- FOSS AS

- FOSS AS

8100 Modules Series

Portable, modular platform designed for the construction, validation and maintenance of optical fiber networks

User Manual

8100 Modules Series

Portable, modular platform designed for the construction, validation and maintenance of optical fiber networks

User Manual

Notice

Every effort was made to ensure that the information in this document was accurate at the time of printing. However, information is subject to change without notice, and JDSU reserves the right to provide an addendum to this document with information not available at the time that this document was created.

Copyright

© Copyright 2006 JDSU, LLC. All rights reserved. JDSU, Enabling

Broadband and Optical Innovation, and its logo are trademarks of JDSU,

LLC. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted electronically or otherwise without written permission of the publisher.

Trademarks

JDSU is a trademark of JDSU in the United States and other countries.

Microsoft, Windows, Windows CE, Windows NT, MS-DOS, Excel, Word and Microsoft Internet Explorer are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

Specifications, terms, and conditions are subject to change without notice. All trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective companies.

Manual

This guide is a product of JDSU's Technical Information Development

Department . This manual gives you the main information to install , start and use the 8100 Module Series.

WEE Directive

Compliance

JDSU has established processes in compliance with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive, 2002/96/EC.

This product should not be disposed of as unsorted municipal waste and should be collected separately and disposed of according to your national regulations. In the European Union, all equipment purchased from JDSU after 2005-08-13 can be returned for disposal at the end of its useful life. JDSU will ensure that all waste equipment returned is reused, recycled, or disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner, and in compliance with all applicable national and international waste legislation.

User Manual 780000102/09 v

It is the responsibility of the equipment owner to return the equipment to

JDSU for appropriate disposal. If the equipment was imported by a reseller whose name or logo is marked on the equipment, then the owner should return the equipment directly to the reseller.

Instructions for returning waste equipment to JDSU can be found in the

Environmental section of JDSU’s web site at www.jdsu.com

. If you have questions concerning disposal of your equipment, contact JDSU’s

WEEE Program Management team at [email protected]

.

vi User Manual 780000102/09

Table of Contents

About this guide xxi

Purpose and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii

Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii

Technical assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii

Recycling Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement 1

Principle of reflectometry measurements . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Information yielded by the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Validity of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Principle of bi-directional measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Principle of WDM / OSA analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

DFB analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

PMD principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Method used to measure the PMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion

(CD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Method of CD measurement used by the Base Unit . . . . . . 12

User Manual 780000102/09 vii

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Table of Contents

Principle of optical power and attenuation measurements (OFI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Power measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Attenuation measurements (optical link loss) . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Standards and l0 for different types of fiber . . . . . . . . .15

Getting started 17

Adapting MTS 5000 series plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Installing a plug-in in a receptacle and removing it . . . . . . . 18

Removing a plug-in from a receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Inserting a plug-in into receptacle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Universal connectors and adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

Adapter types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Switching adapter type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Cleaning the universal connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Installing a new version of the software . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Where and how to obtain the new software . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Downloading from Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Installation from a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Installation from the harddisk of a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Installation from the CD-ROM drive of a PC . . . . . . . . . 24

Installation from Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Installation from a CD-ROM (MTS / T-BERD 8000 only) . . . 26

Installation from a CompactFlash memory card (MTS / T-BERD

8000 only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Installation from a USB memory stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Graphical User Interface 29

Display screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Top status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Mini-trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Signature of the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Main display zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Soft keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Selection keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Color of the keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

User Manual 780000102/09 viii

Chapter 4

Table of Contents

Using an external keyboard, mouse and screen touch

(options) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Virtual control buttons bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Equivalence between external keyboard and Base Unit . . . 34

Editing text using the external keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Functions relating to display of a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Display of the results on the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Positioning the cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Selection of the type of cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Zoom and Shift functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Zoom function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Shift function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Zoom Auto (OTDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Full scale (OSA / PMD / AP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Overlay trace function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Overlaying several traces stored in memory . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Display of traces in overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Adding traces in overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Overlaying the current trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Swapping overlay traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Trace resulting from the difference between two traces (OSA module) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Removing a trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Removing a trace in overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Removing all the the traces in overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Quitting the overlay menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Saving when the instrument is shut down . . . . . . . . . .42

Reflectometry measurements 43

Selecting the function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

Configuring the reflectometry test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Measurement parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Result screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

Real time mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Automatic acquisition mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Manual acquisition mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Multi-wavelength acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

User Manual 780000102/09 ix

Chapter 5

Table of Contents

Trace display functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Displaying results on the trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

Trace/Event functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Criteria for display of an event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Table of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Information provided for each event detected . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Modifying types of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Table notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Automatic measurement and detection . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

Addition of markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

Representation of the markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Hints on the positioning of markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Deleting markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Manual measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

Measurements of slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Result of slope measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Deleting a slope measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Performing splice and reflectance measurements . . . . . . . . 68

Two points method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Five points method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Manual measurement of ORL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

ORL on a saturated trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Memorization of the position of events . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

Fault Locator Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Choosing the function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Test configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Starting the test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Storing OTDR measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Recalling OTDR files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Bi-directional OTDR 77

Definition of terms used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Description of the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Summary of the automatic operation procedure . . . . . . . . . 79

Configuration of bi-directional measurement . . . . . . . .80

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

User Manual 780000102/09 x

Chapter 6

Table of Contents

Measurement parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Results Screen parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Configuration of files parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Performing a bi-directional measurement . . . . . . . . . . .82

Process Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Fiber link check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Measurement process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Trace display functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Origin and End traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

OEO trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

OEO Result table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

Automatic measurement and Addition of markers in OEO page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

Key <Del Res/Auto Meas> : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Addition of markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Markers display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

File management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

Storing OEO measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Recalling OEO traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Test of a cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

Warning/errors after pressing the key

S

TART

. . . . . . . . . 91

Warning/errors resulting from checking common configurations

92

Optical Spectrum Measurement 95

Configuration of the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

WDM / OSA test configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

Acquisition Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Measurement parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Parameters of display and analysis of the results . . . . . . . 102

Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Trace display functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Display of the WDM / OSA results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

Table of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Channel filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Field of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

Using channel filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114

User Manual 780000102/09 xi

Chapter 7

Table of Contents

EDFA results analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

EDFA test configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114

EDFA measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

EDFA results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116

DFB results analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

DFB test configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118

DFB measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118

DFB results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120

Storing OSA measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Recalling OSA files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement 123

Recommended equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

PMD test setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124

Test Auto Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Manual Mode Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Fiber parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Results Screen parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series module . . . .129

Performing the reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Remote operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Local operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Performing the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Performing a PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in . .

133

Remote operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Local operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

Display of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135

Spectrum/FFT menu key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Display of PMD results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Statistics results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

Table of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Graphics display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Information messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

Storing PMD results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

Recalling PMD files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

User Manual 780000102/09 xii

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Table of Contents

PMD standards and limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

Abacus for a typical system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Attenuation profile 143

Recommended equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

AP Setup menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Acquisition band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Averaging acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Make Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Results Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

AP Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

Performing the reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Performing a AP measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150

Display of AP results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

Trace display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

Results table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Storing Attenuation Profile measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

Recalling AP files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Measurement of chromatic dispersion 157

Configuring the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

Configuring the CD test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Parameters of analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

Results Screen parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

1st analysis window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Lower wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Upper wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Inc. wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Standardized to 1 km . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Making a chromatic dispersion measurement . . . . . .163

Measurement process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Conditions of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

User Manual 780000102/09 xiii

Table of Contents

CD acquisition mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Automatic acquisition mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Manual acquisition mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

End of acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Choice of CD result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Return to this chosen screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Information always displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Detection of end of fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Functions available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Placing of markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

Information displayed for the markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Delay, dispersion and slope results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Information displayed for the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Choice of curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Functions available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Measurement of CD on a section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

Acquiring a trace for CD measurement on a section . 174

CD measurement on a section using stored traces . . 175

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

Storing CD measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Recalling CD files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

CD standards and limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

Source function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

Chapter 10 OFI Module 181

OFI module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Selection of the OFI module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

LTS function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Principle of the optical power and attenuation measurements .

182

Power measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Attenuation measurements (optical link loss) . . . . . . . 183

Connections to the power meter and the source . . . . . . . . 184

Configuring the LTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Configuring the measurement parameters of the power meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Configuring the alarm parameters of the power meter 186

Configuring and displaying the parameters of the source .

187

User Manual 780000102/09 xiv

Table of Contents

Display of results and command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Result of the measurement in progress . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Table of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Commands of the power meter parameters . . . . . . . . 189

Making a measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Power measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

Optical link loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

FOX Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191

Configuration of the FOX automatic measurement . . . . . . 191

Acquisition parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Results screen parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

File Storage parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Establishing a reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Establishing a reference for loss measurement . . . . . . . . . 194

Taking a side by side reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Taking the reference in a loop-back mode . . . . . . . . . 195

Establishing a reference for an ORL measurement . . . . . . 196

ORL Emitted power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

ORL Zero adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Measurement acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Choosing the fiber to be tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Making the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Identifying the distant module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Displaying results for a FOX automatic measurement . . . . 200

Sending a message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Manual ORL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203

Establishing a reference for an ORL manual measurement 203

Measurement acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Making the measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Display of results for an ORL manual measurement . . . . . 204

File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205

Storing results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Recalling files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

Chapter 11 Multi Test Access Unit 207

Function of the MTAU module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208

Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208

Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

Manual mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210

Auto mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

User Manual 780000102/09 xv

Table of Contents

Configuration of the sequence of tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Performing the sequence of tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Chapter 12 Broadband source BBS 215

Function of the BBS module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

Activation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

Remote interlock connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Chapter 13

xvi

File management 219

File configuration menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220

Managing tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

File signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

File information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Current directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Rules for naming files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Name of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Auto store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Fiber information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Fiber Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Fiber code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Incrementing fiber number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

Link description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Extremity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Different extremities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Cable structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

File expedition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Buttons on the right of the screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Explorer Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230

Description of the explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

Storage media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Storage media built into the Base Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

External USB storage media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

Standard Compact Flash card (8000 platform only) . . 232

Remote Base Unit and data transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Abbreviations for storage media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

User Manual 780000102/09

Table of Contents

Directory edit function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Selection of directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Edition of directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

File editing function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Format of files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Easy file selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

Multiple selection of files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Commands relating to files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Loading files and displaying traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Simple loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Load with configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Display of several traces in overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

CD-Rom burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238

Chapter 14 Macros 239

Calling the Macro function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240

Macro recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240

Standard macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

File macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

Adding interaction to your macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Inserting a dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Inserting a message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Inserting a pause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Renaming a macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

The «Rewrite config» setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Replacing a macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Removing a macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Default macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244

How to use the default macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

How to set a macro as default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

Macro playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244

Storing a macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245

Chapter 15 Printer 247

Function of the printer module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248

Exposing the printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Releasing the printer back into the module. . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Loading a new paper roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

Setting up the printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

User Manual 780000102/09 xvii

Table of Contents

Printing a page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

Chapter 16 Technical specifications 251

Reflectometer plug-in available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252

Multimode OTDR plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Single-mode modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Characteristics of reflectometry measurements . . . . . . . . . 253

Measurement of distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Measurement of attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Measurement of reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Automatic measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Manual Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Typical specifications of OTDR plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

Classes of the lasers of the OTDR plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Dimensions and weight of OTDR measurement plug-ins . 259

WDM plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259

Typical specifications of WDM plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Dimensions and weight of WDM measurement plug-ins . . 261

PMD plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261

CD modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

Information on «fiber» plug-ins 5020TF and 82LFSM2 /

82LFSM4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263

5020TF plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

82LFSM2 / 82LFSM4 plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

MTAU plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265

BBS plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265

OFI plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

Standalone power meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

Warning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268

Chapter 17 Options and accessories 269

References of measurement plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . .270

User manual references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273

References of optical connectors and adapters . . . . .274

xviii User Manual 780000102/09

Index

Table of Contents

275

User Manual 780000102/09 xix

Table of Contents

xx User Manual 780000102/09

About this guide

The MTS/TBERD series of JDSU provides a portable, modular platform designed for the construction, validation and maintenance of optical fiber networks.

The modules described in this document are applicable for the following platforms:

– MTS 8000

– T-BERD 8000

– MTS 6000

– T-BERD 6000

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Purpose and scope” on page xxii

“Assumptions” on page xxii

“Technical assistance” on page xxii

“Recycling Information” on page xxiii

“Conventions” on page xxiii

User Manual 780000102/09 xxi

About this guide

Purpose and scope

Purpose and scope

The purpose of this guide is to help you successfully use the MTS / T-

BERD features and capabilities. This guide includes task-based instructions that describe how to install, configure, use, and troubleshoot the

MTS / T-BERD. Additionally, this guide provides a complete description of JDSU’s warranty, services, and repair information, including terms and conditions of the licensing agreement.

Assumptions

This guide is intended for novice, intermediate, and experienced users who want to use the MTS / T-BERD effectively and efficiently. We are assuming that you are familiar with basic telecommunication concepts and terminology.

Technical assistance

If you need assistance or have questions related to the use of this product, call or e-mail JDSU’s Technical Assistance Center for customer support.

Table 1

Technical assistance centers

Region

Americas

Telecom Products

Europe, Africa, and

Mid-East

Asia and the Pacific

Southeast Asia, Australia, and New

Zealand

All others

Phone Number

866 228 3762

World Wide: 301 353 1550

+49 (0) 7121 86 1345

(Europe)

+33 (0) 1 30 81 50 60

(JDSU France)

+852 2892 0990

(Hong Kong)

+86 10 6833 7477

(Beijing-China)

866 228 3762 [email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

xxii User Manual 780000102/09

About this guide

Recycling Information

During off-hours, you can request assistance by doing one of the following:

– leave a voice mail message at the Technical Assistance number in your region

– e-mail North American Technical Assistance Center, [email protected]

, or European Technical Assistance Center, [email protected]

– submit your question using our online Technical Assistance Request form at www.jdsu.com

.

Recycling Information

JDSU recommends that customers dispose of their instruments and peripherals in an environnmentally sound manner. Potential methods include reuse of parts or whole products and recycling of products components, and/or materials.

Waste Electrical and electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive

In the European Union, this label indicates that this product should not be disposed of with household waste. Il should be deposited at an appropriate facility to enable recovery and recycling.

Conventions

This guide uses naming conventions and symbols, as described in the following tables.

Table 2

Typographical conventions

Description

User interface actions appear in this

typeface

.

Buttons or switches that you press on a unit appear in this

T

YPEFACE

.

Code and output messages appear in this typeface.

Example

On the Status bar, click

Start

Press the

O

N

switch.

All results okay

User Manual 780000102/09 xxiii

About this guide

Conventions

Table 2

Typographical conventions (Continued)

Description

Text you must type exactly as shown appears in this

typeface

.

Variables appear in this type-

face.

Book references appear in this

typeface.

A vertical bar | means “or”: only one option can appear in a single command.

Square brackets [ ] indicate an optional argument.

Slanted brackets < > group required arguments.

Example

Type:

a:\set.exe

in the dialog box.

Type the new hostname.

Refer to Newton’s Telecom

Dictionary

platform [a|b|e] login [platform name]

<password>

Table 3

Keyboard and menu conventions

Description

A plus sign + indicates simultaneous keystrokes.

A comma indicates consecutive key strokes.

A slanted bracket indicates choosing a submenu from menu.

Example

Press

Ctrl+s

Press

Alt+f,s

On the menu bar, click

Start > Program Files

.

Table 4

Symbol conventions

This symbol represents a general hazard.

xxiv User Manual 780000102/09

This symbol represents a risk of electrical shock.

About this guide

Conventions

NOTE

This symbol represents a Note indicating related information or tip.

This symbol, located on the equipment or its packaging, indicates that the equipment must not be disposed of in a land-fill site or as municipal waste, and should be disposed of according to your national regulations.

Table 5

Safety definitions

WARNING

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

CAUTION

Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury.

User Manual 780000102/09 xxv

About this guide

Conventions

xxvi User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1

Principles of measurement

1

This chapter gives the principles of the measurements made by the reflectometer (OTDR) plug-ins, OSA spectrum analyzers (WDM technology) and PMD analyzers (Polarization mode dispersion).

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Principle of reflectometry measurements” on page 2

“Principle of bi-directional measurement” on page 4

“Principle of WDM / OSA analysis” on page 5

“PMD principle” on page 7

“The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)” on page 9

“Principle of optical power and attenuation measurements (OFI)” on page 13

“Standards and l0 for different types of fiber” on page 15

User Manual 780000102/09 1

2

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of reflectometry measurements

Principle of reflectometry measurements

Optical time domain reflectometry consists in injecting a light pulse into one end of the optical fiber to be analyzed and observing, at the same end, the optical intensity passing through the fiber in the opposite direction to the propagation of the pulse.

The signal detected is exponentially diminishing in form, typical of the phenomenon of backscattering, with superimposed peaks due to reflections from the ends of the fiber or other variations in the refractive index.

Reflectometer

Relative level (dB)

Optical fiber

Splice

Connection

Attenuation between

2 points

End of fiber or a break

Fig. 1

Attenuation due to splice

Attenuation due to the connection

Reflectance

Distance (km)

Trace showing typical backscattering

Information yielded by the measurement

From a backscatter trace it is possible, in particular, to determine the position of a section of fiber within a link.

The measurement result must reveal:

– the attenuation

– the location of faults, by their distance from a point of origin,

– attenuation with respect to distance (dB/km)

– the reflectance of a reflective event or a link.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of reflectometry measurements

To locate faults, a reflectometer measures only time. Consequently, group velocity must be introduced in order to determine the distance of the location. This is done by introducing the refractive index of the fiber into the instrument.

Validity of

Measurement

UTI-T, in recommendations G.650, G.651 and G.652, give backscatter measurement as an alternative method for measuring attenuation, the method of reference being the cut fiber.

The field of application of backscatter is not limited, but the conditions for application of this method are nevertheless stipulated:

– injection conditions: Fresnel reflections must be limited at fiber input.

– a high-power source (laser) should be used.

– receiver bandwidth should be chosen to achieve a compromise between pulse rise time and noise level.

– backscatter power should be represented on a logarithmic scale.

Reflectance

Reflectance is a value with which the coefficient of reflection of a reflecting optical element can be quantified. It is defined as the ratio of the power reflected by the element over the incident power.

These reflections are due to variations in refractive index all along the optical link in certain telecommunications applications. If they are not controlled, they may degrade the performance of the system by perturbing the operation of the emitting laser (especially DFB lasers) or may generate interference noise in the receiver by multiple reflections.

The reflectometer is particularly well suited to the measurement of discrete reflectances on an optical fiber link. To calculate the coefficient of reflection, it is necessary to measure the total amplitude of the Fresnel reflection generated and then to apply a conversion formula to obtain the reflectance value.

This formula takes into account:

– the total amplitude of the reflection measured by the reflectometer.

– the pulse width used to measure the amplitude of the reflection (in nanoseconds)

– the backscatter coefficient of the fiber used:

User Manual 780000102/09 3

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of bi-directional measurement

– typical values of the backscatter coefficient for a pulse of 1 ns and

- for a single-mode fiber:-79 dB to 1310 nm

-81 dB to 1550 nm and 1625 nm

- for a multi-mode fiber:-70 dB to 850 nm

-75 dB to 1300 nm

NOTE

To measure the widest range of reflection coefficient, it is necessary to insert a variable optical attenuator between the reflectometer and the link to be tested. This attenuator enables the level of the trace to be adjusted so as to avoid saturation of the reflectometer by the reflection to be evaluated.

Principle of bi-directional measurement

If fibers with different mode-field diameters (core size etc.) are joined, the resulting OTDR trace waveform can show a higher backscattering level.

This is due to the increased level of backscattered signal reflected back to the OTDR in the downstream fiber.

4

Fig. 2

Normal splice

(Ka=Kb=Backscatter coefficient, S=splice value)

This phenomenon can occur when jointing different types of fiber in multimode or 2 fibers with different backscattering coefficients.

Ka < Kb Kb-Ka=

K S1=S+

K

Fig. 3

Ka < Kb Kb-Ka=

K S2=S-

K

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of WDM / OSA analysis

The sum gives the bi-directional or average splice loss value:

S =

S1 +

2

S2

Bi-directionnal measurement consists in performing a measurement from the extremity of fiber A, then another measurement from the extremity of fiber B, finally get events of both traces and calculate the average for all slope, splice and reflectance measurements.

Principle of WDM / OSA analysis

WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplex) technology is a very effective means of increasing the transmission of fibers, as it demands neither the installation of new links, nor any increase in transmission speed. The data are transmitted along the fiber at different wavelengths, each wavelength (or channel) transmitting a signal. The channels are defined according to the the G-692 recommendations of the ITU-T.

This technology demands new measurements, since it is important, during the installation and maintenance of WDM systems, to check the following parameters:

1

Presence of the channels at the corresponding wavelengths, with no drift

2

Correct channel power levels, without power variation

3

Satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio (SNR): its value is obtained by measuring the ratio of channel peak power to the noise power level of the ASE

1

signal to the right and/or left of the carrier. As a general rule, the noise measurement point chosen is the calculated midpoint between two adjacent channels. The noise power level measured is converted to a standard bandwidth of 0.1 nm.

The most important item of equipment for carrying out these tests on

WDM systems is the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). It can be connected at critical measurement points in the WDM system, to the ends of the links or to the amplifier locations.

1.Amplified Spontaneous Emission

User Manual 780000102/09 5

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of WDM / OSA analysis

Measurement results

The optical analyzer displays a spectrum representing all the channels.

The measurement results are shown in the form of a complete spectrum analysis and a table of the parameters relating to each carrier.

The optical spectrum analyzer performs automatic detection and measurements on each channel.

The number of channels and the composite power are shown, and for each channel:

– the wavelength

– the interval between channels

– the power level

– the signal-to-noise ratio.

The total power of the system can also be given.

To qualify the amplifier, gain tilt and slope can be calculated. In principle, amplification should be flat right across the WDM spectrum.

DFB analysis

In order to ensure the best BER ratio, it is sometimes necessary to be able to test DFB lasers, widely used in DWDM technology.

DFB measurements are the following :

SMSR

Mode Offset

Side mode Suppression Ratio : the amplitude difference between the main spectral component and the largest side mode.

Wavalength separation (expressed in nm) between the main spectral component and the

SMSR mode.

– Peak Amplitude The power level of the main spectral component of the DFB laser.

– Bandwidth Displayed bandwidth of the main spectral component of the DFB laser.

6 User Manual 780000102/09

Side Mode Supression

Ratio

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

PMD principle

Peak of the main spectral component

Bandwidth

Fig. 4

Min offset

DFB measurements

Max offset

PMD principle

The transmission rate and range are two of the most important parameters of fiber optics paths and must therefore be optimized. And, since more and more paths (including those already installed) are being used for transmitting Wavelength Division Multiplex (WDM) signals or for bit rates of 10 Gbit/s, it is becoming all the more important to determine the

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD).

PMD, which is the basic property of single-mode fibers, in particular affects the magnitude of the transmission rate. It results from the difference in propagation times of the energy of a given wavelength, which is split into two polarization layers that are at right angles to each other (as shown in the below diagram). The main causes of this birefringence are non-circularities of the fiber itself and external stress on the fiber (macrobending, micro-bending, twist and temperature variations).

User Manual 780000102/09 7

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

PMD principle

Sing le-M ode

fibe r sp an

DGD

V

2

V

1

Fig. 5

Example of a time delay between two polarization layers

The PMD is also referred to as mean value of all Differential Group

Delays (DGD) in picoseconds (ps) or as the DGD coefficient in ps/

√km.

The mean DGD causes the transmission pulse to broaden when transmitted along the fiber, generating distortion, which in turns increases the bit-error-rate (BER) of the optical system. The consequence is that the

PMD limits the transmission bit rate on a link. It is then important to know the PMD values to calculate what are the bit rate limits of the links.

Method used to measure the

PMD

The method used to measure the PMD is based on the Fixed Analyzer

Method

1

which requires a broadband polarized source at one extremity, and a polarized (variable) Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) at the other extremity.

Broadband light source

(SLED)

Fixed

Polarizer

Rotatable

Polarizer

Optical Spectrum

Analyser (OSA)

Link under test

Fig. 6

Fixed Analyzer Method used to measure the PMD

The method used to measure PMD is the Fast Fourier Transform Method

(FFT).

From the spectrum, the mean period of the amplitude modulation is measured.

8

1.This is standardized by the ANSI/TIA/EIA FOTP-113 Polarization Mode Disper-

sion Measurement for Single-Mode Optical Fibers by the Fixed Analyzer Method.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

The Fast Fourier Transform Method into a time distribution will give a

Gaussian curve and the mean DGD value is determined from this curve

(for fiber links with strong mode coupling).

It is not necessary to modify the polarization angle of the analyzer when strong mode coupling is used. For weak mode coupling, an angle could be selected to get the maximum amplitude of the modulation.

The instrument should have a higher dynamic range than the link itself.

A 35 dB dynamic range is usually enough for most of the applications, and 45 dB should be used for very long distance networks.

The measurement range of the PMD should be linked with the transmission rate. For WDM applications, it should be between 0.1 ps to 60 ps so that measurement can be carried out for bit rates between 2.5 and 40

Gbit/s. The table below indicates the maximum permitted PMD values for various bit rates.

Bit rate (Gbit/ s)

2.5

10

40

Maximum

PMD (ps)

40

10

2.5

PMD coefficient (ps/

km)

400 km cable length

< 2

< 0.5

< 0.125

Tables at the end of chapitre gives:

– a more complete list of the maximum PMD values for different bit rates.

– information about the appropriate standards and limits for PMD.

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Since more and more links (including those already installed) are being used to transmit WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplex) signals, or signals at 10 Gbit/s, it becomes very important to determine the chromatic dispersion (CD).

User Manual 780000102/09 9

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Chromatic dispersion (CD) is due to a variation with wavelength of the refractive index of the fiber. This results in delays in propagation for some wavelengths, which broadens the pulse transmitted along the fiber, causing consequent distortions and increasing the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the optical system.

A given speed of transmission is thus associated with a limit wavelength.

And for a fiber with offset dispersion (standard G.653 ITU-T), unequal spacing of the channels around 1550 nm is imposed in order to avoid fiber non-linearities, such as the mixing of four waves.

Chromatic dispersion is defined by three principal parameters:

– delay at a given wavelength (in ps)

– the coefficient of dispersion D expressed in ps/nm. This corresponds to the drift in delay as a function of wavelength (or to the slope of the curve representing delay as a function of distance at a given wavelength). It is expressed in ps/(nm.km) if it is standardized to one km (its value is divided by the length of the fiber expressed in km).

– the slope S expressed in ps/(nm2.km). This corresponds to the drift in the coefficient of dispersion as a function of wavelength (or to the slope of the curve representing dispersion as a function of distance, at a given wavelength).

The coefficient of dispersion standardized to one km and the slope take into account the length of the fiber (which may be different from the length of the cable due to the helicoidal factor). It is therefore important to know this length with accuracy, failing which the results of the measurement will be degraded: an error of 10% in the length of the fiber will induce a 10% error in the dispersion measurement.

Chromatic dispersion is one of the most important characteristics of a fiber: it depends principally on the method of manufacture. Cable manufacturers take it into account in order to produce different types of cable designed for different applications and different needs, such as: standard fiber, offset dispersion fiber or fiber with non-zero dispersion offset.

Type of fibre/Corresponding standard

Single-mode standard/ITU-T G.652

Single-mode offset dispersion/ITU-T G.653

Single-mode non-zero offset dispersion/ITU-T G.655

Coefficient of dispersion at

1550 nm

+17 ps/(nm.km)

0 ps/(nm.km)

+3 ps/(nm.km)

10 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

20

2

10

0

0

-

10

-20

1200

G652 S tandar d SMF

( U nshited

Dispe rsion)

G655 N on Zer o Di sp. SM

F

G653 D ispersi on Shi fted SM

F

1300 1400 1500

λ (nm)

Fig. 7

Typical curves of the coefficient of distortion for different types of fibre

ITU-T standards impose measurement of the following parameters

(example with G.652):

– wavelength corresponding to zero dispersion lambda0: this must lie between 1300 nm and 1324 nm

– slope S0 corresponding to lambda0: –0.093 ps/(nm2.km) max.

– two limit values of the coefficient of dispersion at wavelengths situated between 1260 nm and 1360 nm.

Chromatic dispersion is not dependent on the time and constraints of installation, and it is relatively insensitive to variations in temperature:

– 0.0025 ps/(nm.km.°C) for the coefficient of dispersion

– 0.0025 ps/(nm2.km.°C) for the slope

The only external parameter that can affect it is the type of modulation of the signal itself (most type DFB lasers have no external modulation to limit this effect).

Chromatic dispersion analyzers give the delay value of the optical link unit as a function of wavelength. On the basis of this delay, they calculate the coefficient of dispersion, the dispersion slope and specific values such as the wavelength corresponding to zero dispersion and the associated slope.

The principle of measurement of chromatic dispersion is described in document IEC 60793-1-42, as well as in ITU-T recommendations G.650 and G.652.

The calibration of the instrument is defined in document IEC 61744.

User Manual 780000102/09 11

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

The principle of measurement of Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Telcordia has also published "GR-761-CORE requirements for chromatic dispersion analyzers".

Method of CD measurement used by the

Base Unit

There are different methods for measuring chromatic dispersion.

The Base Unit measures the delay of propagation of pulses along the fiber due to specific reflective events such as connectors (Fresnel), doing this for four wavelengths: 1310, 1480, 1550 & 1625 nm. One of these 4 measurements is chosen as a reference for calculation of delays.

Fiber under test

λ1

λ2

Delay

On the basis of the 4 results obtained, the Base Unit defines the curve representing the delay as a function of wavelength by using one of the following numerical approximation algorithms:

– Quadratic: A+B

λ+Cλ2 (parabolic curve).

– Sellmeier 3-term: A+B

λ2+Cλ−2

– Sellmeier 5-term: A+B

λ2+Cλ−2+Dλ4+Eλ−4

It then calculates the drift of this curve in order to obtain the coefficient of dispersion D as a function of wavelength.

It then calculates the drift of this last curve in order to obtain the dispersion slope.

12 User Manual 780000102/09

Delay

(ps)

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of optical power and attenuation measurements (OFI)

drift Coeff. of dispersion drift D

Dispersion slope S

S

0

λ

0

1310 1480 15501625

λ nm

λ

0 l

nm

Wavelength corresponding to zero dispersion

Fig. 8

Example of curves obtained by quadratic approximation l

nm

Principle of optical power and attenuation measurements (OFI)

Power measurement

A power meter, is all that is needed to measure emitted or received power:

– to measure emitted power, connect the power meter directly to the output of the optical emitter;

– to measure the power at the input of an optical receiver, the power meter is connected to the end of the fiber, at the point where the optical receiver would be connected.

Attenuation measurements

(optical link loss)

For measurement of the attenuation of power in a complete link or in elements such as sections of fiber, connections or optical components, a light source and a power meter are required.

This attenuation is usually deduced from the measurement of optical power at two points:

User Manual 780000102/09 13

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Principle of optical power and attenuation measurements (OFI)

Laser light source of the

Base Unit

1

Reference fiber

Link under test

Attenuation A

(dB)

= P1

(dBm)

- P2

(dBm)

2

Power meter of the Base Unit

To perform accurate measurements, the following conditions are vital

– Use one of the light sources of the LTS or a light source which is stable both in time and as a function of temperature.

– Make sure that all connections and fibers and the receiving cell are perfectly clean.

– Use a reference link between the laser source and the test subject.

If several measurements are to be made under identical light injection conditions, this reference fiber must not be disconnected during the period while measurements are taking place.

Insertion loss method

1

The power meter is first connected to the laser source via the reference fiber: P1 is measured.

2

Then the fiber to be tested is inserted between the reference fiber and the power meter: P2 is measured.

The difference between P2 and P1 gives the attenuation of the fiber under test.

It is preferable to use the same type of connector at both ends of the fiber being tested, to ensure the same connection conditions for measuring P1 and P2.

14 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Standards and l0 for different types of fiber

Standards and

λ0 for different types of fiber

Fibre non-offset dispersion

Standard ITU/Y

Standard IEC

ITU-T G.652

IEC 60793-1-1 type B1

Standard TIA/EIA Iva

Approximate

λ

0 .

1310 nm

offset dispersion

ITU-T G.653

IEC 60793-1-1 type B2

IVb

1550 nm

non-zero or homogeneous offset dispersion

ITU-T G.655

IEC 60793-1-1 type B3

IVb

1500 nm or indefinite

Most suitable method of approximation according to trace zone

Fibre

1310 nm zone

1550 nm zone

Complete curve

non-offset dispersion

offset dispersion non-zero or homogeneous offset dispersion

Sellmeier 3-term Sellmeier 5-term Sellmeier 5-term

Sellmeier 5-term Quadratic Sellmeier 5-term

Sellmeier 5-term Sellmeier 5-term Sellmeier 5-term

User Manual 780000102/09 15

Chapter 1 Principles of measurement

Standards and l0 for different types of fiber

16 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2

Getting started

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Adapting MTS 5000 series plug-ins” on page 18

“Universal connectors and adapters” on page 20

“Installing a new version of the software” on page 21

2

User Manual 780000102/09 17

Chapter 2 Getting started

Adapting MTS 5000 series plug-ins

Adapting MTS 5000 series plug-ins

The plug-ins of the MTS 5000 series are shorter than those of the 8100 series. Before they can be used in the Base Unit, an extension must be fitted:

– ref. E50OTDRext for OTDR plug-ins

– E507Xext for WDM plug-ins.

To attach this extension:

– remove the two screws on the plug-in marked "a" below.

– connect the extension to the rear of the plug-in and fix the screws back in.

– stick the adhesive label supplied with the extension on to the upper surface of the assembly the hold the two elements securely together.

MTS 5000 series plug-in

Fixing screws a

Fig. 9

Extensions

Mounting the extension on a MTS 5000 series plugin

Installing a plug-in in a receptacle and removing it

A plug-in may be inserted into either of the two slots provided for the purpose.

When a slot is vacant, it is closed by means of a cover-plate fitted with two captive screws like those on the plug-ins.

18 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2 Getting started

Adapting MTS 5000 series plug-ins

Fig. 10

Captive screws securing the plug-in

Rear view of the Base Unit (example)

Removing a plugin from a receptacle

The Base Unit must be switched off, and if it has a mains power supply, the adapter cable must be unplugged.

1

Completely unscrew (up to the stop) the two captive screws securing the plug-in.

2

Carefully slide the plug-in out of its slot.

Inserting a plug-in into receptacle

The Base Unit must be switched off, and if it has a mains power supply, the adapter cable must be unplugged.

1

Slide the plug-in into its slot.

2

When it is fully home, press against the screen-printed surface of the plug-in while tightening the the securing screws. The screenprinted surface of the plug-in must be flush with that of the receptacle.

3

Make sure that the two large captive screws of the plug-in are screwed fully home.

User Manual 780000102/09 19

Chapter 2 Getting started

Universal connectors and adapters

NOTE

UHD plug-ins use very powerful lasers : they must be connected exclusively to optical connectors equiped with zirconium ferules.

Using connectors equiped with metallic ferrules could damage the plug-in connector.

Universal connectors and adapters

Fiber Optic plug-ins may come equipped with a universal connector and adapter selected at time of order.

Adapter types

JDSU offers 5 different adapters, all compatible with this connector, allowing the user to switch from one adapter to another according to which fiber type he intends to work with.

