GE_UM_NFF SIP_E - GE Healthcare Life Sciences

GE_UM_NFF SIP_E - GE Healthcare Life Sciences
GE Healthcare
NFF Steam In Place
28-9137-77 AA
Table of contents
Introduction
3
General principles
4
Steam quality
The temperature pressure relationship
Differential pressure
Filter housing installation
Condensate removal
Steam traps
Integrity testing
Cartridge filter steam life
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
6
Practical SIP
6
Steam-in-Place procedures
7
Forward Steam-in-Place procedure liquid filter applications
Forward Steam-in-Place procedure air filter applications
Reverse Steam-in-Place procedure air filter applications
2
User Manual
7
8
9
Introduction
The ability of a cartridge filter to be sterilized in situ within its
housing represents a significant operational advantage for many
filter users. Steam in place (SIP) avoids the need to use chemical
sanitizing agents or to compromise the integrity of the filtration
installation, minimizes operator hands-on time and plant downtime and can be easily incorporated into automated production
facilities. To achieve reproducible sterilization conditions (typically
a minimum of 121°C for 30 minutes) and to avoid damage to the
installed filter cartridge(s), it is important to carefully design and
monitor SIP procedures. Factors including steam temperature and
quality, condensate removal, differential pressure and cooling
cycles need to be considered.
The purpose of this document is to detail the recommended
methods of SIP for GE Healthcare cartridge filters, to avoid accidental damage to cartridges and maximize the steam life of
installed filters.
Validation and product certification
To certify that GE Healthcare products meet the required regulatory
and quality standards of the industries we supply, all filters are
supplied with a certificate of quality. These certificates are linked
to validation guides for both pre-filter and sterilizing grade
membrane filter cartridges that define methodologies and data
appropriate to each filter type. This information typically includes:
• technical specifications
• biological safety testing including Current USP<88> Class VI 121°C Plastics
• extractable testing including 21 CFR 211.72 and 210.3(b), (6) for
fiber releasing filters
• effluent quality including TOC, bacterial endotoxins, water
conductivity and particle release
• chemical compatibility information
GE Healthcare - Setting the standard
GE Healthcare brings extensive experience through our scientists,
engineers and sales representatives to the process of offering
specific filtration systems to meet the needs of your production
process. Support services are available covering a wide range of
activities including scale up advice from laboratory through pilot
scale to production systems, validation support, design and manufacturing of custom housings and filtration products and on-site
technical support.
• thermal stability
• correlation of a non-destructive integrity test to a defined
bacterial challenge
Validation support services
GE Healthcare has extensive laboratory facilities and trained
personnel capable of providing a range of validation support
services to support manufacturers in meeting their requirements
for process validation relating to the use of filtration products.
Committed to quality
Quality is of paramount importance to GE Healthcare. As
such GE Healthcare is certified to ISO 9001, providing a quality
management system that covers the entire organization from
R&D, production, warehousing, materials management and
customer support. In addition, our manufacturing facilities
operate to the principles of cGMP.
User Manual
3
General principles
Steam Quality
Condensate
Optimum steam sterilization of filter cartridges can be achieved
using dry steam. Wet steam (steam containing a high level of condensed water) will not flow easily through the filter. This resistance
to flow will generate increased differential pressure across the filter at elevated temperatures, conditions which cause the maximum stress to the filter cartridge. Condensate should therefore be
removed by a manual valve or an automated steam trap, located
as close to the filter as possible, to avoid condensate contact with
the filter.
Particulates
Many steam lines suffer from corrosion over a prolonged time
period. This can introduce particulates into the steam which will
be retained by the filter being steamed. This will accelerate the
rate of filter blockage or worse, cause damage to the filter. Pipe
corrosion can result in metal fragments which when carried to the
filter could puncture the support materials and membrane.
Chemical Activities
Chemicals are often added to the feed water in steam generators.
These chemicals will form part of the steam and so will contact
the filter cartridge being steam sterilized. Most standard steamgenerator additives do not pose any problem for the steam filter
or filter cartridge being sterilized. If you have any doubt regarding
steam generator additives please contact Technical Support.
