided for emergency
communications.
2−2−2. CONTENT
The sequence, source, and content of transcribed
broadcast material must be:
a. Introduction. State the location and prepara­
tion time.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(location) TRANSCRIBED AVIATION WEATHER
BROADCAST PREPARED AT (time) ZULU.
b. Adverse Conditions. Extracted from convect­
ive significant meteorological information (SIG­
MET) (WST), SIGMET (WS), Airmen’s
Meteorological Information (AIRMET), AIRMET
(WA), Center Weather Advisory (CWA), and Alert
Weather Watch (AWW).
PHRASEOLOGY−
WEATHER ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT FOR
(adverse conditions) OVER (geographical area) (list
weather advisories only, no text).
c. Synopsis. A brief statement describing the type,
location, and movement of weather systems and/or
masses which might affect the route or the area.
d. Terminal Forecasts. Include the valid time of
forecast.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TERMINAL FORECAST FOR (location) VALID UNTIL
(time) ZULU.
Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB) (Alaska Only)
e. Winds Aloft Forecast. Broadcast winds aloft
forecast for the location nearest to the TWEB. The
broadcast should include the levels from 3,000 to
12,000 feet but must always include at least two
forecast levels above the surface.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WINDS ALOFT FORECAST VALID UNTIL (time) ZULU.
(Location) (Altitude) (direction) AT (speed).
f. Surface Weather Reports. Record surface
reports as described in paragraph 12-1-8, Weather
Phraseology.
1. Broadcast local reports first, then broadcast
the remainder of the reports beginning with the first
station east of true north and continuing clockwise
around the TWEB location.
2. Announce the location name of a surface
report once.
(a) Surface weather broadcast introduction:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location name) AVIATION WEATHER, (4 digits of
time), ZULU OBSERVATIONS.
(b) Special weather reports:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location name) SPECIAL REPORT (last 2 digits of time)
OBSERVATION, (weather report).
g. Density Altitude. Include temperature and the
statement “Check Density Altitude” as part of the
surface weather broadcast for any station with a field
elevation of 2,000 feet MSL or above that meets the
following criteria: (See TBL 2−2−1.)
TBL 2−2−1
Density Altitude
Field Elevation
2,000−2,999
3,000−3,999
4,000−4,999
5,000−5,999
6,000−6,999
7,000−higher
Temperature (C)
29 degrees or higher
27 degrees or higher
24 degrees or higher
21 degrees or higher
18 degrees or higher
16 degrees or higher
h. PILOT WEATHER REPORTS
Summarize PIREPs and, if the weather conditions
meet solicitation requirements, append a request for
PIREPs.
2−2−1
JO 7110.10X
PHRASEOLOGY−
PILOT REPORT OF WEATHER CONDITIONS AT (text).
i. Alert Notice (ALNOT) Alert Announcement,
if applicable.
PHRASEOLOGY−
OVERDUE AIRCRAFT ALERT, (time) ZULU (aircraft
identification), (color), (type), DEPARTED (airport) VIA
(route), (destination). LAST KNOWN POSITION (state
last known position). THIS AIRCRAFT IS OVERDUE.
ALL AIRCRAFT ARE REQUESTED TO MONITOR ONE
TWO ONE POINT FIVE FOR E−L−T SIGNAL. INFORM
THE NEAREST F−A−A FACILITY OF ANY
INFORMATION REGARDING THIS AIRCRAFT.
j. Closing statement.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PILOT WEATHER REPORTS ARE REQUESTED. FOR
NOTAM, MILITARY TRAINING ACTIVITY, OR OTHER
SERVICES, CONTACT A FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.
2−2−3. TESTING TWEB EQUIPMENT
When TWEB equipment is to be tested, broadcast an
advisory to this effect. Ensure no obsolete
information is broadcast during a testing period.
2−2−4. SERVICE MAY BE SUSPENDED
TWEB service may be suspended:
2−2−2
4/3/14
a. For routine maintenance only during periods
when weather conditions within 100 miles of the
broadcast outlet are equal to or better than a ceiling
of 3,000 feet and visibility of 5 miles.
b. When the equipment fails. If a malfunction
occurs in the recording or control unit but the tape
transport unit remains operative, continue broadcast­
ing current data. Remove data as it becomes obsolete.
2−2−5. MONITORING
a. At TWEB equipment locations, listen to at least
one complete TWEB cycle each hour. Check for
completeness, accuracy, speech rate, and proper
enunciation. Correct any noted irregularities.
b. If practical:
1. The control facility must monitor the
transmissions through local outlet.
2. The FSS associated with a remote outlet must
monitor the transmissions for a sufficient period each
hour to assure voice quality and clarity.
c. Promptly correct or inform the TWEB facility
of any irregularities.
Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB) (Alaska Only)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Telephone Information Briefing Service
(TIBS)
2−3−1. GENERAL
a. TIBS provides a continuous telephone
recording of meteorological and/or aeronautical
information.
1. TIBS must contain:
(a) Area and/or route briefings.
(b) Airspace procedures, if applicable.
(c) Special announcements, if applicable.
to:
2. TIBS should also contain, but not be limited
may be configured to meet the individual facility’s
needs; for example, 50 NM radius, route oriented.
NOTE−
For the purpose of TIBS broadcasts, an area briefing may
be a geographic location not defined by a nautical mile
radius, for example, NORTHWEST NEBRASKA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THIS RECORDING PREPARED AT (time) LOCAL or
(time) ZULU. BRIEFING SUMMARY FOR: A (number of
miles) NAUTICAL MILE RADIUS OF (location),
or (location not defined by nautical mile radius),
or THE ROUTE FROM (location) TO (location).
(a) Surface observations (METAR).
(b) Terminal forecasts (TAF).
(c) Winds/temperatures aloft forecasts.
NOTE−
User needs should dictate the content of these recordings.
b. Each FSS sector/flight plan area must provide
at least four route and/or area weather briefings. As
a minimum, area briefings should encompass a 50
NM radius. Each briefing should require the pilot to
access no more than two channels which must be
route and/or area specific.
c. Separate channels must be designated for each
route area, local meteorological/aeronautical
information, special event, airspace procedures, etc.
EXAMPLE−
11 Northeast Michigan
12 Southeast Michigan
13 Southwest Michigan
14 Northwest Michigan including the Upper Peninsula
19 Aviation Events
2−3−2. AREA/ROUTE BRIEFING
PROCEDURES
b. Weather Advisories. Include WST, WS, WA,
CWA, AWW, urgent PIREP (UUA), and any other
available meteorological information that may
adversely affect flight in the route/area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WEATHER ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT FOR
(adverse conditions) OVER (geographic area) (text).
c. VFR Not Recommended (VNR) Statement.
Include this recommendation when current or
forecast conditions, surface or aloft, would make
flight under visual flight rules doubtful.
PHRASEOLOGY−
V−F−RFLIGHT NOT RECOMMENDED (location) DUE
TO (conditions).
d. Synopsis. A brief statement describing the
type, location, and movement of weather systems
and/or masses which might affect the route or the
area. This element may be combined with adverse
conditions and/or the VNR element, in any order,
when it will help to more clearly describe conditions.
e. Current Conditions. Include current weather
conditions over the route/area and PIREPs on
conditions reported aloft.
Service is provided 24 hours a day, but may be
reduced in accordance with paragraph 2−1−3.
Recorded information must be updated as conditions
change.
NOTE−
When communicating weather information on the TIBS
broadcast or telephone, specialists may announce cloud
heights in either group form or in hundreds or thousands
of feet, such as, “seventeen-thousand” or “one-seven-thousand.”
a. Introduction. State the preparation time and
the route and/or the area of coverage. The service area
f. Density Altitude. Include the statement “Check
Density Altitude” as part of the surface weather
Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)
2−3−1
JO 7110.10X
broadcast for any weather reporting point with a field
elevation of 2,000 feet MSL or above that reaches the
criteria found in TBL 2−2−1.
g. En Route Forecast. Include forecast informa­
tion from appropriate data; for example, area forecast
(FA) synopsis, terminal aerodrome forecast (TAFs),
and weather advisories.
h. Winds Aloft. Include winds aloft as forecast for
the route/area as interpolated from forecast data for
the local and/or the adjacent reporting locations for
levels through 12,000 feet. The broadcast should
include the levels from 3,000 to 12,000 feet, but must
always include at least two forecast levels above the
surface.
i. Request for PIREPs. When weather conditions
within the area or along the route meet requirements
for soliciting PIREPs (paragraph 9-2-5), include a
request in the recording.
2−3−2
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
PILOT WEATHER REPORTS ARE REQUESTED.
CONTACT FLIGHT WATCH or FLIGHT SERVICE, as
appropriate.
j. Closing Announcement. The closing
announcement must provide instructions for
contacting a pilot briefer for NOTAMs, military
training activity, or other information.
2−3−3. MONITORING
a. Manually prepared recordings must be
monitored immediately after recording to insure
accuracy of data and availability by calling
1−800−WX−BRIEF.
b. Automated
TIBS
products
and
non-meteorological recordings must be monitored
once each shift to ensure clarity and accuracy.
Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service
(HIWAS)
2−4−1. GENERAL
a. Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service
(HIWAS), available in the 48 contiguous states and
the District of Columbia, is a continuous broadcast of
inflight weather advisories including AWWs, WSs,
WSTs, CWAs, WAs, and UUAs.
b. HIWAS broadcast areas are defined as the area
within 150 NM of a HIWAS outlet.
2−4−2. PRIORITY
HIWAS broadcasts must not be interrupted/delayed
except for emergency situations, when an aircraft
requires immediate attention, or for reasonable use of
the voice override capability on specific HIWAS
outlets in order to use the limited Remote
Communication Outlet (RCO) to maintain en route
communications. The service must be provided 24
hours a day.
a. Make the following announcement if there are
no hazardous weather advisories in the HIWAS
broadcast area. Update the announcement at least
every 2 hours.
PHRASEOLOGY−
THIS RECORDING PREPARED AT (time) ZULU.
THERE ARE NO HAZARDOUS WEATHER
ADVISORIES WITHIN A ONE-FIVE-ZERO NAUTICAL
MILE RADIUS OF THIS HIWAS OUTLET.
b. Complete the update recording as soon as
practical, but not more than 15 minutes from time of
receipt of new hazardous weather information.
2−4−3. CONTENT
Record hazardous weather information occurring
within the HIWAS broadcast area. The broadcast
must include the following elements:
a. Statement of introduction including the
appropriate area(s) and a recording time.
PHRASEOLOGY−
HIWAS WITHIN A ONE−FIVE−ZERO NAUTICAL MILE
RADIUS OF (geographic area) RECORDED AT (time)
ZULU (text).
Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
NOTE−
Border facilities must append “in domestic U.S.
airspace” to the geographical area text in the
introduction statement.
b. Statement of hazardous weather, including
WSTs, WSs, WAs, UUAs, AWWs, and CWAs.
c. Request for PIREPs, if applicable. (See
paragraph 9−2−5, Soliciting PIREPs.)
PHRASEOLOGY−
PILOT WEATHER REPORTS ARE REQUESTED.
d. Recommendation to contact Flight Watch or
Flight Service for additional details concerning
hazardous weather.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT FLIGHT WATCH or FLIGHT SERVICE, as
appropriate , FOR ADDITIONAL DETAILS.
2−4−4. BROADCAST PROCEDURES
a. Upon receipt of new hazardous weather
information:
1. Update the HIWAS broadcast.
2. Make a HIWAS update announcement once
on all communications/navigational aid (NAVAID)
frequencies except on emergency, EFAS, and
navigational frequencies already dedicated to
continuous broadcast services. Delete reference to
Flight Watch when those services are closed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT, HAZARDOUS WEATHER
ADVISORY UPDATE FOR (geographical area) IS
AVAILABLE ON HIWAS, OR CONTACT FLIGHT
WATCH, or FLIGHT SERVICE, as appropriate.
b. In the event that a HIWAS broadcast area is out
of service, make the following announcement on all
communications/NAVAID frequencies except on
emergency, EFAS, and navigational frequencies
already dedicated to continuous broadcast services:
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT, HAZARDOUS WEATHER
ADVISORY UPDATE IS AVAILABLE FROM FLIGHT
WATCH or FLIGHT SERVICE, as appropriate.
NOTE−
Simultaneous announcements may cause heterodyne
problems on multiple outlets having the same frequency
2−4−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
and interference over close outlets with known problems.
Announcements may have to be rebroadcast to insure
compliance.
2−4−5. SUSPENSION
HIWAS broadcasts must not be suspended for routine
maintenance during periods when weather advisories
have been issued for the HIWAS outlet area.
2−4−2
Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
(Alaska Only)
2−5−1. AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION
SERVICE (AFIS)
Use the AFIS to provide advance non-control airport,
meteorological, and pertinent NOTAM information
to aircraft. Specialists must provide local airport
advisory (LAA) information when the AFIS is not
available.
NOTE−
Use of the AFIS by pilots is not mandatory, but pilots who
use two-way radio communication with the FSS are urged
to use the service.
a. Begin each new AFIS message with the
airport/facility name and a phonetic alphabet letter.
The phonetic alphabet letter must also be spoken at
the end of the message and be used sequentially,
beginning with “Alfa,” ending with “Zulu.”
Full-time facilities must repeat the letter without
regard to the beginning of a new day. Part−time
facilities must identify the first resumed broadcast
message with “Alfa.”
b. The AFIS recording must be reviewed for
completeness, accuracy, speech rate, and proper
enunciation before being transmitted.
c. Maintain an AFIS message that reflects the
most current local airport information.
1. Make a new AFIS recording when any of the
following occur:
(a) Upon receipt of any new official weather,
regardless of any change in values.
(b) When runway braking action reports are
received that indicate runway braking is worse than
that which was included in the current AFIS
broadcast.
(c) When there is a change in any other
pertinent data for the airport or surrounding area, such
as change in favored runway, new or canceled
NOTAMs, WAs, WSs, CWAs, PIREPs, or other
information that facilitates the repetitive
transmission of essential but routine information.
Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
2. Omit rapidly changing data. When this
occurs, the AFIS must contain a statement advising
pilots whom to contact for the omitted data.
EXAMPLE−
“For latest ceiling/visibility/altimeter/wind/(other conditions) contact (facility and frequency).”
3. Broadcast, on the LAA frequency, the new
airport AFIS phonetic alphabet identifier after each
new recording.
4. After establishing two­way radio communic­
ation, if the pilot does not state that he/she has the
current AFIS code, the specialist must either:
(a) Use LAA procedures to issue pertinent
AFIS information, or
(b) Advise the pilot to return to the AFIS
frequency.
5. AFIS broadcasts may be suspended within
specified time periods. During these periods, the
AFIS must contain a brief statement that the AFIS is
suspended for the specified time and pilots should
contact the FSS for LAA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Airport name) FLIGHT INFORMATION BROADCASTS
ARE SUSPENDED UNTIL (time). CONTACT (facility
name) RADIO ON (frequency) FOR AIRPORT
INFORMATION.
6. Part-time and seasonal facilities must record
a message with the appropriate frequency and facility
contact information as well as known information
regarding resumption of LAA.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Name of FSS) HOURS OF OPERATION ARE (time)
LOCAL TIME TO (time) LOCAL TIME. THE COMMON
TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY IS (frequency).
PILOT CONTROLLED LIGHTING IS AVAILABLE ON
(frequency). FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
CONTACT (name of FSS) ON (frequency).
(Name of FSS) IS CLOSED FOR THE WINTER SEASON.
THE COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY IS
(frequency). PILOT CONTROLLED LIGHTING IS
AVAILABLE ON (frequency). FOR ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION CONTACT (name of FSS) ON
(frequency).
2−5−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
7. Use the following format and include the
following in AFIS broadcast as appropriate:
(a) (Airport/facility
information.
name)
airport
(b) Phonetic alphabet designator.
(c) Special routing procedures in effect (when
appropriate for the Ketchikan (KTN) area).
(d) Time of the AFIS preparation (UTC)
followed by the word, “ZULU.”
(e) Include the current weather observation
and other pertinent remarks. The ceiling/sky
conditions, visibility, and obstruction to vision
maybe omitted if the ceiling is above 5,000 and the
visibility is more than 5 miles.
EXAMPLE−
“The weather is better than five thousand and five.”
(f) Favored runway and additional local
information, as required.
(g) NOTAMs concerning local NAVAIDs and
field conditions pertinent to flight.
EXAMPLE−
“Notice to Airmen, Iliamna NDB out of service.”
“Transcribed weather broadcast out of service.”
(h) Runway braking action or friction reports
when provided. Include the time of the report and a
word describing the cause of the runway friction
problem.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RUNWAY (number) MU (first value, second value, third
value) AT (time), (cause).
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 4­4­3, Airport Advisory/RAIS Elements and
Phraseology.
(i) Low-level wind shear (LLWS) advisory,
including those contained in the terminal aerodrome
forecast (TAF)and in PIREPs. (Include PIREP
information at least 20 minutes following the report).
EXAMPLE−
“Low level wind shear is forecast.”
(j) Unauthorized Laser Illumination Events.
When a laser event is reported, include reported
unauthorized laser illumination events on the AFIS
broadcast for one hour following the last report.
Include the time, location, altitude, color, and
direction of the laser as reported by the pilot.
2−5−2
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNAUTHORIZED LASER ILLUMINATION EVENT,
(UTC time), (location), (altitude), (color), (direction).
EXAMPLE−
“Unauthorized laser illumination event at zero one zero
zero Zulu, eight-mile final runway one eight at three
thousand feet, green laser from the southwest.”
(k) Man-Portable Air Defense Systems
(MANPADS) alert and advisory. Specify the nature
and location of threat or incident, whether reported or
observed and by whom, time (if known), and
notification to pilots to advise ATC if they need to
divert.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MANPADS ALERT. EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION.
MANPADS THREAT/ATTACK/POST-EVENT ACTIVITY
OBSERVED/REPORTED BY (reporting agency)
(location) AT (time, if known). (When transmitting to an
individual aircraft) ADVISE ON INITIAL CONTACT IF
YOU WANT TO DIVERT.
EXAMPLE−
“MANPADS alert. Exercise extreme caution. MANPADS
threat reported by TSA, Anchorage area. Advise on initial
contact if you want to divert.”
“MANPADS alert. Exercise extreme caution. MANPADS
attack observed by flight service station one-half mile
northwest of airfield at one-two-five-zero Zulu. Advise on
initial contact if you want to divert.”
NOTE−
1. Upon receiving or observing an unauthorized
MANPADS alert/advisory, contact the Alaska Flight
Service Information Area Group(AFSIAG) through the
Alaskan Region Regional Operations Center (ROC).
2. Continue broadcasting the MANPADS alert/advisory
until advised by national headquarters the threat is no
longer present. Coordination may be through the AFSIAG
or the Alaskan ROC.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2-1-9, Handling MANPADS Incidents.
(l) Any other advisories applicable to the area
covered by the LAA.
(m) Local frequency advisory.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (facility name) RADIO ON (frequency) FOR
TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.
(n) Instructions for the pilot to acknowledge
receipt of the AFIS message on initial contact.
EXAMPLE−
“Dillingham airport information ALFA. One six five five
Zulu. Wind one three zero at eight; visibility one five;
Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
4/3/14
ceiling four thousand overcast; temperature four, dew
point three; altimeter two niner niner zero. Favored
runway one niner. Notice to Airmen, Dillingham V-O-R
out of service. Contact Dillingham Radio on one two
three point six for traffic advisories. Advise on initial
contact you have ALFA.”
“Kotzebue information ALFA. One six five five Zulu.
Wind, two one zero at five; visibility two, fog; ceiling one
hundred overcast; temperature minus one two, dew point
Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
JO 7110.10X
minus one four; altimeter three one zero five. Altimeter in
excess of three one zero zero, high pressure altimeter
setting procedures are in effect. Favored runway two six.
Weather in Kotzebue surface area is below V-F-R minima
- an ATC clearance is required. Notice to Airmen, Hotham
NDB out of service. Contact Kotzebue Radio on one two
three point six for traffic advisories and advise intentions.
Transcribed Weather Broadcast out of service. Advise on
initial contact you have ALFA.”
2−5−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 3. Pilot Briefing
Section 1. General
3−1−1. DEFINITION
3−1−4. WEATHER DISPLAY PRODUCTS
Pilot briefings are the translation of weather
observations and forecasts, including surface, upper
air, radar, satellite, and PIREPs into a form directly
usable by the pilot or flight supervisory personnel to
formulate plans and make decisions for the safe and
efficient operation of aircraft. These briefings must
also include information on NOTAM, flow control,
and other items as requested.
a. The weather graphic display should include, but
not necessarily be limited to, the following analysis,
prognosis, and data products:
3−1−2. PRE-DUTY REQUIREMENTS
Before assuming pilot briefing duties, familiarize
yourself sufficiently with aeronautical and
meteorological conditions to effectively provide
briefing service. This includes:
1. Weather Depiction.
2. Surface Analysis.
3. Forecast Winds Aloft.
4. Freezing Level Graphic.
5. G-AIRMET Graphic.
6. 12- and 24-hour Low Level Significant
Weather Prognosis.
7. 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-hour Surface Prognosis.
a. General locations of weather-causing systems
and general weather conditions.
8. High Level Significant Weather Prognosis.
b. Detailed information of current and forecast
weather conditions for the geographical area(s) of
responsibility.
10. *Forecast Icing Product (FIP).
c. Aeronautical information; for example, NOT­
AM, special use airspace (SUA), temporary flight
restrictions (TFR), ATC delays, etc.
REFERENCE−
Pertinent facility directives
3−1−3. PREFLIGHT BRIEFING DISPLAY
Provide a preflight briefing display for specialist/pi­
lot use. The contents and method of display must be
based on individual facility requirements; for
example, available equipment and space. Additional
displays, as required, must be provided to ensure
availability of information at all positions. At the
discretion of facility management, provide a separate
display for pilot use. All material in such displays
must be current.
General
9. *Current Icing Product (CIP).
11. *Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG).
12. National/Regional Radar Mosaics.
13. Radar Echo Tops.
14. Radar VAD Wind Profiles.
15. Visible/IR Satellite Imagery.
16. Constant Pressure Charts.
NOTE−
*Denotes weather products that are supplementary. They
may only be used to enhance situational awareness. When
discrepancies are noted, the specialist must base their
decision on the primary weather product.
b. Map features. (See FIG 3-1-1.)
c. Precipitation and obstruction to vision. (See
FIG 3-1-2.)
3−1−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
FIG 3−1−1
Map Features Chart
d. Interpret and summarize weather radar displays
as appropriate.
1. Use all available radar data and PIREPs to
determine intensity, tops, area of coverage, move­
ment, etc.
REFERENCE−
Pilot Controller Glossary (P/CG) Term, Precipitation Radar Weather
Descriptions
2. Identify data obtained from sources other
than radar display by source and time of observation.
3. Define area of coverage in relation to VORs,
airways for the route structure being flown, airports
or geographic points to assist the pilot in relating
coverage to route of flight or destination.
EXAMPLE−
”A broken line of light to heavy echoes covers an area
along and three zero miles east of a line from the Crazy
Woman V−O−R to the Riverton V-O-R. Average tops
between two-six thousand and three-four thousand. This
line is increasing in intensity. Movement has been from
northwest to southeast at three zero knots. The line
includes an extreme echo one five miles in diameter on
Victor Two Ninety-eight forty-eight miles southeast of the
Worland V-O-R, tops four three thousand. There are no
known echoes within three-zero nautical miles of Victor
Eight-five or Victor Two Ninety-eight south at this time.”
3−1−5. FORECASTS, WARNINGS, AND
ADVISORIES
FIG 3−1−2
Precipitation and Obstruction To Vision Chart
3−1−2
a. Use only weather forecasts, warnings, and
advisories issued by a National Weather Service
(NWS) office, including Center Weather Service
General
4/3/14
Units (CWSUs), the U.S. military, foreign govern­
ments, or graphics systems owned/leased by the FAA
or provided through a FAA−contracted service
provider.
b. Use the OUTLOOK section of WSTs to provide
information on where convective activity is
expected. Use the Convective Outlooks (ACUS01
KWNS) to extract pertinent forecast information
regarding the convective activity.
JO 7110.10X
b. Operational systems must, as a minimum,
automatically record the facility/sector, date,
position, time, and specialist identification for each
logged briefing. In addition, enter the following
information:
1. Departure and destination.
2. Aircraft identification. (The pilot’s name may
be substituted for the aircraft identification, if
unknown.)
c. When an NWS forecast requires an amendment
or correction, request assistance from the appropriate
NWS office.
3. Remarks, as applicable, to indicate OTLK
(outlook briefing), AB (abbreviated briefing), and/or
VNR.
3−1−6. UNAVAILABILITY OF DATA
c. To manually log pilot briefings, use one of the
following FAA forms:
Use all available means to obtain the data required to
brief pilots. If a complete briefing cannot be provided
due to circuit problems or missing data, inform the
pilot of this fact. Brief to the extent possible. Advise
the pilot of the time you expect the data to be
available.
3−1−7. TYPE OF BRIEFING TO BE
CONDUCTED
Provide the pilot with the type of briefing requested
(standard, abbreviated, or outlook). When it is not
clear initially which type briefing is desired, provide
the first one or two items requested, and then
ascertain if the pilot would like a standard briefing. If
a standard briefing is requested, conduct the briefing
in accordance with para 3−2-1. If the pilot does not
desire a standard briefing, provide either an
abbreviated briefing in accordance with
paragraph 3-2-2 or an outlook briefing in accordance
with paragraph 3-2-3.
3−1−8. LOGGING PILOT BRIEFINGS
a. Pilot briefings must be logged and retained in
accordance with FAA Order 1350.15, Records
Organization, Transfer, and Destruction Standards.
Briefings must be logged in operational systems
when possible but may be logged manually if needed
for operational efficiency.
General
1. FAA Form 7233-2, Pilot Briefing Log. Use a
separate form each day. Two or more forms may be
used simultaneously at different operating positions.
Complete boxes 1 through 3 on each form. Enter
appropriate data in columns 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (if pertinent),
and 9. If the pilot’s name is known, it may be
substituted for the aircraft identification. As
applicable, enter OTLK (outlook briefing), AB
(abbreviated briefing), and/or VNR in column 8.
2. FAA Form 7233-1, Flight Plan Form. Check
the “pilot briefing” block, fill in specialist’s initials,
and note the time started. As applicable, also enter
AB, OTLK, and/or check the VNR block.
3. FAA Forms 7233-5, Inflight Contact Record,
or 7230-21, Flight Progress Strip. Enter PB in block
14 if a briefing is provided. As applicable, also enter
AB, OTLK, and/or VNR in the same block.
NOTE−
See Appendix B for FAA forms.
d. Where audio recorders are used, facility
management may limit entries on pilot briefing
records to those required for facility use.
e. Where fast-file recorders are used and the pilot
states the source of a briefing on the recorder, it must
be entered in the remarks field of the flight plan.
EXAMPLE−
PB/DCA
PB/DUATS
3−1−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Preflight Pilot Briefing
3−2−1. CONDUCT OF STANDARD
BRIEFING
AWW) must be given by stating the type of advisory
followed by the pertinent information.
a. Brief by translating, interpreting, and
summarizing available data for the intended flight.
Do not read individual weather reports or forecasts
unless, in your judgment, it is necessary to emphasize
an important point or unless specifically requested to
do so by the pilot. Obtain the following information
if it is pertinent and not evident or already known:
EXAMPLE−
“An AIRMET is in effect until 1400Z for moderate
turbulence below 10,000 feet over the mountainous area
of southern California.”
“Palmer airport closed”
NOTE−
NOTAMs in this category may be provided with NOTAMs
listed in subparagraph c8.
1. Type of flight planned.
2. Aircraft identification or pilot’s name.
3. Aircraft type.
4. Departure point.
5. Route of flight.
6. Destination.
7. Flight altitude(s).
8. Estimated time of departure (ETD) and
estimated time en route (ETE).
b. The specialist must issue the following
cautionary advisory to a pilot planning a flight
outside of United States controlled airspace, unless
the pilot advises they have the international
cautionary advisory.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHECK DATA AS SOON AS PRACTICAL AFTER
ENTERING FOREIGN AIRSPACE, AS OUR
INTERNATIONAL DATA MAY BE INACCURATE OR
INCOMPLETE.
c. Using all sources of weather and aeronautical
information, provide the following data when it is
applicable to the proposed flight. Provide the
information in subparagraphs c1 through c8 in the
sequence listed except as noted.
1. Adverse Conditions. Include this element
when meteorological or aeronautical conditions are
reported or forecast that might influence the pilot to
alter the proposed flight. Emphasize conditions that
are particularly significant, such as low level wind
shear, thunderstorms, reported icing, frontal zones
along the route of flight, NOTAMs; for example,
airport/runway closures, air traffic delays, TFRs etc.
Weather advisories (WS, WA, WST, CWA, and
Preflight Pilot Briefing
2. VFR Flight Not Recommended (VNR).
Include this statement when VFR flight is proposed
and sky conditions or visibilities are present or
forecast, surface or aloft, that in your judgment would
make flight under visual flight rules doubtful.
Describe the conditions, affected locations, and
times.
PHRASEOLOGY−
VFR FLIGHT NOT RECOMMENDED
EXAMPLE−
‘‘There are broken clouds along the entire route between
niner and one one thousand feet. With the approach of a
cold front, these clouds are forecast to become overcast
and to lower to below seven thousand with mountains and
passes becoming obscured. V-F-R flight not recommended
between Salt Lake City and Grand Junction after two two
zero zero ZULU.”
‘‘V-F-R flight not recommended in the Seattle area until
early afternoon. The current weather at Seattle is
indefinite ceiling three hundred, visibility one, mist, and
little improvement is expected before one eight zero zero
ZULU.”
NOTE−
This recommendation is advisory in nature. The decision
as to whether the flight can be conducted safely rests
solely with the pilot.
3. Synopsis. Provide a brief statement describ­
ing the type, location, and movement of weather
systems and/or air masses which might affect the
proposed flight. This element may be combined with
adverse conditions and/or the VNR element, in any
order, when it will help to more clearly describe
conditions.
4. Current Conditions. Summarize from all
available sources reported weather conditions
applicable to the flight. This element may be omitted
if the proposed time of departure is beyond 2 hours,
unless the information is requested by the pilot. If
3−2−1
JO 7110.10X
AUTO appears after the date/time element and is
presented as a singular report, follow the location
with the word “AUTOMATED.”
5. En Route Forecast. Summarize forecast
information that will affect the proposed flight; for
example, area forecasts, TAFs, prognosis charts,
weather advisories, etc. Provide the information in a
logical order; for example, climb out, enroute, and
descent.
6. Destination Forecast. Provide the destina­
tion forecast including significant changes expected
within 1 hour before and after the estimated time of
arrival (ETA).
7. Winds Aloft. Provide forecast winds aloft for
the flight using degrees of the compass. Interpolate
wind directions and speeds between levels and
stations as necessary. Provide temperature informa­
tion on request.
8. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). Provide
NOTAM information affecting the flight:
(a) NOTAM (D). All NOTAMs (D),
including SUA NOTAMs for restricted areas, aerial
refueling, and night vision goggles (NVG).
NOTE−
Other SUA NOTAMs (D) such as military operations area
(MOA), military training route (MTR) and warning area
NOTAMs, are considered “upon request” briefing items
as indicated in paragraph 3-2-1c13(a).
(b) Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs not
already carried in the Notices to Airmen publication.
(c) Combine this element with adverse
conditions when it would be logical and advantage­
ous to do so.
9. Prohibited Areas P-40, P-56, and the Special
Flight Rules Area (SFRA) for Washington, DC.
Include this element when pertinent to the route of
flight. Advise the pilot that VFR flight within 60
miles of the DCA VOR/DME requires Special
Awareness Training.
10. ATC Delays. Inform the pilot of ATC delays
and/or flow control advisories that might affect the
proposed flight.
11. Request for PIREPs. Include this element
when in your judgment, a report of actual inflight
conditions is beneficial or when conditions meet
criteria for solicitation of PIREPs (paragraph 9-2-5).
3−2−2
4/3/14
Advise the pilot to contact Flight Watch or Flight
Service to report en route conditions.
12. EFAS. When appropriate, inform pilots of
the availability of Flight Watch for weather updates;
for example, thunderstorms, icing.
13. Upon Request. Provide any information
requested by the pilot, including, but not limited to:
(a) Special use airspace, except those listed in
paragraph 3-2-1c8(a), SUA-related airspace (air
traffic control assigned airspace (ATCAA)), and
MTR activity. For all SUA and MTR data requests,
advise the pilot that information may be updated
periodically and to contact the appropriate ATC
facility for additional information while in flight.
NOTE−
For the purpose of this paragraph, SUA and related
airspace includes the following types of airspace: alert
area, MOA, warning area and ATCAA. MTR data includes
the following types of airspace: instrument flight rule
(IFR) training routes (IR), VFR training routes (VR), and
slow training routes (SR).
(b) Approximate density altitude data.
(c) Information regarding such items as air
traffic service and rules, customs/immigration
procedures, air defense identification zone (ADIZ)
rules, SAR, Flight Watch, etc.
(d) Military NOTAMs.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7930.2, Paragraph 8-3-1, Military NOTAM Availability.
(e) Special FDC instrument approach proced­
ure changes.
3−2−2. CONDUCT OF ABBREVIATED
BRIEFING
a. Provide an abbreviated briefing when a pilot
requests information to supplement mass-dissemin­
ated data; update a previous briefing; or when the
pilot requests that the briefing be limited to specific
information. If applicable, include the statement
“VFR flight not recommended” in accordance with
subparagraph 3-2-1c2. The specialist must issue the
following cautionary advisory to a pilot planning a
flight outside of United States controlled airspace,
unless the pilot advises they have the international
cautionary advisory.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHECK DATA AS SOON AS PRACTICAL AFTER
ENTERING FOREIGN AIRSPACE, AS OUR
Preflight Pilot Briefing
4/3/14
INTERNATIONAL DATA MAY BE INACCURATE OR
INCOMPLETE.
b. Conduct abbreviated briefings as follows:
1. When a pilot desires specific information
only, provide the requested information. If adverse
conditions are reported or forecast, advise the pilot.
Provide details on these conditions, in accordance
with subparagraph 3-2-1c1, at the pilot’s request.
2. When a pilot requests an update to a previous
briefing, obtain from the pilot the time the briefing
was received and necessary background information.
To the extent possible, limit the briefing to
appreciable changes in meteorological and aeronaut­
ical conditions since the previous briefing.
3. When a pilot requests information to
supplement data obtained through FSS mass-dissem­
ination media, obtain pertinent background informa­
tion, the specific items required by the pilot, and
provide the information in the sequence listed in
subparagraph 3-2-1c.
Preflight Pilot Briefing
JO 7110.10X
4. When a pilot requests to file a flight plan only,
ask if he/she requires the latest information on
adverse conditions along the route of flight. If so,
provide the information pertinent to the route of flight
in accordance with subparagraph 3-2-1c1.
5. Solicit PIREPs in accordance with
subparagraph 3-2-1c11.
3−2−3. CONDUCT OF OUTLOOK BRIEFING
a. Provide an outlook briefing when the proposed
departure is 6 hours or more from the time of the
briefing. Conduct the briefing in accordance with
subparagraph 3-2-1c. Omit items in subparagraphs
c2, c4, and c7 through c12, unless specifically
requested by the pilot or deemed pertinent by the
specialist.
b. When the proposed flight is scheduled to be
conducted beyond the valid time of the available
forecast material, provide a general outlook and then
advise the pilot when complete forecast data will be
available for the proposed flight
3−2−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 4. Inflight Services
Section 1. General
4−1−1. INFLIGHT SERVICES
Inflight services are those provided to or affecting
aircraft inflight or otherwise operating on the airport
surface. This includes services to airborne aircraft,
such as airport advisories, delivery of ATC
clearances, advisories or requests, issuance of
military flight advisory messages, EFAS, NOTAM,
SAR communications searches, flight plan handling,
transcribed or live broadcast, weather observations,
PIREPs, and pilot briefings.
NOTE−
Provide inflight services in accordance with the
procedures in this chapter to aircraft on a “first come, first
served” basis, as circumstances permit.
4−1−2. OPERATIONAL PRIORITY
a. Emergency situations are those where life or
property are in immediate danger. Aircraft in distress
have priority over all other aircraft.
b. Provide priority to civilian air ambulance
flights (call sign “MEDEVAC”). Use of the
MEDEVAC call sign indicates that operational
priority is requested. When verbally requested,
provide priority to AIR EVAC, HOSP, and scheduled
air carrier/air taxi flights. Assist the pilots of
MEDEVAC, AIR EVAC, and HOSP aircraft to avoid
areas of significant weather and turbulent conditions.
When requested by a pilot, provide notifications to
expedite ground handling of patients, vital organs, or
urgently needed medical materials.
c. Provide maximum assistance to search and
rescue (SAR) aircraft performing a SAR mission.
d. Provide special handling as required to expedite
Flight Check and automated flight inspection “Flight
Check (number) Recorded” aircraft.
4−1−3. INFLIGHT WEATHER BRIEFING
Upon request, provide inflight weather briefings, in
accordance with the procedure outlined in Chapter 3,
Section 2.
General
4−1−4. INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT
MALFUNCTIONS
a. Inflight equipment malfunctions include partial
or complete failure of equipment which may affect
either safety and/or the ability of the flight to proceed.
b. When a pilot reports a flight equipment
malfunction, determine the nature and extent of any
assistance desired.
c. Provide maximum assistance possible consist­
ent with equipment and any special handling
requested.
d. Relay to other specialists or facilities who will
handle the aircraft all information concerning the
equipment malfunction on the aircraft and any special
handling requested or being provided.
4−1−5. AIRCRAFT-REPORTED NAVAID
MALFUNCTIONS
a. Aircraft-reported NAVAID malfunctions are
subject to varying circumstances. When an aircraft
reports a ground-based NAVAID malfunction, take
the following action:
1. Request a report from a second aircraft.
2. If the second aircraft reports normal
operations, if able, inform the first aircraft. Record
the incident on FAA Form 7230-4.
3. If the second aircraft confirms the malfunc­
tion:
(a) Notify the appropriate IFR control facility
or sector.
(b) Notify Technical Operations personnel.
(c) Take NOTAM action when requested by
Technical Operations personnel.
(d) Record the incident on FAA Form
7230-4.
4. In the absence of a second aircraft report:
(a) Notify Technical Operations and advise
what time the initial aircraft reported the failure and
when a second aircraft report might be obtained.
4−1−1
JO 7110.10X
(b) Record the incident on FAA Form
7230-4.
b. When an aircraft reports a global positioning
system (GPS)/global navigation satellite system
(GNSS) anomaly:
1. Request the following information:
4/3/14
2. If the pilot reports receipt of any WAAS
service, acknowledge the report, and continue normal
operations.
3. If the pilot reports loss of all WAAS service,
report as a GPS anomaly using procedures in
paragraph 4−1−5b.
(a) Aircraft call sign and type of aircraft.
(b) Date and time of the occurrence.
4−1−6. NAVAID FLIGHT CHECK
(c) Location of anomaly.
Provide maximum assistance to aircraft engaged in
flight inspection of NAVAIDs. Unless otherwise
agreed to, maintain direct contact with the pilot and
provide information regarding known traffic in the
area and request the pilot’s intentions.
(d) Altitude.
2. Record the incident on FAA Form 7230-4.
3. Forward this information to the traffic
management unit (TMU) and Technical Operations
personnel.
c. When an aircraft reports a Wide Area
Augmentation System (WAAS) anomaly, request the
following information and/or take the following
actions:
1. Determine if the pilot has lost all WAAS
service.
EXAMPLE−
“Are you receiving any WAAS service?”
4−1−2
NOTE−
1. Many flight inspections are accomplished using
automatic recording equipment. An uninterrupted flight is
necessary for successful completion of the mission. The
workload for the limited number of aircraft engaged in
these activities requires strict adherence to a schedule.
2. Flight inspection operations which require special
participation of ground personnel, specific communications, or radar operation capabilities are considered to
require special handling. These flights are coordinated
with appropriate facilities before departure.
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Data Recording
4−2−1. TYPES OF DATA RECORDED
FIG 4−2−1
Hand-Printed Characters Chart
a. Operational system entries for:
1. Flight plans and related messages.
2. Logging pilot briefings and aircraft contacts.
3. Weather/Flight data messages.
b. Manual strip marking.
4−2−2. METHODS OF RECORDING DATA
a. Except as provided in 4-2-2b, all entries must be
made directly into the operational system.
b. Locally-approved procedures may be used to
manually record data during heavy traffic periods or
system outages. Aircraft contact information should
be logged in the operational system as soon as
practical.
c. Use control/clearance symbols, abbreviations,
location identifiers, and contractions for recording
position reports, traffic clearances, and other data.
When recording data either electronically or
manually, you may use:
1. Plain language to supplement data when it
will aid in understanding the recorded information.
2. Locally-approved contractions and identifi­
ers for frequently used terms and local fixes not listed
in either FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, or FAA
Order JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers. Use only
within your facility, not on data or interphone
circuits. All locally-approved contractions and
identifiers must be placed in facility files for record
and reference purposes.
d. When recording data manually, use the standard
hand-printed characters shown in FIG 4−2-1 to
prevent misinterpretation.
Data Recording
4−2−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
NOTE−
A slant line crossing through the numeral zero and an
underline of the letter “S” on handwritten portions of
flight progress strips are required only when there is
reason to believe the lack of these markings could lead to
a misunderstanding. A slant line through the numeral zero
is required on all weather data.
c. Flight plan information may initially be
recorded on FAA Form 7233-1 or other paper prior to
entry into the operational system.
1. To correct or update data, draw a horizontal
line through it and write the correct information
adjacent to it.
a. When officially used to record inflight data, use
flight progress strips to record:
4−2−4. FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIPS (FAA
FORMS 7230-21 AND 7233-5)
1. Aircraft contacts.
2. Do not erase any item.
2. ATC clearances.
3. Pilot briefings on airborne aircraft.
4−2−3. IFR/VFR/DVFR FLIGHT PLAN
RECORDING
4. Other operationally significant items.
a. Use the operational system to record and file
flight plans, flight plan modifications, cancellations,
activations, and closures for appropriate distribution
and processing. Detailed instructions are contained in
the operational system manuals.
NOTE−
FSS operational systems contain an electronic equivalent
of FAA Form 7233-1, Flight Plan.
b. When closing an active VFR flight plan, obtain
departure point and destination, if not already known.
NOTE−
A cancelled VFR flight plan is one that is removed from
a proposed list and has not been activated. A closed VFR
flight plan is one that has been activated and is then
removed from an inbound list.
b. Use a flight progress strip for each aircraft and
record all contacts with that aircraft on the same strip.
If supplemental strips are needed for additional
writing space, keep the original and supplemental
strips together.
NOTE−
Multiple flights by the same aircraft may be recorded on
a single strip when situational awareness and strip bay
efficiency are improved.
4−2−5. FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIPS AND
ENTRY DATA
a. Flight progress strip. (See FIG 4-2-2.)
b. Flight progress strip entry. (See FIG 4-2-3 and
4-2-4.)
FIG 4−2−2
Flight Progress Strip
4−2−2
Data Recording
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
FIG 4−2−3
Strip Entry 1
FIG 4−2−4
Strip Entry 2
Data Recording
4−2−3
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
c. Flight progress strip Item and Information.
(SeeTBL 4-2-1.)
TBL 4−2−1
Item and Information
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Information
Aircraft Identification (ACID) (To
identify IFR aircraft piloted by solo
USAF under-graduate pilot, the letter Z
will be added to aircraft ID on the flight
progress strip. Do not use the suffix in
ground-to-air communications.)
Type of aircraft/special equipment.
True airspeed (TAS) and altitude (IFR).
Altitude (VFR/DVFR, if known).
Departure point.
Route of flight.
Destination.
Actual departure time, or time VFR
flight plan activated.
ETA at destination.
Estimated time of fuel exhaustion.
Type of flight.
Action time; for example, overdue
time, fuel exhaustion time, LR contact
time.
Time of contact with pilot.
Information received from pilot/anoth­
er facility.
Data issued to the aircraft.
d. Flight progress strip abbreviation. (See TBL
4-2-2.)
4−2−4
TBL 4−2−2
Abbreviation
Abbreviation
Õ
↓
↑
A
AA
CWT
D
DA
DD
DW
FP
I
IC
IR
LR
MR
PB
RY
S
SR
V
VNR
Meaning
Over Flight
Inbound Flight
Outbound Flight
AIRMET (WA)
Airport Advisory
Caution Wake Turbulence
DVFR
Decided Against Flight
Decided to Delay Flight
Downwind
Filed Flight Plan
IFR
Incomplete Briefing
Island Reporting
Lake Reporting
Mountain Reporting
Pilot Brief
Runway
SVFR
Swamp Reporting
VFR
VFR Flight not recommen­
ded (Pilot Brief)
WS
SIGMET
WST
Convective SIGMET
e. Record ATC instructions and clearances
completely and exactly.
f. Summarize other data using approved symbols
and contractions. (See FIG 4-2-5 and FIG 4-2-6.)
Data Recording
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
FIG 4−2−5
Control Information Symbols Chart 1
Data Recording
4−2−5
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
FIG 4−2−6
Control Information Symbols Chart 2
g. Do not record issuance of altimeter setting
unless that is the only information provided during
the contact.
4−2−6. AIRCRAFT CONTACTS
a. Inflight and flight watch contacts may be
logged in the operational system, on flight progress
strips, or on facility approved alternate forms.
4−2−6
b. When using flight progress strips, if the station
has the aircraft’s flight plan, enter “FP” in item 14 on
the strip to show the flight plan is on file at the facility.
c. If there is no flight plan on file for the aircraft,
the following must be obtained:
1. ACID.
2. Type of flight.
3. Time of contact.
Data Recording
4/3/14
ant.
JO 7110.10X
4. Other items which are operationally signific­
Cleared to depart from the
fix.
Cleared to the fix.
Cleared to hold and instruc­
tions issued.
Cleared to land.
Clearance not delivered.
Cleared to the outer marker.
Cleared to climb/descend at
pilot’s discretion.
Cleared to fly specified
sectors of a NAVAID defined
in terms of courses, bearings,
radials, or quadrants within a
designated radius.
Cleared through (for landing
and takeoff through interme­
diate point).
Cleared over the fix.
Cleared to cross (airway,
route, radial) at (point).
Tower jurisdiction.
D
F
d. If the inflight position is recorded, you may
limit entries in the aircraft contact portion of the strip
to those necessary for your use.
H
L
N
O
e. Log aircraft contacts using the operational
system. The following should be logged using the
symbols in TBL 4-2-3 and TBL 4-2-4:
PD
1. Type of Briefing
(a) Standard
Q
(b) Abbreviated
(c) Outlook
2. Type of Flight
T
(a) IFR
V
(b) VFR
X
(c) Defense VFR (DVFR)
Z
3. Category of Flight
TBL 4−2−4
Miscellaneous Abbreviation
(a) Air Carrier
(b) Air Taxi
(c) Military
(d) General Aviation
4. Aircraft ID
5. Type of Service
(a) Airport advisory
(b) Clearance(s); for example, IFR, special
VFR (SVFR)
6. Remarks. Operating Position (if not automat­
ically logged by operational system)
TBL 4−2−3
Clearance Abbreviation
Abbreviation
A
B
C
CAF
Data Recording
Meaning
Cleared to airport (point of
intended landing).
Center clearance delivered
ATC clears (when clearance
relayed through non-ATC
facility).
Cleared as filed.
Abbreviation
BC
CT
FA
GPS
I
ILS
MA
MLS
NDB
OTP
PA
PT
RH
RP
RX
SA
SI
TA
TL
TR
VA
VR
Meaning
Back course approach.
Contact approach.
Final approach.
GPS approach.
Initial approach.
ILS approach.
Missed approach.
MLS approach.
Nondirectional radio beacon
approach.
VFR conditions-on-top.
Precision approach.
Procedure turn.
Runway heading.
Report immediately upon
passing (fix/altitude).
Report crossing.
Surveillance approach.
Straight-in approach.
TACAN approach.
Turn left.
Turn right.
Visual approach.
VOR approach.
4−2−7
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Radio Communications
4−3−1. FREQUENCY USE
a. Use radio frequencies for the specific purposes
for which they are intended. A frequency may be used
for more than one function when required. Use the
minimum number of frequencies to conduct
communications. Request pilots file flight plans on
discrete frequencies when possible.
b. Monitor assigned radio frequencies continu­
ously. Keep speaker volumes at a level sufficient to
hear all transmissions.
4−3−2. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS
a. Transmit only those messages necessary for
safe and efficient use of the National Airspace System
(NAS).
1. Relay operational information to an aircraft
or its company, as requested, when abnormal
conditions necessitate such requests. Do not agree to
handle such messages on a regular basis.
2. Relay official FAA messages as required.
phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the
aircraft registration if used by the pilot on the initial
or subsequent call.
EXAMPLE−
Specialist initiated call:
“November One Two Three Four Golf, Juneau Radio,
over.”
“Piper Three Four Seven Seven Papa, Fort Worth Radio,
A-T-C clearance, over.”
c. Replying to call up from aircraft. Identification
of the aircraft initiating the call up. Use the full
identification in reply to aircraft with similar
sounding identifications. For other aircraft, use the
same identification the pilot used in initial call up;
then use the correct identification after
communication has been established. The specialist
may state the aircraft type, model, or manufacturer’s
name followed by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation
of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration if
used by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
Responding to pilot’s initial or subsequent call:
b. Inform an aircraft of the source of any message
you relay from an appropriate authority.
“Jet Commander One Two Three Four Papa.”
c. Use the words or phrases in radio
communications as contained in the PCG.
“Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.”
“November Six Three Eight Mike Foxtrot.”
4−3−3. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT
a. Use the following format for radio communica­
tions with an aircraft:
1. Identification of aircraft.
2. Identification of the calling unit.
3. The type of message to follow when this will
assist the pilot.
4. The word “over,” if required.
b. Specialist initiated call. State the prefix , for
example “November” when establishing initial
communications with U.S.−registered aircraft
followed by the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) phonetic pronunciation of the
numbers/letters of the aircraft registration. The
specialist may state the aircraft type, the model, the
manufacturer ’s name, followed by the ICAO
Radio Communications
d. The word “heavy” must be used as part of the
identification in communications with or about
heavy jet aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNITED FIFTY-EIGHT HEAVY.
NOTE−
1. Most airlines use the word “heavy” following the
company prefix and trip number when establishing
communications or when changing frequencies.
2. When in radio-telephone communications with “Air
Force One,” do not add the “heavy” designator to the call
sign. State only the call sign “Air Force One” regardless
of the type of aircraft.
e. Preface a clearance or instruction intended for a
specific aircraft with the identification of that aircraft.
f. Emphasize appropriate digits, letters, or similar
sounding words to aid in distinguishing between
similar sounding aircraft identifications.
4−3−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Additionally, notify each pilot concerned when
communicating with aircraft having similar sounding
identifications.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR ADDITIONAL EN ROUTE WEATHER, CONTACT
FLIGHT WATCH (frequency).
EXAMPLE−
“American Five Twenty-one and American Twenty-one,
transmissions being made to each of you on this
frequency.”
c. NOTAM. Inform the pilot of any pertinent
NOTAMs affecting the flight.
“Advisory to Cessna One Three Two Four, transmissions
to Cessna One Two Three Four also being made on this
frequency.”
4−3−4. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSION
Transmissions may be abbreviated as follows:
a. Use the identification prefix and the last three
digits or letters of the aircraft identification after
communications have been established. Do not
abbreviate similar sounding aircraft identifications or
the identification of an air carrier or other civil aircraft
having an FAA-authorized call sign.
b. Omit the facility identification after
communication has been established.
c. Transmit the message immediately after the call
up (without waiting for the aircraft’s reply) when the
message is short and receipt is generally assured.
d. Omit the word “over” if the message obviously
requires a reply.
4−3−5. ROUTINE RADIO CONTACTS
Record information received from or given to the
pilot. Prior to terminating the contact, provide the
following information if it is pertinent and the pilot
indicates that it has not been received previously.
a. Weather Advisory. When a weather advisory
such as a WA, WS, WST, CWA, or AWW which
affects an aircraft’s position, route, or destination.
b. Shifting to Flight Watch. During hours of flight
watch operation, inflight specialists must recom­
mend shifting to the flight watch frequency for en
route advisories when weather conditions in an area
along the pilot’s route of flight so dictate. An example
would be a pilot flying into an area of marginal
weather farther along the route. It would be
advantageous for the pilot to contact the flight watch
specialist to pursue an alternate course of action
should the need arise.
4−3−2
d. Altimeter Setting.
1. If the aircraft is operating below 18,000 feet
MSL, issue current altimeter setting obtained from
direct reading instruments or received from weather
reporting stations. Use the setting for the location
nearest the position of the aircraft.
2. If the aircraft is arriving or departing a local
airport served by an operating control tower, issue
altimeter setting on request only.
3. When a pilot acknowledges that he/she has
received the AFIS broadcast, specialists may omit
those items contained in the broadcasts if they are
current.
4. Aircraft arriving or departing from a
non-towered airport which has a commissioned
automated weather reporting with ground-to-air
capability must be advised to monitor the automated
weather frequency for the altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MONITOR (location) AUTOMATED WEATHER FOR
CURRENT ALTIMETER.
NOTE−
This requirement is deleted if the pilot states that he/she
has the automated weather.
5. When the barometric pressure is greater than
31.00 inches Hg., Flight Standards will implement
high barometric pressure procedures by NOTAM,
defining the geographic area affected. When this
occurs, use the following procedures:
(a) IFR aircraft. Issue the altimeter setting
and advise the pilot that high pressure altimeter
setting procedures are in effect. Control facilities will
issue specific instructions when relaying IFR
clearances and control instructions through FSS
facilities when the altimeter is above 31.00 inches
Hg.
(b) VFR aircraft. Issue the altimeter setting.
Advise the pilot that high pressure altimeter setting
procedures are in effect and to use an altimeter setting
of 31.00 inches Hg en route.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ALTIMETER IN EXCESS OF THREE ONE ZERO ZERO.
Radio Communications
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
HIGH
PRESSURE
ALTIMETER
SETTING
PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT. RECOMMEND YOU
SET ALTIMETER THREE ONE ZERO ZERO EN
ROUTE.
NOTE−
Airports unable to accurately measure barometric
pressures above 31.00 inches Hg will report the
barometric pressure as missing or in excess of 31.00
inches Hg. Flight operations to or from those airports are
restricted to VFR weather conditions.
REFERENCE−
AIM, Chapter 7, Section 2, Altimeter Setting Procedures
FAAO JO 7110.65 Para 2-7-2.g, Altimeter Setting Issuance Below Lowest
Usable FL
e. Incorrect Cruising Altitude. If the aircraft is
operating VFR at an altitude between 3,000 feet AGL
to, but not including FL180, and reports at an
incorrect cruising altitude for the direction of flight,
issue a VFR cruising altitude advisory.
PHRASEOLOGY−
V-F-R CRUISING LEVELS FOR YOUR DIRECTION OF
FLIGHT ARE: (Odd/Even) ALTITUDES PLUS FIVE
HUNDRED FEET.
NOTE−
Facilities located in those areas where VFR altitude
separation is below 3,000 feet AGL or above FL 180 must
provide appropriate phraseology examples for local use.
f. Altimeter Setting in Millibars (MBs). If a request
for the altimeter setting in MBs is received, use the
setting for the location nearest the position of the
aircraft and convert to the MBs equivalent value
using a MBs conversion chart. If the Mbs setting is
not a whole number, always round down. (See TBL
4-3-1.)
TBL 4−3−1
Millibar Conversion Chart
MILLIBAR CONVERSION CHART
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
inches
millibars
27.50
27.51
27.52
27.53
27.54
27.55
27.56
27.57
27.58
27.59
27.60
27.61
27.62
27.63
27.64
27.65
27.66
27.67
27.68
27.69
27.70
27.71
27.72
27.73
27.74
27.75
27.76
27.77
27.78
27.79
27.80
27.81
27.82
27.83
27.84
27.85
27.86
27.87
27.88
27.89
27.90
27.91
27.92
931.3
931.6
931.9
932.3
932.6
933.0
933.3
933.6
934.0
934.3
934.6
935.0
935.3
935.7
936.0
936.3
936.7
937.0
937.4
937.7
938.0
938.4
938.7
939.0
939.4
939.7
940.1
940.4
940.7
941.1
941.4
941.8
942.1
942.4
942.8
943.1
943.4
943.8
944.1
944.5
944.8
945.1
945.5
28.00
28.01
28.02
28.03
28.04
28.05
28.06
28.07
28.08
28.09
28.10
28.11
28.12
28.13
28.14
28.15
28.16
28.17
28.18
28.19
28.20
28.21
28.22
28.23
28.24
28.25
28.26
28.27
28.28
28.29
28.30
28.31
28.32
28.33
28.34
28.35
28.36
28.37
28.38
28.39
28.40
28.41
28.42
948.2
948.5
948.9
949.2
949.5
949.9
950.2
950.6
950.9
951.2
951.6
951.9
952.3
952.6
952.9
953.3
953.6
953.9
954.3
954.6
955.0
955.3
955.6
956.0
956.3
956.7
957.0
957.3
957.7
958.0
958.3
958.7
959.0
959.4
959.7
960.0
960.4
960.7
961.1
961.4
961.7
962.1
962.4
28.50
28.51
28.52
28.53
28.54
28.55
28.56
28.57
28.58
28.59
28.60
28.61
28.62
28.63
28.64
28.65
28.66
28.67
28.68
28.69
28.70
28.71
28.72
28.73
28.74
28.75
28.76
28.77
28.78
28.79
28.80
28.81
28.82
28.83
28.84
28.85
28.86
28.87
28.88
28.89
28.90
28.91
28.92
965.1
965.5
965.8
966.1
966.5
966.8
967.2
967.5
967.8
968.2
968.5
968.8
969.2
969.5
969.9
970.2
970.5
970.9
971.2
971.6
971.9
972.2
972.6
972.9
973.2
973.6
973.9
974.3
974.6
974.9
975.3
975.6
976.0
976.3
976.6
977.0
977.3
977.7
978.0
978.3
978.7
979.0
979.3
29.00
29.01
29.02
29.03
29.04
29.05
29.06
29.07
29.08
29.09
29.10
29.11
29.12
29.13
29.14
29.15
29.16
29.17
29.18
29.19
29.20
29.21
29.22
29.23
29.24
29.25
29.26
29.27
29.28
29.29
29.30
29.31
29.32
29.33
29.34
29.35
29.36
29.37
29.38
29.39
29.40
29.41
29.42
982.1
982.4
982.7
983.1
983.4
983.7
984.1
984.4
984.8
985.1
985.4
985.8
986.1
986.5
986.8
987.1
987.5
987.8
988.1
988.5
988.8
989.2
989.5
989.8
990.2
990.5
990.8
991.2
991.5
991.9
992.2
992.6
992.9
993.2
992.6
993.9
994.2
994.6
994.9
995.3
995.6
995.9
996.3
29.50
29.51
29.52
29.53
29.54
29.55
29.56
29.57
29.58
29.59
29.60
29.61
29.62
29.63
29.64
29.65
29.66
29.67
29.68
29.69
29.70
29.71
29.72
29.73
29.74
29.75
29.76
29.77
29.78
29.79
29.80
29.81
29.82
29.83
29.84
29.85
29.86
29.87
29.88
29.89
29.90
29.91
29.92
999.0
999.3
999.7
1000.0
1000.3
1000.7
1001.0
1001.4
1001.7
1002.0
1002.4
1002.7
1003.0
1003.4
1003.7
1004.1
1004.4
1004.7
1005.1
1005.4
1005.8
1006.1
1006.4
1006.8
1007.1
1007.5
1007.8
1008.1
1008.5
1008.8
1009.1
1009.5
1009.8
1010.2
1010.5
1010.8
1011.2
1011.5
1011.9
1012.2
1012.5
1012.9
1013.2
30.00
30.01
30.02
30.03
30.04
30.05
30.06
30.07
30.08
30.09
30.10
30.11
30.12
30.13
30.14
30.15
30.16
30.17
30.18
30.19
30.20
30.21
30.22
30.23
30.24
30.25
30.26
30.27
30.28
30.29
30.30
30.31
30.32
30.33
30.34
30.35
30.36
30.37
30.38
30.39
30.40
30.41
30.42
1015.9
1016.3
1016.6
1016.9
1017.3
1017.6
1017.9
1018.3
1018.6
1019.0
1019.3
1019.6
1020.0
1020.3
1020.7
1021.0
1021.3
1021.7
1022.0
1022.4
1022.7
1023.0
1023.4
1023.7
1024.0
1024.4
1024.7
1025.1
1025.4
1025.7
1026.1
1026.4
1026.8
1027.1
1027.4
1027.8
1028.1
1028.4
1028.8
1029.1
1029.5
1029.8
1030.1
30.50
30.51
30.52
30.53
30.54
30.55
30.56
30.57
30.58
30.59
30.60
30.61
30.62
30.63
30.64
30.65
30.66
30.67
30.68
30.69
30.70
30.71
30.72
30.73
30.74
30.75
30.76
30.77
30.78
30.79
30.80
30.81
30.82
30.83
30.84
30.85
30.86
30.87
30.88
30.89
30.90
30.91
30.92
1032.8
1033.2
1033.5
1033.9
1034.2
1034.5
1034.9
1035.2
1035.6
1035.9
1036.2
1036.6
1036.9
1037.3
1037.6
1037.9
1038.3
1038.6
1038.9
1039.3
1039.6
1040.0
1040.3
1040.6
1041.0
1041.3
1041.6
1042.0
1042.3
1042.7
1043.0
1043.3
1043.7
1044.0
1044.4
1044.7
1045.0
1045.4
1045.7
1046.1
1046.4
1046.7
1047.1
31.00
31.01
31.02
31.03
31.04
31.05
31.06
31.07
31.08
31.09
31.10
31.11
31.12
31.13
31.14
31.15
31.16
31.17
31.18
31.19
31.20
31.21
31.22
31.23
31.24
31.25
31.26
31.27
31.28
31.29
31.30
31.31
31.32
31.33
31.34
31.35
31.36
31.37
31.38
31.39
31.40
31.41
31.42
1049.8
1050.1
1050.5
1050.8
1051.1
1051.5
1051.8
1052.2
1052.5
1052.8
1053.2
1053.5
1053.8
1054.2
1054.5
1054.9
1055.2
1055.5
1055.9
1056.2
1056.6
1056.9
1057.2
1057.6
1057.9
1058.2
1058.6
1058.9
1059.3
1059.6
1059.9
1060.3
1060.6
1061.0
1061.3
1061.6
1062.0
1062.3
1062.6
1063.0
1063.3
1063.7
1064.0
Radio Communications
4−3−3
JO 7110.10X
27.93
27.94
27.95
27.96
27.97
27.98
27.99
945.8
946.2
946.5
946.8
947.2
947.5
947.9
4/3/14
28.43
28.44
28.45
28.46
28.47
28.48
28.49
962.8
963.1
963.4
963.8
964.1
964.4
964.8
28.93
28.94
28.95
28.96
28.97
28.98
28.99
979.7
980.0
980.4
980.7
981.0
981.4
981.7
29.43
29.44
29.45
29.46
29.47
29.48
29.49
996.6
997.0
997.3
997.6
998.0
998.3
998.6
4−3−6. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
TRANSFER
Transfer radio communications by specifying the
following:
a. The name of the facility to be contacted and the
frequency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (name of facility) ON (frequency).
b. In situations where an aircraft will continue to
communicate with your facility, use the following:
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTACT (name of service) ON (frequency).
4−3−7. ATC CLEARANCES, ADVISORIES,
OR REQUESTS
a. Notify ATC via interphone of a pilot’s request
for clearance and include the departure and
destination airports and, if appropriate, departing
runway and time in the request. Relay, verbatim, ATC
clearances, advisories, and requests received from the
control facility. Give a time check to the nearest
quarter minute when relaying a clearance that
includes a release or void time.
NOTE−
For ATC clearances, ”verbatim” means exact control
instructions in the format stated in FAA Order JO 7110.65,
Air Traffic Control, Chapter 4, Section 2, Clearances, and
Section 3, Departure Procedures.
PHRASEOLOGY−
Aircraft on the ground:
29.93
29.94
29.95
29.96
29.97
29.98
29.99
1013.5
1013.9
1014.2
1014.6
1014.9
1015.2
1015.6
30.43
30.44
30.45
30.46
30.47
30.48
30.49
1030.5
1030.8
1031.2
1031.5
1031.8
1032.2
1032.5
30.93
30.94
30.95
30.96
30.97
30.98
30.99
1047.4
1047.7
1048.1
1044.4
1048.8
1049.1
1049.4
31.43
31.44
31.45
31.46
31.47
31.48
31.49
1064.3
1064.7
1065.0
1065.4
1065.7
1066.0
1066.4
(Aircraft identification), (position), (altitude), (route),
AND (destination).
b. Prefix all ATC clearances, advisories, or
requests with the appropriate phrase “A-T-C
CLEARS,” “A-T-C ADVISES,” etc.
c. When issuing information, relaying clearances,
or instructions, ensure acknowledgement by the
pilot.
d. If altitude, heading, or other items are read back
by the pilot, ensure the readback is correct. If
incorrect or incomplete, make corrections as
appropriate.
NOTE−
Pilots may acknowledge clearances, instructions, or
information by using “Wilco,” “Roger,” “Affirmative,”
or other appropriate words or remarks.
REFERENCE­
PCG.
4−3−8. DEPARTURE REPORTS
a. When an IFR aircraft reports airborne or is
observed airborne, transmit the aircraft identification
and departure time to the control facility from which
the clearance was received.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Facility)
RADIO.
identification), (time).
DEPARTURE.
(Aircraft
NOTE−
1. This includes known VFR departure times of aircraft
which are to obtain IFR clearances when airborne.
After go-ahead from ATC,
2. The requirement for transmitting departure reports
may be omitted if requested by the IFR control facility,
provided the procedures are specified in a Letter of
Agreement.
(Aircraft identification) DEPARTING (airport),
RUNWAY (number if applicable) DESTINATION (fix or
airport). (If applicable), CAN BE OFF AT (time).
b. When an aircraft which has filed an IFR flight
plan requests a VFR departure, facilitate the request
as follows:
(Facility) RADIO, CLEARANCE REQUEST.
Aircraft airborne:
(Facility) RADIO, CLEARANCE REQUEST.
After go-ahead from ATC:
4−3−4
1. If the facility/sector responsible for issuing
the clearance is unable to issue a clearance, inform the
pilot and suggest that the delay be taken on the
ground. If the pilot insists upon taking off VFR and
obtaining an IFR clearance in the air, relay the pilot’s
Radio Communications
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
intentions and, if possible, the VFR departure time to
the facility/sector holding the flight plan.
2. After obtaining approval from the facility/
sector responsible for issuing the IFR clearance, an
aircraft planning IFR flight may be authorized to
depart VFR. Inform the pilot of the proper frequency
and, if appropriate, where or when to contact the
facility responsible for issuing the clearance.
(a) When requesting:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Facility) RADIO. (Aircraft identification), REQUEST
V-F-R DEPARTURE.
(b) When relaying to aircraft:
PHRASEOLOGY−
A-T-C ADVISES (aircraft identification) V-F-R
DEPARTURE APPROVED. CONTACT (facility) ON
(frequency) AT (location or time, if required) FOR
CLEARANCE.
(c) Relaying to control facility:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Facility) RADIO. (Aircraft identification) DEPARTED
V-F-R AT (time).
4−3−9. IFR FLIGHT PROGRESS REPORTS
Relay to the appropriate ATC facility the aircraft
identification, position, time, altitude, estimate of
next reporting point, name of subsequent reporting
point, and any pilot remarks or requests including
amended flight plan data.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Facility) RADIO. PROGRESS. (Aircraft identification),
(position), (altitude), (time) (name and estimate of next
reporting point) (name of subsequent reporting point)
(pilot’s remarks).
4−3−10. ARRIVAL/MISSED APPROACH
REPORTS
Relay to the appropriate ATC facility, by the most
expeditious means available, the time that an IFR
aircraft lands, cancels, or executes a missed approach,
and intentions, if known.
Radio Communications
4−3−11. NONDELIVERY OF MESSAGES
Inform ATC when a message has not been delivered
within:
a. Three minutes of receipt; or
or
b. Three minutes after the specified delivery time;
c. A specified cancellation time.
4−3−12. BROADCAST (BLIND
TRANSMISSION) OF MESSAGES
Broadcast messages as requested by ATC. If no
accompanying transmitting instructions are received,
transmit the message four times:
a. Once upon receipt; and
b. At approximately 3-minute intervals thereafter.
4−3−13. PENETRATION OF CLASS A
AIRSPACE OR PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED
AREA
a. Penetration of Class A airspace. When a VFR
aircraft’s position report indicates penetration of
Class A airspace:
1. Inform the pilot of the Class A airspace
penetration and request intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE IN CLASS A AIRSPACE. AN A-T-C
CLEARANCE IS REQUIRED. REQUEST YOUR
INTENTIONS.
2. Inform the control facility immediately.
3. Relay ATC instructions.
b. Penetration of PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED
AREA. When an aircraft report indicates penetration
of a prohibited/restricted area:
1. Inform the pilot.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE IN A PROHIBITED/RESTRICTED AREA,
AUTHORIZATION IS REQUIRED. REQUEST YOUR
INTENTIONS.
2. Inform the control facility immediately.
Relay ATC instructions.
4−3−5
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Airport Advisory Services
4−4−1. TYPES OF AIRPORT ADVISORY
SERVICES
about what service is available, and provide the
appropriate service.
Airport advisory services are provided at airports
without an operating control tower that have certified
automated weather reporting via voice capability.
The types of service depend upon the location of the
FSS and communications capabilities. There are
three types:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Airport name) AIRPORT ADVISORY IS NOT
AVAILABLE. REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION...
b. At airports with commissioned automated
weather with continuous automated voice capability,
instruct the pilot to monitor the automated broadcast
and advise intentions.
a. Local airport advisory (LAA) is a service
provided by facilities that are located on the landing
airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MONITOR (location) AUTOMATED WEATHER
(frequency). ADVISE INTENTIONS.
b. Remote airport advisory (RAA) is a remote
service which may be provided by facilities that are
not located on the landing airport.
1. When the pilot indicates receipt of automated
weather, provide the appropriate non-weather
elements.
NOTE−
LAA/RAA both have:
2. If the pilot reports the automated weather is
out of service, provide the last reported weather
available and the appropriate non-weather elements.
1. Ground-to-air communication on the com­
mon traffic advisory frequency (CTAF).
2. Automated weather reporting with voice
broadcasting.
3. A continuous automated weather data
display.
4. Other continuous direct reading instruments,
or manual observations available to the specialist.
c. Remote airport information service (RAIS) is a
temporary service provided by facilities which are
not located on the landing airport but have:
1. Communication capability.
2. Automated weather reporting available to the
pilot at the landing airport.
NOTE−
FAA policy requires pilots to access the current automated
weather prior to requesting any remote ATC services at
non-towered airports. It is the pilot’s responsibility to
comply with the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) if
landing clearance is required.
4−4−2. GENERAL
a. If a pilot asks for airport advisory services at an
airport where the requested service is not available
but one of the services is available, inform the pilot
Airport Advisory Services
c. Advise the pilot that the requested airport
advisory/RAIS service is not available. Provide
CTAF frequency and/or the automated weather
frequency, when available. When not available, issue
the last known surface condition and altimeter.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Airport name) AIRPORT ADVISORY or AIRPORT
INFORMATION NOT AVAILABLE. CONTACT (airport
name) CTAF (frequency).
d. During initial contact, if the pilot indicates
receipt of automated weather, provide only the
appropriate non-weather elements. Do not provide
weather information unless specifically requested by
the pilot or a special report is transmitted.
EXAMPLE−
RAIS:
Pilot - “Green Bay radio, Cessna 12RG, ten northeast,
landing Eau Claire, request airport information, I have
the automated weather.”
FSS - “Cessna 12RG, Eau Claire airport information,
your traffic is a Cessna 172 entering downwind and a
Convair 660 reported on final, both one minute ago.
There is an airport maintenance vehicle .
e. If additional pilots initiate contact a short time
after airport advisory services were provided,
determine if the new pilot(s) copied the information
when it was provided.
4−4−1
JO 7110.10X
1. If the new pilot responds in the affirmative,
do not repeat the information.
2. If the new pilot acknowledges the airport
advisory information and then requests specific
information, provide only the information requested.
NOTE−
The intent is to reduce frequency clutter while insuring
that the pilots are aware of the situation as it changes.
f. Final Guard is a service provided in conjunction
with airport advisory only during periods of
significant and fast changing weather conditions that
may affect landing and takeoff operations.
g. Where AFIS is available, confirm receipt of the
current AFIS information if the pilot does not
initially state the appropriate AFIS code. Issue the
current AFIS information to pilots who are unable to
receive the AFIS or pilots that do not have the
information.
EXAMPLE−
“Verify you have information ALFA.”
h. If the pilot requests special VFR clearance,
provide the appropriate elements and follow the
procedures in Chapter 4, Section 5, Special VFR
Operations.
4/3/14
2. Favored or designated runway is a service
provided in conjunction with an airport advisory. The
specialist must check the current wind data and
provide the favored or designated runway informa­
tion as follows:
(a) For takeoff and landing operations state
the runway most nearly aligned into the wind.
(b) Inform the pilot when the current wind
direction is varying enough that the selection of the
favored runway may be affected, when there is more
than 10 knots between peaks and lulls, or the pilot has
requested the information.
(c) If there is no wind, state the runway
currently in use, the runway favored by a shorter
taxiway, or other local consideration.
(d) When airport management has designated
a runway to be used under certain wind or other
conditions (and has informed the FSS in writing)
issue runway information accordingly.
(e) If the majority of the traffic has been using
a runway other than the favored or designated
runway, advise the pilot.
4−4−3. AIRPORT ADVISORY/RAIS
ELEMENTS AND PHRASEOLOGY
EXAMPLE−
Landing airport has runways 27 (longer) and 32 with most
pilots utilizing the shorter runway “WIND VARIABLE
BETWEEN TWO EIGHT ZERO AND THREE FOUR
ZERO AT ONE FIVE GUSTS TWO EIGHT, FAVORED
RUNWAY THREE TWO.”
a. State the airport name and the type of service
being provided: airport advisory or airport
information.
(f) When a pilot advises he/she will use a
runway other than the favored or the designated
runway, inform all known concerned traffic.
EXAMPLE−
(Airport name), AIRPORT ADVISORY . . .
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATTENTION ALL AIRCRAFT. (Aircraft
DEPARTING/LANDING RUNWAY (number).
Or
(g) If a pilot requests the distance between an
intersection and the runway end, furnish measured
data from the local airport intersection takeoff
diagram or other appropriate sources.
(Airport name), AIRPORT INFORMATION . . .
NOTE−
At FSS facilities with AFIS equipment, if an aircraft has
acknowledged receipt of the AFIS message, traffic
advisories and additional information need not be
preceded by the phrase “(Airport name) AIRPORT
ADVISORY.”
b. Provide the following information as needed to
best serve the current traffic situation. Do not approve
or disapprove simulated instrument approaches.
1. Wind direction and speed.
4−4−2
type)
(h) The favored or designated runway is
never provided with RAIS.
3. Altimeter Setting.
(a) Airport Advisory: Apply special proced­
ures when the altimeter setting is more than
31.00 inches Hg. Stations with the capability of
reading altimeter settings above 31.00 inches Hg
must issue altimeter settings.
Airport Advisory Services
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
ALTIMETER IN EXCESS OF THREE ONE ZERO ZERO.
HIGH
PRESSURE
ALTIMETER
SETTING
PROCEDURES ARE IN EFFECT. RECOMMEND YOU
SET ALTIMETER TO THREE ONE ZERO ZERO EN
ROUTE.”
(b) RAIS. Do not provide the altimeter unless
specifically requested. Then, provide the altimeter
from the last official weather report.
4. Traffic. Information about observed or
reported traffic, which may constitute a collision
hazard. This may include positions of aircraft inflight
and/or aircraft and vehicles operating on the airport.
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
“All runways covered by packed snow 6 inches deep.”
7. Weather. When the pilot does not have the
weather conditions, issue the last reported or known
weather information as follows:
(a) Airport Advisory/RAIS:
(1) Wind direction and speed.
(2) Altimeter (except RAIS).
(3) Ceiling and visibility to VFR aircraft
when less than basic VFR conditions exist.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TRAFFIC (Aircraft type), (position), (minutes) AGO.
(4) Visibility to VFR aircraft when it is less
than three miles in any quadrant.
5. Braking action/NOTAM. Furnish braking
action reports as received from pilots or airport
management to all aircraft as follows:
(5) Touchdown runway visual range
(RVR)/runway visibility value (RVV) for the runway
in use where RVR/RVV readout equipment is located
at the workstation providing the service.
(a) Describe braking action using the terms
fair, poor, or nil. If the pilot or airport management
reports braking action in other than the foregoing
terms, ask them to categorize braking action in these
terms.
(b) When known, include the type of aircraft
or vehicle from which the report is received.
EXAMPLE−
“Braking action poor.”
“Braking action poor, reported by a Cessna
Four-Oh-One.”
(c) If the braking action report affects only a
portion of a runway, obtain enough information from
the pilot or airport management to describe braking
action in terms easily understood by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“Braking action poor first half of Runway Six, reported by
a Gulfstream Two.”
“Braking action poor Runway Two-Seven, reported by a
Boeing Seven Twenty-Seven.”
NOTE−
Descriptive terms, such as first/last half of the runway,
should normally be used rather than landmark
descriptions, such as opposite the fire station, south of a
taxiway.
6. NOTAM. NOTAMs concerning local
NAVAIDs and local field conditions/airspace
conditions pertinent to flight, for example, local
NAVAIDs, TFRs.
Airport Advisory Services
(6) To IFR aircraft executing an instrument
approach or departure and to the appropriate control
facility when visibility is less than 3 miles or when
the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet or below the highest
circling minimum, whichever is greater.
8. Weather advisory alert. Provide in accord­
ance with subpara 4-3-5a.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Advisory description) IS CURRENT FOR (condition)
OVER (area).
9. Density Altitude.
(a) Facilities at airports with field elevations
of 2,000 feet MSL or higher, transmit a density
altitude advisory to departing general aviation
aircraft whenever the temperature reaches the criteria
contained in TBL 2−2-1.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CHECK DENSITY ALTITUDE.
(b) Omit this advisory if pilot states the
computation has been done or if the specialist is
aware that a density altitude computation for that
aircraft was included in the preflight briefing.
10. Wake Turbulence. Issue cautionary inform­
ation to any aircraft if in your judgment wake
turbulence may have an adverse effect on it.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CAUTION, WAKE TURBULENCE (traffic information).
4−4−3
JO 7110.10X
NOTE−
Wake turbulence may be encountered by aircraft in flight
as well as when operating on the airport movement area.
Because wake turbulence is unpredictable, air traffic
personnel are not responsible for anticipating its
existence or effect.
11. Final Guard is a wind and altimeter
monitoring service provided in conjunction with
airport advisory during periods of significant and/or
fast changing weather conditions that may affect
landing and takeoff operations. The specialist must
monitor the remote display of the current wind and
altimeter. Provide Final Guard as follows:
(a) When the pilot reports “On final” or
“Taking the active runway,” the specialist must
provide the current wind direction, speed, and
altimeter.
(b) If during the landing or takeoff operation
conditions change and, in the specialist’s opinion, the
changing information might be useful to the pilot, the
specialist must broadcast the new wind and/or
altimeter information in the blind.
(c) Pilots will not be required or expected to
acknowledge the broadcast.
EXAMPLE−
“N12RG, Wind (direction) at (speed).”
NOTE−
Final Guard is never provided with RAIS.
12. Runway Friction. Upon request, provide
runway friction measurement readings/values as
received from airport management to aircraft as
follows:
(a) At airports with friction measuring
devices, provide runway friction reports, as received
from airport management, to pilots. State the runway
number followed by the MU number for each of the
three runway zones, the time of the report in UTC,
and a word describing the cause of the runway friction
problem.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway two seven, MU thirty nine, thirty eight,
twenty-eight at one zero one eight ZULU, ice.”
(b) Issue the runway surface condition and/or
the runway condition reading (RCR), if provided, to
all U.S. Air Force (USAF) and Air National Guard
(ANG) aircraft. Issue the RCR to other aircraft upon
request.
4−4−4
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
“Ice on runway, R-C-R zero five, patchy.”
NOTE−
USAF has established RCR procedures for determining
the average deceleration readings of runways under
conditions of water, slush, ice, or snow. The use of RCR
code is dependent upon the pilot’s having a “stopping
capability chart” specifically applicable to his/her
aircraft. USAF offices furnish RCR information at
airports serving USAF and ANG aircraft.
4−4−4. CHARTS
Keep charts depicting runways, local taxi routes,
intersection takeoff information, airport traffic
patterns, and instrument approach procedures
convenient to the position that provides airport
advisory service.
4−4−5. AUTHORIZED FREQUENCIES
a. Airport Advisory:
1. Provide airport advisory service on the
appropriate discrete frequency at non-towered
locations and on the tower local control frequency at
an airport with a part-time tower when that facility is
not operating.
2. If a pilot calls on another frequency, issue
advisories on the frequency to which the pilot is
listening, in addition to the appropriate Airport
Advisory frequency.
3. Encourage the pilot to guard the airport
advisory frequency or tower local control frequency
within a 10-mile radius of the airport.
NOTE−
In situations where the inflight position is split, advise
pilot of appropriate frequency to obtain Airport
Advisory/RAIS.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR FURTHER ADVISORY SERVICE AT (airport
name), MONITOR (frequency) WITHIN ONE ZERO
MILES.
b. RAIS:
1. Provide RAIS on the existing discrete
frequency located at the remote airport.
2. If a pilot calls and appears to be unaware that
RAIS is available, offer the service.
3. If a pilot calls on another frequency, issue
advisories on the frequency the pilot is listening, in
addition to the appropriate airport advisory fre­
quency.
Airport Advisory Services
4/3/14
4. If RAIS is requested when it is not offered,
inform the pilot that the service is not available and
follow para 4-4-2c.
NOTE−
This service is only provided at remote airports that have
an existing discrete communications capability between
the airport and the flight service station serving the
airport and a NOTAM D announcing the availability of
the service is in effect.
JO 7110.10X
4−4−6. TRAFFIC CONTROL
When there is no control tower in operation and a
pilot appears unaware of this fact, inform him/her as
follows:
PHRASEOLOGY−
NO CONTROL TOWER IN OPERATION.
4−4−7. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CHECKS
When requested, provide observed information.
EXAMPLE−
Landing gear appears to be down and in place.
Airport Advisory Services
4−4−5
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Special VFR Operation
4−5−1. AUTHORIZATION
a. Special VFR (SVFR) operations in weather
conditions less than VFR minima are authorized:
1. For helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft at any
location not prohibited by 14 CFR Part 91,
Appendix D, Section 3, or when an exception to
14 CFR Part 91, Appendix D, Section 3, has been
granted and an associated letter of agreement
established.
REFERENCE−
14 CFR Part 91, Appendix D, Section 3, Locations at which fixed-wing
Special VFR operations are prohibited.
2. Only within surface areas.
3. Only when requested by the pilot.
b. When the primary airport is reporting VFR,
SVFR operations may be authorized for aircraft
transiting surface areas when the pilot advises the
inability to maintain VFR.
ATC CLEARS (aircraft identification) (coded arrival or
departure procedure) ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE,
(additional instructions as required).
b. Transmit clearance for local SVFR operations
for a specified period (series of takeoffs and landings,
etc.) upon request if the aircraft can be recalled when
traffic or weather conditions require. Letters of
agreement may be established.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LOCAL SPECIAL V-F-R OPERATIONS IN THE
IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF (name) AIRPORT ARE
AUTHORIZED UNTIL (time). MAINTAIN SPECIAL
V-F-R CONDITIONS.
c. If an aircraft operating under visual flight rules
attempts to enter, depart, or operate within surface
areas contrary to the provisions of 14 CFR Section
91.157 (visual flight rules), ensure the pilot is aware
of the current weather conditions. Provide the
following information:
NOTE−
Control facilities must always retain SVFR operations
authority when IFR operations are being conducted in
surface areas.
1. At airports with commissioned automated
weather with continuous automated voice capability,
instruct the pilot to monitor the automated broadcast
and advise intentions.
4−5−2. REQUESTS FOR SPECIAL VFR
CLEARANCE
PHRASEOLOGY−
MONITOR (location) AUTOMATED WEATHER
(frequency). ADVISE INTENTIONS.
a. Transmit SVFR clearances only for operations
within surface areas on the basis of weather
conditions. If weather conditions are not reported,
transmit an SVFR clearance whenever a pilot advises
unable to maintain VFR and requests an SVFR
clearance, provided the pilot reports having at least
1-mile flight visibility.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATC CLEARS (aircraft identification) TO ENTER/OUT
OF/THROUGH (name) SURFACE AREA
and if required,
(direction) OF (name) AIRPORT (specified routing), and
MAINTAIN SPECIAL V-F-R CONDITIONS,
and if required,
AT OR BELOW (altitude below 10,000 feet MSL),
Special VFR Operation
2. At airports without a commissioned
automated weather, or, if the pilot is unable to receive
the automated weather broadcast, issue the most
current weather report available. Advise the pilot that
the weather is below VFR minima, and request the
pilot’s intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) WEATHER, CEILING (height), VISIBILITY
(miles). (Location) SURFACE AREA IS BELOW V-F-R
MINIMA. AN ATC CLEARANCE IS REQUIRED.
ADVISE INTENTIONS.
NOTE−
Helicopters performing hover taxiing operations
(normally not above 10 feet) within the boundary of the
airport are considered to be taxiing aircraft.
d. At a pilot’s request, issue a SVFR clearance, if
appropriate, when a SVFR letter of agreement exists
between an FSS and the control facility. If no
agreement exists, request clearance from the control
4−5−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
facility. State the aircraft’s location and route of
flight.
SVFR operations at that airport by other than
helicopters as follows:
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Facility name) RADIO. REQUEST SPECIAL V-F-R
CLEARANCE (aircraft identification) (direction) OF
(location) AIRPORT (specified routing) TO ENTER/OUT
OF/THROUGH (name) AIRPORT (specified routing).
NOTE−
14 CFR Part 91 does not prohibit helicopter Special VFR
flights when visibility is less than 1 mile.
NOTE−
IFR aircraft normally have priority over SVFR aircraft.
1. If the pilot is operating outside surface area
and requests SVFR clearance, issue the clearance or
if unable, advise the pilot to maintain VFR outside
surface area and to standby for clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R OUTSIDE (location) SURFACE
AREA. STANDBY FOR CLEARANCE.
2. When an aircraft requests a SVFR clearance
to enter surface area during periods of SVFR activity,
instruct the pilot to maintain VFR conditions outside
surface area pending arrival/recall/departure of
SVFR operations.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R CONDITIONS OUTSIDE OF THE
(location)
SURFACE
AREA
PENDING
ARRIVAL/RECALL/DEPARTURE OF IFR/SPECIAL
V-F-R AIRCRAFT.
3. If the pilot is operating inside the surface area
and requests an SVFR clearance, advise the pilot to
maintain VFR and standby for clearance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R. STANDBY FOR CLEARANCE.
1. Inform departing aircraft that ground visibil­
ity is less than 1 mile and that a clearance cannot be
issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) VISIBILITY (value). A-T-C UNABLE TO
ISSUE DEPARTURE CLEARANCE.
2. Inform arriving aircraft operating outside of
the surface area that ground visibility is less than
1 mile and, unless an emergency exists, a clearance
cannot be issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) VISIBILITY (value). A-T-C UNABLE TO
ISSUE ENTRY CLEARANCE UNLESS AN
EMERGENCY EXISTS.
3. Inform arriving aircraft operating within the
surface area that ground visibility is less than 1 mile
and request the pilot’s intentions. Relay the pilot’s
response to the control facility immediately.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) VISIBILITY (value). ADVISE INTENTIONS.
b. When weather conditions are not officially
reported at an airport and the pilot advises the flight
visibility is less than 1 mile, treat request for SVFR
operations at that airport by other than helicopters as
follows:
e. Suspend SVFR operations when necessary to
comply with instructions contained in subpara 4-5-4b
or when requested by the control facility.
NOTE−
14 CFR Part 91 prescribes use of officially reported
ground visibility as the governing ground visibility for
VFR and SVFR operations at airports where it is provided
and landing or takeoff flight visibility where it is not.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SPECIAL V-F-R AUTHORIZATION DISCONTINUED.
RETURN TO AIRPORT OR DEPART SURFACE AREA.
ADVISE INTENTIONS.
PHRASEOLOGY−
UNABLE TO ISSUE DEPARTURE CLEARANCE.
After response:
REPORT LANDING COMPLETED/CLEAR SURFACE
AREA.