Adapter types supplied are : FC, SC, DIN, ST and LC.

Fig. 11

5 different types of adapters may be mounted on the universal connector

20

Switching adapter type

In order to switch from an adapter to another, proceed as shown.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

Pull out in the direction of the arrow in order to release the adapter from the lug holes

To place an adapter, position the handle as shown in order to engage with the the lugs, push hard and pull the handle down

Fig. 12

Removing and refitting an adapter

Cleaning the universal connector

Remove the adapter in order to access the ferrule and clean it using a cotton swab.

Installing a new version of the software

When a new software version is loaded, there is a risk of re-initialization of the internal memory. Before installing the new software, it is therefore advisable to to save the results in the memory, using the

Save

function in the

Memory

menu called up by the

F

ILE

button.

Do not interrupt the installation process, as this could damage the instrument.

To avoid any interruption of the installation procedure, the Base Unit must be operating on the mains: if the procedure is started while operating on battery, a message indicates that the instrument must be connected to the mains.

User Manual 780000102/09 21

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

Where and how to obtain the new software

The new version of the software can either be procured on a storage medium (CD-ROM, USB stick memory or CompactFlash memory card) from your JDSU Customer Service, or can be downloaded from JDSU’s internet site: www.jdsu.com

.

Downloading from Internet

When the software is obtained from the Internet, it must be saved on a storage medium before the software upgrade of the product can be carried out. To do this, on the JDSU web site, open the file entitled

README.txt in the folder where the download is located and follow the instructions it contains.

NOTE

Once the upgrade has been loaded from Internet, the new version cannot be burned with the CD ROM of the MTS / T-BERD Base Unit.

Burn the CD-ROM of the PC, using CD burner softwares recommended by JDSU .

Installation from a PC

The new versions can be installed according 2 methods:

– from the harddisk of a PC

– from the CD-ROM drive of a PC

22

Installation from the harddisk of a

PC

1

Connect the MTS / T-BERD Base Unit into mains with the AC plug, and switch it on.

2

Connect the MTS / T-BERD Base Unit to the PC by an Ethernet link

NOTE

Use a cross over if the Base Unit is directly connected to the PC or a direct cable if the Base Unit is connected to the LAN.

3

On the PC, unzip the upgrade file in a directory, such as C:/

8000_Base_Upgrade/

4

Open a DOS console, by selecting

Windows > Start

(bottom right of the PC screen)

> All programs > Accessories > Command prompt.

5

Then type the command subst N: C:\upgrade\

6

Close the DOS console.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

This command will create a virtual drive N: (N: is an example)

1

7

Run TFTPD32.exe: note the «Server Interfaces» address which appears in the TFTPD32 window.

8

Run FTP server.exe. An error message will appear: click on

OK

.

The window «Pablo’s FTP server» is displayed. Click on the green arrow (or select menu

File > Start)

.

9

On the Base Unit, press the

S

YSTEM

key, then System Menu: in

Utility > Upgrade Parameters > Server adress

, enter the IP address previously noted (see "7" above).

10 Quit the

System

menu and then press, in succession,

Expert Tools

> Software Upgrade > From Ethernet

.

The message «Indicate IP address of PC server» appears.

11 Click on

Confirm

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

More recent version on the PC than on the Base Unit

Less recent version on the PC than on the Base Unit

Identical version on the PC and on the Base Unit

12 Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

13 Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

1."N:" may be replaced by another letter if necessary and "8000_Base_Upgrade" corresponds to the directory where the updrade files have been unzipped.

User Manual 780000102/09 23

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading begins. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted.

Upgrading takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version 01.16).

14 On the PC, close the two windows opened to perform the installation.

15 Once the upgrade is completed, you may remove the virtual drive (in our example "N:") by using the command subst N: /d.

Installation from the CD-ROM drive of a PC

1

Connect the Base Unit into mains with the AC plug, and switch it on.

2

Connect the Base Unit to the PC by an Ethernet link

NOTE

Use a cross over if the Base Unit is directly connected to the PC or a direct cable if the Base Unit is connected to the LAN.

3

Insert the CD-ROM in the drive of the PC.

4

On the PC, use Windows Explorer to open the CD-ROM.

5

Run TFTPD32.exe: note the «Server Interfaces» address which appears in the TFTPD32 window.

6

Run FTP server.exe. An error message will appear: click on

OK

.

The window «Pablo’s FTP server» is displayed. Click on the green arrow (or select menu File > Start).

7

On the Base Unit, press the

S

YSTEM

key, then

System Menu:

in

Utility > Upgrade Parameters > Server adress

, enter the IP address previously noted (see "5" above).

8

Quit the

S

YSTEM

menu and then press, in succession,

Expert Tools

> Software Upgrade > From Ethernet

.

The message Indicate IP address of PC server appears.

9

Click on

Continue

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

24 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

10 Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

11 Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading begins. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted.

Upgrading takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version 01.16).

12 On the PC, close the two windows opened to perform the installation.

Installation from Ethernet

Before starting the software upgrade via Ethernet, make sure the IP adress of the PC server.

1

Press, in succession,

Expert Tools > Software Upgrade > From

Ethernet

.

The message Indicate IP address of PC server appears.

2

Click on

Continue

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

3

Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

4

Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading begins. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted.

Upgrading takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version 01.16).

User Manual 780000102/09 25

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

Installation from a CD-ROM

(MTS / T-BERD

8000 only)

Updating from a CD-ROM can be done directly, if the Base Unit is equipped with a CD-ROM drive.

1

Connect the Base Unit into mains with the AC plug, and switch it on.

2

Insert the CD-ROM in the drive of the Base Unit.

3

Press the

S

YSTEM

key and then, in succession, the keys

Expert

Tools > Software Upgrade > Copy from CD

.

The message Insert the CD in the drive is displayed

4

Click on

Confirm

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

5

Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

6

Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading starts. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted. The installation process takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version

01.16).

26

Installation from a

CompactFlash memory card

(MTS / T-BERD

8000 only)

You must be equipped with a CompactFlash memory card with a minimum capacity of 128 Mo.

1

Switch off and unplug your Base Unit.

2

Insert the CompactFlash memory card in which the new unzipped software has been loaded, into the slot on the Base Unit provided for this purpose.

3

Connect the Base Unit into mains with the AC plug and switch it on.

4

Press the

S

YSTEM

button, then successively

Expert tools > Software Upgrade > Copy from CF

.

5

Click on

Confirm

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

6

Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

7

Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading begins. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted.

Upgrading takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version 01.16).

Installation from a USB memory stick

You must be equipped with a USB memory stick with a minimum capacity of 128 Mo.

Only one USB memory key should be plugged in the unit at any one time.

If you wish to use a second USB key (even if it is from the same manufacturer), then you must fully reboot the unit. (i.e. power down and remove external power if it was present).

Before installing the upgrade, you must format the USB memory stick

(steps 1 to 5).

1

Insert the memory stick into one of the sockets on the Base Unit provided for this purpose.

2

Switch on the Base Unit

3

Press the

S

YSTEM

button

4

Successively select

Expert tools

>

Media utilities

>

Usbflash

Format.

5

Confirm your choice to actually format the USB memory stick.

As for any media formatting, please note that all data present on the

USB memory stick will be irremediably lost.

6

Connect the USB memory stick to the PC

User Manual 780000102/09 27

Chapter 2 Getting started

Installing a new version of the software

7

Unzip the upgrade files on the PC and transfer it to the USB memory stick.

8

Insert the memory stick, into one of the sockets on the Base Unit provided for this purpose.

NOTE

A bip is emitted each time the USB memory stick is inserted or removed from the Base Unit.

9

Press the

S

YSTEM

button, then successively the buttons

Expert tools > Software Upgrade > Copy from USB

.

The message Are you sure? is displayed

10 Click on

Confirm

.

The list of the software versions available on the PC is displayed next to the versions installed on the Base Unit.

11 Click on

Previous choice

or

Next Choice

to display the previous and next versions available.

12 Click on

Confirm

to start the upgrade of the selected software(s).

Remove the key and insert it again when requested.

NOTE

The software versions list does not always appear (cf previous versions) as well as the

Previous / Next Choice

buttons and the

Confirm/Continue

key. In this case, the upgrading starts automatically.

Upgrading begins. The Base Unit is automatically rebooted.

Upgrading takes several minutes. At the end, the Base Unit is automatically restarted (if the boot version is superior to version 01.16).

28 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3

Graphical User Interface

3

This chapter describes the graphical user interface of the Base Unit used with the optical measurement plug-ins (OTDR, WDM, etc.).

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Display screen” on page 30

“Using an external keyboard, mouse and screen touch (options)” on page 33

“Functions relating to display of a trace” on page 35

“Overlay trace function” on page 39

“Saving when the instrument is shut down” on page 42

User Manual 780000102/09 29

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Display screen

Display screen

The display screen is divided into a number of different zones. Starting from the top, these are:

– a status bar in which various icons indicate the current functions:

– a bar displaying a scaled-down representation of the trace, showing the zoom zone and the parameters of the measurement on display

(signature of the measurement).

– the main part of the screen, displaying a menu or the page of results.

– tabs enabling the user to switch from one function to another

(OTDR, WDM, power meter, etc.), as required.

At the right-hand side of the screen, softkeys give access to the various commands. Their action depends on the current function and configuration.

Fig. 13

Example of display of results (with OTDR plug-in)

30

Top status bar

The top status bar on the screen shows, on the right, current date and time, and in the form of icons:

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Display screen

– the type of power supply: mains or battery, and if the power supply is on battery the level of charge (see Battery management in chapter 2 from the Base Unit base manual)

– if saving is in progress, the icon .

– if the Talkset option is present and the telephone is activated, the

– if a remote screen is selected, the icon

– if transfer of data is in progress, the icon .

Mini-trace

The

File

menu and the

Results

page can include a scaled-down representation of the trace which may show the location of the zoom zone corresponding to the main display. The part of the trace shown in the main display is boxed on the mini-trace.

This mini-trace will only appear if the trace originated from an Base Unit.

Other Bellcore files read on this instrument do not contain the information needed to display it.

Signature of the measurement

A status bar repeats the parameters of the measurement, and in some cases:

– the position of the cursors

– a comment

– the name of the file when the result is recalled from a memory.

Main display zone

The central zone of the screen can display the configuration of the instrument or the measurement, the memory explorer of the Base Unit, the measurement results, etc. Refer to the chapter dealing with the measurement in progress.

Tabs

When the instrument performs several different functions (OTDR, WDM,

Power Meter, etc.), the various configuration or results pages are accessible from tabs. To change from one tab to another, the button selecting the page must be pressed. To example:

– on the Results page, to change from one tab to the other, press the

R

ESULTS

button

User Manual 780000102/09 31

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Display screen

– on the measurement configuration page, to change from one tab to the other, press the

S

ETUP

button

– On the file configuration page, to change from one tab to the other, press the

F

ILE

button.

NOTE

There is a tab for each different type of measurement: OTDR SM,

OTDR MM, OSA, Power Meter. The tab of a function is displayed if and only if a plug-in corresponding to this type of measurement has been inserted in the instrument, or if a file of the type of this measurement is open. If two plug-ins of the same measurement type are present, then only one plug-in is "active", so only one tab will appear for this measurement. To change the active plug-in, go to the SYS-

TEM screen and select it there.

A small icon may appear in the left corner of each tab, according to the status of the corresponding module.

The icon signification is the following :

– No icon : the function is used in a read-only mode (no module), or the module has not been selected.

– Gray icon : the function has been selected but the corresponding module does not currently perform an acquisition.

– Green icon : the function has been selected and the corresponding module currently performs an acquisition.

Soft keys

The 7 softkeys at the side depend on the current configuration and the context.

Their use is symbolized by an icon.

Icons

shows that the action is immediate when the key is pressed.

shows that the key gives access to a sub-menu.

32 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Using an external keyboard, mouse and screen touch (options)

shows that the key will quit the sub-menu.

(green direction keys) shows that the function selected by the key will be controlled by the direction keys.

(green confirmation key) shows that the function selected will be controlled by the confirmation key.

Selection keys

The selection may be exclusive (only one choice possible) or non-exclusive (more than one option available at the same time):

This key offers two exclusive options. The change of function occurs immediately, the first time the key is pressed.

This key offers two non-exclusive options. Pressing the key repeatedly modifies the choice.

Color of the keys

When a selection key is associated with direction keys or the confirmation key:

– if the function is not selected, the key is dark blue.

– pressing the key once selects the function. The key turns lighter in color to show the user that the direction keys are assigned to it.

Pressing more times will modify the choice made using the key.

Using an external keyboard, mouse and screen touch

(options)

The external keyboard facilitates input of:

– alphanumerical configuration parameters

– comments in the File menu

– notes in the table of results

– editing characters

User Manual 780000102/09 33

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Using an external keyboard, mouse and screen touch (options)

The mouse can be used instead of the direction keys to scroll through menus and make a selection.

Connect the keyboard and mouse to the USB connectors.

Virtual control buttons bar

It is possible to emulate hard keys with Virtual Control buttons

To display these buttons, click once on the top of the screen in the status bar, at the same height than the date and time.

34

Fig. 14

Virtual control buttons bar

The virtual control buttons bar is displayed during a few seconds. You may click on any of these buttons to obtain exactly the same results than using the real buttons in the front panel of the Base Unit.

The virtual control buttons bar can not be displayed within desktop applications (see the User Manual of the Base Unit).

NOTE

This virtual control buttons bar is especially useful when the Base Unit screen is exported on a remote PC (see the User Manual of the Base

Unit).

Equivalence between external keyboard and

Base Unit

Although it is intended primarily to replace the Edit menu of the Base

Unit, the external keyboard can replace all the buttons and keys of the

Base Unit except the

O

N

/O

FF

button

:

– The menu keys to the right of the screen are replaced by the function keys

F1

to

F7

.

– The buttons below the screen are equivalent to

Ctrl +

a letter (see table below).

– The direction keys have the same function on the external keyboard and on the Base Unit.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Functions relating to display of a trace

Function on the Base Unit

SYSTEM

SET-UP

PRINT

FILE

RESULTS

START/STOP

SCRIPT (Macro)

Menu keys 1 to 7 (from top to bottom)

S

AVE AND QUIT

(E

XIT

)

Q

UIT WITHOUT SAVING

(A

BORT

)

External keyboard

Ctrl + Y

Ctrl + U

Ctrl + P

Ctrl + F

Ctrl + R

Ctrl + S

Ctrl + M

← ↑ → ↓

F1

→ F7

Entrée/Enter

Escape/Echap.

Editing text using the external keyboard

To use the external keyboard to insert a name or identification in the setup menus, or a Note in the table of results:

– press

Enter

to go into the Edit menu

– type the text

– press

Enter

to leave the Edit menu.

Pressing the

Esc

key will close the Edit menu without saving the text.

Functions relating to display of a trace

The trace acquired or recalled from a memory is displayed on the Results page: see example on

Figure 13 on page 30 .

Various functions common to many plug-ins (OTDR, OSA etc.) can be used to modify the display of the trace (Cursors, Zoom/Shift, Event/

Trace, Trace/Table, Full scale, etc.). The role of the direction keys and the confirmation key will depend on the function chosen.

User Manual 780000102/09 35

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Functions relating to display of a trace

Display of the results on the trace

Each event (OTDR measurement) or channel (WDM measurement) detected is represented under the trace by a serial number.

The results of the measurements can be written on the trace.

Depending on the options chosen in the

S

ETUP

menu on

Result Screen

> Results On Trace

, it is possible to show on the trace, for an OTDR measurement:

– "No" results,

– or "All" the results (value and position)

– or only the markers showing the position of the events measured

When there is saturation for a reflective event (OTDR measurement), the maximum value measured is displayed with the sign >. This shows that the actual reflectance is greater than the value shown (for example, if

R >-29.5 dB is displayed, the reflectance could be -18 dB)

The reflectance of a ghost event (OTDR measurement) is displayed in brackets on the trace.

Cursors

The vertical cursors A and B are used in the Zoom and Shift functions to position or delete markers.

The cursors A and B are represented by vertical lines of different colors:

– in a solid line if the cursor is selected.

– in a dotted line if the cursor is not selected.

Positioning the cursor

When a trace is displayed, the key <Cursor A/Cursor B> can be used to select one or both cursors.

The direction keys

and move the selected cursor(s) along the trace.

Above the trace are shown the co-ordinates of the points of intersection of the cursors A and B with the trace, together with the distance between the two points.

When a selected cursor touches the right or left-hand edge of the screen, the trace starts to scroll horizontally to maintain display of this cursor.

36 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Functions relating to display of a trace

If an unselected cursor has been moved off-screen by a zoom, it can be brought back on to the screen by selecting it and then pressing one of the direction keys

or . It will then appear on whichever edge of the screen is closest to its position.

When the cursor function is selected, the keys

and move the trace vertically.

Selection of the type of cursor

Two types of cursors can be defined:

1

Cursor on X: only a vertical bar is present.

2

Cursor on X and Y: there is a vertical bar and a horizontal bar. The intersection between these two bars is placed on the trace.

To display the type of cursor selected, click on

Advanced

. Then select the key

CursorX/CursorY

to modify the current choice. Each click on this key will alternatively insert or delete the check mark against

Cursor

Y

.

Zoom and Shift functions

Zoom function

The Zoom function is used to analyze part of the trace in greater detail.

In association with Event (OTDR) or Channel (WDM) it enables rapid checking of a succession of events or channels.

The zoom is centred on the cursor selected. If the two cursors A and B are selected, the zoom is centred midway between the two cursors.

The position of the section of trace displayed with respect to the complete trace is represented by a red rectangle on the mini-trace at the top lefthand corner of the screen.

To define a zoom on the trace:

– select cursor A or B and center it on the zone to be examined

– on the

Shift/Zoom

key, select the

Zoom

function.

– use the or key to increase or reduce the zoom factor.

User Manual 780000102/09 37

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Functions relating to display of a trace

Zooming on the different events in succession (OTDR measurement)

– Zoom on one of the events detected as shown above.

– On the

Trace/Event

key, select the

Event

function

– Use the and keys to move the zoom on to the successive events.

Zooming on the different channels in succession (OSA measurement)

– Zoom on one of the channels as shown above.

– On the

Trace/Channel

key, select the

Channel

function

Use the and keys to move the zoom on to the successive channels.

Shift function

The Shift function is used to displace the displayed section of the trace by pressing the direction keys.

The horizontal shift is performed maintaining the point of intersection between the trace and the selected cursor at the same level, scrolling the trace horizontally while following it vertically, so that it never goes off the screen.

To use this function:

– Select the zoom factor as described above.

– Choose cursor and cursor position.

– On the

Zoom/Shift

key, select

Shift

.

– Use the direction keys to shift the trace in the desired direction.

NOTE

For a Chromatic Dispersion curve, click on

Config

in order to display the zoom and shift functions.

Zoom Auto (OTDR)

The

Zoom Auto

key alows to go to an optimized display of the trace.

Full scale (OSA /

PMD / AP)

To display the entire trace, with no zoom or displacement:

– either press the

Full Scale

key

38 User Manual 780000102/09

– or, with button.

Trace

selected on the

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Overlay trace function

Trace/Event

key, press the

Overlay trace function

This very useful function enables up to eight traces to be displayed on the screen at once:

– either to compare traces acquired on a number of different fibers in the same cable,

– or to observe changes over time in traces taken of one and the same fiber.

– or to compare both curves get for each way of propagation in the o/

Back mode.

For this purpose, the Base Unit possesses an overlay memory which can store:

– the current trace, for comparison with further traces to be acquired subsequently,

– or reference traces previously saved on floppy disk or CD-ROM or in the internal memory, for comparison with the current trace,

– or traces of different wavelengths for comparative purposes

(OTDR).

User Manual 780000102/09 39

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Overlay trace function

Fig. 15

Example of overlaid traces

Overlaying several traces stored in memory

To display up to 8 traces from the memory, deleting the current trace or traces already loaded:

1

Press the

F

ILE

button.

2

On the

Menu/Explorer

key, select

Explorer

.

3

Select the files of the traces for display (see "Multiple selection of files" page 236 ).

4

Press the

Load key

.

5

Press <View traces> or

Load traces + config

: as the traces are loaded, they cease to be highlighted in the list of files.

6

When loading is complete, the

Results

screen appears: the first trace selected is the active trace, the other traces being overlaid.

Display of traces in overlay

– The traces are shown in different colors (the active trace is green).

– Their serial numbers are repeated at the top of the screen.

– The OTDR markers are referenced on the active trace by the symbol , and on the other traces by vertical dashes.

40 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Overlay trace function

Adding traces in overlay

With one or more traces already displayed, to add further traces to the display (the number of traces displayed cannot exceed 8):

– Press the

F

ILE

button, and in the Explorer menu, select the files of

the traces to be added (see "Multiple selection of files" page 236

).

– Press the

Load

key

– Press the

Add Traces

key: as the traces are loaded, they cease to be highlighted in the list of files.

– When loading is complete, the new traces are displayed in overlay with those that were already there.

NOTE

If the number of files selected exceeds the display capacity, a message gives warning that loading will be incomplete: only the trace or traces selected first will be displayed, up to the permitted limit of 8 traces.

Overlaying the current trace

To copy the current trace into the overlay memory, proceed as follows:

– On the

R

ESULTS

page

, press the

Advanced

key, then

Overlay

, then

Set Overlay

.

The current trace is copied into the overlay memory: represented in a different color, it is automatically offset with respect to the new trace.

– A new acquisition can then be started.

NOTE

In the case of Multi-trace display with multiple wavelength acquisition: when the

S

TART

key is pressed, all the traces displayed are deleted to leave room for the new acquisitions.

Swapping overlay traces

Measurements can only be made on the active trace and not on overlaid traces. To make measurements on a trace in overlay, it must first be swapped with the active trace. To do this, press the

Trace

key, then the

and keys, as many times as necessary.

User Manual 780000102/09 41

Chapter 3 Graphical User Interface

Saving when the instrument is shut down

Trace resulting from the difference between two traces (OSA module)

It is possible to obtain the trace corresponding to the point-by-point difference between the current trace and the trace in overlay (if only two traces are displayed simultaneously).

To do this, press the

2 Traces Diff.

key. The screen will then display the two traces in overlay and the trace resulting from the "Difference".

Removing a trace

Removing a trace in overlay

It is possible to remove a trace displayed. To do this, first activate it (see previous paragraph), then press

Remove Trace

.

Removing all the the traces in overlay

To remove all the traces except the current trace, press the key

Remove

Traces

.

Quitting the overlay menu

To quit the overlay menu, press the

Exit

key.

Saving when the instrument is shut down

When the instrument is switched off, all the parameters and all the traces are saved, and will all be recalled at the next start-up.

42 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4

Reflectometry measurements

4

Pressing the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key is all that is needed to start or stop a measurement. However, it is necessary to configure the measurement and the type of results desired.

This chapter describes the different stages in a reflectometry measurement made using an OTDR plug-in and the OTDR function of a 5083CD plug-in.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Selecting the function” on page 44

“Configuring the reflectometry test” on page 44

“Acquisition” on page 51

“Trace display functions” on page 56

“Events” on page 57

“Table of results” on page 59

“Automatic measurement and detection” on page 64

“Addition of markers” on page 65

“Manual measurements” on page 66

“Memorization of the position of events” on page 71

"Fault Locator Mode" on page 72

“File Management” on page 75

User Manual 780000102/09 43

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Selecting the function

Selecting the function

Press the

S

YSTEM

button. If the instrument is equipped with several plug-ins or if the sole module performs several functions:

– use the direction keys and to select the function: the icon under the mouse pointer is surrounded with a green frame.

– select the function by pressing : the icon turns orangy-yellow.

Configuring the reflectometry test

1

To call up the test configuration window, press the

S

ETUP

button.

Dialog boxes on one and the same screen enable selection of measurement parameters, and display of results and fiber parameters.

Fig. 16

OTDR SETUP screen (with dual-wavelength module)

In these windows, the parameter selected is in video inverse. Select this parameter by means of the direction keys and .

44

1.if an OTDR module is installed

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

The available choices then appear on the screen; they depend on the function selected. Make the choice by means of the direction keys

.

Acquisition parameters

You can choose the following acquisition parameters, whatever the type of measurement displayed on the trace.

Those measurement parameters are only linked to the next acquisition.

If the acquisition parameters are not accessible, check that the OTDR function has really been selected (see

"Selecting the function" on page

44

).

Laser

The acquisition will be carried out on the wavelength selected (for multiple-wavelength modules): the possible values depend on the modules.

All: the acquisition will be carried out on all available wavelengths.

Choose the mode of detection of events: –

Mode

- Real time: the Base Unit performs up to ten acquisitions per second and displays the resulting trace in real time together with an indicator of the state of the connection.

This mode makes it possible to analyze a fiber quickly without any memory effect, and thus to check the establishment and quality of the connections.

- Manual: the acquisition parameters must then be configured as a function of the fiber to be tested. When acquisition is complete, a measurement is made and the results are displayed.

- Auto: the Base Unit starts an acquisition with an automatic configuration making the best compromise for Pulse/

Range/Resolution. When acquisition is complete, a measurement is made and the results are displayed.

- Fault Locator:the Fault locator mode allows to detect the end of fiber distance from the origin and, by consequence, to

detect a possible break of this fibre (see "Fault Locator

Mode" on page 72

).

User Manual 780000102/09 45

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

- Source (for CD modules and VLR modules)

The Source mode allows to activate the wavelength previously defined. Pushing the

S

TART

button activates the source in the CW mode.

Pulse

Range

This depends on the type of OTDR module.

See

"Typical specifications of OTDR plug-ins" on page

255 .

This depends on the type of OTDR module. The possible range depends on the pulse length selected.

This range is given for each pulse length in the paragraph

"Ranges" on page 257 . In Auto mode, the range

is selected as a function of the end of the fiber.

Resolution From 4 cm to 160 m according to module.

No calibration of the measurement. The choice offered depends on the range and pulse selected.

In Auto mode, resolution is selected automatically according to the last two parameters above.

Delete Traces on Start

Yes: as soon as the next acquisition is initiated with the

S

TART

key, the traces previously acquired are deleted.

No: as soon as the next acquisition is initiated with the

S

TART

key, the the traces previously acquired are saved.

For a multi-wavelength acquisition, this parameter is automatically set to Yes.

Acquisition time From 5 s. to 10 minutes max.

Test Auto

The

Test Auto

key imposes the following parameters:

– Acquisition parameters:

Laser: All

Mode: Auto

Saving parameters (see chapter "File management"):

File naming:

[cable] [fiber name] [wavelength] [pulse] [direction]

Increment Fiber number: Yes

Auto Store: yes

46 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

Factory default settings

The

Factory Defaults

key imposes the parameters for acquisition, measurement and display of results defined as default settings in the factory.

Measurement parameters

You can select the following measurement parameters, in the

Measurements

field.

Those parameters are valid for all traces present on the screen.

Detection

Choice of events to be detected:

– Splices:

All: all splices will be detected

None: no splice will be detected or choose the threshold from which splices will be detected between

0.01 dB and 1.99 dB in steps of 0.01 dB.

Factory default value: All.

– Reflections:

All: all reflections will be detected

None: no reflection will be detected or choose the threshold from which reflections will be detected between -99 and -11 in steps of 1 dB.

Factory default value: All.

NOTE

If no result is displayed after a measurement, make sure that the parameter

All

is selected for the detection of splices and reflections.

– Fiber end

Auto (recommended) option in which the Base Unit automatically detects the end of a fiber.

– 3 to 20 dB (in steps of 1 dB): threshold of detection of end of fiber.

Factory default value: Auto

.

Bend: Select the bend value (in dB), using the direction keys and or the numeric keypad.

User Manual 780000102/09 47

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

Macro Bend Wavelength: select the wavelength for the macro bend: No / 1310/1550nm / 1310/1625nm / 1550/1625nm.

Refraction index

Choice of group refraction index of the whole fiber.

– User

– Either: define for each wavelength (1310 SM, 1360-1510 SM,

1550 SM, 1625 SM) a refraction index of 1.30000 à 1.69999.

The selection of an index alters the value of the section AB

(actual distance between cursors A and B).

– or, if the actual distance between the cursors A and B is known, enter its value under Section AB to establish the index of the fiber. Selection of this distance causes the display of the indices.

The extreme distance values are given by the index values

(1.30000 à 1.70000).

– Predefined index

– It is possible to choose one of the predefined values given for certain cables. The corresponding indices given in the table below are repeated on the screen.

Wavelength

(nm)

1310 SM

ATT SM 1.46600

Corning SMF-28 1.46750

Corning SMF-DS 1.47180

Corning SMF-LS 1.47100

Corning-LEAF 1.46890

Fitel Furukawa 1.47000

Lucent Truewave 1.47380

SpecTran SM

Litespec

1.46750

1.46600

Fig. 17

Predefined index values (Single Mode)

1475 1480

1510 1550 1625 SM

1.46700

1.46810

1.47110

1.47000

1.46840

1.47000

1.47320

1.46810

1.46700

Wavelength

(nm)

Corning 62.5

Corning 50

SpecTran 62.5

850 MM

1.50140

1.48970

1.49600

1300 MM

1.49660

1.48560

1.49100

48 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

Fig. 18

Predefined index values (Multi Mode)

Backscatter coefficient

– User

– Auto

Selects for each wavelength, the backscatter coefficient of -99 dB to -50 dB by increments of 0.1dB. Modification of the backscatter coefficient K changes the measurements of reflectance and ORL.

Backscatter coefficients are selected automatically for each wavelength.

The default values are given in the paragraph

"Reflectance" on page 3

.

Launch cable at start

– No All the results are displayed and referenced on the basis of the board of the plug-in.

– Evt 1, 2, 3 The results relating to the launch cable are eliminated from the table. Attenuation and distances are then measured on the basis of the marker Evt 1, 2 or 3 selected.

– Distance Use the

Edit Number

key to enter a distance (Min= 0 /

Max=10 km / 32.81 kfeet / 6.22 miles) or

Affect the active cursor value, using the

Active Cursor

Value

Factory default value: None.

Result screen

Those parameters are valid for all the traces present on the screen.

Alarm

No: the alarm function is not active.

Active: results lying outside the thresholds selected by the user in the Alarm field (Max splice, Max Connector, etc.), will be displayed in red in the table, and the icon will appear at the top right of the screen. If all the results lie within the thresholds (no result is in red), the icon becomes .

Notes See

User Manual 780000102/09 49

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Configuring the reflectometry test

No: no display of notes

Notes: display of notes entered by the user

Uncertainties: display of indicators of the level of confidence in the measurement result.

Factory default value: No.

Results on trace Displays:

No: the trace alone.

All: the trace with results and markers.

Graphics only: the trace with markers only.

Factory default value: All.

If «All» or «Graphics only» is selected, the reflectometry trace is displayed with a dotted vertical line set on the end of launch cable

(if the Launch Cable is defined in the

S

ETUP

menu) and a dotted vertical line on the end of fiber .

Ghosts

Choice (Yes or No) of whether information relating to ghosts is to be displayed. If ghosts are displayed, the reflection icon in the table of results appears dotted and the reflection value is displayed in brackets on the trace, for example «(R:-50 dB)».

Factory default value: Yes.

NOTE

Ghosts are detected only during an automatic measurement.

.

Events after end of fiberif yes, the events after the end of fiber are detected.

Factory default value: Yes

Measure ORL

if Yes: results of the total ORL measurement are displayed

Factory default value: Yes.

Grid

Unit

Color (RVB)

if Yes, the grid is present on the result screen

Factory default value: No.

Units of the distances displayed: km, kfeet, miles.

When overlaying several traces (see "Overlay trace function" on page 39

), you can change each trace color.

- Active curve: allows to change the active curve color

- Curve 1 to 8: allows to change the selected curve color (from trace 1 to 8)

50 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Acquisition

NOTE

To get the default color for each trace, select the trace number and click on

Factory Color

.

When you change the trace color, the new color is displayed at the right side of its value.

To obtain the configuration selected in the factory, press the F

actory

Defaults

key.

Acquisition

There are 3 ways to start an OTDR acquisition with the Base Unit:

– a real time mode, in which the Base Unit makes acquisitions up to ten times per second and displays the resulting trace, together with an indication of the state of the connection in real time.

– an automatic mode, which enables quick starting of an acquisition followed by automatic measurement.

– a manual mode, in which the acquisition parameters can be configured as a function of the fiber to be tested. The acquisition is followed by automatic measurement.

The mode of acquisition is selected after pressing the

S

ETUP

button, on the

Acquisition > Mode

line (see

"Acquisition parameters" on page 45

).

In the case of the multiple-wavelength modules, the acquisition will be started on the different wavelengths successively if the option All is selected on the

Acquisition > Laser

line.

Battery saver

When running on battery, if no acquisition has been performed for two minutes, the power supply of the module is cut off to save the battery.

NOTE

Traffic on the fiber under test is automatically detected and reported. If the fiber connected to the OTDR module is active, a message indicating a signal in the fiber under test is displayed. You can therefore choose to continue the measurement or to stop it and to restart the measurement once the fiber is disconnected.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Acquisition

Real time mode

Acquisition in real time must not be used if a precise measurement is required because of the high noise level, but it is sufficient for rapid optimization of a connection and for observing a fiber in process of utilization.

To carry out an acquisition in real time, after selection of the requisite acquisition parameters (see

"Acquisition parameters" on page 45

):

– either, if

Auto

or

Manual

mode is selected in the

S

ETUP

menu, hold the

S

TART

key down for about two seconds, when the acquisition in real time will begin

– or choose the Real time mode of acquisition in the

S

ETUP

menu, then press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key.

The red Testing indicator will go on to show that real time acquisition is in progress. The trace acquired is displayed in real time. An indicator of the state of the connection (

Good/Bad

) is displayed below the trace.

NOTE

If the connection is bad, check and clean the connector or the jumpers.

To terminate or interrupt an acquisition in real time mode, press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key.

Connection quality indicator

The connection quality indicator gives the following information:

State

Good

Bad

Connection

The connection is OK

Possible causes of a bad result:

– There are several connectors close to the external connector of the Base Unit.

– One of the connectors is dirty or badly connected. Replace the launch cable, make the connection again properly or clean the connector of the OTDR or of the jumper.

– No fiber is connected.

If the state of the connection is bad, it is still possible to carry out a measurement, but the results will not be very reliable.

52 User Manual 780000102/09

Real time display

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Acquisition

Fig. 19

Example of acquisition in real time

During an acquisition in real time, you can modify the acquisition parameters without returning to the

S

ETUP

menu. To do this, press the

Acquisition Param

key: you can then use display keys to scroll through the possible values of the various acquisition parameters.

In real time mode, only measurements relating to the cursors are possible, but as soon as acquisition stops, automatic measurement is possible.

Automatic acquisition mode

The fastest way of detecting faults in your optical fiber is to use automatic acquisition mode. The Base Unit then uses the acquisition parameters

(pulse width, range and resolution, and acquisition time best suited to the fiber to be tested).

NOTE

In Auto mode, since all the parameters have been reconfigured, overlay and marker locking are not possible during acquisition.

Automatic configuration of acquisition

Press the

S

ETUP

button, then:

User Manual 780000102/09 53

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Acquisition

1

either choose the configuration manually: on the

Laser

line, select the wavelength of the laser (if the Base Unit uses a dual-wavelength plug-in), on the

Mode

line, select

Auto

,

2

or select

Test Auto

or

Factory Defaults

Acquisition phases in automatic mode

When the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key is pressed, an automatic configuration procedure selects the optimum parameters, after which acquisition is carried out in three phases:

– Phase 1: Choice of the best range to display the whole of the fiber under test.

