ADAM-4500 Series
ADAM-4500 Series
Ethernet-enabled Communication
Controller with I/O Modules
User's Manual
Copyright Notice
This document is copyrighted, 1997, by Advantech Co., Ltd. All
rights are reserved. Advantech Co., Ltd., reserves the right to make
improvements to the products described in this manual at any time without
notice.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, translated or
transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of
Advantech Co., Ltd. Information provided in this manual is intended to be
accurate and reliable. However, Advantech Co., Ltd. assumes no responsibility
for its use, nor for any infringements upon the rights of third parties, which may
result from its use.
Acknowledgments
ADAM is a trademark of Advantech Co., Ltd.
IBM and PC are trademarks of International Business
Machines Corporation.
Edition 2.0
May
2008
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 System Overview.……..................…..................……..
1-1
1.1 Introduction .........…................................….........….…………. 1-2
1.2 Features ..................….........................…….............…....…….. 1-3
1.3 ADAM-4501/4501D Controllers Specification………….……...1-7
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines..................….................…....... 2-1
2.1 System Requirements…………………………………....….......
2.2 Hardware Installation …………….....................……...............
2.3 System Wiring and Connections.....................……...............
2.4 Software Installation….................................……….................
2-2
2-3
2-5
2-12
Chapter 3 I/O Modules ..................................................…............. 3-1
3.1 System Hardware Configuration……………………...….........
3.2 Install Utility on Host PC………….………………..…...............
3.3 ADAM-4500 Series Utility Overview..………………….……....
3.4 Initialize Drive D to Default Settings……………….....…........
3.5 Configure IP Address and HTTP/FTP User/Password……...
3.6 Download and Run Application Program Automatically
After Boot Up ………………………………………………….....
3.7 Backup Drive D as Image File …………………………….......
3.8 Restore Drive D from Image File …........................…...........
3-2
3-2
3-6
3-11
3-15
3-18
3-23
3-27
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions..................…......... 4-1
4.1 FTP Server..................................................................…..........
4.2 HTTP Server................................................................…..........
4.3 Send Mail ………………………………........................…..........
4.4 Modbus/TCP Server ………………................…......................
4.5 Modbus/TCP Client ......………………….................…….........
4.6 Modbus/RTU Slave …………………………………......…….....
4.7 Modbus/RTU Master ………………………..................…….....
4.8 TCP Server and Client .……………………..................…….....
4-6
4-9
4-24
4-31
4-38
4-42
4-49
4-53
4.9 UDP Connection …..….……………………..................…….....
4.10 FTP Client ………………….………………..................…….....
4-66
4-75
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library ..…..................... 5-1
5.1 Introduction ………………………..............................…........... 5-2
5.2 Category of Function Libraries ..………................................. 5-7
5.3 Function Library Description ................................................. 5-12
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility .....................................…..................... 6-1
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application......…..................... 7-1
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure ......................…......... A-1
Appendix B RS-485 Network ……................................…............. B-1
Appendix C Grounding Reference ......................…..................... C-1
1
System Overview
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.1 Introduction
Standalone Data Acquisition and Control System
As the growth of PC-based technology, Advantech
PC-based Programmable Controllers have been widely applied
in variety of industrial
automation
applications.
Shrunk
from the original ADAM-5510 series controller, the ADAM4500 Series Controller
is
a
new
series
of
stand-alone
programmable
communication controller. It does not only support high memory
capacity, user- friendly
configuration
tool,
rich
serial
communication interfaces,
but also support Ethernet port available and original libraries on
specific models. Applying the ADAM-4500 Series Controller, the
C programmers would be able to handle any complex task easily.
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller is a compact-sized
Ethernet- enabled communication controller under x-86 CPU
architecture. It supports not only Ethernet interface but also 4
serial ports, which lets ADAM-4500 Series Controller be very
suitable
for
industrial communication
and
control
applications. The Ethernet-enabled features include built-in
HTTP Server, FTP Server and E-mail functions. The
modularized I/O design provides high flexibility for versatile
application requirements. ADAM-4500 Series Controller also
supports rich Modbus function libraries including
Modbus/RTU (Master and Slave) and Modbus/TCP (Server
and Client) function libraries.
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller includes following models:
-
ADAM-4501
-
ADAM-4501D
Ethernet-Enabled Communication Controller
with 8 DI/O
Ethernet-Enabled Communication Controller
with 8 DI/O and LED Display
1-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2 Features
The system of ADAM-4500 Series Controller consists of two major
components: the main unit and I/O modules. The
main unit includes the communication ports, CPU ….and
so on. The I/O Module of ADAM-4501/4501D includes the 8
digital I/O channels. Besides,
the
ADAM-4501D
also
includes 7-segment display to show needed information.
1.2.1 Control flexibility with C programming
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller includes an 80188 CPU and a
built-in ROM-DOS operating system. It can be used in
a way similar to how one uses an x86 PC in the office.
Programmers in
C can write and compile applications in Borland C
3.0
and download
to
the
ADAM-4500
Series
Controller.
Given
the prevalence
of
C
language
programming tools, this is a distinct advantage for many
users and can result in a very short learning curve and very
modest training expense requirements.
1.2.2 RS-232/485 communication ability
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has four serial communication
ports, giving it excellent communication abilities. This facilitates its
ability to control networked devices. The communication ports of
different models are listed as below table.
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4/Prog
ADAM-4501/4501D
RS-232(Full modem signal)
RS-485
RS-485
RS-485/RS-232
Table 1-1 Communication Ports of ADAM-4501/4501D Controller
ADAM-4501/4501D COM1 is a dedicated RS-232 port, COM2 and
COM3 are dedicated RS-485 port, and the fourth communication
port is shared by COM4 and Programming port. It is a selectable
port by using jumper.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-3
Chapter 1 System Overview
These four ports allowed the ADAM-4501/4501D to satisfy diverse
communication and integration demands. Programming port is for
downloading or transferring executable programs from a host PC
to ADAM-4500 Series Controller. It can also be used as an RS232 communication port (Refer to section 2.2.1 to see
how to configure
COM4
as
Programming
port
or
standard
RS-232 communication port). Please refer to
following figure to check the location of COM ports.
Figure 1-1 ADAM-4501 Communication Ports
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Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2.3 Versatile
Libraries
Protocols
of
Communication
Function
The communication protocol of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller
is user-defined and there are library functions of
MODBUS/RTU protocol
and
MODBUS/TCP
protocol
available
for
users.
Of course,
users
can
implement
ASCII-based
command
and response
protocol by themselves. The function libraries include
following protocols.
-
MODBUS/RTU Master Function for connecting to remote I/O
modules via RS-485 port
MODBUS/RTU Slave Function for connecting to HMI/SCADA
software via RS-485 port
MODBUS/TCP Server Function for connecting to HMI/SCADA
software via Ethernet port.
MODBUS/TCP Client Function for connecting to
Ethernet- enabled remote I/O modules via Ethernet port.
1.2.4 Built-in ROM and RAM disk for programming
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has built-in Flash Memory and
SRAM for file downloading, system operation and data storage. It
provides 1MB file system (960 KB free for users to
download programs). There are also 640KB SRAM to provide
the memory needed
for
efficient
application
operation
and file
transfer. Moreover, users are allowed to decide the
battery backup memory size up to 384KB in the SRAM.
1.2.5 Built-in real-time clock and watchdog timer
The micro-controller also includes a real-time clock and watchdog
timer. The real-time clock records events while they
occur. The watchdog timer
is designed
to
automatically
reset
the
microprocessor if the system fails. This feature greatly
reduces the level of maintenance required and makes
the ADAM-4500
Series Controller ideal for use in applications which
required a high level of system stability.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-5
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2.6 Built-in Ethernet Port
The Ethernet port on ADAM-4500 Series Controller can perform
powerful function as following:
-
FTP Server and Client Function
Web Server Function
Send Mail Function
TCP and UDP Connection by Sockets
1-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3 ADAM-4501/4501D Controllers Specification
1.3.1 System
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CPU: 16-bit microprocessor
Memory:
1.5MB Flash memory
- 256KB system Disk (Drive C: Read Only)
- 256KB flash memory (Accessed by Function LIB)
- 1024KB file system, 960KB for user applications (Drive
D: Read/Write)
640KB SRAM
- up to 384KB with battery backup (Accessed by
Function LIB)
Operating System: ROM-DOS (MS-DOS 6.22 Compatible)
Real-time Clock: yes
Watchdog Timer: yes
RS-232 interface: COM1
RS-485 interface: COM2, COM3
RS-232/485 interface: Programming Port & COM4 (Select by
jumper setting)
LAN port x 1: 10/100Base-T
On-board I/O Capacity:
Digital Input 4 Channels
Dry Contact:
Logic level 0: Close to GND
Logic level 1: Open
Wet Contact:
Logic level 0: +2 V max.
Logic level 1: 4 V ~ 30 V
Digital Output 4 Channels
Open Collector to +40 V, 200 mA (maximum load)
1.3.2 RS-232 interface (COM1)
• Signals: TxD, RxD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR, DCD, RI, GND
• Mode: Asynchronous full duplex, point to point
• Connector: DB-9 pin
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance: 50 feet (15.2 m)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-7
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.3 RS-485 interface (COM2 & COM3)
• Signals: DATA+, DATA• Mode: Half duplex, multi-drop
• Connector: Screw terminal
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance: 4000 feet (1220 m)
1.3.4 RS-485/232 interface (COM4 and programming port)
• RS-232/485 Mode Selectable (Select by jumper setting)
• RS-232 Mode (Programming port): Full duplex, point to point
Signals: TxD, RxD, GND
• RS-485 Mode: Half duplex, multi-drop
Signals: DATA+, DATA• Connector: Screw terminal
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance:
RS-232: 50 feet (15.2 m)
RS-485: 4000 feet (1220 m)
1.3.5 Power
• Unregulated +10 to +30 VDC
• Power consumption: 2.0 W (Typically)
1.3.6 Mechanical
• Case: ABS and PC
• Plug-in screw terminal block: two 9-pin plug in screw terminals
Accepts #14~22 AWG (0.6~1.6 mm2)
1.3.7 Environment
• Operating temperature: -10° to 70° C (14° to 158° F)
• Storage temperature: -25° to 85° C (-13° to 185° F)
• Humidity: 5 to 95 %, non-condensing
• Atmosphere: No corrosive gases
Note: Equipment will operate below 30% humidity. However,
static electricity problems occur much more frequently. Make sure
you take adequate precautions when you touch the equipment.
1-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.8 Dimensions
The following diagrams show the dimensions of the system unit and
an I/O unit. All dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 1-2 ADAM-4500 Series Controller Dimension
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-9
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.9 LED Status
There are four LED lights on the ADAM-4500 Series. The PWR, RUN
and COMM LED can be controlled using ADAM-4500 Series
library LED OFF and LED ON (refer to section 5.3.1).
BATT LED is the battery status indicator. This LED will
be on whenever the SRAM backup battery is low.
1.3.10 ADAM-4500 Series Controller System Architecture
Figure 1-3 ADAM-4500 Series Controller System Architecture
1-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
2
Installation Guidelines
Chapter 2 Installation
This chapter explains how to install an ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
A quick hookup scheme is provided that let you easily configure your
system before implement it into your application.
2.1 System Requirements
Before you start to install the ADAM-4500 Series Controller,
make sure the system requirements as below:
2.1.1
Host Computer Requirements
1.
IBM PC compatible computer with 486 CPU (Pentium grade is
recommended).
2.
Microsoft XP/2000/NT/98/95 or higher versions.
3.
DOS version 3.31 or higher.
3.
Borland C 3.0 for DOS.
4.
At least 32 MB RAM.
5.
20 MB of hard disk space available
6.
VGA color monitor.
7.
2x or higher speed CD-ROM.
8.
Mouse or other pointing devices.
9.
At least one standard RS-232 port (e.g. COM1, COM2).
10. One RS-485 card or RS-232 to RS-485 converter (e.g.
ADAM-4520) for system communication.
11. Hub or Switch for Ethernet connection.
2-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
2.2 Hardware Installation
2.2.1
Jumper Settings
This section tells you how to set the jumpers to
configure your ADAM-4500 Series Controller. It provides system
default configuration and your options for each jumper. There are four
jumpers on the CPU card:
JP2 is for the reset mode setting.
JP5 is for battery backup RAM setting.
JP6 & JP7 is for COM4 communication mode selection setting.
The following figure shows the location of the jumpers:
Figure 2-1 ADAM-4500 Series Jumper Definition
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-3
Chapter 2 Installation
Reset Mode Setting
Jumper JP2 on the CPU card lets you configure the reset mode:
1.
Watchdog timer reset mode: if watchdog timer is enable, it have
to be cleared at least once every 1.6 seconds, or the system will
reboot. Please refer section 5.3.1 to see how to use
function library to configure watchdog timer.
2.
NMI (Non-maskable interrupt) reset mode: once the
NMI is
activated, the system will reboot.
3.
Non-reset mode: there is no reset mode set for system.
The default setting of watchdog timer is “watchdog timer reset mode“.
Jumper settings are shown below:
Figure 2-2 Jumper of Reset Mode
Battery Backup RAM Setting
Jumper JP5 on the CPU card lets you configure the battery backup for
SRAM is Enable or Disable. The default setting of battery backup is
“Enable”. Jumper settings are shown below:
Figure 2-3 Jumper of battery backup
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Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
COM4 Communication Mode Selection Setting
The communication mode of COM4 is setting by the Jumper JP6 and
JP7. Please refer to Figure 2-9 to set the communication mode. The
default setting of COM4 is Programming port (RS-232
mode) for program download. You can also set COM4 as RS-485
mode. Jumper settings are listed below:
Figure 2-4 Jumper of COM4 communication mode selection
2.3
System Wiring and Connections
This section provides basic information on wiring the power
supply, I/O
units,
communication
port
connection
and
programming port connection.
2.3.1
Power Supply Wiring
Although the ADAM-4500 Series Controller is designed for
using a standard industrial unregulated 24 V DC power
supply, they accept any power unit that supplies within the range of
+10 to +30 VDC . The power supply ripple must be limited to 200 mV
peak-to-peak, and the immediate ripple voltage should be maintained
between +10 and +30
VDC. Screw terminals +Vs and GND are for power supply wiring and
the wires used should be sized at least 2 mm.
Figure 2-5 ADAM-4500 Series Controller power wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-5
Chapter 2 Installation
2.3.2
I/O modules wiring
The system uses a plug-in screw terminal block for the
interface between I/O modules and field devices. The
following information must be considered:
1. The terminal block accepts wires from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm.
2. Always use a continuous length of wire. Do not combine wires to
make them longer.
3. Use the shortest possible wire length.
4. Use wire trays for routing where possible.
5. Avoid running wires near high energy wiring.
6. Avoid running input wiring in close proximity to output wiring where
possible.
The figures below show how to connect
to I/O
connector of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
2.3.1.1
external
ADAM-4501/4501D
Figure 2-6 Dry contact wiring for DI channel
2-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
signals
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Figure 2-7 Wet contact wiring for DI channel
Figure 2-8 Digital output wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-7
Chapter 2 Installation
2.3.3
System Network Connection
Network Connection for System Configuration and Download
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has a Programming port. This port
(COM4)
allows
you
to
program,
configure,
and
troubleshoot
the ADAM-4500
Series
Controller
from
your
host
computer.
The Programming port has an RS232 interface and only uses TX, RX, and GND signals. The
cable connection and the pin assignment are as follows:
Figure 2-9 System Configuration Wiring
2-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Note: We also provide a friendly cable for Programming port wiring.
Please refer following pictures to wire the Programming port.
Figure 2-10 Cable Configuration Wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-9
Chapter 2 Installation
RS-232 Network
Integration
Connection
for
System
Monitoring
and
Since the connection for an RS-232 interface is not
standardized, different devices implement the RS-232 connection in
different ways.
If you are having problems with a serial device, be sure to check the
pin assignments for the connector. We provide one cable to transfer
RJ-48 (COM1 connector on ADAM-4500 Series Controller) to
DB9.
The following figure shows the pin assignments of the DB9 connector
for the ADAM-4500 Series Controller COM1 RS-232 port.
Figure 2-11 Pin Assignment of COM1
RS-485 Network
Integration
Connection
for
System
Monitoring
and
The
ADAM-4500
Series
Controller
provides
RS-485
interfaces for multi-drop network integration. The COM2 &
COM3 are dedicated RS-485 interface. The COM4 is an RS232/485 selectable COM port. They are able to support the
Modbus/RTU master and slave functions.
2-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Ethernet Network Connection
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller provides Ethernet interface (RJ-45
type) for network integration. Usually, you will need to
prepare an Ethernet switch like as ADAM-6520 or hub for
connecting to other network devices as following figure.
Figure 2-12 Ethernet Connection
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-11
Chapter 2 Installation
2.4 Software Installation
ADAM-4500 Series Controller comes with a Utility CD,
containing ADAM Product Series Utilities as system configuration tool.
While you Insert the CD into the CD drive (e.g. D:) of the
host PC, the Utility software setup menu will start up automatically.
Click the ADAM-4500
Series icon to execute the setup program, and there will be a Utility
executive
program
installed
in
your
host
PC.
See
Chapter 3 I/O Configuration and Program Download for the
detail operation.
2-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
3
Program Download
Chapter 3 Program Download
This chapter explains how to use the ADAM-4500 Series
Utility to
configure and download application programs
3.1 System Hardware Configuration
Before
the
system
configuration,
you
will
need
setup
the environment as mentioned in Chapter 2.1: System
Requirements.
to
3.2 Install Utility Software on Host PC
ADAM-4500 Series Controller comes with a Utility CD,
containing
ADAM Product Series Utilities as system configuration tools.
1.
Insert the ADAM Utility CD into the CD drive of the host PC,
and the Utility software setup menu will start automatically.
Click the “Install Utility” button to install ADAM Series Utility.
3-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
2.
Click on the
ADAM-4500
Series Utility.
3.
“ADAM-4500
Series
Utility”
to
setup
There will be dialog window showing, and click the ‘Next” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-3
Chapter 3 Program Download
4.
5.
Choose the dictionary path for installing ADAM-4500 Series Utility,
and then click the “Next” button.
Set name for Program Folder and click the “Next” button.
3-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
6.
7.
Click the “Finish” button to complete the installation.
After the ADAM-4500 Series Utility has been installed,
you will find three directories under “C:\Program
Files\Advantech\ADAM4500 Series Utility” directory as following:
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-5
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.3 ADAM-4500 Series Utility Overview
1.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot. (Initial
mode is for configuration and download program into
ADAM-4501 controller. Always set Initial
mode when
downloading program. Normal mode
will
automatically
run the
downloaded program in
the autorun.bat file
when ADAM-4500 Series Controller boots up. Refer to
section 3.6 for more detail)
2. Execute Adam4500.exe under C:\Program Files\Advantech\ ADAM4500 Series Utility\Program. Select the COM Port on
your PC
which you use to connect to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
3-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
Click the “Refresh Folder” button to display the files and directories
on the drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
4. Click the “Config ADAM”
input/output on
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
button
to
test
digital
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-7
Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
Check if there is enough space for download this
application to
disk on ADAM-4500 Series Controller (Refer to the status bar). If
the space is greater than 40KB, click the “Yes” button to continue.
6.
Built-in example will be downloaded into the controller.
You can
use this example to test the functionality of DIO on
ADAM4501/4501D.
3-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
7.
Click the “Launch Terminal” button for launching terminal emulation
function. You can type DOS command in the termination window
to communicate with ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
8.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button for configuring network
(such
as
IP
address,
Gateway
and
DNS),
FTP/HTTP
server settings
and
performing
system
initialization function. (Refer to section 3.4 and 3.5 for more
detail)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-9
Chapter 3 Program Download
9. Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button for backup drive D as
image file or restore image file to drive D. (Refer to section 3.7 and
3.8 for more detail)
10. Click the “Download” button for downloading programs
or files
from host PC (on the left window) to ADAM4500 Series
Controller (on the right window).
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Chapter 3 Program Download
3.4 Initialize the drive D: to default settings.
Following steps will show you how to initialize the drive D to default
settings for ADAM-4500 Series Controller. The drive D of ADAM-4500
Series Controller will return to initial files and settings
after this function is performed.
1.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-11
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
Select “HTTPFTP Server” and click the “Go” button. (This means
both HTTP and FTP server will be initialized)
4. There will be window showing “Warning”, click “Yes” to
initialize
drive D. Please note that drive D will be formatted and all the files
on drive D will be lost. If you would like to backup
the drive contents, please refer to section 3.7.
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Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
You will find the initialization process is performing.
6.
Click the “OK” button to finish the initialization process.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-13
Chapter 3 Program Download
7.
The directory of drive D will be refreshed as following picture.
8.
The FTP and HTTP Server file is under “WEBROOT” directory.
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Chapter 3 Program Download
3.5 Configure IP address and ftp/http user/password settings.
Following steps will show you how to configure IP
address and users/password of FTP server and HTTP
server for ADAM-4500
Series Controller. Please note the default IP address is “10.0.0.1”.
1.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-15
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
Select “Static IP” and fill in the IP address and Gateway IP. Select
“Obtain DNS address automatically”. Click the “Update” button to
perform the configuration.
Note:
4.
Above settings is only an example. You have to configure the
network settings according to your network environment.
Click the “OK” button to finish the network configuration.
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Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
Fill in the user name, password and access right for FTP server
and HTTP server. Click the “Update” button to
perform the configuration.
Note: This utility can only let you configure one user for FTP server
and one user for HTTP server. If you would like to configure
multi- users for FTP server and HTTP server, please refer to chapter 4.
6.
Click the “OK” button to finish the configuration.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-17
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.6 Download and run the application program automatically after
boot up
ADAM-4500 series can automatically run program after boot
up by including
the
program
in
the
autorun.bat
file.
Following
steps
will demonstrate how to run dhcpstat.exe
automatically after boot up.
1.
2.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
Download
the
program
dhcpstat.exe
(under
C:\Program
Files\
Advantech\ADAM-4500
Series
Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_ files) onto ADAM-4500 Series
Controller by click the “Download” button.
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Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
Find the autorun.bat file under C:\Program
Files\Advantech\
ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Default_files on the left
window (on the Host PC). Right click the autorun.bat and
choose “Edit”.
4.
Add “D:\DHCPSTAT.EXE” in the autorun.bat file. After
finishing
editing, save the file and close the windows.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-19
Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
Update
modified
autorun.bat
file
onto
ADAM4500
Series
Controller by choose the autorun.bat file in the left
window and click the “Download” button.
6.
Click
the
“Launch
terminal
emulation function.
3-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Terminal”
button
for
launching
Chapter 3 Program Download
7.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. (In Initial
mode,
program listed in autorun.bat will not automatically run after boot
up. it will automatically run after boot up only in Normal mode)
.
8.
Reboot the ADAM-4500 Series Controller and check the terminal
window to see if dhcpstat.exe has been executed correctly.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-21
Chapter 3 Program Download
Note: There is another easier way to set program run automatically
after boot up. You don’t need to modify the autorun.bat on the host PC
and download to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
In this example, put the switch into Initial Mode.
Download the program dhcpstat.exe onto ADAM-4500 Series
Controller (as shown
in step 2 of the previous method).
Then right click the program dhcpstat.exe on the right
window and choose “Set to AutoRun>>Adam-4500”. It will modify
the autorun.bat (this has the same effect as step 3~5 of the previous
method)
After that, click the “Launch Terminal” button (as shown by steps 6 of
previous method). Put the switch into Normal mode and then reboot.
Now you should see the terminal window the same as
steps 8 of previous method.
3-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.7 Backup drive D as image file.
Following steps demonstrate how to backup drive D as image file.
1.
2.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
Click the “Refresh” button. You can see latest files in drive D of
ADAM 4500 Series Controller by the right window.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-23
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
4.
Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button to perform the backup
function.
Click the “Backup Image” button.
3-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
There will be warning dialog window showing. Check if
there is
10KB free space on drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller by
the status bar at the bottom of right window. If the size is greater
than 10KB, click the “Yes” button to continue.
6.
Select where you want to save the image file and type the image
file name. Then click the “Save” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-25
Chapter 3 Program Download
7.
Backup function will start to process.
8. Click the “OK” button to finish the backup process.
3-26 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.8 Restore the drive D from image file.
Following steps will demonstrate how to restore image file to drive D.
In this example, we will use the image file produced in section 3.7.
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2.
Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button to perform the restore
function.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-27
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.
4.
Click the “Restore Image” button.
There will be warning dialog window showing. Make sure all files
on drive D can be deleted. Also make sure there is
10KB free space on drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller
by the status bar at the bottom of the right window. If everything
is okay, click the “Yes” button.
3-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5.
6.
Select the image file you want to reload. (Here we use the image
file created in 3.7) Click the “Open” button.
Restore function will start to process.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-29
Chapter 3 Program Download
7.
Click the “OK” button to finish the restore process.
Reboot the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
8.
Click the “Refresh” button. Check the drive D has been restored
from the backup image file.
3-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
4
Guidelines for Network Functions
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
The network features of ADAM-4500 Series Controller are very rich. In
order to shorten the learning time about versatile network features, the
network functions will be present by step-by-step demonstration in this
chapter.
The
detail
information
of
related
functions,
utilities and applications are shown on later chapters. The sample
programs can also be found after ADAM-4500 Series Controller utility
on ADAM CD
is installed.
Before you start to test the network functions, you have to configure
two files as following.
SOCKET.CFG: Text file contains related configuration command.
SOCKET.UPW: Text file contains user name and password.
SOCKETS Configuration Files: SOCKET.CFG, HOSTS
SOCKETS use two files in the D:\CFG directory (default) or any other
directory specified by the SOCKETS environment variable. These files
are SOCKET.CFG, the default start-up file, and HOSTS,
the host names file. If not found, SOCKETS uses the default
SOCKET.CFG in the D:\CFG directory.
SOCKET.CFG is a text file containing configuration
commands. Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored.
Commands are used
to specify protocol parameters like the IP address of
the stack, interface parameters like Packet Driver or
Asyncronous Serial lines,
routes and various other parameters. Here is a simple example:
IP address demo
Set the IP address of this host to 192.6.1.1.
Interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
Use Packet Driver, naming
MTU=1500, Receive buffers = 5
the
interface
‘if0’,
Route add default if0 router
Route all traffic to unknown destinations via ‘if0’ using ‘router’
as a gateway
TCP mss 1460
TCP Maximum Segment Size = 1460.
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Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP window 2920
TCP Maximum window = 2920.
Start prntserv
Start printer server on PRN using default port of 10.
HOSTS is an optional file containing mappings of IP
addresses in dotted decimal notation to names.
Sample HOSTS file:
192.6.1.1 demo
192.6.1.2 router
192.6.1.3 server
SOCKET.CFG Samples
The
following
configuration
file
contains
the
minimum
possible commands for a valid configuration file: just one. This is to
specify that the interface should use a Packet Driver, the
interrupt vector, which must be searched for. It should use DIX
encapsulation, have an MTU
of 1500 and have a maximum of 5 receive buffers.
Since no IP address is specified, BOOTP will be used and the
required operating parameters will be retrieved from a BOOTP
server, which must be available on the network.
SOCKET.CFG:
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
The following is a more typical example specifying a static IP address,
a Packet Driver interface, a default route, the TCP
MSS and
WINDOW.
SOCKET.CFG:
# Sample configuration file
ip address 192.6.1.1
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
route add default if0 192.6.1.2
tcp mss 1460
tcp window 2920
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-3
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Format of "SOCKET.UPW"
This is the same file used for the HTTP and FTP server’s (FTPD.EXE)
permissions. This file consists of lines where each line
contains a user's information. A line starting with a # is
considered a comment and is ignored. Each line consists of four
fields:
<Username> <Password> <Working Directory> <Permissions> [# comment]
a
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
a
Password: This user's
password is required
a
Working
Directory:
The
user
will
only
have
access to this directory and its subdirectories. If it is ‘/’, this
user has access to the whole system. HTTP_DIR can be
referred to as ‘\’. If a relative path is specified, it is
appended to HTTP_DIR.
a
Permissions: When a user is granted both FTP
and HTTP permissions, the FTP permissions must appear
first, otherwise they will be ignored. Permission are listed below:
password.
If
it
is
*,
no
FTP Rights:
d
change directories
c
create/delete directories
w
write files
r
read files
HTTP Rights:
e
get files
p
post files
g
use CGI
m
use remote console
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is missing the
entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field (permissions) of
the line.