The temperature pressure relationship
There is a direct relationship between steam temperature and
pressure. Increasing the steam pressure facilitates an increase in
the temperature of the pressurized steam. The following graph
illustrates this relationship.
As saturated steam is pressurized its temperature increases. To
assure sterility, it is typically recommended that a temperature of
121°C be maintained over at least 30 minutes. A pressure of 1.1
barg is required to achieve this temperature (actually equates to
121.8°C). However, 1.0 barg equates to 120.2°C and so would not
be sufficient to give a high degree of assurance that sterility has
been achieved. It is therefore important that appropriate devices
are installed to directly record either steam temperature or the
pressure.
Differential pressure
Filters should generally be supplied with steam from the upstream
side (normal flow direction). Steam flow from the downstream side
should be avoided. Reverse flow should not be used for liquid filters. Steam should not be applied to both sides of the filter at the
same time as this can potentially trap a pocket of dry air between
the steam supplies, reducing the heat transfer to the filter and
therefore negatively impacting the steam sterilization conditions.
During normal steam sterilization cycles, as steam is applied to
the filter housing, air is purged from the system such that saturated steam contacts and heats all the filter and housing surfaces.
As the steam heats and subsequently flows through the cartridge
filter, there will be an inherent resistance to that flow. The amount
of resistance to the steam flow is measured as a drop in pressure
across the filter and is called the differential pressure.
Differential
Pressure
=
Upstream Steam
Pressure
-
Downstream
Steam Pressure
Steam pressure can be expressed in two forms:
1. Absolute pressure, which includes atmospheric pressure.
Therefore sterilization would require 2.1 bar (absolute).
2. Gauge pressure is the pressure above atmospheric pressure.
Therefore sterilization would require 1.1 bar (gauge).
Temperature Pressure Relationship
The differential pressure can be influenced by many factors
including the micron rating of the cartridge filter, the degree of
blockage due to retained contamination, the influence of condensate and the rate of steam flow through the cartridge filter. While
filter cartridges can withstand high differential pressures (up to 5
barg) at ambient temperature, it is important to limit differential
pressure at elevated temperature.
135
Temperature (°C)
130
125
120
115
110
105
100
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Pressure bar (Gauge)
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids. SI units by G.F.C Rogers and Y.R Mayhew.
Oxford Basil Blackwell 1981 (0631 128913).
4
User Manual
2.0
When a cartridge filter is heated to 121°C or higher, this procedure
places significant stress on the unit. During the SIP process the
physical properties of the cartridge filter components are weakened at elevated temperature (e.g. increased plasticity of polymers). It is therefore important that at temperatures of 121°C or
higher, the differential pressure across the filter cartridge not
exceed 0.3 barg. Differential pressure above this level may lead
to filter damage.
Consideration of process parameters to limit differential pressure
during SIP is therefore critical and includes:
1. Ensuring efficient condensate removal during the entire
SIP cycle.
2. Minimizing steam flow rates through the cartridge filter.
3. Minimizing the downstream pipework steamed through the
filter cartridge.
4. Control and measurement of the temperature and differential
pressure during filter cartridge SIP.
5. Removal, post SIP, of as much of the steam as is practical to
reduce condensate formation in the cartridge filter. This is
particularly relevant for hydrophobic gas filter cartridges.
6. Controlled cooling of filter cartridges post SIP, to ensure
hydrophobic filter cartridges are not blinded by condensate.
7. Controlled cooling of filter cartridges post SIP to prevent potential thermal shock by crash cooling or cold product introduction.
Filter housing installation
The following considerations should be given to the installation of
filter housings that will be steam sterilized:
• The installation should ensure that condensate cannot accumulate in the housing. Housings or upstream pipework should
therefore be fitted with condensate drains.
Condensate removal is particularly important when steam sterilizing hydrophobic gas filter cartridges.
• The cartridge and housing should be in a normal orientation
(vertical, with the open end of the cartridge pointing downwards).