– Phase 2: Choice of the ideal pulse width and of the acquisition time to qualify the fiber accurately; for example the one that gives the best resolution for a given dynamic.

– Phase 3: Display of the quality of the connection (see

"Connection quality indicator" on page 52

)

– Phase 4: The elapsed averaging time and the number of averages calculated are displayed. When the duration of acquisition has elapsed, the automatic measurement is carried out.

NOTE

The acquisition can be stopped at any moment by pressing the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key. Then an automatic measurement is performed, but certain events cannot be detected: a manual measurement must then be made.

54 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Acquisition

Elapsed acquisition time

Number of averages calculated

Remaining acquisition time

Total acquisition time

Fig. 20

Example of automatic acquisition

A the end of Auto acquisition, the parameters are automatically updated in the Acquisition menu.

Auto acquisition mode deactivates the

Set Event

function (see

"Memorization of the position of events" on page 71 ): the

measurement is then re-initialized.

Manual acquisition mode

In this mode, the Base Unit carries out a number of averagings defined as a function of the maximum acquisition time specified in the Acquisition menu, and then terminates the acquisition. The acquisition is carried out with the parameters previously selected in the Acquisition menu. It may be stopped at any time using the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key.

To configure a manual acquisition of the fiber under test, follow the procedure described below, in the

S

ETUP

menu (see "Acquisition parameters" on page 45 ):

1

Select the wavelength on the

Laser

line.

User Manual 780000102/09 55

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Trace display functions

2

On the

Mode

line, select

Manual

.

3

On the

Pulse

line, select the required pulse length from the values proposed.

4

Select the required

Range

from the values proposed.

5

Select the

Resolution

.

6

On the

Acquisition Time

line, select the duration of acquisition.

7

Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key to start the acquisition.

The red indicator goes on to show that the Base Unit is in process of acquisition and the screen displays the trace in process of acquisition. The quality of the connection is displayed for a few seconds, then a bar graph shows elapsed and remaining acquisition time.

8

A the end of the acquisition, the trace is displayed and an automatic measurement is started.

NOTE

To stop the acquisition, the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key may be pressed at any time. Then an automatic measurement is carried out, but certain events cannot be detected (a manual measurement must then be carried out right to the end).

Multiwavelength acquisition

If the plug-in possesses several lasers, to perform successive acquisitions on all the wavelengths:

– in the

S

ETUP

menu, on the Laser line, choose

All

.

– start the acquisition (manual or automatic) by pressing the

S

TART

button.

The different traces appear in the same window and can be handled similarly to overlaid traces (see

"Swapping overlay traces" on page 41 ).

Trace display functions

The trace acquired or recalled from a memory is displayed on the Results page: see example

Figure 13 on page 30 .

A number of different functions can modify the display of the trace

(Cursors, Zoom/Shift, Trace/Event, Graph/Table, Full Scale, etc.). See

page 35 .

56 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Events

See "Overlaying several traces stored in memory" on page 40

for overlay of traces.

The reflectometry trace is displayed with a dotted vertical line set on the end of launch cable (if the Launch Cable is defined in the

S

ETUP

menu) and a dotted vertical line on the end of fiber .

Displaying results on the trace

Each event detected is referenced under the trace by a serial number.

The results of the measurements of attenuation, reflectance and slope can be marked on the trace.

Depending on the choice made in the

S

ETUP

menu, on

Result Screen

> Results on Trace

, it is possible to show on the trace:

– "No" results,

– "All" results (value and position)

– or only the markers showing the position of the events measured

When there is saturation for a reflective event, the maximum value measured is displayed with the sign >. This shows that the actual reflectance is greater than the value shown (for example, if R >-29,5 dB is displayed, the reflectance could be -18 dB)

The reflectance of a ghost event is displayed in brackets on the trace.

Events

NOTE

To display all the events, make sure that the detection thresholds

(Splice and Reflection) are positioned on

All

in the

S

ETUP

menu

>Detection

.

To display the results on the trace, make sure that the option selected in

Results on Trace

is

All

in the menu

S

ETUP

.

Trace/Event functions

1

The

Trace

function is useful in a multi-trace display, as the direction keys can then be used to select the active trace, which turns green.

User Manual 780000102/09 57

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Events

2

The

Event

function of the Base Unit enables the cursor to be moved on to the faults that have been measured and the results of which are displayed on the screen.

After selecting the

Event

function on the

Trace/Event

key, pressing the keys , , or once will move the cursor from one event to the next. This function, in association with

Zoom

and

Cursor

, enables rapid analysis of the fiber.

NOTE

While moving from one event to another, the value of the zoom is conserved (unless this is impossible).

58

Criteria for display of an event

An event will be displayed if its attenuation or its reflectance exceeds the corresponding threshold selected in the

S

ETUP

menu (see

"Acquisition parameters" on page 45 ). Both results for an event will be displayed if

they can be calculated. The following table gives some examples of detection of events for different threshold values.

E.g.

Value of the thresholds

The Base Unit displays a value if the attenuation or the reflectance has one of the following values

1

2

3

Attenuat.

(dB)

0.05

1

6

Reflect.

(dB)

- 15

---

Attenuation

> 0.05 dB

> 1 dB

> 6 dB

1.

Example: a value will be displayed at -43 dB.

2.

Example: a value will be displayed at -14 dB but not at -20 dB.

Reflectance

> - 60 dB

1

>- 15 dB

2

The reflectance of an event is always measured except when the event causes a saturated Fresnel peak or if it is drowned out by noise. In this case, the Base Unit displays

>

to show that the actual reflectance exceeds the value displayed.

For example, to detect all the splices on a fiber having attenuation greater than 0.05 dB, select the different thresholds of the events to be detected in the menu called by the

S

ETUP

key, in the

Measurements >

Detection

window. Relative measurements, using the two point method,

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Table of results

can be carried out by means of the Event function in coordination with the two cursors. For example, you can analyze the total loss on a link with launch cable. To do this:

1

Place one of the cursors at the end of the launch cable.

2

Select the other cursor.

3

Use the Event function. The measurements displayed give the actual distance from the start of the link and the attenuation of the link plus the attenuation of the connection.

Table of results

NOTE

To display all the events, make sure that the detection threshold selection in the

S

ETUP

menu is

All

.

Two types of tables of results are possible with the Base Unit:

– A table with a line displayed under the trace and giving the type and characteristics of the event nearest to the cursor.

– A table giving the type and the characteristics of all the events detected during the automatic measurements: the 8 lines displayed correspond to the 8 events nearest to the cursor. The line corresponding to the event nearest to the cursor is highlighted. This highlighting moves if the cursor is moved.

At the top of the table, a line shows the generic parameters of the fiber: numbers of events present, total ORL of the link, marker locking icon and launch cable length (if selected).

Change of table

To obtain the 8-line table, select the Table function on the

Graph/Table/

Bend

key. To return to display of a single line in the table, select the

Graph function. To display the table and the trace dedicated to the bend, select the Bend function.

In Bend mode, there is neither access to the events function nor to the expert mode because the Bend function analyzes two traces at the same time. Go back to the Table or Graph function to have access to these functions.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Table of results

To scroll through the table, if it contains more than 8 lines:

– either select the

Cursors

function, and move the selected cursor along the trace using the keys and

– or select the

Event

function, and move the cursor through the table, using the keys and .

60

Fig. 21

Example of table of results

Information provided for each event detected

Each event is referenced under the trace by a serial number which is repeated in the first column of the table. The table then shows:

– an icon symbolizing the type of the event:

Non-reflecting attenuation (e.g. splice).

Event with reflection (e.g. connector).

Slope of the fiber (when no fault follows the slope).

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Table of results

End of fiber

ORL measurement

Event marker when a measurement cannot be carried out. If the event to be added is too close to an existing event, the icon appears on the trace and the table, but no measurement is carried out: to obtain the results for this event, a manual measurement is necessary.

End of launch cable: the attenuation and distances are measured on the basis of the corresponding marker.

– The distance of the event from the beginning of the fiber, in metres

(or kfeet or miles).

– The attenuation due to the event, in dB.

– The reflectance of the event, in dB (or the ORL result if an ORL measurement has been carried out).

– The slope before the event, in dB/km (dB/kft) if it can be measured.

– The length of the section, that is to say the distance between the marker of the event and the previous marker.

– The total attenuation of the fiber (total dB loss), in dB.

The table of results is interactive, and reflects the measurements in progress. Any operation carried out on the trace is immediately entered in the table, so that you can see the result.

Modifying types of events

The types of events are detected automatically as a function of their optical signature. This can sometimes lead the system astray, if reflection from a connector is too strong (end of fiber?), if a splice has a very low insertion loss (slope?), etc. Similarly, some types of events cannot be recognized automatically from their signatures (for example, couplers, multiplexers, etc.). For this reason, it is advantageous in some cases to be able to change the type of events.

To do this:

– In the

Advanced

menu select

Manual measurement

– Select the

Evt Code

button.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Table of results

Fig. 22

Buttons used to modify types of events

New, more specific event types are then proposed:

Splice

Connector

Mux/Demultiplexer

Separator/Coupler

End of fiber

Ghost

– Position the cursor on the line for which modification of event type is desired.

– Click on the button corresponding to the required type of event.

62

Table notes

With each event, it is possible to associate:

– a note of no more than 40 characters, entered by the user

– an indicator of uncertainty qualifying the result displayed.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Table of results

NOTE

This information appears in the table, under the line relating to the event, if it has been validated in the

S

ETUP

menu on the

Notes

line.

Notes

For each wavelength, a maximum of 16 notes is possible.

For each note, 40 characters can be entered.

NOTE

Each note is associated with an event. Consequently, if the event is deleted, the note the will be deleted too.

To enter a note:

– in the menu:

S

ETUP

> Result Screens > Notes

, the Notes option must be selected

– on the

Results

page, in the table, select the event

– press

Advanced

– press

Notes

– enter the text of the note in the edit menu that appears

– press

Confirm

and then

Exit

.

In the table of results, the user can display indicators to evaluate the uncertainty of the result. This function must be validated in the

S

ETUP

menu, on the

Notes

line.

The notes are displayed under the selected event, in the results table.

Uncertainty of results

The following cases are possible:

Indicators concerning attenuation measurements

2c manual

Result of a manual measurement between the reference and the cursor using the 2-cursors method.

5c manual

Result of a manual measurement using the 5-cursors method.

Global

The attenuation displayed is a global result for Fresnel reflections which are not sufficiently separated.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Automatic measurement and detection

Close evts

As several events are too close together, only the attenuation of the last one is displayed.

Indicators concerning measurements of slope

Few pts

2 points

Measurement of slope by the least square approximation method without using many points of acquisition.

Measurement of slope by the 2-point method.

NOTE

The

S

ETUP

menu,

Notes

line, enables display of notes, of uncertainties or of neither the one nor the other. Notes cannot be displayed at the same time as uncertainties.

Automatic measurement and detection

Automatic mode enables rapid detection of all the faults in the trace. The faults detected are then measured and identified on the screen by markers. Only the results exceeding the detection threshold defined in the

S

ETUP

menu are displayed.

NOTE

Before starting an automatic measurement, make sure that the function

Lock Evts

(accessible by pressing

Advanced

), is not activated

(the icon must not be present in the left-hand corner under the trace).

By means of this method of detection, you can quickly locate all the faults in the fiber under test.

If an automatic measurement does not detect all the events, additional manual measurements can be carried out.

To delete all the markers, press the

Advanced

key, then select

Del Res

..

When there have not been any measurements, to carry out an automatic measurement, press

Advanced

then select the function

Auto Mes.

.

The following procedure is recommended:

1

Fully automatic measurement: the instrument locates the events and proceeds to the measurements.

64 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Addition of markers

2

Addition of markers (see

“Addition of markers” on page 65

) in the cases of splices showing low attenuation and of close events. The

Base Unit then automatically measures the slope before and after the markers selected and measures the attenuation of the splice.

3

Addition of manual measurements if necessary (in the case of very close events). The Base Unit performs the measurements requested by the user.

To start an automatic measurement while a measurement is already in progress:

1

Press the

Advanced

key.

2

Select

Del Res.

.

3

Select

Auto Mes.

.

Addition of markers

To carry out a measurement, it is advisable to go into the

S

ETUP

menu and:

– activate the alarm thresholds in

Result Screens > Alarms

– validate display of results on the trace in

Results on Trace = All

.

You can place markers of events on the trace at the exact position where you want to carry out automatic measurements.

You can also manually place markers in addition to those positioned automatically during automatic measurement. You can then start an automatic measurement to obtain the results on all the markers.

Representation of the markers

The markers are represented by the symbol : if they are set during automatic measurements or using the

Set markers

key.

The markers are represented by hte symbol if they are set during manual measurements in Advanced mode.

To add markers of events:

1

Select a cursor (A or B).

2

Use the direction keys to move the cursor to the place where you want to position a marker.

User Manual 780000102/09 65

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Manual measurements

3

Press the key:

Add Marker

.

4

An event marker is displayed at the position of the cursor and a measurement is carried out on the marker. Measurement of slope before the marker starts just after the previous event (or at the end of the dead zone at the beginning of the fiber); measurement of slope after the marker stops just before the next marker or at the end of the fiber.

Hints on the positioning of markers

– Do not add markers (with the

Add Marker

key) after a manual measurement, as all the results will be recalculated automatically by the instrument.

– If two markers are too close together, they will appear on the trace and the table but no measurement will be carried out on the second marker: to obtain results for this marker, a manual measurement is necessary.

– If you press the

Add Marker

key when the cursor is very close to a marker, the latter will be deleted.

Deleting markers

To delete a marker, move the cursor on to the marker and press the

Add

Marker

key. The marker selected will be deleted and a complete measurement, without this marker, will be carried out.

To delete several markers, use the

Event

key to move from one marker to the other, then press the

Add Marker

key as many times as necessary. The cursor will be automatically moved on to the successive markers.

Deletion of markers can cause incorrect measurement results.

Manual measurements

As soon as you have made an acquisition, with or without automatic measurement, you can make manual measurements on any event on the trace by means of the cursors A and B, in association with the functions of slope, detection of splice and calculation of ORL.

The manual measurements are accessible in the Results page, after pressing the keys:

Advanced

, then

Manual Measurement

.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Manual measurements

Measurements of slope

To make a manual measurement of slope, press the

R

ESULTS

button to call up the trace and then:

– Place the cursor A at the beginning of the section of the trace where the slope is to be measured.

– Place the cursor B at the end of this section.

– Press the

Advanced

key, then the

Manual

key, then select

Slope

.

– Press : the slope of the specified trace section is displayed.

This red cross shows that an alarm threshold has been exceeded

Fig. 23

Slope Splice

Measurement results

Reflectance

Result of slope measurement

The result is displayed on the screen between the two slope indicators

[ and ].

The measurement results are also available in the table which you can display in its entirety by selecting the

Table

function (after pressing

Exit

twice to quit

Advanced

mode). In the table:

– "distance" shows the distance between the beginning of the trace and the end of the slope;

User Manual 780000102/09 67

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Manual measurements

– "section" shows the distance between the previous event (which may also be the beginning of the link) and the end of the slope. Thus this section value is not equivalent to the distance between the two slope indicators [ and ].

– "Slope" shows the slope value in dB/km

If no result is displayed in the table:

– the distance between the cursors A and B is too small.

Deleting a slope measurement

To delete a particular slope measurement result:

– superimpose the cursors A and B on the slope concerned

– select

Slope

(after, if necessary, pressing

Advanced

and then

Manual

).

– press : the slope of the specified trace section is deleted.

Performing splice and reflectance measurements

There are two methods of carrying out manual measurements of splices on the trace: the two-cursor method and the five-cursor method.

The five-cursor method is the more accurate, as it takes into account the difference of level between the slope before the splice and the slope after the splice. This method should be used whenever possible.

If very close events have created a dead zone preventing the measurement of slope by the five-cursor method, it is possible to use the twocursor method. This considers the difference in level between the cursors.

Before performing one of these measurements, go into the

S

ETUP

menu and define the splice detection threshold (All is recommended). Also confirm display of the results on the trace (Results on Trace= All or

Graphics only).

Two points method

To perform a splice measurement by the "two-points" method, display the

Results page, then:

1

Place cursor A exactly on the fault, then place cursor B after the splice that you wish to define.

2

Press the

Advanced

key, then

Manual Measurement

, then select the function

2 Pt Loss

.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Manual measurements

3

Press .

The splice marker is placed at the point defined by the first (lefthand) cursor and the result is displayed on the screen. If the fault is reflective, the reflectance value is also measured and displayed.

These results are added to the table of results.

If no result is displayed, it is possible that the threshold of attenuation detection is higher than the attenuation that you are trying measure, or else you may have selected

No

or

Graphics only

on the

Results on

Trace

line.

NOTE

If you try to measure a splice on a slope, the measurement is not carried out and the following error message is displayed: "Slope found between two cursors".

Five points method

To carry out a splice measurement by the "five points" method:

1

Measure the slope preceding the fault to be measured, then the slope following it.

2

Place the cursor on the fault (between the two sections).

3

Press the

Advanced

key, then

Manual Measurement

, then select

5

Pt Loss

.

4

Press .

The splice event marker is placed on the cursor and the result is displayed on the trace and in the table of results.

NOTE

If no result is displayed, it is possible that the display threshold of the attenuation measurement result is higher than the attenuation that you are trying to measure, or else, in the

S

ETUP

menu, you may have selected Results on Trace = None or Graphics only.

NOTE

If you try to measure a splice on a slope, the measurement is not carried out and the following error message is displayed: "Slope found between two cursors".

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Manual measurements

Manual measurement of ORL

It is possible to carry out an ORL measurement on a part of the fiber.

Follow the following procedure to measure a part of the fiber:

1

Position the cursors A and B to delimit the section that you wish to measure.

2

Press the

Advanced

key, then

Manual Measurement

, then select

ORL

.

3

Press defined.

. The ORL will be measured for the section of trace

Fig. 24

Result of ORL measurement

ORL on a saturated trace

If saturation occurs during an ORL measurement, the result is given with the sign

<

. This means that the actual ORL value is less than the value displayed.

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Memorization of the position of events

Memorization of the position of events

To memorize the position of events with a view to repeating the measurements at the same place during a future acquisition or on another trace, press the

Advanced

key, then select

Lock Evts

. The event memorization icon will appear in the title bar.

The positions memorized will then be used in the subsequent measurements, either at the end of the manual acquisition, or when a stored trace is recalled.

NOTE

This function memorizes the markers placed on the current trace.

The following procedure is recommended to start a measurement with markers:

1

Carry out an automatic measurement.

2

Memorize the position of the events with the

Add Marker

key.

3

Add the manual measurements required (keys:

Advanced >

Manual Measurement

).

CAUTION

If a marker is added (with the

Add Marker

key) after manual measurements have been performed, then all the markers on the trace will be converted into AUTO markers and an automatic measurement will be performed using these markers. The previous manual measurements will be lost.

Provided the event memorization icon is displayed, the automatic measurement following the acquisition is carried out using the markers which were present before the acquisition.

If you wish to make a measurement without markers, deactivate memorization of events by pressing the

Free Evts

key.

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Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Fault Locator Mode

Fault Locator Mode

Function

The Fault locator mode is used to detect the distance of the end of fiber from its origin. Consequently, il allows to detect a possible break of the fiber.

Choosing the function

1

Push the

S

ETUP

button

2

In the Acquisition parameters:

– select the line Mode

– Select Fault Locator with the direction keys (see

"Configuring the reflectometry test" on page 44 ).

or

– Push the

Fault Locator

key, on the right of the screen.

NOTE

To go back to the standard mode, push the

Standard Mode

button or deselect

Fault Locator

in the Acquisition parameters.

Test configuration

72

Fig. 25

Fault Locator Setup

To automatically set the measurement parameters, push the

Test Auto

key.

To manually set the test in Fault Locator mode, push the

S

ETUP

button.

Five parameters have to be defined:

Laser the wavelength of the signal (1310 or 1550 nm,

850 or 1300 nm, according to the module).

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Fault Locator Mode

Fiber End

Group Refr. Index

Auto: by default, select 1550 nm for a singlemode fibre, and 1300 nm for a multimode fibre.

the attenuation threshold corresponael (from 2 to

20 dB). Modify the value using the direction keys or the numeric keypad.

The Auto position is recommended.

Launch Cable Start No: No launch cable used

Distance:

Manually enter the value using the numeric keypad, with the

Edit Number

key (Min= 0 km /

Max= 10km/32.81 Kfeet / 6.22 miles) or

Set the active cursor value using the

Set Cursor

Distance

key.

Fiber refractive index. You can:

- choose one of the predefined value given for some cables (see table page page 48 ) .

- manually define a refractive index:

Bend max.

Unit

- either defining for each wavelength a refractive index between 1.30000 and

1.69999. The selection of an index modify the section AB value (real distance between the cursors A and B).

- or, if you know the real distance between cursors A and B, entering this value in the

Section AB line to know the refractive index of the fiber. This distance selection allows to display the indices. The extremes values of the distance are given by those of the indice

(1.30000 à 1.70000)

Select the bend maximum value (in dB).

Distance unit (km / kfeet / miles)

Starting the test

Push the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button.

The test configuration starts automatically. Then a baragraph indicates the test progress and the number of acquisitions done.

You can stop the test at any time, pushing the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button.

User Manual 780000102/09 73

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

Fault Locator Mode

Once the test is finished, the instrument measures the end of fiber distance and display it with the unit chosen. The Total Loss is also displayed.

Fig. 26

Fault Location

Under the trace, in the blue line, are displayed:

– the ORL value of the link

– the Launch Cable length (if defined)

If one or several bends have been detected, the screen displays the 3 first macro bends detected, as well as, for each one, the distance and the delta loss between the two wavelengths (dB).

74

Fig. 27

Fault location Bend.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

File Management

The reflectometry trace is displayed with, in addition, a dotted vertical line set on the end of launch cable (if the Launch Cable is defined in the

S

ETUP

menu) and a dotted vertical line on the end of fiber .

The

Cursor

and

Zoom

keys are available.

Save the trace pushing the

F

ILE

button. Once the trace is saved, it can be recalled and displayed :

– either in OTDR mode (with analysis) if the

Standard Mode

is selected in the configuration menu.

– or in Fault Locator mode (with indication on the end of fiber) if the

Fault Locator

mode is selected in the configuration menu.

File Management

Storing OTDR measurements

Once the measurements have been made, results can be stored on different storage media.

If you had entered Auto store, then the results will be saved automatically.

If not, or if you want to store the results under another name, directory etc.:

1

Click on the

F

ILE

key

2

Select

Setup

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

3

Modify the parameters you want

4

Click on

Store Trace

The OTDR traces are stored with the extension ".SOR".

Recalling OTDR files

Once a OTDR file has been stored, recall it using the Explorer:

1

Select

Explorer

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

2

Using directions keys, select the directory and then the file to open

3

Click on

Load

4

Click on

View Tace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

User Manual 780000102/09 75

Chapter 4 Reflectometry measurements

File Management

The selected file is opened

For further informations on file management, see

Chapter 13 “File management’ on page 219

.

76 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5

Bi-directional OTDR

5

This chapter describes the different steps to perform an automatic bidirectional measurement (also called OEO measurement = Origin-End-

Origin).This measurement requires that two 8000 Base Units are connected at each extremity of the fiber under test. Every Base Unit must be equipped with the software option called «OEO-OTDR» and with both optical talkset and OTDR plug-in.

It is strongly recommended that the same type of OTDR is used

(same reference) at each extremity of the fiber.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Definition of terms used” on page 78

“Description of the measurement” on page 78

“Configuration of bi-directional measurement” on page 80

“Performing a bi-directional measurement” on page 82

“Trace display functions” on page 87

“OEO Result table” on page 89

“Automatic measurement and Addition of markers in OEO page” on page 89

“File management” on page 90

“Test of a cable” on page 91

“Troubleshooting” on page 91

User Manual 780000102/09 77

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Definition of terms used

Definition of terms used

Master / Slave unit

The master unit is the Base Unit that initiates the measurement at one extremity of the fiber.

The slave unit is the Base Unit connected on the other extremity of the fiber, and connected to the master unit via the data connection.

Local / remote unit

These terms are used in the Process Display page (see "Process page display" page 84 ). Each unit is considered «Local» on its own screen.

NOTE

These terms are to be distinguished from the measurement direction and extremities of the fiber (see

"Fiber information" page 223

)

Description of the measurement

NOTE

The measurement principle and methods used are described in "Principle of bi-directional measurement" page 4

.

Thanks to the software option OEO-OTDR, bi-directional measurement can be fully automatic.

A minimum of two fibers is required. Two Base Units equiped with the talkset option and an OTDR plug-in are linked at every extremity of the fiber to test at the same time. A data connection is established between the two talkset ports of the units via another fiber, in order to exchange orders, configurations and measurement results.

NOTE

For automatic bidirectional OTDR testing, two units having the talset option and the E80 bidirectional option are rquired.

78 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Description of the measurement

Example with 80000 series

Fully automatic bi-directional acquisitions can not be performed without a data connection (see «Data transfer» in the user manual of the

Base Unit, reference 8000M02 for example).

Please check that the OTDR function has been selected (see

"Selecting the function" page 44 ).

For best measurements and in order to qualify the fiber link and connectors, launch cables shall be inserted between the OTDR modules and the link.

Summary of the automatic operation procedure

– Test if both units are linked to the same fiber

– Consistency verification of the OTDR plug-in between the two units.

– Consistency verification of acquisition configuration, measurement and files, fiber and link definition. Then transfer of the master unit configuration to the slave unit if necessary.

– Acquisition start on the master unit

– Trace transfer to the slave unit

– Acquisition start on the slave unit

– Trace transfer to the master unit

– Bi-directional measurement on both units

– Results storage in a single «.OEO» file or in two «.SOR» files.

All this test procedure is fully automatic, and all results are immediately accessible on both units.

User Manual 780000102/09 79

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Configuration of bi-directional measurement

Configuration of bi-directional measurement

To access the OEO configuration menu, press the button

S

ETUP

from the

Base Unit. OEO parameters are now displayed.

Please check that the OEO-OTDR tab has been selected.

Acquisition parameters are the same as for OTDR measurements (see

"Configuring the reflectometry test" page 44 for their description). Only

different or extra parameters are presented here in this chapter.

80

Fig. 28

OEO test setup menu

Acquisition parameters

Laser Acquisition will be performed on all selected wavelengths, as long as they are available on the remote

OTDR as well. If not, acquisition will be performed on all wavelengths selected and common to both OTDRs.

Please see the recommendation on page 78 about using the same type of OTDR)

User Manual 780000102/09

Mode

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Configuration of bi-directional measurement

Bi-directional measurement allows manual and Auto modes only. Operation is the same as for OTDR measurement.

Measurement parameters

Launch cable start/end

This option allows the user to declare and describe the launch cables at the OTDR side of the other end of the fiber.

Evt1,2,3

Distance

Declaration of a launch cable on the remote OTDR, distance given from selected event 1, 2 or 3. Results related to this launch cable are eliminated from the table.

Use the

Edit Number

key to enter a distance (Min= 0 /

Max=1 10 km / 32.81 kfeet / 6.22 miles).

Default value : No

Results Screen parameters

Alarms the alarms applie to the measurements average, and not to the measurements for each side (as it is in the classical OTDR mode)

Configuration of files parameters

To access the files configuration menu of the OEO-OTDR tab, press the button

F

ILE

.

Related parameters are then displayed.

All parameters to describe the files, the fiber and the link are proposed in order to save all measurements. Please refer to

"File configuration menu" page 220 . Only differences are presented in this chapter.

File Type

This option allows to choose to save a bi-directional measurement under two different formats (see

"File management" page 90 ) :

A «.OEO» file The bi-directional measurement is saved in a single file

Two «.SOR» files The bi-directional measurement is saved in two different «.SOR» files

User Manual 780000102/09 81

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Performing a bi-directional measurement

NOTE

For best use, it is recommended to use the auto file naming (with fiber code, origin, end, lambda, fiber name and auto-store). These parameters are applied on the master Base Unit.

Performing a bi-directional measurement

82

Process

Display

The Process page displays the bi-directional measurement steps, whereas the Curve page displays the traces and results.

In order to display the Process page, make sure you are currently under the OEO-OTDR tab, and press the key

R

ESULTS

.

The key

View Curves/View Process

allows to change from the

Curve

page to the

Process

page and vice versa.

In order to select and follow the status of a measurement, go to the

Process page.

NOTE

When a measurement has been started, the slave Base Unit automatically displays the Process page.

The Process screen is divided in three zones :

1

Information zone:

– Representation of the local Base Unit, with identification

1

– Representation of the distant Base Unit, with identification

2

– Status of the data connection : grayed when the link has been cut or the connection not yet established, yellow when the connection is operational

– Status of the fiber connection : this is the status of the last tested fiber. The fiber is represented cut and is grayed if the two units are not connected on the same fiber. If the two units are connected on the same fiber, the link does not appear cut. When a measurement is processed, the fiber is displayed in red

– When the fiber connection is established, information providing the module type and available wavelengths is displayed for both

local and distant units

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Performing a bi-directional measurement

2

User guide zone:

A blue banner is displayed in the center of the screen where operation messages are displayed.

The icon for keeping all events in memory is displayed in this zone if the key

Lock Evt/Free Evts

is set on

Lock Evt.

In this case, the following measurement is performed using those markers (see

"Memorization of the position of events" page 71

)

NOTE

This function keeps markers in memory for both local trace and distance trace.

3

Measurement status zone :

When a bi-directional measurement has been launched, all the different steps in the measurement process are presented in this zone. Each one is detailed later in this chapter.

NOTE

The general information banner is displayed at the top of the screen as for all other tabs. When a OEO measurement is performed, Data and Remote mode icons are displayed as soon as a data connection is established.

1.includes the serial numbers of the mainframe and module as well as available wavelengths

2.requires active data connection

User Manual 780000102/09 83

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Performing a bi-directional measurement

Data connection status

Information zone

Fiber connection status

User guide zone

Measurement status zone

Identifier of the origin or end of the fiber according to the direction OE or EO

Fig. 29

Information concerning local unit

Process page display

Information concerning remote unit

Fiber link check

To ensure that the two units are connected to the same fiber under test, select

Check same fiber

. If the fiber is the same at both extremities, a

symbol will be displayed on the measurement status zone.

84

Measurement process

Fiber measurement

Step 1.

– Choose to use the markers stored in memory or not by selecting

Lock Evt

or

Free Evts

.

NOTE

If the markers events are already defined for the link, you may select the

Lock Evt

key. This implies that the unit will now perform measurements with those markers. Otherwise select

Free Evts

.

– Press

S

TART

to begin the measurement.

The line Verify if same set up on both units becomes In progress... .

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Performing a bi-directional measurement

NOTE

A warning may occur if the configurations of the two units are different

(see "Warning/errors resulting from checking common configurations" page 92 ).

The begin launch cable is transferred to the end launch cable, and the

end launch cable is transferred to the begin launch cable. The master

Base Unit must indeed know both extremities of the fiber and will send the information to the slave Base Unit. The direction of the link is defined by the master Base Unit, which transmits the opposite direction to the slave Base Unit.

In the File configuration, each Base Unit points to its own directory. Only the master Base Unit may save a measurement. <Auto storage> and

<File type> parameters only concern the master unit and are not compared or transferred to the slave Base Unit.

The list of lasers for which a measurement will be performed is set by the master Base Unit. If these lasters are not all available on the slave

Base Unit, the list shall be restricted to the ones that are available.

When both menus

S

ETUP

and

F

ILE

are identical, the validation symbol

is displayed and the process goes to Step 2.

Step 2.

The line <Check if same fiber for both units> becomes <In progress...>. If the master Base Unit successfully detects the other Base Unit at the extremity of the fiber under test, the validation symbol is displayed, and the process proceeds to Step 3. Otherwise, the red cross is displayed and the measurement is stopped.

Step 3.

The master Base Unit performs the acquisition using the first wavelength in the list. The message <In progress...> is displayed on each

Base Unit, either in the «Local» column or the «Remote» column, depending on which Base Unit is considered. When the measurement is terminated, the message <Completed> is displayed. The trace is transferred to the other Base Unit.

Step 4.

The slave Base Unit performs the acquisition using the same wavelength. The message <In progress...> is displayed on each Base Unit, either in the «Local» column or the «Remote» column, according to which Base Unit is considered. The message <Completed> is displayed when the measurement is terminated,. The trace is transferred to the master Base Unit.

User Manual 780000102/09 85

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Performing a bi-directional measurement

Step 5.

The bi-directional measurement is completed.

NOTE

The message <Impossible measurement> is displayed if the measurement has not been able to detect the end of the fiber on any of the two traces. The measurement must be performed once more with new acquisition parameters or by placing markers manually on the measurement.

Step 6.

Step 3.Step 4. and Step 5. are performed for each wavelength to test.

IMPORTANT

It is possible to stop the measurement at any step of the process, by pressing the button

S

TART

/S

TOP

on the master Base Unit.

It is also possible to request from the slave Base Unit that the measurement is stopped, by pressing the button

S

TART

/S

TOP

. The master unit receives the request via a message on the screen: <Remote asks for stop, do you agree ?>. If Yes, the measurement is stopped, if No, the measurement resumes.

86 User Manual 780000102/09

Trace display functions

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Trace display functions

Selection :

– Local

– Remote

– Bi-Directional

Fig. 30

Butterfly representation of the bi-directional measurement

By selecting the

View curve

key, the unit displays the traces and results like in classical OTDR mode, adding bi-directional measurement results.

In the Curve page, the multi-choice key

1

allows to visualize successively the local trace, the remote trace, or both superposed.

NOTE

The remote trace is reversed in order to superpose both traces in a

«butterfly fashion» (see "Butterfly representation of the bi-directional measurement" page 87 ).

1.In our example, St-Etienne corresponds to the extremity connected to the local unit, Lyon corresponds to the extremity connected to the remote unit.

User Manual 780000102/09 87

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Trace display functions

NOTE

You may only use this key to change page when the measurement is completed. When the measurement is completed, the Curve page corresponding to the local Base Unit is automatically displayed (Ori-

gin if the direction of the link has been defined O->E, End if the direction of the link has been defined E->O).

Origin and End traces

Bi-directional measurement may be performed using up to 4 different wavelengths. We can therefore analyze successively up to 4 couples of

Origin and End traces.

In order to go from one couple to another, activate the

Wavelength/Evt

key, select

Wavelength

, and move from one trace to another using arrows.

These traces are OTDR traces. All regular OTDR functions are proposed to modify the display (Zoom/Shift, Cursors, Evt, Curve/Table, Full scale,...).

Just like in OTDR mode, the user will be able to work on these traces in order to analyze the fiber : by moving events, consulting the selected trace associated result table, asking for an auto-measurement, adding

markers, and doing manual measurements. See "Events" page 57 ,

"Table of results" page 59 ,

"Automatic measurement and detection" page

64 ,

"Addition of markers" page 65 and

"Manual measurements" page 66

.

When the user comes back to

OEO trace

, all modifications that can have been done on either the Origin curve or on the End curve are now taken in account. The OEO measurement is performed again.

88

OEO trace

Only one couple of OE and EO traces is displayed, corresponding to one wavelength.

If the measurement has been performed on different wavelengths, select

Wavelength

on the key

Wavelength/Evt

in order to go from one couple of traces to another, using arrows.

Functions such as Zoom/Shift, Cursors, Evt, Curve/Table, Full scale... are all the same as for OTDR but the table result as well as the use of markers are specific to OEO measurements.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

OEO Result table

OEO Result table

Bi-directional measurement results use principles described in

"Principle of bi-directional measurement" page 4 .

The total loss of the fiber (on the line specifying the total number of events) is resulting from the average between the total loss calculated in the direction O->E and the total loss calculated in the other direction.