4-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Here are two example
by the
following demonstrations:
configuration
files,
which
are
used
SOCKET.CFG:
# Packet driver settings
ip address 192.168.1.4
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 10 0x60
# The following will cause SOCKETS to display IP status
ip address
# The following lines set TCP parameters
ip ttl 64
tcp mss 1460
tcp window 2920
SOCKET.UPW:
su su / drwcepgm
# su can do everything on whole system.
* * \guest rg
# everyone can read (FTP) and get (HTTP)
# from %HTTP_DIR%\guest
test1 test1 \ drep
# test1 can change directories and read files (FTP)
# test1 get and post files (HTTP) in %HTTP_DIR%\
ftp1 ftp1 \guest rd
# ftp1 can read files and change directories (FTP)
# in %HTTP_DIR%\guest
# ftp1 has no HTTP rights
http1 http1 / epgm
# http1 can get and post files, use CGI,
# and use remote console.
# http1 has no FTP rights
user1 user1 \user\user1 rdcw
# user1 has full FTP access rights to the
# directory %HTTP_DIR%\user\user1
# user1 has no HTTP rights
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-5
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.1 FTP Server
Utility: FTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running FTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- FTP Client program on host PC
1.
Download
FTPD.EXE
(under
\ADAM-4500
Series
Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Extension_files
on
Host
PC)
onto
drive
D
under “Webroot” directory. (Put switch into
Initial mode)
4-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot.
Type “cd webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type
“ftpd /r” to run
FTPD.EXE at resident.
3.
Connect to the FTP server on Host PC. (The IP Address of
Host PC and ADAM-4500 Series Controller should be
in the same domain)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-7
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.
Login FTP server by typing user name and related
password
(user names and passwords are listed in SOCKET.UPW
under
\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source \Drive_D\Default_files\Conf)
5.
Check the files under “Webroot” directory are correctly.
4-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.2 HTTP Server
<<Example 1>>
Example program: HTTPDEMO.EXE (without CGI function)
Source file: HTTPDEMO.C under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source
\Example\httpEx directory (refer to Page 4-14)
Utility: HTTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running HTTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- Using Web Browser to connect to the HTTP server on Host PC
1.
Download HTTPD.EXE under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Extension_files onto drive D under
“Webroot” directory. (Put switch into Initial mode)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-9
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2.
Using HTTPDEMO.PRJ to Build HTTPDEMO.EXE (under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\Example\httpEx) and download
HTTPDEMO.EXE onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
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3.
4.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot.
Type “cd webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type
“httpd /r” to run
HTTPD.EXE at resident.
Type “httpdemo” to run HTTPDEMO.EXE.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-11
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
Run IE on Host PC, type URL
“http://10.0.0.1/index.htm” and
login in by entering user name and password.
Note: 10.0.0.1 is the default IP of ADAM-4500 Series Controller, and
refers to SOCKET.CFG under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\ Source\Drive_D\Default_files\Conf to get real IP
address. You can refer to SOCKET.UPW for user name and
password.
6.
You should be able to see ADAM-4500 Series Controller built-in
I/O board ID as shown by figure below.
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Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-13
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
The following figure is the software architecture of HTTP
Server
function. The HTTP Server is built-in in the ADAM4500 series Ethernet Controller. Whenever users open the IE
Browser to acquire data from ADAM-4500 series controller through
Internet or Intranet, it
will call up the existed web pages to provide a monitor and
control
portal. All of the commands from the web page must be linked via a
CGI program to the C control program which handle
the real read/write action in I/O channels.
Basically, there are three steps in the process of Web
Monitoring & Control.
1.
Registration: Register a HTML name for the web
page you designed
2.
User login and invoke control program: After registration,
users can invoke local control program by login Server
3.
Local I/O activated by local control program
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Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
HTTPDEMO.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <process.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "CGI_Lib.h"
FILE *fp;
int number = 0;
int count = 1;
void ReplaceStr(char *ptr_str1, char *ptr_str2, int len_str);
void main(void)
{
char * homepage_name = "index.htm";
if(!Http_Server_Reg(homepage_name))
return;
printf("Program exiting...");
HttpDeRegister("index.htm");
}
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams)
//implement your program/in this function
{
static char *ptr_OO = 0;
char *tmpStr = 0;
static char Htm_Content[] = "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\n"
//content of html //page, content=1
"Content-type: text/html\r\n\r\n"
//means refreshes every 1 second
"<html><META HTTP-EQUIV=""Refresh"" content=1>"
"<b>The extension board ID is OOOOOOO</b><p>"
"</html>";
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-15
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
number++;
printf("Refresh %d times...\n", number);
if (!ptr_OO)
ptr_OO = strstr(Htm_Content, "OOO");
sprintf(tmpStr, "0x%X", Get_BoardID());
ReplaceStr(ptr_OO, tmpStr, 7);
HttpSendData(psParams->iHandle, Htm_Content, strlen(Htm_Content));
return RET_DONE;
}
void ReplaceStr(char *ptr_str1, char *ptr_str2, int len_str)
string
{
int i;
for(i=0; i<len_str; i++)
ptr_str1[i] = 32;
for(i=0; i<strlen(ptr_str2); i++)
ptr_str1[i] = ptr_str2[i];
}
4-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
//replace
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
<<Example 2>>
Example program: ADAM.EXE (with CGI function)
Source file: ADAM.C and WEBADAM.htm under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source \Example\httpEx directory (refer to Page 4-21)
Utility: HTTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running HTTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- Using Web Browser to connect to the HTTP server on Host PC
1.
Download HTTPD.EXE (under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Extension_files) onto drive D under
“Webroot” directory. (Put switch into Initial mode)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-17
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2.
Using ADAM.PRJ to Build ADAM.EXE (under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\httpEx) and download ADAM.EXE
onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
3.
Download WebAdam.HTM onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
4-18 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.
5.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot.
Type “cd webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type
“httpd /r” to run
HTTPD.EXE at resident.
Type “adam” to run Run ADAM.EXE.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-19
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
6.
Run IE on Host PC, type the URL as
“http://10.0.0.1/web
adam.htm” (Note: 10.0.0.1 is the default IP of ADAM-4500 Series
Controller, and refer to SOCKET.CFG under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\
Drive_D\Default_files\Conf
to
get
the
real IP
address. You can refer to SOCKET.UPW for user
name and
password)
7.
You can set the status for ADAM-4500 Series Controller
built-in
I/O board (EB50) by IE and then click the “Submit” button.
4-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
8.
Then you can see if the EB50
updated in
ADAM-4500 Series Controller Utility.
status
is
correctly
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-21
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ADAM.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <io.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "CGI_Lib.h"
extern unsigned _stklen = 3000;
extern unsigned _heaplen = 2000;
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams);
int returnVal(char *ptr_name, char *ptr_end);
int count = 1;
void main(void)
{
char * homepage_name = "Adam.htm";
if(!Http_Server_Reg(homepage_name))
return;
printf("Program exiting\n");
HttpDeRegister("Adam.htm");
}
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams)
//implement your program in this function
{
char buf[200],*p,*ptr_val,*ppass;
int iQueryLen;
char Re_Htm_Content[400];
char *ptr_Re = Re_Htm_Content;
int numberbytes;
int DoVal, DIVal;
*buf = 0;
4-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
iQueryLen = _fstrlen(psParams->szQuery);
if (iQueryLen)
_fmemcpy (buf,psParams->szQuery, iQueryLen);
numberbytes = HttpGetData(psParams->iHandle, buf + iQueryLen, 200 iQueryLen);
if (numberbytes < 0)
{
if (numberbytes == (-WOULDBLK))
return RET_OK;
else
printf("wrong input value\n");
}
iQueryLen += numberbytes;
ptr_Re += sprintf(ptr_Re, "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\nContent-type:
text/html\r\n\r\n<html><h1>");
if (strncmp(buf,"DOValues=", 9) == 0) {
ptr_val = buf + 9;
if ((p = strchr(ptr_val,'&')) == NULL)
printf("Please click Submit button..\n");
printf("the DO val is 0x%x\n", returnVal(ptr_val, p));
SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, returnVal(ptr_val, p));
}
ptr_Re += sprintf(ptr_Re, "<P><P><A
HREF=\"/WebAdam.htm\">Back</A>.</html>\n");
HttpSendData(psParams->iHandle, Re_Htm_Content, ptr_Re Re_Htm_Content);
return RET_DONE;
}
int returnVal(char *ptr_name, char *ptr_end)
{
int r_Val, buf_idx;
char buf_val[10];
memset(buf_val, 0, 10);
for(buf_idx=0; buf_idx<10; buf_idx++)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-23
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
if(ptr_name == ptr_end)
break;
buf_val[buf_idx] = ptr_name[buf_idx];
}
sscanf(buf_val, "%X", &r_Val);
return r_Val;
}
WEBADAM.htm
<html>
<head>
</head>
<body>
<b>
<p><p><p><p>
Please enter I/O status in hexadecimal format and click Submit.
</b>
<form action="Adam.htm" method=post name="login1">
<table>
<tr>
<td align=right><input name="DOValues" type=text size=30
maxlength=50></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<input name="submit" type=submit value="Submit">
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
4-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.3 Send Mail
Example program: AMAIL.EXE, MAIL.TXT
Source file: ALARMMAIL.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\mail directory
Utility: SENDMAIL.EXE, MAKEMAIL.EXE
ADAM-4500 series configuration:
1.
Right click on the right window and choose “Make Directory” (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2.
Type “Mail” to name the directory and click on the “OK”
button.
This directory is for download related executives and files later.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-25
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
Create “MAIL.txt” on the left window (on the host PC).
Edit the
content of this file. When you finish the editing, save the
file on Host PC. This file is the content file which will be sent
by e-mail later.
4.
Download MAIL.txt onto drive D under “MAIL” directory.
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Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
Download MAKEMAIL.EXE and SENDMAIL.EXE under
\ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_files onto drive
D
under “MAIL” directory.
6.
Using AMAIL.PRJ to Build AMAIL.EXE (under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\mail) directory and download
AMAIL.EXE onto drive D under “WEBROOT” directory.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-27
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Type “cd mail” to
enter “Mail” directory. Type “amail” to run AMAIL.EXE.
This
executive will execute MAKEMAIL.EXE to build e-mail
content.
Type the DO output value to trigger the action to send e-mail.
8.
The executive will execute SENDMAIL.EXE to send the
e-mail
content created by previous step.
4-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-29
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
9.
Check the mailbox and it should receive the email correctly.
Note: The IP address of ADAM-4500 series should be at
the same domain with the IP address of mail server, which
will help you to send out the email from ADAM-4500
series. If you ask another mail server whose IP
address is not at the same domain, the mail server
will verify the IP address of the email sending from and then
stop to provide service for sending out the email for ADAM4500 series.
4-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ALARMMAIL.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
int SendAlarmMail(void);
int MakeAlarmMail(void);
int count = 1;
void main(void)
{
unsigned long div, dov;
unsigned int tmpcnt;
if(!MakeAlarmMail())
{
printf("make mail fail..");
return;
}
while(1)
{
printf("Please input digital output values: ");
scanf("%X", &dov);
if(dov == 0x33)
return;
SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, dov);
printf("DO value 0x%X, press any key to continue\n", dov);
getch();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
if(div == 0x000f)
{
if(!SendAlarmMail())
{
printf("send mail error..");
return;
}
}
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-31
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
int MakeAlarmMail(void)
{
char * arg_To = "[email protected]";
char * arg_From = "[email protected]";
char * arg_subject = "-s5510TCP";
char * arg_MailContent = "-bmail.txt";
char * arg_O_mail = "-omail.dat";
printf("Making Mail..\n");
if(spawnlp(P_WAIT,
"d:\\mail\\makemail.exe",
"d:\\mail\\makemail.exe",
arg_To,
arg_From,
arg_subject,
arg_MailContent,
arg_O_mail,
NULL)==-1)
{
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
int SendAlarmMail(void)
{
char * arg1 = "smtp.123.com";
char * arg2 = "mail.dat";
printf("send Alarm mail prepare..\n");
if(spawnlp(P_WAIT,"d:\\mail\\sendmail.exe","d:\\mail\\sendmail.ex
e",arg1,arg2,NULL)==-1)
{
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
Note: Please refer to Chapter 6 Page 6-10 and 6-11 to see more
detail about Mail Function.
4-32 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.4 Modbus/TCP Server
Example program: DEMOTS.EXE
Source file: DEMOTS.C under \ADAM-4500
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Series
Utility\Source
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/TCP Server
Ethernet port
Modbus/TCP
Ethernet port
Software application on another PC (ex: OPC Server)
Modbus/TCP Client
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/TCP
server, and a PC on the same Ethernet network is Modbus/TCP client.
ADAM-4500 Series Controller writes on-board DIO value to
address
40001, and Modbus/TCP client application such as OPC
Server or ADAMVIEW read the value from that address.
(Address 0 of share memory represents the address 40001 of
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-33
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Modbus address)
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Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address of
ADAM-4500 Series Controller (Put switch into Initial mode)
2.
Build DEMOTS.EXE from DEMOTS.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\DemoModbus
directory
download DEMOTS.EXE onto drive D under root directory.
and
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-35
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
4.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Under
the root directory, run DEMOTS.EXE. This will launch
Modbus/TCP server
on ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
Launch Advantech Modbus TCP OPC Server.
4-36 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
Create New Device under Advantech Modbus TCP OPC Server.
Set the correct IP address according to step 1.
6.
Right click on the new device you have just created and choose
“New Tag”.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-37
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7.
8.
Configure the Tag Property.
You can see the value of address 40001 from Modbus/TCP server
on ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
4-38 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMOTS.C
#include "mod.h"
#include "4500drv.h"
#define DATASIZE 250
#define sizeofShareMem
4000
int count=0;
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Sock_4500;
int err_code;
unsigned int Share_Mem[sizeofShareMem];
unsigned int tmpcnt=0;
int tmpidx;
unsigned long div;
memset(Share_Mem, 0, sizeof(Share_Mem));
if((err_code=ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(502, 5000, 7,
(unsigned char *)Share_Mem, sizeof(Share_Mem)))!=0)
//first step
{
printf("error code is %d\n", err_code);
}
Timer_Init();
tmpidx = Timer_Set(1000);
printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
while(1)
{
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(); //second step: return 0
//NO packet, return 1 has packet
if(tmArriveCnt[tmpidx])
{
Timer_Reset(tmpidx);
disable();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-39
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Share_Mem[0] = div;
//write DIO status to modbus address 40001
enable();
}
}
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release();
return 0;
}
4-40 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.5 Modbus/TCP Client
Example program: DEMOTC.EXE
Source file: DEMOTC.C under \ADAM-4500
Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Series
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/TCP Client
Ethernet port
Modbus/TCP
DI
Ethernet port
ADAM-6051 Ethernet-based DIO module
Modbus/TCP Server
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as
Modbus/TCP
client to connect to the ADAM-6051 (support Modbus/TCP
protocol and can be a Modbus/TCP server here), and read
the DI value of ADAM-6051 through Modbus/TCP communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-41
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Build DEMOTC.EXE from DEMOTC.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\DemoModbus
directory and
download DEMOTC.EXE onto drive D under root directory.
(Put switch into Initial mode)
2.
Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Run
DEMOTC.EXE (remember to add IP address of ADAM6051) to launch Modbus/TPC client on ADAM-4500 Series
Controller. You can get DI value of ADAM-6051 now.
4-42 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMOTC.C
#include "mod.h"
#define Server_Port 502
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char * ServerIP;
SOCKET SO_4500;
unsigned char HostData[MAXDATASIZE];
int DataByteCount = 0;
int tmp;
unsigned int tmpcnt=0, tmpcnt1=0;
int errcode;
memset(HostData, MAXDATASIZE, 0);
if(argc==2)
{
ServerIP = argv[1];
}
else
{
printf("Please input Server IP.\n");
return 0;
}
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
printf("Starting to send..\n");
while(1)
{
//Query Adam-6051 Server
if((errcode=ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01,
0x01, 0x01, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-43
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
if(errcode==TCPTimeOut_Err)
perror("Time Out.\n");
else
printf("Error: Error Code is %d\n", errcode);
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
else
{
printf("Adam-6051 Channel 0 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]&0x01);
}
printf("\n");
}
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<4; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
return 1;
}
4-44 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.6 Modbus/RTU Slave
Example program: DEMORS.EXE
Source file: DEMORS.C under \ADAM-4500
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Series
Utility\Source
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/RTU Slave
COM Port
Modbus/RTU
COM port
Software application on another PC (ex: OPC Server)
Modbus/RTU Master
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/RTU
slave, and a PC on the same serial network is Modbus/RTU master.
ADAM-4500 Series Controller writes onboard DIO value to
address
40001, and Modbus/RTU client application such as OPC Server or
ADAMVIEW read the value from that address. (Address 0 of
share memory represents the address 40001 of Modbus address)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-45
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Build DEMORS.EXE from DEMORS.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMORS.EXE onto drive D under root directory. (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2.
Run DEMORS.EXE. ADAM-4500 Series Controller
launch
Modbus/RTU master and write DIO value to address 40001.
4-46 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
will
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
4.
Launch Advantech Modbus OPC Server.
Create New Device under Advantech Modbus OPC Server. (Set
Address as 3 according to the configuration in DEMORS.C)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-47
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
6.
Right click on the new device you have just created and choose
“New Tag”.
Configure the Tag Property.
4-48 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7.
get
8.
Click “Monitor” under menu
from
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
“View”
to
see
the
value
You can see the DIO value of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-49
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMORS.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "RTU.h"
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
#define sizeofShareMem
10
int count;
void main()
{
unsigned int Share_Mem[sizeofShareMem];
char cCh;
char LSR_State;
unsigned int tmpcnt, tmpcnt1;
unsigned long div;
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Slave, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
printf("init success!!\n");
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(3, (unsigned char *)Share_Mem,
sizeof(Share_Mem));
//
{
//
printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
//
return;
//
}
printf("server started..\n");
while(1)
{
disable();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
4-50 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Share_Mem[0] = div;
//write DIO status to modbus address 40001
enable();
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<8; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-51
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.7 Modbus/RTU Master
Example program: DEMORC.EXE
Source file: DEMORC.C under \ADAM-4500
Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Series
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/RTU Master
COM Port
Modbus/RTU
DO
COM Port
ADAM-4056S RS-485 DIO module
Modbus/RTU Slave
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as
Modbus/RTU
master to connect to the ADAM-4056S (support Modbus/RTU protocol
and can be a Modbus/RTU slave here), and the DIO value of ADAM4056S module can be controlled by ADAM-4500 Series
4-52 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Controller through Modbus/RTU communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-53
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Build DEMORC.EXE from DEMORC.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMORC.EXE onto drive D under root directory. (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2.
Run DEMORC.EXE and you will find the connection is
successful as following figure. You will also find the LEDs
of ADAM-4056S periodically switch ON/OFF by the command
from DEMORC.EXE.
4-54 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMORC.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <time.h>
#include "RTU.h"
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
void main()
{
unsigned char HostData[MAXDATASIZE];
int cnt=0;
unsigned int tmpcnt=0, tmpcnt1=0;
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Master, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
printf("init success!!\n");
while(1)
{
cnt++;
if(cnt%2==0)
{
HostData[1]=0x0f;
HostData[0]=0xff;
}
else
{
HostData[1]=0x00;
HostData[0]=0x00;
}
if(cnt==10)
cnt = 0;
//Set 4056S status
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(COM2, 0x02, 0x11, 0x0c,
0x02, HostData))
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-55
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
printf("fail send..");
}
else
printf("Success!!\n");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<4; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
}
4-56 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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4.8 TCP Server and Client
Example program: TSERVER.EXE and TCLIENT.EXE
Source file: TCP_SERVER.C and TCP_CLIENT.C under
\ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
TCP Client
Ethernet Port
Download program
Ethernet (TCP/IP)
Ethernet Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
TCP Server
This example uses one ADAM-4500 Series Controller as TCP client to
connect to another ADAM-4500 Series Controller (as TCP
server). They can
exchange
data
between each
other
through TCP/IP communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-57
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into
Initial
mode. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to
set IP
address for TCP Server (ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
2.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address for
TCP Client (another ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
4-58 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
Build TSERVER.EXE from TSERVER.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the TCP server.
4.
Build TCLIENT.EXE from TCLIENT.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory and download it onto
drive D of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is
the TCP client.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-59
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4-60 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Normal
mode and reboot the two controllers. Run TSERVER.EXE on the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the TCP server.
6.
Run TCLIENT.EXE (add IP address of TCP server which you set
in step 1 as parameter) on another ADAM-4500 Series Controller
which is the TCP client. You should see the data received.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-61
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP_SERVER.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE 1
#define Host_Port 5510
#define Max_Conn 40
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
SOCKET remoteSocket[Max_Conn];
int WaitSocketCount[Max_Conn];
int socketTotal = 0;
int timeoutRelease = FALSE;
void ReleaseClient(int idx_so);
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Sock_4500, New_Conn;
struct sockaddr_in Host_addr;
struct sockaddr_in Client_addr;
int sin_size;
int hasConnect, hasMessage;
int maxSocket, sidx, New_Sidx, numbytes, sidx2;
char buf[MAXDATASIZE];
unsigned long pulArgp;
char *str;
int tmpcount=1;
if ((Sock_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
4-62 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Host_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Host_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Host_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
memset(&(Host_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if (bind(Sock_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Host_addr, sizeof(struct
sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("bind");
exit(1);
}
pulArgp = 1;
if(ioctlsocket(Sock_4500, FIONBIO, &pulArgp))
{
perror("ioctlsocket");
exit(1);
}
if (listen(Sock_4500, 5) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("listen");
exit(1);
}
hasMessage = FALSE;
memset(WaitSocketCount, 0, sizeof(WaitSocketCount));
printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
while(1)
{
if (socketTotal > 0)
hasConnect = Host_WaitForClient(Sock_4500, 0);
else
hasConnect = Host_WaitForClient(Sock_4500, 5);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-63
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if(hasConnect)
{
printf("Receive client connect request...\n");
sin_size = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
if ((New_Conn = accept(Sock_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr,
&sin_size)) == INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("accept");
continue;
}
if (New_Conn != INVALID_SOCKET)
{
if (socketTotal < Max_Conn)
{
remoteSocket[socketTotal] = New_Conn;
New_Sidx = socketTotal;
socketTotal++;
}
else
{
if (send(New_Conn, "Connetion full, you are going to be
disconnected!\n", 50, 0) == SOCKET_ERROR)
perror("send");
closesocket(New_Conn);
printf("Connetion full, disconnect client!\n");
}
}
else
printf("(TCP) Invalid incoming socket!\n");
str = "Hello, world!\n";
if (send(remoteSocket[New_Sidx], str, strlen(str), 0) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
perror("send");
}
if(socketTotal>0)
{
for(sidx=0; sidx<socketTotal; sidx++)
{
hasMessage = Host_WaitForClient(remoteSocket[sidx], 0);
4-64 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if(hasMessage)
{
if((numbytes=recv(remoteSocket[sidx], buf, sizeof(buf), 0)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
else
{
if(numbytes>0)
printf("Server receive: %s", buf);
if(tmpcount%2==0)
str = "ACK\n"; else
str = "A C K\n";
if(numbytes==0)
{
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
else if(send(remoteSocket[sidx], str, strlen(str), 0) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{ ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
tmpcount++;
if(tmpcount>100)
tmpcount = 1;
WaitSocketCount[sidx] = 0;
}
}
else
WaitSocketCount[sidx]++;
if(WaitSocketCount[sidx]>10000)
{
timeoutRelease = TRUE;
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-65
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
}
}
}
return 0;
}
int Host_WaitForClient(int WaitSocket, int i_iWaitMilliSec)
{
fd_set FdSet;
struct timeval waitTime;
FD_ZERO(&FdSet);
FD_SET(WaitSocket, &FdSet);
waitTime.tv_sec = i_iWaitMilliSec / 1000;
waitTime.tv_usec = (i_iWaitMilliSec % 1000)*1000L;
if (select(0, &FdSet, NULL, NULL, &waitTime) > 0)
return TRUE;
return FALSE;
}
void ReleaseClient(int idx_so)
{
int sidx, sidx2;
sidx = idx_so;
if(timeoutRelease)
{
if (send(remoteSocket[sidx], "Connetion timeout, you are going to be
disconnected!\n", 53, 0) == -1)
perror("send");
}
if(remoteSocket[sidx]!=INVALID_SOCKET)
{
if(closesocket(remoteSocket[sidx])!=0)
printf("Release client resource fail!");
}
4-66 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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for(sidx2 = sidx; sidx2<= socketTotal-1; sidx2++)
{
if(sidx2<socketTotal-1)
{
WaitSocketCount[sidx2] = WaitSocketCount[sidx2+1];
remoteSocket[sidx2] = remoteSocket[sidx2+1];
}
else if(sidx2==socketTotal-1)
{
WaitSocketCount[sidx2] = 0;
remoteSocket[sidx2] = NULL;
}
}
socketTotal--;
if(timeoutRelease)
printf("Connetion timeout, disconnect client %d!\n", sidx);
else
printf("Socket error, disconnect client %d!\n", sidx);
if(socketTotal==0)
printf("Wait for client connect...\n");
timeoutRelease = FALSE;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-67
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP_CLIENT.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define Server_Port 5510
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
SOCKET SO_4500;
int numbytes=0;
char buf[MAXDATASIZE];
struct hostent *he;
struct sockaddr_in Server_addr;
char *str1, *str2, *str;
int tmpcount=1;
str1 = "TCP\n";
str2 = "Client\n";
if (argc != 2)
{
fprintf(stderr,"usage: server hostname\n");
exit(1);
}
if ((he=gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL)
{
perror("gethostbyname");
exit(1);
}
4-68 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if ((SO_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Server_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Server_addr.sin_port = htons(Server_Port);
Server_addr.sin_addr = *((struct in_addr *)he->h_addr);
memset(&(Server_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if (connect(SO_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Server_addr,
sizeof(struct sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("connect");
exit(1);
}
while(1)
{
if ((numbytes=recv(SO_4500, buf, MAXDATASIZE-1, 0)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("recv");
exit(1);
}
if(numbytes>0)
{
printf("Received: %s",buf);
memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
if(tmpcount%2==0)
str = str1;
else
str = str2;
sleep(1);
if (send(SO_4500, str, strlen(str), 0) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-69
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
perror("send");
exit(1);
}
tmpcount++;
if(tmpcount>100)
tmpcount=1;
}
else
{
closesocket(SO_4500);
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
4-70 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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4.9 UDP Connection
Example program: USERVER.EXE and UCLIENT.EXE
Source file: UDP_SERVER.C and UDP_CLIENT.C under
\ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
UDP Client
Download program
Ethernet Port
Ethernet (UDP)
Ethernet Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
UDP Server
This example uses one ADAM-4500 Series Controller as UDP client
to connect to another ADAM-4500 Series Controller (as UDP server).
They
can
exchange
data
between
each
other
through
UDP communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-71
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1.
Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into
Initial
mode. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to
set IP
address for Server (ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
2.
Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address for
Client (another ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
4-72 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
Build USERVER.EXE from USERVER.PRJ under \ADAM4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP server.
4.
Build UCLIENT.EXE from UCLIENT.PRJ under
\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP client.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-73
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5.
Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Normal
mode and reboot the two controllers. Run USERVER.EXE on the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP server.
6.
Run UCLIENT.EXE (add IP address of TCP server which you set
in step 1 as parameter) on another ADAM-4500 Series Controller
which is the UDP client. You can see the data sent from server.
4-74 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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UDP_SERVER.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE 1
#define Host_Port 5510
#define MAXBUFLEN 100
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Host_Sock;
struct sockaddr_in Host_addr;
struct sockaddr_in Client_addr;
int hasMessage = FALSE;
unsigned long pulArgp;
char buf[MAXBUFLEN];
int addr_len, numbytes;
char* ackmsg = "ACK";
if ((Host_Sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP))
== INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Host_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Host_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Host_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
memset(&(Host_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-75
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if (bind(Host_Sock, (struct sockaddr *)&Host_addr, sizeof(struct
sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("bind");
exit(1);
}
pulArgp = 1;
if(ioctlsocket(Host_Sock, FIONBIO, &pulArgp))
{
perror("ioctlsocket");
exit(1);
}
printf("wait for client send message...\n");
while(1)
{
hasMessage = Host_WaitForMessage(Host_Sock, 0);
if(hasMessage)
{
addr_len = sizeof(struct sockaddr);
if ((numbytes = recvfrom( Host_Sock, buf, sizeof(buf), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr, &addr_len)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("recvfrom");
if (errno == EWOULDBLOCK)
printf("EWOULDBLOCK");
break;
}
buf[numbytes] = 0;
printf("got packet \"%s\" from %s\n", buf,
inet_ntoa(Client_addr.sin_addr));
if ((numbytes=sendto(Host_Sock, ackmsg, strlen(ackmsg), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr))) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
4-76 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
perror("sendto");
break;
}
}
}
closesocket(Host_Sock);
return 0;
}
int Host_WaitForMessage(int serverSocket, int i_iWaitMilliSec)
{
fd_set FdSet;
struct timeval waitTime;
FD_ZERO(&FdSet);
FD_SET(serverSocket, &FdSet);
waitTime.tv_sec = i_iWaitMilliSec / 1000;
waitTime.tv_usec = (i_iWaitMilliSec % 1000)*1000L;
if (select(0, &FdSet, NULL, NULL, &waitTime) > 0)
return TRUE;
return FALSE;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-77
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
UDP_CLIENT.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define BufferSize 100
#define Host_Port 5510
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
SOCKET SO_4500;
struct sockaddr_in Server_addr;
struct sockaddr_in From_Addr;
struct hostent *he;
char buf[BufferSize];
int numbytes;
unsigned int From_Size;
char* msg = "UDP Client Conneted!";
if (argc != 2)
{
fprintf(stderr,"usage: uclient xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx\n");
exit(1);
}
if ((he=gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL)
{
perror("gethostbyname");
exit(1);
}
if ((SO_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
4-78 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
exit(1);
}
Server_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Server_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Server_addr.sin_addr = *((struct in_addr *)he->h_addr);
memset(&(Server_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if ((numbytes=sendto(SO_4500, msg, strlen(msg), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Server_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr))) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("sendto");
exit(1);
}
printf("sent %d bytes to %s\n", numbytes,
inet_ntoa(Server_addr.sin_addr));
From_Size = sizeof(From_Addr);
if ((numbytes = recvfrom( SO_4500, buf, sizeof(buf), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&From_Addr, &From_Size)) == -1)
{
perror("recvfrom");
exit(1);
}
buf[numbytes] = 0;
printf("got Ack packet \"%s\" from %s\n", buf,
inet_ntoa(From_Addr.sin_addr));
closesocket(SO_4500);
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-79
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.10 FTP Client
1.
