pbxnsip Admin Manual

pbxnsip Admin Manual
SIP-PBX
Manual
Version 2.0.1
VoIPon
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Tel: +44 (0)1245 808195
Fax: +44 (0)1245 808299
© 2007 pbxnsip Inc.
All Rights Reserved. This document is supplied by pbxnsip Inc. No part of this document
may be reproduced, republished or retransmitted in any form or by any means whatsoever,
whether electronically or mechanically, including, but not limited to, by way of photocopying,
recording, information recording or through retrieval systems, without the express written
permission of pbxnsip Inc.
pbxnsip Inc reserves the right to revise this document and make changes at any time and
without the obligation to notify any person and/or entity of such revisions and/or changes.
Product specifications contained in this document are subject to change without notice.
Comments are welcome. Please send them by email to [email protected]
Version: 2.0.1
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Preface
A SIP-based PBX is a fairly complex product. So is the documentation. We
decided to use a popular content-management system (MediaWiki) to maintain the
documentation of the PBX.
This „printed“ manual is a snapshot of this online documentation. It contains
most of the relevant documentation of the version 2.0.1 of the PBX. However, it is
almost impossible to keep all changes updated in a single document. Therefore,
we ask you to visit our online version at http://wiki.pbxnsip.com in case you need
additional or updated information. More information can be found at our home page
http://www.pbxnsip.com.
We hope that you enjoy the product, it makes your business more productive
and it makes it easy for you to install and maintain a SIP-based telecommunication
infrastructure.
The pbxnsip team.
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Contents
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.4
2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.4
2.5
3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.4
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
Installation and Quick Start ..........................................................9
Downloading and Installation of the Software .................................9
Logging in .................................................................................9
Verifying that the System is ok ................................................... 11
Configuring your PBX ................................................................ 11
Connecting Devices to the PBX ................................................... 13
Changing Your Passwords .......................................................... 14
Next Steps .............................................................................. 14
System Sanity Check ................................................................. 14
Ports........................................................................................ 15
Permissions .............................................................................. 15
Automatic Restart ...................................................................... 15
SIP Traffic................................................................................. 15
Installing the IP-PBX Appliance .................................................... 15
Installation ............................................................................... 15
Logging into the system ............................................................. 16
Determining the IP address of the system ..................................... 16
Logging into the system with secure shell ..................................... 16
Logging in by the web interface ................................................... 16
Changing system parameters ...................................................... 17
PSTN gateway setup .................................................................. 18
DID setup................................................................................. 18
Gain ........................................................................................ 18
Restart ..................................................................................... 18
Software updates ...................................................................... 19
Changing the SIP port ................................................................ 19
User Manual ............................................................................. 19
Basic Calling ............................................................................. 19
Dialing an Internal Number ......................................................... 20
Dialing an Outside Number ......................................................... 20
Receiving Incoming Calls ............................................................ 20
Mailbox .................................................................................... 20
Leaving Mailbox Messages .......................................................... 20
First Call to Your Mailbox ............................................................ 21
Picking Up Mailbox Messages ...................................................... 21
Main Mailbox Menu .................................................................... 22
Logging into your Mailbox ........................................................... 22
Forwarding Messages per Email ................................................... 22
Call Forwarding ......................................................................... 23
Call Redirection ......................................................................... 23
Do Not Disturb .......................................................................... 23
Redial and Call Return ................................................................ 24
Parking, Pickup and Transfer ....................................................... 24
Call Pickup................................................................................ 24
Call Park and Retrieve ................................................................ 24
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3.5.3
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.9.1
3.9.2
3.9.3
3.10
3.10.1
3.10.2
3.10.3
3.10.4
4
5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.2.7
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
Attended and Unattended ........................................................... 25
Transfer with *77 ...................................................................... 25
Transferring or Calling Directly to Voice Mail .................................. 25
Caller-ID Treatment ................................................................... 26
Call Data Record........................................................................ 26
Recording Prompts .................................................................... 26
Call Mixing................................................................................ 27
Call Barge-In ............................................................................ 27
Call Teach-Mode ........................................................................ 27
Call Listen-In ............................................................................ 27
Hot Desking .............................................................................. 28
Purpose ................................................................................... 28
Logging In ................................................................................ 28
Logging Out .............................................................................. 28
Limitations ............................................................................... 28
Login ....................................................................................... 28
System Administrator................................................................. 30
Localization .............................................................................. 30
Web Interface ........................................................................... 31
Voice Interaction ....................................................................... 31
Ring Tones................................................................................ 32
Time Zones .............................................................................. 32
SIP Security.............................................................................. 33
Why is security an issue? ........................................................... 33
How does it work? .................................................................... 33
Is SDES supported, if yes in which versions? ................................ 33
Is MIKEY supported, if yes in which versions? ............................... 34
In the context of TLS, briefly how the certificates are managed? ..... 34
How can I provision phones in a secure way? ............................... 34
What is (in terms of technology) "security end-to-end"? ................ 34
Overall System Settings ............................................................. 35
General .................................................................................... 35
Administrator Login ................................................................... 35
Appearance .............................................................................. 35
Performance ............................................................................. 36
SIP Settings.............................................................................. 37
Product Licensing ...................................................................... 38
Installing a License ................................................................... 39
Licenses Policy .......................................................................... 39
Features ................................................................................... 39
Port Setup ................................................................................ 40
HTTP ....................................................................................... 40
SIP .......................................................................................... 41
RTP ......................................................................................... 41
SNMP ....................................................................................... 42
TFTP ........................................................................................ 42
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5.5.6
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.8
5.8.1
5.8.2
5.8.3
5.8.4
5.9
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.10
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.10.5
5.10.6
5.11
5.11.1
5.11.2
5.11.3
5.11.4
5.12
5.12.1
5.12.2
5.12.3
5.13
5.13.1
5.13.2
5.13.3
5.13.4
5.14
5.14.1
5.14.2
6
6.1
6.1.1
Call Managing Port ..................................................................... 43
SNMP ....................................................................................... 43
Purpose ................................................................................... 43
Setup ..................................................................................... 44
Available Object Identifiers ........................................................ 44
Example .................................................................................. 45
Log Messages .......................................................................... 45
Prepare an Extension for Plug and Play ......................................... 45
Binding to a MAC address ........................................................... 45
Password Provisioning ................................................................ 46
Other relevant settings ............................................................... 47
Log Setup................................................................................. 47
General Logging ........................................................................ 47
Specific Events .......................................................................... 48
SIP Logging .............................................................................. 49
Email ....................................................................................... 50
Loading of a Certificate .............................................................. 50
Purpose ................................................................................... 50
Format ..................................................................................... 51
Music on Hold ........................................................................... 52
Purpose ................................................................................... 52
Files ........................................................................................ 52
Audio Input .............................................................................. 52
RTP Stream .............................................................................. 52
Setup ...................................................................................... 53
Editing ..................................................................................... 53
Changing the Appearance ........................................................... 54
Motivation ................................................................................ 54
Unlocking the web page ............................................................. 55
Changing the Appearance ........................................................... 55
Providing your own content ......................................................... 56
Domains .................................................................................. 56
Domain Listing .......................................................................... 57
Create a Domain ....................................................................... 57
Edit a Domain ........................................................................... 58
Status ...................................................................................... 58
System Status .......................................................................... 58
Log Access ............................................................................... 59
Call Log.................................................................................... 61
Active Calls ............................................................................... 61
Recording ................................................................................. 61
Recording to File ....................................................................... 62
Recording to a SIP URI ............................................................... 62
Domain Administration ............................................................... 63
Settings ................................................................................... 63
Default Values ........................................................................... 63
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6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
6.2.10
6.2.11
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3
6.6.4
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
Email Settings ........................................................................... 66
Feature Codes ........................................................................... 67
Address Book ............................................................................ 71
Accounts .................................................................................. 74
Existing Account List .................................................................. 74
Creating New Accounts............................................................... 75
Extension ................................................................................. 77
Auto Attendant .......................................................................... 84
Conferencing ............................................................................ 88
Hunt Group .............................................................................. 89
Agent Group ............................................................................. 91
Calling Card .............................................................................. 95
Paging ..................................................................................... 96
Service Flag .............................................................................. 98
IVR Node................................................................................ 100
Trunks ................................................................................... 102
Existing Trunk List ................................................................... 102
Trunk Settings......................................................................... 103
Inbound Calls on Trunk............................................................. 107
Outbound Calls on Trunk .......................................................... 109
CO Lines ................................................................................ 110
Dial Plans ............................................................................... 112
Dial Plan List ........................................................................... 112
Dial Plan ................................................................................ 112
ENUM .................................................................................... 116
Status .................................................................................... 118
General Topics ........................................................................ 119
Park and Pickup....................................................................... 119
Dialog Permissions ................................................................... 119
Wildcard Patterns .................................................................... 120
IP Address List ........................................................................ 120
User Mode .............................................................................. 122
General User Settings .............................................................. 122
User Redirection Settings.......................................................... 124
User Mailbox Settings............................................................... 125
User Email Settings ................................................................. 126
User Instant Message ............................................................... 127
Mailbox View........................................................................... 128
Missed Call List ....................................................................... 128
Personal Call Log ..................................................................... 129
Address Book .......................................................................... 129
User Status ............................................................................ 130
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1
Installation and Quick Start
1.1 Downloading and Installation of the Software
The software can be downloaded from http://www.pbxnsip.com/downloads.
php. Please select the operating system that you are using. If you are not
experienced with Linux, we strongly recommend to use the Windows installation
image. You may move the setup to a Linux computer later if you like.
If you are using the embedded appliance, please see Installing the IP-PBX
Appliance.
1.2 Logging in
In order to configure the PBX, you need a web browser. The PBX uses http
sessions to keep track of the context that the user is in. In order to set up such a
contact, you need to log in.
To get a login prompt, just enter the address of the web server of the PBX.
By default, this will be port 80, which is the default port of the system. If you want
to log on to the local system, just use the address http://localhost.
The PBX also supports the secure transport https. If you use this transport
layer, the data between the PBX and the web browser is transported using the
secure https protocol. The PBX will usually offer a certificate that will cause an alert
on the local web browser. Please ignore the alert or add it to the trusted certificates
of your web browser. To log on to the secure connection, use a login prompt like
"https://localhost". By default, the PBX will run the service on port 443, but during
the installation you may put it on any other port that you like.
Please note that for secure communication, you should use a
certificate for your domain. Otherwise, you might have to accept the
warnings from the web browser about the certificate.
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There are three ways to log in. The first way is to log in as system
administrator. In this mode, you have access to all resources of the PBX. There is
exactly one system administrator mode. Because of this, you should make sure that
the login information is kept in a safe place. The second mode is to log in as domain
administrator, where you can only make changes within a specific domain. The third
mode is the user mode, where you can change only the settings for the selected
extension.
By default, the login name for the administrator mode is "admin" and the
password is empty.
If you check the "Remember login information" mark, the PBX will send a
permanent cookie to the web browser. This cookie can be used next time to skip the
login screen and directly move to the first page after login.
If the PBX could not allocate the port that you specified as http port, you
need to locate the port number. This situation can happen for example if another
web service already took the port. In these situations you can use the Windows
command line command "netstat -a -p" to locate the process and find out which
TCP ports it has allocated. Usually you are then able to log in. The first thing that
you should do then is select another port that is available, so that after a restart the
PBX will be able to allocate the specified port.
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1.3 Verifying that the System is ok
Usually the installation should be working smoothly. However, if you are
already running SIP processes on the system, you might have conflicts on the SIP
ports (5060/5061) and/or on the HTTP/HTTPS port. If you are experiencing trouble,
please check our section on System Sanity Check.
1.4 Configuring your PBX
After you have logged in, you first need to set up the license code. In order
to do this, you must be logged in as system administrator. Go to the Settings tab
and select License. Enter your license code into the License Code field and push the
Save button.
To verify that you code is correct, go to the Status tab. There you should
see the License Status and the expiration date. You will also find other useful
information like the version number and the routing table that the PBX identified on
your system.
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In order to get a reasonable first configuration for the PBX, you can use the
wizard on the pbxnsip web page. Just go to http://www.pbxnsip.com/configurator/
wizard.php. Select how many extensions you would like to set up (you must have
enough licenses for that). If you are using a PSTN gateway, you just need to enter
the IP address of the PSTN gateway into the field that opens when you select "yes"
in the PSTN radio button.
We also provide pre-configured configuration information for a few ITSP.
If your ITSP is on the list, you just need to enter your customer number and
(optionally) your password. If you don’t like to enter your password here, you can
enter that password later directly in the web interface of your PBX.
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After hitting the send button, the web browser will provide you with a URL
with the necessary parameters. Copy this URL, then go back to the PBX web
interface and go to the system administrator settings tab, and select the License
tab again. Below the license code you will find the field "URL" in the Request
Configuration section of the page. Paste the URL into that field and hit the Save
button.
The PBX will then download the configuration from the pbxnsip web page,
erase the existing configuration and replace it with a pre-configured configuration.
In order to verify to configuration, you should click on the Domains tab and
go to the localhost domain. If you click on Accounts, you should be able to see that
there have been accounts set up.
If you want to enter the password for your ITSP now, just click on the Trunks
tab and select the ITSP trunk. Then you will find a password field, where you
have to enter your password twice. Hit the Save button and the trunk then should
register with your ITSP.
1.5 Connecting Devices to the PBX
After your PBX is up and running, you should register a SIP phone to the
PBX. Please refer to the Interoperability Pages to see your specific device.
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When your phone is registered, just call *97. You should hear a prompt that
welcomes you to your mailbox. If you like, you can record your name there and
start using the PBX.
1.6 Changing Your Passwords
When you install the PBX, there are no passwords set up.
•
You should set the password for the system Administrator. You find this setting
in the administrator mode, Settings.
•
You should also consider setting passwords for the extensions. In order to do
that, you need to go the domains, select your domain, click on Accounts and
then on the extension that you want to set up. Then you will find a password
field, where you have to enter the password twice and then hit the save button.
If you want to log in as domain administrator, you can change the permission
for that extension. In contrast to the system administrator, there may be several
accounts that have the permission to act as domain administrator, even within
one domain. The first time when you log in, there is only the system administrator
account available.
To log in as domain administrator, you must enter the username and domain
name in the "[email protected]" form and enter the password, for example "[email protected]
com". If you have just one domain, you may omit the domain name after the "@"
sign. If you have more than one domain and omit the domain name, the system will
automatically append a "@localhost" begind the account name.
The domain administrator password is the same as the SIP password for that
account.
1.7 Next Steps
After you have initially set up your PBX, you should register more extensions
and try outbound and inbound calls. Check out the reference manual on how to
set up additional accounts for conferencing, customize the auto attendant, define
outbound DID numbers and other useful things.
Once that you are finished with your setup, you should go back to the
administrator mode and fine out where your configuration data is stored. You find
this information in the Status window. Just ZIP the whole directory and store it in
a safe place. If you loose or corrupt the configuration, you can always replace the
current configuration with this snapshot.
1.8 System Sanity Check
There are a few things that you can check after installation:
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1.8.1
Ports
The PBX uses several ports for the communication with web browsers, SIP
devices, DNS, TFTP and other protocols. You can use the "netstat" command both in
Linux and Windows to see which ports the process uses.
Sometimes there is a conflict of ports. For example, if there is already
another program occupying the SIP port (e.g. a soft phone). In this case you need
to close the soft phone and restart the service.
Other typical conflicts are the usage of the HTTP port. Usually you can easily
resolve that conflict by running the PBX web server on another port. In order to
do this, stop the PBX service and change the working directory of the shell to the
working directory of the PBX. Then you can start the PBX with the argument "-http-port 8080". Make sure that you can access the web server. Also make sure
that the used ports in the web interface show the same port.
1.8.2
Permissions
You also must make sure that the PBX has the permission to write the
working directory of the PBX. Typically, this is no problem. But you should check
that the working directory contains folders like "users", "extensions" and so on.
Please also make sure that the directory "recordings" exists; otherwise you
will have problems with the recording of audio files (e.g. mailbox messages).
1.8.3
Automatic Restart
In Windows, you can use the service manager to make sure that the service
is always running. On order to do this, open the service manager and exit the
pbxnsip service. There is a tab which explains what should be done when the
service fails. Make sure that the service is restarted on the first attempt.
Check the Task Manager for the "pbxctrl.exe" process. This process should
be running only once; if it runs several times you have probably started it several
times by accident.
1.8.4
SIP Traffic
Try to register a phone and make a phone call to a number like *97. You
should hear the PBX playing back an audio file.
2
Installing the IP-PBX Appliance
2.1 Installation
On the back of the system you find the following connectors:
Four FXO ports. Connect these ports to the FXO ports of your PSTN provider.
LAN port. Connect this port to your local area network.
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WAN port. This port is currently not used.
•
Music on hold input. You can provide life music on hold music by connecting this
port to a radio or CD player. Use a standard audio jack.
•
Paging output. This port may be connected to a paging system. The system will
then be able to send media to this port when a special number is being dialed.
•
Power. Please use only the provided power supply. During installation, you
should leave the power turned off.
On the front side of the box you find several LED.
•
The power LED lights up right after you turn the power on.
•
The LAN and WAN led are flickering when there is traffic on the respective port.
•
The FXO port led light up when there is a call active on the respective line.
After making sure that all ports are connected correctly, you should turn the
power on. The boot process takes about one minute.
2.2 Logging into the system
2.2.1
Determining the IP address of the system
Before you can access the system, you need to find out what the IP address
of the box is. By default, you must use a DHCP server to assign an IP address to
the system. Later, you can manually assign a fixed IP address to the system.
If you have access to the DHCP server, you may locate the IP address from
the log file of the server.
You may also call the PBX and enter the special code "*#4723#" to get the
IP address if the box. This works only if you have a box which has this feature code
setup by default.
2.2.2
Logging into the system with secure shell
You may log into the system by using secure shell. The username must be
"root" and the default password is "root123". Because this password is not very
secure and the root user has access to all resources on the system, we strongly
recommend changing this password after setting the system up. You can do this
using the passwd command.
2.2.3
Logging in by the web interface
To configure the PBX, you should use the web interface. Please see the
general information on how to use the web interface to set the system up.
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2.3 Changing system parameters
There is one special web page for this edition of the PBX. It can be found in
the system administrator mode in the Settings tab under the "IP Setup" item and it
has the following parameters. IP address setup
•
The address type determines if you want to use DHCP or a fixed IP address.
Although it is convenient it use DHCP, you should make sure that the IP address
does not change after a reboot of the system (unless your IP phones can
deal with this fact). Usually is avoids a lot of problems if you assign a fixed IP
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address to the system. If you can, you should do this on your DHCP server by
binding the MAC address of the PBX to a fixed IP address. If this is not possible,
you should select an IP address which is not automatically assigned by the DHCP
server. In this case, you need to provide the IP address (e.g. 192.168.1.2), the
net mask (e.g. 255.255.255.0) and the IP gateway (e.g. 192.168.1.1).
•
If you are using DHCP, you usually automatically provision the DNS server with
the IP address provisioning. If you don’t use DHCP, you must manually enter the
DNS server that you want to use.
The IP address setup changes only after a reboot.
2.3.1
PSTN gateway setup
The PBX has a built-in PSTN gateway that operates as separate system. Only
the setup part is specific to the PBX. The operation is the PSTN gateway changes
only after a reboot.
•
The PSTN gateway has its own IP address. You can choose an IP address like
1.1.1.1 for the internal interface of the PBX for this purpose, and assign an IP
address of 1.1.1.2 for the PSTN gateway.
•
The same applies for the SIP port, where a port 5062 is a convenient choice.
•
You also need to select port numbers for the built-in music on hold stream
generator (2042 is a good choice) and the internal paging output device (2040 is
a good choice here).
•
The RTP ports for the internal PSTN gateway must no overlap with any other
ports in the system. A port range from 2048 to 2096 is a reasonable choice.
2.3.2
DID setup
When a call reaches the system, the PBX needs to know which DID has been
called. This information is important for the internal call routing and the for the call
logging. You may enter the 10-digit number here if your PSTN operator typically
uses 10-digit codes. Otherwise, you might choose the 11-digit code which includes
the leading "1". If you have a port unconnected leave the field empty. If you enter a
number, the PBX assumes that the port is available for outbound calls.
2.3.3
Gain
The gain setup is very important for a good audio quality. Please do not
change the amplification on the IP phone to compensate for low or high gain,
because this has negative effects for internal calls and for calls that go to the
mailbox. The gain value of 0 is reasonable for many installations. If you should have
a long cable, you may choose to increase the gain.
2.3.4
Restart
If you did any changes on this web page, you need to restart the system.
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2.4 Software updates
Software updates require that you log in using the secure shell login
mechanism. The system is internally using a standard Linux distribution, so that
most of the software upgrade instructions also apply to the software upgrade
instructions for this box. If you just need to upgrade the PBX, you can perform the
following steps:
1. First stop the PBX process. You can determine the PBX process number with the
command "ps -auxww".
2. Get the new image with the command wget. You need to know the location
of the image in the internet, e.g. "wget http://www.pbxnsip.com/download/
pbxctrl-tecom-2.0.1.1624".
3. Restart the system with the command "sync;reboot;exit".
2.5 Changing the SIP port
If you are able to use DNS SRV, it does make sense to change the standard
SIP port from 5060 to something else. This makes it a little bit more difficult for
attackers to locate your PBX port and send junk traffic to that port.
If you want to do that, you need to do the following steps:
•
Change the port setting in the Port settings in the administrator mode. After that
you need to reboot, so that the PBX picks the change up.
•
Then you must save the IP Setup again (also in administrator mode), so that
the FXO driver settings are updated. Those settings also contain the SIP port of
the PBX, and this port also needs to be updated. After saving them, you need to
reboot your box again.