Three tables are available in the OEO curve page, each showing attenuation, slope and reflectance. In order to go from one table to another, use the

Advanced

key followed by the

Atten./Slope/Réflect.

key and select on of the three possibilities.

Automatic measurement and Addition of markers in OEO page

Key <Del Res/

Auto Meas>

:

When this key is activated in the EOE page, and

Del Res

> is selected,

OEO measurement is erased as well as OTDR measurement, for both origin and end traces.

When

Auto Meas

is selected, auto-measurement is performed once more for both origin and end traces, resulting in a new OEO measurement.

Addition of markers

In order to modify a marker on any of both origin and end traces, select cursor A or B, position your cursor when you want to modify or add a marker and press the key

Place marker

:

– If there was no marker at this position, a new one is added on both origin and end traces

– If there was two markers, one on each of both origin and end traces, both are deleted

– If there was only one marker, either on the origin trace or on the end trace, a second marker is added, on the trace when none was present.

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Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

File management

Markers display

Markers are available on the trace taken from the origin.

Markers are available on the trace taken from the end.

NOTE

Acquisitions must be done with the same resolution. If not, the addition of markers can not be performed perfectly.

File management

Storing OEO measurements

At the end of a bi-directional measurement, the user has the possibility to save the origin trace as well as the end trace for each wavelength :

– either in a single «.OEO» file,

– or in two different «.SOR» files.

Traces may be stored manually or automatically on the master unit. They can be stored manually on the slave unit.

If you had entered Auto Store, then the results will be saved automatically.

If not, click on

F

ILE

to access the OTDR

File

menu and select the right format.

Then, press the

Store Trace

key.

Recalling OEO traces

Recalling a «.OEO» file:

If the OEO software option is available, loading a «.OEO» file with the

Load

key followed by

View Trace

key will open automatically the OEO-

OTDR tab in order to display the OEO trace.

Recalling two «.SOR» files:

Wether the OEO software option is available or not, if the two «.SOR» files corresponding to a bi-directional measurement are selected, the key

Load Bi-dir. appears. The OEO trace is then displayed.

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Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Test of a cable

NOTE

If both traces are not compatible (not performed using the same wavelength and pulse width), a error message is displayed <Acquisition parameters for these two files are different ! >

For further information on File management, see

Chapter 13 “File management on page 219’

Test of a cable

In order to test a full cable, it is first necessary to make a OEO reference trace, where all fiber events have been marked on both origin and end traces. This trace may be obtained by requesting an auto-measurement after which markers may be added, or by performing a manual measurement.

The next step consists in memorizing all markers, by selecting

Lock Evts

in the Process page.

NOTE

If the auto mode was set for the referencing, it is recommended to change to manual mode for the next fibers. This will ensure that setup parameters used for all the fibers will be the same than those used for the reference trace.

Finally, a bi-directional automatic measurement is performed for each fiber. Results are stored in either one «.OEO» file or two «.SOR» files.

Troubleshooting

Warning/errors after pressing the key S

TART

Error message

No data link. Activate connection before

S

TART

Possible problem

No data connection

User Manual 780000102/09

Possible solution

Go back to

System

page to establish a connection

91

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Troubleshooting

Error message

No tab OEO-

OTDR on remote

8000 Unit

Remote 8000

Unit not ready

No resource for remote 8000 Unit

No response from remote 8000 Unitt

Possible problem

No software option

OEO-OTDR on remote Base Unit

OTDR resource has not been selected

OTDR resource is already being used

Data link problem

Possible solution

Bi-directional measurement impossible if no software option on remote Base Unit

Go back to the System page on the remote 8000 Unit to select the OTDR function

Stop measurement on remote 8000 Unit to free the resource

Check the data connection

Warning/errors resulting from checking common configurations

Message

No common laser: acquisition is impossible

Lasers are different. Do you want to continue?

Acquisition configs are different. Transfer config to remote?

File configs are different.

Transfer config to remote?

Action possible

Select a Base Unit equiped with the same type OTDR plug-in

Yes : measurement will occur using selected lasers common to both Base Units.

No: measurement is stopped.

Yes : the

S

ETUP

configuration is transferred and applied on the remote Base Unit.

No : no configuration transfer, the measurement is stopped.

Yes : the

F

ILE

configuration is transferred and applied to the remote Base Unit.

No: no configuration transfer, the measurement is stopped.

92 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Troubleshooting

Message

Acquisition and files configs are different. Transfer config to remote?

Action possible

Yes: The

S

ETUP

and

F

ILE

configurations are transferred and applied on the remote Base Unit.

No: no configuration transfer, the measurement is stopped

User Manual 780000102/09 93

Chapter 5 Bi-directional OTDR

Troubleshooting

94 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 6

Optical Spectrum

Measurement

6

This chapter describes the different stages in carrying out a spectrum analysis of an optical signal, or analyzing effects from an optical amplifier

(EDFA type), by a Base Unit equipped with a 507XXX series module (and a 507Ext extension card) or with a 81WDM / 81WDMPMD module or with the OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series.

The OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X are only available on MTS / T-

BERD 8000 platform.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Configuration of the instrument” on page 96

“WDM / OSA test configuration” on page 96

“Acquisition” on page 106

“Trace display functions” on page 106

“Table of results” on page 110

“Channel filtering” on page 113

“EDFA results analysis” on page 114

1

“DFB results analysis” on page 117

“File Management” on page 120

1.Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

User Manual 780000102/09 95

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Configuration of the instrument

Configuration of the instrument

After connecting the fiber to be tested to the optical connector, you must select the OSA module (see the Base Unit manual).

WDM / OSA test configuration

To configure the Base Unit in preparation for an OSA test on a fiber, press the

S

ETUP

button.

The various measurement parameters are proposed:

1

either choose the default values by pressing the <Test Auto> key.

Configuration of acquisition in Test Auto mode:

– Sweep: Single

– High Sensitivity: Auto

– Averaging acquisition: No

– Resolution: Full

– Long term: No

Configuration of measurements in Test Auto mode:

– Channel detection: Permanent

– Signal threshold: Auto

– SNR

– SNR method: Left and Right.

– S <-> N distance: Auto

– Noise acquisition bandwidth: 0.100 nm.

– Splitter compensation:

–Value: No

–Unit: dB

– Tilt & Slope Gain: No

Configuration of the result screen in Test Auto mode:

– Grid: Default value = last value used

– Alarms: No

– Wavelength range: Auto

– Table Notes: No

– Unit: nm

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

Configuration of the file set-up (see "File management" page

219 )

– File name : [Cable_id][Fiber_Num][Test_Point][Direction]

– Auto Store : Yes

– Auto Fiber Increment : Yes

2

or define your own configuration.

The parameter to be modified must be selected by means of the direction keys . The possible options then appear on the screen: make your choice using the direction keys and .

The various parameters proposed are defined below.

Fig. 31

Config uration screen for optical spectrum measurements

User Manual 780000102/09 97

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

Acquisition

Parameters

NOTE

With 507XXX series and 81XXX series modules, a warning message appears and the signal is cut off when the power of a channel is greater than 10 dBm or when the composite power of the input signal is greater than 20 dBm.

Input port

This line only appears when the OSA201 module is used.

The choices are:

– A: acquisition on port A

– B: acquisition on port B

– A+B : : acquisition on both ports

Acquisition band (only appears when 81WDMPMD module is used)

– OESCL Acquisition will be performed on full band.

– SCL Acquisition will only be performed on S, C and L bands.

Sweeps

– ContinuousThere will be a measurement with refreshment of the trace and real time display of the results:

- every three seconds with plug-in 81WDM

1

.

- every 1.5 seconds with modules OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X

- every 6 seconds with plug-in 81WDMPMD

2

Single its result.

There will be one single measurement and the display of

– Statistics In this mode, the number of samples concerned by the statistics must be entered (next parameter).

– Filtering only appears when using some modules of the series

OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X

High Sensitivity

Line not available on modules OSA-XXX.

98

1.normal mode and 1.5 seconds in real time mode.

2.normal mode and 3 seconds in real time mode.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

– No

– Yes

– Auto

The range of power extends from +15 to - 65 dBm.

The range of power extends from - 25 to - 75 dBm.

Automatic detection of the range of power

Averaging

No, Weak, Average, Strong

This function can reduce the noise level of a value up to 5 dB. When the acquisition is averaged, a bar graph showing the state of advancement of the averaging is displayed at the bottom right of the screen.

Resolution

– Max maximum resolution of the filter (<0,1 nm).

– 0.1/0.2/0.3/0.4 or 0.5 nm for 507XXX series and 81XXX series plugins.

– 0.1/0.2/0.3/0.4/0.5, 1, 2 or 5 nm for modules OSA-16X / OSA-20X /

OSA-30X.

Number of sweeps

In Statistics mode, this must be selected between 2 and 1000.

Long Term

NOTE

A long term measurement can be done only if the Sweep parameter is on Statistic mode.

– No,

– Manual the measurement is done manually, once the key

Stop Wait

is pressed

– Period the measurement is automatically done, after the wait period selected (see hereunder).

Wait Period

The Wait Period parameter allows to enter a wait period before the measurement start (onlyactive if Long Term is positioned on <Period>)

– Increments of 5 seconds up to 1 minute, then increments of 1 minute up to 10 minutes, then increments of 5 minutes up to 60 minutes; then increment of 1 hour up to 24 hours.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

Measurement parameters

Those parameters are only linked to the current active fiber.

100

Type

– WDM

– EDFA

– DFB

Module is used to measure the optical spectrum of an optical signal. Standard WDM results are displayed in the results table. (See

"Display of the WDM / OSA results" page 106 )

Module is used to analyze results from an EDFA. EDFA

results are displayed in the results table. (See "EDFA results analysis" page 114 )

Module is used to analyze results from a DFB. DFB results are displayed in the results table (See

"DFB results analysis" page 117 )

Channel Selection

1

– Grid The grid serves as a detection reference: it must therefore be Regular, Manual, ITU DWDM or ITU CWDM.. The choice of grid takes priority over the choice Channel Selection. For example, it is not possible to choose Channel selection = Grid, if the option selected for the grid is «Without» or «Conventional».

– Permanent Automatic detection of the channel on each acquisition.

In this mode the channels are always detected without making a reference measurement.

NOTE

At the end of an acquisition in permanent mode, it is possible to create a grid on the basis of the channels detected. To do this, press the key

Create Grid

in the

S

ETUP

menu.

Signal threshold

1

Threshold of detection of channels (see "Channel detection threshold" page 108 ).

– Auto.

the threshold is determined automatically.

1.Attention: all modification of these parameters has immediate repercussions on the trace and entails the loss of the measurement statistics.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

– Manual from -79.9 to +10 dBm.

Use direction keys or

Edit Number

to modify values (Min=80 dBm /

Max=10.0 dBm)

NOTE

Modification of the parameters

Channel selection

and

Signal threshold

will only modify the results if the WDM module present is the one that was used for the acquisition.

SNR parameters

To modify these parameters, go to the OSNR line. A sub-menu then appears proposing the following options:

SNR method

1

Side of the peak where the point of reference for noise is taken (left, right, left and right).

– S<->N distance1 Distance between the peak of the channel and the point of reference for the noise.

Auto: distance determined according to the spacing of the channels.

– 0.2/ 0.4/0.8 nm from the peak if the unit is nm

– or 25 GHz, 50 GHz,100 GHz from the peak if the unit is THz.

– Noise Acq. Bandwidth1 Reference bandwidth used for the acquisition of noise:

- standard 100 pm

- values lie between 10 pm and 10 000 pm.

Splitter compensation

When the measurement is made by the intermediary of a separator (also known as a splitter), it is possible to compensate for the loss introduced by this element and to display the value measured before or after it.

Go to the

Splitter compensation

line to display a sub-menu proposing the following options

– Value

1

Yes: activation of compensation and choice of its value using the keys and : or the numeric keypad : from 1 to 30 dB

(by increments of 1) or 1 to 99% (by increments of 0.1%).

1.Attention: all modification of these parameters has immediate repercussions on the trace and entails the loss of the measurement statistics.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

– Unit Choice of compensation in dB or as a percentage of the value measured.

For example, with a 10 dB splitter, the results will be augmented by 10 dB. The trace will be offset upwards by

10 dB. A channel measured at -30 dB will be displayed -

20 dB.

Gain Tilt and Slope

– No/Yes Validates measurement and display of the max. difference in gain (in dB) and slope of the gain (in dB per nm or by

THz) above the trace.

Parameters of display and analysis of the results

Those parameters are valid for all traces present on the screen.

Grid

Go to the

Grid

line to access the Grid sub-menu. Select the

Type

line to see the different choices and modify them if required.

Five possible types of grid are proposed with different corresponding values, some of which are fixed or non-applicable, others editable.

The type «Conventional» and the option «Without» do not give access to the parameters of the Grid sub-menu; the others give access to certain options, as shown in the table of the figure.

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WDM / OSA test configuration

Table 1

Grid menu options for each type of grid

ITU CWDM

Grid name

Editable

ITU standard

G.694.2

First ITU channel

(with display in nm)

Channel spacing

Number of channels

Define channels

ITU DWDM

Editable

G.692

Regular

Editable

N/A

Manual

Editable

N/A

Editable, from

1270 to 1630 nm, by increments of 20 nm

20 nm

Editable, from

1528.77 to

1560.61 nm, by increments corresponding to the channel spacing selected

Editable, from

25 to 200 GHz

Editable from

1260 to 1650 nm, by increments of 0.01 nm.

N/A

Editable from

20 to 1000 GHz by increments of 1 at each click, of 10 if key is held down

Editable, from 1 to 56 by increments of 1

N/A

Editable from 1 to

256

Editable, from

1 to 19 by increments of

1

Sub-menu accessible to display the wavelengths of each channel, name the band, and name each channel

Editable, from

1 to 21 by increments of

1

Sub-menu accessible to display the wavelengths of each channel, name the band, and name each channel

Sub-menu accessible to display the wavelengths of each channel, name the band, and name each channel

Sub-menu accessible to display the wavelengths of each channel, name the band, and name each channel

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

104

NOTE

The maximum real number of channels for ITU grids depends on the value selected for the first channel and the spacing between the channels.

NOTE

It is possible to display the grid with the <View Grid> key. A table then appears showing the channel number, the name of the channel, the reference wavelength and the alarm thresholds for delta F, min. P, max. P and min. SNR.

Table Notes

– No/Yes Enables the display and entering of Notes in the table

(see "Table notes" page 112

).

Alarms

When

Channel Selection

is positioned on

Grid

, it is possible to activate an alarm system. This system is based on a system of thresholds. Any measurement results that exceed these thresholds are displayed in red in the table, and the icon appears at the top right of the screen. If all the results are within the thresholds (no result is in red), the icon becomes .

To activate the alarm system, go to the <Alarms> line and select "Active".

Thresholds can then be set (using the direction keys or numeric keypad), to global level or to the level of each channel:

1

<Global alarms>

–Number of channels: Yes/No

–Max. variation level

1

: No or threshold modifiable from 0.1 to 60 dB

–Max. SNR variation

2

: No or threshold modifiable from 0.1 to 60 dB

–Max composite p.

3

: No or threshold modifiable from -59.9 dBm to

+20 dBm

2

<Channel alarms>

– Maximum drift

4

: Yes/No

1.Max. acceptable variation between max. power and min. power on all channels

2.Max. acceptable variation between max. SNR and min. SNR on all channels

3.Maximum composite power

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

WDM / OSA test configuration

– Min. Level (channel)

1

Yes/No

– Max. Level (channel)

2

Yes/No

– Min. SNR

3

:

– Channel number:

Yes/No

From «001» to the max. number of channels.

– Value of channel: Display of the wavelength of the channel number selected

– Delta F

4

:

– Min. P

5

:

From 0 to 2 THz (2 THz is the default value)

From -80 dBm to +9.9 dBm (below max. threshold)

– Max. P

6

:

– Min. SNR:

From -79.9 dBm to +10 dBm (above min. threshold)

From 0 to 50 dB

Wavelength range

This line enables definition or display of the waveband that will be shown

on the screen (see "Limited display band" page 107 ).

Table Notes

Here the display can be configured and it can be specified whether or not

it is possible to enter a note for each channel (see "Table notes" page

112

).

Units

Here the units of the x axis can be selected:

– Frequency in THz

– Wavelength in nm

4.Wavelength drift. Selection of the alarm on the basis of the value of delta F

1.The values are then defined in Min. P

2.The values are then defined in Max. P

3.The values are then defined in Min. SNR

4.Delta of frequency

5.Minimum power

6.Maximum power

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Acquisition

Acquisition

The Base Unit has two modes of acquisition with 507XXX series and

81WDMXXX series plug-ins.

1

Fast acquisition: press the

S

TART

key and hold it down for some time.

2

Normal acquisition: press the

S

TART

key briefly.

Only «Normal acquisition» mode operates with modules OSA-16X /

OSA-20X / OSA-30X. When acquisition is complete, an automatic measurement is performed.

Trace display functions

The trace acquired or recalled from a memory is displayed on the Results page: see example

Figure 13 on page 30 .

A range of functions enable modifications to the display of the trace

(Cursors, Zoom/Shift, Event/Trace, Graph/Table, Full scale, etc.). See

"Functions relating to display of a trace" page 35 .

See "Overlaying several traces stored in memory" page 40

for overlay of traces.

Display of the

WDM / OSA results

The results window, obtained by pressing the

R

ESULTS

button, shows different zones displaying, from top to bottom:

– the mini-trace in the upper part of the screen, accompanied by the principal characteristics of the acquisition and of the file if the result is stored in memory.

– the trace results associated with cursors A and B

the trace proper (see "Trace display functions" page 106 ).

– the table of results (see

"Table of results" page 110

).

The trace represents power (in dBm) as a function of frequency (in THz) or wavelength (in nm). The channels detected are represented by peaks.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Trace display functions

NOTE

If several acquisitions are performed, the trace displayed is the one corresponding to the last acquisition.

Limited display band

It is possible to a zoom on to just a part of the trace:

1

by defining the start and/or the end of the screen manually. To do this, go into the

S

ETUP

menu, choose

Wavelength Range

then position

Mode

on

Start/End

. You can then define the frequencies or wavelengths of the start and end of the desired display band.

2

by defining the center and the width of the spectrum manually. To do this, go into the

S

ETUP

menu, choose

Wavelength Range

then position

Mode

on

Center/Width

. You can then define the frequencies or wavelengths of the center and the width of the desired bandwidth either side of this center.

Successive zooms on the different channels

– Zoom on one of the channels as shown previously.

– Press the

Trace>/<Channel

key

– Use the and keys to move the zoom on to the successive channels.

<Graph> /<Table> key

This key offers a choice from the following displays:

– Trace alone:main display of the trace with a single line of the table at the foot of the page.

– Trace + Table:display of trace, reduced in size but followed by 5 to 8 lines of the table of results.

– Table: display of the table alone

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Trace display functions

Mini-trace display

Number of acquisitions

Distance S to N

Name of module

Resolution Signal threshold

File name

Direction

Alarm result

Channel

Number of the channel

108

Wavelength and power difference between cursors A and B

W avelengths and power at point of trace referenced by cursors A and B

Fig. 32

Example of OSA test result (with grid)

Channel detection threshold

On the trace, some peaks corresponding to noise could be mistaken for channels. It is therefore necessary to fix a power threshold level: only peaks that exceed this threshold will be considered as channels and included in the table of results.

To display or modify this threshold, press the

S

ETUP

key, then select

Signal threshold

. Modify the value to position it on

Auto

1

or fix a threshold value.

Display of a grid

The display window of the trace can include a grid to facilitate verification of the position of the channels. Several grids are possible (see the chapter

"Parameters of display and analysis of the results" page 102

)

1.The "Auto" value is obtained by continuing to reduce the value of the threshold below the minimum value of -79.9 dBm

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Trace display functions

Display of total power between cursors

To display on the trace the total power between the two cursors A and B:

– Place the cursors at the desired positions.

– Press the

Advanced

key, then

Total Power A<--->B

.

– The space between the trace and the two cursors is greyed out and the power is displayed in the form "P=-4.95dBm".

– Pressing the key

T. A<-->B

a second time removes the result of the total power measurement.

Display of gain Tilt (delta) and gain slope results

The Base Unit can display two additional results:

– The gain tilt, that is to say the difference between the max.and min. values of the peaks of the complete signal spectrum between the cursors.

– The gain slope measured by a method using a least squares algorithm.

To display these results above the channels:

– Confirm

Delta Gain & Slope

in the

S

ETUP

menu.

– Place the cursors at the desired position.

– Press the

Advanced

key, then

Delta/Slope A<->B

.

The gain tilt is displayed in dB. Gain slope is traced and its value is displayed in dB/THz or dB/nm according to the units selected.

User Manual 780000102/09 109

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Table of results

Fig. 33

Display of total power, gain tilt and slope of the gain between the cursors

Table of results

Lines

According to the choice made in the

S

ETUP

menu, the table of results may include:

– either a line for each channel detected (if Channel Selection =

Permanent)

– or a line for each graduation, (if Channel Selection = Grid and a grid is selected)

Type of display

The table may be displayed in a single line, on half of the screen or the whole screen as a function of the <Graph>/<Table> key (see

"<Graph> /

<Table> key" page 107

)

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Table of results

Contents of the table without statistics

In the absence of statistics (see

"Measurement parameters" page 100

) the parameters given for each channel are:

1

the number of the channel

2

the frequency or the channel wavelength according to the units selected.

3

the interval between the channels in THz or in nm

4

the level of power of the channel in dBm

5

the noise level in dBm

6

the SNR for the channel in dB

7

the ratio between the power of the channel and the composite power in%.

The contents of the last 5 columns of the table will be different if statistics are calculated. The values to which the statistics relate being frequency

(or wavelength) and noise level or signal-to-noise ratio, the display will give current value, average value, max. value, min. value and standard deviation.

Contents of the table with statistics

If the test includes multiple acquisitions (mode 2..100 or Continuous mode), statistics are calculated on the results. To display these results in the table, press the

Table Contents

key, then

Statistics

.

Five

Statistics

keys are then available to choose what will be displayed in the table for each channel.

Without statist.

Statist.

Freq. or

Wavel.

Statist.

Power

Statist.

SNR

Statist.

Mixed

Channel Freq. or

Wavel.

Channel Freq. or

Wavel.

Channel Freq. or

Wavel.

Channel Freq. or

Wavel.

Channel Freq. or

Wavel.

Interval

Interval or

Freq.ref or

Wavel. ref

Level

SNR

Min. F or

Min. L

Level

Av. F or

Av. L

Av. P

Noise SNR P/

Comp.P

Max. F. Min. F Std. dev. F or L or

Max. L or

Min. L or value delta

Max. P Min. P Std. dev. P or value delta

Av.SNR Max. Min.

Max. F. or

Max. L

Std. dev.

SNR or

SNR SNR value delta

Level Min. P Max. P

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Table of results

Channel sort

The channels can be classified in the table in ascending order of frequency (or wavelength), level or SNR.

To modify this order:

– Press the

Table Contents

key, then

Sort

.

– Press

Freq Sort

(or

Wavel. Sort

according to the units selected),

Level Sort

or

SNR Sort

.

Successive addressing of channels according to the sort type selected

On the trace and in the table, it is possible to move the cursor from one channel to the next in the selected sort order. To do this,:

– Use the key

Cursor A>/<Cursor B

to choose the cursor A or B to be used on the trace.

– Press the

Channel

key

– Press and to move the cursor to the following or preceding channel:

Table notes

A note of not more than 40 characters, entered by the user, may be associated with each channel.

NOTE

Each note is associated with a channel. Consequently, if the channel is deleted, the note the will be deleted too.

NOTE

These notes appear in the table only if they have been validated in the

S

ETUP

menu on the

Table notes

line (Result screen). Similarly, this option must be confirmed in order to be able to create a note.

To enter a note:

– In the table, select the channel.

– Press the

Table Contents

key, then press

Notes

.

– Enter the text of the note and confirm its creation.

– Press the

Exit

key to return to the previous menu if necessary.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

Channel filtering

Displaying relative results

By default, the table gives the results in absolute values. To obtain these results in relative values with respect to a reference channel:

– Press the

Table Contents

key, then

Relative>/<Absolute

to select

Relative

.

– Move the cursor on to the channel that is to serve as the reference.

– Press the

Define Ref. Channel

key. The results are recalculated with respect to this channel of reference.

NOTE

On quitting this menu, the table automatically reverts to the display of absolute values.

Channel filtering

Field of application

This option applies solely to instruments OSA-16 / OSA-20 / OSA-30 and

OSA-303.

It is used to filter out one particular channel and extract it via a port called the "drop port".

Modules OSA161 and OSA301 are equipped with an input port A and a drop port.

Module 83OSA201 is equipped with two input ports A and B and a drop port.

Only input port A on modules OSA161 and OSA301 can extract a channel to the drop port.

Only input port B on module OSA201 can extract a channel to the drop port.

Configuration

To obtain filtering of a given canal to the drop port, go into the

S

ETUP

menu of the OSA module. Choose

Acquisition

, then

Sweeps

and select

Filtering

.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

EDFA results analysis

The options of the acquisition menu then change and offer:

– Choice of channel

In the Choice of Channel option, either a value may be entered manually or the current value from the table can be taken.

– Manual: A new line appears above choice of channel, in which the required value can be entered.

– Table: The value of the current selection in the results table is used automatically. To vary this selection, go the the result screen and use

Table contents

.

– Channel value

Here the manual value of the filtering to be performed can be entered using the direction keys and . or the numeric keypad

– Tracking

This option, when selected, makes it possible to follow the peak of the filtered channel, even if this varies slightly in wavelength.

The information «Locked» appears as long as the channel remains within the tolerance limits of the instrument. If the channel strays outside the tolerance band, the information «Unlocked» appears.

Using channel filtering

After setting sweep mode (in the acquisition menu of the

S

ETUP

screen) on

Filtering

, press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button to start or stop filtering of the signal.

EDFA results analysis

The results analysis of an EDFA consists in performing two spectrum analysis: one before the signal is amplified and another one after the signal is amplified. Both traces are further compared, providing the resulting power gain and noise figure.

114

EDFA test configuration

To configure the Base Unit in preparation for an EDFA test, press the

S

ETUP

button.

In the Measurements section, set

Type

on «EDFA».

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

EDFA results analysis

Other

S

ETUP

parameters are the same for EDFA as for WDM measurements. Refer to

"WDM / OSA test configuration" page 96 for a complete

description.

NOTE

If your Base Unit is equipped with an OSA201, you may use the two ports to test before and after the EDFA. In this case, make sure you select «Port A+B» for

Input Port

.

EDFA measurements

Measurement procedure, using one port :

If only one port is selected, the Base Unit is ready to perform the «Acq.

in» (signal before being amplified by EDFA).

– Connect your Base Unit to your fiber before the EDFA.

– Click

S

TART

/S

TOP

to perform the first acquisition.

– Switch to

Acq. Out

.

– Connect your Base Unit to your fiber after the EDFA.

– Click

S

TART

/S

TOP

to perform the second acquisition.

Results appear automatically in the table.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

EDFA results analysis

Select which trace to view

Select which acquisition you are working on

Fig. 34

EDFA measurements

Measurement procedure, using two ports :

If two ports are selected, the Base Unit will perform both «Acq. In» and

«Acq. Out» in one step.

– Connect your Base Unit to your fiber before the EDFA on port A and your fiber after the EDFA on port B.

– Click

S

TART

/S

TOP

to perform both acquisitions.

Results appear automatically in the table.

116

EDFA results

A table is displayed (see "EDFA measurements" page 116 ) showing for each channel:

– S. In:Signal power before EDFA (expressed in dBm)

– N. In:Noise level before EDFA (expressed in dBm)

– S. Out:Signal power after EDFA (expressed in dBm)

– N. Out:Noise level after EDFA (expressed in dBm)

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

DFB results analysis

– Gain:Power gain from EDFA (expressed in dB)

– NF:Noise figure from EDFA (expressed in dB)

<Channel> allows to move the cursor from one channel to another, both in the trace and in the table of results.

Saving EDFA results

Results are not saved in a file. Nevertheless, both traces may be stored as regular WDM traces.

To save your files:

– Select

Acq. In

to save the first file

– Click on

F

ILE

, select name and

Store Trace

– Click on

R

ESULTS

to come back to the previous screen

– Proceed the same way for

Acq. Out

.

Loading EDFA results

Results are not saved in a file. Nevertheless, both traces may be reloaded as regular WDM traces. Results will be automatically recalculated.

– Select

Acq. In

before loading your first file

– Click on

F

ILE

and

Explorer

to select your file

Load

and

view

your trace

The first trace is now loaded for <Acq. In>.

– Select

Acq. Out

before loading the second file and proceed the same way to load the second file.

Results appear automatically in the table.

DFB results analysis

This feature applies solely to instruments OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-

30X.

DFB results analysis allows to characterize DFB lasers, by giving the corresponding SMSR, Offset and bandwidth values (see the measurement principles in

"DFB analysis" page 6

).

User Manual 780000102/09 117

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

DFB results analysis

DFB test configuration

To configure the Base Unit in preparation for an DFB test, press the setup button.

In the Measurements section, set

Type

on DFB.

A new DFB sub-menu is offered while other Setup parameters are the same for DFB as for WDM measurements. Refer to

"WDM / OSA test configuration" page 96 for a complete description.

DFB (sub-menu)

– Bandwidth level Level (expressed in dBc) where the main component bandwidth should be calculated

– Min SMSR

– Max SMSR

Minimum offset value to consider to find the Side

Mode

Maximum offset value to consider to find the Side

Mode

DFB measurements

Measurement procedure:

– Use a patchcord to connect your DFB laser source to an input port of the OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X module on the Base Unit.

– Power on the DFB laser source.

– Click

S

TART

/S

TOP

to perform the acquisition.

The trace and corresponding results appear automatically after a few seconds.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

DFB results analysis

Select which DFB you are working on

Fig. 35

DFB measurements

Cursors A and B are automatically positioned on the first DFB laser, respectively on the max SMSR and the pick of the main component.

DFB results

A table is displayed (see "DFB measurements" page 119 ) showing for each DFB:

– Channel: Number of DFB laser detected

– Wavelen: Wavelength (expressed in nm) of the DFB main component

– Level:

– SMSR:

Peak amplitude (expressed in dBm)

Side Mode Suppression Ratio (expressed in dBc)

– Mode off: Mode Offset (expressed in nm)

– BW @ level:Calculated bandwidth (expressed in nm) according to the bandwidth level (expressed in dBc) defined in the setup menu.

When the <Channel> key is selected, use the arrow keys and to move the cursor from one DFB pick to another

1

, both in the trace and in the table of results.

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Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

File Management

Saving DFB results

DFB Results are not saved in a file. Nevertheless, the trace may be stored as a regular WDM trace.

To save your files:

– Click on

F

ILE

, select name and

Store Trace

– Click on

R

ESULTS

to come back to the previous screen

Loading DFB results

Results are not saved in a file. Nevertheless, the trace may be reloaded as a regular WDM trace. Make sure Type> is set on

DFB

in the setup menu to recalculate DFB results.

Results appear automatically in the table.

File Management

Storing OSA measurements

If Auto store has been selected, then results will be saved automatically.

If not, or if you want to save the results under another name, directory etc.:

1

Click on

F

ILE

key

2

Select

Setup

with the

Setup/Explorer

key

3

Modify the parameters you want

4

Click on

Store Trace

The trace is saved with the extension ".OSA"

Recalling OSA files

Once an OSA file has been stored, recall it using the

Explorer

:

1

Select

Explorer

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

2

Using directions keys, select the directory and then the file to open

3

Click on

Load

1.In case several DFB lasers are characterized at the same time

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File Management

4

Click on

View Tace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

The selected file is opened

For further informations on file management, see Chapter 13 “File management” .

User Manual 780000102/09 121

Chapter 6 Optical Spectrum Measurement

File Management

122 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 7

Polarization Mode Dispersion

Measurement

7

This chapter describes the different steps in carrying out a PMD measurement with a Base Unit equipped with a 5073PMD or

5073WDMPA plug-in (and with a 507XExt extension card), with a

81PMD / 81WDMPMD module or with the OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-

30X series

1

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

"Recommended equipment" page on 124

"PMD test setup menu" page on 124

"Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-

16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series module" page on 129

"Performing a PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in" page on

133

"Display of results" page on 135

"Statistics results" page on 137

“File Management” on page 139

"PMD standards and limits" page on 140

It is assumed that you are familiar with the operation of the Base Unit, the

OBS-15 (Optical Broadband Source) and the OVP-15 (Optical Variable

Polarizer) options.

1.Equipped with PMD test kit option

User Manual 780000102/09 123

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Recommended equipment

Recommended equipment

To perform a PMD measurement, the following equipment is recommended:

– Base Unit with a module or plug-in as mentioned above, and associated optical connectors.

– OVP-15 Optical Variable Polarizer

±

90

° with associated optical connectors, for 5073XXX plug-ins and OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-

30X series modules

1

.

– OBS-15 Optical Broadband Source, output power level 0 dBm with associated optical connectors, or E81BBS1 or E81BBS2 optical

Broadband Sources..

– Visual Fault Locator (VFL) with associated optical connector.

– Fiber scope with associated optical connectors.

– Cleaning kit.

– Two jumpers with associated optical connectors.

– One coupler.

– Communication tool (either GSM or telephone, or optical talk set).

NOTE

A description and methods used to measure the Polarization Mode

Dispersion (PMD) is described in

"PMD principle" page on 7

.

NOTE

The PMD value obtained by the fixe analyzer method is the mean

PMD value, also desingated as «expected PMD value».

PMD test setup menu

After connecting the fiber to be tested and all the equipment is switched on and ready for use, you will then need to set up the Base Unit to perform a PMD measurement.

To access the PMD test setup menu, press the

S

ETUP

button on the

Base Unit. The different measurement parameters are displayed.

124

1.81XXX plug-ins offer an integrated polarizer, therefore don’t require an OVP-15.

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Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD test setup menu

You may:

– either choose the default values by pressing the

Test Atuo

skey.

– either define your own configuration.

Test Auto

Configuration

In Test Auto configuration, the setups below are provided.

Setup menu

ACQUISITION

– Sweep : Single

– Averaging acquisition: Auto

– Make reference : No

1

– Reference date

– Long term: No

MEASURES

– Coupling : Strong

RESULTS SCREEN

– Alarms: None

– Spectral Unit: nm

File Menu

– Filenaming: Auto : [Cable_Id][Fiber_Num][Direction]

– Autostore: Yes

– Fiber Nbr Increment: Yes

Manual Mode

Configuration

In standard mode, you can set your own parameters..

1.Does not concern 81XXX plug-ins.

User Manual 780000102/09 125

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD test setup menu

Fig. 36

PMD Test setup menu

The different parameters proposed are described below.

126

Acquisition parameters

NOTE

When the composite power of the input signal is higher than 20 dBm, a warning is displayed and the signal is cut off.

Acquisition band (only appears when 81WDMPMD module is used)

OESCL

SCL

Acquisition will be performed on the full band.

Acquisition will only be performed on S, C and L bands.

Mode

Continue

Single

Statistics

There is a continuous measurement with a trace refresh and a real-time display of the results.

There will only be one measurement and display of the result.

A set of measurements can be performed providing statistics or results. This mode also gives access to the two following parameters (Wait period and Number of samples).

Averaging acquisition

(to improve the dynamic range of the unit)

No No average of the acquisition sample to be performed.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD test setup menu

Low

Medium

High

Auto

Low averaging (4 samples).

Medium averaging (16 samples).

High averaging (32 samples).

The average low, medium or high measurement is automatically selected during the reference.