Put switch into Initial mode. Download FTP.EXE under
\ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Extension_files\WebRoot onto
drive D under “Webroot” directory.
2.
Put switch into Normal mode and reboot. Type “cd webroot”
to enter “Webroot” directory. Run FTP.EXE (add the FTP address
of the FTP server you want to connect).
4-80 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3.
Login FTP server by typing your username and password. Then
you can start to enter FTP command to use the FTP server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-81
5
Programming and Function Library
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.1 Introduction
User-designed
ADAM-4500
Series
Controller
application
programs make use of ADAM-4500 Series library functions. To
make the most efficient use of ADAM-4500 Series Controller’s
memory space, the ADAM-4500 Series function library has
been separated into 10 smaller libraries. Therefore, a user can
link only those libraries needed
to run his application, and only those libraries will be included in the
compiled executable. The smaller the linked libraries, the smaller the
compiled executable will be.
5.1.1 Programming detail about the ADAM-4500 Series Controller
The operating system of ADAM-4500 Series Controller is ROM-DOS,
which
is
a
MS-DOS
equivalent
system.
It
allows
users
to
run application programs written in assembly
language as well as high- level languages such as C or
C++.
Certainly,
there
will
be
some limitations
when
running application programs in the ADAM-4500
Series Controller. In order to build successful applications,
please keep the following limitations and concerns in mind.
5.1.2 Mini BIOS functions
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller provides four serial communication
ports including programming port for connecting peripherals,
so the mini BIOS of ADAM-4500 Series Controller only provides 10
function calls. Since the user’s program cannot use other BIOS
function calls, the ADAM-4500 Series Controller may not
work as intended. Additionally, certain language compilers such
as QBASIC directly call BIOS
functions
that
are
not
executable in ADAM-4500 Series Controller. The ADAM-4500
Series Controller mini BIOS function calls are listed in the following
table.
5-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Function
07h
10h
11h
12h
15h
16h
Sub-function
0eh
87h
88h
c0h
0
1
2
18h
19h
1ah
0
1
2
3
4
5
1ch
Task
186 or greater cd-processor esc instruct
TTY Clear output
Get equipment
Get memory size
Extended memory read
Extended memory size
PS/2 or AT style A20 Gate table
Read TTY char
Get TTY status
Get TTY flags
Print "Failed to BOOT ROM-DOS"
message
Reboot system
Get tick count
Set tick count
Get real time clock
Set real time clock
Get data
Set data
Timer tick
Table 5-1: ADAM-4500 Series Controller mini BIOS function calls
5.1.3 Converting program codes
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has an 80188 CPU.
Therefore, programs downloaded into its flash ROM must be
converted into
80186 or 80188 compatible codes firstly, and the
floating point operation must be set to Emulation Mode. For example,
if you develop
the application program in Borland C, you will compile the program as
following picture.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-3
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Figure 5-1: Select “Advanced code generation”
Figure 5-2: Select “Emulation” and “80186” settings
5.1.4 Libraries Sized for Different Memory Modes
The ADAM-4500 Series function libraries support four memory models:
SMALL, MEDIUM, COMPACT and LARGE. You can use library files
sized according to your memory model. For example, if you use small
model you can link UTILITYS.LIB and LIOS.LIB to implement system
and low speed I/O module access functions. On the other hand, if you
use large model, you can link UTILITYL.LIB and LIOL.LIB.
5-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Figure 5-3: Select “Code generation”
Figure 5-4: Select “Small” Model while using *S.LIB
5.1.5 Limitations
Certain critical files are always kept in flash ROM, such as operating
system, BIOS, and monitoring files. The ADAM-4500 Series Controller
provides an additional 1MB flash disk as drive D. There
is up to
960KB free space for user’s application program. As some additional
system files and network utilities for ADAM-4500 Series Controller is
distributed on drive D, the free space for user’s application program
should be less than 960KB. Besides, there are 256KB flash memory
and up to 384KB battery SRAM for user’s applications which can be
accessed by function library.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-5
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Warning: The free space of flash disk is not
suitable for
frequently creating and deleting files such as periodic
data
logging
application
because
the
DOS
FAT
file system
is
probably
destroyed
by
critical operations while the disk is almost full. The
better way is to take the operations on battery backup
SRAM.
5.1.6 Programming the watchdog timer
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller is equipped with a watchdog timer
function that resets the CPU or generates an interrupt if
processing comes to a standstill for any reason. This feature
increases system reliability in industrial standalone and unmanned
environments.
If you decide to use the watchdog timer, you must write a function call
to enable it. When the watchdog timer is enabled, it must be cleared
by the application program at intervals of less than 1.6 seconds. If it is
not cleared at the required time intervals, it will activate and reset the
CPU, or generate a NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt). You can
use a function call in your application program to clear the
watchdog timer. At the end of your program, you still need a function
call to disable the watchdog timer.
5-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2 Category of Function Libraries
ADAM-4500 Series Controller has 10 categories of function
libraries as following:
-
Category A. System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
Category B. I/O Module Functions (HIO*.LIB)
Category C. Communication Functions (A4_COMM*.LIB)
Category D. MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB )
Category E. MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Category F. Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
Category G. HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
Note 1: These function libraries support Borland C 3.0 for DOS only.
Note 2: Please include all necessary ADAM-4500 Series function
libraries in your project file.
5.2.1 Category A: System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
adv_printf()
ADAMdelay
Get_BoardID
Get_NodeID
GetRTCtime
SetRTCtime
LED_init
LED_OFF
LED_ON
EraseSector
ProgramByte
ProgramSector
read_mem
Get_SysMem
Set_SysMem
Get_NVRAM_Size
Set_NVRAM_Size
write_backup_ram
read_backup_ram
Timer_Init
Timer_Reset
Timer_Set
Release_All
tmArriveCnt
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-7
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
WDT_clear
WDT_disable
WDT_enable
display_inti()
display_digit()
BatteryStatus()
Ver()
5.2.2 Category B: I/O Module Functions (HIO*.LIB)
InitDIFilter()
GetDIO()
SetDIO()
Ver_HIOLib()
5.2.3 Category C: Communication Functions: (A4_COMM*.LIB)
SIO_Open()
SIO_Close()
SIO_SetState()
SIO_RecvBytes()
SIO_SendBytes()
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes()
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf()
SIO_PurgeBuf()
SIO_MakeCheckSum()
SIO_MakeCRC16()
SIO_Carrier()
SIO_ClearBreak()
SIO_SetBreak()
SIO_GetLineStatus()
SIO_SetLineParams()
SIO_GetModemStatus()
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR()
SIO_ModemInitial()
SIO_ModemAutoanswer()
SIO_ModemCommand()
SIO_ModemCommand_State()
SIO_ModemDial()
SIO_ModemHandup()
Ver_COMLib()
5-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.4 Category D: MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB)
Modbus_COM_Init()
Modbus_COM_Release()
Error_Code()
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus()
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create()
Ver_RTU_Mod()
5.2.5 Category E: MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Ver_TCP_Mod()
Modbus TCP Client Functions:
ReturnErr_code()
ADAMTCP_Connect()
ADAMTCP_Disconnect()
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()
Modbus TCP Server Functions:
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create()
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update()
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-9
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.6 Category F: Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
Socket function:
accept ()
bind ()
closesocket ()
connect ()
ioctlsocket ()
getpeername ()
getsockname ()
getsockopt ()
htonl ()
htons ()
inet_addr ()
inet_ntoa ()
listen ()
ntohl ()
ntohs ()
recv ()
recvfrom ()
select ()
send ()
sendto ()
setsockopt ()
shutdown ()
socket ()
Database function:
gethostbyaddr()
gethostbyname()
gethostname ()
getservbyport()
getservbyname()
getprotobynumber()
getprotobyname()
5-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.7 Category G: HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
Socket function:
HttpRegister()
HttpDeRegister()
HttpGetData()
HttpSendData()
HttpSubmitFile()
HttpGetStatus()
HttpGetVersion()
GetStackPointer()
GetStackSegment()
SetStackPointer()
SetStackSegment()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-11
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3 Function Library Description
5.3.1 System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
adv_printf
Syntax:
void adv_printf(char *pFormat, ...);
Description:
Print string to console. This function has the same usage as printf()
function. However, it has lower priority to be executed.
Parameter
The same as printf() of standard Borland C 3.0 library function.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
adv_printf("Hello, this is for test.”);
}
Remarks:
If printf() function is put within while loop such as Modbus/RTU server
function, it will decrease the performance of server function
due to higher
priority
of
printf().
So
it
is
strongly
recommended that uses
adv_printf() instead, which has lower priority than printf().
5-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMdelay
Syntax:
void ADAMdelay(unsigned short msec)
Description:
Delays program operation by a specified number of milliseconds.
Parameter
msec
Description
From 0 to 65535.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
/* codes placed here by user */
ADAMdelay(1000); /* delay 1 sec. */
/* codes placed here by user */
}
Remarks:
ADAMDelay
will
possibly
decrease
the
so
it
is recommended to use for loop instead.
performance
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-13
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_BoardID
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_BoardID(void)
Description:
Gets the ID number of EB50 (built-in I/O board).
Parameter
None.
Return value:
The return value is the ID number of EB50 (built-in I/O board).
Remarks:
None.
5-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_NodeID
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_NodeID(void)
Description:
Gets the ID number of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
The ID number of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
int i, j;
unsigned char
mID, found;
adv_printf("\n Welcome to ADAM4500 PC-Based Controller");
adv_printf("\n Scan I/O module ...");
adv_printf("\n ADAM4500 NodeID = %02Xh", Get_NodeID() );
/* Scan ADAM4500 Slot IO Module */
mID = Get_BoardID();
found=0;
if( mID == EB50_ID)
{
adv_printf("\n Slot = EB50");
found=1;
}
if(found == 0) adv_printf("\n Slot = None installed");
}
Remarks :
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-15
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
GetRTCtime
SetRTCtime
Syntax:
unsigned char GetRTCtime(unsigned char Time)
void SetRTCtime(unsigned char Time,unsigned char data)
Description:
GetRTCtime: Reads Real-Time Clock chip timer. A user can activate
a program on the date desired.
SetRTCtime: Sets date and time of the real-time clock.
Parameter
Time
data
Description
RTC_sec
RTC_min
RTC_hour
RTC_day
RTC_week
RTC_month
RTC_year
New contents.
the second
the minute
the hour
the day
day of the week
the month
the year
Return value:
The value requested by the user.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{unsigned char sec=0,min=0,hour=12;
adv_printf("Time %02d:%02d:%02d\n",GetRTCtime(RTC_hour),
GetRTCtime(RTC_min), GetRTCtime(RTC_sec));
adv_printf("Set current time 12:00:00\n");
SetRTCtime(RTC_sec,sec);
SetRTCtime(RTC_min,min);
SetRTCtime(RTC_hour,hour);
adv_printf("Time %02d:%02d:%02d\n",GetRTCtime(RTC_hour),
GetRTCtime(RTC_min), GetRTCtime(RTC_sec));
}
Remarks:
None.
5-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
LED_init
LED_OFF
LED_ON
Syntax:
void LED_init(void)
void LED_OFF(int which_led)
void LED_ON(int which_led)
Description:
Turns LED lights on and off. The LED I/O port must be initialized first.
It will take a little time for the light to stabilize following the signal for
the turning on and turning off of the light.
Parameter:
Parameter
which_led
Value
PWR
RUN
COMM
Description
The PWR LED
The RUN LED
The COMM LED
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
LED_init();
/* flash COMM led */
while(1)
{
LED_ON(COMM);
ADAMdelay(500);
LED_OFF(COMM);
}
}
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-17
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
EraseSector
ProgramByte
ProgramSector
Syntax:
unsigned short EraseSector( unsigned long ulBase )
unsigned short ProgramByte( unsigned long ulAddress, BYTE byte )
unsigned short ProgramSector( unsigned long ulAddress_s, unsigned
char far * SECTOR_DATA)
Description:
EraseSector: Erases a 64 KB sector of data in the 256
KB Flash memory
ProgramByte: Programs a byte of information into the 256 KB Flash
memory. This feature supports data-logging or
mass information storage.
ProgramSector: Programs an entire 32 KB sector of data of the global
variable,
SECTOR_DATA[],
into
256
KB
Flash memory.
Parameter
ulBase
Description
User-determined address range to be
erased, taken from addresses in the range
0x80000L to
0xB0000L.
ulAddress
User–determined
destination
address
for
byte transfer,
taken
from
the
range
0x80000L
to
0xBFFFFL.
byte
The data user wants to write into the specific byte
in the Flash memory.
ulAddress_s
User-determined destination address in the
Flash memory,
taken
from
addresses
in
the
range
0x80000L to 0xB8000L.
SECTOR_DATA Pointer at the starting address in the origin memory
of the user's data array.
Return value:
1
Successful transfer to Flash memory.
0
Error (destination already occupied, excess address range,
or program error).
5-18 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
read_mem
Syntax:
unsigned char read_mem (int memory_segment , unsigned int i)
Description:
Reads far memory data, 256 KB Flash memory, from
0x80000L to
0xBFFFFL, where (the Absolute Address) = (SEG*16 + OFFSET). For
example, (0x800FFL) = (0x8000*16 + 0x00FF).
Parameter
memory_segment
i
Description
User-determined address taken from the range
0x8000 to 0xBF00.
Offset for use in location of memory taken from
the range 0x0000 to 0x0FFF.
Return value:
The value in memory storage at the indicated address.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
unsigned char sector[32768];
unsigned char data;
unsigned long addr,sector_num;
unsigned int i;
adv_printf("erase sector 0x80000L\n");
if(EraseSector(0x80000L))
adv_printf("erase succeed \n");
adv_printf("Write data(55) to 0x80000~0x80001\n");
data=55;
ProgramByte(0x80000L,data);
ProgramByte(0x80000L+1,data);
ProgramByte(0x80000L+2,data);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
adv_printf("read%d data=%d\n",i,read_mem(0x8000,0x0000+i));
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-19
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
adv_printf("erase sector 0x80000L\n");
if(EraseSector(0x80000L))
adv_printf("erase succeed \n");
data = 1;
for(i=0;i<32768;i++)
*(sector+i)=data;
adv_printf("Write data(0x01) to 0x80000~0x87FFF\n");
ProgramSector(0x80000,&sector);
for(i=0;i<100;i++)
{
adv_printf("read%d data=%d\n",i,read_mem(0x8000,0x0000+i));
}
}
Remarks:
None.
5-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_SysMem
Set_SysMem
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_SysMem(unsigned char which_byte)
void Set_SysMem(unsigned char which_byte, unsigned char data)
Description:
Get_SysMem: Reads a byte from security SRAM.
Set_SysMem: Writes a byte to security SRAM.
SRAM supports 113 bytes for user
of important information.
Parameter
which_byte
data
Security
storage
Description
From 0 to 112, user-determined.
Value to be saved.
Return value:
Get_SysMem: Get the value in a byte of security SRAM.
Set_SysMem: None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
unsigned char data[4] = {1,2,3,4};
int i;
/* save current value */
for(i=10;i < 14;i++)
{
Set_SysMem(i, data[i-10]);
adv_printf("data=%d\n",Get_SysMem(i));
}
}
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-21
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_NVRAM_Size
Set_NVRAM_Size
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_NVRAM_Size(void)
void Set_NVRAM_Size(unsigned char sector)
Description:
Get_NVRAM_Size: Gets the size of battery backup RAM.
Set_NVRAM_Size: Sets the size of battery backup RAM.
(The unit is sectors, each sector is 4KB in size. Maximum size is 384
KB theoretically.)
Parameter
sector
Description
NVRAM size in 4 KB sectors, from 1 to 96 sectors.
Return value:
Get_NVRAM_Size: sector Number of sectors NVRAM size is set to,
from 1 to 96.
Set_NVRAM_Size: None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
unsigned char sector;
sector = Get_NVRAM_Size();
adv_printf(“Backup ram=%dKbyte\n”,sector*4);
/*Set Bacup ram 40Kbyte*/
Set_NVRAM_Size(10);
}
Remarks:
None.
5-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
write_backup_ram
read_backup_ram
Syntax:
void write_backup_ram(unsigned long index, unsigned char data)
unsigned char read_backup_ram(unsigned long index)
Description:
write_backup_ram : Writes a byte to battery backup memory.
read_backup_ram : Reads the value in backup RAM at index address,
maximum 384 KB total backup RAM, index = 0 –
393214
Parameter
index
data
Description
An index for data in the battery backup RAM, from 0
to 393214; maximum 384 KB battery backup
SRAM
in total.
A byte of data that the programmer wants to write to
battery-protected SRAM.
Return value:
write_backup_ram: None.
read_backup_ram: The single-byte value in backup RAM at address
index.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
unsigned long addr;
unsigned char data;
/*write the data 0x55 into battery backup memory, index=10*/
data=0x55;
write_backup_ram(10,data);
adv_printf("data=%x\n",read_backup_ram(10));
}
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-23
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Init
Syntax:
int Timer_Init()
Description:
Initializes the timer built into the 80188 microprocessor. The
return value “0” means the initialization of the time was
successful. The
return value “1” means the timer had already been initialized.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
0: Initialization was successful.
1: The timer had already been initialized.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
5-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Reset
Syntax:
void Timer_Reset(int idx)
Description:
Reset the timer identified by the integer idx to its initial state.
Parameter
idx
Description
Timer index. (Timer ID)
Return value:
None.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-25
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Set
Syntax:
int Timer_Set(unsigned int msec)
Description:
Requests a timer from the microprocessor and then sets
the time interval of the function. Timer intervals are set
in 5 millisecond
increments. The function return value is an integer representing the ID
of the timer function when it is successful.
A return value “-1” means the request failed. Programmers
should consider whether an assigned timer has timed-out when
programming for timer functions.
The value of the variable tmArriveCnt[idx] (where idx is the timer ID)
can be checked to verify timer status. Value of 0 indicates
that the timer is still counting. Values other than 0 mean the timer
has timed- out.
Parameter
msec
Description
Time interval set, max. value is 65536.
Return value:
0~100 Function Succeed. Value represents the timer ID.
-1
Function failure.
Remarks:
Timer function calls in the ADAM-4500 Series are emulated as timer
functions in a PLC. Applications using timer functions will
run less
efficiently if the more timer functions are running simultaneously in a
program.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
5-26 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Release_All
Syntax:
void Release_All()
Description:
Releases all timer resources of the ADAM-4500 Series system.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
None.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
int idx;
/* Initializes the timer built into the 80188 microprocessor */
Timer_Init();
/* Sets time interval of the timer to 1 second.
*/
idx=Timer_Set(1000);
/* Checks whether the timer has timed out
*/
while(tmArriveCnt[idx]==0)
{
/* user can attend to other tasks...
*/
adv_printf("test");
}
/* Resets the current timer to its initial state.
Timer_Reset(idx);
/* Releases all timer resources
*/
Release_All();
*/
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
WDT_clear
WDT_disable
WDT_enable
Syntax:
void WDT_clear(void)
void WDT_disable(void)
void WDT_enable(void)
Description:
WDT_clear:
Clear watchdog timer.
WDT_disable:
Disable watchdog timer.
WDT_enable: Enable watchdog timer.
When the watchdog timer is enabled, it will have to be cleared at least
once every 1.6 seconds, or the system will automatically reboot. The
watchdog timer default value is “disable”.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
int i;
WDT_enable();
for(i=0;i<100;i++)
{
/*put your code in Here*/
WDT_clear();
/*put your code in Here*/
}
WDT_disable();
}
Remarks:
None
5-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
display_init
display_digit
Syntax:
void display_inti(unsigned char decode_mode)
int display_digit(unsigned char *data, unsigned char digit,
unsigned char len)
Description:
7-segment display setting
Display_init: Initialize all 7-segment displays.
Display_digit: Writes the numeric into the all 7-segment displays.
Parameter
decode_mode
data
digit
len
a
Description
Decode mode. (0 is No decode, 1 is Code B decode)
The display value.
There
are
five
7-segment
LED
displays.
This parameter determines which
display is the starting LED display. It can be 1~5.
Total number of LED diplays you want to control.
No Decode mode:
The bit D0~D7 are the corresponding LED segment.
For example: data 30(hex) can show the “1” of the LED character. (D5
/D4 are 1 and others are 0)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
a
Code B Decode mode:
Above this table, 7-SEGMENT CHARACTER is the value showed on
LED displayed and REGISTER DATA is setting value. When the
bit D7 is “1” (bit4~bit6 can be arbitrary bumber),
the
value will be a decimal point.
For example: data 3(hex) can show the number
the LED character. And data 83 can show the
“3. ” of the LED character
Return value:
None.
Example:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility
\Source\Example\Basic_Function\ex1.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "dos.h"
5-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
“3” of
number
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
void
main(void)
{
unsigned char data[5] = {1,2,3,4,5} ;
int i;
display_init(1);
printf("please input 5 numbers (0 - 9):\n");
for (i=0; i<5 ;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&data[i]);
if (data[i]<0 || data[i] > 9)
{
printf("input error, exit");
exit(0);
}
}
display_digit(&data,1,5);
exit(0);
}
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5-31
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
BatteryStatus
Syntax:
int BatteryStatus(void)
Description:
Check the power status of battery which is used by battery
backup
SRAM.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
0
1
The power ststus of battery is almost run out. It is
strongly recommend to change a new battery.
The power status of battery is still normal.
Example:
None.
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver
Syntax:
void Ver(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Utility Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of Utility Library version information
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of utility library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.2 I/O Module Functions
(HIO*.LIB)
InitDIFilter
Syntax:
void InitDIFilter(int
int
MIN_High_Width)
iCh,
unsigned
int
MIN_Lo_Width, unsigned
Description:
Set time interval of digital filter for DI channel.
Parameter
iCh
MIN_Lo_Width
MIN_High_Width
Description
Channel no. (0 ~ 4)
Time interval of DI filter for Low state.
(5 ~ 65535 msec)
Time interval of DI filter for High state.
(5 ~ 65535 msec)
Return Value:
None.
Remarks:
Reference Data:
Time Interval
15 ms
30 ms
50 ms
Cut-off Frequency
50 Hz
20 Hz
12 Hz
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
GetDIO (for DI only)
SetDO
Syntax:
UCHAR GetDIO(UCHAR i_ucModuleID, UCHAR i_ucMode,
UCHAR
i_ucChannel, ULONG * o_ulValue)
UCHAR SetDO(UCHAR i_ucModuleID, UCHAR i_ucMode,
UCHAR
i_ucChannel, ULONG i_ulValue)
Description:
Read/Write the value of digital input /ouput channels.
Parameter
i_ucModuleID
i_ucMode
i_ucChannel
o_ulValue
i_ulValue
Description
Module ID.
SingleChannel or AllChannels.
SingleChannel: the channel you use.
AllChannels: don’t care.
DIO value read from module.
DIO value wrritten to module.
Return Value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Board_Not_Exist
-7
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver_HIOLib
Syntax:
void Ver_HIOLib(char *vstr)
Description:
Get HIO Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of HIO Library version information.
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_HIOLib(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
Remarks:
None.
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
DIO Example:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility
\Source\Example\Basic_Function\Ex2.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
int tmpCnt=0;
char c;
unsigned char type;
unsigned long div, dov;
char Ver_Str[30];
Ver_HIOLib(Ver_Str);
printf("The HIO library version is %s\n", Ver_Str);
/* ---- First scan for the existing IO modules -------*/
type = Get_BoardID();
/*----Show the module type of each slot on the screen ---*/
if( type == EB50_ID)
printf("IO slot is EB50\n");
else
printf("IO slot is Null\n");
printf("press any key to continue...\n");getch();
/*--- Digital I/O modules don't need to be initialized ---*/
/*---- Forever loop until the user press any key */
while(1)
{
tmpCnt++;
/*--- Set DO Value ------*/
printf("\n\nSet and Get All Channels Test:\n");
if((tmpCnt%2)==0)
dov=0;
else
dov=0xf;
if(SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, dov)==0)
{
printf("Set DO value 0x%X, ", dov);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
printf("press any key to continue..\n");getch();
if(GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div)==0)
{
printf("DI value is 0x%X\n", div);
}
else
printf("Get DI failed\n");
}
else
printf("Set DO failed!\n");
printf("\n\nSet and Get Sigle Channel Test:\n");
if((tmpCnt%2)==0)
dov=0;
else
dov=1;
if(SetDO(EB50_ID, SingleChannel, 1, dov)==0)
{
printf("Set DO channel 1 value %X, ", dov);
printf("press any key to continue..\n");getch();
if(GetDIO(EB50_ID, SingleChannel, 1,
&div)==0)
{
printf("Channel 1 DI value is %x\n",
div);
}
else
printf("Get DI failed\n");
}
else
printf("Set DO failed!\n");
printf("press 'Q' to quit, the other key to continue..\n");
c=getch();
if( c == 'q' || c == 'Q')
break;
}
}
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.3 Communication Functions (A4_COMM*.LIB)
SIO_Open
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Open(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Initializes the COM port and interrupt service routine before
other function calls use the COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to initial (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
COM_already_installed
-1
Err_Access_COM
-2
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_Close
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Close(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Release resource of the specific COM port. If a user
calls the
SIO_Open function, the user must call this function to
release the
COM port before the user's program terminates.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to release (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-40 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_SetState
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_SetState(UCHAR i_ucPort, ULONG i_ulBaudRate,
UCHAR i_ucParity, UCHAR i_ucDataBits, UCHAR i_ucStopBits)
Description:
Sets the parameters such as baud rate, parity, data bits and stop bits
for the specific COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ulBaudRate
i_ucParity
i_ucDataBits
i_ucStopBits
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
The Baud Rate number you want to set up.
The Parity you want to set up (see remarks).
The data bits you want to set up (see remarks).
The stop bits you want to set up (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
COM_Not_Installed
-4
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucParity
i_ucDataBits
i_ucStopBits
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
NO_PARITY (0x00)
ODD_PARITY (0x08)
EVEN_PARITY (0x18)
DATA5 (0x00)
DATA6 (0x01)
DATA7 (0x02)
DATA8 (0x03)
STOP1 (0x00)
STOP2 (0x04)
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
No parity
Odd parity
Even Parity
5 Data Bits
6 Data Bits
7 Data Bits
8 Data Bits
1 Stop Bits
2 Stop Bits
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_RecvBytes
Syntax:
INT SIO_RecvBytes(UCHAR i_ucPort,
UINT
i_uinBytes, UCHAR * o_ucDataBuf)
UCHAR
i_ucMode,
Description:
This function call is employed to received string data from the specific
COM port. On success, this function call returns the total
bytes has been read from the specific COM port. On fail, function
call returns a negative value as error code.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucMode
i_uinBytes
o_ucDataBuf
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide to use Block mode or UnBlock mode.
(When using Block mode, program will block
here until i_uinBytes data is received. When using
UnBlock
mode, program will not block and return
the total
number of bytes data have been received directly.)
Number of bytes to be read.
A buffer for received data.
Return value:
If success, returns the total number of bytes read. If fail,
return a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Illegal_Setting
-5
RequestOverQueueSize
-6
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucMode
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Block_Mode (0x01)
UnBlock_Mode (0x02)
5-42 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Block mode
UnBlock mode
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_SendBytes
Syntax:
INT SIO_SendBytes(UCHAR
UCHAR *
i_ucDataBuf)
i_ucPort,
UINT
i_uinBytes,
Description:
To send character(s) to a specified COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_uinBytes
i_ucDataBuf
Description
The Port number you want to send (see remarks).