3
User Manual
This section will show you how to use the pbxnsip PBX with a standard Voice
over IP-phone. Although the usage of different phones varies significantly, you can
use most of the features of the PBX in a similar way.
The access codes shown in this manual are the default codes. Your system
administrator may assign different codes for the available features. In that case,
you should receive a list of the functional feature codes.
Many phones require that you press the Ok button (like on the cell phone) to
start a call; other phones may accept pressing the pound (#) key or a check mark
key instead. However, for the usage of the PBX that does not make any difference.
3.1 Basic Calling
Making phone calls using an IP-PBX is not much different from traditional
telephone systems.
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3.1.1
Dialing an Internal Number
To call another extension, just dial the number. For example, if you want to
reach extension 123 - just enter "123" and start the call.
There are several services that your PBX System Administrator may have
programmed for you (like auto attendant and conference mixing) that can also be
reached by dialing an extension number.
3.1.2
Dialing an Outside Number
To dial an outside number, just enter the number that you want to reach.
Please note that your system administrator may require a prefix before the number
that you want to dial (for example "9"). On some VoIP phones, you may have a dial
plan that automatically dials the number without requiring that you press the start
key.
The PBX allows the administrator to assign an outside dial plan to each
user. Depending on company policy, this feature may be used to restrict certain
extensions from placing outside calls or from placing calls to expensive numbers.
If you are not in your office and your company has a strict telephone bill
policy, you might want to tell the PBX that you want to bill an outgoing call to your
extension number. This feature is useful if you are located in a room that has no
permission to place outside calls, for example a kitchen. You must dial *91 to use
this feature. The system will prompt you for your extension number, your access
code and the destination number.
3.1.3
Receiving Incoming Calls
Incoming calls are usually indicated with a ring tone. Calls from another
extension sound different than calls from an outside line (depending on the phone
model that you are using).
You should see the Caller-ID on your phone. If the Caller-ID is in your
personal address book or in the domain's address book, the PBX will insert the
name of the caller.
3.2 Mailbox
3.2.1
Leaving Mailbox Messages
When a user is not available, the voice mail system may pick up the call. In
this case the caller will hear an announcement indicating that he/she may leave a
message after the tone. If the extension did not record a name, the PBX will spell
the extension number.
After leaving the message, the caller can simply hang up (the message will
be delivered) or the caller can press the pound sign to access the standard message
option features.
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In this case the caller has three options:
•
If an operator number is available, pressing "0" will send the message and
connect the caller with the operator.
•
Pressing "1" will delete the message. If the caller presses the "2" option after
that he can leave a new message; otherwise no message will be sent.
•
Pressing "2" will give the caller the opportunity to record a new message.
•
Pressing "3" will make the message as urgent.
If the mailbox is full, the caller will hear an announcement that makes this
clear. If the mailbox is full, but there are saved messages, the PBX will make room
for a new message by deleting the oldest saved message.
3.2.2
First Call to Your Mailbox
The system administrator may assign a mailbox to your account. The mailbox
will pick up messages when you are not available. The message will either be stored
for telephone retrieval or forwarded as email.
To go to the voicemail system, you just dial *97 or your extension number.
The first time you call your mailbox, you will have the opportunity to
record your name and a personal greeting. This name recording will be used in
announcements to callers. If you choose not to record your name, your extension
number will be recited to callers. You many record your name later at any time.
3.2.3
Picking Up Mailbox Messages
If you have a voice message in your mailbox and the message has not been
forwarded to you by email, your phone should indicate that a message is waiting for
you Message Waiting Indication (MWI).
Usually this is a blinking LED light. Depending on your phone type, you may
be able to press the message retrieval button, which is just a shortcut for dialing
the mailbox number (for example *97). The system will automatically start reading
out your messages.
During message playback the following keys are available:
•
"1" will start reverse playback like on a tape recorder. If pressed again, the
reverse playback will be faster.
•
"2" will stop/resume playback.
•
"3" will start fast forward the playback. If pressed again, the playback will be
faster.
•
"4" will read the message again (without envelope information).
•
"5" will read the message again, including the "envelope information". This
means the time and caller will be included in the message announcement.
•
"6" can be used to move the message into another mailbox. The PBX will ask
for an extension number and after a verification move the message to another
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mailbox.
•
"7" will delete the message and move to the next message.
•
"8" will leave the mailbox and call the number that has left the message (if that
number is not an anonymous number). The PBX will prompt for verification,
pressing a star will get the user back to the message readout.
•
"9" will save the message in the mailbox.
•
"0" will play a help text
After all your messages are played, you will hear the main menu for our voice
mailbox.
3.2.4
Main Mailbox Menu
From the main mailbox menu you can listen to your messages; change the
access code (Mailbox PIN) for your voice mail; or record your name or record a
personal greeting.
•
"1" will read new and saved messages.
•
"2" makes it possible to change the PIN code for the mailbox
•
"3" will ask for a new name recording
•
"4" will ask for a new personal greeting message.
•
"*" will start dialing a star code. For example, this way you can record a new
announcement for the auto attendant of the office while you are in your mailbox
(e.g. from a cell phone while you are traveling).
3.2.5
Logging into your Mailbox
When calling your mailbox from a different phone you will hear the mailbox
announcement. The PBX assumes that you are someone who might want to leave a
message. To retrieve your voice mail, just enter your access code (Mailbox PIN). If
the code matches, the system will start reading out messages.
Usually a voice mailbox is set up without an access code. In this case you
must call from your extension into the mailbox (by simply dialing your extension or
*97). You can follow the main menu instructions to set up the access code if you
choose to have one. Using an access code is normally advised.
3.2.6
Forwarding Messages per Email
If your system administrator has set the PBX up with your email address, you
may choose to have your voicemail forwarded to your email. To turn this feature
on, call *95. Ask someone to leave a message on your mailbox to check that the
forwarding works. If there are problems, ask your administrator to check the email
address and the settings for the email server.
Call *96 to disable the email forwarding.
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3.3 Call Forwarding
3.3.1
Call Redirection
There are several events that may trigger the redirection of an incoming call.
The PBX differentiates between the following cases:
•
Always: All incoming calls are forwarded. For example, this can be used when
you are away and a colleague is answering your phone or when you want to
redirect all calls to your cell phone.
•
No answer: Calls are redirected after a certain time when the extension does
not pick up. Typically, you use this to redirect incoming calls to an assistant or to
your secondary phone in case that you are not sitting next to your telephone
•
Busy: Calls are forwarded if the extension is busy. Typically you will program this
number to redirect calls to a team assistant or to a colleague. This way incoming
calls are answered when you are busy on another call.
To turn the "call forward always" on, dial *71. You will hear an announcement
that asks you to enter the call forwarding number. Enter the number and press the
pound key (#). The system will repeat the number and then hang up. If you want
to change the forwarding number just call *71 again.
Alternatively you can turn on "call forward always" by dialing the *71 code
plus the redirection number and then starting the call. This has the advantage that
you can check the number on the display of your phone.
To disable "call forward always" dial *72. You will hear an announcement
saying call forwarding has been turned off.
Programming "call forwarding on busy" works in a similar way. Dial 73 to turn
it on and program the forwarding number. Like with the other codes, you can also
put the number directly behind the star (*) code.
Dial *74 to turn "call forward on busy" off. To turn "call forward on no
answer" on, dial *75. Like with the other codes, you can also put the number
directly behind the star code (*). Your system administrator has set the time limit
at which un-answered calls are forward. Please contact your system administrator if
you want to change this value.
To disable the "call forward on no answer", dial *76.
3.3.2
Do Not Disturb
Do Not Disturb (DND) is similar to the call forward already described in the
previous section. However, the typical case is that you temporarily don’t want to be
disturbed (for example, because you have a meeting). To turn DND on, dial *78.
To turn DND off, dial *79.
If you are a member of a hunt group, the call forwarding conditions for your
extension will not apply when the hunt group is called. But if you turn DND on, even
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calls that go to the hunt group will leave your phone silent.
Most VoIP phones have a button that acts in a similar way. However this DND
function might not be available or might not work as reliably as setting DND for
your phone on the PBX.
DND can be overridden by a person that has the DND override permission.
Typically this is a secretary who should be able to call the boss, even if he is on
DND.
3.4 Redial and Call Return
To redial the last number called, just dial *66.
Call Return (*69) will dial the number of the last call that you missed. The
number will be available until you establish a call to that number. This will prevent
you from calling back the same person twice.
If you reach an external mailbox the system will believe that the call was
established successfully and clear the number. If you reach a mailbox of another
extension on your PBX system, the call return number will not be cleared and you
will be able to try to reach that extension later by dialing the call return code. The
PBX will only store a call return number for calls that contain a valid caller-ID.
Please also note that if you have several telephones that share the same
extension number, these devices will share the same redial and call return number.
3.5 Parking, Pickup and Transfer
3.5.1
Call Pickup
As a general rule, you can pick up a call that is ringing at any other extension
by dialing *87.
Your telephone system administrator may have configured your PBX with
a more strict pickup policy. In that case, you will only be able to pick up calls
directed toward members of a hunt group to which you belong. For example, if
incoming calls normally first ring extension 501 for a few seconds, then 502 for a
few seconds, and then your extension, you will be able to pick up a call to that hunt
group while it is ringing extension 501 or while it is ringing 502.
3.5.2
Call Park and Retrieve
While in many cases you may dispose of a call by transferring it to a specific
extension, in certain situations you will want to "park" a call so that it can be picked
up by an unspecified extension.
Parking a call so that it may be picked up by any extension is a two-step
process. First put the call on hold; then, dial *85 to park the call. You will hear an
announcement that the call has been parked. At that point, the call can be picked
up by any extension that dials *86.
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Again, your telephone system administrator may have configured your PBX
with a more strict pickup policy. In that case, you will specify a group to which you
are parking the call (*85610 for example for group 610). Any member of that group
can then pick up the parked call by dialing *86.
3.5.3
Attended and Unattended
If your telephone has a transfer button, the PBX will receive the transfer
signal and switches the call to the provided destination. There are generally two
types of transfer. The simplest transfer is called a "blind" transfer. The other type
is often referred to as an "attended" or a "consultative" transfer. In an attended
transfer, you speak with the party to whom the call will be transferred to ensure
that the call is wanted. In a blind transfer, you simply transfer the call with no
knowledge of whether the person called will be available to take the call.
To initiate a "blind" transfer, just press the transfer button on your phone and
dial the extension to which you are transferring by pressing the extension number
keys and the call start key.
To initiate an attended transfer, first put the caller on hold (using the hold
button on the phone); then dial the number to which you will transfer the call. If
the person on the receiving end of your call is prepared to take the call you can
just press the transfer key and the call that is on hold will be transferred. You do
not have to press the hold button to free the call. If the person is not available to
take the call, you can press the hold key to reclaim the call and discuss the caller's
options with him or her.
3.5.4
Transfer with *77
Many mobile devices do not have options to transfer calls. However they are
able to put a call on hold. The PBX supports blind transfers for such devices in the
following way:
•
Put the call that should be transferred on hold;
•
Then dial *77 followed by the destination number.
Then the PBX will put the call off hold and redirect it to the destination.
Please notice that a blind transfer does not check if the call will be connected.
If the number is busy, does not exist or just does not pick up, the PBX will not send
automatically the call back.
3.5.5
Transferring or Calling Directly to Voice Mail
If your PBX System Administrator has enabled a prefix (normally "8") to
enable you to call a voice mailbox directly, you can "blindly" transfer a call to
someone's voice mail by pressing the transfer key, then that mailbox prefix key,
followed by the extension number and the call start key. Of course you can also
call any person’s voice mailbox directly by similarly pressing the mailbox prefix key
followed by the extension number and the call start key.
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3.6 Caller-ID Treatment
Caller-ID’s are usually telephone numbers. By providing your caller-ID to the
party that you are calling, the called party may be able to look you up in an address
book, initiate a callback, or just see who is calling.
Sometimes you want to reject calls that come from callers whose Caller
ID does not reveal their identity. Most VoIP systems use the name "anonymous"
in the caller-ID in such a case. To treat these calls, dial *88. If you have set the
call forwarding on busy condition, the PBX will forward anonymous calls to that
destination (for example, your assistant). This way, you can make sure that
anonymous calls get screened first before you take the call. If you have not set the
call forward on busy, the system will play an announcement to the caller that tells
him that the call can not be taken because of the blocked Caller-ID.
To allow anonymous calls again, dial *89.
If you want to place a call without showing your caller-ID, dial *67. You will
hear an announcement that the caller-ID will be blocked for all future calls.
To enable your caller-ID again, dial *68. Please note that the caller-ID will
always be presented for internal calls.
3.7 Call Data Record
Sometimes you receive a call from someone that you have to call back. If
your system administrator has set up your extension with your email address,
instead of asking the person on the phone to spell the phone number and scribble
it down on a notepad, you can direct the PBX to send you an email with the call
details.
To receive a "data record", dial *63 after the call. The system will send you
an email with the Caller-ID, the duration of the call and the time of the call.
3.8 Recording Prompts
The attendant and the agent group support the recording of customized
greetings. You can record those greetings from any telephone in your network.
Consult the system administrator manual if you want to restrict the
extensions that are allowed to record greetings.
In order to record a greeting, dial *98 followed by the account number (e.g.
*98123 if 123 is the number of your auto attendant). The PBX will prompt you for
your new prompt. If you just want to delete the old prompt and use the standard
prompt, press the star key during the announcement.
The agent group has up to ten announcements. The announcement with
the number 0 is the initial announcement; the announcements 1 to 9 are placed
in a loop. In order to record those announcements, you need to dial *98 + the
group number + * + the announcement number (for example, *98123*4 to record
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announcement 4 in the account 123).
3.9 Call Mixing
One of the benefits of the PBX architecture is that existing calls can be
interrupted and monitored.
All three modes, and especially the listen in mode, are severely affecting
the privacy of the calls on the PBX. Therefore, those modes are only available to
extensions that are specifically allowed to use those features. In the permissions
tab of the respective extension, the domain or system administrator has to enable
the features. Please consult corporation and government regulations if turning these
features is allowed in your environment. Illegal listening to phone calls is a severe
crime, and system administrators must be aware about that.
To see which calls are active, you can monitor the extension's state of the
state of a CO-line. For example, you can do this by using the LED key of a SIP
phone with the associated display.
3.9.1
Call Barge-In
In call barge in, two persons that are talking to each other are put into a
kind of conference with a third person. Typically, this third person is a secretary
reminding ("saving") the boss about another appointment. Both parties will hear
the third person come into the call ("knock knock") and both parties will be able to
hear what the third person has to say. The existence of the barge in call depends on
the existence of the underlying conversation.
In order to barge into a call, dial *81 followed by the extension number that
you would like to interrupt, then press dial.
3.9.2
Call Teach-Mode
In teach mode, only one side of the call can hear the third party. This is
typically useful in a call center when a trainer wants to give tips to a new agent, so
that the customer does not know about the teacher in the background. This mode is
also sometimes called whisper mode, because the agent's phone must have a real
good echo cancellation so that the customer does not hear some background echo.
In order to start the teach mode, dial *82 followed by the extension number
that should hear your voice, and then press dial.
3.9.3
Call Listen-In
The listen mode is similar, but completely stealth mode. The two persons
talking to each other are not notified about the listen in and cannot hear what the
third person says on the phone (e.g. breathing).
In order to start listening to calls, dial *83 followed by the extension number
that you would like to monitor.
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3.10 Hot Desking
3.10.1 Purpose
"Hot Desking" (see for example http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_desking)
makes it possible that employees temporarily or permanently change the routing of
all their calls to a specific physical device. Then all calls to that extension, also as
part of the hunt group or agent group, get routed to that extension.
Hot Desking means that the person takes ownership on the phone. That
means that outbound calls from this phone will show his caller-ID. It is not expected
that other significant inbound traffic goes to the originally registered extension. This
fact suggests that offices use "virtual" and "real" extension numbers:
•
"Real" extension numbers are used for employees with a fixed location (e.g.
switch board, management)
•
"Virtual" extensions don’t have any registrations. They are just used for routing
calls to a specific user. They use real extension numbers that are not assigned
to any other person, so that there is no conflict between identities on a specific
physical device.
In cases when an employee just wants calls to his extension being routed to
a colleague's office, it is better to use the unconditional redirection feature of the
PBX. This feature must be turned on before the user leaves his office.
3.10.2 Logging In
When you want to log in, enter the Hot Desking star code (typically "*70").
The PBX will prompt for the extension number and the PIN code for that extension
number and acknowledge the Hot Desking with a "the service is active now".
3.10.3 Logging Out
In order to log out, you just need to call the Hot Desking star code from a
location that is currently registered as hot desk or from the phone that holds a
registration for extension in question. The PBX will answer with a "the service is
inactive now".
3.10.4 Limitations
Hot Desking has limitations. Because the configuration of the device does
not change during Hot Desking, you will not be able to move telephone preferences
(like ring tones, address book programming, etc.) to another desk.
4
Login
You can use a standard web browser for the communication with the PBX.
Where ever inside or outside of your network you can connect to the web port of
the PBX, you can log in to the PBX. The PBX uses http sessions to keep track of the
context that the user is in. The session identifier is stored as a temporary cookie in
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your web browser. Usually those cookies are allowed today, if that is not the case
you need to allow it.
To get a login prompt, just enter the address of the web server of the PBX.
By default, this will be port 80, which is the default port of the system. If you want
to log on to the local system, just use the address http://localhost.
The PBX also supports the secure transport https. If you use this transport
layer, the data between the PBX and the web browser is transported using the
secure https protocol (see the documentation on https in the Internet). The PBX will
usually offer a certificate that will cause an alert on the local web browser. Please
ignore the alert or add it to the trusted certificates of your web browser. To log on
to the secure connection, use a login prompt like "https://localhost". By default, the
PBX will run the service on port 443, but during the installation you may put it on
any other port that you like.
There are three ways to log in. There is a selection box where you can
tell the system how you want to log in. If you choose "automatic", then the PBX
will first try to log you is as system administrator, if that is not possible it will try
domain administrator, and if that does not work it will try to log you in as user.
The first way is to log in as system administrator. In this mode, you have
access to all resources of the PBX. There is exactly one system administrator mode.
Because of this, you should make sure that the login information is kept in a safe
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place. By default, the login name is "admin" and the password is empty.
The second way to log in is as domain administrator. In contrast to the
system administrator, there may be several accounts that have the permission to
act as domain administrator, even within one domain. The password in this mode
is the password for this extension, which is the same as the SIP password (but not
the PIN code).
To log in as domain administrator, you must enter the username and domain
name in the "[email protected]" form and enter the password, for example "[email protected]
com". If you have just one domain, you may omit the domain name after the "@"
sign. If you have more than one domain and omit the domain name, the system will
automatically append a "@localhost" behind the account name.
The domain administrator flag is used to control the permissions of the
extension. If the flag is set to true, the web interface will accept the user's login
(same as their extension registration) and allow them to change the settings of the
domain.
The third mode to log you in is the user mode. The login for this is similar to
the domain administrator mode, but you are just taken to a different web page and
you can make only changes in your account’s realm.
If the PBX could not allocate the port that you specified as http port, you
need to locate the port number. This situation can happen for example if another
web service already took the port. In these situations you can use the Windows
command line command netstat -a -p to locate the process and find out which TCP
ports it has allocated. Usually you are then able to log in. The first thing that you
should do then is select another port that is available, so that after a restart the
PBX will be able to allocate the specified port.
5
System Administrator
5.1 Localization
Version 2 is in general independent from languages. This makes it possible
that new languages can be added without having to change the code of the
program.
There are a few exceptions to this rule. The first exception is that the PBX
automatically falls back to US-English when a requested resource is not available in
the specified language. Therefore, it is a good idea to install the US-English files in
any case.
The second exception is the spelling of numbers and dates. By default, all
numbers and dates are spelled with the English number ordering. Only for German,
there are several changes. As more languages are being added to the system, this
will be improved in future releases.
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System Administration
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5.1.1
Web Interface
The web interface is generally language independent. The content is UTF-8
encoded, which makes it easy to use characters which are not on the core ASCII
char set.
For every supported language, the PBX needs a file called lang_xx.xml,
where xx is replaced with the language code (e.g. en, de, fr, sp). This file is being
read after startup of the PBX process. It has a XML-encoded content which looks
like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<language name="de">
<file>
<item id="yes">Ja</item>
<item id="no">Nein</item>
<item id="on">An</item>
<item id="off">Aus</item>
</file>
<file name="dom_accounts.htm">
<item id="name_ext">Durchwahl</item>
<item id="name_aa">Automatische Vermittlung</item>
</file>
</language>
The name attribute of the language tag indicates which language is being
defined. It should be the same as the xx in the filename of the XML file.
For every file that exists in the web server, there should be an entry with the
name "file", which lists the used texts in that page. The name of the web page must
be indicated with attribute "name". If the attribute is missing, the PBX will use that
item as a fallback, which can be used in all web pages (useful for often used items
like "yes" or "no").
The XML file for US-English is available on demand and can be used as
template.
5.1.2
Voice Interaction
The PBX uses voice prompts in many application areas, for example in the
mailbox and the auto attendant. The necessary files are located in the working
directory of the PBX in a directory with the name audio_xx. The PBX checks during
startup, which directories are available and then determines which languages are
installed.
In order to add a new language, you need to have the voice prompts. The
files must have 8-kHz sampled WAV files in uncompressed audio format. You can
use either u-law encoded files (8 bits per sample) or linear-encoded bytes (16 bits
per sample).
If you want to record another language, please contact us for access to the
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list of needed prompts.
5.1.3
Ring Tones
Almost every country has its own ring tones. Those ring tones are also
stored in the audio_xx directory. The PBX determines after startup, which tones are
installed.
