2 System Architecture

Table of Contents

1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 9

1.1

Version Comparison ....................................................................................................................... 9

1.2

Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................... 17

2 System Architecture ............................................................................................................................. 18

2.1

Controller Selection ...................................................................................................................... 19

3 Installation ............................................................................................................................................ 21

3.1

Standalone .................................................................................................................................... 21

3.1.1

Windows PC Host ................................................................................................................ 21

3.1.2

Embedded Platform .............................................................................................................. 23

3.2

Homeseer ...................................................................................................................................... 23

3.3

Registration................................................................................................................................... 23

3.3.1

Standalone ............................................................................................................................ 23

3.3.2

Homeseer Plug-in ................................................................................................................. 26

3.4

Startup .......................................................................................................................................... 26

3.5

Initial Setup .................................................................................................................................. 27

3.5.1

Visual User Interface ............................................................................................................ 27

3.5.2

Quick Start – Learn by Example ........................................................................................... 30

3.5.3

Sample Scenarios .................................................................................................................. 31

3.5.3.1

Scenario 1 – One Zone Setup ........................................................................................... 31

3.5.3.2

Scenario 2 – Basic Homeseer Setup of Two Sprinkler Valves ......................................... 31

3.5.3.3

Scenario 3 - Replacement for Stand-alone Timer ............................................................. 33

3.5.3.4

Scenario 4 - Typical Use of Features ................................................................................ 35

3.5.3.5

Scenario 5 – Dual PC – Dual Hardware Interface Configuration ..................................... 37

3.5.3.6

Scenario 6 – Dual PC – Single Hardware Interface Configuration ................................... 38

4 Physical Installation .............................................................................................................................. 40

4.1

Field Wiring .................................................................................................................................. 40

4.2

Controller Connection .................................................................................................................. 40

4.2.1

Controller to PC .................................................................................................................... 40

4.2.2

Communication Test ............................................................................................................. 46

4.2.3

HomeSeer Devices ............................................................................................................... 47

4.2.4

Interface Protocol ................................................................................................................. 47

4.2.5

Valve Wire to Controller ...................................................................................................... 48

4.2.6

Internet Connection and Local Area Network ...................................................................... 52

4.2.7

External Application Interface .............................................................................................. 59

4.2.7.1

xAP ................................................................................................................................... 59

4.2.7.2

Homeseer .......................................................................................................................... 61

5 Automated Control Strategy ................................................................................................................. 62

5.1

Control Based upon Time vs. Soil Moisture Content ................................................................... 62

5.2

Watering Duration and Interval .................................................................................................... 63

5.2.1

Gross Estimated Runtimes for Small to Medium Turf Areas ............................................... 65

5.2.2

Suggestions for Calibration of Calculated Evaporation ........................................................ 74

5.3

Zone Sequencing .......................................................................................................................... 75

5.4

Syringing ...................................................................................................................................... 77

5.5

Watering Restrictions ................................................................................................................... 77

5.6

Water Use Management ............................................................................................................... 79

5.6.1

Water User Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 79

5.6.2

Water Use Measurement and Display .................................................................................. 80

5.7

Fertigation..................................................................................................................................... 81

6 Manual Control Options ....................................................................................................................... 85

6.1

Web Browser ................................................................................................................................ 85

6.2

Remote with IPhone/IPad/IPod/Android ...................................................................................... 88

2

6.3

Remote with Palm pad or Power line Controller .......................................................................... 90

6.4

Remote with Wireless Handheld PDA ......................................................................................... 91

6.5

Crestron Control ........................................................................................................................... 92

6.6

Voice Control ............................................................................................................................... 93

7 Status Reporting ................................................................................................................................... 94

7.1

General Status ............................................................................................................................... 94

7.2

Reference Pictures ........................................................................................................................ 95

7.3

History Calendar ........................................................................................................................... 96

7.4

Zone Status ..................................................................................................................................101

7.5

Run List .......................................................................................................................................101

7.6

Priority Messages ........................................................................................................................102

7.7

Log of Valve Control ...................................................................................................................104

8 Interface Details ...................................................................................................................................106

8.1

Rain8 Module Control .................................................................................................................106

8.1.1

Rain8-Net ............................................................................................................................106

8.1.2

Rain8-Wireless ....................................................................................................................106

8.1.3

Rain8-X10 ...........................................................................................................................106

8.1.4

Rain8-X10-2 ........................................................................................................................106

8.1.5

EtherRain .............................................................................................................................106

8.1.6

Homeseer Virtual Devices ...................................................................................................106

8.2

Alternate Sensor Interface ...........................................................................................................107

8.2.1

Weather Data .......................................................................................................................107

8.2.2

Local Sensor Data ................................................................................................................107

8.2.3

Inhibit Device ......................................................................................................................108

8.2.4

ET Radiation Sensor ............................................................................................................108

8.2.5

Water Meter .........................................................................................................................108

8.3

Alternate Control Operations .......................................................................................................108

8.3.1

Homeseer .............................................................................................................................108

8.3.2

xAPBSC.Cmd ......................................................................................................................110

8.3.3

xAP-X10 / Homeseer-X10 ..................................................................................................110

9 Redundancy and Backup .....................................................................................................................111

9.1

Single PC Configuration ..............................................................................................................111

9.2

Dual PC Configuration ................................................................................................................111

9.2.1

Control Moding ...................................................................................................................111

9.2.2

Independent Applications to Support Redundancy ..............................................................113

9.2.3

Associated xAP Interface ....................................................................................................114

9.3

Multiple Rain8Net Networks .......................................................................................................114

9.4

Configuration Backup and Selection ...........................................................................................118

10 Setup Reference ...............................................................................................................................120

10.1

Setup1-Rain8 ...............................................................................................................................120

10.1.1

Module PC Interface ............................................................................................................120

10.1.2

Interface Test .......................................................................................................................120

10.1.3

Homeseer X10-IO Devices ..................................................................................................120

10.1.4

Rain8 Net and Rain8 WiFi Master Modules ........................................................................120

10.1.5

Rain8 Net and Rain8 WiFi ..................................................................................................121

10.1.6

Rain8 UPB ...........................................................................................................................121

10.1.7

Rain8 Wireless and X10 Power line Interface Module Assignments ..................................121

10.1.8

House ...................................................................................................................................121

10.1.9

Bank 1 to 8 ...........................................................................................................................121

10.1.10

Bank 9 to 16 .....................................................................................................................121

10.1.11

Rain8 Wireless Valve 8 Configuration ............................................................................121

10.1.12

Address ............................................................................................................................121

10.1.13

Valve 8 in Module ...........................................................................................................122

10.1.14

EtherRain Modules ..........................................................................................................122

10.1.15

Rain8 EPROM and Timers ..............................................................................................122

10.1.16

Programming Port ............................................................................................................122

3

10.1.17

Module Type....................................................................................................................122

10.1.18

Module Address ...............................................................................................................122

10.1.19

Rain8-Net Timer Disable .................................................................................................123

10.1.20

Rain8-Wireless Valve 8 Use ............................................................................................123

10.1.21

Rain8-X10-2 Status Response .........................................................................................123

10.1.22

Rain8 Timers ...................................................................................................................123

10.2

Setup2 - Wiring ...........................................................................................................................124

10.2.1

Wire Harness .......................................................................................................................124

10.2.2

Wire Color ...........................................................................................................................124

10.2.3

Control Valve ......................................................................................................................124

10.2.4

Location ...............................................................................................................................124

10.3

Setup3 - Layout ...........................................................................................................................125

10.3.1

Picture ..................................................................................................................................125

10.3.2

Assigned Use .......................................................................................................................125

10.3.3

Minutes ................................................................................................................................125

10.4

Setup4 - Zone ..............................................................................................................................126

10.4.1

Valve....................................................................................................................................126

10.4.2

Auto Minutes .......................................................................................................................126

10.4.3

Manual Minutes ...................................................................................................................126

10.4.4

Syringing Minutes ...............................................................................................................126

10.4.5

Soil Efficiency and Rain Factors .........................................................................................126

10.4.6

Fertigation Factor ................................................................................................................126

10.4.7

Calc Flow .............................................................................................................................126

10.4.8

Max Flow .............................................................................................................................126

10.5

Setup5 – Area ..............................................................................................................................127

10.5.1

Zones in Area.......................................................................................................................127

10.5.2

Area Control Strategy ..........................................................................................................127

10.5.3

Area Zone Sequence Control ...............................................................................................127

10.5.4

Interzone Scheduling Delays ...............................................................................................127

10.5.5

Area Water Supply ..............................................................................................................128

10.5.6

Pump Control Valve ............................................................................................................128

10.5.7

Well or Water Storage Discharge and Recharge Times ......................................................128

10.5.8

Flow Volume .......................................................................................................................128

10.5.9

Water Leak Monitoring .......................................................................................................128

10.5.10

Fertigation Valve .............................................................................................................128

10.5.11

Fertigation Control ..........................................................................................................128

10.5.12

Fertigation Instrumentation Source .................................................................................128

10.5.13

Area Start Times and Duration Factors ...........................................................................128

10.5.14

Area Inhibit Times ...........................................................................................................129

10.5.15

Area Restrictions and Carryover Considerations .............................................................129

10.5.16

Seasonal Percentages .......................................................................................................129

10.6

Setup6 - Site ................................................................................................................................130

10.6.1

Watering Restrictions ..........................................................................................................130

10.6.2

Don’t on Day of Week .........................................................................................................130

10.6.3

Don’t Between Hours ..........................................................................................................130

10.6.4

Don’t Even Odd Days ..........................................................................................................130

10.6.5

Min Days Between Watering ...............................................................................................130

10.6.6

Don’t with Wind ..................................................................................................................130

10.6.7

Don’t with Temperature ......................................................................................................130

10.6.8

Max Cycles per Day ............................................................................................................130

10.6.9

Don’t with precipitation forecast and actual ........................................................................130

10.6.10

Don’t with Evapotranspiration.........................................................................................131

10.6.11

Record inhibit reason in Message Log.............................................................................131

10.6.12

Don’t With Homeseer Device ..........................................................................................131

10.6.13

Water Holding / Presssure Tank ......................................................................................131

10.6.14

Syringing Options ............................................................................................................131

4

10.6.15

Manual Mode Update Options .........................................................................................131

10.6.16

All Zones Watering Duration Adjustments .....................................................................131

10.6.17

Seasonal Percentages .......................................................................................................131

10.6.18

All Zones Adjustment Percentage ...................................................................................131

10.6.19

Miscellaneous Options .....................................................................................................131

10.6.20

Site Name ........................................................................................................................132

10.6.21

Valve Safety ....................................................................................................................132

10.6.22

Pump Safety .....................................................................................................................132

10.6.23

Control Log......................................................................................................................132

10.7

Setup7 - Remote Control .............................................................................................................133

10.7.1

W800 for Handheld Wireless Input .....................................................................................133

10.7.2

Crestron Serial .....................................................................................................................133

10.7.3

Voice Recognition and Reporting ........................................................................................133

10.7.4

Direct Valve Control ...........................................................................................................133

10.7.5

Disable Alias Valve Control ................................................................................................133

10.7.6

Remote Control Activation Setup ........................................................................................133

10.7.7

Zone .....................................................................................................................................133

10.7.8

Valve....................................................................................................................................134

10.7.9

Voice....................................................................................................................................134

10.7.10

RF Code ...........................................................................................................................134

10.8

Setup8 - Weather .........................................................................................................................135

10.8.1

Time and Weather Setup .....................................................................................................135

10.8.2

Optional Alternate Weather Source .....................................................................................135

10.8.3

Optional Alternate Forecast Source .....................................................................................135

10.8.4

Optional Local Weather Source ...........................................................................................135

10.8.5

Weather Sensor Source ........................................................................................................135

10.8.6

Method to Download Internet Data .....................................................................................136

10.9

Setup9 - Other ..............................................................................................................................137

10.9.1

Version Options Displayed ..................................................................................................137

10.9.2

Configuration Administration ..............................................................................................137

10.9.3

Load Configuration ..............................................................................................................137

10.9.4

Save Configuration ..............................................................................................................137

10.9.5

Restore Configuration from Auto Backup ...........................................................................137

10.9.6

Update mcsSprinklers Version from Web or Local Backup ................................................137

10.9.7

HTTP Browser Interface ......................................................................................................137

10.9.8

Browser Display Options .....................................................................................................137

10.9.9

Popup Calendar Characteristics ...........................................................................................138

10.9.10

Sensor Units of Measure ..................................................................................................138

10.9.11

Email Notification ...........................................................................................................138

10.9.12

Login Username and Password for Internet (WAN) Access ...........................................139

10.9.13

Redundancy Backup Mode ..............................................................................................139

10.9.14

Launch Redundant Applications on Startup ....................................................................139

10.9.15

Rain8 Interfaces ...............................................................................................................139

10.9.16

Control Interfaces ............................................................................................................139

10.9.17

Data Collection ................................................................................................................139

10.9.18

Supplemental xAP Interface ............................................................................................139

10.9.19

Homeseer Devices ...........................................................................................................139

10.9.20

Homeseer Notification Options .......................................................................................140

10.9.21

Homeseer Display Options ..............................................................................................140

10.9.22

Database Options .............................................................................................................140

10.9.23

Help .................................................................................................................................140

10.9.24

Context Help ....................................................................................................................140

10.9.25

Debug Data Files .............................................................................................................141

10.9.26

Version Options Displayed ..............................................................................................141

10.10

Setup10 – xAP Reporting ........................................................................................................142

10.11

Setup11 – Picture Entry ...........................................................................................................143

5

10.11.1

Pictures ............................................................................................................................143

11 AccuWeather Location Codes .........................................................................................................144

12 Rain8 Hardware Setup .....................................................................................................................230

12.1

Rain8 Net .....................................................................................................................................230

12.1.1

Equipment List ....................................................................................................................230

12.1.2

Installation ...........................................................................................................................230

12.1.3

EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers .............................................................232

12.2

Rain8 Wireless .............................................................................................................................234

12.2.1

Equipment List ....................................................................................................................234

12.2.2

Installation ...........................................................................................................................234

12.2.3

EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers .............................................................235

12.2.4

Check Out ............................................................................................................................236

12.3

Rain8 X10 ....................................................................................................................................237

12.3.1

Equipment List ....................................................................................................................237

12.3.2

Installation ...........................................................................................................................237

12.3.3

EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers .............................................................239

12.4

Rain8 X10 II ................................................................................................................................241

12.4.1

Equipment List ....................................................................................................................241

12.4.2

Installation ...........................................................................................................................241

12.4.3

EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers .............................................................243

12.4.4

Troubleshooting with the Status LED .................................................................................244

12.5

Rain8 UPB ...................................................................................................................................246

12.5.1

Equipment List ....................................................................................................................246

12.5.2

Installation ...........................................................................................................................246

12.5.3

EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers .............................................................248

12.5.4

The Rain8UPB and UPStart ................................................................................................249

12.5.5

Troubleshooting with the Status LED .................................................................................250

13 RS-232 Adapters .............................................................................................................................251

13.1

USB – Serial ................................................................................................................................251

List of Figures

Figure 1 System Architecture ....................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 2 Desktop Tray Access to Status Pages ............................................................................................ 22

Figure 3 Standalone Registration Page ......................................................................................................... 26

Figure 4 Homeseer Licensing of mcsSprinklers ........................................................................................... 26

Figure 5 Startup Splash Screen ..................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 6 Visual User Interface ...................................................................................................................... 27

Figure 7 Views Available from Graphical UI .............................................................................................. 30

Figure 8 Rain8 Address and Timer Setup ..................................................................................................... 42

Figure 9 Rain8 Modules to PC Connection Setup ........................................................................................ 42

Figure 10 X10 Interface Characterization .................................................................................................... 43

Figure 11 Rain8 X10-based Module Address Setup .................................................................................... 44

Figure 12 Rain8 Net-based Module Address Setup ...................................................................................... 45

Figure 13 Rain8 UPB Module Address Setup .............................................................................................. 45

Figure 14 EtherRain Module Address Setup ................................................................................................ 46

Figure 15 Communication Test for Rain8Net and Rain8UPB ..................................................................... 47

Figure 16 Identification of Homeseer Devices ............................................................................................. 47

Figure 17 Serial IO Communications Diagnostic Window ......................................................................... 48

Figure 18 Harnesses Wiring to Rain8 Valve Setup ...................................................................................... 49

Figure 19 Layout Page .................................................................................................................................. 50

Figure 20 Zone Parameters Setup ................................................................................................................. 52

6

Figure 21 Zone Program Time Tailoring ...................................................................................................... 52

Figure 22 Weather Source Selections ........................................................................................................... 54

Figure 23 Local Weather Station Data Source ............................................................................................. 55

Figure 24 Weather Site Download Test ........................................................................................................ 55

Figure 25 Individual Sensor Source Selections ............................................................................................ 56

Figure 26 Port Selections for Remote Access .............................................................................................. 57

Figure 27 Help Setup Options ...................................................................................................................... 58

Figure 28 Browser Links to Help and Other Pages ...................................................................................... 58

Figure 29 Launch of Interface Nodes and xAP Message Selection .............................................................. 59

Figure 30 xAP Reporting Device Selection .................................................................................................. 60

Figure 31 xAP Environment Options ........................................................................................................... 61

Figure 32 Homeseer Interface Options ......................................................................................................... 61

Figure 33 Timed Programs Setup Matrix ..................................................................................................... 62

Figure 34 Zone Moisture Trends in Area ..................................................................................................... 67

Figure 35 Area Control Strategy Selections ................................................................................................. 68

Figure 36 Zone - Area Sequence Control Selections .................................................................................... 68

Figure 37 Zone - Area Scheduling Delays ................................................................................................... 69

Figure 38 Water Supply / Pump / Meter setup ............................................................................................. 69

Figure 39 Fertigation Control and Instrumentation ...................................................................................... 70

Figure 40 Adjustments in Timed Control and Seasonal Variation ............................................................... 72

Figure 41 Miscellaneous Scheduling Option Setup ...................................................................................... 73

Figure 42 Area-Specific Restrictions and Carryover .................................................................................... 74

Figure 43 Round Robin Scheduling Status ................................................................................................... 76

Figure 44 Syringing Control Options ........................................................................................................... 77

Figure 45 Site Watering Restrictions Setup .................................................................................................. 79

Figure 46 Measured Water Consumption ..................................................................................................... 81

Figure 47 Fertigation Valve on General Status Page .................................................................................... 82

Figure 48 Fertigation Data on Calendar Detail for Zone Valve ................................................................... 83

Figure 49 Fertigation Calendar Detail for Fertigation Valve ........................................................................ 84

Figure 50 Manual Controls from General Status Page ................................................................................. 85

Figure 51 Composite Controls Available on General Status for Manual Control ........................................ 87

Figure 52 Zone Status Page View ................................................................................................................ 87

Figure 53 Phone App Landscape Remote .................................................................................................... 88

Figure 54 Phone App Portrait Remote .......................................................................................................... 88

Figure 55 Command Fusion Gui Designer for Upload ................................................................................. 89

Figure 56 W800 Port Selection for Internal W800 Connection.................................................................... 90

Figure 57 Remote Control Setup Page ......................................................................................................... 91

Figure 58 Handheld Remote Control Browser Page .................................................................................... 92

Figure 59 Crestron Interface Port Selection ................................................................................................. 93

Figure 60 General Status Customizations ..................................................................................................... 95

Figure 61 Reference Picture Popup .............................................................................................................. 96

Figure 62 Annual Trend Popup .................................................................................................................... 97

Figure 63 Sensor Calendar with Popup Detail.............................................................................................. 98

Figure 64 Zone History Calendar Popup .....................................................................................................100

Figure 65 Run List Page ..............................................................................................................................102

Figure 66 Priority Message Page .................................................................................................................102

Figure 67 Typical Outlook Email Settings ..................................................................................................103

Figure 68 Email Notification of Major Events Setup ..................................................................................104

Figure 69 Log of Prior Week Valve Actions ...............................................................................................105

Figure 70 Dual PC Setup .............................................................................................................................112

Figure 71 Redundancy and Moding Status Devices ....................................................................................113

Figure 72 xapmcsRain8Net Setup ...............................................................................................................116

Figure 73 Rain8Net Configured for Multiple Masters/IPs ..........................................................................117

Figure 74 Rain8 Net Manual Entry of Module Numbers ............................................................................117

Figure 75 Configuration Save and Restore ..................................................................................................118

Figure 76 Automatic Configuration Load Scheduling ................................................................................119

7

Figure 77 Rain8 Master and Expansion Wiring ..........................................................................................232

Figure 78 Rain8Net EPROM Setup .............................................................................................................233

Figure 79 Rain8 Wireless EPROM Setup ...................................................................................................236

Figure 80 Rain8 X10 Power line and Valve Connections ...........................................................................239

Figure 81 Rain8X10 EPROM Setup ...........................................................................................................240

Figure 82 Rain8 X10 II Power line and Valve Connections .......................................................................242

Figure 83 Rain8 X10 II EPROM Setup .......................................................................................................244

Figure 84 UPB Rain8 Valve and 24VAC Connections ...............................................................................247

Figure 85 UPB PIM Connection to Rain8 ...................................................................................................248

Figure 86 Rain8 UPB EPROM Setup ..........................................................................................................249

List of Tables

Table 1 mcsSprinklers Version Comparison ................................................................................................ 11

Table 2 Software Interface Modules............................................................................................................. 22

Table 3 Voice Recognition Commands ........................................................................................................ 93

8

1 Overview

mcsSprinklers is an integrated commercial / residential irrigation control package that uses readilyavailable personal computer resources or low powered dedicated computer to optimally irrigate an installation. It takes advantage of internet technology to obtain current environmental conditions as well as forecast data from which projected rainfall and evaporation is determined. It uses the Rain8 and EtherRain family of valve controllers to provide control via the existing power line, wired to the PC, or wireless. It also supports integration with Homeseer and xAP to augment the family of valves that can be controlled and further integration with other aspects of automation.

Irrigation control can be based upon calculated waterfall/evaporation, measured soil moisture, or three forms of periodic timed control. Mixtures of these modes can be used as well. Normal watering periods can be altered based upon current conditions such as wind speed, day-of-week, forecasted rainfall, and several other criteria to assure that water is applied only when needed and only when allowed by local regulations.

As well as the sophisticated automated modes of operation, it allows for several forms of manual intervention. Handheld remote control can be used to roam the irrigation zones and selectively turn on/off valves for head flow adjustments. Voice can be used to control zones and the current irrigation status can be vocally delivered with a voice request. Browser access from any internet location can also be used to manually control, observe status, or alter setup parameters. mcsSprinklers maintains a record of all control actions taken from which utilization reports can be generated. It continually calculates soil moisture content based upon current environmental conditions and this combined with forecasted precipitation and sunlight is used to provide projections of future watering cycles.

Sprinkler valves are wired to automated valves such as the Rain8 modules in the same manner as valves are wired to traditional timed-controllers. This allows existing installations to be upgraded with a simple replacement of the old controller with automated Rain8 modules. Control via the power line or RF wireless yields minimum-effort solutions to retrofit existing installations.

1.1 Version Comparison

mcsSprinklers is available in three level of capability. The Basic Level Designed to perform manual and automatic timed control of up to 24 valves for all of the Rain8 family of modules. It’s capabilities are approximately equivalent to a 24 program timed irrigation controller with the added benefit of desktop and internet access to provide for easy viewing and alterations of the schedules. It provides a rich user interface including graphical, touch screen and the ability for remote valve control with PDA or X10 palm pad.

The Standard Level is designed to achieve water cost savings and provide a rich set of control options. It takes into account weather conditions based upon internet data to both schedule when added moisture is needed and to not schedule due to wind and/or rainfall conditions. It provides visibility into historical valve activity and other parameters related to irrigation scheduling as well as all the features of mcsSprinklers

Basic.

The Professional Level is designed for maximum customization and options. It supports active backup and email notification when attention is needed. Recordkeeping is enhanced with water use accounting and a more complete historical calendar. Additional control is available for liquid nutrient distribution

(fertigation), use of moisture probes, and more flexible zone sequence control. Integration with other automation is provided with direct weather station interfaces, IP-based control, and xAP messaging.

Support for the non-typical setups is provided in a unified manner that makes the complexity transparent.

It includes all features available with the standard and basic version.

9

This manual describes the full capabilities of mcsSprinklers. Not all features described herein will be available with the Basic or Standard versions. It can be used as a guide to help understand what features are available in each version. mcsSprinklers will configure itself based upon the license level and based upon responses provided in the setup interview. The intention is to minimize the complexity presented and only include features that are being used. Features that are tailored out of the setup screens based upon interview responses can be restored by using the “Expert Mode” setting on the Other Setup page. Features that are available with higher level versions can only be made available by licensing the higher level version. During the trial period the software can be configured for any of the three levels of capability so the level that contains the desired features can be evaluated.

10

Software Version

HARDWARE INTERFACE

Host Platform

PC Interface

X10 Interface

Rain8Net and WiFi Master Interfaces

Rain8 Net and WiFi

Rain8 UPB

Rain8 X10

Rain8 X10-2

Rain8 Wireless

EtherRain

EPROM Programming

Table 1 mcsSprinklers Version Comparison

Basic Standard Professional

Windows

XP,Vista,W7,WHS,+

Windows

XP,Vista,W7,WHS,+

Serial COM

1

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

ACK on Cmd

Itemize Units

Yes, Itemize Units

Serial COM

Ack on Cmd or Poll

1

Itemize Units

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes, Itemize Units

Windows

XP,Vista,W7,WHS,+

Embedded ARM

ArchLinux

Serial COM

IP xAP

Ack on Cmd or Poll

Test Buttons

Command Timing

Multiple

Itemize Units

Search

Command Timing

Communication Test

Command Buttons

Yes, Itemize Units

Communication Test

Command Buttons

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

11

SCHEDULING

Control Strategy (Program)

Zone Sequence Control

Run Styles

Program Modes

Program Start Times

Duration Resolution

Areas (Program Variants)

Scheduling Restriction Setup

Day of Week

Even-Odd

Interval

One Zone at a Time in user-entered order

Zone-to-Zone

Automatic

Manual

24

1 second

1

Month to Month Time Adjustments

No

Global Multi-zone program adjustments

By Month

Day of Week

Even-odd Days

Between Hours

Day of Week

Even-Odd

Interval

Calculated ET

One Zone at a Time in user-entered order

Zone-to-Zone

Automatic

Manual

24

1 second

8

No

By Month

Rainfall

Day of Week,

Even-odd Days

Between Hours

Wind Speed

Temperature

Day of Week

Even-Odd

Interval,

Moisture Probe

Calculated ET

One Zone at a Time

One Zone per Area

Multiple Simultaneous

Zones

External Control

Zone-to-Zone

Round Robin

Inter-zone Delays

Automatic

Manual

Syringing

24 per program

Sunrise/Sunset Offset

Variable Duration

1 second

8

Yes

By Month,

By Percentage

Day of Week

Even-odd Days

Between Hours

Wind Speed

Temperature

Rainfall

12

Pump Control

Water Flow Management

Water Source Management

Fertigation Control

Soil Moisture Determination

Evapotranspiration Calculation

Internet-based Weather

Weather station-based Weather

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Rain Forecast

Yes

No

No

No

ET Calculation

Hourly Weather

AWS

Weatherunderground

NWS/EPA

AccuWeather

No

Rain Forecast

ET

External Discrete

Inhibit

Max Cycles

Between Hours by

Area

Log Restriction

Yes

Multiple valve control to achieve optimal pressure

Discharge Rate

Recharge Rate

Budget Management

Tank Management

Yes

Soil Efficiency

Adjustment

Crop Type Adjustment

ET Calculation

Moisture Sensor

Historical

Hourly Weather

Weather Station

AWS,

Weatherunderground

NWS/EPA

AccuWeather

Yes

13

USER INTERFACE

Phone (Apple/Android)

Remote/Handheld Control

Browser/Internet Access

Browser Style Customization

Graphical User Interface

Touchscreen/Kiosk User Interface

Imperial and Metric Display Units

Control and Status Browser Views

Scripting Automation Interface

No

X10 Power line

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

X10 Power line

RF

Yes

No

Digital Pictures

Calendar-based history

600x800

No

Zone Status

General Status

Run Log

Touch screen UI

No

600x800

Yes

Zone Status

General Status

Run Log

Run Projection

Touch screen UI

No

Yes

X10 Power line

RF

PDA

IPhone/Android

Selectable HTTP port

Yes

Digital Pictures

Calendar-based history and status

Current weather or other user-selected status devices

600x800

Yes

Zone Status

General Status

Run Log

Run Projection

Touch screen UI

Yes

14

RECORDS and HISTORY

Wiring Color Record

Wire Harnesses

Zone, Area, and Site Digital Pictures

Water Use Accounting

Soil Moisture Trends

Valve Activation Logging

Number of Loadable Configurations

Historical Database

Yes

3

No

No

No

No

Unlimited

No

Historical Calendar

No

Annual Trend Charts

Daily Detail Statistics

No

No

Yes

32

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

MS Access

Weather Items,

Soil Moisture Level

Runtime

Yes

Yes

Yes

32

Yes

Measured

Calculated

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

Scheduled

MS Access

SQL Server

My SQL

SQLite

Weather Items,

Soil Moisture Level

Runtime

Water Use

Fertigation

Yes

Yes

15

SAFETY and BACKUP

Redundancy / Hot Backup

Min and Max Safety Intervals

Communication retry and failure recovery

Internet Login Authentication

Email Notification

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Self-Monitored

Multiple PCs

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

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1.2 Acknowledgements

Version 1 of mcsSprinklers was introduced in 2003 into the Homeseer community. Many users provided valuable feedback to improve the usability of mcsSprinklers. Of particular value was the diversity of the needs and the operation in international locations. While all deserve acknowledgement, the memory of the early days is not complete. A partial accounting is Bkphillips (Anaheim, CA), Cecil, DC, Degabe (Loomis,

CA), Droopyear (Szekesfehervar, Hungary), Frobnitz (France), JB Coulter (Visalia, CA), Jmonaco

(Rocklink CA), ka7gzr (Kent, WA), Mario from Spain (Madrid, Spain), Mountainman (CO, USA), Pete

(Lockport, IL), Smoothtlk (Metamora, MI), uberseer (Sugar Land, TX)

Version 2 of mcsSprinklers was introduced in 2005 with a mixture of Standalone and Homeseer users providing ideas and assistance in making mcsSprinklers more user-friendly and feature rich. Version 2.6’s new features are primarily the result of user suggestions and effort in assisting the incorporation. Scott

Bunker, Castle Rock, CO provided WeatherUnderground as an optional source of Internet-based weather data as well as the Calendar popups. John Bonzey, Auburn, MA provided the handheld/Palm method of remote control. Doug Behl, Nevada City, CA for the large site considerations such as the popup pictures and area naming.

Some software components utilized within mcsSprinklers were obtained from internet sources. The tooltip capability for context help was provided by Erik Bosrup’s overLIB. The graphical sliders were obtained from Erik Arvidsson. Graphic icons were adapted from various sources including user contributions on the

Homeseer message board. The email facility was adapted from code posted by Gregg Housh.

17

2 System Architecture

The system architecture uses a modular and incremental structure that leverages modern computing technology, Internet, and low-cost interface electronics. The architecture is scalable from a single value residence controller to a very large commercial controller. It can operate within an existing small personal computer to minimize cost or run as a network of computers to maximize reliability.

The personal computer provides a dramatic improvement in the user interface in the operation of a sprinkler controller vs. dedicated controllers. The use of the Internet also provides a dramatic improvement in the efficiency of commercial and residential irrigation.

The two primary components to the irrigation controller are the electronic control of the sprinkler zone valves and the optimal scheduling of water distribution. Small Rain8 modules perform the electronic control. Each of these can control eight watering zones with wiring from the zone valve to the Rain8 module being the same as the wiring to traditional timed controllers.

The watering schedule is determined on the PC and this schedule is conveyed to the Rain8 modules in one of three mechanisms. This can be with a direct cable connection, an interface using existing house wiring, or a wireless radio frequency interface. The scheduling is setup by the user with a rich interactive interface and is augmented with real-time information about environmental conditions from the Internet.

This basic architecture is augmented with the ability to monitor local conditions with sensors such as a water flow meter, manually control the zones with a handheld remote or voice, add redundant components to accommodate unexpected failures, and use the Internet for off-site control and monitoring.

This architecture is pictorialized in Figure 1 System Architecture.

18

Figure 1 System Architecture

2.1 Controller Selection

The selection of a controller will depend primarily upon the means of physical connection that is most viable for a particular site. There are advantages and disadvantages with each option available.

Powerline connections are typically the easiest to retrofit since the powerline connection will be available at many locations. The powerline is shared for many uses and the potential exists that interference with communication can exists using the same shared wiring. X10 and UPB interfaces to the powerline are available. The X10 is lower cost and the UPB is more robust. In the X10 case there are two models. One provides a communication path to command a valve while the other provides both command and status.

19

The status is used to assure the command was received. The UPB provides both command and status. The

Rain8UPB also provides a counter input that can be used to measure water use if a digital meter is available at the site.

At some locations a LAN is prewired and this makes for a very robust connection and is the most desired one from a reliability perspective. The EtherRain and Rain8Net via an IP/Serial adapter can be used in this environment. Variations of this are WiFi where the wired LAN is bridged with RF to allow communications over the air in a range of around 50 ft. The Rain8Net provides a counter input for water use measurements and allows each of the eight valves in the module to be independently used for zone valve, fertigation valve, and pump valve control. The EtherRain is able to only able to activate one of the eight zone valves at a time, cannot be used for fertigation valves, and pump control needs to be managed with the 7/1 variant of the EtherRain. These control restrictions affect the ability to run multiple zones in parallel to manage water flow rates.

The Rain8Net can also be used with a direct RS-232 wired connection between the computer and the controller. Since it is a dedicated wire it has good communication reliability. When the computer and the controller are in the same proximity then the addition of the direct wiring may not be burdensome.

Consideration is also needed for the ability of the computer to support a RS-232 interface as many modern ones only support USB. If USB/RS-232 adapters are used care should be used to select ones that have good software driver support for the operation system to assure reliable communication.

20

3 Installation

3.1 Standalone

3.1.1 Windows PC Host

The installation is performed with execution of the downloaded setup.exe or setup_service.exe program.

When either is run it will create a folder and install all necessary components under this folder. The default install location is C:\Program Files\mcsSprinklers for the standalone version or C:\Program Files\Homeseer

PRO for the Homeseer plug-in version.

For the standalone install a tray icon is available to provide a quick user interface to mcsSprinklers. See

Figure 2. For the non-service install this tray icon is required and it is optional for the service install. It is

normally the case that the tray icon interface is started when the user logs into the computer. This can be automated by placing a shortcut to mcsSprinklers_Tray.exe in the user’s startup folder.

Following a service install the computer will be setup to automatically start the service when the computer starts. The service will not be running immediately after the install. It can be started by restarting the computer or by starting the mcsSprinklers service. While different versions of Windows have different ways to manage services, the following for WHS will be similar on others. Right-click Computer, Manage

Computer, Services and Applications, Services, Right-click mcsSprinklers, Start.

When the mcsSprinklers service is started or when it is stopped an entry will be made in the Windows

Event Log under the Application events. mcsSprinklers does not use the Windows Event Log for any other purpose. Events reported by mcsSprinklers will be local via browser on the Messages Page and available in text file in subfolder C:\Program Files\mcsSprinklers\HTML\mcsSprinklers\Data\StartupTrace.txt.

To install the tray icon on individual user login the file mcsSprinklers_Tray.exe should have a shortcut placed in the user’s startup folder. This folder can be reached with Right-click on Start button, Explore,

Programs, Startup. mcsSprinklers_Tray.exe will be in C:\Program Files\mcsSprinklers folder if a default install is performed. Rather than placing the icon in an individual user’s startup folder it can be place in the

All Users folder so it will be available to all users upon their login.

When running on Windows version starting with Vista enhanced security needs to be considered. mcsSprinklers must be “run as administrator” since it communicates with hardware resources. When User

Access Control (UAC) is enabled then a user prompt will be presented to confirm startup intent with the additional privileges. This prompt is usually not desirable, especially with unattended restarts. This can be overcome with a shortcut that enables elevated operation. A tutorial is provided at http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/11949-elevated-program-shortcut-without-uac-prompt-create.html

An extract from this location is embedded at the end of this manual. mcsSprinklers_Tray.exe can also be placed to run on any computer on the LAN to gain access to mcsSprinklers that is installed as a service. For this situation the tray option for “Tray Setup” should be used to change the address of where mcsSprinklers service is running. The default is the local computer, but can be changed to any computer name or IP address where mcsSprinklers service is running. The port selected on this setup needs to be the same as the used by the mcsSprinklers service. The default is 8008, but can be changed as part of the mcsSprinklers setup. Select the “Tray Setup” option again from the tray to close the setup form.

When remote access to the computer either through the LAN or WAN is desired then the firewall on the computer where mcsSprinklers is installed needs to setup to allow mcsSprinklers passage. This is true for the remote tray icon or remote browser use in general.

21

The mcsSprinklers Tray will monitor the execution of mcsSprinklers when either locally or remotely referenced. Should it loose contact it will provide this indication with a popup balloon.

When mcsSprinklers is running as a service the Tray setup should be configured to Inhibit mcsSprinklers

Launch Control. This will make the “Launch” option unavailable from the tray icon. When mcsSprinklers is installed as a desktop application rather than as a service then the tray icon can be used to control the execution of mcsSprinklers. In a normal setup the shortcut to mcsSprinklers_Tray.exe will be placed in the startup folder and the tray launch control will be set to Auto start mcsSprinklers when the tray icon is started. This Auto start can be defeated with the “Manual” selection for launch control. Execution start and stop then will be through user action of the tray icon options.

When the tray is available it will be used to provide event message notification. When an event that warrants user attention is raised then the tray icon will change color to amber. It will also change color to green when at least one irrigation zone is running. For events a popup will appear for 20 seconds or until the mouse is used to acknowledge it. The Message Page is shown to display the events in a static format.

Once the event is acknowledged the tray icon will change back to the blue or green color within sixty seconds unless further events are reported.

Figure 2 Desktop Tray Access to Status Pages

For a basic installation this is all that is required. For a distributed installation there are six applications that are available in the standalone version to be run on any computer on the local network. During execution of the setup.exe program checkbox options are available to select individual components. The

setup.exe can be run on each remote computer and the desired components installed at that location. Table

2 provides the list of functions that are available for distributed execution.

Table 2 Software Interface Modules

Interface Component Description

xapmcsCM17A PC interface to control one or more Rain8-Wireless modules xapmcsCM11A xapmcsRain8Net

PC interface to control one or more Rain8-Power line modules

PC interface to control one or more Rain8Net modules xapmcsUPB xapmcsW800 xapmcsCM19A xapmcsVoice xapmcsWeatherAWS xapmcsWeatherXML

PC interface to control one or more Rain8UPB modules

PC interface to accept handheld remote control inputs from W8800

PC interface to accept handheld remote control inputs from CM19A

PC interface to accept voice commands and speak status

PC internet interface to obtain current weather conditions

PC internet interface to obtain forecasted weather from Weather.com

22

xapmcsHub Traffic router for applications on same PC

3.1.2 Embedded Platform

The embedded platform comes with mcsSprinklers and associated operating system files preinstalled on a

USB flash drive. This drive is inserted into any USB port on the platform. A network cable and power cable are inserted into their appropriate jacks.

After a short delay the status light on the front will start blinking and within 30 seconds after it stops mcsSprinklers will be ready to accept requests from a browser. The network node name will be mcsSprinklers and the IP address will be provided by the DHCP server on the LAN. This means there needs to be a DHCP server and this is normally the router that provide access to the internet.

The default port is 8008 and the IP is available from the DHCP server (router) or from the ARP table. The

ARP table can be viewed from a command prompt (run cmd from Windows Start) with the command “arp

–a”. Use the MAC address printed on the bottom of the embedded platform to identify the specific IP associated with that address. Any valid mcsSprinklers page can be used as the initial routing will be to the registration page. For example, http://192.168.0.101:8008/status would be a browser URL to get initial access to the embedded mcsSprinklers if the DHCP server assigned 192.168.0.101 as the IP address.

3.2 Homeseer

For the Homeseer install the Homeseer Updater is used to assist in the installation. In this case care must be exercised to assure that the install is placed in the correct folder where Homeseer is running as different versions of Homeseer run in different folders. The menu items available in the standalone tray icon are available from the Homeseer menu where the Homeseer log is displayed.

When installation is performed on a Homeseer PRO-100 or similar processor then one needs to be aware that the C drive, where the system files are stored needs to be explicitly unlocked to allow files to be saved to this drive and this unlocking operation needs to occur prior to installing mcsSprinklers. After installation it can be write-protected again. If this step is not performed then the install will not persist during a power cycle of the PRO-100 or Hometroller.

3.3 Registration

mcsSprinklers is licensed to run on one computer. It will operate on a trial basis for 30 (Homeseer) or 45 days (Standalone) and after that time it will no longer startup until registration is performed. The registration process will depend on whether mcsSprinklers is run standalone or as a plug-in to Homeseer.

3.3.1 Standalone

mcsSprinklers provides a user interface via a web browser. The browser can be launched from a user desktop or Start menu and the URL completed to reference mcsSprinklers or it can be done from the

mcsSprinklers tray icon if it is installed. See Figure 2. The default URL for registration is

“http://localhost:8008/registration” with the browser launched from the same computer as the installed mcsSprinklers. This default can later be changed as part of the setup. Any status page request from the tray icon will also result in a registration page if registration has not been completed.

Until registration is completed the only page that is avaialble from mcsSprinklers is the registration page so

all other page requests will redirect to the registration page. The blank registration page is shown in Figure

3. Registration can be performed directly with the product serial number supplied with the purchased

software. It can also be done by contacting customer service and providing proof of purchase information,

Computer ID and Disk ID to obtain an unlock code.

23

Contact information of your choosing (e.g. name) can be entered so that customer support can identify you in the case that you misplace the registration information and the software is to be installed on another computer.

The zip code may also be entered at this time so that the proper environmental conditions can be setup or it may be entered later in the mcsSprinklers setup process on the “Others” setup page.

The registration information entered on the registration form is submitted using the “Register Now” button at the bottom of the form. This will transfer the information to the internet address identified as the

Registration URL where it will be validated and retained for permanent records. No other information, except that shown on the form is transferred to this site.

On the embedded platform the registration page also contains settings to identify the time zone and the network setup. The network should be setup before attempting to register since mcsSprinklers needs access to the internet to perform the registration. To get access to the registration page from a browser there needs to be a DHCP server on the LAN to assign an IP address. The embedded computer network name is mcsSprinklers. If the embedded platform has wWiFi capability then the setup for the wireless network will also be shown otherwise only a wired network setup will be available.

24

25

Figure 3 Standalone Registration Page

3.3.2 Homeseer Plug-in

When used as a Homeseer plugin, the registration process is managed by Homeseer Technologies

( http://www.homeseer.com

).

Three plugins are available and only one of these can be enabled. The plugin is a function of the license obtained and will be mcsSprinklersB (Basic), mcsSprinklersS (Standard) or mcsSprinklersP (Professional).

The process is normally started by downloading the mcsSprinklers plug-in using the Homeseer updater.

After the download is complete the Setup tab and then the Interfaces tab is selected to view the list of available plugins. The plugin will require either a registration key from Homeseer Technologies or can be activated using the Trial button. Once the trial button is selected, the enable link is activated. You may the click the grayed Enable button. The selection is then saved with the Save button. An enabled

configuration setup for the Basic version is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Homeseer Licensing of mcsSprinklers

3.4 Startup

Following validation of the registration or the trial, mcsSprinklers will initiate its startup initialization.

During this time it provides significant checks to assure data is consistent. While checking and when not

running as a service it will show a splash screen such as Figure 5. At the bottom of the screen will be a

progress bar that shows its relative progress and segment it is processing.

Figure 5 Startup Splash Screen

26

Select a

Zone

Following this check there will be a short delay while Windows manages its resources. Startup is complete when the mcsSprinklers icon appears in the Windows tray at the bottom right of the screen.

When performing setup operations mcsSprinklers looks for unexpected behaviors. Since it does not want to save a potentially corrupt setup it will not save changes made while errors are detected. The message log or the General Debug output file will provide further information about detected inconsistencies.

3.5 Initial Setup

3.5.1 Visual User Interface

The setup for various scenarios is shown by example in the remaining paragraphs of this section. Once the setup is complete the user has the option of visibility of finest details maintained by mcsSprinklers via the

General Status, Zone Status and Run List pages. These views provide the visibility when needed, but for general operations for the majority of users the visual user interface will be the most frequently used view

(Figure 6).

Zone

Running

Status

Control

Selected

Zone

History and

Forecast

Figure 6 Visual User Interface

Each zone is identified by name and visually by photograph. The large arrows at the top scroll the zones until the desired zone is positioned in the center location with the black border. The selection can also be accomplished directly with a mouse click by clicking one of the dots below the photographs. These dots are in positional order and each represents a zone. They are colorized to identify when they are running

(green), are disabled (yellow), have failed (red), and not currently running(blue).

When the mouse is placed over a zone status dot the rightmost picture will be replaced with the picture of the zone where the mouse is positioned. This allows the row of dots to be scanned to find the desired zone and then clicked to have the picture move to the center and it will then be the selected zone.

27

When the mouse is placed over the selected (middle) picture then the leftmost picture will change to a picture of the area in which the zone is located. This allows a context to be identified easily for larger installations. When the mouse moves away from the center selected zone picture then the prior zone picture will be restored.

When a zone is selected, adjustments to the settings for the zone can be made with the slider controls.

These sliders will change the setup information on the Zone Setup and Area Setup pages. Either this graphical control or the setup pages can be used to accomplish the same changes. A more detailed setup with more options is available from the setup pages.

The scheduled irrigation program is the “Auto Program”. This program will be run based upon the control strategy setup in the Area Page. One of the auto program parameters is the duration that a zone will run.

There are actually three parameters that determine the actual run time of a zone. One is the Zone time, one is the Area time, and the third is the Site time adjustment. The Zone time is the nominal time that a zone will run at the peak of the irrigation season. To account for seasonal variations an Area time factor is applied to this base Zone time. For example, in October the duration may be reduced by 30% from the nominal July duration. A Site adjustment is also applied to allow all times to be adjusted upward or downward by the same percentage.

The touch screen interface provides access to the Zone time adjustment in the Auto Program column. The slider changes the Zone time with the number being shown actually being the composite of the Zone time,

Area factor, and Site factor. For example if the Site adjustment is +10% and the Area factor is 70% and the nominal Zone time is 50 minutes, then the slider will show (50 * .70 * 1.10) 39 minutes. If the slider is adjusted to 20 minutes then the nominal Zone time will change to (20 / .70 / 1.1) 14 minutes. After changing the Auto Program slider to 20 in this example, then going to the Zone Setup page one will see a value of 14 for the Zone Auto program time. The number that is seen on the slider is the number of minutes that the zone will actually run based upon the other setup information.