NOTE

An increase of the averaging can improve the dynamic range to up to

5 dB.

Make Reference

1

Yes:

No:

Option to select if you wish to perform a reference before the PMD measurement

Default option. The instrument automatically sets back to this option after the reference has been performed.

The date of the last reference is displayed below this field.

Long term

Wait period between two consecutive samples, in statistics mode:

None samples are displayed one after the other;

Manual:

Period: requires the user to press the

Stop Wait

button to start the next sample. This mode is used for example, if you wish to set the polarizer value between each acquisition.

A new line Wait becomes available when Yes is selected.

Number of samples

Number of acquisitions from 2 to 100.

Wait

The Wait Period parameter allows to enter a wait period before the measurement start (onlyactive if Long Term is positioned on

Period

)

– Increments of 5 seconds up to 1 minute, then increments of 1 minute up to 10 minutes, then increments of 5 minutes up to 60 minutes; then increment of 1 hour up to 24 hours.

1.Does not concern 81XXX modules

User Manual 780000102/09 127

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD test setup menu

Fiber parameters

Fiber length (Edit Number: Min=0.100 km / Max=300 km)

The fiber length must be set to provide the PMD coefficient.

Unit

Km

Kfeet

Miles

Coupling

Strong

Weak

Distance unit defined in kilometers.

Distance unit defined in kilofeet.

Distance unit defined in miles.

For classical, long single-mode fibers

For polarization-maintained fibers and components. A weak coupling includes three peaks for a Fast Fourier

Transform Method (FFT).

Results Screen parameters

Alarms

None

Active

None selected. Selecting this option removes access to the Auto Values and Bit rate info. options (they will disappear from the screen).

To include any survey alarms. The following fields are then enabled.

Auto Values

No

Yes

Threshold values are entered manually.

Threshold values are automatically calculated and adjusted in accordance with the selected information from the Bit rate info. table. This option gives access to the lines PMD Delay and PMD Coeff.

Bit rate info.

A table to the right of this option appears when the Bit rate info. is selected. This table lists the available PMD standards that can be used.

To make a choice, use the direction arrow keys and

. For further

information about PMD standards, refer to the table on page 140

.

PMD Delay Maximum delay before an alarm signal.

PMD Coeff.

Maximum PMD coefficient before an alarm signal.

PMD2 Delay Maximum second order PMD delay before an alarm signal. (Only appears if Coupling is set on Strong

128 User Manual 780000102/09

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Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series

PMD2 Coeff.

Maximum second order PMD coefficient before an alarm signal.

Delay and coefficient values for PMD and PMD2 can be modified with the directions keys or using the

Edit Number

key.

Parameters available in the File Menu are identical to those for other file

types (see "File configuration menu" page on 220

).

Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or

OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series module

It is recommended before performing a PMD measurement, at least once a day, to carry out a reference measurement of the broadband source.

The fiber under test is connected to the OBS-15, or E81BBS1, or

E81BBS2 and Base Unit by test cables.

On the measurement examples below, only the OBS-15 will be described. But it can easily be replaced by the E81BBS1 or E81BBS2.

Performing the reference

To do this, use the following process:

Remote operator

1

Remove the protection cap on the OBS-15 and then connect the connector to the fiber link under test.

2

Press the

O

N

/O

FF

button to switch on the OBS-15 broadband source.

Keep pressure on the

O

N

/O

FF

button until the

> 2s PERM

LED lights up.

The

CW

LED lights up while the green

1550 nm

LED will flash for a few seconds before being steadily lighted.

Local operator

1

Remove the dust cap from the Signal Input optical socket situated on the rear panel of the Base Unit to connect the fiber link you have connected to the OBS-15 via the two jumpers and coupler as shown in the below diagram.

User Manual 780000102/09 129

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series

Jumper

Fiber under test

Coupler

Jumpers

OBS-15

(example)

SLED POLARIZED

..

CLASS 1

LED PRODUCT

1550 nm

CW

1 kHz

TRICKLE CHARGE

FAST CHARGE

LOW BATT

Optical

Acterna

Broadband Source

OBS-15

CW

FMOD

ON

F

OFF O

Signal input socket situated on the PMD module

Fig. 37

Reference measurement

2

Select the PMD function in the Instrument Setup menu. To do this, press the

S

ETUP

button, then select the PMD function, and press the key .

130

Fig. 38

Selection of the PMD function (8000 series example)

3

Press the button

R

ESULTS

to display the auto-calibration status. A bargraph informs of the progression state of the calibration at the bottom of the screen. Wait for the calibration to be fully completed before continuing.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series

4

Press the button

S

ETUP

to access to the Base Unit configuration menu for PMD. Use the keys and . to move the cursor to the different parameters and the keys and to modify a value.

5

Check that the option

Make Reference

is set to

Yes

in the configuration menu.

NOTE

When a reference is performed, acquisition parameters are not taken in account, except for those concerning averaging.

6

Press the button

S

TART

/S

TOP

to start the reference of the broadband source. To display the results, press the button

R

ESULTS

.

Once the reference is correct, PMA measurement may take place.

Fig. 39

Example of a correct reference for a broadband source

User Manual 780000102/09 131

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Performing a PMD measurement with a 5073XXX plug-in or OSA-16X / OSA-20X / OSA-30X series

A bargraph shows if the source power level will allow to perform

PMD measurements correctly.

If the reference measurement does not provide a correct result, check the following points:

Error message

Acquisition impossible

Hit any key to continue

Signal level too low !

Check source and connections

Hit any key to continue

Possible problem

Auto-calibration is not completed

The OBS-15 is not switched on

Possible solution

Wait for the calibration to be terminated

Press the

O

N

/O

FF

button to switch on the OBS-15, verify if

Make reference

is still set to

Yes

, then repeat step 6

The OBS-15 battery is too low

Check if the LOW-BATT red led is lighted. If yes, then recharge the battery.

Defective connections Check that the cables are properly connected, and the notches on the connectors are correctly aligned.

Performing the measurement

When the reference measurement of the broadband source has been completed, the polarizer replaces the coupler.

Use the following procedure to make a measurement:

1

Remove the two protection caps on the OVP-15.

2

Disconnect the coupler and connect the cables to the OVP-15.

Either connector on the OVP-15 can be used.

3

Set the OVP-15 polarization angle to 0º (any polarization angle would be acceptable, however it is preferable not to change it).

4

Press the

S

ETUP

button to access the Base Unit configuration menus.

5

Select the appropriate PMD test setup according to your application as earlier defined in this chapter.

6

Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button to see the results within a few seconds.

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Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Performing a PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in

7

Repeat the PMD measurement for every fiber to be tested (it will have to be connected to the OBS-15).

Fiber under test

Jumper

Jumper

OBS-15

OVP-

...

λ = 1260...1600 nm

POLARIZATION ANGLE

0o

..

SLED POLARIZED

CLASS 1

LED PRODUCT

1550 nm

TRICKLE

LOW BATT

Actern

CW

1 kHz

FAST CHARGE

> 2s PERM

Optical

Broadband Source

OBS-15

CW

FMO

O

F

OFF

O

Fig. 40

-90 o

+90 o

Optical

Variable Polarizer

OVP-15

Signal input socket on the PMD plug-in

PMD measurement with an external polarizer

Performing a PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in

The 81XXX plug-in is equiped with an internal polarizer which is automatically switched on and off during referencing. The reference is therefore done automatically by the Base Unit.

Remote operator

1

Remove the protection cap on the OBS-15 and then connect the connector to the fiber link under test.

2

Press the

O

N

/O

FF

button to switch on the OBS-15 broadband source.

Keep pressure on the

O

N

/O

FF

button until the «> 2s PERM» LED lights up.

The

CW

LED lights up while the green «1550 nm» LED will flash for a few seconds before being steadily lighted.

User Manual 780000102/09 133

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Performing a PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in

Local operator

1

Remove the dust cap from the Signal Input optical socket situated on the rear panel of the Base Unit to connect the fiber link you have connected to the OBS-15 as shown in the below diagram.

2

Select the PMD function in the Instrument Setup menu.

3

Press the

S

ETUP

button to access the Base Unit configuration menus.

4

Select the appropriate PMD test setup according to your application as earlier defined in this chapter.

5

Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button to see the results within a few seconds.

6

Repeat the PMD measurement for every fiber to be tested (it will have to be connected to the OBS-15).

Fiber under test

Jumper

Jumper

OBS-15

SLED POLARIZED

..

CLASS 1

LED PRODUCT

1550 nm

TRICKLE

LOW BATT

CW

FAST CHARGE

> 2s PERM

Optical

Broadband Source

Acterna

OBS-15

1 kHz

CW

FMO

ON

F

OFF

O

Fig. 41

Signal input socket on the

PMD plug-in

PMD measurement with a 81XXX plug-in

134 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Display of results

Display of results

Spectrum/FFT menu key

The key

Spectrum / FFT

enables you to display:

– either the spectrum representing the power (in dBm) according to the frequency (in THz or wavelength in nm according to setup configuration).

– or the FFT curve and PMD information (delay & coefficient) according to the Fast Fourier Transform Method. The FFT trace represents the PMD delay in ps.

Display of PMD results

The PMD results screen presents zones from the top to bottom displaying:

– the file name (if the result is stored in the memory).

– characteristics specific to PMD test: module name, number of acquisitions used for the statistics (Acq), wavelength range (1525-1610), fiber number (N:), fiber length in defined unit, date and time of acquisition.

– the trace (with the scale and the method in the right top corner).

– the results associated with cursors A and/or B (according to their selection).

– a message giving the acquisition in progress status or requesting to make the next step.

– the table of results: PMD delay and coefficient, PMD2 delay and coefficient. This table has only one line if statistics have not been selected when configuring the acquisition in the PMD TEST SETUP

menu (see "Mode" page on 126 ).

User Manual 780000102/09 135

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Display of results

Module reference

Wavelength

Number of acquisitions

Fiber

Length

Coupling

Direction

Alarm indicator

Spectrum/

FFT

136

PMD delay in picoseconds

PMD

Coefficient

PMD second order delay

PMD second order coefficient

Fig. 42

Example of a result obtained with the FFT method

NOTE

When several acquisitions are performed, the trace resulting from the last acquisition is displayed.

PMD trace with FFT method

The trace represents the delay distribution trace (in ps).

Cursor (within Spectrum display)

To move the cursor(s) on the trace, press the

Cursor

menu key, then use the direction arrow keys and or and . The coordinates of each cursor intersection with the trace are indicated underneath the trace:

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Statistics results

Zoom (within Spectrum display)

In order to zoom in on the trace, press the

Zoom/Shift

menu key to display

Zoom

, then use the direction arrow keys to zoom in either horizontally or vertically.

The zoom of the display is made around the selected cursor(s).

NOTE

To reset the zoom and see the full trace, press

Full scale

.

NOTE

In

FFT

display mode, data is displayed with an automatically calculated zoom.

Trace shifting (within Spectrum display)

To shift the trace horizontally or vertically, press the

Zoom/Shift

menu key, then use the direction arrow keys to make the required shift.

Statistics results

Statistics can be performed on a series of samples defined by the time between two consecutive samples (Wait period) and the number of samples. The choice of these parameters must be done in the PMD

SETUP menu (Acquisition mode): see

"Acquisition parameters" page on

126

.

To display the statistic results press the

RESULTS

button.

Table of results

When the statistics are activated, the results are in a table giving for the four parameters (PMD delay and coefficient, PMD2 delay and coefficient): current value, average value, min value, max. value and standard deviation (Sdev). The statistic results in the table are automatically updated with each acquisition.

Graphics display

When Statistic mode is selected, the button <Spectrum/FFT> becomes

<Spectrum/FFT/Drift/Barchart>

User Manual 780000102/09 137

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

Statistics results

This button allows therefore to display alternatively two new windows :

– The trace showing the delay drift during the acquisition time

Fig. 43

Example of drift

– The histogram providing the delay value for each acquisition

Fig. 44

Example of histogram

138

Information messages

Under the trace, at the right-hand corner a message indicates the current status of the trace or proposes the step to do next (by clicking on Stop

wait).

Signal acquisition

This message indicates that an acquisition is in the process of being carried out.

To stop an acquisition, whatever the mode is used, press the

S

TART

/

S

TOP

button.

Then, press either the button

S

ETUP

to go back to the Base Unit configuration menu or press the button

S

TART

/S

TOP

to start a new identical acquisition.

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Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

File Management

Next measurement

After each acquisition in the

Statistic

mode and when

Long term

has bee set on

Period

or

Manual

, this message requests that you select

S

top Wait

. The Base Unit then displays Signal Acquisition. Push the

Start/Stop

button to stop the cycle if necessary.

Ready to make cycle

This message appears after a acquisition cycle is terminated, when you are in statistic mode. Press

S

TART

/S

TOP

to start a new cycle.

Ready to make Measure

The message is displayed after the completion of a Single mode acquisition sample or a Reference measurement. Either, press the SETUP button to return to the Base Unit configuration menu or START/STOP button to start the same acquisition sample. This message is also displayed in continued mode, if the button START/STOP has been used to stop and restart a measurement.

Waiting bargraph

When

Statistic

mode is used and

Long term

is set to

Period

, a bargraph displays on the right of the results, the remaining time before the next acquisition.

File Management

Storing PMD results

If you had entered Auto store, then the results will be saved automatically.

If not, or if you want to store the results under another name, directory etc.:

1

Click on the

F

ILE

key

2

Select

Setup

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

3

Modify the parameters you want

4

Click on

Store Trace

The PMD traces are stored with the extension ".PMD".

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Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD standards and limits

Recalling PMD files

Once a PMD file has been stored, recall it using the Explorer:

1

Select

Explorer

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

2

Using directions keys, select the directory and then the file to open

3

Click on

Load

4

Click on

View Tace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

The selected file is opened

For further informations on file management, see

Chapter 13 “File management”

PMD standards and limits

Table 1

List of the appropriate standards and limits for PMD.

Standards

ITU-T

G.650

ITU-T

G.652

ITU-T

G.653

ITU-T

G.655

ITU-T G.69

chapter

6.3.2.3

Description

Definition and test methods for the relevant parameters of single-mode fibers

Characteristics of a singlemode optical fiber cable

Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber cable

Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted singlemode optical fiber cable

Optical interfaces for single channel STM-64, STM-256 systems and other SDH systems with optical amplifiers

Limits

PMD method is provided

PMD Coefficient < 0.5 ps/ square (km) at 1550 nm

PMD Coefficient < 0.5 ps/ square (km) at 1550 nm

PMD Coefficient < 0.5 ps/ square (km) at 1550 nm

No specified limit.

Refer to cable/fiber properties

Limit of the second order coefficient: PMD2 <0.2 ps/nm.km

140 User Manual 780000102/09

Bit Rate

Per

Channel

55 Mbit/s

155 Mbit/s

622 Mbit/s

1.2 Gbit/s

2.5 Gbit/s

10 Gbit/s

40 Gbit/s

Chapter 7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Measurement

PMD standards and limits

Some organizations and standards are stating that 10% of the bit rate for the PMD delay can be tolerated for a system without disturbing the network performance by more than 1 dB loss, at 1550 nm, with NRZ coding:

SDH

STM-1

STM-4

SONE

T

OC-1

OC-3

OC-12

OC-24

Equivalent

Time-slot

19.3 ns

PMD

Delay

Limit

2 ns

6.43 ns

1.61 ns

803 ps

STM-16 OC-48 401 ps

STM-64 OC-192 100 ps

STM-

256

OC-768 25.12 ps

640 ps

160 ps

80 ps

40 ps

10 ps

2.5 ps

PMD

Coefficient

For 400 km

<96

<32

<8

<4

<2

<0.5

<0.125

Abacus for a typical system

You will find below the abacus for a typical system, giving the maximum distance as a function of PMD coefficient, for given transmission bit rates.

This abacus is provided with the following assumptions:

– the PMD is considered to be Maxwelliam,

– NRZ coding is used,

– 1550 nm lasers are used,

– a maximum power penalty of 1 dB is acceptable,

– a BER is typically between 10

-9

and 10

-12

.

With this in mind, the following formula could be applied (L is the distance in km, B the bit rate in Gbit/s, PMD the PMD value in ps/km

1/2

):

L (km)= 10

4 x 1/(B x PMD)

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PMD standards and limits

Maximum Distance vs PMD coefficient and Data

Bit Rate

100000

10000

1000

100

10

1

0,01 0,1 1

PMD ( ps/km

1/2

)

10 100

A.C.

STM16/OC-48

STM64/OC-192

STM128/OC-748

Fig. 45

Abacus for a typical system

(maximum distance as a function of PMD coefficient, for standard bit rates)

142 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 8

Attenuation profile

8

This chapter describes the different steps in carrying out a Attenuation

Profile (AP) measurement with a Base Unit equipped with a

81WDMPMD (full-band plug-in).

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

"Recommended equipment" on page 144

"AP Setup menu" on page 144

"AP Measurement" on page 147

"Performing a AP measurement" on page 150

"Display of AP results" on page 152

“File Management” on page 154

It is assumed that you are familiar with the operation of the Base Unit and the Optical Broadband Source you are using.

User Manual 780000102/09 143

Chapter 8 Attenuation profile

Recommended equipment

Recommended equipment

To perform a AP measurement, the following equipment is recommended:

– Base Unit with a plug-in or module as referenced above, and associated optical connector.

– OBS-15

1

, E81BBS1, E81BBS2 or any other Optical Broadband

Source with associated optical connectors.

– Fiber scope with associated optical connectors.

– Cleaning kit.

– Two jumpers with associated optical connectors.

– One coupler.

– Communication tool (either GSM or telephone, or optical talk set).

AP Setup menu

After connecting the fiber to be tested and all the equipment is switched on and ready for use, you will then need to set up the Base Unit to perform an AP measurement.

To access the Attenuation Profile setup menu, press the

S

ETUP

button on the Base Unit. The different measurement parameters are displayed.

To modify a parameter, use the direction arrow keys et . The possible options will then be displayed. To change an option, use the direction arrow keys and

to make a choice.

144

1.The OBS-15 and E81BBS Optical Broadband Source covers S+C+L bands. The

E81BBS2 covers the OESCL bands.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 8 Attenuation profile

AP Setup menu

Fig. 46

Configuration menu for AP test

The different parameters proposed are described below.

You may:

– either choose the default values by pressing the Test Auto key

– either define your own configuration.

Test Auto configuration

Setup Menu

Acquisition:

– Averaging acquisition: No

Results Screen:

– Wavelength range: full

– Normalized to km: No

File menu

– File naming: Auto

– Auto store: Yes

– Fiber Nb Increment: Yes

In

standard

mode, you can set the parameters below.

User Manual 780000102/09 145

Chapter 8 Attenuation profile

AP Setup menu

Acquisition parameters

NOTE

When the composite power of the input signal is higher than 20 dBm, a warning is displayed and the signal is cut off

Acquisition band

– OESCL

– SCL

Full band will be considered for acquisition.

Only S, C and L bands shall be considered for acquisition.

Averaging acquisition

Only considered for measurement, not for reference, it is used to improve the dynamic range of the unit:

– No

– Low

– Medium

– High

No average of the acquisition sample to be performed.

Low averaging (4 samples).

Medium averaging (16 samples).

High averaging (32 samples).

NOTE

An increase of the averaging can improve the dynamic range to up to

5 dB.

Make Reference

Yes:

No:

Option to select if you wish to perform a reference before performing the AP measurement.

Default option. The instrument automatically sets back to this option after the reference has been performed.

The date of the last reference is displayed below this field.

Measurements

Fiber length

The fiber length must be set to provide the AP result. Use the numeric keypad or the direction keys to modify the fiber length (Min = 0.100 km /

Max = 300 km).

Unit

– Km Distance unit defined in kilometers.

146 User Manual 780000102/09

– Kfeet

– Miles

Chapter 8 Attenuation profile

AP Measurement

Distance unit defined in kilofeet.

Distance unit defined in miles.

Results Screen

Wavelength Range

– Full Displays results along the full band

– S+C+L Band Displays results along S, C + L bands.

– C+L Band Displays results along C + L bands.

– Manual Displays results between 2 user defined wavelengths.

The user must then select the wavelength to <start> with and the wavelength to <end> with.

Modify

Inc.Wavelength

if necessary in the mode edition menu. This parameter is used to define how many points shall be considered in the table and spectrum analysis.

Normalized to km

– No

– Yes

The AP result shall be provided in dB.

The AP result shall be provided id dB/km (result calculated according to fiber length and total attenuation).

AP Measurement

On the measurement examples below, only the OBS-15 will be described. However, it can be easily replaced by E81BBS1 and

E81BBS2.

1

Select the

AP

function in the Instrument

S

YSTEM

menu. To do this, press the

S

YSTEM

button, then select the

AP

function, and press the key .

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AP Measurement

Fig. 47

Selection of the AP function (8000 series example)

2

Press the button

R

ESULTS

to display the auto-calibration status. A bargraph

tuning

informs of the progression state of the calibration at the bottom of the screen. Wait for the calibration to be fully completed before continuing.

3

Press the button

S

ETUP

to access to the Base Unit configuration menu for Spectrum analysis. Use the keys and to move the cursor to the different parameters and the keys and to modify a value.

Performing the reference

It is recommended before performing an AP measurement, at least once a day, to carry out a reference measurement of the broadband source.

To make a reference, connect your OBS-15 or BBS to your Base Unit just like shown on figure below.

Coupler

Jumper Jumper

148

OBS-15

..

SLED POLARIZED

CLASS 1

LED

1550 nm

TRICKLE

CW

1

FAST CHARGE

Actern

CW

FMO

O

F

OF

LOW BATT

> 2s

Optical

Broadband Source

OBS-15

O

Fig. 48

Signal input socket situated on the

OSA module

Reference measurement

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AP Measurement

1

Check that the option

Make Reference

is set to

Yes

in the configuration menu.

NOTE

When a reference is performed, acquisition parameters are not taken in account.

2

Press the button

S

TART

/S

TOP

to start the reference of the broadband source. To display the results, press the button

R

ESULTS

.

Once the reference is correct, AP measurement may take place.

Fig. 49

Example of a correct reference for a broadband source

A bargraph shows if the source power level will allow to perform AP measurements correctly.

If the reference measurement does not provide a correct result, check the following points:

Error message

Acquisition impossible

Hit any key to continue

Possible problem Possible solution

Auto-calibration is not completed

Wait for the calibration to be terminated

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Performing a AP measurement

Error message

Signal level too low !

Check source and connections

Hit any key to continue

Possible problem Possible solution

The OBS-15 (or other source) is not switched on

Press the ON/OFF button to switch on the source, verify if <Make reference> is still set to <Yes>, then repeat step 2

The OBS-15 (or other source) battery is too low

Defective connections

Check if the LOW-BATT red led is lighted. If yes, then recharge the battery.

Check that the cables are properly connected, and the notches on the connectors are correctly aligned.

Performing a AP measurement

When the reference measurement of the broadband source has been completed, use the following procedure to make a measurement:

1

Disconnect the coupler and connect each end to each extremity of the fiber.

2

Press the

S

ETUP

button to access the Base Unit configuration menu.

3

Select the appropriate AP test setup according to your application

as earlier defined in "AP Setup menu" on page 144 .

4

Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button to see the results within a few seconds.

5

Repeat the AP measurement for every fiber to be tested (it will have to be connected to the OBS-15).

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Fiber under test

Jumper

OBS-15

Jumper

SLED POLARIZED

..

CLASS 1

LED PRODUCT

1550 nm

CW

1 kHz

TRICKLE CHARGE

FAST CHARGE

LOW BATT

Acterna

Optical

Broadband Source

OBS-15

CW

FMOD

ON

F

O

Signal input socket on the

OSA plug-in

NOTE

You may modify the fiber length at any time without performing a measurement again. The AP result pro kilometer will be recalculated automatically.

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Display of AP results

Display of AP results

The AP results screen presents different zones (see: "Example of a AP result (Showing profile)" on page 152 )

Trace display

Module reference

Wavelength range

Fiber

Length

File name Direction

152

Current selected wavelength

Profile attenuation

(dB/km)

Total loss (dB) Results table

Fig. 50

Example of a AP result (Showing profile)

NOTE

When several acquisitions are performed, the trace resulting from the last acquisition is displayed.

Spectrum/Profile

For a reference measurement, only the spectrum is available.

For a AP measurement, two different graphs may be visualized.

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Display of AP results

.

The first graph shows the final spectrum (see figure "Example of a spectrum view after a measurement" on page 153 ).

Fig. 51

Example of a spectrum view after a measurement

The second graph, the attenuation profile, shows the difference between the final spectrum and the reference spectrum of the broadband source

(see figure "Example of a AP result (Showing profile)" on page 152 ).

You may switch from the «Profile» view to the final «Spectrum» view using the button

Spectrum/Profile.

NOTE

The

Trace - Table

and

Wavelength

functions are available exclusively with the Profile mode.

Zoom

In order to zoom in on the trace, press the

Zoom/Shift

menu key to display

Zoom

, then use the direction arrow keys to zoom in either horizontally or vertically.

The zoom of the display is made around the selected cursor(s).

NOTE

To reset the zoom and see the full trace, press

Full scale

.

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File Management

Trace shifting

To shift the trace horizontally or vertically, press the

Zoom/Shift

menu key to display

Shift

, then use the direction arrow keys to make the required shift.

Cursor

To move the cursor(s) on the trace, press the

Cursor

menu key, then use the direction arrow keys and or and . The coordinates of each cursor intersection with the trace are indicated underneath the trace.

Wavelength

To move the cursor from one wavelength to the next one, press the

Wavelength

menu key and use the arrow keys and or and .

The cursor will move both on the trace and in the table (if the trace and/ or the results table is displayed).

Results table

Trace/Table

Enables the display on the trace and/or the results table.

8 lines of the results can be displayed below the trace, or 20 lines with no trace.

The results table shows for each wavelength (calculated using the wavelength range and the incrementation parameter as seen in

"Wavelength

Range" on page 147

), the attenuation profile in dB/km and the total loss in dB.

File Management

Storing

Attenuation

Profile measurements

If you had entered Auto store, then the results will be saved automatically.

If not, or if you want to store the results under another name, directory etc.:

1

Click on the

F

ILE

key

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File Management

2

Select

Setup

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

3

Modify the parameters you want

4

Click on

Store Trace

The Attenuation Profile traces are stored with the extension ".AP".

Recalling AP files

Once an AP file has been stored, recall it using the Explorer:

1

Select

Explorer

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

2

Using directions keys, select the directory and then the file to open

3

Click on

Load

4

Click on

View Tace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

The selected file is opened

For further informations on file management, see Chapter 13 “File management”

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Chapter 9

Measurement of chromatic dispersion

9

The 5083CD module (+ the 50otdrExt extension ) makes available three functions:

– CD analyzer,

– reflectometer,

– laser source.

The OTDR function is described in "Reflectometry measurements" on page 43 .

The source function is described in the chapter

"Source function" on page 179 .

The chromatic dispersion analyzer function is described in all the rest of this chapter. The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

"Configuring the instrument" on page 158

"Configuring the CD test" on page 158

"Making a chromatic dispersion measurement" on page 163

“File Management” on page 176

"CD standards and limits" on page 176

"Source function" on page 179

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Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

Configuring the instrument

Configuring the instrument

After connecting the fiber under test to the optical connector of the

5083CD module of the Base Unit, you must select the CD function. To do this, press the

S

YSTEM

button. If the instrument is equipped with more than one plug-in, or if the sole plug-in provides more than one function:

– use the direction keys and , to select the function: the icon under the cursor is framed in green.

– select the function by pressing : the icon turns orange-yellow.

Configuring the CD test

To configure a chromatic dispersion measurement on a fiber, press the

SETUP button. The different measurement parameters will be displayed.

You have two choices: press the

Test Auto

to obtain the default configuration, or define your own configuration.

Parameters chosen by automatic configuration:

Laser: All

Mode: Auto

Analysis window Auto (automatically positionned on the end of fiber)

Time of measurement:

Reference wavelength:

00:25

1550 nm

Index: 1.465

Measurement zone: link

Approximation formula:

Type of fiber:

1st analysis window:

Lower wavelength:

Upper wavelength:

Inc. wavelength :

Standardized to 1km :

Unit

Sellmeier 5T

Standard

Dispersion

1255.0 nm

1650.0 nm

5 nm

Yes km

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Configuring the CD test

To define your own configuration, choose the parameter to be modified, using the direction keys, then choose the option for this parameter with the keys and .

Fig. 52

Configuration of CD test

The configuration parameters of the CD test are described below.

Acquisition parameters

Laser

Choose to carry out the acquisition :

– either on one of the 4 wavelengths proposed: 1310, 1480, 1550 or

1625 nm

– or on all the wavelengths (All).

Mode

Choose the mode of acquisition:

Manual :

Auto:

Acquisition carried out on an analysis window of width 500 m positioned manually in the end of fiber zone or on a Fresnel (its position must be defined by the following “Analysis window” parameter).

End of fiber detected by a reflectometry measurement.

After automatic detection of the end of the fiber, a

CD measurement is taken on all four wavelengths.

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Configuring the CD test

Analysis window

In manual mode, enter the distance of the reflective event to be analyzed

(Fresnel), corresponding, for example, to the end of the fiber. The parametrization value will correspond to the center of the analysis window.

Measurement time

Choose the duration of acquisition between 25 seconds and 10 minutes.

If the acquisition is performed on a single wavelength, this is the acquisition time for that wavelength.

If the acquisition is performed on all 4 wavelengths, it is the total acquisition time for all the wavelengths, bearing in mind that:

– 1/5 of this time is dedicated to acquisitions on wavelengths 1480,

1550, 1625 nm,

– 2/5 of this timed is dedicated to acquisition on 1310 nm, as this demands a higher number of averagings.

If the acquisition is done in auto mode, the time shown does not take into account the time of detection of fiber ends (30 seconds)

Parameters of analysis

Ref. wavelength

Choose one of the 4 wavelengths: the result of the measurement for this wavelength will be the reference for calculation of delays obtained for the other wavelengths.

Refractive index

Choose the group index N of the fiber from values lying between 1.30000 and 1.70000.

NOTE

This index value is unique, and is not attached to a wavelength. It is used for all acquisitions carried out on the CD tab and is saved with the trace.

NOTE

It is advisable to use the index at 1550 nm, to obtain a correct end of fiber measurement.

160 User Manual 780000102/09

Results Screen parameters

Alarms

None

Active

Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

Configuring the CD test

Measurement zone

Select the method of measurement of chromatic dispersion:

Link

Section

Measurement of the whole link from one end.

Measure one section from an extremity, making two acquisitions on each extremity of the section See

"Measurement of CD on a section" on page 174 .

Approximation formula

Select the delay approximation formula to be used for generation of the dispersion and slope curves:

Quadratic A+B

λ+Cλ 2

. Recommended for G.653 fibers, in the

1550 nm zone.

Sellmeier 3-term A+B

λ 2

+C

λ

−2

. Recommended for G.652 fibers in the

1310 nm zone.

Sellmeier 5-term A+B

λ 2

+C

λ -2

+D

λ 4

+E

λ -4

. Recommended in all other cases, including non-homogeneous fibers.

(see

"Most suitable method of approximation according to trace zone" on page 15 ).

Fiber Type

Choose the fiber type you want to measure: Standard / Special.

Select

Special

for a link having a fiber section with shifted dispersion.

For the other cases, select

Standard

.

None selected. Selecting this option removes access to the Auto Values and Bit rate info. options

(they will disappear from the screen).

To include any survey alarms. The following fields are then enabled.

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Configuring the CD test

Auto Values: Yes

Threshold values and analysis band are automatically calculated and adjusted in accordance with the selected information from the Bit rate info. table.

Bit rate info.

A table to the right of this option appears when

Auto

Values

is set to

Yes

. This table lists the available transport rates that can be used. To make a choice, use the direction arrow keys et .

Auto values: No

Threshold values are entered manually: select the analysis band and the max dispersion threshold.

Analysis Band This option appears when

Auto Values

is set to

No

.

Select

1550 nm

or

C+L band

. The max dispersion threshold will be considered only on that channel or band.

Disp. Max (ps/nm) This option appears when

Auto Values

is set to

No

.

Select here the max dispersion threshold (from <200 to < 90000 ps/nm).

NOTE

Max. dispersion threshold is always considered on non normalized dispersion values.

The results are given in the form of curves (delay, dispersion, slope) and a table of results (of which 8 lines are displayed if the Table function is selected).

1st analysis window

This parameter can be change exclusively if Auto Mode has been selected in the acquisition parameters/

Choose the curve which will by displayed automatically at the end of the acquisition:

Markers: reflectometry curves with markers

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Lower wavelength

Lower limit of the wavelength displayed on the curve and in the table:

– from 1255.0 nm to 1640.0 nm

Upper wavelength

Upper limit of the wavelength displayed on the curve and in the table:

– from 1265.0 nm to 1650.0 nm

Inc. wavelength

Choose wavelength difference between two results memorized in the table.

– from 0.10 to 50 nm

– the number of results memorized depends on the limit values and the value of the increment chosen:

- max. 512 results.

Standardized to 1 km

Yes The dispersion value obtained is standardized to 1 km (that is to say, divided by the length of the fiber expressed in km).

Unit

Select the unit to be used: km / kfeet / miles.

Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

Measurement process

This measurement is made in 3 stages:

1

Detection of end of fiber by a reflectometry measurement. This stage is indispensable if the length of the fiber is not known.

2

Placing of markers on the End of fiber event: a second reflectometry measurement in the end of fiber zone is made for the 4 wavelengths

(1310, 1480, 1550, 1625 nm).

The result is 4 Fresnels on which the markers are placed. One of the

Fresnels having been chosen as the reference, the delay or advance of the others is measured with respect to this.

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Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

3

Calculation of dispersion on the basis of the position of the markers

(see

"Method of CD measurement used by the Base Unit" on page

12 ).

Conditions of measurement

To carry out a measurement of chromatic dispersion on an optical link, using the OTDR method of the Base Unit, it is necessary to have a reflective element such as a connector at the end of the fiber.

If the end of fiber is detected, but no reflective event is seen during the phase of positioning of the markers, then a 0 dB termination connector should be placed at the end of the fiber (this connector is supplied as an accessory with the CD module). It increases the end of fiber Fresnel peak amplitude and thus enables the measurement. The limit of automatic detection is about 24 dB for the attenuation of the link (120 km at 0.2 dB/ km at 1550 nm). In manual mode, it is about 30 dB.

Measurements of chromatic dispersion are generally made with 4 markers at 1310, 1480, 1550 and 1625 nm. However, if only three markers can be positioned, the measurement can still be made, though with reduced accuracy. In this case, the message “Measurement 3 lambdas” is displayed.

To optimize the measurements, it is advisable not to place the markers on saturated Fresnels . If this happens, a message appears. It is then advisable to add an on-line attenuator.

CD acquisition mode

The measurement of chromatic dispersion can use two modes of acquisition: automatic and manual.

Automatic acquisition mode

To make a CD measurement quickly, the automatic mode of acquisition is the easiest. It enables the Base Unit to be automatically configured with the optimum parameters of acquisition for the link under test. The 3 stages of the measurement described above are then carried out automatically.

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Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

To start an automatic acquisition:

– in the Configuration CD test menu, choose

Mode = Auto

.

– press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button.

Manual acquisition mode

The user can obtain the results step by step by using one of the following two methods:

End of fiber detection mode

This mode must be used if the end of fiber has not been correctly detected or if the user wants to test part of the link. It measures the length of the fiber before carrying out the CD measurement. To select this mode:

– In the Configuration CD test menu, choose

Mode = End of

Fiber

,

– Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button. The Base Unit then automatically displays the result screen and the test progress bar.

– A the end of the acquisition, on the OTDR trace, the cursor automatically positions itself on the end of fiber.