If you want to install a new ring tone, you must provide the files "ringback.
wav" and "busy.wav".
5.1.4
Time Zones
The PBX is able to deal with several time zones at a time. This makes it
possible, that every user can select his home time zone, so that for example
mailbox messages are read out with the time zone of the user. The PBX also uses
the time zone information during the provisioning of the phones, so that the phone
will also use the time zone of the user.
In order to make this happen, the PBX needs a time zone configuration file,
which is encoded in XML and looks like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<timezones dict="timezones.xml">
<zone name="AKDT">
<description>Alaska Time Zone</description>
<gmt_offset>-32400</gmt_offset>
<dst_offset>3600</dst_offset>
<dst_start_day_of_week>1</dst_start_day_of_week>
<dst_start_month>4</dst_start_month>
<dst_start_time>02:00</dst_start_time>
<dst_start_week_of_month>1</dst_start_week_of_month>
<dst_stop_day_of_week>1</dst_stop_day_of_week>
<dst_stop_month>10</dst_stop_month>
<dst_stop_time>02:00</dst_stop_time>
<dst_stop_week_of_month>Last</dst_stop_week_of_month>
</zone>
<zone name="CST">
<description>China, Taiwan</description>
<gmt_offset>28800</gmt_offset>
</zone>
</timezones>
The name of the time zones is reflected in the lang_xx.xml file, where the
translated name of the time zone can be found. The description tag is used for
fallback purposes.
A timezone must have the usual entries for GMT offset and the daylight
savings information (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daylight_saving_time). If a
time zone has no daylight savings, those tags can be left out.
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Unfortunately, the system file in Windows and Linux do not provide enough
information to allow plug and play information. If you would like to add a time zone,
please let us know. We will add more time zones in upcoming releases.
5.2 SIP Security
5.2.1
Why is security an issue?
Users expect that their phone calls are kept private. Listening to phone calls
without permission from a public authority is illegal, and there are frequently cases
in the press when this rule is being violated. Unfortunately, there are methods
that make it possible to redirect packets in the local area network, for example to
a desktop PC (ARP attacks). While you had to get physical access to the cable for
TDM-based PBX, you can do this by installing a sniffer tool on your PC.
To address this problem, SIP uses the secure transport layer (TLS), which is
also used for web-based security. TLS is based on SSH 3.0. The encryption of the
voice packets uses a different standard, SRTP. SRTP is based on AES with at least
128 bit. This should be "pretty private", even if someone is able to relay the packet
via PC in the network.
5.2.2
How does it work?
When a phone registers, it establishes a secure connection to the PBX.
This security negotiation may take a few seconds—there is some heavy number
crunching involved. But the registration period is not time critical, because the user
is not aware of this delay.
After the secure connection between the phone and the PBX is established,
either the phone or the PBX may initiate a call. The call-related information like
caller-ID will be private between the PBX and the phone, because the information
is exchanged using the existing secure connection. This call setup is fast, as the
necessary security information has already been negotiated during the registration
process.
The keys for the SRTP can now also be exchanged in a secure way. Like
the caller-ID, this information is invisible to someone listening on packets in the
network.
During the call, the PBX will receive SRTP packets, decrypt them, and send
them out on the other side of the call. If the other side of the call is also using
SRTP, the PBX will encrypt the RTP traffic using the key that has been negotiated
with this side. This is called "SRTP transcoding”. Because the PBX does have the
security context for both calls, it is able to record the call, even if both sides are
using secure media.
5.2.3
Is SDES supported, if yes in which versions?
SDES stands for "Session Description Protocol Security Descriptions for Media
Streams”. The SDES standard is used to exchange the keys between the phone and
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the PBX (see for example http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SDES). The pbxnsip PBX
supported SDES right from the beginning. SDES is not a RFC (http://tools.ietf.org/
html/rfc4568).
5.2.4
Is MIKEY supported, if yes in which versions?
No, this is not supported. The reason is that MIKEY comes with a high
implementation effort and it seems that most implementers prefer SDES.
In the context of SRTP, what happens if the IP-phone supports authentication
tag but with length less than 80-bit (as described in RFC3711)?
According to SDES, the MAC must be either 4-byte or 10-byte. We support
both modes. The negotiation happens in SDES.
5.2.5
In the context of TLS, briefly how the certificates are
managed?
You can upload a standard certificate into the PBX. Currently we support
only one certificate for one domain that might change in further releases. We do
not check the certificates of the clients, as usually they use self-signed certificates
(DHCP).
5.2.6
How can I provision phones in a secure way?
The provisioning phase is a very critical phase, because during that time
passwords have to be put into the phones and it must be made sure that no
one captures the password on the network. Using a secure connection for the
provisioning solves the problem of keeping the password secure, but it requires that
the phone authenticates itself (otherwise any client can retrieve the password).
There are three methods for provisioning secure passwords:
•
The PBX does not provision passwords with the plug and play mechanism.
While you can use the plug and play for all other parameters, you must put the
passwords either through a secure web server connection on the phone or you
manually enter the password in the user interface of the phone.
•
The PBX provisions the password only once. All other requests for the
configuration file will skip the password information. The domain administrator
may set or reset the flag for an extension manually if a new phone needs to
be provisioned or if a specific extension should be blocked from automatic
provisioning.
•
The PBX always provisions the password. This most is very convenient, but not
very secure.
5.2.7
What is (in terms of technology) "security end-to-end"?
That is a security policy enforcement triggered by the use of a "sips" URI.
If the phone sends this scheme, the PBX will establish a call on the other side of
the B2BUA only if the other side is secure. Trunks can be marked as exception, as
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practically there are only very few secure PSTN gateways able to support TLS/SRTP.
Please note that this features must be specifically enabled.
5.3 Overall System Settings
5.3.1
General
The "Audio Language", the "Tones", the "Web Language" and the "Timezone"
determine which language is being used for the speech, the tones and the web
interface. For more information, see Localization.
5.3.2
Administrator Login
It is very important that the login as system administrator is protected.
Therefore, you should set a reasonable safe password for the administrator login.
The password is stored in a hashed format, so that there is no way of reading the
password from the Global Configuration File.
By default, the username is "admin" and there is no password.
5.3.3
Appearance
The "Default CDR listing" size tells the system how many CDR records to
display on the web interface. This setting should avoid that the user gets too many
CDR on the display at a time.
The "Keep CDR Duration" setting defines how long the CDR are kept in the
database. By default, this setting is 14 days. The duration is expressed in time unit.
A time unit may seconds (put a 's' behind the number), minutes (put an 'm' behind
the number), hours (put a 'h' behind the number) or days (put a 'd' behind the
number). An example would be "10d", meaning that the CDR are kept for ten days.
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The "SOAP Trusted IP" and the "SOAP CDR URL" are only available if the
license key contains a SOAP flag. See SOAP for more information.
Most SIP phones do not have a recording button. In order to have the
recording feature also available for those devices, you may define DTMF keys that
start and stop recording. The keys must be one character and can be 0-9, * and
#. Recording is triggered only on connected calls. Please be aware that the other
side may hear the tone and that this feature might have side effects on other
features, for example when you are calling an external mailbox and use the keys
for navigating. The "Recording Location" defines where calls are being recorded. For
more information about Recording, see the page Recording.
5.3.4
Performance
The "Maximum Number of Calls" setting defines how many calls the system
allows at the same time. Because every call takes a certain portion of the available
CPU, allowing too many calls will affect the quality of all ongoing calls. By limiting
the number of calls on the CPU, you can reject calls that would otherwise potentially
degrade the overall performance. On modern PC, you may have hundred or more
calls running on one computer; however on embedded system you will probably
have much less CPU power and the probability that you are running out of CPU
power is much higher.
The "Maximum Duration of Call Recording" sets an upper limit to call
recordings. This setting is important because recording files might become very
large and can cause problems with the system performance. There is another
setting that limits the recording of a mailbox message, which is a domain setting.
In a SIP environment, the registrar determines how long a user agent may
be registered. Short registration times have a negative impact on the performance,
but make sure that the user agents stabilize quickly after they lost connection to
the PBX. The "Minimum Registration Time" and the "Maximum Registration Time"
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settings are used to define the lower and upper limit for the registration time.
Typical values are in the range of a few minutes up to several hours. The settings
use seconds as the unit.
If the registering user agent is behind NAT, the PBX uses the settings "UDP
NAT Refresh" and "TCP/TLS NAT Refresh". The PBX registers agents that use the
UDP transport layer only for a short time, so that the user agents will reregister
quickly and keep the NAT bindings alive this way. Typically the settings for UDP
should be in the range from 15 to 45 seconds, while TCP/TLS connection don't need
to refresh the bindings so often, a value of a few minutes are ok in most situations.
The "Maximum call duration" settings set the upper limit for the call duration.
By default the setting is two hours, but you might make it longer if you have long
phone calls. This setting is good to keep your call list clean, for example if one
mailbox talks to another mailbox.
5.3.5
SIP Settings
SIP specifies for certain headers a short form. Short headers have the
advantage to save some space in the messages, which reduce the overall
probability that you run into problems with maximum message size in UDP.
Although it is very simple to support this, some devices are not able to deal with
the short headers. Therefore, the PBX offers both short and long headers. In order
to maximize interoperability, the default value for Use Short SIP Headers is long; if
you are running into UDP packet fragmentation problems (message size above 1492
bytes), you should switch to the short header form.
SIP also has it's own multicast group. Usually a SIP device knows where to
send the requests; however during boot-up and configuration, a user-agent might
want to locate the PBX with a multicast request. Therefore, the PBX offers the
setting Listen to sip.mcast.net. If this setting is turned on and you are using useragents with the multicast detection feature, you can just plug the devices into the
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network and they will get their configuration information automatically.
In hosted environments, the service provider might want to set the trunks up
and hide this feature from his customers. If Allow domain admin to change trunks
is set to "no", then the domain administrators can see their trunks only in the dial
plan, but are not able to make changes to the trunks.
When the PBX starts a call, that same call may come back to the PBX,
creating a loop. This is a dangerous situation, because it might initiate the same call
again and again, ending up in many calls that take a lot of resources. Therefore, the
PBX must detect such a loop. In environments where an external SIP proxy routes
the call from one PBX domain to another, a simple loop back detection based on the
call-id is too pessimistic. Therefore, in such environments you might want to allow
such calls and turn the loop back detection off.
When a user presses a key on the telephone, the PBX must be able to
understand that key press. In telephony system, this mechanism is typically called
DTMF (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DTMF). In VoIP, DTMF should usually be
sent via the out-of-band method (RFC2833), which makes it easy and failsafe for
the PBX to detect those tones. However, there are sometime devices, which are
not supporting this method. In this case, the PBX must decode and analyze the
media stream and perform this detection. This is erroneous and costs additional
CPU performance. It is strongly recommended not to use this feature and to replace
devices which do not support out-of-band with devices that do.
In environments where the service provider controls the PBX from a
centralized location, the setting "Remote SIP management" is used to allow
the provider to send commands to the PBX (for example, for re-reading the
configuration). By default this setting is off, but if you are using such an
environment this setting needs to be turned on.
5.4 Product Licensing
The PBX offers several options for product licensing.
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5.4.1
Installing a License
After you received the license code, just copy the license code into the
"License Code" field and hit the "Save" button.
5.4.2
Licenses Policy
Licenses can be permanent or temporarily. If you buy a license, they are
typically permanent; for demonstration licenses, we usually provide temporary
keys.
It is pbxnsip’s license policy to bind licenses to the addresses of a specific
host. Therefore, you need to provide us the address of the host that you want to
use with the PBX.
•
MAC addresses are generally used to uniquely identify a computer. For CPE
installations, MAC addresses must be used.
•
IP addresses are used in hosted environments where it is difficult to license
specific MAC addresses (server farms and redundancy).
5.4.3
Features
The license generator can have the following parameters:
•
calls <number>: Limit the number of calls. A call can consist of several legs, for
example during hunt group forking. The number of calls may be limited by the
performance check. The default is no limit.
•
accounts <number>: Limit the number of accounts. A account is anything that
shows up in the Accounts/Show list (including CO-lines).
•
domains <number>: Limit the number of domains. If not set, unlimited.
•
extensions <number>: Limit the number of extensions. If not set, unlimited.
•
attendants <number>: Limit the number of attendants. If not set, unlimited.
•
callingcards <number>: Limit the number of callingcards. If not set, unlimited.
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•
hunts <number>: Limit the number of hunts. If not set, unlimited.
•
hoots <number>: Limit the number of paging groups. If not set, unlimited.
•
srvflags <number>: Limit the number of service flags. If not set, unlimited.
•
ivrnodes <number>: Limit the number of IVR nodes. If not set, unlimited.
•
acds <number>: Limit the number of agent groups. If not set, unlimited.
•
conferences <number>: Limit the number of conferences. If not set, unlimited.
•
colines <number>: Limit the number of CO-lines. If not set, unlimited.
•
trunks <number>: Limit the number of trunks. If not set, unlimited.
•
soap <bool>: Specify if SOAP is allowed (default false).
•
barge <bool>: Specify if call barge in/teach in/listening is allowed (default
false).
•
secure <bool>: Allow sips calls (default false).
•
cdr <bool>: Allow sending of CDR via SOAP (default false).
•
lowrate <bool>: Enable the use of the lowrate codec (default false).
•
recording <bool>: Enable the use of the recording feature (default false).
•
name <text>: A descripting name for this license. This name is shown in the
status web page.
•
expires <time>: The date in number of seconds from 1970.
The key contains a hash over the features and the private key of the PBX key
generator for cryptographic security of the key. The key is based64-encoded for
easier transportation during the licensing process.
Technically, all features can be controlled seperately. In most cases, licenses
will be offered in a package that contains a predefined feature set.
5.5 Port Setup
On this Ports web page you can control which networking resources the PBX
utilizes to communicate with the outside IP world.
When specifying ports, you can list the ports that you may bind to. You may
either just specify a port number or you may explicitly specify the IP address and
the port (separated by a colon, for example "192.168.1.2:8080"). In general, you
may bind to more than one socket. The addresses must be separated by spaces.
If you don’t want to use the service, leave the field empty. If you change the port
binding, you need to restart the PBX service.
5.5.1
HTTP
The http and https ports are used for the communication between the
build-in web server and the web browser. The http port is used for insecure, but
lightweight communication; the https port is used for secure, but a little bit more
expensive communication.
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By default, the http port is 80, the https port is 443. If you are running
another service on your host or you want to gain some additional security, you may
change these ports to any other available port.
If you cannot reach the system on any port, please use the netstat command
to locate the ports that have been allocated by the system (see the operating
system documentation how to use this program). If it all does not help, you must
either reinstall the system or change the settings ip_http_port and ip_https_port in
the Global Settings File.
5.5.2
SIP
The SIP ports are used for insecure and secure SIP communication. By
default, the system chooses port 5060 for sip and 5061 for sips. The PBX opens a
UDP port and a TCP server port for the insecure communication and a TCP port for
the secure communication.
If you are to set your DNS records up, you should set three records
(assuming that you are operating the domain "test.com"):
•
_sip._udp.test.com must point to sip port (UDP)
•
_sip._tcp.test.com must point to the sip port (TCP)
•
_sips._tcp.test.com must point to the sips port (TLS)
You can repeat the setup for every domain that you want to operate on the
system.
5.5.3
RTP
The RTP ports are used for sending and receiving media. You must specify a
reasonable port range so that you have enough ports for all open calls.
Most user agents send RTP media data from the same port where they
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expect to receive data. This is useful when a user agent sends media from behind
NAT. The PBX can use this mechanism to establish a two way media path, even if
the user agent is not able to determine its public IP address for media and is behind
NAT.
Some user agents use different ports for sending and receiving. Although
they will not be able to operate behind NAT, they are within the scope of the IETF
standards. To be able to be compatible with these devices, the PBX has flag called
"Follow RTP". By default, this flag is set to "on". If you have trouble with devices
that use different ports for sending and receiving, try to turn this flag off. Please
note that some of the troublesome devices also have a flag to turn the usage of
different ports off.
Please note that you can control this behavior also on trunk level. If only a
specific trunk has this problem, you should use this setting only on the trunk level.
5.5.4
SNMP
The SNMP port setting defines on which port the PBX will listen for SNMP
requests. By default, this port is on port 161.
The SNMP trusted addresses lists the IP addresses that may send SNMP
requests. If this setting is empty, the PBX will not accept any SNMP requests.
Whenever a request is being rejected, the PBX writes a log message.
For more details, see the SNMP chapter.
5.5.5
TFTP
The TFTP ports are used for provisioning purposes. Many SIP devices use
tftp for automatic configuration. See Automatic Provisioning for more details on this
topic. This port is on port 69 by default.
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Some devices write log files using tftp. You may enable this with the "Allow
TFTP Write" flag. Please notice that this feature makes it possible that users may
write files that affect other devices and this may introduce system instability and
security concerns. We recommend using this feature only for troubleshooting, if
necessary. The uploaded file can also be seen in the log file.
The "Allow TFTP Password" setting can have those values (see also SIP
Security and Prepare an Extension for Plug and Play):
•
"Always" means that the PBX will always place the passwords into the
provisioning files.
•
"Once" means that the PBX first checks if the password flag for the respective
account is already set, and if not it sends the password; then sets the flag.
•
"Never" means that the PBX does not provision passwords.
5.5.6
Call Managing Port
The call managing port is able to provide external tools with information
about incoming calls and allows external tools to start calls. The port uses a
proprietary interface. If you leave this setting empty the PBX will not open the port.
Currently, the tool from Calling Circles uses this port.
5.6 SNMP
5.6.1
Purpose
The simple network management protocol (SNMP) is a widely used protocol
for checking what's going on in your network. When you run the PBX, you probably
also want to see statistics about the usage and get alarms when something goes
wrong.
There are many tools available for SNMP. For example, you can use the Linux
command line argument snmpget or you can use the Windows commercial tool
PRTG Traffic Grapher. Depending on the feature set, you may get SMS or email
when something goes wrong. You can use those tools also to monitor other devices
in your network, for example SIP phones.
The PBX does not send traps, it only supports GET in SNMP version 1.
Though this is very simple, it is supported by all tools. Sending traps has only little
value, as the process monitors itself and for example cannot send a trap in the case
of a fatal event.
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5.6.2
Setup
The setup of SNMP on the PBX side is very simple. Essentially, you have to
perform two steps:
Select the port on which the SNMP server should listen. By default, this
would be port 161, but on a host that runs other SNMP services as well you might
want to choose another port.
Tell the PBX from which addresses to accept SNMP requests. You find the
setting "SNMP Trusted IP Addresses" for this. Enter the IP addresses (separated by
a space) or the IP address range here. The PBX will accept requests only from these
addresses. The format is in the IP Address List format.
The setup of your SNMP tools varies from tool to tool. Because the PBX does
not offer a standard set of values (such as CPU temperature, disk space etc.), the
setup is a little bit more difficult that the setup of a standard sensor.
5.6.3
Available Object Identifiers
A readable parameter is described by its object identifier (OID). Please enter
the OID in your tool and select appropriate names for them. Also make sure that
the IP address of the host running the SNMP tool matches the setup that you gave
the PBX in the "SNMP Trusted IP Addresses" setting. The PBX does not support
"snmpwalk" or other tools that automatically describe the abilities of the PBX. You
must enter these settings manually.
The following table describes the available OID. An absolute value describes
the current state on the PBX, the value might go up and down. Relative values only
go up and accumulate the values.
OID
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.1
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.2
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.3
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.4
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.5
Description
Call Objects
Registrations
Messages
Call Attempts
Successful
Calls
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.6 Media CPU load
Absolute
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Unit
Calls
Registrations
Minutes
Calls
Calls
Yes
Value 0..100
Please note that the OID was changed from 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.1.x to
1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.x in version 1.5.
The "Call Objects" just shows the number of call objects that have been
allocated inside the PBX. Note that usually there are at least two call objects for a
regular call, and during call forking you might have even more. This object will give
you a good overview on the internal resource usage of the PBX.
The "Registrations" object shows how many extensions are actively
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registered with the PBX. This object gives you a good overview on how many active
users the system has.
The "Messages" object shows you how many voicemail messages the system
currently has stored. Note that when you do Email-forwarding, the messages are
not stored on the PBX.
The "Call Attempts" object is useful to measure the Busy Hour Call Attempts
(BHCA) number. This number is useful when you want to see where the limits
of your system are. The BHCA number is a important performance number of
traditional PBX. Feel free to compare the BHCA value of your modern CPU to the
value of an old-style hardware PBX.
The "Successful Calls" object is similar to the "Call Attempts", but is measure
the number of successful calls. The number is increased when the call terminates.
The number can be used to determine the busy hour call performance of the
system. Please note that on this software PBX, not only the call establishment takes
resources. The call traffic itself also causes significant traffic, especially when the
CPU has to do codec translation.
5.6.4
Example
If you use snmpget, you can get the status of the PBX with a command like
like this:
# snmpget -v 1 -c public 192.168.1.103 .1.3.6.1.4.1.25060.1.3
SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.25060.1.3 = INTEGER: 4
5.6.5
Log Messages
If you receive SNMP: Received unknown object identifier the SNMP tool
tries to get an object identifier that does not exist. Some tools try various object
identifier by default, which is not a reason for concern.
5.7 Prepare an Extension for Plug and Play
5.7.1
Binding to a MAC address
Whenever you want to use plug and play for an extension, you need to tell
the PBX about that.
The PBX identifies a device by its MAC address (see for example http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAC_address). When a device supports plug and play, it
includes its MAC address in the request for configuration information. The PBX uses
three ways to find the extension(s) that match this MAC address:
•
If you explicitly specify a MAC address for an extension, then the PBX will
associate that extension with that device. You can specify only one MAC
address per extension. However, you can use the MAC address in more than
one extension. Then the PBX will try to assign more than one extension to that
device. It depends on the device if it supports more than one registration.