• The pipework downstream of the filter housing should be as
short as possible. GE Healthcare recommends a maximum of
100cm. Tanks downstream of the filter should always be steam
sterilized separately.
• Pressure gauges capable of accurate reading over the minimum range of 0-3bar at the SIP temperature should be
installed upstream and downstream of the filter housing, to
allow differential pressure measurement.
• The pipework should be positioned at a slight incline allowing
gravity to collect the steam condensate at a steam drain or
steam trap.
• Length of pipeline, relative to steam flow rate, may result in
pressure loss. The length of steam supply pipework should be
kept to a minimum.
Condensate removal
While saturated steam behaves as a gas and so flows easily
through filters, contact with any cool surface (e.g. stainless steel
housings or pipework) will lead to the generation of condensate as
the steam cools. In some systems, very large volumes of condensate may be generated due to this process (e.g. multiple cartridge
housings, extended pipework etc). In any case, the removal of
condensate from any SIP system is important for a number of reasons:
1. Condensate can ‘blind’ both hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes to steam flow, potentially leading to filter damage due to
the development of high differential pressures across the membrane at high temperature.
2. Condensate will be at a temperature below the required steam
sterilization temperature. It is therefore important to remove
condensate to ensure effective steam sterilization.
3. Hydraulic shock may occur due to ‘slugs’ of steam being forced
through the line. In designing process systems, the effects of
condensate generation can also be minimized by ensuring that
housings are not located at the bottom of long pipe runs, or
that these are steam sterilized separately from the filter.
Steam traps
As discussed above, the removal of condensate from systems is
important to ensure efficient steam sterilization. A thermodynamic
steam trap or condensate trap is a mechanical valve to remove
condensate. They are located at points upstream and downstream of the filter where condensate would collect (i.e. low points
in the system). These steam traps work on the principle that as
condensate collects the temperature at the trap falls below that
required for effective steam sterilization (121°C). At this point the
valve opens, drains the condensate and draws in live steam from
the steam supply. Steam traps can be replaced by a manual valve
that is left slightly open, but requires control by a skilled operator
to ensure effective condensate removal without draining excessive steam.
Integrity testing
Steam sterilization under carefully controlled conditions is an
accepted process operation for filter cartridges. However, this
does represent an aggressive process condition and can lead to
filter damage should steam sterilization conditions deviate from
controlled norms. It is therefore recommended that filter cartridges are integrity-tested in-situ after steam sterilization and
before use. For advice on in-situ integrity testing of filter cartridges please refer to GE Healthcare Technical Support.
User Manual
5
Cartridge filter steam life
Recommended maximum steam life for GE Healthcare filter cartridges at a range of temperatures is shown in Table 1. It should
be noted that these are provided as guidelines as actual filter life
will depend on individual steam sterilization conditions.
Filter type
SIP
temperature
(ºC)
Single cycle
exposure time
(mins)
Maximum
number
of cycles
ULTA PURE SG
130
30
30
ULTA PURE HC
130
30
30
ULTA PRIME CG
130
30
30
ULTA PRIME PP
135
30
30
ULTA PRIME GF
121
30
10
Practical SIP
The following sections in this guide provide step by step procedures for developing SIP protocols in three operational conditions:
1. Liquid filters steamed in the forward direction. The steam flows
in the same direction as the liquid product (from outside to
inside of the filter cartridge). The filter has a membrane that
is hydrophilic.
2. Gas filters steamed in the forward direction. The steam flows
in the same direction as the gas product (from outside to
inside of the filter cartridge). The filter has a membrane that
is hydrophobic.
3. Gas filters steamed in the reverse direction. The steam flows in
the opposite direction (inside to outside of the filter cartridge) to
the designed direction of flow for the gas product. The filter has
a membrane that is hydrophobic.
Each procedure has a system diagram and valve sequence table
to illustrate the step by step procedure. The procedures represent
ideal systems for SIP, which may not be identical to existing systems. For recommendations, modifications or more information
regarding these procedures please contact the GE Healthcare
Technical Support Group.