There is also a slider under the Manual Program column. This slider is used to change the timeout duration for a zone when the zone is controlled manually. Manual control can be with a handheld device or from the browser. The time set for the manual duration timeout has no effect on the auto program times. If the manual time is set to zero then the zone cannot be manually controlled.

A control button is provided under the Manual Program slider. This button toggles between Run and Stop.

When the Run button is activated then the manual program for that zone will be started. It will run the zone until the zone is stopped or until the manual program duration timeout is exceeded. When the button shows “Stop” then it will stop the currently active program for the zone. This means the zone could have been started manually or automatically and the same button is used to stop that zone from continuing.

Rather than stopping a zone it is also possible to pause the current program so that it can be resumed a short time later. That is done by using the “Pause” button. When selected, this button will toggle to read

“Resume”. When “Resume” is selected then the current program will continue from the point it was paused.

Next to the Pause/Resume button is the “Skip” button. This button is used to skip all zones in tomorrow’s auto program. In essence it tells mcsSprinklers to not automatically run any zones even if they were scheduled for tomorrow. When the Skip is active then the button will change to “Allow” and the decision to not irrigate tomorrow can be rescinded.

There is a slider under the Current Status column. The value showing on this slider represents the percentage of soil moisture saturation. mcsSprinklers keeps track of the soil moisture content based upon weather information and the irrigation performed. When the control strategy is setup on the Area page to be one of the timed modes then soil moisture content is only informational and changing it with the slider has no direct effect. When the control strategy is based upon calculated soil moisture then a change of the slider will have a direct effect on the next irrigation time for the zone.

28

The next scheduled times for the currently selected zone as well as the time that the next scheduled zone will be run are shown under the area labeled “Next Schedule”. As the schedule changes or as zone completes its cycle the status information is updated to reflect the most current information. When the mouse is positioned over the “Auto Program” label at the lower right of the page a popup will appear that occupies most of the screen. This will show the full program with the zones listed in the order that will be run. The current soil moisture levels are also shown on this popup.

The screen updates are performed immediately upon user control of the buttons or sliders. It is updated a few times per minute as the irrigation schedule progresses. There are occasions where a browser looses sync with its server and the updates will stop. There is a small double arrow icon in the upper left of the page that can be used to refresh the screen to assure the information presented is the most current.

The currently active zone will automatically be shown as the selected zone when that zone starts its cycle.

The status dots will update, as will the slider information about the selected zone without the need for a page refresh. The same is true for the Next Schedule information as it changes.

The current time and weather information is shown in the Current Status area. This information is updated as new weather data becomes available. The clock runs continually. The temperature and wind speed buttons can be selected to popup an annual trend chart showing either the temperature or wind speed trends.

This annual information is available for all weather data and zone valve control information when accessed from the calendar from either the General Status or Zone Status pages.

The “Time Remaining” display at the center of the screen shows the number of minutes that are remaining to be run for all zones that are currently scheduled to run at the current time. It is updated each minute as the time counts down.

A three or four week window into the selected zone’s activity is shown in the lower left. The calendar shows each day the zone was run with a green sprinkler graphic and each day it had rained with a blue raindrop graphic. The weather forecast is shown for the next week and a blue sprinkler graphic positioned in the day of the next scheduled irrigation for the zone. A mouse click on a cell in the calendar will popup more detailed information about that day.

The two small icons are at the top right and left of the page are navigation controls. The refresh icons were previously described to refresh the current display’s information. The icon on the upper right is used to get access to the other mcsSprinklers pages. From these pages additional setup can be done or more detailed status information gathered.

The top of graphical display contains three panels that will show different information based upon where

the cursor is hovering on the screen. Figure 7 shows the three views. In all views the center panel shows

the currently selected zone. The selected zone is the one where the remainder of the screen shows information and allows settings for this zone to be changed.

The top view is default view when the cursor is not positioned in a critical area. It provides the time of day and up to six current measurements. The measurements to be shown are user-selected from the General

Status page.

The middle view is shown when the cursor is positioned over a colored dot (Figure 6). These dots are located immediately below the three panels. Each dot corresponds to a zone. The current setup for the zone is shown in the left panel. The right panel shows a picture of the zone.

The bottom view is shown when the cursor is positioned over the left or right scrolling arrows. It shows the picture of the zones that will move to the center panel position with a click of the right or left arrow button.

29

Figure 7 Views Available from Graphical UI

3.5.2 Quick Start – Learn by Example

When mcsSprinklers is started it will place itself as a small icon in the lower right tray of the PC desktop.

The icon will be a blue or green base with water drops rising. Blue indicates that no zones are currently being watered and green when any zone is active. When the icon is clicked it will expand to show a menu of setup and operational selections. When used as a Homeseer plug-in then this icon is not available, but access is provided through the Homeseer menu.

The general setup flow is numerically identified in the popup menu. In some cases there is a dependency on the setup sequence, but in general any setup page can be edited at any time and in any order. The dependencies that exist relate to identification of a valve interface before the valve can be wired and the identification of how the valve is wired before it can be used in a control zone. This means that the

Rain8/Devices setup needs to be done before the Wiring setup and the Wiring setup done before the Zone and Area setups.

A browser interface is used for each setup and control page. This means that the setup can be done from any location to which the PC has network connectivity. It also means that entries made on a page are not recognized until the “Save” button on top of each page is clicked and the screen redrawn.

Navigation among the various pages can be done from the tray icon / menu or it can be done from the links located at the top of each browser page.

30

To illustrate the basic setup flow a few scenarios will be used to base the setup actions. The first will be a minimal setup of one zone to be watered for 30 minutes every other day. Two other scenarios will be shown to illustrate some of the setup features.

Some of these scenarios are available as preconfigured setups that can be selected as the first item in the

Setup Interview. The interview is selected from the tray icon.

3.5.3 Sample Scenarios

3.5.3.1 Scenario 1 – One Zone Setup

A Rain8-Wireless unit is being used to control a single zone on a schedule of 30 minutes every other day.

The computer has a CM17A/Firecracker installed on Com Port 1 to control the Rain8-Wireless.

Select Setup1-Rain8. Choose Rain8-Wireless to identify that the Rain8-Wireless is being used. It comes from the factory programmed as Unit B1 with timeout of 60 minutes in each zone. This is adequate for use in this scenario. If it were not then the Timer setup at the bottom of the page would be used to configure it as desired.

Enter 1 in the Module PC Interface group, Wireless port box to configure the CM17A/Firecracker to use port 1.

Click the radio button at the intersection of house row B and bank 1 to select the Wireless module type.

This means that the module’s valves will be associated with addresses B1 through B8. Click Save button at the top to record these settings.

Select Setup2-Wiring. To identify the wire connection between the valve and the Rain8 module,. let us assume that the valve is connected to the Red wire and we will be using the second position on the module

(B2) for this valve. The first column’s pull down is selected to be RF B2. The second column contains a box to label this valve. Let us call it Lawn and enter this name in the box. Click the Save button.

At this point the Rain8 interface has been defined and the wiring to the valve located in the Lawn has been specified. The next step is to describe when to turn the valve on. The next step is on the Setup4-Zone page where the duration of 30 minutes is identified. There are twelve rows in the Area 1 group and any of these rows can be used. Select the pull down to pick the RF B2 Lawn valve. Enter 30 in the Auto minutes box. Click the Save Button.

Select Setup5-Area. A setup page for the areas will appear. We will use the Area 1 for this scenario.

Click the radio button at the top for this area that identifies it to be an interval strategy. It is one of the five possible selections. Enter 2 in the box below it since the interval is every other day or 2.

This completes the setup for the scenario of a single value using a Rain8 Wireless controller that is scheduled for watering for 30 minutes every other day. The zone will be watered starting at midnight every other day.

3.5.3.2 Scenario 2 – Basic Homeseer Setup of Two Sprinkler Valves

mcsSprinklers is added to an existing Homeseer configuration where the sprinkler valve interface is the

Homeseer X10 interface or virtual devices through other Homeseer plugin. A relay mapped to [1 and an appliance module at M16 will be used to control sprinkler valves. The valves are to be activated for 40 minutes each on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday and not allowed to be run between 10:00 AM and 4:15

PM

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Select Setup1-Devices. To identify the devices that are being used, in the section titled “Homeseer X10-IO

Devices” enter [1,M16 in the text box. Note the comma to separate the two virtual devices. No entries need to be made on any other boxes on this page since the control interface to the hardware is via

Homeseer.

Click Save button at top to record these settings.

Select Setup2-Wiring. To identify the wire connection between the valves and the devices let us assume that the valves are connected to the Red and Blue wires in the wiring harness. Select the row where the wire color is red and from the pull down select [1. In the Location column give it a name. This name will be used to set the name of the Homeseer device.

Click Save button at top to record these settings.

Select Setup4-Zone. Since both valves are on the same M/W/F schedule they can be placed in the same zone. In the valve column select two rows and each valve. In the Auto Minutes column enter 40 for both since that is the duration the zone will be run each time it is activated. Soil Efficiency and Rain Factor will contain default values that do not need to be changed. They are used for control modes based on soil moisture content.

Click Save button at top to record these settings.

Select Setup5-Area. A setup for one area will be presented. It will show the zones associated with the area at the top and the 30/7 day history for the zone. The history will initially be blank. The M/W/F schedule is selected by clicking the “Day-of-Week” radio button and the check boxes for Monday,

Wednesday, and Friday.

No specific start time is needed so the Area start times need no entry. No pump is specified so no entry is needed in this section either.

Click Save button at top to record these settings.

Select Setup6-Restrictions. A variety of restrictions can be imposed. In this case the desired restriction is entered into the “Don’t between hours” with values of 10:00 and 16:15

Click Save button at top to record these settings.

Select Setup9-Other Setup. The browser interface to mcsSprinklers can be serviced by the plug-in or by the Homeseer server. Select the desired radio button.

Real time weather data and forecasted weather as well as nominal seasonal percentages are based upon the zip code. Enter the zip code and click the Save button. The screen will be redrawn and available local weather site will be presented in the Time and Weather Setup section. Select at minimum, the primary site and backup sites if desired.

Near the bottom of the page are some setup options specific to Homeseer. The device codes shown for

Manual mode and Seasonal control are moding devices. One toggles between manual and automatic modes and the other toggles between plug-in Enabled and Disabled. The display options relate to how the

Homeseer Device Strings are formatted and the overall appearance of the browser page. The Database option allows selection of Microsoft Access vs. SQL Server for retention of historical information.

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3.5.3.3 Scenario 3 - Replacement for Stand-alone Timer

A standard timer normally used for timed control of sprinkler zones is being removed and replaced with a

Rain8 to achieve computer control of the sprinkler zones. The following objectives are to be satisfied:

1. 4 Zones are being controlled

2. Rain8-Net used for valve control

3. Watering scheduled for Monday, Wednesday and Friday for Lawn areas and daily for garden

4. Two lawn zones to be watered for 60 minutes, one for 30 minutes and the garden for 20 minutes

5. Watering cycle to start at 2:15 AM for the lawn and 1 hour after sunrise for the garden

6. Garden water is supplied by a pump while the others by city water

7. Com port 2 is available on the PC

The setup flow is the same as with scenario 1 starting with the Rain8 interface, its wiring, the control strategy for the areas, and the durations for the zones.

Setup1-Rain8. The Rain8-Net module needs an address. Since only one is being used, we can search to find it, or we can just program a specific address. In this case we will set it to 1 and then search to confirm.

The first step is to remove the Rain8 module from connection to any valves. The programming of the unit cannot be done in an “installed” configuration. All programming is done from entries made in the EPROM

Timers group at the bottom of the Setup1-Rain8 page. The programming port number is selected to identify the serial connection to the PC. The module type radio button is selected to be Rain8-Net. The address box entry is 1. The timeout/safety times will be set to 80 in this scenario since it is a reasonable value above the maximum time of 60 minutes that is planned. After all entries are made then the Write

EPROM button is clicked. This will reprogram the connected module. After a few seconds the Read

EPROM button can be clicked to read back the current settings to confirm that the proper settings were applied. The module can be removed from the programming port now and connected to the port that will be used for normal operation. These may be the same ports and in this case no move is required.

At this point we know the Rain8 module’s address is 1 so we can do a search and know what to expect.

The search is done from the top of this same page. First the Rain8-Net interface port is identified to be 2 in the Interface group. This is the port that will be used to communicate with the Rain8-Net in a normal operational setup. The second group on the page contains two buttons. The rightmost one is clicked to start the search. The page will be redrawn with a window between the two buttons. A value will increment in this window to show the current address that is being searched for Rain8-Net modules. In this case we do not expect any after 1, so when a number greater than 1 appears the rightmost button can again be clicked to stop the search.

At this point the Rain8-Net module has been setup to interface to the valves.

Setup2-Wiring. Four valves are being connected so four wires will need to be identified to mark which wire is connected to which valve. A pump is being controlled so a fifth wire is also needed. If they are in the same harness then all can be specified in the Harness 1 group. Use the pull down on each row to make the linkage between water valve, wire color, and Rain8-Net valve control. The pull down will show NET 1

Valve 1 through 8 since that is what was previously identified. Each valve is given a name in the boxes on the rows. Let us use Front Yard, Back Yard, Flower Bed, and Garden. The pump will be called Pump.

Setup4-Zone. The four zones are organized into two areas per the setup that was done for the Area control times. The three lawn valves are identified with pull-downs in the Area 1 zone group and Auto times entered as 60, 60, and 30 in the three identified rows.

In the Area 2 Zones a single row will be selected to identify the garden valve and enter the 20-minute cycle.

The manual times for each of the 4 zones will also be entered with the same values so manual control of each zone can be done.

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Setup5-Area. The lawn requires a M-W-F schedule while the garden requires a daily one. This implies that two areas need to be defined. The first will be for the lawn zones. The control strategy is selected to be Day-of-Week with the radio button at the top. The Monday, Wednesday, and Friday checkbox are checked. Watering is to start at two hours 15 minutes before sunrise, so -2:15 is entered into Time1 box with a relative to sunrise selection.

In Area2 the Interval radio button is selected and a value of 1 for the interval. The entry in the Time1 box will be 1 and the radio button checked to the time will be relative to sunrise. This area has a pump so the pull down is used to identify the wire connected to the pump.

Setup8-Weather. Since the time specified for the garden is relative to sunrise there needs to be location information entered so mcsSprinklers can computer sunrise and sunset times. This is done from the

Setup8-Weather page with an entry in the Zip Code box. Since weather information is not needed the

Internet download method can be set to Don’t Download Weather and Forecast Data.

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3.5.3.4 Scenario 4 - Typical Use of Features

A typical scenario will go beyond the setup for the quick start. The following example illustrates the setup the achieves the following objectives:

1. Sprinklers enabled in 15 zones of lawn when soil moisture below 0.5 equivalent rain inches

2. Sprinklers enabled every other day for 3 zone garden

3. Water can only be used for irrigation on even days of the month

4. Sprinklers disabled during the heat of the day

5. Sprinklers disabled when it is windy

6. Sprinklers disabled if rain forecasted within two days

7. Only enough water pressure to do one zone at a time

8. Need to do a precheck of the zones to confirm all valves and heads are in order

9. Rain8-X10-2 units to be used

10. Pump used for all irrigation

Setup1-Rain8. Similar procedure as in the prior scenarios with a caveat that the Rain8 X10-2 units need to be programmed with different house/bank codes. Assume the programming is setup for N1 through N8 and

N9 through N16 to handle the 15 lawn zones. M1 through M8 for the garden zones. In the case of the M1 through M8 module it needs to be configured to use Valve 8 as the pump control. When all the three units have been programmed there will be 23 available zones and 1 pump, which is adequate for the 18-zone requirement.

No other X10 automation controller exists so the X10-2 modules can be configured in the optimal Ack on

Cmd and Poll configuration and the default 5 seconds between commands is acceptable setup for the

X10/RF Interface section.

Setup2-Wiring. Similar procedure as in other two scenarios.

Setup4-Zone. Similar procedure as in the other scenarios, but in this case we are also concerned with the ability to manually control the valves for only short duration testing. Because of this a time should be entered for each of the Manual time boxes that are being used. When a valve is turned on manually then it will run for the Manual time number of minutes or until it is manually turned off.

Setup5-Area. Similar procedure as in the other scenarios. In this case, however the control strategy for the lawn is selected to be calculated with the radio button and the threshold box under it is set to be 50%. For the Garden and Lawn the pump will be selected

Since the water pressure is limited then only one zone should be watered at a time. This specification is made in each of the two area sections of the page to specify that the sequencing is part of a single master sequence. If the checkbox is unchecked then the two lawn areas will be watered in parallel rather than in series.

Setup6-Restrictions. A variety of restrictions are imposed in this scenario. Each of these is entered on this page. The “heat of the day” limitation can be coded in the Between Hours boxes. Perhaps values of

11:00 and 18:00 would be appropriate times to not allow watering to occur. “Windy” may be translated to a value of 10 MPH for 5 minutes. This means that over a 5-minute period the average wind speed must be less than 10 MPH. Forecasted precipitation implies a reasonable probability of rain. An entry of 50 percent, 2 days, and the corresponding checkbox will result in a watering restriction if either of the next two days has at least a 50% probability of precipitation.

Setup7-Remote Control. The ability to pre-check the valves implies manual control, but also may imply the use of a remote control pad. The remote control pad will send RF codes consistent with X10 protocol and these need to be received and associated with specific valves. There are 18 zones so 18 discrete

House/Unit code values will need to be entered. For simplicity the unit codes should be the same as the

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valve codes. This means something like K1 through K3 and L1 through L15 could be entered into each box on the Remote Control Page.

Remote input also implies an interface to remote signals. A W800 is attached to COM2 as the RF receiver so 2 is entered for the W800 port.

Setup8-Weather. The wind speed data is obtained from a local reporting station. The available stations are contained in the pull downs in the Weather group of this page. The stations are associated with zip codes so a change in zip code will change the list of available stations. Up to three stations can be specified to handle the cases when a station happens to be inoperative.

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3.5.3.5 Scenario 5 – Dual PC – Dual Hardware Interface Configuration

The dual PC configuration will build upon Scenario 4 setup by showing the additional considerations for the redundant configuration. There are a variety of redundant configuration setups. This one will assume the following hardware;

Two CM11A Power line interfaces

Two W800 RF Interfaces

Two Computers running in Active/Standby irrigation mode

Computer 1 name is MAIN and contains CM11A interface and W800 interface

Computer 2 name is GARAGE and contains CM11A interface W800 interface

Same Rain8 controller hardware as scenario 4

The setup will be performed on the primary computer first and then when completed a few changes will be made from the secondary computer. The following applies to the primary computer (MAIN). This computer needs to have the folder where mcsSprinklers is installed to be shared over the LAN. Consult your Windows operating system documentation to make this folder shared.

Computer # 1 (MAIN)

Setup1-Rain8. No Change

Setup2-Wiring. No Change

Setup4-Zone. No Change

Setup5-Area. No Change.

Setup6-Restrictions. No Change.

Setup7-Remote Control . No Change

Setup9-Other. Redundancy backup mode selected as “Standby Backup”. This will cause a blue highlight to the middle of the Others page when the Save is clicked.

Computer #2 (GARAGE)

On the second computer (GARAGE) the mcsSprinklers application is started after the computer # 1 setup is complete. This will allow the sharing of the setup that was previously done. It can be changed from either computer at any time and both will be updated.

Setup9-Other. Redundancy backup mode selected as “Standby Backup”. This will cause a blue highlight to the middle of the Others page when the Save is clicked. Note the backup mode setting is the same as on the first computer. The setup entries shown in blue are not shared so each needs to be made individually on each computer.

Redundancy Backup Mode\Path to primary mcsSprinklers edited to change the computer name (GARAGE) to (MAIN). This path is where the configuration information is stored. It will be stored only on one computer and MAIN was selected to be the primary. After editing it will show as \\GARAGE\C\Program

Files\mcsSprinklers.

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3.5.3.6 Scenario 6 – Dual PC – Single Hardware Interface

Configuration

The dual PC configuration will build upon Scenario 4 setup by showing the additional considerations for the redundant configuration. There are a variety of redundant configuration setups. This one will assume the following hardware

One CM17A Wireless interface

One W800 RF Interface

Two Computers running in Active/Standby irrigation mode

Computer 1 name is MAIN and contains CM17A interface

Computer 2 name is GARAGE and contains W800 interface

Same Rain8 controller hardware as scenario 4

The setup will be performed on the primary computer first and then when completed a few changes will be made from the secondary computer. The following applies to the primary computer (MAIN). This computer needs to have the folder where mcsSprinklers is installed to be shared over the LAN. Consult your Windows operating system documentation to make this folder shared.

Computer # 1 (MAIN)

Setup1-Rain8. Module PC Interface selects “External via XAP Address”. The address in the text box can be left blank since only one interface node will be implemented. Commands to control the Rain8Wireless will now be delivered as xAP messages over the LAN rather than as a direct connection to the CM17A.

Setup2-Wiring. No Change

Setup4-Zone. No Change

Setup5-Area. No Change.

Setup6-Restrictions. No Change.

Setup7-Remote Control. The W800 IP and W800 Port boxes are left blank. This means there is no W800 directly connected to this PC, but will get the W800 reports via the LAN.

Setup9-Other. Redundancy backup mode selected as “Standby Backup”. This will cause a blue highlight to the middle of the Others page when the Save is clicked.

Launch Redundant Application on Startup/Rain 8 Interfaces/Wireless Interface checkbox checked so that the interface to the CM17A will be activated next time mcsSprinklers starts. The interface software user interface will appear in the tray as a missile-like icon. When this icon is clicked a setup option will appear and the port number entered for the CM17A interface is entered. Note that is secondary setup can only be done after mcsSprinklers has been restarted.

Supplemental xAP Interface/Start Hub checkbox is checked. This will allow xAP communications on this computer.

Computer #2 (GARAGE)

On the second computer (GARAGE) the mcsSprinklers application is started after the computer # 1 setup is complete. This will allow the sharing of the setup that was previously done. It can be changed from either computer at any time and both will be updated.

Setup9-Other. Redundancy backup mode selected as “Standby Backup”. This will cause a blue highlight to the middle of the Others page when the Save is clicked. Note the backup mode setting is the same as on

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the first computer. The setup entries shown in blue are not shared so each needs to be made individually on each computer.

Redundancy Backup Mode\Path to primary mcsSprinklers edited to change the computer name (GARAGE) to (MAIN). This path is where the configuration information is stored. It will be stored only on one computer and MAIN was selected to be the primary. After editing it will show as \\GARAGE\C\Program

Files\mcsSprinklers.

Launch Redundant Application on Startup/Rain 8 Interfaces/Handheld Remote checkbox should be checked so that the interface to the W800 will be activated next time mcsSprinklers starts. The interface software user interface will appear in the tray as a ray-like icon. When this icon is clicked a setup option will appear and the port number entered for the W800 interface is entered. Note that is secondary setup can only be done after mcsSprinklers has been restarted.

Supplemental xAP Interface/Start Hub checkbox is checked. This will allow xAP communications on this computer.

Supplemental xAP Interface/xAP UID changes from FF000800 to FF000900 to give the second instance of mcsSprinklers a unique identification on the LAN.

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4 Physical Installation

The physical installation consists of routing wires from the field to the Rain8 or EtherRain controllers, the connection of controllers to the personal computer(s) and connection of the computer(s) to the Internet.

Obviously each new location will have new wiring routed and valves installed. The setup for the initial configuration will be performed per the steps in the following paragraphs. [Version-Dependent Capability]

If a second installation is done, then the setup can be based off of a prior install by transferring the configuration file contained in c:\program files\mcsSprinklers\mcsSprinklers.ini.

4.1 Field Wiring

Wires from the valves in the field are usually bundled in one or more harnesses and each wire in a harness is color-coded. When multiple harnesses are used then each harness needs to be manually labeled to assure that the proper harness is identified as it is being installed in the controller. Valve wiring is a low voltagecapacity where the wire gauge requirements are based upon the distance from the valve to the controller.

There are no special electrical shielding requirements for wires in this harness. Wires may also be run for flow meters or moisture probes. These may have special requirements for shielding or proximity to other types of wires and this need to be obeyed for a successful install.

The terminal end of a wiring harness is connected to one or more Rain8 or EtherRain controllers. The

Rain8 controllers are located at a convenient location that is protected from the weather. The controllers can be collocated or located at locations this is convenient based upon the source of the harness. A collocated organization will tend to have better long-term serviceability.

Each Rain8 or EtherRain module can accommodate seven or eight wires. Each wire is connected to a post in the terminal block. At least one common return wire needs to be installed in a terminal post. The 8th valve position in the terminal block may be connected to a valve or to a pump. The use of the pump control in this manner will dependent upon the type of Rain8 or EtherRain controller and this will be discussed later. The terminal block is not installed in the Rain8 at this time, but it should be manually labeled so the correct Rain8 controller is later mated to the proper terminal block.

4.2 Controller Connection

4.2.1 Controller to PC

Three models of Rain8 controllers are available with the primary difference between each being the mechanism by which it is connected to the personal computer. The connection methods are a low-voltage cable, an interface to the high-voltage AC power line, and an interface for wireless radio frequency connection.

The Rain8-Net module uses a RS232 cable that plugs into a COM serial port of the PC. Additional Rain8-

Net modules are interconnected with RS485 cables.

The Rain8-Wireless module listens for commands via radio frequency transmissions. The PC can generate these commands with an interface to one of its COM ports. The most basic of these interfaces is a

CM17A/Firecracker. RF communications can penetrate walls, but are also sensitive to nearby RF noise sources. For this reason it may be desirable to connect an RS232 extension cable between the PC’s COM port and the CM17A. Additional Rain8-Wireless modules are interconnected with RS485 cables.

The Rain8-Power line module listens for commands per the X10 protocol on the household AC wiring.

The electronics at both the PC and Rain8-Power line end cannot be directly plugged into the 120VAC line.

The Rain8-Power line module uses a TW523 adapter to protect it. Up to two Rain8-Power line modules can share one TW523 adapter. The PC-side connection is a CM11A connection to a PC’s COM port. The

CM11A and CM17A can share the same COM port if both types of Rain8 modules are used.

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The EtherRain is connected to the LAN with typical Cat5/6 cable to an Ethernet switch or router. Multple modules are connected via different ports on the switch or router.

Since multiple Rain8 modules can be used in a single installation it is necessary to configure each module to respond to a unique address. This configuration is done from the Setup1-Rain8 page. The programming of any Rain8 module is done one module at a time. The module is connected to a COM port on the PC.

The module cannot have the terminal block with the valve wires connected. . In the basic and Standard versions of mcsSprinklers this is done with a utility program downloaded from the WGL website .

(download r82.zip for 2-way Rain8II or rain8config.zip for 1-way Rain8)

Figure 8 shows the segment of the Setup1-Rain8 page that is used for configuring the Rain8 module. The

Rain8module contains an EPROM and all settings for the EPROM are done at one time. This includes the module address; pump configuration, and timer setup. The COM connection to the PC that is being used for the programming and the type of module is identified to start the process. The programming is

performed by filling in all the fields shown in Figure 8 and then clicking the Write EPROM button. To

confirm the setup was properly saved to the Rain8 device, click the Read EPROM button to read the current contents of the Rain8 EPROM.

After a module type selection is saved the remainder of the EPROM setup will show dark grey fields for the settings that are not available for the selected module type.

The timer values in the right column are used to set a minimum time for that valve. This should be set to a value greater than the amount of time you plan to have that zone run. They are used to protect the system by placing an absolute limit on the time that a valve will be allowed to remain open. In the case of the

Rain8-Net, Rain8-UPB, and Rain8-X10-2 this safety feature can be overridden with the checkbox entry.

The other modules have no override. Values in the range 1 to 250 are acceptable.

Note also the special configuration for a pump on the Rain8-Wireless unit. This model will allow the 8 th valve to be slaved to the other seven with the intention that it will control a pump. When any of the first seven are ON then the 8 th

will be ON and when all are OFF then the 8 th

will be OFF.

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Figure 8 Rain8 Address and Timer Setup

Once the controllers have been assigned an address and the other EPROM parameters set and saved the

Rain8 modules can be connected to the terminal block. This can be done later as well. In either case the configurations that have been programmed need to be entered into the top part of the Setup1-Rain8 page unless the Homeseer interface is being used. In that case no entry is needed for the Wireless or Power line

sections of Figure 9.

In operational use each type of module is connected via a COM port to the PC or via the Local Area

Network (LAN) to another PC with a usable COM port. This COM port may or may not be different than

the one used for programming the module. The port used is entered into the text box shown in Figure 9 if

the local computer contains the CM17A/CM11A interface.

It is also possible to interface the module using a remote interface rather than one directly connected to the computer. The remote interface must be somewhere on the LAN and at the remote location an interface

module will be installed and the interface software run. The interface modules are those shown in Table 2.

The remote vs. internal connection is selected and if remote, then the target address of the interface is entered. This address can be wild carded so an entry such as *.*.* will usually accomplish the objective.

In the case of all Rain8 types except the Wireless, it is possible to interface these devices with LAN connection to an IP/Serial converter. These adapters can be wireless or wired. Communication to these devices can be direct to the IP and Port of the IP/Serial converter or can be through a port driver that maps

the IP/Serial device to an extended COM port. The setup of the Rain8UPB in Figure 9 shows the

connection directly to the IP/Serial device. If a COM port is used then the port entry would be simply the port number such as 6 and the IP entry would be blank such as is shown for the Rain8Net connection.

When using the Homeseer X10 interface, the entry that should be made is the list of Homeseer devices per

Paragraph HomeSeer Devices or X10 devices per the grid of Figure 11

The Save button at the top of the page is used to record the settings.

Figure 9 Rain8 Modules to PC Connection Setup

For the X10 power line and RF interfaces additional information is used to characterize how the interface

will be used. This is shown in Figure 10. A gap is placed between X10 commands to relieve loading on

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the power line. This delay is entered as the number of seconds between each command. In the case of the

Rain8X10-2 the module itself will provide a status response identifying the state of its valve. When the

EPROM of the module is programmed it can be set to immediately respond with status after a command or it can be configured to respond with status only on a status request command. If it configured to respond only after a status request then mcsSprinklers will issue a status request after some delay after each valve command. The delay time is a user-selectable entry. In the case of the Homeseer configuration where the

X10 interface is managed by Homeseer, then the EPROM must be configured to respond only on poll since

Homeseer does not know how to deal with an automatic status response. The delay timing parameters are managed by mcsSprinklers to assure that reasonable values are entered. The typical response time between a Rain8X10-2 status request and its response is 3 to 4 seconds. This means that the command-to-command delay should be greater than 4 seconds to assure that the status is not being returned at the same time as the next command is being issued and the two collide.

The two buttons shown in the interface test (Figure 10) can be used to test the interface connection. In this

case an ON command followed by a five second delay and then OFF is sent over the interface that corresponds to the button. These can be used to check the connectivity of the interface setup.

Figure 10 X10 Interface Characterization

The addresses that were assigned to the Rain8 modules are entered into the middle panels of the Setup1-

Rain8 page. This area is shown in Figure 11, Figure 12 and Figure 13.

The Rain8 Net/WiFi can be connected to a single PC port or multiple ports. A typical configuration is a single port connection with all Rain8 modules connected together with RS485 daisy-chained cables between each module. In this case there is one master. If the rain8 modules cannot be physically daisychained and still connect to the valve wiring then multiple PC ports can be used to make the connection. In this case there are multiple masters. This selection is made in the Master Modules text box shown in

Figure 12.

In the case of the Rain8-Net / WiFi there are two methods to identify the modules that will be put into service. One is to allow mcsSprinklers search for the modules and the other is to enter the module number in the text box. The easiest method is to enter the module numbers with a comma separating each in the text box provided. To use the search method the Find Rain8 Modules button is clicked. A new window will appear with the current address being search displayed. When this address goes beyond the highest number programmed into the EPROM then the same button can be clicked again to stop the search. It will stop itself at 255 if not manually stopped.

When multiple masters are connected then this process is repeated for each master. If the interface method is via xAP it can be considered a single master and all module numbers entered into a single text box.

The normal wait time allowed for a response from the Rain8Net is 5000 milliseconds. This can be increased to deal with an underpowered computer that may not be able to sustain the load it is carrying.

The Rain8Net supports a protocol that provide acknowledge of each command and allows the status of valves within the module to be queried. mcsSprinklers will always wait for acknowledgement and retry

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commands up to four times before declaring a valve failed. Options are available to allow mcsSprinklers to query the module after a command or every minute. If a status response is not what mcsSprinklers expected for the valve then mcsSprinklers will send command(s) as necessary to place the valves in the correct state. For the status polling to be effective the quality of the communication with the Rain8Net modules must be good. This is especially true when polling every minute. Some interfaces tend to buffer commands so the timing relationships are not maintained and responses will not be available in the expected time window allowed.

For the Rain8-UPB the modules are identified by a text box shown on Figure 13. Each Rain8-UPB module

will occupy 8 UPB Device ID’s. Module #1 will be DID’s 1 through 8. Module #2 will be DID’s 9 through 16, etc.

In the case of the other two module types there is no mechanism for the module to report its address when not connected to the programming port. For these, and when not using the Homeseer X10 Interface to

control the module, the addresses of all units that are installed needs to be entered into the grid of Figure

11. This includes the identification of the module type and if it was programmed to respond to addresses 1

to 8 or 9 to 16.

Figure 11 Rain8 X10-based Module Address Setup

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Figure 12 Rain8 Net-based Module Address Setup

Figure 13 Rain8 UPB Module Address Setup

The EtherRain is identified by its Name, IP address and port. The “Find EtherRain Modules” button is used to populate the information. This will list each module on the LAN and complete the number of modules text box. If the information is correct the “Save Changes” button at the top of the page should be used to record the discovered information. When mcsSprinklers starts it will show a blue circle next to each EtherRain module name. It will change to green after successful communication to it and red after it fails to respond.

If a setup is being done without the EtherRain modules connected the “Number of Modules” text box should be completed and a set of blank rows will be presented as placeholders. The module names can be entered and the IP will be populated automatically later when the modules are connected. When taking this offline approach it is important to correctly name the modules with the Quicksmart admin utility prior to connection to the LAN so the positional relationships of the modules will be maintained. During a Find operation mcsSprinklers will add modules to the list, but will never remove modules. Modules are removed by clearing the name field and doing a “Save Changes”. Relative position is important so it will be better to rename modules rather than remove them to maintain zone identities that are later setup. This is true even if a module is permanently removed.

Each module must have a unique name and these can be programmed with the Quicksmart admin utility.

The IP address is determined from the network definition. This will be either with DHCP by the LAN’s router or statically if so programmed with the Quicksmart admin utility. The default is DHCP. mcsSprinklers will be testing a change in IP address as it communicates with the EtherRain module and will perform the necessary updates should a DHCP assignment change.

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Each EtherRain module will enforce a password access. mcsSprinklers expects the same password to be

setup on each EtherRain module. The password is conveyed to mcsSprinklers as shown in Figure 14. The

password will be “pw” unless changed with the Quicksmart admin utility.

Figure 14 EtherRain Module Address Setup

4.2.2 Communication Test

The ability to communicate between the computer and all the Rain8 modules depends upon solid connections between the modules and with the computer. The Rain8Net and Rain8UPB can be configured with multiple modules and a single interface to the computer. A communication test capability is included to evaluate the quality of the connection for these two types of modules. The communication test is run by

clicking on one or the other of the Communication Test buttons on the Rain8 Setup page. (Figure 12 and

Figure 13).

When activated a new browser display will show each of the defined valves and the status of communication with each. The test is performed by requesting a status from each valve. Counts are maintained for unexpected ON, unexpected OFF, and No-response timeouts and RS-232 protocol errors as

shown in Figure 15. Colored icons are also shown in the Stat column to provide a quick visualization of

the overall status.

The test is performed by setting a single valve in every module ON and then polling each module for the status of its eight valves. For a large number of Rain8 units consideration needs to be given to the amperage available from the 24VAC transformer as it will need to be able to power one valve per module simultaneously.

The results shown in Figure 15 illustrate a system where only the first Rain8Net module has a

communication connection for a test that was run for 20 cycles with timeout showing 36 counts. This equates to timeouts on the commands and the retries of the commands. A situation like this is indicative of a lack of 24VAC applied to the modules or poor wiring between the first and second modules. The counts show the number of failures experienced. A count in the OFF column, for example, indicates that an OFF was expected, but not observed.

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Figure 15 Communication Test for Rain8Net and Rain8UPB

4.2.3 HomeSeer Devices

mcsSprinklers can accept any Homeseer devices to be used as the zone and pump valves. In this situation the physical interface to the valve is managed by Homeseer with the logical control of these devices performed by mcsSprinklers. It is possible to have a combination of directly-connected Rain8 units and

Homeseer virtual devices. The list of Homeseer devices is identified as a comma-separated list of devices

codes as is shown in Figure 16.

Figure 16 Identification of Homeseer Devices

4.2.4 Interface Protocol

The Rain8-Net communication typically consists of a three-byte command followed by a three-byte acknowledges. mcsSprinklers confirms that the proper acknowledge bytes are received. If not, then it will retry once per command sent. When a valve control command is sent to the Rain8-Net, mcsSprinklers will also send a status request. If the expected status is not received then it will send the command a second time. Each Rain8-Net module can have up to four valves on at the same time. mcsSprinklers will verify that no more than four are on and will ignore commands for additional valve-on until other valves have been turned off.

The Rain8-Wireless communications via the CM17A interface uses the DTR and RTS discrete signals of the COM port to provide power and to command the transmission of RF codes. The modulation rate of

47

DTR and RTS determine which RF code is transmitted. No status feedback is available on the RF interface.

The Rain8-Power line communications via the CM11A interface uses a five-byte command packet.

Acknowledgement is received for a successful transmission and if not received the command is resent.

This acknowledge, however, only relates to delivery of the command onto the power line. It does not necessarily it is received by the Rain8-Power line. The CM11A also listens to commands from other sources such as a remote control device. The data reception events are processed by reading the delivered command.

An additional diagnostic aid is available to see the serial communication to the valve hardware. It is referenced from the Serial IO link or /iowindow page on the mcsSprinklers URL from the browser.

Each character that is sent or received on the COM port is displayed in this window.

Figure 17 Serial IO Communications Diagnostic Window

4.2.5 Valve Wire to Controller

The valve wires have previously been routed from the field and installed in the Rain8 terminal blocks. The next step is to identify how these wires were connected to the terminal block (i.e. what valve wire is associated with which Rain8 valve control). This setup is done with the Setup2-Wiring page shown in

Figure 18.

The control valves that are available will be shown in the pull down in the second column of the page. The valves available are those identified in the prior step. The Location column is used to provide a recognizable name for the zone that is controlled by the valve. This location name is used for status display and voice commands.

The Picture File is the file path to a digital image that shows the landscape covered by the valve wire. It is used later as a popup image for zone reference identification and as the primary identification method when using the touch-screen graphic interface.

The upper right corner of each harness group is a value that identifies how many wires are contained in the harness. It will default to 8 and can be expanded or reduced by changing the number in the box followed by a Save. The upper left contains a text box to enter any labeling information that may help to identify the wire bundle. This labeling information is not used elsewhere. It is provided here as a means of retaining the information for future reference.

The page will always show one harness at the bottom that has no wires present. If wires are added followed by a Save, then a new blank harness will appear at the bottom.

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Figure 18 Harnesses Wiring to Rain8 Valve Setup

The Layout setup is used to make assignments as to how each valve will be used and make basic assignments of how long the valves will be enabled. The Zone setup is used to provide additional information about zone. This includes efficiency of application, and rate of drainage or sunlight exposure

and water utilization rates. These setup options are shown in Figure 19 and Figure 20 .

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Figure 19 Layout Page

The watering strategy to be applied to a zone is described in Automated Control Strategy. “Auto” Minutes

applies to this strategy. The time for the first program is shown on the zone setup page. If multiple watering times (i.e. programs) are defined for an Area then a clickable icon will appear next to the Auto time entry. By default the zone’s duration for each program is the same, but can be tailored with a different duration for each watering period. By selecting a zero value for a zone’s program the zone will be

50

excluded from this specific program, but still participate in others. Clicking the icon will bring up the panel

as shown in Figure 21.

“Manual” Minutes applies to direct or remote control. Manual control will supersede auto program control and can be used as often as desired without affecting the total duration of the auto program.

“Syringing” Minutes is the light sprinkling of water on turf usually done during the hottest part of the day to prevent wilting. During the hottest days of the year the Evapotranspiration rate often exceeds the plants ability to draw water in from the soil. The result of this water deficit is wilt. To reduce the stress from this water deficit syringing is used. It does not actually replacing the water in the soil but instead it reduces the wilting cycle by cooling off the turf and temporarily stopping wilt until rainfall or hand watering can be initiated.

“Soil” Efficiency factor relates to the effectiveness of water saturation when it is applied and the ability to retain water within the crop. Nominal soil and grass is represented by default 0.75. Higher factors will reflect a slower moisture loss rate.

“Rain” factor relates to the degree that rainfall will reach the soil level. Uncovered zones will be 1.0 and fully sheltered zones will be 0.0.

“Fert” factor is the fraction of zone’s time that the Area’s fertigation valve is enabled when the zone is enabled. This is used to apply liquid fertilizer through the irrigation system.

“Flow” Calc is the estimate of the gallon/liter per minute flow rate delivered by the total of all valves heads of the zone. The total cumulative flow volume is reported in a status device on the General Status page and Calendar.

“Flow” Max is the maximum daily water use to be measured for the zone. When this value is exceeded a notification will be provided via the message log and email if setup. This value is only used when a water meter is present to measure the water use when a zone is active. Another approach to water monitoring is based upon exceeding the averages that are expected. This is done from the Area Setup page.

The default number of zones allowed per area is 12. This can be changed by the text box entry in the upper right of each area’s set of zones. A Save is required to affect the change of this text box entry.

In the top left of each area is a location to enter the name of an Area. If it is used then this name will be added to status displays and control buttons to help identify the Area being viewed. The names selected should be short otherwise the long name may interfere with the space allocated for area identifications on the Zone Status page.

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Figure 20 Zone Parameters Setup

Figure 21 Zone Program Time Tailoring

4.2.6 Internet Connection and Local Area Network

An internet connection is not essential for basic operation, but features will not be available without it.

Connection to the internet can be accomplished in several manners and the Windows operating system provides wizards to help achieve this objective.

McsSprinklers connects to Internet to obtain current environmental conditions from a local reporting station. This is done in both a single-PC setup and in a multiple-PC setup. When a redundant operation is

52

desired then the Internet connection needs to be available to all PCs on the Local Area Network. This can be achieved with a router that bridges the Internet and LAN. It can also be done with Internet Connection

Sharing within the computer that has the direct or dial-up connection to the Internet.

Current weather information from the internet is available from the AWS network such is used in many local schools and reported on local new stations. It is also available from the WeatherUnderground network. This network is primarily personal weatherstions that upload to the WeatherUnderground server. mcsSprinklers uses the standard port 80 and HTTP protocol to access external Internet locations. The zip code is used to identify local Forecast and AWS stations. The WeatherUnderground stations are identified by the their Station ID which can be obtained by using a Browser and navigating to the URL http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/ListStations.asp?selectedState=WA&selectedCountry=Unit ed+States . For non-USA location the navigation can be started at http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/ListStations.asp

.

For current weather conditions a selection from one to three of these stations is made. Not all stations report reliably so more than one should be selected as backup(s). Either AWS or WeatherUnderground

can be used at one time with the selection made with the radio button shown on Figure 22. If AWS is used

then there is no need to enter WeatherUnderground stations. The converse is also true.

Forecast weather conditions are also obtained from the Internet using either WeatherUnderground,

AccuWeather or National Weather Service. The Setup8-Weather page segment to support these selections

is shown in Figure 22. For forecast information from WeatherUnderground there needs to be a free

registration to obtain a license key from http://www.wunderground.com/weather/api/d/pricing.html

This license key as well as a station identifier are used on the setup. The station identifier can be zip code or a variety of other means to identify. Review of the Documentation tab from the same WeatherUnderground page where the license/API key is requested for other means to identify the location. For AccuWeather the

stations can be zip code internationally from the codes list in Section 11.

Many AWS or WeatherUnderground reporting stations do not contain a full suite of sensors and are able to provided only a subset of weather data. The daily rainfall is one that may not be available. To help overcome this shortfall an AWS or WeatherUnderground site can be selected to provide only rainfall information. When one is selected the rainfall will be provided by this source rather than from the other three potential sources. If desired the secondary or tertiary site can also be used for rainfall only.

It is possible that Forecast data or Weather data fails to be updated at the source site or the connection with the source site is lost. When Weather data is lost then the latest information from the Forecast site will be used. When Forecast data is lost then average values will be used to compute Evapotranspiration. The loss of either Weather or Forecast data will generate a message that can be viewed locally or will be optionally delivered via Email. The timeout threshold for this message is entered for each Weather and Forecast. A forecast site will only update hourly or less based upon licensing rules. A Weather site’s update interval varies, but five minutes is typical. .

From a quality of information perspective a local weather station will provide the best set of data specific to a site. Current conditions from AWS or WU will provide the same quality of information and the selection should be based upon the proximity of the reporting station and the reliabilty of its feed.

WeatherUnderground, AccuWeather or NWS provide equivalent forecast information. If NWS is used for forecast then the EPA should be used as the UV source if a local UV or ET measurements is not available.

EPA is automatically used for Standard mcsSprinklers version as long as a zip code is present.

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Figure 22 Weather Source Selections

Use of weather information from a local weather station is possible if a station is installed at the site. The interface mechanism available for local equipment follows a client-server model so that the local weather station can be used for multiple needs. This is either via an IP address using HTTP protocol or via the

Windows File System using comma-separated-values (csv) file format.

The WeatherHawk is interfaced via its IP port. The port information needs to be entered if this weather station is to be used. The Davis Vantage Pro is interfaced via software provided by AmbientWeather.com

Virtual Weather Station using the csv file mechanism provided by that software. mcsSprinklers will read the current data from the file path that is entered here on the setup.

This setup is shown in Figure 23

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Figure 23 Local Weather Station Data Source

Once the internet weather data sources have been selected they can be tested to assure the site is operational and reasonable data is returned. The “Evaluate Internet Download from Selected Stations” button on

Figure 22 is used to make an immediate query of all the sites. The results will be shown in a new page

such as shown in Figure 24.

Figure 24 Weather Site Download Test

Each individual sensor can be obtained from one of the available selected sources. The default is to use the internet AWS or WU for the weather sensors, WeatherUnderground, AccuWeather or NOAA National

Weather Service for the forecast sensors, and for mcsSprinklers to compute the remainder that are not available from these sources.

The ET “sensor” is important when ET-based scheduling is performed. Some local weather stations provide this as a direct measurement that can be used via xAP, Weatherhawk, Homeseer or CSV mechanisms. Internet data containing ET is not available, but can be computed from other sensor sources.