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•
In many cases it is inconvenient to enter the MAC addresses for devices.
Therefore, the PBX accepts two wildcards for the provisioning. The star symbol
('*') is used for the permanent assignment mode. The PBX will wait until
a user agent requests a configuration from the PBX. If that user agent has
no configuration assigned to a specific account, it will search for permanent
assignments and remember the MAC address of this user agent for this account.
The next time when the same user agent boots up it will receive the same
extension number and no other user agents will receive that extension number.
•
The other mode is temporarily assignment. This mode is indicated by a question
mark symbol ('?'). The PBX will search a "free parking slot". An extension is
available for plug and play if no other user agent is registered to that extension.
That means it will not remember that the user agents was assigned with the
extension. The next time when the user agent boots up it might receive another
extension number.
5.7.2
Password Provisioning
For complete plug and play, it is desirable to provide the passwords along
with the other configuration data. However, this possibility may open a security
hole. The PBX has practically not way to authenticate the device. For example,
if another user in the network requests the same configuration information, the
PBX would provide the same configuration again. The MAC address as key to the
configuration data is a very weak protection – many devices use the MAC address in
regular SIP requests.
Therefore, the PBX offers three modes:
•
"Always" means that the PBX will always place the passwords into the
provisioning files. That means everyone who know the MAC address in the
network can get the configuration data for a device, including the password. This
mode is acceptable in trusted environment, for example small offices or home
offices.
•
"Once" means that the PBX first checks if the password flag for the respective
account is already set, and if not it sends the password; then sets the flag. This
mode is useful, when the administrator sets the devices and has control over the
time when the device is being provisioned. If the device uses https as protocol
for transporting the configuration data, this mechanism is secure.
•
"Never" means that the PBX does not provision passwords. This is obviously a
safe mode. If the user has the possibility to enter the password on the device
(e.g. on the keyboard), this will give the system a good security, while still being
reasonable simple for end users.
If the administrator uses the "once" mode and the provisioning of a password
fails, this is an indication that someone else retrieved the password by accident or
by purpose. In this case the administrator should reset the flag for the extension
and choose a new password.
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5.7.3
Other relevant settings
There are some more relevant settings that you should consider when
performing plug and play:
•
The time zone is usually automatically provisioned on the devices. Make
sure that you have chosen the right time zone for the system, domain or the
extension.
•
The dial plan can also be provisioned for some devices. Especially for customers
in the North American Numbering Plan can benefit from this feature, as they
(usually) don’t have press the "Send" button on the phone to start calls.
•
Some profiles also provision star codes. For example, the code to retrieve
the voicemail can be sent to the device. Make sure that the codes are set up
correctly.
•
The address book can also be provisioned for some devices. If you want to
provide a domain or extension address book, you should set this up before
starting the phones. If you do changes in the address book, you need to restart
the devices so that they pick the changes up. Some devices support real-time
access to the PBX, where a restart is not necessary.
•
Some devices support provisioning of the busy lamp field (BLF). You can monitor
other extensions, but you can also monitor the status of the hunt group, the
agent groups, the CO-lines, conferences and other account types. In order to do
this, you need to specify the "List of extensions to watch" in the user mode for
an extension. Check the Dialog Permissions state of the account that you want
to watch to make sure that the PBX allows the subscription.
•
The PBX also supports the provisioning of the number of lines for an extension.
Some phones use this information for defining the layout of the buttons.
5.8 Log Setup
5.8.1
General Logging
When you install the system, you want to see how it works and how the PBX
interprets the input to the system. Logging is a powerful mechanism to track the
activity of the system.
For this purpose, the PBX keeps a list of log messages in memory and if you
enter a filename it writes a copy of the log messages to the file system.
The Log Level determines which log messages are put into the log. The
range is between 0 and 9. If you select level 0 you will see only the most important
messages, if you select level 9 you will see all available log messages of the
system. Please note that choosing log level 9 creates additional load for the system
and may create huge log files.
The Log Length determines the length of the internal log message buffer. This
buffer is used to show the log messages in the web interface (see below).
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If you set a Log Filename, the system will write the log messages to the
filename which you provide. If you put a dollar sign into the log filename, the
system will replace the dollar sign with the current day. This will make sure that
the log files don't get too big over time. Please don't forget to delete old log files
from time to time, so that your file system does not get overloaded with too much
logging information.
One of the first log messages that you will see is the working directory. If the
Log Filename does not contain a path, the system will write the log file into that
directory. You can specify the directory during the installation process.
Warning! Don't forget to lower the log level once the system is running.
Especially when you write the log messages into a file, you will sooner or later get a
hard disk full error, which a quite severe situation because the PBX will then not be
able to save runtime data.
5.8.2
Specific Events
You can enable or disable logging on a subsystem level. The following
subsystems are available:
Log general events: These events are of general interest, for example
information about the working directory.
•
Log SIP events: Events in this module relate to the SIP traffic of the PBX.
•
Log media events: The PBX reports events about media processing, for example
a one-way audio RTP timeout.
•
Log IVR events: This module logs events about processing user input, for
example in the auto attendant or the mailbox.
•
Log email events: If you want to troubleshoot the email server interaction, you
should turn this module on.
•
Log http events: This flag controls if events in the internal http server should be
logged.
•
Log registration events: When a device registers or deregisters, it appears in
this module.
•
Log SNMP events: SNMP events occur when a external SNMP agent requests
information from the PBX.
•
Log trunk events: Log events that are related to the trunks, for example when a
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trunk registers the first time.
•
Log SOAP events: This subsystem deals with SOAP input and output.
•
Log TFTP events: In this module you will find events that have to do with the
built-in tftp server and plug and play-related information.
5.8.3
SIP Logging
When the PBX receives or sends a SIP packet, it determines if the packet will
be logged and which log level this event will have.
•
REGISTER packets deal with the registration of extensions or trunks. If you are
not interested in the registration traffic, set this setting to "off".
•
SUBSCRIBE/NOTIFY deals with message waiting indications and LED state and
other used subscriptions.
•
OPTIONS are sometimes used to keep the SIP connection alive. In this case you
will see a lot of those requests.
•
All other packets usually belong to an ongoing call (e.g. INVITE, CANCEL, ACK,
BYE).
The watch list filters the SIP packets by it's IP address. Just list the IP
addresses you are interested in the "Watch List (IP)" field (you may use subnet
mask) and define the log level in the "Watch List Log Level". This feature is useful
when you have a specific device that you want to watch in the PBX's log.
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5.8.4
Email
The PBX is able to send notifications for certain events. Currently, the only
event is the daily report of the system performance. This email is sent daily after
midnight and it contains a chart about the CPU usage of the last day.
In order to use this feature, you need to provide the "From" address that
is used for sending the email. The "Account" and "Password" is used for SMTP
authentication purposes, the SMTP server will be used for sending the email. The
recipients of the performance email must be separated with a semicolon.
5.9 Loading of a Certificate
5.9.1
Purpose
Certificates are used to indicate your communication partner that you are
really the one that you claim to be. This is done using a third party that certifies
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your identity and issues you a certificate. The certificate comes for a domain name.
Usually those certificates are used for web services; however the same certificates
can also be used for SIP services.
By using a certificate you defend your installation against DNS redirection
attacks. An attacker might get control over a DNS server (which you don't operate)
and redirect all requests to his server. He then might be able to present the same
certificate that you have, but he does not have the private key that you used when
you requested the certificate from the trusted third party. Therefore, he will not
be able to establish secure communication. This way the user agent can check if
the host that he contacted is really the desired host and deny the connection if the
public and the private keys do not match.
You can provide only one key to the PBX. That means for secure
communication, you can operate only one domain in a secure way.
In order to provide the key, just enter the ASCII string that you received
from the trusted party, copy it into the text field and push the "Save" button. The
PBX will then present this certificate to http and sip connection that require secure
communications.
5.9.2
Format
The format of the certificate must be base64-encoded. You must include the
private key and the certificate in the upload. Please note that uploading the private
key this way might be intercepted by an intruder. You can minimize this risk by
using the localhost address from the local machine.
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5.10 Music on Hold
5.10.1 Purpose
"Music on Hold" (MOH) is used in several places. The name originally comes
from the music that is played when an extension put a caller on hold to avoid
silence in the line. For more information, see for example http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Music_on_hold.
The PBX uses MOH when a call in being put on hold and when a caller is
waiting in an agent group. There can be several sources for music on hold; these
sources can be used in parallel and can be used in different locations. Because
these sources are system-wide available, they are part of the administrator
settings. The music on hold can be selected on domain level. See the domain mode
for more information.
5.10.2 Files
The PBX can use one or more files for MOH. These files are read by the PBX
on demand and played in an endless loop mode.
The files must be in 8 kHz sampling frequency and they should be in 16 bit
per sample signed format. The format must be mono WAV. You may also use other
formats (u-law and GSM), but these formats will have less audio quality and require
more CPU performance.
The files are loaded only once. However, you should be careful, because long
files will be read into memory; long files can easily take a lot of memory. As a rule
of thumb, every minute of the file will take about one MB of memory space.
5.10.3 Audio Input
In Windows, the PBX supports additionally the reading from the audio input
jack. This is a very convenient way to connect a CD, MP3 player or a radio to the
PBX. The disadvantage of this method is that you can have only one external music
source.
You can also internally loop the audio output of the local computer back
to the audio input of the computer. With this trick, you can use any MP3 player
running locally to provide a large number of MP3 files. However, we recommend
keeping an eye on the memory usage of the MP3 player, as some players have
memory leaks and slowly consume the memory of the computer.
5.10.4 RTP Stream
Streaming RTP data becomes a popular way of providing music from external
sources. Just like with a telephone conversation, the PBX receives the audio data in
a standard RTP stream. There are several external tools available that are able to
generate a compliant RTP stream. Because the PBX can have several RTP streams,
you can use this method to generate different music on hold sources for the
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system.
The RTP stream must use G.711 encoding. There is no SIP signaling involved
in this method and the PBX does not send any RTP data back.
5.10.5 Setup
In order to create a new MOH source, you must enter a name for the new
source and select the type of the new source. If the type is "File", you need to
specify the name of the file. This file must be in the "audio_moh" directory of the
PBX (you must manually place the file there).
For the type "RTP Stream" you must specify on which port the PBX should
listen for RTP input (for example, "42000"). This port must be available on the
system. If you change the setting, you might need to restart the PBX service, so
that the change takes effect.
For the type "Wave Input" there is no additional information required.
5.10.6 Editing
If you want to change a setting, you can just click on one of the links
shown above the form. The PBX then will fill out the fields with the settings for the
respective source. After making changes, you need to press the "Save" button. If
you want to delete the source, click on the delete button. If you want to create a
new source, you can use the clear button.
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5.11 Changing the Appearance
5.11.1 Motivation
Many users of the pbxnsip PBX would like to change the view of the PBX in
such a way, that their company logo and name is used on the web interface and the
SIP messaging of the PBX.
In order to address this problem, the PBX has a web page where several
customization settings can be set. By default, this page is invisible. By performing
some special steps, this page can be unlocked, so that the necessary changes can
be made from the web interface.
Please note that pbxnsip does not waive any copyrights on the product by
providing this mechanism.
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5.11.2 Unlocking the web page
The web page is locked when the setting "oem_lock" in the Global
Configuration File is set to true. After a fresh installation this is the default. In order
to unlock the web page, you need to stop the PBX, manually change the value to
"false" and then restart the PBX.
5.11.3 Changing the Appearance
After unlocking the page, you need to log in as administrator and go to the
settings/appearance web page. On this page you will see the following settings:
Web Page Width ("web_width"): This setting controls the default width
of a web page. 780 is a reasonable value, but depending on the customers PC
equipment you might want to make it smaller or larger.
Login Text ("app_login_text"): This text is displayed
Footer Message ("app_footer"): This text is displayed on the bottom of every
web page as a copyright hint. It is followed by the text "All rights reserved. See the
license agreement for more information".
Web Link ("app_link"): This link is inserted in several places of the web page.
For example, the online manual link is based on this link. You must have the images
for edges of the design relative to this path. The easiest way to get this working
is to try a link and then use the web browser to identify the path to the missing
images.
Logo Link ("app_logo"): This is the relative link to the logo image on the top
left of the menu navigation bar. The size of this image must be 132x33 pixels. The
logo link is the link relative to the http root. You might consider using an absolute
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path (including the http scheme). A template image is available on the online Wiki.
User-Agent String ("app_user_agent"): This string is used when creating SIP
messages.
When changing the settings, those settings should take effect immediately.
You might have to invalidate the browser cache by pushing the reload button on the
web browser. You can continue changing the settings until you are confident with
the result. Then you can lock the page by changing the radio button to locked state
and saving the web page.
5.11.4 Providing your own content
You can put your own content into the html directory. That directory does
not exist in the beginning; you must create it first in the working directory of the
PBX (where other directories like users, trunks, etc are). Within that directory, you
may create another directory img, and in that directory you may put the images
that are used. Regarding the content, the best way is to save a page (including
the referenced images) and see what images and files are being loaded. If you are
interested in a complete customization, you need to contact pbxnsip.
5.12 Domains
Before you can start to use the PBX, you must set up at least one domain. By
default, the PBX will create a domain called "localhost" for you.
A domain is like an email domain. It groups a number of users. These users
are able to call each other without going through a trunk. Additional features like
call pickup can be configured and might have additional restrictions. If you can, you
should set up your DNS accordingly, so that uses from other domains can find the
group by standard DNS name resolution.
You may have several names for a domain (domain alias). One of these
names will be the "primary" (canonical) name for the domain. The PBX will use that
name whenever it has to generate a name for the domain.
In the profession version of the product, domains may have a limited number
of accounts. This feature is necessary for hosted environments, where you want to
make sure that customers are not using more accounts than you have sold to them.
The domain that has the name "localhost" (or an alias name "localhost") has
a special function. It will match all requests that cannot be matched to a domain
name in the domain list. This makes it possible to run the PBX on changing IP
addresses without changing the name of the domain and significantly simplifies the
setup of the PBX in environments where only one domain is needed.
Domain names may be IP version 4 addresses. Especially when you cannot
change DNS, you might want to assign such a name to a domain. However,
you must be sure that the host is always running on that IP address, if you are
assigning IP addresses by DHCP you have to be careful with this method.
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You may mix IPv4 names with DNS addresses. You may also later rename
the domain names and reassign the primary domain name.
5.12.1 Domain Listing
To see which domains are available on the system, click on the "Show List"
link in the navigation bar.
The web interface lists the available primary and alias domain names and
shows the primary domain name in the second column. If you click on the link
behind the primary domain name, you will be redirected to the domain context. The
Users column shows how many accounts (extensions, hunt groups, etc) are used in
the domain. If you click on the edit button, you may change the primary and alias
names of the domain as well as other features of the domain.
If you click on the delete button, you delete the alias for the domain. If
the name was the primary name, the system will pick randomly another primary
name for the domain. If you delete the last name of the domain, the system will
ultimately delete the domain and the data that was associated with it.
5.12.2 Create a Domain
To create a new domain, you must choose a Primary Name for the domain.
You may pick additional alias names and enter them, separated by spaces, into the
Alias Names field.
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5.12.3 Edit a Domain
You may specify how many accounts a domain may have. This feature is
important if you rent a piece of the PBX to your customers, and want to make sure
that the stay within their negotiated limit of accounts. The same applies to the
setting "Maximum Number of Extensions" and to "Maximum Number of Calls".
5.13 Status
5.13.1 System Status
The system status gives you an overview about the state of the PBX.
The "License Status" shows the descriptive text of your license. If this field is
empty, do no have a license. The "License Duration" shows you how long the license
will last.
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The "Version" tell you what version your are running and what operating
system.
The "Working Directory" line shows you where the PBX expects the audio
and table data. If you want to backup your data, you should copy the data in this
directory.
The "IP Addresses" helps you to understand which identities the PBX uses
for the outside communication. The PBX first checks on which interface it will send
a packet, and then changes it's identity accordingly in the SIP packet. This feature
makes it possible to run the PBX on hosts that talk to the public Internet and the
private Intranet at the same time without the need for an application layer NAT
gateway.
The "MAC Addresses" are used for licensing purposes. The PBX lists the MAC
addresses that it could find on this system. Every time that you load the status web
page, the system refreshes that table. This is important when you turn adapters on
and off (e.g. wireless, VPN).
The "Calls" entry tells you how many successful/unsuccessful calls were
made on the system after restart. The CDR number in brackets shows you how
many CDR entries the PBX keeps internally for listing purposes. If this number
grows too large, you should consider making the Keep CDR Duration shorter.
The "Uptime" line gives you information how long the system is running. The
line format is days followed by HH:MM:SS. In Windows, you will also find additional
information about the memory usage.
The "Media CPU Usage" field shows you the usage of the CPU over the last
24 hours. The graph shows the ratio between waiting and processing of the media
thread of the PBX. This number is a good indication how well the CPU was able to
keep the real-time requirements for processing media. The blue line shows the
CPU load when new calls are being rejected because of performance problems. The
yellow line shows you where the log is currently writing into the graph. The green
fields show you the average load (averaged over a period of six minutes), and the
blue lines above the green fields show you the peak usage of the CPU (averaged
over a period of three seconds).
In the domain mode, you will see only a short version of this page.
5.13.2 Log Access
The log file contains a list of the most recent log entries. It is actually not a
file; it is an internal list of the last messages. The number of the messages that are
shown to you here is a setting that was discussed in the Settings section.
For every log entry, the PBX shows the time when the message was
generated and the log level. For SIP packets and in some other situations, the
PBX attaches the respective content to the log message, so that the formatting
gets easier. If messages are being repeated, the PBX reports just the number of
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repetitions.
page.
You may clear or reload the logfile with the links that are presented on the
If you want to trace a longer context, you should write the log messages
to a file and use a standard text editor to go through the messages. Also, when
reporting trouble, try to make a snapshot of the log messages that help to find the
problem.
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5.13.3 Call Log
The call log shows the last calls that were made on the system,
independently from the domain. You will see the start date, the source and
destination, the account that will be charged to a call and the duration of the call, if
the call connected. The length of the log is set in Appearance.
The start time for unconnected calls is the time when the call was initiated.
For calls that actually connected, the connection time will be used.
The "To" and "From" headers are copied as they are. For calls that run over
trunks that use registration, this might be annoying, because the PBX will use the
identity of the trunk in the "From" field. However, for such calls it will display the
account that initiated that call in the Charge column. Note that in the case of call
redirect and transfer the PBX will charge the account that initiated there direction
and transfer. In these cases you will see several CDR in the log; one for the initial
call and another one for the transfer or redirect call.
For calls that were redirected to the mailbox, the PBX adds a "M" flag. For
calls that were redirected to an external number, the PBX adds a "E".
5.13.4 Active Calls
In the calls menu, you will see which calls are currently active on the system.
You will see when the call started, the source and destination and the call
state. The state may be early or connected.
The page will automatically refresh after ten seconds.
5.14 Recording
The PBX 2.0 supports several ways of recording calls:
•
It is able to record selected calls to the file system. Those files are recorded in
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compress format using the GSM codec at 13.2 kbit/s (approximately 100 KB per
minute).
•
Alternatively, calls can be sent to a real-time recording station. This is done
using a standard SIP call. By using the SIP standard, the PBX can be connected
to a large number of recording devices, including soft phones for listening in or
recording solutions that support SIP.
•
The user may also initiate a recording by pressing the record button on the
phone.
The user-initiated recording, which was supported in the 1.x version, does
currently not support the sending if the WAV file. Because such files can get large,
we are currently investigating alternative ways of providing recording information.
5.14.1 Recording to File
When recording to a file, the PBX needs to know the location where to
place the file. The WAV file itself contains only the recorded conversation; there
is no ancillary information (caller-ID, IP-Addresses etc.) embedded in the WAV
file. However, by using variables in the recording file name, you may provide
information:
•
"$r" is replaced with the recording directory, which is "recordings".
•
"$i" is used to indicate the direction of the call. The PBX substitutes an "i" for
incoming calls, and a "o" for outgoing calls.
•
"$u" is being replaces with the canonical (primary) name of the extension.
•
"$n" is replaced with the calling party number.
•
"$m" is replaced with the domain name.
•
"$d" is replaced with the date of the call in the format "20071220" (no spaces or
dashes in between).
•
"$t" is replaced with the time if the call in the format "134349" (no spaces or
dashes in between).
•
"$$" is replaced with a single "$" symbol.
The default recording name is "$r/rec-$d-$t-$i-$u-$n.wav".
5.14.2 Recording to a SIP URI
When you specify a recording name with a sip scheme (e.g. "sip:
[email protected]"), the PBX will initiate a call to that location. The other side
of the call can either accept the call or it can send an error code if it does not wish
to record this call. In this case, the associated resources for the recording call are
released.
If the call connects, the PBX will encode the data in the selected codec
type. Please be aware that in any case, the PBX must decode the monitored media
streams, because otherwise it would not be able to mix the two streams together.
This might mean a significant increase in CPU load that you should keep in mind.
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6
Domain Administration
6.1 Settings
6.1.1
Default Values
6.1.1.1 Default Dial Plan
Most of the accounts in a domain will use a default dial plan. In this case, you
will not specify a specific dial plan. Instead, you can specify which dial plan should
be used for accounts where no special dial plan has been provisioned. This can be
done in the "Default Dial Plan" selection box.
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6.1.1.2 Default IVR Language, Tone Language and Web Language
The default language for the system is set up in the administrator mode (see
Overall System Settings). If you want to override that setting for the active domain,
you may do this with this setting. See Localization for more details on language
support.