6
User Manual
Forward Steam-in-Place procedure
liquid filter applications
1. Set the valves to positions indicated for pre Steam-In-Place.
2. Drain the product from the filter system and associated
pipework. Opening valve V5 will aid this process.
3. Open valve V1 and allow the steam condensate to drain until
the steam trap below valve V3 closes. Close valve V9.
4. Slowly open V3 allowing steam into the system: this will flow
across the filters and through valve V4 & V5. This will allow the
heating of the housing, the filters and associated pipework
without generating a significant differential pressure across the
filters. Note: The steam trap below valve V3 & V4 will receive the
condensate and will repeatedly open and close.
5. When ‘live’ steam flows from valve V5, close valve V5. This will
direct the steam through the heated filter, close valve V10.
6. Observe the pressure gauges P1 and P2 and control the steam
flow rate at valve V3 to ensure the differential pressure does not
exceed 0.2 - 0.3 barg.
7. When the steam trap below valve V6 closes, the steam pressure
will begin to rise.
8. Ensure the steam pressure/temperature does not exceed the
maximum allowable pressure/temperature for the cartridge
type being steamed. If reading from pressure gauges it is
recommended the maximum steam pressure is 2.0 barg in the
forward direction.
9. Steam sterilize the cartridges for 30 minutes ensuring the conditions stated in steps 5 to 7 are followed. The valves should
now be in positions indicated for Steam-In-Place.
10. On completion of the Steam-In-Place cycle, close V4, V6, V3
and V1 in that order.
11. Slowly open V10 to release the steam pressure from the filter
system and associated pipework. When the pressure on P2
reads 0.1 barg pressure close valve V10. Fully open valve V9 to
release the remaining steam pressure from the filter system.
When the pressure on P1 reads 0.1 barg pressure, close valve V9.
12. Allow the system to cool for 30 minutes. The valves should
now be in the positions indicated for post Steam-In-Place.
NOTES:
1. A double downstream valve (V7, V8) is recommended so that
under the cartridge steaming protocol the valves sealing faces
of V7 can be effectively sterilized. The sealing valve faces of V8
can be similarly sterilized when the tank is steamed. When
steam sterilizing the tank, V7 would be closed and V6 and V8
open. Normally the tank would be steamed separately before
steaming the filter. If the filter is steamed before steaming the
tank it is recommended that valve V7 is closed in the post
Steam-In-Place settings to maintain sterility. The valve V7 must
be closed during Step 10.
2. Valve V7 should be installed horizontally and valve V6 / steam
trap installed immediately downstream of V7.
3. All drains should be fitted vertically to allow liquid removal.
4. Large volume downstream systems should not be steamed
through the filter; e.g. when steaming process tanks a secondary steam supply should be used.
User Manual
7
Forward Steam-in-Place procedure air
filter applications
1. Set the valves to positions indicated for pre Steam-In-Place.
2. Open valve V1 and allow the steam condensate to drain until
the steam trap below valve V3 closes.
3. Slowly open V3 allowing steam into the system: this will flow
across the filters and through valve V4 & V5. This will allow the
heating of the housing, the filters and associated pipework
without generating a significant differential pressure across the
filters. Note: The steam trap below valve V3 & V4 will receive the
condensate and will repeatedly open and close.
7. Ensure the steam pressure/temperature does not exceed the
maximum allowable pressure/temperature for the cartridge
type being steamed. If reading from pressure gauges it is recommended the maximum steam pressure is 3.0 barg in the forward direction.
8. Steam sterilize the cartridges for 30 minutes ensuring the conditions stated in steps 5 to 7 are followed. The valves should
now be in positions indicated for Steam-In-Place.
9. On completion of the Steam-In-Place cycle, close V4, V6, V3 and
V1 in that order.
10. Fully open V5 to flash-dry the filter (or 10a).
4. When ‘live’ steam flows from valve V5, close valve V5. This will
direct the steam through the heated filter.
10a. Open V2 to allow compressed air into the system. The pressure of the air should be no more than 0.5 barg above the
steam pressure.