These are temperature, wind, humidity and a measure of solar intensity. The solar source can be either from the Solar Radiation sensor or from the UV sensor. When selecting a computed ET don’t forget to also select the source for the sensors that are used in the ET computation.

On a sensor-by-sensor basis this can be changed as shown in Figure 25 if other sources are available. In the

case of xAP and Homeseer sourced sensors the selection of the specific address or device is necessary. For the others, only an indication of the source feed is necessary and mcsSprinklers will find it in the feed.

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The options that are available for Weather Sensor Source will depend upon other options selected as possible sources of weather data.

When the sensor values are viewed on the General Status page there will be a grayed-out identification of the source of the sensor. This may be a weather station address or a few letters to represent the source.

Figure 25 Individual Sensor Source Selections

McsSprinklers will also respond to browser requests from remote locations in the same manner that is responds to request from the Windows desktop of the local PC. The HTTP protocol supported by standard

56

browsers such as Internet Explorer or Safari continues to be used, but the port defaults to 8008 rather than

80. This is to prevent contention with other potential servers on the local PC and to provide a degree of security since hackers focus on breaching port 80. When configured for operation with Homeseer it is also

possible to utilize the Homeseer server for this purpose. In this case the selection of the server in Figure 26

is just the Homeseer radio button as compared to both the internal radio button and port number.

This port number can be changed if necessary from the Setup9-Others page as shown in Figure 26.

Figure 26 Port Selections for Remote Access

The browser interface to the setup of the various mcsSprinkler pages provides context-sensitive help. As the mouse hovers over the darker header banner of any group a popup tooltip will appear to the right of the mouse to provide information on the setup of that section. As the user becomes more familiar with the setup procedures this popup can be disabled with the setup setting on Setup9-Others page as shown in

Figure 27.

The Expert Mode setting, also on Figure 27, is used to toggle between presentation of the setup based upon

the interview answers vs. showing all possible setup options. When the interview is completed then the setup pages will only show those settings applicable to the hardware configuration and software options selected. When the interview has not been started or is incomplete then many setup options will not be visible unless the Expert Mode checkbox is set.

Data can be collected to capture internal logic decisions to help investigate unexpected behaviors. When enabled, with “Produce Debug Data Files” checkbox a debug text file will be created for each new start of mcsSprinklers and at the start of each day. The amount of data collected can be limited, and should be limited, on embedded platforms, by indicating the maximum size of the folder for the debug files. When this threshold is reached then older files are removed. A selected debug file can be emailed if email has been setup or it can be individually selected with right-click hyperlink on the filename. The date in the filename and the Last Modified date can be used to identify the period of time a particular debug file has collected data. If the most current debug file is to be used for analysis then it should first be flushed and closed using the “Write Current Debug Data File” button.

If debug data is not going to be collected locally then a specific path can be specified. In this case the visibility of the content is not available for email etc. Direct means to access the specified folder will be needed to use the collected data.

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Figure 27 Help Setup Options

Even when context help has been disabled the full help features of this manual are available with the Help

that can be accessed from the links at the top of each setup page. See Figure 28.

Figure 28 Browser Links to Help and Other Pages

[Version-Dependent Capability] Six interface applications are provided to allow these interfaces to be supported outside of the core mcsSprinklers scheduler. This becomes significant in redundant architectures so individual nodes can be managed with minimum operational interdependencies. When configured for redundant operation the interfaces should be run as independent nodes rather than as part of mcsSprinklers.

This implies that the prior setup of the Wireless and Power line interfaces should be configured for

xap/external rather than internal. See Figure 9.

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4.2.7 External Application Interface

4.2.7.1 xAP

[Version-Dependent Capability] xAP is used as the primary external interface to mcsSprinklers. It is the mechanism to allow redundant operation over multiple host computers to achieve increased availability of the irrigation control function. When used in a single computer configuration xAP is still available to obtain information and control mcsSprinklers.

The first reference to xAP is on the Rain8 setup page shown in Figure 9. If the power line or wireless

interface can be better placed close to the valves under control rather than at the controlling computer then remote xAP nodes for these interfaces can be running at other computers and controlled via xAP messaging. The x10 schema is used in this scenario. mcsSprinklers has the abiltiy to launch these independent interface nodes upon its startup. They can be selected individually, but in a general configuration they will be either all enabled at startup or all not used.

The Setup9-Others page contains this user selection as shown in Figure 29.

Figure 29 Launch of Interface Nodes and xAP Message Selection

The redundant architecture option provides a means to assure maximum availability of the control function.

A second aspect of assured operation is command redundancy and safety provisions. The timeout safety

was previously shown in Figure 8. It provides the safety against excessive water delivery at the point of the

Rain8 module. Within the PC, OFF commands can be delivered at times when a zone is not being watered.

These can be setup to be hourly and/or daily. Setup options are also available to repeat any ON or OFF command to assure that the command is received by the Rain8. In the case of the Rain8-Net module there exists a two-way interface so the PC always obtains positive status of the state of the valves and the need for special safety provision are reduced. The Rain8-Wireless and Rain8-Power line have no mechanism to report valve status back to the PC so command redundancy is a good idea. These safety setups are

performed on the Setup6-Site page as shown in Figure 41.

Other xAP applications can interact with mcsSprinklers using the messaging providing in the Supplemental xAP Interface section. Valves can be controlled and checked for status with BSC schema. Error reporting from mcsSprinklers can be done with the Homeseer.Event/Event.log schema. Historical information that is normally recorded by mcsSprinklers can also be made available for external database or other uses through reporting with BSC schema. [Version Dependent} Centralized configuration setup can be accomplished with the Homeseer.Config schema. Remote audio and speech recognition is done with the Voice schema. mcsSprinklers will listen for BSC events and info messages that have been setup as the source of its information. For example, the external inhibit (UID=09) will be seen as a xapbsc.event or xapbsc.info message with a target unspecified or specified to be mcsSprinklers. The ON/OFF state value in this message will control the external inhibit function. The reminder of the xapbsc.event or xapbsc.info

59

messages will use either the Text or Level key to update the value conveyed in the message. An example may be a wind speed measurement made with a local sensor rather than one obtained from the AWS internet site.

There is also a set of xapbcs.cmd messages that can be used to control mcsSprinklers actions much like the buttons that control it from the General Status page. A button on the General Status page will also respond to a xapbsc.cmd message with an ON/OFF control. The UID for these controls can be seen from the xAP

Reporting page as shown in Figure 30

Each of these message schemas for the indicated purpose can be enabled or disabled selectively. When other xAP applications are present on the same computer then a xAP hub must run. If no others are being used the mcsSprinklers can launch one. xAP also requires unique IDs for each xAP node so the ID is made configurable so no conflict will occur.

When the Basic Status and Control is selected then an additional browser link is provided that allows the selection of which devices will report when its state changes and of these which will set the database key to

allow xap-enabled databases to maintain the history of the device. This page is shown in Figure 30.

Figure 30 xAP Reporting Device Selection

Additional specification for the xAP environment is also contained on the Other Page. In this case a set of

local sensors rather than internet sensors can be specified as a xAP source per Figure 25. These setup

features also provide for special control device and database options. These are shown in Figure 31.

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Notification specified will result in xAP event messages before an area’s watering starts or a record of

Rain8-Net actions. The Display options will control how the browser status information is displayed and the content of the xapbsc Display Text key. The database will default to Microsoft Access, but if MS SQL

Server is available then it may be used. Normally when SQL is used, the database entry is left blank so the default server will be used.

Figure 31 xAP Environment Options

4.2.7.2 Homeseer

The interface to Homeseer is customized with virtual devices, browser display, and various other options.

The virtual devices are used to identify valves, pumps, restrict watering cycles, and control moding. The

Browser interface can be tailored for display characteristics that will yield similar properties to other

Homeseer pages. The valve and pump devices are identified in the Setup1-Rain8/Devices page as shown in

Figure 16. The restrictions interface on the Setup6-Site page as shown in Figure 45. The other interface

parameters are on the Setup9-Other page as shown in Figure 32.

mcsSprinklers normally obtains sensor information from its internet connection that is setup on the

Weather Setup page. This can be superseded with data from Homeseer Virtual Device Strings. When a device code is entered into the section “HomeSeer Sourced Sensors” then the data will come from the

Device String and data received for the specific sensor from the Internet will be ignored. When a “Solar

DC” is specified then a second entry “Solar Factor” can be used to scale the sensor value for compatibility.

The default value is 1.0.

Figure 32 Homeseer Interface Options

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5 Automated Control Strategy

5.1 Control Based upon Time vs. Soil Moisture Content

Traditional irrigation controllers determine when to initiate a cycle based upon some elapsed time since the last time the cycle was run. This may be something like every three days or Monday, Wednesday, and

Friday. These controls also consider time of day so it may be possible to irrigate at 6 AM and 7 PM on the same day.

The duration between irrigation cycles is selected so that the soil does not become excessively dry. In peak summer times this will be more often than in the spring and fall periods. Heat waves and cool periods also occur during the seasons and these tend to result in soil moisture that is dryer than desired and irrigation at times when the foliage does not require additional water. The timed programs can be adjusted to deal with these variations or left unchanged and allow the plants to be exposed to the stress. The third choice is to allow the controller determine the next irrigation cycle based upon the soil moisture content rather than based upon some time interval. mcsSprinklers provides the flexibility to allow either a time-based control or a moisture-based control or a combination of both. For time-based control the interval can be determined either based upon the weekly calendar or upon a daily interval. The start time during the day can be specified. Actually up to 24 different start times can be entered to spread out the irrigation over the day. Each of these start times is called a Program so up to 24 programs can be run.

Each Program can control multiple zones during an irrigation cycle. The time each zone is ON during the cycle can be changed on a Program-to-Program basis. For example, two Programs can be defined where the first runs at 6 AM and three zones are each run for 20 minutes. The second runs at 3 PM and only runs one of the three zones for 10 minutes to provide supplemental water to a part of the site that has high sun exposure.

The setup of the Timed Program Control can be done in either of two ways. One is from the Timed

Programs selection from the menu. This will show a grid where each zone is listed in the rows and each

Program time is listed in the columns. See Figure 33.

Figure 33 Timed Programs Setup Matrix

In the example shown in Figure 33 there are four Programs defined and a blank column where the next

program can be entered. There are five zones in each Program. At 10 AM a cycle will start where the

Front Lawn will be ON for 15 minutes, then the Front Shrubs will be ON for 5 minutes, etc. Another cycle

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will start at 11 AM. A third will start at 12 Noon and this cycle will only turn ON the Herbs zone for 3 minutes. The last Program of the day will run at 5 PM.

The selection of the days when these programs will run is done on the Area Setup page per the Control

Strategy where the Control Strategy is Day-Of-Week, Even-Odd, or Interval. The Measured and ET

Calculated control strategies do not have Timed Programs since their cycle start times are a function of soil moisture rather than time.

The selection of zones for the Programs is done in the Zone Setup page where the zones that have been defined in the Wiring Page are mapped into specific Areas. For the purpose of understanding the Timed

Programs, an Area can be thought of as an independent control box. Since each of eight Areas can have an independent control strategy and 24 Programs can be defined for each Area, there is a total of 8x24=184

Programs available.

Setup and editing of aspects of the Timed Programs can also be done from the Area, Zone, and Zone Status

pages. The Area page provides the mechanism to add and change Program start times. See Figure 40. The

durations for a zone for each of its programs can be edited from the popup that is produced by clicking the

clock icon for the zone on the Zone Setup or Zone Status page. See Figure 21. Times can be entered in

integer format for whole minute durations. If resolution to the second is desired then the durations should be entered in the format mm:ss.

5.2 Watering Duration and Interval

The intention of an automated control strategy is to provide appropriate amounts of water at appropriate times to maintain adequate soil moisture over a given area. In a basic situation this objective can be achieved by applying a set amount of water at regular intervals. In more sophisticated situations this objective is achieved by applying water when the soil moisture content becomes sufficiently low. In both of these situations there may be overriding considerations such as local water conservation regulations that limit when water can be used for irrigation.

The basic automation is achieved using a control model similar to standard timer-based sprinkler controllers. These controllers can be setup to water a zone on a regular interval or on a specific set of days of a week. The timed controller will enable cycling of typically four to twelve zones in sequence. Multiple controllers can be used to satisfy the needs of multiple distribution areas.

In a fixed-time / fixed-interval strategy the amount of water delivered is independent of the environmental conditions that drive the actual amount of water that is needed to maintain the desired soil moisture level.

Hot-sunny days will extract more moisture from the plants and soil than cool-cloudy days. Wind also has a contributory effect on moisture loss and the need for replacement of this loss.

The amount of water actually needed is a function of several parameters. The primary factors are moisture loss, soil quality, foliage type, and efficiency of the sprinkler head distribution. All of these factors except moisture loss are known at the time that irrigation valves and sprinkler heads are installed. The moisture loss changes continuously based upon rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, wind speed, and some other less-dominant factors. The moisture loss is generally characterized as Evapotranspiration.

The general watering requirement can be algorithmically described as

V = ( Et

o

x K

c

x K

d

x K

s

x F

r -

P

r

)

Where Et

o =

Evapotranspiration

K c =

Foliage characteristic

K d =

Distribution efficiency

K s =

Soil porosity

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F r =

Flow rate

P r =

Precipitation rate

V

=

Volume of water required

It is generally the intention to encourage the foliage roots to penetrate lower into the soil so they will have a strong footing and be less sensitive to surface variation in moisture. This means that the objective of the irrigation controller is to deliver moisture to a desired soil depth. This depth is achieved with traditional installations by saturating the surface with a sufficient volume of water that it will soak down to the desired level. This implies that water delivery will be in bursts rather than a continuous misting.

K c

Foliage characteristic, K

e

Distribution efficiency, K

s

Soil porosity, and F

r

Flow rate are factors for which information is not readily available on an installation-by-installation basis. What is available, however, is an approximation based upon experience, of how long a specific zone should be watered to saturate the soil to the desired depth. This means the installer simply is required to provide the zone watering duration and the controller can determine when to activate a watering cycle based upon the following formula:

1

I = _____________

( Et

o

x K

e -

P

r

)

Where Et

o =

Evapotranspiration

K e =

Efficiency of moisture retention

P r =

Precipitation rate

I

=

Days per watering cycle

The Et

o

Evapotranspiration and P

r

Precipitation rate can be determined from weather data from a nearby weather reporting station and this data is available in real-time over the Internet. K

e

Efficiency of moisture retention is available as a tweaking factor should some adjustments be necessary for off-nominal conditions. mcsSprinklers provides a factor that can be used to adjust K

e..

which is the Soil Factor. Smaller values of

Soil Factor will result in more frequent watering cycles. The default values for this factor is 0.75.

In a traditional timer-based controller both the interval and duration of watering are setup at time of installation. With the ability to adjust to changing environmental conditions the interval can be dynamically changed and unnecessary watering cycles avoided.

This same benefit can be achieved with use of moisture probes. Actual measurements of the moisture content are made when a dryness threshold is reached and a watering cycle is scheduled. While this does have the advantage of a more positive measurement it also has two downsides. The first is that moisture sensors require additional hardware to be installed. The second is that moisture flow patterns in soil tend to change over time so moisture at a strategically placed sensor will change over time, yet the watering needs for the area will remain consistent.

The ET can be used to determine the frequency of watering. Each watering cycle will be a specified number of minutes. The following information from http://www.washoeet.dri.edu/preciprates.html

provides a good aid in determining the duration.

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5.2.1 Gross Estimated Runtimes for Small to Medium Turf Areas

Bill Carlos, Horticulturist, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension

John C. Guitjens Ph.D., Prof, Environmental Resource Science, University of Nevada College of

Agriculture

The following suggested sprinkle runtimes and irrigation rates are for residential turf areas. Site specific runtimes will vary because of lawn shape and slope, nozzle size, and sprinkler head spacing. Runtimes are based on the manufacturer information and names of products are used for illustration purposes only. The impact rotor runtimes are longer because of a larger radius and, therefore, a larger area, and a smaller delivery rate.

Small Lawn Areas

Pop-up Toro 570 is based on 30 pounds per square inch (psi) of water pressure, a delivery rate of 3.60 gallons per minute (gpm) for a full circle nozzle, a sprinkler head of 15 ft, a spray radius of 15ft, and matched precipitation rates (MPR).

Please note: run times will vary with ET rates.

Runtime calculation

Reference Evapotranspiration = Eto=0.35 inches per day = 0.029 ft per day of water depth

• Assume an irrigation efficiency = 85% (=0.85)

• The area used here is square and the sprinkler head spacing 15 ft x 15 ft

= 225 ft

2

• The conversion of cubic feet to gallons = 7.48 gal/ft

3

• 0.029 ft/0.85 irrigation efficiency =0.034 ft of water application depth

• 0.034 ft x 225 ft2 = 7.65 ft 3

• 7.65 ft3 x 7.48 gal/ ft3 = 57.2 gal

• 57.2 gal/3.60 gal/minute = 15.9 minutes per day (approx. 16 minutes per day)

Medium Lawn Area

RainBird Mini Paw, Impact Rotor Pop-Up Sprinkler is based on 25 psi, a delivery rate of 2.60 gpm for a full circle rotor, a sprinkler spacing of 20ft, and a spray radius of 20 ft.

Runtime calculation:

Reference Evapotranspiration = Eto=0.35 inches per day = 0.029 ft per day of water depth

• Assume an irrigation efficiency = 85% (=0.85)

• The area used here is square and the sprinkler head spacing 20 ft x 20 ft

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= 400 ft

2

• The conversion of cubic feet to gallons = 7.48 gal/ft 3

• 0.029 ft/0.85 irrigation efficiency =0.034 ft of water application depth

• 0.034 ft x 400 ft2 = 13.6 ft

3

• 13.6 ft3 x 7.48 gal/ ft 3

= 102 gal

• 102 gal/2.60 gal/minute = 39 minutes per day

Medium Turf Areas

Toro 340 Series Stream Rotors is based on 35 psi, a delivery rate of 3.10 gpm for a full circle rotor, a sprinkler spacing of 15ft, and a spray radius of 15 ft.

Runtime calculation:

Reference Evapotranspiration = Eto=0.35 inches per day = 0.029 ft per day of water depth

• Assume an irrigation efficiency = 85% (=0.85)

• The area used here is square and the sprinkler head spacing 15 ft x 15 ft

= 225 ft

2

• The conversion of cubic feet to gallons = 7.48 gal/ft 3

• 0.029 ft/0.85 irrigation efficiency =0.034 ft of water application depth

• 0.034 ft x 225 ft2 = 7.65 ft

3

• 7.65 ft3 x 7.48 gal/ ft

3

= 57.2 gal

• 57.2 gal/3.10 gal/minute = 18.5 minutes per day (approx. 20 minutes per day)

Reference:

Rain Bird. 1999-2000 Catalog. Landscape Irrigation Products

Toro. 2000-2001, Irrigation Product Catalog

The watering schedule is setup in mcsSprinklers on the Setup4-Zones and Setup5-Areas setup pages. A

Zone represents the set of sprinkler heads that are controlled by a single valve. An Area represents a set of zones that use the same watering schedule. mcsSprinklers supports multiple zones within an Area and multiple areas. Zones within an area are scheduled in sequence and in the order used in the Setup4-Zones setup page. Areas are scheduled in parallel, but this can be changed to sequential with a checkbox setting on the Setup5-Areas setup page under Zone Sequence Control. Sequential Area would be used when you have insufficient water pressure to run 2 areas at the same time.

The setup of a zone for automatic watering requires two user inputs. One is the time that a zone should remain on when started and the second is the efficiency factor. These are the I and K

e

from the equation above.

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The setup of an area’s watering schedule includes the type of strategy, start time preferences, and water supply considerations. Five strategies are available. Three are timed and two are based upon soil moisture.

The “Calculated ET” strategy determines moisture content based upon Et

o

and the “Measured” strategy determines moisture content based upon a moisture sensor probe. Entries are available for moisture content thresholds that will trigger the start of a new cycle. A value of 0 is reasonable for a calculated threshold while the value for the probe will depend upon the interface parameters of the probe.

The “Calculated ET” strategy depends upon sensor input to perform the hourly calculation of ET. These sensors can come from local sources or the internet. Since sensor data is not 100% reliable mcsSprinklers provides some options for how ET is determined. These are selected on the Other Setup page as shown in

Figure 22 under Method to Determine Hourly and Daily ET. When reliable data is available then the

option to Calculate based on Weather is the appropriate selection. When data is not available or reliability is poor then use of the historical averages are best. When data is essentially good, but some protection for bad data is desired then the third option to provide a limit on ET is used. In this case the weather sensor data will be used for the ET calculation, but when the ET varies from the historical average then it will be limited. For example, if a 50% limit is used and the historical hourly ET is 0.001 inch, then the computed

ET value for the hour will be no less than 0.0005 and no more than 0.0015.

Every minute mcsSprinklers estimates the soil moisture content based upon current measurements or the

ET which is calculated hourly. These measurements are rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, and wind from the Internet and moisture probe if it is available. mcsSprinklers also contains a monthly total ET database. A linear interpolation based upon the day between two months to get the expected daily ET. The integral under the hourly ET curve for the day will be the expected daily ET. A triangle function is used that starts at sunrise and stops at sunset with the peak at solar noon and then pick off the hourly ET valves from the slope of this triangle. The use of the ET from the weather calculation, from the historical database or from a blend of the two is a user option on the Other Setup page. When the two calculation methods are blended the historical calculation forms a limit band with a user-specified tolerance. Current calculations will allow the ET to vary within this band, but not vary beyond it. The General Status page display of the

Hourly ET value will show (CALC) or (LIMITED) depending upon the current calculation being inside or outside the historical tolerance band.

The soil moisture calculation for a zone is suspended when a zone’s sprinkler valve is turned on. During this watering period the estimated moisture content is proportionately increased until the watering is completed with a resultant moisture level of 100% (1.0). This soil moisture level is available for viewing on the Zone Status page and is available for use in one of the two soil-moisture control strategies. mcsSprinklers contains a monthly total ET database. A linear interpolation based upon the day between two months to get the expected daily ET. The integral under the hourly ET curve for the day will be the expected daily ET. A triangle function that starts at sunrise and stops at sunset with the peak at solar noon and then pick off the hourly ET valves from the slope of this triangle.

The setup of the automatic control strategy is done on Setup5-Areas page. A non-editable section is at the

top of the area that shows the zones that have been assigned to the area. This is shown in Figure 34.

Figure 34 Zone Moisture Trends in Area

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The zone identification contains all information about the zone that has been previously entered. The graphic is an aide to see the rates of moisture loss that are calculated based upon the zone soil and rain efficiency factors as well as the Area’s min threshold when using the calculated control strategy.

Selection of one of the five strategies for any Area that will be used is required and when selected any additional entries under it are needed. The first three are time-based strategies which are the traditional modes for irrigation control. The last two are based upon the foliage’s need for water which is either

measured or calculated based upon Evapotranspiration. This setup is shown in Figure 35.

Figure 35 Area Control Strategy Selections

Sequence control will usually be set so that only one zone at the site is running at a time. This is the situation because of limited water pressure availability. If pressure is adequate for more than a single zone then the default of one zone at a time can be increased. This can be done by either identifying the number of zones that can be running at the same time or it can be done by identifying the flow rate that can be supported. In the latter case mcsSprinklers will use the zone by zone flow rates setup on the Zone Setup

Page to schedule the zones to come as close to using the available flow capacity. In the case of pumpdriven areas it is usually an advantage to keep the pump running rather than having it cycle. The sequence controls for zones part of a single master sequence with simultaneous zone per site are used for this

selection. The other options are described in paragraph 10.5.3 and the setup is shown in Figure 36

Figure 36 Zone - Area Sequence Control Selections

Two forms of altering the normal back-to-back auto-mode scheduling of zones are provided. One is roundrobin control where the total time for all zones in an Area is modulated based upon the round-robin

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settings. If two round-robin cycles are selected then the zones in the area will be turn ON and OFF two times with the run time for the zone split evenly between the two cycles. An additional delay at the end of the Area’s cycle can also be specified to give additional time before the next cycles is started.

The other alteration is by inserting a fixed delay between when one zone completes and the next starts.

This may be used if the water supply needs time to recharge. The delay setup entries are made in the

section shown in Figure 37.

Figure 37 Zone - Area Scheduling Delays

The pump entry is optional, but if a pump is involved then the control valve for this area’s zones needs to be identified with the pull down. If it is wired such that control voltage will turn it ON, then Enable=on should be selected. The Enable=off is used for inverse control.

If some form of holding tank, lake or well is used that has limited capacity then the discharge interval and recharge interval can be specified. When the run time or recharge times are exceeded the area will be inhibited and an Area inhibit notification will be provided.

If the ability exists to measure water usage while the Area has zones active then the source for the water meter measurement can be entered. mcsSprinklers will read the meter as it controls zones and will then make this information available on the General Status and Calendar views. The pump and water flow

metering setup is shown in Figure 38.

The monitoring of water use, when a meter is used, can be done by monitoring for an absolute daily amount that is setup on the Zone Setup page or by monitoring exceeding an average that has been experienced in

the recent past. The averaging approach is setup as shown in Figure 38 where the duration of the average is

specified and the percentage over this average that will produce a message and possible email if setup.

Figure 38 Water Supply / Pump / Meter setup

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Another optional capability is the control of a valve that is used to dispense liquid fertilizer. This feature is enabled when a valve is selected for the Fertigation control valve. When selected the Zone setup page will provide additional fields to specify the percentage of time the Fertigation valve should be ON when the zone is ON. This provides zone-by-zone control of Fertigation.

The other Fertigation settings on the Area setup page are used to alter the Fertigation percentages using adaptive control rather than fixed percentage control and to identify a meter source if the liquid fertilizer container volume can be measured. When the volume switch engaged then mcsSprinklers will provide a

notification that a refill is needed. The Fertigation setup is shown in Figure 39.

Figure 39 Fertigation Control and Instrumentation

The start times are also optional for the timed modes and not available for the measured and ET calculated modes. If an area is watered multiple times within the same day then the start times for each of these cycles must be entered. The times can be an absolute time using a 24-hour clock or values relative to sunrise or sunset.

Up to three Inhibit times applicable for only zone in the area can be entered. This provides the same

functionality as the between hours inhibit on the Restriction Page described in paragraph 5.5, but is applied

on an area-by-area basis. Time can be sunrise-relative. For example, a value of –2 will indicate two hours before sunrise.

Associated with each of the start times is a factor to apply to the duration for a zone. This allows different durations to be used throughout the day. If two start times are entered and duration factors of 1.0 and 0.2 for a zone with auto duration of 60 minutes, then the first cycle of the day will be for 60 minutes and the second will be for 60 * 0.2 = 12 minutes.

The Seasonal percentages also apply to a zone’s duration. These are applied on a month-by-month basis.

A month that has a 70% value for its seasonal percentage will reduce the zone’s duration by 30%. If it was setup for 60 minutes and the month’s seasonal percentage is 70% then the actual duration when a cycle is run will be 60 * .7 = 42 minutes. Note that the time slot factors also apply with the resultant time being the composite of the two.

When a control strategy based upon soil moisture is used then the scheduling automatically changes based up daily and seasonal variations. When a time-based strategy is used this automatic adjustment does not occur. mcsSprinklers provides a means to accomplish a similar effect on a monthly basis. In this case the watering times are scaled by a percentage factor so when watering does occur it will occur for a shorter period as the seasonal need for additional moisture is reduced. When a zip code is first selected the historical percentages for each month will be inserted as the starting point. These can be manually changed and will remain until the zip code is changed.

The setup segment is shown in Figure 40 and Figure 41. The seasonal variations can be manually entered per Figure 40 or the entire group for all areas can be done with the radio setting of Figure 41. A global

selection for 100% removes the effect of seasonal variation. A global setting to Historical averages sets all values to their historical ETo’s for each month.

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The adjustment provided in Figure 41 in the range of -20 to +20 percent can be used to adjust the auto

duration program of all zones without affecting the seasonal variation. It can be considered a tuning adjustment which is also available from the touch page interface via a slider.

The Site Name is used to associate a picture filename as well as label the status device that represents the composite of any zone being active. If the name is left blank the status device will be named “Sprinklers

Active”. See Section 7.2 for more information on the management of popup pictures.

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Figure 40 Adjustments in Timed Control and Seasonal Variation

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The Site page provides a global inhibit to prevent irrigation during certain times of the day. Time of day inhibits can also be entered for specific areas. This becomes useful when using a measured or calculated

strategy for some, but not all areas. By using the time of day inhibits shown in Figure 40 the start time can

be controlled.

These inhibit time boxes allow use of the “+” and “-“to indicate a time that is relative to sunrise. Numbers without this prefix are absolute times using a 24 hour clock. A time of 2:30 PM would be entered as 14:30.

When a zone is otherwise available for irrigation, but inhibited due to the Area Time of Day inhibit, then the General Status Between Hours inhibit will be shown.

Figure 41 Miscellaneous Scheduling Option Setup

Global site restrictions defined on the Site page provide scheduling inhibits that apply to the entire site.

Each area also has a set of area-specific inhibits that control only the scheduling of zones within the area.

This setup is shown in Figure 42. Use of area-specific inhibits may be appropriate, as an example, when

drip zones are used that are not affected by wind, but lawn zones are.

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Figure 42 Area-Specific Restrictions and Carryover

5.2.2 Suggestions for Calibration of Calculated Evaporation

There are many factors that affect the soil moisture content. mcsSprinklers attempts to simplify the setup for this calculation; however it is still not a simple matter.

There are two primary considerations. One is how long should a zone be watered and the second is how often should it be watered. The duration is based upon the volume of water that can be applied over a fixed area of crop. This is dictated by the water flow rates and the efficiency of the irrigation heads at evenly dispersing the water. mcsSprinklers does not attempt to calculate the duration, but will adjust the duration on a month to month basis to account for seasonal factors related to soil moisture content. A nominal duration of 30 to 60 minutes is a reasonable starting point. Observe the moisture content in the soil immediately after a cycle and make adjustments up or down to achieve the desired result.

If allowed to run in auto mode, mcsSprinklers will always engage a zone for the duration specified. When the cycle is complete it assumes that the moisture content is at 100%. This is true if the moisture content was 0 or 50% when the cycle started.

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The adjustments to be made with the software settings related to how long does it take for the moisture to be released from the soil. There are two factors that can be controlled on a zone by zone basis, one factor on an area by area basis, and one factor that can be applied to the entire system. The zone-based factors are soil and rain efficiency. The area factor is the minimum threshold. The system-wide factor is solar intensity.

A typical summer day will lose moisture from the soil due to Evapotranspiration at a nominal rate of about

0.25 inch per day. This, of course, varies by location. Monthly averages for summer range between 5 and

10 inches within the United States. The primary contributor to moisture loss is solar radiation and there is usually no readily available sensor or source for this information. mcsSprinklers uses the internetpublished UV index to make an estimate in most case. It will also use the in-the-shade vs. in-the-sun temperature sensors to estimate it if those sensors sources are available and selected. There is a degree of uncertainty and variance between locations that some calibration of the solar effects is needed. This is most easily done with a container of water left exposed to the environment for a 24 hour period. The measured evaporation vs. the calculated daily ET for the same period will provide an insight if any changes to the nominal 1.0 solar factor are needed. An increase to 1.1 will yield roughly a 10% increase in moisture loss over a 24 hour period.

If your intention is to irrigate when 0.4 inch of moisture is lost then you will set the Area’s min threshold to

60%. This means mcsSprinklers will try to keep the moisture content in the range between 60% and 100%.

It depends upon you to set the duration of a watering cycle and select a distribution system that will provide an average of 0.4 inches of water over all zones in the area. You can calculate the time needed based upon the gallon per minute rating of your system or you can measure the effective moisture after a cycle has completed.

With the solar factor and the min threshold applied a reasonable nominal schedule should not be available.

It is often the case that exposure to sunlight, soil quality, or type of crop will vary between zones in an area.

This is where the soil factor can be applied. If the crop retains water better than grass then it should be adjusted downward. If the soil is sandy then the efficiency factor should be adjusted upward

When the software is initially used it may be useful to run it in a timed mode (Day-of-week, Even-Odd, or

Interval) using your best judgment as to the frequency of irrigation that is appropriate. The Area Setup page will show a graphic of the calculated moisture content over the past seven days. During this experimental period the objective is see a saw tooth pattern where the flat spots at the top and bottom are minimized.. For example, assume a two-day interval is being used. This means that the moisture level should go from saturated (100%) to dry (0%) over a two day period. If this is happening then no adjustments are needed.

If it only goes down from 100% to 50% over two days then the moisture loss calculation needs to be tuned to yield a faster moisture loss rate. The moisture loss is computed each hour based upon the average ET calculation over the past hour. This calculation is driven primarily by solar radiation and this measurement is not directly available from the internet in real time so estimates need to be made. The estimates can be adjusted with the Soil Efficiency factor on the Zone Setup. Since the factor is associated with only one zone then different values can be used to account for shade and soil type.

5.3 Zone Sequencing

Area irrigation is enabled by the control strategy and the restrictions applied to an area. Once an area has been enabled then the zones will cycle based upon the order that the zone was setup in the Zone Setup page. If the Area sequence control is set for use of a single master sequence then the sequence order will be by Area. If the Area sequence control is set for Area Sequence then multiple areas can be active at the same time with the zone order within an area being the order setup on the Zone Setup page.

A normal sequence will irrigate a zone for the duration setup for the auto program for that zone. This value is a combination of three setup entries. The first is the Auto minutes on the Zone Setup page. The second is the Duration Factor associated with an Area Setup page Start Time. These start times are only available in the three timed control strategy and not available in the ET calculated or measured strategies. The third

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is also on the Area Setup page and is the Seasonal Percentages that are entered on a month by month basis.

For example, Auto Time = 50, Dur Factor = .8, Seasonal Percentage = 90 will result in a zone run time of

(50 * 0.8 * 90/100) = 36 minutes.

A zone is normally run for the full duration before the next zone is started. To reduce runoff from too much water at one time, a round-robin sequence can be setup on the Area Setup page to split the area’s irrigation into shorter time bursts. This is setup using the InterZone Scheduling delays. If, for example, an

Area has three zones with 6 minutes run time per zone with a round-robin setup for 6 cycles. This means that the total of 18 minutes in the area will be run with 6 cycles of 1 minute each in the order Zone 1, Zone

2, Zone 3, Zone 1, Zone 2, etc. Progress in the round-robin cycle can be observed on the Zone Status page

such as shown in Figure 43. In this figure it shows that B1 Status is “Round Robin” and it has 4 minutes

left to complete. This means the zone is not currently active, but it will be cycling with other zones in the same area in a round robin fashion. B2 is the zone that is currently running in the area. Zone B3 is also round robin and is have 5 minutes remaining to complete.

The scheduling model used by mcsSprinklers starts at midnight and goes for 24 hours. At midnight of the next day a control cycle will start for the times and conditions setup for that new day. A carryover

provision exists, if selected on the Area Setup Page as shown in Figure 42, will allow zones that did not

complete the day’s scheduled irrigation to continue to run past midnight until completion. This carryover is intended to deal with situations where a scheduled irrigation did not complete due to some temporary inhibit conditions that delayed the schedule. It is not intended to allow full irrigation schedules to shift into the next day. This means that a normal irrigation cycle will start sometime after midnight, but generally not just before midnight.

Figure 43 Round Robin Scheduling Status

Additional timing variation can be achieved with the round-robin by adding a delay between each zone’s control. A delay can be added between each zone, independent of round-robin scheduling as well.

Zones are scheduled for irrigation per the Control Strategy, but this schedule is affected by inhibit conditions. It is possible that one or more inhibits are active throughout the entire scheduled period for a zone. When a zone has multiple start times (i.e. multiple programs) and a program is not run due to inhibits then this program will be skipped. When all programs within a day have been skipped due to inhibits then

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a carryover into the next day can be setup to allow the zone to be run at the first available time in the next

day. This setting is part of the Restrictions and Carryover on the Area Page as shown in Figure 42.

Situations can occur when rainfall causes a zone to calculate moisture levels greater than 100%. For periods of continuous rain a zone may record up to 200% soil moisture level. When the rain stops and evapotranspiration starts the moisture accounting will either go immediately to 100% or it will gradually decrease based upon the calculated moisture loss. If the soil conditions are such that 100% is truly saturation then the option to snap to 100% is the appropriate setting. If the soil conditions will actually hold more than the assumed 100% then a gradual decrease is the appropriate setting.

5.4 Syringing

Syringing is the light sprinkling of water on turf usually done during the hottest part of the day to prevent wilting. During the course of the day, the sun evaporates tremendous amounts of water from the soil and plant tissue. Evaporation through plant tissue is called Evapotranspiration. During the hottest days of the year the Evapotranspiration rate often exceeds the plants ability to draw water in from the soil. The result of this water deficit is wilt. Often times during clear sunny days you can see the turf turning shades of blue and gray. These are signs that the turf grass plants are in need of water and if water is not applied at that time the grass will die. This is most important as Annual Bluegrass is a very shallow rooted winter annual and if it dies it will not recover until new seeds germinate in the fall. To reduce the stress from this water deficit syringing is implemented. Syringing is not actually replacing the water in the soil but instead it reduces the wilting cycle by cooling off the turf and temporarily stopping wilt until rainfall or hand watering can be initiated.

Control for syringing is done from a combination of the Zone Setup page shown in Figure 20 and Other

Setup page shown in Figure 44. Syringing can be selected on a zone by zone basis on the Zone Setup page

where the number of minutes to run during the syringing cycle is specified. The actually running of the once-per-day cycle is controlled by time, temperature threshold, or ET threshold.

The syringing cycle will obey all Restriction and Area Page restrictions except the Between Hours restriction and Start Time designators. When run it will act as a manual control cycle, hence have precedence over the auto control cycle. Other zones that may be in an auto cycle at the syringing time will be delayed until all syringing is completed.

Figure 44 Syringing Control Options

5.5 Watering Restrictions

It may be possible to run the sprinklers on a schedule that is close to optimal for the interest of the foliage, but this is not the only realistic consideration. It really does not make sense to water in the middle of a downpour, nor does it make sense to water in the evening when there may be recreational use of the area.

It may also be the case that local regulations limit when water can be used for irrigation.

These perturbations to an ideal cycle are easily expressed in terms of when not to water. Selection of specific days of the week in which not to water provides a lifestyle input. Input for the time-of-day when watering should not happen provide a second form of the lifestyle preferences.

The time-of-day also has scientific significance. Water should be applied at a time-of-day when it has an opportunity to soak into the soil. When applied in the middle of a sunny day most of it will be burned-off

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rather than soaked-in. In many climates surface water will encourages undesirable fungus growth. The length of time that surface water is present should be minimized to combat fungus. This means that the best time to apply water is at sunrise so it will have time to soak and remaining water quickly burned-off.

There are two ways to control when watering will occur. . The first is with start time preferences as shown

in Figure 38. The second is to limit when watering cannot occur per the setup shown in the Between Hours

selections of Figure 45.

It is also desirable to restrict the normal watering cycle to conserve either water or money. Any wind over a light breeze will affect the location where the sprinkler water falls. Wind cannot be controlled, but when it is windy it is smart to not run the sprinklers.

For similar reasons it is also does not make sense to run the sprinklers when it is raining. Not only is it a conservation/cost issue, but it also reflects on being a good neighbor and not doing something that appears dumb. Going beyond this it also makes sense to take advantage of Mother Nature. If she is going to be providing the necessary rainfall in the near future then just wait for her and save your water for a non-rainy day.

Rain restrictions take three forms: Prior actual rain, actual rain today, or forecasted rain. Selecting the corresponding checkbox can employ any of the three. A minimum rainfall level that must be achieved can further qualify them. These are in units of the rain sensor (in or mm) and are entered into the text boxes.

Actual rain is determined from the rain sensor. Forecasted rain is determined from the icon for each of the future day’s forecast. Most forecast sites do a new day rollover sometime around sunset. This means that the forecast can change in the evening and a restriction may active or be removed as the accounting is rolled. To deal with this is may also be advantageous to set a time restriction for the evening hours.

Most jurisdictions water conservation rules can be accommodated with a setting that will not allow an even-day or odd-day watering. In other cases the ban-period period may be extended to two or more days.

To prevent excessive cycles the Max Cycles In Day option can be used to put an upper limit. This would normally come into play if the calculation for evaporation or the measurement sensor produces excessive control demands. (i.e. the sensor is stuck)

If some type of rain moisture pad, security interlock or other form of discrete input is available then it can be used to inhibit irrigation. The source of this discrete needs to be identified as well as the polarity to use to indicate an inhibit condition.

If irrigation water consumption is being measured or being estimated based upon flow rates then this parameter can also be used as a means to restrict irrigation. There may be water cost rate schedules that may make use of water beyond some threshold prohibitively expensive. A limit can be selected to be within the current day, week or month period or it can be set to be a fixed interval or one, seven or thirty days. For example, if a consumption limit is set to 1000 gallons for the month and on the 20 th

of the month this level has been utilized then no more auto-schedule irrigation will be allowed for the remainder of the month.

The interval selected for water consumption restriction is the same interval that is used for the Site status device where the water consumption is displayed. If no interval is selected then the default display will be for water use within the last 30 days. If no restriction is needed, yet different intervals desired on the display then setup a restriction with a level that will not be achieved.

It is possible that a normal day’s irrigation cycle will not complete before midnight due to exercise of restrictions that limit the amount of time that is available to run during a day. If a timed control strategy is used for a zone that does not complete then a notification message will be delivered at midnight to indicate that the zone did not complete during the day and it will be run the following day at the first available time.

When this situation occurs for the other control strategies no message will be delivered since the scheduling is not based upon a specific day’s control.

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All of these restrictions and preferences can be specified in mcsSprinklers. Most of them are collocated on

the Setup6-Site setup page. It is shown in Figure 45. Note that Area-specific restrictions can also be

defined per Figure 42.

Figure 45 Site Watering Restrictions Setup

5.6 Water Use Management

5.6.1 Water User Monitoring

Water use monitoring can be setup and when the daily use is beyond the threshold a notification will be delivered. This notification will be in the message log and email if setup. Three levels of monitoring can be setup. These are at the zone, at the area, and at the site.

The Zone Setup page provides provisions for entry of a maximum expected water use for each zone. If a value is entered and the measured water use for that zone exceeds the maximum then a notification will be

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provided. This form of notification will not provide water-leakage type information since measurement at the zone level is only made when the zone is ON. This capability depends upon an external water meter to measure water flow for the area.

The Area Setup page provides an entry for a maximum flow for the area. The flow maximum is associated with the water meter for the area and it is monitored at all times. The notification in this case will detect line breakages assuming that the meter is only monitoring irrigation water.

5.6.2 Water Use Measurement and Display

The volume of water being utilized for irrigation can be measured and/or calculated by mcsSprinklers.

Measurements are provided by external water meter sensor(s). Calculations are based upon flow rate information for a zone.

If calculations of water use are to be maintained by mcsSprinklers then the flow rates for each zone need to

be entered on the Zone Setup page as shown in Figure 20. mcsSprinklers will accumulate the water use

based upon the run times for each zone. This water use can be viewed as a running total as a status device on the General Status page. Day-by-Day and hour-by-hour visibility of the water use can be viewed from the calendar popup when the water flow status device calendar icon is clicked.

If water flow meters are available then they can be used to measure the water use during the time a zone is active. In this case the Calc entry on the Zone Setup page should be left blank. The average of the use over the last 30 days will be shown for reference and this value will be used to project future water use while a zone is running. A Max flow per day value can be entered. When this value is exceeded a message will be recorded and email notification performed if email is setup.

Provisions exist for one water meter per area. If only one water meter exists then the same meter source location should be used for each area.

When a zone is turned ON mcsSprinklers will take a snapshot of the water meter reading and then accumulate the water meter readings as long as the zone remains ON. If multiple zones are ON at the same time then mcsSprinklers will assume each zone has an equal consumption.

The water use can be viewed on the General Status page in the Area and Site status devices as a rolling total over the past 30 days. The raw water meter readings are also shown for each meter when a meter is

present. An example can be seen in Figure 46. In this example one meter was present at the site. The

current meter reading was 1125 gallons. The site had consumed 1416 gallons over the past 30 days. Of these 170 gallons were in Area 1, 180 in Area 4, and the remainder in Area 5.

When the calendar icon is clicked for an area or site then the daily water use values will be displayed as

shown in Figure 63. Further detail on an hourly basis is seen by clicking on the calendar day. If visibility

for a specific zone is desired then the calendar can be access from the General Status page zone status

calendar icon as shown in Figure 50.

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Figure 46 Measured Water Consumption

If there is a storage or pressure tank that is being used at t he site and mcsSprinklers should assure that the tank has sufficient water prior to running a zone then the Water Tank parameters should be setup on the

Site Setup Page. The model for management of the tank is to establish a full volume, the minimum volume at which irrigation should be allowed and the rate at which the tank is being filled from its water source. mcsSprinklers will account for water that is being used based upon measurements or flow rates setup and will account for the refill rates. When the tank level goes below the minimum threshold then irrigation is inhibited. It will remain inhibited until the tank is refilled to the 50% level between the minimum and full settings. The current level of the tank can be observed from the Water Tank status device on the General

Status Page.

5.7 Fertigation

Fertigation is the application of liquid fertilizer through the irrigation system. mcsSprinklers controls fertigation based upon setup information contained on the Zone Setup and Area Setup pages. The Zone

Setup provides the nominal factor that determines how long a fertigation valve will remain ON with respect the full run time of the zone. If the Zone Setup page has Fertigation factors of 0.5 and 1.0 then the first zone will enable the fertigation valve for 50% of the run time for the zone and the second zone will enable the fertigation valve for 100% of the zone’s run time.

The identification of the valve to be used for fertigation is identified on the Area Setup page as shown below. The pink arrow shows the segment of the Area Setup that applies to fertigation.

The fertigation can be controlled based upon a fixed percentage of the zone run time or it can be controlled based upon a variable percentage. The variable control will increase the percentage when the time between irrigation cycles increases and will decrease it when the time becomes short.

A fertigation instrumentation source is provided. This is intended to provide a measurement that will allow mcsSprinklers to provide a notification via message and email when the fertigation media has reached a low level.

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mcsSprinklers maintains a database that will show minutes of fertigation for each zone as well as for the

total minutes the fertigation valve is ON. Status information is available from the page as shown in Figure

47 and from calendar popup such as are shown in Figure 48 and Figure 49. The general status shows a

level indicator icon for the fertigation supply/valve and provides the number of minutes that the fertigation valve has been ON over the past 30 days. When the value is ON then the icon is animated to show consumption.

Figure 47 Fertigation Valve on General Status Page

To the left of the level indicator and the zone valve icons are calendar icons. When clicked then a calendar popup is shown. The calendar provides a nominal 90 day view of past and projected behaviors.

One calendar view is displayed when the calendar for the zone valve icon is clicked. When any day’s cell is clicked on the calendar then a detail popup will show the daily detail for the selected day. A second calendar view is shown when the calendar icon next to the fertigation valve is clicked. In this case the calendar shows the icon associated with the fertigation valve for any day that the fertigation valve was ON.