6.1.1.3 Music on Hold Source
You need to specify which music on hold is being used for the active domain.
This source will be used in waiting queues and when an extension puts a call on
hold or parks a call on a park orbit. See Music on Hold for more information.
6.1.1.4 Timezone
The default time zone for the system is set up in the administrator mode (see
Overall System Settings). If you want to override that setting for the active domain,
you may do this with this setting. See Localization for more details on time zones.
6.1.1.5 Default PnP Dialplan Scheme
The automatic provisioning is able to provision a dial plan for selected user
agents (see Plug and Play for details. The final decision for the used scheme is
being made based on the dial plan of the extension. See Dial Plan Schemes for
more information on how to set up dial plans for provisioning.
6.1.1.6 Voicemail Timeout
If you don't specify a value for a specific user but enable the mailbox, the
Voicemail Timeout defines how long the PBX will wait until it redirects the call to the
mailbox. A reasonable value for this is 20 seconds, but depending on the activity in
your office you might change that value.
6.1.1.7 Voicemail Size
The Voicemail Size determines how many messages can be stored in a
voicemail box. Again, you can override this value per user, but it is good to have a
reasonable default. Twenty is a good default number.
6.1.1.8 Maximum Voicemail Duration
In addition to the maximum duration for a recording, you may specify how
long a mailbox message may be. This setting makes it easier to plan memory size
for mailbox messages. Typically, a mailbox message should not be longer than two
minutes. The unit for the setting is seconds.
6.1.1.9 Voicemail PIN Digits
When you create an extension, you can leave the PIN field empty. Then
nobody will be able to access the mailbox with a pin, only a user that registers with
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the extension credentials is able to go to the mailbox. However, if a user wants to
set up the PIN, you must tell the PBX how many digits a PIN must have. Typically, a
PIN consists of four or five digits, but you can pick any number larger than one.
6.1.1.10
Require Entering Mailbox PIN
Calling your mailbox should be simple. Depending on your office layout, it
might be easy for coworkers to use a phone without authorization and listen to
voicemail messages. Therefore, the administrator can decide if the mailbox should
first ask for the PIN code before reading out messages.
6.1.1.11
Mailbox Escape Account
If the Mailbox Escape Account setting is set, a user who hits the mailbox may
press the "0" key to get to the account that you specify here. The number may be
an internal number or a external number.
6.1.1.12
Mailbox Direct Dial Prefix
If you want to call directly into a mailbox, you may put this direct dial prefix
in front of the extension number. This is useful when calling from your cell phone
into the auto attendant or when you want to leave a voicemail message for your
coworker. Typically, this prefix is a "8".
6.1.1.13
External Voicemail System
Sometimes you don’t want to use the built-in mailbox. There are several
specialized external voicemail systems available which accept calls from a SIP PBX
and provide functions like voicemail to email, calendar functions and much more.
For example, you can use Microsoft Exchange for this purpose.
The setting contains the telephone number that should be dialed. You can
include replacement fields which are used in the Caller-ID representation for
outbound calls (see Outbound Calls on Trunk). The dial plan for the called extension
will decide which trunk will be used to initiate the call.
6.1.1.14
Mailbox Explanation Prompt
If a user records a personalized message, the PBX may say after this prompt
another message that explains that the caller may now leave a message. Some
people like this and others don't, therefore we made the behavior of the PBX a
setting. If you set the Mailbox Explanation Prompt, the mailbox will explain the
caller's options after the playback of the personal recording. For the standard
greetings, the PBX will always explain the options.
6.1.1.15
Call Forward On No Answer Timeout
Sometimes the PBX has to redirect a call after a timeout. The setting "Call
Forward On No Answer Timeout" tells the PBX how many seconds to wait before
performing the timeout action.
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6.1.1.16
Speed Dial Prefix
If you are calling a speed dial number from the address book, you usually
run into the problem that you need to put a prefix (like "9") in front of the address
book number, so that the call gets routed as an external call. The Speed Dial Prefix
solves this problem.
6.1.1.17
Address Book Matching
When you set up the address book, you may specify a speed dial number
along with the address book entry. The setting Speed Dial Prefix is used to complete
the number in case that a user dials a speed dial number. This is necessary in
system setups that require a prefix (e.g. "9") for an outside line.
6.1.1.18
Pickup Policy
The pickup policy is explained in Park and Pickup.
6.1.1.19
SOAP External Call
This setting is only visible if your license key contains a SOAP key. In this
setting you can put the address of the application server that is used to determine if
calls are allowed to go to an external number. See SOAP for more details.
6.1.2
Email Settings
The PBX is able to send emails on different occasions. It uses SMTP
(SMTP=Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and POP3 (POP=Post Office Protocol) to talk
to the email server. POP3 is only used for authentication purposes, the PBX will
not download messages from the email server; it will just send messages. Most
operators today offer the usage of "ESMTP", which stands for Enhanced SMTP. This
protocol includes the authentication, so that you don't have to use a POP3 server.
Please contact your email-provider to check if these protocols are supported.
The "From" field is copied into the message as the originator of the message.
You should put a "display name" and an email address there, please use corner
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brackets around the email address to make it clear to the email server what the
display name is and what the email address is. An example for this setting is "PBX
<[email protected]>". Please notice the quotes around the name.
The SMTP server is the address of your SMTP server. You may use DNS
names here, and the PBX will use DNS A record lookup to locate the server. If you
put a colon followed by a port number behind the name, the PBX will contact the
specified port on that host; otherwise it will use the default port.
6.1.3
Feature Codes
Feature codes are traditionally used by users to control the PBX. When the
first PBX was invented, there was nothing like a web interface where you could set
up your preferences, so the designers decided to define a specific number space
for controlling the behavior of the PBX. Traditionally, these codes start with a star
symbol followed by one or two digits. The IP PBX emulates this behavior, so that
users can use the IP phone just like a PBX extension phone.
6.1.3.1 Call Park
Extensions may hold or park a call. When a call is hold, only the extension
can pick the call up again; when the call is parked other extensions may pick up the
call as well. Holding is done by pushing the hold button on the extension, most SIP
user agents support this feature with a special key or a soft key. Parking a call will
redirect the call to a park orbit. Even if you disconnect the extension the call will
stay there until someone picks the call up or the caller disconnects.
Every hunt group and extension has its own park orbit. The name of the orbit
is the same as the name of the account.
Usually user agents don't have a special key for parking a call. If they have,
this key will essentially redirect the call to the park orbit with a blind transfer.
Therefore, extension may generally park a call by a blind transfer to the park orbit.
However, PBX users are used to star codes that perform the transfer to the park
orbit.
In SIP, a user agent will first put the call on hold before it can send a star
code. Sending the star code is executed in a new call that has the destination
of the star code (e.g. <sip:*[email protected]>). When the PBX receives such a
call, it will search the last call that this extension received or initiated and will
perform the blind transfer of that call to a matching park orbit. It will then play an
announcement that the call has been parked and hang up.
If the extension subscribes for the LED status information, it will light up the
respective LED after the call has been parked on the park orbit.
6.1.3.2 Call Park Retrieve
After a call has been parked, there must be a way to retrieve the call from
the park orbit. The retrieve code will go through the list of park orbits of the user
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and pick up the first park orbit where a call has been parked.
Note that park orbits may have more than one call parked. In this case the
park orbit acts as waiting queue. The call park retrieve will pick the first call in the
orbit, so that the callers will leave the queue after the first-in-first-out principle.
See Park and Pickup for more information.
6.1.3.3 Call Pickup
Call pickup searches for unconnected calls and redirects them to the
extension. The other extension that might be ringing will be canceled. The typical
case for call pickup is when a colleague is temporarily not available, but you want to
take the call.
The PBX searches first the hunt groups where the extension is a member for
a call that can be picked up. If no call was found, it tries the extension's park orbit.
If the user specifies the park orbit after the pickup code, the PBX will search only
the indicated park orbit. However, the extension must be member of a hunt group,
where the pickup destination is also a group member. This is necessary to protect
unauthorized call pickups.
More information on parking and pickup can be found in Park and Pickup.
6.1.3.4 Call Return
Call Return will dial the last number that has been missed. This function
is useful for SIP devices that don't keep a lit of missed calls (e.g. ATA). Most SIP
devices with a display have this function built-in, and the user may see the caller-ID
in the screen before returning the call.
The call return function stores only one number. When the extension makes
a call that gets connected, the call return number is cleared. This makes sure that
a number is called only once, and users can dial the call return code without talking
to the same number again.
6.1.3.5 Redial
The Redial is similar to call return, but it does not call the last incoming
number, it calls the last dialed number again. The redial number is never deleted,
users can redial numbers even if the call established. The redial number and the
call return numbers are stored independently.
6.1.3.6 Transfer
Some devices do not have a transfer button. For examples, when using
ATA there is usually no way to initiate a transfer except dialing a special code.
The transfer code initiates a blind transfer of the last call on hold to the provided
destination. The destination must be entered directly behind the star code.
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6.1.3.7 Call Forward
There are three events that may trigger the forwarding if a call:
All means that the call is forwarded always, independently of an event. Busy
means that a call is forwarded if the extension is busy. The busy condition must
be returned by the device, the PBX does not check the internal state for the busy
condition. This makes it possible to handle the busy condition if several devices
register for the same extension number. When several extensions are used, the
busy condition checks if all devices are busy.
No Answer means that no device picked up after a certain timeout. The
timeout is a domain setting that can be overwritten by an extension setting.
There are six star codes to handle the call forwarding. Three codes are used
to enable the call forwarding condition. If the user dials this star code, the PBX will
prompt the user for the redirection number.
The other codes are used for turning the redirections off. When the user dials
these star codes, the user will hear a prompt that the feature has been deactivated.
6.1.3.8 Block CID
By default, the PBX will try to present the caller-ID on outgoing calls.
Sometimes, users don't want to show the extension number. By using the block
CID code the PBX will try to hide the CID on all subsequent calls until the user
deactivates the blocking.
Calls from one extension to another extension will always show the caller-ID.
6.1.3.9 Block Anonymous Calls
When the PBX receives a call where the caller-ID is neither an extension
number nor consists of a valid caller-ID, it will assume that this is an anonymous
caller ID. A call-ID is treated as valid when it consists only of the characters 0-9. It
may have a '+' character in the beginning.
By default, the PBX will allow anonymous calls. However, some users don't
like to receive such calls. When the feature is enabled, those calls are rejected with
a IVR prompt which explains that the caller-ID could not be identified and the user
accepts only calls with a valid caller-ID.
6.1.3.10
DND
Do Not Disturb (DND) is used to temporarily reject all incoming calls for all
devices registered with this extension. The two star codes are used to turn DND on
and off.
DND also applies to hunt groups. If a member of a hunt group has set
its extension number to DND, the hunt group will skip that extension. This is a
different to redirect all, which will not redirect calls from a hunt group.
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Many SIP devices have a dedicated DND button. Most implementation handle
DND locally on the device. However, when this function is used, the DND applies
only to the specific device and not to the extension and it usually does not survive
reboot cycles.
6.1.3.11
Agent Login and Logout
Agents can explicitly login and logout for agent groups. Their extension stays
registered and is dial able independently from the agent login status. The status
applies to all agent groups of the extension.
6.1.3.12
Go To Voicemail
This star code is just a quick way to get to the mailbox.
6.1.3.13
Intercom
By using the Intercom prefix, you can directly call another extension. The
other phone is asked to pick up immediately and to establish a two-way audio
conversation.
Intercom is different from Paging in the way that Intercom is two-way, oneto-one communications while paging is one-way, one-to-many communications.
6.1.3.14
Record
If you want to record the prompt for an auto attendant, an agent group or an
IVR node, you can use the Record star code. The PBX differentiates three cases:
•
Attendant: The digits behind the code identify the auto attendant and will
record the announcement for the account (e.g. dial *98123 to record the
announcement for auto attendant 123).
•
IVR Node: The digits behind the code identify the IVR Node and will record the
announcement for the account.
•
Agent Group: The code needs two arguments. The first argument identifies the
queue, and the second argument the prompt. The arguments are separated with
a star symbol. The first prompt with index 0 is the welcome prompt; it will not
be repeated and it will be played for all callers, no matter if they have to wait
or not. The other prompts with the index 1-9 will be repeated in a loop and are
only played while the caller has to wait in the loop.
6.1.3.15
Clear Voice Message Indicator
When the user dials this star code, the PBX will delete the Message Waiting
Indicator (MWI) on the extensions. Usually it should not be possible to clear the
MWI indicator manually, but if the extension just does not want to listen to the
mailbox and keep the MWI indication silent, this star code will turn the indicator off.
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6.1.3.16
Send Voicemails
When the PBX records a mailbox message, it may store it locally or it may
send it via email to the user. Please note that sending a voicemail message per
email requires that you have properly set up the email address of the user and of
the domain. With the activation and deactivation of this feature you toggle between
the methods.
6.1.3.17
Customer Originated Trace
This useful feature sends the call details of the last calls to the email account
of the extension. Instead of writing down the number on a notepad, the user can
instead send him an email that contains all the information.
The PBX will include a link to the last number. If you click on this link, the
PBX will prompt you for your username and password. Please enter your username
in the form "[email protected]". If your browser supports saving the login information,
the next time when you click on such a link to dial a number you will immediately
initiate the call to that destination.
This feature works only with user agents that support the REFER mechanism
outside of existing dialogs. Check out your phone if it is able to support this
feature. On some phones, you have to press "Ok" or lift up the handset in order to
acknowledge the dialing of the number. The remote initiation of a call is a securitysensitive topic, as it might turn your phone into a microphone. Therefore, you
must authenticate yourself during the initiation of the call and you may have to
acknowledge the initiation of the call.
6.1.3.18
Add White List, Add Black List
These codes are used to store the last caller in the "white" or "black" list. It is
a convenient way of keeping the address book updated with useful information for
further communications. See White and Black List for more details.
6.1.4
Address Book
6.1.4.1 Purpose
The address book stores associations of numbers with names, speed dial
entries and types.
Numbers are generally telephone numbers. The PBX does not support SIP
URI numbers in the address book. Numbers may contain readability characters.
The PBX internally converts the numbers into purified numbers, so that matches
with other numbers become more easy and consistent. If your domain has selected
a specific dial plan scheme (for example, North American dial plan), the PBX also
internally automatically converts the number into a consistent presentation. If the
PBX requires that a name must be presented as one string (for example, in the SIP
display name), it will automatically put a space character between the first and the
last name if both names are not empty.
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Names consist of the first name and the last name. The purpose of this
separation is to make searches easier; sometimes the user searches for first and
sometimes for the last name. Otherwise the PBX treats the names transparently.
Names should be encoded in UTF-8 format. The web browser usually performs
the necessary conversations, so that the end user does not have to deal with this
problem.
6.1.4.2 Speed Dial
The speed dial entry is a two-digit star code (for example, *12). The range
should be in the lower feature code range, so that they do not overlap with the
other feature codes that are available on the system. If there is an overlap, the
speed dial numbers have a higher priority.
Speed dial numbers are useful if you want to store numbers that you are
using frequently, especially if your telephone does not support an address book.
Used in the domain mode, they also might be useful to hide the number that is
being dialed (however, that kind of security is very weak).
6.1.4.3 Black List and White List
An address book entry also has a type flag. This flag can be set to "white",
"black" or unset. If it is "white", that address book entry is on the white list, if it
is black, it is on the black list. The white list usually contains the contacts that are
trusted and therefore get a preferred treatment. The black list usually contains the
list of contacts that are known and unwanted. For example, it makes sense to put a
family member's number on the white list, while the caller-ID of an aggressive sales
person might end up in the black list.
If that flag is set to "white", the number is part of the white list. That
means, when a caller has the type "white", he will never be intercepted by the auto
attendant to record the name.
Callers on the white list are allowed to receive a call back when the extension
becomes available.
If a caller is on the black list, the behavior of the PBX depends on the
settings of the user for anonymous call treatment. If the caller should be blocked,
then the PBX will block that call. Otherwise the PBX will always ask the person to
leave his name before calling the extension.
Callers on the black list will also no be allowed to camp on an extension.
6.1.4.4 Personal Address Book
user.
The address book entries in the personal address book are only visible to the
To see the personal address book, you must be logged in as user in the web
interface of the PBX. In this screen, you can edit and delete address book entries by
clicking on the edit and delete button.
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If you want to add an address book entry, you can manually add this entry
from the web interface. You may also load a CSV-file into the system (see below).
You can also add a number to the address book by dialing the black list and
white list star code. If the number does not exist, the PBX will automatically create
an address book entry for this number.
6.1.4.5 Domain Address Book
The domain address book entries are visible to all members of the domain.
That means they can search the domain address book and calls coming to that
domain will automatically see the name of the calling party.
All names in a domain are automatically included in names searches in the
domain.
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You can also use the address book to indicate which DID number has been
dialed. If you add an address book entry that matches the specific DID, the PBX
will add the display name to the caller-ID, and the phone then can display the text
associated with the caller-ID.
6.1.4.6 Address Book Import
Most address management programs support the export of a CSV (comma
separated value) file. The PBX can read this format, if the below guidelines are
kept.
The field separator must be a semicolon.
•
The first column must contain the first name; the second column must contain
the last name.
•
The third column must have the number. The number must have numeric
characters. The characters "-", "(", ")", " " (space), "/" and "." are ignored and
may be included for readability. The first character may be a '+', so that global
telephone numbers may be used. For example, the numbers "(978) 543 6545"
and "+49 (30) 386-12345" are valid numbers, while the text "WIRELESS CALLER
9785436534" is not a valid number.
•
The fourth column may have a speed dial number. The number must contain a
star character in the beginning. If the star code was already used by another
entry, the PBX will clear the other star code entry during the import process.
•
The text must be encoded in UTF-8 format.
Because the number must have numeric characters, it is ok if the first
contains the field description. For example, most programs use a name like
"Number" to identify the column, and because that name is not a phone number
the system will not include that row in the address book.
The following example shows an address book that can be imported:
First Name;Last Name;Number;Speed Dial
Fred;Feuerstein;(978) 123 4567
Carl;Clever;(212) 324 4334;*12
Franky;Fahrenheit;(515) 234 3334
"A;B;C";;(123) 543 3453
6.2 Accounts
6.2.1
Existing Account List
The list of accounts shows all available accounts in the domain. The list will
show the name, the type and some status information. By clicking on the edit
button, you can edit the details of the account. If you click the delete button, you
will delete that name of the account and if that was the last name for the account,
you will ultimately delete the account.
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If you have several names for an account, it will be shown in the list several
times. The primary name will be shown in brackets behind the alias name. An
asterisk behind the name means that this account has administrative rights for that
domain.
The type field shows the type of the account. If you have an extension, it
will also show the display-name of that account in brackets. On some user agents,
you will see a link for the registration in brackets. This link will take you directly to
the web interface of that user agent. The status column will then show how many
registrations are available for that account and if the extension has voice mail.
6.2.2
Creating New Accounts
6.2.2.1 General
Before you can use an account, you must first create it. In order to do this,
click on the create button in the accounts menu in the domain mode.
When you create an account, you must select what type it will be. The type
can not be changed later.
Every account may have several names. One name is the primary name and
the other names are the alias names. Please enter the names in the Account Names
field. If you use a space between the names, the PBX will set up several accounts
for you. If you use a slash between the names, you will set up one account with
different alias names. For example, "123/theo 124/fred" will set up two accounts,
the first with the names "123" and "theo" and the second with the names "124" and
"fred".
A good username is a name that consists only of the letters 0-9, a-z and '+',
'-', '_' and '.'. If you want to use PSTN-like numbers, you should use only names
with 0-9. However, it does not hurt to create alias names that contain alphanumeric
letters like in emails, for example like "joe.average" or "ja". All account names must
be lowercase. The PBX changes input automatically to lower case.
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Usernames may start with the special prefix "tel:". This has a special
meaning. Accounts with this name have a global scope in the PBX. This is useful to
do DID Routing.
6.2.2.2 Creating Extensions
When you select the extension type, you will be able to add up to ten
accounts in one go. You can not only define the account name, you can define also
the most important settings for those accounts right during the creation.
First of all, you can select which dial plan those extension will have. If you
want to use the default dial plan, you can just leave this selection box unchanged.
If the accounts should be assigned by an automatic plug and play
mechanism, you can select either permanent or temporary assignment modes. See
Prepare an Extension for Plug and Play for more details on this topic.
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6.2.2.3 Creating Other Types
Creating other types does not offer any additional parameters. You need to
edit the account's parameter later by selecting them from the Existing Account List.
6.2.3
Extension
When you click the edit extension link, the menu bar will show some more
links: Settings, Redirection, Registration and Events.
6.2.3.1 Identity
In the settings tab, you may define the fundamental settings for that
account.
Here you can change the primary and alias names for that account. Use
white space to separate the different alias names. The names must follow the
naming guidelines described in the section about creating an account.
The name ("First Name", "Last Name") will be used whenever the PBX
creates a canonical representation of the extension. This is the case when the
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extension starts a call or when an email is sent to the extension user. Here you can
fill in any string that you like.
The email address is used in cases when the PBX wants to send an email to
the extension user. This setting must have the form [email protected]
The "Cell Phone Number" is used in different places, see Cell Phone
Integration on this topic.
The "Password" is used for authenticating the user. If the password is set, the
PBX will challenge SIP user agents on requests and it will use that password if the
user tries to log into the web interface as domain administrator.
The Dial Plan selection box assigns one of the available dial plans to that
user. Because dial plans are assigned on user basis, the domain administrator can
control the rights of the user to place outside calls.
Every extension may have its own "Timezone". The time zone is used for
mailbox timestamps and for automatic provisioning of the extension's user agents.