4−5−3. VISIBILITY BELOW 1 MILE
a. When the ground visibility is officially reported
at an airport as less than 1 mile, treat requests for
4−5−2
1. Inform departing aircraft that a clearance
cannot be issued.
2. Inform arriving aircraft operating outside the
surface area that unless an emergency exists, a
clearance cannot be issued.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ATC UNABLE TO ISSUE ENTRY CLEARANCE UNLESS
AN EMERGENCY EXISTS.
3. Request intentions of arriving aircraft
operating within surface areas. Relay the pilot’s
response to the control facility immediately.
Special VFR Operation
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
ADVISE INTENTIONS.
c. Transmit a clearance to scheduled air carrier
aircraft to conduct operations if ground visibility is
not less than 1/2 mile.
d. Transmit a clearance to an aircraft to fly through
surface area if the pilot reports flight visibility is at
least 1 statute mile.
4−5−4. PREDESIGNED SPECIAL VFR
CLEARANCES
JO 7110.10X
a. Apply these procedures only to aircraft
equipped with a functioning two-way radio. Refer all
requests for no-radio SVFR operations to the control
facility.
b. Transmit clearances so that only one aircraft at
a time operates in surface area unless:
1. Otherwise authorized by a letter of agreement
between the control facility and the FSS.
Transmit predesigned SVFR clearances only during
those periods authorized by the control facility.
2. A pilot requests and all pilots agree that they
will maintain visual separation while operating in
surface area.
NOTE−
The control facility may rescind this authorization at any
time.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN VISUAL SEPARATION FROM (aircraft type).
Special VFR Operation
4−5−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 6. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
4−6−1. GENERAL
The purpose of EFAS, radio call “FLIGHT WATCH”
(FW), is to provide en route aircraft with timely and
pertinent weather data tailored to a specific altitude
and route using the most current available sources of
aviation meteorological information.
NOTE−
EFAS/Flight Watch outlets are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory (AFD).
4−6−2. POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES
Prior to assuming the duties of the flight watch
position:
a. Perform a thorough self-briefing by reviewing
all pertinent weather data.
b. When relieving a specialist on the flight watch
position, obtain a pre-duty briefing from the person
being relieved.
c. When appropriate, obtain a briefing of current
and forecast weather within the flight watch area
(FWA) from the CWSU of the associated air route
traffic control center (ARTCC). (See para 4-6-5.)
d. Maintain currency of weather conditions and
trends while assigned the flight watch position by
reviewing new or revised meteorological issuances
and by observing weather trends contained in current
weather reports and PIREPs.
4−6−3. OPERATING PROCEDURES
a. Tailor en route flight advisories to the phase of
flight that begins after climb out and ends with
descent to land. Current weather and terminal
forecast at the airport of first intended landing and/or
the alternate airport must be provided on request.
When conditions dictate, provide information on
weather for alternate routes and/or altitudes to assist
the pilot in the avoidance of hazardous flight
conditions. Advise the pilot to contact the adjacent
FWA when adverse weather conditions along the
intended route extend beyond the FWA.
b. EFAS must not be used for routine inflight
services; for example, flight plan filing, position
reporting, or full route (preflight) briefings. If a
En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
request for information is received that is not within
the scope of flight watch, advise the pilot of the
appropriate FSS to contact.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna Four Seven Five Eight Xray, Cleveland Flight
Watch, contact Altoona Radio on one two two point four
to file your flight plan.”
c. Suggest route or destination changes to avoid
areas of weather which in the judgment of the
specialist constitute a threat to safe flight.
d. Alert the associated CWSU or WFO
immediately of reported or observed significant
weather that is not included in aviation forecasts.
4−6−4. FREQUENCIES
a. Use frequency 122.0 MHz to provide flight
watch services to aircraft below FL 180.
b. Use the assigned discrete frequency to provide
flight watch services to aircraft at FL 180 and above.
This frequency can also be used for communications
with aircraft below FL 180 when communication
coverage permits.
c. Aircraft operating at FL 180 or above that
contact flight watch on frequency 122.0 MHz should
be advised to change to the high altitude discrete
frequency for Flight Watch.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Aircraft identification) (facility) FLIGHT WATCH, FOR
SERVICE AT YOUR ALTITUDE. CONTACT FLIGHT
WATCH ON (frequency).
d. Avoid the simultaneous keying of two or more
transmitters on the same frequency. This action can
block or hinder communications.
NOTE−
Frequency 122.0 MHz RCF outlets are geographically
located to ensure communications coverage at 5,000 feet
AGL and above over the conterminous United States.
High altitude discrete frequency RCF outlets are
geographically located to ensure communications
coverage between FL 180 and FL 450 over the EFAS
facility’s area of responsibility. Communications practices should be guided by these restrictions.
4−6−5. NWS SUPPORT TO EFAS
The NWS support function for EFAS is as follows:
4−6−1
JO 7110.10X
a. The associated CWSU is designated as the
primary support facility for each flight watch area.
The CWSU should be contacted at least once per shift
for a general briefing of meteorological conditions
which are impacting, or expected to impact, aviation
weather within the flight watch /ARTCC area.
NOTE−
Due to assigned priorities, the CWSU meteorologist may
not be able to provide in-depth briefing service for up to
2 hours after the start of the first shift of the CWSU unit.
(See FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 14-3-6, National
Weather Service (NWS) Support, for establishment of
operational support.)
b. During the period when the CWSU is not
available to provide consultation service, WFOs are
responsible for responding to EFAS facility requests
regarding weather conditions prevailing within the
WFO area of responsibility. The EFAS specialist
should contact the responsible WFO directly for
clarification of forecasts or questions concerning
products originated by the WFO.
4/3/14
4−6−7. GRAPHIC WEATHER DISPLAY
a. Prior to assuming flight watch duties, the
specialist must review, as a minimum, the graphic
information listed below (if available). After
assuming duties, the specialist must continue to
review graphic and written data as needed during the
watch to update and maintain a thorough knowledge
of weather synoptic and forecast information
affecting aviation operations.
1. Weather Depiction.
2. Surface Analysis.
3. Forecast Winds Aloft.
4. G-AIRMET Graphic.
5. 12- and 24- hour low−level significant
weather prognosis.
6. 36-and 48- hour low−level significant
weather prognosis.
7. High−level significant weather prognosis.
NOTE−
The ARTCC/EFAS area may encompass multiple WFO
areas.
8. Freezing level graphic.
c. Consult with the Aviation Weather Center
(AWC), as appropriate, when further information or
clarification is needed regarding WS, WST, WA, and
FA products.
10. *Current Icing Product (CIP).
9. Freezing level analysis.
11. *Forecast Icing Product (FIP).
12. *Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG).
13. 850 MB upper air analysis.
4−6−6. PILOT WEATHER REPORTS
a. Actively solicit and disseminate PIREPs in
accordance with Chapter 9, Section 2. Additionally,
PIREPs concerning winds and temperature aloft,
wind shear, turbulence, and icing must be solicited
and disseminated when one or more of these
conditions or criteria exist. Flight watch specialists
must solicit sufficient PIREPs to remain aware of
flight conditions.
b. Maintain a graphic display of pertinent PIREPs
within the flight watch area. Periodically review the
display, and actively solicit additional PIREPs when
necessary to ensure completeness and accuracy of the
information.
c. Requests for special solicitation of PIREPs
from other facilities or the NWS must be honored as
rapidly as operations permit.
4−6−2
14. 700 MB upper air analysis.
15. 500 MB upper air analysis.
16. 300 MB upper air analysis.
17. 250 MB upper air analysis.
18. 200 MB upper air analysis.
19. 500 MB heights and vorticity analysis.
20. 500 MB heights and vorticity prognosis.
21. Severe weather outlook.
22. Lifted index analysis.
23. National weather radar summary.
24. Maximum temperature 24- and 36- hour
forecast.
25. Minimum temperature 24- and 36- hour
forecast.
En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
NOTE−
*Denotes weather products that are supplementary. They
may only be used to enhance situational awareness. When
discrepancies are noted, the specialist must base their
decision on the primary weather product.
specialist responsible for the adjacent flight watch
area of outages.
b. Access local and remote weather displays as
necessary to maintain current knowledge of
precipitation intensity, movement, and coverage.
Provide pertinent real-time weather radar informa­
tion that will directly impact the aircraft’s flight.
a. Emergency situations must be handled in
accordance with Chapter 5.
4−6−8. INTERRUPTIONS TO SERVICE
Notification of temporary outages, either equipment
or operational, must be made in accordance with FAA
Order JO 7930.2, Notices to Airmen (NOTAM). In
order to provide continuous service, notify the
En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
4−6−9. EMERGENCIES
b. When working an aircraft in an emergency
situation over a remote outlet, the normal procedure
is to provide assistance on the initial contact
frequency. Flight watch specialists should bear in
mind that air traffic facilities based at, or near to, the
remote location may be in a better position to assist
the pilot. A decision to affect a frequency change
should be based on the situation and circumstances
involved in the emergency.
4−6−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 5. Emergency Services
Section 1. General
5−1−1. EMERGENCY DETERMINATION
a. Because of the infinite variety of possible
emergency situations, specific procedures cannot be
prescribed. However, when it is believed that an
emergency exists or is imminent, take a course of
action which appears to be most appropriate under the
circumstances and which most nearly conforms to the
instructions in this manual.
b. An emergency can be either a DISTRESS or
URGENCY condition, as defined in the
Pilot/Controller Glossary.
NOTE−
A pilot who encounters a DISTRESS condition may
declare an emergency by beginning the initial
communication with the word MAYDAY, preferably
repeated three times. For an URGENCY condition, the
word PAN-PAN may be used in the same manner.
c. If the words MAYDAY or PAN-PAN are not
used, and there is doubt that a situation constitutes an
emergency or potential emergency, handle it as
though it is an emergency.
d. Consider an aircraft emergency exists and
inform the appropriate control facility when:
1. An emergency is declared by any of the
following:
(a) The pilot.
(b) Facility personnel.
(c) Officials responsible for the operation of
the aircraft.
2. Reports indicate that the aircraft’s operating
efficiency is so impaired that a forced landing may
be/is necessary.
3. Reports indicate the crew has abandoned the
aircraft or is about to do so.
4. Intercept or escort services are requested.
5. The need for ground rescue appears likely.
6. An Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
signal is heard or reported.
General
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7110.10, Para 5-1-2c, Responsibility
FAAO 7110.10, Para 5-2-8, Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
Signals
5−1−2. RESPONSIBILITY
a. If in communication with an aircraft in distress,
handle the emergency, and coordinate and direct the
activities of assisting facilities. Transfer this
responsibility to another facility only when better
handling of the emergency will result.
b. Upon receipt of information about an aircraft in
distress, forward detailed data to the appropriate
control facility in whose area the emergency exists.
NOTE−
Notifying the appropriate control facility about a VFR
aircraft emergency allows provision of IFR separation if
considered necessary.
c. The ARTCC is responsible for consolidation of
all pertinent ELT signal information. Notify the
ARTCC of all heard or reported ELT signals.
5−1−3. OBTAINING INFORMATION
Obtain enough information to handle the emergency
intelligently. Base decisions about the type of
assistance needed on information and requests
received from the pilot. 14 CFR Part 91 authorizes the
pilot to determine a course of action.
5−1−4. COORDINATION
a. Request assistance from other facilities as soon
as possible, particularly if radar is available.
b. Coordinate efforts to the extent possible to
assist any aircraft believed overdue, lost, or in
emergency status.
5−1−5. PROVIDING ASSISTANCE
a. Provide maximum assistance to aircraft in
distress. If the aircraft is transponder-equipped and
not on an IFR flight plan, instruct the pilot to squawk
code 7700.
PHRASEOLOGY−
SQUAWK SEVEN SEVEN ZERO ZERO.
5−1−1
JO 7110.10X
b. Enlist the service of available radar facilities.
5−1−6. RECORDING INFORMATION
Record all actions taken in the provision of
emergency assistance.
5−1−7. SAFE ALTITUDES FOR
ORIENTATIONS
a. Providing a safe altitude, during an orientation,
is advisory in nature.
5−1−2
4/3/14
b. Safe altitude computations, once the aircraft
position is known, are as follows:
1. Locate the maximum elevation figure on the
appropriate VFR sectional chart.
2. To the maximum elevation figure,
(a) Add 1,000 feet over non-mountainous
terrain; or
(b) Add 2,000 feet over mountainous terrain.
3. Designated mountainous/non-mountainous
areas are found in Title 14 CFR, Part 95, subpart b.
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Operations
5−2−1. INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
a. Radar.
a. Start assistance as soon as enough information
has been obtained upon which to act. Information
requirements will vary, depending on the existing
situation. Minimum required information for inflight
emergencies is:
b. NAVAIDs.
1. Aircraft identification, type, and transponder.
2. Nature of the emergency.
3. Pilot’s desires.
b. After initiating action, provide the altimeter
setting, and obtain the following items or any other
pertinent information from the pilot or aircraft
operator as necessary:
1. Aircraft altitude.
2. Fuel remaining, in time.
3. Pilot-reported weather.
4. Pilot capability for IFR flight.
5. Time and place of last known position.
6. Heading since last known position.
7. Airspeed.
8. Navigation equipment capability.
9. NAVAID signals received.
10. Visible landmarks.
11. Aircraft color.
12. Number of people on board.
13. Point of departure and destination.
14. Emergency equipment on board.
5−2−2. FREQUENCY CHANGES
Provide assistance on the initial contact frequency.
Change frequencies only when there is a valid reason.
Advise the pilot to return to the initial frequency if
unable to establish contact.
5−2−3. AIRCRAFT ORIENTATION
Orient an aircraft by the means most appropriate to
the circumstances. Recognized methods include:
Operations
c. Pilotage.
d. Sighting by other aircraft.
5−2−4. ALTITUDE CHANGE FOR
IMPROVED RECEPTION
If deemed necessary, and if weather and
circumstances permit, recommend the aircraft
maintain or increase altitude to improve
communications or reception.
5−2−5. ALERTING CONTROL FACILITY
When an aircraft is considered to be in emergency
status, alert the appropriate control facility, and
forward the following information as available:
a. Facility/sector and position calling.
b. Flight plan, including color of aircraft, if
known.
c. Time of last transmission received, by whom,
and frequency used.
d. Last known position, estimated present posi­
tion, and maximum range of flight of the aircraft
based on remaining fuel and airspeed.
e. Action taken by reporting facility and proposed
action.
f. Number of persons on board.
g. Fuel status.
h. Position of other aircraft near the aircraft’s route
of flight, when requested.
i. Whether an ELT signal has been heard or
reported in the vicinity of the last known position.
j. Other pertinent information.
5−2−6. VFR AIRCRAFT IN WEATHER
DIFFICULTY
If a VFR aircraft requests assistance when it
encounters or is about to encounter IFR weather
conditions, request the pilot contact the appropriate
control facility. Inform that facility of the situation.
5−2−1
JO 7110.10X
If the pilot is unable to communicate with the control
facility, relay information and clearances.
5−2−7. AIRCRAFT POSITION PLOTS
If necessary, plot the flight path of the aircraft on a
chart, including position reports, predicted positions,
possible range of flight, and any other pertinent
information. Solicit the assistance of other aircraft
known to be operating near the aircraft in distress.
Forward the information to the appropriate control
facility.
5−2−8. EMERGENCY LOCATOR
TRANSMITTER (ELT) SIGNALS
When an ELT signal is heard or reported:
a. Notify the ARTCC, who will coordinate with
the Rescue Coordination Center (RCC).
b. If the ELT signal report was received from an
airborne aircraft, attempt to obtain the following
information:
1. The aircraft altitude.
2. Where and when the signal was first heard.
3. Where and when maximum signal was heard.
4. Where and when signal faded or was lost.
Solicit the assistance of other aircraft known to be
operating in the signal area for the same information.
Relay all information obtained to the ARTCC.
c. Attempt to obtain fixes or bearings on the signal
and forward any information obtained to the ARTCC.
NOTE−
Fix information, in relation to a VOR or a VORTAC
(radial distance), facilitates accurate ELT plotting by
RCC and should be provided when possible.
4/3/14
1. Can ELT signal be heard?
2. Does signal strength indicate transmitter may
be on airport?
3. Can attempt be made to locate and silence
transmitter?
4. Advise the results of any action taken.
Forward all information obtained and action taken to
the ARTCC.
g. Notify the ARTCC if the signal source is
located and whether the aircraft is in distress, plus any
action taken or proposed for silencing the transmitter.
Request person who located signal’s source to
attempt to obtain ELT make, model, etc., for relay to
RCC via the ARTCC.
h. Notify the ARTCC if the signal terminates prior
to location of the source.
NOTE−
1. The ARTCC serves as the contact point for collecting
information and coordinating with the RCC on all ELT
signals.
2. Operational ground testing of ELT has been
authorized during the first 5 minutes of each hour. To
avoid confusing the tests with an actual alarm, the testing
is restricted to no more than three audio sweeps.
3. Portable, handcarried receivers assigned to air traffic
facilities (where no technical operations services
personnel are available) may be loaned to responsible
airport personnel or local authorities to assist in locating
signal source.
5−2−9. EXPLOSIVE CARGO
When you receive information that an emergency
landing will be made with explosive cargo aboard,
inform the pilot of the safest or least congested airport
areas. Relay the explosive cargo information to:
a. The emergency equipment crew.
b. The airport management.
d. In addition to the above, when the ELT signal
strength indicates the transmitter may be on the
airport or in the vicinity, notify the on-site technical
operations services personnel for their action.
c. The appropriate military agencies when
requested by the pilot.
e. Air traffic personnel must not leave their
required duty stations to locate an ELT signal source.
5−2−10. EXPLOSIVE DETECTION DOG
HANDLER TEAMS
f. Attempt to locate the signal source by checking
all adjacent airports not already checked by other
ATC facilities for the following information:
Take the following actions upon receipt of a pilot
request for the location of the nearest explosive
detection K−9 team.
5−2−2
Operations
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
a. Obtain the aircraft’s identification and current
position, and advise the person in charge of the watch
of the pilot’s request.
5−2−12. NAVY FLEET SUPPORT MISSIONS
b. Relay the pilot’s request to the FAA
Washington Operations Center, AEO-100, (202)
267-3333, and provide the aircraft identification and
position.
a. When you receive information concerning an
emergency to a U.S. Navy Special Flight Number
aircraft, inform the nearest ARTCC of all pertinent
information.
c. AEO-100 will provide the nearest location.
Have AEO-100 standby while the information is
relayed to the pilot.
b. Relay the words “SPECIAL FLIGHT NUM­
BER” followed by the number given as part of the
routine IFR flight information.
d. If the pilot wishes to divert to the airport
location provided, obtain an estimated arrival time
from the pilot, and advise the person in charge of the
watch.
5−2−13. COUNTRIES IN THE SPECIAL
INTEREST FLIGHT PROGRAM
e. After the aircraft destination has been
determined, provide the estimated arrival time to
AEO-100. AEO−100 will then notify the appropriate
airport authority at the diversion airport. In the event
the K-9 team is not available at this airport, AEO-100
will advise the air traffic facility and provide them
with the secondary location. Relay this to the pilot
concerned for appropriate action.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 7210.3, Para 2-1-11, Explosives Detection K-9 Teams
5−2−11. INFLIGHT EQUIPMENT
MALFUNCTIONS
When a pilot reports an inflight equipment
malfunction, take the following action:
a. Request the nature and extent of any special
handling desired.
NOTE−
14 CFR Part 91.187 requires the pilot in command of each
aircraft operated in controlled airspace under IFR MUST
report as soon as practical to ATC any malfunctions of
navigational, approach, or communication equipment
occurring in flight. This includes the degree to which the
capability of the aircraft to operate IFR in the air traffic
control system is impaired and the nature and extent of any
assistance desired from air traffic control.
b. Provide the maximum assistance possible
consistent with equipment, workload, and any
special handling requested.
c. Relay any special handling required or being
provided to other specialists or facilities who will
subsequently handle the aircraft.
Operations
Handle Navy Fleet Support Missions aircraft as
follows:
Upon receipt of any flight movement data on an
aircraft registered in a special interest country, notify
the supervisor and the appropriate ARTCC immedi­
ately. Additionally, if the aircraft is making an
emergency or an unscheduled landing in the United
States, notify the nearest Bureau of Customs and
Border protection office.
NOTE−
Special interest countries include Russia, China (not
including Hong Kong, Taiwan, or Macau), Cuba, Iran,
North Korea, Syria, and Sudan.
5−2−14. MINIMUM FUEL
If an aircraft declares a state of “minimum fuel,”
inform any facility to whom control jurisdiction is
transferred of the minimum fuel problem and be alert
for any occurrence which might delay the aircraft en
route.
NOTE−
Use of the term “minimum fuel” indicates recognition by
a pilot that the fuel supply has reached a state whereupon
reaching destination, any undue delay cannot be
accepted. This is not an emergency situation but merely an
advisory that indicates an emergency situation is possible
should any undue delay occur. A minimum fuel advisory
does not imply a need for traffic priority. Common sense
and good judgment will determine the extent of assistance
to be given in minimum fuel situations. If, at any time, the
remaining usable fuel supply suggests the need for traffic
priority to ensure a safe landing, the pilot should declare
an emergency and report fuel remaining in minutes.
5−2−15. AIRCRAFT BOMB THREATS
a. When information is received from any source
that a bomb has been placed on, in, or near an aircraft
for the purpose of damaging or destroying such
5−2−3
JO 7110.10X
aircraft, notify the supervisor or facility manager. If
the threat is general in nature, handle it as a suspicious
activity. When the threat is targeted against a specific
aircraft and you are in contact with that aircraft, take
the following actions as appropriate:
NOTE−
1. Facility supervisors are expected to notify the
appropriate offices, agencies, and operators/air carriers
according to applicable plans, directives, FAA Order JO
7210.3, Facility Operation and Administration, or
military directives.
2. Suspicious activity is covered in FAA Order JO 7610.4,
Chapter 7, Hijacked/Suspicious Aircraft Reporting and
Procedures. Military facilities would report a general
threat through the chain of command or according to
service directives.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 7, Hijacked/Suspicious Aircraft Reporting and
Procedures.
3. A specific threat may be directed at an aircraft registry
or tail number, the air carrier flight number, the name of
an operator, crew member or passenger, the departure/arrival point or times, or combinations thereof.
1. Advise the pilot of the threat.
2. Report the threat to the Domestic Events
Network (DEN) Air Traffic Security Coordinator
(ATSC) via (202) 493-4170. If unable to contact the
DEN ATSC notify the Transportation Security
Administration/Transportation Security Operation
Center (TSA/TSOC) directly at 703-563-3400.
3. Ask if the pilot desires to climb or descend to
an altitude that would equalize or reduce the outside
air pressure/existing cabin air pressure differential.
Obtain and relay an appropriate clearance consider­
ing minimum en route altitude (MEA), minimum
obstruction clearance altitude (MOCA), minimum
reception altitude (MRA), and weather.
NOTE−
Equalizing existing cabin air pressure with outside air
pressure is a key step which the pilot may wish to take to
minimize the damage potential of a bomb.
4. Handle the aircraft as an emergency, and/or
provide the most expeditious handling possible with
respect to the safety of other aircraft, weather
conditions, ground facilities, and personnel.
NOTE−
Emergency handling is discretionary and should be based
on the situation. With certain types of threats, plans may
call for a low-key action or response.
5−2−4
4/3/14
5. Obtain and relay clearance to a new
destination, if requested.
6. When a pilot requests technical assistance or
if it is apparent that such assistance is needed, do
NOT suggest what actions the pilot should take
concerning a bomb, but obtain the following
information and notify the supervisor who will
contact the DEN ATSC or TSA/TSOC as explained
in a2 above.
NOTE−
This information is needed by TSA explosives experts so
that the situation can be assessed and immediate
recommendations made to the pilot. The aviation
explosives experts may not be familiar with all military
aircraft configurations but can offer technical assistance
which would be beneficial to the pilot.
(a) Type, series, and model of the aircraft.
(b) Precise location/description of the bomb
device, if known.
(c) Other details which may be pertinent.
b. When a bomb threat involves an aircraft on the
ground and you are in contact with the suspect
aircraft, take the following actions in addition to
those discussed in the preceding paragraphs which
may be appropriate:
1. If the pilot ignores the threat, recommend that
takeoff be delayed until the pilot or aircraft operator
establishes that a bomb is not aboard.
2. Advise the aircraft to remain as far away from
other aircraft and facilities as possible, to clear the
runway, if appropriate, and to taxi to an isolated or
designated search area. When it is impractical or if the
pilot takes an alternative action, such as parking and
offloading immediately, advise other aircraft to
remain clear of the suspect aircraft by at least
100 yards, if able.
NOTE−
Passenger deplaning may be of paramount importance
and must be considered before the aircraft is parked or
moved away from the service areas. The decision to use
ramp facilities rests with the pilot, aircraft operator,
and/or airport manager.
c. If you are unable to inform the suspect aircraft
of a bomb threat or if you lose contact with the
aircraft, advise your supervisor to contact the DEN
ATSC for relay of pertinent details to other sectors or
facilities, as deemed necessary.
Operations
4/3/14
d. When a pilot reports the discovery of a bomb or
suspected bomb on an aircraft, determine the pilot’s
intentions and comply with his/her requests insofar as
possible. Take all the actions discussed in the
preceding paragraphs which may be appropriate
under the existing circumstances.
e. The handling of aircraft when a hijacker has or
is suspected of having a bomb requires special
considerations. Be responsive to the pilot’s requests
and notify supervisory personnel. Apply hijacking
procedures in accordance with FAA Order JO 7610.4,
Special Operations, Chapter 7, and if needed, offer
assistance to the pilot according to the preceding
paragraphs.
5−2−16. EMERGENCY SECURITY
CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT)
a. The ESCAT Plan outlines responsibilities,
Operations
JO 7110.10X
procedures, and instructions for the security control
of civil and military air traffic and NAVAIDs under
various emergency conditions.
b. When notified of ESCAT implementation,
follow the instructions received from the Air Traffic
Control
System
Command
Center
(ATCSCC)/ARTCC.
1. To ensure that ESCAT actions can be taken
expeditiously, periodic ESCAT tests will be
conducted in connection with NORAD exercises.
Tests may be local, regional, or national in scope.
2. FSS must participate in tests except where
such participation will involve the safety of aircraft.
3. During ESCAT tests, all actions will be
simulated.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7610.4, Chapter 6, Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic
(ESCAT).
5−2−5
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. ADF/VOR Orientation
5−3−1. ACTIONS REQUIRED
When providing automatic direction finder
(ADF)/VOR orientation services to an aircraft in
emergency status:
a. Determine if the aircraft is in VFR or IFR
weather conditions, fuel remaining, altitude, and
heading.
b. If the aircraft is operating in IFR weather
conditions, coordinate with the appropriate control
facility.
c. Determine if the aircraft is on a flight plan. If the
aircraft is not on an IFR flight plan and is in VFR
weather conditions, advise the pilot to remain VFR.
5−3−2. GENERAL
When providing ADF/VOR orientation services to
an aircraft in emergency status:
a. Position Fixing.
1. Advise the pilot to remain VFR, and provide
local altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R AT ALL TIMES. ADVISE IF HEADING
OR ALTITUDE CHANGE IS NECESSARY TO REMAIN
V-F-R. (Location) ALTIMETER (setting).
2. Obtain heading and altitude. Advise the pilot
to maintain straight and level flight and to align the
heading indicator with the magnetic compass.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT. RESET
YOUR HEADING INDICATOR TO AGREE WITH YOUR
MAGNETIC COMPASS. AFTER YOU HAVE DONE
THIS, SAY YOUR HEADING AND ALTITUDE.
3. Determine the weather conditions and fuel
status.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT IS THE WEATHER AT YOUR ALTITUDE AND
FUEL REMAINING IN TIME?
4. Advise the pilot to maintain the same
heading, verify the aircraft has ADF equipment, and
determine the airspeed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees). WHAT TYPE OF
ADF/VOR Orientation
NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT DO YOU HAVE ON
BOARD, AND WHAT IS YOUR AIRSPEED?
5. Advise the pilot to tune the ADF receiver to
the NDB. Provide the NDB name, identifier, and
frequency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TUNE YOUR A-D-F RECEIVER TO THE (name) RADIO
BEACON,
FREQUENCY
(frequency),
IDENTIFICATION (ident). CHECK VOLUME UP, AND
IDENTIFY THE STATION. ADVISE WHEN YOU HAVE
DONE THIS.
6. After acknowledgment has been received,
advise the pilot to set the ADF function switch to the
ADF position and report the reading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
IF YOU HAVE A ROTATING COMPASS CARD (ROSE)
ON YOUR A-D-F INDICATOR, MAKE CERTAIN
NORTH IS AT THE TOP OF THE DIAL. TURN THE
FUNCTION SWITCH TO THE A-D-F POSITION. WHEN
THE NEEDLE STABILIZES, ADVISE THE A-D-F
NEEDLE READING.
REFERENCE−
The Instrument Flying Handbook. North may mean “north, N, zero (0) or
360.”
7. Compute the magnetic bearing.
(a) Relative Bearing (RB) + Magnetic
Heading (MH) = Magnetic Bearing (MB)
(b) If the MB exceeds 360 degrees, subtract
360 to determine MB; for example, 480 degrees - 360
degrees = 120 degrees MB.
8. Advise the pilot of direction from the NDB.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (direction) OF THE (name) RADIO BEACON.
b. Orientation.
1. Turn the aircraft inbound to the NDB being
used. Provide the direction of the turn and the heading
to be flown. Advise the pilot to report when
established on that heading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR A-D-F ORIENTATION, TURN LEFT/RIGHT
HEADING (degrees). REPORT ESTABLISHED
HEADING (degrees).
2. Notify the appropriate control facility.
Provide all required information including the
aircraft’s position and heading.
5−3−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
3. Verify that the aircraft is established on a line
of position to the NDB.
5−3−3. VOR ORIENTATION/VOR
CROSS-FIX
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT IS YOUR A-D-F NEEDLE READING?
When using VOR orientation and/or cross-fix
procedures, determine the aircraft’s position as
follows:
4. Provide heading adjustments as needed for
the aircraft to continue inbound to the NDB.
(a) If the pilot indicates an ADF reading other
than 3-6-0, compute the new heading and advise the
aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TURN LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (degrees). REPORT
ESTABLISHED HEADING (degrees).
(b) After pilot reports established and needle
is on 3-6-0, heading adjustments are not necessary.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees).
c. Cross-fixing. After the aircraft is established
inbound to the NDB, use the following procedures:
1. Advise the pilot to tune the ADF receiver to
the NDB to be used for cross-fixing. Provide the
NDB name, identifier, and frequency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
TUNE YOUR A-D-F RECEIVER TO THE (name) RADIO
BEACON,
FREQUENCY
(frequency),
IDENTIFICATION (identification). CHECK VOLUME
UP, AND IDENTIFY THE STATION. ADVISE WHEN
YOU HAVE DONE THIS.
2. After acknowledgment has been received,
request ADF reading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHEN THE NEEDLE STABILIZES, ADVISE THE A-D-F
NEEDLE READING.
3. Compute and plot the second line of position.
NOTE−
The intersection of the two lines of position is the aircraft’s
position at the time of the second ADF reading.
a. Position Fixing.
1. Advise the pilot to remain VFR and provide
the local altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R AT ALL TIMES. ADVISE IF HEADING
OR ALTITUDE CHANGE IS NECESSARY TO REMAIN
V-F-R. (Location) ALTIMETER (setting).
2. Obtain heading and altitude. Advise the pilot
to maintain straight and level flight and to align the
heading indicator to agree with the magnetic
compass.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT. RESET
YOUR HEADING INDICATOR TO AGREE WITH YOUR
MAGNETIC COMPASS. AFTER YOU HAVE DONE
THIS, SAY YOUR HEADING AND ALTITUDE.
3. Determine the weather conditions and the
fuel status.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT IS THE WEATHER AT YOUR ALTITUDE AND
FUEL REMAINING IN TIME.
4. Advise the pilot to maintain the same
heading, verify the aircraft has VOR equipment, and
determine the airspeed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees). WHAT TYPE OF
NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT DO YOU HAVE ON
BOARD, AND WHAT IS YOUR AIRSPEED?
5. If the pilot calls on a simplex frequency, such
as 122.2, advise the pilot to tune the receiver to the
VOR you have selected. Provide the VOR name,
frequency, and communication procedures.
5. Request pilot’s intentions and provide
assistance, as requested.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE TRANSMITTING THIS FREQUENCY.
TUNE YOUR V-O-R RECEIVER TO THE (name) V-O-R,
FREQUENCY
(frequency)
IDENTIFICATION
(identification). CHECK VOLUME UP, AND IDENTIFY
THE STATION. ADVISE WHEN YOU HAVE DONE
THIS.
NOTE−
If the pilot calls on duplex (122.1), use the VOR the pilot
is tuned as the initial VOR.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT ARE YOUR INTENTIONS?
6. Determine the aircraft’s course selector
reading.
4. Advise the pilot of the aircraft’s position and
the safe altitude for orientation in that area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (miles) (direction) OF THE (name) RADIO
BEACON. THE SAFE ALTITUDE FOR ORIENTATIONS
IN THAT AREA IS (feet).
5−3−2
ADF/VOR Orientation
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
ROTATE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR SLOWLY UNTIL
THE LEFT/RIGHT NEEDLE CENTERS WITH A “TO”
INDICATION. ADVISE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR
READING.
7. Advise the pilot of the aircraft’s position.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (direction) OF THE (name) V-O-R.
b. Orientation.
1. Turn the aircraft inbound to the VOR being
used. Provide the direction of turn and the heading to
be flown. Advise the pilot to report when established
on that heading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR V-O-R ORIENTATION, TURN LEFT/RIGHT
HEADING (degrees). REPORT ESTABLISHED
HEADING (degrees).
2. Notify the appropriate control facility.
Provide all the required information including the
aircraft’s position and heading.
3. Verify that the aircraft is established on a line
of position to the VOR.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT IS THE POSITION OF YOUR LEFT/RIGHT
NEEDLE?
4. Provide heading adjustments as needed for
the aircraft to continue inbound to the VOR.
(a) When the pilot indicates the left/right
needle is not centered, advise the pilot to re-center
needle with a “TO” indication and report the course
selector reading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
Pilot response indicates needle not centered:
ROTATE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR SLOWLY UNTIL
THE LEFT/RIGHT NEEDLE CENTERS WITH A “TO”
INDICATION. ADVISE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR
READING. (If appropriate) TURN LEFT/RIGHT
HEADING (degrees). REPORT ESTABLISHED
(degrees).
(b) After the aircraft is established on the
inbound radial, advise the aircraft to continue on the
inbound heading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees).
5. Plot line of position.
ADF/VOR Orientation
JO 7110.10X
c. Cross-fixing. After the aircraft is established
inbound to the VOR, use the following procedures:
1. Advise the pilot to tune the receiver to the
VOR you have selected for cross-fixing. Provide
VOR name, frequency, and lost communications
procedures.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE TRANSMITTING THIS FREQUENCY.
TUNE YOUR V-O-R RECEIVER TO THE (name) V-O-R,
FREQUENCY (frequency), IDENTIFICATION
(identification). CHECK VOLUME UP. IF
COMMUNICATION IS NOT ESTABLISHED
IMMEDIATELY, RETURN TO THIS FREQUENCY.
2. Using only the voice feature of the second
VOR, establish positive communication with the
aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Name) RADIO TRANSMITTING ON THE (name) V-O-R.
HOW DO YOU HEAR? OVER.
NOTE−
Transmit only on the frequency of the VOR being used for
cross-fixing, if available.
3. After communication has been reestablished,
advise the pilot to re-center the VOR left/right needle
and advise the reading.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ROTATE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR SLOWLY UNTIL
THE LEFT/RIGHT NEEDLE CENTERS WITH A “TO”
INDICATION. ADVISE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR
READING.
4. If the pilot is transmitting on duplex (122.1)
and the cross fix VOR has no voice capability,
provide the following instructions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE TRANSMITTING THIS FREQUENCY.
TUNE YOUR VOR RECEIVER TO THE (name) VOR,
FREQUENCY (frequency), IDENTIFICATION (ident).
CHECK VOLUME UP AND IDENTIFY THE STATION.
ROTATE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR SLOWLY UNTIL
THE LEFT/RIGHT NEEDLE CENTERS WITH A “TO”
INDICATION. ADVISE YOUR COURSE SELECTOR
READING (PAUSE).
RETUNE YOUR VOR RECEIVER TO THE (name) VOR,
FREQUENCY (frequency), IDENTIFICATION
(identification).
SAY
YOUR
AIRCRAFT
IDENTIFICATION AND THE (name) VOR COURSE
SELECTOR READING.
5. Advise the pilot to continue the inbound
heading.
5−3−3
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees).
3. Continue to provide assistance in the form of
pilotage and airport information as necessary.
6. Plot the new line of position from the second
VOR, advise the pilot of the aircraft’s position, and
the safe altitude for orientation in that area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DO YOU SEE ANY PROMINENT LANDMARKS?
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (miles) (direction) OF THE (name) V-O-R.
THE SAFE ALTITUDE FOR ORIENTATIONS IN THAT
AREA IS (feet).
NOTE−
The intersection of the two lines of position is the aircraft’s
position at the time of the second VOR reading.
7. Request the pilot’s intentions.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT ARE YOUR INTENTIONS?
5−3−4. GUIDANCE TO AIRPORT
After establishing the aircraft’s position and if the
pilot requests guidance to the airport:
a. Plot the course to the airport.
b. Provide the course guidance information to the
pilot.
1. Advise the pilot of the direction of the turn
and the heading to the airport.
ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE (name) AIRPORT?
(Name) AIRPORT FIELD ELEVATION (feet). IT HAS
(number and surface type) RUNWAYS. THE RUNWAY/S
RUN (direction). THE AIRPORT IS LOCATED
(direction/distance) FROM (landmark visible to the
aircraft).
4. Advise the pilot to report the landing airport
in sight.
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT AIRPORT IN SIGHT.
5. Determine when the pilot no longer needs
assistance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DO YOU REQUIRE FURTHER ASSISTANCE?
6. When the pilot indicates assistance is no
longer required, terminate the service. Provide the
CTAF frequency, if appropriate, and the local
altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR A HEADING TO THE (name) AIRPORT, TURN
LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (degrees). REPORT
ESTABLISHED HEADING (degrees).
PHRASEOLOGY−
(VOR/ADF) ORIENTATION SERVICE TERMINATED.
COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY
(frequency). ALTIMETER (setting).
2. After the pilot reports established on the
heading to the airport, advise the pilot of the position
in relation to the airport.
NOTE−
CTAF is defined as a UNICOM, Multicom, FSS, or airport
traffic control tower (ATCT) frequency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (miles) (direction) OF THE (name) AIRPORT.
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees).
7. Notify appropriate control facility of the
aircraft’s position, termination of services, and the
pilot’s intentions.
5−3−4
ADF/VOR Orientation
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Global Positioning System (GPS)
5−4−1. ACTIONS REQUIRED
b. Orientation.
When providing GPS orientation services to an
aircraft in emergency status:
1. Advise pilot to turn on GPS or if GPS is
turned on advise pilot to turn it off and back on.
a. Determine if the aircraft is in VFR or IFR
weather conditions, fuel remaining, altitude, and
heading.
2. Advise pilot to report when GPS is
initialized.
b. If the aircraft is operating in IFR weather
conditions, coordinate with the appropriate control
facility.
c. Determine if the aircraft is on a flight plan. If the
aircraft is not on an IFR flight plan and is in VFR
weather conditions, advise the pilot to remain VFR.
5−4−2. GPS ORIENTATION
When using GPS orientation, determine the aircraft’s
position as follows:
a. Position fixing.
1. Advise the pilot to remain VFR and provide
the local altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN V-F-R AT ALL TIMES. ADVISE IF
HEADING OR ALTITUDE CHANGE IS NECESSARY TO
REMAIN V-F-R. (Location) ALTIMETER (setting).
2. Obtain heading and altitude. Advise the pilot
to maintain straight and level flight and to align the
heading indicator with the magnetic compass.
PHRASEOLOGY−
MAINTAIN STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT. RESET
YOUR HEADING INDICATOR TO AGREE WITH YOUR
MAGNETIC COMPASS. AFTER YOU HAVE DONE
THIS, SAY YOUR HEADING AND ALTITUDE.
3. Determine the weather conditions and fuel
status.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT IS THE WEATHER AT YOUR ALTITUDE AND
FUEL REMAINING IN TIME.
4. Advise the pilot to maintain the same
heading, verify the aircraft has GPS equipment, and
determine the airspeed.
PHRASEOLOGY−
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees). WHAT TYPE OF
NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT DO YOU HAVE ON
BOARD, AND WHAT IS YOUR AIRSPEED?
Global Positioning System (GPS)
NOTE−
This procedure ensures the GPS unit is not in simulator
mode and does not have data displayed that may be
misinterpreted.
3. Ask pilot for position information.
(a) Latitude and longitude
(b) Fix radial distance from NAVAID,
airport, or fix
4. Plot the position of aircraft.
NOTE−
The position is the aircraft’s position at the time of the GPS
reading.
5. Advise the pilot of the aircraft’s position and
the safe altitude for orientation in that area.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (miles) (direction) OF THE (name)
NAVAID/AIRPORT. THE SAFE ALTITUDE FOR
ORIENTATIONS IN THAT AREA IS (feet).
6. Notify the appropriate control facility.
Provide all required information including the
aircraft’s position and heading.
7. Request pilot’s intentions and provide
assistance, as requested.
PHRASEOLOGY−
WHAT ARE YOUR INTENTIONS?
5−4−3. GUIDANCE TO AIRPORT
After establishing the aircraft’s position and if the
pilot requests guidance to the airport:
a. Plot the course to the airport.
b. Provide the course guidance information to the
pilot.
1. Advise the pilot of the direction of the turn
and the heading to the airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
FOR A HEADING TO THE (name) AIRPORT, TURN
LEFT/RIGHT HEADING (degrees). REPORT
ESTABLISHED HEADING (degrees).
5−4−1
JO 7110.10X
2. After the pilot reports established on the
heading to the airport, advise the pilot of the position
in relation to the airport.
PHRASEOLOGY−
YOU ARE (miles) (direction) OF THE (name) AIRPORT.
CONTINUE HEADING (degrees).
3. Continue to provide assistance in the form of
pilotage and airport information as necessary.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DO YOU SEE ANY PROMINENT LANDMARKS?
ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE (name) AIRPORT?
(Name) AIRPORT FIELD ELEVATION (feet). IT HAS
(number and surface type) RUNWAYS. THE RUNWAY/S
RUN (direction). THE AIRPORT IS LOCATED
(direction/distance) FROM (landmark visible to the
aircraft).
4. Advise the pilot to report the landing airport
in sight.
5−4−2
4/3/14
PHRASEOLOGY−
REPORT AIRPORT IN SIGHT.
5. Determine when the pilot no longer needs
assistance.
PHRASEOLOGY−
DO YOU REQUIRE FURTHER ASSISTANCE?
6. When the pilot indicates assistance is no
longer required, terminate the service. Provide the
CTAF frequency, if appropriate, and the local
altimeter setting.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(GPS) ORIENTATION SERVICE TERMINATED.
COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY
(frequency). ALTIMETER (setting).
NOTE−
CTAF is defined as a UNICOM, Multicom, FSS, or ATCT
frequency.
7. Notify appropriate control facility of the
aircraft’s position, termination of services, and the
pilot’s intentions.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 6. Flight Data
Section 1. General
6−1−1. COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE
Most flight movement data exchanged outside of the
facility is processed by automated systems such as
NADIN. It is important to adhere to strict format and
procedures during normal operations as well as
system interruption periods.
a. Circuit interruption notifications should be as
follows:
1. Consult your operational system handbook
and standard operating procedures for detailed
instructions regarding circuit interruption
notification procedures.
2. Notify any guarding facility/sector, the
Aeronautical Information System Replacement
(AISR) Customer Service Center, and NADIN.
b. All outage reports should refer to the correct
circuit and/or equipment identification numbers.
Facilities should obtain and record ticket numbers
provided by AISR or the TELCO authority.
c. AISR and NADIN telephone numbers.
1. NADIN/ATLANTA: (KATLYTYX)
770 210-7675.
2. NADIN/SALT LAKE CITY: (KSLCYTYX)
801 320-2172.
3. AISR Helpdesk: 866-466-1336.
d. Weather Message Switching Center
Replacement (WMSCR) telephone numbers.
1. WMSCR/ATLANTA: 770-210-7574.
2. WMSCR/SALT LAKE CITY:
801-320-2046.
b. When a departure report is unlikely because of
inadequate communications capability, advise the
pilot that the flight plan will be activated using the
proposed departure time as the actual departure time.
Include “ASMD DEP” in remarks. The pilot is
responsible for closing, cancelling, or extending the
flight plan if the flight is cancelled or delayed.
c. Determine the flight plan area in which the
destination is located. Request the pilot close the
flight plan with the tie-in facility. Provide the pilot the
tie-in facility/sector contact information upon
request.
d. Recommend that a separate flight plan be filed
for each leg of a VFR flight.
e. Request the pilot inform FSS whenever the filed
time en route changes more than 30�minutes.
f. On return flights from remote areas, such as a
fishing site, establish a mutually acceptable date/time
with the pilot for alerting search and rescue.
g. When a pilot files to an airport served by a
part-time FSS and the ETA is during the period the
facility is closed, ask the pilot to close with the
associated FSS, identified in FAA Order JO 7350.8,
Location Identifiers, and the Airport/Facility
Directory.
h. Upon request, inform pilots filing IFR flight
plans of the appropriate and most effective means of
obtaining IFR departure clearances.
i. When a pilot files a DVFR flight plan, advise the
pilot to activate with Flight Service. Also advise the
pilot that a discrete beacon code will be assigned
upon activation.
Filing a VFR flight plan is recommended. Brief
pilots, as appropriate, on the following:
NOTE−
1. A discrete beacon code may be assigned when the
flight plan is filed, as necessary. If the pilot wants to file
a DVFR flight plan that departs outside the facility’s flight
plan area, provide the applicable toll-free number for the
departure FSS.
a. Identify the tie-in station for the departure
point, and advise the pilot to report departure time
directly to that facility.
2. Discrete beacon codes are assigned to facilities in
accordance with FAA Order JO 7110.66, National Beacon
Code Allocation Plan.
6−1−2. FLIGHT PLANS
General
6−1−1
JO 7110.10X
6−1−3. FLIGHT PLAN DATA
Handle flight plan data as follows:
a. Record flight plan data on a domestic or ICAO
flight plan form or electronic equivalent. Locally
approved procedures may be used to manually record
data prior to entry into the operational system. Flight
plan data received from an operations office may be
limited to only those items required for ATC or SAR
purposes, provided the operations office obtains
complete information on the flight.
4/3/14
approved contractions and identifiers must be placed
in facility files for record and reference purposes.
d. When recording data manually, use the standard
hand-printed characters shown in FIG 6−1-1 to
prevent misinterpretation.
FIG 6−1−1
Hand-Printed Characters Chart
b. Accept military flight plan proposals,
cancellations, and closures from any source,
including collect telephone calls.
NOTE−
Part-time operations offices must provide complete
information in the event it is needed for SAR purposes.
6−1−4. TYPES OF DATA RECORDED
a. Operational system entries for:
1. Flight plans and related messages.
2. Logging pilot briefings and aircraft contacts.
3. Service A/B messages.
b. Manual strip marking.
6−1−5. METHODS OF RECORDING DATA
a. Except as provided in para 4-2-2b, all entries
must be made directly into the operational system.
b. Locally approved procedures may be used to
manually record data during heavy traffic periods or
system outages. Aircraft contact information should
be logged in the operational system as soon as
practical.
c. Use control/clearance symbols, abbreviations,
location identifiers, and contractions for recording
position reports, traffic clearances, and other data.
When recording data either electronically or
manually, you may use:
1. Plain language to supplement data when it
will aid in understanding the recorded information.
2. Locally approved contractions and identifiers
for frequently used terms and local fixes not listed in
FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, or FAA Order
JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers. Use only within your
facility, not on data or interphone circuits. All locally
6−1−2
General
4/3/14
NOTE−
A slant line crossing through the numeral zero and an
underline of the letter “S” on handwritten portions of
flight progress strips are required only when there is
reason to believe the lack of these markings could lead to
a misunderstanding. A slant line through the numeral zero
is required on all weather data.
e. To correct or update data, draw a horizontal line
through it and write the correct information adjacent
to it.
f. Do not erase any item.
6−1−6. IFR/VFR/DVFR FLIGHT PLAN
RECORDING
a. Use the operational system to record and file
flight plans, flight plan modifications, cancellations,
activations, and closures for appropriate distribution
and processing. Detailed instructions are contained in
the operational system manuals.
NOTE−
FSS operational systems contain the electronic equivalent
of FAA Form 7233-1, Flight Plan
b. When closing an active VFR flight plan, obtain
departure point and destination, if not already known.
NOTE−
A cancelled VFR flight plan is one that is removed from
a proposed list and has not been activated. A closed VFR
flight plan is one that has been activated and is now
removed from an inbound list.
c. Flight plan information may initially be
recorded on FAA Form 7233-1 or other paper prior to
entry into the operational system
General
JO 7110.10X
6−1−7. PART-TIME FSS CLOSURE ACTION
Part-time facilities must forward the following
information to the designated guard FSS.
a. Inbound flights - all information.
b. Outbound flights - VFR and IFR flight plan
data when proposed departure time and/or ETA is
within the period from 1 hour prior to closing until
1 hour after opening.
c. All other pertinent information; for example,
NOTAMs and pending outages.
6−1−8. TELEPHONE REQUESTS FOR ATC
CLEARANCES
When a telephone request for an ATC clearance is
received, positively verify the departure location by
airport name or location identifier, and the city name
and state.
NOTE−
1. With telephone calls being received from larger
geographic areas, verification of the departure location
may prevent a critical safety situation involving similar or
identical airport or city names possibly located in
different states.
2. City refers to a city, town, village or publicly
recognized place.
3. Refer to FAA Order JO 7110.10, Para 4-3-7, ATC
Clearances, Advisories, or Requests, for guidance on
relaying ATC clearances.
6−1−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Flight Plan Proposals
6−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING
Record flight plans on FAA Form 7233-1, Flight
Plan, or electronic equivalent. Completion of all
blocks or fields is not required in every case, and all
items filed are not always transmitted. Use authorized
abbreviations where possible. The instructions below
are for completion of FAA Form 7233-1. For
electronic versions of flight plan forms, refer to that
system’s operating instructions.
NOTE−
Use FAA Form 7233-4, International Flight Plan, for
international flights as well as flights in domestic U.S.
airspace in which automatic assignment of RNAV routes
is desired. See para 6-2-3, Flight Plans with Area
Navigation (RNAV) Routes in Domestic U.S. Airspace.
a. Item 1. Type of flight plan. Check the
appropriate box.
b. Item 2. Aircraft Identification. Enter as follows,
but do not exceed seven alphanumeric characters:
1. Civil Aircraft Including Air Carrier. Aircraft
letter/digit registration including the letter “T” prefix
for air taxi aircraft, the letter “L” for MEDEVAC
aircraft, or the three-letter aircraft company
designator specified in FAA Order JO 7340.2,
Contractions, followed by the trip or the flight
number.
EXAMPLE−
N12345
TN5552Q
AAL192
LN751B
NOTE−
The letter “L” must not be entered in Item 2 of the flight
plan for air carrier or air taxi MEDEVAC aircraft.
Include the word “MEDEVAC” in the remarks section of
the flight plan.
2. U.S. Military Aircraft.
(a) Use the military abbreviation followed by
the last five digits of the aircraft’s number. For certain
tactical mission aircraft, enter the assigned
three-to-six letter code word followed by a
one-to-four digit number. (See TBL 6-2-1)
Flight Plan Proposals
TBL 6−2−1
Military
Abbreviation
A
C
E
G
L
R
RCH
Military Service
USAF
Coast Guard
Air Evacuation
Air/Army National Guard
LOGAIR (USAF contract)
Army
REACH (USAF Air Mobility
Command)
Special Air Mission
Marine Corps
Navy
S
VM
VV
(b) Aircraft carrying the President, Vice
President, and/or their family members will use the
identifiers in the following tables. (See TBL 6−2−2
and TBL 6−2−3)
TBL 6−2−2
President and Family
Service
Air Force
Marine
Navy
Army
Coast Guard
Guard
Commercial
President
AF1
VM1
VV1
RR1
C1
G1
EXEC1
Family
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
EXEC1F
TBL 6−2−3
Vice President and Family
Service
Air Force
Marine
Navy
Army
Coast Guard
Guard
Commercial
Vice President
AF2
VM2
VV2
RR2
C2
G2
EXEC2
Family
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
EXEC2F
3. Canadian Military Aircraft. The
abbreviations must be followed by a number group
not to exceed four digits. (See TBL 6−2−4.)
TBL 6−2−4
Canadian Military
Abbreviation
CFC
CTG
Military Service
Canadian Forces
Canadian Coast Guard
6−2−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
c. Item 3. Aircraft Type. Insert the name or
abbreviation (two-to-four alphanumeric characters)
of the manufacturer’s or military designation. For
amateur-built/experimental aircraft, use HXA, HXB,
or HXC, in accordance with the FAA Order JO
7110.65, Appendix C, Aircraft Information Specific
Homebuilt/Experimental, spell out aircraft type in
Remarks.
No DME
1. Prefix to Aircraft Type (one-to-two alphanu­
meric characters). For IFR operations, if the aircraft’s
weight class is heavy, indicate this with the prefix
“H.” If a formation flight is planned, enter the number
and type of aircraft; for example, 2H/B52.
2. Suffix to Aircraft Type (one alpha character).
Indicate for IFR operations the aircraft’s radar
transponder, DME, or RNAV (includes LORAN)
capability by adding the appropriate symbol
preceded by a slant (/). (See TBL 6-2-5.)
DME
No
RVSM
TACAN
TBL 6−2−5
Suffix to Aircraft Type
Navigation
Capability
RVSM
No GNSS,
No RNAV
RNAV, No
GNSS
GNSS
Tra n spo nde r
Capability
Transponder
with Mode C
Transponder
with Mode C
Transponder
with Mode C
RNAV, No
GNSS
Suffix
/W
/Z
/L
GNSS
No transpon­
der
Transponder
with no Mode
C
Transponder
with Mode C
No transpon­
der
Transponder
with no Mode
C
Transponder
with Mode C
No transpon­
der
Transponder
with no Mode
C
Transponder
with Mode C
No transpon­
der
Transponder
with no Mode
C
Transponder
with Mode C
No transpon­
der
Transponder
with no Mode
C
Transponder
with Mode C
/X
/T
/U
/D
/B
/A
/M
/N
/P
/Y
/C
/I
/V
/S
/G
NOTE−
The /E and /F suffixes will only be used by aircraft
operating to and from airports within the U.S., unless
authorized by the controlling authority.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-3-8 and TBL 2-3-10, Aircraft Equipment
Suffixes.
d. Item 4. True Airspeed (TAS Knots). Enter
two-to- four digits for TAS in knots; M followed by
three digits for Mach number; or SC for “speed
classified.”
e. Item 5. Departure Point. Enter two-to-twelve
alphanumeric and slant characters for name or
identifier of the departure airport or point over which
the flight plan is activated.
f. Item 6. Departure Time. Enter departure time in
UTC.
6−2−2
Flight Plan Proposals
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
g. Item 7. Cruising Altitude. Proposed altitude or
flight level using two-to-seven characters; for
example, 80 or 080, OTP, OTP/125, VFR, ABV/060.
h. Item 8. Route of Flight. Enter identifiers for
airways or jet routes to clearly indicate the proposed
flight path. For direct flight, use names or identifiers
of navigation aids, Navigation Reference System
(NRS) waypoints, and geographical points or
coordinates. If more than one airway or jet route is to
be flown, clearly indicate the transition points.
NOTE−
1. On some direct flights beyond the departure center’s
airspace, it may be necessary to include a fix in the
adjacent center’s airspace or latitude/longitude
coordinates, as appropriate, to facilitate computer
acceptance. Local procedures should be applied to these
special situations.
2. NRS waypoints consist of five alphanumeric
characters, which include the ICAO Flight Information
Region (FIR) identifier, followed by the letter
corresponding to the FIR subset (ARTCC area for the
contiguous U.S.), the latitude increment in single digit or
group form, and the longitude increment.
EXAMPLE−
“KD34U”
i. Item 9. Destination. Enter two-to-twelve
alphanumeric and/or slant characters for name or
identifier of the destination airport or point over
which the flight plan is to be cancelled.
j. Item 10. Estimated Time En route. Enter in
hours and minutes the total elapsed time between
departure and destination in four-digit format, for
example, 0215.
k. Item 11. Remarks. Information necessary for
ATC, search and rescue operations, and any other
data pertinent to the flight or provided by the pilot.
For RM: field only - Use 1-80 characters beginning
with *, #, $, or %. (See TBL 6-2-6.)
TBL 6−2−6
*
#
$
%
transmit remarks to all centers.
transmit remarks to departure centers only.
transmit remarks only to those addresses in
the CP field of the flight notification mes­
sage.
for remarks not to be transmitted.
Flight Plan Proposals
l. Item 12. Fuel on Board. Enter in hours and
minutes in four-digit format; for example, 0330.
m. Item 13. Alternate Airport/s. Enter the location
identifier if specified by the pilot.
n. Item 14. Pilot’s Name, Telephone Number,
Aircraft’s Home Base. Self-explanatory.
NOTE−
Pilot’s name not required if BASEOPS/Aircraft Operators
name and contact data is provided.
o. Item 15. Number Aboard. Self-explanatory.
p. Item 16. Color of Aircraft. Use authorized
contractions when available. (See TBL 6−2−7.)
TBL 6−2−7
Code and Color
Code
Color
Code
Color
A
BE
BR
GD
M
OD
PK
S
TQ
W
Amber
Beige
Brown
Gold
Maroon
Olive Drab
Pink
Silver
Turquoise
White
B
BK
G
GY
O
P
R
T
V
Y
Blue
Black
Green
Gray
Orange
Purple
Red
Tan
Violet
Yellow
NOTE−
1. For ICAO flight plans, see Appendix A.
2. Local procedures may be developed for use on the
reverse side of FAA Form 7233−1.
6−2−2. OUTBOUNDS DEPARTING FROM
OUTSIDE FLIGHT PLAN AREA
For domestic flight plans, accept flight plans
regardless of departure point within the NAS.
Forward VFR flight plan proposals for aircraft
proposing to depart from outside the facility’s flight
plan area to the tie-in facility/sector for the departure
point. Insert the originator of the flight plan into the
“Remarks” field. Transmit the proposed flight plan
in the following format:
a. Type of flight.
b. Aircraft identification.
c. Aircraft type.
d. Departure point.
6−2−3
JO 7110.10X
e. Destination.
f. Proposed departure time/ETE.
g. Remarks.
EXAMPLE−
FF PAENYFYX
DTG PAFAYFYX
VFR N1234 BE9L ENA FAI P1330/0130 $FP PAFAYFYX
NOTE−
For civil flight movement messages with remarks, precede
the remarks with a dollar symbol ($).
6−2−3. FLIGHT PLANS WITH AREA
NAVIGATION (RNAV) ROUTES IN
DOMESTIC U.S. AIRSPACE
Use FAA Form 7233-4, International Flight Plan, and
6−2−4
4/3/14
use the following guidelines for pilots filing flight
plans in domestic U.S. airspace if automatic
assignment of any of the following RNAV routes are
desired:
a. RNAV standard instrument departure (SID);
b. RNAV standard terminal arrival route (STAR);
and/or
c. RNAV point-to-point (PTP).
ICAO Flight Plan procedures are located in
Appendix A.
Flight Plan Proposals
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. IFR Flight Plan Handling
6−3−1. IFR FLIGHT PLANS
IFR flight plans should consist of items 1 through 17
of FAA Form 7233-1 or electronic equivalent. Items
1 through 11 must be transmitted to the ARTCC as
part of the IFR flight plan proposal. Items 12 through
17 must be retained by the FSS or in the operational
system and be available upon request.
NOTE−
1. Part-time FSSs must forward items 1 through 17 in
accordance with para 6-1-7, Part-time FSS Closure
Action.
separate messages. Delay information must be filed
within the route of flight. If a change of altitude
stratum is indicated, transmit separate messages as in
subparas 6−3−2 a or b.
d. When a composite, stopover, or terminal area
delay flight plan is revised:
1. Before departure, transmit the information to
the original addressees plus any new addressees.
2. After departure, transmit the information to
all new addresses that are affected by the change.
2. Procedures for automatic assignment of RNAV routes
are contained in para 6-2-3, Flight Plans with Area
Navigation (RNAV) Routes in Domestic U.S. Airspace.
e. When a flight is to depart after 0500 hours local
time on the day following the filing of the flight plan,
do not transmit the flight plan to the ARTCC until
after 0000 hours local time.
6−3−2. NOTIFYING ARTCC
NOTE−
In the event of a time zone difference between the station
and the associated ARTCC, use the ARTCC’s local time
in determining transmission time.
Transmit flight plans and flight plan amendments to
the ARTCC for the departure point. Facilities should
use FAA Order JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers, or
the appropriate aeronautical charts to determine the
ARTCC to which each transmission must be made.
Transmit flight plans (if necessary) and flight plan
amendments via interphone to the flight data position
(error referral position) or departure sector when the
aircraft’s proposed departure time is less than 15
minutes from transmittal time. Advise the ARTCC’s
departure sector or flight data position (error referral
position), via interphone, when a message is received
indicating ineligibility or a response is not received
via data terminal within 10 minutes. Transmit flight
plans as follows:
a. When multiple (two or more) flight plans are
received from the same aircraft, or for flight plans
which propose alternating VFR and IFR, stopover, or
terminal area delay, the station receiving the flight
plans transmits separate flight plans to the
appropriate ARTCCs for each IFR portion or
segment.
b. Transmit flight plans specifying special use
airspace delays (MOAs, warning areas, restricted
areas, ATCAA) as in subpara 6−3−2 a except when
letters of agreement specify otherwise.
c. Aerial refueling delays, or any other en route
delays not covered in subparas. 6−3−2 a or b and not
involving a change of altitude stratum, do not require
IFR Flight Plan Handling
f. Address all IFR flight plan messages to the
ARTCC serving the point of departure and all
concerned oceanic and non-conterminous air traffic
service (ATS) units, except FAA ATCTs.
NOTE−
The ARTCC within whose control area IFR flight is
proposed to begin will forward the proposed tower en
route flight plan data to the appropriate departure
terminal facility.
g. For flights inbound to the conterminous U.S.
from Alaska or Hawaii, address only the first
conterminous U.S. ARTCC; for example, for a
proposed flight from Sitka to Houston, address
PAZAZQZX, CZVRZQZX, and KZSEZQZX.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 2-2-2, Forwarding Information.
6−3−3. IFR FLIGHT PLAN CONTROL
MESSAGES
Transmit all proposed IFR flight plan messages to the
ARTCC within whose control area IFR flight is
proposed to begin.
a. Communications Functions. Flight plan data
messages must be addressed to the computer only. All
other types of messages for ARTCC attention must be
addressed to the Flight Data position only.
Acknowledgements for all numbered messages will
6−3−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
be received from the computer or the Flight Data
position indicating receipt by the ARTCC, but not
necessarily computer acceptance. (See TBL 6-3-1.)
TBL 6−3−1
ARTCC ID & Computer Flight Data
ARTCC
Albuquerque
Atlanta
Anchorage
Boston
Chicago
Cleveland
Denver
Fort Worth
Honolulu
Houston
Indianapolis
Jacksonville
Kansas City
Los Angeles
Memphis
Miami
Minneapolis
New York
Oakland
Salt Lake
San Juan
Seattle
Washington
ID
ZAB
ZTL
ZAN
ZBW
ZAU
ZOB
ZDV
ZFW
ZHN
ZHU
ZID
ZJX
ZKC
ZLA
ZME
ZMA
ZMP
ZNY
ZOA
ZLC
ZLU
ZSE
ZDC
Computer
KZABZQZX
KZTLZQZX
PAZAZQZX
KZBWZQZX
KZAUZQZX
KZOBZQZX
KZDVZQZX
KZFWZQZX
PHZHZQZX
KZHUZQZX
KZIDZQZX
KZJXZQZX
KZKCZQZX
KZLAZQZX
KZMEZQZX
KZMAZQZX
KZMPZQZX
KZNYZQZX
KZ0AZQZX
KZLCZQZX
TJZSZQZX
KZSEZQZX
KZDCZQZX
Flight Data
KZABZRZX
KZTLZRZX
PAZAZRZX
KZBWZRZX
KZAUZRZX
KZOBZRZX
KZDVZRZX
KZFWZRZX
PHZHZRZX
KZHUZRZX
KZIDZRZX
KZJXZRZX
KZKCZRZX
KZLAZRZX
KZMEZRZX
KZMAZRZX
KZMPZRZX
KZNYZRZX
KZOAZRZX
KZLCZRZX
TJZSZRZX
KZSEZRZX
KZDCZRZX
b. Adhere to a fixed order of data. Do not exceed
the stated maximum number of characters or
elements allowed for each field in messages
addressed to an ARTCC computer. Flight plans filed
containing more than the stated character maximums
should be sent using the ARTCC flight data address.
c. For manual entry into Service B, one space
character must be entered at the end of each data field.
The first data field of a message need not be preceded
by a space. The last data field of a message need not
be followed by a space.
d. Each field of data is composed of one or more
elements. Discrete elements of information within a
field are separated by delimiters, generally slashes (/)
or periods (ABC..DEF).
e. Messages addressed using a ARTCC flight data
address (see TBL 6-3-1) are not processed by the
ARTCC computer. Response and/or interpretation of
these messages are dependent on flight data
personnel action. The prime consideration of these
6−3−2
types of messages must be the readability of the
transmitted data.
f. All domestic flight data processing computers
have the capability to return acknowledgments to the
source and, depending on local adaption, return error
messages and accept amendments. Notify the
appropriate ARTCC Data Systems Specialist or
Primary A position when it is suspected that a flight
plan has been erroneously rejected by the computer.
g. IFR flight plans specifying stopovers or
terminal area delays require separate messages be
sent to the appropriate ARTCCs for each segment.
Unless otherwise covered by a letter of agreement,
treat flight plans proposing SUA delays in the same
manner. Separate messages are also required for any
other en route delays if a change of altitude stratum
is proposed at the delay point. See subparagraph
6−3−4n8(b)(2) for delays not involving a change of
altitude stratum.
h. Some fields contain the necessary functions to
operate the computer data terminal adapters and are
designated by alpha characters (HIO..RAW­
ER.V23.EUG/D0+30..16S). Do not separate these
fields with spaces.
6−3−4. IFR FLIGHT PLAN CONTROL
MESSAGE FORMAT
For En Route Automation System Flight Data
Processing (EAS FDP) acceptance, the complete
message contents, the order of data, the number of
characters allowed within any data field or element,
and any associated operational procedures or
restrictions are as follows (as used here, “field” refers
to EAS FDP field):
NOTE−
Detailed operating instructions for processing IFR Flight
Plans are contained in the operational system
instructions.
a. Start of Message Code (Field A). (New Line
Key)
b. Preamble Line (Field B). Consists of originator,
priority, and addressee(s).
c. Originator Line (Field C). Consists of a
six-digit date-time group and the eight-character
originator identifier.
d. End of Line Function (Field E). Same as
subpara 6−3−4a.
IFR Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
e. Source Identification (Field 00). Nine or ten
characters required followed by a space character in
the following order:
1. The three-character address of the originating
facility.
2. Four characters (digits) to indicate the time
(in UTC) the flight plan was composed by the
originator.
3. Three characters (digits) representing the
number of the message; for example, 021. It is
recommended that numbering systems be restarted
with 001 at the beginning of each day (0000Z).
NOTE−
There are no spaces between characters in subparas
6−3−4e1, 2, and 3.
f. Message Type (Field 01). The letters “FP”
followed by a space character.
g. Aircraft Identification (Field 02). Consists of
two-to-seven alphanumeric characters followed by a
space character. The first character of the
identification must be a letter.
1. Phrases such as FLYNET, Snow Time, etc.,
which do not identify specific aircraft but are
supplemental data defining a special mission or
function, must be contained in remarks (Field 11).
2. For foreign aircraft identifications with a
numeric as the first character, insert an X as the first
character and explain in the remarks section.
h. Aircraft Data (Field 03). Consists of
two-to-nine characters followed by a space character.
Aircraft data within the field may vary from
one-to-three elements consisting of:
1. Number of aircraft (when more than one)
and/or the heavy aircraft indicator. For heavy aircraft
the indicator is “H/.” This element contains a
maximum of two characters followed by a slash.
EXAMPLE−
2/F15
3H/B52
10/F18
2. Type of Aircraft. This element is mandatory
and contains two-to-four characters consisting of the
authorized aircraft designator as contained in FAA
Order JO 7340.2, Contractions. Enter military
designators of aircraft, omitting prefixes and suffixes
pertaining to aircraft mission or model.
IFR Flight Plan Handling
JO 7110.10X
3. Equipment Suffix. This element consists of a
slash (/) followed by one letter which is one of the
approved designators identifying transponder and/or
navigation gear.
i. Airspeed (Field 05). Consists of two-to-four
characters followed by a space character. This field
must indicate the filed true airspeed in knots or Mach
number.
EXAMPLE−
350
M075
j. Departure Point or Coordination Fix (Field 06).
Consists of two-to-twelve characters followed by a
space character. This field contains the departure
point or fix at which an aircraft will pick up IFR. It
must be a fix, not an airway. For proposed departures,
it must match the first element in the route of flight;
and for IFR pickups, it must match either the first
element in the route of flight or the third element if the
./. or VFR is used as the second element.
k. Proposed Departure Time (Field 07). Consists
of five or seven characters followed by a space
character. This field contains the letter “P” followed
by a four or six digit time group in UTC.
l. Requested Altitude (Field 09). Consists of
two-to-seven characters followed by a space
character. Altitudes or flight levels, as appropriate,
must be expressed in hundreds of feet, but without
leading zeros. The letters “OTP” must be entered in
this field to indicate a requested altitude of VFR
conditions-on-top. If a VFR conditions-on-top
altitude is provided, it must be entered as “OTP/XXX
where “XXX” is a VFR altitude. Blocked altitudes
are indicated by entering the lower altitude of the
requested block, the letter “B,” and the higher altitude
of the block; for example, 80B100, 240B270, with no
spaces.
m. End of Line (New Line Key) (Field E). The
first occurrence of Field E must always follow Field
09 of the message. Any time a subsequent end of line
becomes necessary, if used within Field 10, it must be
preceded by the appropriate element separator (not a
space). If used within Field 11, Field E may be
entered at any point within the remarks sequence.
n. Route of Flight (Field 10). The route of flight
consists of departure point or pickup point (PUP), the
route of flight, and normally a destination followed
by a space character.
6−3−3
JO 7110.10X
1. Field 10 is a fixed sequence field and must
begin with a fix; for example, fix, airway, fix, airway
etc. The last element may be a fix or one of the route
elements VFR, DVFR, or XXX (incomplete route
indicator). An element is separated from another
element by a period character.
2. When consecutive fix elements or route
elements are filed, the fixed sequence format is
maintained by inserting two period characters
between the filed Field 10 elements; for example,
fix..fix or airway..airway.
3. When a pilot files an airway..airway
combination, obtain the point of transition and insert
it in the transmitted flight plan; for example,
SGF.J105..J24.STL.J24. The foregoing does not
apply if the first encountered fix happens to be the
next filed junction point within the route.
NOTE−
Airway..airway combinations in the route of flight require
a defined junction (either five-character alphanumeric,
location identification, or pre-defined fix-radial-distance).
4. The slash character (/) is used to file a
latitude/longitude fix or in describing an ETE.
5. The maximum number of filed field elements
for computer-addressed flight plans is 40. Double
period insertions do not count against the 40-element
limitation. Transmit flight plans filed exceeding the
route element limitation to the ARTCC, not its
computer.
6. Fix Descriptions. A fix must be filed in one
of the following ways:
(a) Fix Name. Domestic, Canadian, and
International identifiers of two-to-five alphanumeric
characters.
(b) Fix Radial Distance (FRD). Consists of
eight-to-eleven alphanumeric characters in the
following sequence: Two-to-five characters identify­
ing a NAVAID, three characters of azimuth expressed
in degrees magnetic, and three characters of distance
expressed in nautical miles from the NAVAID. Zeros
preceding a significant character must be entered
before the azimuth and distance components as
required to assure the transmission of three characters
for each.
(c) Latitude/Longitude. Consists of
nine-to-twelve characters entered as follows: The
6−3−4
4/3/14
latitude must appear as the first component as four
numbers (trailing zeros required) followed by an
optional letter “N” or “S.” If the optional letter is
omitted, north is understood. Latitude must be
separated from longitude with a slash (/) element
separator. Longitude must appear as the second
component as four or five digits (trailing zeros
required, leading zero optional) followed by an
optional letter “W” or “E.” If the optional letter is
omitted, west is understood.
(d) Navigation Reference System (NRS)
Waypoints. NRS waypoints consist of five alphanu­
meric characters, which include the ICAO FIR
identifier, followed by the letter corresponding to the
FIR subset (ARTCC area for the contiguous U.S.),
the latitude increment in single digit or group form,
and the longitude increment.
EXAMPLE−
“KD34U”
7. Route Descriptions. A route must be filed in
one of the following ways:
(a) Airway. The official airway designator
must be filed.
(b) Coded Routes. Coded routes are a
shorthand method of describing a route segment or
segments which may have an altitude profile
described, an adapted airspeed within the route,
re-entry or loop routes as an option, or a time delay
at a fix within the route as an option. Some of the
principal uses of coded routes are as follows:
(1) Instrument Departures (DP). DP, if
used, must be filed by the computer code designator
as the second element of Field 10 and be followed by
the transition or exit fix.
(2) Standard Terminal Arrivals (STARs).
STAR, if used, must be filed by the computer code
designator as the next to last element of Field 10 and
immediately follow the entry or transition fix.
(3) Published Radials. Published radials
(for example, within a preferred route) are considered
airways. Do not file unpublished radials.
EXAMPLE−
.JFK053..DPK017
.RBV020
(4) Military Routes. Certain military routes
(for example, MTR and air refueling tracks/anchors),
are considered coded routes. The route designator
must be preceded and followed by the entry and exit
IFR Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
fixes in terms of fix/radial/distance (FRD), and
re-entry information may be suffixed to certain
military coded routes as follows:
as the filed Field 10. Additionally, the filed departure
point (Field 06) must agree with the stored departure
point.
[a] The entry and exit fix must be
associated with a fix on the route, and the entry fix
must be prior to the exit fix on the route.
(7) Incomplete Route Indicator (XXX).
When XXX, the incomplete route indicator, appears
in Field 10, the element preceding the XXX element
must be a fix.
EXAMPLE−
TNP355025..IR252
PKE107012
[b] Routes having re-entries for a single
strategic training range (STR) site must contain the
entry of alternate entry fix in terms of FRD, the route
designator followed immediately by a plus sign (+),
either the letter “R” (1st STR site) or “S” (2nd STR
site), and a digit indicating the number of re-entries.
EXAMPLE−
(FRD) IR240+R2 (FRD)
(FRD) IR240+S3 (FRD)
[c] Routes having re-entries for two STR
sites must contain the entry/alternate fix in terms of
FRD, the route designator followed immediately by
a plus sign (+), the letter “R,” and a digit indicating
the number of re-entries on the first STR site,
immediately followed by second plus sign (+), the
letter “S,” and a digit indicating the number of
re-entries on the second STR site.
EXAMPLE−
(FRD) IR240+R2+S3 (FRD)
[d] STR routes must be entered and
exited at the respective primary fix. Alternate STR
routes must be entered/exited at the alternate
entry/exit fix. The routes must be identified by an
individual name.
EXAMPLE−
(FRD) IR240+R2 (FRD) (Primary)
(FRD) IR240A+R2 (FRD) (Alternate)
(5) North American Routes (NAR). NAR
routes are numerically coded over existing airways
and route systems from and to specific coastal fixes
serving the North Atlantic.
EXAMPLE−
.NA9
.NA50
(6) Stereo Routes. A stereo route must
specify a pre-stored stereo tag. An “FP” message may
be entered with a stereo tag as the only Field 10 entry,
which causes the Field 10 data stored for the stereo
tag to be substituted for the stereo tag and processed
IFR Flight Plan Handling
(8) VFR or DVFR element. When VFR or
DVFR is the second element of Field 10, the filed fix
following VFR or DVFR must be internal to the
ARTCC’s area to whom the flight plan was initially
submitted. When VFR or DVFR is other than the
second element in Field 10, the element preceding the
VFR or DVFR must be a filed fix.
8. Fix Suffix.
(a) En Route Delay Suffix consists of an
element separator (/), followed by the letter D,
followed by the hours and minutes separated by a plus
sign (+). Must be appended to a fix.
EXAMPLE−
.STL/D1+30
.PKE107012/D2+05
(b) Use of this suffix is limited to the
following cases:
(1) Aerial Refueling Tracks and Anchors.
The suffix is appended to the entry fix.
EXAMPLE−
.ICT248055/D0+30.AR330
(2) En route delays not involving a change
of altitude stratum and not involving a stopover,
terminal area delay, or SUA delay unless specifically
covered by a letter of agreement with the receiving
ARTCC.
(c) ETE Suffix. Consists of an element
separator (/) and four digits appended to the
destination. Leading zeros are required, and the time
en route is expressed in hours and minutes.
EXAMPLE−
.STL/0105
9. A period is not required after the last element
of Field 10. If remarks (Field 11) are present, a space
is required after the last element of Field 10. If
remarks are not present, no space is required and
Field F (End of Message) should be the next entry.
o. Remarks (Field 11). Consists of the appropriate
remarks code character and the remarks. Spaces are
permitted within the remarks field to separate words
6−3−5
JO 7110.10X
or contractions. Remarks must be transmitted in Field
11 whenever a pilot files the information on the flight
plan. A remark is required whenever there is a
modification to the flight plan by the specialist.
1. If it is necessary to make modifications to the
filed route of flight for the purpose of achieving
computer acceptance of the input due, for example, to
correct a fix or an airway identification, “FRC,”
meaning “Full Route Clearance Necessary,” or
“FRC/(fix),” will be added to the remarks. “FRC” or
“FRC/(fix)” must always be the first item of
intra-center remarks. When “FRC” or “FRC/(fix)”
appears on a flight progress strip, the controller
issuing the ATC clearance to the aircraft must issue
a full route clearance to the specified fix, or if no fix
is specified, for the entire route. “FRC” or
“FRC/(fix)” must always be first in Remarks (Field
11).
NOTE−
INPUT OPERATORS ARE LIMITED TO MAKING ONLY
THOSE CHANGES REQUIRED FOR COMPUTER
ACCEPTANCE. Modifications, such as those to conform
with traffic flows and preferred/recommended routings,
must only be made by the pilot or his/her operations office
or the controller responsible for initiating the clearance
to the aircraft.
2. In the case of applicable military flights
requesting that the flight plan is not passed to air
defense radar (NOPAR), NOPAR must be the first
item in Remarks (Field 11).
3. Remarks for military flight plans filing an IR
route must contain the IR route designator, entry time
prefaced by the letter “E,” exit time prefaced by the
letter “X,” and MARSA when applicable. Remarks
for flight plans filing a terminal area delay must
contain the airport identifier at which the delay will
occur, followed by the letter “D,” followed by the
duration of the delay in hours plus minutes, followed
by the destination airport. These should be the first
item in Remarks (Field 11).
4. When a pilot files an FAA-assigned
three-letter company designator, if the designator
and/or radiotelephony is new or changed, the
authorized radiotelephony call sign must be included
in the remarks field for at least 60 days following the
effective date. In cases where there is no three-letter
identifier assignment or a three-letter identifier is
used in a medical emergency, the assigned
radiotelephony must be included in the remarks field.
6−3−6
4/3/14
NOTE−
1. A radiotelephony may be assigned by the FAA without
assigning a three-letter identifier. Special radiotelephony
assignments are usually temporary and for commemorative flights, large number of aircraft in an organized
race, aircraft operating during an emergency or disaster
condition, or aircraft requiring special handling for test
purposes.
2. The pilot is responsible for knowing when it is
appropriate to file the radiotelephony in remarks under
the 60 day rule or for special radiotelephony assignments.
The pilot may also request that the radiotelephony be filed
in remarks due to special needs of the flight.
p. End of Message Function (Field F). Consists of
enter function.
6−3−5. ADDITIONAL MESSAGES
The following messages are eligible for input to
ARTCC computers via Service B, in addition to the
flight plan (“FP”) message:
a. Remove Strip (RS). The purpose of the RS
message input is to advise the computer that data on
a particular flight is no longer valid and in effect
cancels the flight plan and removes it from computer
storage.
1. Eligibility. RS messages may be entered only
for flight plans which:
(a) Are proposed flights.
(b) Have been previously entered by the same
source entering the RS message.
(c) The flight plan is inactive; for example, a
departure strip must not yet have been printed.
Otherwise, the following rejection message is
returned: “REJECT--NOT YOUR CONTROL.”
2. Format. Fields 01 (Message type) and 02
(Aircraft Identification) are required.
EXAMPLE−
RS SWA138
b. Amendment (AM) Message. The purpose of
the AM message is to change data previously stored
in the ARTCC computer.
1. Eligibility. Same as for the RS message
(above).
2. Format. AM messages sent to the ARTCC
computer must follow a specific format. First, the
field to be amended must be identified, then the
amended information given. The ARTCC computer
IFR Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
recognizes the following fields by either number or
name: (See TBL 6-3-2.)
TBL 6−3−2
Field Number and Name
Field
Field Number
Field
Name
Aircraft Identification
Aircraft Type
Speed
Departure/Coordination Pt.
Proposed Time
02
03
05
06
07
AID
TYP
SPD
FIX
TIM
Altitude
Route of Flight
Remarks
09
10
11
RAL
RTE
RMK
3. Restrictions.
(a) If Field 02 is to be amended, no other field
may be amended in the same message. If Field 02 and
other fields are to be amended, send an RS message
and re-enter the entire corrected flight plan. If an
attempt is made to amend Field 02 within a multiple
amendment message or to amend Field 02 to M, the
following rejection message is returned: “RE­
JECT—INVALID AMENDMENT.”
NOTE−
Alternate procedure is to send two amendments - the first
amends field 2; the second amends the other field or fields.
(b) Field 07 Amendments. An attempt to
amend Field 07 to anything other than a P-time is not
allowed. If such an amendment is attempted, the
following error message is returned:
“COFIE INVALID TIME PREFIX.”
(c) Amendment to Fields 06, 07, and 10:
Where Fields 06, 07, and 10 are amended with a
single AM message, the following rules apply:
(1) The amended Field 06 replaces the
previously stored coordination fix (Field 06).
(4) If the last element of the amended route
data is followed by a destination indicator, this last
element becomes the new destination fix.
(5) When amended route data is merged
with filed data, it replaces all data between the
departure point and the first non-amended element
remaining in the field. The last element of the
amended data must match the first element of the
remaining non-amended data, otherwise the follow­
ing rejection message is returned: “REJECT−−(last
element) CANNOT MERGE.”
(d) Amendment to Field 10 Only. Except as
permitted above, a Field 10 amendment must be the
only field amended; no other field may be amended
with the same message. Otherwise, the following is
returned: “REJECT—INVALID AMENDMENT.”
EXAMPLE−
Message
Type
Aircraft
Identification
Field
to be
Revised
AM
AM
AM
TWA179
UAL466
AAL4355
07
07
10
New Field
Data
P0800
0300
ORD.J60
.DEN
Field
to be
Revised
New
Field
Data
08
350
c. Correction Message (CM). When the ARTCC
computer detects an error in a flight plan, an error
message is generated to the sender when the sender
is within the departure ARTCC’s adapted boundaries.
NOTE−
These procedures may not apply to all operational
systems.
1. Eligibility. CM messages may be entered
only for the period for which the departure ARTCC’s
program is adapted, normally 5 minutes. After that
time, the flight plan in error drops out to the ARTCC
Primary A position for re-entry. The sender has
primary responsibility for corrective action.
(2) The amended Field 07, with appropriate
letter prefix, replaces the previously stored
coordination time (Field 07).
NOTE−
Error messages are generated only on messages from
sending stations within the adaptation parameters of the
departure ARTCC and for only that portion of the route
within that ARTCC’s adapted boundaries. Other flight
plans in error are referred to a Primary A position.
(3) The amended route data (Field 10) may
completely replace the previously filed Field 10 or
may be merged with the filed Field 10.
2. Format. Responses to error messages must be
transmitted in the form of a CM message within the
time parameters adapted for your ARTCC.
IFR Flight Plan Handling
6−3−7
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
6−3−6. COORDINATE RNAV ROUTES
EXAMPLE−
ARTCC−Generated Error Message:
Sending
Facility
MSG
Type
DCA
Error
CM Format:
Field 00
DCA 1820123
MSG
NR
123
Field in
Error
Data in
Error
08
9A
MSG Type
CM
Reason
FORMAT
Correct Data
090
3. When a CM message in response to an error
message results in any change to a pilot-filed Field 06
(Departure Point) or Field 10 (Route of Flight) once
the flight plan has been accepted, an AM message
must be sent to add a field 11 intra-ARTCC remark.
In remarks, insert “FRC PILOT FILED (original
data).”
4. Should a “NOT YOUR CONTROL”
response be received, do not retransmit the flight plan
or the AM. Confirm ARTCC receipt of the flight plan
or AM (FRC/REMARKS) via interphone with the
Primary A position. (See TBL 6-3-3.)
TBL 6−3−3
Computer Flight Data Input
COMPUTER FLIGHT DATA INPUT CHART
Element
Example
Requirements
A
Start of
New Line
Required for
Message
Key
SOM
(SOM code)
recognition.
B
Preamble
FF
Provides
Line
KZFWZQZ priority, and
X
addressee.
C
Originator
DTG
Required for
KMLCYFY ending the
X
message header.
D
End of Line (New Line
EOL.
Key)
E
End of
(Enter
End of Message.
Message
Function)
Field
6−3−8
a. When accepting flight plans containing coor­
dinate RNAV routes, ensure that the route of flight
after the departure fix is defined by latitude/longitude
coordinates and a fix identifier.
b. The arrival fix must be identified by both the
latitude/longitude coordinates and the fix identifier.
EXAMPLE−
(1)
(2)
MIA
SRQ
(3)
3407/10615
(4)
3407/11546
(4)
(5)
TNP
LAX
1. Departure airport.
2. Departure fix.
3. Intermediate fixes defined by latitude/
longitude coordinates.
4. Arrival fix for the destination airport in terms
of both the latitude/longitude coordinates and the fix
identifier.
5. Destination airport.
IFR Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Flight Plan Handling
6−4−1. FLIGHT PLAN ACTIVATION
a. If a departure report has not been received
within a predetermined time, but not less than 1 hour
of the proposed departure time, and specific
arrangements have not been made to activate the
flight plan, cancel and store in the history file.
b. The FSS history file is used for statistical and
historical purposes. Movement messages, pilot
briefings, and aircraft contacts are stored in the
history files automatically and retained for 15 days.
c. When a pilot reports an actual departure time of
more than 2 hours prior to the current clock time,
request an updated ETE based on the aircraft’s
present position. Amend the ETE in the existing
flight plan and activate the flight plan using the
current time as the time of departure and inform the
pilot of the new ETA.
6−4−2. DEPARTURE REPORT MESSAGE
When a pilot activates a flight plan with other than the
facility holding the flight plan, transmit a numbered
message to the departure tie-in facility.
EXAMPLE−
FF KRCAYXYX
DTG KHONYFYX
HON001 RCA
N98765 D1645 RCA ALW
6−4−3. ACKNOWLEDGING NUMBERED
MESSAGES
Acknowledge a numbered message as soon as
practical after receipt. Prefix the acknowledgement
with the letter “R” followed by a space and then the
3-digit message number.
EXAMPLE−
FF KMMVYFYX
DTG KRNOYFYX
R 001
6−4−4. FLIGHT NOTIFICATION MESSAGE
a. When a departure report is received or the pilot
requests an assumed departure, transmit a flight
notification message to the destination tie-in facility
as specified in FAA Order JO 7350.8, Location
Flight Plan Handling
Identifiers. Telephone or interphone, when available,
may be used for flights of 30 minutes or less. The
flight notification message must contain the
following information:
1. Type of flight plan (VFR or IFR).
2. Aircraft identification.
3. Aircraft type.
4. Departure point.
5. Destination.
6. ETA (If more than 24 hours, may use DTG).
7. Remarks, preceded by a $ sign (as
appropriate).
EXAMPLE−
FF KBOIYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
VFR N2346F AC11/U PVU BOI 1348 $ASMD DEP
NOTE−
The operational system will automatically format the
required items and transmit the flight notification
message when activated.
b. When the proposed flight plan is received from
another FSS, base operations (BASOPS), or direct
user access terminal (DUAT) vendor and the
departure facility has only partial flight plan data, add
a remark indicating the Service B address of the
facility holding the complete flight plan. Operational
systems will automatically add this to the “Remarks”
section of the flight plan.