There is also a level-indicator icon where the level is angled. This is the projected day when the next fertigation will occur.

When any day’s cell is clicked then the detail for the day pops up.

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Figure 48 Fertigation Data on Calendar Detail for Zone Valve

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Figure 49 Fertigation Calendar Detail for Fertigation Valve

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6 Manual Control Options

While the focus of mcsSprinklers is to provide a fully automated irrigation solution, it also integrates the automatic modes with a manual control capability. The manual control will override the automatic control when this mode of operation is enabled. This means that the “Don’t Water” and “Start Time” restrictions imposed on the automatic control are not obeyed for manual control.

Seasonal/Emergency actions take priority over individual zone Manual Control actions. When mcsSprinklers has been put into Seasonal Shutdown it will continue to perform all data collection operations, but there will be no valve activation performed by either automatic or manual actions.

A zone will remain under manual control until the zone has been watered once. Manual control for that zone will be deactivated. Automatic control will resume if it has not been disabled by the checkbox on the web page or toggled via the Alias Device.

The following elements of mcsSprinklers are involved with manual mode operations:

1. Browser Control

2. Handheld Remote Control

3. Power line Remote Control

4. Voice Control

6.1 Web Browser

Two browser views can be used to control manual operations. The General Status page will provide a clickable button for each valve and pump as well as master controls for Seasonal and Manual modes.

Figure 50 shows these controls for two zones.

Figure 50 Manual Controls from General Status Page

The Seasonal or Emergency Shutdown button is used to totally disable all control functionality of mcsSprinklers. When it is clicked its label and function will change to restore normal control operations.

This is the only place where this master control can be energized.

The ON and OFF buttons in the right-most column are used to individually turn a zone ON or OFF at the soonest possible time. This time will normally be immediately, but could be at some later time if other zones are scheduled for watering before this zone. When the zone does start then it will continue for the number of minutes previously entered for the manual duration. This setup is on the Setup4-Zones page as

shown in Figure 18.

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When a zone is manually turned ON then the manual mode master button at the top of the page will be relabeled to an Exit button. When the Exit button is clicked then all zones that have been manually started will be stopped immediately. Individual zones can be manually stopped with the OFF button associated with the zone.

The second browser page that provides manual control ability is the Zone Status page with an example

shown in Figure 52. There are several elements integrated into this view. Those that relate to manual

control operations are the four center buttons on the top row and the checkbox and textbox in the left column associated with manual control of a specific zone.

The Stop button has the same function as the Exit button on the General Status page. It will stop the watering off all zones for the remainder of the day. This Stop button will change to a Restart button when a manual stop has been performed.

The “Inhibit Tomorrow” button has a similar function to the “Inhibit Today” button, but it applies to all zones that would otherwise be activated tomorrow so that they will not be activated tomorrow. The Inhibit

Tomorrow button affects only auto mode operations. When tomorrow arrives the manual mode operations can be used to override the inhibit introduced by Inhibit Tomorrow. The override can also be done with the

“Inhibit Today” button which will have changed to “Allow Today” if the day became inhibited due to the

“Inhibit Tomorrow” selection the prior day.

Both the “Inhibit Tomorrow” and “Inhibit Today” buttons can be configured to only function on selected

Areas as illustrated in Figure 42. When the inhibit function has been disabled on the Area page then the

zones of that area will continue to irrigate based upon the Area’s control strategy even when either “Inhibit

Tomorrow” and “Inhibit Today” are activated. This could be useful if certain Areas will always be run when others are subject to the manual inhibit control buttons.

There is a status device on the General Status page that reflects the currently active inhibit condition based upon yesterday’s use of “Inhibit Tomorrow” or today’s use of “Inhibit Today”. If you change your mind when tomorrow arrives then the OFF control on the General Status page for the Inhibit Tomorrow Carry forward status can be used to re-enable auto mode control. The ON control of this device can also be used to inhibit the current days auto cycle.

When a zone has completed a watering cycle today then the Zone Status page will present a third Auto

Mode control button “Rest Watered Today”. Use of this button will reset all zones so that it appears as if not watering cycles have occurred today. For the three timed control strategies there will also be a checkbox for each zone “Reset to Allow Cycle Today” that will allow selective zones to be reset rather than all zones. The selective update is actioned with the “Update” button after the checkbox(es) has been checked.

A full manual cycle can be started with the “Stat All Manual” button. Individual areas can be manually started with the “Run Area …Now” button. Individual zones can be manually started by checking the

“Enable Manual Control” checkbox on the zone and when all desired zones have been checkboxed then the

“Start Manual” button clicked.. Unlike on the General Status page, the number of minutes for manual control can be entered at the same time the manual control action is taken.

Controls are also provided on the General Status page to give access to manual control. This includes the

individual zones as well as the area and complete set of zones. Figure 51 shows the OFF and ON controls

provided on the General Status page for the composite areas and total of all zones. Manual control can also

be performed from the Zone Status page as shown in Figure 52. In this case the desired manual control

zones are selected with checkbox, the durations can be edited, and then started with Start Selected Manual button at the top of the page. All zones can also be run in manual mode with the Start All Manual or

Manual Run Site Now buttons.

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Figure 51 Composite Controls Available on General Status for Manual Control

Figure 52 Zone Status Page View

The Sprinkler Control page provides a more complete view of the sprinkler status. It, along with VR, is the mechanism by which manual watering times can be specified. This view also enabled multiple zones to be scheduled for a manual cycle. In this case each zone to be enabled for manual control is indicated with a check in the enable manual control checkbox and the Start Manual button clicked to accept this request.

When the Area Sort button is used to provide zone organization by Area then additional controls are provided to start all zones within a specific area and to set the soil moisture levels for an area or for the entire site.

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6.2 Remote with IPhone/IPad/IPod/Android

A general interface capability for remote access exists with browser-oriented interfaces that can be used with remote devices where firewall access has been provided to the mcsSprinklers HTTP server.

Specialized Apps that run on Apple or Google phone or tablet platforms are also available. A landscape view provides the ability to gesture swipe through each zone or each area to provide manual control as well

as observe current status. See Figure 53 . An up/down gesture toggles between Area and Zone views. The

left/right gesture cycles through each zone or area. The zone identification is the zone picture on the center left and its scheduling information is in the middle right. The top contains the most recent message feedback. The bottom contains buttons that affect the operation. The WAN button is used to toggle between WAN vs. LAN server for the zone picture. If accessing from a remote location over the internet then the WAN should be selected. When a button is selected it will appear as depressed.

Figure 53 Phone App Landscape Remote

A portrait view is used to observe the next scheduled zone. See Figure 54. The swipe gesture has no effect

as the next scheduled zone is not dependent upon user action. A Pause button is provided for the case where user inhibit of this and any other zones can be performed.

Figure 54 Phone App Portrait Remote

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The installation of the Apps requires three pieces. One is the App itself that is available from Apple’s or

Google’s marketplace that goes under the name iViewer 4 and was developed by Command Fusion. http://www.commandfusion.com

. The Android iViewer client is not as mature as the one for Apple products. A designer application is available from Command Fusion downloads and it is the mechanism by which the mcsSprinklers landscape and portrait views are downloaded into the phone or tablet. A

screenshot of the designer with the upload service prompt is shown in Figure 55. The two views are

available in the Command Fusion Designer Project File “mcsSprinklers.gui” that can be found in the \bin folder of the mcsSprinklers install.

A user is welcome to customize the layout of the two views prior to transferring to the phone or tablet, but the customization will be only cosmetic and not functional. For example, a new button could not be added since mcsSprinklers would not know about the function of that new button.

A dedicated port is used to communicate between the PC and the client. This port is setup on mcsSprinklers Other Page and it is also setup with settings on the client. The third location is on the download of the landscape and portrait skins from the PC to the client. Port 8019 has been used during testing. Note that mcsSprinklers or the download service of the designer can be connected to the port to the client, but not both at the same time. When downloading the skins to the client, mcsSprinklers should not be running.

Figure 55 Command Fusion Gui Designer for Upload

The process to follow to setup the application consists of:

1. On some PC open CommandFusion guiDesigner after download from commandfusion.com

2. Select File and navigate to mcsSprinklers install folder \bin\mcsSprinklers\mcsSprinklers.gui

3. In the Projects panel in upper left right click on mcsSprinklers.gui and select Project Properties

4. Click F12 to start Upload Service.

5. On IPhone/IPad/Ipod, download iViewer (version 4) APP

6. From Settings select iViewer to get to application-specific settings

7. Select File URL to be PC LAN IP where guiDesigner is installed

8. Select Reload GUI layout

9. Exit settings and start iViewer

10. On the PC the Activity icon in upload services will blink and the GUI will appear on iViewer

APP.

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11. At some convenient time return to Settings and deselect the Gui Reload so that it will no longer transfer the GUI on each start of iViewer. The Upload Service on the PC can be stopped and the guiDesigner on the PC can be exited.

12. On Android the same process is followed as the Iphone/Ipad/IPod starting but step 6 access to application settings is from the iViewer application with the grid or vertical elipse icon in the tray at the bottom. Different Android OS versions may have different approach to changing application settings.

6.3 Remote with Palm pad or Power line Controller

Manual control of the sprinkler valves from a Browser or with Voice can be achieved without any additional setup. In the case of the handheld remote additional setup is required to associate a remote control code with a zone. This association is done from the Setup7-Remote Control page. This page is

shown in Figure 57. In this example remote codes N2 and N10 are associated with the Garden and Lawn

zones, respectively. The use of the handheld remotes ON and OFF buttons will now have the same functionality as the individual zone ON/OFF buttons on the browser pages.

In addition to this association there also needs to be a mechanism by which the PC can recognize the remote control codes that are being transmitted. The W800 interface is able to perform this function. It can be run on any PC on the Local Area Network including the local PC. If from the local PC then selecting

the checkbox can automatically start it shown on Figure 29 of the Setup9-Others page.

The normal use is with the internal interface using the com port assignment made on the Setup7-Remote

page per Figure 56. There are three text box entries available. If the W800 is connected to a serial port on

the same computer as mcsSprinklers then the W800 IP text box is left blank and the port number is placed in the W800 port box. This will be a number such as 1, 2, etc. If the W800 is interfaced via the LAN then

the IP and port are entered in these two boxes such as is shown in Figure 56.

RF transmissions such as from a palm pad actually send the same command multiple times with each push of the button. It is done to assure that at least one reaches the receiver. To assure that only one is received the extra ones are filtered-out for a short period of time. This filtering interval is the Debounce Period entry. The value of 1000 means that the same button press will be ignored for one second. If the value is reduced to 500 then two of the same button pushes within one second will be accepted.

Figure 56 W800 Port Selection for Internal W800 Connection

The same remote functionality is achieved with an X10 mini/maxi controller that provides a set of buttons that can be activated to send codes over the power line. In this case the W800 interface is not needed. The

CM11A that is used to drive the power line will also function to listen to commands.

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Figure 57 Remote Control Setup Page

6.4 Remote with Wireless Handheld PDA

It is possible to control mcsSprinklers valves with a small handheld computer such as a Palm. A special browser page is used to provide just the essential information necessary to accomplish this control. The

URL to access this page is the URL of the computer and port where mcsSprinklers is running with the page parameter of “handheld”. For example http://192.168.0.31:8008/handheld . The page presented is a condensed version of the General Status page where no graphics are presented and only devices that have

control buttons are listed. The layout is shown in Figure 58. The screen width is tailored for a 320 pixel

wide screen and no graphics are included so as to minimize the resources needed in the PDA. The four buttons in the top row can be used to sort the rows per the column title.

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Figure 58 Handheld Remote Control Browser Page

When accessing mcsSprinklers from a PDA or other remote host the LAN firewall becomes a consideration. The firewall must allow this communication. In some cases it is possible to setup a rule to allow mcsSprinklers.exe to pass through the LAN or WAN firewall. In some cases it will require an advanced setup where the specific browser port (default 8008) needs to have the exception. See http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-8/windows-firewall-from-start-to-finish

6.5 Crestron Control

mcsSprinklers can be used in conjunction with a Creston system that has been configured for use with

Rain8Net modules. Automatic water-saving control and remote internet access will be provided by mcsSprinklers and the Crestron touch screens can also be used for manual control of the zones or as an alternate automatic scheduling mechanism for a sequence of zones.

In this configuration the Crestron RS232 output is directed to a Serial COM port on the PC on which

mcsSprinklers is running. This port is selected as the Crestron port on the Remote Setup Page per Figure

59. Note that a crossover RS232 cable will be required between the Crestron Processor and PC so that the

RxData and TxData lines are swapped.

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Figure 59 Crestron Interface Port Selection

6.6 Voice Control

Voice can be used to command a zone on or off and obtain status of the currently running zone or the next zone scheduled. A sprinkler zone is identified by its named location. These location names were

previously completed on the Setup2-Wiring page as shown in Figure 18.

The syntax of the voice commands is itemized in Table 3. Examples of their use are also shown in the

Voice column on the Setup7-Remote Control page per Figure 57. When duration is specified it must be in

minutes. Single minute increments up to 20 and then five-minute increments up to 95 are accepted.

Table 3 Voice Recognition Commands

Objective

Obtain status of active zone, or next scheduled

Voice Command

Sprinkler Status zone and any inhibits that are active

Turn off a sprinkler zone

Turn off a sprinkler zone

Turn on a sprinkler zone for a 20 minutes

Turn on a sprinkler zone for a 20 minutes

Turn Off ZoneName

Turn ZoneName Off

Turn On For 20 Minutes ZoneName

Turn ZoneName On For 20 Minutes

The voice command can come from either a microphone on the local PC or on one from another PC on the

LAN. In the LAN-activated configuration the xapmcsVoice.exe program must be running on the computer with the microphone.

A voice command can also request status. The computer will respond will identification of any zone that is currently running and the projected next start time of the other zones.

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7 Status Reporting

Status is available from the two browser pages from which manual control is performed, from the run list page and via computer generated speech in response to the voice status request. A tray icon is also used to provide a quick status from the local desktop. The icon appears as a colored base with water drops spewing upward. The base is green with one or more zones are being irrigated. It is yellow then a Message Page entry has been made for notification. It is blue at all other times.

7.1 General Status

The General Status page provides current status for over 70 aspects of the scheduling. Most of the status fields will be obvious by their name. The Predicted Rain and Predicted Evaporation are a composite of 3 days of rain/evaporation data and these are the values used to base calculated control strategy actions. ET is a one-hour Evapotranspiration index. Max Light and One Day Rain reflect the maximum solar intensity and maximum one-day rainfall that was measured in the last 30 days. If none is measured then this value will typically be 0.5 inch. The Forecasted levels are based upon these maximums.

The top segment of the status reporting is shown in Figure 50. This page has column header buttons that

can be clicked to sort the order of the reported status. Each status line contains a graphic or textual representation of the status in the first column and a description of the status being reported in the others.

Often the status field is blank and it indicates an inactive situation. The color of the zone valve and the pump change to red when a communication failure occurs. This applies to the Rain8-Net since it provides a positive feedback of status. When a zone is delivering water then the status icon is animated. The tray icon also changes color to green when a zone is being watered.

The calculation of ET is dependent upon internet data with particular attention given to UV (S78) and

Temperature (S69). If these values are not updated with internet data then the moisture calculations will not be accurate and could result in incorrect watering cycles if the Area is using the Calculated ET control strategy. Status devices S87 and S88 provide feedback as to when the last Forecast data and Weather data has been received.

The General Status page also provides clickable access to additional information. Icons that precede a

name indicate that a picture is available for viewing about that name. See 7.2 for more information about

pictures. Icons in the status column that look like a calendar can be clicked to provide the 90-day history

of that item. See section 7.3 for more information about the history presentation.

Figure 60 illustrates the method for producing a customized General Status view. This allows selected

status devices to be hidden so the status views will show only those pieces of information that are of interest. When the “View All / Hide Selected” button at the top of the page is toggled the Hide (H) column will be presented. This column contains checkboxes to allow rows to be selectively hidden. After all desired customizations have been made then the “Save View” button is clicked to retain the settings. When the “Hide Selected” button is clicked then only those rows with unchecked Hide column checkboxes will

be shown. See Figure 50 for view of the General Status after customizations have been exercised.

The General Status view also provides a method to tailor the touch screen page view for the professional version. The touch screen shows six measurements such as temperature and rainfall. The selection of the six to be viewed from the touch screen page is made from the “T” column of the General Status page. The first six selected sensors from the checked “T” column will be used on the touch screen page.

Note that when the Hide column is visible the General Status page will not refresh automatically. This allows undisturbed editing of the checkboxes.

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Figure 60 General Status Customizations

7.2 Reference Pictures

mcsSprinklers provides the facility to manage drawings and pictures that are provided by the user. These pictures will provide a visual for the site, for an area, for a zone, or for wiring. The picture is presented as a browser popup window and is produced when a camera/picture icon is clicked. As an example observe the

popup window and the picture icon for device S46 in Figure 61.

During startup of mcsSprinklers it will look in the relative folder path “ \HTML\mcsSprinklers\Pictures\” where the base folder is the install folder of mcsSprinklers which is typically “C:\Program

Files\mcsSprinklers”. Any .jpg, .png, or .gif file that it finds in that folder that has the same name as the name of a wiring harness, site, area, or zone will be used as picture icons on the General Status, Zone

Setup, or Wiring setup pages. If the touch screen view is going to be used then only .jpg files should be used to identify the zones and areas.

The Site name is entered on the Others Setup Page. The Wiring Harness names are entered on the Wiring

Setup Page. The Area names are entered on the Zone Setup Page. In the example of Figure 61 the Area 2

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name entered on the Zone Setup page is “Backyard”. The file “Backyard.jpg” exists in the folder

“C:\Program Files\mcsSprinklers\HTML\mcsSprinklers\Pictures\”. Note there was also a file of the name

“Front” and one of the three accepted file types in the same folder since device S45 Area 1 name is Front.

The search for picture files only occurs during startup because it also reads the file contents to determine its size. The processing time to perform this size analysis is undesirable to be repeat for each setup change.

This means that after the site, wiring, area, and zone names have been entered there will be a restart of mcsSprinklers needed before the associated pictures will be recognized. mcsSprinklers will also allow the pictures to be identified as part of the setup on the Wiring, Zone and

Other setup pages. In this case they can be located anywhere on the LAN and mcsSprinklers will provide a browse capability to locate them. It will then move them and rename them into Pictures folder. In this case no restart of mcsSprinklers is needed after pictures are identified.

Figure 61 Reference Picture Popup

7.3 History Calendar

The Zone and sensor history is viewed in a calendar format for the last 90 days plus future days up to the next projected watering day for the zone. The calendar is a popup that is accessed by clicking on the calendar icon for a zone or sensor from the General Status page or Zone Status page. The number of days to display is a user preference item that can be changed from the Other Setup page.

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The calendar presents a seasonal view of the irrigation history. More detailed information is shown when the day in the calendar is clicked. A broader annual trend is viewed by clicking the “Annual” button at the

bottom of the calendar. A sample annual trend chart is shown in Figure 62.

Figure 62 Annual Trend Popup

The sensor calendars will show the daily sensor measurement. Depending upon a sensor this will be the cumulative or the maximum sensor value for the day. A monthly value is also presented in the header of each calendar month. When the day in a cell is clicked then an hour-by-hour accounting of the sensor is

provided in a detail popup. These two popups are shown in Figure 63.

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Figure 63 Sensor Calendar with Popup Detail

The zone calendars have three options available. The status option show irrigation days, rainfall days, and

forecast using icons. Figure 64 shows a typical zone calendar in the status mode. A green sprinkler icon is

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shown for each day the zone was run. A blue raindrop will be shown for each day where rainfall occurred.

The future days will be shown with the weather icon and/or blue sprinkler icon for the projected next irrigation day. The mid-day current weather condition icon will be shown in lieu of the raindrop icon when no rain was recorded for the day if the icon source is selected on the Weather Setup Page. When a calendar cell in the area reserved for an icon is clicked a detail popup is presented. The information in this popup shows the statistics for the zone for the selected day as well as the total time that the zone has operated.

The zone calendar includes a radio button selection to change the zone view from status to either run minutes or water use for the zone. The calendar’s presented for these other two modes will use a format similar to the sensor calendar.

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Figure 64 Zone History Calendar Popup

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7.4 Zone Status

The zone status page is shown in Figure 52. Ten pieces of information are provided for each zone. At the

top in the Area header bar is the area to which it belongs and the Control Strategy for this area. This information is only provided on the Area Sort.

The Zone header contains the Device Code and Name of the device, the zone’s watering status with both a color dot and description, number of minutes for which it has been watered during the week and the calculated moisture level of the soil in this zone.

The control status is shown by a color dot and text description. The colors can be as follows:

• Blue – watered earlier today

• Green – watering now

• Yellow – to be watered within the next day

• Red – not to be watered within 24 hours

When blue, the zone is prevented from watering again today, but the web page will show a checkbox that resets this condition for any Blue dot zone. This checkbox can also be reset via use of the Alias device setup on the Area Tabs.

The day and time of the next predicted water time is shown for each day. If the control strategy is timebased then the prediction should be accurate. If the control strategy is closed loop then the accuracy will be greater as the next watering time approaches. It is also dependent upon the quality of the parameters provided to calculate soil moisture and the quality of the weather forecast.

Zones can be deselected from automatic control with a checkbox entry. It will retain this “disabled” status until the checkbox is cleared.

The two rows in the left column are used to enable and disable automatic and manual control respectively.

Automatic control times are done in the Area Tabs of the setup page and can be changed from the web view in the text box on the first row of the zone information. The number entered is an integer number of minutes. Manual control times are done with the text box on this web view.

The prefix to the automatic control time text box is the predicted time when the zone will next be run based upon the current parameters defined for sprinkler control. Below this predicted next watering time is the actual last watering time.

If the zone has been watered today then another checkbox will appear to the right of the last watering time.

If this checkbox is checked, then this zone will again be enabled for watering today.

On the right is a graphic showing the moisture level over the last seven days. It is scaled with the control threshold as the minimum level and 100% as the maximum. The current moisture level graphic is also shown.

7.5 Run List

The run list is a view that shows the projected watering time for all enabled zones. It is sorted in order of run time to provide a quick view of the sequence that is projected based upon the control strategies and

current conditions. The page can be seen in Figure 65.

The Status indication will typically be green when a zone is running and yellow or light blue depending upon how far into the future the projection is. The zone name includes a clickable icon to get to the calendar view of the zone for a history of that zone’s activity. The remaining columns show the information about the zone and its projected next watering time.

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Figure 65 Run List Page

7.6 Priority Messages

When mcsSprinklers is trying to provide notification of an unusual situation then it will provide a popup from the tray icon. This occurs when internet data update has stopped, a change in the active redundancy occurs, irrigation could not complete for the day, or a significant unexpected software event.

The log of message since the start of the mcsSprinklers session can be viewed by either of two means. One is via the messages option when the tray icon is clicked. The messages can also be viewed from the

browser interface by selecting the Messages link at the top of each page. A page similar to Figure 66 will

be shown.

The messages are also contained in the mcsSprinklers subfolder

HTML\mcsSprinklers\Data\StartupTrace.txt and can be copied for other reference. This file is created at each mcsSprinklers startup so if a copy is desired then it must be made before a restart.

Figure 66 Priority Message Page

Priority messages can be viewed at any time. An Email notification can also be provided when such a

message occurs. This notification is setup on the Other Page with the notification setting shown in Figure

68. When the message is delivered it will contain the message in the subject of the email and the entire

contents of the log in the message body. The same email can also be sent to mcsSprinklers.com to assist in product support by selecting the CC checkbox on the email notification section. Email messages are

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limited to one per 60 minutes. The message will provide notification of potential action necessary. A more complete accounting of items needing attention can be viewed from the Message Page. mcsSprinklers delivers Email directly to your Email server. Some Email servers require authentication with user name and password and some use POP for the login. If your Email Server requires either of these then the appropriate fields in the email notification need to be entered. One approach to assess what is required is to observe how your email client is setup (e.g. Microsoft Outlook) to send and receive email.

The same settings used there will be used here. If you use Outlook you can view the settings starting at the

Outlook menu, Tools/Options/Mail Setup/Email Accounts/View Existing/Select Account/Change to bring

up the form such as shown in Figure 67. Note that for mcsSprinklers the Outgoing server (SMTP) is the

one of interest. mcsSprinklers does not accept external email so the Incoming server name is not needed in the mcsSprinklers setup. Different versions of Outlook and different email clients will have different methods to setup the email account, but the SMTP server and logon information is usually included as part of its setup.

Figure 67 Typical Outlook Email Settings

The “Send a Test Email” button can be used to try the settings that you have entered. If success you will receive an email message. If there was a problem then the information provided by your Email server will be visible from the Messages Link or Messages Menu item.

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Figure 68 Email Notification of Major Events Setup

7.7 Log of Valve Control

Each valve control action is logged in a database and this log can be reviewed to provide evidence if a zone has been run. The log is accessed from the “Log” browser link at the top of each page. It will show the

sequential record of each valve action over the past week. Figure 69 shows a typical log. The order can be

sorted using the Time, Valve, Location, or Status buttons. The view can be restricted to less than seven days by entry of a Since date and using the Log Since button. The entire log can be deleted with the Clear

Log Button.

The Control Log selection as part of the Miscellaneous Options on the Site Page is available to toggle the

inclusion/exclusion of the STATUS_REQUEST and response in the log. This selection is shown in Figure

41.

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Figure 69 Log of Prior Week Valve Actions

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8 Interface Details

8.1 Rain8 Module Control

8.1.1 Rain8-Net

The Rain8-Net is managed directly via a serial port on the local PC. A valve command is delivered, the

Rain8-Net acknowledges the commanded valve state, and mcsSprinklers status devices are updated. Three retries will be performed should the expected acknowledge not be received. After three retries the valve status will be set to Fail. In a Homeseer configuration the fail status will be observed as Unknown status.

For Rain8Net devices connected through IP/Serial adapters, mcsSprinklers will cycle power on these devices when a connection is lost and cannot be reestablished. To take advantage of this capability there needs to be a device such as an appliance module that can be controlled by X10, UPB, xAP or Homeseer device.

8.1.2 Rain8-Wireless

The Rain8-Wireless is managed via a local serial port, via xAP-X10 command, or the Homeseer X10 interface should this Homeseer interface support RF X10. In all cases the command is delivered and mcsSprinklers status updated at time of command. There is no confirmation of the commanded state.

8.1.3 Rain8-X10

Rain8-X10 control operations are the same as the Rain8-Wireless.

8.1.4 Rain8-X10-2

When the Rain8-X10-2 is connected to the local PC port managed by mcsSprinklers then the Rain8-X10-2 module should be configured to provide an acknowledge on command. mcsSprinklers will expect the status acknowledge from the Rain8 and retry and report fail status as is done with the Rain8-Net. mcsSprinklers status is only updated on receipt of Rain8-X10-2 status.

When the Rain8-X10-2 is controlled by another interface then it should be configured to provide status only when polled. This will reduce the potential for power line collisions that can occur when the controlling interface is not expecting the immediate status response. In these cases mcsSprinklers will issue a Status Request thirty seconds after the command was issued. While other power line activity may be occurring at this time, there will not be any other mcsSprinklers power line commands at this time. mcsSprinklers status is updated on command as is done with the Rain8-X10, and if the response to the

Status Request is different than the command then the mcsSprinklers status will be updated to the reported status.

8.1.5 EtherRain

The EtherRain is connected to the local PC via a LAN connection using an IP address. The EtherRain module is managed as a set of eight valves. When communications are lost to the module then all eight valves are considered failed. Two retries are used for each communication attempt before failure is declared.

8.1.6 Homeseer Virtual Devices

When the Homeseer interface is used for X10 or other virtual devices then mcsSprinklers will use the status provided by Homeseer. mcsSprinklers status will be updated on command and changed if Homeseer provides a later change of status. Commands going through the Homeseer interface will occur no faster than one command per 3 seconds. This is done to minimize the chance of power line bandwidth overutilization.

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8.2 Alternate Sensor Interface

8.2.1 Weather Data

Weather data can be obtained from a variety of sources that are selected on the Setup8 - Weather Page.

These can be from the Internet from AccuWeather, US National Weather Service, WeatherUnderground, and AWS. It can be obtained via the LAN using xAP message schema Weather.Report or xAPBSC. It can be obtained from the LANs file system using a text file in a comma-separated-values format. It can also be obtained from Homeseer virtual devices when interfaced via Homeseer.

Weather information is expected from the xAP interface using the Weather.Report schema for both localized current weather and the more general Forecast. Should either of these sources become stale, mcsSprinklers will initiate the collection of data from the Internet. The xAP priority exists because some environments use xAP to obtain data from the internet and the priority schema reduce the internet access traffic.

Forecast data will be obtained no more often than once per 30 minutes. AWS or WeatherUnderground data will be obtained on 5 minute intervals except when Wind in selected as a restriction criteria and then it will be done on 1 minute intervals. The AWS or WeatherUnderground data will be obtained from the primary source when available. After three “no reports” from that site the secondary and then tertiary site will be used.

Since weather and forecast data is obtained from the internet there must be a connection to the internet that allows mcsSprinklers to access the reporting sites. This means an always-on internet connection must be available and any firewall must allow mcsSprinklers to pass data. The reporting sites selected for Current

Weather and Forecast are also expected to update their information on a regular basis. Should any barrier to successful updates occur for one hour of Current Weather or two hours of Forecast then mcsSprinklers will provide notification. In a Homeseer environment status will be provided by changing the status of the

Last Weather or Last Forecast status devices. In the Standalone environment it will popup a message from its tray icon. When this situation occurs it may be useful to observe the contents of the files starting with

“~” in the C:\Program Files\mcsSprinklers\Data\mcsSprinklers or C:\Program Files\Homeseer

2\Data\mcsSprinklers folders on the computer. These will contains the last downloaded data from the internet sites.

When internet weather data becomes stale then mcsSprinklers reverts to using historical ET values for the calculated control strategy. When only the AWS or WeatherUnderground data becomes stale then mcsSprinklers will use the current temperature, humidity, and wind speed from the forecast site. The loss of internet data will only affect the calculated control strategy and the status showing in the General Status page.

8.2.2 Local Sensor Data

Weather data will be used for the primary sensors unless an alternate is provided. In a Homeseer configuration the alternate is identified by virtual device code. Any non-blank device code will become the source of the sensor rather than from the weather data report. The Homeseer Device String is expected to contain the data. HTML tags can exist in the Device String content and these will be removed by mcsSprinklers. xAPBSC.Event or xAPBSC.Info schema messages can be used when not in a Homeseer configuration.

The Target address will be blank or resolve to mcsSprinklers address for it to be accepted. The sensor value can be contained in either the Text or the Level key of the BSC message.

The Weatherhawk weather station is interfaced using the LAN and a HTTP protocol supported by the

Weatherhawk. This is done via the IP addresses setup for the Weatherhawk.

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Other weather instruments are typically interfaced using the computer’s file system and a text file. The software interfacing the weather instrument will produce a comma-separated-values text file with the current conditions reported by the instrument. mcsSprinklers will periodically read the first line of this text file and extract the data in the column specified in the Setup8-Weather for CSV input. Column 1 is the first column number. Data will be time-stamped by mcsSprinklers when it is input. Any timestamp produced to the weather instrument interface software is ignored. Multiple lines are also ignored so it is not possible to import historical data into the mcsSprinklers database, but can only input current conditions.

The preferred method to accept csv data is with a one line file. It is also possible to accept a larger file and use the last line of the file. Provisions exists to process multiple lines to sum data over an hourly interval should it be necessary. The options for these capability will be provided when the sensor is selected to have a csv source.

The csv file can be local to the computer, the LAN or retrieved via http or ftp protocol for a remote location. If the start of the file name is http: or ftp: then it will be retrieved via IP interface. If running on a

Linux system then the file path can be relative to the root of the data drive and this is indicated by not using a slash at the start of the path. For all other Windows and Linux cases the file name should be the full path.

8.2.3 Inhibit Device

A user-controllable inhibit device is available as a Homeseer virtual device or as a xAPBSC.Event/xAPBSC.Info message. The Homeseer Device Status is used with values that resolve to

ON (2) to cause the inhibit restriction condition to occur. The xAP BSC message State key is used with a value of ON to activate the inhibit condition. If the inhibit via xAP is connected to something like a rain sensor then some form of periodic messages are recommended to assure that mcsSprinklers will be aware of the unit’s status.

8.2.4 ET Radiation Sensor

The primary contributor to the ET calculation is solar radiation. If the ET sensor is specified then it will be used. The expected ET sensor value is the daily ET which will increase throughout the day and then reset to 0 at midnight.

If both a Temperature Sensor and Solar Sensor are identified then the solar radiation will be based upon these. The Solar sensor in this context is the “in the sun” temperature while the Temperature Sensor is the

“in the shade” temperature.

8.2.5 Water Meter

The water meter is associated with a pump within an Area. The water meter sensor can still be used when no pump device is indicated. If a single meter exists for the site then this same meter address should be used for each Area so the water use for all zones will be measured.

The water meter input is expected to measure the daily water use in terms of gallons or liters. It can also measure the running total that does not reset at midnight.

8.3 Alternate Control Operations

8.3.1 Homeseer

Homeseer presents a virtual device interface that is user-controllable and this interface can be used via the

Homeseer user interface or scripting. Any control that is available on the mcsSprinklers General Status page will be available for control via Homeseer. Any status on this same page will be available to

Homeseer as a Device Status or Device String depending upon the control and context. The Device Value will also be populated with the numeric value of the device scaled by 100.

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The scripting interface for a Homeseer user is via the plug-in object. The object of interest for the

Professional level is hs.GetPluginEx("mcsSprinklersP") when iterating or hs.Plugin(“mcsSprinklersP”) otherwise. mcsSprinklersS or mcsSprinklersB is used for other levels. For standalone the object is

CreateObject("hspi_mcsSprinklers.hspi"). Manual control of valves can also be done via their device code per the rules of the remote setup.

A typical use to determine number of minutes remaining on the current program schedule where the device

S53 is the site status device.

Set mcs = CreateObject("hspi_mcsSprinklers.hspi") sMinutesToGo = mcs.RemainingMinutes(“S53”)

The interface method prototypes are listed below.

Public Sub ForceNewDay()

'reset all internal state information to a start of new day state

Public Property Get NextSprinklerZone(jArea As Integer) As String

'Find the next zone in each area to be watered today

'Return the next one independent of zone if jArea = 0

'Otherwise return the next one

Public Property Get CurrentSprinklerZone(iArea As Integer) As String

'Return the currently active zone of an area

Public Property Get PreviousSprinklerZone(iArea As Integer) As String

'Return the previously active zone of an area

'If Area input = 0 then find the most recently changed valve overall

Public Sub SetManualControl(sDC As Variant, iDuration As Variant)

'set manual control duration of selected device

Public Function ScheduledMinutes(sDC As String) As Long

‘Return number of run minutes for auto program of selected zone

'Selected device can be valve or area or site status devices

Public Function RemainingMinutes(sDC As String) As Long

'Return number of run minutes remaining for selected zone that is active

'Selected device can be valve or area or site status devices

'Return 0 if not a ctive

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Public Function RemainingMinutes(bNoHTML as Boolean) As String

'Return number of minutes remaining in currently running zone

'or time when next zone is projected to start

'Can be formatted with Icons in HTML based upon bNoHTML

'Also includes the device code and zone name

Public Function OverallStatus (bStripHTML As Boolean) As String

‘Return a descriptive string for overall site status

‘This is intended to be available for other display devices

Public Function LoadSettings(sFile As String) As Boolean

‘Return true if load was successful

‘Used to command a configuration change from a file in the

\Config\Alternate folder

8.3.2 xAPBSC.Cmd

xAPBSC.Cmd schema can be used to control any button that is available on the General Status page. The

UID’s for this control can be observed on the xAP Reporting page from a Browser. The subaddress or ID can be wildcarded per xAP rules if desired.

Only devices that have been checkboxed on the xAP Reporting page will be processed. The same is true when using xAPBSC.Query to obtain current status from mcsSprinklers. Only devices that have been explicitly selected will respond to the Query. xAPBSC can also be used to control valves if the valves are checkboxed. The control, however, will only be allowed if an alias has been setup on the Remote Page for the valve.

8.3.3 xAP-X10 / Homeseer-X10

The Remote page of mcsSprinklers is used to associate relationships between an X10 valve and an X10 address that can be used manually control this valve. xAP-X10 or Homeseer X10 events are used to signal mcsSprinklers to take the desired control action. The alternate X10 address is referred to as the Alias.

If Homeseer is used to command the same X10 address as the valve then mcsSprinklers will attempt to override the control action at its next 1 minute control cycle. xAP-X10 commands received for valves that are controlled by the serial port managed by mcsSprinklers will be accepted for the Alias. Direct valve control will be ignored.

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9 Redundancy and Backup

mcsSprinklers is designed with considerations for use of redundancy and automatic reversion to backup sources and control. It can be configured to operate on a single computer or cooperatively on two computers. It can accept weather and forecast data from external sources and when not received from those sources it will obtain them locally from the internet. Internet weather data can be obtained from up to three sources and when these sources are not reporting then it will use the data from the forecast.

It also provides a self-monitoring capability for backup operation on a single PC or embedded platform. In the self-monitoring case, which is enabled with checkbox entry, the system looks for the mcsSprinklers process to disappear and will then restart it. mcsSprinklers performs its scheduling based upon a midnight to midnight interval. A restart at midnight option is also provided to assure each day starts with a clean slate and any anomalies will not propagate between days.

Testing can be done on the backup and monitoring operations with use of the “Test” button in the

“Redundancy Backup Mode” section. When this button is clicked then mcsSprinklers will not send its health data and the backup mechanisms will kick-in after sufficient timeout. This will typically be from 10 to 15 minutes after the “Test” button is clicked. It can be clicked again to re-enable transmission of health data.

After a setting is changed for monitoring or backup then mcsSprinklers should be restarted to assure a proper startup sequence for the backup functions. This is not necessary and should not be done when the

“Test” button is used.

9.1 Single PC Configuration

In a single PC configuration a backup is achieved by monitoring the operation of mcsSprinklers. When the monitor detects incorrect operation it will restart the PC, restart mcsSprinklers or halt mcsSprinklers to allow it to be restarted by other mechanisms. This mode of operation is selected with the Redundancy

Backup Mode radio button set to “Monitored” per Figure 70. For this operation to be effective a shortcut to

mcsSprinklers.exe must exist in the Window’s startup folder.

The monitoring is performed using xAP communication of a Role schema that is monitored by xapmcsMonitorRole.exe. xAP communications require a xAP hub to be running and this is satisfied by xapmcsHub.exe. Both of these applications are started when the Monitored mode is selected.

9.2 Dual PC Configuration

9.2.1 Control Moding

When mcsSprinklers is installed on two computers on the same LAN they can be configured to operate in either an active/standby or and active/active mode. In active/standby then the primary computer is controlling the valves and the standby computer is doing the same internal computations and observing the behavior of the primary computer. When the primary computer appears to have failed then the standby computer will then take over control of the valves. In an active/active mode then both computers are controlling the valves at the same time. There are tradeoffs between the two modes that will be discussed later. The Active/Standby (Standby Backup setting) is the recommended if dual hardware interfaces (e.g. two CM11A for power line interface) are used. Active/Active or Active/Standby is appropriate if single hardware interfaces exist.

The setup for dual PC operation is done on the Other Page in the section “Redundancy Backup Mode” as

shown in Figure 70. Note that the blue color for most of these setup items. The blue indicates that the

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setting needs to be made individually on each of the two computers. The blue color appears when a

Standby or Active backup mode is selected.

One of the computers needs to be identified as the primary. The primary is where the non-blue configuration information is retained. This means that all the setup, excluding the small segment shown in

blue in Figure 70 is stored on the primary computer and referenced by the secondary computer using the

network file sharing capability. This means that the mcsSprinklers folder (e.g. C:\Program

Files\mcsSprinklers) must be a shared folder on the primary computer. The setup of file sharing is dependent upon the Windows operating system version.

The path to the primary computer needs to be entered as the full network path such as is shown in Figure

70.

The Takeover user-entry is the time for the secondary computer to wait before it assumes primary control.

Internally the monitoring is done on five minute intervals so any value under 10 will produce unreliable results with primary control switching often. When in Active Backup (Active/Active) mode the takeover time does not have any operational significance since both computers are always actively controlling the values. What is does affect is the time it takes for the status device 73 to report a failed redundant

computer. This status is shown in Figure 71. This notification will also show up as a priority message as is

shown in Figure 66.

Figure 70 Dual PC Setup

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Figure 71 Redundancy and Moding Status Devices

9.2.2 Independent Applications to Support Redundancy

mcsSprinklers contains interface drivers for the power line CM11A, RF output CM17A, RF input W800,

Voice, and internet for forecast and weather. All of these interfaces are also available as independent applications that are interfaced to mcsSprinklers via the LAN using a xAP message protocol.

With the use of external interfaces then additional levels of redundancy and backup exist. For example, assume the X10 power line interface is setup on the Rain8 page to use xAP as the interface rather than an internal communication port. This then allows the Power line Interface application to be run independently and this same application can be used by both the primary and secondary computer. This works well in an active/active configuration to avoid potential X10 power line collisions that reduce the reliability.

It is also possible to run these impendent interfaces on a third computer or to run them on multiple computers which each computer having the redundant interfacing hardware. The way the system is configured is determined by the failure modes that one is trying to overcome.

When running in active/active mode then it is important that both computers see the same inputs. This included internet data and manual control inputs. If a W800 is used to accept handheld remote control inputs from a palm pad then this same input should be seen by both computers. To support this configuration there should be one W800 that is interfaced as an indecent application. This application can be run on any computer, and can be launched automatically by mcsSprinklers if it is on the same computer as mcsSprinklers. This is the checkbox entry for “Handheld Remote”.

The same rationale applies for the Forecast and Weather internet data. If the internet data is available from the independent application then mcsSprinklers will use it. If two mcsSprinklers computers are running, then both will see the data at the same time. If these independent applications are not run then each mcsSprinklers will recognize the data is not being received and will go to the internet to obtain the data.

The two computers may or may not be scheduling in the same manner depending upon the success of the internet connection.

Status devices 72 and 73 show the current redundancy mode. These can be viewed in Figure 71. Device 72

reflects the computer on which the page is being viewed and device 73 reflects the reported status from the other computer. When the other computer fails to report in the user-specified takeover time then the status of device 73 will show a failed condition. Other than the failure condition a status of “irrigation standby” may also be observed when configured for active/standby operations.

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9.2.3 Associated xAP Interface

The xAP LAN protocol imposes some needs on the configuration when redundancy is applied. When xAP is used then one xAP hub must be running on each involved computer. If one does not already exists then it can be launched by mcsSprinklers by checking the Start Hub checkbox.

Furthermore each applications that uses xAP as a communication mechanism needs to have a unique identifier. The default for mcsSprinklers is FF000800. The default for the secondary mcsSprinklers is

FF000900. These can be changed as necessary to assure that each application has a unique identifier.

9.3 Multiple Rain8Net Networks

When using the power line to provide distribution of commands to the Rain8X10 or the Rain8UPB there is usually no need to have more than a single power line interface for mcsSprinklers to manage. In the case of a large wired network using the Rain8Net then situations may arise where more than a single Rain8Net or

Rain8 WiFi master will be put into service. This is especially true if the Rain8Net is in the Rain8 WiFi configuration were multiple WiFi IP addresses are being employed.

The multiple network configurations are supported by one of two methods. One is with multiple ports on the host PC and the other is with distributed interfaces using the LAN and xAP. When using multiple ports on the host PC then the setup is simply the identification of the number of masters and the port for each master on the Rain8 setup page. The only special consideration is that each Rain8 modules must have a unique modules address event though it is interfaced to different ports.

The multiple network configurations using the xAP interface within mcsSprinklers is supported with an instance of xapmcsRain8Net for each Rain8Master or WiFi IP address. Each instance of xapmcsRain8Net can run on the same computer as mcsSprinklers or they can be run on different computers within the same

LAN. When run on the same computer then each instance will have its own folder from which to execute.

To create the folder structure for xapmcsRain8Net then a new folder should be created and xapmcsRain8Net copied to that folder. An HTML folder should also be created within this new folder.

The files, excluding subfolders, from the mcsSprinklers\HTML folder should be copied to the new HTML folder. This is repeated for as many instances as needed.

To automate the startup process a shortcut can be added to the Windows startup folder for each instance of xapmcsRain8Net. There will also be a shortcut to mcsSprinklers so that all software components will start at the same time. One instance of xapmcsHub must also be run on each computer on which either xapmcsRain8Net or mcsSprinklers is run. A shortcut to this in the startup folder is also appropriate.

Once the folder structure is setup then each instance of xapmcsRain8Net is configured to give each its unique identification and define the Rain8Net modules that it will interface. When first run an icon like will appear in the tray. The setup can be accessed by clicking on the icon and selecting Browser.

to bring up the page shown in Figure 72

A unique HTTP Server Port, xAP Identification, and Serial connection are needed for each instance. The default server port is 8016 so it is best to change the HTTP port for all but the last one configured so remote administration can be achieved with multiple instances running.

The Serial connectivity is the same type of setup as with mcsSprinklers where either an IP address and port or just a local serial port can be selected.

The xAP UID should be unique, but the first two characters must be FF and the last two 00. The instance number can be any alphanumeric text. The text entered will also appear in the tray icon the next time xapmcsRain8Net is started.

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The tray icon can be hidden or left showing in the tray. Remote administration can be gained from a browser with the URL set to the computer network id followed by the server port and /status. (e.g. http://mycomputer:8016/status )

After the Rain8Net modules to be interfaced are connected then the “Find Rain8 Modules” button can be clicked in the same manner that was described for mcsSprinklers or the module numbers can be entered into the text box for the Rain8 Net module setup.

After the “Save Changes” button is clicked then a listing of the valves for all modules entered will show at the top of the page. Each valve that will be used should be indicated with a checkbox in the “Used” column. A name in Location column can also be entered to help identify it. It can be the same name entered on the Wiring page of mcsSprinklers, but need not be.

ON and OFF buttons will appear for any valve that is indicated as being used. These will provide local control of the valves independent of mcsSprinklers. They are primarily a diagnostic aide since control will normally be done via mcsSprinklers.

The “Send All-Off Command” button will command all the valves to the OFF state. The “Query Rain8Net

Modules” button will refresh the status from the modules.

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Figure 72 xapmcsRain8Net Setup

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The tray icon also provides an I/O window popup that can also be used for diagnostics to observe the raw communications with the Rain8Net modules. This is similar to the Rain8/W800 I/O popup of mcsSprinklers.

After each instance of xapmcsRain8Net is configured then it can be put into service with mcsSprinklers.

The two setup items in mcsSprinklers necessary to integrate into this configuration that are contained on

the Rain8 Page of mcsSprinklers and shown in Figure 73 and Figure 74. The Rain8-Net interface is

selected to be External via XAP Address with a text box entry of “mcs.Rain8Net.>”. The modules are

identified by entering their module number in the text box of Figure 74. The “Find Rain8 Modules” will

not be effective since the modules are not locally connected to mcsSprinklers internal port.