Number of bytes to be sent.
A buffer for sending data.
Return value:
If success, return the number of bytes have been sent. If fail, return a
negative number as follows
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf
Syntax:
INT SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes(UCHAR i_ucPort)
INT SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes: Returns the number of bytes in input buffer.
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf: Returns the number of bytes in output buffer.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes:
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf:
If success, return the number of bytes data
in input buffer. If fail, return a
negative number as follows
No_Such_Port
-3
If success, return the number of
remaining available bytes space in output
buffer. If fail, return a negative number as
follows No_Such_Port -3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-44 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_PurgeBuf
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_PurgeBuf(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR i_ucFlag)
Description:
User can clear input buffer and output buffer together with argument
i_ucFlag.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucFlag
You can
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide which buffer you want to clear.
choose to clear input
buffer (see remarks).
buffer
or
output
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucFlag
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Clear_RXBuffer (0x01)
Clear_TXBuffer (0x02)
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Clear input buffer
Clear output buffer
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
COM Port Communcation Example 1:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\Basic_Function\ExCOM.C for this example
#ifdef Product_5510
#include "5510drv.h"
#elif defined Product_4500
#include "4500drv.h"
#endif
#include <conio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#define DataLen50
#define RecvDataLen
30
void main()
{
UCHAR tmpCOM, Idx=0;
CHAR Data[DataLen];
UCHAR Mode=0;
//0=>Receive, 1=>Send
CHAR VerStr[30];
UCHAR RecvMode;
UCHAR nByte=0, nTotalByte=0;
printf("Arthur New COM Port Library Test 3.3\n");
printf("=================================\n\n");
Ver_COMLib(VerStr);
printf("Com Library Version: %s\n", VerStr);
printf("Enter receive mode( 1: Block mode, 0: unBlock mode):");
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==0)
RecvMode=UnBlock_Mode;
else
RecvMode=Block_Mode;
#ifdef Product_5510
printf("Enter COM port selection( 1: COM1, 2: COM2, 3:
COM4)");
5-46 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==1)
tmpCOM=COM1;
else if(tmpCOM==2)
tmpCOM=COM2;
else if(tmpCOM==3)
tmpCOM=COM4;
#elif defined Product_4500
printf("Enter COM port selection( 1: COM1, 2: COM2, 3: COM3,
4: COM4)");
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==1)
tmpCOM=COM1;
else if(tmpCOM==2)
tmpCOM=COM2;
else if(tmpCOM==3)
tmpCOM=COM3;
else if(tmpCOM==4)
tmpCOM=COM4;
#endif
else
{
printf("Wrong selection!\n");
return;
}
printf("Opening COM Port with 57600 baud...\n");
if(SIO_Open(tmpCOM)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
if(SIO_SetState(tmpCOM, (unsigned long)57600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("Set State Error\n");
return;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_PurgeBuf(tmpCOM, Clear_RXBuffer);
SIO_PurgeBuf(tmpCOM, Clear_TXBuffer);
while(1)
{
if(Mode==0)
{
if(RecvMode==Block_Mode)
{
if(SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes(tmpCOM)>=RecvDataLen)
{
if(SIO_RecvBytes(tmpCOM,
Block_Mode, RecvDataLen, Data)==RecvDataLen)
{
if(Data[RecvDataLen1]==0x0d)
{
Mode=1;
Idx=0;
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
//do something else here
}
}
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else if(RecvMode==UnBlock_Mode)
{
while(nTotalByte<RecvDataLen)
{
if((nByte=SIO_RecvBytes(tmpCOM, UnBlock_Mode,
RecvDataLen, &Data[nTotalByte]))>=0)
{
nTotalByte+=nByte;
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
Mode=1;
Idx=0;
nTotalByte=0;
}
}
else
{
if(SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf(tmpCOM)>=RecvDataLen)
{
if(SIO_SendBytes(tmpCOM,
RecvDataLen, Data)==RecvDataLen)
{
Idx=RecvDataLen;
if(Data[Idx-1]==0x0d)
{
Mode=0;
Idx=0;
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else
{
printf("Error Send\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
printf("do something send\n");
//do something else...
}
}
}
SIO_Close(tmpCOM);
}
5-50 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_MakeCheckSum
Syntax:
UINT SIO_MakeCheckSum(UCHAR * i_ucDataBuf, UINT i_uiLen)
Description:
Calculates the checksum of the string or data array (i_ucDataBuf).
Parameter
i_ucDataBuf
i_uiLen
Description
The string or data array for which a user
wants to calculate the checksum.
The length of the string or the data array.
Return value:
The checksum value of the data array buffer
Remarks:
None.
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_MakeCRC16
Syntax:
UINT SIO_MakeCRC16(UCHAR * i_ucDataBuf, UINT i_uiLen)
Description:
Calculates the CRC 16-bit value of the string (i_ucDataBuf).
Parameter
i_ucDataBuf
i_uiLen
Description
The string which you want to calculate CRC code.
The length of string (i_ucDataBuf).
Return value:
The CRC16 code.
Remarks:
None.
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_Carrier
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Carrier(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Detects the carrier signal of the specific COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return TRUE(1). If fail, return a non-positive
number as follows:
FALSE
0
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ClearBreak
SIO_SetBreak
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ClearBreak(UCHAR i_ucPort)
CHAR SIO_SetBreak(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
SIO_ClearBreak: Sets the specific COM port to clear BREAK signal.
SIO_SetBreak: Sets the specific COM port to send BREAK signal.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-54 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_GetLineStatus
SIO_SetLineParams
SIO_GetModemStatus
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_GetLineStatus(UCHAR i_ucPort)
CHAR SIO_SetLineParams(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR i_ucParams)
CHAR SIO_GetModemStatus(UCHAR i_ucport)
Description:
SIO_GetLineStatus: Reads line control register of specific COM port.
SIO_SetLineParams: Writes to line control register of specific
COM
port.
SIO_GetModemStatus: Reads modem status register of specific COM
port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucParams
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
UART register parameter (refer to Appendix A for the
16C550 UART register document).
Return value:
If success, return the UART register value (refer to Appendix A for the
16C550 UART register document). If fail, return a negative number as
follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
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Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(UCHAR
i_ucL_R _Mode, UCHAR i_ucSignal)
i_ucPort,
UCHAR
Description:
Lower or raise the RTS/DTR signal.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucL_R_Mode
i_ucSignal
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide to raise or lower signal (see remarks).
Decide to set RTS or DTR signal (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucL_R_Mode
i_ucSignal
Value
COM1
RaiseSignal (0x01)
LowerSignal (0x02)
Signal_RTS (0x01)
Signal_DTR (0x02)
5-56 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
Raise signal
Lower signal
RTS signal
DTR signal
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemInitial
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemInitial(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets modem to initial status. Due to the ADAM-4500 Series system’s
construction, the modem can only be connected to
COM1. This
function resets the modem to the initial state. The command has the
same effect as sending the ASCII command “atz” to the modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
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SIO_ModemAutoanswer
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemAutoanswer(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets up modem to auto answer phone calls.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
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Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemCommand
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemCommand(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR *
i_ucCmd
Str)
Description:
Sends an AT command string to the modem. For details, refer to the
AT command document provided by the manufacturer.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucCmdStr
the AT
Description
The Port number you want to use
Specifies command string, please
refer
to
command document
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
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SIO_ModemCommand_State
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemCommand_State(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets modem to command mode. In other words, this
causes the modem to escape from data mode to command
mode. The modem
will delay at least 3 seconds before switching back to command mode.
This command has the same effect as sending the ASCII command
“+++” to the modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
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Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemDial
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemDial(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR * i_ucTelenum)
Description:
Directs modem to connect to the specified telephone number.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucTelenum
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
The phone number you would like modem to dial.
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
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SIO_ModemHandup
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemHandup(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets the modem to hand up the telephone. The command
has the same effect as sending the ASCII command “atho” to the
modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
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Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
COM Port Communcation Example 2 (Modem):
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\Basic_Function\Ex4.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
int get_modem_response(char *buf)
{
long i;
int index;
unsigned char c;
index=0;
for(i=0;i<10000; i++)
{
/*--- Get the receiving string from the COM1 port ---*/
if(SIO_RecvBytes(COM1, UnBlock_Mode, 1, &c)>0)
buf[index++]=c;
if(
index >0 && c == '\r') /* end of command */
{
buf[index] =0;
adv_printf("Response : %s ",buf);
return(1);
}
}
return(0);
}
void main()
{
char
c;
int result_code;
char
buf[131];
int
index;
long
i;
long
retry;
SIO_ModemInitial(COM1);
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while(1)
{
adv_printf("---------- Main Menu ---------\n");
adv_printf("0: Exit. \n");
adv_printf("1: COM port setting. \n");
adv_printf("2: Dial. \n");
adv_printf("3: Set to auto-answer. \n");
adv_printf("4: Set BREAK. \n");
adv_printf("5: Hand up. \n");
adv_printf("\n Please select a item to implement...\n");
c=getch();
switch(c)
{
case '0':
return;
case '1':
/*--- Install the interrupt service routine forCOM 1--*/
if(SIO_Open(COM1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
if(SIO_SetState(COM1, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("Set State Error\n");
return;
}
/*--- Show the data format on the screen ---*/
adv_printf("COM port is COM1, baud rate is 9600 bps,
data format is N,8,1\r\n");
break;
case '2':
/*--- Send prefix ---*/
SIO_ModemCommand(COM1, "AT");
/*--- Wait about 1 second--*/
retry=100000;
for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
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/*--- Clear the buffers of the transmitter and receiver--*/
SIO_PurgeBuf(COM1, Clear_RXBuffer);
SIO_PurgeBuf(COM1, Clear_TXBuffer);
/**--- Start to dial ---*/
/*--- Set DTR is ON(1). --*/
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, RaiseSignal,
Signal_DTR);
/*--- Send the dialing command and phone number --*/
sprintf(buf,"886222184867");
SIO_ModemDial(COM1, buf);
adv_printf("Command : %s \n",buf);
/*--- Wait for the response from the other end --*/
if( get_modem_response(buf)== 1)
adv_printf("Response : %s \n",buf);
else
adv_printf("Response : %s \n","No response");
break;
case '3':
/*--- After one ring-bell, the phone is answered
automatically. */
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, RaiseSignal,
Signal_DTR);
SIO_ModemAutoanswer(COM1);
adv_printf("Now is ready to get data...\n");
break;
case '4':
/* Set Break */
SIO_SetBreak(COM1);
adv_printf("Now set a break to modem...\n\n\n");
/*--- Wait about 0.3 second--*/
retry=30000; for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
SIO_ClearBreak(COM1);
adv_printf("Now clear the break ...\n\n\n");
break;
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case '5':
/*--- Set DTR line OFF --*/
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, LowerSignal,
Signal_DTR);
/*--- Wait about 0.3 second--*/
retry=30000; for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
/*--- Check whether DCD is off ---*/
/* if(!(com_get_modem_status(0x3F8)&0x80))
break;
*/
/*--- Go to modem command state ---*/
SIO_ModemHandup(COM1);
retry=3;
do{
SIO_ModemHandup(COM1);
if(
get_modem_response(buf)== 1)
{
if( buf[0] ==0)
break;
}
adv_printf("retry %ld \n",4-retry);
}while(--retry);
adv_printf("Now is hand up...\n");
break;
}
}
}
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Ver_COMLib
Syntax:
void Ver_COMLib(char *vstr)
Description:
Get COM Port Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer
to
array
version information.
of
COM
Port
Library
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_COMLib(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
Remarks:
None.
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5.3.4 MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB)
Before using Modbus Functions, please read the Modbus Quick Start
below to understand how to use Modbus libraries :
Quick Start of MBTCP.Lib and MBRTU.Lib
Only two steps are needed to create a server or make a client query.
a
How to Create a Modbus TCP/RTU Server?
Modbus RTU Server:
Step 1: Use Modbus_COM_Init(...) function to initialize a COM
port for Modbus RTU Server.
Step 2: Use ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(...) to create
Modbus
RTU Server.
Modbus TCP Server:
Step 1: Use ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(...) function to
create a
Modbus TCP server.
Step
2:
Call
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(...)
function
periodically to check if there is any client message
and keep the server alive.
a
How to Create a Modbus TCP/RTU Client?
Modbus RTU Client:
Step 1: Use Modbus_COM_Init(...) function to initialize a COM port
for Modbus RTU Client.
Step 2: Use ADAMModbusRTU_Read(...) to query data from server or
use ADAMModbusRTU_Write(...) to write data to server.
Modbus TCP Client:
Step 1: Use ADAMTCP_Connect(...) to make a connection to server.
Step 2: Use ADAMModbusTCP_Read(...) to query data from server or
use ADAMModbusTCP_Write(...) to write data to server.
a
Example: (Modbus RTU Server and Modbus RTU client)
Assume that we now need a Modbus RTU Server with valid address
in the range of 40001-40008. Before starting to create a
server, we need to define the slave ID for server
#define SlaveID
1
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And second, we
address
40001-4008:
need
to allocate a physical
int ModbusAddr_Mem[8];
memory for
//ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=>40001,...,
//ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=>40008
Finally, we can create a server. The COM1 and Slave are
used to specify that the COM1 is used as slave mode and dedicated
for server use.
Modbus_COM_Init(COM1, Slave, (unsigned long)9600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1);
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(SlaveID, (unsigned char
*)ModbusAddr_Mem,
sizeof(ModbusAddr_Mem));
But, how do we put the data to the address 40001-40008 for
client queries? Just simply put any data you want to the physical
memory: ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=0x1234; //40001=>0x1234
ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=0x4321;
//40008=>0x4321
OK, we've learned the techniques of creating a server. Now, let's see
how to make query to get data at 40001-40008 from
server. First, define some needed information for querying server.
#define Read_StartAddr 40001
#define Read_EndAddr 40008
#define SlaveID
1
//query data start from address 40001
//query data end to address 40008
Second, we need to allocate a physical memory for query data.
unsigned char Resp_From_Server[16];
//8 registers from 40001 to 40008.
//Therefore, we need at least a 16-byte physical memory.
int RespByteCount;
//The total bytes of query data.
Finally, make a query.
Unlike server
mode is defined as Master instead of Slave.
programming,
the
Modbus_COM_Init(COM1, Master, (unsigned long)9600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1)
ADAMModbusRTU_Read(COM1, SlaveID, Read_StartAddr,
Read_EndAddr, &RespByteCount, Resp_From_Server);
Now, the RespByteCount should report this query has get 16
bytes data. But, where is the data? The answer is quite simple as
follows: Resp_From_Server[0] ==> 40001 Hi byte
Resp_From_Server[1] ==> 40001 Lo byte
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a
Example: (Modbus TCP Server and Modbus TCP client)
Assume that we now need a Modbus TCP Server with valid address
in the range of 40001-40008. Before starting to create a
server, we need to define some server information first such as the
total numbers
of connections and the timeout setting.
#define TCP_Port 502
//502 is the standard port of modbus protocol
#define iTimeOut 3000 //3000 msec for timeout setting
#define iConns 20
//Only 20 client connections are avaliable
And second, we
address
40001-4008.
need
int ModbusAddr_Mem[8];
to allocate a physical
memory for
//ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=>40001,...,
//ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=>40008
Finally, we can create a server.
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(TCP_Port, iTimeOut, iConns, (unsigned
char*)ModbusAddr_Mem, sizeof(ModbusAddr_Mem));
while(1)
//put ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update() inside infinite loop
{
//for calling ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update() periodically.
if(ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update()==HasMessage)
//check if there is any client message
{
...
}
}
But, how do we put the data to the address 40001-40008 for
client
queries? Just simply put any data you want to the physical memory.
ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=0x1234;
ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=0x4321;
//40001=>0x1234
//40008=>0x4321
OK, we've learned the techniques of creating a server. Now, let's see
how to make query to get data at 40001-40008 from
server. First, define some needed information for querying server.
#define Server_Port 502 //502 is the standard port of modbus protocol
#define Server_IP "10.0.0.1"
//the IP of server
#define iTimeOut 4000
//4000 msec for timeout setting
#define Read_StartAddr 40001 //query data start from address 40001
#define Read_EndAddr 40008
//query data end to address 40008
#define SlaveID
1
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Second, we need to allocate a physical memory for query data.
unsigned char Resp_From_Server[16];
//8 registers from 40001 to 40008. Therefore,
//we need at least a 16-byte physical memory.
int RespByteCount;
//The total bytes of query data.
And, a descriptor for socket connection is also needed:
SOCKET SO;
Finally, make a query.
ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO, Server_IP, Server_Port);
ADAMModbusTCP_Read(&SO, iTimeout, SlaveID, Read_StartAddr,
Read_EndAddr, &RespByteCount, Resp_From_Server);
Now, the RespByteCount should report this query has get 16
bytes data. But, where is the data? The answer is quite simple as
follows: Resp_From_Server[0] ==> 40001 Hi byte
Resp_From_Server[1] ==> 40001 Lo byte
Above is the conpect how to use Modbus protocol, and
we also provide examples for reference, please refer the examples
under C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\ Example\ModbusAppEx
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Note:
Modbus libraries come from Modbus standard protocol, and
every function call can be mapped to a Modbus function.
For example, ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus function is mapped to
Modbus Function
code 01 (Read Coil Status). The following is the list of
supported
Modbus function codes:
Modbus Function Codes
01 Read Coil Status
02 Read Input Status
03 Read Holding Registers
04 Read Input Registers
05 Force Single Coil
06 Preset Single Register
15 Force Multiple Coils
16 Preset Multiple Registers
Related Modbus Libraries
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs
Moreover, we also provide four advanced function calls for beginners.
The Modbus function (01, 02, 03, 04) can be simply
integrated into one “read” function as ADAMModbusRTU_Read (for
Modbus RTU) or ADAMModbusTCP_Read (for Modbus TCP).
The Modbus function (05, 06, 15, 16) can be simply
integrated into one “write” function as ADAMModbusRTU_Write (for
Modbus RTU) or ADAMModbusTCP_Write (for Modbus TCP).
However, programmers should notice that those four functions are a
little bit slower in performance than the original sixteen functions.
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Modbus_COM_Init
Syntax:
int Modbus_COM_Init(int Port, int iMode, unsigned long
iBaud, int iParity, int iFormat, int iStopBits)
Description:
Initial a COM port for Modbus/RTU connection.
Parameters
Port
iMode
iBaud
iparity
iFormat
iStopBits
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Slave
Master
9600, etc …
NO_PARITY
ODD_PARITY
EVEN_PARITY
ONE_PARITY
ZERO_PARITY
DATA5
DATA6
DATA7
DATA8
STOP1
STOP2
Description
Initial COM1
Initial COM2
Initial COM3
Initial COM4
Modbus/RTU slave mode
Modbus/RTU master mode
The value of baud rate
No parity
Odd parity
Even parity
Parity=1
Parity=0
5 data bit
6 data bit
7 data bit
8 data bit
One stop bit
Two stop bits
Return value:
0
No error occurs.
1
COM_already_installed: COM port has been installed before.
2
Err_Access_COM: Error occurs when try to access COM port.
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Example:
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Master, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
adv_printf("error\n");
return;
}
adv_printf("init success!!\n");
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Modbus_COM_Release
Syntax:
void Modbus_COM_Release(int Port)
Description:
Release the COM port of Modbus connection.
Parameters
Port
Value
1
2
3
4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Return value:
None.
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Error_Code
Syntax:
int Error_Code(void)
Description:
When following function call gets error return, this function can get the
exact error code for user:
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus()
Parameters
None.
Return value:
NULL
No exception error returned.
Erro Code
Exception error returned.
Error code:
91
Invalid Response
92
COM Port Initial or Mode Error
93
COM Port Time Out
Example:
Refer to ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
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ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(int iPort, int Slave_Addr,
CoilIndex, int TotalPoint, int TotalByte, unsigned char szData[])
int
Description:
“0F HEX” command of Modbus/RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
TotalPoint
TotalByte
szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Coil address
Quantity of coils
Byte count
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
HostData[0]=0xf0;
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 0x08, 0x01,
HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
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ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iCoilIndex,
int i_iData)
Description:
“05 HEX” command of Modbus/RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iCoilIndex
int i_iData
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Coil address
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
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ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartReg,
int i_iTotalReg, int i_iTotalByte, unsigned char i_szData[])
Description:
“10 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartReg
i_iTotalReg
i_iTotalByte
i_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Starting Address
No. of Registers Hi
Byte Count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
HostData[0]=0x12;
HostData[1]=0x56;
HostData[2]=0x38;
HostData[3]=0x09;
if(!ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 2, 4, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
return;
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
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ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iRegIndex,
int i_iData)
Description:
“06 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iRegIndex
i_iData
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Register Address
Preset Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg(COM1, 0x02, 0x68, 0x1234))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
return;
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
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ADAMModbusRTU_Write
Syntax:
bool
ADAMModbusTCP_Write(SOCKET
*
SO,
int
WaitMilliSec,
int Slave_Addr,
unsigned
long
i_iStartAddr,
unsigned long i_iEndAddr, unsigned char i_szData[]);
Description:
Presets values or forces coils into a sequence of holding registers (4X
references) or a sequence of coilds(0X references).
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
i_iStartAddr
i_iEndAddr
i_szData
Description
COM port number
Address ID of slave device (valid slave
device addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
The start address of slave device
The end address of slave device
The buffer of query data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Write() returns TRUE if it is successful.
On an error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function
Error_Code() can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500
Utility\Source\ Example\ModbusAppEx
Series
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ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartIndex,
int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char o_szData[])
Description:
“01HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Coil Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus(COM1, 0x02, 0x6E, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs(int
i_iStartIndex,
int
i_iTotalPoint,
unsigned
char o_szData[])
iPort, int i_iAddr, int
int
*o_iTotalByte,
Description:
“03 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Register Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartIndex,
int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char o_szData[])
Description:
“04 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Register Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
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ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus(int iPort, int
i_iStartIndex,
int
i_iTotalPoint,
int
unsigned
char o_szData[])
i_iAddr, int
*o_iTotalByte,
Description:
“02 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Inputs Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 0x08,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMModbusRTU_Read
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusRTU_Read(int iPort, int Slave_Addr,
unsigned long
i_iStartAddr,
unsigned
long
i_iEndAddr,
unsigned int
*o_iByteOfResp, unsigned char o_szResp[]);
Description:
Reads the On/OFF status of 0X/1X references(coils) or the
binary contents of 3X/4X references(registers) in the slave.
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
Description
COM port number
Address ID of slave device (valid slave
device addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
i_iStartAddr
The start address of slave device
i_iEndAddr
The end address of slave device
i_iTotalPoint
The total number of coils/regs to be read
o_iByteOfResp The total bytes of the response data contents
o_szResp
The buffer of response data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Read() returns TRUE if it is successful.
On an error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function
Error_Code() can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500
Utility\Source\ Example\ModbusAppEx.
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ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create
Syntax:
void ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(int slave_addr, unsigned char
*
ptr_mem, unsigned int size_of_mem)
Description:
Create Modbus/RTU Server function.
Parameters
slave_addr
ptr_mem
size_of_mem
Description
Slave address of Modbus/RTU Server
Share memory
Size of share memory
Return value:
None.
Example:
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(3, (unsigned char *)Share_Mem,
sizeof(Share_Mem));
adv_printf("server started..\n");
while(1)
{
if(predate != Share_Mem[0])
{
adv_printf("40001 is %X\n", Share_Mem[0]);
//strongly recommend use adv_printf() instead of
printf()
predate = Share_Mem[0];
}
}
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Ver_RTU_Mod
Syntax:
void Ver_RTU_Mod(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Modbus/RTU Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array
version information
of
Modbus/RTU
Library
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_RTU_Mod(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
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5.3.5 MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Ver_TCP_Mod
Syntax:
void Ver_TCP_Mod(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Modbus/TCP Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array
version information.
of
Modbus/TCP
Library
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_TCP_Mod(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
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Modbus TCP Client Functions:
ReturnErr_code
Syntax:
int ReturnErr_code(void)
Description:
When following function call gets error return, this function can get the
exact error code for user.
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()
Parameters
None.
Return value:
NULL
No error occurs.
Erro Code
Exception error returned.
Error code:
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
ILLEGAL FUNCTION
ILLEGAL DATA ADDRESS
ILLEGAL DATA VALUE
SLAVE DEVICE FAILURE
ACKNOWLEDGE
SLAVE DEVICE BUSY
NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE
MEMORY PARITY ERROR
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Example:
SOCKET SO_4500;
…
if(ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()\n");
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", ReturnErr_code());
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMTCP_Connect
Syntax:
int
ADAMTCP_Connect(SOCKET
Target_IP,
int
Target_Port)
*
SO,
char
*
Decription:
Connect to Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
SO
Target_IP
Target_Port
Description
A descriptor identifying an unconnected socket.
Modbus/TCP server IP.
Server port for the connection.
Return value:
TRUE
-1
-2
-3
No error occurs
Error occurs when gets the host name
The socket is invalid when initializes the socket
Error occurs when connects to Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMTCP_Disconnect
Syntax:
bool ADAMTCP_Disconnect(SOCKET * SO)
Description:
Disconnect to Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
SO
socket to
A
descriptor
identifying
the
connected
Modbus/TCP server.
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
FALSE
There is error occurs
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int CoilIndex, int TotalPoint, int TotalByte, unsigned char
szData[])
Description:
“0F HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
TotalPoint
TotalByte
szData[]
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Coil address
Quantity of coils
Byte count
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
HostData[1]=~0x33;
//force channel status to 0x3333
if(ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x21, 0x10, 0x02,
HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int CoilIndex, int Data)
Description:
“05 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
Data
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Coil address
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x25, 1)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartReg, int TotalReg, int TotalByte, unsigned
char
Data[])
Description:
“10 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
StartReg
TotalReg
TotalByte
szData[]
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of registers
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
HostData[0]=0x07;
HostData[1]=0x00;
HostData[2]=0x07;
HostData[3]=0x00;
if(ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x19, 0x02, 4,
HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
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}
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ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int RegIndex, int Data)
Description:
“06 HEX” command Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
RegIndex
Data
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Register address
Preset Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg(&SO_4500,
50,
0x07ff)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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ADAMModbusTCP_Write
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusTCP_Write(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, unsigned long i_iStartAddr, unsigned long
i_iEndAddr, unsigned char i_szData[]);
Description:
Presets values or forces coils into a sequence of holding registers (4X
references) or a sequence of coilds(0X references).
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
device
i_iStartAddr
i_iEndAddr
i_szData
Description
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
The maximum time of ADAMModbusTCP_Write()
Address ID of slave device (valid slave
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
The start address of slave device
The end address of slave device
The buffer of query data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusTCP_Write() returns TRUE if it is successful.
On an error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function
Error_Code()
can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500
Utility\Source\ Example\ModbusAppEx
Series
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ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount,
char *
wData)
Description:
“01 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code
Parameter
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
from
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
else
{
adv_printf("Adam-4500 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]);
}
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adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount,
char *
wData)
Description:
“03 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set
duration(msec
unit)
for
the
response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This example
demonstrates
how to
use ADAMTCP_
ReadHoldingRegs() to query remote Modbus TCP module, such
as
ADAM-5000/TCP. And it queries all channels of ADAM-5024 inserted
in Slot 3 on the ADAM-5000/TCP.
if((errno=ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs(&SO_4500,
0x19,
0x08, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()\n");
adv_printf("errno is %d\n", errno);
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ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5024 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount,
char *
wData)
Description:
“04 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameter
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set
duration(msec
unit)
for
the
response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This example demonstrates how to use ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
to query remote Modbus TCP module, such as ADAM-5000/TCP. And
here it queries all chanels of ADAM-5024 inserted in Slot 3
on the ADAM-5000/TCP.
if((errno=ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x19,
0x08, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()\n");
adv_printf("errno is %d\n", errno);
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ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5024 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec,
int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount,
char *
wData)
Description:
“02 HEX” command Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
from
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message
to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query
message from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This example demonstrates how to use ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
to query remote Modbus TCP module, such as ADAM-5000/TCP. And
here it queries ADAM-5051 inserted in Slot 1 on the ADAM-5000/TCP.
if(ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
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else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5051 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
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ADAMModbusTCP_Read
Syntax:
bool
ADAMModbusTCP_Read(SOCKET
*
SO,
int
WaitMilliSec,
int Slave_Addr,
unsigned
long
i_iStartAddr,
unsigned long i_iEndAddr, unsigned int *o_iByteOfResp, unsigned
char o_szResp[]);
Description:
Reads the On/OFF status of 0X/1X references(coils) or the
binary contents of 3X/4X references(registers) in the slave.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
device
i_iStartAddr
i_iEndAddr
i_iTotalPoint
o_iByteOfResp
o_szResp
Description
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
The maximum time of ADAMModbusTCP_Read()
Address ID of slave device (valid slave
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
The start address of slave device
The end address of slave device
The total number of coils/regs to be read
The total bytes of the response data contents
The buffer of response data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Read() returns TRUE if it is successful.