– If you consider that the marker is correctly placed on the end of fiber, press the

Start CD Measurement

key to start the CD measurement.

– If you consider that the marker is not correctly placed on the end of fiber (or the event to be analyzed), adjust its position and then press

Change Window

to memorize this position. Press the

Start Measurement

key to start the CD measurement.

Manual mode

This mode must be used if the acquisition does not allow the placing of markers on one or more of the four OTDR traces, due to insufficient dynamic. To select it, in the Configuration CD test menu:

– choose

Mode = Manual

,

– augment the acquisition time to enable correct detection of the end of the fiber or the reflective event to be analyzed.

– press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button to start the CD measurement

NOTE

If the reflective events are drowned in noise, it is advisable to use ter-

mination connectors. See "Typical specifications of CD module" on page 262 .

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Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

End of acquisition

After an acquisition on the 4 wavelengths (or after recall of CD results memorized), the result screen displays the traces acquired:

Fig. 53

Traces acquired

Choice of CD result

The

Delay

,

Dispersion

and

Slope

keys give access to the corresponding results, which depend on the zone of measurement, the formula of approximation and the upper wavelength and lower wavelength selected in the Configuration CD TEST menu. See

"Delay, dispersion and slope results" on page 170 .

Return to this chosen screen

To return to the choice of CD result to be displayed, press the

Exit

key.

Configuration

To operate on these traces (positioning markers, zoom, shift, etc.) press the

Config.

key: see "Placing of markers" on page 168

.

166

Information always displayed

Whatever the mode of acquisition chosen, the following information is always displayed on the result screen:

– Wavelength

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

– Name of module

– Pulse width

– Resolution

– Acquisition time

– Refractive index

– Name of file (if stored)

– Fiber number

– Direction of propagation

– The information associated with cursors A and B: the A and B horizontal and vertical values, the A-B horizontal and vertical difference, as an absolute value.

– The difference value in dB expressed per kilometre.

– The alarm indicator or if

Alarms

is active.

Detection of end of fiber

This mode must be used if the end of fiber has not been correctly detected in auto mode (see

"End of fiber detection mode" on page 165

).

The screen obtained after the acquisition (or after pressing the

R

ESULTS

button), displays the information seen in the paragraph

"Information always displayed" on page 166

, together with:

– the OTDR detection trace

– a zone at the bottom of the screen giving the distance of the end of fiber and the position of the center of the future analysis window.

– the OTDR detection mini-trace to the left of the bar

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Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

Fig. 54

Detection of end of fiber

Functions available

<Start CD measurementTo start the CD measurement.

<Cursor A/Cursor B> To displace cursor A and/or B: use the Cursor key

(

Cursor A/Cursor B

) to select the cursor or cursors, then use the keys and .

<Zoom/Shift> To shift the trace horizontally or vertically: press this key to display

Shift

, then use the keys and

until the desired shift is attained.

<Change window> You can change the position of the analysis window, centered on the cursor, in which a

Fresnel peak is present (due to a connector, for example). To do this, position the cursor, then press the

Change window

key to confirm your choice. The message “Analysis window centered at x.xx km” is updated.

Placing of markers

After acquisition on the 4 wavelengths, if the markers have not been automatically placed on the basis of the result screen, press the

Config.

key to position them manually.

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Wavelength of the active trace

Fig. 55

Placing markers

Information displayed for the markers

The configuration screen of the markers displays the general information

(see "Information always displayed" on page 166 ) together with the infor-

mation specific to the positioning of the markers:

– The OTDR traces displayed in a window and showing markers

– The distance with respect to the origin of each marker for each trace.

– The difference of each marker from the reference marker.

– The OTDR mini-trace to the left of the bar.

– Specific keys with which the markers can be modified.

To position a marker:

– Select the trace on which you wish to position the marker by pressing the

Select Lambda

key repeatedly until its wavelength is displayed in the bar.

– To position the marker automatically at the summit of the reflective event of the active trace, press the key

Auto Marker

.

– To position the marker manually, place the active cursor at the desired position, then press

Manual Marker

.

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Functions available

<Lambda>

<Zoom/Shift>

Activates one of the 4 traces : the wavelength of the active trace is shown at the top left of the screen.

To shift the trace horizontally or vertically, press this key to show <Shift>, then use the keys and until the desired shift is obtained.

<Cursor A/Cursor B>

To displace cursor A and/or B press the key to show

<Cursor A/Cursor B>), then use the keys and .

The wavelengths on which the cursors are positioned are displayed in the bar of the trace, together with the difference in wavelength and power between the cursors.

<Auto Marker> Places the marker automatically at the peak of the reflective event of the active trace.

<Manual Marker> Places the marker on the active cursor.

If cursors A and B are both selected, the marker will not be moved.

If the cursor is close to the marker, the latter will be deleted.

<Set Ref.>:

<Exit>

This key is grayed unless the zone of measurement chosen in the configuration menu is “Section”. See

"Measurement of CD on a section" on page 174

.

Returns to the preceding result selection screen

(Delay, Dispersion, Slope).

Delay, dispersion and slope results

These results depend on the choices made in the configuration menu: upper and lower wavelengths, incrementation step and standardization to 1 km.

Information displayed for the results

The result screen obtained after pressing one of the keys <Delay>,

<Dispersion> or <Slope> displays the same standard information (see

"Information always displayed" on page 166

), together with the following information:

– The curve requested (delay, dispersion or slope) is displayed

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– A line of characteristics specific to the measurement of slope, delay and dispersion is displayed above the trace:

– L0: Dispersion wavelength zero

– So: Slope associated with L0

– Lref: Length of the fiber at the reference wavelength

– Wref : Reference wavelength

– Fit: Formula of approximation used

– A line of the results table. By selecting

Table

with the

Trace/Table

key, 8 lines of the of results can be displayed below the trace, or 20 lines with no trace.

Fig. 56

Measurement of dispersion

Choice of curve

– If the delay curve was requested, it will be possible to change over to the dispersion curve and add the slope curve to it (Click on

Add Slope

).

– If the dispersion curve was requested, it will be possible to add the slope curve and change over to the delay curve.

– If the slope curve was requested, it will be possible to add the dispersion curve and change over to the delay curve.

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When a curve is added, the screen is divided so that both curves can be displayed.

NOTE

If the table is displayed first, it will disappear when the curve is added.

If it is desired to display or redisplay the table after addition of the slope curve, the latter must first be erased by clicking on

Exit

or

Delete Slope

.

Fig. 57

Example of display of two curves

172

Functions available

(or <Add Disp.> depending on the first trace displayed)

The screen is divided into two parts for the simultaneous display of the dispersion and slope curves.

<Delete Slope> (or <Delete Disp.>)

Returns to the display of the dispersion (or the slope) alone.

<Trace/Table> Displays the trace alone, the table alone or both, depending on the boxes marked. When both are requested, the size of the trace is reduced so as to display 8 lines of results in the table.

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Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

<Cursor A/Cursor B> The cursor or cursors selected are displaced along the trace by means of the and keys. The displacement step is as defined in the configuration menu of the CD test (Results /Inc. Wavelength). The result corresponding to the position of the cursor on the trace is highlighted in the table.

<Lambda> When the function is activated, the and keys cause the table of results (which may contain up to

512 lines) to scroll across the screen. The active cursor then follows this displacement on the trace.

Fig. 58

Result linked to cursor Displacement of cursor

Scrolling of the table

Example of display of the table

Alarms

Results lying outside the thresholds selected by the user in the

Alarm

field (Max dispersion), will be displayed in red in the table, and the icon will appear at the top right of the screen. If all the results lie within the thresholds (no result is in red), the icon becomes .

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Making a chromatic dispersion measurement

Measurement of

CD on a section

The CD method, provided by the Base Unit, allows to measure the CD not only of the entire link, but also of sections of the fiber. This feature may be useful if 2 different types of fibers are used on one link.

To make such a measurement, the section must be separated by specific events, such as reflective events (or Fresnel) like connectors.

The different measurements must be performed with the same module.

Acquiring a trace for CD measurement on a section

The process to measure the CD results of a section located between event X and Y, is as follows:

– Select in the

S

ETUP

menu:

Measure area = Section.

– Select for the window analysis, the distance to the X event.

– Perform a CD measurement

– Save the trace (

F

ILE

key, see “File Management” on page 176 )

– Select for the window analysis, the distance to the Y event

(

S

ETUP

menu).

– Perform a new CD measurement.

– Load the trace having the CD results up to the X event by pressing

Load

followed by

Load Measure Ref.

in the

File

menu.

You may now see the CD results for the specific section.

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Fig. 59

CD measurement on a section

CD measurement on a section using stored traces

The process to measure the CD results of a section located between 2 events X and Y, is as follows:

– Load the trace containing the CD results up to the Y event, by pressing

Load

followed by

View Trace

in the file menu.

– Select in the CD

S

ETUP

menu:

Measure area = Section

– Load the trace having the CD results up to the X event by pressing

Load

followed by

Load Measure Ref.

in the

File

menu.

When storing the trace, all those parameters will be taken into account and stored.

If the link is too long to make a CD measurement from one single extremity, a bidirectional measurement can be done.

To do so, the fibre must have specific elements (for example, reflective events or Fresnels) such as the connectors, measurable from the link extremities.

Measure uses two acquisitions, which must be realised with the same

CD module.

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Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

File Management

File Management

Storing CD measurements

If you had entered Auto store, then the results will be saved automatically.

If not, or if you want to store the results under another name, directory etc.:

1

Click on the

F

ILE

key

2

Select

Setup

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

3

Modify the parameters you want

4

Click on

Store Trace

The Chromatic Dispersion traces are stored with the extension ".CD".

Recalling CD files

Once a CD file has been stored, recall it using the Explorer:

1

Select

Explorer

with the key

Setup/Explorer

.

2

Using directions keys, select the directory and then the file to open

3

Click on

Load

4

Click on

View Tace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

The selected file is opened

For further informations on file management, see

Chapter 13 “File management”

CD standards and limits

Measurements of chromatic dispersion are only necessary in the following cases:

– Adaptation of of existing networks to transmission speeds of 10

Gbits/s or more.

– Installation of new fiber networks for transmission speeds of 10

Gbits/s or more.

– Qualification of fibers and components by manufacturers.

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CD standards and limits

The conditions required for measurements of CD are invariably linked to transmission speeds per channel and at the corresponding distance.

Chromatic dispersion is also an important parameter for fibers with offset dispersion (ITU-T G.653), as the zero dispersion wavelength must not be in the range of the channels (this would generate 4 mixed waves, and would oblige consequent irregular spacing between channels).

Standards relating to chromatic dispersion

Standard

ITU-T G.650

Description

Definition and test method for parameters appropriate to single-mode fibers

ITU-T G.652

Characteristics of a cable of single-mode optical fibers

TIA/EIA

FOTP-168

TIA/EIA

FOTP-169

TIA/EIA

FOTP-175

GR-761-

CORE

GR-2854-

CORE

GR-253-

CORE

ITU-T G.653

ITU-T G.655

Characteristics of a cable of single-mode optical fibers with offset dispersion

Characteristics of a cable of single-mode optical fibers with non-zero offset dispersion

IEC 60793-1-

1

IEC 60793-1-

42

Optical fibers - Part-1: generic specification - General

Optical fibers - Part 1-42: Method of measurement and test of procedures - Chromatic dispersion

IEC 61744 Calibration of testers of chromatic dispersion of optical fibers

Measurement of chromatic dispersion of multimode optical fibers with graded index and single mode, by measurement of group spectral delay in the domain of time

Measurement of chromatic dispersion of single-mode optical fibers by the phase shift method

Measurement of chromatic dispersion of single-mode optical fibers by the differential phase shift method

Generic criterions for testers of chromatic dispersion

Generic conditions Compensators of chromatic dispersion of optical fibers

Transport system on synchronous optical networks (SONET)

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CD standards and limits

Calculation charts available

A typical calculation chart can be used to give the limit delay as a function of the speed of transmission per channel. The Telcordia GR-253-CORE standard “Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) transport system”, indicates that the delay of propagation between different wavelengths, due to chromatic dispersion, must not exceed 0.306 times the time interval NRZ.

Transmission speed per channel

51 Mbit/s

155 Mbit/s

622 Mbit/s

1.2 Gbit/s -

SDH

STM-4

SONET

OC-1

STM-1 OC-3

OC-12

OC-24

Equivale nt time slot

19.3 ns

Max; permissible delay at 1550 nm

5.9 ns

6.43 ns

1.61 ns

803 ps

1.97 ns

492 ps

246 ps

2.5 Gbit/s STM-16 OC-48 401 ps 123 ps

10 Gbit/s

40 Gbit/s

STM-64 OC-192

STM-

256

OC-768

100 ps

25.12 ps

30 ps

7.8 ps

A similar calculation chart is also provided by the ITU standards. It gives the maximum distances for different transmission speeds and types of fiber, at about 1550 nm:

Transmission speed per channel (Gbit/s)

2.5 Gbit/s

10 Gbit/s

40 Gbit/s

SDH

STM-16

SONET

OC-48

G.652

SSMF

640 km

STM-256 OC-768 5 km

G.655

NZ-DSF

4400 km

STM-64 OC-192 50-100 km 300-500 km

20-30 km

178 User Manual 780000102/09

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Source function

Other calculation charts give the maximum cumulative chromatic dispersion for an attenuation of 1 dB, as a function of the speed R, given in Gbit/ s. This calculation chart corresponds approximately to the formula: D <

105/R2.

Transmissi on speed

2.5 Gbit/s

10 Gbit/s

40 Gbit/s

SDH SONET

STM-16

STM-64

OC-48

OC-192

STM-256 OC-768

Total permissible coefficient of dispersion at 1550 nm for a given link

(not standardized to 1 km)

12000 to 16000 ps/nm

800 to 1000 ps/nm

60 to 100 ps/nm

Standards such as G.dsn from ITU-T aim to provide more accurate calculation charts.

These calculation charts are given for information only. They depend on the spectral pass-band of the optical signal transmitted, the modulation, and the sensitivity of the receiver.

If the limits of chromatic dispersion are attained, then appropriate compensators can be incorporated along the link to neutralize its effect.

These compensators introduce negative delay values to bring the system back within the permissible limits of CD. Telcordia gives their specifications in the document entitled «GR-2854-CORE Generic

Requirements for Fiber Optic Dispersion Compensators».

In the absence of internal modulation lasers, external modulation lasers can be used to limit the effects of chromatic dispersion (most DFB lasers now have external modulation).

Source function

The CD module can also be used as a light source.

In this case, connect the fiber into which you wish to inject the light from the source to the output connector of the CD plug-in.

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Chapter 9 Measurement of chromatic dispersion

Source function

To configure the CD plug-in as a light source:

1

Go into the

S

ETUP

menu of the OTDR tab of the CD plug-in.

2

Select

Mode: Source

All the menus of the OTDR are then grayed out except the laser line.

3

On the

Laser

line, select the wavelength desired for the source (the

4 wavelengths used for CD are available to choose from).

4

Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key to start or stop the laser.

180 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 10

OFI Module

10

This chapter describes the functions of the OFI module (Optical Fiber

Installation) and its use.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“OFI module” on page 182

“Selection of the OFI module” on page 182

“LTS function” on page 182

“FOX Function” on page 191

"Manual ORL" page 203

“File Management” on page 205

User Manual 780000102/09 181

Chapter 10 OFI Module

OFI module

OFI module

The OFI module is used to make insertion loss measurements, ORL measurements and distance measurements.

The following functions are available with the OFI Module:

– Loss Test Set

– FOX (Fiber Optic eXpert)

Selection of the OFI module

Push the

S

YSTEM

button.

Select the icon to start the LTS function, and / or the icon to start the FOX function, or the icon to start the ORL function, using the key

.

LTS function

Principle of the optical power and attenuation measurements

182

Power measurement

A power meter, is all that is needed to measure emitted or received power:

– to measure emitted power, connect the power meter directly to the output of the optical emitter;

– to measure the power at the input of an optical receiver, the power meter is connected to the end of the fiber, at the point where the optical receiver would be connected.

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

LTS function

Attenuation measurements

(optical link loss)

For measurement of the attenuation of power in a complete link or in elements such as sections of fiber, connections or optical components, a light source and a power meter are required.

This attenuation is usually deduced from the measurement of optical power at two points:

Laser light source of the

Base Unit

1

Reference fiber

Link under test

2

Power meter of the Base Unit

Attenuation A

(dB)

= P1

(dBm)

- P2

(dBm)

To perform accurate measurements, the following conditions are vital

– Use one of the light sources of the LTS or a light source which is stable both in time and as a function of temperature.

– Make sure that all connections and fibers and the receiving cell are perfectly clean.

– Use a reference link between the laser source and the test subject.

If several measurements are to be made under identical light injection conditions, this reference fiber must not be disconnected during the period while measurements are taking place.

Insertion loss method

1

The power meter is first connected to the laser source via the reference fiber: P1 is measured.

2

Then the fiber to be tested is inserted between the reference fiber and the power meter: P2 is measured.

The difference between P2 and P1 gives the attenuation of the fiber under test.

It is preferable to use the same type of connector at both ends of the fiber being tested, to ensure the same connection conditions for measuring P1 and P2.

Accuracy of measurements

– A high degree of accuracy is often required. It is then necessary to perform a preliminary calibration without the fiber under test to eliminate the losses due to connections as far as this is possible. To do this, use the «Reference Value» function.

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LTS function

– For measurements in the laboratory, where both ends of the fiber are on the same site, the repeatability of attenuation measurements is better than 0.1 dB. For measurements in the field, where the two ends are on different sites, variations from one measurement to another are of the order of ± 0.2 dB (using a relative measurement).

Connections to the power meter and the source

FOX connector

Power meter connector

Fig. 60

Optical connectors

The type of optical connector used for the power meter is UPP (Universal

Push Pull), which is compatible with all diameter 2.5 mm connectors (FC,

SC, ST, DIN, E2000, etc.).

NOTE

The source connection is the same as the FOX port.

Configuring the

LTS

To activate the function:

– Press the

S

YSTEM

button

– Use the direction keys to select the LTS icon green) and press the confirmation key

(framed in

: the icon in the frame will turn yellow.

The effect of this action will be to bring the power meter into use, but not to activate the source.

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LTS function

Configuring the measurement parameters of the power meter

The measurement parameters can be accessed with the

S

ETUP

key.

Fig. 61

Configuration of power measurement

Lambda

User choice

Unit

Selecting wavelength:

- Auto: the wavelength of the input signal will be automatically detected and selected to perform the measurement.

850, 980, 1300, 1310, 1420, 1450, 1480, 1490,

1510, 1550 or 1625 nm: measurement performed at specified wavelength.

- User: choice of wavelength on the next line in the menu.

(if the User option was selected in the Lambda line) selection of the wavelength between 800 nm and 1650 nm, in 1 nm steps, by means of the direction keys and .

Unit of power displayed:

- Watt, dBm for displaying absolute power

Reference level

- dB for displaying a result relative to a reference

(link loss)

If dB units were chosen in the previous line, selection of the reference value for the wavelength selected. Using the direction keys, first choose the wavelength, then press the > key to access choice of the value (+XXX.XX), then confirm this value with the validation key .

This reference is also automatically available, in the Results page, using the

Set as Reference

key.

Attenuator compensation

Choice of level to be applied to the wavelength chosen for measurement to compensate for the loss due to the external attenuator (+XX.XX dB).

First use the direction keys to choose the

User Manual 780000102/09 185

Chapter 10 OFI Module

LTS function

wavelength, then press > to access choice of value, then confirm this value by pressing the validation key .

NOTE

To copy a Reference Level or a Attenuator Compensator on all wavelengths, select the reference wavelength and click on

Update for All

Wavel.

.

Configuring the alarm parameters of the power meter

Alarm Activation of the Alarm function : any result below the lower threshold or above the upper threshold will be displayed in red on the Results page.

Lower and upper thresholds :

Choice of lower and upper thresholds for each available wavelength, from -60 to +40 dBm

(selected with the direction keys).

NOTE

To copy one value of the Lower or/and Upper threshold for all wavelengths, select the reference value and click on

Update for All

Wavel.

.

NOTE

A continuous push on the direction keys, increments the value by 10 dBm.

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LTS function

Configuring and displaying the parameters of the source

Fig. 62

Source configuration

When the laser is on, the icon is displayed.

The parameters of the source can be accessed directly on the results screen of the LTS module, by pressing the

Source Configuration

soft key.

Wavelength

Mode

To change the wavelength when a multiwavelength source is present (depending on option).

The wavelength value is displayed.

To vary the mode of emission of the source.

Possible modulation values are:

– 270 Hz

– 330 Hz

– 1 kHz

– 2 kHz

– Auto (the sources emit on determined frequencies to enable the power meter to detect the wavelength used automatically)

– Twintest (cyclical emission on all available wavelengths for a few seconds on each wavelength), compatible with the JDSU OLP

5/6/15/16/18.

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

LTS function

– CW (continuous emission)

The mode used is displayed, above the icon

Power

.

In CW mode, you can choose the emitted power:

- either the nominal value: -3.5 dB

- or an attenuation of -3 or -6 dBm, with regard to this nominal value, to get a power of 6.5 dBm or of 9.5 dBm.

For all the other modes (270Hz / 330Hz / 1kHz /

2 kHz / Auto / Twintest), select one of the following emitted power: -12.5 , -9.5, -6.5 dBm.

Display of results and command

The results page called up by the

R

ESULTS

button

,

gives the information relating to the measurement in progress, results previously saved and the commands available for measurement and saving.

Result of the measurement in progress

The power measured by the power meter is displayed in large characters, in the units selected in the

S

ETUP

menu, together with:

– the mode of transmission of the signal measured: continuous (CW) or modulated to a frequency of 270Hz, 330Hz, 1KHz, or 2KHz.

– the wavelength of the signal measured.

– the reference level expressed in dB.

– the level of Attenuation Compensation.

188

Table of results

For one and the same fiber, the power meter displays a table of 9 results corresponding to the different possible wavelengths. The table shows the power measured in dBm, the relative power (in dB) and the reference level in dBm (if units = dB), together with the mode.

A measurement result is displayed in the table when the

Keep Result

softkey is pressed.

The

Clear Table

softkey orders deletion of all the results displayed in the table.

If the Alarm function has been activated, any result that exceeds the selected thresholds appears in red in the table. Otherwise, results are shown in the table in green.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 10 OFI Module

LTS function

When the instrument is switched off, results present in the table are saved.

Results of the power meter

Fig. 63

Results and commands of the LTS

Commands of the power meter parameters

When the LTS function is selected, the following softkeys are available on the results page:

<Set as reference> Selects the current result as reference value to measure the attenuation of a link. This reference is displayed under the measurement result until a new reference value is chosen.

<Zero>

<Keep Result>

<Clear Table>

Adjustment of the Zero value when the power meter’s optical input is closed with a plug.

Saves the result on the corresponding line of the table.

Deletes all the results recorded in the table.

Making a measurement

The power meter is started up as soon as the LTS function vated in the

S

ETUP

menu.

is acti-

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

LTS function

NOTE

Power measurement is automatically updated in consequence. The value «<-60 dB» is displayed when the laser is switched off and if the source output is looped on to the power meter input.

If the OFI module’s source is used, the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key must be used to start or stop emission of light.

Power measurement

– Connect the light source to be tested to the rear connector (see

"Connections to the power meter and the source" page 184

).

– In the

S

ETUP

menu, choose the units dBm, dB or Watts.

– Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key to start the laser

.

The result will appear in the results page and can be memorized in the table (see

"Table of results" page 188

).

– Press the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key to stop the laser

.

Optical link loss Setting the zero value of the power meter

It is important to set the zero of the power meter before making any measurements where accuracy is required, as the noise from the photodiode fluctuates over time and with variations in temperature.

1

Fix the plug over the optical input of the power meter so that no light can reach the photodiode of the power meter. If the zero adjustment is made without this plug, an error message may be displayed, as the photodiode will detect too much light.

2

In the

Results

page, press the

Zero

soft key.

Carrying out the reference measurement

1

Fix the adapter corresponding to the jumper to the optical connector of the power meter.

2

Connect the jumper between the input of the power meter and the output of the source.

3

Configure the same wavelength on the source and the power meter.

The power measured is displayed in the results page of the LTS.

4

Press the

Set as Reference

soft key to save the result displayed as reference value.

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FOX Function

Measurements on the fiber under test

After defining the reference value, proceed as follows to make the measurement:

1

Fix the jumpers and connectors needed to connect the fiber to be tested between the source output and the power meter input.

2

In the set-up menu, select dB units.

3

The power displayed in the Power Meter window corresponds to the optical loss of the link tested. It can be displayed in the table (see

"Table of results" page 188 ).

FOX

1

Function

The FOX function is used to make automatical, bidirectional optical power measurements and / or ORL measurements at one or several wavelengths.

This function is also used to make a distance measurement of the link under test.

Two Base Unit are required, each one equipped with an OFI module at each end of the fiber.

The OFI module 81xx is also compatible with the OFI-2000.

With the FOX function , the two Base Units can communicate and send messages to each other.

Configuration of the FOX automatic measurement

Two types of parameters can be modified in the FOX configuration of the

OFI.

– The Acquisition parameters

– The results screen parameters.

1.Fiber Optic eXpert

User Manual 780000102/09 191

Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Fig. 64

FOX parameters

Acquisition parameters

Laser

All / 1550 / 1310 / 1625 / 1550 + 1310 / 1550 +

1625 / 1310 + 1625

Measurement Loss / Loss + ORL / Loss + Length / Loss + ORL +

Length

NOTE

The acquisition and measurement parameters can change according to the OFI plug-in used.

192

Results screen parameters

– Group Refr. Index

– Preset index

– 1550 SM

Preset Index

User

Corning SMF-28

Lucent Truewave

SpecTran SM

Litespec

ATT SM

Fitel Furukawa

Corning SMF-DS

Corning SMF-LS

Corning Leaf

E-SMF

Unit

km / kfeet / miles

1550 SM

de 1.30000 à 1.70000

1.46810

1.47320

1.46810

1.46700

1.46700

1.47000

1.47110

1.47000

1.46840

1.46450

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Alarms

No

Active ; used to set alarms.

– Loss: enter the loss threshold for each wavelength (in dB).

– ORL: enter an ORL threshold for each wavelength (in dB).

– Delay: enter a delay time (in µs).

– Length: indicative value, changes according to the delay time and the fiber index.

To change the alarms values, use the direction keys and or the numeric keypad.

File Storage parameters

Filenaming

Auto Store

[Cable_Id][Fiber_Num][Fiber_Code]

Yes (cannot be modified)

Fiber Nbr Increment Yes (cannot be modified)

In the FOX function:

– the measurement results are automatically saved

– the fiber number is automatically incremented.

To display the fiber to be tested, push the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button in the

results page of the FOX function (see "Choosing the fiber to be tested" page 199 ).

Establishing a reference

Before making a power, a ORL and / or distance measurement with the

FOX function of the OFI module , you have to take references.

1

On the

RESULTS

page, push the

References

button.

Different references can be taken:

– For a loss measurement

– Side by Side reference

– Loopback reference

– For an ORL measurement

– Power emitted reference

– Zero ORL

NOTE

As the ORL is an option, establishing a reference for this measurement is not automatically available with the OFI module.

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Establishing a reference for loss measurement

Before any measurement, you must establish references.

Two methods can be used to take references: taking a side by side reference and taking the reference in a loop-back mode.

Taking a side by side reference

NOTE

This reference can only be performed when the two Base Unit are at the same location.

1

On the

R

ESULTS

page, push the

References

key.

2

Push the

Loss Side/Side

key.

3

Link the FOX connectors of the two Base Units by using two jumpers.

4

Push on

Go

key.

Go

Reference date.

Type and serial number of the distant instrument

194

Fig. 65

Taking a side by side reference (8000 series example)

Once the references are taken, the reference screen is updated for the wavelengths available on the distant instrument. It indicates the type of reference used.

The date of the reference as well as the type and serial number of the distant instrument are indicated on the first line of the table.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

If the reference is correct, disconnect the jumpers at the middle point, in order to insert the fiber to be tested.

If the reference taken is not correct, take a new reference.

If the reference measurements are too weak, a warning is displayed.

Clean all connections to improve the reference measurements.

The reference is only valid if the jumpers are not disconnected from the Base Unit.

Taking the reference in a loopback mode

NOTE

This reference can be made wether the Base Units are on the same site or not.

1

Connect the optical output of the source (FOX port) to the optical input of the power meter by means of a jumper.

2

Push the

References

key.

3

Push the

Loss Loopback

key.

4

Push the

Go

key.

Go

Fig. 66

Taking a reference in a loop-back mode

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Once the reference is taken, the reference table is updated for the wavelengths available on the local instrument. It indicates the type of reference used.

The date of the reference as well as the type and serial number of the local instrument are indicated on the first line of the table.

If the reference is correct, disconnect the jumper in order to connect the fiber to be tested.

If the reference is not correct, take a new reference.

Establishing a reference for an

ORL measurement

Two steps must be carried out to take a reference for a ORL measurement:

1

Power emitted reference

2

Zero ORL adjustment

Follow the order given above to take the reference. They are not two different processes but two steps necessary to establish a reference for an ORL measurement

NOTE

As ORL is an option, establishing a reference for this measurement is not automatically available with the OFI module.

ORL Emitted power

1

Link the FOX port to the power meter input port via a jumper.

2

Click on

ORL Power Emitted

3

Click on the Go key.

The power measurement from the laser signal emitted is completed.

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FOX Function

Go

Fig. 67

Establishing a reference for an ORL measurement

Once the reference has been taken, the reference screen is updated for the wavelengths available on the local instrument. It indicates the type of reference used.

As the Zero mesurement as not yet been done, the first line of the table displays the message Ref ORL : Incomplete.

ORL Zero adjustment

Once the Power Emitted measurement has been carried out, the Zero adjustment can be performed:

1

Disconnect the jumper from the external power meter and wrap this jumper, still connected to the FOX port, around the mandrel (6 to 7 times).

2

Click on

ORL Zero

3

Push the

Go

key

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Go

198

Fig. 68

Adjustement of the ORL Zero

Once the reference has been taken, the reference screen is updated for the wavelengths available on the local instrument. It indicates the type of reference used.

Once the two references are complete, the date as well as the type and serial number of the local instrument are displayed on the first line of the table.

If not, the message Ref ORL : Incomplete is displayed.

Measurement acquisition

Before making an automatic FOX measurement, check that:

– both Base Units (local and distant) as well as the OFI module on each instrument are powered on and the FOX function selected.

– the FOX function is correctly configured (

S

ETUP

menu).

– each end of the fiber is correctly connected to the module.

– the fiber and jumpers are in good condition.

To display the fiber measurement page, push the

R

ESULTS

key.

The page displays:

– Both instruments connected to the link (local and distant).

– The

Results

table with the last measurement made.

– The tested fiber parameters

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Choosing the fiber to be tested

Once the results page is displayed, push the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button.

The details of the next fiber to be tested are displayed.

Fig. 69

Details of the following fiber to be tested

To test a different fiber to the one displayed, select the new fiber according to its number or its color code.

Use the direction keys and to change the number or color code of the fiber to be tested.

Changing the fiber number involves a modification of the color code and vice versa.

Making the measurement

Before making the measurement, check that the reference measurements are correct (see

"Establishing a reference" page 193

).

Push the

S

TART

/S

TOP

button once more to start the measurement of the selected fiber.

The results are displayed as the sequence progresses, on both Base

Units.

During the measurement, the soft keys on the right of the screen are inactive.

Once the measurement has finished, the Base Unit beeps to signal the end of the sequence. The beep differs, depending on wether the measurement has completed correctly or according to the measurement/ alarm status.

Identifying the distant module

Before making a measurement, you can check presence of the distant module.

Once the results page is displayed, click on

Identify distant

.

The distant module identification is made automatically.

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

FOX Function

Distant

Module

Fig. 70

Distant module Identification

Data from the distant instrument is displayed: The serial number and the operator name on this instrument.

Check this data before making a measurement or taking a reference.

Displaying results for a

FOX automatic measurement

The measurement results are displayed as the sequence progresses, on both Base Units.

During the measurement, the following icon is displayed and the keys on the right of the screen are inactive.

Once the measurement has finished:

– the icon turns grey

– keys are active.

– the Base Unit beeps to signal the end of the measurement.

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FOX Function

Fig. 71

Result of a FOX automatic measurement

The data displayed in the table can vary according to the acquisiton

parameters (see "Configuration of the FOX automatic measurement" page 191 ).

Sending a message

When two Base Units are connected at each end of the fiber, via their

FOX port, they can send messages to each other.

Two types of messages are available:

– predefined messages (10)

– User-definable messages(4)

The message sent by one Base Unit will be displayed on the screen of the other Base Unit.

To send a message to the distant Base Unit:

In the Results page, push the

Send Message

key.

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FOX Function

Fig. 72

Messages that can be sent to the distant Base Unit

A menu with the 14 messages available is displayed.

Select the message to be sent using the direction keys and .

To enter a user message, select one of the last 4 messages (called User message 1 / 2 / 3 / 4) and push the direction key .

The edition keypad is displayed.

Enter the text you want and push the

Valid

key on the keypad or on the screen.

Push the

Send Message

or

Select

key.

On the distant Base Unit, the message is displayed with the icon

.

Press any key to delete the message.

NOTE

If the link is not established between the two Base Unit, the following error message is displayed: «No acknowledge received for the SMS sent».

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Chapter 10 OFI Module

Manual ORL

Manual ORL

The OFI module can be equipped with the ORL function (option), which allows to make an ORL manual measurement .

However, before making this measurement, the references have to be established once the ORL tab has been selected on the OFI module or on the Base Unit, in the

S

YSTEM

page.

Fig. 73

Selection of the ORL function

The functions LTS, FOX and ORL can be selected at the same time on the OFI module.

However, the LTS and ORL functions from the Base Unit cannot be selected simultaneously.

Establishing a reference for an

ORL manual measurement

Two steps must be carried out to take a reference for an ORL manual measurement:

1

Power emitted reference: see

"ORL Emitted power" page 196

2

Zero ORL adjustment: see

"ORL Zero adjustment" page 197

Follow the order given above to take the reference. They are not two different processes but two steps necessary to establish a reference for an ORL manual measurement

Establishing references is only valid for a specific module or function.

For example, the references for an ORL automatic measurement are only available for the FOX function (a new reference must be redone for an ORL manual measurement.).

Moreover, the Manual ORL references made with the Base Unit are not valid with an OFI module.

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Manual ORL

NOTE

As ORL manual is an option, establishing a reference for this measurement is not automatically available with the OFI module.

Measurement acquisition

The page displays:

– The results screen with the wavelength and the ORL references established.

– The table where are saved the ORL measurements.

Making the measurement

Before making the measurement, check that the reference measurements are correct (see

"Establishing a reference for an ORL manual measurement" page 203 ).

Push the

S

TART

/S

TOP

key to start the measurement.

Display of results for an

ORL manual measurement

To display the fiber measurement page, push the

R

ESULTS

key.

For each wavelength, push the key Keep Result to display the result in the table.

The

Clear Table

softkey orders deletion of all the results displayed in the table.

If the Alarm function has been activated, any result that exceeds the selected thresholds appears in red in the table.

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File Management

Fig. 74

Results for an ORL manual measurement

Once all the results are displayed, click on the

F

ILE

button to save the file in a directory.

File Management

Storing results

Although each measurement is automatically stored (for FOX results only), it is possible to save the results under a different file name, directory etc.

Once the results are displayed:

1

Push the

F

ILE

button

2

Select

Setup

with the key

Setup/Explorer

3

Modify the parameter you want in the

F

ILE

configuration menu

4

Click on the

Store Trace

key

The FOX files are saved with the extension «.FOX».