EXAMPLE−
FF KBOIYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
VFR N12345 C182/U PVU BOI 1958 $FPKIADXCLX
c. If the pilot elects to close the flight plan with a
facility other than the designated tie-in facility, send
the flight notification message with remarks to both
tie-in facilities; for example, FIRIV FAI. The
designated tie-in facility must assume both
destination and search and rescue responsibility
EXAMPLE−
FF PAENYFYX PAFAYFYX
DTG KJNUYFYX
VFR N2346F AC11 JNU FAI 1303
$FIRIV ENA
6−4−1
JO 7110.10X
NOTE−
The operational system will auto address to the tie-in
facility. Because the pilot elected to FIRIV with ENA (a
facility other than the tie-in facility), the message must
also be manually addressed to ENA.
d. The facility with which the pilot elects to close
the flight plan must forward a numbered closure
message to the designated tie-in facility.
e. On civil flight plans, if the pilot advises of
stopover points, show these in remarks.
EXAMPLE−
FF KBOIYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
VFR N12345 C182/U PVU BOI 1958 $LNDG
TWF
f. On military flight plans, in remarks use coded
data pertinent to services, passengers, or cargo. In the
absence of remarks, enter the letter “N” (meaning
none) in the remarks field.
4/3/14
original flight plan and are transmitted to all
addressees.
3. Separate stopover legs by inserting a slant (/)
at the end of each leg except the last. Begin each leg
on a new line.
EXAMPLE−
FF KANDYFYX KGNVYFYX KMIAYFYX
DTG KDCAYFYX
IFR VV12345 P3 ADW CHS 1300/
NIP 01+30 A5 BALL DP10 AP5 S/
MIA 02+30 NO DE-ICING EQUIPMENT
4. For composite flights, specify type flight plan
as the first item of each leg.
5. When en route delays are involved, include
delay time in ETE.
h. Apply military flight plan procedures to all civil
aircraft landing at military bases.
REFERENCE−
DOD Flight Information Publication, General Planning Document.
NOTE−
It is the civil pilot’s responsibility to obtain permission
(from military authorities) to land at a military base.
1. Flight notification messages with remarks
generate an alert at designated workstations.
i. Apply civil flight plan procedure to civil aircraft
departing military bases and en route to civil airports.
2. When landing at a civil airport, if there are no
remarks with the flight notification message, it is
placed on the Inbound List with no alerts for
notification purposes.
3. When landing at a military airport, all flight
notification messages generate an alert.
EXAMPLE−
FF KRCAYXYX
DTG KRIUYFYX
IFR DECAL01 T18/R SMF RCA 0135
$AP3NP3S
FF KBOIYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
VFR R54321 2/UH1/U SLC BOI 1943 $N
g. Address military stopover flight notification
messages to and obtain acknowledgements from the
destination tie-in facility serving all destinations.
1. For the first leg, transmit the items in
subparas 6-4-4a and 6-4-4f.
2. For each subsequent leg, transmit the
destination, ETE, and remarks applicable to that leg
only, prior to (/). Remarks pertaining to the entire
flight are entered in the “Remarks” section of the
6−4−2
6−4−5. SUSPENDING FLIGHT
NOTIFICATION MESSAGES
a. Suspend the flight notification message or
proposal message until acknowledgment is received
from the addressee, then store in the history file.
b. If an acknowledgment is not received within the
following time period, use the telephone or
interphone to assure delivery.
1. Thirty minutes after departure if ETE is
between 30 minutes and 2 hours.
2. One hour before ETA if ETE is 2 hours or
more.
3. Thirty minutes after departure if remaining
overnight (RON)/VIP information is contained in
remarks of a military flight notification.
c. When an acknowledgment for a message is
required and has not been received in accordance with
the procedure described above, retransmit the
complete message to the addressee.
d. Messages awaiting acknowledgment are
suspended on the Suspense List. It contains a list of
all numbered Service B messages and those messages
Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
transmitted from the flight plan mask not
acknowledged by all the addressees.
1. The message identification is the aircraft
identification for flight notifications and/or the
message number for all other message types.
2. Acknowledgments received via NADIN will
be automatically processed if they are in the proper
format.
3. Improperly formatted acknowledgments will
be directed to a list for manual processing and will
generate an alert at designated workstations for
editing.
4. The Suspense List will display the aircraft
identification and message numbers in chronological
order of transmission times and the addressees for
each message with an indication of those that have
not acknowledged.
5. If a transmission has not been acknowledged
by all addressees within 30 minutes, an alert will be
generated by the operational system.
6. Upon receipt of a Suspense alert, retransmit
the message to addressees who have not acknow­
ledged the message.
JO 7110.10X
6−4−7. ACTION BY ADDRESSEES
In addition to acknowledging receipt of flight
notification, addressees must take the following
actions:
a. Military IFR flights.
1. Notify BASOPS, if applicable, of the
inbound flight.
2. Upon request, deliver flight plan amend­
ments to the ARTCC.
3. File the flight notification message in the
operational system history files or with the daily
traffic.
4. Forward the actual departure time to the
destination tie-in facility for the next destination.
b. Military VFR flights.
1. Notify BASOPS, if applicable, of the
inbound flight.
2. Suspense
the
message,
closure/cancellation/departure and
destination station responsibility.
await
assume
3. Forward the departure time to the destination
tie-in facility and assume departure station responsib­
ility.
7. When an acknowledgment message is
received from any other source, such as interphone/
telephone or facility guarding for the addressee, the
specialist must manually acknowledge the message.
4. All flight notification messages are suspen­
ded on the Inbound List. An entry on the list will
remain there until the flight plan is closed. Thirty
minutes after the ETA, if the flight plan has not been
closed, it is considered overdue and will generate an
alert at designated workstations.
6−4−6. ACKNOWLEDGING FLIGHT
NOTIFICATION MESSAGES
c. If no information is received (for example,
departure time, revised ETA) indicating that the flight
is still active prior to the void time, close the flight
plan and note this on the flight notification message
and file.
Acknowledge a flight notification message or
proposal as soon as practical after receipt. Prefix the
acknowledgment with the letter “R” followed by a
space and then the full aircraft identification.
EXAMPLE−
FF KRCAYXYX
DTG KRIUYFYX
R DECAL01
NOTE−
The operational system will automatically acknowledge
flight notification messages which are received in or have
been edited into the correct format.
Flight Plan Handling
6−4−8. MAJOR FLIGHT PLAN CHANGES
FROM EN ROUTE AIRCRAFT
a. Change of Destination.
1. When a civil aircraft on a VFR flight plan or
a military aircraft on any flight plan changes
destination, obtain, as a minimum, the following
information if not already known:
(a) Type of flight plan.
(b) Aircraft identification.
6−4−3
JO 7110.10X
(c) Aircraft type.
(d) Departure point.
(e) Old destination.
EXAMPLE−
FF KTIKYXYX
DTG KDENYFYX
DECAL01 CHGD TO VFR RON
(f) Present position.
6−4−9. CHANGE IN ETA
(g) Altitude and route.
When an aircraft wants to change its ETE, obtain a
new ETA, and forward the information to the
destination tie-in facility as a numbered message. The
destination tie-in facility must acknowledge and,
thereafter, use the new ETA as the standard for any
necessary follow-up action; for example, QALQ
message.
(h) New destination.
(i) Estimated time en route.
2. Transmit a revised flight notification
message to the departure, original, and new
destination tie-in facilities containing the type of
flight, aircraft identification, aircraft type, departure
point, new destination, new ETA, and in Remarks,
aircraft position and time, the words “ORIG DESTN”
followed by the identifier of the original destination.
EXAMPLE−
VFR Change of Destination:
FF KBOIYFYX KSEAYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
VFR N98789 C182/U PVU GEG 2230 $0VR SLC 1900
ORIG DESTN BOI
IFR Change of Destination:
FF KRCAYXYX KTIKYXYX KRIUYFYX
DTG KCDCYFYX
IFR DECAL01 T43/R SMF TIK 0230 $AP3NP3S OVR
SLC 2330 ORIG DESTN RCA
b. Change from IFR to VFR. When a civil aircraft
changes from an IFR to a VFR flight plan, obtain all
flight plan information and send a flight notification
message to the destination tie-in facility. Include the
type of flight plan, aircraft identification and type,
departure point, destination, ETA, and pertinent
remarks.
EXAMPLE−
FF KABQYFYX
DTG KOAKYFYX
VFR N87690 C182/U SFO ELP 2100 $CNLD
IFR OVER BFL
NOTE−
Obtaining the name of the original flight plan source may
provide additional information if the aircraft becomes
overdue.
c. Military Change from IFR to VFR or VFR to
IFR. When a military aircraft changes from IFR to
VFR, or VFR to IFR, or requests that other
significant information be forwarded, transmit this
information to the destination station.
6−4−4
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
FF KENAYFYX
DTG KSEAYFYX
SEA001 ENA
N34567 E2140
REFERENCE−
FAA0 7210.3, Para. 13-1-3.c. Flight Plan Area.
6−4−10. FLIGHT PLAN CLOSURE
Do not transmit arrival reports except under unusual
circumstances or in the following cases:
a. Transmit arrival or other information involving
FAA or Canadian MOT aircraft by a numbered
message to any facility requested by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
FF KDCAYFYX
DTG KHHRYFYX
HHR002 DCA
N2 A0839 (Remarks, as appropriate)
b. For U.S. military aircraft, transmit arrival
reports to the departure station only when:
1. Requested by BASOPS.
2. Special military flights arrive.
c. When a pilot closes a flight plan with a station
that has not received a flight notification message,
obtain as a minimum, the departure point, the flight
planned destination point, and the station with which
the flight plan was filed.
1. If the station receiving the closure is the tie-in
station for the planned destination, transmit a
numbered arrival message to the departure station
with the remark “FPNO” and the departure point and
destination identifiers. The departure station must
relay the arrival information to the station holding the
flight plan notification message in the active file.
Flight Plan Handling
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
FF KDCAYFYX
DTG KMIVYFYX
MIV001 DCA
N8567 A1745 FPNO PHF NMK
6−4−11. MILITARY FLIGHTS TO/FROM U.S.
2. If the station receiving the closure message is
not the destination tie-in station, transmit a numbered
closure message to the destination tie-in station,
including the aircraft identification, the closure time,
the departure point, and destination. Remarks are
optional.
b. From U.S. If requested by BASOPS, include
“REQ ARR” in remarks section of ICAO flight plan.
Terminate suspense action only after receipt of an
arrival message and delivery to BASOPS.
a. To U.S. If “REQ ARR” is in remarks, suspend
the flight plan until arrival information is received
from BASOPS and forward to the departure location.
EXAMPLE−
FF KHUFYFYX
DTG KDAYYFYX
DAY003
N11ND C1217 LOU IND LNDD CMH
Flight Plan Handling
6−4−5
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Military Operations
6−5−1. SPECIAL MILITARY FLIGHTS
a. Advise the ARTCC of flight notification
messages, progress reports, changes en route, and
related messages concerning Presidential or Vice
Presidential flights.
b. Alaska. In addition to the above, give advance
notice to all RCCs along the route of flight.
Telephone SARCC (907) 752-0227 or (907)
752-0128. Initiate communications search proced­
ures if arrival is not received within 15 minutes after
ETA, and immediately notify Alaskan NORAD
Region Control Center (ANRCC).
6−5−2. MILITARY FOREIGN FLIGHTS
Generally, all military foreign flights are required to
clear through specified military bases. Pilots
normally will not file flight plans directly with an
FSS unless BASOPS is not available. BASOPS with
no Service B access will forward an ICAO-type flight
plan message via their tie-in FSS for relay through the
Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network
(AFTN). BASOPS should specify all addressees,
both ATC and operational, in accordance with ICAO
standards and military regulations.
6−5−3. USAF/USN UNDERGRADUATE
PILOTS
Aircraft piloted by solo USAF/USN undergraduate
student pilots (who may occasionally request revised
clearances), are normally restricted to flight in VFR
conditions. The aircraft identification in the flight
plan must include the letter “Z” as a suffix. Do not use
this suffix in ground-to-air communication.
NOTE−
USAF/USN solo students who have passed an instrument
certification check may penetrate cloud layers in climb or
descent only. Requests for revised clearances to avoid
clouds in level flight can still be expected. This does not
Military Operations
change the requirement to use the letter “Z” as a suffix to
the aircraft identification.
6−5−4. MESSAGE HANDLING
Accept and forward messages from any military
authority that concern aircraft movement, national
defense, safety of flight, or emergencies. This
includes, but is not limited to, the following:
a. Flight Advisory Messages.
1. The FSS originating the advisory or receiving
it from the originating BASOPS must determine the
FSS nearest the aircraft’s estimated position for VFR
flights, or the appropriate ARTCC for IFR flights.
Transmit a numbered message only to the facility
identified. Include in the text “FLT ADVY,” aircraft
identification and type, and route of flight, in that
order. The last item must be the identifier of the
originating BASOPS or FSS. Plain language may be
used.
EXAMPLE−
FF KZIDZRZX
DTG KCOUYFYX
COU005 ZID
FLT ADVY A12345 T38 GVW J80 DAY
DAY WX BLO LNDG MIN. SUG PROCD CVG.
ADZ INTENTIONS DLVR 1625
GVW BASOPS
2. Inform the originator if unable to deliver the
flight advisory within 15 minutes. Store the message
in the history files.
b. Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) Alerts.
Transmit a numbered message via Service B to tie-in
stations serving the addressees. If acknowledgements
are not received within 1 hour, deliver via telephone.
c. REACH and SAM Flight Messages. Forward to
the airlift command post specified by the pilot if
message contains request “Pass to Air Mobility
Command & Airlift Command Post (AMC ACP),”
specified by the pilot.
6−5−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 6. IFR/DVFR ADIZ Flight Plans
6−6−1. AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT
INFORMATION SERVICES (AMIS) WITHIN
AN ADIZ-IFR
In addition to the normal handling of aircraft
operating in accordance with IFR, ADIZ penetration
information or position reports on IFR operations
outside of controlled airspace must be forwarded
immediately to the appropriate ARTCC.
6−6−2. AMIS WITHIN AN ADIZ-DVFR
For security control of air traffic, specific information
contained in flight plans filed by a pilot operating or
proposing to operate in accordance with DVFR
within an ADIZ must be forwarded to NORAD.
NOTE−
Other offices, military and civil, as well as pilots, may file
DVFR flight plans for civil aircraft with a FSS for
forwarding to NORAD.
6−6−3. FORWARDING DVFR INFORMATION
a. Forward DVFR flight plan information to
NORAD via the Service B NORAD address or by
telephone.
NOTE−
1. The following NORAD addresses are group addresses
that include all appropriate NORAD sectors and law
enforcement:
KZAMZQZX – the contiguous 48 states and San Juan.
PHIRAOCZ – Hawaii
PAEDYYYX – Alaska
2. NORAD will not send an acknowledgement and must
be manually acknowledged from the suspense list by the
specialist. (NORAD Headquarters assumes responsibility
for receipt.)
b. DVFR flight plans must be entered into the
operational system for processing in accordance with
system instructions and include the following
information:
1. Aircraft call sign.
2. Number and type of aircraft.
3. Altitude (within ADIZ).
4. True airspeed.
IFR/DVFR ADIZ Flight Plans
5. Time of departure.
(a) When the flight plan information is
provided before the aircraft’s departure, enter as a
proposal. Depart the flight plan immediately upon
receipt of the actual departure time.
(b) If arrangements cannot be made to obtain
the actual departure time, forward the ETD.
6. Point of departure.
7. ETA.
8. Destination.
9. Remarks.
(a) DVFR discrete transponder code.
(b) True airspeed.
(c) Estimated point of penetration of the
ADIZ (latitude/longitude or fix-radial-distance),
except in Alaska.
(d) Estimated time of penetration of the
ADIZ, except in Alaska.
(e) If no arrival report (NORIV) will be filed
with an appropriate aeronautical facility, include the
contraction “NORIV” as a non-transmitted remark.
Do not pass ”NORIV” to NORAD.
EXAMPLE−
1210 135 3442/09345 1446
NOTE−
On a proposed flight plan, a single ”X” may replace the
DVFR discrete transponder code, true airspeed,
estimated point of penetration of the ADIZ, or the
estimated time of penetration of the ADIZ.
EXAMPLE−
Missing true airspeed:
1210 X 3442/09345 1446
Missing estimated point of ADIZ penetration and time:
1210 135 XX
c. Forward DVFR flight plan information for
aircraft operating into Canada using the same
procedures in paragraph 6-6-3b, except add “DVFR”
in remarks and transmit the information to the
appropriate Canadian transborder tie-in facility.
6−6−4. STOPOVER DVFR FLIGHT PLANS
Accept stopover DVFR flight plans filed on those
aircraft planning one or more landings (within an
6−6−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
ADIZ) en route to the destination, provided the
information in para 6−6−3 is furnished for each
segment of flight. Remind the pilot that 14 CFR Part
99 requires departure times to be made good and that
a written record should be retained of these times at
each departure point.
6−6−2
IFR/DVFR ADIZ Flight Plans
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 7. Law Enforcement Messages
6−7−1. LAW ENFORCEMENT ALERT
MESSAGES (LEAM)
The El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) is a law
enforcement organization composed of multiple
Federal agencies, including the FAA. The principal
mission of EPIC is to facilitate the exchange of
information and tactical intelligence on illicit activity
and to support, through the intelligence process,
Federal, State, and Local investigations concerning
violation of Federal, State, and Local statutes as they
apply to narcotics, aliens, currency, and weapons.
EPIC also supports law enforcement efforts
conducted by foreign counterparts throughout the
world. In response to an increased multi-agency need,
EPIC develops into a fully coordinated, tactical
intelligence center supported by databases and
resources from member agencies. EPIC issues a
LEAM that pertains to stolen aircraft. Upon receipt
of a LEAM from EPIC, take the following actions:
a. Stolen Aircraft Alerts.
aircraft registration numbers, aircraft type, and the
date/time stolen and/or recovered.
c. All LEAM.
1. Distribute the stolen aircraft alerts and
summaries, at the discretion of the air traffic manager,
to all parties, fixed base operators, airport managers,
etc.
REFERENCE−
FAAO 1600.29, Para 7c(6), Stolen Aircraft Alert Procedure.
2. Check local records for the previous 24 hours.
3. Notify by telephone 1-888-873-3742 [USE
EPIC], 1-915-760-2226 for the Air Watch Desk, or
1−915−760-2200 for the General Watch Desk) of any
contact within the past 24 hours. Also, notify the
Regional Duty Officer for relay to the cognizant
Transportation Security Administration Aviation
Command Center.
4. Subsequent aircraft transactions must be
monitored and require the same notification as
defined in subparagraph 6-7-1c3.
1. Stolen aircraft alerts request recipients to
watch for and report on the location and movement of
an aircraft which has been reported stolen.
5. Take no action regarding the aircraft, crew, or
passengers other than normal air traffic job related
functions.
2. Keep active until included in a stolen aircraft
summary or until cancelled.
6. Cease all actions upon receipt of a
cancellation or a summary that does not include this
aircraft’s registration number.
3. Upon receipt, check records for any aircraft
contact, beginning with the date the aircraft was
reported stolen.
6−7−2. INITIATING LEAMs
4. Relay any information available to the office
listed on the alert.
b. Stolen Aircraft Summaries.
1. Stolen aircraft summaries should be used to
replace and consolidate all the individual stolen
aircraft alerts received in the interim.
2. Monthly summaries are sent as soon as
possible after the end of the month. They include
Law Enforcement Messages
Any inquiries from airport managers, aircraft owners,
or law enforcement entities to initiate an alert
message must be directed to EPIC. EPIC is interfaced
with the National Crime Information Center, which
gives them access to any stolen aircraft report entered
by law enforcement agencies. FAA facilities must
not volunteer to relay this information to EPIC.
Assistance must be limited to providing EPIC phone
number(s) as specified in subparagraph 6-7-1c3 or
advising the inquiring party to go through normal law
enforcement channels.
6−7−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 8. Non−Emergency Parachute Jumping
6−8−1. COORDINATION
All pertinent information received from pilots prior
to and during parachute jumping activity must be
forwarded to other affected ATC facilities.
6−8−2. PRE-JUMP RADIO
COMMUNICATIONS
a. When a pre-jump radio call required by 14 CFR
Section 105.13 is received, contact the ARTCC
sector or terminal facility in whose airspace the jump
Non−Emergency Parachute Jumping
begins. If the controller has pertinent traffic, advise
the jump aircraft to contact the control facility on the
appropriate frequency for traffic information.
b. If the aircraft is unable to contact the control
facility direct, obtain traffic information and relay it
to the aircraft.
EXAMPLE−
“Cessna Four Zero Yankee, A-T-C advises traffic, Cessna
Four Twenty-One passing SPUTS intersection eastbound
on Victor One Fifty-Seven at seven thousand.”
6−8−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 9. SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT)
6−9−1. SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT)
A SECNOT is a request originated by the Domestic
Events Network (DEN) Air Traffic Security
Coordinator (ATSC) for an extensive communica­
tions search for aircraft involved or suspected of
being involved in a security violation. A SECNOT
will include the aircraft identification, the search
area, and an expiration time. The search area, as
defined by the ATSC, can be a single airport, multiple
airports, a radius of an airport or fix, or a route of
flight. Once the expiration time has been reached, the
SECNOT is considered to be canceled.
NOTE−
1. The DEN will notify the FSS of the SECNOT by
telephone.
2. The ATSC may expand the search area or expiration
time following the initial notification of the security
notice.
2. The DEN is responsible for coordination with
ARTCCs.
b. When contacting airports or offices outside
official Government agencies, provide no further
information other than what is in the SECNOT.
c. Upon receiving information about the
SECNOT aircraft, immediately notify the DEN.
d. If the aircraft is located, notify the DEN
immediately, and cancel the SECNOT.
e. The priority of duty for handling a SECNOT is
that of emergency situations as described in
Paragraph 1−3−2, Duty Priority.
f. Record the initiation of a SECNOT on FAA
Form 7230-4, Daily Record of Facility Operation, or
electronic equivalent. Include the aircraft identifica­
tion, search area, and expiration time in the log entry.
6−9−3. CANCELING A SECNOT
6−9−2. ACTION UPON RECEIVING A
SECNOT
a. As soon as a SECNOT is received, the facility
must attempt to locate the aircraft by checking all
airports in the search area that could accommodate
the aircraft. Relay the SECNOT to all terminal
facilities in the search area.
NOTE−
1. Terminal facilities will reply directly to the DEN.
SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT)
The SECNOT stays current until the aircraft is
located, the search is canceled by the ATSC, or when
the expiration time is reached.
a. Workload permitting, notify all previously
alerted air traffic facilities if the SECNOT is canceled
before the expiration time is reached.
b. Record the cancellation on FAA Form 7230-4,
Daily Record of Facility Operation, or electronic
equivalent.
6−9−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 7. International Operations
Section 1. Messages and Formats
7−1−1. GENERAL
a. Title 14 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
(14 CFR) and the International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) require flight plans for all civil
aircraft operation between the United States and
foreign locations. Bureau of Customs and Border
Protection requirements, international flight plan
information, and ADIZ penetration requirements are
listed in other publications; for example, the FAA
International Flight Information Manual (IFIM), the
Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Guide for
Private Flyers, the Aeronautical Information Manual
(AIM), Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP),
14 CFR Part 91, and 14 CFR Part 99. Landing Rights
Airports (LRA) and Airports of Entry (AOE) are
listed in the Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD)
Supplements.
b. This chapter provides guidance to FSS facilities
when transmitting international flight movement
messages. It incorporates relevant information from
ICAO and 14 CFR documents. All personnel
required to handle international messages must be
familiar with ICAO documents containing
instructions for preparing and transmitting
communications through the Aeronautical Fixed
Telecommunications Network (AFTN) circuits.
These documents should be retained at facilities. FSS
personnel must not act as agents for any aircraft
operating or dispatching company.
NOTE−
International telecommunications instructions are found
in International Standards and Recommended Practices,
ICAO Annex 10 – Aeronautical Telecommunications,
Volume II. PANS ATM DOC 4444, Procedures for Air
Navigation Services, lists various ATS movement
messages. Location indicators are contained in ICAO
Document 7910, and Designators for Aircraft Operating
Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services are
contained in ICAO DOC 8585. FAA policies concerning
acceptance of messages for international transmission
are contained in 14 CFR Part 189.
c. Address the message to the proper FSS gateway
facility/sector for handling. FSSs that transmit only
occasional international messages or are unable to
Messages and Formats
determine the correct addressing for all air traffic
units concerned may refer or transfer the pilot to the
proper gateway facility/sector. The FSS gateway
facility/sector and their areas of responsibilities are as
follows
1. Miami FSS Sector (MIA): Africa, Bermuda,
Canada, Caribbean, Central America, Europe, North
Atlantic, and South America.
2. Kenai FSS (ENA): Alaska.
3. Honolulu (HNL)/Oakland (OAK) Sectors:
Pacific.
4. Seattle Sector (SEA): Pacific Northwest to
Alaska
d. To ensure that the FSS gateway facility/sector
understands your request, include T (transmit)
instructions in the first line of text.
EXAMPLE−
FF KOAKYFYX
DTG PAJNYFYX
OAK T ALL INTL ADDRESSEES
(Text)
e. Use of FAA Form 7233-4 is mandatory for all
IFR flights that will depart U.S. domestic airspace
and enter international airspace. The filer is
responsible for providing the information required in
items 3 through 19.
7−1−2. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS)
MESSAGES
ATS messages, as used in this section, is a generic
term meaning and including: flight information,
alerting, air traffic advisory, and air traffic control
(ATC) services.
7−1−3. CATEGORIES OF MESSAGES
The following ATS messages, with their normal
priority indicators, are authorized for transmission by
any means; for example, AFTN, NADIN,
7−1−1
JO 7110.10X
interphone, computer-to-computer, or via the
aeronautical mobile service, as applicable.
a. Emergency Messages.
1. Distress messages and distress traffic,
including alerting (ALR) messages relating to
distress (DETRESFA) phase-SS.
2. Urgency messages, including alerting
messages relating to an alert (ALERFA) phase or to
an uncertainty (INCERFA) phase-SS.
3. Other messages concerning known or
suspected emergencies which do not fall under
subparas 7−1−3a1 and a2 and radio communications
failure (RCF) messages-FF or higher as required.
b. Movement and Control Messages.
1. Flight plan (FPL)-FF.
2. Amendment and coordination messages.
(a) Departure (DEP)-FF.
(b) Delay (DLA)-GG.
(c) Arrival (ARR)-GG.
(d) Boundary estimate (EST)-FF.*
(e) Modification (CHG)-FF.*
4/3/14
d. Technical Messages. Four categories of these
messages are specified for use on
computer-to-computer circuits only. They will not be
sent on AFTN or NADIN circuits.
7−1−4. SERVICE MESSAGES
a. NADIN immediately generates a service
message to an originator when incorrect code or
routing indicators are detected.
EXAMPLE−
FF KZKCZQZX
031840 KSLCYTYX
SVC. ZKC121 QTA RPT
FF KZKCZQZX
031840 KSLCYTYX
SVC. ZKC122 QTA MSR
b. Assign the appropriate priority indicator to
international service messages. When service
messages refer to messages previously transmitted,
assign the same priority prefix. Identify a service
message by inserting “SVC” as the first item of the
text.
EXAMPLE−
FF TJSJYFYX
DTG KSEAYFYX
SVC. RUMES 231015
(Text)
(f) Coordination (CDN)-FF.*
(g) Acceptance (ACP)-FF.*
3. Cancellation (CNL)-GG.*
4. Clearances, flow control (SPL, CHG,
CDN)-FF or DD.*
5. Transfer of control (TCX)-FF.*
6. Requests (RQS)-FF.*
7. Position reports (AIREP)-FF.*
c. Flight Information Messages.
1. Traffic information-FF.*
GG.
2. Meteorological information (MET)-FF or
3. Operation of aeronautical facilities and
essential airport information (NOTAM)-GG.
* Normally exchanged between ATC units via voice
circuits.
7−1−2
7−1−5. TRANSMISSION VIA NADIN
International messages are generally introduced on
NADIN for relay to AFTN circuits.
a. Operational Systems use the ICAO Flight Plan
or Service-B message formats as described in the
Operational System operating procedures.
b. Handle international messages on NADIN for
relay to AFTN as follows:
1. Start of message. New Line Key.
2. Preamble (priority, space, addressee(s).
(a) Priority. Two-character precedence field.
(b) Addressee(s). Not to exceed 69 characters
or seven addressees, each addressee separated by a
space.
(c) End of Line (EOL) new line key.
(d) End of Text (EOT) (enter function).
Messages and Formats
4/3/14
7−1−6. TRANSMISSION OF ATS
MESSAGES
a. Air traffic service messages are interchanged in
the international air traffic control system in the
following modes:
1. The preferred step-by-step mode wherein
each ACC/ARTCC sends forward the full current
(updated) flight plan information as the flight
progresses.
2. The simultaneous mode wherein information
extracted from the filed flight plan (FPL) is sent
simultaneously to all ATS units along the route of
flight. In this mode, only amendments to the FPL,
plus necessary control information, are forwarded
from center to center as the flight progresses.
b. Prepare and transmit ATS messages as
described below. Address these messages as follows:
1. Include an eight-character addressee
indicator for each addressee. When the number of
addressees required is more than the operational
system parameters allow, two or more transmissions
of the message must be made. The eight-letter
combination addressee indicators are composed as
follows:
(a) The four-letter ICAO location indicator;
for example, MPTO. Use only those listed in ICAO
DOC 7910 (Location Indicators). Some ICAO
eight-character addressees for Mexico and Canada
are listed in FAAO JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
JO 7110.10X
YXYX Military Organization (BASOPS).
YYYX Organization not allocated a two-letter designator.
ZOZX Oceanic Air Traffic Control Center.
ZPZX Air Traffic Service Reporting Office.
ZQZX Computer Facility at ACC/ARTCC.
ZRZX ACC/ARTCC. (Center in charge of a FIR/UIR when
the message is relevant to a VFR flight (AMIS)).
ZTZX Aerodrome Control Tower.
ZZZX Aircraft in flight.
(c) A one-letter designator will appear
following an air carrier designator to indicate the
department or division of the organization addressed.
2. Filing time. A six-digit date/time group
indicating the time the message is filed with the FSS
for transmission.
c. Originator Indicator. Consists of an eight-letter
sequence similar to an address indicator, identifying
the place of origin and the organization originating
the message.
d. Supplementary Address and Origin
Information. When the four-letter designators
YXYX, ZZZX, or YYYX are used, identify the
aircraft operator or organization at the beginning of
the text preceding the start-of-ATS data symbol ( (- ­
), in the same order as in the addressee(s) and/or
originator indicator(s). Where there is more than one
such insertion, the last should be followed by the
word “stop.” Where there are one or more insertions
in respect to addressee indicators plus an insertion in
respect to the originator indicator, the word “from” is
to appear before that relating to the originator.
(b) A four-letter designator for the facility
type/office, or if no designator has been assigned,
affix YXYX for military, ZZZX for aircraft in flight,
or YYYX for all other cases; for example,
MTPPYYYX. (See Note.)
e. When addressing flight plan messages or
related amendments and flight plan cancellation
messages to centers, use one of the four-letter
designators as follows:
REFERENCE−
ICAO DOC 8585, Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies,
Aeronautical Authorities and Services.
(a) The ARTCC is computer-equipped (U.S.
ARTCCs), use ZQZX.
NOTE−
The most frequently used and authorized designators are:
YAYX Government Civil Aviation Authority
(FAARegional Office or Headquarters).
YCYX Rescue Coordination Center (RCC).
YDYX Authority Supervising the Aerodrome.
YFYX Aeronautical Fixed Station FSS/IATSC).
YMYX Meteorological Office (NWS).
YNYX International NOTAM Office (NOF).
YTYX Telecommunications Authority.
YWYX Military Flight Operational Control Center (ACP)
(b) The center is not computer-equipped, use
ZRZX.
Messages and Formats
1. If message is relevant to IFR and:
(c) Relevant to oceanic operations, use
ZOZX.
NOTE−
Some centers may request specific addressing different
from above. ZTZX and ZPZX are used internationally, but
are not used in internal U.S. application.
2. If message is VFR (AMIS), use ZRZX.
3. If SVC or administrative, use ZRZX.
7−1−3
JO 7110.10X
7−1−7. ORIGINATING MESSAGES
a. Messages for ATS purposes may be originated
with ATS units by aircraft in flight, or, through local
arrangements, a pilot, the operator, or their
designated representative.
b. Accept airfiled flight plans or changes in
destination information from aircraft inbound from
foreign locations and, if requested by the pilot, enter
Customs notification service.
c. Do not accept round-robin flight plans to
international locations, other than Canada.
NOTE−
1. Only accept VFR round-robin flight plans to Canada
if the filer of the flight plan is in possession of a valid
numbered letter of authorization and adheres to the
provisions contained therein.
2. Individual requests for the temporary authorization
letter should be directed to the appropriate service area
office.
3. The temporary authorization letter mandates the pilot,
or responsible party, to provide the FSS with a name,
telephone number and authorization number for inclusion
in the remarks section of the flight plan.
4. FSS must log a double (2) count for the round-robin
flight plan.
d. Do not accept assumed departure flight plans
when the destination is in a foreign country other than
Canada.
e. Aircraft movement, control, and flight informa­
tion messages for purposes other than ATS, such as
operational control, must be originated by the pilot,
the operator, or their designated representative.
7−1−8. ADDRESSING MESSAGES
a. Addressing the flight plan is determined by the
point of departure, the destination, and the FIR
boundaries to be penetrated during the course of the
flight.
b. Address IFR FPL messages to the ARTCC
serving the airport of departure and to all ATS units
(including oceanic) providing air traffic control
service or concerned with flight along part or the
whole of the route to be flown except FAA ATCTs
and other conterminous U.S. ARTCCs.
NOTE−
Within the North Atlantic (NAT) Region, FPLs on turbo jet
aircraft transiting the control areas of Gander Oceanic,
7−1−4
4/3/14
New York Oceanic, Reykjavik, Santa Maria Oceanic,
Shanwick Oceanic and Sondrestrom (south of 70 degrees)
within 90 nautical miles of the control area boundary,
must be addressed to the adjacent ACC to provide lateral
separation. For all other aircraft, a 120 nautical mile
proximity limit must apply.
c. Transmit all IFR FPLs to ARTCCs not less than
1 hour prior to the proposed departure time. Do not
hold FPLs until after departure time and transmit as
a combined FPL and departure message (DEP).
Separate FPL and DEP messages must be
transmitted.
NOTE−
ICAO flight plans do not require an acknowledgment to
the transmitting facility.
d. Address aircraft movement messages only to
those ATS units responsible for the provision of
relevant service, except when requested by the
operator concerned, these messages, when
transmitted via the AFTN, may also be routed, as
specified by the operator or a representative to:
1. One addressee at the point of intended
landing or point of departure.
2. Not more than two operational control units
concerned.
e. The ARTCC serving the departure airport must
transmit the DEP message on IFR aircraft to all
known recipients of the FPL message. Flights
between conterminous U.S. and Canada (excluding
Gander Oceanic), Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico do
not require DEP messages. Discontinuance of DEP
messages affecting the route of flight can only be
accomplished by ICAO Regional Air Navigation
Agreement.
7−1−9. FLIGHT PLAN FORMS AND
INSTRUCTIONS
a. All IFR flights that depart U.S. domestic
airspace and enter international airspace must use
FAA Form 7233-4, International Flight Plan (see
Appendix A), the ICAO Model Flight Plan Form in
ICAO DOC 4444, or an electronic equivalent. The
flight plan filer is responsible for providing the
information required in items 3 through 19.
1. The procedure described in paragraph a.
above also applies to IFR flight plans originating
within or transiting Pacific Flight Information
Regions (FIR) and flying to or from FIRs beyond the
Pacific Region including the North American (NAM)
Region.
Messages and Formats
4/3/14
NOTE−
The NAM Region encompasses the conterminous U.S.,
Alaska, and Canada to the North Pole.
2. VFR flights within the conterminous U.S.,
Canada, Mexico, Honolulu, Alaska, and San Juan
domestic control areas may use FAA Form 7233-1,
Flight Plan, or an electronic equivalent.
b. When paper forms are used, record on the form
the time the flight plan was filed. This time will
constitute evidence of the pilot’s intention to comply
with Customs, Immigration, and Public Health
requirements and will be made available upon request
from these authorities
7−1−10. ICAO ATS MESSAGE FORMAT
JO 7110.10X
control at the airport of intended landing. CPLs
contain only information relevant to that portion of
the route of flight which extends from the point of
entry into the next control area or FIR to the airport
of intended landing.
g. Acceptance (ACP) Message. Transmitted when
the data contained in a CPL message are found to be
acceptable to the receiving ACC.
h. Flight Plan Cancellation (CNL) Message.
Transmitted when a current (CPL) or filed flight plan
(FPL) message was transmitted and the flight is
canceled.
7−1−11. FLIGHT PLAN CHANGES AND
CANCELLATIONS
The following are examples of ICAO message types
most likely to appear on AFTN/NADIN circuits. The
number above the data corresponds to the field type
numbers on the flight plan form (FAA Form 7233-4)
and on the chart of Standard ATS Messages and Their
Composition, Appendix A.
a. Assume departure station duties when a flight
plan change is received from an aircraft en route to a
foreign location.
a. Departure Message (DEP). ARTCCs are the
designated ATS unit responsible for originating and
transmitting DEP messages on all IFR aircraft
departing airports within their center boundaries. IFR
flight plans must be transmitted to ARTCCs at least
1 hour before departure. This allows ARTCCs to
determine recipients of DEP message when domestic
portions are transmitted to ARTCCs in an automated
format. Do not hold FPLs and combine with DEP into
a single message.
b. An FSS receiving a VFR flight plan
cancellation report from aircraft en route to a foreign
location must transmit a cancellation message to the
appropriate foreign tie-in facility.
b. Delay Message (DLA). Transmitted when
departure of an aircraft, for which an FPL message
has been transmitted, is postponed or delayed more
than 30 minutes after the estimated time of departure
contained in the FPL.
c. Alerting Message (ALR). Relating to an
overdue situation on an aircraft.
d. Supplementary Flight Plan (SPL). Information
must be sent to ATS units that transmit Request
Supplementary Flight Plan (RQS) messages.
e. Arrival Message (ARR). Sent only on Canadian
MOT, U.S. DOT, or FAA aircraft or upon request.
f. Current Flight Plan (CPL) Message. Originated
by and transmitted in a step-by-step mode between
successive ACCs and between the last ACC to the
Messages and Formats
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 6-4-8, Major Flight Plan Changes from En Route
Aircraft
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 6-4-9, Change in ETA.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 6-4-10, Flight Plan Closure.
7−1−12. AIR MOBILE SERVICE (AMS)
a. Air Mobile Service (AMS) is an international
air/ground communications network. It provides
service to en route aircraft primarily in support of
ATC and company operations, and collects meteoro­
logical data for dissemination. Although in the U.S.
this service is provided via contract (ARINC), FAA
flight service facilities may be required to relay
information on a case-by-case basis.
b. The AMS network is composed of individual
units geographically limited to areas where effective
coordination and cooperation between ground
stations are possible.
c. For any individual route segment, the AMS
communication requirements will normally be met
by two or more network stations serving the flights on
that route segment. In general, these primary stations
serve the ACC serving the FIRs and the points of
takeoff and landing. In some cases, additional
7−1−5
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
suitably located stations are required to complete the
communications coverage.
i. During its tenure of primary guard, each station
will:
d. Each of these stations may be required at some
stage of the flight to exchange communications with
the aircraft, and when not so engaged, to intercept, as
required, communications exchanged between the
aircraft and any one of the other stations.
1. Be responsible for designating primary and
secondary frequencies for communications with
aircraft.
e. Stations providing regular network service to
aircraft operation along route segments in an ACC’s
FIR are termed regular stations. Other network
stations will only be required to assist communica­
tions for that FIR in the event of communications
failure.
f. When communications permit, aircraft should
transmit their messages to the primary station of the
network from which they can most readily be
delivered to their ultimate destination. In particular,
aircraft reports required by ATC should be
transmitted to the network station serving the ATC
center in whose area the aircraft is flying. Conversely,
messages to aircraft in flight should be transmitted
direct to the aircraft by the network station serving the
location of the originator.
g. Messages passed from aircraft to a network
station should be intercepted and acknowledged by
other stations which serve locations where the
information is also required. Such intercepts provide
instantaneous delivery of information and eliminates
the transmission of messages over the AFTN.
Networks may not be used for transmission of aircraft
reports except under the intercept principle.
Acknowledgments of intercept must be made
immediately after the acknowledgment of receipt by
the station to which the message was passed. In the
absence of acknowledgment of intercept within
1�minute, the station accepting the message from the
aircraft must forward the message via the AFTN to
the ultimate destination.
h. In areas or on routes where radio operations,
lengths of flights, or distance between stations
require additional measures to ensure continuity of
communications throughout the route segment, the
stations must share the responsibility of primary
guard whereby each station will provide the primary
guard for that portion of the flight during which the
messages from the aircraft can be handled most
effectively by that station.
7−1−6
2. Receive all position reports and handle other
messages from and to the aircraft essential to the safe
conduct of the flight.
3. Be responsible for the action required in case
of failure of communication.
j. Transfer of primary guard from one primary
station to the next will normally take place at the time
of traversing FIR or control area boundaries. When
communications conditions so demand, a station
may be required to retain primary guard beyond
geographical boundaries or release its guard before
the aircraft reaches a boundary.
7−1−13. AIREPs (POSITION REPORTS)
a. AIREPs are messages from an aircraft to a
ground station. AIREPs are normally comprised of
the aircraft’s position, time, flight level, ETA over its
next reporting point, destination ETA, fuel
remaining, and meteorological information. When
recording an AIREP on data terminals or written
copy, the following procedures must be used.
1. Each line must begin at the left margin.
2. A new line must be used for each
transmission.
3. If communications allow, each report must
contain the following items in the order shown:
(a) Message type aerodrome reference point
(ARP).
(b) Call sign of the calling station (aircraft).
(c) Text of the message.
(d) Call sign of the station called or receiving
station followed by the appropriate abbreviation to
indicate received, readback, or no reply heard.
(e) Call sign of station(s) acknowledging
intercept followed by appropriate abbreviation to
indicate received.
(f) Designation of frequency used.
EXAMPLE−
*2866QM 8903VO 13300YH
2932QI *5631TY 11384XM
Messages and Formats
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
2998QL 6532UA 13294YF
5628TO 10048WH 17904ZC
*For Alaskan domestic use only.
when climbing, or DES (level) when descending to
a new level after passing the significant point.
EXAMPLE−
ARP CPC583 KBRO 2100 F330 MMTM 2128
ETA XMMMX 2248 FUEL 0324
KNEW RB
MMMX R
TO2103
(e) Item 5, Next position and time over.
Record the next reporting point and the estimated
time over such reporting point, or record the
estimated position that will be reached 1 hour later,
according to the position reporting procedures in
effect. Use the data conventions specified in subpara
7-1-13b1(b), Item 2, Position, for position. Record
time in minutes past the hour (two numerics) or in
hours and minutes UTC (four numerics) when
necessary.
b. AIREPs may be filed from any aircraft inflight
within World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
areas of responsibility in conformity with ICAO
requirements for position, operational, or meteorolo­
gical reporting in AIREP format. AIREP information
must be disseminated to ATC, company, and
meteorological offices as required. AIREPs consist
of three sections comprised of 12 items. AIREPs may
be filed in one, two, or three sections as follows:
EXAMPLE−
PSNRP portion of AIREP prepared by De Ridder and
addressed to Canadian Pacific Airlines (CPC) in Toronto
and Mexico City:
FF CYYZCPCX MMMXXMZT
122105 KDRIYFYX
ARP CPC583 KBRO 2100 F370 MMTM28
KNEW RB
MMMM R
TO2103]
1. Section 1, Routine report. A position report
(PSNRP) comprising the Message Type Designator
-ARP and the following items:
2. Section 2. When reported by the pilot:
(g) Time in UTC of the communication.
4. Missing parts of the message text must be
indicated by the letter “M.”
(a) Item 1, Aircraft identification.
(b) Item 2, Position. Record position in
latitude (degrees as two numerics, or degrees and
minutes as four numerics, followed without a space
by N or S) and longitude (degrees as three numerics,
or degrees and minutes as five numerics, followed
without a space by E or W) or as a significant point
identified by a coded designator (two-to-five
characters) or as a significant point followed by a
magnetic bearing (three numerics) and a distance in
nautical miles (three numerics) from the point, such
as 4620N07805W, 4620N078W, 46N078W, LN,
MAY or DUB180040. Precede significant point by
ABM (abeam), if applicable.
(c) Item 3, Time. Record time in hours and
minutes UTC (four numerics). The time recorded
must be the actual time of the aircraft at the position
and not the time of origination or transmission of the
report.
(d) Item 4, Flight level or altitude. Record
flight level as “F” followed by three numerics when
on standard pressure altimeter setting, such as F370.
Record altitude in meters followed by M, or in feet
followed by FT, when on QNH. Record ASC (level)
Messages and Formats
(a) Item 6, Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA).
Record ETA by the four-letter location indicator of
the airport of first intended landing, or if no location
indicator exists, the name of the airport followed by
the estimated time of arrival at this aerodrome in
hours and minutes UTC (four numerics).
(b) Item 7, Endurance. Record fuel in hours
and minutes (four numerics).
3. Section 3. A full AIREP comprising a
PSNRP, company information, and en route
meteorological information.
(a) Item 8, Air temperature. Record PS (plus)
or MS (minus), no space, followed by the
temperature in degrees centigrade corrected for
instrument error and airspeed, such as MS05.
(b) Item 9, Spot wind or mean wind and
position. Spot wind is used whenever practical and
normally refers to the position given in subpara
7-1-13b1(b), Item 2, Position. When a spot wind is
given for any other location, record its position.
Whenever it is not practical to record spot wind,
record the mean wind between two fixes, followed by
the word ”mean,” and the position of the midpoint
between the two fixes. Record wind direction in
degrees true (three numerics) and wind speed in knots
(two or three numerics), separated by an oblique
7−1−7
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
stroke, such as 345/55. Record the direction of
variable winds of a given strength as VRB, such as
VRB/10. Record light and variable winds or calm as
LV. If wind position is required, record latitude and
longitude to the nearest whole degree, using the data
convention specified in Item 2, such as 22N180W.
respective height indication F (number) or (number)
or (number) M/ or (number) FT.
(3) Turbulence and Icing. Moderate
turbulence (TURB MOD) if in subsonic flight, or
moderate aircraft icing (ICE MOD) observed prior to
the last 10�minutes.
EXAMPLE−
AIREP comprised of PSNRP and aircraft operator
information:
FF CYYZCPCX MMMXXMZT
122105 KDRIYFYX
ARP CPC583 KBRO 2100 F370 MMTM28
MMMX 2248 FUEL 0324
KNEW RB
MMMX R
TO2103
(4) D-Value. Reading or radio altimeter
minus reading of pressure altimeter set to 1013.2 mb
and corrected for calibration and position error;
record differences as PS (plus) or MS (minus), no
space, followed by the number of meters or feet.
(c) Item 10, Turbulence (TURB). Record
severe turbulence as TURB SEV and moderate
turbulence as TURB MOD. If turbulence is
experienced in cloud, add INC (in cloud). If in
subsonic flight, report severe turbulence as soon as
possible after occurrence. This requires AIREP
SPECIAL. Record and report moderate turbulence
only if encountered within last 10 minutes prior to
reaching position in subpara 7-1-13b1(b), Item 2,
Position. If in transonic or supersonic flight, report
severe or moderate turbulence as soon as possible
after occurrence. This requires AIREP SPECIAL.
(d) Item 11, Icing. Record severe icing as ICE
SEV, moderate icing as ICE MOD. Report severe
icing as soon as possible after occurrence. This
requires AIREP SPECIAL. Record and report
moderate icing only if encountered within last
10 minutes prior to reaching position in subpara
7-1-13b1(b), Item 2, Position.
(e) Item 12, Supplementary Information.
Record data which in the opinion of the pilot-in-com­
mand are of aeronautical interest.
(1) Present Weather. Rain (RA), Snow
(SN), Freezing rain (FZRA), Funnel cloud (FC)
Waterspout or tornado (+FC), Thunderstorm (TS) on
or near flight path, Front (FRONT).
(2) Clouds. If heights of cloud bases and/or
tops can be accurately ascertained, amount of clouds
scattered (SCT) if clear intervals predominate,
broken (BKN) if cloud masses predominate, or
continuous (CNS) type of clouds only if
cumulonimbus (CB), and an indication of the bases
(BASE) and/or the tops (TOP) together with the
7−1−8
EXAMPLE−
Full AIREP:
FF CYYZCPCX MMMXXMZT KMIAYMYX
162215 TJSJYFYX
ARP CPC583 2709N05415W 2212 F330
23N056W 59 0035 FUEL 0324 M534 310/60
MEAN 2543N05532W TURB MOD ICE MOD SCT
CB TOP F280
TJSJ RB
TO2214
NOTE−
Transmit to the WMO office serving the FIR where the
report is made.
(5) Operationally Significant Weather
Radar Echoes (echo or echo line). True bearing of
center of echo or line and distance from aircraft in
nautical miles; if appropriate, indicate weather
intensifying or weakening and whether no gaps, some
gaps, or frequent gaps are observed.
(6) Significant differences between condi­
tions encountered and those forecast for the flight,
such as forecast thunderstorms not observed or
freezing rain not forecast.
(7) If the position of the phenomenon
reported is not the same as the position given under
subpara 7-1-13b1(b), Item 2, Position, report it after
the phenomenon.
7−1−14. AIREP SPECIALS (ARS)
a. Turbulence. TURB SEV encountered while in
subsonic flight is reported as soon as possible after
occurrence and requires AIREP SPECIAL. TURB
MOD is reported only if encountered within
10 minutes prior to reaching reporting position. If in
transonic or supersonic flight, TURB MOD and SEV
is reported as soon as possible and requires AIREP
SPECIAL.
b. Icing. ICE SEV is reported as soon as possible
after occurrence and requires AIREP SPECIAL. ICE
Messages and Formats
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
MOD is reported only if encountered within last
10 minutes prior to reaching reporting position.
flight movement messages to the adjacent FSS unless
that facility is also an addressee.
EXAMPLE−
FF KMIAYMYX
211538 TJSJYFYX
ARS PAA101 5045N02015W 1536 F310 ASC
F350 51N030W 21 FUEL 0900 ICE SEV
NOTE−
If an overseas unit erroneously routes a VFR movement
message to an ARTCC, the automatic NADIN switch will
not divert it to an FSS.
7−1−15. ARTCC RELAY OF VFR
MESSAGES
ARTCC operators must relay all international VFR
Messages and Formats
7−1−9
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Customs Notification and ADIZ
Requirements
7−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN/CUSTOMS
REQUIREMENTS
Specific flight plan, Customs, and other requirements
of individual countries are listed in the FAA
International Flight Information Manual, IFIM.
7−2−2. INBOUND AIRCRAFT: CUSTOMS
REQUIREMENTS
a. All aircraft entering U.S. airspace from a
foreign port must provide at least 1 hour advance
notice to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection
(CBP) at the point of first intended landing.
b. Aircraft arriving from the following location
must furnish a notice of intended arrival to CBP at the
nearest designated airport to point of crossing for the
first landing in the U.S.
1. Via the U.S./Mexican border or the Pacific
Coast from a foreign location in the Western
Hemisphere south of 33 degrees north latitude.
2. From the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic
Coasts from a place in the Western Hemisphere south
of 30 degrees north latitude from any place in
Mexico.
3. From the U.S. Virgin Islands.
4. From Puerto Rico, which if from Puerto Rico,
are conducting VFR flight.
c. This notice must be given at least 1 hour before
crossing the U.S. coastline or border. The advance
notice of arrival must include the following:
1. Aircraft registration number.
2. Name of aircraft commander.
3. Number of U.S. citizen passengers.
4. Number of alien passengers.
5. Place of last departure.
6. Estimated time and location of crossing U.S.
border/coastline.
7. Estimated time of arrival.
8. Name of intended U.S. airport of first
landing.
Customs Notification and ADIZ Requirements
d. The pilot may make any required notification
directly to the CBP through the Electronic Advance
Passenger Information System (eAPIS) at:
https://eapis.cbp.dhs.gov/. Alternate methods may
include telephone, radio, or other means, or may be
furnished through the FAA to the CBP.
REFERENCE−
U.S. Customs and Border Protection Guide for Private Flyers.
e. When Customs flight notification service is
requested, as indicated by inclusion of ADCUS in
remarks, deliver the complete message to the
associated CBP office as soon as practical. Relay
additional or amended information to the CBP in
order to properly comply with requirements; for
example, when actual arrival time varies from ETA
by more than 15 minutes.
1. Provide the service only for those airports
where availability is advertised in the AFD on flight
notification messages. Pilots are responsible for
making their own Customs arrangements for other
airports.
2. Notify only the CBP office which, in turn, is
responsible for notifying other inspection agencies
concerned.
f. Prefiled Customs notification requests for
flights returning to the U.S. must be delivered to the
CBP office not earlier than 23 hours in advance.
g. When an airborne aircraft identifies an airport
of first intended landing that is not one of the
designated airports, advise the pilot that this airport
is not a designated airport of first landing.
PHRASEOLOGY−
BE ADVISED THAT YOUR DESTINATION IS NOT A
CUSTOMS
AND
BORDER
PROTECTION
DESIGNATED FIRST LANDING AIRPORT. WHAT ARE
YOUR INTENTIONS?
NOTE−
If a pilot insists on landing at a non-designated airport,
pass this information to nearest Customs and Border
Protection office.
h. When a flight notification message containing
ADCUS in remarks identifies a non-designated
airport of first intended landing, notify the message
originator to advise the pilot that the filed destination
is not a designated airport.
7−2−1
JO 7110.10X
PHRASEOLOGY−
ADVISE (aircraft identification) THAT THE FILED
DESTINATION IS NOT A CUSTOMS AND BORDER
PROTECTION DESIGNATED FIRST LANDING
AIRPORT.
NOTE−
The FAA’s role in this program is advisory only. Any
appearance of action of enforcing compliance must be
avoided. Any questions should be directed to the U.S.
Customs and Border Protection.
i. Record the time of receipt of Customs requests.
This time will constitute evidence of the pilot’s
intention to comply with CBP, Immigration, and
Public Health requirements and will be made
available upon request from these authorities.
7−2−3. INBOUND AIRCRAFT: ADIZ
REQUIREMENTS
a. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person
may operate an aircraft into, within, or across an
ADIZ unless that person has filed a flight plan with
an appropriate aeronautical facility.
b. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person
may operate an aircraft into, within, or across an
ADIZ unless that aircraft is equipped with a coded
radar beacon transponder and automatic pressure
altitude reporting equipment having altitude
reporting capability that automatically replies to
interrogations by transmitting pressure altitude
information in 100-foot increments.
NOTE−
This paragraph does not apply to the operation of an
7−2−2
4/3/14
aircraft which was not originally certificated with an
engine-driven electrical system and which has not
subsequently been certified with such a system installed;
for example, a balloon or glider.
c. Pilots of aircraft entering the United States
through an ADIZ are required to comply with the
provisions of 14 CFR Sections 99.17 and 99.19.
d. Forward information on DVFR aircraft in­
bound to the U.S. to NORAD via Service B or by
telephone. Forward the following information:
1. Aircraft call sign.
2. Number and type of aircraft.
3. Altitude (within ADIZ).
4. True airspeed.
5. Time of departure.
6. Point of departure.
7. Destination.
8. ETA.
9. Remarks: DVFR discrete transponder code;
estimated first point of penetration of ADIZ
(latitude/longitude or fix-radial-distance); estimated
time of penetration of ADIZ.
EXAMPLE−
1210 135 3442/09345 1446
NOTE−
1. See para 6-3-3, IFR Flight Plan Control Messages .
2. Further information on ADIZ requirements is
contained in 14 CFR Part 99.
Customs Notification and ADIZ Requirements
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Alerting Service
7−3−1. GENERAL
a. Alerting service must be provided:
1. For all aircraft provided with ATC service.
(c) Information has been received which
indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft
has been impaired, but not to the extent that a forced
landing is likely.
2. Insofar as practical, to all other aircraft
having filed a flight plan or otherwise known to an air
traffic service.
(d) An aircraft is known or believed to be the
subject of unlawful interference.
3. To any aircraft known or believed to be the
subject of unlawful interference.
(a) Following the alert phase further
unsuccessful attempts to establish communication
with the aircraft and more widespread unsuccessful
inquiries point to the probability that the aircraft is in
distress.
b. Additional information related to ICAO Search
and Rescue procedures can be found in ICAO
ANNEX 11, Chapter 5, Alerting Service.
3. Distress phase when:
c. Apply domestic SAR procedures for the U.S.
portion of the flight.
(b) The fuel on board is considered to be
exhausted or thought to be insufficient to enable the
aircraft to reach safety.
7−3−2. ALERTING PHASES
(c) Information is received which indicates
that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been
impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely.
a. Air traffic services units must notify rescue
coordination centers immediately when an aircraft is
considered to be in a state of emergency in accordance
with the following:
1. Uncertainty phase when:
(a) No communication has been received
from an aircraft within a period of 30 minutes after the
time a communication should have been received, or
from the time an unsuccessful attempt to establish
communication with such aircraft was first made,
whichever is the earlier.
(b) An aircraft fails to arrive within
30�minutes of the estimated time of arrival last
notified to or estimated by air traffic services units,
whichever is later, except when no doubt exists as to
the safety of the aircraft and its occupants.
2. Alert phase when:
(a) Following the uncertainty phase, sub­
sequent attempts to establish communication with
the aircraft or inquiries to other relevant sources have
failed to reveal any news of the aircraft.
(b) An aircraft has been cleared to land and
fails to land within five minutes of the estimated time
of landing and communication has not been
reestablished with the aircraft.
Alerting Service
(d) Information is received and it is reason­
ably certain that the aircraft is about to make or has
made a forced landing.
b. In addition to the initial notification, the Rescue
Coordination Center (RCC) must, without delay, be
furnished with:
1. Any useful additional information, especially
on the development of the state of emergency through
subsequent phases.
2. Information that the emergency situation no
longer exists.
7−3−3. ALERTING MESSAGE CONTENTS
a. The notification must contain as much of the
following information as is available in the order
listed.:
NOTE−
1. For supplemental flight plan information, transmit an
“RQS” Message. This information is used in the
transmission of the INCERFA.
2. See paragraph 1-2-7, Operational System
Instructions, for message formats.
EXAMPLE−
FF SVZMZRZX
231247 KMIAYFYX
(RQS-N1234-SVMI-KMIA
7−3−1
JO 7110.10X
1. INCERFA, ALERFA, DETRESFA, as ap­
propriate to the phase of the emergency.
2. Agency and person calling.
3. Nature of the emergency.
4. Significant information from the flight plan.
5. Unit which made last contact, time, and
frequency used.
6. Last position report and how determined.
7. Color and distinctive marks of aircraft.
8. Any action taken by reporting office.
9. Other pertinent remarks.
EXAMPLE−
(INCERFA)
SS MMMXYAYX
DTG KSANYFYX
(ALR-INCERFA/KSAN/OVERDUE
-N1234S-VG
-C172
-KRNO2000
7−3−2
4/3/14
-MMLP0130
-REQ ACK OR ARR ACFT OVERDUE YOUR
STN)
(ALERFA)
SS MMMXYAYX
TEXT:(ALR-ALERFA/KSAN/OVERDUE)
(text remains same except for remarks information).
(DETRESFA)
SS MMMXYAYX
TEXT:(ALR-DETRESFA/KSAN/OVERDUE
(text remains same except for remarks information).
b. The cancellation of action initiated by the RCC
is the responsibility of that center.
EXAMPLE−
(CANCELLATION)
SS MMMXYAYX
020618 KMIAYFYX
(ALR-ALERFA/KMIAYFYX/CNLD
N1234 LOCATED)
NOTE−
Transmit cancellation messages for INCERFA and
DETRESFA using same format as above.
Alerting Service
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Canadian Movement and Control Messages
(Transborder Flights Only)
7−4−1. GENERAL
Except as indicated in this section, handle
Transborder Canadian movement and control
messages as described in Sections 1, 2, and 3. Do not
include ADCUS in flight plan remarks because NAV
CANADA no longer alerts Canadian Customs.
CANPASS authorizations are the obligation of the
pilot, at the number in subpara 7-4-3a.
7−4−2. INBOUNDS FROM CANADA
flight notification service is provided and when
proposed ETA is during Customs service hours.
c. Upon notification of departure of VFR flights,
transmit a flight notification message directly to the
destination Canadian relay facility. Include CAN­
PASS in the remarks.
NOTE−
1. The operational system will automatically format the
required items and transmit the flight notification
message when activated if the proposed flight plan was
filed in accordance with subparas 7-4-3d and 7-4-3e.
a. Do not accept VFR flight plans other than air
filed flight plans for aircraft departing from Canada.
Refer individuals to the appropriate NAVCANADA
facility to file flight plans out of Canada. Do not
accept round-robin flight plans to international
locations, other than Canada.
2. Facilities address messages to the destination relay
facility listed in FAAO JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
Facilities transmit flight notification messages for VFR
flights in accordance with para 6-4-4, Flight Notification
Message. Flight notification messages included the type
of flight plan as the first item of the notification message.
CANPASS is required in the remarks, as appropriate.
b. The operational system should automatically
format the required items of the flight notification
message when activated. Deliver VFR and IFR
ADCUS to the CBP. File IFR messages after
delivery.
EXAMPLE−
FF CZYZZFZX
DTG KBUFYFYX
VFR N711VR C182 BUF YYZ 1735 CANPASS
c. Facilities acknowledge receipt of flight notific­
ation messages as soon as practical by transmitting
the letter “R” followed by the full aircraft
identification; for example, R N711VR. Suspense
VFR flight notification messages until arrival or
closure information is received. Remove IFR
messages from the inbound list after delivery.
7−4−3. OUTBOUNDS TO CANADA
a. When Customs notification service is requested
advise the pilot to contact Canada’s Private Aircraft
Program for Customs (CANPASS) at 888-226-7277
and include CANPASS in the remarks section of the
flight plan. If the pilot informs that he/she has
contacted CANPASS, place CANPASS in the
remarks section of the flight plan. Process outbound
flight plans in accordance with Chapter 6 and
subparas 7-4-3d and e.
b. Accept Customs notification requests from
inflight aircraft for relay via flight notification
message only for airports of entry where Customs
d. IFR Flight Plans
1. CANPASS Flight Plans.
NOTE−
The operational system should automatically format the
required items and transmit the flight notification
message.
EXAMPLE−
FR:I AI:N1234 AT:C421/R TS:280
DD:DSM TM:P1800 AE:200
RT:DSM..CYYZ
AD:CYYZ TE:0300 RM:$CANPASS
FB:0400 AA:
PD:JOE PILOT
HB:DSM NB:2 CR:R/W TL:
OP:
CP:
TA:2100
FR:I AI:N1234 AT:C421/R TS:280 DD:DSM
TM:P1800 AE:200
RT:DSM..CYYZ
AD:CYYZ TE:0300 RM:$CANPASS
FB:0400 AA:
PD:JOE PILOT
HB:DSM NB:2 CR:R/W TL:
OP:&C
Canadian Movement and Control Messages (Transborder Flights Only)
7−4−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
CP:CZYZZFZX
TA:2100
2. Send a flight notification message on airfile
IFR aircraft that has requested Customs notification.
Place CANPASS (if prior notification) in the remarks
section of the flight notification message. If the pilot
files a flight plan, but gives no indication that
CANPASS procedures have been implemented, or
prefers to leave the notification off of the flight plan,
leave the remarks section blank and allow the NAV
CANADA specialists to handle the situation upon
arrival.
e. VFR Flight Plans.
NOTE−
The operational system will automatically format the
required items and transmit the flight notification
message.
EXAMPLE−
EXAMPLEAIRFILED
FR:V AI:N1234 AT:C150 TS:90 DD:BUF
TM:D1800 AE:045 RT:BUF..CYYZ
AD:CYYZ TE:0030 RM:$CANPASS 2 FB:0330 AA:
PD:JOE PILOT
HB:DSM NB:2 CR:5/W TL:
OP:&C
CP:CZYZZFZX
TA:1830
CANPASS
FR:V AI:N1234 AT:C150 TS:90 DD:BUF
TM:P1800 AE:045 RT:BUF..CYYZ
AD:CYYZ TE:0030 RM:$CANPASS
FB:0330 AA:
PD:JOE PILOT
HB:DSM NB:2 CR:5/W TL:
OP:&C
CP:CZYZZFZX
TA:1830
2. If acknowledgment is not received within 1
hour after departure, use interphone or telephone to
deliver. In any event, assure delivery prior to ETA.
3. Refer to Section B of the Canada and North
Atlantic IFR Supplements for Canadian FSS and
Area Control Center (ACC) telephone numbers.
h. When correcting or revising a message,
retransmit the complete message preceded by the
contraction CHG (change).
EXAMPLE−
FF CZYZZFZX
DTG KBUFYFYX
CHG VFR N711VR C182 BUF YYZ 1845
CANPASS
FF CZYZZFZX
DTG KBUFYFYX
CHG VFR N711VR C182 BUF YYZ 1845 CANPASS
i. Do not transmit IFR flight notification messages
except for military aircraft or Customs notification
purposes.
j. When available, use interphone or telephone for
flights of 30 minutes or less.
7−4−4. OUTBOUNDS TO CANADA
DEPARTING FROM OUTSIDE FLIGHT PLAN
AREA
g. Suspense VFR message until acknowledgment
is received.
7−4−2
EXAMPLE−
FF CZYZZFZX
DTG KBUFYFYX
REQ ACP N711VR
NOTE−
Canada will not acknowledge receipt of these messages.
f. Refer to the Canada and North Atlantic IFR and
VFR supplements to determine Customs hours of
service, availability of Customs flight notification
service (CANPASS), and the relay facility for
infrequently used Airports of Entry not listed in
FAA Order JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 8-5-2, Canadian Transborder.
1. If an acknowledgment is not received within
30 minutes after departure, retransmit the message.
AISR facilities transmit the contraction “REQ ACP”
(request acceptance) and the complete aircraft
identification.
Accept flight plans regardless of departure point
within the NAS. (See para 7-4-1 and subpara 7-4-3a
for CANPASS guidance.)
a. Forward VFR flight plan information for
aircraft departing from outside the facility’s flight
plan area to the tie-in SECTOR/FSS for the departure
point in the following format:
1. Aircraft identification.
2. Aircraft type.
Canadian Movement and Control Messages (Transborder Flights Only)
4/3/14
3. Departure point.
4. Destination.
5. Proposed departure time/ETE.
6. Remarks.
JO 7110.10X
d. Upon receipt of the departure report, the tie-in
SECTOR/FSS is responsible for delivery of the flight
notification message to Canada.
1. Transmit a flight notification message in
accordance with para 6-4-4, Flight Notification
Message.
EXAMPLE−
FF PAKTYFYX
DTG KSEAYFYX
N711VR C182 KTN YYJ P1630/0330 CANPASS
NOTE−
If a departure report has not been received within 1 hour
of the proposed departure time, cancel and file the
proposed flight plan.
b. Forward IFR flight plan information for aircraft
proposing to depart from outside the facility’s flight
plan area in accordance with Para 6-3-1, Domestic
IFR Flight Plans. If Customs flight notification
service (ADCUS) is requested, advise the pilot to
contact CANPASS at 888-226-7277; include
CANPASS information as an intrafacility remark,
and transmit the proposal message to both the
ARTCC and the tie-in SECTOR/FSS. Enter the
ARTCC computer address last.
2. The operational system changed should
automatically format the required items and transmit
the flight notification message.
EXAMPLE−
FF KAOOYFYX KZOBZQZX
DTG KDCAYFYX
DCA2010001 FP N1234P P28R/A 150 PIT P0200
150 PIT..CIP..DKK..BUF..YYZ/0130 CANPASS
NOTE−
The operational system will automatically format the
required items and transmit the flight notification
message.
c. Identify the tie-in SECTOR/FSS, and advise the
pilot to report departure time directly to that facility.
NOTE−
While the report may be relayed through another facility,
it is the pilot’s responsibility to notify the tie-in
SECTOR/FSS of the departure time.
e. Acknowledgment from the departure point
tie-in SECTOR/FSS is required for both VFR and
IFR proposals.
7−4−5. IFR FLIGHT PLANS DEPARTING
CANADIAN AIRPORTS
a. Accept IFR flight plans departing from
Canadian airports and destined to the U.S. Transmit
a proposal message in ARTCC HOST computer
format to the associated Canadian ACC. Address
messages to the ACC listed in FAA Order JO 7350.8,
Location Identifiers.
NOTE−
FSSs in Alaska will still accept Canada to Canada IFR
flight plans.
b. Canada does not acknowledge for proposal
messages. Do not expect or request acknowledgment.
7−4−6. SEARCH AND RESCUE MESSAGES
Provide Search and Rescue for flights inbound from
Canada in accordance with Chapter 8.
Canadian Movement and Control Messages (Transborder Flights Only)
7−4−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Mexican Movement and Control Messages
(Transborder Flights Only)
7−5−1. GENERAL
Except as outlined in this section, handle transborder
Mexican movement and control messages as
described in Sections 1, 2, and 3. IFR flight plans to
Mexico require the ICAO flight plan form.
7−5−2. INBOUNDS FROM MEXICO
a. Flight notification messages.
1. When received in the proper format, VFR
flight notification messages are automatically
acknowledged and suspended by the operational
system. Deliver VFR and IFR ADCUS messages to
CBP. Store IFR ADCUS messages in the history file,
as appropriate.
2. Acknowledge receipt of a flight notification
message as soon as practical by transmitting the letter
R followed by the full ACID; e.g., R N7llVR. Deliver
VFR and IFR ADCUS messages to CBP. Suspense
VFR flight notification messages until arrival or
closure information is received. File IFR messages.
Remove IFR inbounds from Mexico from the
inbound list once ADCUS message is delivered to
CBP.
b. Search and Rescue. Provide search and rescue
service in accordance with standard format/time
increments listed in Section 3, Alerting Service, and
Chapter 8, Search and Rescue (SAR) Procedures. The
departure station in Mexico is responsible for
initiating SAR action until an acknowledgment of the
flight notification message is received.
7−5−3. OUTBOUNDS TO MEXICO
a. When customs notification service is requested
for an airport-of-entry, include ADCUS, the number
of persons on board, and the pilot’s name in the
remarks section of the flight plan.
NOTE−
Mexican customs regulations require that only
international airports-of-entry may be used for first
landing.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
1. If the pilot still intends to land at a destination
other than an airport-of-entry, advise the pilot that the
flight plan will not be used for Customs or search and
rescue service in Mexico.
2. Transmit the flight notification message to
the Regional Flight Dispatch Office, not the
destination tie-in station.
NOTE−
If the correct addressee cannot be determined, transmit to
the nearest border Regional Flight Dispatch Office.
b. When a pilot files an IFR flight plan and
customs notification service is requested for an
airport-of-entry, include ADCUS and the informa­
tion listed in subpara 7−5−3a. Transmit to the
appropriate ARTCC.
NOTE−
Mexico requires notification of an inbound aircraft before
its arrival. The inclusion of ADCUS in the remarks section
of an IFR flight plan or flight notification message
satisfies this requirement.
c. VFR Flight Plans.
1. Upon notification of departure of VFR
flights, transmit a flight notification message. When
Customs notification service is requested for an
airport-of-entry include ADCUS and the information
listed in subpara 7−5−3a. Address messages to the
ICAO addressee for the appropriate destination
location.
2. If a VFR flight plan is filed with a destination
other than an airport-of-entry, transmit the flight
notification message to the Regional Flight Dispatch
Office, not the destination tie-in station. If the correct
addressee cannot be determined, transmit to the
nearest border Regional Flight Dispatch Office.
NOTE−
Facilities with interphone/telephone capability may relay
flight notification messages by this method.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
3. Address messages to the ICAO addressee for
the appropriate destination location. Transmit the
following information:
(a) Type of flight.
(b) Aircraft identification.
Mexican Movement and Control Messages (Transborder Flights Only)
7−5−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
(c) Aircraft type.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
(d) Departure point.
EXAMPLE−
FF MMCUXMXO MMMYXMXO
REQ ACP N1234S
(e) Destination.
(f) ETA.
(g) Remarks.
EXAMPLE−
FF MMCUXMXO
DTG KSJTYFYX
VFR N1234S C182 SJT MMCU 1400 $ADCUS
4ZUCHERMANN
d. If acknowledgment is not received within
30 minutes after departure, transmit a “request
acceptance” message to the destination station tie-in
addressee and to the Regional Flight Dispatch Office.
Manually address the message to the designated
Regional Flight Dispatch Office.
e. The Regional Flight Dispatch Office involved
will then normally send an acknowledgment to the
departure station and assume responsibility for the
flight notification message.
f. If acknowledgment/acceptance is not received
within 1 hour of the departure, use
interphone/telephone or other available means to
deliver the message to the appropriate Regional
Flight Dispatch Office. See TBL 7−5−1 for telephone
numbers. For a complete address, add xmxo to the
identifier.
TBL 7−5−1
Mexican Regional Flight Dispatch Office Phone Numbers
Mexican Regional Flight Dispatch Office Telephone Numbers
REGION
IDENTIFIER
CENTRO (Central)
MMMX
NORESTE (Northeast)
NOROESTE (Northwest)
MMMY
MMMZ
OCCIDENTE (West)
SURESTE (Southeast)
MMGL
MMMD
TELEPHONE NUMBER
01152 5 762−7062
01152 5 784−40−99 ext. 153
01152 5 762−58−77 ext. 153
01152 83 454−020 ext. 141
01152 67 23−114
01152 67 22−075 ext. 140
01152 36 890−121 ext. 32 and 167
01152 99 231−186 ext. 149
g. Do not accept round-robin flight plans to
Mexico.
7−5−2
Mexican Movement and Control Messages (Transborder Flights Only)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 8. Search and Rescue (SAR) Procedures
Section 1. General
8−1−1. RESPONSIBILITY FOR SAR
ACTION
a. The departure tie-in facility/sector is
responsible for SAR action until the destination tie-in
facility/sector acknowledges receipt of the flight
notification message. SAR responsibility is then
transferred to the destination tie-in facility/sector.
NOTE−
Tie-in facilities may include an FSS, Military BASOPS,
foreign facilities, etc.
b. The National SAR Plan assigns search and
rescue responsibilities as follows:
1. To the military agencies for conducting
physical search and rescue operations.
2. To the FAA for:
(a) Providing emergency service to aircraft in
distress.
(b) Assuring that SAR procedures will be
initiated if an aircraft becomes overdue or unreported.
This is accomplished through the ATC system for
IFR aircraft and the flight plan program and/or
reports of overdue aircraft received at air traffic
facilities for VFR aircraft.
(c) Attempting to locate overdue or
unreported aircraft by information request (INREQ)
and alert notice (ALNOT) communications search.
(d) Cooperating in the physical search by
making all possible facilities available for use by the
searching agencies.
NOTE−
The National SAR Plan is outlined in the AIM.
c. FSSs serve as the central point for collecting
and disseminating information on overdue or missing
aircraft which are not on an IFR flight plan.
d. ARTCCs serve as the central points for
collecting information, coordinating with SAR, and
conducting a communications search by distributing
any necessary ALNOTs concerning:
General
1. Overdue or missing IFR aircraft.
2. Aircraft in an emergency situation occurring
in their respective areas
3. Aircraft on a combined VFR/IFR or an
air-filed IFR flight plan, and 30 minutes have passed
since the pilot requested IFR clearance, and neither
communications nor radar contact can be established.
4. Overdue or missing aircraft which have been
authorized to operate in accordance with a SVFR
clearance.
e. The ARTCC serves as the contact point for
collecting information and coordinating with the
RCC on all ELT signals.
8−1−2. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT ON FLIGHT
PLAN
Consider an aircraft on a VFR or DVFR flight plan
overdue when it fails to arrive 30 minutes after its
ETA and communications or location cannot be
established.
8−1−3. OVERDUE AIRCRAFT NOT ON
FLIGHT PLAN
Consider an aircraft not on a flight plan as overdue:
a. At the actual time a reliable source reports it to
be at least 1 hour late at destination. Based on this
overdue time, initiate a communications search and
proceed directly to the ALNOT phase. When such a
report is received, verify (if possible) that the aircraft
actually departed and that the request is for a missing
aircraft rather than a person. Refer missing person
reports to the appropriate authorities.
b. If you have reason to believe that an aircraft is
overdue prior to 1 hour after its ETA, take the
appropriate action immediately.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 8-2-1, Communications Search
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 8-4-1, ALNOT
8−1−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Overdue Aircraft Action
8−2−1. COMMUNICATIONS SEARCH
a. As soon as a VFR/DVFR aircraft (military or
civil) becomes overdue, the destination tie-in
facility/sector (including intermediate destination
tie-in facilities for military aircraft) must initiate a
communications search to locate the aircraft by
checking the following:
1. Destination airport
2. Flight plan phone number, if available
3. BASOPS, if applicable
4. Customs, if applicable
5. ATC facilities as applicable
6. DUAT vendor, if applicable
b. If the aircraft has not been located, check the
following:
1. Departure airport
2. All airports adjacent to the destination that
could accommodate the aircraft
3. Appropriate ARTCC sectors
8−2−2. QALQ
a. If the communications search does not locate
the aircraft, and the flight plan is not held by the
destination station, transmit a QALQ to the
facility/sector that holds the flight plan.
Possible Flight Plan Originators:
KxxxYFYX
Station/Sector
Flight
Service
KxxxYXYX
Military BASOPS
KIADXCLX or KMIVXDTC DUAT Vendors
KAISXCLX
AISR
NOTE−
QALQ is used to solicit information that is not accessible.
If the flight plan information is already available to the
destination tie-in facility/sector, QALQ is not required.”
b. The QALQ message text must begin with the
contraction “QALQ” followed by the aircraft
identification.
Overdue Aircraft Action
EXAMPLE−
QALQ N12345
c. If the specialist determines that the
communications search cannot be completed prior to
the INREQ transmission time, the QALQ must be
transmitted in time to receive the information for the
INREQ message. The communications search must
continue without reference to time until such a time
that the aircraft is located, the communications search
is complete, or the search is suspended.
d. In the case of a U.S.-registered aircraft, or any
aircraft known to be piloted by or transporting U.S.
citizens and en route within a foreign country or
between two foreign countries, if an overdue report
is received either from someone directly concerned or
from aviation authorities of a foreign country, notify
the Washington Communications Control Center
immediately via Service B message addressed to
KRWAYAYX.
e. Automated systems will accept properly
formatted QALQs, INREQs, ALNOTs, INCERFAs,
ALERFAs, and DETRESFAs and place them on the
SAR list. A SAR alert may be generated at designated
workstations. SAR messages must be deleted from
the SAR list when the SAR is cancelled.
8−2−3. ACTION BY DEPARTURE STATION
ON RECEIPT OF QALQ
Upon receipt of the QALQ message, the departure
tie-in facility must check for any information about
the aircraft, and take the following actions:
a. If the aircraft is located, notify the destination
facility. This may be delivered via Service B message
or recorded communications.
b. If unable to obtain additional information,
transmit a message to the destination tie-in facility
containing all information not previously sent.
Include any verbal or written remarks which could be
pertinent to the search.
NOTE−
For operational systems using a common data base, the
departure and destination station may be considered the
same.
8−2−1
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
QALQ N4367V
[flight plan information]
[additional pertinent information]
8−2−4. CANCELLATION OF THE QALQ
If the aircraft is located by the destination facility
8−2−2
4/3/14
after the QALQ is sent, transmit a cancellation
message addressed to all recipients of the QALQ.
EXAMPLE−
QALQ N4367V CNLD
Overdue Aircraft Action
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Information Requests (INREQs)
8−3−1. INREQ
If the reply to the QALQ is negative or the aircraft has
not been located within 30 minutes after it becomes
overdue, whichever occurs first:
a. The destination tie-in facility/sector must
transmit a numbered INREQ message addressed to:
1. Flight plan originator (if other than DUATS
or AISR)
2. En route FSS as applicable
3. KSARYCYX (includes RCC, AISR, and
DUAT vendors)
4. En route ARTCCs as applicable
5. BASOPS if destination or departure tie-in
facility
6. Other addresses the specialist deems benefi­
cial to the search.
b. Include the flight plan and any other pertinent
information in the INREQ message which could
assist in search activities. Retrieve data from the
history files, format the message, and transmit.
Provide the aircraft’s last known position as the final
item of the message. The message text must begin
with the contraction “INREQ,” followed by the
aircraft identification.
EXAMPLE−
DCA001 (appropriate three−character identifiers)
INREQ N12345
[flight plan information]
[additional pertinent information]
c. If the departure airport, route of flight,
destination airport or alternate airports are within
50 miles of the Great Lakes, notify Cleveland RCC
via recorded telecommunications line
d. If the flight is within the Honolulu sector, notify
Honolulu SARCC via recorded telecommunications
line.
e. RCC does not have transmit capability.
Acknowledgement is not required for messages to
RCC.
Information Requests (INREQs)
f. If additional information is received in INREQ
reply messages, transmit the information, as
necessary, to all original addressees.
8−3−2. ACTION UPON RECEIPT OF INREQ
Stations receiving an INREQ must take the following
action:
a. Search facility records for information
regarding the aircraft. Expand the communications
search to include all flight plan area airports along the
proposed route of flight that could accommodate the
aircraft. Notify appropriate ATC facilities. Reply to
the INREQ within 1 hour of receipt with flight plan
and other pertinent information. If unable to complete
the communications search within 1 hour, forward a
status report followed by a final report when the
search is complete.
EXAMPLE−
HNL001 (appropriate three−character identifiers)
INREQ N1234A [status report]
HNL001 (appropriate three−character identifiers)
INREQ N1234A [final report]
NOTE−
Upon receipt of INREQs and ALNOTs, ATCTs and
ARTCCs are required to check facility records, report
findings to the FSS that alerted them within 1 hour, and
retain in an active status until canceled.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10-3-4, ALNOT.
b. If the INREQ indicates that the departure
airport, route of flight, destination airport or alternate
airports are within 50 miles of the Great Lakes, notify
Cleveland RCC via recorded telecommunications
line.
c. For facilities that have any portion of their
incoming calls and/or Service B diverted to another
facility, notify that facility of the INREQ. The facility
receiving diverted calls or Service B traffic must
check their records and advise of any information or
contact with the aircraft.
8−3−3. CANCELLATION OF INREQ
The INREQ originator must transmit a cancellation
message containing the location of the aircraft to all
INREQ addressees if the aircraft is located. Notify
associated ATC facilities.
8−3−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
LOU001 (appropriate three−character identifiers)
INREQ N1234A CNLD LCTD BWG
8−3−2
Information Requests (INREQs)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Alert Notices (ALNOTs)
8−4−1. ALNOT
a. If the replies to the INREQ are negative, or if the
aircraft is not located within 1 hour after transmission
of the INREQ, whichever occurs first, the destination
station must transmit an ALNOT addressed to:
1. Flight Plan Originator (If other than DUATS
or AISR)
2. KSARYCYX (Includes RCC, AISR and
DUAT vendors).
3. KxxxYAYX (appropriate Regional Opera­
tions Center (ROC))
4. Add ARTCCs 50NM either side of route
5. BASOPS if destination or departure tie-in
facility, or the home base of the aircraft
6. Other addresses deemed beneficial to the
search by the specialist
b. Expand the communications search area to that
area extending 50 miles on either side of the proposed
route of flight from the last reported position to the
destination. The search area may be expanded to the
maximum range of the aircraft at the request of the
RCC or by the destination station.
c. If the departure airport, route of flight,
destination airport, or alternate airports are within
50 miles of the Great Lakes, notify Cleveland RCC
via recorded telecommunications line.
d. Include all information from the INREQ, plus
any additional information received that could assist
in search activities. Provide the aircraft’s last known
position as the final item in the message. The message
text must begin with the contraction “ALNOT,”
followed by the aircraft identification
EXAMPLE−
ALNOT N12345 [flight plan information] [additional pertinent information]
e. Ten minutes after the ALNOT is issued, call the
RCC to ensure delivery of the ALNOT and to answer
any inquiries.
NOTE−
1. Alaska: Joint Base Elmendorf Richardson, RCC at
907-551-7230, 800-420-7230, or DSN 317−551−7230.
Alert Notices (ALNOTs)
2. RCC (Tyndall AFB) phone
800-851-3051 or 850-283-5955.
numbers
are:
f. If additional pertinent information is received,
transmit the information, as necessary, to all original
addressees.
8−4−2. ACTION UPON RECEIPT OF ALNOT
Upon receipt of an ALNOT, including those received
from other ATC facilities, each station whose flight
plan area extends into the ALNOT search area must:
a. Immediately conduct an expanded
communications search of those airports which fall
within the ALNOT search area that could
accommodate the aircraft and that were not checked
during the INREQ search. Notify the appropriate
ATC facilities. Request the appropriate law
enforcement agency to check airports which cannot
be contacted otherwise.
b. For ARTCC issued ALNOTS, coordinate with
the issuing facility to determine the extent of
communications already completed prior to
contacting airports and other ATC facilities whose
flight plan area extends into the ALNOT search area
c. Within 1 hour after receipt of the ALNOT,
notify the originator of the results or status of the
communications search. Transmit pertinent
information, such as aircraft location or position
report, to the destination station.
EXAMPLE−
ALNOT N1234A [status report]
ALNOT N1234A [final report]
d. Alaska. FSSs within the ALNOT search area
must broadcast the ALNOT. (See Para 2-2-2i,
ALNOT Alert Announcement)
e. Request search assistance from aircraft travers­
ing the search area.
8−4−3. REPORTING ALNOT STATUS TO
RCC
If the expanded communications search fails to locate
the aircraft, or if 1 hour has elapsed since ALNOT
transmission, whichever occurs first, the destination
station must call the RCC with a status update. When
appropriate, update Cleveland RCC. Provide RCC
8−4−1
JO 7110.10X
with all pertinent information about the overdue
aircraft not already provided in the ALNOT which
may include:
a. Agency and the person calling.
b. Details of the flight plan. If the aircraft was not
on a flight plan, include all the facts about the source
of the report.
c. Time the last radio transmission was received,
by whom, and the frequency used.
d. Last position report.
e. Whether an ELT signal was heard or reported
along the route of flight.
f. Action taken and the proposed action by the
reporting FSS.
8−4−2
4/3/14
g. Furnish positions of other aircraft known to be
along or near the route of flight of the missing aircraft.
8−4−4. CANCELLATION OF ALNOT
The ALNOT remains current until the aircraft is
located and/or the search is suspended by the RCC.
In either case, the ALNOT originator must transmit
a cancellation message with the location of the
aircraft, if known, addressed to all recipients of the
original ALNOT. Each facility must notify all
previously alerted facilities and agencies of the
cancellation.
EXAMPLE−
ALNOT N12345 CNLD ACFT LCTD JAX
ALNOT N1513B CNLD SEARCH SUSPENDED
Alert Notices (ALNOTs)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Other SAR Actions
8−5−1. CONTACT WITH AIRCRAFT
CROSSING HAZARDOUS AREA
When lake, island, mountain, swamp reporting, or
special reporting service programs have been
established and a pilot requests the service, establish
radio contact every 10 minutes (or at designated
position checkpoints) with the aircraft while it is
crossing the hazardous area. If contact with the
aircraft is lost for more than 15 minutes, begin search
and rescue at the ALNOT phase.
NOTE−
Hazardous Area Reporting Service and chart depictions
are published in the AIM
8−5−2. CANADIAN TRANSBORDER
a. Assume SAR responsibility on transborder
aircraft upon acknowledgment of the inbound flight
notification message.
b. When SAR action is initiated, the destination
and departure facilities are responsible for all
communications search actions within their respect­
ive countries and for alerting their respective RCC.
c. Canadian communications search procedures
and action times are similar to U.S. procedures. They
will address all SAR messages to the U.S. departure
FSS, which is then responsible for initiating SAR
action for the U.S. portion of the route of flight.
Other SAR Actions
d. For inbounds from Canada, apply standard U.S.
SAR procedures contained in this chapter for the U.S.
portion of the route. Include the Canadian departure
facility as an addressee on all SAR messages since
that facility is responsible for initiating SAR action
for the Canadian portion of the route of flight.
e. Upon receipt of a Canadian QALQ, the
departure FSS must take the following actions:
1. Check history files for any information about
the aircraft.