On an error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function
Error_Code() can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500
Utility\Source\ Example\ModbusAppEx.
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Modbus TCP Server Functions:
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(int Host_Port, unsigned long
waittimeout, unsigned int numberConns, unsigned char * ptr_mem, int
size_mem)
Description:
Create a Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
Host_Port
Waittimeout
NumberConns
ptr_mem
size_mem
Description
The port for Modbus/TCP server
Time out value, 0~0xffffffff milli-second
Maximum connections for client
Share memory
The size of share memory
Return value:
0
No error occurs
91
Invalid socket
92
Error occurs when associates a local socket address with a
socket
93.
Error occurs when sets up the socket mode
94
Error occurs when listens to the incoming socket
Example:
if((err_code=ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(502, 5000, 20,
(unsigned char *)Share_Mem, sizeof(Share_Mem)))!=0)
{
adv_printf("error code is %d/n", err_code);
}
adv_printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
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ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(void)
Description:
Update the Modbus/TCP Server. The Modbus/TCP server
needs to be
updated
by
calling
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update()
function
continuously to keep server alive.
Parameters
None.
Return value:
1
New message has come in
0
No new message comes in
Example:
while(1)
{
iState = ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update();
//second step
if(iState) //if has message, show the data at address 40001
{
if(pre_data != Share_Mem[0])
{
adv_printf("40001 is %X\n", Share_Mem[0]);
//notice: printf() will decrease server performance
pre_data = Share_Mem[0];
}
}
}
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ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release
Syntax:
void ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release(void)
Description:
Release Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
None.
Returned value:
None.
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5.4.6 Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
TCP/IP SOCKETS API Overview
This
section
describes
the
SOCKETS
API,
which
is
compatible with the BSD Sockets API and also the Winsock API.
The definitions and prototypes for the C environment are
supplied in SOCKET.H, while the implementation of the C interface
is in SOCKET.C. The SOCKETS API is implemented as a layer on
top of the Compatible API (CAPI) and provides an interface to the
socket and name resolution facilities provided by the Datalight DOS
SOCKETS product. It also provides the database functions of BSD
Sockets and Winsock.
A socket is an end-point for a connection and is
defined by the combination of a host address (also known as an
IP address), a port number (or communicating process ID), and a
transport protocol, such as UDP or TCP. Two connected SOCKETS
using the same transport protocol define a connection. The
API
uses
a
socket
handle, sometimes referred to as
simply a socket. The socket handle is required by most
function calls in order to access a connection. The socket handle
used is the same as a normal socket as used in CAPI.
A socket handle is obtained by calling the socket() function. A socket
handle can only be used for a single connection. When
no longer required, such as when a connection has been
closed, the socket
handle must be released by calling closesocket(). Socket
handles
are positive numbers greater than 63.
Types of Service
SOCKETS can be used with one of two service types:
SOCK_STREAM (using TCP).
SOCK_DGRAM (using UDP).
A
stream
connection
provides
for
the
bi-directional,
reliable, sequenced, and unduplicated flow of data without record
boundaries. No broadcast facilities can be used with a stream
connection.
A datagram connection supports bi-directional flow of data that is not
guaranteed to be sequenced, reliable, or unduplicated.
That
is,
a process
receiving
messages
on
a
datagram
socket
may
find messages duplicated, and,
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possibly, in an order different from the order in which it was
sent. An important characteristic of a datagram connection is that
record boundaries in data are preserved.
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Datagram connections closely model the facilities found in
many
contemporary packet switched networks such as Ethernet. Broadcast
messages may be sent and received.
Establishing Remote Connections
To establish a connection, one side (the server) must
execute a listen() and and subsequent accept() and the other side
(the client) a connect(). A connection consists of the local socket /
remote socket pair. It is therefore possible to have a connection
within a single host as long as the local and remote port values differ.
Each host in an IP network must have at least one host
address also known as an IP address. When a host has more
than one physical connection to an IP network, it may have more than
one IP address. An IP address must be unique within a network. An
IP address is 32 bits in length, a port number 16 bits. A value of zero
means “any” while a binary value of all
1s means “all.” The latter value is used for broadcasting
purposes. Using the sockaddr structure conveys the addresses
(host/port) to be used in a connection. A local association is
performed by the bind() function.
Using SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM Services
When using the SOCK_STREAM service (TCP), bi-directional
data can be sent using the send() or sendto() functions and received
using the
recv()
or
recvfrom()
functions
until
one
side performs a shutdown(1) or shutdown(2) after which that
side cannot send any more data , but can still receive data until the
other side performs a shutdown(1), shutdown(2) or closesocket().
When using the SOCK_DGRAM service, datagrams can
be sent without first establishing a “connection”. In fact
UDP provides a “connectionless” service although the connection
paradigm is used.
Blocking and Non-blocking Operations
The default behavior of socket functions is to block on an operation
and only return when the operation has completed. For example, the
connect()
function
only
returns
after
the
connection
has been performed or an error is encountered. This behavior
applies to most socket function calls, such as recv() and even
send(), and especially on SOCK_STREAM connections.
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In many, if not most applications, this behavior is unacceptable in the
single-threaded
DOS
environment
and
must
be
modified.
This modification
can
be
accomplished
by
making all operations on a socket non-blocking by calling
ioctlsocket() with the FIONBIO option.
If a non-blocking operation is performed, the function always returns
immediately. If the function could not complete without
blocking,
an error
is
returned
with
errno
containing
EWOULDBLOCK. This error should be regarded as a recoverable
error and the operation should be retried, preferably at some later
time.
Out of band data
TCP “out of band” or urgent data is not implemented.
Setting the MSG_OOB
flag
has
no
effect
in
recv(),
recvfrom(),
send()
or sendto(); it will simply be ignored.
The SO_OOBINLINE option will also be ignored and ioctlsocket()
with the SIOCATMARK command, will always return an argument
value of 1.
Error Reporting
In general, the C functions implementing the SOCKETS API return a
value of SOCKET_ERROR if the return type is int and an
error is encountered, in which case, the actual error code
is returned in a common variable errno. ERR_RE_ENTRY
is returned when the SOCKETS kernel has been interrupted.
This condition can occur only when the API is called from an
interrupt service routine. Programs designed for this type of
operation, such as TSR programs activated by a real time clock
interrupt, should be coded to handle this error by
re-trying the function at a later stage.
Other sources of Information
Many good books have been written on the Sockets API:
Pocket Guide to TCP/IP Sockets (C Version) by Michael J. Donahoo,
Kenneth L. Calvert
Windows Sockets Network Programming (Addison-Wesley Advanced
Windows Series) by Bob Quinn, et al; Hardcover
Internetworking with TCP/IP Vol. III Client-Server Programming
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and Applications-Windows Sockets Version by Douglas E. Comer,
David L. Stevens (Contributor) ;Hardcover.
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The Winsock 1.1 help
very useful
source of information.
file
(WINSOCK.HLP)
is
also
a
Porting Issues
When porting an application from another BSD Sockets environment
like Unix, Linux or Windows (Winsock), a number of issues must be
kept in mind. The most important one is that ROM-DOS is a singleuser, single-task, single-thread operating system. The use of blocking
calls will suspend the system until completion, which may
imply an indefinite time under abnormal or even normal conditions.
In addition no completion event such as a WSAAsyncSelect
windows message for Winsock or a Signal for Unix/Linux is
available. Only applications either using nonblocking operations
or the select() function may be ported successfully. Other
applications must be adapted to follow these guidelines.
Unlike Winsock and like BSD Sockets, an error number is returned in
the errno variable and is only valid directly after an API
call. When writing portable code to run on both SAPI and
Winsock, a simple
#define can normally be used i.e.
#ifdef _Windows
#define Errno WSAGetLastError()
#else
#define Errno errno
#endif
.
.
if (Errno == WSAEWOULDBLOCK)
{
.
.
}
.
.
Like in Winsock both the WSAE... of Winsock and the
E...
error definitions
of
BSD
may
be
used
e.g.
WSAEWOULDBLOCK
and EWOULDBLOCK. The actual error
numbers are the same as that of Winsock,
except
in
cases
of
DOS
error
code
conflicts
e.g. WSAEINVAL has the
same value as the DOS EINVAL. Always using the
symbolic
value
and
not
numeric
values,
will
avoid
potential
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problems.
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The
function
errno
==
WSANO_DATA.
gethostbyaddr()
will
always
fail
with
All the file/socket operations of BSD Sockets must be translated to the
*socket() versions as used in Winsock e.g. closesocket()
instead of just close().
In Linux/Unix a socket descriptor can be treated the same as
a file descriptor; not so for SAPI or Winsock.
For Winsock the WSAStartup() and WSACleanup() functions must be
called; make it conditional for portable code.
The "socket set" is defined differently for SAPI/Winsock on
the one hand and LINUX/UNIX on the other. Always use the FD_*
macros for portable code.
Function Reference
The following
of the
SOCKETS API.
sections
describe
the
individual
functions
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accept
Syntax:
SOCKET accept ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr *psAddress,
int *p
iAddressLen )
Description:
Accepts a connection on a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
receives the
piAddrLen
A descriptor identifying a socket which is listening for
connections after a listen().
An optional pointer to a buffer which
socket address of the connecting peer.
An optional pointer to an integer which contains
the length of the address psAddress.
Return Value
If no error occurs, accept() returns a value of type SOCKET which is
a
descriptor
for
the
accepted
packet.
Otherwise,
a
value
of INVALID_SOCKET is returned, and a specific error code is
returned in errno.
The integer referred to by iAddressLen initially contains the amount of
space pointed to by psAddress. On return it will contain
the actual length in bytes of the socket address returned.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
EMFILE
accept()
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
EWOULDBLOCK
The network subsystem has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is small
(less than the sizeof a struct sockaddr).
listen() was not invoked prior to accept().
The queue is empty upon entry to
and there are no descriptors available.
No buffer space is available.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The referenced socket is not a
type that supports connection-oriented
service.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and no
connections are present to be accepted.
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Remarks
This function extracts the first connection on the queue of
pending connections on listening socket so, creates a new
socket with the same properties as so and returns a handle to the
new socket. If no
pending connections are present on the queue, and the socket is not
marked as non-blocking, accept() blocks the caller until a connection
is present. If the socket is marked non-blocking and
no pending connections are present on the queue, accept()
returns an error as described below. Socket so remains listening.
The argument psAddress is a result parameter that is filled in with the
socket address of the connecting peer. The piAddressLen is a valueresult parameter; it should initially contain the amount
of space pointed to by psAddress; on return it will contain the
actual length (in bytes) of the socket address returned. This
call is used with the connectionbased SOCK_STREAM socket
type. If psAddress and/or p iAddressLen are equal to NULL, then no
information about the remote peer socket address of the accepted
socket is returned.
See Also
bind(), connect(), listen(), select(), socket()
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bind
Syntax:
int bind ( SOCKET
psAddress, int
iAddressLen )
so,
const
struct
sockaddr
*
Description:
Associates a local socket address with a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
iAddressLen
A descriptor identifying an unbound socket.
The socket address to assign to the
The sockaddr structure is defined as follows:
struct sockaddr
{
u_short sa_family;
char sa_data[14];
};
The length of the name psAddress.
socket.
Return Value
If
no
error
occurs,
bind()
returns
0.
Otherwise,
it
returns
SOCKET_ERROR, and a specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EFAULT
EAFNOSUPPORT
EINVAL
ENOBUFS
many
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The specified address is already in use. (See
the SO_REUSEADDR socket option
under
setsockopt().)
The iAddressLen argument is too small (less
than the size of a struct sockaddr).
The specified address family is not supported
by this protocol.
The socket is already bound to an address.
Not
enough
buffers
available,
too
connections.
The descriptor is not a socket.
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Remarks
This routine is used on an unconnected datagram or stream socket,
before subsequent connect()s or listen()s. When a socket is created
with socket(), it exists in a name space (address family), but it has no
socket address assigned. bind() establishes the local
association
(host address/port number) of the socket by assigning a local address
to an unnamed socket.
In
the
Internet
address
family,
an
address
consists
of several components. For SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_STREAM,
the address consists of three parts: a host address, the
protocol
number
(set implicitly
to
UDP
or
TCP,
respectively),
and
a
port
number
which identifies the
application. If an application does not care what address
is
assigned
to
it,
it
may
specify
an
Internet
address equal to INADDR_ANY, a port equal to 0, or both.
If the Internet address is equal to INADDR_ANY, any
appropriate network interface will be used; this simplifies
application
programming
in
the
presence
of multihomed
hosts. If the port is specified as 0, SOCKETS will assign a unique port
to
the application.
The application may use
getsockname() after bind() to learn the address that
has been assigned to it, but note that getsockname() will not
necessarily fill in the Internet address until the socket is
connected, since several Internet addresses may be valid if the
host is multi-homed.
See Also
connect(), listen(), getsockname(), setsockopt(), socket().
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closesocket
Syntax:
int closesocket ( SOCKET so )
Description:
Closes a socket.
Parameters
so
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
Return Value
If no error occurs, closesocket() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
ENOTSOCK
EWOULDBLOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The socket is marked as nonblocking
and SO_LINGER
is
set
to
a
nonzero timeout value.
Remarks
This function closes a socket. More precisely, it releases the
socket descriptor so, so that further references to so will fail
with the error ENOTSOCK. If this is the last reference to the
underlying socket, the
associated naming information and queued data are discarded.
The semantics of closesocket() are affected by the socket
options
SO_LINGER and SO_DONTLINGER as follows:
Option
Interval
Type of
close
Wait for close?
SO_DONTLINGER
SO_LINGER
SO_LINGER
Don't care
Zero
Non-zero
Graceful
Hard
Graceful
No
No
Yes
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If SO_LINGER is set (i.e. the l_onoff field of the linger structure is nonzero) with a zero timeout interval (l_linger is zero), closesocket()
is not
blocked
even
if
queued
data
has
not
yet
been sent or acknowledged. This is called a "hard" or "abortive"
close, because the
socket's virtual circuit is reset immediately, and any unsent data is lost.
Any recv() call on the remote side of the circuit will
fail with
ECONNRESET.
If
SO_LINGER
is
set
with
a
non-zero
timeout
interval,
the closesocket() call blocks until the remaining data
has been sent or until the timeout expires. This is called a
graceful disconnect. Note that if the socket is set to non-blocking
and SO_LINGER is set to a non-zero timeout, the call to
closesocket() will fail with an error of EWOULDBLOCK.
If SO_DONTLINGER is set on a stream socket (i.e. the l_onoff field of
the
linger
structure
is
zero),
the
closesocket()
call
will
return immediately. However, any data queued for
transmission will be sent
if possible before the underlying socket is closed. This is also called a
graceful disconnect. Note that in this case SOCKETS may not release
the socket and other resources for an arbitrary period,
which may
affect applications which expect to use all available sockets.
See Also
accept(), socket(), ioctlsocket(), setsockopt.
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connect
Syntax:
int connect ( SOCKET so, const struct sockaddr *
psAddress, int
iAddressLen )
Description:
Establishes a connection to a peer.
Parameters
so
psAddress
iAddressLen
Description
A
descriptor
identifying
an
unconnected socket.
The socket address of the peer to which the
socket is to be connected.
The length of psAddress.
Return Value
If no error occurs, connect()
returns 0. Otherwise,
it returns
SOCKET_ERROR, and a specific error code is returned in errno.
On a blocking socket, the return value indicates success or failure of
the connection attempt.
On a non-blocking socket, if the return value is SOCKET_ERROR and
errno
indicates
an
error
code
of
EWOULDBLOCK,
then your application can either:
1.
Use select() to determine the completion of the
connection request by checking if the socket is writeable, or
2.
Use recv() until either no error or an error of EWOULDBLOCK is
returned.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EADDRNOTAVAIL
from
EAFNOSUPPORT
ECONNREFUSED
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The specified address is already in use.
The specified address is not available
the local machine.
Addresses in the specified family cannot
be used with this socket.
The attempt to connect was forcefully
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rejected.
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EDESTADDREQ
EFAULT
EINVAL
EISCONN
EMFILE
ENETUNREACH
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
ETIMEDOUT
EWOULDBLOCK
A destination address is required.
The iAddressLen argument is incorrect.
The socket is not already bound
to an address.
The socket is already connected.
No more file descriptors are available.
The network can't be reached from this host
at this time.
No buffer space is available. The
socket cannot be connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
Attempt to connect timed out without
establishing a connection
The socket is marked as non-blocking
and the
connection
cannot
be
completed
immediately. It is possible to select()
the
socket while it is connecting by select()ing
it for writing.
Remarks
This function is used to create a connection to the specified
foreign socket
address.
The
parameter
so
specifies
an
unconnected
datagram or stream socket. If the socket is unbound, unique
values are assigned to the local association by the system, and the
socket is
marked as bound. Note that if the address field of the
psAddress
structure is all zeroes, connect() will return the error
EADDRNOTAVAIL.
For
stream
connection is
address in the
call completes
sockets
(type
SOCK_STREAM),
an
active
initiated to the foreign host using psAddress (an
name space of the socket). When the socket
successfully, the socket is ready to send/receive data.
For a datagram socket (type SOCK_DGRAM), a default destination is
set, which will be used on subsequent send() and recv() calls.
See Also
accept(), bind(), getsockname(), socket() and select().
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getpeername
Syntax:
int getpeername ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr * psAddress,
int *
piAddressLen )
Description:
Gets the socket address of the peer to which a socket is connected.
Parameters
Description
soA descriptor identifying a connected socket. psAddress The structure
which is to receive the socket address of the peer.
piAddressLen
A pointer to the size of the
psAddress
structure.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getpeername() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is
returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is not large
enough.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
Remarks
getpeername() retrieves the socket address of the peer connected to
the socket so and stores it in the struct sockaddr identified by
psAddress. It is used on a connected datagram or stream socket.
On return, the piAddressLen argument contains the actual size of the
socket address returned in bytes.
See Also
bind(), socket(), getsockname().
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getsockname
Syntax:
int getsockname ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr * psAddress,
int *
piAddressLen )
Description:
Gets the local socket address for a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound socket.
Receives the socket address (name) of
the socket.
A pointer to the size of the psAddress buffer.
piAddressLen
Return Value
If no error occurs, getsockname() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOTSOCK
EINVAL
with
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is not large enough.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The socket has not been bound to an address
bind().
Remarks
getsockname() retrieves the current socket address for the specified
socket descriptor in psAddress. It is used on a
bound and/or
connected socket specified by the so parameter.The local association
is returned. This call is especially useful when a connect()
call has been made without doing a bind() first; this call
provides the only means by which you can determine the
local association which has been set by the system.
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On return, the piAddressLen argument contains the actual size of the
socket
address
returned
in
bytes.If
a
socket
was
bound
to INADDR_ANY, indicating that any of the host's IP
addresses should be used for the socket, getsockname() will
not necessarily return
information about the host IP address, unless the socket has
been
connected with connect() or accept(). A SOCKETS application must
not assume that the IP address will be changed from INADDR_ANY
unless the socket is connected. This is because for a
multi-homed host the IP address that will be used for the socket is
unknown unless the socket is connected.
See Also
bind(), socket(), getpeername().
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getsockopt
Syntax:
int getsockopt ( SOCKET so, int iLevel, int iOptname, char * pcOptval,
int * piOptlen )
Description:
Retrieves a socket option.
Parameters
so
iLevel
iOptname
to be
pcOptval
piOptlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The level at which the option is defined;
the only supported
levels are
SOL_SOCKET and IPPROTO_TCP.
The socket option for which the value is
retrieved.
A pointer to the buffer in which the
for the requested option is to be returned.
A pointer to the size of the pcOptval buffer.
value
Return Value
If no error occurs, getsockopt() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOPROTOOPT
In
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The piOptlen argument was invalid.
The option is unknown or unsupported.
particular, SO_BROADCAST is not supported
on sockets of type SOCK_STREAM,
while
SO_ACCEPTCONN,
SO_DONTLINGER,
SO_KEEPALIVE,
SO_LINGER
and
SO_OOBINLINE are not supported on
sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM.
The descriptor is not a socket.
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Remarks
getsockopt()
retrieves
the
current
value
for
a
socket
option associated with a socket of any type, in
any state, and stores the result in pcOptval. Options may
exist at multiple protocol levels, but they are always present at
the uppermost "socket'' level. Options
affect socket operations, such as whether an operation blocks or not,
the routing of packets, out -of-band data transfer, etc.
The value associated with the selected option is returned in the buffer
pcOptval. The integer pointed to by piOptlen should originally contain
the size of this buffer; on return, it will be set to the size of the value
returned. For SO_LINGER, this will be the size of a struct linger; for all
other options it will be the size of an integer.
If the option was never set with setsockopt(), then
getsockopt() returns the default value for the option.The
following options are supported for getsockopt(). The Type
identifies the type of data addressed
by
optval.
The
TCP_NODELAY
option
uses
level IPPROTO_TCP; all other
options use level SOL_SOCKET.
Value
SO_ACCEPTCONN
SO_BROADCAST
Type
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DEBUG
SO_DONTLINGER
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DONTROUTE
SO_ERROR
BOOL
int
SO_KEEPALIVE
SO_LINGER
BOOL
struct linger*
SO_OOBINLINE
BOOL
SO_RCVBUF
SO_REUSEADDR
int
BOOL
SO_SNDBUF
SO_TYPE
int
int
TCP_NODELAY
BOOL
Meaning
Socket is listen()ing.
Socket is configured
for the transmission
of broadcast messages.
Debugging is enabled.
If true, the SO_LINGER
option is disabled.
Routing is disabled.
Retrieve error status
and clear.
Keepalives are being sent.
Returns the current linger
options.
Out-of-band data is being
received in the normal data
stream.
Buffer size for receives
The socket may be bound
to an address which is
already in use.
Buffer size for sends
The type of the socket (e.g.
SOCK_STREAM).
Disables the Nagle algorithm
for send coalescing.
Default
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
0
FALSE
l_onoff is 0
FALSE
1460
FALSE
1460
As created
FALSE
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Calling getsockopt() with an unsupported option will result in an error
code of ENOPROTOOPT being returned from WSAGetLastError().
See Also
setsockopt(), socket().
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htonl
Syntax:
u_long htonl ( u_long ulHostlong )
Description:
Converts a u_long from host to network byte order.
Parameters
ulHostlong
Description
A 32-bit number in host byte order.
Return Value
htonl() returns the value in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 32-bit number in host byte order and returns a 32bit number in network byte order.
See Also
htons(), ntohl(), ntohs().
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htons
Syntax
u_short htons ( u_short usHostshort )
Description:
Converts a u_short from host to network byte order.
Parameters
sHostshort
Description
A 16-bit number in host byte order.
Return Value
htons() returns the value in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 16-bit number in host byte order and returns a 16bit number in network byte order.
See Also
htonl(), ntohl(), ntohs().
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inet_addr
Syntax:
unsigned long inet_addr ( const char * pc )
Description:
Converts a string containing a dotted address into an in_addr.
Parameters
pc
expressed
Description
A character string representing a number
in the Internet standard ".'' notation.
Return Value
If no error occurs, inet_addr() returns an unsigned long containing a
suitable binary representation of the Internet address given.
If the passed-in string does not contain a legitimate Internet
address, for
example if a portion of an "a.b.c.d" address exceeds 255, inet_addr()
returns the value INADDR_NONE.
Remarks
This function interprets the character string specified by
the pc
parameter.
This
string
represents
a
numeric
Internet
address expressed in the Internet standard ".'' notation. The value
returned is a number suitable for use as an Internet address. All
Internet addresses are returned in network order (bytes ordered from
left to right).
Internet Addresses
Values specified using the ".'' notation take one of the following forms:
a.b.c.d
a.b.c
a.b
a
When four parts are specified, each is interpreted as a byte of data
and assigned, from left to right, to the four bytes of
an Internet address. Note that when an Internet address is
viewed as a 32-bit integer quantity on the Intel architecture, the
bytes referred to above appear as "d.c.b.a''. That is, the
bytes on an Intel processor are ordered from right to left.
Note: The following notations are only used by Berkeley, and nowhere
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else on the Internet. In the interests of compatibility with their software,
they are supported as specified.
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When a three part address is specified, the last part is interpreted as a
16-bit quantity and placed in the right most two bytes of the network
address.
This
makes
the
three
part
address
format
convenient
for specifying Class B network addresses as
"128.net.host''.
When a two part address is specified, the last part is interpreted as a
24-bit quantity and placed in the right most three bytes of the network
address.
This
makes
the
two
part
address
format
convenient for specifying Class A network addresses as "net.host''.
When only one part is given, the value is stored directly in the network
address without any byte rearrangement.
See Also
inet_ntoa()
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inet_ntoa
Syntax:
char * inet_ntoa ( struct in_addr sIn )
Description:
Converts a network address into a string in dotted format.
Parameters
sIn
Description
A structure which represents an Internet host address.
Return Value
If no error occurs, inet_ntoa() returns a char pointer to a static buffer
containing the text address in standard ".'' notation.
Otherwise, it
returns NULL. The data should be copied before another SOCKETS
call is made.
Remarks
This function takes an Internet address structure specified by the sIn
parameter. It returns an ASCII string representing the address in ".''
notation as "a.b.c.d''. Note that the string returned by
inet_ntoa() resides in memory which is allocated by SOCKETS.
The application
should not make any assumptions about the way in which the memory
is allocated. The data is guaranteed to be valid until
the next
SOCKETS API call, but no longer.
See Also
inet_addr().
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ioctlsocket
Syntax:
int ioctlsocket ( SOCKET so, long lCmd, u_long * pulArgp )
Description:
Controls the mode of a socket.
Parameters
so
lCmd
pulArgp
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The command to perform on the socket so.
A pointer to a parameter for lCmd.
Return Value
Upon successful completion, the ioctlsocket() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error
code is
returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
lCmd is not a valid command, or pulArgp is
not an acceptable parameter for lCmd, or the
command is
not applicable to the type of socket supplied
The descriptor so is not a socket.
Remarks
This routine may be used on any socket in any state. It is used to get
or
retrieve
operating
parameters
associated
with
the
socket, independent
of
the
protocol
and
communications
subsystem.
The following commands are
supported:
Command
FIONBIO
socket
Semantics
Enable or disable non-blocking mode on the
so. pulArgp points at an unsigned long,
which is non-zero if non-blocking mode is to
be enabled and zero if it is to be disabled. When a
socket is created, it operates in blocking mode (i.e.
non-blocking mode is disabled). This is consistent
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with BSD sockets.
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FIONREAD
Determine the amount of data which can be read
atomically from socket so. pulArgp points
at an unsigned long in which ioctlsocket()
stores
the result.
If
so
is
of
type
SOCK_STREAM, FIONREAD
returns the total amount of data which may be read in
a single recv(); this is normally the same as the total
amount of data queued on the socket. If so is of type
SOCK_DGRAM, FIONREAD returns the size of
the first datagram queued on the socket.
SIOCATMARK Determine whether or not all out-of-band
data has been read. This applies only to
a socket of type SOCK_STREAM which has
been configured for inline
reception
of
any
out-of-band
data
(SO_OOBINLINE). If no out-of-band data is waiting to
be
read,
the
operation
returns
TRUE.
Otherwise it returns FALSE, and the next
recv() or recvfrom() performed on the socket
will retrieve some or all of the data preceding
the "mark"; the application should use the
SIOCATMARK operation
to
determine
whether
any
remains.
If
there
is
any
normal data preceding the "urgent" (out of
band) data, it will be received in order. (Note
that a recv() or recvfrom() will never mix
out-of-band and normal data in the same
call.)
argp
points
at
a
BOOL
in
which ioctlsocket() stores the result.
Compatibility
This function is a subset of ioctl() as used in Berkeley
sockets. In particular, there is no command which is equivalent
to FIOASYNC,
while SIOCATMARK is the only socketlevel command
which is
supported.
See Also
socket(), setsockopt(), getsockopt().
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listen
Syntax:
int listen ( SOCKET so, int iBacklog )
Description:
Establishes a socket to listen for incoming connection.
Parameters
so
iBacklog
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound, unconnected socket.
The maximum length to which the queue of pending
connections may grow.
Return Value
If no error occurs,
listen()
returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EINVAL
EISCONN
EMFILE
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
An attempt has been made to listen() on
an address in use.
The socket has not been bound with bind() or
is already connected.
The socket is already connected.
No more file descriptors are available.
No buffer space is available.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The referenced socket is not of a type
that supports the listen() operation.
Remarks
To accept connections, a socket is first created with
socket(), a backlog for incoming connections is specified with
listen(), and then the connections are accepted with accept().
listen() applies only to
sockets that support connections, i.e. those of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket so is put into "passive'' mode where incoming connections
are acknowledged and queued pending acceptance by the process.