6.2.3.2 Mailbox
You can enable or disable the mailbox for that user with the Mailbox Enabled
flag. The Mailbox Timeout will override the domain settings for the duration after
which the mailbox will be used. The Mailbox PIN is used to authenticate the user,
e.g. when the user is calling his mailbox from another extension or an outside line.
You can use any number of digits for this setting, but we recommend four or five
digits.
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The Maximum Number of Messages will override the domain settings on how
many messages can be stored in this mailbox.
The voicemail handling will select the way a mailbox message will be
delivered. You can choose between storage on the system (which is the default)
and sending via email. If you send the voicemail messages via email, the messages
are not kept on the system. You should check that email forwarding is working by
making a test call.
The announcement mode contains three modes. The "Anonymous
Announcement" mode is the default mode if the user has not recorded his name.
If the name has been recorded and the user selects the name mode, the "Name
Announcement" can be used. The third mode "Uploaded Announcement" uses a
completely customized recording, which may be recorded with the recording star
code. The announcement must be loaded into the account by the "Announcement"
setting and it must be in 8 kHz sampling frequency, mono, 16 bits/sample format.
If you want to allow other extensions to use the mailbox, you may list those
extensions separated by space in the setting "Allow Access for Extensions". This
feature makes it possible to set up a group mailbox, for example for a hunt group.
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6.2.3.3 Redirection
The setting "Anonymous Call Treatment" describes how anonymous calls to
the extension are handled. The following options are available:
•
The "no special treatment" mode turns this feature off and sends all calls directly
to the extension.
•
The mode "reject call" will inform the caller that the extension does not accept
anonymous calls. Calls will not be put through to the extension.
•
The mode "pretend to be busy" also does not put the call through, but does not
tell the caller why. The PBX will not offer camp on.
•
The mode "ask for name" will prompt the caller for the name and then put him
on hold while calling the extension. After reading out the recorded name, the
extension may decide what to do with the call. Either the call can be accepted,
or it can be sent to the mailbox or it can be rejected.
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•
The mode" ask for name even if the caller-id is present" will always ask for
recording the name, even if the caller-id is available. Only callers which are on
the white list are directly put through.
Please note that internal calls are never anonymous.
The DND and redirection settings are already explained under the star code
section.
Hot Desking is described in a separate page Hot Desking.
The redirection tab controls how and when calls get redirected when this
extension is called. These settings are also directly accessible to the user through
the star code interface of the PBX. If the user uses the star code interface, he
does not need administrative rights. By changing it on the web interface, the
administrator can change the setting for any extension.
The "mailbox escape account" is described in the Domain Settings. The
recording settings are described in Recording.
6.2.3.4 Registrations
The registrations web page is used to control the registrations for that
account.
You may register one or more devices for one extension. When an extension
is called, the PBX will call all registered extensions in parallel. The first extension
that picks the call up will get the call and the other extensions will receive a cancel
message.
If you enter something into the trusted IP address field, the PBX will only
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accept registrations from the indicated IP addresses. You can list the allowed IP
addresses separated by space. To indicate subnets, use a slash and the number of
significant bits behind it (e.g. 192.168.2.0/24).
If you want to bind this registration to a specific user agent, you may enter
the MAC address in the "Bind to MAC Address" setting (for example 00c01254f3dc)
or use the "?" or "*" symbols which are described under the "Create" section above.
If you choose to provision passwords only once, the PBX keeps a flag for
this purpose. Sometimes, it is necessary to send the password again, and in this
case the administrator needs to reset the flag manually. That is the purpose of the
setting "Password has been used for provisioning".
The settings "Parameter 1" and "Parameter 2" can be used in different places
as generic, extension-related parameters. For example, the parameters can be used
when presenting outgoing Caller-ID.
The "Lines" parameter is used during provisioning to tell the phone how
many line keys it should allocate (whenever applicable). Also, if the parameter is
set, the PBX limits the number of calls that this extension can have on the PBX.
If there is a call active, the PBX will not page that extension and it will also not
perform intercom calls to that extension.
The setting "Dialog Permissions" is described in Dialog Permissions.
Sometimes it is hard to track down registration problems. Therefore,
the domain administrator can specify a log level for registration log messages
specifically for an extension. This makes it easier to find out when an extension
looses registrations temporarily.
Below the Edit button you will see the current registrations for that account,
if there are any. The list will show the registered contact address (as indicated in
the registration message), how long the contact is registered and the registration
type. If the registration has the type "REGISTER", it is a standard registration
for receiving calls. Other registrations are for specific event types, for example
message waiting indications.
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Sometimes it is useful to clear all registrations. In order to do this, use the
link at the bottom the page. Please don't forget to refresh the registration from the
user agent, so that you are able to call it.
You may also send a reboot request to the phone by clicking in the "check
sync" link. This way, you don’t have to use the web interface of the device or even
go to the phone to reboot it (for example to read new configuration data). Please
note that not all user agents support this method.
If you want, you can manually add a registration. The meaning of this feature
is discussed in a separate page Manual Registration.
6.2.3.5 Permissions
The domain administrator can grant certain permissions to an extension.
•
If the "Domain Administrator" flag is set, the extension has the right to log in as
domain administrator and do changes in the domain.
•
If the "Override DND" flag is set, the account has the right to call an extension,
even if that extension is currently on DND. Please note that this applies only to
DND which is set on the PBX; if you set DND locally on the user agent, the PBX
has no way to call that phone.
6.2.3.6 Instant Message
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You can send an instant message (IM) from the PBX web interface. The PBX
will send the message to all accounts that you list in the address field. This is a very
simple way to send a message from an account which has no IM-capable devices
registered to it.
6.2.4
Auto Attendant
6.2.4.1 Purpose
The auto attendant can be seen as a simple receptionist that helps to connect
the incoming caller with an extension. This may include searching for the name,
entering the extension number, protecting certain extensions and redirecting calls
to external numbers.
All calls to extensions go through the auto attendant. When the PBX already
knows the number, it just skips the prompts and goes directly to the phase when
the account number is called.
The attendant does not use the SIP redirection mechanism. It starts a new
call and passes the media through the PBX. This approach has several advantages,
for example the caller can cancel the call and try another extension.
Until one of the destinations answers with a ring back message, the auto
attendant plays comfort noise to the caller. This emulates the behavior of the old
analog system and indicates the caller that the call is still active. Upon arrival of the
ring back message, it changes the tone to a ring back tone.
When calling an extension, the caller has the possibility to press the star key
while the extensions are ringing. In this case, it cancels all calls and prompts for
another number.
The logic for handling DND and call forwarding is explained in the section
about the star code handling (feature codes in the domain administration).
6.2.4.2 Identity
The identity settings are the same as the settings for the extension identity,
see Extension Identity.
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6.2.4.3 Behavior
When the user enters an extension number, the auto attendant has to
determine when it should try to go to an extension. The following modes are
available:
•
"When Extension Matches" checks after every digit if the digit sequence matches
an existing account. If this is the case, it will call that extension. This mechanism
is useful when you use accounts with varying name length, however it might be
annoying if the caller tries a non-existing number.
•
"After 1/2/3/4/5 Digit Input" will count the number of digits and after the right
number has been entered it will try to go to the account that has been entered.
If that account does not exist, it will play an announcement.
•
The "User Must Hit Pound" mode waits until the user hits the pound sign. This
mode is useful in variable-length scenarios, where you explicitly tell the user to
terminate the input.
If you turn the "Say Name" setting on, the PBX will play an announcement
that repeats the user input, or, if the user recorded the extension name, will play
back the user name.
The "Accounts that cannot be called" setting lists the accounts that are
disabled for redirection. This setting is useful if you want to exclude incoming callers
from using conference accounts or to dial VIP numbers. You can use Wildcard
Patterns in this list.
To set up the auto attendant prompt, you have two choices. The first
choice is to use the Record star code (described in the feature code section). This
possibility is useful when the secretary wants to recording on her own or when
that announcements may change often. In this case, you might want to list the
"Accounts that may record a message" using a list of Wildcard Patterns.
The second choice is to may load a prerecorded WAV file into the system.
Please use a standard recording tool to record the message and make sure that you
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are using 8 kHz sampling frequency, mono 16-bit recording format. This choice is
useful when you want to a studio recording or you want to deploy a recording into
several accounts.
If the auto attendant redirects calls to a trunk, it needs a dial plan to do this.
You may select the dial plan with the setting "Dial Plan for outbound calls". This dial
plan will only be used if there is no account that can be charged for this call (for
example, in night mode); otherwise it will use this account's dial plan.
The auto attendant supports environments with two languages. If you select
a second language, the auto attendant will determine if the call already has a call
assigned. This can for example be the case if the call went through a previous
auto attendant or an extension calls the auto attendant. If there is no language
assigned, it will first ask the caller for the language and then continue the dialog in
that language.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
6.2.4.4 Timeout Handling
When the user does not enter any information for a certain time, you may
redirect the call to another account. In order to do this, specify the time in seconds
and the account name in the settings "Redirect Number" and "Timeout (s)".
If the user does not enter anything, you also might want to terminate the
call. This feature is useful when the PSTN gateway has problems detecting that the
call was already hung up. Then the setting "Hangup Timeout" may help to clear the
call relatively quickly.
6.2.4.5 Night Service
As in other accounts, you may redirect calls to the auto attendant to another
account depending on the time of day or other events. This service is called "night
service" and is used in conjunction with the Service Flag. If you want to use the
night service feature, please set up a service flag and specify where you want to
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redirect the service during the night.
6.2.4.6 Dial By Name
If you want to offer the "Dial by Name" feature in the auto attendant, you
need to enter a pattern that triggers the name search. If you are using a three digit
extension code, 411 is a nice example. This mechanism searches only extensions
that have their name set.
The setting "Start Search" tells the PBX how many digits it should read until
is starts the search. If there are several matches after a timeout or further entries
will not get a unique result, the PBX will list the available matches in a menu. The
caller may always cancel the search with the star key.
6.2.4.7 Direct Destinations
You can specify direct destinations. When the user enters the destination,
the PBX will call the provided number. The input can be one digit or it can be
several digits. The destination can be an internal number such as an extension or
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conference room, or it can be an external number.
The PBX has some prerecorded announcements that will be read out along
with the direct destination. This makes it much easier to set up an auto attendant
that explains the available choices to the caller.
If you want that the auto attendant does not offer direct dialing of
extensions, enter a "*" into the setting "Accounts that cannot be called".
6.2.5
Conferencing
6.2.5.1 General
The conference account is a simple conference mixer. It can not compare
to the dedicated conference solutions that support white boarding, video, speaker
management and so on. However, you can easily establish conferences with a
reasonable number of participants.
To enter a conference, you just have to dial the conference account number.
The number is also available from a trunk, and you can go into a conference
through the auto attendant.
If you want to bring someone into a conference, you can establish a call to
the participant as a regular call and then blind transfer the call into the conference
account.
6.2.5.2 Settings
The identity settings are the same as the settings for the extension identity,
see Extension Identity.
The conference account offers a PIN as a simple abuse protection
mechanism. If you don't set the PIN, everyone can go into the conference room.
Otherwise, callers are asked for the PIN before they enter the conference. Be sure
to tell your conference participants the PIN, especially before you blind transfer
them into conference.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
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6.2.6
Hunt Group
6.2.6.1 Purpose
A hunt groups forks a call sequential and parallel in order to locate an
extension that can pick up an incoming call. If extension picks the call up, the hunt
group will redirect the call to another account or an external number.
The typical use case is a central number that is being called in a company
with the receptionist, secretaries and assistants on the different stages of the hunt
group.
6.2.6.2 Settings
The hunt group names may be changed after the creation just like you can
change the name of an extension (settings "Primary Name" and "Alias Names").
See the documentation about the Extension Identity.
The hunt group supports three stages. On each stage you can list the
extensions that should ring during the stage and set the duration of that stage.
If you don't need a stage, leave the fields empty. In these three stages, just list
the extension numbers, separated by spaces. The duration of the stage must be
specified in seconds.
If all extensions of a stage should be unavailable, the PBX will immediately
move to the next stage. If an extension rings both on the old and the new stage,
the PBX will just let this phone keep on ringing.
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If all stages fail and the setting "Final Stage" is set, the hunt group will go to
this destination. In contrast to the other stages, in this stage you can use only one
number. Typically this destination will be an auto attendant that will ultimately give
the caller the possibility to get someone one the phone. But the destination can also
be an external number; therefore the hunt group has a selection field for the "Dial
Plan for outbound calls" that should be used for outside calls.
You may select a ring melody that is used for the hunt group. Phones that
support the SIP Alert-Info header will change their ring tones, so that you can hear
by the tone that the hunt group is being called.
When a phone rings because of a call from a hunt group, the called person
wants to know who is calling. There are three modes available:
•
"Called Number" displays which number was called. This is typically the hunt
group, but for redirected calls it can also be another number.
•
"Group Name" always uses the group name of the hunt group, even if the call
has been redirected to this group.
•
"Group name with called number" shows both strings concatenated.
The setting "Additional Members of the Group" is used to list other extensions
that are intrinsically allowed to pick up calls for this hunt group. They are never
called directly.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
If you like to use "Night Service", you must define a "Service Flag" first. The
hunt group will is the status of the service flag to determine where to send the call.
If the flag is set, the hunt group will redirect the calls directly to the "Night Service
Number", which can be an internal account or an external number.
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6.2.7
Agent Group
6.2.7.1 Purpose
You may use an Agent Group to queue the incoming calls and dispatch them
automatically to a list of agents. Typical scenarios are sales and support teams
which have a homogeneous skill profile. The members of this group are called
"agents".
Within one agent group, there may be at most one call in ring back state. All
other calls are queued until the ringing call gets connected and at least one agent is
or becomes available. Even if there are several agents are available, the queue will
have only one caller in the ringing state.
The agent group keeps track which extensions are busy and which agents are
available. When an agent becomes available, the PBX automatically takes the next
waiting call out of the queue, rings the agents and puts the call in ring back state.
Agents can be logged in or out. If they are logged out, the PBX will not
dispatch calls to an agent group to them, but it will include them in regular calls
and calls to hunt groups.
6.2.7.2 Settings
The Agent Group names may be changed after the creation just like you can
change the name of an extension (settings "Primary Name" and "Alias Names").
See the documentation about the Extension Identity.
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The agents must be extensions and must be listed (separated by space) in
the "Agents" setting.
You may leave the "Agents" setting also empty. In this case, you must
manually pull the waiting callers out of the queue, for example by calling the call
pickup star code. This mode is useful when your agents are more important than
the callers and it should be the agents.
The "Ring Melody" specifies what melody should be used when a call comes
in for this agent group.
If a caller leaves a queue, this is no guarantee that the call will be connected.
For example, none of the selected agent picks up the phone. To resolve these
situations, you may specify a "Redirection timeout (in seconds)" and a "Redirection
target". The target may be any dial able number according to the dial plan of the
group (see "Dial plan for outbound calls "). The PBX will then redirect the call to the
provided number.
When callers are in the queue, they hear music on hold mixed with
announcements. The PBX reduces the volume before playing an announcement and
increases when it is finished. You may choose music on hold source in the domain
settings.
To record an announcement, just dial the recording code followed by another
star and the announcement number. For your convenience, you will find these codes
at the bottom of the account page. You may specify which accounts may record
announcements with the setting "Accounts that may record a message" as a list of
Wildcard Patterns. If you leave this setting is empty, all extensions will have this
permission.
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You may record up to ten announcements. The announcement number "0" is
always played when a caller enters the queue, regardless of the number of callers
waiting in the queue ("welcome message"). The other announcements "1"-"9" are
played in a round-robin fashion.
The "Gap between announcements (s)" tells the PBX how many seconds the
PBX should wait between the announcements.
In large agent groups, it is problematic to call all agents at the same time.
Therefore, the PBX allows the limitation of calls per second in the setting "Call rate
limitation". The syntax for this setting is how many agents are being called in what
time period. For example, 2/10 means it will call two (more) agents in ten seconds
intervals.
When an agent finished a phone call, it is annoying if the agent gets a
new phone call right after the termination of the last call. Sometimes it is even
problematic because the SIP phone will not accept an additional call while the last
one is being shut down. Therefore, the PBX has a setting called "Agent recovery
time". It will make sure that the agent has at least the provided time for recovering
from the previous call. In busy call centers, you might make this a short value like
two seconds, if you want to give the agent the chance to make some quick notes,
you might choose a longer value like one minute (60 seconds). Also, the agent has
the opportunity to log out during this time.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
6.2.7.3 User Input
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When the caller is in the queue, he may leave the queue and move to
another destination by pressing a key. You just need to specify the destination to
enable this feature.
6.2.7.4 Night Service
If you like to use "Night Service", you must define a "Service Flag" first. The
agent group will is the status of the service flag to determine where to send the
call. If the flag is set, the agent group will redirect the calls directly to the "Night
Service Number", which can be an internal account or an external number.
6.2.7.5 SOAP Interface
If you want to use external logic to control the queue behavior, you might
want to use the SOAP settings. Please see the SOAP web page about this topic.
6.2.7.6 Agent log-in and log-out
When a does not want to receive calls, he should call the DND star code. It is
not recommended to use the local DND button on the phone, because the PBX will
then try to send the call to the agent and put the call into the ringing state.
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6.2.7.7 Queue Status
The web interface has a queue status tab which lists the callers in the queue.
This list is refreshed every ten seconds. Some call centers display this web screen
on a projector in the room, so that all agents can see how busy the queue is.
6.2.8
Calling Card
6.2.8.1 Purpose
The calling card account makes it possible to place outbound calls from the
PBX without being logged in as extension. For example, if you are traveling and you
want to place a call to an international number, you might call into the PBX, enter
your extension number, your PIN code and then you can place an outbound call
from the PBX. The call will show up in the call log under your account. Typically, this
way you can save a lot of money for expensive international cell phone calling and
you can present the caller ID of your office.
The calling card account can also be used with an external database, so
that you can provide this service also to customers who buy a prepaid or postpaid
calling card from you. Typically they dial into a free of charge-number which goes
into the calling card account. The PBX uses the SOAP interface to talk to an external
application server which manages the calling cards and the amount of money which
is left in them. When the call is over, the PBX will report the call duration to the
server.
6.2.8.2 Settings
The calling card names may be changed after the creation just like you can
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change the name of an extension (settings "Primary Name" and "Alias Names").
See the documentation about the Extension Identity.
Every outgoing call on the PBX needs to use a dial plan. If the PBX uses
the SOAP interface for placing outbound calls, it needs to know which dial plan
to use. If the PBX uses the internal database, it uses the dial plan of the selected
extension.
The setting "Caller-ID" determines weather to show the caller-ID on
outgoing calls. If the caller-ID is shown and the call is started on behalf of a known
extension, it will use the caller-ID associated with that extension. If the SOAP
interface is being used, the PBX will show the caller-ID of the calling card account.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
6.2.8.3 Application Server
6.2.9
Paging
6.2.9.1 Purpose
Paging means a one-way audio communication from one caller to a
potentially large group of listeners. Typical applications include supermarkets,
hospitals or trains. You may have several paging groups on one PBX that addresses
different audiences. For example, you might have one paging account that calls
a specific floor of the building, and you might have another group that pages the
whole building.
Intercom is a potentially two-way communication between two participants.
Intercom is controlled by the feature codes Intercom. In the previous version of the
PBX, those two features were both in the paging group. In this version, they have
been separated.
There are two ways to implement paging. The first way establishes regular
calls to the paging recipients by using standard SIP calls (indicating that the call
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should be immediately connected by auto answer). This method works with most
available SIP phones and there is also special equipment available that works as an
overhead paging speaker. However, when the paging groups become bigger, it puts
a lot of performance load on the PBX CPU.
Therefore the PBX offers a second paging mode, which just sends the RTP
traffic to a predefined RTP IP address. Typically this is an IP multicast group. Phones
and other overhead paging equipment will subscribe to that multicast group and
go to paging mode as soon as they receive RTP traffic on this port. Using this
method, you can build up very large paging groups with hundreds and thousands of
speakers distributed in the organization.
6.2.9.2 Identity
The paging account names may be changed after the creation just like you
can change the name of an extension (settings "Primary Name" and "Alias Names").
See the documentation about the Extension Identity.
6.2.9.3 Unicast Mode
In unicast mode, you can list the destination extension numbers in the
setting "Destination". Please be careful with the paging group size. The PBX must
initiate a call to all of the listed extensions, and this may take significant CPU and
bandwidth resources. Unicast paging is not limited to the local area network; all
extensions that are connected to the PBX can be paged, no matter where they are
located.
You must list the extensions that are allowed to page this group in the setting
"Source". If you want to give access to all extensions, you may put a star into that
field.
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The "Display Name" will be used as the source of the call, so that the SIP
phones will show this text in the display during the paging.
Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
6.2.9.4 Multicast Mode
In multicast mode, you must specify one IP address in the form x.x.x.x:n
(IP address with port). You can use only one IP address. You can either specify a
regular IP address or a multicast address (for more information about multicast,
see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_Multicast).
The meaning of the "Source" and the "Dialog Permission" are the same as in
unicast mode.
6.2.10 Service Flag
6.2.10.1
Purpose
The Service Flag account type is a simple account that is used to indicate
a condition to the PBX. The service flag is for example useful to indicate if a hunt
group or an auto attendant should be active or not (night service).
A service flag is independent from other accounts. That means you can use
one service flag for several accounts, like auto attendants and hunt groups.
The service flag can be controlled manually or automatically. In manual
mode, you need to call the service flag number to change its state. The PBX will
then play back an announcement about the new state.
In automatic mode, the PBX will use a fixed scheme to turn the flag on and
off. See the description below on how to do this.