2. If unable to obtain additional information, or
within 15 minutes after receipt of the QALQ, transmit
a message to the destination facility containing all
flight plan information not previously sent.
f. Upon receipt of a Canadian INREQ, the
departure FSS must transmit an INREQ for the U.S.
portion of the route of flight and reply to Canada
within 1 hour in accordance with standard INREQ
procedures.
g. Upon receipt of a Canadian ALNOT, the
departure FSS must transmit an ALNOT for the U.S.
portion of the route and reply to Canada within 1 hour
in accordance with standard ALNOT procedures.
NOTE−
Some U.S. airspace is controlled by Canadian ATC
facilities, which may also be addressed when appropriate.
8−5−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 9. FAA Weather Services
Section 1. General
9−1−1. INTRODUCTION
Surface meteorological observations are filed at
scheduled and unscheduled intervals with stations
having sending capability to WMSCR for
dissemination on the Service A domestic aviation
weather system. These reports are aviation routine
weather reports (METAR) and aviation selected
special weather reports (SPECI). All reports must
include a report type and the six-digit time of the
observation. Computer sorting and validation
requires exact adherence to format and procedure at
all times.
9−1−2. SCHEDULED TRANSMISSION
TIMES
9−1−3. DISTRIBUTION
Most meteorological and NOTAM data exchanged
outside of the facility is dependent on WMSCR. It is
important to follow strict format and procedures
during normal operations, as well as during system
interruption periods.
a. Circuit interruption. Notify WMSCR and/or
NADIN and the appropriate Telco servicing company
and/or technical help desk.
b. Record the circuit and/or equipment identifica­
tion numbers in all outage reports. Facilities should
obtain and record ticket numbers provided by the
Telco authority and/or technical help desk.
a. METAR REPORTS. Transmit METAR
between H+55 and H+00.
c. WMSCR telephone numbers:
b. SPECI AND DELAYED OR CORRECTED
REPORTS. Transmit SPECI, delayed or corrected
reports as soon as possible after H+00.
WMSCR (KNKAWMSC):
Atlanta 770-210-7574.
Salt Lake City 801-320-2046
General
9−1−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 2. Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
9−2−1. GENERAL
5. Icing of light degree or greater.
PIREPs are filed at unscheduled times with stations
having sending capability to WMSCR for
dissemination on the Service A domestic aviation
weather system. These reports must be entered into
the operational system as individual reports, not
appended to a surface observation.
6. Wind shear.
9−2−2. PREPARATION FOR
TRANSMISSION
Record PIREP data directly into the operational
system, on FAA Form 7110-2, or on other material
deemed appropriate; for example, 5’’ x 8’’ plain
paper.
9−2−3. RESPONSIBILITY
FSS specialists must actively solicit PIREPs in
conjunction with preflight and inflight
communications with pilots and assure timely
dissemination of the PIREP information. Each
facility should make special efforts to obtain PIREPs
on departure and arrival weather conditions at
airports within their flight plan area.
9−2−4. PIREP DISPLAY
Maintain a PIREP graphical display to conform to the
particular requirements of your facility. If it is posted
for internal use only, symbology may be used at the
facility’s discretion. If it is displayed as a pilot
self-briefing aid, the use of contractions, such as
overcast (OVC), must be applicable.
9−2−5. SOLICITING PIREPs
a. Solicit PIREPs for the affected area(s) when one
or more of the following weather conditions exist, are
reported, or forecast to occur:
1. Ceilings at or below 5,000 feet.
2. Visibility reported on the surface or aloft is
5 miles or less.
3. Thunderstorms and related phenomenon.
4. Turbulence of moderate degree or greater.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
7. Volcanic eruption, ash clouds, and/or
detection of sulfur gases: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or
sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the cabin..
(a) If only H2S or SO2 is reported, ask the
pilot if volcanic ash clouds are in the vicinity.
(b) The smell of sulfur gases in the cockpit
may indicate volcanic activity that has not yet been
detected or reported and/or possible entry into an
ash-bearing cloud. H2S, also known as sewer gas, has
the odor of rotten eggs. SO2 is identifiable as the
sharp, acrid odor of a freshly struck match.
NOTE−
Pilots may forward PIREPs regarding volcanic activity
using the format described in the Volcanic Activity
Reporting Form (VAR) as depicted in the AIM
b. Also, solicit PIREPs regardless of weather
conditions when:
1. A NWS or ATC facility indicates a need
because of a specific weather or flight assistance
situation.
2. Necessary to determine flying conditions
pertinent to natural hazards (mountain passes, ridges,
peaks) between the weather reporting stations.
3. The station is designated as responsible for
PIREPs in an offshore coastal area.
c. Flight watch specialists must solicit sufficient
PIREPs to remain aware of flight conditions.
d. To solicit PIREPs within a specific area,
broadcast a request on NAVAIDs, transcribed
broadcast facilities, or a selected communications
frequency.
PHRASEOLOGY−
PILOT WEATHER REPORTS ARE REQUESTED
(location/area). CONTACT (name) RADIO/FLIGHT
WATCH ON (frequency) TO REPORT THESE
CONDITIONS.
9−2−6. DATA TO BE INCLUDED IN PIREPs
Include the following reports of flight conditions, as
appropriate:
a. Height and coverage of cloud bases, tops, and
layers.
9−2−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
b. Flight visibility.
c. Restrictions to visibility and weather occurring
at altitude.
d. Air temperature and changes to temperature
with altitude or range.
f. Duration and intensity of turbulence.
b. Icing types.
2. Clear. A glossy, clear or translucent ice
formed by the relatively slow freezing of large
super-cooled water droplets.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 9-2-7.
g. Extent, type, and intensity of icing.
3. Mixed. A combination of rime and clear.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 9-2-8.
c. Icing intensity.
h. Weather conditions and cloud cover through
mountain passes and over ridges and peaks.
of
j. Excessive winds aloft, LLWS, and other
phenomena bearing on safety and efficiency of flight.
9−2−7. REPORTING TURBULENCE IN
PIREPs
a. Turbulence reports must include location,
altitude, or range of altitudes, and aircraft type, and
should include whether in clouds or clear air. The
degree of turbulence, intensity, and duration
(occasional, intermittent, and continuous) is
determined by the pilot.
1. Light. Loose objects in aircraft remain at rest.
2. Moderate. Unsecured objects are dislodged.
Occupants feel definite strains against seat belts and
shoulder straps.
3. Severe. Occupants thrown violently against
seat belts. Momentary loss of aircraft control.
Unsecured objects tossed about.
4. Extreme. Aircraft is tossed violently about,
impossible to control. May cause structural damage.
b. Report Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) or CHOP
if used by the pilot to describe the type of turbulence.
9−2−2
a. Icing reports must include location, altitude or
range of altitudes, aircraft type, air temperature,
intensity, and type of icing.
1. Rime. Rough, milky, opaque ice formed by
the instantaneous freezing of small super-cooled
water droplets.
e. Direction and speed of wind aloft.
i. Location, extent, and movement
thunderstorms and/or tornadic activity.
9−2−8. REPORTING ICING CONDITIONS IN
PIREPs
1. Trace. Ice becomes perceptible. Rate of
accumulation slightly greater than sublimation.
Deicing/anti-icing equipment is not utilized unless
encountered for an extended period of time (over
1 hour).
2. Light. The rate of accumulation may create a
problem if flight is prolonged in this environment
(over 1 hour). Occasional use of deicing/anti-icing
equipment removes/prevents accumulation. It does
not present a problem if deicing/anti-icing is used.
3. Moderate. The rate of accumulation is such
that even short encounters become potentially
hazardous, and use of deicing/anti-icing equipment
or diversion is necessary.
4. Severe. The rate of accumulation is such that
deicing/anti-icing equipment fails to reduce or
control the hazard. Immediate diversion is necessary.
9−2−9. MEANS USED TO SOLICIT PIREPs
Inform pilots of a need for PIREPs. The following
methods may be used to collect PIREPs:
a. During preflight weather briefings.
b. On post-flight contacts.
c. During regular air-ground contacts.
d. Broadcast a request on NAVAID frequencies.
e. Append a request on HIWAS, TIBS, VOR­
TWEB, or TWEB broadcasts.
f. Request PIREPs from air carrier and military
operations offices, military pilot-to-forecaster units,
and local aircraft operators.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
4/3/14
g. Solicit from other air traffic facilities.
JO 7110.10X
1. Deliver to the ARTCC Weather Coordinator
as soon as possible.
9−2−10. PIREP CLASSIFICATION
2. Enter on Service A at the first opportunity.
Categorize PIREPs as follows:
3. Use in weather briefings, as appropriate.
a. URGENT. The following weather phenomena
must be classified as an URGENT (UUA) PIREP:
1. Tornadoes, funnel clouds, or waterspouts.
2. Severe or extreme turbulence (including clear
air turbulence).
3. Severe icing.
4. Hail.
5. Low level wind shear. Classify LLWS
PIREPs as UUA if the pilot reports air speed
fluctuations of 10 knots or more. Classify reports of
LLWS with air speed fluctuations less than 10 knots
as routine. If airspeed fluctuation is not reported,
classify PIREP as UUA.
NOTE−
LLWS defined as windshear within 2,000 feet of the
surface.
6. Volcanic eruption, ash clouds, and/or
detection of sulfur gases (H2S or SO2) in the cabin.
(a) If a pilot only reported the smell of H2S or
SO2 in the cabin and confirmed no volcanic ash
clouds were present, classify the report as a
ROUTINE PIREP.
(b) The smell of sulfur gases in the cockpit
may indicate volcanic activity that has not yet been
detected or reported and/or possible entry into an
ash-bearing cloud. H2S, also known as sewer gas, has
the odor of rotten eggs. SO2 is identifiable as the
sharp, acrid odor of a freshly struck match. .
7. Any other weather phenomena reported
which are considered by the specialist as being
hazardous, or potentially hazardous, to flight
operations.
b. Routine.
1. Transmit on Service A as soon as practical.
2. Broadcast in accordance with established
procedures in Chapter 2.
3. Use in weather briefings, as appropriate.
9−2−12. OFFSHORE COASTAL ROUTES
When your station has been given responsibility for
collecting offshore coastal route PIREPs:
a. Include the coastal water area when soliciting
PIREPs. At least one PIREP is required hourly
regardless of weather conditions.
b. The following flight plan sectors are respons­
ible for collecting offshore coastal routes in the
contiguous 48 states, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico: HNL,
SJU, SAN, HHR, OAK, MMV, SEA, BGR,BDR,
MIV, DCA, RDU, MCN, GNV, PIE, MIA, ANB,
GWO, DRI, CXO, and SJT
NOTE−
The Flight Services Safety and Operations Policy Group
assigns PIREP responsibility for an offshore coastal area,
route, or route segment to a specific station. The area
assigned will be within the same ARTCC area as the
station, and the station must have adequate air-ground
communications coverage over its assigned offshore area.
9−2−13. PIREP PREPARATION
To assure proper dissemination of PIREPs to all
system users, the encoding procedures listed below
must be followed:
a. Identify each element by a Text Element
Indicator (TEI).
b. ROUTINE. Classify as ROUTINE (UA) all
PIREPs received except those listed above.
b. Ensure each report includes TEIs for message
type, location, time, altitude/flight level, aircraft
type, and at least one other to describe the reported
phenomena.
9−2−11. PIREP HANDLING
c. Precede each TEI, except message type, with a
space and a solidus (/).
Upon receipt of a PIREP, accomplish the following:
a. Urgent.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
d. Follow each TEI, except altitude/flight level,
with a space.
9−2−3
JO 7110.10X
e. Insert zeros in reported values when the number
of digits in the report is less than the number required
by the format.
f. Use only authorized aircraft designators and
contractions.
g. In the location TEI, include any three character
alphanumeric identifier to describe locations or
routes. Use only authorized identifiers from FAA
Order JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers.
h. Omit entries of TEIs, except as listed in subpara
9-2-13b, for which no data was reported.
9−2−14. PIREP FORMAT
Using TEIs as described below, prepare PIREPs for
system entry in the following format:
a. UUA or UA. Message type - Urgent or Routine
PIREP.
b. /OV.
1. Location in reference to a VHF NAVAID or
an airport, using the three or four alphanumeric
identifier. If appropriate, encode the identifier, then
three digits to define a radial and three digits to define
the distance in nautical miles.
EXAMPLE−
/OV KJFK
/OV KJFK107080
/OV KFMG233016/RM RNO 10SW
2. Route segment. Two or more fixes to describe
a route.
EXAMPLE−
/OV KSTL-KMKC
/OV KSTL090030-KMKC045015
c. /TM. Time that the reported phenomenon
occurred or was encountered. Report time in four
digits UTC.
EXAMPLE−
/TM 1315
d. /FL. Altitude/flight level. Enter the altitude in
hundreds of feet (MSL) where the phenomenon was
first encountered. If not known, enter UNKN. If the
aircraft was climbing or descending, enter the
appropriate contraction (DURC or DURD) in the
remarks/RM TEI. If the condition was encountered
within a layer, enter the altitude range within the
appropriate TEI describing the condition.
9−2−4
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
/FL093
/FL310
/FLUNKN /RM DURC
e. /TP. Type aircraft. Enter aircraft type. f not
known, enter UNKN. Icing and turbulence reports
must always include the aircraft type.
EXAMPLE−
/TP AEST
/TP C150
/TP P28R
/TP UNKN
f. /SK. Sky condition. Report height of cloud
bases, tops, and cloud coverage as follows:
1. Enter the height of the base of a layer of
clouds in hundreds of feet (MSL) using three digits.
Enter the top of a layer in hundreds of feet (MSL)
preceded by the word ”-TOP.” If reported as clear
above the highest cloud layer, enter a space and
”SKC” following the reported level.
EXAMPLE−
/SK OVC100-TOP110/ SKC
/SK OVC015-TOP035/OVC230
/SK OVC-TOP085
2. Use authorized contractions for cloud cover.
EXAMPLE−
SKC
FEW
SCT
BKN
OVC
3. Cloud cover amount ranges will be entered
with a hyphen and no spaces separating the amounts;
i.e., BKN-OVC.
EXAMPLE−
/SK SCT-BKN050-TOP100
/SK BKN-OVCUNKN-TOP060/BKN120-TOP150/ SKC
4. Unknown heights are indicated by the
contraction UNKN.
EXAMPLE−
/SK OVC065-TOPUNKN
5. If a pilot indicates he/she is in the clouds,
enter IMC in the remarks.
EXAMPLE−
/SK OVC065-TOPUNKN /RM IMC
6. When more than one layer is reported,
separate layers by a solidus (/).
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
4/3/14
g. /WX. Flight visibility and flight weather.
Report weather conditions encountered by the pilot
as follows:
1. Flight visibility, if reported, will be the first
entry in the /WX field. Enter as FV followed by a
two-digit visibility value rounded down, if necessary,
to the nearest whole statute mile and append “SM”
(FV03SM). If visibility is reported as unrestricted,
enter FV99SM.
2. Enter flight weather types using one or more
of the standard surface weather reporting symbols
contained in TBL 9-2-1.
JO 7110.10X
TBL 9−2−1
Weather Type and Symbols
Type
Drifting / Blowing Snow . . . . . . . . .
Drifting Dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drifting Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drizzle/Freezing Drizzle . . . . . . . . .
Dust / Blowing Dust . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duststorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fog (vis < 5/8SM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freezing Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freezing Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Funnel Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hail (aprx 1/4” dia or more) . . . . . .
Hail Shower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Haze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ice Crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ice Pellets/ Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mist (vis 5/8SM or more) . . . . . . . .
Patchy Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patchy Fog on part of Arpt . . . . . . .
Rain / Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sand / Blowing Sand . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sandstorms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shallow Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sml Hail/Snow Pellet Showers . . . .
Sml Hail/Snow Pellets . . . . . . . . . . .
Smoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snow Grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snow / Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Squalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thunderstorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tornado/Waterspout . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unknown Precipitation . . . . . . . . . .
Volcanic Ash (incl. eruption, H2S or
SO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Well developed Dust/Sand Whirls . .
METAR Code
DRSN/BLSN
DRDU
DRSA
DZ/FZDZ
DU/BLDU
DS
FG
FZFG
FZRA
FC
GR
SHGR
HZ
IC
PL/SHPL
BR
BCFG
PRFG
RA/SHRA
SA/BLSA
SS
MIFG
SHGS
GS
FU
SG
SN/SHSN
PY
SQ
TS
+FC
UP
VA
PO
3. Intensity of precipitation (- for light, no
qualifier for moderate, and + for heavy) must be
indicated with precipitation types, except ice crystals
and hail, including those associated with a
thunderstorm and those of a showery nature.
4. Intensity of obscurations must be ascribed as
moderate or + heavy for dust and sand storms only.
No intensity for blowing dust, blowing sand, or
blowing snow.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
9−2−5
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
/WX FV01SM +DS000-TOP083/ SKC /RM DURC
5. When more than one form of precipitation is
combined in the report, the dominant type must be
reported first.
EXAMPLE−
/WX FV00SM +TSRAGR
6. When FC is entered in /WX, FUNNEL
CLOUD is spelled out on /RM. When +FC is entered
in /WX, TORNADO or WATERSPOUT is spelled
out in the /RM TEI.
EXAMPLE−
/WX FC /RM FUNNEL CLOUD
/WX +FC /RM TORNADO or WATERSPOUT
7. When the size of hail is stated, enter in 1/4
increments in remarks /RM TEI.
8. The proximity qualifier VC (Vicinity) is only
used with TS, FG, FC, +FC, SH, PO, BLDU, BLSA,
and BLSN.
EXAMPLE−
/WX FV02SM BLDU000-TOP083 VC W
9. When more than one type of weather is
reported enter in the following order: 1) TORNADO,
WATERSPOUT, OR FUNNEL CLOUD; 2)
Thunderstorm with or without associated
precipitation; 3) Weather phenomena in order of
decreasing predominance. No more than three groups
in a single PIREP.
10. Weather layers must be entered with the
base and/or top of the layer when reported. Use the
same format as in the /SK TEI.
EXAMPLE−
/WX FU002-TOP030
h. /TA. Air Temperature. Report outside air
temperature using two digits in degrees Celsius.
Prefix negative temperatures with a M; for example,
/TA 08 or /TA M08.
i. /WV. Wind direction and speed. If reported,
wind direction from which the wind is blowing must
be coded using three figures. Directions less than 100
degrees must be preceded by a “0”. For example, a
wind direction of 90 degrees is coded as 090. The
wind speed must be entered as a two or three digit
group immediately following the wind direction. The
speed must be coded in whole knots using the
hundreds digit (if not zero) and the tens and units
9−2−6
4/3/14
digits. The wind group always ends with ”KT” to
indicate that winds are reported in knots. Speeds of
less than 10 knots must be coded using a leading zero.
For example, a wind speed of 8 knots must be coded
08KT and a wind speed of 112 knots must be coded
112kt.
EXAMPLE−
/WV 28080KT
/WV 28008KT
/WV 280105KT
j. /TB. Turbulence. Report intensity, type, and
altitude as follows:
1. Intensity. Enter duration if reported by the
pilot (INTMT, OCNL, CONS) and intensity using
contractions LGT, MOD, SEV, or EXTRM. Separate
a range or variation of intensity with a hyphen; for
example, MOD-SEV. If turbulence was not
encountered, enter NEG.
2. Type. Enter CAT or CHOP if reported by the
pilot.
3. Altitude. Report altitude only if it differs
from value reported in /FL. When a layer of
turbulence is reported, separate height values with a
hyphen. If lower or upper limits are not defined, use
BLO or ABV.
EXAMPLE−
/TB LGT 040
/TB MOD-SEV BLO 080
/TB MOD-SEV CAT 350
/TB NEG 120-180
/TB MOD CHOP 220/NEG 230-280
/TB MOD CAT ABV 290
k. IC. Icing. Report intensity, type and altitude of
icing as follows:
1. Intensity. Enter intensity first using
contractions TRACE, LGT, MOD, or SEV. Separate
reports of a range or variation of intensity with a
hyphen. If icing was not encountered, enter NEG.
2. Type. Enter the reported icing type as RIME,
CLR, or MX.
3. Altitude. Enter the reported icing/altitude
only if different from the value reported in the /FL
TEI. Use a hyphen to separate reported layers of
icing. Use ABV or BLO when a layer is not defined.
EXAMPLE−
/IC LGT-MOD MX 085
/IC LGT RIME
/IC MOD RIME BLO 095
/IC SEV CLR 035-062
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
4/3/14
4. When icing is reported always report
temperature in the /TA TEI.
l. /RM. Remarks. Use this TEI to report a
phenomenon which is considered important but does
not fit in any of the other TEIs. This includes, but is
not limited to, low level wind shear (LLWS) reports,
thunderstorm lines, coverage and movement, size of
hail (1/4’’ increments), lightning, clouds observed
but not encountered, geographical or local
description of where the phenomenon occurred,
International Standard Atmospheric (ISA) reports
and contrails. Report hazardous weather first.
Describe LLWS to the extent possible.
1. Wind Shear. +/- 10 Kts or more fluctuations
in airspeed, within 2,000 Ft of the surface, requires an
UUA report. When Low Level Wind Shear is entered
in a pilot report enter LLWS as the first remark in the
/RM TEI. LLWS may be reported as -, +, or +/­
depending on how it effects the aircraft. If the
location is different than the /OV or /FL fields,
include the location in the remarks.
EXAMPLE−
/RM LLWS +/-15 KT SFC-008 DURC RY22 JFK
2. FUNNEL, CLOUD, TORNADO, and
WATERSPOUT are entered with the direction of
movement if reported.
EXAMPLE−
/RM TORNADO E MOV E
3. Thunderstorm. Enter coverage (ISOL, FEW,
SCT, NMRS) and description (LN,BKN LN,SLD
LN) if reported. Follow with ”TS,” the location and
movement, and the type of lightning if reported.
EXAMPLE−
/RM NMRS TS S MOV E GR1/2
4. Lightning. Enter frequency (OCNL, FRQ,
CONS), followed by type (LTGIC, LTGCC,
LTGCG, LTGCA, or combinations), if reported.
EXAMPLE−
/RM OCNL LTGICCG
5. Electric Discharge. Enter DISCHARGE
followed by the altitude.
EXAMPLE−
/RM DISCHARGE 120
6. Clouds. Use remarks when clouds can be seen
but were not encountered and reported in /SK.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
/RM CB E MOV N
/RM OVC BLO
7. Plain Language. If specific phraseology is not
adequate, use plain language to describe the
phenomena or local geographic locations. Include
remarks that do not fit in other TEIs like DURC,
DURD, RCA, TOP, TOC, or CONTRAILS.
EXAMPLE−
/RM BUMPY VERY ROUGH RIDE
/RM CONTRAILS
/UA/OV BIS270030/TM 1445/FL060/TP CVLT/TB
LGT /RM Donner Summit Pass
8. Volcanic Activity. Volcanic eruption, ash
clouds, and/or sulfur gases are Urgent PIREPs.
Reports of volcanic activity must include as much
information as possible; for example, the name of the
mountain, ash clouds observed and their movement,
the height of the top and bottom of the ash clouds, etc.
(a) If a pilot detected the smell of sulfur gases
(H2S or SO2) in the cabin and reported volcanic ash
clouds, include “VA” in Weather and “H2S,” “SO2,”
or “SULFUR SMELL” in Remarks.
NOTE−
The smell of sulfur gases in the cockpit may indicate
volcanic activity that has not yet been detected or
reported and/or possible entry into an ash-bearing cloud.
H2 S, also known as sewer gas, has the odor of rotten eggs.
SO2 is identifiable as the sharp, acrid odor of a freshly
struck
EXAMPLE−
UUA /OV PANC240075 /TM 2010 /FL370/TP DC10 /WX
VA /RM VOLCANIC ERUPTION 2008Z MT AUGUSTINE ASH 40S MOV SSE SO2
(b) If a pilot only detected the smell of sulfur
gases (H2S or SO2) in the cabin and confirmed there
were no volcanic ash clouds, classify the PIREP as
Routine and include “VA” in Weather and “H2S NO
ASH,” “SO2 NO ASH,” or “SULFUR SMELL NO
ASH” in Remarks.
EXAMPLE−
UA /OV PANC240075 /TM 2010 /FL370/TP DC10 /WX
VA /RM SULFUR SMELL NO ASH
(c) If a volcanic activity report is received
from other than a pilot, enter Aircraft “UNKN,”
Flight Level “UNKN,” and in Remarks
“UNOFFICIAL.”
9. The ”SKYSPOTTER” program is a result of
a recommendation from the Safer Skies
FAA/INDUSTRY Joint Safety Analysis and
9−2−7
JO 7110.10X
Implementation Teams. The term ”SKYSPOTTER”
indicates that a pilot has received specialized training
in observing and reporting inflight weather
phenomenon, pilot weather reports, or PIREPs.
When a PIREP from a pilot identifying themselves as
a ”SKYSPOTTER” aircraft is received, the
additional comment ”/AWC” must be added at the
end of the remarks section of the PIREP.
EXAMPLE−
PIREP Text/RM Text/AWC
10. If ISA is reported.
9−2−8
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
/RM ISA −10C
9−2−15. PIREP ENCODING
PIREPs must be coded to ensure the PIREP is stored
and subsequently distributed with the surface
observation location nearest the condition being
reported. If more than one METAR location is
appropriate, select the location that provides the
greatest distribution and/or prominence, such as a
major hub airport.
Pilot Weather Report (UA/UUA)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 3. Wind and Temperature Aloft Forecast (FB)
9−3−1. GENERAL
Wind and temperature aloft forecasts (FB) are
computer-prepared and issued by the National
Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) at
Suitland, Maryland. The forecasts are valid 6
(FB1/8), 12 (FB2/9), and 24 (FB 3/10) hours after the
observation date/times of 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, and
1800Z upon which they are based. See TBL 9-3-1 for
wind/temperature aloft forecast schedules.
TBL 9−3−1
Wind/Temperature Aloft Forecast Schedules
Type
Base Data
Time
Valid for
FB1/8
0000Z
0600Z
0200−0900Z
FB2/9
0000Z
1200Z
0900−1800Z
FB3/10
0000Z
0000Z
1800−0600Z
FB1/8
0600Z
1200Z
0800−1500Z
FB2/9
0600Z
1800Z
1500−0000Z
FB3/10
0600Z
0600Z
0000−1200Z
FB1/8
1200Z
1800Z
1400−2100Z
FB2/9
1200Z
0000Z
2100−0600Z
FB3/10
1200Z
1200Z
0600−1800Z
FB1/8
1800Z
0000Z
2000−0300Z
FB2/9
1800Z
0600Z
0300−1200Z
FB3/10
1800Z
1800Z
1200−0000Z
For use (period)
Wind and Temperature Aloft Forecast (FB)
9−3−2. LEVELS FORECAST
Dependent upon station elevation, FB1/2/3 wind
forecasts are issued for the following levels: 3, 6, 9,
12, 18, 24, 30, 34, and 39 thousand foot levels. The
first level for which a wind forecast is issued is
1,500 feet or more above the station elevation.
Temperature is forecast for all wind levels that are
2,500 feet or more above the station. No temperature
is forecast for the 3,000 foot level. The minus signs
are deleted preceding the temperatures at the 30, 34,
and 39 thousand foot levels. FB8/9/10 are for the
45,000 and 53,000 foot levels. They are not normally
disseminated on Service A, but are available on
request/reply.
9−3−3. DISTRIBUTION
All FBs are transmitted to the WMSCR by NCEP.
Distribution by the WMSCR is accomplished in
accordance with established program requirements..
9−3−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 4. Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
9−4−1. GENERAL
NWS forecast offices prepare and forward 24- or
30-hour TAFs for selected U.S. terminals to the
WMSCR for distribution. Similar forecasts for the
U.S. Military, Canada, and Mexico are sent to
WMSCR from the NCEP and Air Force Weather
Agency (AFWA) for distribution.
Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)
9−4−2. TERMINAL AERODROME
FORECAST SCHEDULES
TAFs are prepared four times a day and are issued at
2330, 0530, 1130, and 1730 UTC.
9−4−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 5. Area Forecast (FA)
9−5−1. GENERAL
a. Area forecasts (FA) are available through the
WMSCR and provide an overview of weather
conditions which could impact aviation operations.
FAs are issued by the Aviation Weather Center
(AWC) in Kansas City, Missouri, the Alaska Aviation
Weather Unit (AAWU) in Anchorage, Alaska, and
the Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Honolulu,
Hawaii. The delineation of the areas is specified in the
National Weather Service Instruction 10-811.
Canadian and Mexican FAs are also available
through WMSCR.
b. FAs consist of the following elements
according to each geographical location in TBL
9-5-1.
TBL 9−5−1
9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE
FAs are issued three times a day in the contiguous
U.S., and the Gulf of Mexico and four times a day in
Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. The issuance
times are in TBL 9-5-2.
TBL 9−5−2
Boston
and
Miami
(UTC)
Chicago
and Fort
Worth
(UTC)
San Francisco
and Salt Lake
City (UTC)
Gulf of
Mexico
(UTC)
Caribbean
(UTC)
Hawaii
(UTC)
Alaska
(UTC)
1st Issuance
0845 DT
0945 ST
0945 DT
1045 ST
1045 DT 1145
ST
0130
0330
0340
0415 DT
0515 ST
2nd Issuance
1745 DT
1845 ST
1845 DT
1945 ST
1945 DT 2045
ST
1030
0930
0940
1215 DT
1315 ST
3rd Issuance
0045 DT
0145 ST
0145 DT
0245 ST
0245 DT 0345
DT
1830
1530
1540
2015 DT
2115 ST
2130
2140
4th Issuance
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time, UTC – Coordinated Universal Time
Area Forecast (FA)
9−5−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
9−5−3. DISTRIBUTION
Distribution of FAs is made by WMSCR in
accordance with a predetermined list for each circuit
based upon intra-circuit coordinated requirements.
9−5−2
Area Forecast (FA)
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 6. Severe Weather Forecasts
9−6−1. GENERAL
Severe weather forecasts are issued by the NWS
Storm Prediction Center (SPC) in Norman,
Oklahoma, in the form of weather watches,
convective outlooks, and status reports and transmit­
ted to WMSCR for distribution. An Aviation Watch
Notification Message (SPC AWW) is the weather
watch formatted for the aviation community to alert
them of organized thunderstorms forecast to produce
tornadic and/or severe weather. FSSs may obtain the
public weather watch (SPC WW) from WMSCR if
desired.
Severe Weather Forecasts
9−6−2. DISTRIBUTION
Upon receipt of SPC AWW alert, the WMSCR
immediately transmits the report on selected Service
A circuits. Severe weather status reports (WW-A) are
never urgent. These are relayed unscheduled.
9−6−3. CONVECTIVE OUTLOOK
NARRATIVE (AC)
The Storm Prediction Center will issue ACs
numerous times each day. These forecasts describe
the potential for severe and non-severe convective
activity across the contiguous U.S.
9−6−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Section 7. Flight Advisories
(SIGMET/WS−Airmet/WA−Convective SIGMET/WST)
9−7−1. GENERAL
Flight advisories are issued by the AWC in Kansas
City, Missouri, the AAWU in Anchorage, Alaska,
and the WFO in Honolulu, Hawaii, for the occurrence
or expected occurrence of specified en route weather
phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft
operations. The report type designator WS for
SIGMETs, WST for Convective SIGMETs, and WA
for AIRMETs is used to effect selective distribution
For the contiguous U.S., WSTs are issued hourly at
55 minutes past every hour. WAs are issued as
described in TBL 9-7-1.
9−7−2. DISTRIBUTION
WSs are distributed at unscheduled times to all
Service A circuits. WAs and WSTs bulletins are
distributed as scheduled products. Updates or
amendments issued will completely replace the
previously issued advisory.
TBL 9−7−1
CONUS
Alaska
Hawaii
Flight Advisories
1st Scheduled
2nd Scheduled
3rd Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
O255
0855
1455
0215 (DT)/
0815 (DT)/
1415 (DT)/
0315 (ST)
0915 (ST)
1515 (ST)
0400
1000
1600
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time
4th Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
2055
2015 (DT)/
2115 (ST)
2200
9−7−1
8/22/13
4/3/14
JO 7110.10W
CHG1
JO 7110.10X
Section 8. Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
9−8−1. GENERAL
A Center Weather Advisory (CWA) is an unsched­
uled weather advisory for conditions meeting or
approaching national in-flight advisory (WA, WS, or
WST) criteria. It is primarily used by aircrews to
anticipate and avoid adverse weather conditions in
the en route and terminal environments.
9−8−2. CRITERIA
a. CWAs are valid for up to 2 hours and may
include forecasts of conditions expected to begin
within 2 hours of issuance. If conditions are expected
to persist after the advisory’s valid period, a statement
to that effect is included in the last line of the text.
Additional CWAs will subsequently be issued as
appropriate. The CWSU will issue a CWA:
1. When necessary to supplement an existing
WS, WST, or WA for the purpose of refining or
updating the location, movement, extent, or intensity
of the weather event relevant to the ARTCC’s area of
responsibility.
2. When an inflight advisory has not yet been
issued, but the observed or expected weather
conditions meet WS, WST or WA criteria based on
current pilot reports and reinforced by other sources
of information concerning existing meteorological
conditions.
3. When observed, or developing weather
conditions do not meet WS, WST or WA criteria but
current pilot reports or other weather information
sources indicate that an existing, or anticipated,
meteorological phenomena will adversely affect the
Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
safe flow of air traffic within the ARTCC’s area of
responsibility.
b. The CWA will describe the location of the
phenomenon using ARTCC relevant points of
reference, such as VORs, and will include the height,
extent, intensity, and movement of the phenomenon.
Each CWA will have a phenomenon number.
c. The format of the CWA communications header
is: (ARTCC designator)(phenomenon number) CWA
(date/time issued in UTC)/(ARTCC designator)
CWA (issuance number) VALID UNTIL (date/time
in UTC)/(FROM) (affected area)/(text).
EXAMPLE−
ZOB1 CWA 032141
ZOB CWA 101 VALID UNTIL 032300
FROM 10S DET TO 40N DJB TO 40E SBN TO 80SE MKG
LN SEV TSTMS WITH EXTRM PCPN MOVG FROM
2525 3/4 INCH HAIL RPRTD LAST 5 MINS 20 SW YIP.
TSTMS WITH HVY TO EXTRM PCPN CONTG DTW
AREA BYD 2300
ZKC1 CWA 121528
ZKC CWA 102 VALID UNTIL 121728
STL DIAM 30 NM. NMRS RPTS OF MOD TO SEV ICG
080/090.. LGT OR NEG ICG RPTD 040/120 RMNDR OF
ZKC AREA AND NE OF AREA.
9−8−3. DISTRIBUTION
The CWA will be distributed to ARTCC area
supervisors and traffic management coordinators and
will be entered through FAA AISR and other
communications media to make it available for
dissemination to other FAA and NWS facilities.
9−8−1
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 10. Airport Lighting and Visibility Aids
(Alaska Only)
Section 1. General
10−1−1. AIRPORT LIGHTING
a. General Lighting. Operate airport lighting in
accordance with associated tables except:
1. As requested by the pilot.
2. As required by facility directives or letters of
agreement to meet local conditions or requirements.
3. As specialist deems necessary if not contrary
to pilot’s request or local directives.
b. Emergency Lighting. When it appears that an
emergency has or will occur, provide for the
operation of all appropriate airport lighting aids in
accordance with local procedures and/or as required.
10−1−2. OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS
If controls are provided, operate the lights between
sunset and sunrise.
10−1−3. ROTATING BEACON
If controls are provided, turn on the rotating beacon:
a. Between sunset and sunrise.
b. Between sunrise and sunset when the reported
ceiling or visibility is below basic VFR minima.
10−1−4. APPROACH LIGHTS
Operate approach lights:
a. Between sunset and sunrise when one of the
following conditions exists:
1. They serve the landing runway.
2. They serve a runway to which an approach is
being made but aircraft will land on another runway.
b. Between sunrise and sunset when the ceiling is
less than 1,000 feet or the prevailing visibility is
5 miles or less and approaches are being made to:
1. A landing runway served by the lights.
General
2. A runway served by the lights but aircraft are
landing on another runway.
3. The airport, but landing will be made on a
runway served by the lights.
c. As requested by the pilot.
d. As you deem necessary, if not contrary to pilot’s
request.
NOTE−
In the interest of energy conservation, the approach
lighting system should be turned off when not needed for
aircraft operations.
10−1−5. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM
NTENSITY SETTINGS (ALS)
Operate intensity controls in accordance with the
values depicted. (See TBL 10-1-1.)
TBL 10−1−1
ALS Intensity Setting
Step
Visibility (Applicable to runway served by lights)
Day
Night
5
Less than 1 mile.*
4
1 to but not including 3 miles.
3
3 to but not including 5 miles.
2
5 to but not including 7 miles.
1
When requested.
When
requested.
When
requested.
Less than 1
mile.*
1 to 3 miles
inclusive.
Greater than
3 miles.
on the runway
* and/or 6,000 feet or less of RVR
served by the ALS and RVR.
Note.− Daylight steps 2 and 3 provide recommended
settings applicable to conditions in ALS Intensity
Settings.
10−1−6. SEQUENCED FLASHING LIGHTS
(SFL)
Operate sequenced flashing lights when the visibility
is less than 3 miles and instrument approaches are
being made to the runway served by the associated
ALS.
10−1−1
JO 7110.10X
NOTE−
SFLs are a component of the ALS and cannot be operated
when the ALS is off.
10−1−7. RUNWAY EDGE LIGHTS
Operate the runway edge light system(s) serving the
runway(s) in use as follows:
a. Between sunset and sunrise.
1. For departures when an aircraft calls for
airport advisory or requests the lights be turned on
until the aircraft reports departing the airport area or
15 minutes after the last contact with the aircraft.
2. For arrivals when an aircraft calls for airport
advisory or when the associated approach control
advises that an aircraft is on approach until the aircraft
reports/is observed clear of the runway or 15 minutes
after last radio contact or arrival time.
b. Between sunrise and sunset, turn the lights on
when the surface visibility is less than 2 miles as
described in subparagraphs 10-1-7a1 and a2.
c. The specialist considers it necessary, or it is
requested by a pilot and no other known aircraft will
be adversely affected.
4/3/14
10−1−9. SIMULTANEOUS APPROACH AND
RUNWAY EDGE LIGHT OPERATION
Turn on the runway edge lights for the runway in use
whenever the associated approach lights are on. If
multiple runway light selection is not possible, you
may leave the approach lights on and switch the
runway lights to another runway to accommodate
another aircraft.
10−1−10. MEDIUMINTENSITY APPROACH
LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH RUNWAY
ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHTS
(MALSR)/OMNIDIRECTIONAL APPROACH
LIGHTING SYSTEM (ODALS)
Operate MALSR/ODALS that have separate on-off
and intensity setting controls in accordance with TBL
10-1-2 and TBL 10-1-3.
NOTE−
Application concerns use for takeoffs/landings/approaches and does not preclude turning lights on for use
of unaffected portions of a runway for taxiing aircraft,
surface vehicles, maintenance, repair, etc.
TBL 10−1−2
Two−Step MALS/One−Step RAIL
d. Do not turn on the runway edge lights when a
NOTAM closing the runway is in effect.
e. Alaska. The runway lights should remain on
from the end of civil twilight to the beginning of civil
twilight. If the runway lights are operated part-time
in this period, broadcast a warning over the airport
advisory frequency 2 minutes before turning the
lights off.
Setting
b. When a pilot requests that other than the
favored runway be lighted and two runways cannot
be lighted simultaneously, comply with the request if
you have no knowledge of the lighted runway being
in use. Advise all known aircraft.
10−1−2
Night
Less than 3
Less than 3 miles.
miles.*
3 miles or
MALS LOW
When requested.
more.
*At locations providing part−time flight service, the
MALSR must be set to low intensity during the hours of
darkness when the station is unmanned.
TBL 10−1−3
Three−Step MALS/Three−Step RAIL
a. To switch lights:
2. Turn on the lights for the new runway
30�seconds before turning off the other runway lights,
equipment permitting.
Visibility
MALS HI−RAIL
ON
10−1−8. CHANGING LIGHTED RUNWAYS
1. Advise all known aircraft that the lights are to
be changed, specifying the runway to be lighted.
Day
Setting
3
Day
Visibility
Night
Less than 2 miles.
Less than 1 mile.
1 to but not
2
2 to 5 miles inclusive.
including 3 miles.*
1
When requested.
3 miles or more.
*At locations providing part−time flight service, the
air−to−ground radio link must be activated during the
hours of darkness when the station is unmanned. If there
is no radio air−to−ground control, the MALSR must be
set on intensity step #2 during the hours of darkness
when the station is unmanned. (Reference− FAAO JO
7210.3, Para 10−6−4, Approach Light Systems.)
General
8/22/13
4/3/14
JO 7110.10W
CHG1
JO 7110.10X
10−1−11. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY
LIGHTS (HIRL) ASSOCIATED WITH MALSR
10−1−13. HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY,
RUNWAY CENTERLINE (RCLS), AND
TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTS (TDZL)
Operate HIRL that controls the associated MALSR in
accordance with the intensity setting in TBL 10-1-4.
Operate high intensity runway and associated runway
centerline and touch-down zone lights in accordance
with TBL 10-1-6.
TBL 10−1−4
TBL 10−1−6
HIRL Associated with MALSR
Step
5
4
3
2
1
Visibility
Day
Less than 1 mile.
1 to but not including
2 miles.
2 to but not including
3 miles.
When requested.
When requested.
HIRL, RCLS, TDZL Intensity Setting
Step
Night
When requested.
Less than 1 mile.
1 to but not
including 3 miles.
3 to 5 miles
inclusive.
More than 5 miles.
NOTE−
When switching from a given brightness step setting to a
lower setting, rotation of the brightness control to a point
below the intended step setting and then back to the
appropriate step setting will ensure that the MALSR will
operate at the appropriate brightness.
5
4
Visibility
Day
Less than 1 mile.*
1 to but not including
2 miles.
2 to but not including
3 miles.
Night
When requested.
Less than 1 mile.
1 to but not
including 3 miles.
3 to 5 miles
2
When requested.
inclusive.
1
When requested.
More than 5 miles.
* and/or appropriate RVR/RVV equivalent.
3
10−1−14. HIRL CHANGES AFFECTING RVR
Keep the appropriate approach controller or Precision
Approach Radar (PAR) controller informed, in
advance if possible, of HIRL changes that affect
RVR.
10−1−15. HIGH SPEED TURNOFF LIGHTS
10−1−12. MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY
LIGHTS (MIRL)
Operate high speed turnoff lights whenever the
associated runway lights are used for arriving aircraft.
Leave them on until the aircraft has either entered a
taxiway or passed the last light.
Operate MIRL or MIRL which control the associated
MALSR in accordance with the TBL 10-1-5.
10−1−16. RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER
LIGHTS (REIL)
When separate on-off controls are provided, operate
runway end identifier lights when the associated
runway lights are lighted. Turn the REIL off after:
TBL 10−1−5
MIRL Intensity Setting
Step
3
2
1
Day
Visibility
Less than 2 miles.
2 to 3 miles.
When requested.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, para 10-1-11 Note.
General
a. An arriving aircraft has landed.
Night
Less than 1 mile.
1 to 3 miles.
More than 3
miles.
b. A departing aircraft has left the traffic pattern
area.
c. It is determined that the lights are of no further
use to the pilot.
d. Operate intensity setting in accordance with the
values in TBL 10-1-7 except as prescribed in
subparas b and c above.
10−1−3
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
TBL 10−1−7
TBL 10−1−11
REIL Intensity Setting, Two−Step System
VASI Intensity Setting, Two−Step System
Step
3
2
1
Day
Visibility
Less than 2 miles.
2 to 5 miles.
When requested.
Night
Less than 1 mile.
1 to but not
including 3 miles.
3 miles or more
Step
High
Period
Day
Low
Night
Condition
Sunrise to
sunset
Sunrise to
sunset
TBL 10−1−12
VASI Intensity Setting, Three−Step System
10−1−17. TAXIWAY LIGHTS
Operate taxiway lights serving the taxiways, or
portions thereof, in use between sunset and sunrise
before an aircraft taxies onto the taxiway (normally
at the time taxi information is issued) and until it
taxies off it. Operate taxiway lights in accordance
with TBL 10-1-8, TBL 10-1-9, or TBL 10-1-10
TBL 10−1−8
Three Step Taxiway Lights
Step
3
2
1
Day
Visibility
Less than 1 mile.
When requested.
When requested.
Night
When requested.
Less than 1 mile.
1 mile or more
TBL 10−1−9
Five Step Taxiway Lights
Step
5
4
3
1&2
Day
Visibility
Less than 1 mile.
When requested.
When requested.
When requested.
Night
When requested.
Less than 1 mile.
1 mile or more.
When requested.
TBL 10−1−10
One Step Taxiway Lights
Day
Less than 1 mile.
Night
On
10−1−18. VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE
INDICATORS (VASIs)
The VASI system with remote on-off switching must
be operated when it serves the runway in use and
where intensities are controlled in accordance with
TBL 10-1-11 and TBL 10-1-12.
10−1−4
Step
Period Condition
High
Day
Sunrise to sunset
Medium Twilight From sunset to 30 minutes
after sunset and
from 30 minutes before sunrise
to sunrise,
*and during twilight in Alaska.
Low
Night
Sunset to sunrise.
NOTE−
1. During a 1-year period, twilight may vary 26 to
43 minutes between 25 and 49 degrees N latitude.
2. The basic FAA standard for VASI systems permits
independent operation by means of photoelectric device.
This system has no on-off control feature and is intended
for continuous operation. Other VASI systems in use
include those that are operated remotely from the control
tower. These systems may consist of either a photoelectric
intensity control with only an on-off switch, a two-step
intensity system, or a three-step intensity system.
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 10-6-5, Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
Systems.
10−1−19. VISIBILITY AIDS - GENERAL
a. Where RVR/ RVV equipment is operational,
irrespective of subsequent operation or nonoperation
of navigational or visual aids for the application of
RVR/RVV as a takeoff or landing minima, furnish the
values for the runway in use in accordance with
para 10−1−20, RVR/RVV.
b. Issue current touchdown RVR/RVV for the
runway(s) in use:
1. When prevailing visibility is 1 mile or less
regardless of the value indicated.
2. When RVR/RVV indicates a reportable value
regardless of the prevailing visibility.
NOTE−
Reportable values are: RVR 6,000 feet or less; RVV
1-1/2 miles or less.
General
4/3/14
3. When it is determined from a reliable source
that the indicated RVR value differs by more than
400 feet from the actual conditions within the area of
the transmissometer, the RVR data is not acceptable
and must not be reported.
NOTE−
A reliable source is considered to be a certified weather
observer, air traffic controller, or pilot.
4. When the observer has reliable reports, or has
otherwise determined that the instrument values are
not representative of the associated runway, the data
must not be used.
10−1−20. RVR/RVV
a. Provide RVR/RVV information by stating the
runway, the abbreviation RVR/RVV, and the
indicated value. When issued along with other
weather elements, transmit these values in the normal
sequence used for weather reporting.
General
JO 7110.10X
b. When two or more RVR systems serve the
runway in use, report the indicated values for the
different systems in terms of touchdown, mid, and
rollout as appropriate.
c. When there is a requirement to issue an
RVR/RVV value and a visibility condition greater or
less than the reportable values of the equipment is
indicated, state the condition as “MORE THAN” or
“LESS THAN” the appropriate minimum or
maximum readable value.
d. When a readout indicates a rapidly varying
visibility condition (1,000 feet or more for RVR; one
or more reportable values for RVV), report the current
value followed by the range of visibility variance.
10−1−21. OPERATION OF LANDING
DIRECTION INDICATOR
Align the landing direction indicator with the favored
or designated runway.
10−1−5
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 11. Interphone Communications
Section 1. General
11−1−1. PURPOSE
11−1−3. PRIORITY INTERRUPTION
a. The procedures and phraseologies contained in
this chapter apply to inter-facility and intra-facility
telephone communications conducted from any
position of operation.
Use the words “emergency” or “control” for
interrupting lower priority messages when you have
an emergency or control message to transmit.
b. Interphone use is restricted to authorized
official business only.
c. Monitor interphones continuously. At facilities
without ringers, keep speaker volume at a level
sufficient to hear all transmissions. In the event of
interphone failure, use authorized back-up
procedures; for example, commercial telephone,
aircraft radio relay.
11−1−4. MESSAGE INITIATION
Initiate interphone messages as follows:
a. Assure line is not in use.
PHRASEOLOGY−
LINE CLEAR?
b. If line is not in use, establish contact with the
desired facility and/or position.
Give priority to interphone transmissions as follows:
EXAMPLE−
EXAMPLE-
Manual signaling (Ring Line):
FSS-(Calls Center via DA/IA Line).
Center- “Anchorage Center” or “Sector D-5.”
FSS- “Kenai radio. Kenai progress Apache One Two
Three.”
Center- “Go ahead”
FSS- “Over Kenai...etc.” “L-H”
Center- “C-M”
a. First priority. Emergency messages including
essential information on aircraft accidents or
suspected accidents. After actual emergency has
passed, give a lower priority to messages relating to
an accident.
Voice signaling (Shout Line):
FSS- “Fort Worth Center, Fort Worth Radio, Clearance
Request.“
Center “Fort Worth Center, Go Ahead.”
FSS- “Request Clearance, Army ......etc.”
b. Second priority. Clearance and control
instructions.
c. When calling or replying on an interphone line
which connects only two facilities, you may omit the
facility’s name.
d. Use the words or phrases in interphone
communications as contained in the Pilot/Controller
Glossary.
11−1−2. INTERPHONE TRANSMISSION
PRIORITIES
c. Third priority. Movement and control messages
using the following order of precedence when
possible:
1. Progress reports.
2. Departure or arrival reports.
3. Flight plans.
d. Fourth priority. Movement messages on VFR
aircraft.
e. Fifth priority. NOTAM coordination.
f. Sixth priority. Administrative messages; for
example, outages.
General
EXAMPLE−
“Radio, inbound estimate.”
d. FSS.
1. Inflight position. State the name of the
FSS/sector followed by the word “RADIO” and
position, if appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
“Fairbanks Radio.”
“Leesburg Radio”
2. Flight Watch position. State the name of the
associated ARTCC followed by the words “FLIGHT
WATCH.”
11−1−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
EXAMPLE−
“Indianapolis Flight Watch.”
11−1−5. MESSAGE TERMINATION
Terminate interphone messages with your operating
initials.
EXAMPLE−
“V-N”
11−1−2
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 12. Phraseology
Section 1. General
12−1−1. PURPOSE
12−1−5. ICAO PHONETICS
This chapter prescribes standardized procedures and
phraseologies to be used by specialist when
communicating weather and aeronautical
information in broadcast, radiotelephone, and
interphone communications. Where position or
procedure−specific phraseology is required,
reference is to be made to the relevant chapter of this
order.
Use the ICAO pronunciation of numbers and, as
necessary, individual letters for clarity. The ICAO
radiotelephony alphabet and pronunciation guide are
contained in TBL 12−1−1.
12−1−2. PHRASEOLOGY
The annotation PHRASEOLOGY denotes the
prescribed words and/or phrases to be used in
communications.
NOTE−
Specialists may, after first using the prescribed
phraseology for a specific procedure, rephrase the
message to ensure the content is understood. Good
judgment must be exercised when using nonstandard
phraseology.
12−1−3. WORDS AND PHRASES
Use the words or phrases in broadcast,
radiotelephone, and interphone communications as
contained in the Pilot/Controller Glossary.
12−1−4. ANNOUNCING MISSING ITEMS
With the exception of RVR, announce the word
“missing” when any item or component of a weather
report is not reported, or in place of unreadable or
obviously incorrect items or portions of weather
reports. When appropriate, instead of speaking the
name of several locations with missing reports,
announce: “Other scheduled reports missing.”
NOTE−
On occasion, a parameter from an automated observation
may be reported as missing in the body of the report but
is available as a manually reported parameter in the
remarks section. When the report is spoken, include the
manually reported element in its proper sequence within
the report.
General
TBL 12−1−1
ICAO Phonetics
Character
Word
Pronunciation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Zero
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
Nine
ZE−RO
WUN
TOO
TREE
FOW−ER
FIFE
SIX
SEV−EN
AIT
NIN−ER
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Alfa
Bravo
Charlie
Delta
Echo
Foxtrot
Golf
Hotel
India
Juliett
Kilo
Lima
Mike
November
Oscar
Papa
Quebec
Romeo
Sierra
Tango
Uniform
Victor
Whiskey
ALFAH
BRAHVOH
CHARLEE
DELLTAH
ECKOH
FOKSTROT
GOLF
HOHTELL
INDEEAH
JEWLEEETT
KEYLOH
LEEMAH
MIKE
NOVEMBER
OSSCAR
PAHPAH
KEHBECK
ROWMEOH
SEEAIRAH
TANGGO
YOUNEEFORM
VIKTAH
WISSKEY
12−1−1
JO 7110.10X
X
Y
Z
X−ray
Yankee
Zulu
4/3/14
ECKSRAY
YANGKEY
ZOOLOO
NOTE−
Syllables to be emphasized in pronunciation are in bold
face.
12−1−6. RELAY OF ATC
COMMUNICATIONS
Prefix a clearance, information, or a request for
information which will be relayed from a control
facility to an aircraft with the appropriate phrase
“A−T−C clears,” “A−T−C advises,” or “A−T−C
requests.”
12−1−7. EXPEDITIOUS COMPLIANCE
a. Use the word “immediately” only when
expeditious compliance is required to avoid an
imminent situation.
b. Use the word “expedite” only when prompt
compliance is required to avoid the development of
an imminent situation.
c. In either case, and if time permits, include the
reason for this action.
12−1−8. WEATHER PHRASEOLOGY
Use the following phraseology and procedures for
stating surface weather observations and for
information similarly encoded in other aviation
weather products and forecasts.
a. Location.
1. Announce the geographic name (not the
identifier) once.
EXAMPLE−
“Paducah.”
2. When the location name is duplicated within
500 miles, follow the location name with the state
name.
12−1−2
EXAMPLE−
“Columbus, Ohio.”
3. When weather reports originate at more than
one airport at the same geographical location,
identify the airport.
EXAMPLE−
“Anchorage, Merrill.”
“Chicago, O’Hare.”
4. Where it is considered necessary and is
requested by the military base commander, broadcast
military observations by stating the location, the
name of the airport if different, and the controlling
military branch.
EXAMPLE−
“Joint Base Andrews.”
“Elmendorf, Air Force Base.”
“Fort Riley, Marshall Army Air Field.”
“Norfolk Naval Air Station.”
b. If “AUTO” appears after the date/time element
and is presented as a singular report, follow the
location with the word “AUTOMATED.”
PHRASEOLOGY−
(Location) AUTOMATED.
c. If a special report is the most recent observation
available, follow the location with the words
“SPECIAL WEATHER REPORT,” (last two digits
of the time) “OBSERVATION.” Use data from the
record report to fill in the items not included in the
special observation, such as temperature and dew
point.
d. If the weather data is not available, state the
location and the word “missing.”
e. Wind Direction and Speed. Announce surface
wind direction and speed by stating the word “wind”
followed by the separate digits of the wind direction
to the nearest 10 degrees and the separate digits of the
speed. A “G” between two wind speed values is
announced as “gusts.” State local wind as it appears
in the report. Announce the variability of wind at the
end of the wind group. (See TBL 12−1−2.)
General
8/22/13
4/3/14
JO 7110.10W
CHG1
JO 7110.10X
TBL 12−1−2
TBL 12−1−4
Wind Direction and Speed
RVR/RVV
Wind
00000KT
26012KT
29012KT
260V320
30008KT
36012G20KT
VRB04KT
Phraseology
WIND CALM.
WIND TWO SIX ZERO AT ONE
TWO.
WIND TWO NINER ZERO AT
ONE TWO WIND VARIABLE
BETWEEN TWO SIX ZERO AND
THREE TWO ZERO.
WIND THREE ZERO ZERO AT
EIGHT.
WIND THREE SIX ZERO AT ONE
TWO GUSTS TWO ZERO.
WIND VARIABLE AT FOUR.
f. Visibility.
State the word “visibility” followed by the visibility
values in miles and/or fractions of miles, except
announce values indicated by the figure 0 as “zero.”
Announce the separate digits of whole numbers as
applicable. (See TBL 12−1−3.)
TBL 12−1−3
Visibility
Contraction
0SM
1/ SM
16
1/ SM
8
M1/4SM
3/ SM
4
11/2SM
8SM
25SM
Phraseology
Visibility zero.
Visibility one sixteenth.
Visibility one eighth.
Visibility less than one quarter.
Visibility three quarters.
Visibility one and one−half.
Visibility eight.
Visibility two five.
NOTE−
When visibility is less than 3 miles and variable, this
information is reported in the remarks.
g. RVR/RVV.
1. Provide RVR/RVV information by stating
the runway, the abbreviation RVR/RVV, and the
indicated value. The abbreviations “R-V-R” or
“R-V-V” may be spoken in lieu of “visual range” or
“visibility value.” When the indicated values are
separated by a V, preface the values with the words
“variable,” followed by the first value, the word “to,”
then the second value. (See TBL 12-1-4.)
General
RVR/RVV
R36VV11/2
Phraseology
“Runway three six, R−V−V one
and one−half.”
R05LVV1V2
“Runway five left, R−V−V
variable between one and two.”
R18/2000V3000FT “Runway one eight, R−V−R
variable between two thousand
to three thousand. Or Runway
one eight visual range variable
between two thousand and three
thousand.”
R26R/2400FT
“Runway two six right visual
range two thousand four
hundred.”
2. When there is a requirement to issue an RVR
or RVV value and a visibility condition greater or less
than the reportable values of the equipment is
indicated, state the condition as “MORE THAN” or
“LESS THAN” the appropriate minimum or
maximum readable value. (See TBL 12-1-5.)
TBL 12−1−5
RVR/RVV
RVR/RVV
R16/M0600FT
Phraseology
‘‘Runway one six runway
visual range less than six
hundred. Or Runway one six
R−V−R less than six
hundred.’’
R36L/M0600V2500FT ‘‘Runway three six left,
R−V−R variable between
less than six hundred and
two thousand five hundred.
Or Runway three six left
visual range variable
between less than six
hundred and two thousand
five hundred.’’
R36/P6000FT
‘‘Runway three six R−V−R
more than six thousand. Or
Runway three six visual
range more than six
thousand.’’
h. Weather Elements. TBL 12-1-6 depicts sample
phraseology for weather element contractions.
Intensity refers to precipitation, not descriptors.
Proximity is spoken after the phenomenon to which
it refers. Descriptors are spoken ahead of weather
phenomenon with the exception of ‘‘showers’’ which
is spoken after the precipitation. TBL 12-1-7 contains
12−1−3
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
a complete list of weather elements and appropriate
phraseology.
TBL 12−1−6
Examples of Combining Intensity, Descriptors and
Weather Phenomenon.
Contractions
BLSN
−FZRAPL
Phraseology
BLOWING SNOW
LIGHT FREEZING RAIN, ICE
PELLETS
FZRA
FREEZING RAIN
FZDZ
FREEZING DRIZZLE
MIFG
SHALLOW FOG
−SHRA
LIGHT RAIN SHOWERS
SHRA
RAIN SHOWERS
SHSN
SNOW SHOWERS
TSRA
THUNDERSTORM, RAIN
+TSRA
THUNDERSTORM, HEAVY RAIN
(SHOWERS)1
+TSRAGR
THUNDERSTORM, HEAVY
RAIN, HAIL
VCSH
SHOWERS IN THE VICINITY
1Since thunderstorms imply showery precipitation,
‘‘showers’’ may be used to describe precipitation that
accompany thunderstorms.
TBL 12−1−7
Weather Elements
INTENSITY
or
PROXIMITY
1
−
Light
Moderate
(No Qualifier)
+
Heavy
VC
In the Vicinity
DESCRIPTOR
PRECIPITATION
OBSCURATION
MI
2
Shallow
DZ
3
Drizzle
BR
4
Mist
BC
DR
Patchy
Low Drifting
RA
SN
Rain
Snow
FG
FU
Fog
Smoke
BL
SH
TS
FZ
PR
Blowing
Showers
Thunderstorm
Freezing
Partial
SG
IC
PL
GR
GS
Snow Grains
Ice Crystals
Ice Pellets
Hail
Small Hail or
Snow Pellets
(<1/4”)
*Unknown
Precipitation
DU
SA
HZ
PY
VA
Dust
Sand
Haze
Spray
Volcanic Ash
UP
OTHER
5
Well−
Developed
Dust/Sand
Whirls
SQ Squalls
FC Funnel Cloud,
+FC Tornado or
Waterspout
SS
Sandstorm
DS Duststorm
PO
* Automated stations only.
i. Ceiling and Sky Coverage.
12−1−4
1. State sky coverage in the same order as
reported on the weather observation. Announce
ceiling as follows: (See TBL 12−1−8.)
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
TBL 12−1−8
TBL 12−1−10
Ceiling and Sky Coverage
Sky Conditions
Designator
BKN0001
BKN0002
Phraseology
SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED
CEILING LESS THAN FIVE
ZERO BROKEN
FEW000 1
SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED
FEW000 2
FEW CLOUDS AT LESS THAN
FIVE ZERO
(lowest layer aloft) (precede with) CEILING
BKN/OVC
SCT0001
SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED
SCT0002
LESS THAN FIVE ZERO
SCATTERED
VV
INDEFINITE CEILING
1 Surface−based obscurations. Requires remarks,
i.e. RMK FG SCT000, FU BKN000, etc.
2 No remark means the layer is aloft.
2. State cloud heights in tens, hundreds and/or
thousands of feet. (See TBL 12−1−9.)
TBL 12−1−9
Cloud Heights
Number
0001
003
018
Phraseology
ZERO
THREE HUNDRED
ONE THOUSAND EIGHT
HUNDRED
200
TWO ZERO THOUSAND
1 Spoken as zero only when used with VV.
NOTE−
1. When the ceiling is less than 3,000 feet and variable,
the variable limits will be reported in the remarks.
2. When communicating weather information on the
TIBS broadcast or telephone, specialist may announce
cloud heights in either group form or in hundreds or
thousands of feet, such as seventeen thousand or one
seven thousand.
3. “Group form” is the pronunciation of a series of
numbers as the whole number, or pairs of numbers they
represent rather than pronouncing each separate digit.
The use of group form may, however, be negated by
four-digit identifiers or the placement of zeros in the
identifier.
3. Announce sky conditions as indicated below.
(See TBL 12-1-10.)
General
Contraction
BKN
CLR1
1
Phraseology
(height) BROKEN
CLEAR BELOW ONE TWO
THOUSAND
FEW
FEW CLOUDS AT (height)
OVC
(height) OVERCAST
SCT
(height) SCATTERED
SKC
CLEAR
Automated weather reports.
4. TBL 12-1-11 contains examples of broadcast
phraseology of sky and ceiling conditions.
TBL 12−1−11
Sky and Ceiling Conditions
Condition
BKN000
BKN010
BKN050 RMK
FG BKN000
Phraseology
SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED,
CEILING ONE THOUSAND
BROKEN, FIVE THOUSAND
BROKEN. FOG OBSCURING
FIVE TO SEVEN EIGHTS OF THE
SKY.
BKN010
CEILING ONE THOUSAND
BROKEN.
SKY PARTIALLY OBSCURED,
SCT000
SCT020
TWO THOUSAND SCATTERED,
OVC035 RMK CEILING THREE THOUSAND
FG SCT000
FIVE HUNDRED OVERCAST.
FOG OBSCURING THREE TO
FOUR EIGHTS OF THE SKY.
SCT020
TWO THOUSAND SCATTERED,
OVC250
CEILING TWO FIVE THOUSAND
OVERCAST.
VV000
INDEFINITE CEILING ZERO.
VV012
INDEFINITE CEILING ONE
THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED.
j. Announce surface temperature and dew point by
stating the words “temperature” or “dew point,” as
appropriate, followed by the temperature in degrees
Celsius. Temperatures below zero are announced by
prefixing the word “minus” before the values. (See
TBL 12-1-12.)
TBL 12−1−12
Temperature/Dewpoint
Reading
02/M01
04/02
18/13
Phraseology
‘‘Temperature two, dew point minus
one.’’
‘‘Temperature four, dew point two.’’
‘‘Temperature one eight, dew point one
three.’’
12−1−5
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
12−1−9. WEATHER REMARKS
k. Altimeter Setting.
1. State the word “altimeter” followed by the
four digits of the altimeter setting. (See TBL
12-1-13.)
TBL 12−1−13
Altimeter Setting
Altimeter Setting
A2989
A3001
A3025
Phraseology
‘‘Altimeter two niner eight niner.’’
‘‘Altimeter three zero zero one.’’
‘‘Altimeter three zero two five.’’
2. Identify the source of all altimeter settings
when issued, if not given as part of an identified
surface observation. Provide the time of the report if
more than one hour old.
PHRASEOLOGY−
(airport name) (time of report if more than one hour old)
ALTIMETER (setting).
3. If a request for the altimeter setting in MBs is
received, announce the separate digits of the MB
equivalent value, using the MB conversion chart,
followed by the word “Mbs.” If the MB setting is not
a whole number, always round down. (See
TBL 13-1-14.)
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7110.10, Para 4-3-5f, Routine Radio Contacts
TBL 12−1−14
Millibar Conversion
Millibar Conversion
956.3
1002.0
1058.9
Phraseology
‘‘Altimeter niner five six
millibars.’’
‘‘Altimeter one zero zero two
millibars.’’
‘‘Altimeter one zero five eight
millibars.’’
Announce pertinent remarks from surface weather
observations in accordance with FAA Order JO
7340.2, Contractions, and as shown in the following
tables. Do not state additive data or other information
intended for NWS analysis or processing that does
not contribute to the description of the conditions
occurring at the station.
a. Sky and Ceiling (See TBL 12−1−15.)
TBL 12−1−15
Sky and Ceiling
Contraction
CIG 005V010
CIG 020 RY11
CB N MOV E
CBMAM DSNT S
CLDS TPG MT SW
CONTRAILS N FL420
FRQ LTCIC VC
LWR CLDS NE
OCNL LTGICCG NW
RDGS OBSCD W−N
b. Obscuring Phenomena. (See TBL 12−1−16.)
TBL 12−1−16
4. When altimeter is in excess of 31.00:
(a) Advise all aircraft.
PHRASEOLOGY−
ALTIMETER GREATER THAN THREE ONE ZERO
ZERO. HIGH PRESSURE ALTIMETER PROCEDURES
ARE IN EFFECT.
(b) Advise VFR aircraft to set altimeter to
31.00 en route.
PHRASEOLOGY−
RECOMMEND YOU SET ALTIMETER THREE ONE
ZERO ZERO EN ROUTE.
12−1−6
Phraseology
‘‘Ceiling variable
between five hundred and
one thousand.’’
‘‘Ceiling two thousand at
runway one one.’’
‘‘Cumulonimbus north
moving east.’’
‘‘Cumulonimbus
mammatus distant south.’’
‘‘Clouds topping
mountain southwest.’’
‘‘Condensation trails
north at flight level four
two zero.’’
‘‘Frequent lightning in
cloud in the vicinity.’’
‘‘Lower clouds
northeast.’’
‘‘Occasional lightning in
cloud and cloud to ground
northwest.’’
‘‘Ridges obscured west
through north.’’
Obscuring Phenomena
Contraction
BLSN SCT000
DU BKN000
FG FU FEW000
FU SCT020
SN BKN000
Phraseology
‘‘Blowing snow obscuring three
to four−eights of the sky.’’
‘‘Dust obscuring five to
seven−eights of the sky.’’
‘‘Fog and smoke obscuring one to
two−eights of the sky.’’
‘‘Smoke layer two thousand
scattered.’’
‘‘Snow obscuring five to
seven−eights of the sky.’’
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
c. Visibility. (See TBL 12−1−17.)
TBL 12−1−17
Visibility
Contraction
SFC VIS 1/2
Phraseology
‘‘Surface visibility
one−half.’’
SFC VIS 15 TWRINC ‘‘Surface visibility one five,
tower in clouds.’’
TWR VIS 3/4
‘‘Tower visibility
three−quarters.’’
VIS S 1 W 1/4
‘‘Visibility south one, west
one−quarter.’’
VIS 1V3
‘‘Visibility variable between
one and three.’’
d. Weather and obstruction to visibility.
(See TBL 12−1−18.)
TBL 12−1−18
Weather and Obstruction
Contraction
BCFG S
DUST DEVILS NW
FG DSIPTG
FU DRFTG OVR
FLD
FUOCTY
GR 2
Phraseology
‘‘Patchy fog south.’’
‘‘Dust devils northwest.’’
‘‘Fog dissipating.’’
‘‘Smoke drifting over field.’’
‘‘Smoke over city.’’
‘‘Hailstones two inches in
diameter.’’
‘‘Intermittent light rain.’’
‘‘Occasional lightning distant
northwest.’’
‘‘Occasional moderate rain
showers.’’
‘‘Light rain occasionally
heavy.’’
‘‘Rain began at three zero.’’
‘‘Snow began at one five,
ended at four zero.’’
INTMT −RA
OCNL LTG DSNT
NW
OCNL SHRA
−RA OCNLY +RA
RAB30
SNB15E40
SNINCR 5/10
‘‘Snow increase five inches
during past hour, ten inches on
the ground.’’
TS OHD MOV E
‘‘Thunderstorm overhead,
moving east.’’
FRQ LTGCG TS W ‘‘Frequent lightning cloud to
MOV E
ground, thunderstorm west
moving east.’’
UNCONFIRMED ‘‘Unconfirmed tornado one
TORNADO 15W
five west of Oklahoma City,
OKC MOV NE 2015 moving northeast sighted at
two zero one five zulu.’’
WET SN
‘‘Wet snow.’’
e. Wind. (See TBL 12−1−19.)
TBL 12−1−19
Wind
Contraction
PK WND 33048/22
WSHFT 30
General
Phraseology
‘‘Peak wind three three
zero at four eight occurred
at two two past the hour.’’
‘‘Wind shifted at three
zero.’’
12−1−7
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
f. Pressure. (See TBL 12−1−20.)
TBL 12−1−23
Maintenance Data
TBL 12−1−20
Pressure
RVR/RVV
PNO
Contraction
PRESFR
PRESRR
Phraseology
‘‘Pressure falling rapidly.’’
‘‘Pressure rising rapidly.’’
g. Freezing Level Data. (See TBL 12−1−21.)
RVRNO
TSNO
VISNO
Phraseology
‘‘Precipitation amount not
available.’’
‘‘R−V−R (or runway visual
range) information not
available.’’
‘‘Thunderstorm/lightning
information not available.’’
‘‘Visibility sensor
information not available.’’
TBL 12−1−21
Freezing Level Data
Contraction
RADAT 87045
Explanation
Relative humidity 87
percent, only crossing of
zero degrees Celsius
isotherm was four thousand
five hundred M−S−L.
RADAT 87L024105
Relative humidity 87
percent at the lowest
crossing of zero degrees
Celsius. Two crossings
occurred at two thousand
four hundred and one zero
thousand five hundred
M−S−L.
The sounding terminated
below the first crossing of
the zero degree Celsius
isotherm. Temperatures
were all above freezing.
RADAT MISG
RADAT ZERO
The entire sounding was
below zero degrees Celsius.
h. Icing Data. (See TBL 12−1−22.)
TBL 12−1−22
Icing Data
Contraction
RAICG 12 MSL
Explanation
Icing at one thousand two
hundred M−S−L.
RAICG 24 MSL SNW
Icing at two thousand four
hundred M−S−L in snow.
i. Maintenance Data. (See TBL 12−1−23.)
12−1−8
12−1−10. WEATHER ADVISORIES
a. When announcing weather advisories, include
the complete advisory description including the
product name and alphanumeric identification.
Specify Eastern, Central, or Western section as
applicable when stating WSTs.
PHRASEOLOGY−
AIRMET
ALERT WEATHER WATCH, ONE ZERO SEVEN FOR
SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS
CONVECTIVE SIGMET TWO SEVEN EASTERN
HOUSTON CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY ONE,
ISSUANCE TWO
SIGMET WHISKEY THREE
b. Do not read the OUTLOOK section of WSTs
when stating the advisory. Data contained in the
OUTLOOK concerning convective activity location,
movement, and intensity may be extracted for
compilation in forecast summarizations.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Convective SIGMET one seven Eastern−from five zero
south of St. Petersburg to three zero south of Columbus,
line of thunderstorms three five miles wide moving east at
one five knots. Maximum tops four seven thousand.’’
c. VNR. When VFR flight is proposed and sky
conditions or visibilities are present or forecast,
surface based or aloft that, in your judgment, would
make visual flight doubtful, include one of the
following statements:
PHRASEOLOGY−
V−F−R FLIGHT NOT RECOMMENDED (location if
applicable) DUE TO (conditions).
or
V−F−R NOT RECOMMENDED.
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
12−1−11. RADAR
Use the following phraseology and procedures for
communicating radar products:
Radar displays. When stating precipitation intensity
from a radar display (such as NEXRAD), use the
following four categories as appropriate:
a. Light: (Equates to radar return levels of less
than 30 dBZ.)
TBL 12−1−24
Altitude
Coded
Phraseology
2707
7799
‘‘(altitude), two seven zero at seven.’’
‘‘(altitude), two seven zero at one niner
niner or greater.’’
‘‘(altitude), three five zero at one zero
five, temperature minus five two.’’
‘‘(altitude), light and variable,
temperature zero.’’
850552
9900+00
b. Moderate: (Equates to radar return levels of 30
to 40 dBZ.)
12−1−13. NUMBER USAGE
c. Heavy: (Equates to radar return levels of greater
than 40 to 50 dBZ.)
a. Serial numbers. The separate digits.
(See TBL 12−1−25.)
State numbers as follows:
TBL 12−1−25
d. Extreme: (Equates to radar return levels of
greater than 50 dBZ.)
Serial Numbers
Number
11,495
20,069
12−1−12. WINDS AND TEMPERATURES
ALOFT FORECAST (FB)
When announcing the FB, use the following
phraseology and procedures:
a. State the altitude, then announce wind direction
and speed by the separate digits of the wind direction
to the 10-degree multiple, the word AT, and the
separate digits of the speed.
b. When the forecast speed is less than 5 knots, the
coded group is 9900 and read, “light and variable.”
Phraseology
‘‘One one four niner five.’’
‘‘Two zero zero six niner.’’
b. Altitudes or flight levels.
1. Altitudes. Pronounce each digit in the
number of hundreds or thousands followed by the
word “hundred” or “thousand,” as appropriate.
(See TBL 12-1-26.)
TBL 12−1−26
Altitudes
Altitude
5,000
10,000
11,500
Phraseology
‘‘Five thousand.’’
‘‘One zero thousand.’’
‘‘One one thousand five
hundred.’’
c. Encoded wind speed 100 to 199 knots have 50
added to the direction code and 100 subtracted from
the speed.
2. Altitudes may be restated in group form for
added clarity if the specialist chooses.
(See TBL 12−1−27.)
d. If wind speed is forecast at 200 knots or greater,
the wind group is coded as 199 knots; for example,
7799 is decoded 270 degrees at 199 knots or greater.
Altitudes − continued
e. A six-digit group includes forecast temperature.
Provide temperatures on request only, stating the
word ”temperature,” followed by the word “minus,”
as appropriate, and the separate digits. (See
TBL 12-1-24.)
General
TBL 12−1−27
Altitude
10,000
11,500
Phraseology
‘‘Ten thousand.’’
‘‘Eleven thousand five
hundred.’’
3. Flight levels. The words “flight level,”
followed by the separate digits of the flight level.
(See TBL 12−1−28.)
12−1−9
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
TBL 12−1−28
Flight Levels
Flight Level
180
270
Phraseology
‘‘Flight level one eight zero.’’
‘‘Flight level two seven zero.’’
4. MDA/DH Altitudes. The words “minimum
descent altitude” or “decision height,” followed by
separate digits of the MDA/DH altitude. (See
TBL 12-1-29.)
less than eight seconds are stated as the preceding
quarter minute; fractions of a quarter minute of 8
seconds or more are stated as the succeeding quarter
minute. (See TBL 12-1-32.)
TBL 12−1−32
Time Check
Time
1415:06
1415:10
Phraseology
‘‘Time, one four one five.’’
‘‘Time, one four one five and
one−quarter.’’
TBL 12−1−29
MDA/DH Altitude
Altitude
Phraseology
486
1,320
‘‘Decision height, four eight six.’’
‘‘Minimum descent altitude, one
three two zero.’’
c. Time.
1. General time information. The four separate
digits of the hour and minutes in terms of
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (See
TBL 12−1−30.)
TBL 12−1−30
Coordinated Universal Time
Time
Phraseology
0115 (UTC)
1315 (UTC)
‘‘Zero one one five.’’
‘‘One three one five.’’
2. Upon request. The four separate digits of the
hours and minutes in terms of UTC followed by the
local time equivalent; or the local time equivalent
only. Local time may be based on the 24-hour clock
system. (See TBL 12-1-31.) The term “ZULU” may
be used to denote UTC.
TBL 12−1−31
Coordinated Universal Time
Time
2:30 p.m.
or
2230 (UTC), 2:30
p.m
or
2230 (UTC), 1430
PST
Phraseology
‘‘Two thirty P−M. local.’’
‘‘Two two three zero, two
thirty P−M. local.’’
‘‘Two two three zero, one four
three zero Pacific or local.’’
3. Time check. The word ‘‘time’’ followed by
the four separate digits of the hour and minutes, and
nearest quarter minute. Fractions of a quarter minute
12−1−10
4. Abbreviated time. The separate digits of the
minutes only. (See TBL 12−1−33.)
TBL 12−1−33
Abbreviated Time
Time
1415
1420
Phraseology
‘‘One five.’’
‘‘Two zero.’’
NOTE−
Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus
30 seconds.
d. Field elevation. The words “field elevation,”
followed by the separate digits of the elevation. (See
TBL 12−1-34.)
TBL 12−1−34
Field Elevation
Elevation
17 feet
187 feet
2,817 feet
Phraseology
‘‘Field elevation, one seven.’’
‘‘Field elevation, one eight seven.’’
‘‘Field elevation, two eight one
seven.’’
e. The number “0” is stated as “zero,” except
where it is used in approved “group form” for
authorized aircraft callsigns and in stating altitudes.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Field elevation one six zero.’’
‘‘Heading three zero zero.’’
‘‘One zero thousand five hundred.’’ “Western five thirty.”
“Ten thousand five hundred.”
“EMAIR One Ten”
f. Heading. The word “heading,” followed by the
three separate digits of the number of degrees,
omitting the word “degrees.” Use heading
360 degrees to indicate a north heading. (See
TBL 12-1-35.)
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Heading
TBL 12−1−35
TBL 12−1−39
Heading/Degrees
Speed
Phraseology
5 degrees
30 degrees
360 degrees
‘‘Heading, zero zero five.’’
‘‘Heading, zero three zero.’’
‘‘Heading, three six zero.’’
g. Radar beacon codes. The word squawk
followed by the separate digits of the four−digit code.
(See TBL 12−1−36.)
TBL 12−1−36
Speed
95
185
250
2. For Mach speeds, the word “mach,” followed
by the separate digits of the Mach number inserting
the word “point” where the decimal occurs. (See TBL
12-1-40.)
TBL 12−1−40
Radar Beacon
Code
Phraseology
1000
2100
‘‘Squawk one zero zero zero.’’
‘‘Squawk two one zero zero.’’
h. Runways. The word “runway” followed by the
separate digits of the runway designation. For a
parallel runway, state the word “left,” “right,” or
“center” if the letter “L,” “R,” or “C “ is included in
the designation. (See TBL 12-1-37.)
TBL 12−1−37
Runway Designation
Designation
3
8L
27R
Speed
Mach Number
0.64
0.7
1.5
Phraseology
‘‘Mach point six four.’’
‘‘Mach point seven.’’
‘‘Mach one point five.’’
k. Miles. The separate digits of the mileage
followed by the word mile(s). (See TBL 12−1−41.)
TBL 12−1−41
Miles
Miles
30
Phraseology
‘‘Three zero miles.’’
Phraseology
‘‘Runway three.’’
‘‘Runway eight left.’’
‘‘Runway two seven right.’’
i. Frequencies.
1. The separate digits of the frequency, inserting
the word “point” where the decimal occurs. When the
frequency is in the L/MF or HF band, include the
word “kilohertz.” (See TBL 12-1-38.)
TBL 12−1−38
Frequencies
Frequency
Phraseology
302 kHz
5631 kHz
126.55 MHz
135.275 MHz
‘‘Three zero two kilohertz.’’
‘‘Five six three one kilohertz.’’
‘‘One two six point five five.’’
‘‘One three five point two seven.’’
2. Issue MLS/TACAN frequencies by stating
the assigned two- or three- digit channel number.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘M−L−Schannel five three zero.’’
‘‘TACAN channel niner seven.’’
j. Speeds.
1. The separate digits of the speed followed by
the word knots. (See TBL 12−1−39.)
General
Phraseology
‘‘Niner five knots.’’
‘‘One eight five knots.’’
‘‘Two five zero knots.’’
12−1−14. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION
Identify facilities as follows:
a. Airport traffic control towers. State the name of
the facility followed by the word “tower.” Where
military and civil airports are located in the same
general area and have similar names, state the name
of the military service followed by the name of the
military facility and the word “tower.”
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Barksdale Tower.’’
‘‘Columbus Tower.’’
‘‘Navy Jacksonville Tower.’’
b. Function within a terminal facility. State the
name of the facility followed by the name of the
function.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Boston Departure.’’
‘‘LaGuardia Clearance Delivery.’’
‘‘O’Hare Ground.’’
c. Approach control facilities, including
TRACONs, RAPCONs, RATCFs, and ARACs.
State the name of the facility followed by the word
approach. Where military and civil facilities are
located in the same general area and have similar
12−1−11
JO 7110.10X
names, state the name of the military service followed
by the name of the military facility and the word
“approach”.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Denver Approach.’’
‘‘Griffiss Approach.’’
‘‘Navy Jacksonville Approach.’’
d. Air route traffic control centers. State the name
of the facility followed by the word “center.”
e. When calling or replying on an interphone line
which connects only two facilities, you may omit the
facility’s name.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Flight Data.’’
‘‘Inflight, clearance request.’’
f. Flight service stations.
1. Inflight position. State the name of the FSS
followed by the word “radio,” and position if
appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Fairbanks Radio.’’
‘‘Miami Radio, Inflight.’’
2. Flight Watch position. State the name of the
associated ARTCC followed by the words “FLIGHT
WATCH.”
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Indianapolis Flight Watch.’’
3. When calling or replying on interphone lines
connecting more than one facility, state the name of
the FSS followed by the word “radio.”
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Cleveland Radio.’’
4. When answering public access telephone
lines, state the geographical name of the FSS and the
words “Flight Service.” Contract facilities must
answer public access lines by stating the name of the
service provider and type.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Juneau Flight Service.’’
‘‘(Service Provider Name) Flight Service.’’
g. Radar facilities having ASR or PAR but not
providing approach control service. State the name of
the facility followed by the letters “G-C-A.”
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Chanute G−C−A.’’
‘‘Corpus Christi G−C−A.’’
‘‘Davison G−C−A.’’
12−1−12
4/3/14
12−1−15. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
a. Civil. State the aircraft type, the model, the
manufacturer’s name, or the prefix “November,”
followed by the numbers/letters of the aircraft
registration.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.’’
‘‘Douglas Three Zero Five Romeo.’’
‘‘Jet Commander One Four Two Four.’’
‘‘November One Two Three Four Golf.’’
NOTE−
The prefix November denotes a U.S. aircraft registry.
1. Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA
authorized call signs. State the call sign, in
accordance with FAAO JO 7340.2, Contractions,
followed by the flight number in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“American Five Twenty-One.”
“United One Zero One.”
“General Motors Thirty-Fifteen.”
“Delta One Hundred.”
2. If aircraft identification becomes a problem,
the call sign must be restated after the flight number
of the aircraft involved.
EXAMPLE−
‘‘American Five Twenty−One American.’’
‘‘Commuter Six Eleven Commuter.’’
‘‘General Motors Thirty−Seven General Motors.’’
REFERENCE−
FAAO JO 7210.3, Para 2-1-13, Aircraft Identification Problems
3. Air taxi and commercial operators not having
FAA-authorized call signs. State the prefix
“TANGO” on initial contact, if used by the pilot,
followed by the registration number. The prefix may
be dropped in subsequent communications.
EXAMPLE−
On initial contact.
‘‘Tango Mooney Five Five Five Two Quebec.’’
or
‘‘Tango November Five Five Five Two Quebec.’’
On subsequent contacts.
‘‘Mooney Five Two Quebec.’’
or
‘‘November Five Two Quebec.’’
b. MEDEVAC aircraft.
1. Air carrier/taxi/ambulance. State the prefix
“MEDEVAC” if used by the pilot, followed by the
call sign and flight number in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“MEDEVAC Delta Fifty-One.”
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
NOTE−
Use of “MEDEVAC” call sign indicates that operational
priority is requested.
EXAMPLE−
“Logair Seven Five Eight Two Six.”
2. Civilian airborne ambulance. State the word
“MEDEVAC,” followed by the numbers/letters of
the registration number.
(a) U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard,
Military District of Washington priority aircraft, and
USAF civil disturbance aircraft. Pronounceable
words of 3 to 6 letters followed by a 1 to 4 digit
number.
EXAMPLE−
“MEDEVAC Two Six Four Six X-Ray.”
c. U.S. Military. State one of the following:
1. The service name followed by the word
“copter,” when appropriate, and the last 5 digits of the
serial number.
EXAMPLE−
EXAMPLE“Guard Two Six Three.”
“Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six.”
“Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven.”
“Navy Five Six Seven One Three.”
2. If aircraft identification becomes a problem
when the above procedures are used, the call sign
must be restated after the flight number of the aircraft
involved in accordance with FAA Order JO 7210.3,
Para. 2-1-13, Aircraft Identification Problems, will
apply.
EXAMPLE−
“Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six Army Copter.”
“Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven Coast Guard.”
3. Special military operations. State one of the
following followed the last 5 digits of the serial
number:
(a) Air evacuation flights. “AIR EVAC,”
“MARINE AIR EVAC,” or “NAVY AIR EVAC.”
EXAMPLE−
‘‘AIR EVAC One Seven Six Five Two.’’
(b) Rescue
“RESCUE.”
flights.
(Service
name)
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Rescue Six One Five Seven Niner.”
(c) Air Mobility Command. “REACH.”
EXAMPLE−
“Reach Seven Eight Five Six Two.”
(d) Special Air Mission. “SAM.”
EXAMPLE−
“Sam Niner One Five Six Two.”
(e) USAF Contract Aircraft. “LOGAIR.”
General
4. Military tactical and training.
EXAMPLE−
“Paul Two Zero.”
“Pat One Five Seven.”
“Graydog Four.”
NOTE−
Then the “Z” suffix described in para 6-5-3, USAF/USN
Undergraduate Pilots, is added to identify aircraft piloted
by USAF/USN undergraduate pilots, the call sign will be
limited to a combination of six characters. Do not use this
suffix, however, in ground-to-air communication.
(b) Navy or Marine fleet and training
command aircraft. The service name and 2 letters or
a digit and a letter (use letter phonetic equivalents)
followed by 2 or 3 digits.
EXAMPLE−
“Marine Four Charlie Two Three Six.”
“Navy Golf Alpha Two One.”
(c) NORAD interceptors. An assigned
double-letter two-digit flight number.
EXAMPLE−
“Alpha Kilo One Five.”
(d) Navy Fleet Support Missions. When
handling Navy Fleet Support Mission aircraft, use the
words “Special Flight Number,” followed by the
number as given by the pilot.
d. Foreign registry. State one of the following:
1. Civil. State the aircraft type or the
manufacturer ’s name followed by the
letters/numbers of the aircraft registration, or state the
letters or digits of the aircraft registration or call sign.
EXAMPLE−
“Stationair F-L-R-B.”
“C-F-L-R-B.”
“Canadian Foxtrot Lima Romeo Bravo.”
NOTE−
Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically.
2. Air carrier. The abbreviated name of the
operating company followed by:
(a) The letters or digits of the registration or
call sign.
12−1−13
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
“Air France F-L-R-L-G.”
NOTE−
Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically in
accordance with the format used by the pilot.
(b) The flight number in group form, or
separate digits may be used if that is the format used
by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“Scandinavian Six Eight.”
“Scandinavian Sixty-eight.”
3. Foreign Military.
(a) Except for military services identified in
FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, state the name
of the country and the military service followed by
the separate digits or letters of the registration or call
sign.
EXAMPLE−
“Brazilian Air Force Five Three Two Seven Six.”
“Canforce Five Six Two Seven.”
e. Presidential aircraft and Presidential family
aircraft.
1. When the President is aboard a military
aircraft, state the name of the military service
followed by the word “One.”
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force One.”
“Army One.”
“Marine One.”
2. When the President is aboard a civil aircraft,
state the words “Executive One.”
3. When a member of the President’s family is
aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the
White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the
words “Executive One Foxtrot.”
f. Vice Presidential aircraft.
1. When the Vice President is aboard a military
aircraft, state the name of the military service
followed by the word ”Two.”