This function is typically used by servers that could have more than
one connection request at a time: if a connection request arrives with
the queue full, the client will receive an error with an
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indication of
ECONNREFUSED.
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Compatibility
iBacklog is limited (silently) to 5. As in 4.3BSD, illegal
values (less than 1 or greater than 5) are replaced by the nearest legal
value.
See Also
accept(), connect(), socket().
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ntohl
Syntax:
u_long ntohl ( u_long ulNetlong )
Description:
Converts a u_long from network to host byte order.
Parameters
ulNetlong
Description
A 32-bit number in network byte order.
Return Value
ntohl() returns the value in host byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 32-bit number in network byte order and returns a
32-bit number in host byte order.
See Also
htonl(), htons(), ntohs().
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ntohs
Syntax
u_short ntohs ( u_short usNetshort )
Description:
Converts a u_short from network to host byte order.
Return Value
ntohs() returns the value in host byte order.
Parameters
usNetshort
Description
A 16-bit number in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 16-bit number in network byte order and returns a
16-bit number in host byte order.
See Also
htonl(), htons(), ntohl().
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recv
Syntax:
int recv ( SOCKET so, char * pcbuf, int iLen, int iFlags )
Description:
Receives data from a socket.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
Description
A descriptor identifying a connected socket.
A buffer for the incoming data.
The length of pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
Return Value
If no error occurs, recv() returns the number of bytes received. If the
connection has been closed, it returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
is
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
EMSGSIZE
EINVAL
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it
is not possible to recv() on a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to 0
or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking
and the receive operation would block.
The datagram was too large to fit
into the specified buffer and was truncated.
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the
remote side.
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Remarks
This function is used on connected datagram or stream
sockets specified by the so parameter and is used to read incoming data.
For
sockets
of
type
SOCK_STREAM,
as
much
information as is currently available up to the size of the buffer
supplied is returned. If the socket has been configured for inline reception of out-of-band data (socket option SO_OOBINLINE)
and out-of-band data is unread, only out-of-band data will be
returned.
The
application
may
use
the ioctlsocket()
SIOCATMARK to determine whether any more out-of- band
data remains to be read.
For datagram sockets, data is extracted from the first
enqueued datagram, up to the size of the buffer supplied.
If the datagram is larger than the buffer supplied, the buffer is
filled with the first part of the datagram, the excess data is lost,
and recv() returns the error EMSGSIZE.
If no incoming data is available at the socket, the recv() call waits for
data to arrive unless the socket is non-blocking. In this case a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned with the error code set to
EWOULDBLOCK. The select() call may be used to determine when
more data arrives.
If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM and the remote side has shut
down the connection gracefully, a recv() will complete
immediately with 0 bytes received. If the connection has been reset,
a recv() will fail with the error ECONNRESET.
iFlags
may
be
used
to
influence
the
behavior
of
the function invocation beyond the options specified for the
associated socket. That is, the semantics of this function are
determined by the socket options and the iFlags parameter. The
latter is constructed by or-ing any of the following values:
Value
MSG_
MSG_OOB
Meaning
PEEK Peek at the incoming data. The data is copied
into the buffer but is not removed from
the input
queue.
Process out-of-band data.
See Also
recvfrom(), ,recv(), send(), select(), socket()
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recvfrom
Syntax
int recvfrom ( SOCKET so, char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags,
struct sockaddr * psFrom, int * piFromlen )
Description:
Receives a datagram and store the source address.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
psFrom
piFromlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound socket.
A buffer for the incoming data.
The length of pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
An optional pointer to a buffer which will
hold the source address upon return.
An optional pointer to the size of the psFrom buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, recvfrom() returns the number of bytes received. If
the connection has been closed, it returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is
returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The piFromlen argument was invalid:
the psFrom buffer was too small to
accommodate
the peer address.
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The
socket
is
not
connected
(SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket
is not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it
is not possible to recvfrom() on a
socket after shutdown() has been invoked
with how set to
0 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking
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EMSGSIZE
into the
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
The datagram was too large to fit
specified buffer and was truncated.
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the
remote side.
Remarks
This function is used to read incoming data on a (possibly connected)
socket and capture the address from which the data was sent.
For
sockets
of
type
SOCK_STREAM,
as
much
information as is currently available up to the size of the buffer
supplied is returned. If the socket has been configured for inline reception of out-of-band data (socket option SO_OOBINLINE)
and out-of-band data is unread, only out-of-band data will be
returned.
The
application
may
use
the ioctlsocket()
SIOCATMARK to determine whether any more out-of- band
data remains to be read. The psFrom and piFromlen parameters are
ignored for SOCK_STREAM sockets.
For datagram sockets, data is extracted from the first
enqueued datagram, up to the size of the buffer supplied.
If the datagram is larger than the buffer supplied, the buffer is
filled with the first part of the message, the excess data is lost, and
recvfrom() returns the error code EMSGSIZE.
If psFrom is non-zero, and the socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM, the
network address of the peer which sent t he data is
copied to the corresponding struct sockaddr. The value pointed to
by piFromlen is initialized to the size of this structure, and is
modified on return to indicate the actual size of the address stored
there.
If no incoming data is available at the socket, the recvfrom() call waits
for data to arrive unless the socket is non-blocking. In this
case a value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned with the
error code set to EWOULDBLOCK. The select() call may be
used to determine when more data arrives.
If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM and the remote side has shut
down
the
connection
gracefully,
a
recvfrom() will
complete immediately with 0 bytes received. If the connection
has been reset recv() will fail with the error ECONNRESET.
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iFlags may be used to influence the behavior of
the function
invocation beyond the options specified for the associated
socket. That is, the semantics of this function aredetermined
by the socket options and the iFlags parameter. The latter is
constructed by or-ing
any of the following values:
Value
MSG_PEEK
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Peek at the incoming data. The data is copied into the
buffer but is not removed from the input queue.
Process out-of-band data.
See Also
recv(), send(), socket().
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select
Syntax:
int select ( int iNfds, fd_set * psReadfds, fd_set * psWritefds, fd_set *
psExceptfds, const struct timeval * psTimeout )
Description:
Determines the status of one or more sockets, waiting if necessary.
Parameters
iNfds
psReadfds
psWritefds
psExceptfds
psTimeout
Description
This argument is ignored and included only for
the sake of compatibility.
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for readability.
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for writability
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for errors.
The maximum time for select() to wait, or NULL
for blocking operation.
Return Value
select() returns the total number of descriptors which are ready
and contained in the fd_set structures, 0 if the time
limit expired, or SOCKET_ERROR
if
an
error
occurred.
If the return value is
SOCKET_ERROR, errno contains the specific error code.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The psTimeout value is not valid.
One of the descriptor sets contains an
entry which is not a socket.
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Remarks
This function is used to determine the status of one or more sockets.
For each socket, the caller may request information on read, write or
error status. The set of sockets for which a given status is requested
is indicated by an fd_set structure. Upon return, the
structure is
updated to reflect the subset of these sockets which
meet the specified
condition,
and select()
returns
the
number of sockets meeting the conditions. A set of macros is
provided for manipulating an
fd_set.
These
macros
are
compatible with those used in the Berkeley software, but
the underlying representation is completely different and the
same as that used in Winsock.
The parameter psReadfds identifies those sockets which are
to be checked for readability. If the socket is currently listen()ing, it
will be marked as readable if an incoming connection
request
has been received,
so
that
an
accept()
is
guaranteed to complete without blocking. For other sockets,
readability means that queued data is available for reading or,
for sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, that the virtual socket
corresponding to the socket has been closed, so that a recv() or
recvfrom() is guaranteed to complete without blocking. If the virtual
circuit
was
closed
gracefully,
then
a
recv()
will
return immediately with 0 bytes read; if the virtual circuit was reset,
then a recv() will complete immediately with the error code
ECONNRESET. The presence of out-of-band data will be checked if
the socket option SO_OOBINLINE has been enabled (see
setsockopt()).
The parameter psWritefds identifies those sockets which are
to be checked for writability. If a socket is connect()ing
(non-blocking), writability
means
that
the
connection
establishment successfully completed. If the socket is not
in the process of connect()ing, writability means that a
send() or sendto() will complete without blocking.
The parameter psExceptfds identifies those sockets which are to be
checked for the presence of out-of-band data or any exceptional error
conditions. Note that out -of-band data will only be reported in this way
if the option SO_OOBINLINE is FALSE. For a SOCK_STREAM, the
breaking of the connection by the peer or due to KEEPALIVE failure
will be indicated as an exception. If a socket is
connect()ing (non- blocking), failure of the connect attempt is
indicated in psExceptfds.
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Any of psReadfds, psWritefds, or psExceptfds may be given as NULL
if no descriptors are of interest.
Four macros are defined in the header file socket.h for manipulating
the
descriptor
sets.
The
variable
FD_SETSIZE
determines
the maximum
number of
descriptors
in
a
set. (The default value of FD_SETSIZE
is 16,
which
may
be
modified
by #defining
FD_SETSIZE to another value before #including socket.h.) Internally,
an fd_set is represented as an array of SOCKETs. The macros are:
FD_CLR(so, *psSet)
Removes the descriptor so from set.
FD_ISSET(so, *pSset) Nonzero if so is a member of the set, zero
otherwise.
FD_SET(so, *psSet)
Adds descriptor so to set.
FD_ZERO(*psSet)
Initializes the set to the NULL set.
The parameter psTimeout controls how long the select() may take to
comp lete. If psTimeout is a null pointer, select() will block indefinitely
until at least one descriptor meets the specified criteria.
Otherwise, psTtimeout points to a struct timeval which
specifies the maximum time
that
select()
should
wait
before returning. If the timeval is initialized to {0, 0},
select() will return immediately; this is used to "poll" the
state of the selected sockets.
See Also
accept(), connect(), recv(), recvfrom(), send().
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send
Syntax:
int send ( SOCKET so, const char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags )
Description:
Sends data on a connected socket.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
Description
A descriptor identifying a connected socket.
A buffer containing the data to be transmitted.
The length of the data in pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
Return Value
If no error occurs, send() returns the total number of characters sent.
(Note that this may be less than the number indicated
by len.)
Otherwise, a value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a
specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EACCES
EFAULT
part of
ENETRESET
because
ENOBUFS
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The
requested
address
is
a
broadcast address, but the appropriate flag was
not set.
The pcBuf argument is not in a valid
the user address space.
The
connection
must
be
reset
SOCKETS dropped it.
SOCKETS reports a buffer deadlock.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket
is not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it
is not possible
to send()
on
a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to
1 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking
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and the requested operation would block.
EMSGSIZE
The socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM,
and the datagram is larger than the
maximum
supported by SOCKETS.
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EINVAL
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the
remote side.
Remarks
send() is used on connected datagram or stream sockets and is used
to write outgoing data on a socket. For datagram sockets, care must
be taken not to exceed the maximum IP packet size of the underlying
subnets. If the data is too long to pass atomically
through the underlying protocol the error EMSGSIZE is returned,
and no data is transmitted.
Note that the successful completion of a send() does not indicate that
the data was successfully delivered.
If no buffer space is available within the transport system to hold the
data to be transmitted, send() will block unless the socket has been
placed in a non-blocking I/O mode. On non-blocking SOCK_STREAM
sockets, the number of bytes written may be between 1
and the requested length, depending on buffer availability on
both the local and foreign hosts. The select() call may be used to
determine when it
is possible to send more data.
iFlags
may
be
used
to
influence
the
behavior
of
the function invocation beyond the options specified for the
associated socket. That is, the semantics of this function are
determined by the socket options and the flags parameter. The latter
is constructed by oring any
of the following values:
Value
MSG_DONTROUTE
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Specifies that the data should not be subject
to routing
Send out-of-band data
(SOCK_STREAM only)
See Also
recv(), recvfrom(), socket(), sendto().
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sendto
Syntax:
int sendto ( SOCKET so, const char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags, const
struct sockaddr * psTo, int iTolen )
Description:
Sends data to a specific destination.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
PsTo
iITolen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
A buffer containing the data to be transmitted.
The length of the data in pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
An optional pointer to the address of the target
socket.
The size of the address in to.
Return Value
If no error occurs, sendto() returns the total number of
characters sent. (Note that this may be less than the number
indicated by len.) Otherwise, a value of SOCKET_ERROR is
returned, and a specific
error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EACCES
EFAULT
ENETRESET
because
ENOBUFS
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
is
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The
requested
address
is
a
broadcast address, but the appropriate flag was
not set.
The pcBuf or psTo parameters are not part of
the user address space, or the
psTo
argument is too small (less than the sizeof a
struct sockaddr).
The
connection
must
be
reset
SOCKETS dropped it.
SOCKETS reports a buffer deadlock.
The
socket
is
not
connected
(SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
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ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
EMSGSIZE
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
EADDRNOTAVAIL
EAFNOSUPPORT
be
EDESTADDRREQ
ENETUNREACH
The socket has been shutdown; it is not
possible to sendto() on a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to
1 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking
and the requested operation would block.
The socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM,
and the datagram is larger than the
maximum
supported by SOCKETS.
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the
remote side.
The specified address is not available
from the local machine.
Addresses in the specified family cannot
used with this socket.
A destination address is required.
The network can't be reached from this host
at this time.
Remarks
sendto() is used on datagram or stream sockets and is used to write
outgoing data on a socket. For datagram sockets, care must be taken
not to exceed the maximum IP packet size of the underlying subnets.
If the data is too long to pass atomically through the
underlying protocol the error EMSGSIZE is returned, and no data is
transmitted.
Note that the successful completion of a sendto() does not indicate
that the data was successfully delivered.
sendto() is normally used on a SOCK_DGRAM socket to
send a datagram to a specific peer socket identified by the psTo
parameter. On a SOCK_STREAM socket, the psTo and iTolen
parameters are ignored; in this case the sendto() is equivalent to
send().
To send a broadcast (on a SOCK_DGRAM only), the address in the to
parameter should be constructed using the special IP
address INADDR_BROADCAST
(defined
in
socket.h)
together
with
the intended port number. It is generally
inadvisable for a broadcast datagram to exceed the size at
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which fragmentation may occur, which implies that the data
portion of the datagram (excluding headers) should not
exceed 512 bytes.
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If no buffer space is available within the transport system to hold the
data to be transmitted, sendto() will block unless the socket has been
placed in a non-blocking I/O mode. On non-blocking SOCK_STREAM
sockets, the number of bytes written may be between 1
and the
requested length, depending on buffer availability on both t he
local
and foreign hosts. The select() call may be used to determine when it
is possible to send more data.
iFlags
may
be
used
to
influence
the
behavior
of
the function invocation beyond the options specified for the
associated socket. That is, the semantics of this function are
determined by the socket options and the iFlags parameter. The
latter is constructed by or-ing any of the following values:
Value
MSG_DONTROUTE
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Specifies that the data should not be subject
to routing.
Send out-of-band data (SOCK_STREAM only
Out of band data)
See Also
recv(), recvfrom(), socket(), send().
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setsockopt
Syntax:
int setsockopt ( SOCKET so, int level, int optname, const char * optval,
int optlen )
Description:
Sets a socket option.
Parameters
so
level
optname
optval
optlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The level at which the option is defined;
the only supported
levels are
SOL_SOCKET and IPPROTO_TCP.
The socket option for which the value is to be set.
A pointer to the buffer in which the value
for the requested option is supplied.
The size of the optval buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, setsockopt() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
ENETRESET
ENOPROTOOPT
ENOTCONN
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
optval is not in a valid part of the
process address space.
level is not valid, or the information in optval
is not valid.
Connection
has
timed
out
when
SO_KEEPALIVE is set.
The
option
is
unknown
or
unsupported.
In
particular,
SO_BROADCAST is not supported on
sockets
of
type
SOCK_STREAM,
while
SO_DONTLINGER,
SO_KEEPALIVE,
SO_LINGER and SO_OOBINLINE are
not supported on sockets of type
SOCK_DGRAM.
Connection
has
been
reset
when
SO_KEEPALIVE is set.
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ENOTSOCK
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The descriptor is not a socket.
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Remarks
setsockopt() sets the current value for a socket option
associated with a socket of any type, in any state. Although options
may exist at multiple protocol levels, this specification only
defines options that
exist at the uppermost "socket'' level. Options affect socket operations,
such as whet her expedited data is received in the normal data stream,
whether broadcast messages may be sent on the socket, etc.
There are two types of socket options: Boolean options that enable or
disable a feature or behavior, and options which require an
integer value or structure. To enable a Boolean option,
optval points to a nonzero integer. To disable the option
optval points to an integer equal to zero. optlen should be equal
to sizeof(int) for Boolean options. For other options, optval points
to the an integer or structure that contains the desired value
for the option, and optlen is the length of the integer or structure.
SO_LINGER controls the action taken when unsent data is queued on
a socket and a closesocket() is performed. See closesocket() for a
description of the way in which the SO_LINGER settings
affect the semantics of closesocket(). The application sets the
desired behavior
by creating a struct linger (pointed to by the optval argument) with the
following elements:
struct linger
{
int l_onoff;
int l_linger;
}
To enable SO_LINGER, the application should set l_onoff to a
non- zero value, set l_linger to 0 or the desired timeout (in seconds),
and call
setsockopt().
To
enable
SO_DONTLINGER
(i.e.
disable SO_LINGER) l_onoff should be set to zero and
setsockopt() should be called.
By default, a socket may not be bound (see bind()) to a local address
which is already in use. On occasions, however, it may be desirable to
"re-use" an address in this way. Since every connection is
uniquely identified by the combination of local and remote addresses,
there is no problem with having two sockets bound to the same local
address as long as the remote addresses are different. To inform
SOCKETS that a bind() on a socket should not be
disallowed because the desired address is already in use by
another socket, the application should set the SO_REUSEADDR
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socket option for the socket before
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issuing the bind(). Note that the option is interpreted only at the time
of the bind(): it is therefore unnecessary (but harmless) to
set the option on a socket which is not to be bound to an existing
address, and setting or resetting the option after the bind() has no
effect on this
or any other socket.
An application may request that SOCKETS enable the use of "keepalive" packets on TCP connections by turning on the SO_KEEPALIVE
socket option. If a connection is dropped as the result of "keep -alives"
the error code ENETRESET is returned to any calls in progress on the
socket, and any subsequent calls will fail with ENOTCONN.
The TCP_NODELAY option disables the Nagle algorithm. The Nagle
algorithm is used to reduce the number of small packets
sent by a host by buffering unacknowledged send data until
a full-size packet can
be
sent.
However,
for
some
applications
this
algorithm
can impede performance, and
TCP_NODELAY may be used to turn it off. Application writers should
not set TCP_NODELAY unless the impact
of doing so is well-understood and desired, since setting
TCP_NODELAY can have a significant negative impact of
network performance. TCP_NODELAY is the only supported
socket option
which
uses
level
IPPROTO_TCP;
all
other
options
use
level
SOL_SOCKET.
The following options are supported for setsockopt(). The
Type identifies the type of data addressed by optval.
Value
SO_BROADCAST
Type
BOOL
SO_DEBUG
SO_DONTLINGER
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DONTROUTE
SO_KEEPALIVE
SO_LINGER
BOOL
BOOL
struct linger *
SO_OOBINLINE
BOOL
SO_RCVBUF
SO_REUSEADDR
Int
BOOL
Meaning
Allow transmission of broadcast
messages on the socket.
Record debugging information.
Don't block close waiting for unsent
data to be sent. Setting this option is
equivalent to setting SO_LINGER
with l_onoff set to zero.
Don't route: send directly to interface.
Send keepalives
Linger on close if unsent data is
present
Receive out-of-band data in the
normal data stream.
Specify buffer size for receives
Allow the socket to be bound to an
address which is already in use.
(See bind().)
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SO_SNDBUF
TCP_NODELAY
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Int
BOOL
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Specify buffer size for sends.
Disables the Nagle algorithm for
send coalescing.
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
BSD options not supported for setsockopt() are:
Value
SO_ACCEPTCONN
SO_ERROR
SO_RCVLOWAT
SO_RCVTIMEO
SO_SNDLOWAT
SO_SNDTIMEO
SO_TYPE
IP_OPTIONS
Type
BOOL
Int
Int
Int
Int
Int
Int
Meaning
Socket is listening
Get error status and clear
Receive low water mark
Receive timeout
Send low water mark
Send timeout
Type of the socket
Set options field in IP header.
See Also
bind(), getsockopt(), ioctlsocket(), socket().
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shutdown
Syntax:
int shutdown ( SOCKET so, int how )
Description:
Disables sends and/or receives on a socket.
Parameters
so
how
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
A flag that describes what types of operation will no
longer be allowed.
Return Value
If no error occurs, shutdown() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
how is not valid.
The socket is not connected (SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
Remarks
shutdown() is used on all types of sockets to disable
reception, transmission, or both. If how is 0, subsequent receives on
the socket will be disallowed. This has no effect on the lower protocol
layers. For TCP, the TCP window is not changed and
incoming data will be accepted (but not acknowledged) until the
window is exhausted. For UDP, incoming datagrams are accepted
and queued. In no case will an ICMP error packet be generated.
If how is 1, subsequent sends are disallowed. For TCP sockets, a FIN
will be sent. Setting how to 2 disables both sends and
receives as described above.
Note that shutdown() does not close the socket, and
resources attached to the socket will not be freed until closesocket() is
invoked.
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Comments
shutdown() does not block regardless of the SO_LINGER setting on
the socket. An application should not re-use a socket after it has been
shut down.
See Also
connect(), socket().
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socket
Syntax:
SOCKET socket ( int af, int type, int protocol )
Description:
Creates a socket.
Parameters
af
type
protocol
An address format specification. The only
format currently supported is PF_INET,
which is the ARPA Internet address format.
A type specification for the new socket.
A particular protocol to be used with the socket, or 0 if
the caller does not wish to specify a protocol.
Return Value
If no error occurs, socket() returns a descriptor referencing the
new socket. Otherwise, a value of INVALID_SOCKET is
returned, and a specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EAFNOSUPPORT
EMFILE
ENOBUFS
EPROTONOSUPPORT
EPROTOTYPE
ESOCKTNOSUPPORT
not
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
The specified address family is
not supported.
No more file descriptors are
available.
No buffer space is available.
The socket cannot be created.
The specified protocol is not
supported.
The specified protocol is the
wrong type for this socket.
The
specified
socket
type
is
supported in this address family.
Remarks
socket() allocates a socket descriptor of the specified address family,
data type and protocol, as well as related resources. If a protocol is
not specified (i.e. equal to 0), the default for the specified connection
mode is used.
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Only a single protocol exists to support a particular socket type using
a given address format. However, the address family may be given as
AF_UNSPEC (unspecified), in which case the protocol
parameter must be specified. The protocol number to use
is particular to the
"communication domain'' in which communication is to take place.
The following type specifications are supported:
Type Explanation
SOCK_STREAM
SOCK_DGRAM
Provides sequenced, reliable, two-way,
connection-based byte streams with an
out- of-band data transmission mechanism.
Uses
TCP for the Internet address family.
Supports
datagrams,
which
are
connectionless, unreliable buffers of a
fixed (typically small) maximum length. Uses
UDP for the Internet address family.
Sockets
of
type
SOCK_STREAM
are
full-duplex
byte
streams. A stream socket must be in a connected state before any
data may be sent or received on it. A connection to another socket is
created with a connect() call. Once connected, data may be
transferred using send() and
recv()
calls.
When
a
session
has
been
completed,
a closesocket() must
be performed. Out-of-band data may also be transmitted as
described in send() and received as described in recv().
The communications protocols used to implement a SOCK_STREAM
ensure that data is not lost or duplicated. If data for which
the
peer protocol has buffer space cannot be successfully
transmitted within a reasonable length of time, the connection is
considered broken and subsequent calls will fail with the error code
set to ETIMEDOUT.
SOCK_DGRAM sockets allow sending and receiving of datagrams to
and from arbitrary peers using sendto() and recvfrom(). If
such a socket is connect()ed to a specific peer, datagrams may be
send to that peer send() and may be received from (only)
this peer using recv().
See Also
accept(), bind(), connect(), getsockname(), getsockopt(), setsockopt(),
listen(), recv(), recvfrom(), select(), send(), sendto(),
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shutdown(),
ioctlsocket().
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gethostbyaddr
Syntax:
struct hostent * gethostbyaddr ( const char * pcAddr, int len, int type )
Description:
Gets host information corresponding to an address.
Parameters
pcAddr
len
4 for
Description
A pointer to an address in network byte order.
The length of the address, which must
be
PF_INET addresses.
The type of the address, which must be PF_INET.
type
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostbyaddr() returns a pointer to the
hostent structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer
and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND
WSATRY_AGAIN
or
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Authoritative Answer Host not found.
Non-Authoritative Host not found,
SERVERFAIL.
Non-recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
gethostbyaddr() returns a pointer to the following structure
which contains the name(s) and address which correspond to
the given
address.
struct hostent
{
char * h_name;
char ** h_aliases;
short h_addrtype;
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short h_length;
char ** h_addr_list;
};
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The members of this structure are:
Element
h_name
h_aliases
h_addrtype
SOCKETS
h_length
h_addr_list
host.
Usage
Official name of the host (PC).
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The type of address being returned; for
this is always PF_INET.
The length, in bytes, of each address; for
PF_INET, this is always 4.
A NULL-terminated list of addresses for
the
Addresses are returned in network byte order.
The macro h_addr is defined to be h_addr_list[0] for compatibility with
older software. The pointer which is returned points to a
structure which is allocated by SOCKETS. The application must
never attempt
to
modify
this
structure
or
to
free
any
of
its
components. The application should copy any information which it
needs before issuing any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
gethostbyname(),
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gethostbyname
Syntax:
struct hostent * gethostbyname ( const char * pszName )
Description:
Gets host information corresponding to a hostname.
Parameters
PszName
Description
A pointer to the name of the host.
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostbyname() returns a pointer to the hostent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Authoritative Answer Host not found.
Non-Authoritative Host not found,
WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND
WSATRY_AGAIN
or
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SERVERFAIL.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
gethostbyname() returns a pointer to a hostent structure as
described under gethostbyaddr(). The contents of this
structure correspond to the hostname pszName.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to
modify
this structure or to free any of its components. The
application should copy any information which it needs before
issuing any other SOCKETS API calls.
A gethostbyname() implementation must not resolve IP
address strings passed to it. Such a request should be treated
exactly as if an unknown host name were passed. An application
with an IP address string to resolve should use inet_addr() to
convert the string to an IP address, then gethostbyaddr() to obtain
the hostent structure.
See Also
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gethostbyaddr()
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gethostname
Syntax:
int gethostname ( char * pszName, int iAddressLen )
Description:
Return the standard host name for the local machine.
Parameters
pszName
Description
A pointer to a buffer that will receive the host
name.
The length of the buffer.
iAddressLen
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostname() returns 0, otherwise
returns
SOCKET_ERROR and a specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
EFAULT
ENETDOWN
it
The iAddressLen parameter is too small
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
Remarks
This routine returns the name of the local host into the buffer specified
by the pszName parameter. The host name is returned as
a nullterminated string. The form of the host name is dependent
on the
SOCKETS configuration file. However, it is guaranteed that the name
returned will be successfully parsed by gethostbyname().
See Also
gethostbyname().
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getprotobyname
Syntax:
struct protoent * getprotobyname ( const char * pszName )
Description:
Gets protocol information corresponding to a protocol name.
Parameters
pszName
Description
A pointer to a protocol name.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getprotobyname() returns a pointer to the protoent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getprotobyname() returns a pointer to the following structure
which contains the name(s) and protocol number which
correspond to the given protocol pszName.
struct protoent
{ char * p_name;
char ** p_aliases;
short p_proto;
};
The members of this structure are:
Element
p_name
p_aliases
p_proto
Usage
Official name of the protocol.
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The protocol number, in host byte order.
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The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by the SOCKETS library. The application must never
attempt to modify this structure or to free any of its components.
The application should copy any information which it needs before
issuing any other
SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getprotobynumber()
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getprotobynumber
Syntax:
struct protoent * getprotobynumber ( int number )
Description:
Gets protocol information corresponding to a protocol number.
Parameters
number
Description
A protocol number, in host byte order.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getprotobynumber() returns a pointer
to the protoent structure described above. Otherwise it
returns a NULL
pointer and a specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
This function returns a pointer to a protoent struct ure as
described above in getprotobyname(). The contents of the structure
correspond
to the given protocol number.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to
modify this struct ure or to free any of its components.
The application should copy
any
information
which
it
needs before issuing any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getprotobyname()
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getservbyname
Syntax:
struct servent * getservbyname ( const char * pszName, const char *
proto )
Description:
Gets service information
name and protocol.
Parameters
pszName
proto
corresponding
to
a
service
Description
A pointer to a service name.