Figure 73 Rain8Net Configured for Multiple Masters/IPs

Figure 74 Rain8 Net Manual Entry of Module Numbers

When mcsSprinklers commands a valve of a module that is interfaced through xapmcsRain8Net it will send a message over the LAN. The module that recognizes the command will act upon it and provide a status response when the valve hardware indicates the desired position has been achieved.

If a status response is not received by mcsSprinklers within 15 seconds then it will reissue the command up to two additional times. Three no responses or the unexpected response will cause mcsSprinklers to show the valve as failed on its status display. This is the same behavior as if the valve was connected internally by mcsSprinklers.

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9.4 Configuration Backup and Selection

mcsSprinklers maintains configuration setup information for the currently active setup is retained in the file

…\Config\mcsSprinklers.ini. Each time a configuration change is made it saves a backup copy of the prior configuration in the same location with a numeric suffix added to the filename. Up to 10 backups are saved in this manner. Restoration of one of these backups can be performed from the Other page, Configuration

Administration section, Restore Configuration from Auto Backup selection as shown in Figure 75. The

date of each of these backups will be shown in reverse chronological order.

It is also possible to develop more than one configuration, save the configuration, and then restore it. For example, there may be a springtime configuration, a summer one, and a third used to winterize the system.

After all the settings are made as desired for a specific configuration then it is saved by giving it a simple name (i.e. not a file path or file name) and clicking the Save button from the Configuration Administration section. The configuration can be restored using the Load Configuration pull down from the same area.

The configurations can be manually loaded at any time or they can be scheduled for any day of the year to be loaded at midnight. The automatic scheduling could be used for situations where seasonal adjustments are necessary that go beyond the normal range of parameters provided by mcsSprinklers. To use the automatic scheduling of configuration changes there will need to be a set of configurations saved. Access

to schedule these is from the calendar icon shown in Figure 75. Use of this icon will bring up the annual

calendar. Clicking any cell in the calendar will make a second popup visible where the scheduled

configuration file can be observed, changed or a new one entered. See Figure 76.

It is also possible to “undo” the last Load Configuration selection by selecting the “Restore to Before Last

Loaded Configuration” button. When this is done the configuration that was active immediately before the

Load Configuration operation will be restored.

Figure 75 Configuration Save and Restore

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Figure 76 Automatic Configuration Load Scheduling

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10 Setup Reference

10.1 Setup1-Rain8

10.1.1 Module PC Interface

The interface to the Rain8 modules can be either directly connected to a COM port on this PC or available on any PC that is on the same network. The radio button selection determines the interface location for each type of Rain8 Module and the box is used to enter the COM number or the Xap address.

The Xap address can be wild carded such as *.CM11A.* to indicate that any CM11A xAP node should respond to a command. An explicit target, such as mcs.CM11A.MyPC can also be used to specify as particular node on the network that is responsible for the power line interface with the CM11A.

The Xap Serial is used when the serial port is connected via xAP protocol using the xAPBSC schema. The

Netiom is one device that supports this type of connection.

The Homeseer interface applies to the mcsSprinklers as a Homeseer plug-in and the interface is achieved using the ExecX10 Homeseer scripting method.

It is generally the case that internal COM ports are dedicated to a specific application and the same port cannot be used amongst applications. In the case of the Power line and Wireless interfaces they can share the same port if desired.

10.1.2 Interface Test

When the RF button is pressed then an ON, 5-second delay, and then OFF is sent to device address A1.

The same is done when the Power line button is clicked except the commands are delivered on the selected power line interface.

These buttons are intended to provide a means to test the connectivity of the Rain8 modules to the PC.

10.1.3 Homeseer X10-IO Devices

Devices that are to be controlled by the Homeseer generic X10 or IO interfaces are itemized in this list.

Commas are used to separate device codes. For example] 3,]45,A5,B15.

10.1.4 Rain8 Net and Rain8 WiFi Master Modules

A typical Rain8Net or Rain8Wifi configuration will have one port on the PC with one or more Rain8 modules daisy-chained. It is also possible to use multiple ports on the PC with each connected to one or more Rain8 modules. This second configuration is most appropriate with the modules need to be physically separated.

The communication protocol is also specified in this section for how mcsSprinklers obtains valve status from each Rain8Net module. Each command sent to the Rain8Net is always confirmed and retried when necessary. Valve status is optional and can be after each command or every minute. If communications interface is robust then the polling every minute will assure proper synchronization between the hardware and software. If the interface does not maintain timing between commands very well then unexpected mcsSprinklers recovery actions can be observed.

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10.1.5 Rain8 Net and Rain8 WiFi

The All-off button will turn all valves connected to the Rain8-Net off. The Find Modules button will scan the Rain8-Net for all modules connected. A new window will show the current address being searched. At any time the search can be aborted by clicking the same button that now has an Abort label. Rather than searching it is likely easier to just enter the module IDs using a comma to separate each if more than one module is being used.

When communicating with the Rain8Net there will be some delay before a response is received. The value selected is the threshold before a retry is attempted and then eventually a failure declared. If the Rain8Net is connected via an IP/Serial device and communications are via IP then a reset of the IP/Serial device can be specified when there is an inability to establish a connection to the device. To use this capability the

IP/Serial device needs to be plugged into a device to which power can be controlled. The control can be via X10, UPB, xAP xAPBSC schema or Homeseer device code. The address or device code is entered into the reset device field and the delay field will contain the time it takes for the IP/Serial device to power up and complete its initialization.

10.1.6 Rain8 UPB

The All-off button will turn all valves connected to the Rain8-UPB off. The Module number box identifies the Rain8UPB modules that are connected. The module ID's are defined when the EPROM is programmed. They will be 1, 2, etc and correspond to UPB DIDs 1 through 8, 9 through 16, etc. The

Network ID text box is used to enter the UPB NID.

10.1.7 Rain8 Wireless and X10 Power line Interface Module

Assignments

Rain8 Wireless and Power line modules are organized into lower bank and upper bank configuration where the lower bank is associated with unit addresses 1 to 8 and the upper bank with addresses 9 to 16. Each unit is also associated with a house code. The map of the type of interface vs. the house and bank is made by selecting the type of module radio button at the intersection of the House row and Bank column.

10.1.8 House

This is the identification of the house code for the module.

10.1.9 Bank 1 to 8

Select the radio button that identifies how a Rain8 module has been programmed. It is the intersection of the selected house code and lower bank.

10.1.10 Bank 9 to 16

Select the radio button that identifies how a Rain8 module has been programmed. It is the intersection of the selected house code and upper bank.

10.1.11 Rain8 Wireless Valve 8 Configuration

Rain8 Wireless can be configured to allow value number 8 of the module to be slaved to the other 7 valves or to operate independently. When independent, the module will control 8 valves. When slaved it will control 7 valves plus a pump.

10.1.12 Address

Address of Valve 8 of the module

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10.1.13 Valve 8 in Module

Radio button is used to identify how the module has been programmed. When independent is selected then the module supports 8 valves. When slaved, the last valve will be on when any other valve is on and off when all other 7 valves are off.

10.1.14 EtherRain Modules

EtherRain modules are identified by IP address and port. All modules are assumed to have the same username and password setup during configuration with the Quicksmart admin utility. Once the number of modules are selected then rows will be available to enter the IP address and port for each module.

10.1.15 Rain8 EPROM and Timers

All Rain8 modules need to be programmed to identify as a minimum the address to which it will respond.

Programming is done one module at a time with a direct connection to the PC and without any transformer or valves connected to the Rain8.

The programming of each Rain8 unit, independent of model, is done off-line via the Communication port identified in the programming port text box. The same port that is used for Rain8 Wireless or Rain8 Net can be used here, but the others will be disconnected when programming of the timers is started.

There are differences in the programming of the Timer EEPROMS so the type of unit needs to be identified. This is done with the three-option radio button in the Module Type group.

When reading the EEPROM, via the “Read Timeout Timers” button the House/Bank or Net address fields are populated based upon the contents of the EEPROM that was read.

When programming the units the address or House/ Bank code entries need to be entered before the

“Download” button is clicked. In the case of the Power line and Wireless versions a House code and upper/lower bank specification needs to be entered before downloading timer values. Note that when the download does occur the House code will be programmed into the unit as well. For the Rain8 Net the address in the range 1 to 255 is entered into the provided text box.

The right part of the Timers group contains a row for each Rain8 valve. The text boxes are used to enter the timeout values to be programmed into the EEPROM. They are in decimal minutes and different units have a different range of values that are valid.

The Download and Read button can be used at any time the unit it connected to the Programming Port to either download or confirm the contents. Note that the Communication port provides the power to the

Rain8 when it is being programmed so no connection to the 24VAC transformer is needed during programming.

10.1.16 Programming Port

The COM port number is entered into the box. This is the port to which a Rain8 module is connected to allow its memory to be read and changed.

10.1.17 Module Type

Identify the type of Rain8 module that is connected to the programming port. The section is made with the radio buttons.

10.1.18 Module Address

The Rain8-Net uses a numeric address in range 1 to 255. The other units use an alphabetic house code in the range A to P plus and identification of the bank. The selection made for the Wireless and Power line modules will have a corresponding entry in the above table when the unit is deployed.

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10.1.19 Rain8-Net Timer Disable

All Rain8 models can use timers as a safety measure. With only the Rain8-Net can these timers be disabled to allow a valve to remain on for an indefinite time. The checkbox is used to make this selection for the

Rain8-Net model.

10.1.20 Rain8-Wireless Valve 8 Use

The Rain8 Wireless model can be configured as 7-independent and 1-slave or 8 independent valves. When configured in the 7/1 mode then the slave valve will be ON when any of the other 7 is ON and OFF when all the other 7 are OFF.

10.1.21 Rain8-X10-2 Status Response

The Rain8 2 Way can deliver a status response following each command or it can deliver this response only when requested using an X10 Status Request command. In a shared environment where the X10 interface is not managed by mcsSprinklers then the unit should be configured for poll status response only. In this case it will operate much like a 1-Way Rain8 X10 with the ability to poll. When managed directly by mcsSprinklers then the immediate status response is used to update the actual valve status only when an acknowledge is received rather than update upon command sent.

10.1.22 Rain8 Timers

Timer values for each valve are entered in the text box. Maximum values are 250 minutes. Minimum values are 1 minute. A value must be specified except in the case for the Rain8-Net module when the timers are disabled.

Direct control of the Rain 8 series of irrigation controllers is provided via mcsSprinklers. The setup of the

Rain8 is done on the “Rain8” Tab.

All Rain8 devices can be programmed with a timeout for a zone. When programming the timeout, a single

Rain8 unit is connected to the Communication port for programming. Programming cannot be done in a multiple configuration or via mechanisms other than a direct connection to a serial port.

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10.2 Setup2 - Wiring

10.2.1 Wire Harness

A wire harness represents a bundle of wire routed between the valve head and the Rain8 module. Any of the wires in the hardness that are used will be assigned to a control valve. A harness can be given a name to assist with later identification. This name is not use later in the setup

10.2.2 Wire Color

Wire colors in the standard wire harness are listed. If physical wire colors are different then the color codes relationships will need to be maintained externally.

10.2.3 Control Valve

The pull down contains all the Rain8 modules that were identified on the Rain8 Setup. The particular valve to which the wire is connected is selected with the pull down. Care should be taken so he same value is not assigned to two wires.

10.2.4 Location

The location box is used to identify the valve with a friendly name. This name will be displayed on status pages and will be the name used in voice control.

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10.3 Setup3 - Layout

The layout page allows the valves that are defined in the wiring setup to be assigned to Areas or used for pump or fertigation control. When the valve is assigned to an Area, then its run time can be entered for the

auto programs, manual operation or syringing. The layout page is shown in Figure 19.

Three columns of information are shown for each valve defined in the system. The column title button can be used to sort the valves by physical name, assignment or auto program time. The defined valves will be shown in a row with a light or medium gray background. The undefined valves will be listed in a blue background.

10.3.1 Picture

The Picture column shows the information that was entered on the Wiring Page that identifies a valve. If a picture is available it will be shown. The textual description under the picture contains the physical valve identification and the zone name associated with this valve.

10.3.2 Assigned Use

Each defined valve can be assigned to an Area, used to control a pump or fertigation valve, or left unassigned. The radio buttons in the matrix are used to identify the assignment. When used for pump or

fertigation then the same valve can be assigned to multiple areas. The example in Figure 19 shows how the

8 th

valve of a Rain8Net module is assigned as the pump for Areas 1, 2 and 3. The zone valves that are assigned to an area can only be assigned to a single area. The first four valves are assigned as zones individually in Areas 1, 2 and 3.

The assignments made here will also be reflected in other setup pages. Zone assignments will be seen on the Zone Setup and Area Setup pages. The Pump and Fertigation assignments will also be visible on the

Area setup page.

10.3.3 Minutes

Three base irrigation times based upon the irrigation mode are shown in the Minutes column. The Auto time is the number of minutes that the valve will be turned on for the first time that a valve is activated on a day that the Area control strategy enables the valve. If there are multiple times used during the day for the same valve then a clock icon will show to the left the Auto entry. Another popup page such as is shown in

Figure 21 will be shown if the clock icon is clicked. This page will allow other times to be viewed and

changed. Other views of the daily program can be seen on the Timed Programs Page and the Area Page.

The Manual time is the maximum number of minutes that a valve will be allowed to run when the zone is manually enabled. A valve is manually enabled from a variety of locations including the Zone Status,

General Status or remote mechanisms.

The Syringing time is the number of minutes that a valve will be activated when the syringing stress conditions have been satisfied. The syringing conditions are setup on the Site Page.

The values for the duration of three modes can also be setup on the Zone Setup Page. The Zone Setup Page will also allow for additional information that zone operations.

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10.4 Setup4 - Zone

The valves identified in this area group will be controlled by the control strategy of the associated area.

This control strategy is defined in the Area Setup Page. Up to twelve zones can be grouped into an area.

When an area is scheduled for watering then each zone, in the order entered, will be sequentially watered.

10.4.1 Valve

The control valve for the zone is entered with the pull down. Selections available are those that have been defined in the Rain8 Setup and Wiring Setup pages.

10.4.2 Auto Minutes

The number of minutes of watering for the selected valve is entered in the text box. This will be the number of minutes the valve will remain ON when an automatic watering cycle occurs. Integer values are used to indicate minutes. If durations with resolution to approximately one second is desired then the value is entered in the format mm:ss.

10.4.3 Manual Minutes

The number of minutes of watering for the selected valve is entered in the text box. This will be the number of minutes the valve will remain ON when a manual control via the Web page, Voice, or RF

Remote is actioned. Integer values are used to indicate minutes. If durations with resolution to approximately one second is desired then the value is entered in the format mm:ss.

10.4.4 Syringing Minutes

The number of minutes of watering for the selected value for the mid-day syringing cycle. This is typically under five minutes and is activated based upon the Syringing control on the Other Setup page. Integer values are used to indicate minutes. If durations with resolution to approximately one second is desired then the value is entered in the format mm:ss.

10.4.5 Soil Efficiency and Rain Factors

The Soil Efficiency and Rain Factor entries allow tweaking of the soil moisture content algorithm. Soil

Efficiency relates to the ability of the soil to retain water with is a result of a combination of soil type and crop type. Higher values indicate that the soil will tend to retain moisture or the crop is efficient in holding moisture and does not allow moisture loss through its structure. A nominal value is 0.75. The Rain Factor relates to the degree that rainfall is allowed to reach the zone. A nominal value is 1.0 and a value of 0 indicates that the zone is covered and rainfall will not reach the soil level.

10.4.6 Fertigation Factor

The fraction of time (from 0.0 to 1.0) to be applied to the zone’s Auto Minutes for control of the fertigation valve that is identified on the Area setup page. The fertigation valve is slaved to the zone valve when turned ON and the turn OFF will be determined by the factor.

10.4.7 Calc Flow

The entry is used to estimate water consumption when a metered source is not available. The number entered represents the gallons per minute or liters per minute of water use when the value is ON

10.4.8 Max Flow

The max flow value is used in conjunction with a water meter. When the meter measurement for the zone exceeds the max flow value then a notification will be provided.

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10.5 Setup5 – Area

10.5.1 Zones in Area

This section is for information only to show which zone have been defined for the specific area. The information about the zone includes the Harness ID, Wire Color, Value ID, Zone Name, and in the

Homeseer case, the device code. For each zone two pieces of historical information is shown. The 30 day rate is the rate at which a watering cycle occurs. In non-timed modes this will be the soil moisture loss rate.

Bar chart that shows the calculated percentage of moisture in the soil for a zone over the past seven days.

This may be useful trend view to help adjust factors on the Zone and Area pages that characterize a zone’s soil moisture.

10.5.2 Area Control Strategy

One of five control strategies needs to be selected. The first three are variations of watering at fixed times.

The last two schedule watering based upon sensor information. In the case of the interval method a starting day value can be entered that will allow different areas to be done using the interval methods, but occur on different phases of the interval.

To support the Measured method there are three types of information that are entered to characterize the desired operation. The soil sensor scale are three values that represent the 100%, 0% and the level at which an irrigation cycle will be started. The sensor that will be providing the soil moisture readings can be from a xAP or Homeseer virtual device source. This is selected with a radio button followed by entry of the source address. There is usually a delay between when irrigation occurs and when the moisture sensor registers the increase in moisture. A fixed delay is specified to prevent a second irrigation cycle from starting before the sensor registers the increased moisture. When the Calculated method is used then the sensor information will be collected from local sensors or the Internet based upon the weather station selected on the Other Setup page. The threshold entry in the box is the calculated ET value based upon these sensors at which an irrigation cycle will start.

10.5.3 Area Zone Sequence Control

Three sequence options are available. The first runs all zones of the site in sequence with the number on the same time selectable by site. The second treats each area’s zones independently with a maximum number of zones on at the same time selected by area. The last allows user to externally control sequencing while restrictions and pump control continue to be managed by mcsSprinklers.

In a setup where a single limited-pressure water source is available the selection will be normally to be make zones part of a single master sequence. If each area has a pump or the single source capacity can support multiple zones at the same time then the Zones in area sequence will be the normal selection. The

Zones in area parallel selection is most appropriate for water features such as fountains where these features will all be started at the same time.

In a setup were adequate water pressure and flow rates are available then zones can be scheduled to run simultaneously to utilize the available flow. This can be done by identifying the number of zones that can be running at the same time or by the flow rate that can be supported. In the second case the zone by zone flow rates from the Zone Setup Page are used to support the scheduling.

10.5.4 Interzone Scheduling Delays

A zone will normally be allowed to run for the auto duration specified. This total duration can be split into equal time segments so the zones in the area are watered in a round-robin fashion until the total duration has been done. The number of round-robin cycles is a text box entry. A delay between each round-robin cycle can also be added to assure that adequate time for water absorption exists between each cycle.

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A fixed delay between each zone can also be added to account for other factors that dictate that irrigation is spaced over time rather than continuous.

10.5.5 Area Water Supply

This setup is used when control or monitoring of the water source is needed. When no entries are made then the assumption is that the water supply is always available.

10.5.6 Pump Control Valve

The pull down is used to identify the Rain8 valve that is to control the water source. If the water supply is enabled when the Rain8 valve is turned ON then the Enable=on selection is made. If the polarity is reversed then the other radio button selection is made.

10.5.7 Well or Water Storage Discharge and Recharge Times

If irrigation is limited by capacity of well or other holding tank then provisions can be specified as to how long an area can be continuously be running and then how long to wait for recharge.

10.5.8 Flow Volume

If a water meter is available to measure water flow when the area is active then select the source of the reading from this meter. It can be a xAP address, UPB Counter Input DID, or Homeseer device code where the Device String contains the meter reading. If the same meter is used for multiple areas then include the meter in each area.

The meter will be read when a zone is turned ON and when turned OFF to determine the consumption by that zone.

10.5.9 Water Leak Monitoring

Monitoring for excessive water use with a valve is turned on is setup by identifying the period of time in the recent past for which the average water use will be established. The second setup parameter is the percentage about this average that is needed to be considered excessive and for which notification is desired.

10.5.10 Fertigation Valve

Select valve that is used to control fertigation unit. The valve has previously been identified on the Wiring setup, but not assigned to any zone.

10.5.11 Fertigation Control

Select fixed percentage to use exactly the run time percentages setup on the Zone setup page for fertigation or variable to adjust this value based upon frequency of irrigation so more is applied as the irrigation period increases.

10.5.12 Fertigation Instrumentation Source

If the media container has a sensor to indicate low volume then the source of this sensor is entered. This will allow mcsSprinklers to provide the notification when the media needs to be refilled.

10.5.13 Area Start Times and Duration Factors

For timed control strategies watering will occur starting at midnight if no other restrictions are in force.

The default start time can be changed with an entry in the Time 1 box. If more than one cycle is needed in a day then Time 2 through Time 24 boxes can be used to achieve up to 24 cycles in a day. The numbers

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entered for the time can be absolute times or times relative to sunrise and sunset based upon the radio button selections. These times only apply to the three timed control strategies.

A zone will be watered for the auto duration specified for the zone. The duration can be changed so each cycle within a day can have a different duration. 24 time slots are available. A factor of 0.5 will decrease the Zone duration by 50%. A factor of 1.5 will increase it 50%.

10.5.14 Area Inhibit Times

The Area inhibit times perform the same function as the Restriction page between hours inhibit however they only apply to the zone in a specific area. For the span of time between the From and To entries no watering will occur for the area. The times are entered in the format of HH:MM or just HH if no minutes are used. The times are based on a 24 hour clock with values of 0 and 24 being equivalent. The inhibit times will prevent a zone from starting. A zone or area that is already started before the inhibit period can be allowed to complete based upon settings.

10.5.15 Area Restrictions and Carryover Considerations

Minimum days between watering will assure that an automatic watering cycle will occur no faster than the specified time. The maximum days values will assure the foliage will be watered at least as often as the specified interval. The maximum days does not override other restrictions.

Both the min and max considerations are most appropriate for the calculated ET and measured soil moisture control strategies. With timed strategies the interval between watering will be well-defined by the control strategy except in cases where restrictions may be such that watering times are skipped.

The Wind and Temperature restrictions are the same as the site restrictions for these parameters but apply only to a single area. When the weather conditions satisfy the thresholds then a zone that is currently running in the area will be stopped. A zone in the area will not be started if the weather threshold inhibits the irrigation. The Zone Status page indication will show the zone to be “Delayed” and the General Status page will show an area-specific restriction for this area.

The carryover allows a zone that was inhibited during all scheduled periods of a day to be scheduled for irrigation on the following day independent of the control strategy scheduling. If, for example, an even-odd strategy is being used and the zone did not complete on the scheduled even day, then if carryover is enabled it will be scheduled to run on the next (odd) day.

Situations can occur when rainfall causes a zone to calculate moisture levels greater than 100%. For periods of continuous rain a zone may record up to 200% soil moisture level. When the rain stops and evapotranspiration starts the moisture accounting will either go immediately to 100% or it will gradually decrease based upon the calculated moisture loss. If the soil conditions are such that 100% is truly saturation then the option to snap to 100% is the appropriate setting. If the soil conditions will actually hold more than the assumed 100% then a gradual decrease is the appropriate setting.

10.5.16 Seasonal Percentages

The values associated with each month will be multiplied by the Automatic watering times entered on the

Zone Setup page and this product used as the actual watering time. It is intended to account for seasonal variation when using a timed control strategy. The control strategy is setup on the Area Setup page. 100 percent is nominal for summer. When a new zip code is entered the percentages will change to default to monthly average ET for the zip code. They can be changed and the values will be retained until the next zip code change. Seasonal percentages are not used for areas under ET calculated or measured control strategies.

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10.6 Setup6 - Site

10.6.1 Watering Restrictions

Watering restrictions limit times when watering will be performed. If no restrictions are selected then the watering schedule will be based solely on the Control Strategy setup page.

10.6.2 Don’t on Day of Week

For any day of the week where the checkbox is checked there will be no watering performed.

10.6.3 Don’t Between Hours

Limitations on the time of day that watering can occur is specified as a pair of times using a 24 hour clock.

No watering will occur between each pair of times entered. The times can be entered as just an hour or as an hour and minutes using a colon separator (e.g. 10 or 10:14). A checkbox is provided to identify if the between hours restriction applies to any zone or applies to the start time for an area. When checked then any area that has started before the inhibited times will be allowed to run to completion during the restricted times. When it is not checked then no irrigation will be allowed during the restricted times.

10.6.4 Don’t Even Odd Days

Checks in either of the two checkboxes can be used if watering is not to occur on even-numbered days or odd-numbered days. This may be useful if local regulations dictate such restrictions.

10.6.5 Min Days Between Watering

Entry in this box can be made to assure that watering does not occur too often. This is typically useful to encourage plant roots to travel deeper.

10.6.6 Don’t with Wind

Wind will typically disturb the watering efficiency. To avoid this situation watering can be restricted to periods without excessive wind. The threshold is entered in the first box. The period for which this average speed must be maintained is entered in the second box. Too low values in either of these boxes could result in a repeated starting and stopping of the watering valve.

10.6.7 Don’t with Temperature

The average temperature over the past one hour is used as the decision criteria. When it is under the userentered value then watering in all zones will be suspended. A blank entry is used to not employ this restriction.

10.6.8 Max Cycles per Day

Entry in this box is used to place a threshold on a watering cycle. It is appropriate for measured and calculated control modes where the watering period is determined by sensors. These sensors could fail or provide bad readings and could cause excessive watering.

10.6.9 Don’t with precipitation forecast and actual

Entries in this area are used to conserve water when either rainfall is forecast or significant rain has occurred recently. A line is enabled with a checkbox. If the optional entries on each line are left blank then values of zero will be used for rainfall probability or amount of rain that has fallen.

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10.6.10 Don’t with Evapotranspiration

Moisture loss is calculated based upon sensor inputs. When the moisture loss is calculated to be less than some threshold then a cycle can be selected to be inhibited. A value of 0 for Days is the current day only.

A value of 1 is for the max daily ET from yesterday through today.

10.6.11 Record inhibit reason in Message Log

Each minute an evaluation is performed to enable a zone. When a zone is inhibited due to a restriction then this restriction can be recorded in the message log for later reference. The message log does not persist beyond mcsSprinklers sessions.

10.6.12 Don’t With Homeseer Device

Virtual device code that will inhibit watering when on.

10.6.13 Water Holding / Presssure Tank

The water tank is modeled as a full level, a low level at which irrigation should be inhibited and a rate at which the tank is being filled. If a water tank is not being used then the full level should be set to 0 to indicate the lack of such a tank.

10.6.14 Syringing Options

These settings define under what condition the syringing cycle, as defined in the Zone Setup page, is started. The cycle is run up to once per day and behaves like a manual control operation other than being started automatically.

10.6.15 Manual Mode Update Options

Time of last valve action and soil moisture content are always managed in the auto control modes. In the manual mode the time and/or soil moisture can be left unchanged or can be updated as is done in the auto mode. One may not want to update these when an auto control strategy depends upon them such as min days between watering.

10.6.16 All Zones Watering Duration Adjustments

These options provide a mechanism to change the auto program durations for all zones.

10.6.17 Seasonal Percentages

Each area can adjust the watering duration based upon the monthly calendar. These percentages can be manually changed on each area page or globally changed to either historical ETo rates or to 100%. 100% will have the effect of no duration adjustment based upon calendar.

10.6.18 All Zones Adjustment Percentage

The percentage applied here in the range of -20 to +20 is applied to the watering times for the auto program that have been setup on the Zone Setup page, coupled with the Area Setup page seasonal duration factors to arrive at an actual zone watering time.

10.6.19 Miscellaneous Options

These options provide zone control selections and command redundancy or safety.

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10.6.20 Site Name

The name entered here can be used as the filename of a picture or drawing of the site layout off all areas and zones. This picture then can be viewed by clicking on picture icon on the General Status page for the device with the entered site name.

10.6.21 Valve Safety

A command is normally given once for each control action to be taken. It is possible to repeat the command to assure that the valve controller does recognize it. As added safety it possible to send OFF commands every hour and/or every new day to all valves that are currently suppose to be off.

10.6.22 Pump Safety

A pump is normally controlled the same as a valve with a single command to turn on and then a single command to turn off. It is not desirable that a pump be on when no valve is open such as might occur if the valve has failed or if the pump off command was not acted upon. When the pump safety is enabled then the pump off command will be delivered every 60 seconds when no zone in the pump’s area is on.

10.6.23 Control Log

A log of valve control actions is maintained and can be viewed from a browser link. This log will include the ON and OFF commands. If desired it can include the STATUS_REQUEST and

STATUS_ON/STATUS_OFF used for the Rain8X10-2 to assure that the command was accepted.

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10.7 Setup7 - Remote Control

Remote Control Activation Setup

Manual control of individual zones can be achieved with a Browser, Voice, or RF Remote Pad. The

Browse control will be via use of the button provided on the browser page. The voice uses the syntax illustrated in the third column of this table where the valve name used is the one setup on the Wiring Setup

Page. When the voice command does not include the number of minutes then it will default to the manual minutes defined on the Zones Setup page. The RF Remote Pad address to zone relationship is entered in the last column of this table.

10.7.1 W800 for Handheld Wireless Input

If a W800 is interfaced to this computer and is to be used for handheld remote input then enter the serial com port on which the W800 is installed. A handheld remote may be a palm pad or other X10-type wireless device. The entries in this section indicate where the W800 is interfaced and the sensitivity to multiple button pushes.

10.7.2 Crestron Serial

Remote control of Rain8Net valves can be achieved with a serial port connection to a Crestron processor and associated Crestron system components. The port number used on the PC is entered in the setup text box. A crossover RS232 cable is needed between the Crestron and PC to make the physical connection for this form of external control.

10.7.3 Voice Recognition and Reporting

Voice recognition can be enabled to accept voice commands to control valves or to request the status of pending valve actions. If not checked then VR and TTS are not enabled. When enabled then voice commands per the sample patterns shown on the browser page can be used to active controls or obtain current and pending status.

10.7.4 Direct Valve Control

Valves can be remotely controlled by using the direct X10 device code or an alias device to perform the control. This option disables the remote control by use of the same X10 codes as the valve. This would be selected to prevent extraneous X10 commands from controlling the irrigation.

10.7.5 Disable Alias Valve Control

Valves can be remotely controlled by using the direct X10 device code or an alias device to perform the control. This option disables the remote control via the alias devices. This would be selected so remote is only enabled during specific times thus preventing unexpected irrigation control.

10.7.6 Remote Control Activation Setup

This section allows an X10 code to be associated with a zone. This X10 code is called the alias device. It is normally an RF to allow the irrigation field to be walked and the zones controlled. It can also be a power line X10 as well.

10.7.7 Zone

The zone name is the same as the name entered in the Wiring Setup page. It is used to identify the desired valve as part of the voice command.

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10.7.8 Valve

The valve ID is the same as the valves selected in the Rain8 Setup page. It is used here only aid in identification of the desired value.

10.7.9 Voice

Two forms of voice syntax are shown to illustrate the command expected. The general form is the word

Turn followed by On, Off, or the zone name. The third word in the command phrase will be the zone name or on, or off depending upon the second word. In the case of an ON command an optional number of minutes can be spoken followed by the word minutes.

10.7.10 RF Code

The RF address that is associated with the zone is entered in the box. When this RF code is received then the zone will turn ON for the manual minutes or turn OFF, depending upon the RF command. The manual minutes are entered on the Zone Setup page.

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10.8 Setup8 - Weather

10.8.1 Time and Weather Setup

Sunrise, sunset and weather information are based upon location. The zip code is used to determine the location.

Weather data is obtained from the Internet with the zip code as the means of identification of the local vicinity. The forecast data is provided by AccuWeather, NWS or WeatherUnderground. The AWS or

WeatherUnderground network of reporting sites provides the current weather data. Up to three sites can be selected. The primary will be used unless it fails to report then the other sites will be used. This will provide forecast information and default ET profile.

ET Calculations require a measure of the solar radiation which is generally not directly available. mcsSprinklers estimates this value based upon other weather-related information. A calibration factor is provided to allow refinement of this estimate for a specific location. The nominal value is 1. If increased to 1.5 then the ET will be approximately increased by a factor of 1.5. This will yield moisture loss at 1.5 times the initial estimated rate.

10.8.2 Optional Alternate Weather Source

Current weather conditions can be obtained from either AWS sites or WeatherUnderground sites. The

AWS stations are shown for the selected zip code while the WeatherUnderground station codes are entered based upon viewing the below link and navigating to your location. In general they both provide the same set of weather data used by mcsSprinklers, but in some WeatherUnderground sites the Solar Radiation and

UV are also available. http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/ListStations.asp?selectedState=WA&selectedCountry=Unit ed+States.

Multiple stations can be selected from either provider, but only one provider can be used at time.

10.8.3 Optional Alternate Forecast Source

Weather forecast and solar data can be obtained from AccuWeather, NWS or WeatherUnderground.

When obtained from WeatherUnderground a API license key must be obtained. See paragraph 4.2.6 for

registration information for WeatherUnderground forecast feed. NWS data is based upon latitude and longitude so no additional entries are needed when using NWS.

10.8.4 Optional Local Weather Source

When a local weather station is available it can provide the most customized current conditions information. Weather stations can be interfaced via an IP LAN connection for the Weatherhawk weather station or via a comma-separated data file for most other weather stations that support a PC interface. If the

IP interface is used, then the IP address is entered on the setup. If a data file is used, then the path to the data file is entered and this can be aided by browsing the file system.

10.8.5 Weather Sensor Source

Various internet and local weather station sources of weather sensor and forecast can be used. In some case one source may provide more reliable data that another source. Each sensor source that is to be used by

135

mcsSprinklers can be individually selected from the available sources that have been identified from the various optional sources. In some cases only the sensor source needs to be selected. Where additional parameters, such as the column position of a data file source are needed an entry position will be made available to make that entry.

10.8.6 Method to Download Internet Data

Two approaches to download internet data area provided. The option also exists to not obtain weather and forecast information from the internet. The default download method uses a separate control (.NET) while the other uses core functions within Windows. The preferred is .NET, but the other is available if problems exist with the primary method.

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10.9 Setup9 - Other

10.9.1 Version Options Displayed

mcsSprinklers runs in either of three set of capabilities enabled with the highest level available dependent upon the license obtained. Selection of a lower version is primarily intended for trial mode evaluation and can also be advantageous during the interview process to allow essential setup to first be performed and then the more advances setup later.

10.9.2 Configuration Administration

Setup configurations can be saved and restored to accommodate different control configurations. An auto backup is produced each time a configuration change is made. This time-tagged backup can be restored as well.

10.9.3 Load Configuration

Saved configurations can be loaded that exists on either the host computer or the client computer.

A pull down selection of all previously saved configurations on the host computer is presented or a file system browse button is available for finding the files on the client computer. When one is selected the current configuration will be restored to the selected one. If configurations are available on the client

(browser’s computer) then they can uploaded to the host by browsing the client file system for the desired ini file.

10.9.4 Save Configuration

Configurations can be saved on the host computer and each is identified by a user-entered name. After the name is entered the Save button is used to actually perform the save of the current configuration.

10.9.5 Restore Configuration from Auto Backup

Each time the Save Changes button is used to record a change to the current configuration a backup is automatically made. The configuration can be restored from this prior state by selecting it from the pull down. Up to ten backups will be saved.

10.9.6 Update mcsSprinklers Version from Web or Local Backup

mcsSprinklers updated are often available. The latest available is shown on the Version column for “Web” in this section. This is updated each midnight or with use of the Refresh button on the same row. If the

Update button is used then the current version will be replaced by the one from the web site. The current one will become a backup and can be reloaded by selecting to restore from local on the desired row of this section. Each version update will result in a restart of mcsSprinklers.

10.9.7 HTTP Browser Interface

Browser interface to mcsSprinklers is via a specific port to provide maximum security. A few ports have specific purposes, but most are available.

10.9.8 Browser Display Options

The colors and general style of the browser user interface presentation can be altered to better suit user preferences. The overall style is controlled by the style sheet. Individual foreground colors and the overall background colors are independent of the style sheet. The icon size on the General Status page can also be adjusted as well as the overall width of the tables in which the data is formatted.

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The General Status and Zone Status pages have information that can change over time. The Refresh setting in this section is used to identify the interval at which the browser page will update for these two status pages.

The browser size and position can be explicitly controlled by setting the four browser window settings.

This will assure that the browser will always be the same each time a mcsSprinklers page displayed. If they are left blank then the browser will appear per the Windows default position and size algorithm.

A MCS or Homeseer logo exists in the page title area in the upper right of each mcsSprinklers page.

Clicking on this logo will redirect the browser to the URL entered into the setup. If the URL entry is blank the redirection will be to the General Status page of mcsSprinklers. The use of a user-specified URL will enable convenient exit from mcsSprinklers to other browser pages.

The touch pages contain a picture of the zone with overlaid text that contains the zone identification. This identification can be set to include the zone device code and location or just the location.

In a Homeseer configuration the Rain8Net/UPB device codes are special characters that are at times awkward to view. Rather than showing these code for identification a Z## nomenclature can be used where the ## is a sequential number.

The popup charts that show annual trends for sensor and computed values can be displayed in HTML or

Flash. The Flash is a more pleasing display format if the computer supports Macromedia Flash.

10.9.9 Popup Calendar Characteristics

A calendar view is generated by clicking a calendar icon. It will show a user-specified number of historical days and future days until the next scheduled irrigation time. The calendar can have scroll bars applied which is appropriate for longer history.

10.9.10 Sensor Units of Measure

Allow to change from English units to metric units when the checkbox is checked. This applies to the display of the data as well as the download.

10.9.11 Email Notification

Email can be delivered when major events occur. These events consist of loss of internet weather or forecast and change in redundancy configuration and unexpected software operations. The email address to deliver the notification is entered into the text box.

The delivery of email will use the same SMTP server for which your Email is provided. The access information to use this server needs to be entered. To confirm a proper setup a button is provided to send a test email.

When email is delivered a copy can also be sent to mcsSprinklers.com to provide input for support.

Some may have difficulty using the internal email function due to setup demands of their service provider.

There is a free SMTP product that can be loaded on the same computer where MCS runs. It is available at softstack.com/freesmtp.html. Their instructions say to put localhost in the smtp blank of the client but

127.0.0.1 in both the SMTP and POP3 boxes may yield better results. The destination email also needs to be setup there.

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10.9.12 Login Username and Password for Internet (WAN) Access

Access to mcsSprinklers via a browser from within the household or LAN is allowed with no special security provisions other than knowledge of the browser URL that should be used. The assumption is that any user that has local access also has authorization.

When the access is from an external location over the internet then authentication can be requested to prevent unintentional access to the setup and control of the irrigation system. A username and password is used to provide this authorization. The username is visible and the password is encrypted on the mcsSprinklers setup. If no username is entered in the setup then no authentication will be requested from users over the internet.

10.9.13 Redundancy Backup Mode

A single computer configuration is enabled by selecting either or both self-monitoring or restart at midnight. In this case a second application “RESTART” will be started that monitors the behavior of mcsSprinklers and will restart if it exists, fails to produce heartbeat or at the start of each day.

A dual computer configuration is enabled by selecting either Standby Backup or Active Backup on both computers where mcsSprinklers is installed. The transition from standby to active is made when the active computer fails to report for the specified takeover period. Most setup information is maintained on only one computer and this is designated as the primary. The path to the mcsSprinklers install on the primary computer is used by the secondary computer to access the setup information.

10.9.14 Launch Redundant Applications on Startup

[Version-Dependent Capability] Dedicated interfaces are built into mcsSprinklers and it supports use of external interfaces using xAP message protocol. The primary purpose of the multiple interface approach is for system configurations where redundancy is used to increase availability. When launched, a tray icon will appear for the external applications and they will be the primary interface until a failure is detected.

10.9.15 Rain8 Interfaces

xapmcsCM11A and xapmcsCM17A are the supported interfaces for power line and wireless control.

10.9.16 Control Interfaces

xapmcsVoice and xapmcsW800 are the supported interfaces for voice control and wireless remote pad control.

10.9.17 Data Collection

xapmcsAWS and xapmcsWeatherXML are the supported interfaces to gather current and forecast weather information.

10.9.18 Supplemental xAP Interface

When a checkbox is checked xAP message schema is activated. BSC and Configuration are bidirectional and the others are sent from mcsSprinklers. The start Hub checkbox should be checked if no other hub is present and other xAP applications are running on the same computer.

10.9.19 Homeseer Devices

A Homeseer device can be controlled as a valve protect device to accept the transient ON/OFF loads as zone valves are switched can be specified. This device will turn OFF before any zone value is turned OFF and will turn ON after the zone valve has been set to the ON position. This can also be used to simulate a master valve for the entire site.

The Remote setup page assumes an X10 RF type device to be used for remote activation. If other virtual devices are used for this purpose then the alternate HS interface is indicated via checkbox.

139

On/Off as conveyed in the Homeseer DeviceStatus is the normal valve control mechanism. If 0/1 using the

DeviceValue is to be used then this is indicated via checkbox.

10.9.20 Homeseer Notification Options

mcsSprinklers maintains its log of valve actions and is visible from the Run Log link. The valve actions can also be sent to the Homeseer log. The internally managed hardware (i.e. Rain8Net) valve actions will not normally be available to the Homeseer log, but this option can be selected. The Homeseer log can also be the repository for changes in the reason an Area is inhibited.

10.9.21 Homeseer Display Options

The browser pages can be formatted without header content for display in dedicated applications. When this option is selected it will suppress the contents at the top of each display page. It can also be formatted using a custom header.

10.9.22 Database Options

SQL, mySQL, SQLite or Access options are available. If Access or SQLite is used then enter full path to the database .mdb/db file. If SQL or mySQL is used then enter the name of the SQL table. Different version of MySQL and MS SQL Server have different connection mechanisms so this will affect the information entered during setup.

MS SQL Server has provisions for security based upon the Windows login credentials or based upon a username/password explicitly for the database instance. If the Windows login credentials are used then the username/password fields are left blank on the mcsSprinklers setup. MySQL requires the database to have a username/password.

For MS SQL and MySQL the database is identified by a simple name such as “mcsSprinklers”. For Access and SQLite the database is a file path. It will be type “.db” for SQLite and “.mdb” for Access.

The SQL Source identifies the instance of the MySQL or MS SQL server. In some versions this can be left blank so the default server on the network will be used. In other cases and especially in the express versions of MS SQL an explicit instance name needs to be specified. In earlier Express versions the instance id is sufficient (e.g. SQLEXPRESS). In later versions both the computer/network name is needed and the instance (e.g. MYCOMPUTER\MYINSTANCE). Later versions have tigher security. If mcsSprinkres and MY SQL are on the same computer and integrated security it used then the setup of SQL

Source will append “;Trusted_Connection=True” (e.g.

MYCOMPUTER\MYINSTANCE;Trusted_Connection=True). If the database is on another computer then the integrated security cannot be used.

10.9.23 Help

Help is available in document form and in context of the setup being performed. Debugging options also exists to assist in troubleshooting unexpected behaviors.

10.9.24 Context Help

When the mouse hovers over the dark headers of each setup page a popup window will appear to provide information about the setup options within that area. This popup can be disabled with the mouse over header checkbox.

Expert mode makes all possible setting visible on the setup page. When not checked then only settings that are necessary based upon interview responses are shown on the setup pages.

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10.9.25 Debug Data Files

Debug information can be logged to text files. The general debug will contain scheduling and control information. For most analysis activities there are four pieces of information that are needed. One is the mcsSprinklers.ini

file that contains the configuration. The second is StartupTrace.txt file that constraints the information shown on the Message Page. The third is the detail debug information that is in the

General Debug file. This debug file has a file name that contains the date at which the file was created. A new file is created with each restart, each new day, and upon use of the Write button. The last piece of information is a description of what the observed failure is, the approximate time it happened and the actions taken that caused it. If the observed failure happened with the software as you are now running it then you need to flush the debug information to a file. You do this with the Write button in the Debug area. This will flush the buffered debug information to a General Debug file and create a new General

Debug file.

The GeneralDebug file of interest will be the one that was just closed and not the one that was just created since then new one contains only future debug information. When sending debug information be careful to send a file that spans the time when a failure is observed. The file name will contain the time it started and the File Last Modified Date will show the last time data was written to the file. These are both visible in

Debug File section. For all except the currently active file these two dates will show the date range for which the data was collected.

The easiest way to provide the necessary files is to use the Email button on the Other Page on the row that the debug file of interest. This email to yourself will contain the mcsSprinklers.ini

, StartupTrace.txt and selected GeneralDebug files so all that needs to be done is forward this email and include a description of the problem.

The folder size where debug files are located can be limited to not exceed available memory capacity. This is especially important on the embedded platforms where memory is limited. This user setting defaults to

100 megabytes. It is also possible to use an external drive to collect this data and in that case the path is entered to this drive.

10.9.26 Version Options Displayed

The degree of configurability is based upon the license obtained. To simply the configuration it may be desirable to reconfigure to a version that has fewer setup options. Only those versions available for the license obtained will be displayed. If the version is changed then mcsSprinklers should be restarted.

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10.10 Setup10 – xAP Reporting

When the “Basic Status and Control” checkbox in the Supplemental xAP Interface section of the “Other” setup page is checked then the xAP Reporting page is made available via a browser link at the top of page.

The xAP Reporting page will itemize all the control and status devices maintained by mcsSprinklers and include two checkboxes for each. The BSC checkbox, when checked, will generate a xAP BSC schema

message for each change in the value of the device. This page is shown in Figure 30.

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10.11 Setup11 – Picture Entry

10.11.1 Pictures

Pictures of the zone that a valve controls can be selected and these pictures will be available during the setup and during general monitoring of the irrigation. The source pictures can be any size and can come from any location on the client’s computer network. The Browse buttons are used to locate the original pictures. mcsSprinklers will copy, resize and label these pictures for service via the browser through which access to mcsSprinklers is made.

Use of pictures is optional. When a display of a picture is available the camera icon will appear in the applicable context.