5. Observe the pressure gauges P1 and P2 and control the steam
flow rate at valve V3 to ensure the differential pressure does not
exceed 0.2 - 0.3 barg.
11. Allow the system to cool for 15 minutes, then close V5 (flashdry only). The valves should now be in the positions indicated
for post Steam-In-Place.
6. When the steam trap below valve V6 closes, the steam pressure
will begin to rise.
NOTES:
1. A double downstream valve (V7, V8) is recommended so that
under the cartridge steaming protocol the valves sealing faces
of V7 can be effectively sterilized. The sealing valve faces of V8
can be similarly sterilized when the tank is steamed. When
steam sterilizing the tank, V7 would be closed and V6 and V8
open. Normally the tank would be steamed separately before
steaming the filter. If the filter is steamed before steaming the
tank it is recommended that valve V7 is closed in the post
Steam-In-Place prior to maintain sterility (step 9).
2. Valve V7 should be installed horizontally and valve V6 / steam
trap installed immediately downstream of V7.
3. All drains should be fitted vertically to allow liquid removal.
4. Large volume downstream systems should not be steamed
through the filter; e.g. when steaming process tanks a secondary steam supply should be used.
5. Installation/use of GE Healthcare air filter housings which utilize
a plenum chamber are recommended, as this facilitates the
collection and drainage of condensate.
6. When steaming in the reverse direction please contact GE
Healthcare Technical Support for guidance.
8
User Manual
Reverse Steam-in-Place procedure air
filter applications
1. Set the valves to positions indicated for pre Steam-In-Place.
2. Open valve V1 and allow the steam condensate to drain until
the steam trap below valve V2 closes.
being steamed. Continue to monitor the P using gauges P1 and
P2. If the differential pressure exceeds 100 mbar stop the sterilization procedure and rectify the cause of the pressure drop
before proceeding with the sterilization routine.
7. Steam sterilize the cartridges for 30 minutes. The valves should
now be in the positions indicated for Steam-In-Place. (This
method is typically suited to single cartridge systems).
3 Slowly open V2 allowing steam into the system.
4. Observe the pressure gauges P1 and P2 and control the steam
flow rate at valve V2 to ensure the P across the filter does not
exceed 0.1 barg. If the P exceeds 100 mbar stop the sterilization procedure and rectify the cause of the pressure drop before
proceeding with the sterilization routine.
5. When line steam flows from valve V6, close valve V6. When the
steam trap below valve V5 closes, the steam pressure will begin
to rise.
8. On completion of the steam cycle time, close V5, V2, V1 in that
order and then rapidly open V6 to flash dry the filter (or 8a).
8a. Isolate steam supply and open V7 to allow air into the system.
The pressure of the air should be no more than 0.5 barg above
the steam pressure.
9. Allow the system to cool for 15 minutes then close V6, the
valves should now be in positions indicated for post Steam-InPlace.
6. Ensure steam pressure/temperature does not exceed the maximum allowable pressure/temperature for the cartridge type
NOTES:
1. A double downstream valve (V4, V3) is recommended so that
under the cartridge steaming protocol the valve sealing faces of
V4 can be effectively sterilized - the sealing valve faces of V3
can be similarly sterilized when the tank is steamed. When
steam sterilizing the tank V4 should be closed and valve V3
open. To ensure adequate drainage at V3, there should be a
slight fall in the pipework between V3 and the tank. As the
same steam supply is used to sterilize the tank as well as the filter. A steam filter of a suitable flow rate capacity must be
selected.
2. All drains should be fitted vertically to allow liquid removal.
3. There should be a ‘fall’ in the pipework from V3 so that liquid
can drain into the tank.
4. Large volume downstream systems should not be steamed
through the filter; e.g. when steaming process tanks a secondary steam supply should be used.
5. Installation/use of GE Healthcare air filter housings which utilize
a plenum chamber are recommended, as this facilitates the collection and drainage of condensate.
6. Valve V7 should be placed as close as possible to the filter
housing. If long lengths of pipe are present, the initial steam
flows will be high as the downstream volume is pressurized.
This high steam flow can change the cartridge.
User Manual
9
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