An optional pointer to a protocol name. If this is NULL,
getservbyname()
returns
the
first
service
entry for which the pszName matches the s_name or
one of the s_aliases. Otherwise getservbyname()
matches both the pszName and the proto.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getservbyname() returns a pointer to the
servent structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL
pointer and a specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getservbyname() returns a pointer to the following structure
which contains the name(s) and service number which
correspond to the
given service pszName.
struct servent
{
char * s_name;
char ** s_aliases;
short s_port;
char * s_proto;
};
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The members of this structure are:
Element
s_name
s_aliases
s_port
s_proto
Usage
Official name of the service.
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The port number at which the
be
contacted. Port numbers are returned in network byte
order.
The name of the protocol to use when contacting the
service.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by the SOCKETS library. The application must never
attempt to modify this structure or to free any of its components.
The application should copy any information which it needs before
issuing
any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getservbyport()
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getservbyport
Syntax
struct servent * getservbyport ( int port, const char * proto )
Description:
Gets service information corresponding to a port and protocol.
Parameters
Port
Proto
Description
The port for a service, in network byte order.
An optional pointer to a protocol name. is
NULL, getservbyport() returnsthe first service
entry for
which
the
port
matches
the
s_port. Otherwise getservbyport() matches both
the port and the proto.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getservbyport() returns a pointer to the
servent structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL
pointer and a specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS
has
detected
that
the network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name,
no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getservbyport() returns a pointer a servent structure as
described above for getservbyname().
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to
modify
this structure or to free any of its components. The
application should copy any information which it needs before
issuing any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getservbyname()
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5.3.7 HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
CGI Application API (Server API)
Introduction
The
SOCKETS
web
servers,
HTTPD.EXE
and
HTTPFTPD.EXE, provide both a Spawning Common Gateway
Interface (CGI) and an Extention API with the ability to extend the
server to create dynamic web pages, perform specialized tasks,
etc. One of the extentions provided is a Server Side
Includes (SSI) interface using the CGI interface, enabling a
user to create web pages using HTML templates with variable names,
which is substituted in-time with specific values The HTTPD
Extension CGI works as follows: The extension has to
implement one function called the callback function. The server has a
number of functions that the extension may use, e.g. HttpSendData.
They are designed to give the extension sufficient control
over any http request.
Spawning CGI
An external program, indicated by the requested URL, is spawned. All
relevant information is passed as environment variables. The program
gets all input (e.g. posted data) from standard in and
sends all response through standard out.
This type of CGI is discouraged in favor of the Extension API.
The following CGI environment variables are supported:
CONTENT_TYPE
CONTENT_LENGTH
PATH, COMSPEC
REQUEST_METHOD
Enough
free
memory
must
be
available
when
spawning a CGI program, or no swapping or overlaying
will be attempted. Since COMMAND.COM
uses
all
free
memory,
it
follows
that
no
CGI program
will
be
spawned
if
COMMAND.COM
is
the
current foreground
program.
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CGI programs must be small and must execute reasonably
quickly.
While a CGI program is executing, the HTTP server is
effectively blocked and cannot service any other requests. No
console input or output should be used. A CGI program is invoked by
a URL containing
a path of /cgi-bin/<cgi-program> where <cgi-program> is the name of
an executable program which must be in the HTTP root directory or in
the path. Note that the "/cgi-bin/" part is stripped off and
does not represent a real directory. <Cgi-program> may be
followed by a "?" and a command line. On entry to the CGI
program, the environment variables listed above are set up and can
be accessed.
If a command line is given, it can also be accessed in the normal way.
The CGI program generates a dynamic page by writing to STDOUT.
When the CGI program terminates, this output is sent to the remote
client (browser). The output can consist of a header and a body part
separated by an empty line. If the header contains a “Content-type:”
line, the content type will be set to that type and only the body will be
sent to the client. Otherwise all the output will be sent to
the client using content type “text/plain”. COMMAND.COM can be
invoked as a CGI program to perform simple DOS functions e.g.
directory listings. The following example performs a directory listing:
http://www.embedded-server.com/cgi-bin/command?/cdir
The next one performs
wild-card specification:
a
wide
directory
listing
using
a
http://www.embedded-server.com/cgi-bin/command?/cdir%20*.htm%20/w
Note the use of %20 to specify a space character.
Refer to the INDEX.HTM web page for an example of various ways of
calling
CGI
programs.
The
NUM.EXE
program
with
source code NUM.C, demonstrates the use of a header and body
part building a simple “page visited” web page:
printf("Content-type: text/html\n\n”
”<html>\n<h1>\nThis page has been visited %d times\n</h1>\n",
number);
printf("<P><P><A HREF=\"/index.htm\">Back</A>.</html>\n");
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Forms programming can be performed using either the GET or POST
methods. When GET is used, form data is copied to the command line
and is limited to 128 characters including the URL part.
When the POST method is used, the command line is also
built. In addition,
form data are available from STDIN and is limited by disk space only.
See
the
forms
programming
example
consisting
of
FORM.HTM, FORM.EXE and FORM.C for examples of using
both the GET and POST methods. So that you may fully
understand CGI programming, this detailed explanation of the server
operation is provided.
Whenever HTTPD receives a URL containing “/cgi-bin/”, it interprets
the rest of the URL as a DOS program to spawn
and run to completion. The full path parsed from the URL is
used, implying that the program should be in physical
directory called “/cgi-bin/” or a subdirectory thereof. E.g.
“program.exe”
should
be
in
“%HTTP_DIR%\cgi-bin\” if the request is “GET /cgibin/program.exe”.
While this “CGI program” is executing, the server can
accept new server connections, but will not respond to
them before the CGI program terminates. The CGI program can
be any DOS program that
is small enough to fit into available memory. Since HTTPD is blocked
while the CGI program executes, user interaction should not be used
and
the
CGI
program
should
complete
in
a
reasonable time.
Operation on receiving a CGI URL:
If the CGI program name is followed by a "?", the rest of the line is
sent as a command line to the CGI program after converting all %n
combinations.
If
a
“Content-Type”
header
is
encountered,
the
CONTENT_TYPE environment variable is set to the given
value and if a “Content- Length” header is encountered, the
CONTENT_LENGTH environment variable
is
set
to
the
given
value.
The
PATH
and
COMSPEC environment
variables are copied to the new environment and the
REQUEST_METHOD environment variable is set to either
GET or POST.
If the POST method is used, the rest of the HTTP message is copied
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to a temporary file that is then re-directed to stdin. The stdout stream
is redirected to another temporary file. After completion of the request,
the temporary files are deleted. They will be
created in the
%HTTPTMP% directory.
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The CGI program is now invoked. This program can
check the
environment variables, access the command line and in the case of a
POST, read from stdin.
All output that should be passed back to the HTTP client (Browser) is
written to stdout. A single header line followed by an
empty line, containing “Contenttype:
content_type” may be pre -pended to the data. This line will be used
to set the content-type of the data being sent back. If such a header is
not found, the content type will be set to “text/plain”.
Overview of the Extention API
The SOCKETS HTTP servers (HTTPD/HTTPFTPD) provide a facility
to call functions in other modules which may be TSR or
transient programs.
These functions are referred to as “HTTPD extensions”.
HTTPD or HTTPFTPD must be loaded as a TSR using the /r switch.
It provides an API via software Interrupt 63Hex. The API
can be located by searching for a signature containing
SockHTTPD starting 10 bytes before the interrupt entry point and
terminated by a 0 byte.
A CGI adapter is provided that simplifies the communication with the
server. It is located in a file called CGIADAP.C. The adapter finds the
signature and provides a C interface. It also intercepts the
callback function
and
performs
a
stack
and
context
switch, which makes implementing an extension much easier.
An HTTPD extension registers interest in a specific URL by calling the
HttpRegister() API specifying a “path”. Note that this path has nothing
to do with an actual file path on the server and will override any real
path that may be used for serving static pages. The
HttpRegister() function also specifies a Callback function to
be called when the
actual request is received by HTTPD, a DWORD User ID to be used
in callbacks and whether requests should be allowed to overlap, i.e. a
new request can be received while still servicing a previous request or
requests.
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The Callback function will be called when a request for the registered
path is received and as many times afterwards as is
necessary to complete the request. It is called with a parameter
structure specifying the reason for the request, the User ID, an
HTTPD handle and values
specific to the reason for the callback, e.g. a pointer to the command
line on the initial callback. Other reasons for calling the
Callback function are to notify of new received data, connection
closure by the peer, readiness to accept more data and connection
errors.
The callback must return a value to indicate that it
is still busy handling the request, has completed the request or
wants to abort the request with an error. The HTTPD handle will be
constant and unique from the first callback to the completion of the
request.
While in the Callback function, data can be read from the peer or sent
to the peer and a file can be submitted to be sent to the peer.
Note: Extensions are responsible for sending all HTTP header fields
to clients.
The following extensions have been developed
functional and demonstrational purposes.
for
SSI Interface
If you want to display the current date and time, or a
certain CGI environment variable in your otherwise static
document, you can go through the trouble of writing a CGI
program that outputs this small amount of virtual data. Or better
yet, you can use a powerful feature called Server Side Includes (or
SSI).
Server Side Includes are directives which you can place
into your HTML documents to output such data as environment
variables and file statistics. For a detailed introduction, please visit
http://www.ora.com/info/cgi/ch05.html
A simple yet powerful interface is provided to perform
Server Side Includes (SSI) tasks. A user only has to
implement one predefined function and make use of only four API
functions to unlock the power
of SSI. The working of the interface is described at the
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top of the header file ssi.h.
To use, include ssicgi.c in your project and include
in your source files. Take a look at ssi.c for a simple example.
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Extention API Examples
Five very simple examples are included to demonstrate the usage of
the Extention API. Source code is included, as well as make files.
Put all .htm and .exe files in the %HTTP_DIR% directory
and start HTTPD. Load all the cgi programs (you may use
cgi.bat). All is in place now and the examples may be accessed
through index.htm.
The first four examples may operate in one of two modes:
a
As a TSR (resident) program: this is the default behavior. At this
stage unloading of the TSR is not supported. De-registration is
possible by loading the program again. This routine
may be repeated.
a
As a transient program: use ‘/t’ command line switch to activate.
This option will immediately spawn ‘command.com’.
From this pro mpt other cgi programs may be loaded. The
program exits when ‘command.com’ is exited by typing ‘exit’ at
the prompt.
These programs are:
1. cgiecho A very simple program that accepts data from a user and
echoes it back nicely formatted. Get echoform.htm from the browser.
2. cgicount A page visit counter. Only updates between sessions if
transient (cgicount /t). Get num.htm from the browser.
3. cgiform Does the same as the old ‘fill out the form and
submit’
utility. Get caform.htm from the browser.
SSI A very simple SSI implementation that demonstrates
the SSI interfaces. Template.htm is filled by some variables. Get
ssi.htm from the browser.
The fifth example, FFUR, (Form-base File Upload Receiver) is only a
transient program, but can easily be adapted to be similar to the rest.
It handles the upload of a file as a POST command by
filling out
ffur.htm.
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HTTPD Function Reference
CGIADAP.C is an interface program a user may utilize to implement
external extention CGI programs. This interface performs
stack and context switches, and provides ordinary C functions to
access the http server (HTTPD.exe).
The header file to use is CGIADAP.H.
The API may be used without using CGIADAP by making
low level calls which are detailed below. In this case the user must
perform the required stack and context switches if required.
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HttpRegister
Syntax:
int HttpRegister(char
far
*szPath,
int
(far
*pfCallback)
(HTTP_PARAMS far *psHttpParams), int iFlags, DWORD dwUserID)
Description:
The HttpRegister() function registers an interest in a URL, providing a
callback function. The callback is guaranteed to only be called when
DOS can be called. The DOS critical handler will be disabled and all
critical errors will result in an access error without
any user
intervention. Since the callback happens at interrupt time, it
should execute for as short a time as possible. After a done or error
return,
no further callbacks will be generated for the current request.
Only one callback will be active at any time. Calling an API function
while executing the callback function will not result in another callback
before the current callback has returned.
Parameters
szPath
Description
Far pointer to the string identifying a URL. It
should be an exact match of the abs_path
part of the URI minus the leading '/'. For
instance, If you want to
capture all http://myserver.com/cgibin/getpage.exe,
you should register 'cgibin/getpage.exe'.
pfCallback
Address of callback function.
Return values when returning from callback:
RET_OK not done, give me more upcalls
RET_DONE done, no more upcalls please
RET_ERR done, error
psHttpParams
Far pointer to HTTP parameter block.
psHttpParams->iReason
Reason for callback:
R_NEWREQ New HTTP request. pszCommandLine points
to the command line passed in the
URL.
The number contained in iValue
specifies the HTTP
operation; RQ_GET for GET and RQ_POST
for
POST.
R_INDATA - Input data available, iValue contains count.
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R_OUTDATA - Can send output data, iValue contains count.
R_ENDDATA - Peer closed connection i.e. "end of input data"
R_CLOSED - Connection closed.
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psHttpParams->iHandle
HTTPD handle, used in subsequent API calls for this
request. The
user
should
not
modify
it.
See
HTAPIC.H for the other definitions
iflags
dwUserID
Return value
0
<0
F_OVERLAP -
Overlapped request (1),
non-overlapped request (0).
All other bits are reserved.
Value passed to HttpRegister(); this value is for
use by the extension, HTTPD does not modify it.
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_REGISTER (0)
DS:SI
szPath
ES:DI
pfCallback
BX
iFlags
CX:DX
dwUserID
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
Note that the stack and the data segment on entry will
be that of HTTPD. Depending on the memory model used for the
extension and the amount of stack space required, it may
be required to switch stacks during the callback.
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HttpDeRegister
Syntax:
int HttpDeRegister(char far *pszPath)
Description:
The HttpDeRegister() function removes the interest in a URL.
After
this call no more callbacks will be generated for this
URL. Any requests in progress will be terminated with an error to
the peer. This function must be called for all registrations made by a
program before terminating that program; otherwise the system will
inevitably crash on any subsequent request.
Parameters
pszPath
Description
Far pointer to URL to de-register.
Return value
0
<0
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_DEREGISTER (1)
DS:SI
pszPath
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
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HttpGetData
Syntax
int HttpGetData(int iHandle, char far *pcBuf, int iCount)
Description:
The HttpGetData() function can be called when a POST operation has
been indicated by the callback to get data sent to the server by the
client. If more data is expected and the extension is busy executing
the callback function, a 0 return should be made from the
callback indicating it is still busy and getting more data should be
attempted at the next callback.
Parameter
iHandle
pcBuf
iCount
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to buffer to receive data.
Length of buffer.
Return value
>=0
<0
OK, number of bytes received.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETDATA (2)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pcBuf
CX
iCount
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
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HttpSendData
Syntax
int HttpSendData(int iHandle, char far *pcBuf, int iCount)
Description:
The HttpSendData() function is used to send data to the client. If the
return indicates that less than the requested number of
bytes has
been sent and the extension is busy executing the callback function, a
0 return should be made from the callback indicating it is
still busy. Then an attempt to send more data should be
made at the next callback. All the required data should be sent
to the client before an HttpSubmitFile()
function is used. After
HttpSubmitFile(), HttpSendData() should not be
called again.
Parameter
iHandle
pcBuf
iCount
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to buffer with data to send.
Length of buffer.
Return value
>=0
<0
Number of bytes actually sent
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_SENDDATA (3)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pcBuf
CX
iCount
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
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HttpSubmitFile
Syntax:
int HttpSubmitFile(int iHandle, char far *pszFileName)
Description:
The HttpSubmitFile() function is used to submit a file to be sent to the
client in response to a request. The file will be logically appended to
any data already sent using HttpSendData(). The file should
not be
exclusively opened when it is submitted. After it is
transmitted, transmit upcalls will be issued normally. This gives the user
the ability
to send any number of files on the connection with arbitrary
data in between.
Parameter
iHandle
pszFileName
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to name of file to submit.
Return value
0
<0
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_SENDFILE (4)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pszFileName
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HttpGetStatus
Syntax
int HttpGetStatus(void)
Description:
The HttpGetStatus() function gets the number of connections to
the server. It must also be used as a polling function when the server
is
running in passive mode to dequeue and handle pending requests.
Parameters
None.
Return value
>=0
<0
Number of connections to server.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETSTATUS(6)
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
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HttpGetVersion
Syntax
int HttpGetVersion(void);
Description:
The HttpGetVersion() function gets the version of the running HTTP
server.
Parameter
None.
Return value
>=0
<0
Version number.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETVERSION (5)
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
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GetStackPointer
GetStackSegment
Syntax
int GetStackPointer (void)
int GetStackSegment (void)
Description:
The GetStackPointer and GetStackSegment functions get the current
Stack Pointer/Segment.
Parameters
None.
Return value
Current value of Stack Pointer/Segment.
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SetStackPointer
SetStackSegment
Syntax:
void SetStackPointer (int iPointer)
void SetStackSegment (int iSegment)
Description:
The SetStackPointer and SetStackSegment functions set the
Stack
Pointer/Segment. The stack pointer for callbacks is by default set to
_SP - 1000, the first time the HTTP API is called. If you would need
space on the stack, or for some reason want to make it tighter, set the
stack pointer for callbacks manually. Be careful not to overwrite used
memory.
Parameters
iPointer
Description
Value to set Stack Pointer to.
Return value
None.
Constants and Definitions used by CGI API
Refer to HTAPIC.H.
SSI Definitions and functions
Refer to SSI.H.
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6
Sockets Utility
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
SOCKETS utilities make use of command-line parameters
and/or
configuration files. Please be careful to note the name and location of
the configuration file used by the application you are working with. All
SOCKETS applications require that the kernel be loaded
before the
application is run in order to function properly. You can find all these
SOCKETS utilities under C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM4500
Series
Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_files
(Refer
to
image below). When you need to use the utilities, remember to
download the execution file to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
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Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
DHCPSTAT
DHCPSTAT displays the DHCP information for the machine.
Syntax
DHCPSTAT [r | v]
Options
r
force a renewal of the DHCP lease.
V
display the SOCKETS version information.
Example
DHCPSTAT
´ This will display all the DHCP information, such as IP address and
lease time.
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Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
FTP
FTP is a file transmitting and retrieving client that runs in interactive or
batch mode.
Syntax
FTP server [options]
Options
/n
/v
/p=Port
/f=ScriptFile [ScriptParameters]
Remarks
Server
The name or IP address of a server you want to connect.
/n
Suppress progress indicator.
/v
Verbose output for troubleshooting.
/p=Port
Connect to a server port other than the standard FTP port number of 21.
/f=ScriptFile
A file containing commands for the client to send to the
server upon connection. Simple parameter substitution is performed, with the
first element
of ScriptParameters accessible as “%1,” etc.
ScriptParameters
Parameters to pass into the ScriptFile.
Return Codes
0 Success
1 Parameter error
2 SOCKETS not loaded
3 User aborted
4 Transfer aborted
5 Error writing local file
6 Error reading local file
Other Server returned error response code; to find that error code, add 390 to
the response code returned by FTP. The result will always be greater than or
equal to 400 in this case.
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Example
FTP /n FTP.cdrom.com /f=getfile.scr /.2/simtelnet/msdos DIRS.TXT
(The file GETFILE.SCR):
user anonymous
pass [email protected]
cd %1
binary
get %2
quit
FTP Commands
The
commands
entered
at
the
FTP
client
can be
interpreted and translated to standard FTP commands to be sent
to the server. The FTP server might recognize more, or
less, commands than the standard list of commands as
specified in RFC 959. The site command
is
always
server
dependent.
Some
of
the
standard commands
are
implemented
differently
in
various
servers.
Useful
things to note are:
1. The put and get commands allow multiple file transfers by usage of
wild card characters. When getting files with paths or long names,
no translation of foreign file names is done. Specify a
valid DOS local_file name.
2. A short directory list (NLST) is obtained by ls and the long list with
dir.
3. Some of the commands can be abbreviated.
4. Some commands are aliases added for user comfort like bye, exit
and quit; get and mget; and put and mput.
5. The optional [local_file] parameter will, when specified, cause the
output of that command to be logged to a file. By specifying the file
as PRN you can get immediate printouts.
6. On some servers you might specify the optional
[remote_file] parameter as PRN or the printer output
device to do remote printing. (See also the site nopath
command for the SOCKETS FTP server.)
7. The F3 key and spacebar can be used to recall the last command
word
by
word.
Below
is
a
list
of
commands
recognized by the SOCKETS FTP client (some FTP
servers might not offer all the
facilities):
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Command
abort
append
ascii
binary
bye
cd directory
cwd directory
dele file
dir [file l directory [local_file]]
exit
get remote_file(s) [local_file]
image
ls [file l directory [local_file]]
lcd directory
ldir [file l directory]
list [file l directory [local_file]]
mget remote_file(s) [local_file]
mkdir remote_directory
mput local_file(s) [remote_file]
nlst [file l directory [local_file]]
pass [password]
pasv [on | off]
put local_file(s) [remote_file]
Pwd
quit
quote remote_command [args ...]
rmdir remote_directory
rnfr existing_filename
rnto new_filename
site sub-command
size file
shell
stat
System
type [i I a]
user [username]
verbose [ on | off ]
FTP
Description
Cancel an incomplete transfer
"Put" a file at the server but append it if the file
exists
Synonym for type a
Synonym for type i
Synonym for quit
Synonym for cwd
Change server directory
Delete a server file
Synonym for list
Synonym for quit
Transfer a file from the server in the
current mode (type)
Synonym for type i
Synonym for nlst
Perform a local change directory
Give a local directory listing
Give a long directory listing
Synonym for get
Create a server directory
Synonym for put
Give a short names-only directory listing
Password for username
Report or change the status of the
passive transfer mode to enable firewall
friendly file
transfers. (The SOCKETS FTP client
always tries to switch passive mode on at the
start of a
session.)
Transfer a file to the server in the current mode
(type)
Print working directory at server
Terminate FTP session
Send a command to the server without
any interpretation
Remove (delete) a server directory
Rename a file, command 1 of 2
Rename a file, command 2 of 2
Send server specific commands
Report the file size in bytes as a 213 message
Shell to DOS for IFTP.EXE
Report the status of a transfer or
active connections
Return operating system information from
the server
Report or select the file transfer mode: image
(binary) or ASCII
Username to logon
Verbose
mode
reports
more
of
the
negotiations
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IFSTAT
IFSTAT displays the status of
version information for SOCKETS.
the
Interface
and
the
Syntax
IFSTAT [i] [v]
Options
i
v
show the Interface status.
show the version information.
Example
IFSTAT v
´ This will display the SOCKETS version information
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Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
IPSTAT
The IPSTAT utility returns statistics on IP and memory. Use IPSTAT
to check for error conditions and memory problems.
Syntax
IPSTAT
Example
IPSTAT
The following will be displayed (The values may differ):
IP stats at 160F:04C8:
Total Packets
2671
Smaller than minimum size
0
IP header length too small
0
Wrong IP version
0
Unsupported protocol
0
Memory available
9016
Memory allocation failures
0
Memory free errors
0
Minimum stack observed
886
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MAKEMAIL
MAKEMAIL packages the body text and any attachments for delivery
using the SENDMAIL application.
Syntax
MAKEMAIL –tToAddress –fFromAddress –sSubject –bBodyTextFile oOutputFileaAttachment
Options
ToAddress
The e-mail address of the recipient(s) of this mail. Additional recipients
are specified by repeated use of the –t parameter. If the ToAddress is
a name that can be resolved by either the DNS server or host file then
the @servername is not necessary.
FromAddress
Used to identify the sender of the message
Subject
The subject line of the e-mail message
BodyTextFile
The local file containing the body text of the e-mail message to deliver
OutputFile
The local file name in which to store the prepared file for delivery by
SENDMAIL.This file is overwritten if it already exists!
Attachment
The name of a local file to be binary attached to this e-mail message.
Multiple attachments are created by repeated use of the –a parameter.
Files are attached as MIME parts, encoded with the
application/x- uuencode content type.
Example
MAKEMAIL [email protected]
bmessage.txt –omail.dat
[email protected]
–sStatus
–
MAKEMAIL –tfred –tbarney –fwilma –sDinner –bmenu.txt –omail.dat
MAKEMAIL –tfred
aStone.jpg –
aRock.jpg –omail.dat
–fwilma
–sBowling
–bbody.txt
–
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SENDMAIL
SENDMAIL delivers e-mail messages packaged by the
MAKEMAIL application to an Internet mail server. SENDMAIL also
creates a local log file to indicate successful send or failures.
Syntax
SENDMAIL server file
Options
Server
The IP address or DNS name of the Internet mail server to receive the
message.
File
The file created by the MAKEMAIL utility to deliver.
Logging Format
Timestamp, Code String
Timestamp
Weekday Month Day Time Year
Code
Three digit integer: 000 means perfect success, 100-199 mean usage
error and 200-299 means TCP/IP error from server.
String
Human–readable explanation of the error code
Example
SENDMAIL mail.datalight.com mail.dat
6-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
XPING
XPING starts a continuous string of pings until stopped by a keystroke.
Syntax
XPING ip address [interval]
Remarks
ip address This may be a numeric address or a name address.
Options
interval The time to wait between pings in clock ticks.
Example
XPING 10.0.0.1 20
´ This will ping the address of 10.0.0.1 every 20 clock ticks.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-11
7
HTTP and FTP Server Application
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTP Server
Overview
The SOCKETS HTTP server, HTTPD.EXE, is a small, fast,
reliable and extendable web server that can run as either an
application or TSR.
Apart from the minimum required file
download capability, the following additional capabilities are provided:
1.
Remote Console Server -- ability to gain terminal-type access to
the server system, using a standard browser, without the
need to install any software on the browser computer.
2.
Authentication – Both system wide and directory wise
3.
CGI Extendibility – The ability to extend the server to
create dynamic web pages, perform specialized tasks, etc.
4.
A Server Side Includes (SSI) interface is provided using the CGI
interface, enabling a user to create web pages using HTML templates
with variable names substituted in - time with specific values.
5.
Ability to run as a background process.
6.
Flexibility to control physical parameters such as memory usage
and number of connections.
Server
The HTTP server is used to send static web pages existing as files on
the server or dynamically generated web pages to a
remote client (browser). Dynamic pages can be generated in two
ways:
1.
Extension CGI.
By calling an external CGI handler, the
server provides an API to external handlers.
A Server Side
Includes (SSI) interface is provided as well, which makes
it very easy to create powerful interactive web pages.
2.
Spawning CGI.
By spawning programs with a relatively
short
execution time to generate the pages through a mechanism similar to
CGI, the basic mechanism used by CGI is that arbitrary programs can
be spawned from the web server with input as received
from the remote browser and output that can be sent to the browser.
The Remote Console Server accepts input from a remote client that is
fed to the keyboard buffer for use by an arbitrary program using it. It
monitors
the
screen
display
buffer
area
and
also
sends screen information to the remote client.
7-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
The SOCKETS password file controls authentication. Authentication
is user specific and may also differ from directory to directory. It may
also be put off for either some or all users. See the
section on authentication.
The HTTP server can support multiple simultaneous sessions.
The GET and POST request methods are implemented as
well as the following
MIME
types:
text/html,
text/plain,
image/gif, image/jpeg, image/jpeg
and application/octetThe MIME
type is determined by
stream.
the file extension.
Remote Console Server
Initialization
The
client
(browser)
will
initialize
a
remote
session.
An
HTTP connection will be made to the HTTP server. The
downloaded page will contain the applet that will automatically
connect to the RCS on TCP
port
81.
An
example
download
page
is
supplied
as REMCON.HTM.
Almost any application e.g. a text editor can be run on the server. The
remote keyboard and display control the application as if they
were locally attached.
On
the
remote
side,
the
Java
Applet
acts
as
a
simple terminal emulator that displays what it receives from
the server and sends what is entered from the keyboard to the
server.
It is not required to have a real display adapter on the
embedded system server, only to have display buffer memory.
When a new connection is made, all the screen data, as well as the
cursor position, is sent to the client. Subsequently the RCS keeps a
watch on the video memory and cursor position and
whenever
a change is detected, the RCS sends the
changed data to the Java applet.
Keyboard data received from the client is passed to the
keyboard buffer making it available as keyboard input for use by any
application executing on the server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-3
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Remote Console Client
The remote console client exists as a Java 1.3.1 applet, supplied as
RC.JAR, and will function on any Java 1.3.1 compliant
browser. Please note that a security certificate has not
been compiled into RC.JAR so it is not compliant with versions of
the Netscape browser that require a security certificate to run Java
applets. A DOS based client using SOCKETS is also supplied as
RCCLI.EXE. For additional information
about
RC.JAR
or
RCCLI.EXE, please see the Utility Description Chapter.
Extension CGI
The SOCKETS HTTP servers (HTTPD/HTTPFTPD) provide a facility
to call functions in other modules which may be TSR or
transient programs. These functions are referred to as
“HTTPD extensions.” For more information please see the “ROM DOS Developer’s Guide” section “CGI Application API.