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11 AccuWeather Location Codes

Country

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Afghanistan

Albania

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

City

Herat, AF

Kabul, AF

Kandahar, AF

Mazar-I-Sharif, AF

Tirana, AL

Alger, DZ

Annaba, DZ

Batna, DZ

Bechar, DZ

Bejaia, DZ

Biskra, DZ

Blida, DZ

Chlef, DZ

Constantine, DZ

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria

Mostaganem, DZ

Oran, DZ

Setif, DZ

Sidi-Bel-Abbes, DZ

Algeria

Algeria

Skikda, DZ

Tebessa, DZ

Algeria Tiaret, DZ

American Samoa Pago Pago, AS

Andorra

Angola

Angola

Angola

Angola

Angola

Antigua And

Barbuda

Andorra La Vella, AD

Benguela, AO

Huambo, AO

Lobito, AO

Luanda, AO

Lubango, AO

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Saint John, AG

Avellaneda, AR

Bahia Blanca, AR

Buenos Aires, AR

Catamarca, AR

Comodoro Rivadavia, AR

Concordia, AR

Cordoba, AR

Corrientes, AR

Formosa, AR

General San Martin, AR

Location Code

ASI|AF|AF011|HERAT

ASI|AF|AF013|KABUL

ASI|AF|AF014|KANDAHAR

ASI|AF|AF004|MAZAR-I-SHARIF

EUR|AL|AL024|TIRANA

AFR|DZ|AG004|ALGER

AFR|DZ|AG039|ANNABA

AFR|DZ|AG006|BATNA

AFR|DZ|AG007|BECHAR

AFR|DZ|AG008|BEJAIA

AFR|DZ|AG009|BISKRA

AFR|DZ|AG010|BLIDA

AFR|DZ|AG014|CHLEF

AFR|DZ|AG015|CONSTANTINE

AFR|DZ|AG030|MOSTAGANEM

AFR|DZ|AG032|ORAN

AFR|DZ|AG037|SETIF

AFR|DZ|AG038|SIDI-BEL-ABBES

AFR|DZ|AG015|SKIKDA

AFR|DZ|AG042|TEBESSA

AFR|DZ|AG043|TIARET

OCN|AS|AS000|PAGO PAGO

EUR|AD|AN000|ANDORRA LA VELLA

AFR|AO|AO002|BENGUELA

AFR|AO|AO002|HUAMBO

AFR|AO|AO007|LOBITO

AFR|AO|AO006|LUANDA

AFR|AO|AO010|LUBANGO

CAC|AG|AC003|SAINT JOHN

SAM|AR|AR001|AVELLANEDA

SAM|AR|AR001|BAHÍA BLANCA

SAM|AR|AR007|BUENOS AIRES

SAM|AR|AR002|CATAMARCA

SAM|AR|AR004|COMODORO RIVADAVIA

SAM|AR|AR008|CONCORDIA

SAM|AR|AR005|CÓRDOBA

SAM|AR|AR006|CORRIENTES

SAM|AR|AR009|FORMOSA

SAM|AR|AR011|GENERAL SAN MARTÍN

144

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Armenia

Armenia

Armenia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Australia

Austria

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina

Tucuman, AR

Vicente Lopez, AR

Kirovakan, AM

Leninakan, AM

Yerevan, AM

Adelaide, AU

Brisbane, AU

Cairns, AU

Canberra, AU

Darwin, AU

Geelong, AU

Gold Coast, AU

Hobart, AU

Melbourne, AU

Newcastle, AU

Perth, AU

Sydney, AU

Townsville, AU

Wollongong, AU

Graz, AT

La Plata, AR

Lanus, AR

Lomas De Zamora, AR

Mar Del Plata, AR

Mendoza, AR

Moron, AR

Neuquen, AR

Parana, AR

Posadas, AR

Quilmes, AR

Resistencia, AR

Rio Cuarto, AR

Rosario, AR

Salta, AR

San Fernando, AR

San Isidro, AR

San Juan, AR

San Nicolas, AR

San Salvador De Jujuy, AR

Santa Fe, AR

Santiago Del Estero, AR

SAM|AR|AR001|LA PLATA

SAM|AR|AR001|LANUS

SAM|AR|AR001|LOMAS DE ZAMORA

SAM|AR|AR001|MAR DEL PLATA

SAM|AR|AR013|MENDOZA

SAM|AR|AR001|MORÓN

SAM|AR|AR015|NEUQUÉN

SAM|AR|AR022|PARANÁ

SAM|AR|AR014|POSADAS

SAM|AR|AR001|QUILMES

SAM|AR|AR003|RESISTENCIA

SAM|AR|AR005|RÍO CUARTO

SAM|AR|AR021|ROSARIO

SAM|AR|AR017|SALTA

SAM|AR|AR001|SAN FERNANDO

SAM|AR|AR001|SAN ISIDRO

SAM|AR|AR018|SAN JUAN

SAM|AR|AR001|SAN NICOLÁS

SAM|AR|AR010|SAN SALVADOR DE

JUJUY

SAM|AR|AR021|SANTA FÉ

SAM|AR|AR022|SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO

SAM|AR|AR024|SAN MIGUEL DE

TUCUMÁN

SAM|AR|AR001|VICENTE LÓPEZ

ASI|AM|AM006|KIROVAKAN

ASI|AM|AM007|LENINAKAN

ASI|AM|AM011|YEREVAN

OCN|AU|SA|ADELAIDE

OCN|AU|QLD|BRISBANE

OCN|AU|QLD|CAIRNS

OCN|AU|ACT|CANBERRA

OCN|AU|NT|DARWIN

OCN|AU|VIC|GEELONG

OCN|AU|QLD|GOLD COAST

OCN|AU|TAS|HOBART

OCN|AU|VIC|MELBOURNE

OCN|AU|NSW|NEWCASTLE

OCN|AU|WA|PERTH

OCN|AU|NSW|SYDNEY

OCN|AU|QLD|TOWNSVILLE

OCN|AU|NSW|WOLLONGONG

EUR|AT|AU006|GRAZ

145

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Barbados

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus

Austria

Austria

Austria

Austria

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Bahrain

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Innsbruck, AT

Linz, AT

Salzburg, AT

Vienna, AT

Baku, AZ

Gandja, AZ

Sumgait, AZ

Manama, BH

Barisal, BD

Chittagong, BD

Comilla, BD

Dhaka, BD

Dinajpur, BD

Jamalpur, BD

Jessore, BD

Khulna, BD

Mymensingh, BD

Narayanganj, BD

Nawabganj, BD

Pabna, BD

Rajshahi, BD

Rangpur, BD

Saidpur, BD

Tangail, BD

Tongi, BD

Bridgetown, BB

Baranovichi, BY

Bobruisk, BY

Borisov, BY

Brest, BY

Gomel, BY

Grodno, BY

Lida, BY

Minsk, BY

Mogilev, BY

Novopolotsk, BY

Orsha, BY

Pinsk, BY

Soligorsk, BY

Vitebsk, BY

Antwerpen, BE

Brugge, BE

Bruxelles, BE

EUR|AT|AU007|INNSBRUCK

EUR|AT|AU004|LINZ

EUR|AT|AU005|SALZBURG

EUR|AT|AU009|WIEN

ASI|AZ|AJ009|BAKU

ASI|AZ|AJ020|GANDJA

ASI|AZ|AJ052|SUMGAIT

MEA|BH|BA002|MANAMA

ASI|BD|BG003|BARISAL

ASI|BD|BG001|CHITTAGONG

ASI|BD|BG001|COMILLA

ASI|BD|BG002|DHAKA

ASI|BD|BG004|DINAJPUR

ASI|BD|BG004|JAMALPUR

ASI|BD|BG003|JESSORE

ASI|BD|BG003|KHULNA

ASI|BD|BG002|MYMENSINGH

ASI|BD|BG002|NARAYANGANJ

ASI|BD|BG002|NAWABGANJ

ASI|BD|BG004|PABNA

ASI|BD|BG004|RAJSHAHI

ASI|BD|BG004|RANGPUR

ASI|BD|BG004|SAIDPUR

ASI|BD|BG002|TANGAIL

ASI|BD|BG002|TONGI

CAC|BB|BB008|BRIDGETOWN

EUR|BY|BO001|BARANOVICHI

EUR|BY|BO005|BOBRUISK

EUR|BY|BO004|BORISOV

EUR|BY|BO001|BREST

EUR|BY|BO002|GOMEL

EUR|BY|BO003|GRODNO

EUR|BY|BO003|LIDA

EUR|BY|BO000|MINSK

EUR|BY|BO005|MOGILEV

EUR|BY|BO000|NOVOPOLOTSK

EUR|BY|BO007|ORSHA

EUR|BY|BO001|PINSK

EUR|BY|BO004|SOLIGORSK

EUR|BY|BO007|VITEBSK

EUR|BE|BE001|ANTWERPEN

EUR|BE|BE011|BRUGGE

EUR|BE|BE003|BRUXELLES

146

Charleroi, BE

Gent, BE

Liege, BE

Namur, BE

Belmopan, BZ

Cotonou, BJ

Parakou, BJ

Porto-Novo, BJ

Hamilton, BM

Thimphu, BT

Cochabamba, BO

La Paz, BO

Oruro, BO

Potosi, BO

Santa Cruz, BO

Sucre, BO

Tarija, BO

Banja Luka, BA

Doboj, BA

Mostar, BA

Prijedor, BA

Sarajevo, BA

Tuzla, BA

Zenica, BA

Francistown, BW

Gaborone, BW

Ghanzi, BW

Kanye, BW

Kasane, BW

Mahalapye, BW

Mamuno, BW

Maun, BW

Molepolole, BW

Selebi-Phikwe, BW

Serowe, BW

Tshabong, BW

Alagoinhas, BR

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Botswana

Brazil

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium

Belize

Benin

Benin

Benin

Bermuda

Bhutan

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

Bosnia And

Herzegovina

EUR|BE|BE004|CHARLEROI

EUR|BE|BE009|GENT

EUR|BE|BE005|LIÈGE

EUR|BE|BE008|NAMUR

CAC|BZ|BH002|BELMOPAN

AFR|BJ|BN000|COTONOU

AFR|BJ|BN000|PARAKOU

AFR|BJ|BN000|PORTO-NOVO

NAM|BM|BD002|HAMILTON

ASI|BT|BT016|THIMPHU

SAM|BO|BL002|COCHABAMBA

SAM|BO|BL004|LA PAZ

SAM|BO|BL005|ORURO

SAM|BO|BL007|POTOSÍ

SAM|BO|BL003|SANTA CRUZ

SAM|BO|BL001|SUCRE

SAM|BO|BL009|TARIJA

EUR|BA|BK002|BANJA LUKA

EUR|BA|BK002|DOBOJ

EUR|BA|BK001|MOSTAR

EUR|BA|BK002|PRIJEDOR

EUR|BA|BK001|SARAJEVO

EUR|BA|BK001|TUZLA

EUR|BA|BK001|ZENICA

AFR|BW|BC000|FRANCISTOWN

AFR|BW|BC009|GABORONE

AFR|BW|BC000|GHANZI

AFR|BW|BC000|KANYE

AFR|BW|BC000|KASANE

AFR|BW|BC000|MAHALAPYE

AFR|BW|BC000|MAMUNO

AFR|BW|BC000|MAUN

AFR|BW|BC000|MOLEPOLOLE

AFR|BW|BC001|SELEBI-PHIKWE

AFR|BW|BC000|SEROWE

AFR|BW|BC000|TSHABONG

SAM|BR|BR002|ALAGOINHAS

147

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Alvorada, BR

Americana, BR

Ananindeua, BR

Anapolis, BR

Apucarana, BR

Aracaju, BR

Aracatuba, BR

Araguaina, BR

Arapiraca, BR

Araraquara, BR

Araras, BR

Atibaia, BR

Bage, BR

Barbacena, BR

Barra Mansa, BR

Barreiras, BR

Barretos, BR

Barueri, BR

Bauru, BR

Belem, BR

Belford Roxo, BR

Belo Horizonte, BR

Betim, BR

Boa Vista, BR

Botucatu, BR

Braganca Paulista, BR

Brasilia, BR

Cabo Frio, BR

Cachoeirinha, BR

Cachoeiro De Itapemirim,

BR

Camacari, BR

Camaragibe, BR

Campina Grande, BR

Campinas, BR

Campo Grande, BR

Canoas, BR

Carapicuiba, BR

Cariacica, BR

Caruaru, BR

Cascavel, BR

Castanhal, BR

Catanduva, BR

SAM|BR|BR004|ALVORADA

SAM|BR|BR023|AMERICANA

SAM|BR|BR013|ANANINDEUA

SAM|BR|BR027|ANÁPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR015|APUCARANA

SAM|BR|BR024|ARACAJU

SAM|BR|BR023|ARAÇATUBA

SAM|BR|BR025|ARAGUAINA

SAM|BR|BR002|ARAPIRACA

SAM|BR|BR023|ARARAQUARA

SAM|BR|BR023|ARARAS

SAM|BR|BR023|ATIBAIA

SAM|BR|BR019|BAGÉ

SAM|BR|BR012|BARBACENA

SAM|BR|BR017|BARRA MANSA

SAM|BR|BR005|BARREIRAS

SAM|BR|BR023|BARRETOS

SAM|BR|BR023|BARUERI

SAM|BR|BR023|BAURU

SAM|BR|BR013|BELÉM

SAM|BR|BR017|BELFORD ROXO

SAM|BR|BR012|BELO HORIZONTE

SAM|BR|BR012|BETIM

SAM|BR|BR021|BOA VISTA

SAM|BR|BR023|BOTUCATU

SAM|BR|BR023|BRAGANÇA PAULISTA

SAM|BR|BR007|BRASILIA

SAM|BR|BR017|CABO FRIO

SAM|BR|BR015|CACHOEIRINHA

SAM|BR|BR008|CACHOEIRO DE

ITAPEMIRIM

SAM|BR|BR005|CAMACARI

SAM|BR|BR026|CAMARAGIBE

SAM|BR|BR014|CAMPINA GRANDE

SAM|BR|BR023|CAMPINAS

SAM|BR|BR010|CAMPO GRANDE

SAM|BR|BR019|CANOAS

SAM|BR|BR023|CARAPICUÍBA

SAM|BR|BR008|CARIACICA

SAM|BR|BR026|CARUARU

SAM|BR|BR006|CASCAVEL

SAM|BR|BR013|CASTANHAL

SAM|BR|BR023|CATANDUVA

148

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Caucaia, BR

Caxias, BR

Caxias Do Sul, BR

Chapeco, BR

Codo, BR

Colombo, BR

Contagem, BR

Cotia, BR

Crato, BR

Criciuma, BR

Cubatao, BR

Cuiaba, BR

Curitiba, BR

Diadema, BR

Divinopolis, BR

Dourados, BR

Duque De Caxias, BR

Embu, BR

Feira De Santana, BR

Ferraz De Vasconcelos, BR

Florianopolis, BR

Fortaleza, BR

Foz Do Iguacu, BR

Franca, BR

Francisco Morato, BR

Franco Da Rocha, BR

Garanhuns, BR

Goiania, BR

Governador Valadares, BR

Gravatai, BR

Guarapuava, BR

Guaratingueta, BR

Guaruja, BR

Guarulhos, BR

Hortolandia, BR

Ibirite, BR

Ilheus, BR

Imperatriz, BR

Indaiatuba, BR

Ipatinga, BR

Itabori, BR

SAM|BR|BR006|CAUCAIA

SAM|BR|BR009|CAXIAS

SAM|BR|BR019|CAXIAS DO SUL

SAM|BR|BR022|CHAPECÓ

SAM|BR|BR009|CODO

SAM|BR|BR015|COLOMBO

SAM|BR|BR012|CONTAGEM

SAM|BR|BR023|COTIA

SAM|BR|BR006|CRATO

SAM|BR|BR022|CRICIÚMA

SAM|BR|BR023|CUBATAO

SAM|BR|BR010|CUIABÁ

SAM|BR|BR015|CURITIBA

SAM|BR|BR023|DIADEMA

SAM|BR|BR012|DIVINÓPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR011|DOURADOS

SAM|BR|BR017|DUQUE DE CAXIAS

SAM|BR|BR023|EMBU

SAM|BR|BR005|FEIRA DE SANTANA

SAM|BR|BR023|FERRAZ DE

VASCONCELOS

SAM|BR|BR022|FLORIANÓPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR006|FORTALEZA

SAM|BR|BR015|FOZ DO IGUAÇU

SAM|BR|BR005|FRANCA

SAM|BR|BR023|FRANCISCO MORATO

SAM|BR|BR023|FRANCO DA ROCHA

SAM|BR|BR026|GARANHUNS

SAM|BR|BR027|GOIÂNIA

SAM|BR|BR012|GOVERNADOR

VALADARES

SAM|BR|BR019|GRAVATAI

SAM|BR|BR015|GUARAPUAVA

SAM|BR|BR023|GUARATINGUETÁ

SAM|BR|BR023|GUARUJÁ

SAM|BR|BR023|GUARULHOS

SAM|BR|BR023|HORTOLANDIA

SAM|BR|BR012|IBIRITÉ

SAM|BR|BR005|ILHÉUS

SAM|BR|BR009|IMPERATRIZ

SAM|BR|BR023|INDAIATUBA

SAM|BR|BR012|IPATINGA

SAM|BR|BR017|ITABORAÍ

149

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Itabuna, BR

Itaituba, BR

Itajai, BR

Itapecerica Da Serra, BR

Itapetininga, BR

Itapevi, BR

Itaquaquecetuba, BR

Itu, BR

Jacarei, BR

Jaragua, BR

Jau, BR

Jequie, BR

Joao Pessoa, BR

Joinville, BR

Juazeiro, BR

Juazeiro do Norte, BR

Juiz De Fora, BR

Jundiai, BR

Lages, BR

Limeira, BR

Linhares, BR

Londrina, BR

Luziania, BR

Macae, BR

Macapa, BR

Mage, BR

Manaus, BR

Maraba, BR

Maracanau, BR

Marilia, BR

Maringa, BR

Maua, BR

Moji Das Cruzes, BR

Montes Claros, BR

Mosoro, BR

Natal, BR

Niteroi, BR

Nossa Senhora Do Socorro,

BR

Nova Friburgo, BR

Nova Iguacu, BR

Novo Hamburgo, BR

Olinda, BR

SAM|BR|BR005|ITABUNA

SAM|BR|BR013|ITAITUBA

SAM|BR|BR022|ITAJAÍ

SAM|BR|BR023|ITAPECERICA DA SERRA

SAM|BR|BR026|ITAPETININGA

SAM|BR|BR023|ITAPEVI

SAM|BR|BR023|ITAQUAQUECETUBA

SAM|BR|BR023|ITU

SAM|BR|BR023|JACAREÍ

SAM|BR|BR022|JARAGUÁ DO SUL

SAM|BR|BR023|JAÚ

SAM|BR|BR023|JEQUIÉ

SAM|BR|BR014|JOAO PESSOA

SAM|BR|BR022|JOINVILLE

SAM|BR|BR005|JUAZEIRO

SAM|BR|BR006|JUÀZEIRO DO NORTE

SAM|BR|BR012|JUIZ DE FORA

SAM|BR|BR023|JUNDIAÍ

SAM|BR|BR027|LAGES

SAM|BR|BR023|LIMEIRA

SAM|BR|BR008|LINHARES

SAM|BR|BR015|LONDRINA

SAM|BR|BR027|LUZIÂNIA

SAM|BR|BR017|MACAE

SAM|BR|BR003|MACAPÁ

SAM|BR|BR017|MAGÉ

SAM|BR|BR004|MANAUS

SAM|BR|BR013|MARABA

SAM|BR|BR006|MARACANAU

SAM|BR|BR023|MARÍLIA

SAM|BR|BR015|MARINGÁ

SAM|BR|BR023|MAUÁ

SAM|BR|BR023|MOJI DAS CRUZES

SAM|BR|BR012|MONTES CLAROS

SAM|BR|BR018|MOSSORÓ

SAM|BR|BR018|NATAL

SAM|BR|BR017|NITERÓI

SAM|BR|BR024|NOSSA SENHORA DO

SOCORRO

SAM|BR|BR017|NOVA FRIBURGO

SAM|BR|BR017|NOVA IGUAÇU

SAM|BR|BR019|NÔVO HAMBURGO

SAM|BR|BR026|OLINDA

150

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Osasco, BR

Palmas, BR

Paranagua, BR

Parnaiba, BR

Passo Fundo, BR

Passos, BR

Patos De Minas, BR

Paulista, BR

Pelotas, BR

Petrolina, BR

Petropolis, BR

Pindamonhangaba, BR

Pinhais, BR

Piracicaba, BR

Pocos De Caldas, BR

Ponta Grossa, BR

Porto Alegre, BR

Porto Velho, BR

Pouso Alegre, BR

Praia Grande, BR

Presidente Prudente, BR

Queimados, BR

Recife, BR

Resende, BR

Ribeirao Das Neves, BR

Ribeirao Pires, BR

Ribeirao Preto, BR

Rio Branco, BR

Rio Claro, BR

Rio De Janeiro, BR

Rio Grande, BR

Rio Verde, BR

Rondonopolis, BR

Sabara, BR

Salvador, BR

Santa Cruz Do Sul, BR

Santa Luzia, BR

Santa Maria, BR

Santa Rita, BR

Santarem, BR

Santo Andre, BR

Santos, BR

Sao Bernardo Do Campo,

SAM|BR|BR023|OSASCO

SAM|BR|BR015|PALMAS

SAM|BR|BR015|PARANAGUÁ

SAM|BR|BR016|PARNAÍBA

SAM|BR|BR019|PASSO FUNDO

SAM|BR|BR012|PASSOS

SAM|BR|BR012|PATOS DE MINAS

SAM|BR|BR026|PAULISTA

SAM|BR|BR019|PELOTAS

SAM|BR|BR026|PETROLINA

SAM|BR|BR017|PETRÓPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR023|PINDAMONHANGABA

SAM|BR|BR012|PINHAIS

SAM|BR|BR023|PIRACICABA

SAM|BR|BR012|POÇOS DE CALDAS

SAM|BR|BR015|PONTA GROSSA

SAM|BR|BR019|PORTO ALEGRE

SAM|BR|BR020|PORTO VELHO

SAM|BR|BR012|POUSO ALEGRE

SAM|BR|BR023|PRAIA GRANDE

SAM|BR|BR023|PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

SAM|BR|BR017|QUEIMADOS

SAM|BR|BR026|RECIFE

SAM|BR|BR017|RESENDE

SAM|BR|BR012|RIBEIRAO DAS NEVES

SAM|BR|BR023|RIBEIRAO PIRES

SAM|BR|BR023|RIBEIRAO PRÊTO

SAM|BR|BR001|RIO BRANCO

SAM|BR|BR017|RIO CLARO

SAM|BR|BR017|RIO DE JANEIRO

SAM|BR|BR019|RIO GRANDE

SAM|BR|BR027|RIO VERDE

SAM|BR|BR010|RONDONÓPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR012|SABÁRA

SAM|BR|BR005|SALVADOR

SAM|BR|BR019|SANTA CRUZ DO SUL

SAM|BR|BR014|SANTA LUZIA

SAM|BR|BR019|SANTA MARIA

SAM|BR|BR014|SANTA RITA

SAM|BR|BR013|SANTARÉM

SAM|BR|BR023|SANTO ANDRÉ

SAM|BR|BR023|SANTOS

SAM|BR|BR023|SAO BERNARDO DO

151

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil

British Virgin

Islands

Brunei

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

BR CAMPO

Sao Caetano Do Sul, BR

Sao Goncalo, BR

SAM|BR|BR023|SAO CAETANO DO SUL

SAM|BR|BR014|SAO GONÇALO

Sao Joao De Meriti, BR SAM|BR|BR017|SAO JOAO DE MERITI

Sao Jose Do Rio Preto, BR SAM|BR|BR017|SAO JOSÉ DO RIO PRÊTO

Sao Jose Dos Campos, BR SAM|BR|BR012|SAO JOSÉ DOS CAMPOS

Sao Jose Dos Pinhais, BR SAM|BR|BR015|SAO JOSÉ DOS PINHAIS

Sao Leopoldo, BR

Sao Paulo, BR

SAM|BR|BR019|SAO LEOPOLDO

SAM|BR|BR023|SAO PAULO

Sao Vicente, BR

Serra, BR

Sertaozinho, BR

Sete Lagoas, BR

Sobral, BR

Sorocaba, BR

Sumare, BR

Susano, BR

SAM|BR|BR023|SAO VICENTE

SAM|BR|BR023|SERRA

SAM|BR|BR023|SERTAOZINHO

SAM|BR|BR012|SETE LAGOAS

SAM|BR|BR006|SOBRAL

SAM|BR|BR023|SOROCABA

SAM|BR|BR023|SUMARÉ

SAM|BR|BR023|SUSANO

Taboao Da Serra, BR

Taubate, BR

Teofilo Otoni, BR

Teresina, BR

Teresopolis, BR

Timon, BR

Toledo, BR

Uberaba, BR

Uberlandia, BR

Uruguaiana, BR

Varginha, BR

Varzea Grande, BR

Viamao, BR

Vila Velha, BR

Vitoria, BR

Vitoria Da Conquista, BR

Vitoria De Santo Antao, BR

Volta Redonda, BR

SAM|BR|BR023|TABOAO DA SERRA

SAM|BR|BR023|TAUBATÉ

SAM|BR|BR012|TEÓFILO OTONI

SAM|BR|BR016|TERESINA

SAM|BR|BR017|TERESÓPOLIS

SAM|BR|BR009|TIMON

SAM|BR|BR012|TOLEDO

SAM|BR|BR012|UBERABA

SAM|BR|BR012|UBERLÂNDIA

SAM|BR|BR019|URUGUAIANA

SAM|BR|BR012|VARGINHA

SAM|BR|BR010|VARZEA GRANDE

SAM|BR|BR019|VIAMAO

SAM|BR|BR026|VILA VELHA

SAM|BR|BR015|VITÓRIA

SAM|BR|BR005|VITÓRIA DA CONQUISTA

SAM|BR|BR026|VITÓRIA DE SANTO

ANTAO

SAM|BR|BR017|VOLTA REDONDA

Road Town, VG CAC|VG|VI---|ROAD TOWN

Bandar Seri Begawan, BN ASI|BN|BX000|BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN

Bourgas, BG EUR|BG|BU002|BOURGAS

Dobritch, BG

Nikopol, BG

Plovdiv, BG

EUR|BG|BU003|DOBRITCH

EUR|BG|BU012|NIKOPOL

EUR|BG|BU013|PLOVDIV

152

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Cambodia

Cambodia

Cambodia

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Cameroon

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Rousse, BG

Sofia, BG

Stara Zagora, BG

Bulgaria

Burkina Faso

Varna, BG

Bobo Dioulasso, BF

Burkina Faso Ouagadougou, BF

Burma/Myanmar Bassein, MM

Burma/Myanmar Mandalay, MM

Burma/Myanmar Monywa, MM

Burma/Myanmar Moulmein, MM

Burma/Myanmar Pegu, MM

Burma/Myanmar Sittwe, MM

Burma/Myanmar Taunggyi, MM

Burma/Myanmar Yangon, MM

Burundi Bujumbura, BI

Bat Dambang, KH

Kampong Cham, KH

Phnom Penh, KH

Bafoussam, CM

Bamenda, CM

Douala, CM

Edea, CM

Garoua, CM

Maroua, CM

Ngaoundere, CM

Nkongsamba, CM

Yaounde, CM

Abbotsford, CA

Barrie, CA

Brampton, CA

Brantford, CA

Burlington, CA

Burnaby, CA

Calgary, CA

Cambridge, CA

Coquitlam, CA

East York, CA

Edmonton, CA

Etobicoke, CA

Gatineau, CA

Guelph, CA

Halifax, CA

Hamilton, CA

EUR|BG|BU015|ROUSSÉ

EUR|BG|BU021|SOFIA

EUR|BG|BU022|STARA ZAGORA

EUR|BG|BU024|VARNA

AFR|BF|UV000|BOBO DIOULASSO

AFR|BF|UV010|OUAGADOUGOU

ASI|MM|BM001|BASSEIN

ASI|MM|BM008|MANDALAY

ASI|MM|BM011|MONYWA

ASI|MM|BM009|MOULMEIN

ASI|MM|BM002|PEGU

ASI|MM|BM010|SITTWE

ASI|MM|BM012|TAUNGGYI

ASI|MM|BM014|YANGON

AFR|BI|BY000|BUJUMBURA

ASI|KH|CB002|BAT DAMBANG

ASI|KH|CB003|KAMPONG CHAM

ASI|KH|CB012|PHNOM PENH

AFR|CM|CM008|BAFOUSSAM

AFR|CM|CM007|BAMENDA

AFR|CM|CM005|DOUALA

AFR|CM|CM005|EDÉA

AFR|CM|CM006|GAROUA

AFR|CM|CM004|MAROUA

AFR|CM|CM001|NGAOUNDERE

AFR|CM|CM005|NKONGSAMBA

AFR|CM|CM002|YAOUNDE

NAM|CA|BC|ABBOTSFORD

NAM|CA|ON|BARRIE

NAM|CA|ON|BRAMPTON

NAM|CA|ON|BRANTFORD

NAM|CA|NL|BURLINGTON

NAM|CA|BC|BURNABY

NAM|CA|AB|CALGARY

NAM|CA|ON|CAMBRIDGE

NAM|CA|BC|COQUITLAM

NAM|CA|ON|EAST YORK

NAM|CA|AB|EDMONTON

NAM|CA|ON|ETOBICOKE

NAM|CA|QC|GATINEAU

NAM|CA|ON|GUELPH

NAM|CA|NS|HALIFAX

NAM|CA|ON|HAMILTON

153

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Kelowna, CA

Kingston, CA

Kitchener, CA

Laval, CA

London, CA

Longueuil, CA

Markham, CA

Mississauga, CA

Moncton, CA

Montreal, CA

Nepean, CA

North York, CA

Oakville, CA

Oshawa, CA

Ottawa, CA

Peterborough, CA

Quebec, CA

Regina, CA

Richmond, CA

Richmond Hill, CA

Saint Catharines, CA

Saint John, CA

Saint John'S, CA

Saskatoon, CA

Scarborough, CA

Sherbrooke, CA

Sudbury, CA

Surrey, CA

Three Rivers, CA

Thunder Bay, CA

Toronto, CA

Canada

Canada

Canada

Canada

Vancouver, CA

Vaughan, CA

Victoria, CA

Windsor, CA

Canada

Canada

Winnipeg, CA

York, CA

Cape Verde Praia, CV

Cayman Islands George Town, KY

Central African

Republic Bangui, CF

Chad

Chile

N'Djamena, TD

Antofagasta, CL

NAM|CA|BC|KELOWNA

NAM|CA|ON|KINGSTON

NAM|CA|ON|KITCHENER

NAM|CA|QC|LAVAL

NAM|CA|ON|LONDON

NAM|CA|QC|LONGUEUIL

NAM|CA|ON|MARKHAM

NAM|CA|ON|MISSISSAUGA

NAM|CA|NB|MONCTON

NAM|CA|QC|MONTRÉAL

NAM|CA|ON|NEPEAN

NAM|CA|ON|NORTH YORK

NAM|CA|ON|OAKVILLE

NAM|CA|ON|OSHAWA

NAM|CA|ON|OTTAWA

NAM|CA|ON|PETERBOROUGH

NAM|CA|QC|QUÉBEC

NAM|CA|SK|REGINA

NAM|CA|BC|RICHMOND

NAM|CA|ON|RICHMOND HILL

NAM|CA|ON|SAINT CATHARINES

NAM|CA|NB|SAINT JOHN

NAM|CA|QC|SAINT JOHN'S

NAM|CA|SK|SASKATOON

NAM|CA|ON|SCARBOROUGH

NAM|CA|NS|SHERBROOKE

NAM|CA|ON|SUDBURY

NAM|CA|PE|SURREY

NAM|CA|QC|TROIS-RIVIÈRES

NAM|CA|ON|THUNDER BAY

NAM|CA|ON|TORONTO

NAM|CA|BC|VANCOUVER

NAM|CA|AC003|VAUGHAN

NAM|CA|BC|VICTORIA

NAM|CA|NL|WINDSOR

NAM|CA|MB|WINNIPEG

NAM|CA|QC|YORK

AFR|CV|CV000|PRAIA

CAC|KY|CJ000|GEORGE TOWN

AFR|CF|CT000|BANGUI

AFR|TD|CD004|N'DJAMENA

SAM|CL|CI002|ANTOFAGASTA

154

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

Chile

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Arica, CL

Calama, CL

Chillan, CL

Concepcion, CL

Copiapo, CL

Coquimbo, CL

Iquique, CL

La Serena, CL

Los Angeles, CL

Osorno, CL

Puente Alto, CL

Puerto Montt, CL

Punta Arenas, CL

Quilpue, CL

Rancagua, CL

San Bernardo, CL

Santiago, CL

Talca, CL

Talcahuano, CL

Temuco, CL

Valdivia, CL

Valparaiso, CL

Vina Del Mar, CL

Acheng, CN

Anda, CN

Ankang, CN

Anlu, CN

Anqing, CN

Anshan, CN

Anyang, CN

Atushi, CN

Baicheng, CN

Baiyin, CN

Baoding, CN

Baoji, CN

Baoshan, CN

Baotou, CN

Bazhou, CN

Beian, CN

Beihai, CN

Beijing, CN

Beipiao, CN

Benxi, CN

SAM|CL|CI012|ARICA

SAM|CL|CI002|CALAMA

SAM|CL|CI005|CHILLÁN

SAM|CL|CI005|CONCEPCIÓN

SAM|CL|CI004|COPIAPÓ

SAM|CL|CI006|COQUIMBO

SAM|CL|CI012|IQUIQUE

SAM|CL|CI006|LA SERENA

SAM|CL|CI005|LOS ANGELES

SAM|CL|CI008|OSORNO

SAM|CL|CI011|PUENTE ALTO

SAM|CL|CI008|PUERTO MONTT

SAM|CL|CI009|PUNTA ARENAS

SAM|CL|CI013|QUILPUÉ

SAM|CL|CI007|RANCAGUA

SAM|CL|CI011|SAN BERNARDO

SAM|CL|CI011|SANTIAGO

SAM|CL|CI010|TALCA

SAM|CL|CI005|TALCAHUANO

SAM|CL|CI003|TEMUCO

SAM|CL|CI008|VALDIVIA

SAM|CL|CI013|VALPARAÍSO

SAM|CL|CI013|VIÑA DEL MAR

ASI|CN|CH011|ACHENG

ASI|CN|CH011|ANDA

ASI|CN|CH022|ANKANG

ASI|CN|CH013|ANLU

ASI|CN|CH001|ANQING

ASI|CN|CH001|ANSHAN

ASI|CN|CH012|ANYANG

ASI|CN|CH028|ATUSHI

ASI|CN|CH028|BAICHENG

ASI|CN|CH001|BAIYIN

ASI|CN|CH001|BAODING

ASI|CN|CH018|BAOJI

ASI|CN|CH031|BAOSHAN

ASI|CN|CH019|BAOTOU

ASI|CN|CH008|BAZHOU

ASI|CN|CH016|BEIAN

ASI|CN|CH007|BEIHAI

ASI|CN|CH002|BEIJING

ASI|CN|CH018|BEIPIAO

ASI|CN|CH018|BENXI

155

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Binzhou, CN

Cangzhou, CN

Changchun, CN

Changde, CN

Changji, CN

Changsha, CN

Changshu, CN

Changzhi, CN

Changzhou, CN

Chaohu, CN

Chaoyang, CN

Chaozhou, CN

Chengde, CN

Chengdu, CN

Chenzhou, CN

Chifeng, CN

Chongqing, CN

Chuxiong, CN

Chuzhou, CN

Cixi, CN

Daan, CN

Dali, CN

Dalian, CN

Dandong, CN

Dangyang, CN

Danjiangkou, CN

Danyang, CN

Daqing, CN

Datong, CN

Daxian, CN

Dengzhou, CN

Deyang, CN

Dezhou, CN

Dingzhou, CN

Dongchuan, CN

Dongguan, CN

Dongsheng, CN

Dongtai, CN

Dongyang, CN

Dongying, CN

Dujun, CN

Dunhua, CN

Dunhuang, CN

ASI|CN|CH023|BINZHOU

ASI|CN|CH004|CANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH017|CHANGCHUN

ASI|CN|CH014|CHANGDE

ASI|CN|CH028|CHANGJI

ASI|CN|CH014|CHANGSHA

ASI|CN|CH015|CHANGSHU

ASI|CN|CH023|CHANGZHI

ASI|CN|CH015|CHANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH001|CHAOHU

ASI|CN|CH017|CHAOYANG

ASI|CN|CH006|CHAOZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|CHENGDE

ASI|CN|CH026|CHENGDU

ASI|CN|CH014|CHENZHOU

ASI|CN|CH019|CHIFENG

ASI|CN|CH003|CHONGQING

ASI|CN|CH030|CHUXIONG

ASI|CN|CH001|CHUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH001|CIXI

ASI|CN|CH026|DAAN

ASI|CN|CH030|DALI

ASI|CN|CH018|DALIAN

ASI|CN|CH018|DANDONG

ASI|CN|CH013|DANGYANG

ASI|CN|CH013|DANJIANGKOU

ASI|CN|CH015|DANYANG

ASI|CN|CH011|DAQING

ASI|CN|CH001|DATONG

ASI|CN|CH026|DAXIAN

ASI|CN|CH023|DENGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH026|DEYANG

ASI|CN|CH023|DEZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|DINGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH030|DONGCHUAN

ASI|CN|CH016|DONGGUAN

ASI|CN|CH019|DONGSHENG

ASI|CN|CH015|DONGTAI

ASI|CN|CH011|DONGYANG

ASI|CN|CH019|DONGYING

ASI|CN|CH016|DUJUN

ASI|CN|CH017|DUNHUA

ASI|CN|CH005|DUNHUANG

156

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Enshi, CN

Fengcheng, CN

Fenghua, CN

Foshan, CN

Fuan, CN

Fujin, CN

Fulin, CN

Fushun, CN

Fuxin, CN

Fuyang, CN

Fuyu, CN

Fuzhou, CN

Ganzhou, CN

Gaocheng, CN

Gejiu, CN

Gongzhuling, CN

Guanghan, CN

Guangshui, CN

Guangyuan, CN

Guangzhou, CN

Guichi, CN

Guilin, CN

Guiyang, CN

Haicheng, CN

Haikou, CN

Haining, CN

Hami, CN

Hancheng, CN

Handan, CN

Hangzhou, CN

Hanzhong, CN

Harbin, CN

Hebi, CN

Hechi, CN

Hefei, CN

Hegang, CN

Heihe, CN

Hengshui, CN

Hengyang, CN

Heshan, CN

Hetian, CN

Heyuan, CN

Heze, CN

ASI|CN|CH013|ENSHI

ASI|CN|CH016|FENGCHENG

ASI|CN|CH031|FENGHUA

ASI|CN|CH006|FOSHAN

ASI|CN|CH004|FUAN

ASI|CN|CH011|FUJIN

ASI|CN|CH014|FULIN

ASI|CN|CH018|FUSHUN

ASI|CN|CH018|FUXIN

ASI|CN|CH001|FUYANG

ASI|CN|CH011|FUYU

ASI|CN|CH004|FUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH016|GANZHOU

ASI|CN|CH013|GAOCHENG

ASI|CN|CH030|GEJIU

ASI|CN|CH017|GONGZHULING

ASI|CN|CH001|GUANGHAN

ASI|CN|CH013|GUANGSHUI

ASI|CN|CH026|GUANGYUAN

ASI|CN|CH006|GUANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH001|GUICHI

ASI|CN|CH016|GUILIN

ASI|CN|CH007|GUIYANG

ASI|CN|CH004|HAICHENG

ASI|CN|CH009|HAIKOU

ASI|CN|CH031|HAINING

ASI|CN|CH028|HAMI

ASI|CN|CH022|HANCHENG

ASI|CN|CH016|HANDAN

ASI|CN|CH031|HANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH022|HANZHONG

ASI|CN|CH011|HARBIN

ASI|CN|CH012|HEBI

ASI|CN|CH007|HECHI

ASI|CN|CH001|HEFEI

ASI|CN|CH001|HEGANG

ASI|CN|CH011|HEIHE

ASI|CN|CH010|HENGSHUI

ASI|CN|CH014|HENGYANG

ASI|CN|CH006|HESHAN

ASI|CN|CH004|HETIAN

ASI|CN|CH006|HEYUAN

ASI|CN|CH023|HEZE

157

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Hohhot, CN

Honghu, CN

Houma, CN

Huadian, CN

Huaian, CN

Huaibei, CN

Huaihua, CN

Huainan, CN

Huaiyin, CN

Huanghua, CN

Huangshan, CN

Huangshi, CN

Huaying, CN

Huixian, CN

Huizhou, CN

Huludao, CN

Hunjiang, CN

Huzhou, CN

Jiageda, CN

Jiamusi, CN

Jian, CN

Jiangmen, CN

Jiangshan, CN

Jiangyin, CN

Jiangyou, CN

Jiaojiang, CN

Jiaozhou, CN

Jiaozuo, CN

Jiaxing, CN

Jieshou, CN

Jilin, CN

Jimo, CN

Jinan, CN

Jinchang, CN

Jingdezhen, CN

Jingmen, CN

Jingzhou, CN

Jinhua, CN

Jining, CN

Jinshi, CN

Jinxi, CN

Jinzhou, CN

Jishou, CN

ASI|CN|CH019|HOHHOT

ASI|CN|CH009|HONGHU

ASI|CN|CH025|HOUMA

ASI|CN|CH017|HUADIAN

ASI|CN|CH025|HUAIAN

ASI|CN|CH001|HUAIBEI

ASI|CN|CH014|HUAIHUA

ASI|CN|CH004|HUAINAN

ASI|CN|CH015|HUAIYIN

ASI|CN|CH010|HUANGHUA

ASI|CN|CH023|HUANGSHAN

ASI|CN|CH001|HUANGSHI

ASI|CN|CH026|HUAYING

ASI|CN|CH005|HUIXIAN

ASI|CN|CH006|HUIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH018|HULUDAO

ASI|CN|CH017|HUNJIANG

ASI|CN|CH031|HUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH019|JIAGEDA

ASI|CN|CH011|JIAMUSI

ASI|CN|CH016|JIAN

ASI|CN|CH006|JIANGMEN

ASI|CN|CH001|JIANGSHAN

ASI|CN|CH004|JIANGYIN

ASI|CN|CH026|JIANGYOU

ASI|CN|CH031|JIAOJIANG

ASI|CN|CH023|JIAOZHOU

ASI|CN|CH012|JIAOZUO

ASI|CN|CH031|JIAXING

ASI|CN|CH001|JIESHOU

ASI|CN|CH007|JILIN

ASI|CN|CH023|JIMO

ASI|CN|CH007|JINAN

ASI|CN|CH005|JINCHANG

ASI|CN|CH016|JINGDEZHEN

ASI|CN|CH004|JINGMEN

ASI|CN|CH013|JINGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH008|JINHUA

ASI|CN|CH019|JINING

ASI|CN|CH031|JINSHI

ASI|CN|CH016|JINXI

ASI|CN|CH018|JINZHOU

ASI|CN|CH014|JISHOU

158

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Jiujiang, CN

Jiuquan, CN

Jiutai, CN

Jixi, CN

Jiyuan, CN

Kaifeng, CN

Kaili, CN

Kaiyuan, CN

Kashi, CN

Kelamayi, CN

Kunming, CN

Kunshan, CN

Laiwu, CN

Laiyang, CN

Laizhou, CN

Langfang, CN

Lanxi, CN

Lanzhou, CN

Laohekou, CN

Leiyang, CN

Leling, CN

Lengshuijiang, CN

Lengshuitan, CN

Leshan, CN

Lhasa, CN

Lianyuan, CN

LianYunGang, CN

Liaocheng, CN

Liaoyang, CN

Linyi, CN

Lishui, CN

Liuzhou, CN

Luoyang, CN

Maanshan, CN

Macheng, CN

Maoming, CN

Meihekou, CN

Meixian, CN

Mianyang, CN

Miluo, CN

Mishan, CN

Mudanjiang, CN

Nanchang, CN

ASI|CN|CH016|JIUJIANG

ASI|CN|CH005|JIUQUAN

ASI|CN|CH008|JIUTAI

ASI|CN|CH001|JIXI

ASI|CN|CH012|JIYUAN

ASI|CN|CH012|KAIFENG

ASI|CN|CH008|KAILI

ASI|CN|CH018|KAIYUAN

ASI|CN|CH028|KASHI

ASI|CN|CH028|KELAMAYI

ASI|CN|CH030|KUNMING

ASI|CN|CH001|KUNSHAN

ASI|CN|CH016|LAIWU

ASI|CN|CH023|LAIYANG

ASI|CN|CH004|LAIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|LANGFANG

ASI|CN|CH001|LANXI

ASI|CN|CH005|LANZHOU

ASI|CN|CH013|LAOHEKOU

ASI|CN|CH014|LEIYANG

ASI|CN|CH023|LELING

ASI|CN|CH014|LENGSHUIJIANG

ASI|CN|CH014|LENGSHUITAN

ASI|CN|CH026|LESHAN

ASI|CN|CH029|LHASA

ASI|CN|CH014|LIANYUAN

ASI|CN|CH015|LIANYUNGANG

ASI|CN|CH023|LIAOCHENG

ASI|CN|CH018|LIAOYANG

ASI|CN|CH023|LINYI

ASI|CN|CH031|LISHUI

ASI|CN|CH007|LIUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH012|LUOYANG

ASI|CN|CH026|MAANSHAN

ASI|CN|CH001|MACHENG

ASI|CN|CH006|MAOMING

ASI|CN|CH017|MEIHEKOU

ASI|CN|CH004|MEIXIAN

ASI|CN|CH004|MIANYANG

ASI|CN|CH014|MILUO

ASI|CN|CH011|MISHAN

ASI|CN|CH011|MUDANJIANG

ASI|CN|CH016|NANCHANG

159

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Nanchong, CN

Nangong, CN

Nanjing, CN

Nanning, CN

Nanping, CN

Nantong, CN

Nanyang, CN

Neijiang, CN

Ningbo, CN

Ningde, CN

Panjin, CN

Panzhihua, CN

Pingdingshan, CN

Pingdu, CN

Pingliang, CN

Puqi, CN

Putian, CN

Puyang, CN

Qianjiang, CN

Qidong, CN

Qingdao, CN

Qingtongxia, CN

Qingyuan, CN

Qingzhou, CN

Qinhuangdao, CN

Qinyang, CN

Qinzhou, CN

Qiqihar, CN

Qitaihe, CN

Quanzhou, CN

Qufu, CN

Qujing, CN

Quzhou, CN

Renqiu, CN

Rizhao, CN

Rongcheng, CN

Ruian, CN

Ruichang, CN

Ruzhou, CN

Sanmenxia, CN

Sanming, CN

Sanya, CN

Shahe, CN

ASI|CN|CH026|NANCHONG

ASI|CN|CH010|NANGONG

ASI|CN|CH016|NANJING

ASI|CN|CH007|NANNING

ASI|CN|CH004|NANPING

ASI|CN|CH015|NANTONG

ASI|CN|CH004|NANYANG

ASI|CN|CH026|NEIJIANG

ASI|CN|CH031|NINGBO

ASI|CN|CH004|NINGDE

ASI|CN|CH018|PANJIN

ASI|CN|CH026|PANZHIHUA

ASI|CN|CH012|PINGDINGSHAN

ASI|CN|CH016|PINGDU

ASI|CN|CH005|PINGLIANG

ASI|CN|CH013|PUQI

ASI|CN|CH004|PUTIAN

ASI|CN|CH012|PUYANG

ASI|CN|CH007|QIANJIANG

ASI|CN|CH014|QIDONG

ASI|CN|CH023|QINGDAO

ASI|CN|CH020|QINGTONGXIA

ASI|CN|CH018|QINGYUAN

ASI|CN|CH004|QINGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|QINHUANGDAO