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Two.”
“Army Two.”
“Marine Two.”
2. When the Vice President is aboard a civil
aircraft, state the words “Executive Two.”
12−1−14
4/3/14
3. When a member of the Vice President’s
family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret
Service or the White House Staff determines it is
necessary, state the words “Executive Two Foxtrot.”
g. DOT and FAA flights. The following alphanu­
meric identifiers and radio/ interphone call signs are
for use in air/ground communications when the
Secretary of Transportation, Deputy Secretary of
Transportation, FAA Administrator, or FAA Deputy
Administrator have a requirement to identify
themselves:
1. Department of Transportation.
(a) Secretary:
(1) Identifier - DOT-1.
(2) Call Sign - Transport-1.
(b) Deputy Secretary:
(1) Identifier - DOT-2.
(2) Call Sign - Transport-2
2. Federal Aviation Administration.
(a) Administrator:
(1) Identifier - FAA-1.
(2) Call Sign - Safe Air-1.
(b) Deputy Administrator:
(1) Identifier - FAA-2
(2) Call Sign - Safe Air-2.
PHRASEOLOGY−
Grand Forks Radio, Transport Two, (message).
Miami Radio, Safe Air One, (message).
h. Other special flights.
1. Department of Energy flights. State the
letters “R-A-C” (use phonetic alphabet equivalents),
followed by the last 4 separate digits of the aircraft
registration number.
EXAMPLE−
“Romeo Alfa Charlie One Six Five Three.”
2. Semiautomatic Flight Inspections. State the
code name “SAFI,” followed by the separate digits of
the grid number as filed.
EXAMPLE−
“SAFI Five Two Seven.”
3. Flight Inspection of navigational aids. State
the call sign “Flight Check,” followed by the digits of
the registration number.
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
EXAMPLE−
“Flight check Three Niner Six Five Four.”
2. Manufacturer’s name, or add color when
considered advantageous.
4. USAF aircraft engaged in aerial sampling
missions. State the call sign “SAMP,” followed by
the last three digits of the serial number.
EXAMPLE−
“Airliner.’’
“Blue and White King Air.”
“Cessna Four-Oh-One.”
“Cessna Three Ten.”
“Green Apache.”
“P-A Twenty-Two.”
“Tri-Pacer.”
EXAMPLE−
“SAMP Three One Six.”
5. United States governmental Departments or
Agencies, with a demonstrated and approved need,
have been granted special domestic/ICAO
telephonies (call signs). These items are contained in
FAA Order JO 7110.67, Special Aircraft Operations
by Federal, State Law Enforcement, Military
Organizations, and Special Activities.
i. Use a pilot’s name in identification of an aircraft
only in special or emergency situations.
12−1−16. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT
TYPES
Except for heavy aircraft, describe aircraft as follows:
a. Military.
2. Service and type; or
no
confusion
or
EXAMPLE−
“Air Force Bomber.”
“B-One.”
“Bomber.”
“F-Fifteen.”
“Fighter.”
“Navy Fighter.”
b. Air Carrier.
1. Manufacturer’s name or model.
2. Add the manufacturer’s name, company
name or other identifying features when confusion or
misunderstanding is likely.
EXAMPLE−
“American M-D Eighty Seven-Thirty-Seven.”
“Boeing Seven-Fifty-Seven.”
“L-Ten-Eleven.”
c. General Aviation and Air Taxi.
1. Manufacturer’s model, name, or designator.
General
When communicating this information (aircraft
equipment suffixes) state the aircraft type, the word
“slant,” and the appropriate phonetic letter equivalent
of the suffix.
EXAMPLE−
“Boeing Seven-Oh-Seven slant Romeo.”
“D-C Six slant Tango.”
“F-Eight-E slant Papa.”
“F-Four-C slant November.”
12−1−18. AIRWAYS AND ROUTES
Describe airways, routes, or jet routes as follows:
1. Military designator with number spoken in
group form; or
3. Type only if
misidentification is likely.
12−1−17. AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT CODES
a. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN airways or jet routes.
State the word “Victor” or the letter “J,” followed by
the number of the airway or route in group form. For
RNAV routes, add the word “Romeo.”
EXAMPLE−
“J Eight Thirty Romeo.”
“J Five Thirty-Three.”
“Offset one zero miles right of J Eight Thirty Romeo.”
“Victor Seven Ten Romeo.”
“Victor Twelve.”
b. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN alternate airways.
State the word “Victor,” followed by the number of
the airway in group form and the alternate direction.
EXAMPLE−
“Victor Twelve South.”
c. Colored/L/MF airways. State the color of the
airway followed by the number in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“Blue Eighty-One.”
d. Named Routes. State the words “North
American Route” or “Bahama Route,” followed by
the number of the route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“North American Route Fifty.”
“Bahama Route Fifty-Five Victor.”
12−1−15
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
e. Military Training Routes ( MTRs). State the
letters “I-R” or “V-R,” followed by the number of the
route in group form.
EXAMPLE−
“I-R Five Thirty-One.”
“V-R Fifty-two.”
EXAMPLE−
“Cleared to fly northeast quadrant of Philipsburg
VORTAC within four zero mile radius.”
REFERENCE−
P/CG Term, QUADRANT.
12−1−19. NAVAID TERMS
a. Announce
TBL 12-1-42:
NAVAIDs
3. Quadrant within a radius of NAVAID. State
direction from NAVAID in terms of the quadrant; e.g.
NE, SE, SW, NW, followed by the distance in miles
from the NAVAID.
as
follows
in
TBL 12−1−42
NAVAID Terms
4. Nondirectional beacons. State the course to
or the bearing from the radio beacon, omitting the
word “degree,” followed by the words “course to” or
“bearing from,” the name of the radio beacon, and the
words “radio beacon”.
EXAMPLE−
“Three four zero bearing from Randolph Radio Beacon.”
Contraction
Phraseology
DME
D-M-E
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System
12−1−20. NAVAID FIXES
GPS
Global Positioning System
ILS
I-L-S
LOM
Outer compass locator
MLS
M-L-S
Describe fixes determined by reference to a
radial/localizer/azimuth and distance from a
VOR-DME/VORTAC/TACAN/ILS-DME or MLS
as follows:
NDB
Nondirectional radio beacon
RNAV
Area Navigation System
TACAN
TACK-AN
VOR
V-O-R
VORTAC
VOR- (as in “vortex”) TACK
WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System
b. Describe radials, arcs, courses, bearings, and
quadrants of NAVAIDs as follows:
1. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN/MLS NAVAIDs.
State the name of the NAVAID followed by the
separate digits of the radial/azimuth (omitting the
word degrees) and the word “radial/azimuth.”
EXAMPLE−
“Appleton Zero Five Zero Radial.”
“Lindburg Runway Two Seven MLS two six zero azimuth.”
2. Arcs about VOR-DME/VORTAC/TACAN/
MLS NAVAIDs. State the distance in miles from the
NAVAID followed by the words ‘‘mile arc,’’ the
direction from the NAVAID in terms of the eight
principal points of the compass, the word “of,” and
the name of the NAVAID.
EXAMPLE−
“Two zero mile arc southwest of O’Hare Runway Two
Seven Left M-L-S.”
12−1−16
a. When a fix is not named, state the name of the
NAVAID,
followed
by
a
specified
radial/localizer/azimuth, and state the distance in
miles followed by the phrase “mile fix.”
EXAMPLE−
“Appleton zero five zero radial three seven mile fix.”
“Reno localizer back course four mile fix.”
“Hobby Runway One Two M-L-S zero niner zero azimuth
one two mile fix.”
b. When a fix is charted on a SID, STAR, en route
chart, or approach plate, state the name of the fix
followed by the phrase “D-M-E fix” or “waypoint,”
as appropriate.
EXAMPLE−
“Shaum D-M-E Fix.”
“Shaum Waypoint.”
c. Use specific terms to describe a fix. Do not use
expressions such as “passing Victor Twelve” or
“passing J Eleven.”
12−1−21. RUNWAY CONDITIONS
a. State factual information as reported by airport
management concerning the condition of the runway
surface and describing the accumulation of
precipitation. Furnish quality of braking action as
received from pilots or airport management to all
aircraft as follows:
General
4/3/14
1. Describe the quality of braking action using
the terms good, fair, poor, or nil. If the pilot or airport
management reports braking action in other than the
foregoing terms, ask them to categorize braking
action in these terms.
2. Include the type of aircraft or vehicle (if
known) from which the report is received.
EXAMPLE−
“All runways covered by packed snow six inches deep.”
“Braking action poor reported by an F Twenty-Seven.”
3. If the braking action report affects only a
portion of a runway, obtain enough information from
the pilot or airport management to describe braking
action in terms easily understood by the pilot.
EXAMPLE−
“Braking action poor first half of runway, reported by a
Gulfstream Two.”
“Braking action poor beyond the intersection of Runway
Two Seven, reported by a Boeing Seven Twenty-Seven.”
NOTE−
Descriptive terms, such as first/last half of the runway,
should normally be used rather than landmark
descriptions; for example, opposite the fire station, south
of a taxiway.
General
JO 7110.10X
b. State runway friction measurement readings/
values as received from airport management to
aircraft as follows:
1. At airports with friction measuring devices,
provide runway friction reports, as received from
airport management, to pilots on request. State the
runway number followed by the MU number for each
of the three runway zones, the time of the report in
UTC, and a word describing the cause of the runway
friction problem.
EXAMPLE−
“Runway Two Seven, MU forty-two, forty-one,
twenty-eight at one zero one eight ZULU, ice.”
2. Issue the runway surface condition and/or the
runway condition reading (RCR), if provided, to all
USAF and ANG aircraft. Issue the RCR to other
aircraft upon request.
EXAMPLE−
“Ice on runway, R-C-R Zero Five, patchy.”
NOTE−
USAF has established RCR procedures for determining
the average deceleration readings of runways under
conditions of water, slush, ice, or snow. The use of RCR
code is dependent upon a pilot’s having a “stopping
capability chart” specifically applicable to his/her
aircraft. USAF offices furnish RCR information at
airports serving USAF and ANG aircraft.
12−1−17
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Chapter 13. Data Communication Systems
Section 1. General
13−1−1. TYPES OF DATA ACCEPTABLE
ON FAA DATA COMMUNICATIONS
SYSTEMS
a. Distress messages.
FF on
local
agree­
ments
Flight movement
and control data re­
lating safe/efficient
operation of aircraft. Also for administrative data of
a directive nature.
GG
Meteorological,
NOTAM and
routine administrat­
ive data.
b. Messages concerning safety to human life.
c. Flight movement/control/safety messages.
d. Aviation meteorological observations/
forecasts/warnings.
e. Administrative messages which pertain to FAA
personnel, facilities, or property.
Transmit immedi­
ately, make internal/external delivery
during next available administrative
work day if office is
closed. Delivery
may be required to
duty officer, de­
pendent.
Transmit immediately, make internal/external delivery
by 10:30AM of the
next business day.
f. NOTAM data.
13−1−3. GROUP CODES
13−1−2. PRIORITY MESSAGES
TBL 13−1−1
Priority Messages
Priority Message Types
SS
Involves safety of
life or property. Re­
stricted to emergency situations.
DD
General
Priority operational
and circuit control
data.
Action Required
Transmit immedi­
ately to all address­
ees and deliver to
all internal/external
offices you are re­
sponsible for.
Same as above.
a. NADIN has established group codes to allow
message originators to input a single address, which
will result in dissemination to a selected number of
facilities.
b. System-wide group codes have been estab­
lished for the primary use of RWA/KRWAYAYX and
the ATCSCC (KCFCZDZX). These codes are
KDOMYFYX and KDOMYYYX respectively.
c. A group code has also been established for each
regional office and ARTCC primarily for the issuance
of regional office notices (RENOT) and all ARTCC
instructions. They are as follows for Regional Offices
in TBL 13−1−2 and ARTCCs in TBL 13−1−3.
13−1−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
TBL 13−1−2
Region Group Code
TBL 13−1−3
ARTCC Group Code
NOTE−
Except in Alaska, All of the group codes can be converted
to a full eight-character address by placing a K in front of
and YFYX following the three characters listed in TBL
13−1−2and TBL 13−1−3.
d. In addition, the following six group codes were
established that include multiple states:
1. KFSSYFCE (CENTRAL AREA):
AR-IN-IL-KY-MO-TN
2. KFSSYFEA (EAST COAST AREA):
MD-NC-NJ-VA-WV
3. KFSSYFNE (NORTHEAST AREA):
CT-ME-VT
e. Using a group code, the operational system
automatically transmits all VFR flight plans to the
Drug Enforcement Administration in addition to the
destination at the time of activation.
NOTE−
All filed flight plans, as well as all logged inflight,
preflight, flight watch and contact briefings, are
transmitted to the Air and Marine Operations Center
(AMOC) using the address KRIVYYYX. These transmissions are transparent.
f. The group code KSARYCYX has been
established to assist in the processing of INREQs and
ALNOTs.
13−1−4. MESSAGE FORMATS
5. KFSSYFSE (SOUTHEAST AREA):
AL-FL-GA
a. Specialists should follow the transmit formats
defined for the operational system in use. Failure to
comply can result in the message being rejected by
either NADIN or WMSCR. This may result in
non-delivery to the intended recipients.
6. KFSSYFWC (WEST COAST AREA):
AZ-CA-NV-OR
b. Full keyboard punctuation is allowed on all
messages destined for internal FAA, DOD, and NWS
4. KFSSYFNP (NORTHERN
AREA): ID-MT-ND-NE-SD-WY
13−1−2
PLAINS
General
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
dissemination. For international dissemination,
punctuation should be limited to those characters
identified in pertinent ICAO documents.
c. Contractions and abbreviations should be used
to shorten data transmissions to the extent possible.
In no case should one be used that is not documented
in FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions. For
international communications, be aware that the
foreign correspondent may not understand all FAA
contractions and may not have a full command of the
English language. Care should be exercised in
international communications to avoid slang phrases
and non-ICAO approved abbreviations.
d. The operational system can obtain weather or
aeronautical information, including WMO
collectives, by request/reply for data not stored in the
system. Specific examples can be found in each
operational system user guide.
13−1−5. WMSCR NEGATIVE RESPONSE
MESSAGES
a. WMSCR automatically generates a negative
response to request/reply inputs for which it cannot
deliver.
1. NO REPORT AVBL. This response means
the current data has not been received by WMSCR.
2. NOT IN SYSTEM. This response means
WMSCR does not receive and store the requested
data.
3. INVALID FORMAT. This response means
the computer cannot process the request because of an
input error.
b. WMSCR will generate only one negative
response message to a request/reply transmission that
requests multiple reports and only when none of the
data requested can be delivered.
13−1−6. Q SIGNALS
TBL 13−1−4
Q Signals
General
13−1−3
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Appendix A. ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
1. ICAO Model Flight Plan Form.
2. Instructions for the Completion of the Flight Plan Form.
3. Instructions for the Transmission of a Filed Flight Plan (FPL) Message.
4. Instructions for the Transmission of a Supplementary Flight Plan (SPL) Message.
5. Example of Completed Flight Plan Form.
6. ICAO Model Flight Plan, Reverse Side.
7. ICAO Model Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL) Listing Form.
8. Example of a Completed Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL) Listing Form.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
1. ICAO Model Flight Plan Form
International Flight Plan
Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
ADDRESSEE(S)
PRIORITY
FF
FILING TIME
ORIGINATOR
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF ADDRESSEE(S) AND/ OR ORIGINATOR
7. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
3 MESSAGE
8 FLIGHT RULES
TYPE OF FLIGHT
FPL
TYPE OF AIRCRAFT
9. NUMBER
WAKE TURBULENCE CAT.
10 EQUIPMENT
/
TIME
13 DEPARTURE AEODROME
LEVEL
15 CRUISING SPEED
ROUTE
TOTAL EET
HR. MIN.
16. DESTINATION AERODROME
ALTN AERODROME
2ND, ALTN AERODROME
18 OTHER INFORMATION
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION (NOT TO BE TRANSMITTED IN FPL MESSAGES)
RENSE
19
EMERGENCY RADIO
ENDURANCE
HR. MIN.
PERSONS ON BOARD
E/
P/
UHF
VHF
ELBA
R/ U
V
E
FLOURES
UHF
VHF
F
U
V
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
S /
POLAR
DESERT
MARITIME
JUNGLE
P
D
M
J
LIGHT
J
/ L
DINGHIES
NUMBER
CAPACITY
D /
COLOUR
COVER
C
AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS
A/
REMARKS
N /
C /
FILED BY
Appendix A−2
PILOT-IN-COMMAND
ACCEPTED B
BY
Y
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
2. Instructions for the Completion of the Flight Plan Form
2.1 General
Follow the prescribed formats and manner of specifying data.
Start entering data in the first space provided. Leave unused spaces blank.
ENTER all clock times in 4 figures UTC.
ENTER all estimated elapsed times in 4 figures (hours and minutes).
Shaded area preceding Item 3 - to be completed by ATS and COM services, unless the responsibility for originating flight
plan messages has been delegated.
NOTEThe term “aerodrome,” where used in the flight plan, also covers sites other than aerodromes which may be used by
certain types of aircraft; for example, helicopters or balloons.
2.2 Instructions for entering ATS data
Complete Items 7 to 18 as indicated below.
Complete also Item 19 as indicated below, when required by the appropriate ATS authority or when otherwise deemed
necessary.
NOTE1. Item numbers on the form are not consecutive, as they correspond to Field Type numbers in ATS messages.
2. ATS data systems may impose communications or processing constraints on information in filed flight plans. Possible
constraints may, for example, be limits regarding item length, number of elements in the route item, or total flight plan
length. Significant constraints are documented in the relevant Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP).
ITEM 7: AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION (MAXIMUM 7 CHARACTERS)
ENTER one of the following aircraft identifications, not exceeding 7 alphanumeric characters and without hyphens or
symbols:
(a)
The ICAO designator for the aircraft operating agency, followed by the flight identification (for example,
KLM511, NGA213, JTR25). When in radiotelephony the call sign to be used by the aircraft will consist of
the ICAO telephony designator for the operating agency followed by the flight identification (for example,
KLM511, NIGERIA213, JESTER25);
(b)
The nationality or common mark and registration marking of the aircraft (for example, EIAKO, 4XBCD,
N2567GA), when:
(1) In radiotelephony, the call sign to be used by the aircraft will consist of this identification alone (for
example, CGAJS) or preceded by the ICAO telephony designator for the aircraft operating agency
(for example, BLIZZARD CGAJS); or
(2) The aircraft is not equipped with radio.
NOTE
1. Standards for nationality, common and registration marks to be used are contained in Annex 7, Chapter 2.
2. Provisions for using radiotelephony call signs are contained in Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 5. ICAO designators and
telephony designators for aircraft operating agencies are contained in Doc 8585 — Designators for Aircraft Operating
Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−3
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
ITEM 8: FLIGHT RULES AND TYPE OF FLIGHT (1 OR 2 CHARACTERS)
Flight Rules
ENTER one of the following letters to denote the category of flight rules with which the pilot intends to comply:
I
if it is intended that the entire flight will be operated under IFR.
V
if it is intended that the entire flight will be operated under VFR.
Y
if the flight initially will be operated under IFR, followed by one or more changes of flight rules.
Z
if the flight initially will be operated under VFR, followed by one or more changes of flight rules.
NOTEU.S. domestic automation systems cannot accept a flight plan that begins under VFR and subsequently changes to one
or more flight rules (that is, “Z”). For this purpose, file separate flight plans for the portions of the route that the pilot
intends to conduct under IFR.
Specify in Item 15 the point or points where change of flight rules is planned.
Type of flight
ENTER one of the following letters to denote the type of flight when required by the appropriate ATS authority:
S
if scheduled air service
N
if non-scheduled air transport operation
G
if general aviation
M
if military
X
if other than any of the defined categories above.
Specify flight status following the indicator “STS” in Item 18, or when necessary to denote other reasons for specific
handling by ATS, indicate the reason following the indicator “RMK” in Item 18.
ITEM 9: NUMBER AND TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AND WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORY
Number of aircraft (1 or 2 characters)
ENTER the number of aircraft, if more than one.
Type of aircraft (2 to 4 characters)
ENTER the appropriate designator as specified in ICAO Doc 8643, Aircraft Type Designators,
OR
if no such designator has been assigned, or in case of formation flights comprising more than one type,
ENTER ZZZZ, and SPECIFY in Item 18, the (numbers and) type(s) of aircraft preceded by TYP/.
Wake turbulence category (1 character)
ENTER an oblique stroke followed by one of the following letters to indicate the wake turbulence category of
the aircraft:
H-
HEAVY, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 136 000 kg
or more;
M - MEDIUM, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of less than
136,000 kg but more than 7,000 kg;
L-
LIGHT, to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 7,000 kg or less.
Appendix A−4
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
ITEM 10: EQUIPMENT AND CAPABILITIES
Capabilities comprise the following elements:
(a)
Presence of relevant serviceable equipment on board the aircraft;
(b)
Equipment and capabilities commensurate with flight crew qualifications; and
(c)
Where applicable, authorization from the appropriate authority.
Radio communication, navigation and approach aid equipment and capabilities
one letter as follows:
ENTER
N
if no COM/NAV/approach aid equipment for the route to be flown is carried, or the equipment is
unserviceable,
S
if standard COM/NAV/approach aid equipment for the route to be flown is carried and serviceable
(see Note 1),
OR
AND/OR
ENTER
one or more of the following letters to indicate the serviceable COM/NAV/ approach aid equipment and
capabilities available:
A GBAS landing system
J6
CPDLC FANS 1/A SATCOM (MTSAT)
B LPV (APV with SBAS)
J7
CPDLC FANS 1/A SATCOM (Iridium)
C LORAN C
K
MLS
D DME
L
ILS
E1 FMC WPR ACARS
M1
ATC RTF SATCOM (INMARSAT)
E2 D­FIS ACARS
M2
ATC RTF (MTSAT)
E3 PDC ACARS
M3
ATC RTF (Iridium)
F ADF
O
VOR P1–P9
Reserved for RCP
G GNSS (See Note 2)
R
PBN approved (See Note 4)
H HF RTF
T
TACAN
I
Intertial Navigation
U
UHF RTF
J1 CPDLC ATN VDL Mode 2 (See Note 3)
V
VHF RTF
J2 CPDLC FANS 1/A HFDL
W
RVSM approved
J3 CPDLC FANS 1/A VDL Mode A
X
MNPS approved
J4 CPDLC FANS 1/A VDL Mode 2
Y
VHF with 8.33 kHz channel spacing capability
J5 CPDLC FANS 1/A SATCOM(INMARSAT)
Z
Other equipment carried or other capabilities
(See Note 5)
Any alphanumeric characters not indicated above are reserved.
NOTE1. If the letter S is used, standard equipment is considered to be VHF RTF, VOR, and ILS, unless another combination is
prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
2. If the letter G is used, the types of external GNSS augmentation, if any, are specified in Item 18 following the indicator
NAV/ and separated by a space.
3. See RTCA/EUROCAE Interoperability Requirements Standard For ATN Baseline 1 (ATN B1 INTEROP Standard –
DO-280B/ED-110B) for data link services air traffic control clearance and information/air traffic control
communications management/air traffic control microphone check.
4. If the letter R is used, the performance based navigation levels that can be met are specified in Item 18 following the
indicator PBN/. Guidance material on the application of performance based navigation to a specific route segment, route
or area is contained in the Performance-Based Navigation Manual (Doc 9613).
5. If the letter Z is used, specify in Item 18 the other equipment carried or other capabilities, preceded by COM/, NAV/
and/or DAT/, as appropriate.
6. Information on navigation capability is provided to ATC for clearance and routing purposes.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−5
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Surveillance equipment and capabilities
ENTER N if no surveillance equipment for the route to be flown is carried, or the equipment is unserviceable,
OR
ENTER one or more of the following descriptors, up to a maximum of 20 characters, to describe the serviceable
surveillance equipment and/or capabilities on board. Enter no more than one transponder code (Modes A, C, or S)
SSR Modes A and C:
A Transponder - Mode A (4 digits - 4096 codes)
C Transponder - Mode A (4 digits - 4096 codes) and Mode C
SSR Mode S:
E Transponder - Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude and extended squitter
(ADS-B) capability
H Transponder - Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude and enhanced
surveillance capability
I Transponder - Mode S, including aircraft identification, but no pressure-altitude capability
L Transponder - Mode S, including aircraft identification, pressure-altitude, extended squitter
(ADS−B) and enhanced surveillance capability
P Transponder — Mode S, including pressure-altitude, but no aircraft identification capability
S Transponder - Mode S, including both pressure-altitude and aircraft identification capability
X Transponder - Mode S with neither aircraft identification nor pressure-altitude capability
NOTEEnhanced surveillance capability is the ability of the aircraft to down-link aircraft derived data via a Mode S transponder.
ADS-B:
B1
ADS-B with dedicated 1090 MHz ADS-B “out” capability
B2
ADB-B with dedicated 1090 MHz ADS-B “out” and “in” capability
U1
ADS-B “out” capability using UAT
U2
ADS-B “out” and “in” capability using UAT
V1
ADS-B “out” capability using VDL Mode 4
V2
ADS-B “out” and “in” capability using VDL Mode 4
NOTE−
File no more than one code for each type of capability, e.g. file B1 or B2 and not both
ADS-C:
D1
ADS-C with FANS 1/A capabilities
G1
ADS-C with ATN capabilities
Alphanumeric characters not indicated above are reserved.
EXAMPLEADE3RV/HB2U2V2G1
NOTE
Additional surveillance application should be listed in Item 18 following the indicator SUR/.
Appendix A−6
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
ITEM 13: DEPARTURE AERODROME AND TIME (8 CHARACTERS)
ENTER the ICAO four-letter location indicator of the departure aerodrome as specified in Doc 7910, Location Indicators,
OR
if no location indicator has been assigned,
ENTER ZZZZ and SPECIFY, in Item 18, the name and location of the aerodrome preceded by DEP/,
OR
the first point of the route or the marker radio beacon preceded by DEP/…, if the aircraft has not taken off from the aerodrome,
OR
if the flight plan is received from an aircraft in flight,
ENTER AFIL, and SPECIFY, in Item 18, the ICAO four-letter location indicator of the location of the ATS unit from which supplementary flight plan data can be obtained, preceded by DEP/.
THEN, WITHOUT A SPACE,
ENTER for a flight plan submitted before departure, the estimated off-block time (EOBT),
OR
for a flight plan received from an aircraft in flight, the actual or estimated time over the first point of the route to which the flight plan applies.
ITEM 15: ROUTE
ENTER the first cruising speed as in (a) and the first cruising level as in (b), without a space between them.
THEN
following the arrow, ENTER the route description as in (c).
(a)
Cruising speed (maximum 5 characters)
ENTER the True Air Speed for the first or the whole cruising portion of the flight, in terms of:
Kilometers per hour, expressed as K followed by 4 figures (for example, K0830), or
Knots, expressed as N followed by 4 figures (for example, N0485), or
True Mach number, when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, to the nearest hundredth of
unit Mach, expressed as M followed by 3 figures (for example, M082).
(b)
Cruising level (maximum 5 characters)
ENTER the planned cruising level for the first or the whole portion of the route to be flown, in terms of:
Flight level, expressed as F followed by 3 figures (for example, F085; F330), or
*Standard Metric Level in tens of meters, expressed as S followed by 4 figures (for example, S1130), or
Altitude in hundreds of feet, expressed as A followed by 3 figures (for example, A045; A100), or
Altitude in tens of meters, expressed as M followed by 4 figures (for example, M0840), or
for uncontrolled VFR flights, the letters VFR.
*When so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities.
(c)
Route (including changes of speed, level and/or flight rules)
Flights along designated ATS routes
ENTER if the departure aerodrome is located on or connected to the ATS route, the designator of the first ATS route,
OR
if the departure aerodrome is not located on or connected to the ATS route, the letters DCT followed by the point of joining the first ATS route, followed by the designator of the ATS route.
THEN
ENTER each point at which either a change of speed and/or level is planned to start, or a change of ATS route, and/or a change of flight rules is planned,
NOTEWhen a transition is planned between a lower and upper ATS route and the routes are oriented in the same direction, the
point of transition does not need to be entered.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−7
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
FOLLOWED IN EACH CASE
by the designator of the next ATS route segment, even if the same as the previous one,
OR by DCT, if the flight to the next point will be outside a designated route, unless both points are defined
by geographical coordinates.
Flights outside designated ATS routes
ENTER points normally not more than 30 minutes flying time or 370 km (200 NM) apart, including each point
at which a change of speed or level, a change of track, or a change of flight rules is planned,
OR
when required by appropriate ATS authority(ies),
DEFINE the track of flights operating predominantly in an east-west direction between 70�N and 70�S by reference
to significant points formed by the intersections of half or whole degrees of latitude with meridians spaced at intervals
of 10 degrees of longitude. For flights operating in areas outside those latitudes the tracks must be defined by significant
points formed by the intersection of parallels of latitude with meridians normally spaced at 20 degrees of longitude. The
distance between significant points must, as far as possible, not exceed one hour’s flight time. Additional significant points
must be established as deemed necessary.
For flights operating predominantly in a north-south direction, define tracks by reference to significant points
formed by the intersection of whole degrees of longitude with specified parallels of latitude which are spaced at 5 degrees.
ENTER DCT between successive points unless both points are defined by geographical coordinates or by bearing and
distance.
USE
ONLY the conventions in (1) to (5) below and SEPARATE each sub-item by a space.
(1)
ATS route (2 to 7 characters)
The coded designator assigned to the route or route segment including, where appropriate, the coded
designator assigned to the standard departure or arrival route (for example, V218, J3, Q108, T111, BCN1, ANC4, AR3,
Bl, R14, UB10, UJ5, UQ104, KODAP2A, RIIVR2).
NOTEProvisions for the application of route designators are contained in Annex 11, Appendix 1.
(2)
Significant point (2 to 11 characters)
The coded designator (2 to 5 characters) assigned to the point (for example, LN, MAY, HADDY), or, if no
coded designator has been assigned, one of the following ways:
Degrees only (7 characters):
2 figures describing latitude in degrees, followed by “N” (North) or “S” (South), followed by 3 figures
describing longitude in degrees, followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West). Make up the correct number of figures, where
necessary, by insertion of zeros, for example, 46N078W.
Degrees and minutes (11 characters):
4 figures describing latitude in degrees and tens and units of minutes followed by “N” (North) or “S” (South),
followed by 5 figures describing longitude in degrees and tens and units of minutes, followed by “E” (East) or “W” (West).
Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by entering zeros; for example, 4620N07805W.
Bearing and distance from a significant point:
The identification of the significant point, followed by the bearing from the point in the form of 3 figures
giving degrees magnetic, followed by the distance from the point in the form of 3 figures expressing nautical miles. In
areas of high latitude where it is determined by the appropriate authority that reference to degrees magnetic is impractical,
degrees true may be used. Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros; for example,
a point 180�magnetic at a distance of 40 nautical miles from VOR “DUB” should be expressed as DUB180040.
(3)
Change of speed or level (maximum 21 characters)
The point at which a change of speed (5% TAS or 0.01 Mach or more) or a change of level is planned to start,
expressed exactly as in (2) above, followed by an oblique stroke and both the cruising speed and the cruising level,
Appendix A−8
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
expressed exactly as in (a) and (b) above, without a space between them, even when only one of these quantities will be
changed.
EXAMPLESLN/N0284A045
MAY/N0305Fl80
HADDY/N0420F330
4602N07805W/N0500F350
46N078W/M082F330
DUB180040/N0350M0840
(4)
Change of flight rules (maximum 3 characters)
The point at which the change of flight rules is planned, expressed exactly as in (2) or (3) above as appropriate,
followed by a space and one of the following:
VFR if from IFR to VFR
IFR if from VFR to IFR
EXAMPLESLN VFR
LN/N0284A050 IFR
NOTEU.S. domestic automation systems cannot accept flight plans that begin VFR and change to IFR. For this purpose, file
a separate flight plan for the IFR portion of the flight.
(5)
Cruise climb (maximum 28 characters)
NOTEFlight plans containing a cruise climb cannot be accepted by domestic U.S. automation systems.
The letter C followed by an oblique stroke; THEN the point at which cruise climb is planned to start, expressed
exactly as in (2) above, followed by an oblique stroke; THEN
the speed to be maintained during cruise climb, expressed exactly as in (a) above, followed by the two levels
defining the layer to be occupied during cruise climb, each level expressed exactly as in (b) above, or the level above which
cruise climb is planned followed by the letters PLUS, without a space between them.
EXAMPLESC/48N050W/M082F290F350
C/48N050W/M082F290PLUS
C/52N050W/M220F580F620
ITEM 16: DESTINATION AERODROME AND TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME, DESTINATION
ALTERNATE AERODROME(S)
Destination aerodrome and total estimated elapsed time (8 characters)
ENTER the ICAO four-letter location indicator of the destination aerodrome as specified in Doc 7910, Location
Indicators,
OR
if no location indicator has been assigned,
ENTER ZZZZ followed, without a space, by the total estimated elapsed time, and SPECIFY in Item 18 the
name and location of the aerodrome, preceded by DEST/.
THEN, WITHOUT A SPACE,
ENTER the total estimated elapsed time.
NOTEFor a flight plan received from an aircraft in flight, the total estimated elapsed time is the estimated time from the first
point of the route to which the flight plan applies to the termination point of the flight plan.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−9
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Destination alternate aerodrome(s)
ENTER the ICAO four-letter location indicator(s) of not more than two destination alternate aerodromes, as
specified in Doc 7910, Location Indicators, separated by a space,
OR
if no location indicator has been assigned to the destination alternate aerodrome(s),
ENTER ZZZZ and SPECIFY in Item 18 the name and location of the destination alternate aerodrome(s),
preceded by ALTN/.
ITEM 18: OTHER INFORMATION
NOTEUse of indicators not included under this item may result in data being rejected, processed incorrectly or lost.
Hyphens or oblique strokes should only be used as prescribed below.
ENTER 0 (zero) if no other information,
OR
any other necessary information in the sequence shown hereunder, in the form of the appropriate indicator
selected from those defined hereunder followed by an oblique stroke and the information to be recorded:
STS/ Reason for special handling by ATS (for example, a search and rescue mission), as follows:
NOTEAdditional information, if needed to clarify a reason for special handling, must follow RMK/.
ALTRV: for a flight operated in accordance with an altitude reservation
EXAMPLESTS/ALTRV RMK/ALTRV AT CN718 FL250B270
ATFMX:
for a flight approved for exemption from ATFM measures by the appropriate ATS authority;
FFR:
fire-fighting;
FLTCK:
flight check for calibration of NAVAIDs;
EXAMPLESTS/FLTCHK RMK/FLIGHT CHECK ILS RY23 AT YIP
HAZMAT:
for a flight carrying hazardous material;
HEAD:
a flight with Head of State status;
HOSP:
for a medical flight declared by medical authorities;
HUM:
for a flight operating on a humanitarian mission;
MARSA:
for a flight for which a military entity assumes responsibility for separation of military aircraft;
EXAMPLESTS/MARSA RMK/IR101 E1802X1817 MARSA BAKER23 AND TOGA17
MEDEVAC:
for a life critical medical emergency evacuation;
NONRVSM:
for a non-RVSM capable flight intending to operate in RVSM airspace;
SAR:
for a flight engaged in a search and rescue mission; and
STATE:
for a flight engaged in military, customs or police services.
Other reasons for special handling by ATS must be denoted under the designator RMK/.
PBN/
Indication of RNAV and/or RNP capabilities. Include as many of the applicable descriptors, up to
a maximum of 8 entries (not more than 16 characters).
Appendix A−10
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
RNAV SPECIFICATIONS
B4
RNAV 5 VOR/DME
B5
RNAV 5 INS or IRS
A1
RNAV 10 (RNP 10)
B6
RNAV 5 LORAN C
B1
RNAV 5 all permitted sensors
C1
RNAV 2 all permitted sensors
B2
RNAV 5 GNSS
C2
RNAV 2 GNSS
B3
RNAV 5 DME/DME
C3
RNAV 2 DME/DME
C4
RNAV 2 DME/DME/IRU
RNP SPECIFICATIONS
D
RNAV 1 all permitted sensors
L1
RNP 4
O1
Basic RNP 1 all permitted sensors
D2
RNAV 1 GNSS
O2
Basic RNP 1 GNSS
D3
RNAV 1 DME/DME
O3
Basic RNP 1 DME/DME
D4
RNAV 1 DME/DME/IRU
O4
Basic RNP 1 DME/DME/IRU
S1
RNP APCH
S2
RNP APCH with BARO-VNAV
T1
RNP AR APCH with RF
(special authorization required)
T2
RNP AR APCH without RF
(special authorization required)
Combinations of alphanumeric characters not indicated above are reserved.
NAV/ Significant data related to navigation equipment, other than specified in PBN/, as required by the
appropriate ATS authority. Indicate GNSS augmentation under this indicator, with a space between two or more methods
of augmentation, for example, NAV/GBAS SBAS.
NOTESee paragraph 6-2-3 to file NAV/ for flight with Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes in Domestic U.S. airspace.
COM/
Indicate communications applications or capabilities not specified in Item 10(a).
DAT/
Indicate data applications or capabilities not specified in 10(a).
SUR/
Include surveillance applications or capabilities not specified in Item 10(b). If ADS-B capability filed in
Item 10 is compliant with RTCA DO-260B, include the item “260B” in SUR/. If ADS-B capability filed in Item 10 is
compliant with RTCA DO-282B, include the item “282B” in SUR/.
EXAMPLE 1. SUR/260B
2. SUR/260B 282B
DEP/
Insert the non ICAO identifier of departure aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 13, or the ATS unit
from which supplementary flight plan data can be obtained, if AFIL is inserted in Item 13. For aerodromes not listed in
the relevant Aeronautical Information Publication, indicate location as follows:
With 4 figures describing latitude in degrees and tens and units of minutes followed by “N” (North) or “S”
(South), followed by 5 figures describing longitude in degrees and tens and units of minutes, followed by “E” (East) or
“W” (West). Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros, e.g. 4620N07805W
(11 characters).
OR
Bearing and distance from the nearest significant point, as follows:
The identification of the significant point followed by the bearing from the point in the form of 3 figures
giving degrees magnetic, followed by the distance from the point in the form of 3 figures expressing nautical miles. In
areas of high latitude where it is determined by the appropriate authority that reference to degrees magnetic is impractical,
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−11
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
degrees true may be used. Make up the correct number of figures, where necessary, by insertion of zeros, e.g., a point
of 180�magnetic at a distance of 40 nautical miles from VOR “DUB” should be expressed as DUB180040.
OR
The first point of the route (name or LAT/LONG) or the marker radio beacon, if the aircraft has not
taken off from an aerodrome.
DEST/
Insert the non ICAO identifier of destination aerodrome, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16. For
aerodromes not listed in the relevant Aeronautical Information Publication, indicate location in LAT/LONG or bearing
and distance from the nearest significant point, as described under DEP/ above.
DOF/
The date of flight departure in a six figure format (YYMMDD, where YY equals the year, MM
equals the month and DD equals the day). The FAA will not accept flight plans filed with Date of Flight resulting in more
than 24 hours in advance.
REG/
The nationality or common mark and registration mark of the aircraft, if different from the aircraft
identification in Item 7.
EET/
Significant points or FIR boundary designators and accumulated estimated elapsed times from
take-off to such points or FIR boundaries, when so prescribed on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, or by
the appropriate ATS authority.
EXAMPLESEET/CAP0745 XYZ0830
EET/EINN0204
SEL/
SELCAL Code, for aircraft so equipped.
TYP/
Type(s) of aircraft, preceded if necessary without a space by number(s) of aircraft and separated
by one space, if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 9.
EXAMPLETYP/2F15 5F5 3B2
CODE/
Aircraft address (expressed in the form of an alphanumerical code of six hexadecimal characters)
when required by the appropriate ATS authority. Example: “F00001” is the lowest aircraft address contained in the
specific block administered by ICAO.
DLE/
En route delay or holding, insert the significant point(s) on the route where a delay is planned to
occur, followed by the length of delay using four figure time in hours and minutes (hhmm).
EXAMPLEDLE/MDG0030
OPR/
ICAO designator or name of the aircraft operating agency, if different from the aircraft
identification in item 7.
ORGN/
The originator s 8 letter AFTN address or other appropriate contact details, in cases where the
originator of the flight plan may not be readily identified, as required by the appropriate ATS authority.
NOTEIn some areas, flight plan reception centers may insert the ORGN/ identifier and originator’s AFTN address automatically.
PER/
Aircraft performance data, indicated by a single letter as specified in the Procedures for Air
Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168), Volume I — Flight Procedures, if so prescribed by
the appropriate ATS authority.
ALTN/
Name of destination alternate aerodrome(s), if ZZZZ is inserted in Item 16. For aerodromes not
listed in the relevant Aeronautical Information Publication, indicate location in LAT/LONG or bearing and distance from
the nearest significant point, as described in DEP/ above.
RALT/
ICAO four letter indicator(s) for en-route alternate(s), as specified in Doc 7910, Location
Indicators, or name(s) of en-route alternate aerodrome(s), if no indicator is allocated. For aerodromes not listed in the
relevant Aeronautical Information Publication, indicate location in LAT/LONG or bearing and distance from the nearest
significant point, as described in DEP/ above.
TALT/
ICAO four letter indicator(s) for take-off alternate, as specified in Doc 7910, Location Indicators,
or name of take-off alternate aerodrome, if no indicator is allocated. For aerodromes not listed in the relevant Aeronautical
Appendix A−12
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Information Publication, indicate location in LAT/LONG or bearing and distance from the nearest significant point, as
described in DEP/ above.
RIF/
The route details to the revised destination aerodrome, following by the ICAO four-letter location
indicator of the aerodrome. The revised route is subject to reclearance in flight.
EXAMPLESRIF/DTA HEC KLAX
RIF/ESP G94 CLA YPPH
RMK/Any other plain language remarks when required by the appropriate ATS authority or deemed necessary.
ITEM 19: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
Endurance
After E/
ENTER a 4-figure group giving the fuel endurance in hours and minutes.
Persons on board
After P/
ENTER the total number of persons (passengers and crew) on board, when required by the
appropriate ATS authority. ENTER TBN (to be notified) if the total number of persons is not known at the time of filing.
Emergency and survival equipment
R/ (RADIO) CROSS OUT U if UHF on frequency 243.0 MHz is not available. CROSS OUT V if VHF on
frequency 121.5 MHz is not available. CROSS OUT E if emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is not available.
S/ (SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT)
CROSS OUT all indicators if survival equipment is not carried. CROSS OUT P if polar survival equipment
is not carried. CROSS OUT D if desert survival equipment is not carried. CROSS OUT M if maritime survival equipment
is not carried. CROSS OUT J if jungle survival equipment is not carried.
J/ (JACKETS)
CROSS OUT all indicators if life jackets are not carried. CROSS OUT L if life jackets are not
equipped with lights. CROSS OUT F if life jackets are not equipped with fluorescein. CROSS OUT U or V or both as
in R/ above to indicate radio capability of jackets, if any.
D/ (DINGHIES)
(NUMBER)
CROSS OUT indicators D and C if no dinghies are carried, or ENTER number of
dinghies carried; and
(CAPACITY) ENTER total capacity, in persons, of all dinghies carried; and
(COVER)
CROSS OUT indicator C if dinghies are not covered; and
(COLOR)
ENTER color of dinghies if carried.
A/ (AIRCRAFT COLOR AND MARKINGS)
ENTER color of aircraft and significant markings.
N/ (REMARKS) CROSS OUT indicator N if no remarks, or INDICATE any other survival equipment
carried and any other remarks regarding survival equipment.
C/ (PILOT)
ENTER name of pilot-in-command.
2.3 Filed by
ENTER the name of the unit, agency or person filing the flight plan.
2.4 Acceptance of the flight plan
Indicate acceptance of the flight plan in the manner prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
2.5 Instructions for entering COM data
Items to be completed
COMPLETE the top two shaded lines of the form, and COMPLETE the third shaded line only when necessary, following
the provisions in PANS-ATM, Chapter 11, 11.2.1.2, unless ATS prescribes otherwise.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−13
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
3. Instructions for the Transmission of a
Filed Flight Plan (FPL) Message
3.1 Correction of obvious errors
Unless otherwise prescribed, CORRECT obvious format errors and/or omissions (i.e. oblique
stokes) to ensure adherence as specified in Section 2.
3.2 Items to be transmitted
TRANSMIT items as indicated below, unless otherwise prescribed:
a.
the items in the shaded lines, above Item 3;
b.
Starting with <<
(FPL of Item 3:
All symbols and data in the unshaded boxes to the ) << at the end of Item 18,
additional alignment functions as necessary to prevent the inclusion of more than 69 characters in any line of Items 15 and 18. The alignment function is to be inserted only in lieu of a space so as
not to break up a group of data, letter shifts and figure shifts (not preprinted on the form) as necessary;
c.
the AFTN Ending, as described below:
End−of−Text Signal
(1)
one LETTER SHIFT
(2)
two CARRIAGE RETURNS, one LINE FEED
Page−feed Sequence
Seven LINE FEEDS
End−of−Message Signal
Four of the letter N.
Appendix A−14
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
4. Instructions for the Transmission of a Supplementary
Flight Plan (SPL) Message
4.1 Items to be transmitted
Transmit items as indicated hereunder, unless otherwise prescribed:
a.
AFTN Priority Indicator, Addressee Indicators << , Filing Time, Originator Indicator
<< and, if necessary, specific identification of addressees and/or originator;
b.
Starting with <<b (SPL: all symbols and data in the unshaded areas of boxes 7, 13, 16, and 18, except
that the ‘)’ at the end of box 18 is not to be transmitted, and then the symbols in the unshaded area of
box 19 down to and including the ) <<b of box 19, additional alignment functions as necessary to prevent
the inclusion of more than 69 characters in any line of Items 18 and 19. The alignment function is to be
inserted only in lieu of a space, so as not to break up a group of data, letter shifts and figure shifts (not
pre-printed on the form) as necessary;
(c)
the AFTN Ending, as described below:
End-of-Text Signal
(1) one LETTER SHIFT
(2)
two CARRIAGE RETURNS, one LINE FEED
Page-feed Sequence
Seven LINE FEEDS
End-of-Message Signal
Four of the letter N.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−15
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
5. Example of Completed Flight Plan Form
International Flight Plan
Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
ADDRESSEE(S)
PRIORITY
FF
EHAAZQEX EBURZQZX
EBU RZQZX EDDYZQZX LFFFZQZX
LFRRZQZX LFBBZQZX LECMZQZX LPPCZQZX
FILING TIME
ORIGINATOR
1 9 0 8 3 6
E H AA M Z P Z X
X
SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION OF ADDRESSEE(S) AND/ OR ORIGINATOR
7. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
3 MESSAGE
FPL
8 FLIGHT RULES
10 EQUIPMENT
/ H
E A 3 0
C
S
TIME
13 DEPARTURE AEODROME
O 9 4 0
E H A M
LEVEL
15 CRUISING SPEED
N
N
WAKE TURBULENCE CAT.
TYPE OF AIRCRAFT
9. NUMBER
TYPE OF FLIGHT
I
A C F 4 0 2
ROUTE
LEK
LEK 2B
2B LEK
LEK U
UA6
A6 XMM/MO78F330
XMM/MO78F330
F 2 9 0
0 8 3 0
U
UA6
A6 PON U
UR1ON
R1ON CHW U
UA5
A5 NTS DCT 4611N00412W
DCT STG U
UA5
A5 FTM FATIM1
FATIM1A
A
TOTAL EET
HR. MIN.
16. DESTINATION AERODROME
L P P T
ALTN AERODROME
2ND, ALTN AERODROME
L P P R
0 2 3 0
18 OTHER INFORMATION
REG
REG / FBVG
FBVGA
A
SEL / EJFL
EET
EET / LPPCO158
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION (NOT TO BE TRANSMITTED IN FPL MESSAGES)
RENSE
19
EMERGENCY RADIO
ENDURANCE
HR. MIN.
E/
PERSONS ON BOARD
P/
0 3 4 5
3 0 0
UHF
VHF
ELBA
R/ U
V
E
UHF
VHF
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
S /
DINGHIES
POLAR
DESERT
MARITIME
JUNGLE
P
D
M
J
X X
NUMBER
D /
CAPACITY
3 3 0
1 1
X
/ L
FLOURES
F
X XV
U
COLOUR
COVER
C
LIGHT
J
YELLOW
YELLOW
AIRCRAFT COLOUR AND MARKINGS
A/
XN /
C /
W
WHITE
HITE
REMARKS
PILOT-IN-COMMAND
DENKE
FILED BY
ACCEPTED BY
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
AIR
AIR CHARTER INT.
FAA Form 7233-4 (5-93)
Appendix A−16
Supersedes Previous Edition
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
6. ICAO Model Flight Plan, Reverse Side
Pre-Flight Pilot Checklist
WEA
WEATHER
TH ER
(Destination)
(D
es ti na ti on )
((Alternate)
Al te rn ate)
Aircraft Identification
Time of Briefing
Remarks
Present
Report Weather Conditions Aloft
Report immediately weather conditions encountered - particularly cloud tops, upper cloud layers,
thunderstorms, ice, turbulence, winds and temperature.
Forcast
Position
Altitude
Time
Weather Conditions
WEA
WEATHER
TH ER
(Ln
(L
n Ro
Route)
ute)
Present
Forcast
ADIZ
ADI
Z
AIR
AIRPORT
PO RT
CONDITIONS
CO ND IT IO NS
N
NAV
AV AID
AID &
&
COMM
CO MM S
STATUS
TA TU S
WINDS
WIN
DS
ALOFT
AL OF T
PIREPS
Best Crzg Alt.
Designator
En Route
Destination
Alternate
Airspace
Restrictions
Civil Aircraft Pilots
FAR Part 91 states that each person operating a civil aircraft of U.S. registry over the high seas shall comply with annex 2 to the
Convention of International Civil Aviation, International Standards - Rules of the Air. Annex 2 requires the submission of a flight plan
containing items 1-19 prior to operating any flight across international waters. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to
exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended).
Check data as soon as practicable after entering foreign airspace, as our international data may be inaccurate
or incomplete.
Agency Display Of Estimated Burden For
International Flight Plan
This public report burden for this collection of information
is estimated to average 2.5 minutes per response.
If you wish to comment on the accuracy of the estimate or make suggestions for reducing
this burden, please direct your comments to OMB and the FAA at the following addresses.
Office of Management and Budget
Paperwork Reduction Project 2120-0026
Washington, DC 20503
- and -
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Terminal and Flight Services
Operations and Procedures, ATO-120
800 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington DC 20591
Please DO NOT RETURN your form to either of these addresses
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−17
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
7. ICAO Model Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL) Listing Form
REPETITIVE FLIGHT PLAN LISTING
A OPERATOR
C DEPARTURE AERODROME(S)
B ADDRESSEE(S)
D
DATE
-------------yymmdd
E
SERIAL NO.
F
PAGE OF
--------------
/
G SUPPLEMENTARY DATA (Item 19)AT
19) AT::
H
+
-
I
VALID
FROM
J
VALID
UNTIL
yymmdd yymmdd 1 2
K
DAYS OF
OPERATION
3 4 5 6 7
L
AIRCRAFT
IDENTIFICATION
(Item 7)
M
N
TYPE OF
DEPARTURE
AIRCRAFT & AERODROME
TURBULENCE AND
CATEGORY
TIME
(Item 9)
(Item 13)
O
ROUTE (Item 15)
CRUISING
SPEED LEVEL
ROUTE
Q
P
DESTINATION
AERODROME
AND TOTAL
ELAPSED TIME
REMARKS
(Item 16)
7.1 Instructions for the completion of the repetitive flight plan (RPL) listings form
7.2 General
List only flight plans that will operate in accordance with IFR. (Flight rules I in FPL format).
It is assumed that all aircraft are operating as scheduled flights (Type of flight S in FPL format),
otherwise notify in Q (Remarks).
It is assumed that all aircraft operating on RPL’s are equipped with 4096−code transplanters with modes A and C. Otherwise, notify Q (Remarks).
List flight plans in alphabetical order of the location indicator of the departure aerodrome.
List flight plans for each departure − aerodrome in chronological order of estimated off−block times.
Adhere closely to the data conventions as indicated for the Flight Plan Form unless otherwise specifically indicated in 7.5.
Insert all clock times in 4 figures UTC.
Insert all estimated elapsed times in 4 figures (hours and minutes).
Insert data on a separate line for each segment of operations with one or more stops; i.e., from any departure aerodrome to the next destination aerodrome even through call sign or flight number
is the same for multiple segments.
Appendix A−18
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Clearly identify additions and deletions in accordance with Item H at 7.4. Subsequent listings must list
the corrected and added data, and deleted flight plans must be omitted.
Number pages by indicating number of pages and total number of pages in submission.
Utilize more than one line for any RPL where the space provided for items O and Q on one line is not sufficient.
7.3 A flight must be cancelled as follows:
a.
indicate a minus sign in item H followed by all other items of the cancelled flight;
b.
insert a subsequent entry denoted by a plus sign in item H and the date of the last flight in item J, with all
other items of the cancelled flight unchanged.
7.4 Modification to a flight must be made as follows:
a.
carry out the cancellation as indicated in 7.2; and
b.
insert a third entry giving the new flight plan(s) with the appropriate items modified as necessary,
including the new validity dates in items I and J.
Note.− All entries related to the same flight will be inserted in succession in the order specified above.
7.5
Instructions for insertion of RPL data
Complete Items A to Q as indicated hereunder.
ITEM A: OPERATOR
INSERT Name of operator.
ITEM B: ADDRESSEE(S)
INSERT Name of agency(ies) designated by States to administer RPL’s for FIR’s or areas of responsibility concerned with the route of flight.
ITEM C: DEPARTURE AERODROME(S)
INSERT Location indicator(s) of departure aerodrome(s).
ITEM D: DATE
INSERT On each page of submission the date (year, month, day) in a 6−figure group that the listing was submitted.
ITEM E: SERIAL NUMBER
INSERT Serial number of submission (2 numerics) indicating last two digits of year, a dash, and the
sequential number of the submission for the year indicated (start with numeral 1 each new year).
ITEM F: PAGE OF
INSERT Page number and total number of pages submitted.
ITEM G: SUPPLEMENTARY DATA AT
INSERT Name of contact where information normally provided under Item 19 of the FPL is kept readily
available and can be supplied without delay.
ITEM H: ENTRY TYPE
INSERT A minus sign (−) for each flight plan that is to be deleted from the listing.
INSERT A plus sign (+) for each initial listing and, in the case of subsequent submissions, for each flight plan
not listed in the previous submission.
Note − No information is required under this item for any flight plan which is unchanged from the previous submission.
ITEM I: VALID FROM
INSERT First date (year, month, day) upon which the flight is scheduled to operate.
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
Appendix A−19
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
ITEM J: VALID UNTIL
INSERT Last date (year, month, day) upon which the flight is scheduled to operate as listed, or
UFN if the duration is unknown
ITEM K: DAYS OF OPERATION
INSERT Number corresponding to the day of the week in the appropriate column; Monday = 1 through Sunday = 7.
INSERT 0 for each day of non−operation in the appropriate column.
ITEM L: AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION (Item 7 of the ICAO flight plan)
INSERT Aircraft identification to be used for the flight.
ITEM M: TYPE OF AIRCRAFT AND WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORY (Item 9 of the ICAO flight plan)
INSERT Appropriate ICAO designator as specified in ICAO Doc 8643 − Aircraft Type Designators.
INSERT H, M or L indicator as appropriate:
H−
HEAVY to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take−off mass of 136,000 kg or more,
M − MEDIUM to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take−off mass of
less than 136,000 kg but more than 7,000 kg,
L−
LIGHT to indicate an aircraft type with a maximum certificated take−off mass of 7,000 kg or less.
ITEM N: DEPARTURE AERODROME AND TIME (Item 13 of the ICAO flight plan)
INSERT Location indicator of the departure aerodrome.
INSERT The off−block time, i.e., the estimated time that the aircraft will commence movement associated
with departure.
ITEM O: ROUTE (Item 15 of the ICAO flight plan)
a. Cruising Speed
INSERT The true airspeed for the first or whole cruising portion of the flight in accordance with Item 15(a)
of the ICAO flight plan.
b. Cruising level
INSERT The planned cruising level for the first or whole portion of the route in accordance with Item 15(b)
of the ICAO flight plan.
c. Route
INSERT The entire route in accordance with Item 15(c) of the ICAO flight plan.
ITEM P: DESTINATION AERODROME AND TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME
(Item 16 of the ICAO flight plan)
INSERT Location indicator of the destination aerodrome.
INSERT The total estimated elapsed time.
ITEM Q: REMARKS
INSERT Items of information as required by the appropriate ATS authority, items normally notified in
Item 18 of the ICAO flight plan and any other information pertinent to the flight of concern to ATS.
Appendix A−20
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
8. Example of a Completed Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL)
Listing Form
REPETITIVE FLIGHT PLAN LISTING
A OPERATOR
UK STORED FLIGHT PLAN
OFFICE EGTXZBZX
Chef de la Subdivision
informatique
9 rue de Champagne
91205 Athismons France
BRITISH AIRWAYS
H
+
+
I
VALID
FROM
C DEPARTURE AERODROME(S)
B ADDRESSEE(S)
J
K
L
DAYS OF
OPERATION
VALID
UNTIL
AIRCRAFT
IDENTIFICATION
3 4 5 6 7
800401 811031
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 BAW004
00
HS21
M
EGLL
O
ROUTE (Item 15)
CRUISING
SPEED LEVEL
0700 NO440 F210
ROUTE
P
DESTINATION
AERODROME
AND TOTAL
ELAPSED TIME
REMARKS
A1E UA1E DPE UA16 MAN LFPG
0045
+
800401 800731
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 BAW032
HS21
M
EGLL 1800
NO440 F210
AIE UA1E DPE UA18 MAN LFPG
0045
800801 811031
1 0 3
0 5 0 7 BAW032
HS21
M
EGLL
1800 N0440 F210
A1E UA1E DPE UA18 MAN LFPG
0045
+
800601 800930
0 0 0
0 0 0 7 BAW082
HS21
M
EGLL
1805 NO450 F270
A1S UA1S RBT UA3 MTL
LFMN
0130
-
800103
800930
0 0 0
0 0 6 7
BAW092
B737
M
EGLL
1810 NO430 F190
A1E UA1E DPE UA16 MAN LFPG
0400
+
800103 800315
0 0 0
0 0 6 7
BAW092
B737
M
EGLL
1810 NO430 F190
A1E UA1E DPE UA16 MAN LFPG 0400
UA3W STP DCT GL
Q
(Item 16)
+
ICAO FLIGHT PLANS
F
PAGE OF
3 / 3
BAW Briefing Office
(Item 13)
(Item 9)
E
SERIAL NO.
80-12
--------------
G SUPPLEMENTARY DATA (Item 19)AT
19) AT::
M
N
TYPE OF
DEPARTURE
AIRCRAFT & AERODROME
TURBULENCE AND
CATEGORY
TIME
yymmdd yymmdd 1 2
(Item 7)
EGLL
D
DATE
800305
-------------yymmdd
CHARTERED ACFT
CHARTERED ACFT
Appendix A−21
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B. FSS Forms
FSS Forms
Appendix B−1
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−2
4/3/14
FSS Forms
4/3/14
FSS Forms
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−3
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−4
4/3/14
FSS Forms
4/3/14
FSS Forms
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−5
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−6
4/3/14
FSS Forms
4/3/14
FSS Forms
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−7
JO 7110.10X
Appendix B−8
4/3/14
FSS Forms
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
PILOT/CONTROLLER
GLOSSARY
PURPOSE
a. This Glossary was compiled to promote a common understanding of the terms used in the Air Traffic
Control system. It includes those terms which are intended for pilot/controller communications. Those terms
most frequently used in pilot/controller communications are printed in bold italics. The definitions are primarily
defined in an operational sense applicable to both users and operators of the National Airspace System. Use of
the Glossary will preclude any misunderstandings concerning the system’s design, function, and purpose.
b. Because of the international nature of flying, terms used in the Lexicon, published by the International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), are included when they differ from FAA definitions. These terms are
followed by “[ICAO].” For the reader’s convenience, there are also cross references to related terms in other parts
of the Glossary and to other documents, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the Aeronautical
Information Manual (AIM).
c. This Glossary will be revised, as necessary, to maintain a common understanding of the system.
EXPLANATION OF CHANGES
d. Terms Added:
BOTTOM ALTITUDE
CLIMB VIA
DEFENSE AREA
DESCEND VIA
FUSED TARGET
FUSION
GROSS NAVIGATION ERROR
ISR
INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS [ICAO]
LIGHT−SPORT AIRCRAFT
TAKEOFF ROLL
TOP ALTITUDE
e. Terms Modified:
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE
LANDING MINIMUMS
RESUME NORMAL SPEED
TARGET
ULTRALIGHT VEHICLE
WHEN ABLE
f. Editorial/format changes were made where necessary. Revision bars were not used due to the insignificant
nature of the changes.
PCG−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
A
AAI−
(See ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL.)
AAR−
(See AIRPORT ARRIVAL RATE.)
ABBREVIATED IFR FLIGHT PLANS− An
authorization by ATC requiring pilots to submit only
that information needed for the purpose of ATC. It
includes only a small portion of the usual IFR flight
plan information. In certain instances, this may be
only aircraft identification, location, and pilot
request. Other information may be requested if
needed by ATC for separation/control purposes. It is
frequently used by aircraft which are airborne and
desire an instrument approach or by aircraft which are
on the ground and desire a climb to VFR-on-top.
(See VFR-ON-TOP.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ABEAM− An aircraft is “abeam” a fix, point, or
object when that fix, point, or object is approximately
90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track.
Abeam indicates a general position rather than a
precise point.
ABORT− To terminate a preplanned aircraft
maneuver; e.g., an aborted takeoff.
ACC [ICAO]−
(See ICAO term AREA CONTROL CENTER.)
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE−
The runway plus stopway length declared available
and suitable for the acceleration and deceleration of
an airplane aborting a takeoff.
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE
[ICAO]− The length of the take-off run available plus
the length of the stopway if provided.
ACDO−
(See AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE.)
ACKNOWLEDGE− Let me know that you have
received and understood this message.
ACL−
(See AIRCRAFT LIST.)
ACLS−
(See AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING
SYSTEM.)
ACLT−
(See ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
ACROBATIC FLIGHT− An intentional maneuver
involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an
abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration not
necessary for normal flight.
(See ICAO term ACROBATIC FLIGHT.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
ACROBATIC FLIGHT [ICAO]− Maneuvers inten­
tionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt
change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an
abnormal variation in speed.
ACTIVE RUNWAY−
(See RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
RUNWAY.)
ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME−
ACLT is a flight’s frozen calculated landing time. An
actual time determined at freeze calculated landing
time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for
the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft based upon
runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport
arrival delay period, and other metered arrival
aircraft. This time is either the vertex time of arrival
(VTA) of the aircraft or the tentative calculated
landing time (TCLT)/ACLT of the previous aircraft
plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is
later. This time will not be updated in response to the
aircraft’s progress.
ACTUAL NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
(ANP)−
(See REQUIRED NAVIGATION
PERFORMANCE.)
ADDITIONAL SERVICES− Advisory information
provided by ATC which includes but is not limited to
the following:
a. Traffic advisories.
b. Vectors, when requested by the pilot, to assist
aircraft receiving traffic advisories to avoid observed
traffic.
c. Altitude deviation information of 300 feet or
more from an assigned altitude as observed on a
verified (reading correctly) automatic altitude
readout (Mode C).
d. Advisories that traffic is no longer a factor.
PCG A−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
e. Weather and chaff information.
f. Weather assistance.
g. Bird activity information.
h. Holding pattern surveillance. Additional ser­
vices are provided to the extent possible contingent
only upon the controller’s capability to fit them into
the performance of higher priority duties and on the
basis of limitations of the radar, volume of traffic,
frequency congestion, and controller workload. The
controller has complete discretion for determining if
he/she is able to provide or continue to provide a
service in a particular case. The controller’s reason
not to provide or continue to provide a service in a
particular case is not subject to question by the pilot
and need not be made known to him/her.
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ADF−
(See AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER.)
ADIZ−
(See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.)
ADLY−
(See ARRIVAL DELAY.)
4/3/14
ADVISORY FREQUENCY− The appropriate fre­
quency to be used for Airport Advisory Service.
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
(See UNICOM.)
(Refer to ADVISORY CIRCULAR NO. 90-42.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ADVISORY SERVICE− Advice and information
provided by a facility to assist pilots in the safe
conduct of flight and aircraft movement.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
(See EN ROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY
SERVICE.)
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
(See RADAR ADVISORY.)
(See SAFETY ALERT.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AERIAL REFUELING− A procedure used by the
military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another
during flight.
(Refer to VFR/IFR Wall Planning Charts.)
AERODROME− A defined area on land or water
(including any buildings, installations and equip­
ment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for
the arrival, departure, and movement of aircraft.
ADMINISTRATOR− The Federal Aviation Admin­
istrator or any person to whom he/she has delegated
his/her authority in the matter concerned.
AERODROME BEACON [ICAO]− Aeronautical
beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome
from the air.
ADR−
AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− Air
traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.
(See AIRPORT DEPARTURE RATE.)
ADS [ICAO]−
(See ICAO term AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE.)
ADS−B−
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE−BROADCAST.)
ADS−C−
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE−CONTRACT.)
ADVISE INTENTIONS− Tell me what you plan to
do.
ADVISORY− Advice and information provided to
assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft
movement.
(See ADVISORY SERVICE.)
PCG A−2
AERODROME CONTROL TOWER [ICAO]− A
unit established to provide air traffic control service
to aerodrome traffic.
AERODROME ELEVATION [ICAO]− The eleva­
tion of the highest point of the landing area.
AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT [ICAO]− The
specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the
vicinity of an aerodrome.
AERONAUTICAL BEACON− A visual NAVAID
displaying flashes of white and/or colored light to
indicate the location of an airport, a heliport, a
landmark, a certain point of a Federal airway in
mountainous terrain, or an obstruction.
(See AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AERONAUTICAL CHART− A map used in air
navigation containing all or part of the following:
4/3/14
topographic features, hazards and obstructions,
navigation aids, navigation routes, designated
airspace, and airports. Commonly used aeronautical
charts are:
a. Sectional Aeronautical Charts (1:500,000)−
Designed for visual navigation of slow or medium
speed aircraft. Topographic information on these
charts features the portrayal of relief and a judicious
selection of visual check points for VFR flight.
Aeronautical information includes visual and radio
aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace,
restricted areas, obstructions, and related data.
b. VFR Terminal Area Charts (1:250,000)−
Depict Class B airspace which provides for the
control or segregation of all the aircraft within Class
B airspace. The chart depicts topographic informa­
tion and aeronautical information which includes
visual and radio aids to navigation, airports,
controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions,
and related data.
c. World Aeronautical Charts (WAC)
(1:1,000,000)− Provide a standard series of aeronau­
tical charts covering land areas of the world at a size
and scale convenient for navigation by moderate
speed aircraft. Topographic information includes
cities and towns, principal roads, railroads, distinc­
tive landmarks, drainage, and relief. Aeronautical
information includes visual and radio aids to
navigation, airports, airways, restricted areas,
obstructions, and other pertinent data.
d. En Route Low Altitude Charts− Provide
aeronautical information for en route instrument
navigation (IFR) in the low altitude stratum.
Information includes the portrayal of airways, limits
of controlled airspace, position identification and
frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, minimum
en route and minimum obstruction clearance
altitudes, airway distances, reporting points, re­
stricted areas, and related data. Area charts, which are
a part of this series, furnish terminal data at a larger
scale in congested areas.
e. En Route High Altitude Charts− Provide
aeronautical information for en route instrument
navigation (IFR) in the high altitude stratum.
Information includes the portrayal of jet routes,
Pilot/Controller Glossary
identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected
airports, distances, time zones, special use airspace,
and related information.
f. Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) Charts−
Portray the aeronautical data which is required to
execute an instrument approach to an airport. These
charts depict the procedures, including all related
data, and the airport diagram. Each procedure is
designated for use with a specific type of electronic
navigation system including NDB, TACAN, VOR,
ILS/MLS, and RNAV. These charts are identified by
the type of navigational aid(s) which provide final
approach guidance.
g. Instrument Departure Procedure (DP) Charts−
Designed to expedite clearance delivery and to
facilitate transition between takeoff and en route
operations. Each DP is presented as a separate chart
and may serve a single airport or more than one
airport in a given geographical location.
h. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Charts−
Designed to expedite air traffic control arrival
procedures and to facilitate transition between en
route and instrument approach operations. Each
STAR procedure is presented as a separate chart and
may serve a single airport or more than one airport in
a given geographical location.
i. Airport Taxi Charts− Designed to expedite the
efficient and safe flow of ground traffic at an airport.
These charts are identified by the official airport
name; e.g., Ronald Reagan Washington National
Airport.
(See ICAO term AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
AERONAUTICAL CHART [ICAO]− A representa­
tion of a portion of the earth, its culture and relief,
specifically designated to meet the requirements of
air navigation.
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
(AIM)− A primary FAA publication whose purpose
is to instruct airmen about operating in the National
Airspace System of the U.S. It provides basic flight
information, ATC Procedures and general instruc­
tional information concerning health, medical facts,
factors affecting flight safety, accident and hazard
reporting, and types of aeronautical charts and their
use.
PCG A−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICA­
TION (AIP) [ICAO]− A publication issued by or with
the authority of a State and containing aeronautical
information of a lasting character essential to air
navigation.
A/FD−
(See AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
AFFIRMATIVE− Yes.
AFIS−
(See AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION
SERVICE − ALASKA FSSs ONLY.)
AFP−
(See AIRSPACE FLOW PROGRAM.)
AIM−
(See AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION
MANUAL.)
AIP [ICAO]−
(See ICAO term AERONAUTICAL
INFORMATION PUBLICATION.)
AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE− An FAA field
office serving an assigned geographical area, staffed
with Flight Standards personnel serving the aviation
industry and the general public on matters related to
the certification and operation of scheduled air
carriers and other large aircraft operations.
AIR DEFENSE EMERGENCY− A military emer­
gency condition declared by a designated authority.
This condition exists when an attack upon the
continental U.S., Alaska, Canada, or U.S. installa­
tions in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is
considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)−
The area of airspace over land or water, extending
upward from the surface, within which the ready
identification, the location, and the control of aircraft
are required in the interest of national security.
a. Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone. An
ADIZ within the United States along an international
boundary of the United States.
b. Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone. An
ADIZ over the coastal waters of the United States.
c. Distant Early Warning Identification Zone
(DEWIZ). An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the
State of Alaska.
PCG A−4
4/3/14
d. Land−Based Air Defense Identification Zone.
An ADIZ over U.S. metropolitan areas, which is
activated and deactivated as needed, with dimen­
sions, activation dates and other relevant information
disseminated via NOTAM.
Note: ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan
requirements for civil aircraft operations are specified in 14 CFR Part 99.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY− Any facility used
in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid of
air navigation, including landing areas, lights, any
apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather
information, for signaling, for radio-directional
finding, or for radio or other electrical communica­
tion, and any other structure or mechanism having a
similar purpose for guiding or controlling flight in the
air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft.
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR− Air route
traffic control center (ARTCC) radar used primarily
to detect and display an aircraft’s position while en
route between terminal areas. The ARSR enables
controllers to provide radar air traffic control service
when aircraft are within the ARSR coverage. In some
instances, ARSR may enable an ARTCC to provide
terminal radar services similar to but usually more
limited than those provided by a radar approach
control.
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER− A
facility established to provide air traffic control
service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans
within controlled airspace and principally during the
en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities
and controller workload permit, certain advisory/as­
sistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft.
(See EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
SERVICES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AIR TAXI− Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL
aircraft movement conducted above the surface but
normally not above 100 feet AGL. The aircraft may
proceed either via hover taxi or flight at speeds more
than 20 knots. The pilot is solely responsible for
selecting a safe airspeed/altitude for the operation
being conducted.
(See HOVER TAXI.)
(Refer to AIM.)
4/3/14
AIR TRAFFIC− Aircraft operating in the air or on an
airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and
parking areas.
(See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC.)
AIR TRAFFIC [ICAO]− All aircraft in flight or
operating on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome.
AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE− An authorization by
air traffic control for the purpose of preventing
collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to
proceed under specified traffic conditions within
controlled airspace. The pilot-in-command of an
aircraft may not deviate from the provisions of a
visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules
(IFR) air traffic clearance except in an emergency or
unless an amended clearance has been obtained.
Additionally, the pilot may request a different
clearance from that which has been issued by air
traffic control (ATC) if information available to the
pilot makes another course of action more practicable
or if aircraft equipment limitations or company
procedures forbid compliance with the clearance
issued. Pilots may also request clarification or
amendment, as appropriate, any time a clearance is
not fully understood, or considered unacceptable
because of safety of flight. Controllers should, in
such instances and to the extent of operational
practicality and safety, honor the pilot’s request.
14 CFR Part 91.3(a) states: “The pilot in command
of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the
final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.”
THE PILOT IS RESPONSIBLE TO REQUEST AN
AMENDED CLEARANCE if ATC issues a
clearance that would cause a pilot to deviate from a
rule or regulation, or in the pilot’s opinion, would
place the aircraft in jeopardy.
(See ATC INSTRUCTIONS.)
(See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
CLEARANCE.)
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL− A service operated by
appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and
expeditious flow of air traffic.
(See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
SERVICE.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCE [ICAO]−
Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under
conditions specified by an air traffic control unit.
Note 1: For convenience, the term air traffic control
clearance is frequently abbreviated to clearance
when used in appropriate contexts.
Note 2: The abbreviated term clearance may be
prefixed by the words taxi, takeoff, departure, en
route, approach or landing to indicate the particular
portion of flight to which the air traffic control clearance relates.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− A
service provided for the purpose of:
a. Preventing collisions:
1. Between aircraft; and
2. On the maneuvering area between aircraft
and obstructions.
b. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of
air traffic.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST− A person
authorized to provide air traffic control service.
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
(See ICAO term CONTROLLER.)
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND
CENTER (ATCSCC) − An Air Traffic Tactical
Operations facility responsible for monitoring and
managing the flow of air traffic throughout the NAS,
producing a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of
traffic while minimizing delays. The following
functions are located at the ATCSCC:
a. Central Altitude Reservation Function
(CARF). Responsible for coordinating, planning,
and approving special user requirements under the
Altitude Reservation (ALTRV) concept.
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
b. Airport Reservation Office (ARO).
Responsible for approving IFR flights at designated
high density traffic airports (John F. Kennedy,
LaGuardia, and Ronald Reagan Washington
National) during specified hours.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 93.)
(Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
PCG A−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
c. U.S. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Office.
Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distrib­
uting NOTAMs for the U.S. civilian and military, as
well as international aviation communities.
(See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
d. Weather Unit. Monitor all aspects of weather
for the U.S. that might affect aviation including cloud
cover, visibility, winds, precipitation, thunderstorms,
icing, turbulence, and more. Provide forecasts based
on observations and on discussions with meteorolo­
gists from various National Weather Service offices,
FAA facilities, airlines, and private weather services.
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE− A generic term meaning:
a. Flight Information Service.
b. Alerting Service.
c. Air Traffic Advisory Service.
d. Air Traffic Control Service:
1. Area Control Service,
2. Approach Control Service, or
3. Airport Control Service.
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) ROUTES − The
term “ATS Route” is a generic term that includes
“VOR Federal airways,” “colored Federal airways,”
“jet routes,” and “RNAV routes.” The term “ATS
route” does not replace these more familiar route
names, but serves only as an overall title when listing
the types of routes that comprise the United States
route structure.
AIRBORNE− An aircraft is considered airborne
when all parts of the aircraft are off the ground.
AIRBORNE DELAY− Amount of delay to be
encountered in airborne holding.
AIRCRAFT− Device(s) that are used or intended to
be used for flight in the air, and when used in air traffic
control terminology, may include the flight crew.
(See ICAO term AIRCRAFT.)
AIRCRAFT [ICAO]− Any machine that can derive
support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air
other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s
surface.
AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY− A
grouping of aircraft based on a speed of 1.3 times the
stall speed in the landing configuration at maximum
gross landing weight. An aircraft must fit in only one
PCG A−6
4/3/14
category. If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in
excess of the upper limit of a speed range for a
category, the minimums for the category for that
speed must be used. For example, an aircraft which
falls in Category A, but is circling to land at a speed
in excess of 91 knots, must use the approach
Category B minimums when circling to land. The
categories are as follows:
a. Category A− Speed less than 91 knots.
b. Category B− Speed 91 knots or more but less
than 121 knots.
c. Category C− Speed 121 knots or more but less
than 141 knots.
d. Category D− Speed 141 knots or more but less
than 166 knots.
e. Category E− Speed 166 knots or more.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)
AIRCRAFT CLASSES− For the purposes of Wake
Turbulence Separation Minima, ATC classifies
aircraft as Heavy, Large, and Small as follows:
a. Heavy− Aircraft capable of takeoff weights of
300,000 pounds or more whether or not they are
operating at this weight during a particular phase of
flight.
b. Large− Aircraft of more than 41,000 pounds,
maximum certificated takeoff weight, up to but not
including 300,000 pounds.
c. Small− Aircraft of 41,000 pounds or less
maximum certificated takeoff weight.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRCRAFT CONFLICT− Predicted conflict, within
URET, of two aircraft, or between aircraft and
airspace. A Red alert is used for conflicts when the
predicted minimum separation is 5 nautical miles or
less. A Yellow alert is used when the predicted
minimum separation is between 5 and approximately
12 nautical miles. A Blue alert is used for conflicts
between an aircraft and predefined airspace.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
AIRCRAFT LIST (ACL)− A view available with
URET that lists aircraft currently in or predicted to be
in a particular sector’s airspace. The view contains
textual flight data information in line format and may
be sorted into various orders based on the specific
needs of the sector team.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
4/3/14
AIRCRAFT
SURGE
LAUNCH
AND
RECOVERY− Procedures used at USAF bases to
provide increased launch and recovery rates in
instrument flight rules conditions. ASLAR is based
on:
a. Reduced separation between aircraft which is
based on time or distance. Standard arrival separation
applies between participants including multiple
flights until the DRAG point. The DRAG point is a
published location on an ASLAR approach where
aircraft landing second in a formation slows to a
predetermined airspeed. The DRAG point is the
reference point at which MARSA applies as
expanding elements effect separation within a flight
or between subsequent participating flights.
b. ASLAR procedures shall be covered in a Letter
of Agreement between the responsible USAF
military ATC facility and the concerned Federal
Aviation Administration facility. Initial Approach
Fix spacing requirements are normally addressed as
a minimum.
AIRMEN’S METEOROLOGICAL
INFORMATION−
(See AIRMET.)
AIRMET− In-flight weather advisories issued only
to amend the area forecast concerning weather
phenomena which are of operational interest to all
aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having
limited capability because of lack of equipment,
instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMETs
concern weather of less severity than that covered by
SIGMETs or Convective SIGMETs. AIRMETs
cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained
winds of 30 knots or more at the surface, widespread
areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility
less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain
obscurement.
(See AWW.)
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
(See CWA.)
(See SIGMET.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRPORT− An area on land or water that is used or
intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of
aircraft and includes its buildings and facilities, if
any.
AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA− The area within ten
miles of an airport without a control tower or where
Pilot/Controller Glossary
the tower is not in operation, and on which a Flight
Service Station is located.
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRPORT ARRIVAL RATE (AAR)− A dynamic
input parameter specifying the number of arriving
aircraft which an airport or airspace can accept from
the ARTCC per hour. The AAR is used to calculate
the desired interval between successive arrival
aircraft.
AIRPORT DEPARTURE RATE (ADR)− A dynamic
parameter specifying the number of aircraft which
can depart an airport and the airspace can accept per
hour.
AIRPORT ELEVATION− The highest point of an
airport’s usable runways measured in feet from mean
sea level.
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION.)
(See ICAO term AERODROME ELEVATION.)
AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY− A publication
designed primarily as a pilot’s operational manual
containing all airports, seaplane bases, and heliports
open to the public including communications data,
navigational facilities, and certain special notices and
procedures. This publication is issued in seven
volumes according to geographical area.
AIRPORT LIGHTING− Various lighting aids that
may be installed on an airport. Types of airport
lighting include:
a. Approach Light System (ALS)− An airport
lighting facility which provides visual guidance to
landing aircraft by radiating light beams in a
directional pattern by which the pilot aligns the
aircraft with the extended centerline of the runway on
his/her final approach for landing. CondenserDischarge Sequential Flashing Lights/Sequenced
Flashing Lights may be installed in conjunction with
the ALS at some airports. Types of Approach Light
Systems are:
1. ALSF-1− Approach Light System with
Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-I configura­
tion.
2. ALSF-2− Approach Light System with
Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-II configura­
tion. The ALSF-2 may operate as an SSALR when
weather conditions permit.
3. SSALF− Simplified Short Approach Light
System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
PCG A−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4. SSALR− Simplified Short Approach Light
System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
5. MALSF− Medium Intensity Approach Light
System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
6. MALSR− Medium Intensity Approach Light
System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
7. RLLS− Runway Lead-in Light System
Consists of one or more series of flashing lights
installed at or near ground level that provides positive
visual guidance along an approach path, either
curving or straight, where special problems exist with
hazardous terrain, obstructions, or noise abatement
procedures.
8. RAIL− Runway Alignment Indicator Lights−
Sequenced Flashing Lights which are installed only
in combination with other light systems.
9. ODALS− Omnidirectional Approach Light­
ing System consists of seven omnidirectional
flashing lights located in the approach area of a
nonprecision runway. Five lights are located on the
runway centerline extended with the first light
located 300 feet from the threshold and extending at
equal intervals up to 1,500 feet from the threshold.
The other two lights are located, one on each side of
the runway threshold, at a lateral distance of 40 feet
from the runway edge, or 75 feet from the runway
edge when installed on a runway equipped with a
VASI.
(Refer to FAAO JO 6850.2, VISUAL GUIDANCE
LIGHTING SYSTEMS.)
b. Runway Lights/Runway Edge Lights− Lights
having a prescribed angle of emission used to define
the lateral limits of a runway. Runway lights are
uniformly spaced at intervals of approximately 200
feet, and the intensity may be controlled or preset.
c. Touchdown Zone Lighting− Two rows of
transverse light bars located symmetrically about the
runway centerline normally at 100 foot intervals. The
basic system extends 3,000 feet along the runway.
d. Runway Centerline Lighting− Flush centerline
lights spaced at 50-foot intervals beginning 75 feet
from the landing threshold and extending to within 75
feet of the opposite end of the runway.
4/3/14
runway threshold, which provide rapid and positive
identification of the approach end of a particular
runway.
g. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)− An
airport lighting facility providing vertical visual
approach slope guidance to aircraft during approach
to landing by radiating a directional pattern of high
intensity red and white focused light beams which
indicate to the pilot that he/she is “on path” if he/she
sees red/white, “above path” if white/white, and
“below path” if red/red. Some airports serving large
aircraft have three-bar VASIs which provide two
visual glide paths to the same runway.
h. Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)− An
airport lighting facility, similar to VASI, providing
vertical approach slope guidance to aircraft during
approach to landing. PAPIs consist of a single row of
either two or four lights, normally installed on the left
side of the runway, and have an effective visual range
of about 5 miles during the day and up to 20 miles at
night. PAPIs radiate a directional pattern of high
intensity red and white focused light beams which
indicate that the pilot is “on path” if the pilot sees an
equal number of white lights and red lights, with
white to the left of the red; “above path” if the pilot
sees more white than red lights; and “below path” if
the pilot sees more red than white lights.
i. Boundary Lights− Lights defining the perimeter
of an airport or landing area.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRPORT MARKING AIDS− Markings used on
runway and taxiway surfaces to identify a specific
runway, a runway threshold, a centerline, a hold line,
etc. A runway should be marked in accordance with
its present usage such as:
a. Visual.
b. Nonprecision instrument.
c. Precision instrument.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP)− The
approximate geometric center of all usable runway
surfaces.
e. Threshold Lights− Fixed green lights arranged
symmetrically left and right of the runway centerline,
identifying the runway threshold.
AIRPORT RESERVATION OFFICE− Office
responsible for monitoring the operation of slot
controlled airports. It receives and processes requests
for unscheduled operations at slot controlled airports.
f. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)− Two
synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the
AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON− A visual
NAVAID operated at many airports. At civil airports,
PCG A−8
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
alternating white and green flashes indicate the
location of the airport. At military airports, the
beacons flash alternately white and green, but are
differentiated from civil beacons by dualpeaked (two
quick) white flashes between the green flashes.
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
(See SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS.)
(See ICAO term AERODROME BEACON.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRPORT STREAM FILTER (ASF)− An on/off
filter that allows the conflict notification function to
be inhibited for arrival streams into single or multiple
airports to prevent nuisance alerts.
AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT
(ASDE)− Surveillance equipment specifically de­
signed to detect aircraft, vehicular traffic, and other
objects, on the surface of an airport, and to present the
image on a tower display. Used to augment visual
observation by tower personnel of aircraft and/or
vehicular movements on runways and taxiways.
There are three ASDE systems deployed in the NAS:
a. ASDE−3− a Surface Movement Radar.
b. ASDE−X− a system that uses a X−band Surface
Movement Radar and multilateration. Data from
these two sources are fused and presented on a digital
display.
c. ASDE−3X− an ASDE−X system that uses the
ASDE−3 Surface Movement Radar.
AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR− Approach
control radar used to detect and display an aircraft’s
position in the terminal area. ASR provides range and
azimuth information but does not provide elevation
data. Coverage of the ASR can extend up to 60 miles.
AIRPORT TAXI CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE− A
service provided by a control tower for aircraft
operating on the movement area and in the vicinity of
an airport.
(See MOVEMENT AREA.)
(See TOWER.)
(See ICAO term AERODROME CONTROL
SERVICE.)
AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER−
(See TOWER.)
AIRSPACE CONFLICT− Predicted conflict of an
aircraft and active Special Activity Airspace (SAA).
AIRSPACE FLOW PROGRAM (AFP)− AFP is a
Traffic Management (TM) process administered by
the Air Traffic Control System Command Center
(ATCSCC) where aircraft are assigned an Expect
Departure Clearance Time (EDCT) in order to
manage capacity and demand for a specific area of the
National Airspace System (NAS). The purpose of the
program is to mitigate the effects of en route
constraints. It is a flexible program and may be
implemented in various forms depending upon the
needs of the air traffic system.
AIRSPACE HIERARCHY− Within the airspace
classes, there is a hierarchy and, in the event of an
overlap of airspace: Class A preempts Class B, Class
B preempts Class C, Class C preempts Class D, Class
D preempts Class E, and Class E preempts Class G.
AIRSPEED− The speed of an aircraft relative to its
surrounding air mass. The unqualified term
“airspeed” means one of the following:
a. Indicated Airspeed− The speed shown on the
aircraft airspeed indicator. This is the speed used in
pilot/controller communications under the general
term “airspeed.”
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 1.)
b. True Airspeed− The airspeed of an aircraft
relative to undisturbed air. Used primarily in flight
planning and en route portion of flight. When used in
pilot/controller communications, it is referred to as
“true airspeed” and not shortened to “airspeed.”
AIRSTART− The starting of an aircraft engine while
the aircraft is airborne, preceded by engine shutdown
during training flights or by actual engine failure.
AIRWAY− A Class E airspace area established in the
form of a corridor, the centerline of which is defined
by radio navigational aids.
(See FEDERAL AIRWAYS.)
(See ICAO term AIRWAY.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 71.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AIRWAY [ICAO]− A control area or portion thereof
established in the form of corridor equipped with
radio navigational aids.
AIRWAY BEACON− Used to mark airway segments
in remote mountain areas. The light flashes Morse
Code to identify the beacon site.
(Refer to AIM.)
AIT−
(See AUTOMATED INFORMATION
TRANSFER.)
PCG A−9
Pilot/Controller Glossary
ALERFA (Alert Phase) [ICAO]− A situation wherein
apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and
its occupants.
ALERT− A notification to a position that there
is an aircraft-to-aircraft or aircraft-to-airspace
conflict, as detected by Automated Problem
Detection (APD).
ALERT AREA−
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
ALERT NOTICE− A request originated by a flight
service station (FSS) or an air route traffic control
center (ARTCC) for an extensive communication
search for overdue, unreported, or missing aircraft.
ALERTING SERVICE− A service provided to notify
appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need
of search and rescue aid and assist such organizations
as required.
ALNOT−
(See ALERT NOTICE.)
ALONG−TRACK DISTANCE (ATD)− The distance
measured from a point-in-space by systems using
area navigation reference capabilities that are not
subject to slant range errors.
ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY− Letters and numer­
als used to show identification, altitude, beacon code,
and other information concerning a target on a radar
display.
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL
SYSTEMS.)