Extension CGI Examples
Five
very
demonstrate
simple
examples
are
included
to
the implementation of CGI. Source code is included.
Put all .htm and .exe files in the %HTTP_DIR% directory
and start HTTPD. Load all the cgi programs (you may use
cgi.bat). All is in place now and the examples may be accessed
through index.htm.
The first four examples may operate in one of two modes:
As a TSR (resident) program: this is the default behavior.
At this stage unloading of the TSR is not supported.
De -registration is possible by loading the program again. This
routine may be repeated.
As a transient program: use ‘/t’ command line switch to
activate. This option will immediately spawn ‘command.com’. From
this prompt other
cgi
programs
may
be
loaded.
The
program exits when
‘command.com’ is exited by typing ‘exit’ at the prompt.
These programs are:
1. cgiecho
A very simple program that accepts data from a user
and echoes it back nicely formatted. Get echoform.htm
from the browser.
7-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
2. cgicount A page visit counter. Only updates between sessions
if transient (cgicount /t). Get num.htm from the browser.
3. cgiform
Does the same as the old ‘fill out the form and submit’
utility. Get caform.htm from the browser.
4. SSI
A very simple SSI implementation demonstrating the
SSI interfaces. Template.htm is filled by some variables. Get ssi.htm
from the browser.
The fifth example, FFUR, (Form-base File Upload Receiver) is only a
transient program, but can easily be adapted to be similar to the rest.
It handles the upload of a file as a POST command by
filling out
ffur.htm.
Passive Mode
The server may be run in passive mode by specifying a ‘/p’ command
line switch. When passive, the server will record network events
but only handle them once it is triggered by a CGI user.
Server Memory
The server’s memory usage may be controlled in two ways:
1. By specifying the amount of memory when going TSR.
2. By specifying the maximum number of connections the server will
allow.
Option 1 is the recommended option.
Use Option 2 if
you have
‘heavy’ web pages – usually the type where pages consist of frames
and many images, etc. Connections are generally reset when
more connections are attempted than the defined maximum. The client
then must
retry
to
establish
the
lost
connections,
leading to a more distributed load on the server.
Spawning CGI
An external program, indicated by the requested URL, is
spawned. All relevant information is passed as environment variables.
The CGI program gets all input (e.g. posted data) from standard in
and sends all response through standard out. Spawning CGI is
discouraged in favor of Extension CGI. For more information please
see the “ROM - DOS Developer’s Guide” section “CGI Application API.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-5
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Authentication
Default authentication matches the capabilities of the FTP server
as documented in the section “FTP Server” on page 217. A
file
called "SOCKET.UPW" should exist in the SOCKETS
(environment variable) directory.
The default permission file controls remote console access.
Each listed user has a single -letter privilege code set if he has
privilege to use the Remote Console. The code should be
missing if that user does not have Remote Console privilege.
An additional authentication feature is implemented - htaccess.
This feature provides a per-directory permission override mechanism.
It is enabled using '/t' as command line switch. If htaccess is
enabled, the default mechanism may be skipped (but no default
users or remote console access will be available).
A
file
called
HTACCESS
(typically
hidden)
contains
authentication overrides to enable partial anonymous access or
additional password security to subdirectories, etc. If this feature
is activated, the server code will look for HTACCESS files in each
directory starting from the requested
path
and
continuing
upward in the directory structure (assuming the root directory
to be at the top) until an HTACCESS file
is found. If no file is found, then the default settings are
used. An anonymous access entry is available for the developer to
specify that some subdirectory is authorized for any user,
although
its
parent directory is password -protected.
CGI
scripts can also be controlled via the HTACCESS mechanism.
7-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTPD Program
The syntax for HTTPD is:
HTTPD [options] [<http_port>] [<rc_port>]
Any combination of these switches may be used. They
should be separated by at least one space.
Option
Description
/? /h
/r
/s
/t
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
Enable htaccess directory level
authentication
Unload if resident
Close listen
Do not start remote console
allow old type (spawning) CGI
Passive mode
Interrupt number for cgi API
Set memory size
Number of simultaneous connections
Set screen aspect
/u
/c
/d
/g
/p
/i=<InterruptNumber>
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/a=<ScreenX>, <ScreenY>
/v=<ScreenBufferSegment>[:
<ScreenBufferOffset>]
Set video buffer address (hex)
/k
Unload and abort all active connections
Remarks
ScreenX, ScreenY
The width and height of the screen area to serve for the remote
console session. These values default to 80 and 25, respectively.
ScreenBufferSegment, S creenBufferOffset
Together, a pointer to the top -left corner of the display memory to serve for
the remote console session. These
values
default
to
B000
and 0000 respectively, for monochrome display adapters and
to B800 and 0000 respectively, for color display adapters.
MemorySize
The maximum amount of memory available to the server.
32K. The value of m can range from 8192 to 63472.
The default value is
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-7
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
InterruptNumber
The interrupt number to access the CGI API.
http_port
HTTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard HTTP port
number of 80.
rc_port
Remote Console port to listen on. This parameter defaults to 81.
The
“root”
directory
for
web
content
is
the
current
directory when HTTPD is started. This can be changed by
setting an environment variable HTTP_DIR e.g.
SET HTTP_DIR=D:\SERVER\WEB
Format of "SOCKET.UPW"
This is the same file used for the HTTP and FTP server’s (FTPD.EXE)
permissions. This file consists of lines where each line
contains a user's information. A line starting with a # is
considered a comment and is ignored. Each line consists of four
fields:
<Username> <Password> <Working Directory> <Permissions> [# comment]
a
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
a
Password: This user's
password is required
a
Working
Directory:
The
user
will
only
have
access to this directory and its subdirectories. If it is ‘/’, this
user has access to the whole system. HTTP_DIR can be
referred to as ‘\’. If a relative path is specified, it is
appended to HTTP_DIR.
a
Permissions: When a user is granted both FTP
and HTTP permissions, the FTP permissions must appear
first, otherwise they will be ignored. Permission are listed below:
password.
FTP Rights:
d
change directories
c
create/delete directories
w
write files
7-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
If
it
is
*,
no
r
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
read files
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-9
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTP Rights:
e
get files
p
post files
g
use CGI
m
use remote console
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is missing the
entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field (permissions) of
the line.
Format of "htaccess"
Any
directory
may
contain
this
file,
and
serve
as
overrides to the general permissions for the containing directory
and all its subs until another htaccess is found. This file consists of
lines where each line contains a user's information. A line starting
with a # is considered a comment and is ignored. Each line consists
of three fields:
<Username> <Password > <Permissions> [# comment]
a
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
a
Password: This user's
password is required
a
Permissions: Operations allowed. Permission are listed below:
password.
If
it
is
*,
no
e - User may 'g et' files
p - User may 'post' files
g - User may use cgi
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is
missing the entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field
(permissions)
of the line.
Note: If a default user is supplied, it should always appear first in the
list of users. Only users below the default user will be considered.
7-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
FTP Server
FTPD is a file server that can run either as an application or as a TSR.
The name of the server as displayed in the banner is determined by
the HOSTNAME environment variable. If the environment variable is
not set, the name “Socket” is used. The
user
password
file, SOCKET.UPW,
in
the
SOCKETS
directory
(indicated
by
the SOCKETS environment variable)
controls access.
A temporary file is created when a directory listing is requested.
This file is created in the current directory, but can be
created in any directory as specified in the FTPDIR environment
variable.
FTPD Program
The syntax for FTPD is:
FTPD [options] [<ftp_port>]
Option
Description
/? /h
/r
/s
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
/u
/c
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/k
Unload if resident
Close listen
Set memory size
Number of simultaneous connections
Abort all active connections and unload
Remarks
MemorySize
The number of bytes of memory available to the server.
to 32768.
This value defaults
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
ftp_port
FTPD will listen on the listed port.
FTP port number of 21.
This parameter defaults to the standard
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-11
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Configuration File
FTPD uses the standard SOCKET.UPW file for validating logins. The file
is composed of text lines, each representing a login name, password, and
the configuration to use for a session opened with those
credentials.
Space characters separate the parameters in the file,
which are in the following format:
name password directory rights
The location of the username/password file to be used by the
server is specified by the environment variable SOCKETS as follows:
%SOCKETS% \SOCKET.UPW
If the variable SOCKETS is not specified, the following file is used:
\DL\SOCKETS\SOCKET.UPW
Configuration File Parameters
name
The login name of this record.
password
The password to authenticate a user trying to login as this name.
directory
The starting directory for this user.
rights
Up to four characters specifying which permissions this user is granted:
r means that this user has read access.
w means that this user has write access.
c means that this user has permission to make new directories.
d means that this user has permission to change to a directory other than his
starting location and subdirectories from the starting location.
Example Socket.upw
Admin admin c:\ drwc
Guest * c:\guest dr
Example Command Line
FTPD /m=40000 /r
7-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
FTP Server Commands
The following commands
SOCKETS FTP
server:
Command
Abort
append
cwd directory
dele file
list [file l directory]
mkd remote_directory
nlst [file l directory]
pass [password ]
pasv [on | off]
retr remote_file
stor local_file
pwd
quit
rmd remote_directory
rnfr existing_filename
2 rnto new_filename
2 site [path I nopath]
site raw [interface]
site sub-command
size file
stat
system
type [i I a]
user [username]
are
recognised
by
the
Description
cancel an incomplete transfer
"put" a file at the server but append it if
the file exists
change server directory
delete a server file
give a long directory listing
create a server directory
gives a short names -only directory listing
password for username
report or change the status of the passive transfer
mode to enable firewall friendly file transfers. (The
SOCKETS FTP client always tries to
switch
passive mode on at the start of a session.)
transfer a file from the server in the current mode
transfer a file to the server in the current mode
print working directory
terminate FTP session
remove (delete) directory
rename a file, command 1 of
rename a file, command 2 of
use full path description
open a session to a raw host using one of the raw
lines (interfaces) specified
command to be passed on to raw host
report the file size in bytes as a message prefixed
with 213
report
the
status
of
a
transfer
or
active connections
return operating system information from the server
report or select the file transfer mode image (binary)
or ASCII
username to logon
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-13
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Combined HTTP and FTP Server
HTTPFTPD is a combined HTTP and FTP server that can run either
as an application or as a TSR. By default, it processes normal
HTTP requests on port 80 and normal FTP requests on
port 21.
It also serves a proprietary session displaying the
contents of text -mode display memory to the RC.JAR and
RCCLI client applications. This feature is commonly called the
“remote console.” If the HTTPFTPD server is loaded as a
DOS
TSR
program,
set
the
environment variable,
HTTP_DIR, to the location of the INDEX.HTML file; for
example, SET HTTP_DIR=C:\DL\ SOCKETS\SERVER
HTTPFTPD Program
The syntax for FTTPD is:
HTTPFTPD [options] [<http_port> [<ftp_port> [<rc_port>]]]
Any combination of these switches may be used. They
should be separated by at least one space.
Option
Description
/? /h
/r
/s
/t
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
Enable htaccess directory level
authentication
/u
/c
/d
/g
/p
/i=<InterruptNumber>
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/a=<ScreenX>, <ScreenY>
/v=<ScreenBufferSegment>[:
<ScreenBufferOffset>]
/k
Unload if resident
Close listen
Do not start remote console
Allow old type (spawning) CGI
Passive mode
Interrupt number for cgi API
set memory size
number of simultaneous connections
set screen aspec
set video buffer address (hex)
Abort all active connections and unload
Remarks
ScreenX, ScreenY
The width and height of the screen area to serve for the remote
console session. These values default to 80 and 25, respectively.
7-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
ScreenBufferSegment, ScreenBufferOffset
Together, a pointer to the top-left corner of the display memory to serve for
the remote console session. These
values
default
to
B000
and 0000 respectively, for monochrome display adapters and
to B800 and 0000 respectively, for color display adapters.
MemorySize
The maximum amount of memory available to the server.
32K. The value of m can range from 8192 to 63472.
The default value is
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
InterruptNumber
The interrupt number to access the CGI API.
http_port
HTTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard HTTP port
number of 80.
ftp_port
FTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard
FTP port number of 21
rc_port
Remote Console port to listen on. This parameter defaults to 81.
Configuration File
HTTPFTPD uses the standard SOCKET.UPW file for validating logins.
The file is composed of text lines, each representing a login name, password,
and the configuration to use for a session opened with those credentials.
Space characters separate
are in the following format:
the
parameters
in
the
file,
which
name password directory rights
T he location of the username/password file to be used by the
server is specified by the environment variable SOCKETS as follows:
%SOCKETS% \SOCKET.UPW
If the variable SOCKETS is not specified, the following file is used:
\DL\SOCKETS\SOCKET.UPW
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-15
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Configuration File Parameters
name
The login name of this record.
password
The password to authenticate a user trying to login as this name.
directory
The starting directory for this user.
w means that this user has write access.
c means that this user has permission to make new directories.
d means that this user has permission to change to a directory other than his
starting location and subdirectories from the starting location.
e means that this user may 'get' files
p means that this user may 'post' files
g means that this user may use cgi
m means that this user may use Remote Console
Example Command Lines
HTTPFTPD /m=40000 /r
HTTPFTPD /a=80,25 /v=a000:0000 /r
7-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix A
COM Port Register Structure
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
This appendix gives a short description of each module’s
registers.
For more information, please refer to the STARTECH 16C550 UART
chip data book. All registers are one byte. Bit 0 is the least significant
bit, and bit 7 is the most significant bit. The address of each register is
specified as an offset from the port base address (BASE), COM1 is
3F8h and COM2 is 2F8h.
DLAB is the “Divisor Latch Access Bit”, bit 7 of BASE+3.
BASE+0 Receiver buffer register when DLAB=0 and the operation
is a read.
BASE+0
Transmitter holding register when DLAB=0
and the operation is write.
BASE+0 Divisor latch bits 0 - 7 when DLAB=1
BASE+1 Divisor latch bits 8-15 when DLAB=1.
Bytes BASE+0 and BASE+1 together form a 16-bit
number, the divisor, which determines the baud rate. Set the divisor as
follows:
Baud rate
Divisor
Baud rate
Divisor
50
2304
2400
48
75
1536
3600
32
110
1047
4800
24
133.5
857
7200
16
150
768
9600
12
300
384
19200
6
600
192
38400
3
1200
96
56000
2
1800
64
115200
1
2000
58
x
x
A-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
BASE+1
Interrupt Status Register (ISR) when DLAB=0
bit 0: Enable received-data-available interrupt
bit 1: Enable transmitter-holding-register-empty interrupt
bit 2: Enable receiver-line-status interrupt
bit 3: Enable modem-status interrupt
BASE+2
FIFO Control Register (FCR)
bit 0: Enable transmit and receive FIFOs
bit 1: Clear contents of receive FIFO
bit 2: Clear contents of transmit FIFO
bits 6-7: Set trigger level for receiver FIFO interrupt
Bit 7
0
0
1
1
Bit 6
0
1
0
1
FIFO trigger level
01
04
08
14
BASE+3
Line Control Register (LCR)
bit 0: Word length select bit 0
bit 1: Word length select bit 1
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Word length
(bits)
5
6
7
8
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual A-3
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
BASE+4
Modem Control Register (MCR)
bit 0: DTR
bit 1: RTS
BASE+5
Line Status Register (LSR)
bit 0: Receiver data ready
bit 1: Overrun error
bit 2: Parity error
bit 3: Framing error
bit 4: Break interrupt
bit 5: Transmitter holding register empty
bit 6: Transmitter shift register empty
bit 7: At least one parity error, framing error or break indication in
the FIFO
BASE+6
Modem Status Register (MSR)
bit 0: Delta CTS
bit 1: Delta DSR
bit 2: Trailing edge ring indicator
bit 3: Delta received line signal detect
bit 4: CTS
bit 5: DSR
bit 6: RI
bit 7: Received line signal detect
BASE+7
Temporary data register
A-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix
B
RS-485 Network
Appendix B RS-485
EIA RS-485 is the industry’s most widely used bidirectional, balanced
transmission line standard. It is specifically developed for
industrial multi-drop systems that should be able to transmit and
receive data at high rates or over long distances.
The specifications of the EIA RS-485 protocol are as follows:
a
Maximum line length per segment: 1200 meters (4000 feet)
a
Throughput of 10M baud and beyond -Differential
transmission
(balanced lines) with high resistance against noise
a
Maximum 32 nodes per segment
a
Bi-directional master-slave
set of twisted-pair cables
a
Parallel connected nodes, true multi-drop
communication
over
a
single
ADAM-4500 Series Controller is fully isolated and use just a single set
of twisted pair wires to send and receive! Since the
nodes are connected in parallel they can be freely
disconnected from the host
without affecting the functioning of the remaining nodes. An
industry
standard, shielded twisted pair is preferable due to the high noise ratio
of the environment. When nodes communicate through the network, no
sending
conflicts
can
occur
since
a
simple
command/response sequence is used. There is always one initiator
(with no address) and many slaves (with addresses). In this
case, the master is a personal computer that is connected
with its serial, RS-232, port to an ADAM RS-232/RS-485
converter.
The
slaves
are
the
ADAM-4500
Series
Controller. When systems are not transmitting data, they are
in listen mode. The host computer initiates a command/response
sequence with one of the systems. Commands normally contain
the address of the module the host wants to communicate
with. The system with the matching address carries out the
command and sends its response to the host.
B-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B RS-485 Network
B.1
Basic Network Layout
Multi-drop RS-485 implies that there are two main wires in a segment.
The connected systems tap from these two lines with so called drop
cables.
Thus
all
connections
are
parallel
and
connecting
or disconnecting of a node doesn’t affect the network
as a whole. Since ADAM-4500 Series Controller use the RS485 standard, they can connect and communicate with the host
PC. The basic layouts that can be used for an RS-485 network are:
Daisychain
The last module of a segment is a repeater. It is directly connected to
the main-wires thereby ending the first segment and starting the next
segment. Up to 32 addressable systems can be daisychained.
This limitation is a physical one. When using more systems per
segment the IC driver current rapidly decreases, causing
communication errors.
In total, the network can hold up to 64 addressable
systems. The limitation on this number is the two-character
hexadecimal address code that can address 64 combinations. The
ADAM converter, ADAM
repeaters and the host computer are non addressable
units and
therefore are not included in these numbers.
Figure B-1:
Daisychaining
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-3
Appendix B RS-485
Star Layout
In this scheme the repeaters are connected to drop-down cables from
the main wires of the first segment. A tree structure is the result. This
scheme is not recommended when using long lines since it will cause
a serious amount of signal distortion due to signal reflections in several
line-endings.
Figure B-2:
Star structure
Random
This is a combination of daisychain and hierarchical structure.
Figure B-3:
B-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Random structure
Appendix B RS-485 Network
B.2
Line Termination
Each
discontinuity
in
impedance
causes
reflections
and
distortion. When an impedance discontinuity occurs in the
transmission line the immediate effect is signal reflection. This
will lead to signal distortion. Especially at line ends this
mismatch
causes
problems.
To
eliminate this discontinuity,
terminate the line with a resistor.
Figure B-4: Signal distortion
The
value
of
the
resistor
should
be a
close
as
possible
to
the characteristic
impedance
of
the
line.
Although receiver devices add some resistance to the whole
of the transmission line, normally it is sufficient to the
resistor impedance should equal the characteristic impedance
of the line.
Example: Each input of the receivers has a nominal input impedance
of 18 k feeding into a diode transistor- resistor biasing network that
is equivalent to an 18 input resistor tied to a common
mode
k
voltage of 2.4 V. It is this configuration, which provides
the large common range of the receiver required for RS-485 systems!
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-5
Appendix B RS-485
Figure B-5:
Termination resistor locations
Because each input is biased to 2.4 V, the nominal
common mode voltage of balanced RS-485 systems, the 18
k on the input can be taken as being in series across the input
of each individual receiver. If thirty of these receivers are put
closely together at the end of the transmission line, they will
tend to react as thirty 36k resistors in parallel with the termination
resistor. The overall effective resistance will need to be close to the
characteristics of the line. The effective parallel receiver resistance RP
will therefore be equal to:
RP = 36 x 103/30 = 1200Ω
While the termination receptor RT will equal:
RT = RO / [1 - RO/RP]
Thus for a line with a characteristic impedance of 100
resistor RT =
100/[1 - 100/1200] = 110Ω
Since this value lies within 10% of the line characteristic impedance.
B-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B RS-485 Network
Thus as already stated above the line termination resistor
RT will
normally equal the characteristic impedance Zo. The star
connection causes a multitude of these discontinuities since
there are several transmission lines and is therefore not recommend.
Note: The recommend method wiring method, that causes a minimum
amount of reflection, is daisy chaining where all receivers tapped from
one transmission line needs only to be terminated twice.
B.3
RS-485 Data Flow Control
The RS-485 standard uses a single pair of wires to send and receive
data. This line sharing requires some method to control the direction of
the data flow.
RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send)
are the most commonly used methods.
Figure B-6:
RS-485 data flow control with RTS
Intelligent RS-485 Control
ADAM-4510 and ADAM-4520 are both equipped with an
I/O circuit which can automatically sense the direction of
the data flow. No handshaking with the host (like RTS, Request
to Send) is necessary to receive data and forward it in the
correct direction. You can use any software written for half-duplex
RS-232 with an ADAM network without modification. The RS-485
control is completely transparent to the user.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-7
Appendix C
Grounding Reference
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Field Grounding and Shielding Application
Overview
Unfortunately, it’s impossible to finish a system integration
task at one
time.
We
always
meet
some
trouble
in
the
field.
A communication network or system
isn’t stable, induced noise or equipment is damaged or there
are storms. However, the most usual issue is just simply improper
wiring, ie, grounding and shielding. You know the 80/20 rule in our
life: we spend 20% time for 80% work, but
80% time for the last 20% of the work. So is it
with system integration: we pay 20% for Wire / Cable
and 0% for Equipment. However, 80% of reliability depends on
Grounding and Shielding. In other words, we need to invest more in
that 20% and work on these two issues to make a highly
reliable system. This application note brings you some
concepts about field grounding and shielding. These topics
will be illustrated in the following pages.
1.
Grounding
1.1
The ‘Earth’ for reference
1.2
The ‘Frame Ground’ and ‘Grounding Bar’
1.3
Normal Mode and Common Mode
1.4
Wire impedance
1.5
Single Point Grounding
2.
Shielding
2.1
Cable Shield
2.2
System Shielding
3.
Noise Reduction Techniques
4.
Check Point List
C-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
C.1 Grounding
C-1.1 The ‘Earth’ for reference
Figure C-1: Think the EARTH as GROUND.
As you know, the EARTH cannot be conductive.
However, all buildings lie on, or in, the EARTH. Steel, concrete
and associated cables (such as lighting arresters) and
power
system
were connected to EARTH. Think of
them as resistors. All of those infinite parallel resistors
make the EARTH as a single reference point.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-3
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-1.2 The ‘Frame Ground’ and ‘Grounding Bar’
Figure C-2: Grounding Bar.
Grounding is one of the most important issues for our system. Just
like Frame Ground of the computer, this signal offers a
reference point
of
the
electronic
circuit
inside
the
computer. If we want to communicate with this computer,
both
Signal
Ground
and
Frame Ground
should
be
connected to make a reference point of each other’s
electronic circuit. Generally speaking, it is necessary to install an
individual grounding bar
for
each system,
such
as
computer networks, power systems, telecommunication networks,
etc. Those individual grounding bars not only provide the
individual reference point, but also make the earth our ground!
C-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
Figure C-3: Normal mode and Common mode.
C-1.3 Normal Mode and Common Mode
Have you ever tried to measure the voltage between a
live circuit and a concrete floor? How about the voltage between
neutral and a concrete floor? You will get nonsense values. ‘Hot’
and ‘Neutral’ are just relational signals: you will get 110VAC or
220VAC by measuring these signals. Normal mode and common
mode just show you that the Frame Ground is the most important
reference signal for all the systems and equipments.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-5
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-4: Normal mode and Common mode.
•
Ground-pin is longer than others, for first contact to power system
and noise bypass.
•
Neutral-pin is broader than Live-pin, for reducing contact
impedance.
C-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
C-1.4 Wire impedance
Figure C-5: The purpose of high voltage transmission
• What’s the purpose of high voltage transmission? We have all seen
high voltage transmission towers. The power plant raises the voltage
while generating the power, then a local power station steps down
the voltage. What is the purpose of high voltage transmission wires?
According to the energy formula, P = V * I, the current is
reduced when the voltage is raised. As you know, each cable has
impedance because of the metal it is made of. Referring to Ohm’s
Law, (V = I * R) this decreased current means lower power losses in
the wire. So, high voltage lines are for reducing the cost
of moving electrical power from one place to another.
Figure C-6: wire impedance.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-7
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-1.5 Single Point Grounding
Figure C-7: Single point grounding. (1)
• What’s Single Point Grounding? Maybe you have
had an unpleasant experience while taking a hot shower in winter.
Someone turns on a hot water faucet somewhere else. You will be
impressed with the cold water! The bottom diagram above shows
an example
of how devices will influence each other with swift load change. For
example, normally we turn on all the four hydrants for testing. When
you close the hydrant 3 and hydrant 4, the other two hydrants will
get more flow. In other words, the hydrant cannot keep a constant
flow rate.
C-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
Figure C-8: Single point grounding. (2)
The above diagram shows you that a single point grounding system
will be a more stable system. If you use thin cable for powering these
devices, the end device will actually get lower power. The thin cable
will consume the energy.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-9
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.2 Shielding
C-2.1 Cable Shield
Figure C-9: Single isolated cable
• Single isolated cable
The diagram shows the structure of an isolated cable. You see the
isolated layer which is spiraled Aluminum foil to cover the
wires. This spiraled structure makes a layer for shielding the
cables from external noise.
C-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
Figure C-10: Double isolated cable
•
Double isolated cable
Figure 10 is an example of a double isolated cable. The first isolating
layer of spiraled aluminum foil covers the conductors. The
second isolation layer is several bare conductors that spiral
and cross over the first shield layer. This spiraled structure makes
an isolated layer for reducing external noise. Additionally, follow
these tips just for your reference.
•
The shield of a cable cannot be used for signal ground. The shield
is designed for carrying noise, so the environment noise will
couple and interfere with your system when you use the
shield as signal ground.
• The higher the density of the shield - the better,
especially for communication network.
•
Use double isolated cable for communication network / AI / AO.
• Both sides of shields should be connected to their frame
while inside the device. (for EMI consideration)
•
Don’t strip off too long of plastic cover for soldering.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-11
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-2.2 System Shielding
Figure C-11: System Shielding
• Never stripping too much of the plastic cable cover.
This is improper and can
destroy
the
characteristics of
the
Shielded-Twisted-Pair
cable.
Besides, the bare wire shield easily conducts the noise.
• Cascade these shields together by soldering.
refer to following page for further detailed explanation.
Please
•
Connect
the shield to Frame Ground of DC power supply to
force the conducted noise to flow to the frame ground of
the DC power supply. (The ‘frame ground’ of the DC
power supply should be connected to the system ground)
C-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
Figure C-12: The characteristic of the cable
• The characteristic of the cable
Don’t strip off too much insulation for soldering. This could change the
effectiveness of the Shielded-Twisted-Pair cable and open a path to
introduce unwanted noise.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-13
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-13: System Shielding (1)
• Shield connection (1)
If you break into a cable, you might get in a hurry to achieve your goal.
As in all electronic circuits, a signal will use the path of
least resis- tance. If we make a poor connection between these two
cables we will make a poor path for the signal. The noise will try to
find another path for easier flow.
C-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
Figure C-14: System Shielding (2)
• Shield connection (2)
The previous diagram shows you that the fill soldering just makes
an easier way for the signal.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-15
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.3 Noise Reduction Techniques
•
Isolate noise sources in shielded enclosures.
• Place sensitive equipment in shielded enclosure
from computer equipment.
and
•
Use separate grounds between noise sources and signals.
•
Keep ground/signal leads as short as possible.
away
•
Use Twisted and Shielded signal leads.
•
Ground shields on one end ONLY while the reference grounds are
not the same.
•
Check for stability in communication lines.
•
Add another Grounding Bar if necessary.
•
The diameter of power cable must be over 2.0 mm2.
•
Independent grounding is needed for A/I, A/O, and
communication network while using a jumper box.
•
Use noise reduction filters if necessary. (TVS, etc)
•
You can also refer to FIPS 94 Standard. FIPS 94 recommends
that the computer system should be placed closer to its
power source to eliminate load-induced common mode noise.
Figure C-15: Noise Reduction Techniques
C-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding
C.4 Check Point List
•
Follow the single point grounding rule?
•
Normal mode and common mode voltage?
•
Separate the DC and AC ground?
•
Reject the noise factor?
•
The shield is connected correctly?
•
Wire size is correct?
•
Soldered connections are good?
•
The terminal screw are tight?
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-17
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