ASI|CN|CH012|QINYANG

ASI|CN|CH007|QINZHOU

ASI|CN|CH011|QIQIHAR

ASI|CN|CH011|QITAIHE

ASI|CN|CH004|QUANZHOU

ASI|CN|CH023|QUFU

ASI|CN|CH030|QUJING

ASI|CN|CH010|QUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|RENQIU

ASI|CN|CH023|RIZHAO

ASI|CN|CH010|RONGCHENG

ASI|CN|CH004|RUIAN

ASI|CN|CH016|RUICHANG

ASI|CN|CH004|RUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH012|SANMENXIA

ASI|CN|CH004|SANMING

ASI|CN|CH009|SANYA

ASI|CN|CH001|SHAHE

160

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Shanghai, CN

Shangluo, CN

Shangqiu, CN

Shangrao, CN

Shangzhi, CN

Shangzhou, CN

Shantou, CN

Shanwei, CN

Shaoguan, CN

Shaowu, CN

Shaoxing, CN

Shaoyang, CN

Shashi, CN

Shenyang, CN

Shenzhen, CN

Shihezi, CN

Shijiazhuang, CN

Shishi, CN

Shishou, CN

Shiyan, CN

Shizuishan, CN

Shuangcheng, CN

Suihua, CN

Suining, CN

Suizhou, CN

Suqian, CN

Suzhou, CN

Tacheng, CN

Taian, CN

Taiyuan, CN

Taizhou, CN

Taizhou, CN

Tangshan, CN

Taonan, CN

Tengzhou, CN

Tianjin, CN

Tianmen, CN

Tianshui, CN

Tiefa, CN

Tieli, CN

Tieling, CN

Tongchuan, CN

Tonghua, CN

ASI|CN|CH024|SHANGHAI

ASI|CN|CH022|SHANGLUO

ASI|CN|CH012|SHANGQIU

ASI|CN|CH016|SHANGRAO

ASI|CN|CH011|SHANGZHI

ASI|CN|CH026|SHANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH006|SHANTOU

ASI|CN|CH004|SHANWEI

ASI|CN|CH006|SHAOGUAN

ASI|CN|CH004|SHAOWU

ASI|CN|CH031|SHAOXING

ASI|CN|CH014|SHAOYANG

ASI|CN|CH001|SHASHI

ASI|CN|CH018|SHENYANG

ASI|CN|CH031|SHENZHEN

ASI|CN|CH028|SHIHEZI

ASI|CN|CH010|SHIJIAZHUANG

ASI|CN|CH004|SHISHI

ASI|CN|CH013|SHISHOU

ASI|CN|CH013|SHIYAN

ASI|CN|CH020|SHIZUISHAN

ASI|CN|CH011|SHUANGCHENG

ASI|CN|CH011|SUIHUA

ASI|CN|CH014|SUINING

ASI|CN|CH013|SUIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH015|SUQIAN

ASI|CN|CH015|SUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH028|TACHENG

ASI|CN|CH018|TAIAN

ASI|CN|CH025|TAIYUAN

ASI|CN|CH015|TAIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH015|TAIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH010|TANGSHAN

ASI|CN|CH017|TAONAN

ASI|CN|CH023|TENGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH027|TIANJIN

ASI|CN|CH011|TIANMEN

ASI|CN|CH005|TIANSHUI

ASI|CN|CH018|TIEFA

ASI|CN|CH011|TIELI

ASI|CN|CH018|TIELING

ASI|CN|CH022|TONGCHUAN

ASI|CN|CH017|TONGHUA

161

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Tongjiang, CN

Tongliao, CN

Tongling, CN

Tongren, CN

Tulufan, CN

Tumen, CN

Wafangdian, CN

Wanxian, CN

Weifang, CN

Weihai, CN

Weihui, CN

Weinan, CN

Wendeng, CN

Wenzhou, CN

Wuan, CN

Wugang, CN

Wuhai, CN

Wuhan, CN

Wuhu, CN

Wulumuqi, CN

Wuxi, CN

Wuxue, CN

Wuyishan, CN

Wuzhong, CN

Wuzhou, CN

Xiamen, CN

Xian, CN

Xiangfan, CN

Xiangtan, CN

Xiangxiang, CN

Xianning, CN

Xiantao, CN

Xianyang, CN

Xiaogan, CN

Xiaoshan, CN

Xichang, CN

Xifeng, CN

Xingcheng, CN

Xinghua, CN

Xingtai, CN

Xingyi, CN

Xining, CN

Xinji, CN

ASI|CN|CH011|TONGJIANG

ASI|CN|CH019|TONGLIAO

ASI|CN|CH001|TONGLING

ASI|CN|CH008|TONGREN

ASI|CN|CH028|TULUFAN

ASI|CN|CH017|TUMEN

ASI|CN|CH022|WAFANGDIAN

ASI|CN|CH003|WANXIAN

ASI|CN|CH023|WEIFANG

ASI|CN|CH023|WEIHAI

ASI|CN|CH012|WEIHUI

ASI|CN|CH022|WEINAN

ASI|CN|CH023|WENDENG

ASI|CN|CH031|WENZHOU

ASI|CN|CH014|WUAN

ASI|CN|CH014|WUGANG

ASI|CN|CH019|WUHAI

ASI|CN|CH013|WUHAN

ASI|CN|CH001|WUHU

ASI|CN|CH028|WULUMUQI

ASI|CN|CH003|WUXI

ASI|CN|CH013|WUXUE

ASI|CN|CH004|WUYISHAN

ASI|CN|CH020|WUZHONG

ASI|CN|CH007|WUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH004|XIAMEN

ASI|CN|CH010|XIAN

ASI|CN|CH013|XIANGFAN

ASI|CN|CH026|XIANGTAN

ASI|CN|CH014|XIANGXIANG

ASI|CN|CH013|XIANNING

ASI|CN|CH013|XIANTAO

ASI|CN|CH004|XIANYANG

ASI|CN|CH013|XIAOGAN

ASI|CN|CH031|XIAOSHAN

ASI|CN|CH026|XICHANG

ASI|CN|CH023|XIFENG

ASI|CN|CH025|XINGCHENG

ASI|CN|CH015|XINGHUA

ASI|CN|CH010|XINGTAI

ASI|CN|CH008|XINGYI

ASI|CN|CH021|XINING

ASI|CN|CH010|XINJI

162

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Xintai, CN

Xinxiang, CN

Xinyang, CN

Xinyi, CN

Xinyu, CN

Xinzhou, CN

Xuchang, CN

Xuzhou, CN

Yaan, CN

Yakeshi, CN

Yanan, CN

Yancheng, CN

Yangjiang, CN

Yangquan, CN

Yangzhou, CN

Yanji, CN

Yantai, CN

Yibin, CN

Yichang, CN

Yichun, CN

Yinchuan, CN

Yingcheng, CN

Yingkou, CN

Yingtan, CN

Yining, CN

Yiwu, CN

Yixing, CN

Yiyang, CN

Yizhou, CN

Yongan, CN

Yongzhou, CN

Yuanjiang, CN

Yuci, CN

Yueyang, CN

Yulin, Guangxi, CN

Yulin, Shaanxi, CN

Yumen, CN

Yuncheng, CN

Yutian, CN

Yuxi, CN

Yuyao, CN

Yuzhou, CN

Zaozhuang, CN

ASI|CN|CH008|XINTAI

ASI|CN|CH012|XINXIANG

ASI|CN|CH012|XINYANG

ASI|CN|CH006|XINYI

ASI|CN|CH012|XINYU

ASI|CN|CH001|XINZHOU

ASI|CN|CH001|XUCHANG

ASI|CN|CH015|XUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH026|YAAN

ASI|CN|CH019|YAKESHI

ASI|CN|CH022|YANAN

ASI|CN|CH023|YANCHENG

ASI|CN|CH006|YANGJIANG

ASI|CN|CH025|YANGQUAN

ASI|CN|CH015|YANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH012|YANJI

ASI|CN|CH023|YANTAI

ASI|CN|CH026|YIBIN

ASI|CN|CH013|YICHANG

ASI|CN|CH011|YICHUN

ASI|CN|CH020|YINCHUAN

ASI|CN|CH013|YINGCHENG

ASI|CN|CH018|YINGKOU

ASI|CN|CH016|YINGTAN

ASI|CN|CH016|YINING

ASI|CN|CH028|YIWU

ASI|CN|CH015|YIXING

ASI|CN|CH012|YIYANG

ASI|CN|CH010|YIZHOU

ASI|CN|CH025|YONGAN

ASI|CN|CH014|YONGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH030|YUANJIANG

ASI|CN|CH025|YUCI

ASI|CN|CH014|YUEYANG

ASI|CN|CH007|YULIN

ASI|CN|CH022|YULIN

ASI|CN|CH005|YUMEN

ASI|CN|CH025|YUNCHENG

ASI|CN|CH010|YUTIAN

ASI|CN|CH004|YUXI

ASI|CN|CH004|YUYAO

ASI|CN|CH012|YUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH023|ZAOZHUANG

163

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

China

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Zhalantun, CN

Zhangjiagang, CN

Zhangjiakou, CN

Zhangshu, CN

Zhangye, CN

Zhangzhou, CN

Zhanjiang, CN

Zhaodong, CN

Zhaoqing, CN

Zhaotong, CN

Zhaoyang, CN

Zhengzhou, CN

Zhenjiang, CN

Zhicheng, CN

Zhongshan, CN

Zhoushan, CN

Zhucheng, CN

Zhuhai, CN

Zhuji, CN

Zhumadian, CN

Zhuozhou, CN

Zhuzhou, CN

Zibo, CN

Zigong, CN

Zixing, CN

Zunyi, CN

Armenia, CO

Barrancabermeja, CO

Barranquilla, CO

Bello, CO

Bucaramanga, CO

Buenaventura, CO

Buga, CO

Cali, CO

Cartagena, CO

Cartago, CO

Cucuta, CO

Dos Quebradas, CO

Envigado, CO

Florencia, CO

Floridablanca, CO

Girardot, CO

Ibague, CO

ASI|CN|CH019|ZHALANTUN

ASI|CN|CH015|ZHANGJIAGANG

ASI|CN|CH010|ZHANGJIAKOU

ASI|CN|CH015|ZHANGSHU

ASI|CN|CH005|ZHANGYE

ASI|CN|CH004|ZHANGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH006|ZHANJIANG

ASI|CN|CH011|ZHAODONG

ASI|CN|CH006|ZHAOQING

ASI|CN|CH030|ZHAOTONG

ASI|CN|CH015|ZHAOYANG

ASI|CN|CH012|ZHENGZHOU

ASI|CN|CH015|ZHENJIANG

ASI|CN|CH031|ZHICHENG

ASI|CN|CH004|ZHONGSHAN

ASI|CN|CH031|ZHOUSHAN

ASI|CN|CH015|ZHUCHENG

ASI|CN|CH006|ZHUHAI

ASI|CN|CH023|ZHUJI

ASI|CN|CH012|ZHUMADIAN

ASI|CN|CH010|ZHUOZHOU

ASI|CN|CH014|ZHUZHOU

ASI|CN|CH023|ZIBO

ASI|CN|CH026|ZIGONG

ASI|CN|CH014|ZIXING

ASI|CN|CH008|ZUNYI

SAM|CO|CO021|ARMENIA

SAM|CO|CO024|BARRANCABERMEJA

SAM|CO|CO004|BARRANQUILLA

SAM|CO|CO002|BELLO

SAM|CO|CO024|BUCARAMANGA

SAM|CO|CO027|BUENAVENTURA

SAM|CO|CO027|BUGA

SAM|CO|CO027|CALI

SAM|CO|CO008|CARTAGENA

SAM|CO|CO027|CARTAGO

SAM|CO|CO005|CUCUTA

SAM|CO|CO027|DOS QUEBRADAS

SAM|CO|CO002|ENVIGADO

SAM|CO|CO005|FLORENCIA

SAM|CO|CO024|FLORIDABLANCA

SAM|CO|CO011|GIRARDOT

SAM|CO|CO026|IBAGUÉ

164

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cyprus

Cyprus

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Comoros

Cook Islands

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Croatia

Croatia

Croatia

Croatia

Cuba

Cuba

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Colombia

Itagui, CO

Maicao, CO

Manizales, CO

Medellin, CO

Monteria, CO

Neiva, CO

Palmira, CO

Pasto, CO

Pereira, CO

Popayan, CO

Santa Fe De Bogota, CO

Santa Marta, CO

Sincelejo, CO

Soacha, CO

Sogamoso, CO

Soledad, CO

Tulua, CO

Tunja, CO

Valledupar, CO

Villavicencio, CO

Moroni, KM

Rarotonga, CK

Alajuela, CR

Cartago, CR

San Jose, CR

Osijek, HR

Rijeka, HR

Split, HR

Zagreb, HR

Bayamo, CU

Camaguey, CU

Cienfuegos, CU

Guantanamo, CU

Holguin, CU

La Habana, CU

Las Tunas, CU

Matanzas, CU

Pinar Del Rio, CU

Sancti Spiritus, CU

Santa Clara, CU

Santiago De Cuba, CU

Limassol, CY

Nicosia, CY

SAM|CO|CO002|ITAGÜÍ

SAM|CO|CO016|MAICAO

SAM|CO|CO002|MANIZALES

SAM|CO|CO002|MEDELLÍN

SAM|CO|CO010|MONTERIA

SAM|CO|CO015|NEIVA

SAM|CO|CO027|PALMIRA

SAM|CO|CO018|PASTO

SAM|CO|CO022|PEREIRA

SAM|CO|CO007|POPAYAN

SAM|CO|CO000|SANTA FE DE BOGOTA

SAM|CO|CO018|SANTA MARTA

SAM|CO|CO025|SINCELEJO

SAM|CO|CO011|SOACHA

SAM|CO|CO000|SOGAMOSO

SAM|CO|CO004|SOLEDAD

SAM|CO|CO027|TULUA

SAM|CO|CO019|TUNJA

SAM|CO|CO008|VALLEDUPAR

SAM|CO|CO017|VILLAVICENCIO

AFR|KM|CN004|MORONI

OCN|CK|CW---|RAROTONGA

CAC|CR|CS001|ALAJUELA

CAC|CR|CS002|CARTAGO

CAC|CR|CS007|SAN JOSE

EUR|HR|HR011|OSIJEK

EUR|HR|HR013|RIJEKA

EUR|HR|HR016|SPLIT

EUR|HR|HR004|ZAGREB

CAC|CU|CU005|BAYAMO

CAC|CU|CU001|CAMAGÜEY

CAC|CU|CU003|CIENFUEGOS

CAC|CU|CU006|GUANTÁNAMO

CAC|CU|CU007|HOLGUÍN

CAC|CU|CU004|LA HABANA

CAC|CU|CU010|LAS TUNAS

CAC|CU|CU011|MATANZAS

CAC|CU|CU012|PINAR DEL RÍO

CAC|CU|CU013|SANCTI SPÍRITUS

CAC|CU|CU015|SANTA CLARA

CAC|CU|CU014|SANTIAGO DE CUBA

MEA|CY|CY004|LIMASSOL

MEA|CY|CY005|NICOSIA

165

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Czech Republic Brno, CZ

Czech Republic Olomouc, CZ

Czech Republic Ostrava, CZ

Czech Republic Plzen, CZ

Czech Republic Praha, CZ

Democratic

Republic of

Congo Kinshasa, CD

Denmark Aalborg, DK

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Aarhus, DK

Copenhagen, DK

Esbjerg, DK

Fredericia, DK

Frederikshavn, DK

Hadserslev, DK

Helsingoer, DK

Herning, DK

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominica

Dominican

Republic

Dominican

Republic

Hilleroed, DK

Hjoerring, DK

Hoersholm, DK

Holbaek, DK

Holstebro, DK

Horsens, DK

Koege, DK

Kolding, DK

Naestved, DK

Odense, DK

Randers, DK

Roskilde, DK

Silkeborg, DK

Skive, DK

Slagelse, DK

Soenderborg, DK

Svendborg, DK

Taastrup, DK

Vejle, DK

Viborg, DK

Djibouti, DJ

Roseau, DM

San Pedro De Macoris, DO

Santiago De Los Caballeros,

DO

EUR|CZ|EZ007|BRNO

EUR|CZ|EZ004|OLOMOUC

EUR|CZ|EZ004|OSTRAVA

EUR|CZ|EZ008|PLZEN

EUR|CZ|EZ001|PRAHA

AFR|CD|CG007|KINSHASA

EUR|DK|DA007|AALBORG

EUR|DK|DA001|AARHUS

EUR|DK|DA012|COPENHAGEN

EUR|DK|DA008|ESBJERG

EUR|DK|DA014|FREDERICIA

EUR|DK|DA007|FREDERIKSHAVN

EUR|DK|DA011|HADSERSLEV

EUR|DK|DA004|HELSINGOER

EUR|DK|DA009|HERNING

EUR|DK|DA004|HILLEROED

EUR|DK|DA007|HJOERRING

EUR|DK|DA004|HOERSHOLM

EUR|DK|DA015|HOLBAEK

EUR|DK|DA009|HOLSTEBRO

EUR|DK|DA014|HORSENS

EUR|DK|DA010|KOEGE

EUR|DK|DA014|KOLDING

EUR|DK|DA013|NAESTVED

EUR|DK|DA005|ODENSE

EUR|DK|DA001|RANDERS

EUR|DK|DA010|ROSKILDE

EUR|DK|DA001|SILKEBORG

EUR|DK|DA016|SKIVE

EUR|DK|DA015|SLAGELSE

EUR|DK|DA011|SOENDERBORG

EUR|DK|DA005|SVENDBORG

EUR|DK|DA006|TAASTRUP

EUR|DK|DA014|VEJLE

EUR|DK|DA005|VIBORG

AFR|DJ|DJ003|DJIBOUTI

CAC|DM|DO003|ROSEAU

CAC|DO|DR026|SAN PEDRO DE MACORIS

CAC|DO|DR028|SANTIAGO DE LOS

CABALLEROS

166

Dominican

Republic

East Timor

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Ecuador

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Ecuador

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

Santo Domingo, DO

Dili, TL

Ambato, EC

Cuenca, EC

Esmeraldas, EC

Guayaquil, EC

Ibarra, EC

Loja, EC

Machala, EC

Manta, EC

Milagro, EC

Portoviejo, EC

Quevedo, EC

Quito, EC

Riobamba, EC

Santo Domingo De Los

Colorados, EC

Alexandria, EG

Aswan, EG

Banha, EG

Cairo, EG

Damanhur, EG

El-Mahalla El-Kubra, EG

Faiyum, EG

Giza, EG

Imbaba, EG

Ismailia, EG

Kena, EG

Mansura, EG

Menia, EG

Port Said, EG

Sohag, EG

Suez, EG

Tanta, EG

Zagazig, EG

Ahuachapan, SV

Apopa, SV

Ilopango, SV

Mejicanos, SV

Nueva San Salvador, SV

San Martin, SV

San Miguel, SV

CAC|DO|DR005|SANTO DOMINGO

ASI|TL|TT000|DILI

SAM|EC|EC018|AMBATO

SAM|EC|EC001|CUENCA

SAM|EC|EC008|ESMERALDAS

SAM|EC|EC010|GUAYAQUIL

SAM|EC|EC011|IBARRA

SAM|EC|EC012|LOJA

SAM|EC|EC007|MACHALA

SAM|EC|EC014|MANTA

SAM|EC|EC010|MILAGRO

SAM|EC|EC014|PORTOVIEJO

SAM|EC|EC013|QUEVEDO

SAM|EC|EC017|QUITO

SAM|EC|EC005|RIOBAMBA

SAM|EC|EC017|SANTO DOMINGO DE

LOS COLORADOS

AFR|EG|EG006|ALEXANDRIA

AFR|EG|EG016|ASWAN

AFR|EG|EG012|BANHA

AFR|EG|EG011|CAIRO

AFR|EG|EG003|DAMANHÛR

AFR|EG|EG005|EL-MAHALLA EL-KUBRA

AFR|EG|EG004|FAIYÛM

AFR|EG|EG008|GIZA

AFR|EG|EG008|IMBABA

AFR|EG|EG007|ISMAILIA

AFR|EG|EG024|KENA

AFR|EG|EG001|MANSÛRA

AFR|EG|EG010|MENIA

AFR|EG|EG019|PORT SAID

AFR|EG|EG023|SOHAG

AFR|EG|EG014|SUEZ

AFR|EG|EG005|TANTA

AFR|EG|EG015|ZAGAZIG

CAC|SV|ES001|AHUACHAPAN

CAC|SV|ES010|APOPA

CAC|SV|ES010|ILOPANGO

CAC|SV|ES010|MEJICANOS

CAC|SV|ES005|NUEVA SAN SALVADOR

CAC|SV|ES010|SAN MARTIN

CAC|SV|ES010|SAN MIGUEL

167

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

Finland

Finland

Finland

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

El Salvador

El Salvador

El Salvador

Equatorial

Guinea

San Salvador, SV

Santa Ana, SV

Soyapango, SV

Eritrea

Estonia

Estonia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Malabo, GQ

Asmara, ER

Tallinn, EE

Tartu, EE

Addis Ababa, ET

Bahir Dar, ET

Dessie, ET

Dire Dawa, ET

Gondar, ET

Jimma, ET

Mekele, ET

Falkland Islands Stanley, FK

Faroe Islands Thorshavn, FO

Fiji

Finland

Finland

Finland

Suva, FJ

Espoo, FI

Helsinki, FI

Oulu, FI

Tampere, FI

Turku, FI

Vantaa, FI

Aix-En-Provence, FR

Amiens, FR

Angers, FR

Annecy, FR

Avignon, FR

Besancon, FR

Bordeaux, FR

Boulogne-Billancourt, FR

Brest, FR

Briançon, FR

Caen, FR

Clermont-Ferrand, FR

Dijon, FR

Gap, FR

Grenoble, FR

Le Havre, FR

Le Mans, FR

Lille, FR

CAC|SV|ES010|SAN SALVADOR

CAC|SV|ES012|SANTA ANA

CAC|SV|ES010|SOYAPANGO

AFR|GQ|EK000|MALABO

AFR|ER|ER000|ASMARA

EUR|EE|EN001|TALLINN

EUR|EE|EN012|TARTU

AFR|ET|ET000|ADDIS ABABA

AFR|ET|ET000|BAHIR DAR

AFR|ET|ET000|DESSIE

AFR|ET|ET000|DIRE DAWA

AFR|ET|ET000|GONDAR

AFR|ET|ET000|JIMMA

AFR|ET|ET000|MEKELE

SAM|FK|FK---|STANLEY

EUR|FO|FO---|THORSHAVN

OCN|FJ|FJ001|SUVA

EUR|FI|FI002|ESPOO

EUR|FI|FI002|HELSINKI

EUR|FI|FI007|OULU

EUR|FI|FI005|TAMPERE

EUR|FI|FI005|TURKU

EUR|FI|FI002|VANTAA

EUR|FR|FR021|AIX-EN-PROVENCE

EUR|FR|FR019|AMIENS

EUR|FR|FR018|ANGERS

EUR|FR|FR022|ANNECY

EUR|FR|FR021|AVIGNON

EUR|FR|FR010|BESANÇON

EUR|FR|FR002|BORDEAUX

EUR|FR|FR012|BOULOGNE-

BILLANCOURT

EUR|FR|FR006|BREST

EUR|FR|FR021|BRIANÇON

EUR|FR|FR004|CAEN

EUR|FR|FR003|CLERMONT-FERRAND

EUR|FR|FR005|DIJON

EUR|FR|FR021|GAP

EUR|FR|FR022|GRENOBLE

EUR|FR|FR011|LE HAVRE

EUR|FR|FR018|LE MANS

EUR|FR|FR017|LILLE

168

Georgia

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

Limoges, FR

Lyon, FR

Marseille, FR

Metz, FR

Montélimar, FR

Montpellier, FR

Mulhouse, FR

Nantes, FR

Nice, FR

Nimes, FR

Orleans, FR

Paris, FR

Pau, FR

Perpignan, FR

Reims, FR

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

France

Rennes, FR

Rouen, FR

Saint Etienne, FR

Strasbourg, FR

Toulon, FR

Toulouse, FR

Tours, FR

Villeurbanne, FR

French Guiana Cayenne, GF

French Polynesia Papeete, PF

Gabon

Gabon

Libreville, GA

Pointe-Noire, GA

Georgia

Georgia

Georgia

Georgia

Batumi, GE

Kutaisi, GE

Rustavi, GE

Sukhumi, GE

Tbilisi, GE

Aachen, DE

Augsburg, DE

Bergisch Gladbach, DE

Berlin, DE

Bielefeld, DE

Bochum, DE

Bonn, DE

Bottrop, DE

Braunschweig, DE

Bremen, DE

Bremerhaven, DE

EUR|FR|FR012|LIMOGES

EUR|FR|FR022|LYON

EUR|FR|FR021|MARSEILLE

EUR|FR|FR015|METZ

EUR|FR|FR022|MONTÉLIMAR

EUR|FR|FR013|MONTPELLIER

EUR|FR|FR001|MULHOUSE

EUR|FR|FR018|NANTES

EUR|FR|FR021|NICE

EUR|FR|FR013|NÎMES

EUR|FR|FR007|ORLÉANS

EUR|FR|FR012|PARIS

EUR|FR|FR022|PAU

EUR|FR|FR013|PERPIGNAN

EUR|FR|FR008|REIMS

EUR|FR|FR006|RENNES

EUR|FR|FR011|ROUEN

EUR|FR|FR022|SAINT-ÉTIENNE

EUR|FR|FR001|STRASBOURG

EUR|FR|FR021|TOULON

EUR|FR|FR016|TOULOUSE

EUR|FR|FR007|TOURS

EUR|FR|FR012|VILLEURBANNE

SAM|GF|FG001|CAYENNE

OCN|PF|FP000|PAPEETE

AFR|GA|GB001|LIBREVILLE

AFR|GA|GB003|POINTE-NOIRE

ASI|GE|GG000|BATUMI

ASI|GE|GG000|KUTAISI

ASI|GE|GG000|RUSTAVI

ASI|GE|GG000|SUKHUMI

ASI|GE|GG000|TBILISI

EUR|DE|GM011|AACHEN

EUR|DE|GM002|AUGSBURG

EUR|DE|GM011|BERGISCH GLADBACH

EUR|DE|GM003|BERLIN

EUR|DE|GM011|BIELEFELD

EUR|DE|GM011|BOCHUM

EUR|DE|GM011|BONN

EUR|DE|GM011|BOTTROP

EUR|DE|GM009|BRAUNSCHWEIG

EUR|DE|GM005|BREMEN

EUR|DE|GM005|BREMERHAVEN

169

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Chemnitz, DE

Cottbus, DE

Darmstadt, DE

Dortmund, DE

Dresden, DE

Duisburg, DE

Dusseldorf, DE

Erfurt, DE

Erlangen, DE

Essen, DE

Frankfurt Am Main, DE

Freiburg Im Breisgau, DE

Furth, DE

Gelsenkirchen, DE

Gera, DE

Gladbach, DE

Gottingen, DE

Hagen, DE

Halle, DE

Hamburg, DE

Hamm, DE

Hannover, DE

Heidelberg, DE

Heilbronn, DE

Herne, DE

Hildesheim, DE

Ingolstadt, DE

Kaiserslautern, DE

Karlsruhe, DE

Kassel, DE

Kiel, DE

Koblenz, DE

Koln, DE

Krefeld, DE

Leipzig, DE

Leverkusen, DE

Lubeck, DE

Ludwigshafen, DE

Magdeburg, DE

Mainz, DE

Mannheim, DE

Moers, DE

EUR|DE|GM014|CHEMNITZ

EUR|DE|GM004|COTTBUS

EUR|DE|GM007|DARMSTADT

EUR|DE|GM011|DORTMUND

EUR|DE|GM014|DRESDEN

EUR|DE|GM011|DUISBURG

EUR|DE|GM011|DÜSSELDORF

EUR|DE|GM017|ERFURT

EUR|DE|GM002|ERLANGEN

EUR|DE|GM011|ESSEN

EUR|DE|GM007|FRANKFURT AM MAIN

EUR|DE|GM001|FREIBURG IM BREISGAU

EUR|DE|GM002|FÜRTH

EUR|DE|GM011|GELSENKIRCHEN

EUR|DE|GM017|GERA

EUR|DE|GM011|MÖNCHENGLADBACH

EUR|DE|GM007|GÖTTINGEN

EUR|DE|GM015|HAGEN

EUR|DE|GM009|HALLE

EUR|DE|GM006|HAMBURG

EUR|DE|GM009|HAMM

EUR|DE|GM009|HANNOVER

EUR|DE|GM001|HEIDELBERG

EUR|DE|GM001|HEILBRONN

EUR|DE|GM011|HERNE

EUR|DE|GM009|HILDESHEIM

EUR|DE|GM002|INGOLSTADT

EUR|DE|GM012|KAISERSLAUTERN

EUR|DE|GM001|KARLSRUHE

EUR|DE|GM007|KASSEL

EUR|DE|GM016|KIEL

EUR|DE|GM012|KOBLENZ

EUR|DE|GM011|KÖLN

EUR|DE|GM011|KREFELD

EUR|DE|GM014|LEIPZIG

EUR|DE|GM011|LEVERKUSEN

EUR|DE|GM016|LÜBECK

EUR|DE|GM012|LÜDWIGSHAFEN AM

RHEIN

EUR|DE|GM015|MAGDEBURG

EUR|DE|GM002|MAINZ

EUR|DE|GM001|MANNHEIM

EUR|DE|GM011|MOERS

170

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Ghana

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Germany

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Ghana

Gibraltar

Greece

Mulheim, DE

Munich, DE

Munster, DE

Neuss, DE

Nurnberg, DE

Oberhausen, DE

Offenbach Am Main, DE

Oldenburg, DE

Osnabruck, DE

Paderborn, DE

Pforzheim, DE

Potsdam, DE

Recklinghausen, DE

Regensburg, DE

Remscheid, DE

Reutlingen, DE

Rostock, DE

Saarbrucken, DE

Salzgitter, DE

Schwerin, DE

Siegen, DE

Solingen, DE

Stuttgart, DE

Ulm, DE

Wiesbaden, DE

Witten, DE

Wolfsburg, DE

Wuppertal, DE

Wurzburg, DE

Zwickau, DE

Accra, GH

Bolgatanga, GH

Cape Cost, GH

Ho, GH

Koforidua, GH

Kumasi, GH

Obuasi, GH

Sekondi-Takoradi, GH

Sunyani, GH

Tamale, GH

Tema, GH

Gibraltar, GI

Athinai, GR

EUR|DE|GM011|MÜLHEIM AN DER RUHR

EUR|DE|GM002|MÜNCHEN

EUR|DE|GM007|MÜNSTER

EUR|DE|GM011|NEUSS

EUR|DE|GM002|NÜRNBERG

EUR|DE|GM007|OBERHAUSEN

EUR|DE|GM007|OFFENBACH AM MAIN

EUR|DE|GM009|OLDENBURG

EUR|DE|GM009|OSNABRÜCK

EUR|DE|GM011|PADERBORN

EUR|DE|GM001|PFORZHEIM

EUR|DE|GM004|POTSDAM

EUR|DE|GM011|RECKLINGHAUSEN

EUR|DE|GM002|REGENSBURG

EUR|DE|GM011|REMSCHEID

EUR|DE|GM001|REUTLINGEN

EUR|DE|GM010|ROSTOCK

EUR|DE|GM013|SAARBRÜCKEN

EUR|DE|GM009|SALZGITTER

EUR|DE|GM010|SCHWERIN

EUR|DE|GM011|SIEGEN

EUR|DE|GM011|SOLINGEN

EUR|DE|GM001|STUTTGART

EUR|DE|GM001|ULM

EUR|DE|GM007|WIESBADEN

EUR|DE|GM011|WITTEN

EUR|DE|GM009|WOLFSBURG

EUR|DE|GM011|WUPPERTAL

EUR|DE|GM002|WÜRZBURG

EUR|DE|GM014|ZWICKAU

AFR|GH|GH000|ACCRA

AFR|GH|GH000|BOLGATANGA

AFR|GH|GH000|CAPE COST

AFR|GH|GH000|HO

AFR|GH|GH000|KOFORIDUA

AFR|GH|GH010|KUMASI

AFR|GH|GH000|OBUASI

AFR|GH|GH000|SEKONDI-TAKORADI

AFR|GH|GH000|SUNYANI

AFR|GH|GH000|TAMALE

AFR|GH|GH000|TEMA

EUR|GI|GI---|GIBRALTAR

EUR|GR|GR007|ATHINAI

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Haiti

Haiti

Haiti

Honduras

Honduras

Hong Kong

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Hungary

Iceland

Greece

Greece

Greece

Greece

Greece

Greece

Greenland

Grenada

Guadeloupe

Guam

Guatemala

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Iraclion, GR

Larissa, GR

Patrai, GR

Piraievs, GR

Salonika, GR

Volos, GR

Nuuk, GL

Saint George'S, GD

Basse-Terre, KN

Agana, GU

Guatemala, GT

Conakry, GN

Bissau, GW

Georgetown, GY

Cap-Haitien, HT

Carrefour, HT

Delmas, HT

Port-Au-Prince, HT

San Pedro Sula, HN

Tegucigalpa, HN

Hong Kong, HK

Budapest, HU

Debrecen, HU

Gyor, HU

Kecskemet, HU

Miskolc, HU

Nyiregyhaza, HU

Pecs, HU

Stuhlweissenburg, HU

Szeged, HU

Reykjavik, IS

Abohar, IN

Adoni, IN

Agartala, IN

Agra, IN

Ahmedabad, IN

Ahmednagar, IN

Aizawl, IN

Ajmer, IN

Akola, IN

Aligarh, IN

Alipur, IN

Allahabad, IN

EUR|GR|GR020|IRACLION

EUR|GR|GR034|LARISSA

EUR|GR|GR003|PATRAI

EUR|GR|GR007|PIRAIÉVS

EUR|GR|GR048|SALONIKA

EUR|GR|GR038|VOLOS

ARC|GL|GL003|NUUK

CAC|GD|GJ003|SAINT GEORGE'S

CAC|GP|GP---|BASSE-TERRE

OCN|GU|GU000|AGANA

CAC|GT|GT007|GUATEMALA

AFR|GN|GV004|CONAKRY

AFR|GW|PU000|BISSAU

SAM|GY|GY003|GEORGETOWN

CAC|HT|HA004|CAP-HAITIEN

CAC|HT|HA001|CARREFOUR

CAC|HT|HA003|DELMAS

CAC|HT|HA007|PORT-AU-PRINCE

CAC|HN|HO006|SAN PEDRO SULA

CAC|HN|HO008|TEGUCIGALPA

ASI|HK|HK---|HONG KONG

EUR|HU|HU006|BUDAPEST

EUR|HU|HU008|DEBRECEN

EUR|HU|HU012|GYÖR

EUR|HU|HU001|KECSKEMÉT

EUR|HU|HU021|MISKOLC

EUR|HU|HU029|NYIREGYHAZA

EUR|HU|HU025|PÉCS

EUR|HU|HU011|SZÉKESFEHÉRVAR

EUR|HU|HU030|SZEGED

ARC|IS|IC010|REYKJAVIK

ASI|IN|IN028|ABOHAR

ASI|IN|IN002|ADONI

ASI|IN|IN032|AGARTALA

ASI|IN|IN033|AGRA

ASI|IN|IN012|AHMEDABAD

ASI|IN|IN021|AHMEDNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN024|AIZAWL

ASI|IN|IN029|AJMER

ASI|IN|IN021|AKOLA

ASI|IN|IN033|ALIGARH

ASI|IN|IN036|ALIPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|ALLAHABAD

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India

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Alwar, IN

Ambala, IN

Amravati, IN

Amritsar, IN

Amroha, IN

Anand, IN

Arcot, IN

Arrah, IN

Asansol, IN

Aurangabad, IN

Baharampur, IN

Bahraich, IN

Baleshwar, IN

Bally, IN

Balurghat, IN

Bangalore, IN

Bankura, IN

Baranagar, IN

Barddhaman, IN

Bareilly, IN

Basirhat, IN

Batala, IN

Beawar, IN

Belgaum, IN

Bellary, IN

Bhadravati, IN

Bhagalpur, IN

Bharatpur, IN

Bharuch, IN

Bhatpara, IN

Bhavnagar, IN

Bhilai Nagar, IN

Bhilwara, IN

Bhind, IN

Bhiwandi, IN

Bhiwani, IN

Bhopal, IN

Bhubaneswar, IN

Bhuj, IN

Bhusawal, IN

Bid, IN

Bidar, IN

Bihar Sharif, IN

ASI|IN|IN029|ALWAR

ASI|IN|IN013|AMBALA

ASI|IN|IN020|AMRAVATI

ASI|IN|IN028|AMRITSAR

ASI|IN|IN033|AMROHA

ASI|IN|IN012|ANAND

ASI|IN|IN031|ARCOT

ASI|IN|IN005|ARRAH

ASI|IN|IN005|ASANSOL

ASI|IN|IN021|AURANGABAD

ASI|IN|IN036|BAHARAMPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|BAHRAICH

ASI|IN|IN026|BALESHWAR

ASI|IN|IN036|BALLY

ASI|IN|IN036|BALURGHAT

ASI|IN|IN017|BANGALORE

ASI|IN|IN036|BANKURA

ASI|IN|IN035|BARANAGAR

ASI|IN|IN036|BARDDHAMAN

ASI|IN|IN033|BAREILLY

ASI|IN|IN036|BASIRHAT

ASI|IN|IN015|BATALA

ASI|IN|IN029|BEAWAR

ASI|IN|IN017|BELGAUM

ASI|IN|IN017|BELLARY

ASI|IN|IN017|BHADRAVATI

ASI|IN|IN005|BHAGALPUR

ASI|IN|IN020|BHARATPUR

ASI|IN|IN012|BHARUCH

ASI|IN|IN036|BHATPARA

ASI|IN|IN012|BHAVNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN020|BHILAI NAGAR

ASI|IN|IN029|BHILWARA

ASI|IN|IN020|BHIND

ASI|IN|IN021|BHIWANDI

ASI|IN|IN013|BHIWANI

ASI|IN|IN020|BHOPAL

ASI|IN|IN026|BHUBANESWAR

ASI|IN|IN012|BHUJ

ASI|IN|IN021|BHUSAWAL

ASI|IN|IN021|BID

ASI|IN|IN017|BIDAR

ASI|IN|IN005|BIHAR SHARIF

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India

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Bijapur, IN

Bikaner, IN

Bilaspur, IN

Bokaro Steel City, IN

Brahmapur, IN

Budaun, IN

Bulandshahr, IN

Burhanpur, IN

Calcutta, IN

Chandannagar, IN

Chandigarh, IN

Chandrapur, IN

Chapra, IN

Chitradurga, IN

Chittoor, IN

Coimbatore, IN

Cuddalore, IN

Cuddapah, IN

Cuttack, IN

Damoh, IN

Darbhanga, IN

Davangere, IN

Dehradun, IN

Delhi, IN

Dewas, IN

Dhanbad, IN

Dhule, IN

Dibrugarh, IN

Dindigul, IN

Durg, IN

Durgapur, IN

Eluru, IN

English Bazar, IN

Erode, IN

Etawah, IN

Faizabad, IN

Faridabad, IN

Farrukhabad-Cum-Fategarh,

IN

Fatehpur, IN

Firozabad, IN

Gadag, IN

Gandhidham, IN

ASI|IN|IN017|BIJAPUR

ASI|IN|IN029|BIKANER

ASI|IN|IN020|BILASPUR

ASI|IN|IN005|BOKARO STEEL CITY

ASI|IN|IN026|BRAHMAPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|BUDAUN

ASI|IN|IN033|BULANDSHAHR

ASI|IN|IN020|BURHANPUR

ASI|IN|IN036|CALCUTTA

ASI|IN|IN036|CHANDAN NAGAR

ASI|IN|IN006|CHANDIGARH

ASI|IN|IN021|CHANDRAPUR

ASI|IN|IN005|CHAPRA

ASI|IN|IN017|CHITRADURGA

ASI|IN|IN002|CHITTOOR

ASI|IN|IN031|COIMBATORE

ASI|IN|IN031|CUDDALORE

ASI|IN|IN002|CUDDAPAH

ASI|IN|IN026|CUTTACK

ASI|IN|IN020|DAMOH

ASI|IN|IN005|DARBHANGA

ASI|IN|IN017|DAVANGERE

ASI|IN|IN033|DEHRADUN

ASI|IN|IN010|DELHI

ASI|IN|IN020|DEWAS

ASI|IN|IN005|DHANBAD

ASI|IN|IN021|DHULE

ASI|IN|IN004|DIBRUGARH

ASI|IN|IN031|DINDIGUL

ASI|IN|IN020|DURG

ASI|IN|IN036|DURGAPUR

ASI|IN|IN002|ELURU

ASI|IN|IN036|ENGLISH BAZAR

ASI|IN|IN031|ERODE

ASI|IN|IN029|ETAWAH

ASI|IN|IN033|FAIZABAD

ASI|IN|IN013|FARIDABAD

ASI|IN|IN033|FARRUKHABAD-CUM-

FATEGARH

ASI|IN|IN029|FATEHPUR

ASI|IN|IN017|FIROZABAD

ASI|IN|IN017|GADAG-BETGERI

ASI|IN|IN012|GANDHIDHAM

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India

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Gandhinagar, IN

Gaya, IN

Ghaziabad, IN

Godhra, IN

Gorakhpur, IN

Gudivada, IN

Gulbarga, IN

Guna, IN

Guntur, IN

Gurgaon, IN

Guruvayur, IN

Gwalior, IN

Habra, IN

Haora, IN

Hapur, IN

Hardwar, IN

Hassan, IN

Hathras, IN

Hindupur, IN

Hisar, IN

Hoshiarpur, IN

Hospet, IN

Hubli, IN

Hyderabad, IN

Imphal, IN

Indore, IN

Jabalpur, IN

Jaipur, IN

Jalandhar, IN

Jalgaon, IN

Jalna, IN

Jamnagar, IN

Jamshedpur, IN

Jaunpur, IN

Jhansi, IN

Jodhpur, IN

Jorhat, IN

Junagadh, IN

Kakinada, IN

Kalyan, IN

Kamarhati, IN

Kamptee, IN

Kanchipuram, IN

ASI|IN|IN012|GANDHINAGAR

ASI|IN|IN005|GAYA

ASI|IN|IN033|GHAZIABAD

ASI|IN|IN012|GODHRA

ASI|IN|IN033|GORAKHPUR

ASI|IN|IN002|GUDIVADA

ASI|IN|IN017|GULBARGA

ASI|IN|IN020|GUNA

ASI|IN|IN002|GUNTUR

ASI|IN|IN013|GURGAON

ASI|IN|IN018|GURUVAYUR

ASI|IN|IN020|GWALIOR

ASI|IN|IN036|HABRA

ASI|IN|IN036|HAORA

ASI|IN|IN033|HAPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|HARDWAR

ASI|IN|IN017|HASSAN

ASI|IN|IN033|HATHRAS

ASI|IN|IN002|HINDUPUR

ASI|IN|IN013|HISAR

ASI|IN|IN028|HOSHIARPUR

ASI|IN|IN017|HOSPET

ASI|IN|IN017|HUBLI-DHARWAD

ASI|IN|IN002|HYDERABAD

ASI|IN|IN022|IMPHAL

ASI|IN|IN020|INDORE

ASI|IN|IN020|JABALPUR

ASI|IN|IN029|JAIPUR

ASI|IN|IN028|JALANDHAR

ASI|IN|IN021|JALGAON

ASI|IN|IN021|JALNA

ASI|IN|IN012|JAMNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN005|JAMSHEDPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|JAUNPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|JHANSI

ASI|IN|IN029|JODHPUR

ASI|IN|IN004|JORHAT

ASI|IN|IN012|JUNAGADH

ASI|IN|IN002|KAKINADA

ASI|IN|IN021|KALYAN

ASI|IN|IN036|KAMARHATI

ASI|IN|IN021|KAMPTEE

ASI|IN|IN031|KANCHIPURAM

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Kanchrapara, IN

Kanhangad, IN

Kannur, IN

Kanpur, IN

Karaikkudi, IN

Karimnagar, IN

Karnal, IN

Karur, IN

Katihar, IN

Khammam, IN

Khandwa, IN

Kharagpur, IN

Kochi, IN

Kolar, IN

Kolar Gold Fields, IN

Kolhapur, IN

Kollam, IN

Korba, IN

Kota, IN

Kothagudem, IN

Kottayam, IN

Kozhikode, IN

Krishnanagar, IN

Kumbakonam, IN

Kurnool, IN

Lucknow, IN

Ludhiana, IN

Machilipatnam, IN

Madras, IN

Madurai, IN

Mahbubnagar, IN

Mahesana, IN

Malegaon, IN

Mandya, IN

Mangalore, IN

Mathura, IN

Maunath Bhanjan, IN

Medinipur, IN

Meerut, IN

Mirzapur-Cum-Vindhyachal,

IN

Moga, IN

Moradabad, IN

ASI|IN|IN036|KANCHRAPARA

ASI|IN|IN018|KANHANGAD

ASI|IN|IN018|KANNUR

ASI|IN|IN033|KANPUR

ASI|IN|IN031|KARAIKKUDI

ASI|IN|IN002|KARIMNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN013|KARNAL

ASI|IN|IN031|KARUR

ASI|IN|IN005|KATIHAR

ASI|IN|IN002|KHAMMAM

ASI|IN|IN020|KHANDWA

ASI|IN|IN005|KHARAGPUR

ASI|IN|IN018|KOCHI

ASI|IN|IN017|KOLAR

ASI|IN|IN017|KOLAR GOLD FIELDS

ASI|IN|IN021|KOLHAPUR

ASI|IN|IN018|KOLLAM

ASI|IN|IN020|KORBA

ASI|IN|IN029|KOTA

ASI|IN|IN002|KOTHAGUDEM

ASI|IN|IN018|KOTTAYAM

ASI|IN|IN018|KOZHIKODE

ASI|IN|IN036|KRISHNANAGAR

ASI|IN|IN031|KUMBAKONAM

ASI|IN|IN002|KURNOOL

ASI|IN|IN033|LUCKNOW

ASI|IN|IN028|LUDHIANA

ASI|IN|IN002|MACHILIPATNAM

ASI|IN|IN031|MADRAS

ASI|IN|IN031|MADURAI

ASI|IN|IN002|MAHBUBNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN012|MAHESANA