ALTERNATE AERODROME [ICAO]− An aero­
drome to which an aircraft may proceed when it
becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed
to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs
may also be an en-route or a destination alternate
aerodrome for the flight.
ALTERNATE AIRPORT− An airport at which an
aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport
becomes inadvisable.
(See ICAO term ALTERNATE AERODROME.)
ALTIMETER SETTING− The barometric pressure
reading used to adjust a pressure altimeter for
variations in existing atmospheric pressure or to the
standard altimeter setting (29.92).
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PCG A−10
4/3/14
ALTITUDE− The height of a level, point, or object
measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL) or from
Mean Sea Level (MSL).
(See FLIGHT LEVEL.)
a. MSL Altitude− Altitude expressed in feet
measured from mean sea level.
b. AGL Altitude− Altitude expressed in feet
measured above ground level.
c. Indicated Altitude− The altitude as shown by an
altimeter. On a pressure or barometric altimeter it is
altitude as shown uncorrected for instrument error
and uncompensated for variation from standard
atmospheric conditions.
(See ICAO term ALTITUDE.)
ALTITUDE [ICAO]− The vertical distance of a level,
a point or an object considered as a point, measured
from mean sea level (MSL).
ALTITUDE READOUT− An aircraft’s altitude,
transmitted via the Mode C transponder feature, that
is visually displayed in 100-foot increments on a
radar scope having readout capability.
(See ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY.)
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL
SYSTEMS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ALTITUDE RESERVATION− Airspace utilization
under prescribed conditions normally employed for
the mass movement of aircraft or other special user
requirements which cannot otherwise be
accomplished. ALTRVs are approved by the
appropriate FAA facility.
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND CENTER.)
ALTITUDE RESTRICTION− An altitude or alti­
tudes, stated in the order flown, which are to be
maintained until reaching a specific point or time.
Altitude restrictions may be issued by ATC due to
traffic, terrain, or other airspace considerations.
ALTITUDE RESTRICTIONS ARE CANCELED−
Adherence to previously imposed altitude restric­
tions is no longer required during a climb or descent.
ALTRV−
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
AMVER−
(See AUTOMATED MUTUAL-ASSISTANCE
VESSEL RESCUE SYSTEM.)
APB−
(See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION
BOUNDARY.)
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
APD−
APPROACH SEQUENCE [ICAO]− The order in
which two or more aircraft are cleared to approach to
land at the aerodrome.
(See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION.)
APDIA−
(See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION
INHIBITED AREA.)
APPROACH CLEARANCE− Authorization by
ATC for a pilot to conduct an instrument approach.
The type of instrument approach for which a
clearance and other pertinent information is provided
in the approach clearance when required.
(See CLEARED APPROACH.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY− A terminal
ATC facility that provides approach control service in
a terminal area.
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
(See RADAR APPROACH CONTROL
FACILITY.)
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE− Air traffic
control service provided by an approach control
facility for arriving and departing VFR/IFR aircraft
and, on occasion, en route aircraft. At some airports
not served by an approach control facility, the
ARTCC provides limited approach control service.
(See ICAO term APPROACH CONTROL
SERVICE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− Air
traffic control service for arriving or departing
controlled flights.
APPROACH GATE− An imaginary point used
within ATC as a basis for vectoring aircraft to the
final approach course. The gate will be established
along the final approach course 1 mile from the final
approach fix on the side away from the airport and
will be no closer than 5 miles from the landing
threshold.
APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEM−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
APPROACH SEQUENCE− The order in which
aircraft are positioned while on approach or awaiting
approach clearance.
(See LANDING SEQUENCE.)
(See ICAO term APPROACH SEQUENCE.)
APPROACH SPEED− The recommended speed
contained in aircraft manuals used by pilots when
making an approach to landing. This speed will vary
for different segments of an approach as well as for
aircraft weight and configuration.
APPROPRIATE ATS AUTHORITY [ICAO]− The
relevant authority designated by the State responsible
for providing air traffic services in the airspace
concerned. In the United States, the “appropriate ATS
authority” is the Program Director for Air Traffic
Planning and Procedures, ATP-1.
APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY−
a. Regarding flight over the high seas: the relevant
authority is the State of Registry.
b. Regarding flight over other than the high seas:
the relevant authority is the State having sovereignty
over the territory being overflown.
APPROPRIATE OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
MINIMUM ALTITUDE− Any of the following:
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
APPROPRIATE TERRAIN CLEARANCE
MINIMUM ALTITUDE− Any of the following:
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
APRON− A defined area on an airport or heliport
intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of
loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling,
parking, or maintenance. With regard to seaplanes, a
ramp is used for access to the apron from the water.
(See ICAO term APRON.)
APRON [ICAO]− A defined area, on a land
aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for
purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or
cargo, refueling, parking or maintenance.
ARC− The track over the ground of an aircraft flying
at a constant distance from a navigational aid by
reference to distance measuring equipment (DME).
PCG A−11
Pilot/Controller Glossary
AREA CONTROL CENTER [ICAO]− An air traffic
control facility primarily responsible for ATC
services being provided IFR aircraft during the en
route phase of flight. The U.S. equivalent facility is
an air route traffic control center (ARTCC).
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)− A method of
navigation which permits aircraft operation on any
desired flight path within the coverage of ground− or
space−based navigation aids or within the limits of
the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination
of these.
Note: Area navigation includes performance−
based navigation as well as other operations that
do not meet the definition of performance−based
navigation.
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) APPROACH
CONFIGURATION:
a. STANDARD T− An RNAV approach whose
design allows direct flight to any one of three initial
approach fixes (IAF) and eliminates the need for
procedure turns. The standard design is to align the
procedure on the extended centerline with the missed
approach point (MAP) at the runway threshold, the
final approach fix (FAF), and the initial approach/
intermediate fix (IAF/IF). The other two IAFs will be
established perpendicular to the IF.
b. MODIFIED T− An RNAV approach design for
single or multiple runways where terrain or
operational constraints do not allow for the standard
T. The “T” may be modified by increasing or
decreasing the angle from the corner IAF(s) to the IF
or by eliminating one or both corner IAFs.
c. STANDARD I− An RNAV approach design for
a single runway with both corner IAFs eliminated.
Course reversal or radar vectoring may be required at
busy terminals with multiple runways.
d. TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA (TAA)− The
TAA is controlled airspace established in conjunction
with the Standard or Modified T and I RNAV
approach configurations. In the standard TAA, there
are three areas: straight-in, left base, and right base.
The arc boundaries of the three areas of the TAA are
published portions of the approach and allow aircraft
to transition from the en route structure direct to the
nearest IAF. TAAs will also eliminate or reduce
feeder routes, departure extensions, and procedure
turns or course reversal.
PCG A−12
4/3/14
1. STRAIGHT-IN AREA− A 30NM arc
centered on the IF bounded by a straight line
extending through the IF perpendicular to the
intermediate course.
2. LEFT BASE AREA− A 30NM arc centered
on the right corner IAF. The area shares a boundary
with the straight-in area except that it extends out for
30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side
by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the
arc.
3. RIGHT BASE AREA− A 30NM arc centered
on the left corner IAF. The area shares a boundary
with the straight-in area except that it extends out for
30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side
by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the
arc.
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) GLOBAL
POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) PRECISION
RUNWAY MONITORING (PRM) APPROACH − A
GPS approach, which requires vertical guidance,
used in lieu of an ILS PRM approach to conduct
approaches to parallel runways whose extended
centerlines are separated by less than 4,300 feet and
at least 3,000 feet, where closely spaced independent
approaches are permitted. Also used in lieu of an ILS
PRM and/or LDA PRM approach to conduct
Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA)
operations.
ARINC− An acronym for Aeronautical Radio, Inc.,
a corporation largely owned by a group of airlines.
ARINC is licensed by the FCC as an aeronautical
station and contracted by the FAA to provide
communications support for air traffic control and
meteorological services in portions of international
airspace.
ARMY AVIATION FLIGHT INFORMATION
BULLETIN− A bulletin that provides air operation
data covering Army, National Guard, and Army
Reserve aviation activities.
ARO−
(See AIRPORT RESERVATION OFFICE.)
ARRESTING SYSTEM− A safety device consisting
of two major components, namely, engaging or
catching devices and energy absorption devices for
the purpose of arresting both tailhook and/or
nontailhook-equipped aircraft. It is used to prevent
aircraft from overrunning runways when the aircraft
cannot be stopped after landing or during aborted
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
takeoff. Arresting systems have various names; e.g.,
arresting gear, hook device, wire barrier cable.
(See ABORT.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL− An internally
generated program in hundredths of minutes based
upon the AAR. AAI is the desired optimum interval
between successive arrival aircraft over the vertex.
ARRIVAL CENTER− The ARTCC having jurisdic­
tion for the impacted airport.
ARRIVAL DELAY− A parameter which specifies a
period of time in which no aircraft will be metered for
arrival at the specified airport.
ARRIVAL SECTOR− An operational control sector
containing one or more meter fixes.
ARRIVAL SECTOR ADVISORY LIST− An
ordered list of data on arrivals displayed at the
PVD/MDM of the sector which controls the meter
fix.
ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM− The auto­
mated program designed to assist in sequencing
aircraft destined for the same airport.
ARRIVAL TIME− The time an aircraft touches down
on arrival.
ARSR−
(See AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
ARTCC−
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
ARTS−
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL
SYSTEMS.)
ASDA−
(See ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE
AVAILABLE.)
ASDA [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term ACCELERATE-STOP
DISTANCE AVAILABLE.)
ASDE−
(See AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION
EQUIPMENT.)
ASF−
(See AIRPORT STREAM FILTER.)
ASLAR−
(See AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND
RECOVERY.)
ASP−
(See ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM.)
ASR−
(See AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
ASR APPROACH−
(See SURVEILLANCE APPROACH.)
ASSOCIATED− A radar target displaying a data
block with flight identification and altitude
information.
(See UNASSOCIATED.)
ATC−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
ATC ADVISES− Used to prefix a message of
noncontrol information when it is relayed to an
aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.
(See ADVISORY.)
ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE− Airspace of defined
vertical/lateral limits, assigned by ATC, for the
purpose of providing air traffic segregation between
the specified activities being conducted within the
assigned airspace and other IFR air traffic.
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
ATC CLEARANCE−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE.)
ATC CLEARS− Used to prefix an ATC clearance
when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air
traffic controller.
ATC INSTRUCTIONS− Directives issued by air
traffic control for the purpose of requiring a pilot to
take specific actions; e.g., “Turn left heading two five
zero,” “Go around,” “Clear the runway.”
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
ATC PREFERRED ROUTE NOTIFICATION−
URET notification to the appropriate controller of the
need to determine if an ATC preferred route needs to
be applied, based on destination airport.
(See ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION.)
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
ATC PREFERRED ROUTES− Preferred routes that
are not automatically applied by Host.
ATC REQUESTS− Used to prefix an ATC request
when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air
traffic controller.
PCG A−13
Pilot/Controller Glossary
ATC SECURITY SERVICES − Communications
and security tracking provided by an ATC facility in
support of the DHS, the DOD, or other Federal
security elements in the interest of national security.
Such security services are only applicable within
designated areas. ATC security services do not
include ATC basic radar services or flight following.
ATC SECURITY SERVICES POSITION − The
position responsible for providing ATC security
services as defined. This position does not provide
ATC, IFR separation, or VFR flight following
services, but is responsible for providing security
services in an area comprising airspace assigned to
one or more ATC operating sectors. This position
may be combined with control positions.
ATC SECURITY TRACKING − The continuous
tracking of aircraft movement by an ATC facility in
support of the DHS, the DOD, or other security
elements for national security using radar (i.e., radar
tracking) or other means (e.g., manual tracking)
without providing basic radar services (including
traffic advisories) or other ATC services not defined
in this section.
ATCAA−
(See ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE.)
ATCRBS−
(See RADAR.)
ATCSCC−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND CENTER.)
ATCT−
(See TOWER.)
ATD−
(See ALONG−TRACK DISTANCE.)
ATIS−
(See AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION
SERVICE.)
ATIS [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term AUTOMATIC TERMINAL
INFORMATION SERVICE.)
ATS ROUTE [ICAO]− A specified route designed for
channelling the flow of traffic as necessary for the
provision of air traffic services.
Note: The term “ATS Route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or
uncontrolled route, arrival or departure, etc.
PCG A−14
4/3/14
AUTOLAND APPROACH− An autoland approach
is a precision instrument approach to touchdown and,
in some cases, through the landing rollout. An
autoland approach is performed by the aircraft
autopilot which is receiving position information
and/or steering commands from onboard navigation
equipment.
Note: Autoland and coupled approaches are flown
in VFR and IFR. It is common for carriers to require
their crews to fly coupled approaches and autoland
approaches (if certified) when the weather conditions are less than approximately 4,000 RVR.
(See COUPLED APPROACH.)
AUTOMATED INFORMATION TRANSFER− A
precoordinated process, specifically defined in
facility directives, during which a transfer of altitude
control and/or radar identification is accomplished
without verbal coordination between controllers
using information communicated in a full data block.
AUTOMATED MUTUAL-ASSISTANCE VESSEL
RESCUE SYSTEM− A facility which can deliver, in
a matter of minutes, a surface picture (SURPIC) of
vessels in the area of a potential or actual search and
rescue incident, including their predicted positions
and their characteristics.
(See FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−6−4, INFLIGHT
CONTINGENCIES.)
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION (APD)−
An Automation Processing capability that compares
trajectories in order to predict conflicts.
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION
BOUNDARY (APB)− The adapted distance beyond
a facilities boundary defining the airspace within
which URET performs conflict detection.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION IN­
HIBITED AREA (APDIA)− Airspace surrounding a
terminal area within which APD is inhibited for all
flights within that airspace.
AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL SYSTEMS
(ARTS)− A generic term for several tracking systems
included in the Terminal Automation Systems (TAS).
ARTS plus a suffix roman numeral denotes a major
modification to that system.
a. ARTS IIIA. The Radar Tracking and Beacon
Tracking Level (RT&BTL) of the modular,
programmable automated radar terminal system.
ARTS IIIA detects, tracks, and predicts primary as
well as secondary radar-derived aircraft targets. This
4/3/14
more sophisticated computer-driven system up­
grades the existing ARTS III system by providing
improved tracking, continuous data recording, and
fail-soft capabilities.
b. Common ARTS. Includes ARTS IIE, ARTS
IIIE; and ARTS IIIE with ACD (see DTAS) which
combines functionalities of the previous ARTS
systems.
c. Programmable Indicator Data Processor
(PIDP). The PIDP is a modification to the
AN/TPX−42 interrogator system currently installed
in fixed RAPCONs. The PIDP detects, tracks, and
predicts secondary radar aircraft targets. These are
displayed by means of computer−generated symbols
and alphanumeric characters depicting flight identifi­
cation, aircraft altitude, ground speed, and flight plan
data. Although primary radar targets are not tracked,
they are displayed coincident with the secondary
radar targets as well as with the other symbols and
alphanumerics. The system has the capability of
interfacing with ARTCCs.
AUTOMATED WEATHER SYSTEM− Any of the
automated weather sensor platforms that collect
weather data at airports and disseminate the weather
information via radio and/or landline. The systems
currently consist of the Automated Surface Observ­
ing System (ASOS), Automated Weather Sensor
System (AWSS) and Automated Weather Observa­
tion System (AWOS).
AUTOMATED UNICOM− Provides completely
automated weather, radio check capability and airport
advisory information on an Automated UNICOM
system. These systems offer a variety of features,
typically selectable by microphone clicks, on the
UNICOM frequency. Availability will be published
in the Airport/Facility Directory and approach charts.
AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORT−
(See ALTITUDE READOUT.)
AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORTING− That
function of a transponder which responds to Mode C
interrogations by transmitting the aircraft’s altitude
in 100-foot increments.
AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING SYSTEM−
U.S. Navy final approach equipment consisting of
precision tracking radar coupled to a computer data
link to provide continuous information to the aircraft,
monitoring capability to the pilot, and a backup
approach system.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE
(ADS) [ICAO]− A surveillance technique in which
aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data
derived from on−board navigation and position
fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four
dimensional position and additional data as
appropriate.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE−
BROADCAST (ADS-B)− A surveillance system in
which an aircraft or vehicle to be detected is fitted
with cooperative equipment in the form of a data link
transmitter. The aircraft or vehicle periodically
broadcasts its GPS−derived position and other
information such as velocity over the data link, which
is received by a ground−based transmitter/receiver
(transceiver) for processing and display at an air
traffic control facility.
(See GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.)
(See GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER.)
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE−
CONTRACT (ADS−C)− A data link position
reporting system, controlled by a ground station, that
establishes contracts with an aircraft’s avionics that
occur automatically whenever specific events occur,
or specific time intervals are reached.
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER− An aircraft
radio navigation system which senses and indicates
the direction to a L/MF nondirectional radio beacon
(NDB) ground transmitter. Direction is indicated to
the pilot as a magnetic bearing or as a relative bearing
to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft depending on
the type of indicator installed in the aircraft. In certain
applications, such as military, ADF operations may
be based on airborne and ground transmitters in the
VHF/UHF frequency spectrum.
(See BEARING.)
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
AUTOMATIC
FLIGHT INFORMATION
SERVICE (AFIS) − ALASKA FSSs ONLY− The
continuous broadcast of recorded non−control
information at airports in Alaska where a FSS
provides local airport advisory service. The AFIS
broadcast automates the repetitive transmission of
essential but routine information such as weather,
wind, altimeter, favored runway, breaking action,
airport NOTAMs, and other applicable information.
The information is continuously broadcast over a
discrete VHF radio frequency (usually the ASOS/
AWSS/AWOS frequency.)
PCG A−15
Pilot/Controller Glossary
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION
SERVICE− The continuous broadcast of recorded
noncontrol information in selected terminal areas. Its
purpose is to improve controller effectiveness and to
relieve frequency congestion by automating the
repetitive transmission of essential but routine
information; e.g., “Los Angeles information Alfa.
One three zero zero Coordinated Universal Time.
Weather, measured ceiling two thousand overcast,
visibility three, haze, smoke, temperature seven one,
dew point five seven, wind two five zero at five,
altimeter two niner niner six. I-L-S Runway Two Five
Left approach in use, Runway Two Five Right closed,
advise you have Alfa.”
(See ICAO term AUTOMATIC TERMINAL
INFORMATION SERVICE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION
SERVICE [ICAO]− The provision of current, routine
information to arriving and departing aircraft by
means of continuous and repetitive broadcasts
throughout the day or a specified portion of the day.
4/3/14
100 feet AGL and is used primarily for tactical
military training.
c. 180 degrees Autorotation. Initiated from a
downwind heading and is commenced well inside the
normal traffic pattern. “Go around” may not be
possible during the latter part of this maneuver.
AVAILABLE LANDING DISTANCE (ALD)− The
portion of a runway available for landing and roll-out
for aircraft cleared for LAHSO. This distance is
measured from the landing threshold to the
hold-short point.
AVIATION WEATHER SERVICE− A service
provided by the National Weather Service (NWS) and
FAA which collects and disseminates pertinent
weather information for pilots, aircraft operators, and
ATC. Available aviation weather reports and
forecasts are displayed at each NWS office and FAA
FSS.
(See EN ROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY
SERVICE.)
(See TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST.)
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AUTOROTATION− A rotorcraft flight condition in
which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of
the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.
AWW−
a. Autorotative Landing/Touchdown Autorota­
tion. Used by a pilot to indicate that the landing will
be made without applying power to the rotor.
AZIMUTH (MLS)− A magnetic bearing extending
from an MLS navigation facility.
b. Low Level Autorotation. Commences at an
altitude well below the traffic pattern, usually below
PCG A−16
(See SEVERE WEATHER FORECAST
ALERTS.)
Note: Azimuth bearings are described as magnetic
and are referred to as “azimuth” in radio telephone
communications.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
B
BACK-TAXI− A term used by air traffic controllers
to taxi an aircraft on the runway opposite to the traffic
flow. The aircraft may be instructed to back-taxi to
the beginning of the runway or at some point before
reaching the runway end for the purpose of departure
or to exit the runway.
BLIND VELOCITY [ICAO]− The radial velocity of
a moving target such that the target is not seen on
primary radars fitted with certain forms of fixed echo
suppression.
BASE LEG−
BLOCKED− Phraseology used to indicate that a
radio transmission has been distorted or interrupted
due to multiple simultaneous radio transmissions.
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
BEACON−
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
AERONAUTICAL BEACON.)
AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON.)
AIRWAY BEACON.)
MARKER BEACON.)
NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
RADAR.)
BEARING− The horizontal direction to or from any
point, usually measured clockwise from true north,
magnetic north, or some other reference point
through 360 degrees.
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
BELOW MINIMUMS− Weather conditions below
the minimums prescribed by regulation for the
particular action involved; e.g., landing minimums,
takeoff minimums.
BLAST FENCE− A barrier that is used to divert or
dissipate jet or propeller blast.
BLAST PAD− A surface adjacent to the ends of a
runway provided to reduce the erosive effect of jet
blast and propeller wash.
BLIND SPEED− The rate of departure or closing of
a target relative to the radar antenna at which
cancellation of the primary radar target by moving
target indicator (MTI) circuits in the radar equipment
causes a reduction or complete loss of signal.
(See ICAO term BLIND VELOCITY.)
BLIND SPOT− An area from which radio
transmissions and/or radar echoes cannot be
received. The term is also used to describe portions
of the airport not visible from the control tower.
BLIND TRANSMISSION−
(See TRANSMITTING IN THE BLIND.)
BLIND ZONE−
(See BLIND SPOT.)
BOTTOM ALTITUDE– In reference to published
altitude restrictions on a STAR or STAR runway
transition, the lowest altitude authorized.
BOUNDARY LIGHTS−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
BRAKING ACTION (GOOD, FAIR, POOR, OR
NIL)− A report of conditions on the airport
movement area providing a pilot with a degree/
quality of braking that he/she might expect. Braking
action is reported in terms of good, fair, poor, or nil.
(See RUNWAY CONDITION READING.)
BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES− When tower
controllers have received runway braking action
reports which include the terms “fair,” “poor,” or
“nil,” or whenever weather conditions are conducive
to deteriorating or rapidly changing runway braking
conditions, the tower will include on the ATIS
broadcast the statement, “Braking action advisories
are in effect” on the ATIS broadcast. During the time
braking action advisories are in effect, ATC will issue
the latest braking action report for the runway in use
to each arriving and departing aircraft. Pilots should
be prepared for deteriorating braking conditions and
should request current runway condition information
if not volunteered by controllers. Pilots should also
be prepared to provide a descriptive runway
condition report to controllers after landing.
BREAKOUT− A technique to direct aircraft out of
the approach stream. In the context of close parallel
operations, a breakout is used to direct threatened
aircraft away from a deviating aircraft.
BROADCAST− Transmission of information for
which an acknowledgement is not expected.
(See ICAO term BROADCAST.)
PCG B−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
BROADCAST [ICAO]− A transmission of informa­
tion relating to air navigation that is not addressed to
a specific station or stations.
PCG B−2
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
C
CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A term that may
be used in place of tentative or actual calculated
landing time, whichever applies.
CENRAP-PLUS−
CALL FOR RELEASE− Wherein the overlying
ARTCC requires a terminal facility to initiate verbal
coordination to secure ARTCC approval for release
of a departure into the en route environment.
CENTER−
CALL UP− Initial voice contact between a facility
and an aircraft, using the identification of the unit
being called and the unit initiating the call.
(Refer to AIM.)
CANADIAN MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFOR­
MANCE SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE− That
portion of Canadian domestic airspace within which
MNPS separation may be applied.
CARDINAL ALTITUDES− “Odd” or “Even”
thousand-foot altitudes or flight levels; e.g., 5,000,
6,000, 7,000, FL 250, FL 260, FL 270.
(See ALTITUDE.)
(See FLIGHT LEVEL.)
CARDINAL FLIGHT LEVELS−
(See CARDINAL ALTITUDES.)
CAT−
(See CLEAR-AIR TURBULENCE.)
CATCH POINT− A fix/waypoint that serves as a
transition point from the high altitude waypoint
navigation structure to an arrival procedure (STAR)
or the low altitude ground−based navigation
structure.
CEILING− The heights above the earth’s surface of
the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena
that is reported as “broken,” “overcast,” or
“obscuration,” and not classified as “thin” or
“partial.”
(See ICAO term CEILING.)
CEILING [ICAO]− The height above the ground or
water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below
6,000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half
the sky.
CENRAP−
(See CENTER RADAR ARTS
PRESENTATION/PROCESSING.)
(See CENTER RADAR ARTS
PRESENTATION/PROCESSING-PLUS.)
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
CENTER’S AREA− The specified airspace within
which an air route traffic control center (ARTCC)
provides air traffic control and advisory service.
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CENTER RADAR ARTS PRESENTATION/
PROCESSING− A computer program developed to
provide a back-up system for airport surveillance
radar in the event of a failure or malfunction. The
program uses air route traffic control center radar for
the processing and presentation of data on the ARTS
IIA or IIIA displays.
CENTER RADAR ARTS PRESENTATION/
PROCESSING-PLUS− A computer program
developed to provide a back-up system for airport
surveillance radar in the event of a terminal secondary
radar system failure. The program uses a combination
of Air Route Traffic Control Center Radar and
terminal airport surveillance radar primary targets
displayed simultaneously for the processing and
presentation of data on the ARTS IIA or IIIA
displays.
CENTER TRACON AUTOMATION SYSTEM
(CTAS)− A computerized set of programs designed
to aid Air Route Traffic Control Centers and
TRACONs in the management and control of air
traffic.
CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY− An unsched­
uled weather advisory issued by Center Weather
Service Unit meteorologists for ATC use to alert
pilots of existing or anticipated adverse weather
conditions within the next 2 hours. A CWA may
modify or redefine a SIGMET.
(See AWW.)
(See AIRMET.)
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
(See SIGMET.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PCG C−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
CENTRAL EAST PACIFIC− An organized route
system between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii.
CEP−
(See CENTRAL EAST PACIFIC.)
CERAP−
(See COMBINED CENTER-RAPCON.)
CERTIFIED TOWER RADAR DISPLAY (CTRD)−
A FAA radar display certified for use in the NAS.
CFR−
(See CALL FOR RELEASE.)
CHAFF− Thin, narrow metallic reflectors of various
lengths and frequency responses, used to reflect radar
energy. These reflectors when dropped from aircraft
and allowed to drift downward result in large targets
on the radar display.
CHARTED VFR FLYWAYS− Charted VFR Fly­
ways are flight paths recommended for use to bypass
areas heavily traversed by large turbine-powered
aircraft. Pilot compliance with recommended
flyways and associated altitudes is strictly voluntary.
VFR Flyway Planning charts are published on the
back of existing VFR Terminal Area charts.
CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE
APPROACH− An approach conducted while
operating on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight
plan which authorizes the pilot of an aircraft to
proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport via
visual landmarks and other information depicted on
a charted visual flight procedure. This approach must
be authorized and under the control of the appropriate
air traffic control facility. Weather minimums
required are depicted on the chart.
CHASE− An aircraft flown in proximity to another
aircraft normally to observe its performance during
training or testing.
CHASE AIRCRAFT−
(See CHASE.)
CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER− A maneuver
initiated by the pilot to align the aircraft with a
runway for landing when a straight-in landing from
an instrument approach is not possible or is not
desirable. At tower controlled airports, this maneuver
is made only after ATC authorization has been
PCG C−2
4/3/14
obtained and the pilot has established required visual
reference to the airport.
(See CIRCLE TO RUNWAY.)
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CIRCLE TO RUNWAY (RUNWAY NUMBER)−
Used by ATC to inform the pilot that he/she must
circle to land because the runway in use is other than
the runway aligned with the instrument approach
procedure. When the direction of the circling
maneuver in relation to the airport/runway is
required, the controller will state the direction (eight
cardinal compass points) and specify a left or right
downwind or base leg as appropriate; e.g., “Cleared
VOR Runway Three Six Approach circle to Runway
Two Two,” or “Circle northwest of the airport for a
right downwind to Runway Two Two.”
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CIRCLING APPROACH−
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
CIRCLING MANEUVER−
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
CIRCLING MINIMA−
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
CLASS A AIRSPACE−
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
CLASS B AIRSPACE−
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
CLASS C AIRSPACE−
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
CLASS D AIRSPACE−
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
CLASS E AIRSPACE−
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
CLASS G AIRSPACE− That airspace not designated
as Class A, B, C, D or E.
CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE (CAT)− Turbulence
encountered in air where no clouds are present. This
term is commonly applied to high-level turbulence
associated with wind shear. CAT is often encountered
in the vicinity of the jet stream.
(See WIND SHEAR.)
(See JET STREAM.)
CLEAR OF THE RUNWAY−
a. Taxiing aircraft, which is approaching a
runway, is clear of the runway when all parts of the
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
aircraft are held short of the applicable runway
holding position marking.
b. A pilot or controller may consider an aircraft,
which is exiting or crossing a runway, to be clear of
the runway when all parts of the aircraft are beyond
the runway edge and there are no restrictions to its
continued movement beyond the applicable runway
holding position marking.
c. Pilots and controllers shall exercise good
judgement to ensure that adequate separation exists
between all aircraft on runways and taxiways at
airports with inadequate runway edge lines or
holding position markings.
CLEARANCE−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE.)
CLEARANCE LIMIT− The fix, point, or location to
which an aircraft is cleared when issued an air traffic
clearance.
(See ICAO term CLEARANCE LIMIT.)
CLEARANCE LIMIT [ICAO]− The point to which
an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance.
CLEARANCE VOID IF NOT OFF BY (TIME)−
Used by ATC to advise an aircraft that the departure
clearance is automatically canceled if takeoff is not
made prior to a specified time. The pilot must obtain
a new clearance or cancel his/her IFR flight plan if not
off by the specified time.
(See ICAO term CLEARANCE VOID TIME.)
CLEARANCE VOID TIME [ICAO]− A time
specified by an air traffic control unit at which a
clearance ceases to be valid unless the aircraft
concerned has already taken action to comply
therewith.
CLEARED APPROACH− ATC authorization for an
aircraft to execute any standard or special instrument
approach procedure for that airport. Normally, an
aircraft will be cleared for a specific instrument
approach procedure.
(See CLEARED (Type of) APPROACH.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLEARED (Type of) APPROACH− ATC authoriza­
tion for an aircraft to execute a specific instrument
approach procedure to an airport; e.g., “Cleared ILS
Runway Three Six Approach.”
(See APPROACH CLEARANCE.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLEARED AS FILED− Means the aircraft is cleared
to proceed in accordance with the route of flight filed
in the flight plan. This clearance does not include the
altitude, DP, or DP Transition.
(See REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF− ATC authorization
for an aircraft to depart. It is predicated on known
traffic and known physical airport conditions.
CLEARED FOR THE OPTION− ATC authoriza­
tion for an aircraft to make a touch-and-go, low
approach, missed approach, stop and go, or full stop
landing at the discretion of the pilot. It is normally
used in training so that an instructor can evaluate a
student’s performance under changing situations.
(See OPTION APPROACH.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLEARED THROUGH− ATC authorization for an
aircraft to make intermediate stops at specified
airports without refiling a flight plan while en route
to the clearance limit.
CLEARED TO LAND− ATC authorization for an
aircraft to land. It is predicated on known traffic and
known physical airport conditions.
CLEARWAY− An area beyond the takeoff runway
under the control of airport authorities within which
terrain or fixed obstacles may not extend above
specified limits. These areas may be required for
certain turbine-powered operations and the size and
upward slope of the clearway will differ depending on
when the aircraft was certificated.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 1.)
CLIMB TO VFR− ATC authorization for an aircraft
to climb to VFR conditions within Class B, C, D, and
E surface areas when the only weather limitation is
restricted visibility. The aircraft must remain clear of
clouds while climbing to VFR.
(See SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLIMBOUT− That portion of flight operation
between takeoff and the initial cruising altitude.
PCG C−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
CLIMB VIA– An abbreviated ATC clearance that
requires compliance with the procedure lateral path,
associated speed restrictions, and altitude restrictions
along the cleared route or procedure.
CLOSE PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Two parallel
runways whose extended centerlines are separated by
less than 4,300 feet, having a Precision Runway
Monitoring (PRM) system that permits simultaneous
independent ILS approaches.
CLOSED RUNWAY− A runway that is unusable for
aircraft operations. Only the airport management/
military operations office can close a runway.
CLOSED TRAFFIC− Successive operations involv­
ing takeoffs and landings or low approaches where
the aircraft does not exit the traffic pattern.
CLOUD− A cloud is a visible accumulation of
minute water droplets and/or ice particles in the
atmosphere above the Earth’s surface. Cloud differs
from ground fog, fog, or ice fog only in that the latter
are, by definition, in contact with the Earth’s surface.
COMBINED CENTER-RAPCON− An air traffic
facility which combines the functions of an ARTCC
and a radar approach control facility.
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
(See RADAR APPROACH CONTROL
FACILITY.)
COMMON POINT− A significant point over which
two or more aircraft will report passing or have
reported passing before proceeding on the same or
diverging tracks. To establish/maintain longitudinal
separation, a controller may determine a common
point not originally in the aircraft’s flight plan and
then clear the aircraft to fly over the point.
(See SIGNIFICANT POINT.)
COMMON PORTION−
(See COMMON ROUTE.)
COMMON ROUTE− That segment of a North
American Route between the inland navigation
facility and the coastal fix.
OR
CLT−
(See CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
CLUTTER− In radar operations, clutter refers to the
reception and visual display of radar returns caused
by precipitation, chaff, terrain, numerous aircraft
targets, or other phenomena. Such returns may limit
or preclude ATC from providing services based on
radar.
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
4/3/14
CHAFF.)
GROUND CLUTTER.)
PRECIPITATION.)
TARGET.)
ICAO term RADAR CLUTTER.)
CMNPS−
(See CANADIAN MINIMUM NAVIGATION
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE.)
COASTAL FIX− A navigation aid or intersection
where an aircraft transitions between the domestic
route structure and the oceanic route structure.
CODES− The number assigned to a particular
multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by a
transponder.
(See DISCRETE CODE.)
PCG C−4
COMMON ROUTE− Typically the portion of a
RNAV STAR between the en route transition end
point and the runway transition start point; however,
the common route may only consist of a single point
that joins the en route and runway transitions.
COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY
(CTAF)− A frequency designed for the purpose of
carrying out airport advisory practices while
operating to or from an airport without an operating
control tower. The CTAF may be a UNICOM,
Multicom, FSS, or tower frequency and is identified
in appropriate aeronautical publications.
(Refer to AC 90-42, Traffic Advisory Practices at
Airports Without Operating Control Towers.)
COMPASS LOCATOR− A low power, low or
medium frequency (L/MF) radio beacon installed at
the site of the outer or middle marker of an instrument
landing system (ILS). It can be used for navigation at
distances of approximately 15 miles or as authorized
in the approach procedure.
a. Outer Compass Locator (LOM)− A compass
locator installed at the site of the outer marker of an
instrument landing system.
(See OUTER MARKER.)
4/3/14
b. Middle Compass Locator (LMM)− A compass
locator installed at the site of the middle marker of an
instrument landing system.
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
(See ICAO term LOCATOR.)
COMPASS ROSE− A circle, graduated in degrees,
printed on some charts or marked on the ground at an
airport. It is used as a reference to either true or
magnetic direction.
COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS− An ATC
instruction that requires an aircraft being vectored
back onto an arrival or departure procedure to comply
with all altitude and/or speed restrictions depicted on
the procedure. This term may be used in lieu of
repeating each remaining restriction that appears on
the procedure.
COMPOSITE FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan which
specifies VFR operation for one portion of flight and
IFR for another portion. It is used primarily in
military operations.
(Refer to AIM.)
COMPOSITE ROUTE SYSTEM− An organized
oceanic route structure, incorporating reduced lateral
spacing between routes, in which composite
separation is authorized.
COMPOSITE SEPARATION− A method of separat­
ing aircraft in a composite route system where, by
management of route and altitude assignments, a
combination of half the lateral minimum specified for
the area concerned and half the vertical minimum is
applied.
COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS− Reporting
points which must be reported to ATC. They are
designated on aeronautical charts by solid triangles or
filed in a flight plan as fixes selected to define direct
routes. These points are geographical locations
which are defined by navigation aids/fixes. Pilots
should discontinue position reporting over compul­
sory reporting points when informed by ATC that
their aircraft is in “radar contact.”
CONFIDENCE MANEUVER− A confidence man­
euver consists of one or more turns, a climb or
descent, or other maneuver to determine if the pilot
in command (PIC) is able to receive and comply with
ATC instructions.
CONFLICT ALERT− A function of certain air traffic
control automated systems designed to alert radar
Pilot/Controller Glossary
controllers to existing or pending situations between
tracked targets (known IFR or VFR aircraft) that
require his/her immediate attention/action.
(See MODE C INTRUDER ALERT.)
CONFLICT RESOLUTION− The resolution of
potential conflictions between aircraft that are radar
identified and in communication with ATC by
ensuring that radar targets do not touch. Pertinent
traffic advisories shall be issued when this procedure
is applied.
Note: This procedure shall not be provided utilizing
mosaic radar systems.
CONFORMANCE− The condition established when
an aircraft’s actual position is within the conformance
region constructed around that aircraft at its position,
according to the trajectory associated with the
aircraft’s Current Plan.
CONFORMANCE REGION− A volume, bounded
laterally, vertically, and longitudinally, within which
an aircraft must be at a given time in order to be in
conformance with the Current Plan Trajectory for that
aircraft. At a given time, the conformance region is
determined by the simultaneous application of the
lateral, vertical, and longitudinal conformance
bounds for the aircraft at the position defined by time
and aircraft’s trajectory.
CONSOLAN− A low frequency, long-distance
NAVAID used principally for transoceanic naviga­
tions.
CONTACT−
a. Establish communication with (followed by the
name of the facility and, if appropriate, the frequency
to be used).
b. A flight condition wherein the pilot ascertains
the attitude of his/her aircraft and navigates by visual
reference to the surface.
(See CONTACT APPROACH.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
CONTACT APPROACH− An approach wherein an
aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic
control authorization, operating clear of clouds with
at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable
expectation of continuing to the destination airport in
those conditions, may deviate from the instrument
approach procedure and proceed to the destination
airport by visual reference to the surface. This
approach will only be authorized when requested by
PCG C−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the
destination airport is at least 1 statute mile.
(Refer to AIM.)
CONTAMINATED RUNWAY− A runway is
considered contaminated whenever standing water,
ice, snow, slush, frost in any form, heavy rubber, or
other substances are present. A runway is contami­
nated with respect to rubber deposits or other
friction-degrading substances when the average
friction value for any 500-foot segment of the runway
within the ALD fails below the recommended
minimum friction level and the average friction value
in the adjacent 500-foot segments falls below the
maintenance planning friction level.
CONTERMINOUS U.S.− The 48 adjoining States
and the District of Columbia.
CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES− The 49 States
located on the continent of North America and the
District of Columbia.
CONTINUE− When used as a control instruction
should be followed by another word or words
clarifying what is expected of the pilot. Example:
“continue taxi,” “continue descent,” “continue
inbound,” etc.
CONTROL AREA [ICAO]− A controlled airspace
extending upwards from a specified limit above the
earth.
CONTROL SECTOR− An airspace area of defined
horizontal and vertical dimensions for which a
controller or group of controllers has air traffic
control responsibility, normally within an air route
traffic control center or an approach control facility.
Sectors are established based on predominant traffic
flows, altitude strata, and controller workload.
Pilot-communications during operations within a
sector are normally maintained on discrete frequen­
cies assigned to the sector.
(See DISCRETE FREQUENCY.)
CONTROL SLASH− A radar beacon slash repre­
senting the actual position of the associated aircraft.
Normally, the control slash is the one closest to the
interrogating radar beacon site. When ARTCC radar
is operating in narrowband (digitized) mode, the
control slash is converted to a target symbol.
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE− An airspace of
defined dimensions within which air traffic control
PCG C−6
4/3/14
service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights
in accordance with the airspace classification.
a. Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers
Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E
airspace.
b. Controlled airspace is also that airspace within
which all aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot
qualifications, operating rules, and equipment
requirements in 14 CFR Part 91 (for specific
operating requirements, please refer to 14 CFR
Part 91). For IFR operations in any class of controlled
airspace, a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and
receive an appropriate ATC clearance. Each Class B,
Class C, and Class D airspace area designated for an
airport contains at least one primary airport around
which the airspace is designated (for specific
designations and descriptions of the airspace classes,
please refer to 14 CFR Part 71).
c. Controlled airspace in the United States is
designated as follows:
1. CLASS A− Generally, that airspace from
18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600,
including the airspace overlying the waters within 12
nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States
and Alaska. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons
must operate their aircraft under IFR.
2. CLASS B− Generally, that airspace from the
surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s
busiest airports in terms of airport operations or
passenger enplanements. The configuration of each
Class B airspace area is individually tailored and
consists of a surface area and two or more layers
(some Class B airspaces areas resemble upside-down
wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all
published instrument procedures once an aircraft
enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for
all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that
are so cleared receive separation services within the
airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR
operations is “clear of clouds.”
3. CLASS C− Generally, that airspace from the
surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that
have an operational control tower, are serviced by a
radar approach control, and that have a certain
number of IFR operations or passenger enplane­
ments. Although the configuration of each Class C
area is individually tailored, the airspace usually
consists of a surface area with a 5 nautical mile (NM)
radius, a circle with a 10NM radius that extends no
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the
airport elevation and an outer area that is not charted.
Each person must establish two-way radio commu­
nications with the ATC facility providing air traffic
services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter
maintain those communications while within the
airspace. VFR aircraft are only separated from IFR
aircraft within the airspace.
(See OUTER AREA.)
4. CLASS D− Generally, that airspace from the
surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that
have an operational control tower. The configuration
of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored
and when instrument procedures are published, the
airspace will normally be designed to contain the
procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument
approach procedures may be Class D or Class E
airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each person
must establish two-way radio communications with
the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to
entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those
communications while in the airspace. No separation
services are provided to VFR aircraft.
5. CLASS E− Generally, if the airspace is not
Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and it is
controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace. Class E
airspace extends upward from either the surface or a
designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent
controlled airspace. When designated as a surface
area, the airspace will be configured to contain all
instrument procedures. Also in this class are Federal
airways, airspace beginning at either 700 or 1,200
feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or en
route environment, en route domestic, and offshore
airspace areas designated below 18,000 feet MSL.
Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E
airspace begins at 14,500 MSL over the United
States, including that airspace overlying the waters
within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48
contiguous States and Alaska, up to, but not
including 18,000 feet MSL, and the airspace above
FL 600.
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE [ICAO]− An airspace
of defined dimensions within which air traffic control
service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights
in accordance with the airspace classification.
Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which
covers ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D, and E.
CONTROLLED TIME OF ARRIVAL− Arrival time
assigned during a Traffic Management Program. This
time may be modified due to adjustments or user
options.
CONTROLLER−
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST.)
CONTROLLER [ICAO]− A person authorized to
provide air traffic control services.
CONTROLLER
PILOT
DATA
LINK
COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)− A two−way
digital communications system that conveys textual
air traffic control messages between controllers and
pilots using ground or satellite-based radio relay
stations.
CONVECTIVE SIGMET− A weather advisory
concerning convective weather significant to the
safety of all aircraft. Convective SIGMETs are issued
for tornadoes, lines of thunderstorms, embedded
thunderstorms of any intensity level, areas of
thunderstorms greater than or equal to VIP level 4
with an area coverage of 4/10 (40%) or more, and hail
3/ inch or greater.
4
(See AIRMET.)
(See AWW.)
(See CWA.)
(See SIGMET.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CONVECTIVE SIGNIFICANT METEOROLOG­
ICAL INFORMATION−
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
COORDINATES− The intersection of lines of
reference, usually expressed in degrees/minutes/
seconds of latitude and longitude, used to determine
position or location.
COORDINATION FIX− The fix in relation to which
facilities will handoff, transfer control of an aircraft,
or coordinate flight progress data. For terminal
facilities, it may also serve as a clearance for arriving
aircraft.
COPTER−
(See HELICOPTER.)
CORRECTION− An error has been made in the
transmission and the correct version follows.
COUPLED APPROACH− A coupled approach is an
instrument approach performed by the aircraft
autopilot which is receiving position information
and/or steering commands from onboard navigation
PCG C−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary
equipment. In general, coupled nonprecision approaches must be discontinued and flown manually
at altitudes lower than 50 feet below the minimum
PCG C−8
4/3/14
descent altitude, and coupled precision approaches
must be flown manually below 50 feet AGL.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
Note: Coupled and autoland approaches are flown
in VFR and IFR. It is common for carriers to require
their crews to fly coupled approaches and autoland
approaches (if certified) when the weather
conditions are less than approximately 4,000 RVR.
(See AUTOLAND APPROACH.)
COURSE−
a. The intended direction of flight in the horizontal
plane measured in degrees from north.
b. The ILS localizer signal pattern usually
specified as the front course or the back course.
c. The intended track along a straight, curved, or
segmented MLS path.
(See
(See
(See
(See
BEARING.)
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
RADIAL.)
CPDLC−
(See CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK
COMMUNICATIONS.)
CPL [ICAO]−
(See ICAO term CURRENT FLIGHT PLAN.)
CRITICAL ENGINE− The engine which, upon
failure, would most adversely affect the performance
or handling qualities of an aircraft.
CROSS (FIX) AT (ALTITUDE)− Used by ATC
when a specific altitude restriction at a specified fix
is required.
CROSS (FIX) AT OR ABOVE (ALTITUDE)− Used
by ATC when an altitude restriction at a specified fix
is required. It does not prohibit the aircraft from
crossing the fix at a higher altitude than specified;
however, the higher altitude may not be one that will
violate a succeeding altitude restriction or altitude
assignment.
(See ALTITUDE RESTRICTION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CROSS (FIX) AT OR BELOW (ALTITUDE)−
Used by ATC when a maximum crossing altitude at
a specific fix is required. It does not prohibit the
aircraft from crossing the fix at a lower altitude;
however, it must be at or above the minimum IFR
altitude.
(See ALTITUDE RESTRICTION.)
(See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
CROSSWIND−
a. When used concerning the traffic pattern, the
word means “crosswind leg.”
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
b. When used concerning wind conditions, the
word means a wind not parallel to the runway or the
path of an aircraft.
(See CROSSWIND COMPONENT.)
CROSSWIND COMPONENT− The wind compo­
nent measured in knots at 90 degrees to the
longitudinal axis of the runway.
CRUISE− Used in an ATC clearance to authorize a
pilot to conduct flight at any altitude from the
minimum IFR altitude up to and including the
altitude specified in the clearance. The pilot may
level off at any intermediate altitude within this block
of airspace. Climb/descent within the block is to be
made at the discretion of the pilot. However, once the
pilot starts descent and verbally reports leaving an
altitude in the block, he/she may not return to that
altitude without additional ATC clearance. Further, it
is approval for the pilot to proceed to and make an
approach at destination airport and can be used in
conjunction with:
a. An airport clearance limit at locations with a
standard/special instrument approach procedure. The
CFRs require that if an instrument letdown to an
airport is necessary, the pilot shall make the letdown
in accordance with a standard/special instrument
approach procedure for that airport, or
b. An airport clearance limit at locations that are
within/below/outside controlled airspace and with­
out a standard/special instrument approach
procedure. Such a clearance is NOT AUTHORIZA­
TION for the pilot to descend under IFR conditions
below the applicable minimum IFR altitude nor does
it imply that ATC is exercising control over aircraft
in Class G airspace; however, it provides a means for
the aircraft to proceed to destination airport, descend,
and land in accordance with applicable CFRs
governing VFR flight operations. Also, this provides
search and rescue protection until such time as the
IFR flight plan is closed.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
CRUISE CLIMB− A climb technique employed by
aircraft, usually at a constant power setting, resulting
in an increase of altitude as the aircraft weight
decreases.
PCG C−9
Pilot/Controller Glossary
CRUISING ALTITUDE− An altitude or flight level
maintained during en route level flight. This is a
constant altitude and should not be confused with a
cruise clearance.
(See ALTITUDE.)
(See ICAO term CRUISING LEVEL.)
CRUISING LEVEL−
(See CRUISING ALTITUDE.)
CRUISING LEVEL [ICAO]− A level maintained
during a significant portion of a flight.
CT MESSAGE− An EDCT time generated by the
ATCSCC to regulate traffic at arrival airports.
Normally, a CT message is automatically transferred
from the traffic management system computer to the
NAS en route computer and appears as an EDCT. In
the event of a communication failure between the
traffic management system computer and the NAS,
the CT message can be manually entered by the TMC
at the en route facility.
CTA−
(See CONTROLLED TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
(See ICAO term CONTROL AREA.)
PCG C−10
4/3/14
CTAF−
(See COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY
FREQUENCY.)
CTAS−
(See CENTER TRACON AUTOMATION
SYSTEM.)
CTRD−
(See CERTIFIED TOWER RADAR DISPLAY.)
CURRENT FLIGHT PLAN [ICAO]− The flight
plan, including changes, if any, brought about by
subsequent clearances.
CURRENT PLAN− The ATC clearance the aircraft
has received and is expected to fly.
CVFP APPROACH−
(See CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE
APPROACH.)
CWA−
(See CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY and
WEATHER ADVISORY.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
D
D-ATIS−
(See DIGITAL-AUTOMATIC TERMINAL
INFORMATION SERVICE.)
DA [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term DECISION
ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT.)
DAIR−
(See DIRECT ALTITUDE AND IDENTITY
READOUT.)
DANGER AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of defined
dimensions within which activities dangerous to the
flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.
Note: The term “Danger Area” is not used in
reference to areas within the United States or any
of its possessions or territories.
DAS−
(See DELAY ASSIGNMENT.)
DATA BLOCK−
(See ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY.)
DEAD RECKONING− Dead reckoning, as applied
to flying, is the navigation of an airplane solely by
means of computations based on airspeed, course,
heading, wind direction, and speed, groundspeed,
and elapsed time.
DECISION ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT
[ICAO]− A specified altitude or height (A/H) in the
precision approach at which a missed approach must
be initiated if the required visual reference to
continue the approach has not been established.
Note 1: Decision altitude [DA] is referenced to
mean sea level [MSL] and decision height [DH] is
referenced to the threshold elevation.
Note 2: The required visual reference means that
section of the visual aids or of the approach area
which should have been in view for sufficient time
for the pilot to have made an assessment of the
aircraft position and rate of change of position, in
relation to the desired flight path.
DECISION HEIGHT− With respect to the operation
of aircraft, means the height at which a decision must
be made during an ILS, MLS, or PAR instrument
approach to either continue the approach or to execute
a missed approach.
(See ICAO term DECISION
ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT.)
DECODER− The device used to decipher signals
received from ATCRBS transponders to effect their
display as select codes.
(See CODES.)
(See RADAR.)
DEFENSE AREA- Any airspace of the contiguous
United States that is not an ADIZ in which the control
of aircraft is required for reasons of national security.
DEFENSE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES− Rules
applicable to flights within an ADIZ conducted under
the visual flight rules in 14 CFR Part 91.
(See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 99.)
DELAY ASSIGNMENT (DAS)− Delays are distrib­
uted to aircraft based on the traffic management
program parameters. The delay assignment is
calculated in 15−minute increments and appears as a
table in Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS).
DELAY INDEFINITE (REASON IF KNOWN)
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)− Used
by ATC to inform a pilot when an accurate estimate
of the delay time and the reason for the delay cannot
immediately be determined; e.g., a disabled aircraft
on the runway, terminal or center area saturation,
weather below landing minimums, etc.
(See EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME).)
DELAY TIME− The amount of time that the arrival
must lose to cross the meter fix at the assigned meter
fix time. This is the difference between ACLT and
VTA.
DEPARTURE CENTER− The ARTCC having
jurisdiction for the airspace that generates a flight to
the impacted airport.
DEPARTURE CONTROL− A function of an
approach control facility providing air traffic control
service for departing IFR and, under certain
conditions, VFR aircraft.
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PCG D−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
DEPARTURE SEQUENCING PROGRAM− A
program designed to assist in achieving a specified
interval over a common point for departures.
DEPARTURE TIME− The time an aircraft becomes
airborne.
DESCEND VIA– An abbreviated ATC clearance that
requires compliance with a published procedure
lateral path and associated speed restrictions and
provides a pilot-discretion descent to comply with
published altitude restrictions.
DESCENT SPEED ADJUSTMENTS− Speed decel­
eration calculations made to determine an accurate
VTA. These calculations start at the transition point
and use arrival speed segments to the vertex.
DESIRED COURSE−
a. True− A predetermined desired course direction
to be followed (measured in degrees from true north).
b. Magnetic− A predetermined desired course
direction to be followed (measured in degrees from
local magnetic north).
DESIRED TRACK− The planned or intended track
between two waypoints. It is measured in degrees
from either magnetic or true north. The instantaneous
angle may change from point to point along the great
circle track between waypoints.
DETRESFA (DISTRESS PHASE) [ICAO]− The
code word used to designate an emergency phase
wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft
and its occupants are threatened by grave and
imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
DEVIATIONS−
a. A departure from a current clearance, such as an
off course maneuver to avoid weather or turbulence.
b. Where specifically authorized in the CFRs and
requested by the pilot, ATC may permit pilots to
deviate from certain regulations.
DH−
(See DECISION HEIGHT.)
DH [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term DECISION ALTITUDE/
DECISION HEIGHT.)
DIGITAL-AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMA­
TION SERVICE (D-ATIS)− The service provides
PCG D−2
4/3/14
text messages to aircraft, airlines, and other users
outside the standard reception range of conventional
ATIS via landline and data link communications to
the cockpit. Also, the service provides a computer−
synthesized voice message that can be transmitted to
all aircraft within range of existing transmitters. The
Terminal Data Link System (TDLS) D-ATIS
application uses weather inputs from local automated
weather sources or manually entered meteorological
data together with preprogrammed menus to provide
standard information to users. Airports with D-ATIS
capability are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory.
DIGITAL TARGET− A computer−generated symbol
representing an aircraft’s position, based on a primary
return or radar beacon reply, shown on a digital
display.
DIGITAL TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM
(DTAS)− A system where digital radar and beacon
data is presented on digital displays and the
operational program monitors the system perfor­
mance on a real−time basis.
DIGITIZED TARGET− A computer−generated
indication shown on an analog radar display resulting
from a primary radar return or a radar beacon reply.
DIRECT− Straight line flight between two naviga­
tional aids, fixes, points, or any combination thereof.
When used by pilots in describing off-airway routes,
points defining direct route segments become
compulsory reporting points unless the aircraft is
under radar contact.
DIRECT ALTITUDE AND IDENTITY READ­
OUT− The DAIR System is a modification to the
AN/TPX-42 Interrogator System. The Navy has two
adaptations of the DAIR System-Carrier Air Traffic
Control Direct Altitude and Identification Readout
System for Aircraft Carriers and Radar Air Traffic
Control Facility Direct Altitude and Identity Readout
System for land-based terminal operations. The
DAIR detects, tracks, and predicts secondary radar
aircraft targets. Targets are displayed by means of
computer-generated symbols and alphanumeric
characters depicting flight identification, altitude,
ground speed, and flight plan data. The DAIR System
is capable of interfacing with ARTCCs.
DIRECTLY BEHIND− An aircraft is considered to
be operating directly behind when it is following the
actual flight path of the lead aircraft over the surface
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
of the earth except when applying wake turbulence
separation criteria.
DISCRETE BEACON CODE−
(See DISCRETE CODE.)
DISCRETE CODE− As used in the Air Traffic
Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS), any one
of the 4096 selectable Mode 3/A aircraft transponder
codes except those ending in zero zero; e.g., discrete
codes: 0010, 1201, 2317, 7777; nondiscrete codes:
0100, 1200, 7700. Nondiscrete codes are normally
reserved for radar facilities that are not equipped with
discrete decoding capability and for other purposes
such as emergencies (7700), VFR aircraft (1200), etc.
(See RADAR.)
(Refer to AIM.)
DISCRETE FREQUENCY− A separate radio
frequency for use in direct pilot-controller commu­
nications in air traffic control which reduces
frequency congestion by controlling the number of
aircraft operating on a particular frequency at one
time. Discrete frequencies are normally designated
for each control sector in en route/terminal ATC
facilities. Discrete frequencies are listed in the
Airport/Facility Directory and the DOD FLIP IFR En
Route Supplement.
(See CONTROL SECTOR.)
DISPLACED THRESHOLD− A threshold that is
located at a point on the runway other than the
designated beginning of the runway.
(See THRESHOLD.)
(Refer to AIM.)
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT− Equip­
ment (airborne and ground) used to measure, in
nautical miles, the slant range distance of an aircraft
from the DME navigational aid.
(See MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See TACAN.)
(See VORTAC.)
DISTRESS− A condition of being threatened by
serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring
immediate assistance.
DIVE BRAKES−
(See SPEED BRAKES.)
DIVERSE VECTOR AREA− In a radar environ­
ment, that area in which a prescribed departure route
is not required as the only suitable route to avoid
obstacles. The area in which random radar vectors
below the MVA/MIA, established in accordance with
the TERPS criteria for diverse departures, obstacles
and terrain avoidance, may be issued to departing
aircraft.
DIVERSION (DVRSN)− Flights that are required to
land at other than their original destination for
reasons beyond the control of the pilot/company, e.g.
periods of significant weather.
DME−
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
DME FIX− A geographical position determined by
reference to a navigational aid which provides
distance and azimuth information. It is defined by a
specific distance in nautical miles and a radial,
azimuth, or course (i.e., localizer) in degrees
magnetic from that aid.
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
(See FIX.)
(See MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
DME SEPARATION− Spacing of aircraft in terms of
distances (nautical miles) determined by reference to
distance measuring equipment (DME).
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
DOD FLIP− Department of Defense Flight Informa­
tion Publications used for flight planning, en route,
and terminal operations. FLIP is produced by the
National Geospatial−Intelligence Agency (NGA) for
world-wide use. United States Government Flight
Information Publications (en route charts and
instrument approach procedure charts) are incorpo­
rated in DOD FLIP for use in the National Airspace
System (NAS).
DOMESTIC AIRSPACE− Airspace which overlies
the continental land mass of the United States plus
Hawaii and U.S. possessions. Domestic airspace
extends to 12 miles offshore.
DOWNBURST− A strong downdraft which induces
an outburst of damaging winds on or near the ground.
Damaging winds, either straight or curved, are highly
divergent. The sizes of downbursts vary from 1/2
mile or less to more than 10 miles. An intense
downburst often causes widespread damage. Damag­
ing winds, lasting 5 to 30 minutes, could reach speeds
as high as 120 knots.
DOWNWIND LEG−
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
DP−
(See INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.)
PCG D−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
DRAG CHUTE− A parachute device installed on
certain aircraft which is deployed on landing roll to
assist in deceleration of the aircraft.
DSP−
(See DEPARTURE SEQUENCING PROGRAM.)
DT−
(See DELAY TIME.)
DTAS−
(See DIGITAL TERMINAL AUTOMATION
SYSTEM.)
DUE REGARD− A phase of flight wherein an
aircraft commander of a State-operated aircraft
assumes responsibility to separate his/her aircraft
from all other aircraft.
(See also FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−2−1, WORD
MEANINGS.)
DUTY RUNWAY−
(See RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
RUNWAY.)
PCG D−4
4/3/14
DVA−
(See DIVERSE VECTOR AREA.)
DVFR−
(See DEFENSE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
DVFR FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan filed for a VFR
aircraft which intends to operate in airspace within
which the ready identification, location, and control
of aircraft are required in the interest of national
security.
DVRSN−
(See DIVERSION.)
DYNAMIC− Continuous review, evaluation, and
change to meet demands.
DYNAMIC RESTRICTIONS− Those restrictions
imposed by the local facility on an “as needed” basis
to manage unpredictable fluctuations in traffic
demands.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
E
EAS−
(See EN ROUTE AUTOMATION SYSTEM.)
EDCT−
(See EXPECT DEPARTURE CLEARANCE
TIME.)
EFC−
(See EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME).)
ELT−
(See EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER.)
EMERGENCY− A distress or an urgency condition.
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER− A
radio transmitter attached to the aircraft structure
which operates from its own power source on
121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz. It aids in locating
downed aircraft by radiating a downward sweeping
audio tone, 2-4 times per second. It is designed to
function without human action after an accident.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
E-MSAW−
(See EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE
WARNING.)
EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SER­
VICES− Air traffic control service provided aircraft
on IFR flight plans, generally by centers, when these
aircraft are operating between departure and
destination terminal areas. When equipment, capa­
bilities, and controller workload permit, certain
advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR
aircraft.
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
EN ROUTE AUTOMATION SYSTEM (EAS)− The
complex integrated environment consisting of
situation display systems, surveillance systems and
flight data processing, remote devices, decision
support tools, and the related communications
equipment that form the heart of the automated IFR
air traffic control system. It interfaces with automated
terminal systems and is used in the control of en route
IFR aircraft.
(Refer to AIM.)
EN ROUTE CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
EN ROUTE DESCENT− Descent from the en route
cruising altitude which takes place along the route of
flight.
EN ROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY SERVICE− A
service specifically designed to provide, upon pilot
request, timely weather information pertinent to
his/her type of flight, intended route of flight, and
altitude. The FSSs providing this service are listed in
the Airport/Facility Directory.
(See FLIGHT WATCH.)
(Refer to AIM.)
EN ROUTE HIGH ALTITUDE CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
EN ROUTE LOW ALTITUDE CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARN­
ING− A function of the EAS that aids the controller
by providing an alert when a tracked aircraft is below
or predicted by the computer to go below a
predetermined minimum IFR altitude (MIA).
EN ROUTE SPACING PROGRAM (ESP)− A
program designed to assist the exit sector in
achieving the required in-trail spacing.
EN ROUTE TRANSITION−
a. Conventional STARs/SIDs. The portion of a
SID/STAR that connects to one or more en route
airway/jet route.
b. RNAV STARs/SIDs. The portion of a STAR
preceding the common route or point, or for a SID the
portion following, that is coded for a specific en route
fix, airway or jet route.
ESP−
(See EN ROUTE SPACING PROGRAM.)
ESTABLISHED−To be stable or fixed on a route,
route segment, altitude, heading, etc.
ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME [ICAO]− The
estimated time required to proceed from one
significant point to another.
(See ICAO Term TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED
TIME.)
PCG E−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
ESTIMATED OFF-BLOCK TIME [ICAO]− The
estimated time at which the aircraft will commence
movement associated with departure.
upon receiving instructions to “execute missed
approach.”
ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE)−
EXPECT (ALTITUDE) AT (TIME) or (FIX)− Used
under certain conditions to provide a pilot with an
altitude to be used in the event of two-way
communications failure. It also provides altitude
information to assist the pilot in planning.
(See Required Navigation Performance)
ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL− The time the
flight is estimated to arrive at the gate (scheduled
operators) or the actual runway on times for
nonscheduled operators.
ESTIMATED TIME EN ROUTE− The estimated
flying time from departure point to destination
(lift-off to touchdown).
ETA−
(See ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
ETE−
(See ESTIMATED TIME EN ROUTE.)
EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH− Instructions
issued to a pilot making an instrument approach
which means continue inbound to the missed
approach point and execute the missed approach
procedure as described on the Instrument Approach
Procedure Chart or as previously assigned by ATC.
The pilot may climb immediately to the altitude
specified in the missed approach procedure upon
making a missed approach. No turns should be
initiated prior to reaching the missed approach point.
When conducting an ASR or PAR approach, execute
the assigned missed approach procedure immediately
PCG E−2
(Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to AIM.)
EXPECT DEPARTURE CLEARANCE TIME
(EDCT)− The runway release time assigned to an
aircraft in a traffic management program and shown
on the flight progress strip as an EDCT.
(See GROUND DELAY PROGRAM.)
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)− The
time a pilot can expect to receive clearance beyond a
clearance limit.
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE VIA (AIRWAYS, ROUTES OR FIXES)− Used to inform a
pilot of the routing he/she can expect if any part of the
route beyond a short range clearance limit differs
from that filed.
EXPEDITE− Used by ATC when prompt com­
pliance is required to avoid the development of an
imminent situation. Expedite climb/descent normal­
ly indicates to a pilot that the approximate best rate
of climb/descent should be used without requiring an
exceptional change in aircraft handling characteris­
tics.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
F
FAF−
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
FAST FILE− An FSS system whereby a pilot files a
flight plan via telephone that is recorded and later
transcribed for transmission to the appropriate air
traffic facility. (Alaska only.)
FAWP− Final Approach Waypoint
FCLT−
(See FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
FEATHERED PROPELLER− A propeller whose
blades have been rotated so that the leading and
trailing edges are nearly parallel with the aircraft
flight path to stop or minimize drag and engine
rotation. Normally used to indicate shutdown of a
reciprocating or turboprop engine due to malfunc­
tion.
FEDERAL AIRWAYS−
(See LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE.)
FEEDER FIX− The fix depicted on Instrument
Approach Procedure Charts which establishes the
starting point of the feeder route.
FEEDER ROUTE− A route depicted on instrument
approach procedure charts to designate routes for
aircraft to proceed from the en route structure to the
initial approach fix (IAF).
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
FERRY FLIGHT− A flight for the purpose of:
a. Returning an aircraft to base.
b. Delivering an aircraft from one location to
another.
c. Moving an aircraft to and from a maintenance
base.− Ferry flights, under certain conditions, may be
conducted under terms of a special flight permit.
FIELD ELEVATION−
(See AIRPORT ELEVATION.)
FILED− Normally used in conjunction with flight
plans, meaning a flight plan has been submitted to
ATC.
FILED EN ROUTE DELAY− Any of the following
preplanned delays at points/areas along the route of
flight which require special flight plan filing and
handling techniques.
a. Terminal Area Delay. A delay within a terminal
area for touch-and-go, low approach, or other
terminal area activity.
b. Special Use Airspace Delay. A delay within a
Military Operations Area, Restricted Area, Warning
Area, or ATC Assigned Airspace.
c. Aerial Refueling Delay. A delay within an
Aerial Refueling Track or Anchor.
FILED FLIGHT PLAN− The flight plan as filed with
an ATS unit by the pilot or his/her designated
representative without any subsequent changes or
clearances.
FINAL− Commonly used to mean that an aircraft is
on the final approach course or is aligned with a
landing area.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See FINAL APPROACH-IFR.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
FINAL APPROACH [ICAO]− That part of an
instrument approach procedure which commences at
the specified final approach fix or point, or where
such a fix or point is not specified.
a. At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn
or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if specified;
or
b. At the point of interception of the last track
specified in the approach procedure; and ends at a
point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:
1. A landing can be made; or
2. A missed approach procedure is initiated.
FINAL APPROACH COURSE− A bearing/radial/
track of an instrument approach leading to a runway
or an extended runway centerline all without regard
to distance.
FINAL APPROACH FIX− The fix from which the
final approach (IFR) to an airport is executed and
which identifies the beginning of the final approach
segment. It is designated on Government charts by
the Maltese Cross symbol for nonprecision
approaches and the lightning bolt symbol for
precision approaches; or when ATC directs a
PCG F−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
lower-than-published glideslope/path intercept alti­
tude, it is the resultant actual point of the
glideslope/path intercept.
(See FINAL APPROACH POINT.)
(See GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
FINAL APPROACH-IFR− The flight path of an
aircraft which is inbound to an airport on a final
instrument approach course, beginning at the final
approach fix or point and extending to the airport or
the point where a circle-to-land maneuver or a missed
approach is executed.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
(See FINAL APPROACH POINT.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
(See ICAO term FINAL APPROACH.)
FINAL APPROACH POINT− The point, applicable
only to a nonprecision approach with no depicted
FAF (such as an on airport VOR), where the aircraft
is established inbound on the final approach course
from the procedure turn and where the final approach
descent may be commenced. The FAP serves as the
FAF and identifies the beginning of the final
approach segment.
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT−
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT [ICAO]− That
segment of an instrument approach procedure in
which alignment and descent for landing are
accomplished.
FINAL CONTROLLER− The controller providing
information and final approach guidance during PAR
and ASR approaches utilizing radar equipment.
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
FINAL GUARD SERVICE− A value added service
provided in conjunction with LAA/RAA only during
periods of significant and fast changing weather
conditions that may affect landing and takeoff
operations.
PCG F−2
4/3/14
FINAL MONITOR AID− A high resolution color
display that is equipped with the controller alert
system hardware/software which is used in the
precision runway monitor (PRM) system. The
display includes alert algorithms providing the target
predictors, a color change alert when a target
penetrates or is predicted to penetrate the no
transgression zone (NTZ), a color change alert if the
aircraft transponder becomes inoperative, synthe­
sized voice alerts, digital mapping, and like features
contained in the PRM system.
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
FINAL MONITOR CONTROLLER− Air Traffic
Control Specialist assigned to radar monitor the
flight path of aircraft during simultaneous parallel
and simultaneous close parallel ILS approach
operations. Each runway is assigned a final monitor
controller during simultaneous parallel and simulta­
neous close parallel ILS approaches. Final monitor
controllers shall utilize the Precision Runway
Monitor (PRM) system during simultaneous close
parallel ILS approaches.
FIR−
(See FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION.)
FIRST TIER CENTER− The ARTCC immediately
adjacent to the impacted center.
FIS−B−
(See FLIGHT INFORMATION
SERVICE−BROADCAST.)
FIX− A geographical position determined by visual
reference to the surface, by reference to one or more
radio NAVAIDs, by celestial plotting, or by another
navigational device.
FIX BALANCING− A process whereby aircraft are
evenly distributed over several available arrival fixes
reducing delays and controller workload.
FLAG− A warning device incorporated in certain
airborne navigation and flight instruments indicating
that:
a. Instruments are inoperative or otherwise not
operating satisfactorily, or
b. Signal strength or quality of the received signal
falls below acceptable values.
FLAG ALARM−
(See FLAG.)
FLAMEOUT− An emergency condition caused by a
loss of engine power.
4/3/14
FLAMEOUT PATTERN− An approach normally
conducted by a single-engine military aircraft
experiencing loss or anticipating loss of engine
power or control. The standard overhead approach
starts at a relatively high altitude over a runway
(“high key”) followed by a continuous 180 degree
turn to a high, wide position (“low key”) followed by
a continuous 180 degree turn final. The standard
straight-in pattern starts at a point that results in a
straight-in approach with a high rate of descent to the
runway. Flameout approaches terminate in the type
approach requested by the pilot (normally fullstop).
FLIGHT CHECK− A call-sign prefix used by FAA
aircraft engaged in flight inspection/certification of
navigational aids and flight procedures. The word
“recorded” may be added as a suffix; e.g., “Flight
Check 320 recorded” to indicate that an automated
flight inspection is in progress in terminal areas.
(See FLIGHT INSPECTION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
FLIGHT FOLLOWING−
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION− An airspace of
defined dimensions within which Flight Information
Service and Alerting Service are provided.
a. Flight Information Service. A service provided
for the purpose of giving advice and information
useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights.
b. Alerting Service. A service provided to notify
appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need
of search and rescue aid and to assist such
organizations as required.
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE− A service
provided for the purpose of giving advice and
information useful for the safe and efficient conduct
of flights.
FLIGHT
INFORMATION
SERVICE−
BROADCAST (FIS−B)− A ground broadcast service
provided through the ADS−B Broadcast Services
network over the UAT data link that operates on 978
MHz. The FIS−B system provides pilots and flight
crews of properly equipped aircraft with a cockpit
display of certain aviation weather and aeronautical
information.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
FLIGHT INSPECTION− Inflight investigation and
evaluation of a navigational aid to determine whether
it meets established tolerances.
(See FLIGHT CHECK.)
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
FLIGHT LEVEL− A level of constant atmospheric
pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches
of mercury. Each is stated in three digits that represent
hundreds of feet. For example, flight level (FL) 250
represents a barometric altimeter indication of
25,000 feet; FL 255, an indication of 25,500 feet.
(See ICAO term FLIGHT LEVEL.)
FLIGHT LEVEL [ICAO]− A surface of constant
atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific
pressure datum, 1013.2 hPa (1013.2 mb), and is
separated from other such surfaces by specific
pressure intervals.
Note 1: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in
accordance with the standard atmosphere:
a. When set to a QNH altimeter setting, will
indicate altitude;
b. When set to a QFE altimeter setting, will
indicate height above the QFE reference datum;
and
c. When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa
(1013.2 mb), may be used to indicate flight levels.
Note 2: The terms ‘height’ and ‘altitude,’ used in
Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than
geometric heights and altitudes.
FLIGHT LINE− A term used to describe the precise
movement of a civil photogrammetric aircraft along
a predetermined course(s) at a predetermined altitude
during the actual photographic run.
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS− A comput­
er system that uses a large data base to allow routes
to be preprogrammed and fed into the system by
means of a data loader. The system is constantly
updated with respect to position accuracy by
reference to conventional navigation aids. The
sophisticated program and its associated data base
ensures that the most appropriate aids are automati­
cally selected during the information update cycle.
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCE­
DURE− An arrival, departure, or approach procedure
developed for use by aircraft with a slant (/) E or slant
(/) F equipment suffix.
PCG F−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
FLIGHT PATH− A line, course, or track along which
an aircraft is flying or intended to be flown.
(See COURSE.)
(See TRACK.)
FLIGHT PLAN− Specified information relating to
the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed orally or
in writing with an FSS or an ATC facility.
(See FAST FILE.)
(See FILED.)
(Refer to AIM.)
FLIGHT PLAN AREA (FPA)− The geographical
area assigned to a flight service station (FSS) for the
purpose of establishing primary responsibility for
services that may include search and rescue for VFR
aircraft, issuance of NOTAMs, pilot briefings,
inflight services, broadcast services, emergency
services, flight data processing, international opera­
tions, and aviation weather services. Large
consolidated FSS facilities may combine FPAs into
larger areas of responsibility (AOR).
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
(See TIE-IN FACILITY.)
FLIGHT RECORDER− A general term applied to
any instrument or device that records information
about the performance of an aircraft in flight or about
conditions encountered in flight. Flight recorders
may make records of airspeed, outside air
temperature, vertical acceleration, engine RPM,
manifold pressure, and other pertinent variables for a
given flight.
(See ICAO term FLIGHT RECORDER.)
FLIGHT RECORDER [ICAO]− Any type of
recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of
complementing accident/incident investigation.
Note: See Annex 6 Part I, for specifications relating
to flight recorders.
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS) − An air traffic
facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan
processing, en route radio communications, search
and rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and
aircraft in emergency situations. FSS also relays ATC
clearances, processes Notices to Airmen, and
broadcasts aviation weather and aeronautical inform­
ation. In addition, at selected locations, FSS provides
En Route Flight Advisory Service (Flight Watch) and
PCG F−4
4/3/14
Airport Advisory Service (AAS) and takes airport
weather observations.
(See FLIGHT PLAN AREA.)
(See TIE-IN FACILITY.)
FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE− An
FAA field office serving an assigned geographical
area and staffed with Flight Standards personnel who
serve the aviation industry and the general public on
matters relating to the certification and operation of
air carrier and general aviation aircraft. Activities
include general surveillance of operational safety,
certification of airmen and aircraft, accident
prevention, investigation, enforcement, etc.
FLIGHT TEST− A flight for the purpose of:
a. Investigating the operation/flight characteris­
tics of an aircraft or aircraft component.
b. Evaluating an applicant for a pilot certificate or
rating.
FLIGHT VISIBILITY−
(See VISIBILITY.)
FLIGHT WATCH− A shortened term for use in
air-ground contacts to identify the flight service
station providing En Route Flight Advisory Service;
e.g., “Oakland Flight Watch.”
(See EN ROUTE FLIGHT ADVISORY
SERVICE.)
FLIP−
(See DOD FLIP.)
FLY HEADING (DEGREES)− Informs the pilot of
the heading he/she should fly. The pilot may have to
turn to, or continue on, a specific compass direction
in order to comply with the instructions. The pilot is
expected to turn in the shorter direction to the heading
unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
FLY-BY WAYPOINT− A fly-by waypoint requires
the use of turn anticipation to avoid overshoot of the
next flight segment.
FLY-OVER WAYPOINT− A fly-over waypoint
precludes any turn until the waypoint is overflown
and is followed by an intercept maneuver of the next
flight segment.
FLY VISUAL TO AIRPORT−
(See PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT.)
FMA−
(See FINAL MONITOR AID.)
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
FMS−
with each radar update. This setting ensures a
constant time for each aircraft, necessary for the
metering controller to plan his/her delay technique.
This setting can be either in distance from the meter
fix or a prescribed flying time to the meter fix.
(See FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.)
FMSP−
(See FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
PROCEDURE.)
FORMATION FLIGHT− More than one aircraft
which, by prior arrangement between the pilots,
operate as a single aircraft with regard to navigation
and position reporting. Separation between aircraft
within the formation is the responsibility of the flight
leader and the pilots of the other aircraft in the flight.
This includes transition periods when aircraft within
the formation are maneuvering to attain separation
from each other to effect individual control and
during join-up and breakaway.
a. A standard formation is one in which a
proximity of no more than 1 mile laterally or
longitudinally and within 100 feet vertically from the
flight leader is maintained by each wingman.
b. Nonstandard formations are those operating
under any of the following conditions:
1. When the flight leader has requested and ATC
has approved other than standard formation
dimensions.
2. When operating within an authorized altitude
reservation (ALTRV) or under the provisions of a
letter of agreement.
3. When the operations are conducted in
airspace specifically designed for a special activity.
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
FRC−
(See REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE.)
FREEZE/FROZEN− Terms used in referring to
arrivals which have been assigned ACLTs and to the
lists in which they are displayed.
FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A
dynamic parameter number of minutes prior to the
meter fix calculated time of arrival for each aircraft
when the TCLT is frozen and becomes an ACLT (i.e.,
the VTA is updated and consequently the TCLT is
modified as appropriate until FCLT minutes prior to
meter fix calculated time of arrival, at which time
updating is suspended and an ACLT and a frozen
meter fix crossing time (MFT) is assigned).
FREEZE HORIZON− The time or point at which an
aircraft’s STA becomes fixed and no longer fluctuates
FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER− A speed adapted
for each aircraft to determine fast and slow aircraft.
Fast aircraft freeze on parameter FCLT and slow
aircraft freeze on parameter MLDI.
FRICTION MEASUREMENT− A measurement of
the friction characteristics of the runway pavement
surface using continuous self-watering friction
measurement equipment in accordance with the
specifications, procedures and schedules contained
in AC 150/5320−12, Measurement, Construction,
and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement
Surfaces.
FSDO−
(See FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE.)
FSPD−
(See FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER.)
FSS−
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
FUEL DUMPING− Airborne release of usable fuel.
This does not include the dropping of fuel tanks.
(See JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES.)
FUEL REMAINING− A phrase used by either pilots
or controllers when relating to the fuel remaining on
board until actual fuel exhaustion. When transmitting
such information in response to either a controller
question or pilot initiated cautionary advisory to air
traffic control, pilots will state the APPROXIMATE
NUMBER OF MINUTES the flight can continue
with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel SHOULD
BE INCLUDED in the time stated, as should an
allowance for established fuel gauge system error.
FUEL SIPHONING− Unintentional release of fuel
caused by overflow, puncture, loose cap, etc.
FUEL VENTING−
(See FUEL SIPHONING.)
FUSED TARGET­
(See DIGITAL TARGET)
FUSION [STARS/CARTS]- the combination of all
available surveillance sources (airport surveillance
radar [ASR], air route surveillance radar [ARSR],
ADS-B, etc.) into the display of a single tracked
PCG F−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
target for air traffic control separation services.
FUSION is the equivalent of the current
single-sensor radar display. FUSION performance is
characteristic of a single-sensor radar display system.
Terminal areas use mono-pulse secondary surveil­
lance radar (ASR 9, Mode S or ASR 11, MSSR).
PCG F−6
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
G
GATE HOLD PROCEDURES− Procedures at
selected airports to hold aircraft at the gate or other
ground location whenever departure delays exceed or
are anticipated to exceed 15 minutes. The sequence
for departure will be maintained in accordance with
initial call-up unless modified by flow control
restrictions. Pilots should monitor the ground
control/clearance delivery frequency for engine
start/taxi advisories or new proposed start/taxi time
if the delay changes.
GBT−
(See GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER.)
GCA−
(See GROUND CONTROLLED APPROACH.)
GDP−
(See GROUND DELAY PROGRAM.)
GENERAL AVIATION− That portion of civil
aviation which encompasses all facets of aviation
except air carriers holding a certificate of public
convenience and necessity from the Civil Aeronau­
tics Board and large aircraft commercial operators.
(See ICAO term GENERAL AVIATION.)
GENERAL AVIATION [ICAO]− All civil aviation
operations other than scheduled air services and
nonscheduled air transport operations for remunera­
tion or hire.
GEO MAP− The digitized map markings associated
with the ASR-9 Radar System.
GLIDEPATH−
(See GLIDESLOPE.)
GLIDEPATH [ICAO]− A descent profile determined
for vertical guidance during a final approach.
GLIDEPATH INTERCEPT ALTITUDE−
(See GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE.)
GLIDESLOPE− Provides vertical guidance for
aircraft during approach and landing. The glideslope/
glidepath is based on the following:
a. Electronic components emitting signals which
provide vertical guidance by reference to airborne
instruments during instrument approaches such as
ILS/MLS, or
b. Visual ground aids, such as VASI, which
provide vertical guidance for a VFR approach or for
the visual portion of an instrument approach and
landing.
c. PAR. Used by ATC to inform an aircraft making
a PAR approach of its vertical position (elevation)
relative to the descent profile.
(See ICAO term GLIDEPATH.)
GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE− The
minimum altitude to intercept the glideslope/path on
a precision approach. The intersection of the
published intercept altitude with the glideslope/path,
designated on Government charts by the lightning
bolt symbol, is the precision FAF; however, when the
approach chart shows an alternative lower glideslope
intercept altitude, and ATC directs a lower altitude,
the resultant lower intercept position is then the FAF.
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
(GNSS) [ICAO]− GNSS refers collectively to the
worldwide positioning, navigation, and timing
determination capability available from one or more
satellite constellation in conjunction with a network
of ground stations.
GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (GNSS
MEA)− The minimum en route IFR altitude on a
published ATS route or route segment which assures
acceptable Global Navigation Satellite System
reception and meets obstacle clearance requirements.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)− GPS
refers to the worldwide positioning, navigation
and timing determination capability available
from the U.S. satellite constellation. The service
provided by GPS for civil use is defined in the
GPS Standard Positioning System Performance
Standard. GPS is composed of space, control,
and user elements.
GNSS [ICAO]−
(See GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE
SYSTEM .)
PCG G−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
GNSS MEA−
(See GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE
SYSTEM MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR
ALTITUDE.)
GO AHEAD− Proceed with your message. Not to be
used for any other purpose.
GO AROUND− Instructions for a pilot to abandon
his/her approach to landing. Additional instructions
may follow. Unless otherwise advised by ATC, a
VFR aircraft or an aircraft conducting visual
approach should overfly the runway while climbing
to traffic pattern altitude and enter the traffic pattern
via the crosswind leg. A pilot on an IFR flight plan
making an instrument approach should execute the
published missed approach procedure or proceed as
instructed by ATC; e.g., “Go around” (additional
instructions if required).
(See LOW APPROACH.)
(See MISSED APPROACH.)
GPD−
(See GRAPHIC PLAN DISPLAY.)
GPS−
(See GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.)
GRAPHIC PLAN DISPLAY (GPD)− A view
available with URET that provides a graphic display
of aircraft, traffic, and notification of predicted
conflicts. Graphic routes for Current Plans and Trial
Plans are displayed upon controller request.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
GROSS NAVIGATION ERROR (GNE) − A lateral
deviation from a cleared track, normally in excess of
25 Nautical Miles (NM). More stringent standards
(for example, 10NM in some parts of the North
Atlantic region) may be used in certain regions to
support reductions in lateral separation.
GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER (GBT)− The
ground−based transmitter/receiver (transceiver) re­
ceives automatic dependent surveillance−broadcast
messages, which are forwarded to an air traffic
control facility for processing and display with other
radar targets on the plan position indicator (radar
display).
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
SURVEILLANCE-BROADCAST.)
GROUND CLUTTER− A pattern produced on the
radar scope by ground returns which may degrade
other radar returns in the affected area. The effect of
PCG G−2
4/3/14
ground clutter is minimized by the use of moving
target indicator (MTI) circuits in the radar equipment
resulting in a radar presentation which displays only
targets which are in motion.
(See CLUTTER.)
GROUND COMMUNICATION OUTLET (GCO)−
An unstaffed, remotely controlled, ground/ground
communications facility. Pilots at uncontrolled
airports may contact ATC and FSS via VHF to a
telephone connection to obtain an instrument
clearance or close a VFR or IFR flight plan. They may
also get an updated weather briefing prior to takeoff.
Pilots will use four “key clicks” on the VHF radio to
contact the appropriate ATC facility or six “key
clicks” to contact the FSS. The GCO system is
intended to be used only on the ground.
GROUND CONTROLLED APPROACH− A radar
approach system operated from the ground by air
traffic control personnel transmitting instructions to
the pilot by radio. The approach may be conducted
with surveillance radar (ASR) only or with both
surveillance and precision approach radar (PAR).
Usage of the term “GCA” by pilots is discouraged
except when referring to a GCA facility. Pilots should
specifically request a “PAR” approach when a
precision radar approach is desired or request an
“ASR” or “surveillance” approach when a nonpreci­
sion radar approach is desired.
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
GROUND DELAY PROGRAM (GDP)− A traffic
management process administered by the ATCSCC;
when aircraft are held on the ground. The purpose of
the program is to support the TM mission and limit
airborne holding. It is a flexible program and may be
implemented in various forms depending upon the
needs of the AT system. Ground delay programs
provide for equitable assignment of delays to all
system users.
GROUND SPEED− The speed of an aircraft relative
to the surface of the earth.
GROUND STOP (GS)− The GS is a process that
requires aircraft that meet a specific criteria to remain
on the ground. The criteria may be airport specific,
airspace specific, or equipment specific; for example,
all departures to San Francisco, or all departures
entering Yorktown sector, or all Category I and II
aircraft going to Charlotte. GSs normally occur with
little or no warning.
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
GROUND VISIBILITY−
(See VISIBILITY.)
GS−
(See GROUND STOP.)
PCG G−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
H
HAA−
(See HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT.)
HAL−
(See HEIGHT ABOVE LANDING.)
HANDOFF− An action taken to transfer the radar
identification of an aircraft from one controller to
another if the aircraft will enter the receiving
controller’s airspace and radio communications with
the aircraft will be transferred.
HAR−
(See HIGH ALTITUDE REDESIGN.)
HAT−
(See HEIGHT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN.)
HAVE NUMBERS− Used by pilots to inform ATC
that they have received runway, wind, and altimeter
information only.
HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISO­
RY SERVICE− Continuous recorded hazardous
inflight weather forecasts broadcasted to airborne
pilots over selected VOR outlets defined as an
HIWAS BROADCAST AREA.
HAZARDOUS WEATHER INFORMATION−
Summary of significant meteorological information
(SIGMET/WS), convective significant meteorologi­
cal information (convective SIGMET/WST), urgent
pilot weather reports (urgent PIREP/UUA), center
weather advisories (CWA), airmen’s meteorological
information (AIRMET/WA) and any other weather
such as isolated thunderstorms that are rapidly
developing and increasing in intensity, or low
ceilings and visibilities that are becoming wide­
spread which is considered significant and are not
included in a current hazardous weather advisory.
HEAVY (AIRCRAFT)−
(See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.)
HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT− The height of the
Minimum Descent Altitude above the published
airport elevation. This is published in conjunction
with circling minimums.
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
HEIGHT ABOVE LANDING− The height above a
designated helicopter landing area used for helicopter
instrument approach procedures.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)
HEIGHT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN− The height of
the Decision Height or Minimum Descent Altitude
above the highest runway elevation in the touchdown
zone (first 3,000 feet of the runway). HAT is
published on instrument approach charts in conjunc­
tion with all straight-in minimums.
(See DECISION HEIGHT.)
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
HELICOPTER− A heavier-than-air aircraft sup­
ported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on
one or more power-driven rotors on substantially
vertical axes.
HELIPAD− A small, designated area, usually with a
prepared surface, on a heliport, airport, landing/take­
off area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for
takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
HELIPORT− An area of land, water, or structure used
or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of
helicopters and includes its buildings and facilities if
any.
HELIPORT REFERENCE POINT (HRP)− The
geographic center of a heliport.
HERTZ− The standard radio equivalent of frequency
in cycles per second of an electromagnetic wave.
Kilohertz (kHz) is a frequency of one thousand cycles
per second. Megahertz (MHz) is a frequency of one
million cycles per second.
HF−
(See HIGH FREQUENCY.)
HF COMMUNICATIONS−
(See HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS.)