You can subscribe to the state of a service flag. This way, your phones
can display if the service is active or not. Typically, you can put the state of a
service flag on a LED key. From the phone point of view, the service flag is like an
extension.
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6.2.10.2
Settings
The identity settings are the same as the settings for the extension identity,
see Extension Identity. The "Display Name" is just used in the web interface and
serves as a comment on the purpose of the service flag.
The "Extensions that may change status" lists, separated by space, the
accounts that may change the status of the service flag. You may use wildcard
patterns here, for example 9* would allow all extensions that start with a 9 to
change the status of the service flag. If you leave this setting empty, all accounts
may change the status of the flag. This setting is only visible in manual mode.
The Dialog Permissions" are described in a separate page; see Dialog
Permissions.
In the Day/Night mode, it will automatically change the status of the code.
For every day, you need to list the times when the service is active. Every segment
must be separated by a space. The service times are using the format HH:MM-HH:
MM, you may use the symbol "P" for PM or use the 24-hour format. For example,
"9:00-12:30 1:00P-5:00P" would mean that the service is active between 9 AM and
12:30 PM and between 1 PM and 5 PM.
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Please note that there must be no space before and after the dash
symbol for a time entry (e.g. "9:00-14:00" instead of "9:00 - 14:00").
Holidays are written in the format Month/Day, you may also use any number
of holidays (for example, "12/24 12/25 12/26"). Use a space to separate the
holiday dates. Holidays repeat every year, if you have a holiday that happens only
on a specific year, you need to change that setting for every year.
6.2.11 IVR Node
6.2.11.1
Purpose
When caller hits an IVR node, the PBX will playback the prompt for that
IVR node and the user can enter DTMF digits that determine where the PBX will
continue processing input. Usually you use that feature as an "entry door" into the
system where you decide what do to with a caller. For example, you can ask for
a customer number, then ask an external application server what to do with that
customer and then route the customer to one of the waiting queues.
If you define a dialog, that dialog may consist of a number of IVR nodes.
Each node plays one prompt and asks one specific question to the user. For
example, the first prompt may ask you what language you prefer and then dispatch
you into two different node systems for two different languages.
This IVR Node mechanism is very flexible. You can either process the input
internally in the PBX or use an external application server to decide where to go. In
the simplest case, you just do a static routing depending on the user input, without
consulting the external server.
The IVR Node account collects user input according to the list of ERE
expressions that was entered in the "Match List" of the node.
6.2.11.2
Recording a Message
There are two ways to get a message into an IVR node.
•
Either you record the message directly into the node by using the record star
code followed by the account number (e.g: *98123 for recording the prompt
for account 123). This method is suitable for quick setup and for changing
messages.
•
The other method is to use WAV files. This way, you can record and edit your
message and then later load it into the system. If you use this method, you can
set up professional IVR dialogs.
IVR messages are always static. It is not possible to generate dynamic
content.
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6.2.11.3
Settings
The identity settings are the same as the settings for the extension identity,
see Extension Identity. Dialog Permissions are described in Dialog Permissions.
To record an announcement, just dial the recording code followed by another
star and the announcement number. For your convenience, you will find these codes
at the bottom of the account page. You may specify which accounts may record
announcements with the setting "Accounts that may record a message" as a list of
Wildcard Patterns. If you leave this setting is empty, all extensions will have this
permission.
When the caller enters a digit, the PBX appends that digit to the input for
that IVR node. The input string is cleared when the IVR node is being called (also
when coming from another IVR node). When the IVR node audio announcement
ends, the PBX acts as if the user entered a "E" DTMF digit.
The "DTMF Match List" contains a list of match patterns that are checked. The
list elements are separated by space. Each pattern contains of two fields. The fields
are separated by any character that does not occur anywhere else in the string, for
example "!". The first field contains the extended regular expression and the second
field the replacement. The field has the same meaning as the fields in the dial plan.
The second field contains the destination.
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The destination may be any dial able number. If the number requires a dial
plan, the default dial plan of the domain will be used. If the destination field is
empty and the pattern matches, the PBX will disconnect the call.
A simple replacement where the caller enters "0" and is sent to extension
"500" would be "!0!500!". An example pattern that waits until a user has
entered three digits and then returns the three digits would look like this: "!^(09){3}$!\1!".
The other two fields, "From-based routing match list" and "To-based routing
match list" are used in the beginning. If there is a match with the "From" or the
"To"-header of the call, then the IVR node immediately switches the destination
without playing the WAV file. This way, you can implement flexible routing schemes.
If no SOAP URI is specified in the account, the PBX will take the output of
the pattern matching as the name of the account to switch to. If the SOAP URI is
available, it will pass the destination to the application for further decision what
to do with it. See Linking External Application Server to an IVR Node for more
information about the SOAP processing.
6.3 Trunks
6.3.1
Existing Trunk List
6.3.1.1 Purpose
Trunks are used to receive or send calls to devices that are not registered
with the PBX. The name trunk comes from the idea that there is a physical
connection between the PBX and the external device, like it used to be with
traditional PBX.
In general, there are three types of trunks:
•
Registrations. The PBX registers somewhere else and itself like an extension.
This model is typically used when you have an account with an Internet Service
Provider and you use this account for terminating your traffic. In this model, the
PBX uses the number of the registration as caller-ID, regardless what extension
is actually using the trunk. You can use this mode if the service provider
supports SIP soft- or hard phones.
•
Gateway. The gateway model does not register; it just sends the traffic to the
destination. In this model, the PBX uses the caller-ID of the PBX to indicate the
extension that initiates an outgoing call (if that extension did not turn block
caller-ID on). This model is typically used with customer premises PSTN gateway
hardware.
•
Proxy. The proxy model is similar to the gateway model. The difference is the
way anonymous calls are made and how the proxy represents its own domain.
As the name suggests, the proxy model assumes that you are talking to a SIP
proxy, while the gateway model assumes that you are talking to a SIP user
agent. However, the two models are quite similar.
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Trunks are usually in scope of a domain. But you can also make a trunk
visible in all domains. For example, if you want to share a PSTN gateway amongst
all domains, you would set up a trunk in a separate domain and make it visible to
all domains.
6.3.1.2 Existing Trunks
In the trunk list, you can see which trunks are available in the current
domain. If the trunk is a registration, the PBX will show the registration status. To
force a re-registration of this trunk, you may click on the register link.
To delete a trunk, you may click on the delete icon. To edit the details of a
trunk, you can click on the edit icon.
At the bottom of the page you find a form for creating a new trunk. Trunk
names may include alphanumeric characters and space. The system assigns a
number to each trunk, so that it is ok if different domains choose the same name
for a trunk.
6.3.2
Trunk Settings
6.3.2.1 Name and Type
After you have created a trunk, you may change the name and the type. The
name must consist of alphanumeric characters and may contain spaces. The trunk
type can be selected by a selection box.
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6.3.2.2 General Parameters
The "Display Name", the "Account" and the "Domain" are used to construct
the address that the PBX registers. The account must be a valid SIP account
identifier and the display name is used for display purposes. For example, the
display name could be "Test Account", the account "test-account" and the registrar
"test.com". Then the PBX would register "Test Account" <sip:[email protected]
com>.
The "Username" and the "Password" are used for authentication purposes.
Some registrars use a different username for authentication; therefore the PBX
includes this field as well. The password needs to be entered twice, so that
accidental wrong entries can be detected.
The "Outbound Proxy" defines where requests of this trunk will be sent. If
this setting is set, it will always send requests to this other address. Otherwise, the
dial plan replacement field will determine where the request is being sent. However,
in most cases it is better to use the outbound proxy field to make things clear.
The outbound proxy field follows the definitions of RFC 3263 ("Locating SIP
Servers"). In a nutshell, you may use the DNS name for a SIP server. If you put
a colon with the port number behind the name, you use only DNS A resolution.
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Otherwise, the PBX will try DNS NAPTR and DNS SRV first.
The "CO-Lines" and "Dialog Permissions" settings are discussed separately in
CO Lines.
If the "Codec Preference" setting is set, the PBX will use a different codec
preference on this trunk. Valid codecs are "0" (G.711 u-law), "8" (G.711 a-law),
"18" (G.729), "2" (G.726) and "3" (GSM). You may list the preferred codecs. The
PBX will try to negotiate the first codec. If you specify only one codec, you might
end up with transcoding of the speech.
Some internet service providers still require that you present a public IP
address when you want to use their service. Although this way of registering and
using a SIP service is quite problematic, the PBX offers a setting that uses an
external STUN server to allocate a public IP address.
You can use the "STUN Server" setting in the following ways to resolve an
address:
•
If you just provide a DNS name, the PBX will try to locate a DNS SRV record for
the STUN server. Only if that record does not exist, it will use a DNS A record
•
If you explicitly specify the port number behind the DNS name for the STUN
server, the PBX will only perform a DNS A lookup for the STUN server address.
•
If you just provide an IP address, it will use that IP address. If you don't provide
a port number, the PBX will use the default STUN port number (3478).
We recommend not to use this feature and consider a different ITSP if they
do not support registrations from behind NAT.
If you specify a "Keep-Alive" time, the PBX will resend the STUN requests
after the provided keep-alive time. If you use the keep-alive time setting without a
STUN server, the PBX will ignore the registration time from the registrar and reregister after the provided time. This is sometime necessary when providers don't
use proper solutions for keeping bindings alive.
The setting "Strict RTP Routing" is necessary, because the IETF allows that
RTP traffic send ports may be different from RTP receiving ports. Because this is
extremely NAT-unfriendly, today most implementations use the same port number
for sending and receiving RTP. However, some gateways still insist on strict IETF
compatibility. In this case you need to turn this setting on.
If your registrar does not support UUID (RFC 4122), it usually ignores this
unknown additional information. However, some SIP implementations are not able
to deal with UUID. In this case, they will report a "Bad Request" to indicate that
they were not able to process the request. We added the option "Avoid RFC4122
(UUID)" to explicitly suppress the UUID in REGISTER requests. The UUID is used
to indicate that a registration replaces another registration; this is useful to avoid
double registration after a restart of the system.
The setting "Accept redirect" is necessary if your trunk should respect
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redirect codes. By default, this introduces significant security risks, because the
PBX cannot determine if these redirects introduce additional costs (redirection to
expensive numbers). Therefore, you should turn this flag on only if you are sure
that your service provider does not abuse this feature.
6.3.2.3 Outbound Settings
If you have a block of caller-ID for outbound calls, you may just put a
number in front of the extension number ("Prefix"). This is typically the case in
European installations. For example, if you put a "0049228123456" in this setting,
calling from extension "123" will result in the caller-ID "0049228123456123".
You may decide if this trunk should be visible also in other domains. If you
turn the setting "Visible in all dial plans" on, this will be the case.
The setting "Explicit Remote-Party-ID" and "Privacy Indication" are discussed
in Outbound Calls on Trunk.
When the trunk receives an error code, it may send the call back to the
dial plan and continue the matching process. This is useful when this trunk is just
a "trial" to place the call, for example when several PSTN gateways are available
for terminating the call and one gateway does not accept any more calls. Another
example is when you first try to route the call via a peer-to-peer call using ENUM or
other location methods and only if such resolution does not result in a connection
fall back to a PSTN call. The setting allows three behaviors:
•
Never failover. That is the default behavior. In this case, the caller will receive
the error code as the result of the call attempt.
•
On all error codes. In this case, all error codes will trigger the failover process.
Note that also call redirect will be treated as a error code, as the redirection
destination can easily be abused to route calls though expensive routes.
•
Only 5xx error codes. This will trigger failover only when a 5xx or 6xx class error
code is being received. PSTN gateways typically return 5xx class error codes
when all channels are in use, and using this mode you can switch to the next
PSTN gateway only in this case, while a caller busy will not trigger the failover.
The Is Secure flag is available in the professional version and is used to
indicate that outbound calls on this trunk can be treated as secure calls. For
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example, when the trunk goes to a local PSTN gateway you might decide to treat
this call as a secure call. In the professional version, incoming calls with the sips
scheme ask the PBX to ensure that the call should be kept secure end-to-end.
6.3.2.4 Inbound Settings
The setting "Extension" is discussed in the section Inbound Calls on Trunk.
The "Ringback" feature was introduced to deal with network operators that
are obviously not able to deal with early media. Using the 180 Message simplifies
the signaling in forking calls scenarios, however, it means additional delay when the
called party picks the handset up and the first samples on the conversion may not
be transported. We strongly recommend leaving the flag to the Media state, which
is default and ask the operator to fix their problems with early media.
6.3.3
Inbound Calls on Trunk
6.3.3.1 How the PBX identifies the trunk
When a new call is requested from the PBX, it must find out if the call is
being initiated from a known extension or from a trunk. It does this in the following
way:
•
If the Request-URI contains the line parameter, it is clear which trunk is called.
The line parameter is set by the PBX when the trunk is registered. The support
of the line parameter must be supported by RFC-compliant components. Most
SIP devices today are RFC compliant, so that you usually do not have a problem
if the parameter is present. However, for gateways and proxies this method is
not possible, therefore the PBX must continue searching the trunk if the line
parameter is not present.
•
The PBX determines to which IP addresses and ports a trunk may send requests.
This is done by a recursive DNS-resolution of the outbound proxy of that trunk.
The outbound proxy is used as "inbound proxy" as well. The PBX then tries to
find trunks with the following priority:
o
The incoming call matches a domain name of the trunk and a IP address and
port of the outbound proxy of that trunk
o
The incoming call matches a domain name of the trunk and a IP address of
the outbound proxy of that trunk
o
The incoming call matches a IP address and port of the outbound proxy of
that trunk
o
The incoming call matches a IP address of the outbound proxy of that trunk
o
The incoming call matches a domain name of the trunk
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The domain name "localhost" matches any domain name presented in the
Request-URI, as usual.
If the From-header identifies a extension on the PBX, the trunk identification
will be cancelled and the PBX assumes that the call comes from that extension, no
matter if the extension is registered on the perceived IP address or not.
6.3.3.2 How the PBX identifies the extension
After the trunk has been identified, the PBX must determine where to send
the call inside the domain. For this purpose, the PBX uses the setting "Extension" in
the trunk. The PBX writes a log with the message "Trunk sends call to ..." into the
log file (log level 5). There are two modes for this job. The simple mode just looks
the extension up and the extended mode uses patterns to identify the destination.
6.3.3.2.1
Simple Mode
In the simple mode, the extension is just the user-part of the Request-URI.
For example, if you want to send all calls on this trunk to a specific auto attendant,
just put the name of the account into the extension setting.
If you set tel: alias to an account, you can easily set up the necessary
information to map an extension to a DID. For example, an extension might have a
primary name of "123" and an alias name of "tel:8124353423".
6.3.3.2.2
Extended Mode
In the extended mode, the extension setting must consist of the following
four parts in the form <delimiter> <pattern> <delimiter> <replacement> [
<delimiter> [ <flag> [ <delimiter> [ <default> ]]]] (for example, ![0-9]{7}([09]{3})!\1!). The parts must be separated by any unique character which is not
used elsewhere in the setting string (for example, an exclamation mark).
•
The "pattern" is an extended regular expression which is matched against the
user part of the Request-URI (or the To-header if you use the t flag below). This
pattern uses the same mechanism as the dial plan.
•
The "replacement" tells the PBX which extension to dial. It also uses the same
mechanism as the dial plan. Typically it will reference matches from the pattern
with \1.
•
The flag tells the PBX weather to look into the Request-URI ("u") or into the
To-header ("t"). The default is "u". Some Internet service providers provide
the destination information in the To-header, although SIP recommends to use
the Request-URI. Please note that you cannot just put two delimiters without
anything in between, therefore if you want to specify a default you must use
either the "u" or the "t".
•
If the PBX cannot find the extension, you may specify a default extension. This
extension must exist and it will be chosen in case that the replacement pattern
does not produce an existing extension.
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Please note that you may have more than one expression. The PBX will try to
match the expressions until it finds a match. If no match is being found, the default
extension of the last pattern will be used.
6.3.3.2.3
Locating Global Extensions
After the extension was identified, the PBX might find out that the extension
is actually in a different domain that the trunk is. This can happen if the extension
has a tel: name. In this case the call will be taken into the destination's extensions
domain.
6.3.3.3 Examples
•
The first example is common in Europe. You want to strip the main number
of the PBX and use the remaining numbers to identify the extension. If the
extension is not found, you send it to the auto attendant. The example assumes
that the number starts with 7 digits (e.g. 0228123) and that the auto attendant
is located at 100: "![0-9]{7}([0-9]*)!\1!t!100".
•
The second example always uses the last 4 digits of the number, no matter how
long it is: "!([0-9]{4}$)!\1!t!100". This example assumes that the number of
digits is always the same.
•
In a typical US office, you send all calls to an auto attendant. Then the value for
the extension is very simple: Just use the string "100" if the auto attendant is
located on account 100.
•
If you are using tel: alias names for accounts, you can leave the Extension field
just empty and just match the DID number to a tel: alias.
6.3.4
Outbound Calls on Trunk
6.3.4.1 Caller-ID Presentation
When you place an external call, the PBX will try to present your caller-ID.
In SIP, the caller-ID is presented in additional headers that differ from the Fromheader. The reason is that the ITSP must know which account stands behind the
ANI, so that the billing goes to the right account.
Usually you want to use a two or three digit extension number and provide
a ten or eleven digit ID when you place an outbound call. In that case, you would
choose the short digit code as primary extension number and the tel:-alias (e.g.
"tel:12121234567") as one of the alias names.
6.3.4.2 Explicit Remote-Party-ID
In the trunk, there is a setting called Explicit Remote-Party-ID. You can put
into this setting whatever you would like to present as the caller-ID. If you just put
a number there, the PBX will automatically copy the domain name from the Fromheader.
In addition to that, you can include special characters that will be replaced
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with dynamic content:
•
'1' will insert the first user parameter from the account
•
'2' will insert the second user parameter from the account
•
'u' will insert the canonical user name of the caller
•
'a' will insert the first tel:-alias of the account
•
'$' will insert a dollar sign
For example, you can use the string "$a" if you are using tel:-alias names
for inbound account identification. Then the PBX will automatically use that
identification for outbound calls. If you explicitly want to specify the ANI for every
account, you can use one of the two account parameters.
You can specify a list of possible Explicit Remote-Party-ID (separated by
space). Then the PBX will try to expand the first, and if that fails, it will move on to
the next and so on. For example, if you want to try the first tel:-alias and then fall
back to a hard coded ANI, then you could use the pattern "$a 12121212121".
6.3.4.3 Interoperability Issues
There are several methods to indicate the ANI. These methods originally had
the purpose to deal with anonymous callers that want to hide their true identity
in the From header, therefore you find these settings in the "Privacy Indication"
indication.
•
RFC 3325 is the IETF standard for this purpose. It uses the header "P-PreferredIdentity" which explicitly states which identity to use. The support for this
standard by the ITSP is good and getting better every day.
•
There is an old proposal by Cisco Systems called "Remote-Party-ID" from a
time when there was no agreed standard. It is still quite popular and if the RFC
method does not work, sure worth a trial.
•
Some operators do a mix of the RFC 3325 method and their own interpretation
of the standard. Use the "RFC3325, but don't hide" method only if your operator
tells you to do so.
•
By default, the PBX does not present the ANI. Therefore, you must select either
of the above methods in order to have this feature working.
If you would like to use ENUM for routing outbound calls, please see ENUM
for more information.
6.3.5
CO Lines
6.3.5.1 Purpose of CO-Lines
In TDM-based PBX, there were a number of physical lines connecting the PBX
with the public telephone network. These lines were called "CO-lines".
It is interesting to see what calls are active on the CO-lines. Over the
centuries that PBX have been used, office users got used to CO-lines and they do
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expect at least the same behavior from a modern SIP-based PBX.
In SIP, there are no more physical cables used to connect the PBX with the
outside world. However, it is still interesting to see which calls are active between
the PBX and the outside world. Therefore, the pbxnsip emulates the behavior of the
TDM-based PBX.
CO-lines are associated with trunks. Each trunk may have several CO-lines.
Because users can subscribe to the state of the CO-lines, their name must be
unique in the domain like for all other accounts.
For example, you can set up four CO-lines on Trunk1 with the name "co1
co2 co3 co4" and more CO-lines on Trunk2 with different names like "co5 co6 co7
co8" (the list of CO-lines must be separated by space). The PBX will reject names
for the CO line that are already used by accounts or other CO-lines in the same
domain. The CO-lines are listed in the account list, because they share the same
namespace.
6.3.5.2 Limiting inbound and outbound traffic
Having a limited number of CO-lines can be used to limit the number of calls
that can be assigned to a trunk. When the CO-line setting is used, the PBX will
reserve one of the line for each call. When all lines are in use, the PBX will reject
further calls that would use the CO-line.
Sometimes it makes sense to reserve lines exclusively for inbound or
outbound traffic. If you put a ":i” behind the line name, the PBX will use that line
only for inbound traffic (e.g. "line1:i”); if you put a ":o” behind the line name, the
PBX will use that line only for outbound traffic. If there is no attribute set after the
colon, the line will be available for inbound or outbound traffic.
6.3.5.3 Monitoring CO-Lines
In most small offices, transfers are being done by parking and picking up
calls from lines. In order to be able to do this, it is necessary to display on the
phones which call is on which CO-line.
From a PBX point of view, the status of a CO-line is similar to the status of an
extension: It may be idle, connected, ringing, on hold or there might be a call being
parked. Therefore, the mechanisms to see the status of a CO line are similar to the
mechanisms to see the status of an extension. This implies that the name of the
CO-line must not clash with the name of an extension or any other account on the
system.
In order to see the CO-line status, the user agent needs to subscribe to the
status of the CO-line. See the description of the phones on how to do this.