The LTS files are saved with the extension «.LTS».

The ORL files are saved with the extension «.ORL»

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File Management

With the LTS and ORL results, two files are saved :

The first file is to be used with the Base Unit and allows all LTS measurements results to be retrieved. It is saved with the extension

«.LTS» or «.ORL».

The second file is an ASCII file using tabulations to separate values. It is saved with the extension «.txt» and cannot be opened by the Base

Unit. It has been designed to be used with a spreadsheet program on a PC where it allows all LTS measurement results to be retrieved and formatted in a customized table.

For more details on file management, see

"File management" page 219

.

Recalling files

To recall a LTS, FOX or ORL file:

1

Go to the

Explorer

2

Select the directory

3

Select the file to load

4

Click on

Load

5

Click on

View Trace(s)

or

Load Trace + Config.

.

The selected file is opened

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Chapter 11

Multi Test Access Unit

11

This chapter describes the function of the MTAU (Multi Test Access Unit) module and its use.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

"Function of the MTAU module" on page 208

"Connections" on page 208

"Configuration" on page 209

"Manual mode" on page 210

"Auto mode" on page 211

The main application of this module is to be used together with the 8000 platform.

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Function of the MTAU module

Function of the MTAU module

The MTAU is a passive module (switch) used to route the signals from the different measurement plug-ins to one and the same fiber.

The advantage is to be able, for example, to make all the characterization measurements (insertion loss, reflectometry, chromatic dispersion, spectrum and polarization measurements) with a single 8000 Base Unit

1 without ever disconnecting the fiber.

Connections

The MTAU plug-ins offered are of two types:

1

A common port with 2 ports A and B

2

A common port with 3 ports A, B and C and a mirror.

The fiber to be tested must be connected to the common port .

The other ports are connected to the measurement plug-ins, e.g. OTDR,

CD, OSA, PMD, or an external instrument.

Two 8000 Base Units can be used at each end of the link under test for maximum efficiency and to carry out the largest number of tests in both directions.

NOTE

The MTAU is not directional. It is possible to use the common port either as an input or as an output.

208

1.Equipped with suitable plug-ins, for example an OTDR/CD plug-in and a WDM/

PMD plug-in.

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Configuration

Inputs for connection to the different plug-ins

Output: fiber under test

Fig. 75

Example of an MTAU plug-in with 1 common & 3 ports plus 1 mirror

NOTE

It is possible to use the Mirror port (MTAU with 4 ports) to enhance reflectance at the end of the fiber, and obtain more effective CD results. In this case, the input port at the extreme end of the fiber becomes a mirror.

Configuration

To use the MTAU function, go into the

S

YSTEM

menu and select the icon

using the key .

Then go into the

S

ETUP

or

R

ESULTS

menu (the same page is displayed for this plug-in) to access the screen from which the the input channels can be switched.

The screen displays a diagram of the input and outputs to the switching device.

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Chapter 11 Multi Test Access Unit

Manual mode

Common port

Port B

Switching button

Mirror

Port A Port C

Fig. 76

Manual mode for the MTAU plug-in

Manual mode

To switch each output, use the button

Port A/Port B/Port C/Mirror

. Each click on this button switches the next output port.

The active port and the link to the common port are shown green, while the other ports remain grey.

On the front of the plug-in, a red LED next to the port selected also lights up in order to provide a permanent, physical indication of which output is active.

NOTE

To optimize manipulation, always use the

R

ESULTS

key to change over from this screen to the screen corresponding to each measurement.

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Auto mode

Auto mode

The auto mode offers the best way to test a full cable. The purpose is to set a sequence of operations, which will be performed for each fiber, one after the other with no need to modify the configuration or to go to each measurement tab. All operations can be handled from the MTAU tab.

NOTE

The switch between measurement (if necessary) is automatic. Nevertheless launching each measurement remains the user responsibility, as some extra equipment might be needed (ex broadband source for

PMD).

Select

Auto

on the key

Manual/Auto

to switch to auto mode or vice et versa.

Links showing that

OTDR will be performed on port A, OSA and

PMD on port C

Icons representing available functions

Fig. 77

Auto mode for the MTAU plug-in

Different icons appear at the top of the screen, showing different available functions. According to your 8000 Base Unit configuration, you may have all the following functions available :

– OTDR

– CD

– OSA

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Auto mode

– PMD

– AP

Configuration of the sequence of tests

1

Make sure you select all necessary functions in the

S

ETUP

menu.

NOTE

Icons for selected functions appear in yellow, icons for available but unselected functions appear in grey.

2

Go to each tab if necessary to make sure all setup values are correct for each selected function.

3

Select the

Function Cursor

key, and choose which function you wish to configure in the list of icons.

4

Select the

Port Cursor

key, and choose which port is connected to the corresponding function.

5

Click on the key to validate the association. A solid link will be drawn between the function and the port you selected (see the figure "Auto mode for the MTAU plug-in" on page 211 ).

6

Go back to step ’3’ for the next function if necessary.

NOTE

It is not possible to affect the same function to different ports.

NOTE

Functions that are offered by the same physical module may only be connected to the same port.

When the sequence is completely configured, you can view which function is connected to which port thanks to all the solid links (see the figure

"Auto mode for the MTAU plug-in" on page 211 Fig. 77Fig. 77Fig. 77).

Various link colors are offered to differentiate each port :

– blue for port A

– red for port B

– pink for port C

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Auto mode

IMPORTANT

If a function used in the sequence configuration is deselected in the

S

YSTEM

page, the configuration automatically deletes the corresponding link but keeps the rest of the configuration in memory. Reselecting the function does not automatically recreate the link.

NOTE

The last configuration is saved in the 8000 Base Unit and may be retrieved after a complete reboot, unless the hardware configuration has changed (for example if a new module is inserted).

Performing the sequence of tests

1

Connect the fiber to test to the MTAU common port.

2

Click on

S

TART

/S

TOP

to start the sequence.

3

A message is displayed requesting to confirm you wish to start the measurement, such as «Start SM-OTDR measurement ?».

Answering

No

cancels all the sequence but keeps the configuration in memory.

Answering

Yes

starts the first measurement.

4

After each measurement is done, a new message follows if another measurement is configured in the sequence such as in step 3

5

The sequence is terminated when no more message is displayed and the led from the MTAU tab changes from . to . Go back to step ’1’ with a new fiber.

The order of the sequence will take in consideration the order in which the sequence is displayed on screen, starting with the ports order, then with the functions order. In our example, the sequence will measure successively OTDR, OSA then PMD.

Some messages may appear during the sequence to request specific actions necessary for the measurement (just like «check source» appears before a PMD measurement).

The focus in on the active function and the link becomes green.

Even though this is not necessary, it is possible to go to the measurement corresponding tab when a function is being used, and see the results of the acquisition.

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Auto mode

If a function is deselected in the

S

ETUP

page while the sequence is launched, the sequence is automatically updated and continues if the function was not currently used, or is immediately stopped otherwise.

In this last case, an error message is displayed indicating that the function has been deselected.

if you wish to stop a measurement but not the sequence, go to the corresponding measurement tab and click on

S

TART

/S

TOP

214 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 12

Broadband source BBS

12

This chapter describes the function of the BBS (Broadband Source) module and its use.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Function of the BBS module” on page 216

“Activation process” on page 216

“Remote interlock connector” on page 217

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Chapter 12 Broadband source BBS

Function of the BBS module

Function of the BBS module

The BBS is a broadband source, covering several wavelength ranges

(from 1480 to 1640 nm for BBS1 and from 1260 to 1640 nm for BBS2).

It is used to measure the attenuation profiles and the PMD of optical fibers.

Activation process

To use the BBS function, go into the

S

YSTEM

menu and select the BBS icon using the key .

Then go into the

S

ETUP

or

R

ESULTS

menu (the same page is displayed for this plug-in) to access the screen of the BBS module.

Press the

Laser On

key.

Entrer the password 4877, using the direction keys

Press the

Confirm

button to valid the password.

.

Password

4877

Valid

216

Fig. 78

Validate the password

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Chapter 12 Broadband source BBS

Remote interlock connector

The laser is on and the screen displays the icon

Press the

Laser Off / On

key to deactivate or activate the laser.

NOTE

To lock the instrument, simply un-select the BBS module. Any user coming next will be prompted for a password when the module will be re-selected.

Also, after powering down the unit, you will also be prompted for the password.

Remote interlock connector

The BBS module has been equipped with a remote interlock connector

(SMB type) on its front pannel. This is to protect the user from injury when using class IIIb light sources.

The use of a Remote Interlock system is specified with class IIIb sources by 21 CFR 1040.10 (USA).

If the short circuit at the SMB connector is opened, the broadband light source is switched off immediately and cannot be switched on until it is closed again.

NOTE

Note that the BBS modules are of class 1M under the IEC 60825-1:

2001 international standard.

Remote interlock connector

Fig. 79

Remote interlock connector

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Chapter 12 Broadband source BBS

Remote interlock connector

218 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 13

File management

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“File configuration menu” on page 220

“Explorer Function” on page 230

“CD-Rom burning” on page 238

13

User Manual 780000102/09 219

Chapter 13 File management

File configuration menu

File configuration menu

This menu is used to configure various parameters common to the whole of a cable.

– Press the

F

ILE

button. The following File menu appears.

Fig. 80

File Menu (example with OTDR plug-in)

Managing tabs

Tabs give access to the File menu of each application (OTDR, OSA,

Power Meter, etc.) present in the modules and plug-ins of the instrument.

It is possible to open a file even if the corresponding plug-in is not present in the instrument (e.g. OSA file without OSA plug-in). A new tab then temporarily manages this application.

When several different applications (corresponding to modules or plugins for different measurements) are managed by the Base Unit, pressing the

F

ILE

key several times in succession changes from one tab to another to give access to the file configuration of the desired application

(e.g. OTDR, OSA, etc.). See "Tabs" on page 31

.

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File configuration menu

File signature

The acquisition parameters of the trace contained in the selected file are displayed at the top of the screen together with a small-scale representation of the trace (provided it was acquired on a MTS / T-BERD Base

Unit) (see

"Mini-trace" on page 31 ).

Plug-in

used

Laser

Pulse width

Resolution

Acquisition time

Refraction index

Name of the file

Mini-trace

Comment

Extremity info

Cable end info:

Cable Id, Fiber Id, Fiber Code

Fig. 81

Direction of measurement

Date of the acquisition of the signal

Example of signature of an OTDR file (in the File

Menu)

File information

Current directory

The

Dir.

line of the menu shows the directory in which the traces will be stored.

This line can also be used to change the active storage medium directory. To do this, launch the directory editor by means of the key:

.

The directory edited must exist, otherwise it will not be taken into account. Change of medium and the creation and/or deletion of directories can only be done through the file explorer (see

"Explorer Function" on page 230

)

When recalling a trace, fiber parameters are shown in the signature, but not necessarily in the

FILE

menu. The

FILE

menu is used to edit parameters for the current or next acquisition, or to modify the signature of a stored trace only.

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Chapter 13 File management

File configuration menu

Rules for naming files

In the name of the file, it is possible to program automatic inclusion of parameters such as the name of the fiber, fiber code, identifiers (of the cable, its origin, its end) or the measurement parameters (direction, resolution, wavelength, pulse length).

The <Filenaming> line shows the current filenaming rules and can be used to modify them.

To edit or modify these rules:

1

Go to to the

Filenaming

line

2

Press to call up the edit menu

3

Move around in the edit screen using the direction keys

4

Select the desired characters and parameters

5

Confirm each parameter or character selected by clicking on

6

Select

Validate

or

Cancel

to quit the edit screen (according to whether the modifications are to be applied or not).

Fig. 82

Editing filenaming parameters

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File configuration menu

Example of filenaming:

File parameters

Resolution = 16 cm

Fiber number = 1

Filenaming rules selected

ABC[Resolution]Fiber_[Fiber_Code]

Filename obtained

ABC16_cmFiber_1

A file name can consist of up to 40 characters. However, beyond a certain length, the names will be truncated in the display on the Base

Unit, the end being replaced by «...».

Name of a file

After an acquisition, and as long as the result has not been saved, the line below

Filenaming

gives the name made up in accordance with the filenaming rules.

If the file has been recalled from a memory, the line below

Filenaming

shows its name irrespective of whether it respects the current filenaming rules.

This name can then be modified by calling up the edit menu using the button . If a modification is then made to the filenaming rules, the file name will not be modified. To return to a name made up in accordance with the filenaming rules, simply delete the existing name.

Editing the name enables the trace to be saved in a new file (with a new name), but it cannot rename the existing file (this function is possible in the Explorer menu - see

"Storage media" on page 231

). Thus the new name will not be taken into account until the trace is saved again.

Auto store

If this option is validated, the trace or traces resulting from each acquisition are automatically saved according to the filenaming rules.

Fiber information

This paragraph gives the fiber information for the extremity defined in

Direction

. If the direction is O->E, then the fiber information concerns the origin. If the direction is E->O, it concerns the extremity.

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File configuration menu

NOTE

The information entered in the Fiber information window concerns the editing and/or modifications of the cable and fiber parameters. When a trace is recalled without recalling its configuration, the parameters of this trace will be present only in its signature.

Fiber Name

This name consists of an alphanumerical part entered by means of the edit menu, followed by the fiber number. This number is automatically incremented or decremented as a function of the fiber code.

Fiber code

The fiber code corresponds either to the fiber number, or to a color code, according to the choice made in

Cable structure> Color Coding

.

If a color code is selected, it can consist of the codes for the tube, the ribbon and the fiber itself. Its composition is defined in C

able Structure>

Cable Content

.

Incrementing fiber number

In

Increment fiber number

mode, the fiber code is automatically incremented at each new file-save.

Incrementation is done as a function of:

– the max. number of fibers, tubes and ribbons defined in Cable

Structure (

Max Tubes, Max Ribbon, Max Fibers

)

– the composition of the color code, always incrementing first the fiber number, then the ribbon number, then (if applicable) the tube number

– the choices made, for each color code, in

Cable Structure

(Tube Coding, Ribbon Coding, Fiber Coding) and in

Code Definition

(see "Cable structure" on page 226

).

The fiber number may be incremented or decremented directly with keys and . or using the numeric keypad

NOTE

The Fiber Code and the fiber number concatenated with

Fiber Name

are interdependent: they are incremented or decremented at the same time. However, the fiber number remains a number only, while the fiber code is alphanumerical. Whether it includes a color code or

not (see "Cable structure" on page 226

), it may be composed of one, two or three parts (see figure page 225 ).

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File configuration menu

Fiber and cable parameters used in the example:

Fiber Name: ’Fiberx’

Cable Content: ’Tube/Fiber’

Max Tube: 12

Max Fiber: 24

Coding used for the fiber and the tube: TIA

Fiber N

Color Code

<Fiber Name>

<Fiber Code>

Yes

Fiberx24

Bl/Aq-

No

Fiberx24

1/24

Fig. 83

Fiber N+1

Yes

Fiberx25

Gold/Bl

No

Fiberx25

2/1

Example of incrementation of fiber code

Link description

The information entered in the Link Description window concerns the editing and/or the modifications of the cable and fiber parameters. When a trace is recalled without recall of the configuration, the parameters of this trace will be present only in its signature.

Direction

The direction shows if the acquisition has been made from the origin to the extremity (O->E) or from the extremity to the origin (E->O). Changing direction makes it possible, when different extremities are handled, to see the parameters of the fiber for the other extremity.

Origin

The name of the origin of the link may be entered here.

Extremity

The name of the extremity of the link may be entered here.

Different extremities

In some cases, it is interesting to save different information for the origin and the extremity of the cable.

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File configuration menu

If this option is validated, it is possible, after selecting the extremity to be edited in the

Cable Structure

menu, to modify the values specific to the cable (cable name, color coding, content of the coding), for each of these extremities. See chapter

"Cable structure" on page 226

)

To display/modify the data specific to the fiber (name and code), it is necessary to change direction temporarily. In the "O->E" direction, the information on the origin can be edited, and in the "E->O" direction, that on the extremity.

Cable structure

This line opens a sub-menu, all the parameters of which can be different for each extremity.

226

Fig. 84

Cable structure menu

If the extremities are declared different (see

"Different extremities" on page 225

), on the <View

Extremity> line, it is possible to change from the

«Origin» parameter to the «Extremity» parameter.

The Cable Structure window is specific to an extremity. Each structure keeps its own parameters by default. Modifications made to the one are not automatically applied to the other. Thus, after the values relating to the origin have been modified, it is normal not to find these same values entered for the extremity.

Name of cable

Color Coding

Name of link

Choice of whether or not to apply a color coding to the fiber. This choice is made at link level, as all the fibers of a given link, for a given extremity, will be coded the same way. This choice modifies the result

of the <Fiber Code> line. See "Incrementing fiber number" on page 224 .

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Chapter 13 File management

File configuration menu

Cable content Shows how the color code is to be used (see figure

"Cable structure menu" on page 226 ):

–<Fiber> : Only the color code of the fiber is proposed (example: ’Gold’)

–<Ribbon/Fiber>: The color code of the fiber is preceded by that of the ribbon, and separated by a ’/’

(example: ’Bl/Or’)

–<Tube/Fiber>: The color code of the fiber is preceded by that of the tube, and separated by a ’/’

(example: ’Br/Or’)

=<Tube/Ribbon/Fiber>:

The color code of the fiber is preceded by that of the tube, then by that of the ribbon; the three being separated by a ’/’

(example: ’Br/Bl/Or’). See

"Incrementing fiber number" on page 224

.

Max tube

Max ribbon

Max fiber

Shows the maximum number of tubes in the cable for the extremity selected. This information influences the automatic coding of the fiber. See

"Incrementing fiber number" on page 224

.

Shows the maximum number of ribbons in the cable for the extremity selected. This information influences the automatic coding of the fiber. See

"Incrementing fiber number" on page 224

Shows the maximum number of fibers in the cable for the extremity selected. This information influences the automatic coding of the fiber. See

"Incrementing fiber number" on page 224

NOTE

Certain parameters are not valid in the configuration selected. Thus, if no tube is selected in

Cable Content

, all the lines relating to the tube concept will be deactivated (grayed out in the menu).

Tube Coding, Ribbon Coding, Fiber Coding

The lines Tube Coding, Ribbon Coding and Fiber

Coding enable selection of the color coding of the tube, the ribbon and the fiber from 5 different codes described below: TIA, USER 1, USER 2, USER 3 and USER 4.

Code Definition The Code Definition line opens a sub-menu, with which the different color codes possible on the

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File configuration menu

instrument can be displayed and modified (see figure "Color code definition" on page 228 ).

Five different codes can be managed by the Base Unit, including a standard code.

The standard code (TIA) may be displayed but it cannot be modified.

The other codes, called by default USER1, USER2, USER3 and USER4, can be entirely personalized.

–Edited code

–Copy name

–View codes

–Code 1..23

selects the code for display or modification.

to give a new name to the code selected, press the key, which calls up the edit menu.

displays the color codes 1 to 12 or 13 to

24.

Use the arrow to modify the codes if necessary.

228

Fig. 85

Color code definition

Operator

Use the arrow to enter the name of the operator carrying out the measurement.

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Chapter 13 File management

File configuration menu

Comment

In contrast to the other data in this menu, the comment is specific to a fiber, and not to the whole cable. This line is thus used to enter a new comment and not to display it. The comment appears at the top of the screen, with the other parameters of the fiber (see figure "Example of signature of an OTDR file (in the File Menu)" on page 221 ).

File expedition

This sub-menu appears when the option <mail> has been configured with one media, for example Ethernet, in the system setup menu (see the base manual of the Base Unit, reference 8000M02 for example.)

To send a mail, you must have filled the 2 following fields :

<Mail to>

<Subject>

Use the arrow key to enter in the edition window, and enter the name of the recipient.

Using the same key, enter the subject of the mail or a comment if necessary.

Buttons on the right of the screen

Saving traces

Fig. 86

Save

These buttons are used to save one or more traces

To copy the configuration on to all the tabs <Copy Setup for all>

Fig. 87

Copy Setup For All

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Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

The button

Copy Setup For all

applies the configuration modifications made in the File menu displayed into the File menus of the other applications managed by the base (appearing in the other tabs).

Explorer Function

Fig. 88

Setup / Explorer

To access the Explorer function, after pressing the

F

ILE

button, press the

Setup/Explorer

key.

Description of the explorer

The explorer is used to select the storage medium, and to create or rename directories and files:

– The left-hand part presents the storage architecture. Use the keys and to move around among all the media and their respective directories.

– The right-hand part displays all the files present in the directory selected.

The direction keys can be used to move horizontally between the two parts and vertically within each zone.

At the top of the screen, the file signature selected is repeated (see

"Example of signature of an OTDR file (in the File Menu)" on page 221 ).

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Explorer Function

Fig. 89

Example of explorer (with files OTDR and OSA)

Storage media

For saving or recalling data, the Base Unit offers a wide choice of media, both built-in and external.

Free space on selected media is clearly displayed at the bottom of the left panel.

Storage media built into the Base

Unit

– An internal memory

– A hard disk (or high capacity storage), on option. If this option is selected, then the hard disk replaces the internal memory.

– A 3 1/2 in. floppy disk drive, on option (8000 platform only)

– A CD-RW drive, on option (8000 platform only)

External USB storage media

The Base Unit is equipped with 2 USB ports as standard. One of these can be used to connect an external storage medium, in particular a USB memory key.

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Explorer Function

NOTE

It is possible to disconnect/reconnect this medium while the instrument is switched on. Nevertheless, it is recommended to remove the cursor from the <USBFlash> media in the explorer before removing the key. This will ensure that no data is still currently being transferred.

Although two USB ports are present, it is only possible to use one external USB storage medium per session.

When a file is moved in the explorer of the Base Unit, the end of the move on the screen does not mean that writing of data into the memory is complete. The transcription of some data may still be incomplete if the storage unit is removed prematurely.

NOTE

A beep is emitted by the Base Unit to confirm the successful insertion and recognition of a USB memory key.

Standard Compact

Flash card (8000 platform only)

The Base Unit is equipped as standard with a slot in which a Compact

Flash card can be inserted.

The Compact Flash card must be inserted before switching on the instrument. It is strongly recommended that this medium should not be withdrawn or reinserted while the instrument is switched on.

Remote Base Unit and data transfer

During a data transfer (with the option Data/Talkset), the distant Base

Unit hard drive connected by the fiber is displayed as a storage media.

File and directory edition features may all be used in the same manner with this storage media as with the other ones.

Abbreviations for storage media

The abbreviations used in the explorer for the different storage media are:

Abbreviation

harddisk

Storage medium

Hard disk

232 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

Abbreviation

disk floppy cdrom usbflash cflash masterdisk slavedisk

Storage medium

Internal flash memory (if no hard disk)

Floppy disk

CD-ROM

USB memory key

Compact Flash memory card

Hard drive from the remote Base

Unit which initiated the connection

Hard drive from the remote Base

Unit which accepted the connection

Remote hard drives are seen with different names, according to which one has initiated the connection. Nevertheless, possible actions on these disks are all the same. There are no master/slave relations for data exchange/

Directory edit function

The editing functions are similar to those of other explorers. The directories are at the top left of the screen. If the cursor is in this part, the functions proposed by the keys are specific to the management of the directories.

Selection of directories

If the cursor is in the left-hand part of the screen:

– the direction keys can be used to select a directory.

– the key opens the directory selected and closes it when pressed a second time.

Do not confuse "Selected" with "Active". A directory may be displayed in video inverse, to show that it is the current working directory. If it does not have a broken red line round it, it is not active.

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Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

Active: working directory

Selected: the cursor is here

Broken red line around

234

Fig. 90

Selected / Active File

Edition of directories

When a directory is selected, the keys offer the following functions:

<Create Directory> Creation of a new directory. An editor enables entry of its name.

<Rename Dir.> Renames the directory selected. An editor enables replacement of its current name.

<Edit> Opens a new menu providing functions for editing the directories:

Copy

,

Cut

,

Paste

,

Delete

and

Merge

.

NOTE

A whole directory with its contents can be copied into another directory or on to another storage medium.

Using the Merge key, with the txt files from ORL and LTS measurement results.

When saving a Manual ORL or LTS measurement result, in addition to the .LTS and .ORL file, a txt file is automatically saved for each measure-

ment type ’(see “File Management”

>

"Storing results" on page 205 ).

The key Merge is used to merge several txt files from Manual ORL and

LTS measurements into one txt file, putting together the results of both measurement types.

– In the explorer, select the txt files generated with the LTS and

Manual ORL measurements you want.

– Click on Merge key

The file merged_files.txt is automatically saved in the same directory as the one where the ORL and LTS txt files have been selected.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

NOTE

The file

merged_files.txt

can be renamed once it is saved.

File editing function

The right-hand part of the screen can be used to work on the files in the directory selected.

A table gives the list of the files in the directory, showing for each one: its name, size, type and date of creation.

For files recognized by the Base Unit, the types are symbolized by icons.

E.g.

. OSA file (.OSA extension)

OTDR file (.SOR extension)

OEO file (.OEO extension)

PMD file (.PMD extension)

CD file (.CD extension)

AP file (.AP extension)

LTS file (.LTS extension)

ORL file (.ORL extension)

Format of files

OTDR files that can be read by the Base Unit are type Bellcore 1.0, 1.1 and 2.0.

Other files that can be read by the Base Unit are specific to this instrument.

To read other formats, use JDSU’s FiberTrace or FiberCable software.

Easy file selection

The direction keys are used to position the cursor on the file to be selected.

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Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

Multiple selection of files

It is possible to select several files simultaneously to move them, delete, print, or copy them on to another medium or to display the corresponding traces in overlay (see

"Display of several traces in overlay" on page 237

).

To do this, press after each selection. The files selected appear in video inverse. To deselect a file, place the cursor on the name of the file and press the key again .

NOTE

If a mouse is used, click on a file to select it, and click again to deselect it.

If no file has been selected by the is positioned is taken as selected.

key, the file where the cursor

On the other hand, if a file has been selected with the the cursor is on another file, the latter is not selected!

key , and

Commands relating to files

When a file is selected, the keys offer the following functions:

<Load> Opens the sub-menu for display of traces. See chapter

"Loading files and displaying traces" on page 237

<Select all> Direct selection of all the files in the directory. After this key has been pressed, its name changes to

<Deselect All> so that the operation can be cancelled if necessary.

<Rename File> Opens the editor to modify the name of the file

<Edit>

<Sort>

Displays a sub-menu to copy, cut, paste delete or merge one or more files.

Opens a sub-menu with which the files in the directory can be sorted by name, size, type or date.

<Send by mail> This option appears if <Mail> has been defined with a media in the system setup menu. The subject and the recipient of the mail are those set in the file setup menu (see

"File expedition" on page 229 ).

Comments may be added. This option allows to send files by e-mail. After a few seconds, a message is displayed to inform the user that the mail has been sent successfully.

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Chapter 13 File management

Explorer Function

Loading files and displaying traces

To access the functions for loading one or more files, select the file(s) in the explorer and press

Load

. Several options are then available:

Simple loading

The key

View Trace(s)

enables simple loading of traces, using the current parameters of the Base Unit. The current trace is then replaced with this new trace.

Load with configuration

The key

Load Trace+Config

will display the traces, recalling the configuration recorded in the file. Thus the zooms, cursors and parameters present at the time of acquisition will be used for the display.

This function also enables to recall and set the parameters defined in the screens corresponding respectively to the

F

ILE

and

S

ETUP

keys.

It is then possible to perform an acquisition under the same conditions as those of the trace recalled.

– If the Base Unit was equipped with a different module from the current one when the trace was acquired, then certain configuration parameters cannot be updated. A message then warns the user of this.

– If several traces are selected, the configuration used will be that of the first trace.

– If the number of traces added and the number of traces present is greater than 8, then the last traces added will not all be taken into account.

The configuration cannot be recalled if the trace was not originally created by a Base Unit.

Display of several traces in overlay

Up to 8 traces in the same application (OTDR, OSA, etc.) can be displayed simultaneously in overlay.

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Chapter 13 File management

CD-Rom burning

To obtain a display of multiple traces, two methods are possible:

– Select all the files to be loaded at the same time (see chapter

"Multiple selection of files" on page 236

)

– Add a trace at the same interval as those already displayed by means of the

Add Trace(s)

key.

CD-Rom burning

1

Go to the file explorer

2

Select the directory and/or the files to burn on the CD

3

Click on

Edit

4

Click on

Copy

or

Cut

If you cut the file(s) to save it to on the CD, they will not be on the

Base Unit anymore.

5

Click on

CD-R tools

6

If the CD-Rom is a CD-RW with data to be erased first, click on

Erase CD-RW

, otherwise go to

8

7

A dialog box request to confirm that you want to erase existing data.

Click

Yes

to continue

A new message is displayed to inform you that all data is being erased on the CD-RW.

8

Click on

Burn CD

or

Burn and Close CD

, according to whether you wish to close the session of your CD or not.

A new dialog box is displayed, asking you to check that the CD-Rom door is securely closed.

A message is displayed to indicate that you need to wait, the CD-

Rom is being burnt.

9

A last message appears a few minutes later to let you know that the

CD-Rom has now been successfully burnt Click on any key to remove the message.

10 You may now securely remove the CD-Rom.

238 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 14

Macros

14

The macro function allows to store series of user actions, in order to play them back automatically.

The macro function is operational only while the Base Unit is used under the context of «fiber optic applications», meaning used with one of the following application selected: OTDR, OSA, CD, PMD, AP, LTS...

Actions in the

S

YSTEM

page will not be recorded.

A file macro may also be operational with no active modules, as long as

«Standalone results» for fiber optics is used, and concerned files are fiber optics files.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Calling the Macro function” on page 240

“Macro recording” on page 240

“Default macro” on page 244

“Macro playback” on page 244

“Storing a macro” on page 245

User Manual 780000102/09 239

Chapter 14 Macros

Calling the Macro function

Calling the Macro function

This function is accessible via the button

S

CRIPT

, in the front of the Base

Unit.

10 various macros may be created and used.

Once you click on the button

S

CRIPT

, you see the list of all the 10 macro positions. Each number from 1 to 10, displays the name of the macro stored at that position, or displays «(Empty)» in case that particular spot is free.

Fig. 91

List of Macros

Macro recording

The Base Unit offers two different types of macro: Standard and File.

For both types, it is required to:

Select and activate all necessary modules before starting the macro recording

Never press the

S

YSTEM

key during macro recording

240 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 14 Macros

Macro recording

Standard macro

This macro type shall be used to automate functions or operation mode.

To create a new standard macro:

1

Select a free position. A sub-menu automatically appears.

2

Change the Macro type if necessary to set it on Standard.

3

Click on the soft key

Learn

. You arrive directly to the Results page.

You can now see the icon at the top of the screen. You are now ready to record.

4

Perform all actions you wish to record in your macro.

5

Click on

S

CRIPT

when you are done, and select

End Macro

. You macro has now been saved.

6

Enter the name of your new macro in the text editor and confirm.

NOTE

All events are recorded wether you use the Base Unit buttons, the soft keys, the touchscreen, a mouse, or an external keyboard.

NOTE

The speed of your actions is not really relevant. See "Macro playback" page 244

File macro

This macro type shall be used to perform a template for multiple files.

To create a new file macro:

1

Select a free position. A sub-menu automatically appears.

2

Change the Macro type if necessary to set it on

File

.

3

Click on the soft key

Learn

. You arrive directly to the

F

ILE

page. You can read the message Load file to start learning at the top of the screen.

4

Select the file you want to work with to perform all actions.

5

Load and view the corresponding trace. You can now see the icon at the top of the screen indicating that you are ready now to record.

6

Perform all actions you wish to record in your macro.

7

Click on

S

CRIPT

when you are done, and select

End Macro

. You macro has now been saved.

User Manual 780000102/09 241

Chapter 14 Macros

Macro recording

8

Enter the name of your new macro in the text editor and confirm.

Notes for standard macros also apply for file macros.

Adding interaction to your macro

You may insert in your macro, a special dialog box, a message or a pause. These features will be very useful to you. They will give you some time to switch to another fiber if necessary, let you play a macro to a partial state and stop, or simply just bring your attention after or before a specific action is performed.

To access all these features, click on

S

CRIPT

during the learning process of a macro, just like if it was done. Several soft keys will become available.

Inserting a dialog box

Click on the soft key

Insert Dialog Box

. The dialog box editor is displayed. Enter the content of your dialog box and press confirm when you are done.

Inserting a message

Click on the soft key

Insert Message

. The Message text editor is displayed. Enter the content of your message and press confirm when you are done.

NOTE

Dialog boxes and messages serve different purposes when the macro is played back. A message will just appear to bring your attention to a specific point and wait until you are ready to continue. A dialog box will give you the choice between continuing to play the macro, or aborting it, letting you partially play a macro in some cases.

Inserting a pause

Click on the soft key

Insert Pause

. This action will automatically make the macro wait for a user action.

NOTE

During playback, you can see the icon tered. Press any key to restart the playback.

when a pause is encoun-

242 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 14 Macros

Macro recording

Renaming a macro

Whether you just created a new macro or you wish to modify the name of an existing macro, you may edit the name and change it as much as you want.

1

Select the macro and select

Name

on the sub-menu.

2

Click on to open the text editor, and type your name.

3

Click on

Confirm

to accept your new name.

The «Rewrite config» setting

Both your actions and the actual configuration are saved when you create a new macro. So when you play a macro back, you have the choice between:

1

Playing all actions and keeping the actual configuration

Your actions are fairly independent of the configuration, and you don’t wish to modify the current configuration: set

Rewrite Config

on No.

2

Playing all actions and restoring the original configuration

Your actions are very dependant of the configuration, for example in case you need to do some measurements where you wish to keep all the acquisition parameters the same: set

Rewrite Config

on Yes. This setting will also allow to make sure all necessary modules are selected in the

S

YSTEM

page before the macro is started.

It is strongly recommended to use the second method where all configuration is restored before playing the macro. Only experienced users might decide to do otherwise for different reasons.

Replacing a macro

Select an existing macro and click on the soft key

Learn

.

A message will be displayed, asking you if you really wish to overwrite the macro. Click Yes if you wish to continue.

Removing a macro

Select an existing macro and click on the soft key

Remove

.

A message will be displayed, asking you if you really wish to delete the selected macro. Click

Yes

if you wish to continue.

User Manual 780000102/09 243

Chapter 14 Macros

Default macro

Default macro

How to use the default macro

It is possible to set one macro as default. This is very useful if for example, you wish to perform one macro several times in a row. Double clicking on the button

S

CRIPT

will automatically play the default macro.

How to set a macro as default

Select

Default Macro

, and choose in the sub-menu, which macro you wish to set as default.

As an alternative, you may also select a macro and press the soft key

Set as default

.

Macro 2 is set as default

Alternatively, set any other macro as default using this button

Fig. 92

Default button

Macro playback

To play the default macro, you may directly double click on

S

CRIPT

.

To play another macro, go to the macro screen (Click on

S

CRIPT

once), and select the macro you wish to play. Then press the soft key

Play

.

244 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 14 Macros

Storing a macro

During all the play back of the macro, you can see the icon top of the screen.

at the

NOTE

This icon changes to when the playback is suspended by a

pause

event, waiting for the user to restart the process (see "Inserting a pause" page 242

).

All actions recorded in your macro are now performed.

The speed of the playback is not the same as the speed of the recording. All actions except for acquisitions, will appear faster, but will remain slow enough to let you see what is currently performed. Acquisition times remain the same as during the recording.

NOTE

Don’t forget to add interactive events during your macro recording if you need a pause, a specific message or simply to be able to abort the macro at a certain stage if necessary.

Touching a button on the Base Unit will automatically cause the macro playback to abort, except for restarting the playback, interrupted by a

pause

event.