HIGH ALTITUDE REDESIGN (HAR)− A level of
non−restrictive routing (NRR) service for aircraft
that have all waypoints associated with the HAR
program in their flight management systems or
RNAV equipage.
HIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band between
3 and 30 MHz.
(See HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS.)
PCG H−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS− High
radio frequencies (HF) between 3 and 30 MHz used
for air-to-ground voice communication in overseas
operations.
HIGH SPEED EXIT−
(See HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY.)
HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY− A long radius taxiway
designed and provided with lighting or marking to
define the path of aircraft, traveling at high speed (up
to 60 knots), from the runway center to a point on the
center of a taxiway. Also referred to as long radius
exit or turn-off taxiway. The high speed taxiway is
designed to expedite aircraft turning off the runway
after landing, thus reducing runway occupancy time.
HIGH SPEED TURNOFF−
(See HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY.)
HIWAS−
(See HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER
ADVISORY SERVICE.)
HIWAS AREA−
(See HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER
ADVISORY SERVICE.)
HIWAS BROADCAST AREA− A geographical area
of responsibility including one or more HIWAS
outlet areas assigned to a FSS for hazardous weather
advisory broadcasting.
HIWAS OUTLET AREA− An area defined as a 150
NM radius of a HIWAS outlet, expanded as necessary
to provide coverage.
HOLD FOR RELEASE− Used by ATC to delay an
aircraft for traffic management reasons; i.e., weather,
traffic volume, etc. Hold for release instructions
(including departure delay information) are used to
inform a pilot or a controller (either directly or
through an authorized relay) that an IFR departure
clearance is not valid until a release time or additional
instructions have been received.
(See ICAO term HOLDING POINT.)
HOLD IN LIEU OF PROCEDURE TURN− A hold
in lieu of procedure turn shall be established over a
final or intermediate fix when an approach can be
made from a properly aligned holding pattern. The
hold in lieu of procedure turn permits the pilot to
align with the final or intermediate segment of the
approach and/or descend in the holding pattern to an
PCG H−2
4/3/14
altitude that will permit a normal descent to the final
approach fix altitude. The hold in lieu of procedure
turn is a required maneuver (the same as a procedure
turn) unless the aircraft is being radar vectored to the
final approach course, when “NoPT” is shown on the
approach chart, or when the pilot requests or the
controller advises the pilot to make a “straight−in”
approach.
HOLD PROCEDURE− A predetermined maneuver
which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while
awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.
Also used during ground operations to keep aircraft
within a specified area or at a specified point while
awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.
(See HOLDING FIX.)
(Refer to AIM.)
HOLDING FIX− A specified fix identifiable to a
pilot by NAVAIDs or visual reference to the ground
used as a reference point in establishing and
maintaining the position of an aircraft while holding.
(See FIX.)
(See VISUAL HOLDING.)
(Refer to AIM.)
HOLDING POINT [ICAO]− A specified location,
identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of
which the position of an aircraft in flight is
maintained in accordance with air traffic control
clearances.
HOLDING PROCEDURE−
(See HOLD PROCEDURE.)
HOLD-SHORT POINT− A point on the runway
beyond which a landing aircraft with a LAHSO
clearance is not authorized to proceed. This point
may be located prior to an intersecting runway,
taxiway, predetermined point, or approach/departure
flight path.
HOLD-SHORT POSITION LIGHTS− Flashing
in-pavement white lights located at specified
hold-short points.
HOLD-SHORT POSITION MARKING− The
painted runway marking located at the hold-short
point on all LAHSO runways.
HOLD-SHORT POSITION SIGNS− Red and white
holding position signs located alongside the
hold-short point.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
HOMING− Flight toward a NAVAID, without
correcting for wind, by adjusting the aircraft heading
to maintain a relative bearing of zero degrees.
(See BEARING.)
(See ICAO term HOMING.)
HOMING [ICAO]− The procedure of using the
direction-finding equipment of one radio station with
the emission of another radio station, where at least
one of the stations is mobile, and whereby the mobile
station proceeds continuously towards the other
station.
HOVER CHECK− Used to describe when a
helicopter/VTOL aircraft requires a stabilized hover
to conduct a performance/power check prior to hover
taxi, air taxi, or takeoff. Altitude of the hover will
vary based on the purpose of the check.
HOVER TAXI− Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL
aircraft movement conducted above the surface and
in ground effect at airspeeds less than approximately
20 knots. The actual height may vary, and some
helicopters may require hover taxi above 25 feet AGL
to reduce ground effect turbulence or provide
clearance for cargo slingloads.
(See AIR TAXI.)
(See HOVER CHECK.)
(Refer to AIM.)
HOW DO YOU HEAR ME?− A question relating to
the quality of the transmission or to determine how
well the transmission is being received.
HZ−
(See HERTZ.)
PCG H−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
I
I SAY AGAIN− The message will be repeated.
IAF−
(See INITIAL APPROACH FIX.)
IAP−
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
IAWP− Initial Approach Waypoint
ICAO−
(See ICAO Term INTERNATIONAL CIVIL
AVIATION ORGANIZATION.)
ICING− The accumulation of airframe ice.
Types of icing are:
a. Rime Ice− Rough, milky, opaque ice formed by
the instantaneous freezing of small supercooled
water droplets.
b. Clear Ice− A glossy, clear, or translucent ice
formed by the relatively slow freezing or large
supercooled water droplets.
c. Mixed− A mixture of clear ice and rime ice.
controller to confirm an aircraft identity or to identify
an aircraft.
(Refer to AIM.)
IDENT FEATURE− The special feature in the Air
Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS)
equipment. It is used to immediately distinguish one
displayed beacon target from other beacon targets.
(See IDENT.)
IF−
(See INTERMEDIATE FIX.)
IFIM−
(See INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION
MANUAL.)
IF NO TRANSMISSION RECEIVED FOR
(TIME)− Used by ATC in radar approaches to prefix
procedures which should be followed by the pilot in
event of lost communications.
(See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)
IFR−
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
IFR AIRCRAFT− An aircraft conducting flight in
accordance with instrument flight rules.
Intensity of icing:
a. Trace− Ice becomes perceptible. Rate of
accumulation is slightly greater than the rate of
sublimation. Deicing/anti-icing equipment is not
utilized unless encountered for an extended period of
time (over 1 hour).
b. Light− The rate of accumulation may create a
problem if flight is prolonged in this environment
(over 1 hour). Occasional use of deicing/anti-icing
equipment removes/prevents accumulation. It does
not present a problem if the deicing/anti-icing
equipment is used.
c. Moderate− The rate of accumulation is such that
even short encounters become potentially hazardous
and use of deicing/anti-icing equipment or flight
diversion is necessary.
d. Severe− The rate of accumulation is such that
deicing/anti-icing equipment fails to reduce or
control the hazard. Immediate flight diversion is
necessary.
IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (IR)− Routes
used by the Department of Defense and associated
Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of
conducting low-altitude navigation and tactical
training in both IFR and VFR weather conditions
below 10,000 feet MSL at airspeeds in excess of 250
knots IAS.
IDENT− A request for a pilot to activate the aircraft
transponder identification feature. This will help the
IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND DEPARTURE
PROCEDURES− Title 14 Code of Federal
IFR CONDITIONS− Weather conditions below the
minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
IFR DEPARTURE PROCEDURE−
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
IFR FLIGHT−
(See IFR AIRCRAFT.)
IFR LANDING MINIMUMS−
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
PCG I−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
Regulations Part 91, prescribes standard takeoff rules
for certain civil users. At some airports, obstructions
or other factors require the establishment of
nonstandard takeoff minimums, departure proce­
dures, or both to assist pilots in avoiding obstacles
during climb to the minimum en route altitude. Those
airports are listed in FAA/DOD Instrument Approach
Procedures (IAPs) Charts under a section entitled
“IFR Takeoff Minimums and Departure Procedures.”
The FAA/DOD IAP chart legend illustrates the
symbol used to alert the pilot to nonstandard takeoff
minimums and departure procedures. When depart­
ing IFR from such airports or from any airports where
there are no departure procedures, DPs, or ATC
facilities available, pilots should advise ATC of any
departure limitations. Controllers may query a pilot
to determine acceptable departure directions, turns,
or headings after takeoff. Pilots should be familiar
with the departure procedures and must assure that
their aircraft can meet or exceed any specified climb
gradients.
IF/IAWP− Intermediate Fix/Initial Approach Waypoint. The waypoint where the final approach course
of a T approach meets the crossbar of the T. When
designated (in conjunction with a TAA) this
waypoint will be used as an IAWP when approaching
the airport from certain directions, and as an IFWP
when beginning the approach from another IAWP.
IFWP− Intermediate Fix Waypoint
ILS−
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
ILS CATEGORIES− 1. Category I. An ILS approach
procedure which provides for approach to a height
above touchdown of not less than 200 feet and with
runway visual range of not less than 1,800 feet.−
2. Special Authorization Category I. An ILS
approach procedure which provides for approach to
a height above touchdown of not less than 150 feet
and with runway visual range of not less than 1,400
feet, HUD to DH. 3. Category II. An ILS approach
procedure which provides for approach to a height
above touchdown of not less than 100 feet and with
runway visual range of not less than 1,200 feet (with
autoland or HUD to touchdown and noted on
authorization, RVR 1,000 feet).− 4. Special
Authorization Category II with Reduced Lighting.
An ILS approach procedure which provides for
approach to a height above touchdown of not less
PCG I−2
4/3/14
than 100 feet and with runway visual range of not less
than 1,200 feet with autoland or HUD to touchdown
and noted on authorization (no touchdown zone and
centerline lighting are required).− 5. Category III:
a. IIIA.−An ILS approach procedure which
provides for approach without a decision height
minimum and with runway visual range of not less
than 700 feet.
b. IIIB.−An ILS approach procedure which
provides for approach without a decision height
minimum and with runway visual range of not less
than 150 feet.
c. IIIC.−An ILS approach procedure which
provides for approach without a decision height
minimum and without runway visual range
minimum.
ILS PRM APPROACH− An instrument landing
system (ILS) approach conducted to parallel runways
whose extended centerlines are separated by less than
4,300 feet and at least 3,000 feet where closely spaced
independent approaches are permitted. Also used in
conjunction with an LDA PRM, or RNAV (GPS)
PRM approach to conduct Simultaneous Offset
Instrument Approach (SOIA) operations. No
Transgression Zone (NTZ) monitoring is required to
conduct these approaches. When the runway spacing
is less than 3,600 feet, the NTZ must be monitored by
a Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) or other high
update rate surveillance system.
(Refer to AIM)
IM−
(See INNER MARKER.)
IMC−
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
IMMEDIATELY−Used by ATC or pilots when such
action compliance is required to avoid an imminent
situation.
INCERFA (Uncertainty Phase) [ICAO]− A situation
wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an
aircraft and its occupants.
INCREASE SPEED TO (SPEED)−
(See SPEED ADJUSTMENT.)
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM− An RNAV
system which is a form of self-contained navigation.
(See Area Navigation/RNAV.)
INFLIGHT REFUELING−
(See AERIAL REFUELING.)
4/3/14
INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY−
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
INFORMATION REQUEST− A request originated
by an FSS for information concerning an overdue
VFR aircraft.
INITIAL APPROACH FIX− The fixes depicted on
instrument approach procedure charts that identify
the beginning of the initial approach segment(s).
(See FIX.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT−
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT [ICAO]− That
segment of an instrument approach procedure
between the initial approach fix and the intermediate
approach fix or, where applicable, the final approach
fix or point.
INLAND NAVIGATION FACILITY− A navigation
aid on a North American Route at which the common
route and/or the noncommon route begins or ends.
INNER MARKER− A marker beacon used with an
ILS (CAT II) precision approach located between the
middle marker and the end of the ILS runway,
transmitting a radiation pattern keyed at six dots per
second and indicating to the pilot, both aurally and
visually, that he/she is at the designated decision
height (DH), normally 100 feet above the touchdown
zone elevation, on the ILS CAT II approach. It also
marks progress during a CAT III approach.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(Refer to AIM.)
INNER MARKER BEACON−
(See INNER MARKER.)
INREQ−
(See INFORMATION REQUEST.)
INS−
(See INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM.)
INSTRUMENT APPROACH−
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE− A
series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly
transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight
conditions from the beginning of the initial approach
Pilot/Controller Glossary
to a landing or to a point from which a landing may
be made visually. It is prescribed and approved for a
specific airport by competent authority.
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
a. U.S. civil standard instrument approach
procedures are approved by the FAA as prescribed
under 14 CFR Part 97 and are available for public
use.
b. U.S. military standard instrument approach
procedures are approved and published by the
Department of Defense.
c. Special instrument approach procedures are
approved by the FAA for individual operators but are
not published in 14 CFR Part 97 for public use.
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS
[ICAO]* An approach and landing using instruments
for navigation guidance based on an instrument
approach procedure. There are two methods for
executing instrument approach operations:
a. A two−dimensional (2D) instrument approach
operation, using lateral navigation guidance only;
and
b. A three−dimensional (3D) instrument approach
operation, using both lateral and vertical navigation
guidance.
Note: Lateral and vertical navigation guidance
refers to the guidance provided either by:
a) a ground−based radio navigation aid; or
b) computer−generated navigation data from
ground−based, space−based, self−contained
navigation aids or a combination of these.
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE
[ICAO]− A series of predetermined maneuvers by
reference to flight instruments with specified
protection from obstacles from the initial approach
fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a
defined arrival route to a point from which a landing
can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not
completed, to a position at which holding or en route
obstacle clearance criteria apply.
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH
OPERATIONS)
PCG I−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES
CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE
(DP)− A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR)
departure procedure published for pilot use, in
graphic or textual format, that provides obstruction
clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate en
route structure. There are two types of DP, Obstacle
Departure Procedure (ODP), printed either textually
or graphically, and, Standard Instrument Departure
(SID), which is always printed graphically.
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (DP)
CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES− Rules governing
the procedures for conducting instrument flight. Also
a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate type
of flight plan.
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT FLIGHT
RULES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES [ICAO]− A set of
rules governing the conduct of flight under
instrument meteorological conditions.
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM− A precision
instrument approach system which normally consists
of the following electronic components and visual
aids:
a. Localizer.
(See LOCALIZER.)
b. Glideslope.
(See GLIDESLOPE.)
c. Outer Marker.
(See OUTER MARKER.)
PCG I−4
4/3/14
d. Middle Marker.
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
e. Approach Lights.
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDI­
TIONS− Meteorological conditions expressed in
terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling
less than the minima specified for visual meteorolog­
ical conditions.
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
INSTRUMENT RUNWAY− A runway equipped
with electronic and visual navigation aids for which
a precision or nonprecision approach procedure
having straight-in landing minimums has been
approved.
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT RUNWAY.)
INSTRUMENT RUNWAY [ICAO]− One of the
following types of runways intended for the
operation of aircraft using instrument approach
procedures:
a. Nonprecision Approach Runway−An instru­
ment runway served by visual aids and a nonvisual
aid providing at least directional guidance adequate
for a straight-in approach.
b. Precision Approach Runway, Category I−An
instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids
intended for operations down to 60 m (200 feet)
decision height and down to an RVR of the order of
800 m.
c. Precision Approach Runway, Category II−An
instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids
intended for operations down to 30 m (100 feet)
decision height and down to an RVR of the order of
400 m.
d. Precision Approach Runway, Category III−An
instrument runway served by ILS to and along the
surface of the runway and:
1. Intended for operations down to an RVR of
the order of 200 m (no decision height being
applicable) using visual aids during the final phase of
landing;
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
2. Intended for operations down to an RVR of
the order of 50 m (no decision height being
applicable) using visual aids for taxiing;
3. Intended for operations without reliance on
visual reference for landing or taxiing.
Note 1: See Annex 10 Volume I, Part I, Chapter 3,
for related ILS specifications.
Note 2: Visual aids need not necessarily be
matched to the scale of nonvisual aids provided.
The criterion for the selection of visual aids is the
conditions in which operations are intended to be
conducted.
INTEGRITY− The ability of a system to provide
timely warnings to users when the system should not
be used for navigation.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH SEGMENT−
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH SEGMENT
[ICAO]− That segment of an instrument approach
procedure between either the intermediate approach
fix and the final approach fix or point, or between the
end of a reversal, race track or dead reckoning track
procedure and the final approach fix or point, as
appropriate.
INTERMEDIATE FIX− The fix that identifies the
beginning of the intermediate approach segment of an
instrument approach procedure. The fix is not
normally identified on the instrument approach chart
as an intermediate fix (IF).
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
INTERMEDIATE LANDING− On the rare occasion
that this option is requested, it should be approved.
The departure center, however, must advise the
ATCSCC so that the appropriate delay is carried over
and assigned at the intermediate airport. An
intermediate landing airport within the arrival center
will not be accepted without coordination with and
the approval of the ATCSCC.
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT− Relating to interna­
tional flight, it means:
a. An airport of entry which has been designated
by the Secretary of Treasury or Commissioner of
Customs as an international airport for customs
service.
b. A landing rights airport at which specific
permission to land must be obtained from customs
authorities in advance of contemplated use.
c. Airports designated under the Convention on
International Civil Aviation as an airport for use by
international commercial air transport and/or interna­
tional general aviation.
(See ICAO term INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT.)
(Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
(Refer to IFIM.)
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT [ICAO]− Any airport
designated by the Contracting State in whose
territory it is situated as an airport of entry and
departure for international air traffic, where the
formalities incident to customs, immigration, public
health, animal and plant quarantine and similar
procedures are carried out.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGA­
NIZATION [ICAO]− A specialized agency of the
United Nations whose objective is to develop the
principles and techniques of international air
navigation and to foster planning and development of
international civil air transport.
a. Regions include:
1. African-Indian Ocean Region
2. Caribbean Region
3. European Region
4. Middle East/Asia Region
5. North American Region
6. North Atlantic Region
7. Pacific Region
8. South American Region
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION
MANUAL− A publication designed primarily as a
pilot’s preflight planning guide for flights into
foreign airspace and for flights returning to the U.S.
from foreign locations.
INTERROGATOR− The ground-based surveillance
radar beacon transmitter-receiver, which normally
scans in synchronism with a primary radar,
transmitting discrete radio signals which repetitious­
ly request all transponders on the mode being used to
reply. The replies received are mixed with the
primary radar returns and displayed on the same plan
position indicator (radar scope). Also, applied to the
airborne element of the TACAN/DME system.
(See TRANSPONDER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PCG I−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
INTERSECTING RUNWAYS− Two or more
runways which cross or meet within their lengths.
(See INTERSECTION.)
INTERSECTION−
4/3/14
INTERSECTION DEPARTURE− A departure from
any runway intersection except the end of the runway.
(See INTERSECTION.)
INTERSECTION TAKEOFF−
(See INTERSECTION DEPARTURE.)
a. A point defined by any combination of courses,
radials, or bearings of two or more navigational aids.
IR−
b. Used to describe the point where two runways,
a runway and a taxiway, or two taxiways cross or
meet.
ISR– Indicates the confidence level of the track
requires 5NM separation. 3NM separation, 1 1/2NM
separation, and target resolution cannot be used.
PCG I−6
(See IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
J
JAMMING− Electronic or mechanical interference
which may disrupt the display of aircraft on radar or
the transmission/reception of radio communications/
navigation.
JET BLAST− Jet engine exhaust (thrust stream
turbulence).
(See WAKE TURBULENCE.)
JET ROUTE− A route designed to serve aircraft
operations from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including
flight level 450. The routes are referred to as “J”
routes with numbering to identify the designated
route; e.g., J105.
(See Class A AIRSPACE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 71.)
JET STREAM− A migrating stream of high-speed
winds present at high altitudes.
JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES− Air­
borne release of external stores; e.g., tiptanks,
ordnance.
(See FUEL DUMPING.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
JOINT USE RESTRICTED AREA−
(See RESTRICTED AREA.)
PCG J−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
K
KNOWN TRAFFIC− With respect to ATC clear­
ances, means aircraft whose altitude, position, and
intentions are known to ATC.
PCG K−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
L
LAA−
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
LAAS−
(See LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM.)
LAHSO− An acronym for “Land and Hold Short
Operation.” These operations include landing and
holding short of an intersecting runway, a taxiway, a
predetermined point, or an approach/departure
flightpath.
LAHSO-DRY− Land and hold short operations on
runways that are dry.
LAHSO-WET− Land and hold short operations on
runways that are wet (but not contaminated).
LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS−
Operations which include simultaneous takeoffs and
landings and/or simultaneous landings when a
landing aircraft is able and is instructed by the
controller to hold-short of the intersecting runway/
taxiway or designated hold-short point. Pilots are
expected to promptly inform the controller if the hold
short clearance cannot be accepted.
(See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LANDING AREA− Any locality either on land,
water, or structures, including airports/heliports and
intermediate landing fields, which is used, or
intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of
aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the
shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging
passengers or cargo.
(See ICAO term LANDING AREA.)
LANDING AREA [ICAO]− That part of a movement
area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft.
LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR− A device
which visually indicates the direction in which
landings and takeoffs should be made.
(See TETRAHEDRON.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE (LDA)− The
runway length declared available and suitable for a
landing airplane.
(See ICAO term LANDING DISTANCE
AVAILABLE.)
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The
length of runway which is declared available and
suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
LANDING MINIMUMS− The minimum visibility
prescribed for landing a civil aircraft while using an
instrument approach procedure. The minimum
applies with other limitations set forth in 14 CFR
Part 91 with respect to the Minimum Descent
Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) prescribed
in the instrument approach procedures as follows:
a. Straight-in landing minimums. A statement of
MDA and visibility, or DH and visibility, required for
a straight-in landing on a specified runway, or
b. Circling minimums. A statement of MDA and
visibility required for the circle-to-land maneuver.
Note: Descent below the MDA or DH must meet the
conditions stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175.
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
(See DECISION HEIGHT.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.)
(See VISIBILITY.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
LANDING ROLL− The distance from the point of
touchdown to the point where the aircraft can be
brought to a stop or exit the runway.
LANDING SEQUENCE− The order in which
aircraft are positioned for landing.
(See APPROACH SEQUENCE.)
LAST ASSIGNED ALTITUDE− The last altitude/
flight level assigned by ATC and acknowledged by
the pilot.
(See MAINTAIN.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV)– A function of
area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,
PCG L−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or
path.
LATERAL SEPARATION− The lateral spacing of
aircraft at the same altitude by requiring operation on
different routes or in different geographical locations.
(See SEPARATION.)
LDA−
(See LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID.)
(See LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.)
(See ICAO Term LANDING DISTANCE
AVAILABLE.)
LF−
(See LOW FREQUENCY.)
LIGHTED AIRPORT− An airport where runway and
obstruction lighting is available.
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LIGHT GUN− A handheld directional light signaling
device which emits a brilliant narrow beam of white,
green, or red light as selected by the tower controller.
The color and type of light transmitted can be used to
approve or disapprove anticipated pilot actions where
radio communication is not available. The light gun
is used for controlling traffic operating in the vicinity
of the airport and on the airport movement area.
(Refer to AIM.)
LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT (LSA)- An
FAA-registered aircraft, other than a helicopter or
powered-lift, that meets certain weight and
performance. Principally it is a single engine aircraft
with a maximum of two seats and weighing no more
than 1,430 pounds if intended for operation on water,
or 1,320 pounds if not. They must be of simple design
(fixed landing gear (except if intended for operations
on water or a glider) piston powered,
non-pressurized, with a fixed or ground adjustable
propeller), Performance is also limited to a maximum
airspeed in level flight of not more than 120 knots
CAS, have a maximum never-exceed speed of not
more than 120 knots CAS for a glider, and have a
maximum stalling speed, without the use of
lift-enhancing devices (VS1 ) of not more than
45 knots CAS. They may be certificated as either
Experimental LSA or as a Special LSA aircraft. A
minimum of a sport pilot certificate is required to
operate light-sport aircraft.” (Refer to 14 CFR Part 1,
§1.1.)
PCG L−2
4/3/14
LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)− Used by ATC to
inform a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway to line
up and wait. It is not authorization for takeoff. It is
used when takeoff clearance cannot immediately be
issued because of traffic or other reasons.
(See CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.)
LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY (LAA)− A service
provided by facilities, which are located on the
landing airport, have a discrete ground−to−air
communication frequency or the tower frequency
when the tower is closed, automated weather
reporting with voice broadcasting, and a continuous
ASOS/AWSS/AWOS data display, other continuous
direct reading instruments, or manual observations
available to the specialist.
(See AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA.)
LOCAL TRAFFIC− Aircraft operating in the traffic
pattern or within sight of the tower, or aircraft known
to be departing or arriving from flight in local practice
areas, or aircraft executing practice instrument
approaches at the airport.
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
LOCALIZER− The component of an ILS which
provides course guidance to the runway.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See ICAO term LOCALIZER COURSE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LOCALIZER COURSE [ICAO]− The locus of
points, in any given horizontal plane, at which the
DDM (difference in depth of modulation) is zero.
LOCALIZER OFFSET− An angular offset of the
localizer from the runway extended centerline in a
direction away from the no transgression zone (NTZ)
that increases the normal operating zone (NOZ)
width. An offset requires a 50 foot increase in DH and
is not authorized for CAT II and CAT III approaches.
LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID− A
NAVAID used for nonprecision instrument
approaches with utility and accuracy comparable to
a localizer but which is not a part of a complete ILS
and is not aligned with the runway.
(Refer to AIM.)
LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID (LDA)
PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM)
APPROACH − An approach, which includes a
glideslope, used in conjunction with an ILS PRM or
RNAV (GPS) PRM approach to an adjacent runway
to conduct Simultaneous Offset Instrument
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
Approaches (SOIA) to parallel runways whose
centerlines are separated by less than 3,000 feet and
at least 750 feet. NTZ monitoring is required to
conduct these approaches. When the approach course
spacing is less than 3,600 feet at the Missed Approach
Point (MAP), the use of a PRM or other high update
rate surveillance system in order to conduct
simultaneous independent approaches is required.
(See SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT
APPROACH (SOIA).)
(Refer to AIM)
LOCALIZER USABLE DISTANCE− The maxi­
mum distance from the localizer transmitter at a
specified altitude, as verified by flight inspection, at
which reliable course information is continuously
received.
(Refer to AIM.)
LOCATOR [ICAO]− An LM/MF NDB used as an aid
to final approach.
Note: A locator usually has an average radius of
rated coverage of between 18.5 and 46.3 km (10
and 25 NM).
LONG RANGE NAVIGATION−
(See LORAN.)
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION− The longitudi­
nal spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by a
minimum distance expressed in units of time or
miles.
(See SEPARATION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LORAN− An electronic navigational system by
which hyperbolic lines of position are determined by
measuring the difference in the time of reception of
synchronized pulse signals from two fixed transmit­
ters. Loran A operates in the 1750-1950 kHz
frequency band. Loran C and D operate in the
100-110 kHz frequency band. In 2010, the U.S. Coast
Guard terminated all U.S. LORAN-C transmissions.
(Refer to AIM.)
LOST COMMUNICATIONS− Loss of the ability to
communicate by radio. Aircraft are sometimes
referred to as NORDO (No Radio). Standard pilot
procedures are specified in 14 CFR Part 91. Radar
controllers issue procedures for pilots to follow in the
event of lost communications during a radar approach
when weather reports indicate that an aircraft will
likely encounter IFR weather conditions during the
approach.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE− The
network of airways serving aircraft operations up to
but not including 18,000 feet MSL.
(See AIRWAY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY−
(See SAFETY ALERT.)
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM− An auto­
mated function of the TPX-42 that alerts the
controller when a Mode C transponder equipped
aircraft on an IFR flight plan is below a
predetermined minimum safe altitude. If requested
by the pilot, Low Altitude Alert System monitoring
is also available to VFR Mode C transponder
equipped aircraft.
LOW APPROACH− An approach over an airport or
runway following an instrument approach or a VFR
approach including the go-around maneuver where
the pilot intentionally does not make contact with the
runway.
(Refer to AIM.)
LOW FREQUENCY− The frequency band between
30 and 300 kHz.
(Refer to AIM.)
LPV− A type of approach with vertical guidance
(APV) based on WAAS, published on RNAV (GPS)
approach charts. This procedure takes advantage of
the precise lateral guidance available from WAAS.
The minima is published as a decision altitude (DA).
LUAW−
(See LINE UP AND WAIT.)
PCG L−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
M
MAA−
(See MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE.)
MACH NUMBER− The ratio of true airspeed to the
speed of sound; e.g., MACH .82, MACH 1.6.
(See AIRSPEED.)
MACH TECHNIQUE [ICAO]− Describes a control
technique used by air traffic control whereby turbojet
aircraft operating successively along suitable routes
are cleared to maintain appropriate MACH numbers
for a relevant portion of the en route phase of flight.
The principle objective is to achieve improved
utilization of the airspace and to ensure that
separation between successive aircraft does not
decrease below the established minima.
MAHWP− Missed Approach Holding Waypoint
MAINTAIN−
a. Concerning altitude/flight level, the term
means to remain at the altitude/flight level specified.
The phrase “climb and” or “descend and” normally
precedes “maintain” and the altitude assignment;
e.g., “descend and maintain 5,000.”
b. Concerning other ATC instructions, the term is
used in its literal sense; e.g., maintain VFR.
MAINTENANCE PLANNING FRICTION
LEVEL− The friction level specified in
AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction, and
Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement
Surfaces, which represents the friction value below
which the runway pavement surface remains
acceptable for any category or class of aircraft
operations but which is beginning to show signs of
deterioration. This value will vary depending on the
particular friction measurement equipment used.
MAKE SHORT APPROACH− Used by ATC to
inform a pilot to alter his/her traffic pattern so as to
make a short final approach.
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
MAN PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS
(MANPADS)− MANPADS are lightweight, shoul­
der−launched, missile systems used to bring down
aircraft and create mass casualties. The potential for
MANPADS use against airborne aircraft is real and
requires familiarity with the subject. Terrorists
choose MANPADS because the weapons are low
cost, highly mobile, require minimal set−up time, and
are easy to use and maintain. Although the weapons
have limited range, and their accuracy is affected by
poor visibility and adverse weather, they can be fired
from anywhere on land or from boats where there is
unrestricted visibility to the target.
MANDATORY ALTITUDE− An altitude depicted
on an instrument Approach Procedure Chart
requiring the aircraft to maintain altitude at the
depicted value.
MANPADS−
(See MAN PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE
SYSTEMS.)
MAP−
(See MISSED APPROACH POINT.)
MARKER BEACON− An electronic navigation
facility transmitting a 75 MHz vertical fan or
boneshaped radiation pattern. Marker beacons are
identified by their modulation frequency and keying
code, and when received by compatible airborne
equipment, indicate to the pilot, both aurally and
visually, that he/she is passing over the facility.
(See INNER MARKER.)
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
(See OUTER MARKER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MARSA−
(See MILITARY AUTHORITY ASSUMES
RESPONSIBILITY FOR SEPARATION OF
AIRCRAFT.)
MAWP− Missed Approach Waypoint
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE− A pub­
lished altitude representing the maximum usable
altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or
route segment. It is the highest altitude on a Federal
airway, jet route, area navigation low or high route,
or other direct route for which an MEA is designated
in 14 CFR Part 95 at which adequate reception of
navigation aid signals is assured.
MAYDAY−The international radiotelephony distress
signal. When repeated three times, it indicates
PCG M−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
imminent and grave danger and that immediate
assistance is requested.
(See PAN-PAN.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MCA−
(See MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE.)
MDA−
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
MEA−
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
MEARTS−
(See MICRO-EN ROUTE AUTOMATED RADAR
TRACKING SYSTEM.)
METEOROLOGICAL IMPACT STATEMENT−
An unscheduled planning forecast describing
conditions expected to begin within 4 to 12 hours
which may impact the flow of air traffic in a specific
center’s (ARTCC) area.
METER FIX ARC− A semicircle, equidistant from
a meter fix, usually in low altitude relatively close to
the meter fix, used to help CTAS/HOST calculate a
meter time, and determine appropriate sector meter
list assignments for aircraft not on an established
arrival route or assigned a meter fix.
METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME− A calculated time
to depart the meter fix in order to cross the vertex at
the ACLT. This time reflects descent speed
adjustment and any applicable time that must be
absorbed prior to crossing the meter fix.
METER LIST−
(See ARRIVAL SECTOR ADVISORY LIST.)
METER LIST DISPLAY INTERVAL− A dynamic
parameter which controls the number of minutes
prior to the flight plan calculated time of arrival at the
meter fix for each aircraft, at which time the TCLT is
frozen and becomes an ACLT; i.e., the VTA is
updated and consequently the TCLT modified as
appropriate until frozen at which time updating is
suspended and an ACLT is assigned. When frozen,
the flight entry is inserted into the arrival sector’s
meter list for display on the sector PVD/MDM.
MLDI is used if filed true airspeed is less than or
equal to freeze speed parameters (FSPD).
METERING− A method of time-regulating arrival
traffic flow into a terminal area so as not to exceed a
predetermined terminal acceptance rate.
PCG M−2
4/3/14
METERING AIRPORTS− Airports adapted for
metering and for which optimum flight paths are
defined. A maximum of 15 airports may be adapted.
METERING FIX− A fix along an established route
from over which aircraft will be metered prior to
entering terminal airspace. Normally, this fix should
be established at a distance from the airport which
will facilitate a profile descent 10,000 feet above
airport elevation (AAE) or above.
METERING POSITION(S)− Adapted PVDs/
MDMs and associated “D” positions eligible for
display of a metering position list. A maximum of
four PVDs/MDMs may be adapted.
METERING POSITION LIST− An ordered list of
data on arrivals for a selected metering airport
displayed on a metering position PVD/MDM.
MFT−
(See METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME.)
MHA−
(See MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE.)
MIA−
(See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES.)
MICROBURST− A small downburst with outbursts
of damaging winds extending 2.5 miles or less. In
spite of its small horizontal scale, an intense
microburst could induce wind speeds as high as 150
knots
(Refer to AIM.)
MICRO-EN ROUTE AUTOMATED RADAR
TRACKING SYSTEM (MEARTS)− An automated
radar and radar beacon tracking system capable of
employing both short-range (ASR) and long-range
(ARSR) radars. This microcomputer driven system
provides improved tracking, continuous data record­
ing, and use of full digital radar displays.
MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM− A precision
instrument approach system operating in the
microwave spectrum which normally consists of the
following components:
a. Azimuth Station.
b. Elevation Station.
c. Precision Distance Measuring Equipment.
(See MLS CATEGORIES.)
MID RVR−
(See VISIBILITY.)
MIDDLE COMPASS LOCATOR−
(See COMPASS LOCATOR.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
MIDDLE MARKER− A marker beacon that defines
a point along the glideslope of an ILS normally
located at or near the point of decision height (ILS
Category I). It is keyed to transmit alternate dots and
dashes, with the alternate dots and dashes keyed at the
rate of 95 dot/dash combinations per minute on a
1300 Hz tone, which is received aurally and visually
by compatible airborne equipment.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See MARKER BEACON.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MILES-IN-TRAIL− A specified distance between
aircraft, normally, in the same stratum associated
with the same destination or route of flight.
MILITARY AUTHORITY ASSUMES RESPONSI­
BILITY FOR SEPARATION OF AIRCRAFT− A
condition whereby the military services involved
assume responsibility for separation between
participating military aircraft in the ATC system. It is
used only for required IFR operations which are
specified in letters of agreement or other appropriate
FAA or military documents.
MILITARY LANDING ZONE− A landing strip used
exclusively by the military for training. A military
landing zone does not carry a runway designation.
MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA−
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES− Airspace of
defined vertical and lateral dimensions established
for the conduct of military flight training at airspeeds
in excess of 250 knots IAS.
(See IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
(See VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
MINIMA−
(See MINIMUMS.)
MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE− The lowest
altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraft must cross
when proceeding in the direction of a higher
minimum en route IFR altitude (MEA).
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE− The lowest
altitude, expressed in feet above mean sea level, to
which descent is authorized on final approach or
during circle-to-land maneuvering in execution of a
standard instrument approach procedure where no
electronic glideslope is provided.
(See NONPRECISION APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA)−
The lowest published altitude between radio fixes
which assures acceptable navigational signal cover­
age and meets obstacle clearance requirements
between those fixes. The MEA prescribed for a
Federal airway or segment thereof, area navigation
low or high route, or other direct route applies to the
entire width of the airway, segment, or route between
the radio fixes defining the airway, segment, or route.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MINIMUM FRICTION LEVEL− The friction level
specified in AC 150/5320-12, Measurement,
Construction, and Maintenance of Skid Resistant
Airport Pavement Surfaces, that represents the
minimum recommended wet pavement surface
friction value for any turbojet aircraft engaged in
LAHSO. This value will vary with the particular
friction measurement equipment used.
MINIMUM FUEL− Indicates that an aircraft’s fuel
supply has reached a state where, upon reaching the
destination, it can accept little or no delay. This is not
an emergency situation but merely indicates an
emergency situation is possible should any undue
delay occur.
(Refer to AIM.)
MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE− The lowest
altitude prescribed for a holding pattern which
assures navigational signal coverage, communica­
tions, and meets obstacle clearance requirements.
MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES (MIA)− Minimum
altitudes for IFR operations as prescribed in 14 CFR
Part 91. These altitudes are published on aeronautical
charts and prescribed in 14 CFR Part 95 for airways
and routes, and in 14 CFR Part 97 for standard
instrument approach procedures. If no applicable
minimum altitude is prescribed in 14 CFR Part 95 or
14 CFR Part 97, the following minimum IFR
altitude applies:
a. In designated mountainous areas, 2,000 feet
above the highest obstacle within a horizontal
distance of 4 nautical miles from the course to be
flown; or
PCG M−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
b. Other than mountainous areas, 1,000 feet above
the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4
nautical miles from the course to be flown; or
MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE− The lowest
altitude at which an intersection can be determined.
c. As otherwise authorized by the Administrator
or assigned by ATC.
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE−
a. The minimum altitude specified in 14 CFR
Part 91 for various aircraft operations.
b. Altitudes depicted on approach charts which
provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance for
emergency use within a specified distance from the
navigation facility upon which a procedure is
predicated. These altitudes will be identified as
Minimum Sector Altitudes or Emergency Safe
Altitudes and are established as follows:
1. Minimum Sector Altitudes. Altitudes de­
picted on approach charts which provide at least
1,000 feet of obstacle clearance within a 25-mile
radius of the navigation facility upon which the
procedure is predicated. Sectors depicted on
approach charts must be at least 90 degrees in scope.
These altitudes are for emergency use only and do not
necessarily assure acceptable navigational signal
coverage.
(See MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE.)
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
SPECIFICATION− A set of standards which require
aircraft to have a minimum navigation performance
capability in order to operate in MNPS designated
airspace. In addition, aircraft must be certified by
their State of Registry for MNPS operation.
MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE− Designated airspace
in which MNPS procedures are applied between
MNPS certified and equipped aircraft. Under certain
conditions, non-MNPS aircraft can operate in
MNPSA. However, standard oceanic separation
minima is provided between the non-MNPS aircraft
and other traffic. Currently, the only designated
MNPSA is described as follows:
a. Between FL 285 and FL 420;
b. Between latitudes 27�N and the North Pole;
c. In the east, the eastern boundaries of the CTAs
Santa Maria Oceanic, Shanwick Oceanic, and
Reykjavik;
d. In the west, the western boundaries of CTAs
Reykjavik and Gander Oceanic and New York
Oceanic excluding the area west of 60�W and south
of 38�30’N.
MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTI­
TUDE (MOCA)− The lowest published altitude in
effect between radio fixes on VOR airways,
off-airway routes, or route segments which meets
obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route
segment and which assures acceptable navigational
signal coverage only within 25 statute (22 nautical)
miles of a VOR.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
PCG M−4
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
(See ICAO term Minimum Sector Altitude.)
2. Emergency Safe Altitudes. Altitudes de­
picted on approach charts which provide at least
1,000 feet of obstacle clearance in nonmountainous
areas and 2,000 feet of obstacle clearance in
designated mountainous areas within a 100-mile
radius of the navigation facility upon which the
procedure is predicated and normally used only in
military procedures. These altitudes are identified on
published procedures as “Emergency Safe Alti­
tudes.”
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING− A
function of the ARTS III computer that aids the
controller by alerting him/her when a tracked Mode
C equipped aircraft is below or is predicted by the
computer to go below a predetermined minimum safe
altitude.
(Refer to AIM.)
MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE [ICAO]− The
lowest altitude which may be used under emergency
conditions which will provide a minimum clearance
of 300 m (1,000 feet) above all obstacles located in
an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km
(25 NM) radius centered on a radio aid to navigation.
MINIMUMS− Weather condition requirements
established for a particular operation or type of
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
operation; e.g., IFR takeoff or landing, alternate
airport for IFR flight plans, VFR flight, etc.
(See IFR CONDITIONS.)
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
(See VFR CONDITIONS.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE (MVA)−
The lowest MSL altitude at which an IFR aircraft will
be vectored by a radar controller, except as otherwise
authorized for radar approaches, departures, and
missed approaches. The altitude meets IFR obstacle
clearance criteria. It may be lower than the published
MEA along an airway or J-route segment. It may be
utilized for radar vectoring only upon the controller’s
determination that an adequate radar return is being
received from the aircraft being controlled. Charts
depicting minimum vectoring altitudes are normally
available only to the controllers and not to pilots.
(Refer to AIM.)
MINUTES-IN-TRAIL− A specified interval be­
tween aircraft expressed in time. This method would
more likely be utilized regardless of altitude.
MIS−
(See METEOROLOGICAL IMPACT
STATEMENT.)
MISSED APPROACH−
a. A maneuver conducted by a pilot when an
instrument approach cannot be completed to a
landing. The route of flight and altitude are shown on
instrument approach procedure charts. A pilot
executing a missed approach prior to the Missed
Approach Point (MAP) must continue along the final
approach to the MAP.
b. A term used by the pilot to inform ATC that
he/she is executing the missed approach.
c. At locations where ATC radar service is
provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors
when provided by ATC in lieu of the published
missed approach procedure.
(See MISSED APPROACH POINT.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MISSED APPROACH POINT− A point prescribed
in each instrument approach procedure at which a
missed approach procedure shall be executed if the
required visual reference does not exist.
(See MISSED APPROACH.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE [ICAO]− The
procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be
continued.
MISSED APPROACH SEGMENT−
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
MLDI−
(See METER LIST DISPLAY INTERVAL.)
MLS−
(See MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
MLS CATEGORIES−
a. MLS Category I. An MLS approach procedure
which provides for an approach to a height above
touchdown of not less than 200 feet and a runway
visual range of not less than 1,800 feet.
b. MLS Category II. Undefined until data gathering/analysis completion.
c. MLS Category III. Undefined until data
gathering/analysis completion.
MM−
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
MNPS−
(See MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
SPECIFICATION.)
MNPSA−
(See MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE−
SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE.)
MOA−
(See MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA.)
MOCA−
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
ALTITUDE.)
MODE− The letter or number assigned to a specific
pulse spacing of radio signals transmitted or received
by ground interrogator or airborne transponder
components of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon
PCG M−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
System (ATCRBS). Mode A (military Mode 3) and
Mode C (altitude reporting) are used in air traffic
control.
(See INTERROGATOR.)
(See RADAR.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
(See ICAO term MODE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
MODE (SSR MODE) [ICAO]− The letter or number
assigned to a specific pulse spacing of the
interrogation signals transmitted by an interrogator.
There are 4 modes, A, B, C and D specified in Annex
10, corresponding to four different interrogation
pulse spacings.
MODE C INTRUDER ALERT− A function of
certain air traffic control automated systems designed
to alert radar controllers to existing or pending
situations between a tracked target (known IFR or
VFR aircraft) and an untracked target (unknown IFR
or VFR aircraft) that requires immediate attention/
action.
(See CONFLICT ALERT.)
MONITOR− (When used with communication
transfer) listen on a specific frequency and stand by
for instructions. Under normal circumstances do not
establish communications.
MONITOR ALERT (MA)− A function of the TFMS
that provides traffic management personnel with a
tool for predicting potential capacity problems in
individual operational sectors. The MA is an
indication that traffic management personnel need to
analyze a particular sector for actual activity and to
determine the required action(s), if any, needed to
control the demand.
MONITOR ALERT PARAMETER (MAP)− The
number designated for use in monitor alert
processing by the TFMS. The MAP is designated for
each operational sector for increments of 15 minutes.
MOSAIC/MULTI−SENSOR MODE− Accepts posi­
tional data from multiple radar or ADS−B sites.
Targets are displayed from a single source within a
PCG M−6
4/3/14
radar sort box according to the hierarchy of the
sources assigned.
MOVEMENT AREA− The runways, taxiways, and
other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized
for taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and
landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and
parking areas. At those airports/heliports with a
tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement
area must be obtained from ATC.
(See ICAO term MOVEMENT AREA.)
MOVEMENT AREA [ICAO]− That part of an
aerodrome to be used for the takeoff, landing and
taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the maneuvering area
and the apron(s).
MOVING TARGET INDICATOR− An electronic
device which will permit radar scope presentation
only from targets which are in motion. A partial
remedy for ground clutter.
MRA−
(See MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE.)
MSA−
(See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE.)
MSAW−
(See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING.)
MTI−
(See MOVING TARGET INDICATOR.)
MTR−
(See MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
MULTICOM− A mobile service not open to public
correspondence used to provide communications
essential to conduct the activities being performed by
or directed from private aircraft.
MULTIPLE RUNWAYS− The utilization of a
dedicated arrival runway(s) for departures and a
dedicated departure runway(s) for arrivals when
feasible to reduce delays and enhance capacity.
MVA−
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
N
NAS−
(See NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM.)
NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM− The common
network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facilities,
equipment and services, airports or landing areas;
aeronautical charts, information and services; rules,
regulations and procedures, technical information,
and manpower and material. Included are system
components shared jointly with the military.
NATIONAL BEACON CODE ALLOCATION
PLAN AIRSPACE− Airspace over United States
territory located within the North American continent
between Canada and Mexico, including adjacent
territorial waters outward to about boundaries of
oceanic control areas (CTA)/Flight Information
Regions (FIR).
(See FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION.)
NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA CENTER− A facility in
Washington D.C., established by FAA to operate a
central aeronautical information service for the
collection, validation, and dissemination of aeronau­
tical data in support of the activities of government,
industry, and the aviation community. The informa­
tion is published in the National Flight Data Digest.
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST.)
NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST− A daily
(except weekends and Federal holidays) publication
of flight information appropriate to aeronautical
charts, aeronautical publications, Notices to Airmen,
or other media serving the purpose of providing
operational flight data essential to safe and efficient
aircraft operations.
NATIONAL SEARCH AND RESCUE PLAN− An
interagency agreement which provides for the
effective utilization of all available facilities in all
types of search and rescue missions.
NAVAID−
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
NAVAID CLASSES− VOR, VORTAC, and TACAN
aids are classed according to their operational use.
The three classes of NAVAIDs are:
a. T− Terminal.
b. L− Low altitude.
c. H− High altitude.
Note: The normal service range for T, L, and H class
aids is found in the AIM. Certain operational
requirements make it necessary to use some of
these aids at greater service ranges than
specified. Extended range is made possible
through flight inspection determinations. Some
aids also have lesser service range due to location,
terrain, frequency protection, etc. Restrictions to
service range are listed in Airport/Facility
Directory.
NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE− Airspace at and above
the minimum flight altitudes prescribed in the CFRs
including airspace needed for safe takeoff and
landing.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
NAVIGATION REFERENCE SYSTEM (NRS)−
The NRS is a system of waypoints developed for use
within the United States for flight planning and
navigation without reference to ground based
navigational aids. The NRS waypoints are located in
a grid pattern along defined latitude and longitude
lines. The initial use of the NRS will be in the high
altitude environment in conjunction with the High
Altitude Redesign initiative. The NRS waypoints are
intended for use by aircraft capable of point−to−point
navigation.
NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION [ICAO]− A set of
aircraft and flight crew requirements needed to
support performance−based navigation operations
within a defined airspace. There are two kinds of
navigation specifications:
a. RNP specification. A navigation specification
based on area navigation that includes the
requirement for performance monitoring and alert­
ing, designated by the prefix RNP; e.g., RNP 4, RNP
APCH.
b. RNAV specification. A navigation specifica­
tion based on area navigation that does not include the
requirement for performance monitoring and alert­
ing, designated by the prefix RNAV; e.g., RNAV 5,
RNAV 1.
Note: The Performance−based Navigation Manual
(Doc 9613), Volume II contains detailed guidance
on navigation specifications.
PCG N−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
NAVIGATIONAL AID− Any visual or electronic
device airborne or on the surface which provides
point-to-point guidance information or position data
to aircraft in flight.
(See AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY.)
NBCAP AIRSPACE−
(See NATIONAL BEACON CODE ALLOCATION
PLAN AIRSPACE.)
NDB−
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
NEGATIVE− “No,” or “permission not granted,” or
“that is not correct.”
NEGATIVE CONTACT− Used by pilots to inform
ATC that:
a. Previously issued traffic is not in sight. It may
be followed by the pilot’s request for the controller to
provide assistance in avoiding the traffic.
b. They were unable to contact ATC on a
particular frequency.
NFDC−
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA CENTER.)
NFDD−
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST.)
NIGHT− The time between the end of evening civil
twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight,
as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local
time.
(See ICAO term NIGHT.)
NIGHT [ICAO]− The hours between the end of
evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning
civil twilight or such other period between sunset and
sunrise as may be specified by the appropriate
authority.
Note: Civil twilight ends in the evening when the
center of the sun’s disk is 6 degrees below the
horizon and begins in the morning when the center
of the sun’s disk is 6 degrees below the horizon.
NO GYRO APPROACH− A radar approach/vector
provided in case of a malfunctioning gyro-compass
or directional gyro. Instead of providing the pilot
with headings to be flown, the controller observes the
radar track and issues control instructions “turn
right/left” or “stop turn” as appropriate.
(Refer to AIM.)
NO GYRO VECTOR−
(See NO GYRO APPROACH.)
PCG N−2
4/3/14
NO TRANSGRESSION ZONE (NTZ)− The NTZ is
a 2,000 foot wide zone, located equidistant between
parallel runway final approach courses in which
flight is not allowed.
NONAPPROACH CONTROL TOWER− Author­
izes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport controlled
by the tower or to transit the Class D airspace. The
primary function of a nonapproach control tower is
the sequencing of aircraft in the traffic pattern and on
the landing area. Nonapproach control towers also
separate aircraft operating under instrument flight
rules clearances from approach controls and centers.
They provide ground control services to aircraft,
vehicles, personnel, and equipment on the airport
movement area.
NONCOMMON ROUTE/PORTION− That segment
of a North American Route between the inland
navigation facility and a designated North American
terminal.
NONCOMPOSITE SEPARATION− Separation in
accordance with minima other than the composite
separation minimum specified for the area con­
cerned.
NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON− An L/MF or UHF
radio beacon transmitting nondirectional signals
whereby the pilot of an aircraft equipped with
direction finding equipment can determine his/her
bearing to or from the radio beacon and “home” on or
track to or from the station. When the radio beacon is
installed in conjunction with the Instrument Landing
System marker, it is normally called a Compass
Locator.
(See AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER.)
(See COMPASS LOCATOR.)
NONMOVEMENT AREAS− Taxiways and apron
(ramp) areas not under the control of air traffic.
NONPRECISION APPROACH−
(See NONPRECISION APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
NONPRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE− A
standard instrument approach procedure in which no
electronic glideslope is provided; e.g., VOR,
TACAN, NDB, LOC, ASR, LDA, or SDF
approaches.
NONRADAR− Precedes other terms and generally
means without the use of radar, such as:
a. Nonradar Approach. Used to describe instru­
ment approaches for which course guidance on final
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
approach is not provided by ground-based precision
or surveillance radar. Radar vectors to the final
approach course may or may not be provided by ATC.
Examples of nonradar approaches are VOR, NDB,
TACAN, and ILS/MLS approaches.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See FINAL APPROACH-IFR.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
b. Nonradar Approach Control. An ATC facility
providing approach control service without the use of
radar.
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
c. Nonradar Arrival. An aircraft arriving at an
airport without radar service or at an airport served by
a radar facility and radar contact has not been
established or has been terminated due to a lack of
radar service to the airport.
(See RADAR ARRIVAL.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
d. Nonradar Route. A flight path or route over
which the pilot is performing his/her own navigation.
The pilot may be receiving radar separation, radar
monitoring, or other ATC services while on a
nonradar route.
(See RADAR ROUTE.)
e. Nonradar Separation. The spacing of aircraft in
accordance with established minima without the use
of radar; e.g., vertical, lateral, or longitudinal
separation.
(See RADAR SEPARATION.)
(See ICAO term NONRADAR SEPARATION.)
NONRADAR SEPARATION [ICAO]− The separa­
tion used when aircraft position information is
derived from sources other than radar.
NON−RESTRICTIVE ROUTING (NRR)− Portions
of a proposed route of flight where a user can flight
plan the most advantageous flight path with no
requirement to make reference to ground−based
NAVAIDs.
NOPAC−
(See NORTH PACIFIC.)
NORDO (No Radio)− Aircraft that cannot or do not
communicate by radio when radio communication is
required are referred to as “NORDO.”
(See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)
NORMAL OPERATING ZONE (NOZ)− The NOZ
is the operating zone within which aircraft flight
remains during normal independent simultaneous
parallel ILS approaches.
NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE− A numerically
coded route preplanned over existing airway and
route systems to and from specific coastal fixes
serving the North Atlantic. North American Routes
consist of the following:
a. Common Route/Portion. That segment of a
North American Route between the inland navigation
facility and the coastal fix.
b. Noncommon Route/Portion. That segment of a
North American Route between the inland navigation
facility and a designated North American terminal.
c. Inland Navigation Facility. A navigation aid on
a North American Route at which the common route
and/or the noncommon route begins or ends.
d. Coastal Fix. A navigation aid or intersection
where an aircraft transitions between the domestic
route structure and the oceanic route structure.
NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE PROGRAM (NRP)−
The NRP is a set of rules and procedures which are
designed to increase the flexibility of user flight
planning within published guidelines.
NORTH MARK− A beacon data block sent by the
host computer to be displayed by the ARTS on a 360
degree bearing at a locally selected radar azimuth and
distance. The North Mark is used to ensure correct
range/azimuth orientation during periods of
CENRAP.
NORTH PACIFIC− An organized route system
between the Alaskan west coast and Japan.
NOTAM−
(See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
NOTAM [ICAO]− A notice containing information
concerning the establishment, condition or change in
any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or
hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to
personnel concerned with flight operations.
a. I Distribution− Distribution by means of
telecommunication.
b. II Distribution− Distribution by means other
than telecommunications.
NOTICE TO AIRMEN− A notice containing
information (not known sufficiently in advance to
publicize by other means) concerning the
PCG N−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
establishment, condition, or change in any compo­
nent (facility, service, or procedure of, or hazard in
the National Airspace System) the timely knowledge
of which is essential to personnel concerned with
flight operations.
a. NOTAM(D)− A NOTAM given (in addition to
local dissemination) distant dissemination beyond
the area of responsibility of the Flight Service
Station. These NOTAMs will be stored and available
until canceled.
b. FDC NOTAM− A NOTAM regulatory in
nature, transmitted by USNOF and given system
wide dissemination.
(See ICAO term NOTAM.)
NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION− A
publication issued every 28 days, designed primarily
for the pilot, which contains current NOTAM
PCG N−4
4/3/14
information considered essential to the safety of
flight as well as supplemental data to other
aeronautical publications. The contraction NTAP is
used in NOTAM text.
(See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
NRR−
(See NON−RESTRICTIVE ROUTING.)
NRS−
(See NAVIGATION REFERENCE SYSTEM.)
NTAP−
(See NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION.)
NUMEROUS TARGETS VICINITY (LOCATION)− A traffic advisory issued by ATC to advise
pilots that targets on the radar scope are too numerous
to issue individually.
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
O
OBSTACLE− An existing object, object of natural
growth, or terrain at a fixed geographical location or
which may be expected at a fixed location within a
prescribed area with reference to which vertical
clearance is or must be provided during flight
operation.
OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (ODP)−
A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) departure
procedure printed for pilot use in textual or graphic
form to provide obstruction clearance via the least
onerous route from the terminal area to the
appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recom­
mended for obstruction clearance and may be flown
without ATC clearance unless an alternate departure
procedure (SID or radar vector) has been specifically
assigned by ATC.
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT
DEPARTURES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
OBSTACLE FREE ZONE− The OFZ is a three
dimensional volume of airspace which protects for
the transition of aircraft to and from the runway. The
OFZ clearing standard precludes taxiing and parked
airplanes and object penetrations, except for
frangible NAVAID locations that are fixed by
function. Additionally, vehicles, equipment, and
personnel may be authorized by air traffic control to
enter the area using the provisions of FAAO JO
7110.65, Para 3−1−5, VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/
PERSONNEL ON RUNWAYS. The runway OFZ
and when applicable, the inner-approach OFZ, and
the inner-transitional OFZ, comprise the OFZ.
a. Runway OFZ. The runway OFZ is a defined
volume of airspace centered above the runway. The
runway OFZ is the airspace above a surface whose
elevation at any point is the same as the elevation of
the nearest point on the runway centerline. The
runway OFZ extends 200 feet beyond each end of the
runway. The width is as follows:
1. For runways serving large airplanes, the
greater of:
(a) 400 feet, or
(b) 180 feet, plus the wingspan of the most
demanding airplane, plus 20 feet per 1,000 feet of
airport elevation.
2. For runways serving only small airplanes:
(a) 300 feet for precision instrument run­
ways.
(b) 250 feet for other runways serving small
airplanes with approach speeds of 50 knots, or more.
(c) 120 feet for other runways serving small
airplanes with approach speeds of less than 50 knots.
b. Inner-approach OFZ. The inner-approach OFZ
is a defined volume of airspace centered on the
approach area. The inner-approach OFZ applies only
to runways with an approach lighting system. The
inner-approach OFZ begins 200 feet from the runway
threshold at the same elevation as the runway
threshold and extends 200 feet beyond the last light
unit in the approach lighting system. The width of the
inner-approach OFZ is the same as the runway OFZ
and rises at a slope of 50 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical)
from the beginning.
c. Inner-transitional OFZ. The inner transitional
surface OFZ is a defined volume of airspace along the
sides of the runway and inner-approach OFZ and
applies only to precision instrument runways. The
inner-transitional surface OFZ slopes 3 (horizontal)
to 1 (vertical) out from the edges of the runway OFZ
and inner-approach OFZ to a height of 150 feet above
the established airport elevation.
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Chapter 3.)
(Refer to FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−5,
VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ON
RUNWAYS.)
OBSTRUCTION− Any object/obstacle exceeding
the obstruction standards specified by 14 CFR
Part 77, Subpart C.
OBSTRUCTION LIGHT− A light or one of a group
of lights, usually red or white, frequently mounted on
a surface structure or natural terrain to warn pilots of
the presence of an obstruction.
OCEANIC AIRSPACE− Airspace over the oceans of
the world, considered international airspace, where
oceanic separation and procedures per the Interna­
tional Civil Aviation Organization are applied.
Responsibility for the provisions of air traffic control
PCG O−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
service in this airspace is delegated to various
countries, based generally upon geographic proximi­
ty and the availability of the required resources.
OCEANIC DISPLAY AND PLANNING SYS­
TEM− An automated digital display system which
provides flight data processing, conflict probe, and
situation display for oceanic air traffic control.
OCEANIC NAVIGATIONAL ERROR REPORT− A
report filed when an aircraft exiting oceanic airspace
has been observed by radar to be off course. ONER
reporting parameters and procedures are contained in
FAAO 7110.82, Monitoring of Navigational Perfor­
mance In Oceanic Areas.
OCEANIC PUBLISHED ROUTE− A route estab­
lished in international airspace and charted or
described in flight information publications, such as
Route Charts, DOD Enroute Charts, Chart Supple­
ments, NOTAMs, and Track Messages.
OCEANIC TRANSITION ROUTE− An ATS route
established for the purpose of transitioning aircraft
to/from an organized track system.
ODAPS−
(See OCEANIC DISPLAY AND PLANNING
SYSTEM.)
ODP−
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.)
OFF COURSE− A term used to describe a situation
where an aircraft has reported a position fix or is
observed on radar at a point not on the ATC-approved
route of flight.
OFF-ROUTE VECTOR− A vector by ATC which
takes an aircraft off a previously assigned route.
Altitudes assigned by ATC during such vectors
provide required obstacle clearance.
OFFSET PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Staggered
runways having centerlines which are parallel.
OFFSHORE/CONTROL AIRSPACE AREA− That
portion of airspace between the U.S. 12 NM limit and
the oceanic CTA/FIR boundary within which air
traffic control is exercised. These areas are
established to provide air traffic control services.
Offshore/Control Airspace Areas may be classified
as either Class A airspace or Class E airspace.
OFT−
(See OUTER FIX TIME.)
PCG O−2
4/3/14
OM−
(See OUTER MARKER.)
ON COURSE−
a. Used to indicate that an aircraft is established on
the route centerline.
b. Used by ATC to advise a pilot making a radar
approach that his/her aircraft is lined up on the final
approach course.
(See ON-COURSE INDICATION.)
ON-COURSE INDICATION− An indication on an
instrument, which provides the pilot a visual means
of determining that the aircraft is located on the
centerline of a given navigational track, or an
indication on a radar scope that an aircraft is on a
given track.
ONE-MINUTE WEATHER− The most recent one
minute updated weather broadcast received by a pilot
from an uncontrolled airport ASOS/AWSS/AWOS.
ONER−
(See OCEANIC NAVIGATIONAL ERROR
REPORT.)
OPERATIONAL−
(See DUE REGARD.)
OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS [ICAO]− The
authorizations, conditions and limitations associated
with the air operator certificate and subject to the
conditions in the operations manual.
OPPOSITE DIRECTION AIRCRAFT− Aircraft are
operating in opposite directions when:
a. They are following the same track in reciprocal
directions; or
b. Their tracks are parallel and the aircraft are
flying in reciprocal directions; or
c. Their tracks intersect at an angle of more than
135�.
OPTION APPROACH− An approach requested and
conducted by a pilot which will result in either a
touch-and-go, missed approach, low approach,
stop-and-go, or full stop landing.
(See CLEARED FOR THE OPTION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
ORGANIZED TRACK SYSTEM− A series of ATS
routes which are fixed and charted; i.e., CEP,
NOPAC, or flexible and described by NOTAM; i.e.,
NAT TRACK MESSAGE.
4/3/14
OROCA− An off-route altitude which provides
obstruction clearance with a 1,000 foot buffer in
nonmountainous terrain areas and a 2,000 foot buffer
in designated mountainous areas within the United
States. This altitude may not provide signal coverage
from ground-based navigational aids, air traffic
control radar, or communications coverage.
OTR−
(See OCEANIC TRANSITION ROUTE.)
OTS−
(See ORGANIZED TRACK SYSTEM.)
OUT− The conversation is ended and no response is
expected.
OUTER AREA (associated with Class C airspace)−
Nonregulatory airspace surrounding designated
Class C airspace airports wherein ATC provides radar
vectoring and sequencing on a full-time basis for all
IFR and participating VFR aircraft. The service
provided in the outer area is called Class C service
which includes: IFR/IFR−standard IFR separation;
IFR/VFR−traffic advisories and conflict resolution;
and VFR/VFR−traffic advisories and, as appropriate,
safety alerts. The normal radius will be 20 nautical
miles with some variations based on site-specific
requirements. The outer area extends outward from
the primary Class C airspace airport and extends from
the lower limits of radar/radio coverage up to the
ceiling of the approach control’s delegated airspace
excluding the Class C charted area and other airspace
as appropriate.
(See CONFLICT RESOLUTION.)
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
OUTER COMPASS LOCATOR−
(See COMPASS LOCATOR.)
OUTER FIX− A general term used within ATC to
describe fixes in the terminal area, other than the final
approach fix. Aircraft are normally cleared to these
fixes by an Air Route Traffic Control Center or an
Approach Control Facility. Aircraft are normally
cleared from these fixes to the final approach fix or
final approach course.
OR
OUTER FIX− An adapted fix along the converted
route of flight, prior to the meter fix, for which
crossing times are calculated and displayed in the
metering position list.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
OUTER FIX ARC− A semicircle, usually about a
50−70 mile radius from a meter fix, usually in high
altitude, which is used by CTAS/HOST to calculate
outer fix times and determine appropriate sector
meter list assignments for aircraft on an established
arrival route that will traverse the arc.
OUTER FIX TIME− A calculated time to depart the
outer fix in order to cross the vertex at the ACLT. The
time reflects descent speed adjustments and any
applicable delay time that must be absorbed prior to
crossing the meter fix.
OUTER MARKER− A marker beacon at or near the
glideslope intercept altitude of an ILS approach. It is
keyed to transmit two dashes per second on a 400 Hz
tone, which is received aurally and visually by
compatible airborne equipment. The OM is normally
located four to seven miles from the runway threshold
on the extended centerline of the runway.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See MARKER BEACON.)
(Refer to AIM.)
OVER− My transmission is ended; I expect a
response.
OVERHEAD MANEUVER− A series of predeter­
mined maneuvers prescribed for aircraft (often in
formation) for entry into the visual flight rules (VFR)
traffic pattern and to proceed to a landing. An
overhead maneuver is not an instrument flight rules
(IFR) approach procedure. An aircraft executing an
overhead maneuver is considered VFR and the IFR
flight plan is cancelled when the aircraft reaches the
“initial point” on the initial approach portion of the
maneuver. The pattern usually specifies the
following:
a. The radio contact required of the pilot.
b. The speed to be maintained.
c. An initial approach 3 to 5 miles in length.
d. An elliptical pattern consisting of two 180
degree turns.
e. A break point at which the first 180 degree turn
is started.
f. The direction of turns.
g. Altitude (at least 500 feet above the convention­
al pattern).
h. A “Roll-out” on final approach not less than 1/4
mile from the landing threshold and not less than 300
feet above the ground.
PCG O−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
OVERLYING CENTER− The ARTCC facility that
is responsible for arrival/departure operations at a
specific terminal.
PCG O−4
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
P
P TIME−
(See PROPOSED DEPARTURE TIME.)
P-ACP−
(See PREARRANGED COORDINATION
PROCEDURES.)
PAN-PAN− The international radio-telephony urgen­
cy signal. When repeated three times, indicates
uncertainty or alert followed by the nature of the
urgency.
(See MAYDAY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PAR−
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
PAR [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term PRECISION APPROACH
RADAR.)
PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES− Approaches to
parallel runways by IFR aircraft which, when
established inbound toward the airport on the
adjacent final approach courses, are radar-separated
by at least 2 miles.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES.)
PARALLEL MLS APPROACHES−
(See PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES.)
PARALLEL OFFSET ROUTE− A parallel track to
the left or right of the designated or established
airway/route. Normally associated with Area Navi­
gation (RNAV) operations.
(See AREA NAVIGATION.)
PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Two or more runways at
the same airport whose centerlines are parallel. In
addition to runway number, parallel runways are
designated as L (left) and R (right) or, if three parallel
runways exist, L (left), C (center), and R (right).
PBCT−
(See PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING
TIME.)
PBN
(See ICAO Term PERFORMANCE−BASED
NAVIGATION.)
PDC−
(See PRE−DEPARTURE CLEARANCE.)
PERFORMANCE−BASED NAVIGATION (PBN)
[ICAO]− Area navigation based on performance
requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS
route, on an instrument approach procedure or in a
designated airspace.
Note: Performance requirements are expressed in
navigation specifications (RNAV specification,
RNP specification) in terms of accuracy, integrity,
continuity, availability, and functionality needed for
the proposed operation in the context of a
particular airspace concept.
PERMANENT ECHO− Radar signals reflected from
fixed objects on the earth’s surface; e.g., buildings,
towers, terrain. Permanent echoes are distinguished
from “ground clutter” by being definable locations
rather than large areas. Under certain conditions they
may be used to check radar alignment.
PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE− Military activity
that requires locating individual photo targets and
navigating to the targets at a preplanned angle and
altitude. The activity normally requires a lateral route
width of 16 NM and altitude range of 1,500 feet to
10,000 feet AGL.
PILOT BRIEFING− A service provided by the FSS
to assist pilots in flight planning. Briefing items may
include weather information, NOTAMS, military
activities, flow control information, and other items
as requested.
(Refer to AIM.)
PILOT IN COMMAND− The pilot responsible for
the operation and safety of an aircraft during flight
time.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
PILOT WEATHER REPORT− A report of meteoro­
logical phenomena encountered by aircraft in flight.
(Refer to AIM.)
PILOT’S DISCRETION− When used in conjunc­
tion with altitude assignments, means that ATC has
offered the pilot the option of starting climb or
descent whenever he/she wishes and conducting the
climb or descent at any rate he/she wishes. He/she
may temporarily level off at any intermediate
PCG P−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
altitude. However, once he/she has vacated an
altitude, he/she may not return to that altitude.
PIREP−
(See PILOT WEATHER REPORT.)
PITCH POINT− A fix/waypoint that serves as a
transition point from a departure procedure or the low
altitude ground−based navigation structure into the
high altitude waypoint system.
PLANS DISPLAY− A display available in URET
that provides detailed flight plan and predicted
conflict information in textual format for requested
Current Plans and all Trial Plans.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
POFZ−
(See PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE.)
POINT OUT−
(See RADAR POINT OUT.)
POINT−TO−POINT (PTP)− A level of NRR service
for aircraft that is based on traditional waypoints in
their FMSs or RNAV equipage.
POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE− A system of
organized routes between Iceland and Alaska which
overlie Canadian MNPS Airspace.
POSITION REPORT− A report over a known
location as transmitted by an aircraft to ATC.
(Refer to AIM.)
POSITION SYMBOL− A computer-generated
indication shown on a radar display to indicate the
mode of tracking.
POSITIVE CONTROL− The separation of all air
traffic within designated airspace by air traffic
control.
PRACTICE INSTRUMENT APPROACH− An
instrument approach procedure conducted by a VFR
or an IFR aircraft for the purpose of pilot training or
proficiency demonstrations.
PRE−DEPARTURE CLEARANCE− An application
with the Terminal Data Link System (TDLS) that
provides clearance information to subscribers,
through a service provider, in text to the cockpit or
gate printer.
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4/3/14
PREARRANGED COORDINATION− A standard­
ized procedure which permits an air traffic controller
to enter the airspace assigned to another air traffic
controller without verbal coordination. The proce­
dures are defined in a facility directive which ensures
standard separation between aircraft.
PREARRANGED COORDINATION PROCE­
DURES− A facility’s standardized procedure that
describes the process by which one controller shall
allow an aircraft to penetrate or transit another
controller’s airspace in a manner that assures standard
separation without individual coordination for each
aircraft.
PRECIPITATION− Any or all forms of water
particles (rain, sleet, hail, or snow) that fall from the
atmosphere and reach the surface.
PRECIPITATION RADAR WEATHER DE­
SCRIPTIONS − Existing radar systems cannot detect
turbulence. However, there is a direct correlation
between the degree of turbulence and other weather
features associated with thunderstorms and the
weather radar precipitation intensity. Controllers will
issue (where capable) precipitation intensity as
observed by radar when using weather and radar
processor (WARP) or NAS ground based digital
radars with weather capabilities. When precipitation
intensity information is not available, the intensity
will be described as UNKNOWN. When intensity
levels can be determined, they shall be described as:
a. LIGHT (< 30 dBZ)
b. MODERATE (30 to 40 dBZ)
c. HEAVY (> 40 to 50 dBZ)
d. EXTREME (> 50 dBZ)
(Refer to AC 00−45, Aviation Weather Services.)
PRECISION APPROACH−
(See PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE− A stan­
dard instrument approach procedure in which an
electronic glideslope/glidepath is provided; e.g., ILS,
MLS, and PAR.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See MICROWAVE LANDING SYSTEM.)
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
PRECISION APPROACH RADAR− Radar equip­
ment in some ATC facilities operated by the FAA
and/or the military services at joint-use civil/military
locations and separate military installations to detect
and display azimuth, elevation, and range of aircraft
on the final approach course to a runway. This
equipment may be used to monitor certain nonradar
approaches, but is primarily used to conduct a
precision instrument approach (PAR) wherein the
controller issues guidance instructions to the pilot
based on the aircraft’s position in relation to the final
approach course (azimuth), the glidepath (elevation),
and the distance (range) from the touchdown point on
the runway as displayed on the radar scope.
Note: The abbreviation “PAR” is also used to
denote preferential arrival routes in ARTCC
computers.
(See GLIDEPATH.)
(See PAR.)
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.)
(See ICAO term PRECISION APPROACH
RADAR.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PRECISION APPROACH RADAR [ICAO]− Pri­
mary radar equipment used to determine the position
of an aircraft during final approach, in terms of lateral
and vertical deviations relative to a nominal approach
path, and in range relative to touchdown.
Note: Precision approach radars are designed to
enable pilots of aircraft to be given guidance by
radio communication during the final stages of the
approach to land.
PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (POFZ)−
An 800 foot wide by 200 foot long area centered on
the runway centerline adjacent to the threshold
designed to protect aircraft flying precision
approaches from ground vehicles and other aircraft
when ceiling is less than 250 feet or visibility is less
than 3/4 statute mile (or runway visual range below
4,000 feet.)
PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM)−
Provides air traffic controllers monitoring the NTZ
during simultaneous close parallel approaches with
high precision secondary surveillance data. A PRM
is required for simultaneous independent operations
when runway centerlines, or in the case of SOIA,
final approach courses, are separated by less than
3,600 feet. High resolution color monitoring display
(FMA) present (NTZ) surveillance track data to
controllers along with detailed maps depicting
approaches and no transgression zone.
(Refer to AIM)
PREDICTIVE WIND SHEAR ALERT SYSTEM
(PWS)− A self−contained system used onboard some
aircraft to alert the flight crew to the presence of a
potential wind shear. PWS systems typically monitor
3 miles ahead and 25 degrees left and right of the
aircraft’s heading at or below 1200’ AGL. Departing
flights may receive a wind shear alert after they start
the takeoff roll and may elect to abort the takeoff.
Aircraft on approach receiving an alert may elect to
go around or perform a wind shear escape maneuver.
PREFERENTIAL ROUTES− Preferential routes
(PDRs, PARs, and PDARs) are adapted in ARTCC
computers to accomplish inter/intrafacility controller
coordination and to assure that flight data is posted at
the proper control positions. Locations having a need
for these specific inbound and outbound routes
normally publish such routes in local facility
bulletins, and their use by pilots minimizes flight
plan route amendments. When the workload or traffic
situation permits, controllers normally provide radar
vectors or assign requested routes to minimize
circuitous routing. Preferential routes are usually
confined to one ARTCC’s area and are referred to by
the following names or acronyms:
a. Preferential Departure Route (PDR). A specific
departure route from an airport or terminal area to an
en route point where there is no further need for flow
control. It may be included in an Instrument
Departure Procedure (DP) or a Preferred IFR Route.
b. Preferential Arrival Route (PAR). A specific
arrival route from an appropriate en route point to an
airport or terminal area. It may be included in a
Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) or a Preferred IFR
Route. The abbreviation “PAR” is used primarily
within the ARTCC and should not be confused with
the abbreviation for Precision Approach Radar.
c. Preferential Departure and Arrival Route
(PDAR). A route between two terminals which are
within or immediately adjacent to one ARTCC’s area.
PDARs are not synonymous with Preferred IFR
Routes but may be listed as such as they do
accomplish essentially the same purpose.
(See PREFERRED IFR ROUTES.)
PREFERRED IFR ROUTES− Routes established
between busier airports to increase system efficiency
and capacity. They normally extend through one or
PCG P−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
more ARTCC areas and are designed to achieve
balanced traffic flows among high density terminals.
IFR clearances are issued on the basis of these routes
except when severe weather avoidance procedures or
other factors dictate otherwise. Preferred IFR Routes
are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory. If a flight
is planned to or from an area having such routes but
the departure or arrival point is not listed in the
Airport/Facility Directory, pilots may use that part of
a Preferred IFR Route which is appropriate for the
departure or arrival point that is listed. Preferred IFR
Routes are correlated with DPs and STARs and may
be defined by airways, jet routes, direct routes
between NAVAIDs, Waypoints, NAVAID radials/
DME, or any combinations thereof.
(See CENTER’S AREA.)
(See INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE
PROCEDURE.)
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.)
(See STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL.)
(Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
(Refer to NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION.)
PRE-FLIGHT PILOT BRIEFING−
(See PILOT BRIEFING.)
PREVAILING VISIBILITY−
(See VISIBILITY.)
PRIMARY RADAR TARGET− An analog or digital
target, exclusive of a secondary radar target,
presented on a radar display.
PRM−
(See ILS PRM APPROACH and PRECISION
RUNWAY MONITOR.)
PROCEDURE TURN− The maneuver prescribed
when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish
an aircraft on the intermediate approach segment or
final approach course. The outbound course,
direction of turn, distance within which the turn must
be completed, and minimum altitude are specified in
the procedure. However, unless otherwise restricted,
the point at which the turn may be commenced and
the type and rate of turn are left to the discretion of the
pilot.
(See ICAO term PROCEDURE TURN.)
PROCEDURE TURN [ICAO]− A maneuver in
which a turn is made away from a designated track
followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit
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4/3/14
the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the
reciprocal of the designated track.
Note 1: Procedure turns are designated “left” or
“right” according to the direction of the initial turn.
Note 2: Procedure turns may be designated as
being made either in level flight or while
descending, according to the circumstances of
each individual approach procedure.
PROCEDURE TURN INBOUND− That point of a
procedure turn maneuver where course reversal has
been completed and an aircraft is established inbound
on the intermediate approach segment or final
approach course. A report of “procedure turn
inbound” is normally used by ATC as a position
report for separation purposes.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See PROCEDURE TURN.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
PROFILE DESCENT− An uninterrupted descent
(except where level flight is required for speed
adjustment; e.g., 250 knots at 10,000 feet MSL) from
cruising altitude/level to interception of a glideslope
or to a minimum altitude specified for the initial or
intermediate approach segment of a nonprecision
instrument approach. The profile descent normally
terminates at the approach gate or where the
glideslope or other appropriate minimum altitude is
intercepted.
PROGRESS REPORT−
(See POSITION REPORT.)
PROGRESSIVE TAXI− Precise taxi instructions
given to a pilot unfamiliar with the airport or issued
in stages as the aircraft proceeds along the taxi route.
PROHIBITED AREA−
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
(See ICAO term PROHIBITED AREA.)
PROHIBITED AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of
defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft
is prohibited.
PROMINENT OBSTACLE– An obstacle that meets
one or more of the following conditions:
a. An obstacle which stands out beyond the
adjacent surface of surrounding terrain and immedi­
ately projects a noticeable hazard to aircraft in flight.
b. An obstacle, not characterized as low and close
in, whose height is no less than 300 feet above the
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
departure end of takeoff runway (DER) elevation, is
within 10NM from the DER, and that penetrates that
airport/heliport’s diverse departure obstacle clear­
ance surface (OCS).
c. An obstacle beyond 10NM from an airport/heli­
port that requires an obstacle departure procedure
(ODP) to ensure obstacle avoidance.
(See OBSTACLE.)
(See OBSTRUCTION.)
PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING TIME−
Each center has a PBCT parameter for each internal
airport. Proposed internal flight plans are transmitted
to the adjacent center if the flight time along the
proposed route from the departure airport to the
center boundary is less than or equal to the value of
PBCT or if airport adaptation specifies transmission
regardless of PBCT.
PROPOSED DEPARTURE TIME− The time that the
aircraft expects to become airborne.
PROTECTED AIRSPACE− The airspace on either
side of an oceanic route/track that is equal to one-half
the lateral separation minimum except where
reduction of protected airspace has been authorized.
PROTECTED SEGMENT- The protected segment is
a segment on the amended TFM route that is to be
inhibited from automatic adapted route alteration by
ERAM.
PT−
(See PROCEDURE TURN.)
PTP−
(See POINT−TO−POINT.)
PTS−
(See POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE.)
PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT− A segment on
an IAP chart annotated as “Fly Visual to Airport” or
“Fly Visual.” A dashed arrow will indicate the visual
flight path on the profile and plan view with an
associated note on the approximate heading and
distance. The visual segment should be flown as a
dead reckoning course while maintaining visual
conditions.
PUBLISHED ROUTE− A route for which an IFR
altitude has been established and published; e.g.,
Federal Airways, Jet Routes, Area Navigation
Routes, Specified Direct Routes.
PWS−
(See PREDICTIVE WIND SHEAR ALERT
SYSTEM.)
PCG P−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
Q
Q ROUTE− ‘Q’ is the designator assigned to
published RNAV routes used by the United States.
QNE− The barometric pressure used for the standard
altimeter setting (29.92 inches Hg.).
QNH− The barometric pressure as reported by a
particular station.
QUADRANT− A quarter part of a circle, centered on
a NAVAID, oriented clockwise from magnetic north
as follows: NE quadrant 000-089, SE quadrant
090-179, SW quadrant 180-269, NW quadrant
270-359.
QUEUING−
(See STAGING/QUEUING.)
QUICK LOOK− A feature of the EAS and ARTS
which provides the controller the capability to
display full data blocks of tracked aircraft from other
control positions.
PCG Q−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
R
RAA−
(See REMOTE AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
RADAR− A device which, by measuring the time
interval between transmission and reception of radio
pulses and correlating the angular orientation of the
radiated antenna beam or beams in azimuth and/or
elevation, provides information on range, azimuth,
and/or elevation of objects in the path of the
transmitted pulses.
a. Primary Radar− A radar system in which a
minute portion of a radio pulse transmitted from a site
is reflected by an object and then received back at that
site for processing and display at an air traffic control
facility.
b. Secondary Radar/Radar Beacon (ATCRBS)− A
radar system in which the object to be detected is
fitted with cooperative equipment in the form of a
radio receiver/transmitter (transponder). Radar
pulses transmitted from the searching transmitter/re­
ceiver (interrogator) site are received in the
cooperative equipment and used to trigger a
distinctive transmission from the transponder. This
reply transmission, rather than a reflected signal, is
then received back at the transmitter/receiver site for
processing and display at an air traffic control facility.
(See INTERROGATOR.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
(See ICAO term RADAR.)
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR [ICAO]− A radio detection device which
provides information on range, azimuth and/or
elevation of objects.
a. Primary Radar− Radar system which uses
reflected radio signals.
b. Secondary Radar− Radar system wherein a
radio signal transmitted from a radar station initiates
the transmission of a radio signal from another
station.
RADAR ADVISORY− The provision of advice and
information based on radar observations.
(See ADVISORY SERVICE.)
RADAR ALTIMETER−
(See RADIO ALTIMETER.)
RADAR APPROACH− An instrument approach
procedure which utilizes Precision Approach Radar
(PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR).
(See AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
(See SURVEILLANCE APPROACH.)
(See ICAO term RADAR APPROACH.)
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR APPROACH [ICAO]− An approach,
executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar
controller.
RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY− A
terminal ATC facility that uses radar and nonradar
capabilities to provide approach control services to
aircraft arriving, departing, or transiting airspace
controlled by the facility.
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
a. Provides radar ATC services to aircraft
operating in the vicinity of one or more civil and/or
military airports in a terminal area. The facility may
provide services of a ground controlled approach
(GCA); i.e., ASR and PAR approaches. A radar
approach control facility may be operated by FAA,
USAF, US Army, USN, USMC, or jointly by FAA
and a military service. Specific facility nomencla­
tures are used for administrative purposes only and
are related to the physical location of the facility and
the operating service generally as follows:
1. Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC)
(Army).
2. Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF)
(Navy/FAA).
3. Radar Approach Control (RAPCON) (Air
Force/FAA).
4. Terminal Radar Approach Control
(TRACON) (FAA).
5. Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) (FAA).
(Only those towers delegated approach control
authority.)
RADAR ARRIVAL− An aircraft arriving at an
airport served by a radar facility and in radar contact
with the facility.
(See NONRADAR.)
PCG R−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
RADAR BEACON−
(See RADAR.)
RADAR CLUTTER [ICAO]− The visual indication
on a radar display of unwanted signals.
RADAR CONTACT−
a. Used by ATC to inform an aircraft that it is
identified on the radar display and radar flight
following will be provided until radar identification
is terminated. Radar service may also be provided
within the limits of necessity and capability. When a
pilot is informed of “radar contact,” he/she
automatically discontinues reporting over compulso­
ry reporting points.
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
(See RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.)
(Refer to AIM.)
b. The term used to inform the controller that the
aircraft is identified and approval is granted for the
aircraft to enter the receiving controllers airspace.
(See ICAO term RADAR CONTACT.)
RADAR CONTACT [ICAO]− The situation which
exists when the radar blip or radar position symbol of
a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar
display.
RADAR CONTACT LOST− Used by ATC to inform
a pilot that radar data used to determine the aircraft’s
position is no longer being received, or is no longer
reliable and radar service is no longer being provided.
The loss may be attributed to several factors
including the aircraft merging with weather or ground
clutter, the aircraft operating below radar line of sight
coverage, the aircraft entering an area of poor radar
return, failure of the aircraft transponder, or failure of
the ground radar equipment.
(See CLUTTER.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
RADAR ENVIRONMENT− An area in which radar
service may be provided.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING− The observation
of the progress of radar identified aircraft, whose
primary navigation is being provided by the pilot,
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wherein the controller retains and correlates the
aircraft identity with the appropriate target or target
symbol displayed on the radar scope.
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
RADAR IDENTIFICATION− The process of
ascertaining that an observed radar target is the radar
return from a particular aircraft.
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See ICAO term RADAR IDENTIFICATION.)
RADAR IDENTIFICATION [ICAO]− The process
of correlating a particular radar blip or radar position
symbol with a specific aircraft.
RADAR IDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT− An aircraft, the
position of which has been correlated with an
observed target or symbol on the radar display.
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
RADAR MONITORING−
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR NAVIGATIONAL GUIDANCE−
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR POINT OUT− An action taken by a
controller to transfer the radar identification of an
aircraft to another controller if the aircraft will or may
enter the airspace or protected airspace of another
controller and radio communications will not be
transferred.
RADAR REQUIRED− A term displayed on charts
and approach plates and included in FDC NOTAMs
to alert pilots that segments of either an instrument
approach procedure or a route are not navigable
because of either the absence or unusability of a
NAVAID. The pilot can expect to be provided radar
navigational guidance while transiting segments
labeled with this term.
(See RADAR ROUTE.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR ROUTE− A flight path or route over which
an aircraft is vectored. Navigational guidance and
altitude assignments are provided by ATC.
(See FLIGHT PATH.)
(See ROUTE.)
RADAR SEPARATION−
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
RADAR SERVICE− A term which encompasses one
or more of the following services based on the use of
radar which can be provided by a controller to a pilot
of a radar identified aircraft.
a. Radar Monitoring− The radar flight-following
of aircraft, whose primary navigation is being
performed by the pilot, to observe and note deviations
from its authorized flight path, airway, or route.
When being applied specifically to radar monitoring
of instrument approaches; i.e., with precision
approach radar (PAR) or radar monitoring of
simultaneous ILS/MLS approaches, it includes
advice and instructions whenever an aircraft nears or
exceeds the prescribed PAR safety limit or
simultaneous ILS/MLS no transgression zone.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
b. Radar Navigational Guidance− Vectoring
aircraft to provide course guidance.
c. Radar Separation− Radar spacing of aircraft in
accordance with established minima.
(See ICAO term RADAR SERVICE.)
RADAR SERVICE [ICAO]− Term used to indicate
a service provided directly by means of radar.
a. Monitoring− The use of radar for the purpose of
providing aircraft with information and advice
relative to significant deviations from nominal flight
path.
b. Separation− The separation used when aircraft
position information is derived from radar sources.
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED−Used by ATC
to inform a pilot that he/she will no longer be
provided any of the services that could be received
while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically
terminated, and the pilot is not advised in the
following cases:
a. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA,
or where Basic Radar service is provided.
other airports, is instructed to change to tower or
advisory frequency.
d. An aircraft completes a radar approach.
RADAR SURVEILLANCE− The radar observation
of a given geographical area for the purpose of
performing some radar function.
RADAR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES− Advisories
issued to alert pilots to known or observed radar
traffic which may affect the intended route of flight
of their aircraft.
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
RADAR TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE−
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
RADAR VECTORING [ICAO]− Provision of
navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of
specific headings, based on the use of radar.
RADIAL− A magnetic bearing extending from a
VOR/VORTAC/TACAN navigation facility.
RADIO−
a. A device used for communication.
b. Used to refer to a flight service station; e.g.,
“Seattle Radio” is used to call Seattle FSS.
RADIO ALTIMETER− Aircraft equipment which
makes use of the reflection of radio waves from the
ground to determine the height of the aircraft above
the surface.
RADIO BEACON−
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING−
(See RADAR.)