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6.4 Dial Plans
6.4.1
Dial Plan List
6.4.1.1 Purpose
Each domain may have zero, one or more dial plans. Dial plan are used
when an extension dials a number that is not available on the local PBX. You can
assign the dial plan per extension. This gives you the possibility to assign different
permissions to the extensions. For example, you might want to have a "Local" dial
plan that handles only local calls and an "International" dial plan with permission to
make international calls.
Dial plans are not used to control the PBX. For this purpose, each domain has
a list of star codes.
6.4.1.2 Create Dial Plan
To create a dial plan, just enter the name in the creation box in the "Show
List" link for the dial plans. The name may be any descriptive name; you may
include spaces and capital letters.
The list shows the available dial plans. If you want to delete a dial plan,
click on the delete symbol and all dial plan data will be lost. If you click on the edit
button, you can set up the details of the dial plan.
6.4.2
Dial Plan
6.4.2.1 Edit Dial Plan
The dial plan consists of four components:
•
The preference is used to sort the dial plan entries. When the PBX searches a
matching entry in the dial plan, it will take the entry with the lowest preference
value. You may use the same preference value for several entries; in this case
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the PBX will pick one of the entries for you.
•
The Trunk setting defines which trunk is used for the call.
•
The pattern setting is matched against the destination of the call. See below for
the description of the matching algorithm.
•
The replacement is used in the To-header as well as in the Request-URI. See the
description below.
6.4.2.2 Simple Dial Plan
In most of the cases, you can use simple patterns.
•
Literals. If you want to match a specific number (e.g. 911), just put that number
there. The literal will be the first match in the expression.
•
Prefixes. If you want to match a specific prefix, put that prefix there with a star
behind it. For example, "9*" would match all numbers that start with a 9. The
prefix will not be part of the match, only the string matched by the * will be the
match of the first expression.
•
Fixed patterns. If you use a "x" in a pattern, the PBX will treat it as a wildcard
for 0-9. For example, 978xxxxxxx will match any number with the area code
978.
If you use the simplified expression, you don't have to specify a replacement.
The PBX will automatically put a "sip:\[email protected]\r;user=phone" as the replacement. There
is also a simplified replacement. If you put a prefix in front of a star, the PBX will
insert that prefix before the match. For example, "1*" will put a "1" in front of the
match.
Examples:
•
Pattern "91*" and replacement "1*": If the input is "[email protected]
com", the output will be "[email protected]"
•
Pattern "978xxxxxxx" and no replacement: If the input is
"[email protected]", the output will be "[email protected]"
•
Pattern "911|411" and no replacement: This will match input "[email protected]
com" and "[email protected]".
•
Pattern "xxxxxxx" and a replacement of "234xxxxxxx" will insert the area code
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of 234 to the 7 digit number and input "[email protected]"
6.4.2.3 Regular Expression Matching
The regular expression matching algorithm is a very flexible algorithm that
follows the NAPTR algorithm of RFC 2915. For an exact description, please refer to
this document.
The pattern string of the dial plan is surrounded by a "^" and a "$" (to
make sure that the whole string is matched". The PBX uses the username and the
hostname. The port number, parameters and the scheme are not included for the
comparison.
If there is a match, the PBX will generate the resulting destination from the
replacement string. The string may include references to matching groups in the
pattern string. These matches are referred by the group number (starting with 1).
Additionally, the matching string 'r' may be used to insert the registrar name.
Technically, that is the description of the algorithms. The example in the next
section will make the algorithms more understandable.
To delete a dial plan entry, just clear the pattern and the replacement and
press the Edit button.
6.4.2.4 Examples
6.4.2.4.1
Typical dial plan
A typical example is the string ([0-9]*)@.* as pattern and sip:\[email protected]\
r;user=phone as the replacement. The pattern string has one group [0-9]*, which
is referred in the replacement string as \1. That means, if the pattern is matched
against the value [email protected], it will store 2121234567 in the first group
and the result will be sip:[email protected];user=phone (the user=phone
indicates the recipient that the number is a telephone number).
6.4.2.4.2
A very simple dial plan
In many cases, you just want to route all numbers that start with a "9” to
an outside trunk. This can be done easily just by using the pattern "9*”; you don’t
need to fill anything into the replacement field (the PBX does that automatically).
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6.4.2.4.3
Dial plan with prefix in front of the number
If you use a pattern like "1*” in the replacement field, the PBX will
automatically put a "1” in front of the match which it found in the pattern field. In
the case when you use the pattern "9*” and dial the number 92121234567, the
PBX will automatically convert that into a 12121234567.
6.4.2.4.4
A dial plan example for North America
If you use the PBX in the fixed-length dial pal of North America, you may use
a dial plan like the one below.
The first pattern matches the emergency number and the service number
explicitly and sends it to the local gateway. It is a good idea to have an entry for
these important numbers, so that they don’t accidentally get routed to the wrong
gateway.
The second pattern matches all international numbers and sends them to a
special trunk, which is supposed to save you costs for international calls.
The third pattern deals with all domestic calls. We use the fixed-length
pattern here, to that the PBX can actually tell when this number is complete.
You could add another pattern like 91978xxxxxxx and send those calls
to another trunk if you have negotiated a flat rate with your local PSTN service
provider.
6.4.2.4.5
Sending star codes on a trunk
In this case you need to fall back to the good old extended regular
expressions:
The pattern matches pattern that start with a star symbol followed by any
number of digits. The replacement then inserts the star again and puts the dialled
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number behind the star. Alternatively, you could include the star symbol in the
match group of the pattern and then you would not have to put the star in the
replacement.
6.4.3
ENUM
6.4.3.1 Purpose
ENUM (see for example http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ENUM) is used to locate
a service in the Internet by using a telephone number. Typically, this service is voice
communication.
There are several ENUM trees available in the Internet. Several countries
started ENUM trials with numbers that are publicly available. Therefore, is makes
sense to be able to use different ENUM trees apart from the official e164.arpa tree.
The PBX supports ENUM by adding a special flag when resolving a SIP URI. If
the parameter "enum" is set to "true" while routing a packet, the PBX will apply the
RFC 2916 algorithm to the packet.
6.4.3.2 Setup
First, you need a trunk that is used for routing ENUM requests. This trunk
should be a gateway trunk with no outbound proxy set. You may use other features
like trunk failover as you like.
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In order to use this trunk, you need to make a entry into the dial plan. This
dial plan must insert the enum parameter in the replacement URI. The domain
name of the URI will be used for the ENUM root location. For example, you can use
the string "sip:\[email protected];enum=true" in the replacement field. It will use the
root domain "e164.org".
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6.4.3.3 Example
In this example, you can see the log messages when dialling a number on an
ENUM trunk:
[5] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Dialplan: Match [email protected] to
<sip:[email protected];enum=true> on trunk ENUM
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Converting phone 420222745121 into 1.2.1.5.4.7.2.2.2
.0.2.4.e164.arpa
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: enum 1.2.1.5.4.7.2.2.2.0.2.
4.e164.arpa
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: DNS: Add dns_naptr 1.2.1.5.4.7.2.2.2.0.2.4.e164.arpa
100 50 u E2U+sip !^.*$!sip:[email protected]! (ttl=3600)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: enum 1.2.1.5.4.7.2.2.2.0.2.
4.e164.arpa
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: url sip:[email protected]
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: naptr nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: DNS: Add dns_naptr nic.cz (ttl=3600)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: naptr nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:37: Resolve destination 414: srv tls _sips._tcp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: DNS: Add dns_srv _sips._tcp.nic.cz (ttl=3600)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: srv tls _sips._tcp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: srv tcp _sip._tcp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: DNS: Add dns_srv _sip._tcp.nic.cz (ttl=3600)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: srv tcp _sip._tcp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: srv udp _sip._udp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: DNS: Add dns_srv _sip._udp.nic.cz 100 100 sip.nic.cz
5060 (ttl=1800)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: srv udp _sip._udp.nic.cz
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: a udp sip.nic.cz 5060
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: DNS: Add dns_a sip.nic.cz 217.31.204.193 (ttl=1800)
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: a udp sip.nic.cz 5060
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Resolve destination 414: udp 217.31.204.193 5060
[8] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: Send Packet INVITE
[6] 2006/10/10 11:25:38: SIP Tx udp:217.31.204.193:5060:
6.5 Status
The status information in the domain is similar to the status of the system.
Please see the status description for the system.
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6.6 General Topics
6.6.1
Park and Pickup
6.6.1.1 What happens when a call is being parked?
When a user parks a call, he disconnects himself from a call and puts the call
onto a park orbit. The other side of the call then hears music on hold.
Parking a call is different from holding a call. In some systems, call hold
behavior is called exclusive parking because only the user that holds or parks the
call can retrieve the call. In SIP-based system it is better to use the term parking
for the (non-exclusive) parking of a call and the term holding for a (exclusive) hold
of a call because SIP was designed this way.
Every extension and every hunt group has a park orbit where several calls
can be parked. When a user parks a call, he can explicitly specify where a call
should be parked (e.g. *85111 parks the call on the park orbit of extension 111). If
the user does not specify where the call should be parked, the call will be parked on
the orbit of the extension that initiates the park operation.
6.6.1.2 Determining which call is being picked up
In most cases it is possible that there are several calls parked at the same
time. This makes it necessary to define an algorithm that determines which call
should be picked up. Additionally, it is also necessary to check if the caller has the
permission to retrieve the call. For example, if the secretary parked an important
customer on the orbit of the boss extension, not everybody should have the right to
pick that call up -- accidentally or on purpose.
The PBX checks for call in the following sequence:
If the user explicitly specifies the orbit from which the call should be
retrieved, then the PBX will retrieve a call that is on that orbit.
Then the PBX will check if a call was parked on the orbit of the calling
extension.
After that the PBX will determined to which hunt groups the user belongs.
call.
If a call was parked on the hunt group parking orbit the PBX will retrieve that
If a call was parked on the orbit of one of the hunt group members, the PBX
will get that call. Starting with version, the PBX will also pick up calls from all other
orbits, if the pickup policy flag is set accordingly.
6.6.2
Dialog Permissions
User agents may subscribe for the dialog state of any extension in the
domain. The dialog state is typically used to control a LED on a hard phone, or list
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the ongoing call on a soft phone display. By default, there is no restriction on who
may subscribe to which account. However, there are cases when you want to limit
the permissions to do that.
Every account has a field called dialog permissions. This field lists the
extensions that may subscribe to the state of the account. If the field is empty,
everyone may subscribe. Otherwise it lists the accounts that may subscribe to
the state of that account. You may use Wildcard Patterns to match more than one
account (e.g. 4* to allow all extensions that start with a 4).
6.6.3
Wildcard Patterns
The wildcard patterns are a simple way to match a pattern in the PBX. This
pattern matching scheme is pretty simple and not as powerful as the extended
regular expression (ERE) pattern matching. However, it solves most of the
problems.
The wildcard pattern matching is used for example in the following places:
•
Checking the permission who is allowed to page a Paging.
•
The Dialog Permissions in every account use it.
•
The permission to record a message in the Agent Group, IVR Node or Auto
Attendant.
•
The permission to change the status of a Service Flag.
The following wildcards are available:
•
A '*' matches any string (with any length).
•
A '?' matches any character (length one).
•
A '$' matches a single digit (length one).
•
A '%' matches any number (multiple digits or empty string)
•
A range enclosed in '[' and ']' matches that range.
•
A '\' matches the following character.
Examples. The following examples show typical usages of the wildcard
patterns.
•
The pattern "9*" matches any thing starting with a 9.
•
The pattern "*9" matches anything ending with a 9.
•
The pattern "11[02]" matches the patterns 110 and 112.
6.6.4
IP Address List
The PBX uses in several places lists of IP addresses. This list consists of any
number of strings, separated by a space. There are three forms that you can use:
•
A single IP addresses in the form dots-and-number notation. For example,
"192.168.23.34".
•
If you want to specify a range of addresses use the form Adr/Bits, where bits is
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a number indicating how many bits of the IP address should be considered. For
example, the string "192.168.2.0/24" would match addresses 192.168.2.0 until
192.168.2.255.
•
If you want to specify the local host, just enter the string "localhost".
The PBX does not perform a DNS resolution of the addresses.
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7
User Mode
7.1 General User Settings
The settings "First name" and "Last name" store the display name of the
extension. This name will be used for internal calls. Phones that are able to display
the names will show it on the screen. These names will also be searched by the
auto attendant if the caller chooses the dial by name feature.
The "Password" is used for SIP and HTTP traffic. It should be reasonable safe;
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just a few digits of digits will not be enough. However, it is up to the user to choose
a safe password. When the user enters a new password, the current HTTP session
will stay valid until the next login. Permanent cookies will be invalidated on the next
login.
The "PIN" is used in several dialogs of the PBX, for example when entering
the mailbox. Although it is also possible to do brute force attacks on PIN codes, it
takes more time to perform such attacks. We recommend using at least 5 digits, so
that an attacker has at least 100,000 combinations to choose from.
The "Cell phone number" is associated with the extension. When someone
tries to call the extension directly, the PBX may include that number in the list
of devices that is being called. The setting "When calling the extension" controls
if and when the cell phone is being called. For more information, see Cell Phone
Integration for more information.
The "Timezone" tells the PBX in which time zone the user is. This setting is
used for example in the mailbox (reading out timestamps), but it is also used when
the PBX generates configuration files for attached phones.
The "IVR Language" settings controls which language the user prefers. This is
setting is used for example, when the user calls the mailbox or when the caller calls
into the PBX from the associated cell phone.
The "Web Language" is used when the user logs into the web interface of the
PBX. This setting is also used when emails are sent to the user.
The "List of extensions to watch" is used for automatic generation of the
configuration files of the phones. The PBX will try to put the listed extensions into
the settings for the phone. This setting depends on the used device. For this setting
you can use Wildcard Patterns. For example, if you use just a star, the PBX will try
to put all extensions of the domain into this list.
If the "Limit own visibility to this list" is set, the PBX allows only the listed
users to watch the extension. It also uses Wildcard Patterns.
If you upload a picture in the "Upload a picture" setting, the PBX will
automatically insert a SIP header that can be used by SIP phones to show the
picture of the extension. This is similar to the display name of the extension, with
the difference that in addition of a text a picture is rendered. The picture must be in
BMP format that the endpoint understands.
The setting "Block outgoing caller-ID" is used when making outbound calls. If
the setting is set to "yes", the PBX will ask the gateway or SIP provider to hide the
Caller-ID for this call.
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7.2 User Redirection Settings
The "Do not disturb" (DND) settings is used to keep the user from incoming
calls. If this setting is turned on, then this extension will not receive incoming calls.
Only extensions that have the permission to override DND will be able to call the
extension. However, the extension can a all times place outbound calls.
The setting "Incoming anonymous calls" controls how incoming calls to the
extension are treated. This setting does not affect calls that come from a hunt or
agent group or internal calls.
•
The "no special treatment" mode turns this feature off and sends all calls directly
to the extension.
•
The mode "reject call" will inform the caller that the extension does not accept
anonymous calls. Calls will not be put through to the extension.
•
The mode "pretend to be busy" also does not put the call through, but does not
tell the caller why. The PBX will not offer camp on.
•
The mode "ask for name" will prompt the caller for the name and then put him
on hold while calling the extension. After reading out the recorded name, the
extension may decide what to do with the call. Either the call can be accepted,
or it can be sent to the mailbox or it can be rejected.
•
The mode" ask for name even if the caller-id is present" will always ask for
recording the name, even if the caller-id is available. Only callers which are on
the white list are directly put through.
The "Hot Desking" setting is described in the separate page Hot Desking.
There are several ways of doing call forwarding.
•
If you want to temporarily redirect all calls to another extension you can use
the "Call forward all calls" setting. This setting affects only calls that are going
directly to the extensions. If the extension is part of a hunt group or an agent
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group or the call origins from a paging group, the call is not being redirected.
•
The "Call forward calls when busy" forwards calls only when the extension is
busy. This condition is either true if the phone itself signals it is busy or the
"Lines" parameters has been set for the extension and this number has been
reached (see Registrations).
•
The Call forward on no answer" kicks in when the phone rings, but there is no
answer. The waiting time is defined in the domain and can be overridden by a
user setting ("Call forward no answer timeout"). If the mailbox picks up earlier,
this setting has no effect; if the call is being redirected, the mailbox timeout is
cancelled.
All redirection settings can have one number, either internal or external. If
the call is being redirected to an external destination, the PBX will use the dial plan
of the extension for placing this call and it will charge the extension for this call.
7.3 User Mailbox Settings
The user may decide if the mailbox should be enabled or not. For this
purpose, the web page offers the setting "Mailbox Enabled".
As with the redirection setting, the user may override the default setting until
the PBX redirects the call to the mailbox. This can be done in the setting "Time until
mailbox picks up".
The "Announcement Mode" can have the following values:
•
If the user selects the "Anonymous Announcement" mode, the PBX will just read
out the number of the extension.
•
If the user selects "Name Announcement" the PBX will pay back the recorded
name of the extension, if present.
•
The setting "Personal Announcement" will read out the recorded announcement
of the extension, if present.
If the PBX should send a notification to registered phones, the setting "Send
message waiting indication" must be turned on.
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If the PBX should call the cell phone after a message has been recorded, the
setting "Call cell phone when new message arrives" needs to be turned on. The PBX
will charge the extension for this call.
If the mailbox should be shared with other extensions, those extensions can
be listed (separated by space) in the setting "Share the mailbox with the following
extensions". If the mailbox does not require a PIN code, those extensions can
directly dial into the mailbox and listen to messages. Those extensions will also
receive the message waiting indication, if the sending has been activated and the
phones register for MWI events.
7.4 User Email Settings
The setting "Email Address" tells the PBX where to send email messages.
The domain administrator must enable Email, so that this setting actually enables
sending out emails.
The setting "Send a mailbox message by email" defines how the PBX sends
emails out:
•
"Send emails without attachments" will just send a notification to the user
by email. The voicemail message itself is not sent and must be retrieved
either through the web interface or by calling the mailbox. This mode has the
advantage that the emails are relatively short; this way it is a useful feature
when using mobile devices that support reading emails.
•
"Send message as attachment to email" will also send an email, but put the
voicemail itself as attachment to the email. This is a good choice if you are
using email during the whole day and you are using a personal computer for
processing emails.
•
"Do not send an email" is a good choice if you are just using your SIP phone to
receive voicemail messages.
You can decide what you want to do with the message after an email has
been sent. "Keep the message as new message" will keep the message in your
mailbox and it will count as a new message. This mode has the potential danger
that your mailbox eventually might become full. If you choose the mode "Mark
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message as read", the PBX will still keep the message in your mailbox, but when
the mailbox is becoming full, it will drop the oldest message to make room for a
new message and your mailbox will not become full. However, in this mode most
SIP phones will not turn on their message waiting indicator (because only new
messages trigger this behavior). If you decide to "Delete the message", the PBX will
delete the message after sending the email. This keeps your mailbox clean, but the
system relies on a reliable transport of the voicemail.
If you want to receive emails when you miss a call, turn the setting "Send
email on missed calls" on. The PBX will send this email only if the call went directly
to your extensions; calls to a hunt group or agent group do not count.
The PBX can also send you emails when your status changes "Send email on
status changes". This email is being sent when the DND status or the redirection
changes.
7.5 User Instant Message
Usually you would use a SIP endpoint to send instant messages (IM) to
another extension. However, most of the SIP devices do not support that feature
today. Therefore, the PBX offers a possibility to do that from the web interface.
Sending an IM is simple. Just enter the destinations in the "Destination"
field and the text that you want to send in the "Message" field, then click on the
"Create" button. You can send the message to more than one destination by listing
the extensions separated by spaces. The PBX will then send the message to all
registered devices for the extensions that you selected.
The PBX will tell you how many messages have been sent in total.
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7.6 Mailbox View
The mailbox page shows you the content of the mailbox. It contains the
following information:
•
The "Time" is the time stamp when the message was recorded. The time is
shown in the time zone of the extension that received the message.
•
The "Number" shows the Caller-ID and, if available, the name of the person who
left the message.
•
The "Duration" shows how long the message is. The format is "minutes:
seconds".
The "Flags" field shows several icons:
•
The delete icon can be used to delete the message.
•
The loudspeaker icon will download the message as WAV file and offer this file
for playback on the web browser.
•
The "New!" symbol indicates that the PBX keeps that message as unread.
•
The red exclamation mark message indicates that the caller marked this
message as urgent.
7.7 Missed Call List
The missed call list shows what calls were attempted to the current
extension, but did not connect. If there were display-names available, the PBX will
show them in the list. The "Time" column shows when the call was started.
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The PBX offers click-to-dial by clicking on the number listed on the web page.
The PBX will call the extension and ask it to acknowledge the click-to-dial initiation.
The call resulting from the click-to-dial will be charged to the extension.
The length of the list is set by the domain administrator. The PBX has only a
specified context in which it keeps the necessary records for the call list feature.
7.8 Personal Call Log
The call list shows what calls were made from or to the current extension. If
there were display-names available, the PBX will show them in the list. If the call
was not connected the duration will be empty. Otherwise, it will show the duration
in minutes and seconds. The "Time" column shows when the call was started.
The PBX offers click-to-dial by clicking on the number listed on the web page.
The PBX will call the extension and ask it to acknowledge the click-to-dial initiation.
The call resulting from the click-to-dial will be charged to the extension.
The length of the list is set by the domain administrator. The PBX has only a
specified context in which it keeps the necessary records for the call list feature.
7.9 Address Book
For the description of the address book, please refer to the section on
address book above.
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7.10 User Status
The user status page shows essential information about the state of the
account.
You can see the settings for call redirection, the current state of do not
disturb (DND), and the last number that have been dialed or received from that
extension.
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