.

NOTE

For a File macro, you may select several files before you call the

Macro function.

Storing a macro

The Base Unit lets you save macros as files on the hard disk or other storage media.

To store a macro, select it and click on the soft key Store. It will automatically store it in the current directory.

NOTE

If you wish to store your macro at a specific place on your storage media, make sure you use the file explorer to set that place as your current directory.

User Manual 780000102/09 245

Chapter 14 Macros

Storing a macro

To reload this macro later on, go to the file explorer and load the file. The macro will automatically take the first available place in the list of your 10 macros.

The macro can not be loaded if no macro position is available.

246 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 15

Printer

15

This chapter describes the function, the configuration and use of the

Printer module.

This module is only applicable to the 8000 series platform.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Function of the printer module” on page 248

“Loading a new paper roll” on page 249

“Setting up the printer” on page 250

“Printing a page” on page 250

User Manual 780000102/09 247

Chapter 15 Printer

Function of the printer module

Function of the printer module

The printer module 82PRINTER brings an internal printer to the 8000

Base Unit.

The printer itself may be completely integrated in the 8000 Base Unit module, or may be fully exposed.

Exposing the printer

In order to load a new paper roll (see "Loading a new paper roll" page

249 ) or to see clearly the printer normally hidden within the printer

module, you may «expose» the internal printer.

Locking screws

Lever to release module

248

Fig. 93

Exposing the printer out of the module

To expose the printer out of the module:

1

Unscrew the locking screws on each side of the module.

2

Pull on these screws to lift the printer up until you reach the maximum exposed position and hear the click of the lever.

NOTE

You may use the printer in the same manner, whether it is fully integrated in its module or exposed as shown in the figure.

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 15 Printer

Loading a new paper roll

Releasing the printer back into the module.

To release the printer, hold the module while you push on the lever.

It is important to hold the module while you push on the lever. If you don’t, you may stuck your finger and/or damage the internal printer.

Loading a new paper roll

In order to load a new paper roll, proceed as follows:

1

Expose the printer outside of its module (see "Exposing the printer" page 248 )

2

Set the lever to position A

3

Insert the paper roll as shown on figure "Loading paper in the printer" page 249 )

4

Fold the paper to ease loading

5

Ensure paper is enrolled as shown on figure "Loading paper in the printer" page 249 )

6

Pull paper through opening in panel

7

Reset the lever to position C

5 -Ensure paper is unrolled as shown

4 -Fold the paper to ease loading

2- Lever in position A

3 - Push in opposite direction to insert the paper roll

Spare paper roll may be inserted here

Loading paper in the printer

Fig. 94

User Manual 780000102/09 249

Chapter 15 Printer

Setting up the printer

Setting up the printer

The printer must be correctly configured in the setup menu:

Printer

must be set to

Internal

or

Internal compressed

.

The Printer icon must be activated in the

S

YSTEM

screen, such as shown in figure "Printer activated" page 250 .

For both these requirements, you may refer to the 8000 Base Unit manual.

Fig. 95

Printer activated

Printing a page

Before printing a page, make sure you remove the cover and push it back until it holds open.

Press

P

RINT

. The page currently displayed will be printing. You can see the icon printed.

at the top of the screen, until the page is finished to be

Paper used with internal printer is thermo-sensitive and photo-sensitive: Keep your printed documents away from heat and light.

250 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16

Technical specifications

16

This chapter shows the technical specifications of the OTDR plug-ins of the Base Unit, and options and accessories available.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“Reflectometer plug-in available” on page 252

“WDM plug-ins” on page 259

“PMD plug-ins” on page 261

“CD modules” on page 262

“Information on «fiber» plug-ins 5020TF and 82LFSM2 / 82LFSM4” on page 263

“MTAU plug-ins” on page 265

“BBS plug-ins” on page 265

“OFI plug-ins” on page 266

“Warning” on page 268

User Manual 780000102/09 251

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

Reflectometer plug-in available

Multimode

OTDR plug-in

Wavelength

Multimode modules

850 nm

5021 MM

1300 nm

5022 MM

850 & 1300 nm

5023 MM

The specifications of module 5023 correspond to those of modules 5021 and 5022 for their respective wavelengths.

Single-mode modules

Wavelength

(nm)

Plug-ins

Short distance

High resolution

Medium distance

High dynamic

Long distance

Very high dynamic

1310

8114 SR/SRe 8115 SR/SRe 8126 SR/SRe

8114 DR 8115 DR 8126 DR

8114 HD

1550

8115 HD

8115 VHD

1310 & 1550

1625 1550 &

1625

8126 HD 8117 HD

8136 HD

8126 VHD 8117 VHD 8129 VHD

Wavelength (nm)

Plug-ins

1550

Ultra High dynamic

Very long distance

1310 &

1550

1550 &

1625

1310 &

1550

1625

8115 UHD 8126 UHD

8115 VLR 8126 VLR

8129 UHD 8136 UHD

8129 VLR 8136 VLR

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Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

The specifications of modules 8126 (SR, SRe, DR, HD) correspond to those of plug-ins 8114 and 8115 (SR, SRe, DR, HD) for their respective wavelengths. The specifications of module 8129 VHD are those of modules 8115 or 8117 VHD for their respective wavelengths.

Characteristics of reflectometry measurements

Measurement of distance

– Dual cursor

– Distance displayed takes into account the calibration of the refractive index of the fiber.

– Index adjustable from 1,30000 to 1,70000 in steps of 0,00001

– Resolution of display : 1 cm max.

– Resolution of cursor : 1 cm max.

– Spacing of measurement points: from 4 cm, with up to 128 000 acquisition points .

– Accuracy : ± 1 m ±10

-5 x distance ± resolution of sample

(excluding errors of calibration of refractive index of the fiber).

Measurement of attenuation

– Dual cursor

– Resolution of display: 0,001 dB

– Resolution of cursor : 0,01 dB

– Accuracy : ± 0,05 dB /dB ± 0,05 dB.

Measurement of reflectance

– Resolution of display: 0,01 dB

– Accuracy : ± 4 dB.

Automatic measurement

– Automatic measurement of all the elements of the signal. Slope measurement by least squares or 2 points of measurement.

– Display threshold of faults :

– - 0 to 5.99 dB in steps of 0.01 dB for event thresholds

- 11 to -99 dB in steps of 1 dB for the reflectance

- 0 to 1.99 dB/km in steps of 0.001 dB/km for slope.

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Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

– Display of slope and attenuation for a segment of fiber.

– Display of the position of a fault and of attenuation.

– Display of the reflectance of the fault.

– Display of ORL

Manual

Measurement

– Measurement of slope between the cursors.

– Measurement of attenuation between two segments of fiber.

– Measurement of reflectance of a reflecting element.

– Measurement of ORL between the two cursors.

– Measurement of splice by 2 or 5 points method

254 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

Typical specifications of OTDR plugins

Multi-mode modules

Typical values, measured at 25°C, unless otherwise indicated:

Plug-ins Multimode

5023MM

5021MM 5022MM

Wavelength

1

Dynamic

2 with broad pulse

RMS

3

Distance

Pulse width

Event Dead Zone

4 at 3 ns

850 ± 20 nm

20 dB

25 dB

Up to 80 km

3 ns to 200 ns

1.5 m

1300 ± 20 nm

18 dB

23 dB

Attenuation dead zone

5

at 3 ns

5 m

1. Laser at 50 ns

2. Specified value corresponding to the one-way difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the level containing 98% of noise, after 3 minutes of averaging.

3. Typical value corresponding to the difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the RMS noise level, after 3 minutes of averaging.

4. Measured at 1.5 dB below the peak of a non-saturated reflecting event

5. Measured at +/- 0.5 dB on the basis of a linear regression from a reflectance of type FC/PC.

User Manual 780000102/09 255

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

Single-mode modules

Typical values, measured at 25°C, unless otherwise indicated:

Plug-ins Monomode

Plug-ins

Short distance

High resolution

Middle distance

High dynamic Long distance

Very high dynamic Long distance

Ultra High

Dynamic

Long distance

Very Long

Range

Wavelength

Pulse width

1

8114/15/26 SR/

SRe

1310 / 1550

± 20 nm

10 ns to 10

µs

8114/15/26 DR 8114/15/

26/36 HD

1310 / 1550

± 20 nm

1310 /

1550

± 20 nm

31 /29 dB 36,5 / 35 dB

Dynamic

2 with broad pulse

RMS

3

Distance

27,5 / 25 dB

SR: 35 / 33 dB

SRe: 34 / 32 dB

37 / 35 dB up to 260 km

5 ns to 10

µs

42 / 40 dB

8117/36 HD 8114/15/

26 VHD

8129

VHD

1625

± 10 nm

1310 /

1550

± 20 nm

1550 ± 20 nm/1625

± 10 nm

8115/26/36/29

UHD

1310 ± 20 nm

1550 ± 20 nm

1625 ± 10 nm

81xx VLR

1310 ± 20 nm

1550 ± 20 nm

1625 ± 15 nm

35 dB

40 dB 44 dB up to 380 km

10 ns to 20

µs

10 ns to 20

µs

45.5 / 50 /

45.5 dB

4

45 / 43,5 /

42,5 dB up to 380 km up to 380 km

10 ns to 20

µs

3ns to 20 µs

Event

Dead

Zone

5

(at 10 ns)

3 m

(at 5 ns)

1 m

(at 10 ns)

4 m

(at 10 ns)

6 m

(at 10 ns)

4,5 m

(at 3 ns)

0,8 m

Attenuation Dead

Zone

6

25 m 8 m 15 m 20 m 15 m 5 m

1. Laser at 10

µs and 25° C

2. Specified value corresponding to the one-way difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the level containing 98% of noise, after 3 minutes of averaging.

3. Typical value corresponding to the difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the RMS noise level , after 3 minutes of averaging.

4. at 20

µs pulse width with Non Zero Dispersion Fibers in single wavelength configuration.

5. EDZ measured at 1.5 dB below the peak of a non-saturated reflecting event at minimum pulse width.

6. ADZ measured at +/+/- 0.5 dB on the basis of a linear regression from a reflectance of type FC/

PC (-50 dB) at minimum pulse width.

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Reflectometer plug-in available

Classes of the lasers of the

OTDR plug-ins

Module Standard

Multi-mode MM

- at 1300 nm

- at 850 nm

Single-mode

SR, SRe,DR

Single-mode

HD, VHD, UHD, VLR

- at 1310 nm

- at 1550 and 1625 nm

EN 60825-1, Ed. 1.2, 2001-08 FDA21CFR§1040.10

Class 1M

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1M

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Class 1

Ranges

Ranges for MM modules

0.5 km

1 km

2 km

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

3 ns

X

X

X

X

X

X

20 ns

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

2 km

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

140 km

260 km

Ranges for SR and SRe modules

10 ns

x x x x x

30 ns 100 ns 300 ns 1

µs x x x x x x x x x x x

x x

x

x

x x

x x

x x

x

50 ns

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3

µs

x x

x

x

200 ns

10

µs

X

X

X

X

X

X

X x x x x

User Manual 780000102/09 257

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Reflectometer plug-in available

Ranges for DR plug-ins

2 km

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

140 km

260 km

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

140 km

260 km

380 km

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

140 km

260 km

380 km

5 ns

x x x x

20 ns 100 ns 300 ns 1

µs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

3

µs x x x x x

10

µs x x x x

Ranges for HD plug-ins

10 ns 30 ns 100 ns 300 ns 1

µs

3

µs

10

µs

20

µs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Ranges for VHD and UHD plug-ins

10 ns 30 ns 100 ns 300 ns 1

µs

3

µs

10

µs

20

µs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

258 User Manual 780000102/09

5 km

10 km

20 km

40 km

80 km

140 km

260 km

380 km

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

WDM plug-ins

3 ns

x x x x x

Ranges for VLR plug-ins

30 ns 100 ns 300 ns 1

µs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

3

µs

10

µs

20

µs x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Dimensions and weight of

OTDR measurement plug-ins

Weight : approx. 500 g (1.1 lbs)

Dimensions (in mm, without front panel) :

– Width : 120

– Height :27

– Length : 211

WDM plug-ins

Typical specifications of WDM plugins

Typical specifications, measured at 25°C, unless otherwise indicated.

Plug-in

81WDM Module

S+C+L

Plug-in 81WDMPMD module

O+E+S+C+L

Wavelength

Range

Duration of sweep (in real time)

1485-1640 nm

1.5 s

1260-1640 nm

3s

User Manual 780000102/09 259

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

WDM plug-ins

Accuracy

1

Resolution of display

Minimum interval between channels

Optical Bandwidth (FWHM)

2

Power

Range of display

Resolution of display

Channel measurement range

3

Noise floor

4

Max. permissible power, before signal cut off:

- total

- per channel

Accuracy in power

5

Linearity

6

Flatness

7

Dependence on polarization

ORL

(Optical Return Loss)

ORR (Optical Rejection Ratio)

8

Plug-in

81WDM Module

S+C+L

Plug-in 81WDMPMD module

O+E+S+C+L

± 10 pm

1 pm

10 GHz (80 pm)

30 pm

- 90 dBm at + 30 dBm

0,01 dB

- 79 dBm at + 10 dBm

-86 dBm

+ 20 dBm

+ 10 dBm

± 0,5 dB max

± 0,2 dB

± 0,2 dB

± 0,05 dB ± 0,15 dB

35 dB

35 dB at 50 GHz from the carrier

40 dB at 100 GHz from the carrier

1. from -40 dBm to +5 dBm, in the range of 1525-1620 nm

2. in the range of 1525-1570 nm

3. @ 1550 nm, with averaging, -75 dBm without averaging

4. @ 1550 nm, with averaging, -81 dBm without averaging

5. at -30 dBm and 1550 nm, excluding the uncertainty relating to the input connector .

6. @ 1590 nm from 0 to -40 dBm

7. in the range of 1525 nm - 1620 nm (reference : 1550 nm)

8. on the basis of the peak of a single carrier, on the band 1530 nm - 1605 nm, at 0 dBm and with max. resolution

260 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

PMD plug-ins

Dimensions and weight of

WDM measurement plug-ins

Weight : approx. 500 g (1.1 lbs)

Dimensions (in mm, without front panel) :

– Width : 120

– Height :27

– Length : 211

PMD plug-ins

Typical values, measured at 25°C, unless specified otherwise.

Plug-in

Measurement time

1

Dynamic range

DGD

Measurement range

Uncertainty

81PMD 81WDMPMD

6 seconds

(independent of the PMD value)

Up to 45 dB

0.080 ps to 60 ps

2

± 0.020 ps / + 2% PMD

3

1. within 1485-1640 nm, without averaging

2. up to 150 ps for weak coupling

3. weak coupling for 0.1 ps to 60 ps DGD range, up to 35 dB budget loss

- traceable to NPL standard

4. weak coupling for 0.1 ps to 60 ps DGD range, up to 35 dB budget loss

- traceable to NPL standard

User Manual 780000102/09 261

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

CD modules

CD modules

Typical specifications of CD module

Typical values, measured at 25°C, unless otherwise specified.

CD specifications

Measurement time

Manual

Auto throughout the wavelength range

Dynamic

1

Minimum distance

2

Wavelength

Absolute accuracy of wavelength

Repeatability of dispersion coefficient

3

Dispersion range

Repeatability of dispersion slope

Module 5083 CD

from 30 s up to 120 km

10 km

1255 to 1650 nm

+/- 0.1 nm

+/- 0.2 ps/(nm*km)

0.1 ps at 100 ps/(nm*km)

+/- 1%

1. with automatic measurement and termination connector, 3-point measurement

2. on a non-saturated Fresnel

3. at 1550 nm, on a G652 fiber 75 km long

Source specifications

Wavelength (DFB lasers)

Spectrum width

Power stability over 24 h

1

Output power, calibrated

Output power, calibrated

Output power, Variable

1. after 15 minutes pre-heating

Module 5082 CD

1310

± 5 nm

1480

± 5 nm

1550

± 5 nm

< 10 pm

± 0,10 dB

1625

± 5 nm

1.5 dBm 3 dBm 3 dBm 3 dBm

-10 dB with respect to calibrated power

Laser class of source of CD modules

At 1310, 1480, 1550, 1625 nm: laser class 1.

262 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Information on «fiber» plug-ins 5020TF and 82LFSM2 / 82LFSM4

Spécifications du réflectomètre

Wavelength (DFB lasers)

CEI dynamic (guaranteed)

1

Dynamic RMS (typical)

2

Distance

Pulse width

Dead Zone

3

- Event (EDZ)

- Attenuation (ADZ)

Module 5083 CD

1310 ± 5 nm 1480± 5 nm

35 dB 33 dB

39 dB

1550± 5 nm

32,5 dB

38 dB 37 dB

380 km

10 ns to 20

µs

1625 ± 5 nm

33 dB

37 dB

6 m max.

30 m

1. Specified minimum value corresponding to the one-way difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the level containing 98% of noise, after 3 minutes of averaging.

2. Typical value corresponding to the difference (in dB) between the level of back-diffusion extrapolated at the beginning of the fiber and the RMS noise level, after 3 minutes of averaging.

3. Value with the shortest pulse:

EDZ measured at 1.5 dB below the peak of a non-saturated reflecting event

ADZ measured at +/- 0.5 dB on the basis of a linear regression from a reflectance of type FC/APC

(-50 dB).

Information on «fiber» plug-ins 5020TF and 82LFSM2 /

82LFSM4

5020TF plug-in

The 5020 TF single-mode and multi-mode modules contain two reels of fiber for use with a reflectometer. They are intended for training and demonstration and can be used as launch cable.

Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4

Fig. 96

Front panel of a «fiber» plug-in (ex 5020TF/SM)

User Manual 780000102/09 263

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Information on «fiber» plug-ins 5020TF and 82LFSM2 / 82LFSM4

NOTE

As these plug-ins are not test instruments, they are not supplied with a certificate of calibration.

Module 5020TF/MM

(Multimode)

Module 5020TF/SM

(Single-mode)

Type of fiber used

Recommended group indices

Length of fiber 1

Length of fiber 2

Attenuation of connectors

Corning MM

1.50140 @ 850nm ;

1.49660 @ 1310nm

300 ± 30 m

300 ± 30 m

0.5 dB

1

Corning SMF 28

1.46750 @ 1310nm ;

1.46810 @ 1550/1625nm

466 ± 23 m

1000 ± 50 m

1. Guaranteed at 1625 nm except for port 1 of fiber 2, connectors cleaned, in good conditions.

Recommendations for using fiber 2 (long fiber)

The attenuation per unit length of fiber 2 may be higher near port 1 :

– when measuring a dead zone it is preferable to connect the reflectometer to port 4.

– when measuring insertion loss of a connector situated after the launch cable, it is preferable to connect the reflectometer to port 1.

82LFSM2 /

82LFSM4 plugins

82LFSM2 / 82LFSM4 plug-ins contain one reel of singlemode fiber with two jumpers, to be used as a launch or receive cable with an OTDR.

These plug-ins can also be used for demonstration and training purpose.

NOTE

As these plug-ins are not test instruments, they are not supplied with a certificate of calibration.

Type of fiber used

Recommended group indices

82LFSM2 82LFSM4

Corning SMF 28 or SMF 28e

1.4677 @ 1310nm and 1.4682 @ 1550/1625nm

264 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

MTAU plug-ins

82LFSM2 82LFSM4

Length of fiber

Attenuation of connectors

2 km -0.02/+0.11 km 4 km -0.03/+0.21 km

< 0.5 dB

1

1. Connectors cleaned, in good conditions

MTAU plug-ins

All specifications are given at 25°C, excluding connectors.

Plug-in 81MTAU2

Wavelength range (nm)

Insertion Loss (max dB)

Return Loss (max dB)

PDL

1

(max dB)

Repeatability

2

(max dB)

1

1. Polarization Dependent Loss

2. At constant temperature and polarization

1260 - 1640

81MTAU3

50

0.1

0.01

1.5

BBS plug-ins

Specifications, measured at 25°C, unless otherwise mentioned.

Parameter 81 BBS1 81 BBS2

Wavelength range

Minimum spectral density (dBm

/ 0,1 nm)

Minimum spectral density (dBm

/ nm)

Output power (dBm)

Polarisation extinction ratio (dB)

Power consumption (Wh)

1480 - 1640 nm 1260 - 1640 nm

-42

1

-42

2

-32

> 4

> 10

4 a

-32

> 8

> 10

10 b

3

User Manual 780000102/09 265

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

OFI plug-ins

Parameter 81 BBS1

Operating temperature range

(°C)

-5 to 45°C

1. over 1480 - 1600 nm wavelength range

2. over 1270 - 1600 nm wavelength range

3. for each of the three SLEDs independently.

81 BBS2

-5 to 45°C

OFI plug-ins

There are preliminary specifications for the OFI 81xx.

266

Bi-directional loss specifications.

Specifications, measured at 25°C

NOTE

This applies to the 81xx OFI modules.

To ensure optimal use (bi-directional measurement and communication), two units are required.

Source function (also valid for source mode)

Laser type

Wavelength at 25° C

81xx OFI Module

Class 1 laser

1310+/-20 nm, 1490+/-3 nm,

1550+/-30 nm, 1625+/-5 nm

- 3.5 dBm Nominal output level into 9/125

µm fiber (CW mode)

Modulated output level

Level stability

Short term 15 min (

∆T = +/- 0.3

K)

1

Long term 8 hours (

∆T = +/- 3 K)

1

1. After 15 min warm up

3 dB lower

+/- 0.02 dB

+/- 0.2 dB

User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

OFI plug-ins

Bidirectional loss function (FOX port)

Dynamic range

Accuracy

1

Loop back

Side-by-side

Display resolution

Type of detector

Type of fiber

Precision of length measurement

1. After 15 minutes warm up.

81xx OFI Module

60 dB

+/-0.25 dB without optical connection uncertainty

+/-0.15 dB without optical connection uncertainty

0.01 dB

InGaAs

9 µm

+/- 1.5% (3 to 200 km)

Optical Return Loss

ORL measurement display range

Display resolution

Accuracy

81xx OFI Module

Up to 65 dB

0.01 dB tbd

User Manual 780000102/09 267

Chapter 16 Technical specifications

Warning

Standalone power meter

Standalone power meter functions

Wavelength range (adjustable per 1 nm)

Selectable wavelength

81xx OFI Module

800 to1650 nm

850 / 980 / 1300 / 1310 / 1420 / 1450

/ 1480 / 1490 / 1510 / 1550 / 1625 nm and one user-defined

850 / 1310 / 1490 / 1550 / 1625 nm Auto-

λ detection (if signals are emitted by a JDSU source)

Detected modulation 270 Hz, 330 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz

Display range

Accuracy

Detector type

Display resolution

Type of fiber

Standard High Power

+10 to -60 dBm

+/- 0.2 dB

(+5 dBm to -50 dBm)

Ge

+26 to -55 dBm

+/- 0.25 dB

(+23 dBm to -50 dBm)

Filtered InGaAs, 2 mm

0.01 dB

9 µm to 50 µm

Warning

Warning for 82PRINTER module, 81WDM, 81PMD, 81WDMPMD and

UHD and VLR plug-ins:

These are class A products. In a domestic environment, theses products may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.

268 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 17

Options and accessories

17

This chapter describes all the accessories and options available with the

MTS / T-BERD series.

The topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

“References of measurement plug-ins” on page 270

“User manual references” on page 273

“References of optical connectors and adapters” on page 274

User Manual 780000102/09 269

Chapter 17 Options and accessories

References of measurement plug-ins

References of measurement plug-ins

OTDR plug-ins

1

Short distance 34 dB 1310 nm

Short distance 32 dB 1550 nm

Short distance 34/32 dB 1310/1550 nm

Short distance 35 dB 1310 nm

Short distance 33 dB 1550 nm

Short distance 35/33 dB 1310/1550 nm

Medium distance 37 dB 1310 nm

Medium distance 35 dB 1550 nm

Medium distance 37/35 dB 1310/1550 nm

Long distance 42 dB 1310 nm

Long distance 40dB 1550 nm

Long distance 42/40 dB 1310/1550 nm

Long distance 40 dB 1625

Long distance 42/40/40 dB 1310/1550/1625 nm

Very long distance 44 dB 1310 nm

Very long distance 44 dB 1550 nm

Very long distance 44/44 dB 1310/1550 nm

Very long distance 44 dB 1625 nm

Very long distance 44/44 dB 1550/1625 nm

Ultra long distance 1550 nm

Very long distance 1310/1550 nm

Very long distance 1550/1625 nm

Very long distance 1310/1550/1625 nm

1. Supplied with its manual E8100M0X ( X depends on language)

Specify optical connector of each OTDR plug-in

*Oblique universal connector not available on 812XMM OTDR plug-ins

Reference

E8114SRe

E8115SRe

E8126SRe

E8114SR

E8115SR

E8126SR

E8114DR

E8115DR

E8126DR

E8114HD

E8115HD

E8126HD

E8117HD

E8136HD

E8114VHD

E8115VHD

E8126VHD

E8117VHD

E8129VHD

E8115UHD

E8126UHD

E8129UHD

E8136UHD

270 User Manual 780000102/09

Chapter 17 Options and accessories

References of measurement plug-ins

OTDR plug-in for calibration reports

OTDR plug-in for calibration ratios

Reference

E81OTDRCR

VLR, OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45 dB 1310 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 43 dB 1550 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 43 dB 1625 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 43 dB 1625 nm OTDR plug-in with filter

Very Long Range 1383 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 1490 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45/43 dB 1310/1550 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 43/43 dB 1550/1625 nm OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45/43/43 dB 1310/1550/1625 nm

OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45/43/43 dB 1310/1490/1550 nm

OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45/43/43 dB 1310/1383/1550 nm

OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 45/43/43 dB 1310/1383/1550 nm

OTDR plug-in

Very Long Range 42/40/40/40 dB 1310/1490/1550/

1625 nm OTDR plug-in

Reference

8114 VLR

8115 VLR

8117 VLR

8117R VLR

8118 VLR

8118 VLR 49

8126 VLR

8129 VLR

8136 VLR

8138 VLR 49

8138 VLR 38

8148 VLR 83

8148 VLR 49

WDM plug-ins

WDM plug-in Band S+C+L

PMD plug-ins

PMD Plug-in Band S+C+L

PMD + AP + WDM plug-in Band O+E+S+C+L

User Manual 780000102/09

Reference

E81WDM

Reference

E81PMD

E81WDMPMD

271

Chapter 17 Options and accessories

References of measurement plug-ins

PMD accessories

Optical variable polarizer (not necessary for 81XXX plug-ins)

Broadband source for PMD measurements

Reference

EOVP-15

EOBS-15

CD plug-ins

OTDR/CD module 1310/1480/1550/1625 - 35 dB

Reference

E5083 CD +

E50otdrExt

Reference

E508X/LS

CD options

Sources 1310/1480/1550/1625 DFB

CD accessories

Termination connector FC/PC & APC

Termination connector SC/PC & APC

Termination connector ST/PC

Termination connector E2000/HR&HRL

Reference

ETERM/CD/FC

ETERM/CD/SC

ETERM/CD/ST

ETERM/CD/E2000

MTAU plug-ins, 8100 series

Multi Test Access Unit offering 2 input ports

Multi Test Access Unit offering 3 input ports + 1 mirror

272

OFI plug-ins

1310/1550nm OFI plug-in module - standard power

1310/1550nm OFI plug-in module - high power

1310/1550/1625nm OFI plug-in module - standard power

1310/1550/1625nm OFI plug-in module - high power

1310/1490/1550nm OFI plug-in module - standard power

1310/1490/1550nm OFI plug-in module - high power

User Manual 780000102/09

Reference

E81MTAU2

E81MTAU3

Reference

E8126OFI1

E8126OFI2

E8136OFI1

E8136OFI2

E8132OFI1

E8132OFI2

Chapter 17 Options and accessories

User manual references

OFI Module option

ORL option for OFI plug-in module with mandrel

Reference

E81OFIORL

Application software Reference

Optical Fiber Trace Software for post-analysis EOFS100

Optical Fiber Cable Software Cable for Acceptance report generation EOFS200

BBS plug ins

BroadBand Source plug-in 1480/1640 nm

BroadBand Source plug-in 1260/1640 nm

Reference

E81BBS1

E81BBS2

Internal Printer modules, 8100 series

Internal Printer Module

Reference

E82PRINTER

Launch fiber modules for OTDR demo and test

1

Launch cable singlemode (1 fiber G652 - 2km)

Launch cable singlemode (1 fiber G652 - 4 km)

E82LFSM2

E82LFSM4

1. Two optical connectors must be specified when ordering each launch fiber module.

User manual references

User manuals for MTS/T-BERD plug-ins

User manual for modules, 8100 series (French)

User manual for modules, 8100 series (English)

User manual for modules, 8100 series (German)

E8100M01

E8100M02

E8100M03

User Manual 780000102/09 273

Chapter 17 Options and accessories

References of optical connectors and adapters

References of optical connectors and adapters

Optical connectors for plug-ins

1

OTDR Single-mode and WDM Fixed Connector

FC/PC Connector

FC/APC Connector (only for single-mode)

E2000 Connector (only for single-mode)

E2000/HRL Connector (only for single-mode)

EFCPC

EFCAPC

EE2000

EE2000HRL

1. A Connector (fixed or universal) must be specified at time of order

Front Panel Optical Connectors for plug-ins

1

Single-mode Universal OTDR and WDM Connector

Universal PC Connector with FC adapter

Universal PC Connector with SC adapter

Universal PC Connector with ST adapter

Universal PC Connector with DIN adapter

Universal PC Connector with LC adapter

Universal APC Connector for SM only with FC adapter

Universal APC Connector for SM only with SC adapter

Universal APC Connector for SM only with ST adapter

Universal APC Connector for SM only with DIN adapter

Universal APC Connector for SM only with LC adapter

EUNIPCFC

EUNIPCSC

EUNIPCST

EUNIPCDIN

EUNIPCLC

EUNIAPCFC

EUNIAPCSC

EUNIAPCST

EUNIAPCDIN

EUNIAPCLC

1. A connector (fixed or universal) must be specified at time of order of the plug-in

Additional Adapters for Universal Connectors

1

Universal FC Adapter

Universal SC Adapter

Universal ST Adapter

Universal DIN Adapter

Universal LC adapter

1. Interchangeable in the field

EUFCAD

EUSCAD

EUSTAD

EUDINAD

EULCAD

274 User Manual 780000102/09

Index

A

Accessories

269

Adapter reference

274

switch

20

types

20

Attenuation

13

,

63

,

configuration

144

measurement

147

results display

152

results table

154

183

Attenuation profile acquisition parameters

146

measurement parameters

146

measurement procedure

150

B

Backscatter coefficient

4

,

49

Battery on microprocessor board

21

BBS activation

216

function

216

remote interlock connector

217

Bend

47

,

59

User Manual 780000102/09

Bi-directionnal OTDR principle of measurement

4

C

CD acquisition parameters

159

analysis parameters

160

auto acquisition

164

Configuration

158

detection end of fiber

167

end of acquisition

166

manual acquisition

165

measurement conditions

164

measurement on section

174

measurement process

163

placing markers

168

results sreen parameters

161

source function

179

standards and limits

176

CD-ROM burning

232

Channel filtering (OSA)

113

Coefficient of dispersion

10

,

11

,

12

Coefficient of reflection

3

,

4

Commands external keyboard

33

CompactFlash

26

Connection

275

Index quality

52

Connectors references

274

Cursor

2 cursors method

68

5 cursors method

69

movement

36

resolution

253

selection

37

D

Data transfer

232

DFB analysis

6

configuration

118

measurements

118

results

119

Distance specif. OTDR measurement

253

I

G

expedition naming

Ghosts

50

229

222

H

High sensitivity WDM

98

Index of refraction specifications

253

L

Launch cable

49

Lower & upper thresholds (OFI)

186

E

EDFA configuration

114

measurement

115

results

116

Event macro

241

,

245

Event CD

163

,

165

,

169

,

170

Event OTDR

58

icons

60

External Keyboard

33

F

Fault Locator

Bend

73

,

74

configuration

72

function

72

test

73

Fibers standards

15

File configuration

220

M

Macro adding interaction

242

calling

240

Default

244

File

241

Playback

244

recording

240

renaming

243

rewrite

243

Standard

241

Macro bend

48

Mail file expedition

229

OFI,FOX function

201

Markers (OTDR)

65

addition

65

delete

66

hints

66

representation

65

Measurement attenuation (specif.)

253

distance (specif.)

253

User Manual 780000102/09 276

Index principle

1

reflectance (specif.)

253

reflectometry (specif.)

253

Memory

see File

Modules

BBS (specif.)

265

CD (specif.)

262

fibers

263

MTAU (specif.)

265

OTDR (list & refs.)

252

OTDR range

257

PMD (specif.)

261

WDM (specif.)

259

MTAU auto mode

211

configuration

209

manual mode

210

sequence test configuration

212

perform

213

O

OFI

Attenuator ext. (powermeter)

185

FOX

191

configuration

191

distant module

199

measurement acquisition

198

results display

200

send message

201

taking ref. loss

194

taking ref. ORL

196

Zero adjustment ORL

197

LTS attenuation measurement

13

,

183

Configuration

185

Connection

184

insertion loss measurement

14

,

183

power measurement

13

,

182

source configuration

187

Manual ORL

203

Measurement acquisition

204

reference

203

results

204

Power meter measurements

191

ref. measurement

190

zero setting

190

Source connection

184

Unit of power

185

Options

269

ORL manual measurement (OFI)

203

measurement (OTDR)

70

on saturated trace (OTDR)

70

OTDR acquisition parameters

45

automatic acquisition

53

Configuration

44

manual acquisition

55

manual measurement

ORL

70

manual measurements

66

measurement of slope

67

measurement of splice and reflectance

68

measurement parameters

47

multi-wavelength acquisition

56

principle of measurement

2

Real time acquisition

52

results screen parameters

49

table of results

59

contents

60

notes

62

uncertainty

63

OTDR Bi-dir.

acquisition parameters

80

adding markers

89

cable test

91

file management

90

measurement parameters

81

OEO results

89

OEO traces

88

Origin and end traces

88

performing measurement

82

troubleshooting

91

Overlay traces adding

41

display

40

removing

42

Overlaying traces

WDM

113

User Manual 780000102/09 277

Index

P

PMD abacus

141

acquisition parameters

126

configuration

124

Display of results

135

fiber parameters

128

graphic display

137

information messages

138

local operator

129

Measurement procedure

132

method used

8

principle of measurement

7

reference measurement

129

remote operator

129

results screen parameters

128

Spectrum/FFT

135

standards and limits

140

statistics

137

PMD coefficient

9

Printer exposing

248

loading paper

249

module function

248

printing page

250

setting

250

R

Ref. power (power meter)

190

Reflectance definition

3

result in OTDR table

61

specif. measurement

253

S

Shift

38

Attenuation Profile

154

CD

168

,

170

CD trace

168

,

170

PMD

137

Signal threshold WDM)

100

User Manual 780000102/09

T

Table Notes

OTDR

49

Technical specifications

251

Threshold

OTDR fiber end

47

reflections

47

splice

47

U

Universal connector cleaning

21

USB memory stick

27

User manual references

273

W

Wavelength

OTDR specifications

252

WDM specifications

259

WDM/OSA acquisition parameters

98

Configuration

96

difference between 2 traces

(OSA)

42

display param. and analysis alarms

104

grid

102

measurement parameters

100

results display

108

SNR parameters

101

Table results notes

112

table results

110

Z

Zoom

Attenuation Profile

153

CD

170

OTDR

58

PMD

137

WDM/OSA

107

278

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www.jdsu.com

8100M02/UM/10-06/AE

Rev. 09, 10-06

English

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