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR− An aircraft
navigational instrument coupled with a gyro compass
or similar compass that indicates the direction of a
selected NAVAID and indicates bearing with respect
to the heading of the aircraft.
RAIS−
(See REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION
SERVICE.)
b. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or
contact approach has landed or has been instructed to
change to advisory frequency.
RAMP−
c. An arriving VFR aircraft, receiving radar
service to a tower-controlled airport within Class B
airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where
sequencing service is provided, has landed; or to all
RANDOM ALTITUDE− An altitude inappropriate
for direction of flight and/or not in accordance with
FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−1, VERTICAL
SEPARATION MINIMA.
(See APRON.)
PCG R−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
RANDOM ROUTE− Any route not established or
charted/published or not otherwise available to all
users.
RC−
(See ROAD RECONNAISSANCE.)
RCAG−
(See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS
AIR/GROUND FACILITY.)
RCC−
(See RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER.)
RCO−
(See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.)
RCR−
(See RUNWAY CONDITION READING.)
READ BACK− Repeat my message back to me.
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MON­
ITORING (RAIM)− A technique whereby a civil
GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of
the GNSS navigation signals without reference to
sensors or non-DoD integrity systems other than the
receiver itself. This determination is achieved by a
consistency check among redundant pseudorange
measurements.
RECEIVING CONTROLLER− A controller/facility
receiving control of an aircraft from another
controller/facility.
RECEIVING FACILITY−
(See RECEIVING CONTROLLER.)
RECONFORMANCE− The automated process of
bringing an aircraft’s Current Plan Trajectory into
conformance with its track.
REDUCE SPEED TO (SPEED)−
(See SPEED ADJUSTMENT.)
REIL−
(See RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS.)
RELEASE TIME− A departure time restriction
issued to a pilot by ATC (either directly or through an
authorized relay) when necessary to separate a
departing aircraft from other traffic.
(See ICAO term RELEASE TIME.)
RELEASE TIME [ICAO]− Time prior to which an
aircraft should be given further clearance or prior to
which it should not proceed in case of radio failure.
PCG R−4
4/3/14
REMOTE AIRPORT ADVISORY (RAA)− A
remote service which may be provided by facilities,
which are not located on the landing airport, but have
a discrete ground−to−air communication frequency
or tower frequency when the tower is closed,
automated weather reporting with voice available to
the pilot at the landing airport, and a continuous
ASOS/AWSS/AWOS data display, other direct
reading instruments, or manual observation is
available to the FSS specialist.
REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION SERVICE
(RAIS)− A temporary service provided by facilities,
which are not located on the landing airport, but have
communication capability and automated weather
reporting available to the pilot at the landing airport.
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND
FACILITY− An unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter/
receiver facility which is used to expand ARTCC
air/ground communications coverage and to facilitate
direct contact between pilots and controllers. RCAG
facilities are sometimes not equipped with emergen­
cy frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz.
(Refer to AIM.)
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET− An
unmanned communications facility remotely con­
trolled by air traffic personnel. RCOs serve FSSs.
RTRs serve terminal ATC facilities. An RCO or RTR
may be UHF or VHF and will extend the
communication range of the air traffic facility. There
are several classes of RCOs and RTRs. The class is
determined by the number of transmitters or
receivers. Classes A through G are used primarily for
air/ground purposes. RCO and RTR class O
facilities are nonprotected outlets subject to
undetected and prolonged outages. RCO (O’s) and
RTR (O’s) were established for the express purpose
of providing ground-to-ground communications
between air traffic control specialists and pilots
located at a satellite airport for delivering en route
clearances, issuing departure authorizations, and
acknowledging instrument flight rules cancellations
or departure/landing times. As a secondary function,
they may be used for advisory purposes whenever the
aircraft is below the coverage of the primary
air/ground frequency.
REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER−
(See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
REPORT− Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of
specified information; e.g., “Report passing Hamil­
ton VOR.”
REPORTING POINT− A geographical location in
relation to which the position of an aircraft is
reported.
(See COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS.)
(See ICAO term REPORTING POINT.)
(Refer to AIM.)
REPORTING POINT [ICAO]− A specified geo­
graphical location in relation to which the position of
an aircraft can be reported.
REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE− Used
by pilots to request that the entire route of flight be
read verbatim in an ATC clearance. Such request
should be made to preclude receiving an ATC
clearance based on the original filed flight plan when
a filed IFR flight plan has been revised by the pilot,
company, or operations prior to departure.
REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
(RNP)– A statement of the navigational performance
necessary for operation within a defined airspace.
The following terms are commonly associated with
RNP:
a. Required Navigation Performance Level or
Type (RNP-X). A value, in nautical miles (NM), from
the intended horizontal position within which an
aircraft would be at least 95-percent of the total flying
time.
b. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
Airspace. A generic term designating airspace, route
(s), leg (s), operation (s), or procedure (s) where
minimum required navigational performance (RNP)
have been established.
c. Actual Navigation Performance (ANP). A
measure of the current estimated navigational
performance. Also referred to as Estimated Position
Error (EPE).
d. Estimated Position Error (EPE). A measure of
the current estimated navigational performance. Also
referred to as Actual Navigation Performance (ANP).
e. Lateral Navigation (LNAV). A function of area
navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,
displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or
path.
f. Vertical Navigation (VNAV). A function of area
navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,
displays, and provides vertical guidance to a profile
or path.
RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER− A search
and rescue (SAR) facility equipped and manned to
coordinate and control SAR operations in an area
designated by the SAR plan. The U.S. Coast Guard
and the U.S. Air Force have responsibility for the
operation of RCCs.
(See ICAO term RESCUE CO-ORDINATION
CENTRE.)
RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE [ICAO]− A
unit responsible for promoting efficient organization
of search and rescue service and for coordinating the
conduct of search and rescue operations within a
search and rescue region.
RESOLUTION ADVISORY−A display indication
given to the pilot by the traffic alert and collision
avoidance systems (TCAS II) recommending a
maneuver to increase vertical separation relative to an
intruding aircraft. Positive, negative, and vertical
speed limit (VSL) advisories constitute the resolution
advisories. A resolution advisory is also classified as
corrective or preventive
RESTRICTED AREA−
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
(See ICAO term RESTRICTED AREA.)
RESTRICTED AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of
defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft
is restricted in accordance with certain specified
conditions.
RESUME NORMAL SPEED− Used by ATC to
advise a pilot to resume an aircraft’s normal operating
speed. It is issued to terminate a speed adjustment
where no published speed restrictions apply. It does
not delete speed restrictions in published procedures
of upcoming segments of flight. This does not relieve
the pilot of those speed restrictions, which are
applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION− Used by ATC to
advise a pilot to resume his/her own navigational
responsibility. It is issued after completion of a radar
vector or when radar contact is lost while the aircraft
is being radar vectored.
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.)
RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED- Used by ATC to
advise a pilot to resume published speed restrictions
PCG R−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
that are applicable to a SID, STAR, or other
instrument procedure. It is issued to terminate a speed
adjustment where speed restrictions are published on
a charted procedure.
RMI−
(See RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR.)
RNAV−
(See AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV).)
RNAV APPROACH− An instrument approach
procedure which relies on aircraft area navigation
equipment for navigational guidance.
(See AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV).)
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
ROAD RECONNAISSANCE− Military activity
requiring navigation along roads, railroads, and
rivers. Reconnaissance route/route segments are
seldom along a straight line and normally require a
lateral route width of 10 NM to 30 NM and an altitude
range of 500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL.
ROGER− I have received all of your last
transmission. It should not be used to answer a
question requiring a yes or a no answer.
(See AFFIRMATIVE.)
(See NEGATIVE.)
ROLLOUT RVR−
(See VISIBILITY.)
ROUTE− A defined path, consisting of one or more
courses in a horizontal plane, which aircraft traverse
over the surface of the earth.
(See
(See
(See
(See
AIRWAY.)
JET ROUTE.)
PUBLISHED ROUTE.)
UNPUBLISHED ROUTE.)
ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION− URET notifi­
cation that a PAR/PDR/PDAR has been applied to the
flight plan.
(See ATC PREFERRED ROUTE
NOTIFICATION.)
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
ROUTE SEGMENT− As used in Air Traffic Control,
a part of a route that can be defined by two
PCG R−6
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navigational fixes, two NAVAIDs, or a fix and a
NAVAID.
(See FIX.)
(See ROUTE.)
(See ICAO term ROUTE SEGMENT.)
ROUTE SEGMENT [ICAO]− A portion of a route to
be flown, as defined by two consecutive significant
points specified in a flight plan.
RSA−
(See RUNWAY SAFETY AREA.)
RTR−
(See REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER.)
RUNWAY− A defined rectangular area on a land
airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of
aircraft along its length. Runways are normally
numbered in relation to their magnetic direction
rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees; e.g., Runway
1, Runway 25.
(See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.)
(See ICAO term RUNWAY.)
RUNWAY [ICAO]− A defined rectangular area on a
land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off
of aircraft.
RUNWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTING−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY CONDITION READING− Numerical
decelerometer readings relayed by air traffic
controllers at USAF and certain civil bases for use by
the pilot in determining runway braking action.
These readings are routinely relayed only to USAF
and Air National Guard Aircraft.
(See BRAKING ACTION.)
RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY GRADIENT− The average slope, mea­
sured in percent, between two ends or points on a
runway. Runway gradient is depicted on Government
aerodrome sketches when total runway gradient
exceeds 0.3%.
RUNWAY HEADING− The magnetic direction that
corresponds with the runway centerline extended, not
the painted runway number. When cleared to “fly or
maintain runway heading,” pilots are expected to fly
or maintain the heading that corresponds with the
extended centerline of the departure runway. Drift
correction shall not be applied; e.g., Runway 4, actual
magnetic heading of the runway centerline 044, fly
044.
4/3/14
RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
RUNWAY− Any runway or runways currently being
used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways
are used, they are all considered active runways. In
the metering sense, a selectable adapted item which
specifies the landing runway configuration or
direction of traffic flow. The adapted optimum flight
plan from each transition fix to the vertex is
determined by the runway configuration for arrival
metering processing purposes.
RUNWAY LIGHTS−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY MARKINGS−
(See AIRPORT MARKING AIDS.)
RUNWAY OVERRUN− In military aviation exclu­
sively, a stabilized or paved area beyond the end of a
runway, of the same width as the runway plus
shoulders, centered on the extended runway
centerline.
RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT− An instrument
flight rules (IFR) air traffic control arrival procedure
to a runway published for pilot use in graphic and/or
textual form and may be associated with a STAR.
Runway Profile Descents provide routing and may
depict crossing altitudes, speed restrictions, and
headings to be flown from the en route structure to the
point where the pilot will receive clearance for and
execute an instrument approach procedure. A
Runway Profile Descent may apply to more than one
runway if so stated on the chart.
(Refer to AIM.)
RUNWAY SAFETY AREA− A defined surface
surrounding the runway prepared, or suitable, for
reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event
of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the
runway. The dimensions of the RSA vary and can be
determined by using the criteria contained within
AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3.
Figure 3−1 in AC 150/5300-13 depicts the RSA. The
design standards dictate that the RSA shall be:
a. Cleared, graded, and have no potentially
hazardous ruts, humps, depressions, or other surface
variations;
b. Drained by grading or storm sewers to prevent
water accumulation;
Pilot/Controller Glossary
c. Capable, under dry conditions, of supporting
snow removal equipment, aircraft rescue and
firefighting equipment, and the occasional passage of
aircraft without causing structural damage to the
aircraft; and,
d. Free of objects, except for objects that need to
be located in the runway safety area because of their
function. These objects shall be constructed on low
impact resistant supports (frangible mounted struc­
tures) to the lowest practical height with the frangible
point no higher than 3 inches above grade.
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design,
Chapter 3.)
RUNWAY TRANSITION−
a. Conventional STARs/SIDs. The portion of a
STAR/SID that serves a particular runway or
runways at an airport.
b. RNAV STARs/SIDs. Defines a path(s) from
the common route to the final point(s) on a STAR. For
a SID, the common route that serves a particular
runway or runways at an airport.
RUNWAY USE PROGRAM− A noise abatement
runway selection plan designed to enhance noise
abatement efforts with regard to airport communities
for arriving and departing aircraft. These plans are
developed into runway use programs and apply to all
turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier; turbojet
aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if
the airport proprietor determines that the aircraft
creates a noise problem. Runway use programs are
coordinated with FAA offices, and safety criteria
used in these programs are developed by the Office of
Flight Operations. Runway use programs are
administered by the Air Traffic Service as “Formal”
or “Informal” programs.
a. Formal Runway Use Program− An approved
noise abatement program which is defined and
acknowledged in a Letter of Understanding between
Flight Operations, Air Traffic Service, the airport
proprietor, and the users. Once established, participa­
tion in the program is mandatory for aircraft operators
and pilots as provided for in 14 CFR Section 91.129.
b. Informal Runway Use Program− An approved
noise abatement program which does not require a
Letter of Understanding, and participation in the
program is voluntary for aircraft operators/pilots.
PCG R−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary
RUNWAY VISIBILITY VALUE−
(See VISIBILITY.)
RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE−
(See VISIBILITY.)
PCG R−8
4/3/14
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
S
SAA−
(See SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE.)
SAFETY ALERT− A safety alert issued by ATC to
aircraft under their control if ATC is aware the aircraft
is at an altitude which, in the controller’s judgment,
places the aircraft in unsafe proximity to terrain,
obstructions, or other aircraft. The controller may
discontinue the issuance of further alerts if the pilot
advises he/she is taking action to correct the situation
or has the other aircraft in sight.
a. Terrain/Obstruction Alert− A safety alert issued
by ATC to aircraft under their control if ATC is aware
the aircraft is at an altitude which, in the controller’s
judgment, places the aircraft in unsafe proximity to
terrain/obstructions; e.g., “Low Altitude Alert, check
your altitude immediately.”
b. Aircraft Conflict Alert− A safety alert issued by
ATC to aircraft under their control if ATC is aware of
an aircraft that is not under their control at an altitude
which, in the controller’s judgment, places both
aircraft in unsafe proximity to each other. With the
alert, ATC will offer the pilot an alternate course of
action when feasible; e.g., “Traffic Alert, advise you
turn right heading zero niner zero or climb to eight
thousand immediately.”
Note: The issuance of a safety alert is contingent
upon the capability of the controller to have an
awareness of an unsafe condition. The course of
action provided will be predicated on other traffic
under ATC control. Once the alert is issued, it is
solely the pilot’s prerogative to determine what
course of action, if any, he/she will take.
SAFETY LOGIC SYSTEM− A software enhance­
ment to ASDE−3, ASDE−X, and ASDE−3X, that
predicts the path of aircraft landing and/or departing,
and/or vehicular movements on runways. Visual and
aural alarms are activated when the safety logic
projects a potential collision. The Airport Movement
Area Safety System (AMASS) is a safety logic
system enhancement to the ASDE−3. The Safety
Logic System for ASDE−X and ASDE−3X is an
integral part of the software program.
SAFETY LOGIC SYSTEM ALERTS−
a. ALERT− An actual situation involving two real
safety logic tracks (aircraft/aircraft, aircraft/vehicle,
or aircraft/other tangible object) that safety logic has
predicted will result in an imminent collision, based
upon the current set of Safety Logic parameters.
b. FALSE ALERT−
1. Alerts generated by one or more false
surface−radar targets that the system has interpreted
as real tracks and placed into safety logic.
2. Alerts in which the safety logic software did
not perform correctly, based upon the design
specifications and the current set of Safety Logic
parameters.
3. The alert is generated by surface radar targets
caused by moderate or greater precipitation.
c. NUISANCE ALERT− An alert in which one or
more of the following is true:
1. The alert is generated by a known situation
that is not considered an unsafe operation, such as
LAHSO or other approved operations.
2. The alert is generated by inaccurate secon­
dary radar data received by the Safety Logic System.
3. One or more of the aircraft involved in the
alert is not intending to use a runway (for example,
helicopter, pipeline patrol, non−Mode C overflight,
etc.).
d. VALID NON−ALERT− A situation in which
the safety logic software correctly determines that an
alert is not required, based upon the design
specifications and the current set of Safety Logic
parameters.
e. INVALID NON−ALERT− A situation in which
the safety logic software did not issue an alert when
an alert was required, based upon the design
specifications.
SAIL BACK− A maneuver during high wind
conditions (usually with power off) where float plane
movement is controlled by water rudders/opening
and closing cabin doors.
SAME DIRECTION AIRCRAFT− Aircraft are
operating in the same direction when:
a. They are following the same track in the same
direction; or
b. Their tracks are parallel and the aircraft are
flying in the same direction; or
c. Their tracks intersect at an angle of less than 45
degrees.
PCG S−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
SAR−
(See SEARCH AND RESCUE.)
SAY AGAIN− Used to request a repeat of the last
transmission. Usually specifies transmission or
portion thereof not understood or received; e.g., “Say
again all after ABRAM VOR.”
SAY ALTITUDE− Used by ATC to ascertain an
aircraft’s specific altitude/flight level. When the
aircraft is climbing or descending, the pilot should
state the indicated altitude rounded to the nearest 100
feet.
SAY HEADING− Used by ATC to request an aircraft
heading. The pilot should state the actual heading of
the aircraft.
SCHEDULED TIME OF ARRIVAL (STA)− A STA
is the desired time that an aircraft should cross a
certain point (landing or metering fix). It takes other
traffic and airspace configuration into account. A
STA time shows the results of the TMA scheduler
that has calculated an arrival time according to
parameters such as optimized spacing, aircraft
performance, and weather.
SDF−
(See SIMPLIFIED DIRECTIONAL FACILITY.)
SEA LANE− A designated portion of water outlined
by visual surface markers for and intended to be used
by aircraft designed to operate on water.
SEARCH AND RESCUE− A service which seeks
missing aircraft and assists those found to be in need
of assistance. It is a cooperative effort using the
facilities and services of available Federal, state and
local agencies. The U.S. Coast Guard is responsible
for coordination of search and rescue for the Maritime
Region, and the U.S. Air Force is responsible for
search and rescue for the Inland Region. Information
pertinent to search and rescue should be passed
through any air traffic facility or be transmitted
directly to the Rescue Coordination Center by
telephone.
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
(See RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
SEARCH AND RESCUE FACILITY− A facility
responsible for maintaining and operating a search
and rescue (SAR) service to render aid to persons and
property in distress. It is any SAR unit, station, NET,
or other operational activity which can be usefully
PCG S−2
4/3/14
employed during an SAR Mission; e.g., a Civil Air
Patrol Wing, or a Coast Guard Station.
(See SEARCH AND RESCUE.)
SECNOT−
(See SECURITY NOTICE.)
SECONDARY RADAR TARGET− A target derived
from a transponder return presented on a radar
display.
SECTIONAL AERONAUTICAL CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
SECTOR LIST DROP INTERVAL− A parameter
number of minutes after the meter fix time when
arrival aircraft will be deleted from the arrival sector
list.
SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT) − A SECNOT is a
request originated by the Air Traffic Security
Coordinator (ATSC) for an extensive communica­
tions search for aircraft involved, or suspected of
being involved, in a security violation, or are
considered a security risk. A SECNOT will include
the aircraft identification, search area, and expiration
time. The search area, as defined by the ATSC, could
be a single airport, multiple airports, a radius of an
airport or fix, or a route of flight. Once the expiration
time has been reached, the SECNOT is considered to
be cancelled.
SECURITY SERVICES AIRSPACE − Areas
established through the regulatory process or by
NOTAM, issued by the Administrator under title 14,
CFR, sections 99.7, 91.141, and 91.139, which
specify that ATC security services are required; i.e.,
ADIZ or temporary flight rules areas.
SEE AND AVOID− When weather conditions
permit, pilots operating IFR or VFR are required to
observe and maneuver to avoid other aircraft.
Right-of-way rules are contained in 14 CFR Part 91.
SEGMENTED CIRCLE− A system of visual
indicators designed to provide traffic pattern
information at airports without operating control
towers.
(Refer to AIM.)
SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE− An instrument approach procedure
may have as many as four separate segments
depending on how the approach procedure is
structured.
a. Initial Approach− The segment between the
initial approach fix and the intermediate fix or the
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
point where the aircraft is established on the
intermediate course or final approach course.
(See ICAO term INITIAL APPROACH
SEGMENT.)
b. Intermediate Approach− The segment between
the intermediate fix or point and the final approach
fix.
(See ICAO term INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
SEGMENT.)
c. Final Approach− The segment between the final
approach fix or point and the runway, airport, or
missed approach point.
(See ICAO term FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT.)
d. Missed Approach− The segment between the
missed approach point or the point of arrival at
decision height and the missed approach fix at the
prescribed altitude.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)
(See ICAO term MISSED APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
SEPARATION− In air traffic control, the spacing of
aircraft to achieve their safe and orderly movement in
flight and while landing and taking off.
(See SEPARATION MINIMA.)
(See ICAO term SEPARATION.)
SEPARATION [ICAO]− Spacing between aircraft,
levels or tracks.
SEPARATION MINIMA− The minimum longitudi­
nal, lateral, or vertical distances by which aircraft are
spaced through the application of air traffic control
procedures.
(See SEPARATION.)
SERVICE− A generic term that designates functions
or assistance available from or rendered by air traffic
control. For example, Class C service would denote
the ATC services provided within a Class C airspace
area.
SEVERE WEATHER AVOIDANCE PLAN− An
approved plan to minimize the affect of severe
weather on traffic flows in impacted terminal and/or
ARTCC areas. SWAP is normally implemented to
provide the least disruption to the ATC system when
flight through portions of airspace is difficult or
impossible due to severe weather.
SEVERE WEATHER FORECAST ALERTS−
Preliminary messages issued in order to alert users
that a Severe Weather Watch Bulletin (WW) is being
issued. These messages define areas of possible
severe thunderstorms or tornado activity. The
messages are unscheduled and issued as required by
the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) at Norman,
Oklahoma.
(See
(See
(See
(See
AIRMET.)
CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
CWA.)
SIGMET.)
SFA−
(See SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH.)
SFO−
(See SIMULATED FLAMEOUT.)
SHF−
(See SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY.)
SHORT RANGE CLEARANCE− A clearance
issued to a departing IFR flight which authorizes IFR
flight to a specific fix short of the destination while
air traffic control facilities are coordinating and
obtaining the complete clearance.
SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIRCRAFT−
An aircraft which, at some weight within its approved
operating weight, is capable of operating from a
runway in compliance with the applicable STOL
characteristics, airworthiness, operations, noise, and
pollution standards.
(See VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
AIRCRAFT.)
SIAP−
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
SID−
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE.)
SIDESTEP MANEUVER− A visual maneuver
accomplished by a pilot at the completion of an
instrument approach to permit a straight-in landing
on a parallel runway not more than 1,200 feet to either
side of the runway to which the instrument approach
was conducted.
(Refer to AIM.)
SIGMET− A weather advisory issued concerning
weather significant to the safety of all aircraft.
PCG S−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
SIGMET advisories cover severe and extreme
turbulence, severe icing, and widespread dust or
sandstorms that reduce visibility to less than 3 miles.
(See AIRMET.)
(See AWW.)
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
(See CWA.)
(See ICAO term SIGMET INFORMATION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
SIGMET INFORMATION [ICAO]− Information
issued by a meteorological watch office concerning
the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified
en-route weather phenomena which may affect the
safety of aircraft operations.
SIGNIFICANT METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION−
(See SIGMET.)
4/3/14
SIMULTANEOUS MLS APPROACHES−
(See SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES.)
SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT
APPROACH (SOIA) − An instrument landing
system comprised of an ILS PRM or RNAV (GPS)
PRM approach to one runway and an offset LDA
PRM with glideslope or an RNAV (GPS) PRM
approach utilizing vertical guidance to another where
parallel runway spaced less than 3,000 feet and at
least 750 feet apart. The approach courses converge
by 2.5 to 3 degrees. Closely spaced independent
approach procedures apply up to the point where the
approach course separation becomes 3,000 feet, at the
offset MAP. From the offset MAP to the runway
threshold, visual separation by the aircraft
conducting the offset LDA PRM or GPS PRM
approach is utilized.
(Refer to AIM)
SIGNIFICANT POINT− A point, whether a named
intersection, a NAVAID, a fix derived from a
NAVAID(s), or geographical coordinate expressed in
degrees of latitude and longitude, which is
established for the purpose of providing separation,
as a reporting point, or to delineate a route of flight.
SINGLE DIRECTION ROUTES− Preferred IFR
Routes which are sometimes depicted on high
altitude en route charts and which are normally flown
in one direction only.
SIMPLIFIED DIRECTIONAL FACILITY− A
NAVAID used for nonprecision instrument
approaches. The final approach course is similar to
that of an ILS localizer except that the SDF course
may be offset from the runway, generally not more
than 3 degrees, and the course may be wider than the
localizer, resulting in a lower degree of accuracy.
SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH− A service
provided under a letter of agreement to military
single-piloted turbojet aircraft which permits use of
a single UHF frequency during approach for landing.
Pilots will not normally be required to change
frequency from the beginning of the approach to
touchdown except that pilots conducting an en route
descent are required to change frequency when
control is transferred from the air route traffic control
center to the terminal facility. The abbreviation
“SFA” in the DOD FLIP IFR Supplement under
“Communications” indicates this service is available
at an aerodrome.
(Refer to AIM.)
SIMULATED FLAMEOUT− A practice approach
by a jet aircraft (normally military) at idle thrust to a
runway. The approach may start at a runway (high
key) and may continue on a relatively high and wide
downwind leg with a continuous turn to final. It
terminates in landing or low approach. The purpose
of this approach is to simulate a flameout.
(See FLAMEOUT.)
SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES− An
approach system permitting simultaneous ILS/MLS
approaches to airports having parallel runways
separated by at least 4,300 feet between centerlines.
Integral parts of a total system are ILS/MLS, radar,
communications, ATC procedures, and appropriate
airborne equipment.
(See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.)
(Refer to AIM.)
PCG S−4
(See PREFERRED IFR ROUTES.)
(Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
SINGLE-PILOTED AIRCRAFT− A military
turbojet aircraft possessing one set of flight controls,
tandem cockpits, or two sets of flight controls but
operated by one pilot is considered single-piloted by
ATC when determining the appropriate air traffic
service to be applied.
(See SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH.)
SKYSPOTTER− A pilot who has received
specialized training in observing and reporting
inflight weather phenomena.
SLASH− A radar beacon reply displayed as an
elongated target.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
SLDI−
(See SECTOR LIST DROP INTERVAL.)
SLOT TIME−
(See METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME.)
SLOW TAXI− To taxi a float plane at low power or
low RPM.
SN−
(See SYSTEM STRATEGIC NAVIGATION.)
SPEAK SLOWER− Used in verbal communications
as a request to reduce speech rate.
SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE (SAA)− Any
airspace with defined dimensions within the National
Airspace System wherein limitations may be
imposed upon aircraft operations. This airspace may
be restricted areas, prohibited areas, military
operations areas, air ATC assigned airspace, and any
other designated airspace areas. The dimensions of
this airspace are programmed into URET and can be
designated as either active or inactive by screen entry.
Aircraft trajectories are constantly tested against the
dimensions of active areas and alerts issued to the
applicable sectors when violations are predicted.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
SPECIAL EMERGENCY− A condition of air piracy
or other hostile act by a person(s) aboard an aircraft
which threatens the safety of the aircraft or its
passengers.
SPECIAL INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCE­
DURE−
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE− Airspace of defined
dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the
earth wherein activities must be confined because of
their nature and/or wherein limitations may be
imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of
those activities. Types of special use airspace are:
a. Alert Area− Airspace which may contain a high
volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type
of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to
aircraft. Alert Areas are depicted on aeronautical
charts for the information of nonparticipating pilots.
All activities within an Alert Area are conducted in
accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations, and
pilots of participating aircraft as well as pilots
transiting the area are equally responsible for
collision avoidance.
b. Controlled Firing Area− Airspace wherein
activities are conducted under conditions so
controlled as to eliminate hazards to nonparticipating
aircraft and to ensure the safety of persons and
property on the ground.
c. Military Operations Area (MOA)− A MOA is
airspace established outside of Class A airspace area
to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous
military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for
VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.
(Refer to AIM.)
d. Prohibited Area− Airspace designated under
14 CFR Part 73 within which no person may operate
an aircraft without the permission of the using
agency.
(Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to En Route Charts.)
e. Restricted Area− Airspace designated under
14 CFR Part 73, within which the flight of aircraft,
while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction.
Most restricted areas are designated joint use and
IFR/VFR operations in the area may be authorized by
the controlling ATC facility when it is not being
utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are
depicted on en route charts. Where joint use is
authorized, the name of the ATC controlling facility
is also shown.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 73.)
(Refer to AIM.)
f. Warning Area− A warning area is airspace of
defined dimensions extending from 3 nautical miles
outward from the coast of the United States, that
contains activity that may be hazardous to
nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such
warning area is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the
potential danger. A warning area may be located over
domestic or international waters or both.
SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS− Meteorological
conditions that are less than those required for basic
VFR flight in Class B, C, D, or E surface areas and
in which some aircraft are permitted flight under
visual flight rules.
(See SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
SPECIAL VFR FLIGHT [ICAO]− A VFR flight
cleared by air traffic control to operate within Class
B, C, D, and E surface areas in metrological
conditions below VMC.
PCG S−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS− Aircraft operating
in accordance with clearances within Class B, C, D,
and E surface areas in weather conditions less than the
basic VFR weather minima. Such operations must be
requested by the pilot and approved by ATC.
(See SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS.)
(See ICAO term SPECIAL VFR FLIGHT.)
SPEED−
(See AIRSPEED.)
(See GROUND SPEED.)
SPEED ADJUSTMENT− An ATC procedure used to
request pilots to adjust aircraft speed to a specific
value for the purpose of providing desired spacing.
Pilots are expected to maintain a speed of plus or
minus 10 knots or 0.02 Mach number of the specified
speed. Examples of speed adjustments are:
a. “Increase/reduce speed to Mach point
(number.)”
b. “Increase/reduce speed to (speed in knots)” or
“Increase/reduce speed (number of knots) knots.”
SPEED BRAKES− Moveable aerodynamic devices
on aircraft that reduce airspeed during descent and
landing.
SPEED SEGMENTS− Portions of the arrival route
between the transition point and the vertex along the
optimum flight path for which speeds and altitudes
are specified. There is one set of arrival speed
segments adapted from each transition point to each
vertex. Each set may contain up to six segments.
SQUAWK (Mode, Code, Function)− Activate
specific modes/codes/functions on the aircraft
transponder; e.g., “Squawk three/alpha, two one zero
five, low.”
(See TRANSPONDER.)
STA−
(See SCHEDULED TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
STAGING/QUEUING− The placement, integration,
and segregation of departure aircraft in designated
movement areas of an airport by departure fix, EDCT,
and/or restriction.
STAND BY− Means the controller or pilot must
pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other
duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait as in
“stand by for clearance.” The caller should
reestablish contact if a delay is lengthy. “Stand by” is
not an approval or denial.
PCG S−6
4/3/14
STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH PRO­
CEDURE (SIAP)−
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID)−
A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) air traffic
control (ATC) departure procedure printed for
pilot/controller use in graphic form to provide
obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal
area to the appropriate en route structure. SIDs are
primarily designed for system enhancement to
expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller
workload. ATC clearance must always be received
prior to flying a SID.
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
STANDARD RATE TURN− A turn of three degrees
per second.
STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL− A
preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) air traffic
control arrival procedure published for pilot use in
graphic and/or textual form. STARs provide
transition from the en route structure to an outer fix
or an instrument approach fix/arrival waypoint in the
terminal area.
STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
STANDARD TERMINAL AUTOMATION RE­
PLACEMENT SYSTEM (STARS)−
(See DTAS.)
STAR−
(See STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL.)
STATE AIRCRAFT− Aircraft used in military,
customs and police service, in the exclusive service
of any government, or of any political subdivision,
thereof including the government of any state,
territory, or possession of the United States or the
District of Columbia, but not including any
government-owned aircraft engaged in carrying
persons or property for commercial purposes.
STATIC RESTRICTIONS− Those restrictions that
are usually not subject to change, fixed, in place,
and/or published.
STATIONARY RESERVATIONS− Altitude
reservations which encompass activities in a fixed
area. Stationary reservations may include activities,
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
such as special tests of weapons systems or
equipment, certain U.S. Navy carrier, fleet, and
anti-submarine operations, rocket, missile and drone
operations, and certain aerial refueling or similar
operations.
STEP TAXI− To taxi a float plane at full power or
high RPM.
STEP TURN− A maneuver used to put a float plane
in a planing configuration prior to entering an active
sea lane for takeoff. The STEP TURN maneuver
should only be used upon pilot request.
STEPDOWN FIX− A fix permitting additional
descent within a segment of an instrument approach
procedure by identifying a point at which a
controlling obstacle has been safely overflown.
STEREO ROUTE− A routinely used route of flight
established by users and ARTCCs identified by a
coded name; e.g., ALPHA 2. These routes minimize
flight plan handling and communications.
STOL AIRCRAFT−
(See SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING
AIRCRAFT.)
STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK− Used by ATC to
inform an aircraft to turn-off the automatic altitude
reporting feature of its transponder. It is issued when
the verbally reported altitude varies 300 feet or more
from the automatic altitude report.
(See ALTITUDE READOUT.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
STOP AND GO− A procedure wherein an aircraft
will land, make a complete stop on the runway, and
then commence a takeoff from that point.
(See LOW APPROACH.)
(See OPTION APPROACH.)
STOP BURST−
(See STOP STREAM.)
STOP BUZZER−
(See STOP STREAM.)
STOP SQUAWK (Mode or Code)− Used by ATC to
tell the pilot to turn specified functions of the aircraft
transponder off.
(See STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
STOP STREAM− Used by ATC to request a pilot to
suspend electronic attack activity.
(See JAMMING.)
STOPOVER FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan format
which permits in a single submission the filing of a
sequence of flight plans through interim full-stop
destinations to a final destination.
STOPWAY− An area beyond the takeoff runway no
less wide than the runway and centered upon the
extended centerline of the runway, able to support the
airplane during an aborted takeoff, without causing
structural damage to the airplane, and designated by
the airport authorities for use in decelerating the
airplane during an aborted takeoff.
STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH IFR− An instrument
approach wherein final approach is begun without
first having executed a procedure turn, not
necessarily completed with a straight-in landing or
made to straight-in landing minimums.
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR.)
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.)
STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR− Entry into the
traffic pattern by interception of the extended runway
centerline (final approach course) without executing
any other portion of the traffic pattern.
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
STRAIGHT-IN LANDING− A landing made on a
runway aligned within 30� of the final approach
course following completion of an instrument
approach.
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH IFR.)
STRAIGHT-IN LANDING MINIMUMS−
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
STRAIGHT-IN MINIMUMS−
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING MINIMUMS.)
STRATEGIC PLANNING− Planning whereby
solutions are sought to resolve potential conflicts.
SUBSTITUTE ROUTE− A route assigned to pilots
when any part of an airway or route is unusable
because of NAVAID status. These routes consist of:
a. Substitute routes which are shown on U.S.
Government charts.
b. Routes defined by ATC as specific NAVAID
radials or courses.
c. Routes defined by ATC as direct to or between
NAVAIDs.
PCG S−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary
SUNSET AND SUNRISE− The mean solar times of
sunset and sunrise as published in the Nautical
Almanac, converted to local standard time for the
locality concerned. Within Alaska, the end of evening
civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil
twilight, as defined for each locality.
SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band
between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz). The elevation and
azimuth stations of the microwave landing system
operate from 5031 MHz to 5091 MHz in this
spectrum.
SUPPLEMENTAL WEATHER SERVICE
LOCATION− Airport facilities staffed with contract
personnel who take weather observations and
provide current local weather to pilots via telephone
or radio. (All other services are provided by the parent
FSS.)
SUPPS− Refers to ICAO Document 7030 Regional
Supplementary Procedures. SUPPS contain
procedures for each ICAO Region which are unique
to that Region and are not covered in the worldwide
provisions identified in the ICAO Air Navigation
Plan. Procedures contained in Chapter 8 are based in
part on those published in SUPPS.
SURFACE AREA− The airspace contained by the
lateral boundary of the Class B, C, D, or E airspace
designated for an airport that begins at the surface and
extends upward.
PCG S−8
4/3/14
SURPIC− A description of surface vessels in the area
of a Search and Rescue incident including their
predicted positions and their characteristics.
(Refer to FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−6−4,
INFLIGHT CONTINGENCIES.)
SURVEILLANCE APPROACH− An instrument
approach wherein the air traffic controller issues
instructions, for pilot compliance, based on aircraft
position in relation to the final approach course
(azimuth), and the distance (range) from the end of
the runway as displayed on the controller’s radar
scope. The controller will provide recommended
altitudes on final approach if requested by the pilot.
(Refer to AIM.)
SWAP−
(See SEVERE WEATHER AVOIDANCE PLAN.)
SWSL−
(See SUPPLEMENTAL WEATHER SERVICE
LOCATION.)
SYSTEM STRATEGIC NAVIGATION− Military
activity accomplished by navigating along a
preplanned route using internal aircraft systems to
maintain a desired track. This activity normally
requires a lateral route width of 10 NM and altitude
range of 1,000 feet to 6,000 feet AGL with some route
segments that permit terrain following.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
T
TACAN−
(See TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION.)
TACAN-ONLY AIRCRAFT− An aircraft, normally
military, possessing TACAN with DME but no VOR
navigational system capability. Clearances must
specify TACAN or VORTAC fixes and approaches.
TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION− An ultra-high
frequency electronic rho-theta air navigation aid
which provides suitably equipped aircraft a
continuous indication of bearing and distance to the
TACAN station.
(See VORTAC.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TAILWIND− Any wind more than 90 degrees to the
longitudinal axis of the runway. The magnetic
direction of the runway shall be used as the basis for
determining the longitudinal axis.
TAKEOFF AREA−
(See LANDING AREA.)
TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE (TODA)– The
takeoff run available plus the length of any remaining
runway or clearway beyond the far end of the takeoff
run available.
(See ICAO term TAKEOFF DISTANCE
AVAILABLE.)
TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The
length of the takeoff run available plus the length of
the clearway, if provided.
TAKEOFF ROLL − The process whereby an aircraft
is aligned with the runway centerline and the aircraft
is moving with the intent to take off. For helicopters,
this pertains to the act of becoming airborne after
departing a takeoff area.
TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE (TORA) – The
runway length declared available and suitable for the
ground run of an airplane taking off.
(See ICAO term TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)
TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The length
of runway declared available and suitable for the
ground run of an aeroplane take-off.
TARGET− The indication shown on an analog
display resulting from a primary radar return or a
radar beacon reply.
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
(See
ASSOCIATED.)
DIGITAL TARGET.)
DIGITIZED RADAR TARGET.)
FUSED TARGET)
PRIMARY RADAR TARGET.)
RADAR.)
SECONDARY RADAR TARGET.)
TARGET SYMBOL.)
ICAO term TARGET.)
UNASSOCIATED.)
TARGET [ICAO]− In radar:
a. Generally, any discrete object which reflects or
retransmits energy back to the radar equipment.
b. Specifically, an object of radar search or
surveillance.
TARGET RESOLUTION− A process to ensure that
correlated radar targets do not touch. Target
resolution must be applied as follows:
a. Between the edges of two primary targets or the
edges of the ASR-9/11 primary target symbol.
b. Between the end of the beacon control slash and
the edge of a primary target.
c. Between the ends of two beacon control slashes.
Note 1: Mandatory traffic advisories and safety
alerts must be issued when this procedure is used.
Note 2: This procedure must not be used when
utilizing mosaic radar systems or multi−sensor
mode.
TARGET SYMBOL− A computer-generated indica­
tion shown on a radar display resulting from a
primary radar return or a radar beacon reply.
TARMAC DELAY− The holding of an aircraft on the
ground either before departure or after landing with
no opportunity for its passengers to deplane.
TARMAC DELAY AIRCRAFT− An aircraft whose
pilot−in−command has requested to taxi to the ramp,
gate, or alternate deplaning area to comply with the
Three−hour Tarmac Rule.
TARMAC DELAY REQUEST− A request by the
pilot−in−command to taxi to the ramp, gate, or
alternate deplaning location to comply with the
Three−hour Tarmac Rule.
PCG T−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
TAS−
(See TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS.)
TAWS−
(See TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING
SYSTEM.)
TAXI− The movement of an airplane under its own
power on the surface of an airport (14 CFR
Section 135.100 [Note]). Also, it describes the
surface movement of helicopters equipped with
wheels.
(See AIR TAXI.)
(See HOVER TAXI.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Section 135.100.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TAXI PATTERNS− Patterns established to illustrate
the desired flow of ground traffic for the different
runways or airport areas available for use.
TCAS−
(See TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION
AVOIDANCE SYSTEM.)
TCH−
(See THRESHOLD CROSSING HEIGHT.)
TCLT−
(See TENTATIVE CALCULATED LANDING
TIME.)
TDLS−
(See TERMINAL DATA LINK SYSTEM.)
TDZE−
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION.)
TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SER­
VICE− A continuous telephone recording of
meteorological and/or aeronautical information.
(Refer to AIM.)
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR) − A
TFR is a regulatory action issued by the FAA via the
U.S. NOTAM System, under the authority of United
States Code, Title 49. TFRs are issued within the
sovereign airspace of the United States and its
territories to restrict certain aircraft from operating
within a defined area on a temporary basis to protect
persons or property in the air or on the ground. While
not all inclusive, TFRs may be issued for disaster or
hazard situations such as: toxic gas leaks or spills,
fumes from flammable agents, aircraft accident/in­
cident sites, aviation or ground resources engaged in
wildlife suppression, or aircraft relief activities
PCG T−2
4/3/14
following a disaster. TFRs may also be issued in
support of VIP movements; for reasons of national
security; or when determined necessary for the
management of air traffic in the vicinity of aerial
demonstrations or major sporting events. NAS users
or other interested parties should contact a FSS for
TFR information. Additionally, TFR information can
be found in automated briefings, NOTAM publica­
tions, and on the internet at http://www.faa.gov. The
FAA also distributes TFR information to aviation
user groups for further dissemination.
TENTATIVE CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A
projected time calculated for adapted vertex for each
arrival aircraft based upon runway configuration,
airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period,
and other metered arrival aircraft. This time is either
the VTA of the aircraft or the TCLT/ACLT of the
previous aircraft plus the AAI, whichever is later.
This time will be updated in response to an aircraft’s
progress and its current relationship to other arrivals.
TERMINAL AREA− A general term used to describe
airspace in which approach control service or airport
traffic control service is provided.
TERMINAL AREA FACILITY− A facility provid­
ing air traffic control service for arriving and
departing IFR, VFR, Special VFR, and on occasion
en route aircraft.
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
(See TOWER.)
TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (TAS)−
TAS is used to identify the numerous automated
tracking systems including ARTS IIE, ARTS IIIA,
ARTS IIIE, STARS, and MEARTS.
TERMINAL DATA LINK SYSTEM (TDLS)− A
system that provides Digital Automatic Terminal
Information Service (D−ATIS) both on a specified
radio frequency and also, for subscribers, in a text
message via data link to the cockpit or to a gate
printer. TDLS also provides Pre−departure Clear­
ances (PDC), at selected airports, to subscribers,
through a service provider, in text to the cockpit or to
a gate printer. In addition, TDLS will emulate the
Flight Data Input/Output (FDIO) information within
the control tower.
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA− Airspace
surrounding designated airports wherein ATC
provides radar vectoring, sequencing, and separation
on a full-time basis for all IFR and participating VFR
aircraft. The AIM contains an explanation of TRSA.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
TRSAs are depicted on VFR aeronautical charts.
Pilot participation is urged but is not mandatory.
TERMINAL VFR RADAR SERVICE− A national
program instituted to extend the terminal radar
services provided instrument flight rules (IFR)
aircraft to visual flight rules (VFR) aircraft. The
program is divided into four types service referred to
as basic radar service, terminal radar service area
(TRSA) service, Class B service and Class C service.
The type of service provided at a particular location
is contained in the Airport/Facility Directory.
a. Basic Radar Service− These services are
provided for VFR aircraft by all commissioned
terminal radar facilities. Basic radar service includes
safety alerts, traffic advisories, limited radar
vectoring when requested by the pilot, and
sequencing at locations where procedures have been
established for this purpose and/or when covered by
a letter of agreement. The purpose of this service is to
adjust the flow of arriving IFR and VFR aircraft into
the traffic pattern in a safe and orderly manner and to
provide traffic advisories to departing VFR aircraft.
b. TRSA Service− This service provides, in
addition to basic radar service, sequencing of all IFR
and participating VFR aircraft to the primary airport
and separation between all participating VFR
aircraft. The purpose of this service is to provide
separation between all participating VFR aircraft and
all IFR aircraft operating within the area defined as a
TRSA.
c. Class C Service− This service provides, in
addition to basic radar service, approved separation
between IFR and VFR aircraft, and sequencing of
VFR aircraft, and sequencing of VFR arrivals to the
primary airport.
d. Class B Service− This service provides, in
addition to basic radar service, approved separation
of aircraft based on IFR, VFR, and/or weight, and
sequencing of VFR arrivals to the primary airport(s).
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
(See TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA.)
(Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
TERMINAL-VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI­
DIRECTIONAL RANGE STATION− A very high
frequency terminal omnirange station located on or
near an airport and used as an approach aid.
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
(See VOR.)
TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING SYSTEM
(TAWS)− An on−board, terrain proximity alerting
system providing the aircrew ‘Low Altitude
warnings’ to allow immediate pilot action.
TERRAIN FOLLOWING− The flight of a military
aircraft maintaining a constant AGL altitude above
the terrain or the highest obstruction. The altitude of
the aircraft will constantly change with the varying
terrain and/or obstruction.
TETRAHEDRON− A device normally located on
uncontrolled airports and used as a landing direction
indicator. The small end of a tetrahedron points in the
direction of landing. At controlled airports, the
tetrahedron, if installed, should be disregarded
because tower instructions supersede the indicator.
(See SEGMENTED CIRCLE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TF−
(See TERRAIN FOLLOWING.)
THAT IS CORRECT− The understanding you have
is right.
THREE−HOUR TARMAC RULE– Rule that relates
to Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements
placed on airlines when tarmac delays are anticipated
to reach 3 hours.
360 OVERHEAD−
(See OVERHEAD MANEUVER.)
THRESHOLD− The beginning of that portion of the
runway usable for landing.
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
(See DISPLACED THRESHOLD.)
THRESHOLD CROSSING HEIGHT− The theoreti­
cal height above the runway threshold at which the
aircraft’s glideslope antenna would be if the aircraft
maintains the trajectory established by the mean ILS
glideslope or MLS glidepath.
(See GLIDESLOPE.)
(See THRESHOLD.)
THRESHOLD LIGHTS−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
TIBS−
(See TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING
SERVICE.)
TIE-IN FACILITY– The FSS primarily responsible
for providing FSS services, including telecommu­
ni ca ti on s se rv i ce s fo r la nd in g f ac il it ie s o r
PCG T−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
navigational aids located within the boundaries of a
flight plan area (FPA). Three-letter identifiers are
assigned to each FSS/FPA and are annotated as tie-in
facilities in A/FDs, the Alaska Supplement, the
Pacific Supplement, and FAA Order JO 7350.8,
Location Identifiers. Large consolidated FSS
facilities may have many tie-in facilities or FSS
sectors within one facility.
(See FLIGHT PLAN AREA.)
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
TIME GROUP− Four digits representing the hour
and minutes from the Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) clock. FAA uses UTC for all operations. The
term “ZULU” may be used to denote UTC. The word
“local” or the time zone equivalent shall be used to
denote local when local time is given during radio and
telephone communications. When written, a time
zone designator is used to indicate local time; e.g.
“0205M” (Mountain). The local time may be based
on the 24-hour clock system. The day begins at 0000
and ends at 2359.
TIS−B−
(See TRAFFIC INFORMATION
SERVICE−BROADCAST.)
TMA−
(See TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ADVISOR.)
TMPA−
(See TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
ALERT.)
TMU−
(See TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT UNIT.)
TODA−
(See TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE.)
(See ICAO term TAKEOFF DISTANCE
AVAILABLE.)
TOI−
(See TRACK OF INTEREST.)
TOP ALTITUDE– In reference to SID published
altitude restrictions the charted “maintain” altitude
contained in the procedure description or assigned by
ATC.
TORA−
(See TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)
(See ICAO term TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)
PCG T−4
4/3/14
TORCHING− The burning of fuel at the end of an
exhaust pipe or stack of a reciprocating aircraft
engine, the result of an excessive richness in the fuel
air mixture.
TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME [ICAO]−
For IFR flights, the estimated time required from
take-off to arrive over that designated point, defined
by reference to navigation aids, from which it is
intended that an instrument approach procedure will
be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated
with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the
destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the
estimated time required from take-off to arrive over
the destination aerodrome.
(See ICAO term ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME.)
TOUCH-AND-GO− An operation by an aircraft that
lands and departs on a runway without stopping or
exiting the runway.
TOUCH-AND-GO LANDING−
(See TOUCH-AND-GO.)
TOUCHDOWN−
a. The point at which an aircraft first makes
contact with the landing surface.
b. Concerning a precision radar approach (PAR),
it is the point where the glide path intercepts the
landing surface.
(See ICAO term TOUCHDOWN.)
TOUCHDOWN [ICAO]− The point where the
nominal glide path intercepts the runway.
Note: Touchdown as defined above is only a datum
and is not necessarily the actual point at which the
aircraft will touch the runway.
TOUCHDOWN RVR−
(See VISIBILITY.)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE− The first 3,000 feet of the
runway beginning at the threshold. The area is used
for determination of Touchdown Zone Elevation in
the development of straight-in landing minimums for
instrument approaches.
(See ICAO term TOUCHDOWN ZONE.)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE [ICAO]− The portion of a
runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended
landing aircraft first contact the runway.
TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION− The highest
elevation in the first 3,000 feet of the landing surface.
TDZE is indicated on the instrument approach
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
procedure chart when straight-in landing minimums
are authorized.
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE.)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTING−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
TOWER− A terminal facility that uses air/ground
communications, visual signaling, and other devices
to provide ATC services to aircraft operating in the
vicinity of an airport or on the movement area.
Authorizes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport
controlled by the tower or to transit the Class D
airspace area regardless of flight plan or weather
conditions (IFR or VFR). A tower may also provide
approach control services (radar or nonradar).
(See AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE.)
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
(See MOVEMENT AREA.)
(See TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL
SERVICE.)
(See ICAO term AERODROME CONTROL
TOWER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL SERVICE− The
control of IFR en route traffic within delegated
airspace between two or more adjacent approach
control facilities. This service is designed to expedite
traffic and reduce control and pilot communication
requirements.
TOWER TO TOWER−
(See TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL
SERVICE.)
TPX-42− A numeric beacon decoder equipment/
system. It is designed to be added to terminal radar
systems for beacon decoding. It provides rapid target
identification, reinforcement of the primary radar
target, and altitude information from Mode C.
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL
SYSTEMS.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
TRACEABLE PRESSURE STANDARD− The
facility station pressure instrument, with certifica­
tion/calibration traceable to the National Institute of
Standards and Technology. Traceable pressure
standards may be mercurial barometers, commis­
sioned ASOS/AWSS or dual transducer AWOS, or
portable pressure standards or DASI.
TRACK− The actual flight path of an aircraft over the
surface of the earth.
(See
(See
(See
(See
COURSE.)
FLIGHT PATH.)
ROUTE.)
ICAO term TRACK.)
TRACK [ICAO]− The projection on the earth’s
surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of
which path at any point is usually expressed in
degrees from North (True, Magnetic, or Grid).
TRACK OF INTEREST (TOI)− Displayed data
representing an airborne object that threatens or has
the potential to threaten North America or National
Security. Indicators may include, but are not limited
to: noncompliance with air traffic control instructions
or aviation regulations; extended loss of communica­
tions; unusual transmissions or unusual flight
behavior; unauthorized intrusion into controlled
airspace or an ADIZ; noncompliance with issued
flight restrictions/security procedures; or unlawful
interference with airborne flight crews, up to and
including hijack. In certain circumstances, an object
may become a TOI based on specific and credible
intelligence pertaining to that particular aircraft/
object, its passengers, or its cargo.
TRACK OF INTEREST RESOLUTION− A TOI
will normally be considered resolved when: the
aircraft/object is no longer airborne; the aircraft
complies with air traffic control instructions, aviation
regulations, and/or issued flight restrictions/security
procedures; radio contact is re−established and
authorized control of the aircraft is verified; the
aircraft is intercepted and intent is verified to be
nonthreatening/nonhostile; TOI was identified based
on specific and credible intelligence that was later
determined to be invalid or unreliable; or displayed
data is identified and characterized as invalid.
TRAFFIC−
a. A term used by a controller to transfer radar
identification of an aircraft to another controller for
the purpose of coordinating separation action. Traffic
is normally issued:
1. In response to a handoff or point out,
2. In anticipation of a handoff or point out, or
3. In conjunction with a request for control of an
aircraft.
b. A term used by ATC to refer to one or more
aircraft.
PCG T−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary
TRAFFIC ADVISORIES− Advisories issued to alert
pilots to other known or observed air traffic which
may be in such proximity to the position or intended
route of flight of their aircraft to warrant their
attention. Such advisories may be based on:
a. Visual observation.
b. Observation of radar identified and nonidenti­
fied aircraft targets on an ATC radar display, or
c. Verbal reports from pilots or other facilities.
Note 1: The word “traffic” followed by additional
information, if known, is used to provide such
advisories; e.g., “Traffic, 2 o’clock, one zero miles,
southbound, eight thousand.”
Note 2: Traffic advisory service will be provided to
the extent possible depending on higher priority
duties of the controller or other limitations; e.g.,
radar limitations, volume of traffic, frequency
congestion, or controller workload. Radar/
nonradar traffic advisories do not relieve the pilot
of his/her responsibility to see and avoid other
aircraft. Pilots are cautioned that there are many
times when the controller is not able to give traffic
advisories concerning all traffic in the aircraft’s
proximity; in other words, when a pilot requests or
is receiving traffic advisories, he/she should not
assume that all traffic will be issued.
(Refer to AIM.)
TRAFFIC ALERT (aircraft call sign), TURN
(left/right) IMMEDIATELY, (climb/descend) AND
MAINTAIN (altitude).
(See SAFETY ALERT.)
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOID­
ANCE SYSTEM− An airborne collision avoidance
system based on radar beacon signals which operates
independent of ground-based equipment. TCAS-I
generates traffic advisories only. TCAS-II generates
traffic advisories, and resolution (collision avoid­
ance) advisories in the vertical plane.
TRAFFIC INFORMATION−
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
TRAFFIC
INFORMATION
SERVICE−
BROADCAST (TIS−B)− The broadcast of ATC
derived traffic information to ADS−B equipped
(1090ES or UAT) aircraft. The source of this traffic
information is derived from ground−based air traffic
surveillance sensors, typically from radar targets.
TIS−B service will be available throughout the NAS
where there are both adequate surveillance coverage
(radar) and adequate broadcast coverage from
PCG T−6
4/3/14
ADS−B ground stations. Loss of TIS−B will occur
when an aircraft enters an area not covered by the
GBT network. If this occurs in an area with adequate
surveillance coverage (radar), nearby aircraft that
remain within the adequate broadcast coverage
(ADS−B) area will view the first aircraft. TIS−B may
continue when an aircraft enters an area with
inadequate surveillance coverage (radar); nearby
aircraft that remain within the adequate broadcast
coverage (ADS−B) area will not view the first
aircraft.
TRAFFIC IN SIGHT− Used by pilots to inform a
controller that previously issued traffic is in sight.
(See NEGATIVE CONTACT.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ADVISOR (TMA)− A
computerized tool which assists Traffic Management
Coordinators to efficiently schedule arrival traffic to
a metered airport, by calculating meter fix times and
delays then sending that information to the sector
controllers.
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAM ALERT−
A term used in a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) issued
in conjunction with a special traffic management
program to alert pilots to the existence of the program
and to refer them to either the Notices to Airmen
publication or a special traffic management program
advisory message for program details. The contrac­
tion TMPA is used in NOTAM text.
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT UNIT− The entity in
ARTCCs and designated terminals directly involved
in the active management of facility traffic. Usually
under the direct supervision of an assistant manager
for traffic management.
TRAFFIC NO FACTOR− Indicates that the traffic
described in a previously issued traffic advisory is no
factor.
TRAFFIC NO LONGER OBSERVED− Indicates
that the traffic described in a previously issued traffic
advisory is no longer depicted on radar, but may still
be a factor.
TRAFFIC PATTERN− The traffic flow that is
prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, or taking
off from an airport. The components of a typical
traffic pattern are upwind leg, crosswind leg,
downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.
a. Upwind Leg− A flight path parallel to the
landing runway in the direction of landing.
4/3/14
b. Crosswind Leg− A flight path at right angles to
the landing runway off its upwind end.
c. Downwind Leg− A flight path parallel to the
landing runway in the direction opposite to landing.
The downwind leg normally extends between the
crosswind leg and the base leg.
Pilot/Controller Glossary
TRANSFER OF CONTROL− That action whereby
the responsibility for the separation of an aircraft is
transferred from one controller to another.
(See ICAO term TRANSFER OF CONTROL.)
TRANSFER OF CONTROL [ICAO]− Transfer of
responsibility for providing air traffic control service.
d. Base Leg− A flight path at right angles to the
landing runway off its approach end. The base leg
normally extends from the downwind leg to the
intersection of the extended runway centerline.
TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER− A controller/
facility transferring control of an aircraft to another
controller/facility.
e. Final Approach. A flight path in the direction of
landing along the extended runway centerline. The
final approach normally extends from the base leg to
the runway. An aircraft making a straight-in approach
VFR is also considered to be on final approach.
TRANSFERRING FACILITY−
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR.)
(See TAXI PATTERNS.)
(See ICAO term AERODROME TRAFFIC
CIRCUIT.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TRAFFIC SITUATION DISPLAY (TSD)− TSD is a
computer system that receives radar track data from
all 20 CONUS ARTCCs, organizes this data into a
mosaic display, and presents it on a computer screen.
The display allows the traffic management coordina­
tor multiple methods of selection and highlighting of
individual aircraft or groups of aircraft. The user has
the option of superimposing these aircraft positions
over any number of background displays. These
background options include ARTCC boundaries, any
stratum of en route sector boundaries, fixes, airways,
military and other special use airspace, airports, and
geopolitical boundaries. By using the TSD, a
coordinator can monitor any number of traffic
situations or the entire systemwide traffic flows.
TRAJECTORY− A URET representation of the path
an aircraft is predicted to fly based upon a Current
Plan or Trial Plan.
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
TRAJECTORY MODELING− The automated pro­
cess of calculating a trajectory.
TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST− A
continuous recording of meteorological and aeronau­
tical information that is broadcast on L/MF and VOR
facilities for pilots. (Provided only in Alaska.)
(Refer to AIM.)
(See ICAO term TRANSFERRING
UNIT/CONTROLLER.)
(See TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER.)
TRANSFERRING UNIT/CONTROLLER [ICAO]−
Air traffic control unit/air traffic controller in the
process of transferring the responsibility for
providing air traffic control service to an aircraft to
the next air traffic control unit/air traffic controller
along the route of flight.
Note: See definition of accepting unit/controller.
TRANSITION−
a. The general term that describes the change from
one phase of flight or flight condition to another; e.g.,
transition from en route flight to the approach or
transition from instrument flight to visual flight.
b. A published procedure (DP Transition) used to
connect the basic DP to one of several en route
airways/jet routes, or a published procedure (STAR
Transition) used to connect one of several en route
airways/jet routes to the basic STAR.
(Refer to DP/STAR Charts.)
TRANSITION POINT− A point at an adapted
number of miles from the vertex at which an arrival
aircraft would normally commence descent from its
en route altitude. This is the first fix adapted on the
arrival speed segments.
TRANSITION WAYPOINT− The waypoint that
defines the beginning of a runway or en route
transition on an RNAV SID or STAR.
TRANSITIONAL AIRSPACE− That portion of
controlled airspace wherein aircraft change from one
phase of flight or flight condition to another.
TRANSMISSOMETER− An apparatus used to
determine visibility by measuring the transmission of
light through the atmosphere. It is the measurement
PCG T−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary
source for determining runway visual range (RVR)
and runway visibility value (RVV).
(See VISIBILITY.)
TRANSMITTING IN THE BLIND− A transmis­
sion from one station to other stations in
circumstances where two-way communication
cannot be established, but where it is believed that the
called stations may be able to receive the
transmission.
TRANSPONDER− The airborne radar beacon
receiver/transmitter portion of the Air Traffic Control
Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) which automati­
cally receives radio signals from interrogators on the
ground, and selectively replies with a specific reply
pulse or pulse group only to those interrogations
being received on the mode to which it is set to
respond.
(See INTERROGATOR.)
(See ICAO term TRANSPONDER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TRANSPONDER [ICAO]− A receiver/transmitter
which will generate a reply signal upon proper
interrogation; the interrogation and reply being on
different frequencies.
TRANSPONDER CODES−
(See CODES.)
TRANSPONDER OBSERVED − Phraseology used
to inform a VFR pilot the aircraft’s assigned beacon
PCG T−8
4/3/14
code and position have been observed. Specifically,
this term conveys to a VFR pilot the transponder
reply has been observed and its position correlated for
transit through the designated area.
TRIAL PLAN− A proposed amendment which
utilizes automation to analyze and display potential
conflicts along the predicted trajectory of the selected
aircraft.
TRSA−
(See TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA.)
TSD−
(See TRAFFIC SITUATION DISPLAY.)
TURBOJET AIRCRAFT− An aircraft having a jet
engine in which the energy of the jet operates a
turbine which in turn operates the air compressor.
TURBOPROP AIRCRAFT− An aircraft having a jet
engine in which the energy of the jet operates a
turbine which drives the propeller.
TURN ANTICIPATION− (maneuver anticipation).
TVOR−
(See TERMINAL-VERY HIGH FREQUENCY
OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE STATION.)
TWEB−
(See TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST.)
TWO-WAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FAIL­
URE−
(See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
U
UHF−
(See ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY.)
ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band
between 300 and 3,000 MHz. The bank of radio
frequencies used for military air/ground voice
communications. In some instances this may go as
low as 225 MHz and still be referred to as UHF.
ULTRALIGHT VEHICLE− A single-occupant
aeronautical vehicle operated for sport or recreational
purposes which does not require FAA registration, an
airworthiness certificate, nor pilot certification.
Operation of an ultralight vehicle in certain airspace
requires authorization from ATC
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 103.)
UNABLE− Indicates inability to comply with a
specific instruction, request, or clearance.
UNASSOCIATED− A radar target that does not
display a data block with flight identification and
altitude information.
(See ASSOCIATED.)
UNDER THE HOOD− Indicates that the pilot is
using a hood to restrict visibility outside the cockpit
while simulating instrument flight. An appropriately
rated pilot is required in the other control seat while
this operation is being conducted.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
UNFROZEN− The Scheduled Time of Arrival (STA)
tags, which are still being rescheduled by traffic
management advisor (TMA) calculations. The
aircraft will remain unfrozen until the time the
corresponding estimated time of arrival (ETA) tag
passes the preset freeze horizon for that aircraft’s
stream class. At this point the automatic rescheduling
will stop, and the STA becomes “frozen.”
UNICOM− A nongovernment communication facil­
ity which may provide airport information at certain
airports. Locations and frequencies of UNICOMs are
shown on aeronautical charts and publications.
(See AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
(Refer to AIM.)
UNPUBLISHED ROUTE− A route for which no
minimum altitude is published or charted for pilot
use. It may include a direct route between NAVAIDs,
a radial, a radar vector, or a final approach course
beyond the segments of an instrument approach
procedure.
(See PUBLISHED ROUTE.)
(See ROUTE.)
UNRELIABLE (GPS/WAAS)− An advisory to
pilots indicating the expected level of service of the
GPS and/or WAAS may not be available. Pilots must
then determine the adequacy of the signal for desired
use.
UPWIND LEG−
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
URET−
(See USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL.)
URGENCY− A condition of being concerned about
safety and of requiring timely but not immediate
assistance; a potential distress condition.
(See ICAO term URGENCY.)
URGENCY [ICAO]− A condition concerning the
safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of person on
board or in sight, but which does not require
immediate assistance.
USAFIB−
(See ARMY AVIATION FLIGHT INFORMATION
BULLETIN.)
USER REQUEST EVALUATION TOOL (URET)−
User Request Evaluation Tool is an automated tool
provided at each Radar Associate position in selected
En Route facilities. This tool utilizes flight and radar
data to determine present and future trajectories for
all active and proposal aircraft and provides
enhanced, automated flight data management.
PCG U−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
V
VASI−
(See VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR.)
VCOA−
(See VISUAL CLIMB OVER AIRPORT.)
VDP−
(See VISUAL DESCENT POINT.)
VECTOR− A heading issued to an aircraft to provide
navigational guidance by radar.
(See ICAO term RADAR VECTORING.)
VERIFY− Request confirmation of information;
e.g., “verify assigned altitude.”
VERIFY SPECIFIC DIRECTION OF TAKEOFF
(OR TURNS AFTER TAKEOFF)− Used by ATC to
ascertain an aircraft’s direction of takeoff and/or
direction of turn after takeoff. It is normally used for
IFR departures from an airport not having a control
tower. When direct communication with the pilot is
not possible, the request and information may be
relayed through an FSS, dispatcher, or by other
means.
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
VERTEX− The last fix adapted on the arrival speed
segments. Normally, it will be the outer marker of the
runway in use. However, it may be the actual
threshold or other suitable common point on the
approach path for the particular runway configura­
tion.
VERTEX TIME OF ARRIVAL− A calculated time of
aircraft arrival over the adapted vertex for the runway
configuration in use. The time is calculated via the
optimum flight path using adapted speed segments.
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV)– A function of
area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,
displays, and provides vertical guidance to a profile
or path.
VERTICAL SEPARATION− Separation between
aircraft expressed in units of vertical distance.
(See SEPARATION.)
VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIR­
CRAFT− Aircraft capable of vertical climbs and/or
descents and of using very short runways or small
areas for takeoff and landings. These aircraft include,
but are not limited to, helicopters.
(See SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING
AIRCRAFT.)
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band
between 30 and 300 MHz. Portions of this band, 108
to 118 MHz, are used for certain NAVAIDs; 118 to
136 MHz are used for civil air/ground voice
communications. Other frequencies in this band are
used for purposes not related to air traffic control.
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNIDIRECTION­
AL RANGE STATION−
(See VOR.)
VERY LOW FREQUENCY− The frequency band
between 3 and 30 kHz.
VFR−
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
VFR AIRCRAFT− An aircraft conducting flight in
accordance with visual flight rules.
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
VFR CONDITIONS− Weather conditions equal to
or better than the minimum for flight under visual
flight rules. The term may be used as an ATC
clearance/instruction only when:
a. An IFR aircraft requests a climb/descent in
VFR conditions.
b. The clearance will result in noise abatement
benefits where part of the IFR departure route does
not conform to an FAA approved noise abatement
route or altitude.
c. A pilot has requested a practice instrument
approach and is not on an IFR flight plan.
Note: All pilots receiving this authorization must
comply with the VFR visibility and distance from
cloud criteria in 14 CFR Part 91. Use of the term
does not relieve controllers of their responsibility to
separate aircraft in Class B and Class C airspace
or TRSAs as required by FAAO JO 7110.65. When
used as an ATC clearance/instruction, the term
may be abbreviated “VFR;” e.g., “MAINTAIN
VFR,” “CLIMB/DESCEND VFR,” etc.
VFR FLIGHT−
(See VFR AIRCRAFT.)
PCG V−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES− Routes
used by the Department of Defense and associated
Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of
conducting low-altitude navigation and tactical
training under VFR below 10,000 feet MSL at
airspeeds in excess of 250 knots IAS.
distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted
objects by day and prominent lighted objects by
night. Visibility is reported as statute miles, hundreds
of feet or meters.
VFR NOT RECOMMENDED− An advisory
provided by a flight service station to a pilot during
a preflight or inflight weather briefing that flight
under visual flight rules is not recommended. To be
given when the current and/or forecast weather
conditions are at or below VFR minimums. It does
not abrogate the pilot’s authority to make his/her own
decision.
a. Flight Visibility− The average forward horizon­
tal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight,
at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen
and identified by day and prominent lighted objects
may be seen and identified by night.
VFR-ON-TOP− ATC authorization for an IFR
aircraft to operate in VFR conditions at any
appropriate VFR altitude (as specified in 14 CFR and
as restricted by ATC). A pilot receiving this
authorization must comply with the VFR visibility,
distance from cloud criteria, and the minimum IFR
altitudes specified in 14 CFR Part 91. The use of this
term does not relieve controllers of their responsibil­
ity to separate aircraft in Class B and Class C airspace
or TRSAs as required by FAAO JO 7110.65.
VFR TERMINAL AREA CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
VFR WAYPOINT−
(See WAYPOINT.)
VHF−
(See VERY HIGH FREQUENCY.)
VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE/TACTICAL
AIR NAVIGATION−
(See VORTAC.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
b. Ground Visibility− Prevailing horizontal visi­
bility near the earth’s surface as reported by the
United States National Weather Service or an
accredited observer.
c. Prevailing Visibility− The greatest horizontal
visibility equaled or exceeded throughout at least half
the horizon circle which need not necessarily be
continuous.
d. Runway Visibility Value (RVV)− The visibility
determined for a particular runway by a transmis­
someter. A meter provides a continuous indication of
the visibility (reported in miles or fractions of miles)
for the runway. RVV is used in lieu of prevailing
visibility in determining minimums for a particular
runway.
e. Runway Visual Range (RVR)− An instrumen­
tally derived value, based on standard calibrations,
that represents the horizontal distance a pilot will see
down the runway from the approach end. It is based
on the sighting of either high intensity runway lights
or on the visual contrast of other targets whichever
yields the greater visual range. RVR, in contrast to
prevailing or runway visibility, is based on what a
pilot in a moving aircraft should see looking down the
runway. RVR is horizontal visual range, not slant
visual range. It is based on the measurement of a
transmissometer made near the touchdown point of
the instrument runway and is reported in hundreds of
feet. RVR is used in lieu of RVV and/or prevailing
visibility in determining minimums for a particular
runway.
VIDEO MAP− An electronically displayed map on
the radar display that may depict data such as airports,
heliports, runway centerline extensions, hospital
emergency landing areas, NAVAIDs and fixes,
reporting points, airway/route centerlines, bound­
aries, handoff points, special use tracks, obstructions,
prominent geographic features, map alignment
indicators, range accuracy marks, minimum vector­
ing altitudes.
1. Touchdown RVR− The RVR visibility
readout values obtained from RVR equipment
serving the runway touchdown zone.
VISIBILITY− The ability, as determined by
atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of
2. Mid-RVR− The RVR readout values obtained
from RVR equipment located midfield of the runway.
PCG V−2
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
3. Rollout RVR− The RVR readout values
obtained from RVR equipment located nearest the
rollout end of the runway.
(See
(See
(See
(See
ICAO term FLIGHT VISIBILITY.)
ICAO term GROUND VISIBILITY.)
ICAO term RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE.)
ICAO term VISIBILITY.)
VISIBILITY [ICAO]− The ability, as determined by
atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of
distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted
objects by day and prominent lighted objects by
night.
a. Flight Visibility−The visibility forward from
the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.
b. Ground Visibility−The visibility at an aero­
drome as reported by an accredited observer.
c. Runway Visual Range [RVR]−The range over
which the pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of a
runway can see the runway surface markings or the
lights delineating the runway or identifying its
centerline.
VISUAL APPROACH− An approach conducted on
an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight plan which
authorizes the pilot to proceed visually and clear of
clouds to the airport. The pilot must, at all times, have
either the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight.
This approach must be authorized and under the
control of the appropriate air traffic control facility.
Reported weather at the airport must be ceiling at or
above 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles or greater.
(See ICAO term VISUAL APPROACH.)
VISUAL APPROACH [ICAO]− An approach by an
IFR flight when either part or all of an instrument
approach procedure is not completed and the
approach is executed in visual reference to terrain.
VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
VISUAL CLIMB OVER AIRPORT (VCOA)− A
departure option for an IFR aircraft, operating in
visual meteorological conditions equal to or greater
than the specified visibility and ceiling, to visually
conduct climbing turns over the airport to the
published “climb−to” altitude from which to proceed
with the instrument portion of the departure. VCOA
procedures are developed to avoid obstacles greater
than 3 statute miles from the departure end of the
runway as an alternative to complying with climb
gradients greater than 200 feet per nautical mile.
These procedures are published in the ‘Take−Off
Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure Procedures’
section of the Terminal Procedures Publications.
(See AIM.)
VISUAL DESCENT POINT− A defined point on the
final approach course of a nonprecision straight-in
approach procedure from which normal descent from
the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be
commenced, provided the approach threshold of that
runway, or approach lights, or other markings
identifiable with the approach end of that runway are
clearly visible to the pilot.
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES− Rules that govern the
procedures for conducting flight under visual
conditions. The term “VFR” is also used in the
United States to indicate weather conditions that are
equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements.
In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to
indicate type of flight plan.
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VISUAL HOLDING− The holding of aircraft at
selected, prominent geographical fixes which can be
easily recognized from the air.
(See HOLDING FIX.)
VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS−
Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of
visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or
better than specified minima.
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
VISUAL SEGMENT−
(See PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT.)
PCG V−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary
VISUAL SEPARATION− A means employed by
ATC to separate aircraft in terminal areas and en route
airspace in the NAS. There are two ways to effect this
separation:
a. The tower controller sees the aircraft involved
and issues instructions, as necessary, to ensure that
the aircraft avoid each other.
b. A pilot sees the other aircraft involved and upon
instructions from the controller provides his/her own
separation by maneuvering his/her aircraft as
necessary to avoid it. This may involve following
another aircraft or keeping it in sight until it is no
longer a factor.
(See SEE AND AVOID.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
VLF−
(See VERY LOW FREQUENCY.)
VMC−
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.)
VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL SYSTEM−
The VSCS is a computer controlled switching system
that provides air traffic controllers with all voice
circuits (air to ground and ground to ground)
necessary for air traffic control.
(See VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL
SYSTEM.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VOR− A ground-based electronic navigation aid
transmitting very high frequency navigation signals,
360 degrees in azimuth, oriented from magnetic
north. Used as the basis for navigation in the National
Airspace System. The VOR periodically identifies
itself by Morse Code and may have an additional
voice identification feature. Voice features may be
used by ATC or FSS for transmitting instructions/
information to pilots.
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VOR TEST SIGNAL−
(See VOT.)
PCG V−4
4/3/14
VORTAC− A navigation aid providing VOR
azimuth, TACAN azimuth, and TACAN distance
measuring equipment (DME) at one site.
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
(See TACAN.)
(See VOR.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VORTICES− Circular patterns of air created by the
movement of an airfoil through the air when
generating lift. As an airfoil moves through the
atmosphere in sustained flight, an area of area of low
pressure is created above it. The air flowing from the
high pressure area to the low pressure area around and
about the tips of the airfoil tends to roll up into two
rapidly rotating vortices, cylindrical in shape. These
vortices are the most predominant parts of aircraft
wake turbulence and their rotational force is
dependent upon the wing loading, gross weight, and
speed of the generating aircraft. The vortices from
medium to heavy aircraft can be of extremely high
velocity and hazardous to smaller aircraft.
(See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.)
(See WAKE TURBULENCE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VOT− A ground facility which emits a test signal to
check VOR receiver accuracy. Some VOTs are
available to the user while airborne, and others are
limited to ground use only.
(See AIRPORT/FACILITY DIRECTORY.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VR−
(See VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
VSCS−
(See VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL
SYSTEM.)
VTA−
(See VERTEX TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
VTOL AIRCRAFT−
(See VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
AIRCRAFT.)
Pilot/Controller Glossary
4/3/14
W
WA−
(See AIRMET.)
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
WAAS−
(See WIDE-AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM.)
WAKE TURBULENCE− Phenomena resulting from
the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere.
The term includes vortices, thrust stream turbulence,
jet blast, jet wash, propeller wash, and rotor wash
both on the ground and in the air.
(See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.)
(See JET BLAST.)
(See VORTICES.)
(Refer to AIM.)
WARNING AREA−
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
WAYPOINT− A predetermined geographical posi­
tion used for route/instrument approach definition,
progress reports, published VFR routes, visual
reporting points or points for transitioning and/or
circumnavigating controlled and/or special use
airspace, that is defined relative to a VORTAC station
or in terms of latitude/longitude coordinates.
WEATHER ADVISORY− In aviation weather
forecast practice, an expression of hazardous weather
conditions not predicted in the area forecast, as they
affect the operation of air traffic and as prepared by
the NWS.
(See AIRMET.)
(See SIGMET.)
WHEN ABLE−
a. In conjunction with ATC instructions, gives the
pilot the latitude to delay compliance until a
condition or event has been reconciled. Unlike “pilot
discretion,” when instructions are prefaced “when
able,” the pilot is expected to seek the first
opportunity to comply.
b. In conjunction with a weather deviation
clearance, requires the pilot to determine when he/she
is clear of weather, then execute ATC instructions.
c. Once a maneuver has been initiated, the pilot is
expected to continue until the specifications of the
instructions have been met. “When able,” should not
be used when expeditious compliance is required.
WIDE-AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM
(WAAS)− The WAAS is a satellite navigation system
consisting of the equipment and software which
augments the GPS Standard Positioning Service
(SPS). The WAAS provides enhanced integrity,
accuracy, availability, and continuity over and above
GPS SPS. The differential correction function
provides improved accuracy required for precision
approach.
WILCO− I have received your message, understand
it, and will comply with it.
WIND GRID DISPLAY− A display that presents the
latest forecasted wind data overlaid on a map of the
ARTCC area. Wind data is automatically entered and
updated periodically by transmissions from the
National Weather Service. Winds at specific
altitudes, along with temperatures and air pressure
can be viewed.
WIND SHEAR− A change in wind speed and/or wind
direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing or
shearing effect. It can exist in a horizontal or vertical
direction and occasionally in both.
WIND SHEAR ESCAPE– An unplanned abortive
maneuver initiated by the pilot in command (PIC) as
a result of onboard cockpit systems. Wind shear
escapes are characterized by maximum thrust climbs
in the low altitude terminal environment until wind
shear conditions are no longer detected.
WING TIP VORTICES−
(See VORTICES.)
WORDS TWICE−
a. As a request: “Communication is difficult.
Please say every phrase twice.”
b. As information: “Since communications are
difficult, every phrase in this message will be spoken
twice.”
WORLD AERONAUTICAL CHARTS−
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
WS−
(See SIGMET.)
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
PCG W−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary
WST−
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
PCG W−2
4/3/14
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
Index
[References are to page numbers]
A
Airport Lighting, 11−1−1
Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS)
(Alaska Only), HIWAS, 2−5−1
B
Broadcast Procedures
HIWAS, 2−4−1, 2−4−2
Speech Rate, 2−1−1
TIBS for AFSS, 2−3−1
TWEB, 2−2−1, 2−2−2
Types, 2−1−1
C
Changes, Recommendation for Procedural, 1−1−1,
1−1−2
Communication System, Interphone, 13−1−1
D
Duty
Familiarization and Transfer of Position
Responsibility, 1−3−1
Priority, 1−3−1
E
Effective Date of this Order, 1−1−1
Emergency Services
ADF/VOR, 5−4−1
DF, 5−3−1
General, 5−1−1
Operations, 5−2−1
F
Flight Data
Flight Plan Handling, 6−4−1
Flight Plan Proposals, 6−2−1, 6−2−3
Index
Flight Plans with Area Navigation (RNAV)
Routes in Domestic U.S. Airspace, 6−2−4
General, 6−1−1
IFR Flight Plan Handling, 6−3−1, 6−3−8
IFR/DVFR ADIZ Flight Plans, 6−6−1
Law Enforcement Messages, 6−7−1
Military Operations, 6−5−1
Nonemergency Parachute Jumping, 6−8−1
I
Inflight Services, 4−1−1
Data Recording, 4−2−1
EFAS, 4−6−1
LAA, 4−4−1
Radio Communications, 4−3−1
Special VFR, 4−5−1
International Operations, 7−1−1
Alerting Service, 7−3−1
Customs Notification and ADIZ, 7−2−1
Messages and Formats, 7−1−1
Movement and Control
Canadian, 7−4−1
Mexican, 7−5−1
P
Phraseology, 12−1−1, 12−1−9, 12−1−11, 12−1−12
Weather, 12−1−2
Pilot Briefing, 3−1−1
Preflight, 3−2−1, 3−2−2, 3−2−3
S
Search and Rescue
ALNOTs, 8−4−1
General, 8−1−1
INREQs, 8−3−1
Other SARs, 8−5−1
Overdue Aircraft, 8−2−1
T
Terms of Reference, 1−2−1, 6−9−1
Abbreviations, 1−2−1
W
Weather Service, FAAs
I−1
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
[References are to page numbers]
FAs, 9−6−1
FDs, 9−4−1
Flight Advisories: WS, WA, WST, 9−8−1
FTs, 9−5−1
I−2
SD/ROB, 9−3−1
Severe Weather Forecasts, 9−7−1
UA/UUA, 9−1−1
Weather Services, FAA, UA/UUA, 9−2−1
Index
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Federal Aviation
Administration
L
IN
I S T RA
AT
N
N
AD
M
AV I
RA
TI
O
E
IO
FE D
BRIEFING GUIDE
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
Initiated By: AJR−0
Vice President, System Operations Services
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
Table of Contents
Paragraph
Number
Title
2−1−2
SPEECH RATE AND PHRASEOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
6−2−1
FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
9−5−2
AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
9−7−1
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
BG−2
Page
Briefing Guide
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
1. PARAGRAPH NUMBER AND TITLE: 2−1−2. SPEECH RATE AND PHRASEOLOGY
2. BACKGROUND: FAA Order JO 7110.10, paragraph 2-1-2 specifies the standardized speech rate and
phraseology to be used by Flight Service Station (FSS) personnel and automated equipment.
3. CHANGE:
OLD
NEW
2−1−2. SPEECH RATE AND
PHRASEOLOGY
2−1−2. SPEECH RATE AND
PHRASEOLOGY
a. Data must be spoken such that:
Data must be spoken at a rate of 100 to 120 words
per minute. Standardized procedures and phraseo­
logy to be used by FSS personnel and automated
equipment are to be conducted in accordance with
Chapter 12, Phraseology.
1. The speech rate is not excessive,
Add
Add
2. The enunciation is of the highest quality,
and
Add
3. Each part of the message is easily
understood.
Add
b. Standardized procedures and phraseology
to be used by FSS personnel and automated
equipment are to be conducted in accordance
with Chapter 12, Phraseology.
1. PARAGRAPH NUMBER AND TITLE: 6−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING
2. BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of ICAO flight plan filing in the NAS, a translation issue has been
identified in the HOST/ERAM processing of those flight plans. ICAO flight plan format requires multiple codes
be used to describe individual navigation capabilities. Occasionally, when these flight plans are processed by
HOST or ERAM, the NAS equipment suffix displayed to the controller for an aircraft is /R, /Q, /Y, or /C. For these
suffixes the aircraft may or may not be GNSS capable.
3. CHANGE:
OLD
6−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING
TBL 6-2-5
Suffix to Aircraft Type
Delete
Suffix
/A
/B
/D
/T
/U
Briefing Guide
Aircraft Equipment Suffixes
DME
Transponder with Mode C.
Transponder with no Mode C.
No transponder.
NO DME
Transponder with no Mode C.
Transponder with Mode C.
BG−3
JO 7110.10X
/X
/M
/N
/P
/C
/I
/Y
/E
/F
/G
/R
/J
/K
/L
/Q
/W
4/3/14
No transponder.
TACAN ONLY
No transponder.
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)
LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with no Mode C.
LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with Mode C.
LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS with no transponder.
ADVANCED RNAV With Transponder and Mode C (If an aircraft is unable to operate
with a transponder and/or Mode C, it will revert to the appropriate code listed above
under Area Navigation.)
Flight Management System (FMS) with DME/DME and IRU position updating.
FMS with DME/DME position updating.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), including GPS or WAAS, with en route
and terminal capability.
Required Navigational Performance. The aircraft meets the RNP type prescribed for
the route segment(s), route(s) and/or area concerned.
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM). Prior to conducting RVSM
operations within the U.S., the operator must obtain authorization from the FAA or
from the responsible authority, as appropriate.
/E with RVSM.
/F with RVSM.
/G with RVSM.
/R with RVSM.
RVSM.
NEW
6−2−1. FLIGHT PLAN RECORDING
TBL 6-2-5
Suffix to Aircraft Type
Add
RVSM
Navigation Capability
Transponder Capability
No GNSS, No RNAV
Transponder with Mode C
/W
RNAV, No GNSS
Transponder with Mode C
/Z
GNSS
Transponder with Mode C
/L
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
No transponder
Transponder with no Mode C
Transponder with Mode C
/X
/T
/U
/D
/B
/A
/M
/N
/P
/Y
/C
/I
/V
/S
/G
No DME
DME
No
RVSM
TACAN
RNAV, No GNSS
GNSS
BG−4
Suffix
Briefing Guide
4/3/14
JO 7110.10X
1. PARAGRAPH NUMBER AND TITLE: 9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE
2. BACKGROUND: This change is proposed in response to National Weather Service (NWS) Technical
Implementation Notice 13-21 in which NWS reduced the issuance of the Alaska Area Forecasts from four times a
day to three times a day effective October 15, 2013.
3. CHANGE:
OLD
9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE
FAs are issued three times a day in the contiguous U.S., and the Gulf of Mexico and four times a day in
Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. The issuance times are in TBL 9-5-2.
Boston
and
Miami
(UTC)
Chicago
and Fort
Worth
(UTC)
San Francisco and
Salt Lake
City (UTC)
Gulf of
Mexico
(UTC)
Caribbean
(UTC)
Hawaii
(UTC)
Alaska
(UTC)
1st Issuance
0845 DT
0945 ST
0945 DT
1045 ST
1045 DT
1145 ST
0130
0330
0340
0145 DT
0245 ST
2nd Issuance
1745 DT
1845 ST
1845 DT
1945 ST
1945 DT
2045 ST
1030
0930
0940
0745 DT
0845 ST
3rd Issuance
0045 DT
0145 ST
0145 DT
0245 ST
0245 DT
0345 DT
1830
1530
1540
1345 DT
1445 ST
2130
2140
1945 DT
2045 ST
4th Issuance
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time, UTC – Coordinated Universal Time
NEW
9−5−2. AREA FORECAST (FA) SCHEDULE
FAs are issued three times a day in the contiguous U.S., Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico and four times a day
in Hawaii, and the Caribbean. The issuance times are in TBL 9-5-2.
Boston
and
Miami
(UTC)
Chicago
and Fort
Worth
(UTC)
San Francisco and
Salt Lake
City (UTC)
Gulf of
Mexico
(UTC)
Caribbean
(UTC)
Hawaii
(UTC)
Alaska
(UTC)
1st Issuance
0845 DT
0945 ST
0945 DT
1045 ST
1045 DT
1145 ST
0130
0330
0340
0415 DT
0515 ST
2nd Issuance
1745 DT
1845 ST
1845 DT
1945 ST
1945 DT
2045 ST
1030
0930
0940
1215 DT
1315 ST
3rd Issuance
0045 DT
0145 ST
0145 DT
0245 ST
0245 DT
0345 DT
1830
1530
1540
2015 DT
2115 ST
2130
2140
4th Issuance
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time, UTC – Coordinated Universal Time
Briefing Guide
BG−5
JO 7110.10X
4/3/14
1. PARAGRAPH NUMBER AND TITLE: 9−7−1. GENERAL
2. BACKGROUND: This change is proposed in response to National Weather Service (NWS) plans to modify
transmission times of Alaskan Airmets on October 15, 2013. This change to Table 9-7-1 is needed to reflect the
new issuance times for NWS Alaska Airmets.
3. CHANGE:
OLD
TBL 9-7-1
CONUS
Alaska
Hawaii
1st Scheduled
2nd Scheduled
3rd Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
O255
0855
1455
0145 (DT)/
0745 (DT)/
1345(DT)/
0245 (ST)
0845 (ST)
1445 (ST)
0400
1000
1600
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time
4th Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
2055
1945(DT)/
2045(ST)
2200
NEW
TBL 9-7-1
CONUS
Alaska
Hawaii
BG−6
1st Scheduled
2nd Scheduled
3rd Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
Issuance (UTC)
O255
0855
1455
0215 (DT)/
0815 (DT)/
1415 (DT)/
0315 (ST)
0915 (ST)
1515 (ST)
0400
1000
1600
Note: DT – Daylight Time, ST – Standard Time
4th Scheduled
Issuance (UTC)
2055
2015 (DT)/
2115 (ST)
2200
Briefing Guide
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