ASI|IN|IN021|MALEGAON

ASI|IN|IN017|MANDYA

ASI|IN|IN017|MANGALORE

ASI|IN|IN033|MATHURA

ASI|IN|IN033|MAUNATH BHANJAN

ASI|IN|IN036|MEDINIPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|MEERUT

ASI|IN|IN033|MIRZAPUR-CUM-

VINDHYACHAL

ASI|IN|IN028|MOGA

ASI|IN|IN033|MORADABAD

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Morena, IN

Morvi, IN

Mumbai, IN

Munger, IN

Murwara, IN

Muzaffarnagar, IN

Muzaffarpur, IN

Mysore, IN

Nabadwip, IN

Nadiad, IN

Nagercoil, IN

Nagpur, IN

Naihati, IN

Nanded, IN

Nandyal, IN

Navsari, IN

Nellore, IN

New Delhi, IN

Neyveli, IN

Nizamabad, IN

Ondal, IN

Ongole, IN

Pali, IN

Panihati, IN

Panipat, IN

Parbhani, IN

Patan, IN

Pathankot, IN

Patiala, IN

Patratu, IN

Pilibhit, IN

Pollachi, IN

Pondicherry, IN

Porbandar, IN

Proddatur, IN

Pune, IN

Puri, IN

Purnia, IN

Rae Bareli, IN

Raichur, IN

Raiganj, IN

Raipur, IN

Rajahmundry, IN

ASI|IN|IN020|MORENA

ASI|IN|IN012|MORVI

ASI|IN|IN021|MUMBAI

ASI|IN|IN005|MUNGER

ASI|IN|IN020|MURWARA

ASI|IN|IN033|MUZAFFARNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN005|MUZAFFARPUR

ASI|IN|IN017|MYSORE

ASI|IN|IN036|NABADWIP

ASI|IN|IN012|NADIAD

ASI|IN|IN031|NAGERCOIL

ASI|IN|IN021|NAGPUR

ASI|IN|IN036|NAIHATI

ASI|IN|IN021|NANDED

ASI|IN|IN002|NANDYAL

ASI|IN|IN012|NAVSARI

ASI|IN|IN002|NELLORE

ASI|IN|IN010|NEW DELHI

ASI|IN|IN031|NEYVELI

ASI|IN|IN002|NIZAMABAD

ASI|IN|IN036|ONDAL

ASI|IN|IN002|ONGOLE

ASI|IN|IN020|PALI

ASI|IN|IN036|PANIHATI

ASI|IN|IN013|PANIPAT

ASI|IN|IN021|PARBHANI

ASI|IN|IN012|PATAN

ASI|IN|IN028|PATHANKOT

ASI|IN|IN028|PATIALA

ASI|IN|IN005|PATRATU

ASI|IN|IN033|PILIBHIT

ASI|IN|IN031|POLLACHI

ASI|IN|IN027|PONDICHERRY

ASI|IN|IN012|PORBANDAR

ASI|IN|IN002|PRODDATUR

ASI|IN|IN021|PUNE

ASI|IN|IN026|PURI

ASI|IN|IN005|PURNIA

ASI|IN|IN033|RAE BARELI

ASI|IN|IN017|RAICHUR

ASI|IN|IN036|RAIGANJ

ASI|IN|IN033|RAIPUR

ASI|IN|IN002|RAJAHMUNDRY

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India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Rajapalaiyam, IN

Rajkot, IN

Rajnandgain, IN

Rampur, IN

Ranaghat, IN

Ranchi, IN

Ratlam, IN

Raurkela, IN

Rewa, IN

Rohtak, IN

Saharanpur, IN

Salem, IN

Sambalpur, IN

Sambhal, IN

Sangli, IN

Santipur, IN

Satna, IN

Serampore, IN

Shahjahanpur, IN

Shillong, IN

Shimoga, IN

Sikar, IN

Silchar, IN

Siliguri, IN

Sirsa, IN

Sitapur, IN

Sivakasi, IN

Solapur, IN

Sonipat, IN

South Dum Dum, IN

Surat, IN

Tenali, IN

Thane, IN

Thanjavur, IN

Thiruvananthapuram, IN

Thrissur, IN

Tiruchchirappalli, IN

Tirunelveli, IN

Tirupati, IN

Tiruppur, IN

Tiruvannamalai, IN

Titagarh, IN

Tonk, IN

ASI|IN|IN031|RAJAPALAIYAM

ASI|IN|IN012|RAJKOT

ASI|IN|IN020|RAJNANDGAIN

ASI|IN|IN036|RAMPUR

ASI|IN|IN036|RANAGHAT

ASI|IN|IN005|RANCHI

ASI|IN|IN020|RATLAM

ASI|IN|IN026|RAURKELA

ASI|IN|IN020|REWA

ASI|IN|IN013|ROHTAK

ASI|IN|IN033|SAHARANPUR

ASI|IN|IN031|SALEM

ASI|IN|IN026|SAMBALPUR

ASI|IN|IN033|SAMBHAL

ASI|IN|IN021|SANGLI

ASI|IN|IN036|SANTIPUR

ASI|IN|IN020|SATNA

ASI|IN|IN036|SERAMPORE

ASI|IN|IN033|SHAHJAHANPUR

ASI|IN|IN023|SHILLONG

ASI|IN|IN017|SHIMOGA

ASI|IN|IN029|SIKAR

ASI|IN|IN004|SILCHAR

ASI|IN|IN036|SILIGURI

ASI|IN|IN013|SIRSA

ASI|IN|IN033|SITAPUR

ASI|IN|IN031|SIVAKASI

ASI|IN|IN021|SOLAPUR

ASI|IN|IN013|SONIPAT

ASI|IN|IN036|SOUTH DUM DUM

ASI|IN|IN012|SURAT

ASI|IN|IN002|TENALI

ASI|IN|IN021|THANE

ASI|IN|IN031|THANJAVUR

ASI|IN|IN018|THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

ASI|IN|IN018|THRISSUR

ASI|IN|IN031|TIRUCHCHIRAPPALLI

ASI|IN|IN031|TIRUNELVELI

ASI|IN|IN002|TIRUPATI

ASI|IN|IN031|TIRUPPUR

ASI|IN|IN031|TIRUVANNAMALAI

ASI|IN|IN036|TITAGARH

ASI|IN|IN029|TONK

178

India

India

India

India

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

India

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Tumkur, IN

Tuticorin, IN

Udaipur, IN

Udupi, IN

Ujjain, IN

Ulhasnagar, IN

Unnao, IN

Vadodara, IN

Valparai, IN

Valsad, IN

Varanasi, IN

Vellore, IN

Vijayawada, IN

Visakhapatnam, IN

Wadhwan, IN

Warangal, IN

Wardha, IN

Yamunanagar, IN

Yavatmal, IN

Ambon, ID

Balikpapan, ID

Bandjarmasin, ID

Bandung, ID

Bogor, ID

Cirebon, ID

Jakarta, ID

Jambi, ID

Kediri, ID

Kotabaru, ID

Madiun, ID

Magelang, ID

Malang, ID

Manado, ID

Medan, ID

Padang, ID

Pakan Baru, ID

Palembang, ID

Pematang Siantar, ID

Pontianak, ID

Probolinggo, ID

Samarinda, ID

Semarang, ID

Sukabumi, ID

ASI|IN|IN017|TUMKUR

ASI|IN|IN031|TUTICORIN

ASI|IN|IN029|UDAIPUR

ASI|IN|IN017|UDUPI

ASI|IN|IN020|UJJAIN

ASI|IN|IN021|ULHASNAGAR

ASI|IN|IN033|UNNAO

ASI|IN|IN012|VADODARA

ASI|IN|IN031|VALPARAI

ASI|IN|IN012|VALSAD

ASI|IN|IN033|VARANASI

ASI|IN|IN031|VELLORE

ASI|IN|IN002|VIJAYAWADA

ASI|IN|IN002|VISAKHAPATNAM

ASI|IN|IN012|WADHWAN

ASI|IN|IN002|WARANGAL

ASI|IN|IN021|WARDHA

ASI|IN|IN013|YAMUNANAGAR

ASI|IN|IN021|YAVATMAL

ASI|ID|ID015|AMBON

ASI|ID|ID013|BALIKPAPAN

ASI|ID|ID011|BANDJARMASIN

ASI|ID|ID004|BANDUNG

ASI|ID|ID026|BOGOR

ASI|ID|ID026|CIREBON

ASI|ID|ID009|JAKARTA

ASI|ID|ID010|JAMBI

ASI|ID|ID002|KEDIRI

ASI|ID|ID011|KOTABARU

ASI|ID|ID007|MADIUN

ASI|ID|ID004|MAGELANG

ASI|ID|ID026|MALANG

ASI|ID|ID022|MANADO

ASI|ID|ID027|MEDAN

ASI|ID|ID006|PADANG

ASI|ID|ID018|PAKAN BARU

ASI|ID|ID024|PALEMBANG

ASI|ID|ID027|PEMATANG SIANTAR

ASI|ID|ID006|PONTIANAK

ASI|ID|ID007|PROBOLINGGO

ASI|ID|ID013|SAMARINDA

ASI|ID|ID004|SEMARANG

ASI|ID|ID026|SUKABUMI

179

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Surabaya, ID

Surakarta, ID

Tegal, ID

Ujungpandang, ID

Yogyakarta, ID

Abadan, IR

Ahwaz, IR

Amol, IR

Andimeshk, IR

Arak, IR

Ardabil, IR

Babol, IR

Bandar-E-Abbas, IR

Birjand, IR

Bojnurd, IR

Borujerd, IR

Bukand, IR

Bushehr, IR

Dezful, IR

Esfahan, IR

Gadamabad, IR

Gorgan, IR

Hamadan, IR

Ilam, IR

Karaj, IR

Kashan, IR

Kerman, IR

Kermanshah, IR

Kord-Shahr, IR

Mahabad, IR

Malayer, IR

Mashhad, IR

Masjed Soleyman, IR

Najafabad, IR

Neyshabur, IR

Orumiyeh, IR

Qaem Shahr, IR

Qarchak, IR

Qazvin, IR

Qods, IR

Qom, IR

Rasht, IR

Sanandaj, IR

ASI|ID|ID026|SURABAYA

ASI|ID|ID004|SURAKARTA

ASI|ID|ID004|TEGAL

ASI|ID|ID019|UJUNGPANDANG

ASI|ID|ID005|YOGYAKARTA

MEA|IR|IR016|ABADAN

MEA|IR|IR016|AHWAZ

MEA|IR|IR021|AMOL

MEA|IR|IR016|ANDIMESHK

MEA|IR|IR020|ARAK

MEA|IR|IR001|ARDABIL

MEA|IR|IR021|BABOL

MEA|IR|IR011|BANDAR-E-ABBAS

MEA|IR|IR015|BIRJAND

MEA|IR|IR015|BOJNURD

MEA|IR|IR019|BORUJERD

MEA|IR|IR000|BUKAND

MEA|IR|IR004|BUSHEHR

MEA|IR|IR016|DEZFUL

MEA|IR|IR006|ESFAHAN

MEA|IR|IR009|GONBAD-E-KAVUS

MEA|IR|IR002|GORGAN

MEA|IR|IR010|HAMADAN

MEA|IR|IR012|ILAM

MEA|IR|IR026|KARAJ

MEA|IR|IR006|KASHAN

MEA|IR|IR013|KERMAN

MEA|IR|IR014|KERMANSHAH

MEA|IR|IR005|KORD-SHAHR

MEA|IR|IR002|MAHABAD

MEA|IR|IR010|MALAYER

MEA|IR|IR015|MASHHAD

MEA|IR|IR016|MASJED SOLEYMAN

MEA|IR|IR006|NAJAFABAD

MEA|IR|IR015|NEYSHABUR

MEA|IR|IR029|ORUMIYEH

MEA|IR|IR021|QAEM SHAHR

MEA|IR|IR026|QARCHAK

MEA|IR|IR028|QAZVIN

MEA|IR|IR024|QODS

MEA|IR|IR020|QOM

MEA|IR|IR008|RASHT

MEA|IR|IR018|SANANDAJ

180

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Ireland

Ireland

Ireland

Isle Of Man

Israel

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Iran

Sari, IR

Shahrud, IR

Shiraz, IR

Sirjan, IR

Tabriz, IR

Tehran, IR

Varamin, IR

Yazd, IR

Zabol, IR

Zahedan, IR

Zanjan, IR

Amara, IQ

Baghdad, IQ

Basra, IQ

Diwaniya, IQ

Erbil, IQ

Hilla, IQ

Kadhimain, IQ

Karradah Sharqiyah, IQ

Kerbala, IQ

Kirkuk, IQ

Kut, IQ

Majnoon, IQ

Mosul, IQ

Najaf, IQ

Ramadi, IQ

Cork, IE

Derry, IE

Dublin, IE

Douglas, IM

Ashdod, IL

Ashkelon, IL

Bat Yam, IL

Beer Sheva, IL

Bene Beraq, IL

Dimona, IL

Eilat , IL

Hadera, IL

Haifa, IL

Holon, IL

Jerusalem, IL

Keriat Shmona, IL

Metula, IL

MEA|IR|IR021|SARI

MEA|IR|IR024|SHAHRUD

MEA|IR|IR007|SHIRAZ

MEA|IR|IR013|SIRJAN

MEA|IR|IR002|TABRIZ

MEA|IR|IR026|TEHRAN

MEA|IR|IR026|VARAMIN

MEA|IR|IR027|YAZD

MEA|IR|IR025|ZABOL

MEA|IR|IR025|ZAHEDAN

MEA|IR|IR028|ZANJAN

MEA|IQ|IZ015|AMARA

MEA|IQ|IZ010|BAGHDAD

MEA|IQ|IZ002|BASRA

MEA|IQ|IZ004|DIWANIYA

MEA|IQ|IZ006|ERBIL

MEA|IQ|IZ009|HILLA

MEA|IQ|IZ010|KADHIMAIN

MEA|IQ|IZ010|KARRADAH SHARQIYAH

MEA|IQ|IZ014|KERBALA

MEA|IQ|IZ008|KIRKUK

MEA|IQ|IZ018|KUT

MEA|IQ|IZ010|MAJNOON

MEA|IQ|IZ016|MOSUL

MEA|IQ|IZ005|NAJAF

MEA|IQ|IZ001|RAMADI

EUR|IE|EI004|CORK

EUR|IE|EI000|DERRY

EUR|IE|EI006|DUBLIN

EUR|IM|IM---|DOUGLAS

MEA|IL|IS002|ASHDOD

MEA|IL|IS001|ASHKELON

MEA|IL|IS005|BAT YAM

MEA|IL|IS001|BE'ER SHEBA

MEA|IL|IS005|BENE BERAQ

MEA|IL|IS001|DIMONA

MEA|IL|IS001|EILAT

MEA|IL|IS004|HADERA

MEA|IL|IS004|HAIFA

MEA|IL|IS005|HOLON

MEA|IL|IS006|JERUSALEM

MEA|IL|IS003|KERIAT SHMONA

MEA|IL|IS003|METULA

181

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israel

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Italy

Genova, IT

Latina, IT

Livorno, IT

Messina, IT

Milano, IT

Modena, IT

Monza, IT

Napoli, IT

Novara, IT

Padova, IT

Palermo, IT

Parma, IT

Perugia, IT

Pescara, IT

Prato, IT

Ravenna, IT

Netanya, IL

Petah Tiqwa, IL

Ramat Gan, IL

Rishon Leziyyon, IL

Tel Aviv-Yafo, IL

Bari, IT

Bergamo, IT

Bologna, IT

Brescia, IT

Cagliari, IT

Catania, IT

Ferrara, IT

Firenze, IT

Foggia, IT

Forli, IT

Reggio Di Calabria, IT

Rimini, IT

Roma, IT

Salerno, IT

Sassari, IT

Siracusa, IT

Taranto, IT

Terni, IT

Torino, IT

Trento, IT

Trieste, IT

Venezia, IT

MEA|IL|IS002|NETANYA

MEA|IL|IS002|PETAH TIQWA

MEA|IL|IS005|RAMAT GAN

MEA|IL|IS002|RISHON LEZIYYON

MEA|IL|IS005|TEL AVIV-YAFO

EUR|IT|IT013|BARI

EUR|IT|IT009|BERGAMO

EUR|IT|IT005|BOLOGNA

EUR|IT|IT009|BRESCIA

EUR|IT|IT014|CAGLIARI

EUR|IT|IT015|CATANIA

EUR|IT|IT005|FERRARA

EUR|IT|IT016|FIRENZE

EUR|IT|IT013|FOGGIA

EUR|IT|IT005|FORLI

EUR|IT|IT008|GENOVA

EUR|IT|IT007|LATINA

EUR|IT|IT016|LIVORNO

EUR|IT|IT015|MESSINA

EUR|IT|IT009|MILANO

EUR|IT|IT005|MODENA

EUR|IT|IT009|MONZA

EUR|IT|IT004|NAPOLI

EUR|IT|IT012|NOVARA

EUR|IT|IT020|PADOVA

EUR|IT|IT015|PALERMO

EUR|IT|IT005|PARMA

EUR|IT|IT018|PERUGIA

EUR|IT|IT001|PESCARA

EUR|IT|IT016|PRATO

EUR|IT|IT005|RAVENNA

EUR|IT|IT003|REGGIO DI CALABRIA

EUR|IT|IT005|RIMINI

EUR|IT|IT007|ROMA

EUR|IT|IT003|SALERNO

EUR|IT|IT014|SASSARI

EUR|IT|IT015|SIRACUSA

EUR|IT|IT013|TARANTO

EUR|IT|IT018|TERNI

EUR|IT|IT012|TORINO

EUR|IT|IT017|TRENTO

EUR|IT|IT006|TRIESTE

EUR|IT|IT020|VENEZIA

182

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Italy

Italy

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast

Jamaica

Japan

Verona, IT

Vicenza, IT

Abidjan, CI

Bouaké, CI

Yamoussoukro, CI

Kingston, JM

Abiko, JP

Ageo, JP

Akishima, JP

Amagasaki, JP

Anjo, JP

Aomori, JP

Asahikawa, JP

Asaka, JP

Ashikaga, JP

Atsugi, JP

Beppu, JP

Chiba, JP

Chigasaki, JP

Chofu, JP

Daito, JP

Ebetsu, JP

Ebina, JP

Fuji, JP

Fujieda, JP

Fujimi, JP

Fujinomiya, JP

Fukaya, JP

Fukui, JP

Fukuoka, JP

Fukuyama, JP

Funabashi, JP

Gifu, JP

Habikino, JP

Hachinohe, JP

Hachioji, JP

Hakodate, JP

Hamamatsu, JP

Handa, JP

Higashihiroshima, JP

Higashikurume, JP

Higashimurayama, JP

Higashiosaka, JP

EUR|IT|IT020|VERONA

EUR|IT|IT020|VICENZA

AFR|CI|IV002|ABIDJAN

AFR|CI|IV000|BOUAKÉ

AFR|CI|IV057|YAMOUSSOUKRO

CAC|JM|JM000|KINGSTON

ASI|JP|JA004|ABIKO

ASI|JP|JA035|AGEO

ASI|JP|JA041|AKISHIMA

ASI|JP|JA013|AMAGASAKI

ASI|JP|JA001|ANJO

ASI|JP|JA003|AOMORI

ASI|JP|JA012|ASAHIKAWA

ASI|JP|JA035|ASAKA

ASI|JP|JA039|ASHIKAGA

ASI|JP|JA019|ATSUGI

ASI|JP|JA030|BEPPU

ASI|JP|JA004|CHIBA

ASI|JP|JA019|CHIGASAKI

ASI|JP|JA041|CHOFU

ASI|JP|JA033|DAITO

ASI|JP|JA012|EBETSU

ASI|JP|JA019|EBINA

ASI|JP|JA038|FUJI

ASI|JP|JA038|FUJIEDA

ASI|JP|JA012|FUJIMI

ASI|JP|JA038|FUJINOMIYA

ASI|JP|JA035|FUKAYA

ASI|JP|JA006|FUKUI

ASI|JP|JA009|FUKUOKA

ASI|JP|JA011|FUKUYAMA

ASI|JP|JA004|FUNABASHI

ASI|JP|JA009|GIFU

ASI|JP|JA033|HABIKINO

ASI|JP|JA003|HACHINOHE

ASI|JP|JA041|HACHIOJI

ASI|JP|JA012|HAKODATE

ASI|JP|JA038|HAMAMATSU

ASI|JP|JA001|HANDA

ASI|JP|JA011|HIGASHIHIROSHIMA

ASI|JP|JA041|HIGASHIKURUME

ASI|JP|JA041|HIGASHIMURAYAMA

ASI|JP|JA033|HIGASHIOSAKA

183

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Hikone, JP

Himeji, JP

Hino, JP

Hirakata, JP

Hiratsuka, JP

Hirosaki, JP

Hiroshima, JP

Hitachi, JP

Hofu, JP

Hoya, JP

Ibaraki, JP

Ichihara, JP

Ichikawa, JP

Ichinomiya, JP

Ikeda, JP

Ikoma, JP

Imabari, JP

Inazawa, JP

Ise, JP

Isesaki, JP

Ishinomaki, JP

Itami, JP

Iwakuni, JP

Iwatsuki, JP

Izumi, JP

Joetsu, JP

Kadoma, JP

Kagoshima, JP

Kakamigahara, JP

Kakogawa, JP

Kamagaya, JP

Kanazawa, JP

Kariya, JP

Kashihara, JP

Kashiwa, JP

Kasukabe, JP

Kawachinagano, JP

Kawagoe, JP

Kawaguchi, JP

Kawasaki, JP

Kiryu, JP

Kisarazu, JP

Kishiwada, JP

ASI|JP|JA036|HIKONE

ASI|JP|JA013|HIMEJI

ASI|JP|JA041|HINO

ASI|JP|JA033|HIRAKATA

ASI|JP|JA019|HIRATSUKA

ASI|JP|JA003|HIROSAKI

ASI|JP|JA011|HIROSHIMA

ASI|JP|JA014|HITACHI

ASI|JP|JA046|HOFU

ASI|JP|JA041|HOYA

ASI|JP|JA033|IBARAKI

ASI|JP|JA004|ICHIHARA

ASI|JP|JA004|ICHIKAWA

ASI|JP|JA001|ICHINOMIYA

ASI|JP|JA029|IKEDA

ASI|JP|JA028|IKOMA

ASI|JP|JA005|IMABARI

ASI|JP|JA001|INAZAWA

ASI|JP|JA023|ISE

ASI|JP|JA010|ISESAKI

ASI|JP|JA024|ISHINOMAKI

ASI|JP|JA013|ITAMI

ASI|JP|JA046|IWAKUNI

ASI|JP|JA035|IWATSUKI

ASI|JP|JA033|IZUMI

ASI|JP|JA029|JOETSU

ASI|JP|JA033|KADOMA

ASI|JP|JA018|KAGOSHIMA

ASI|JP|JA009|KAKAMIGAHARA

ASI|JP|JA013|KAKOGAWA

ASI|JP|JA004|KAMAGAYA

ASI|JP|JA015|KANAZAWA

ASI|JP|JA001|KARIYA

ASI|JP|JA028|KASHIHARA

ASI|JP|JA004|KASHIWA

ASI|JP|JA035|KASUKABE

ASI|JP|JA033|KAWACHINAGANO

ASI|JP|JA035|KAWAGOE

ASI|JP|JA035|KAWAGUCHI

ASI|JP|JA019|KAWASAKI

ASI|JP|JA010|KIRYU

ASI|JP|JA004|KISARAZU

ASI|JP|JA033|KISHIWADA

184

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Kitakyushu, JP

Kitami, JP

Kobe, JP

Kochi, JP

Kodaira, JP

Kofu, JP

Koganei, JP

Kokubunji, JP

Komaki, JP

Komatsu, JP

Koriyama, JP

Koshigaya, JP

Kumagaya, JP

Kumamoto, JP

Kurashiki, JP

Kure, JP

Kurume, JP

Kusatsu, JP

Kushiro, JP

Kuwana, JP

Kyoto, JP

Machida, JP

Maebashi, JP

Matsubara, JP

Matsudo, JP

Mishima, JP

Mito, JP

Miyakonojo, JP

Miyazaki, JP

Moriguchi, JP

Morioka, JP

Muroran, JP

Musashino, JP

Nagano, JP

Nagaoka, JP

Nagareyama, JP

Nagasaki, JP

Nagoya, JP

Nara, JP

Narashino, JP

Neyagawa, JP

Niigata, JP

Niihama, JP

ASI|JP|JA007|KITAKYUSHU

ASI|JP|JA012|KITAMI

ASI|JP|JA013|KOBE

ASI|JP|JA038|KOCHI

ASI|JP|JA041|KODAIRA

ASI|JP|JA047|KOFU

ASI|JP|JA041|KOGANEI

ASI|JP|JA041|KOKUBUNJI

ASI|JP|JA001|KOMAKI

ASI|JP|JA015|KOMATSU

ASI|JP|JA008|KORIYAMA

ASI|JP|JA035|KOSHIGAYA

ASI|JP|JA035|KUMAGAYA

ASI|JP|JA021|KUMAMOTO

ASI|JP|JA031|KURASHIKI

ASI|JP|JA011|KURE

ASI|JP|JA007|KURUME

ASI|JP|JA010|KUSATSU

ASI|JP|JA012|KUSHIRO

ASI|JP|JA023|KUWANA

ASI|JP|JA022|KYOTO

ASI|JP|JA041|MACHIDA

ASI|JP|JA010|MAEBASHI

ASI|JP|JA033|MATSUBARA

ASI|JP|JA004|MATSUDO

ASI|JP|JA038|MISHIMA

ASI|JP|JA014|MITO

ASI|JP|JA025|MIYAKONOJO

ASI|JP|JA025|MIYAZAKI

ASI|JP|JA033|MORIGUCHI

ASI|JP|JA016|MORIOKA

ASI|JP|JA012|MURORAN

ASI|JP|JA041|MUSASHINO

ASI|JP|JA026|NAGANO

ASI|JP|JA029|NAGAOKA

ASI|JP|JA035|NAGAREYAMA

ASI|JP|JA027|NAGASAKI

ASI|JP|JA001|NAGOYA

ASI|JP|JA028|NARA

ASI|JP|JA004|NARASHINO

ASI|JP|JA033|NEYAGAWA

ASI|JP|JA029|NIIGATA

ASI|JP|JA005|NIIHAMA

185

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Niiza, JP

Nishinomiya, JP

Nishio, JP

Nobeoka, JP

Noda, JP

Numazu, JP

Obihiro, JP

Odawara, JP

Ogaki, JP

Oita, JP

Okayama, JP

Okazaki, JP

Okinawa, JP

Ome, JP

Omiya, JP

Omuta, JP

Osaka, JP

Ota, JP

Otaru, JP

Otsu, JP

Oyama, JP

Saga, JP

Sagamihara, JP

Sakai, JP

Sanda, JP

Sapporo, JP

Sasebo, JP

Sayama, JP

Sendai, JP

Seto, JP

Shimizu, JP

Shimonoseki, JP

Shizuoka, JP

Soka, JP

Suita, JP

Suzuka, JP

Tachikawa, JP

Tajimi, JP

Takamatsu, JP

Takaoka, JP

Takarazuka, JP

Takasaki, JP

Takatsuki, JP

ASI|JP|JA035|NIIZA

ASI|JP|JA013|NISHINOMIYA

ASI|JP|JA001|NISHIO

ASI|JP|JA025|NOBEOKA

ASI|JP|JA004|NODA

ASI|JP|JA038|NUMAZU

ASI|JP|JA012|OBIHIRO

ASI|JP|JA019|ODAWARA

ASI|JP|JA009|OGAKI

ASI|JP|JA030|OITA

ASI|JP|JA031|OKAYAMA

ASI|JP|JA001|OKAZAKI

ASI|JP|JA032|OKINAWA

ASI|JP|JA041|OME

ASI|JP|JA014|OMIYA

ASI|JP|JA007|OMUTA

ASI|JP|JA009|OSAKA

ASI|JP|JA006|OTA

ASI|JP|JA012|OTARU

ASI|JP|JA036|OTSU

ASI|JP|JA038|OYAMA

ASI|JP|JA020|SAGA

ASI|JP|JA019|SAGAMIHARA

ASI|JP|JA014|SAKAI

ASI|JP|JA013|SANDA

ASI|JP|JA012|SAPPORO

ASI|JP|JA027|SASEBO

ASI|JP|JA035|SAYAMA

ASI|JP|JA018|SENDAI

ASI|JP|JA001|SETO

ASI|JP|JA029|SHIMIZU

ASI|JP|JA046|SHIMONOSEKI

ASI|JP|JA038|SHIZUOKA

ASI|JP|JA035|SOKA

ASI|JP|JA033|SUITA

ASI|JP|JA023|SUZUKA

ASI|JP|JA041|TACHIKAWA

ASI|JP|JA009|TAJIMI

ASI|JP|JA017|TAKAMATSU

ASI|JP|JA043|TAKAOKA

ASI|JP|JA013|TAKARAZUKA

ASI|JP|JA010|TAKASAKI

ASI|JP|JA033|TAKATSUKI

186

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Japan

Jordan

Jordan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Tama, JP

Toda, JP

Tokorozawa, JP

Tokushima, JP

Tokuyama, JP

Tokyo, JP

Tomakomai, JP

Tondabayashi, JP

Tottori, JP

Toyama, JP

Toyohashi, JP

Toyokawa, JP

Toyonaka, JP

Toyota, JP

Tsu, JP

Tsuchiura, JP

Tsukuba, JP

Tsuruoka, JP

Ube, JP

Ueda, JP

Uji, JP

Urasoe, JP

Urawa, JP

Urayasu, JP

Utsunomiya, JP

Wakayama, JP

Yachiyo, JP

Yaizu, JP

Yamagata, JP

Yamaguchi, JP

Yamato, JP

Yao, JP

Yatsushiro, JP

Yokkaichi, JP

Yokohama, JP

Yokosuka, JP

Yonago, JP

Zama, JP

Amman, JO

Irbid, JO

Aktau, KZ

Aktobe, KZ

Almaty, KZ

ASI|JP|JA031|TAMA

ASI|JP|JA035|TODA

ASI|JP|JA035|TOKOROZAWA

ASI|JP|JA040|TOKUSHIMA

ASI|JP|JA046|TOKUYAMA

ASI|JP|JA041|TOKYO

ASI|JP|JA012|TOMAKOMAI

ASI|JP|JA033|TONDABAYASHI

ASI|JP|JA042|TOTTORI

ASI|JP|JA043|TOYAMA

ASI|JP|JA001|TOYOHASHI

ASI|JP|JA001|TOYOKAWA

ASI|JP|JA033|TOYONAKA

ASI|JP|JA001|TOYOTA

ASI|JP|JA023|TSU

ASI|JP|JA014|TSUCHIURA

ASI|JP|JA014|TSUKUBA

ASI|JP|JA045|TSURUOKA

ASI|JP|JA046|UBE

ASI|JP|JA026|UEDA

ASI|JP|JA022|UJI

ASI|JP|JA032|URASOE

ASI|JP|JA035|URAWA

ASI|JP|JA041|URAYASU

ASI|JP|JA039|UTSUNOMIYA

ASI|JP|JA044|WAKAYAMA

ASI|JP|JA012|YACHIYO

ASI|JP|JA038|YAIZU

ASI|JP|JA045|YAMAGATA

ASI|JP|JA046|YAMAGUCHI

ASI|JP|JA028|YAMATO

ASI|JP|JA033|YAO

ASI|JP|JA021|YATSUSHIRO

ASI|JP|JA030|YOKKAICHI

ASI|JP|JA019|YOKOHAMA

ASI|JP|JA019|YOKOSUKA

ASI|JP|JA042|YONAGO

ASI|JP|JA019|ZAMA

MEA|JO|JO002|AMMAN

MEA|JO|JO009|IRBID

ASI|KZ|KZ000|AKTAU

ASI|KZ|KZ000|AKTOBE

ASI|KZ|KZ001|ALMATY

187

Kinshasa

Kiribati

Kuwait

Kuwait

Kuwait

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

Laos

Laos

Latvia

Latvia

Lebanon

Kenya

Kenya

Kenya

Kenya

Kenya

Kenya

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kinshasa

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

Kenya

Kenya

Kenya

Astana, KZ

Ekibastuz, KZ

Ist-Kamenogorsk, KZ

Karaganda, KZ

Kustanai, KZ

Kyzylorda, KZ

Pavlodar, KZ

Petropavlovsk, KZ

Semipalatinsk, KZ

Taraz, KZ

Temirtau, KZ

Uralsk, KZ

Eldoret, KE

Kisumu, KE

Kitale, KE

Machakos, KE

Malindi, KE

Mombasa, KE

Nairobi, KE

Nakuru, KE

Nanyuki, KE

Boma, CD

Bukavu, CD

Kananga, CD

Kikwit, CD

Kisangani, CD

Kolwezi, CD

Likasi, CD

Lubumbashi, CD

Matadi, CD

Mbandaka, CD

Mbuji-Mayi, CD

Tarawa, KI

As Salimiyah, KW

Jalib as-Suyuh, KW

Kuwait City, KW

Bishkek, KG

Osh, KG

Luang Prabang, LA

Vientiane, LA

Daugavpils, LV

Riga, LV

Beirut, LB

ASI|KZ|KZ004|ASTANA

ASI|KZ|KZ010|EKIBASTUZ

ASI|KZ|KZ014|IST-KAMENOGORSK

ASI|KZ|KZ000|KARAGANDA

ASI|KZ|KZ012|KUSTANAI

ASI|KZ|KZ013|KYZYLORDA

ASI|KZ|KZ010|PAVLODAR

ASI|KZ|KZ015|PETROPAVLOVSK

ASI|KZ|KZ014|SEMIPALATINSK

ASI|KZ|KZ016|TARAZ

ASI|KZ|KZ011|TEMIRTAU

ASI|KZ|KZ006|URALSK

AFR|KE|KE007|ELDORET

AFR|KE|KE006|KISUMU

AFR|KE|KE007|KITALE

AFR|KE|KE003|MACHAKOS

AFR|KE|KE002|MALINDI

AFR|KE|KE002|MOMBASA

AFR|KE|KE004|NAIROBI

AFR|KE|KE007|NAKURU

AFR|KE|KE007|NANYUKI

AFR|CD|CG002|BOMA

AFR|CD|CG011|BUKAVU

AFR|CD|CG004|KANANGA

AFR|CD|CG001|KIKWIT

AFR|CD|CG010|KISANGANI

AFR|CD|CG006|KOLWEZI

AFR|CD|CG006|LIKASI

AFR|CD|CG006|LUBUMBASHI

AFR|CD|CG002|MATADI

AFR|CD|CG003|MBANDAKA

AFR|CD|CG005|MBUJI-MAYI

OCN|KI|KR000|TARAWA

MEA|KW|KU000|AS SALIMIYAH

MEA|KW|KU000|JALIB AS-SUYUH

MEA|KW|KU000|KUWAIT CITY

ASI|KG|KG002|BISHKEK

ASI|KG|KG006|OSH

ASI|LA|LA008|LUANG PRABANG

ASI|LA|LA017|VIENTIANE

EUR|LV|LG006|DAUGAVPILS

EUR|LV|LG026|RIGA

MEA|LB|LE002|BEIRUT

188

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Maldives

Mali

Mali

Lithuania

Lithuania

Macau

Macedonia

Madagascar

Malawi

Malawi

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lesotho

Liberia

Libya

Libya

Libya

Libya

Libya

Libya

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Lithuania

Jbeil, LB

Sidon, LB

Tripoli, LB

Tyre, LB

Maseru, LS

Monrovia, LR

Al Khums, LY

Benghazi, LY

Misurata, LY

Sebha, LY

Tripoli, LY

Zuwarah, LY

Vaduz, LI

Kaunas, LT

Klaipeda, LT

Panevezhis, LT

Vilnius, LT

Macao, MO

Skoplje, MK

Antananarivo, MG

Blantyre-Limbe, MW

Lilongwe, MW

Alor Setar, MY

George Town, MY

Ipoh, MY

Johore Bharu, MY

Klang, MY

Kota Bahru, MY

Kota Kinabalu, MY

Kuala Lumpur, MY

Kuala Terengganu, MY

Kuantan, MY

Kuching, MY

Petaling Jaya, MY

Sandakan, MY

Seremban, MY

Shah Alam, MY

Sibu, MY

Sungai Petani, MY

Taiping, MY

Male, MV

Bamako, ML

Timbuktu, ML

MEA|LB|LE005|JBEIL

MEA|LB|LE000|SIDON

MEA|LB|LE003|TRIPOLI

MEA|LB|LE000|TYRE

AFR|LS|LT000|MASERU

AFR|LR|LI007|MONROVIA

AFR|LY|LY006|AL KHUMS

AFR|LY|LY012|BENGHAZI

AFR|LY|LY016|MISURATA

AFR|LY|LY018|SEBHA

AFR|LY|LY021|TRIPOLI

AFR|LY|LY008|ZUWARAH

EUR|LI|LS000|VADUZ

EUR|LT|LH013|KAUNAS

EUR|LT|LH017|KLAIPEDA

EUR|LT|LH030|PANEVEZHIS

EUR|LT|LH054|VILNIUS

ASI|MO|MC---|MACAO

EUR|MK|MK000|SKOPLJE

AFR|MG|MA001|ANTANANARIVO

AFR|MW|MI000|BLANTYRE-LIMBE

AFR|MW|MI000|LILONGWE

ASI|MY|MY002|ALOR SETAR

ASI|MY|MY010|GEORGE TOWN

ASI|MY|MY008|IPOH

ASI|MY|MY001|JOHORE BHARU

ASI|MY|MY013|KLANG

ASI|MY|MY003|KOTA BAHRU

ASI|MY|MY011|KOTA KINABALU

ASI|MY|MY015|KUALA LUMPUR

ASI|MY|MY014|KUALA TERENGGANU

ASI|MY|MY007|KUANTAN

ASI|MY|MY012|KUCHING

ASI|MY|MY000|PETALING JAYA

ASI|MY|MY011|SANDAKAN

ASI|MY|MY006|SEREMBAN

ASI|MY|MY000|SHAH ALAM

ASI|MY|MY012|SIBU

ASI|MY|MY002|SUNGAI PETANI

ASI|MY|MY008|TAIPING

ASI|MV|MV012|MALE

AFR|ML|ML000|BAMAKO

AFR|ML|ML000|TIMBUKTU

189

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Malta

Martinique

Mauritania

Mauritius

Mauritius

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Valletta, MT

Fort-De-France, MQ

Nouakchott, MR

Beau Bassin, MU

Port Louis, MU

Acapulco, MX

Aguascalientes, MX

Ahome, MX

Benito Juarez-Cancun-Qroo,

MX

Cajeme, MX

Campeche, MX

Celaya, MX

Centro, MX

Chihuahua, MX

Ciudad Madero, MX

Ciudad Victoria, MX

Coatzacoalcos, MX

Colimas, MX

Cordoba, MX

Cuernavaca, MX

Culican, MX

Durango, MX

Ecatepec, MX

Ensenada, MX

Gomez Palacio, MX

Guadalajara, MX

Guadalupe, MX

Hermosillo, MX

Irapuato, MX

Jalapa, MX

Juarez, MX

La Paz, MX

Leon, MX

Lopez Mateos, MX

Los Mochis, MX

Matamoros, MX

Mazatlan, MX

Merida, MX

Mexicali, MX

Mexico City, MX

Minatitlan, MX

EUR|MT|MT---|VALLETTA

CAC|MQ|MB---|FORT-DE-FRANCE

AFR|MR|MR005|NOUAKCHOTT

AFR|MU|MP008|BEAU BASSIN

AFR|MU|MP009|PORT LOUIS

NAM|MX|MX012|ACAPULCO

NAM|MX|MX001|AGUASCALIENTES

NAM|MX|MX025|AHOME

NAM|MX|MX023|BENITO JUAREZ-

CANCUN-QROO

NAM|MX|MX026|CAJEME

NAM|MX|MX004|CAMPECHE

NAM|MX|MX011|CELAYA

NAM|MX|MX010|CENTRO

NAM|MX|MX006|CHIHUAHUA

NAM|MX|MX028|CIUDAD MADERO

NAM|MX|MX002|CIUDAD VICTORIA

NAM|MX|MX030|COATZACOALCOS

NAM|MX|MX019|COLIMAS

NAM|MX|MX030|CÓRDOBA

NAM|MX|MX017|CUERNAVACA

NAM|MX|MX025|CULIACÁN

NAM|MX|MX010|DURANGO

NAM|MX|MX015|ECATEPEC

NAM|MX|MX002|ENSENADA

NAM|MX|MX010|GÓMEZ PALACIO

NAM|MX|MX014|GUADALAJARA

NAM|MX|MX005|GUADALUPE

NAM|MX|MX002|HERMOSILLO

NAM|MX|MX011|IRAPUATO

NAM|MX|MX027|JALAPA

NAM|MX|MX015|CIUDAD JUÁREZ

NAM|MX|MX003|LA PAZ

NAM|MX|MX011|LEÓN

NAM|MX|MX015|CIUDAD LÓPEZ

MATEOS

NAM|MX|MX025|LOS MOCHIS

NAM|MX|MX028|MATAMOROS

NAM|MX|MX025|MAZATLÁN

NAM|MX|MX002|MÉRIDA

NAM|MX|MX002|MEXICALI

NAM|MX|MX009|MEXICO CITY

NAM|MX|MX030|MINATITLÁN

190

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Moldova

Moldova

Monaco

Mongolia

Montenegro

Montserrat

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Mexico

Monclova, MX

Monterrey, MX

Morelia, MX

Naucalpan, MX

Netzahualcoyotl, MX

Nogales, MX

Nuevo Laredo, MX

Oaxaca, MX

Obregon, MX

Orizaba, MX

Pachuca, MX

Poza Rica De Hidalgo, MX

Puebla De Zaragoza, MX

Queretaro, MX

Reynosa, MX

Salamanca, MX

Saltillo, MX

San Luis Potosi, MX

Tampico, MX

Tapachula, MX

Tehuacan, MX

Tepic, MX

Tijuana, MX

Tlalnepantla, MX

Tlalpan, MX

Tlaquepaque, MX

Tlaxcala, MX

Toluca, MX

Torreon, MX

Uruapan, MX

Veracruz Llave, MX

Villahermosa, MX

Xochimilco, MX

Zacatecas, MX

Zamora De Hidalgo, MX

Zapopan, MX

Beltsy, MD

Kishinev, MD

Monaco, MC

Ulaanbaatar, MN

Podgorica, CS

Plymouth, MS

NAM|MX|MX007|MONCLOVA

NAM|MX|MX005|MONTERREY

NAM|MX|MX016|MORELIA

NAM|MX|MX015|NAUCALPAN

NAM|MX|MX027|NETZAHUALCÓYOTL

NAM|MX|MX030|NOGALES

NAM|MX|MX028|NUEVO LAREDO

NAM|MX|MX020|OAXACA DE JUÁREZ

NAM|MX|MX026|CIUDAD OBREGÓN

NAM|MX|MX030|ORIZABA

NAM|MX|MX013|PACHUCA

NAM|MX|MX030|POZA RICA DE

HIDALGO

NAM|MX|MX021|PUEBLA DE ZARAGOZA

NAM|MX|MX022|QUERÉTARO

NAM|MX|MX028|REYNOSA

NAM|MX|MX011|SALAMANCA

NAM|MX|MX007|SALTILLO

NAM|MX|MX024|SAN LUIS POTOSÍ

NAM|MX|MX028|TAMPICO

NAM|MX|MX005|TAPACHULA

NAM|MX|MX021|TEHUACÁN

NAM|MX|MX018|TEPIC

NAM|MX|MX002|TIJUANA

NAM|MX|MX015|TLALNEPANTLA

NAM|MX|MX009|TLALPAN

NAM|MX|MX014|TLAQUEPAQUE

NAM|MX|MX029|TLAXCALA

NAM|MX|MX015|TOLUCA

NAM|MX|MX006|TORREÓN

NAM|MX|MX016|URUAPAN

NAM|MX|MX030|VERACRUZ LLAVE

NAM|MX|MX027|VILLAHERMOSA

NAM|MX|MX009|XOCHIMILCO

NAM|MX|MX032|ZACATECAS

NAM|MX|MX016|ZAMORA DE HIDALGO

NAM|MX|MX014|ZAPOPAN

EUR|MD|MD000|BELTSY

EUR|MD|MD000|KISHINEV

EUR|MC|MN000|MONACO

ASI|MN|MG021|ULAANBAATAR

EUR|CS|YI002|PODGORICA

CAC|MS|MH001|PLYMOUTH

191

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Mozambique

Namibia

Nepal

Nepal

Nepal

Netherlands

Antilles

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Agadir, MA

Beni Mellal, MA

Casablanca, MA

El Jadida, MA

Fes, MA

Kenitra, MA

Khouribga, MA

Marrakech, MA

Meknes, MA

Oujda, MA

Rabat, MA

Safi, MA

Sale, MA

Tanger, MA

Tetouan, MA

Beira, MZ

Bilene, MZ

Chidenguele, MZ

Chimoio/Beira Corridor, MZ

Inhaca Island, MZ

Inhambane, MZ

Inhasoro, MZ

Lichinga, MZ

Maputo, MZ

Mozambique Island, MZ

Nacala, MZ

Nampula, MZ

Pemba, MZ

Ponta do Ouro, MZ

Quelimane, MZ

Vilanculos, MZ

Xai Xai, MZ

Windhoek, NA

Biratnagar, NP

Kathmandu, NP

Lalitpur, NP

AFR|MA|MO041|AGADIR

AFR|MA|MO006|BÉNI-MELLAL

AFR|MA|MO008|CASABLANCA

AFR|MA|MO010|EL JADIDA

AFR|MA|MO016|FÈS

AFR|MA|MO019|KÉNITRA

AFR|MA|MO022|KHOURIBGA

AFR|MA|MO025|MARRAKECH

AFR|MA|MO026|MEKNÈS

AFR|MA|MO029|OUJDA

AFR|MA|MO030|RABAT

AFR|MA|MO031|SAFI

AFR|MA|MO030|SALÉ

AFR|MA|MO035|TANGER

AFR|MA|MO040|TÉTOUAN

AFR|MZ|MZ008|BEIRA

AFR|MZ|MZ002|BILENE

AFR|MZ|MZ002|CHIDENGUELE

AFR|MZ|MZ004|CHIMOIO/BEIRA

CORRIDOR

AFR|MZ|MZ005|INHACA ISLAND

AFR|MZ|MZ003|INHAMBANE

AFR|MZ|MZ003|INHASORO

AFR|MZ|MZ007|LICHINGA

AFR|MZ|MZ005|MAPUTO

AFR|MZ|MZ006|MOZAMBIQUE ISLAND

AFR|MZ|MZ006|NACALA

AFR|MZ|MZ006|NAMPULA

AFR|MZ|MZ001|PEMBA

AFR|MZ|MZ005|PONTA DO OURO

AFR|MZ|MZ010|QUELIMANE

AFR|MZ|MZ003|VILANCULOS

AFR|MZ|MZ002|XAI XAI

AFR|NA|WA005|WINDHOEK

ASI|NP|NP000|BIRATNAGAR

ASI|NP|NP000|KATHMANDU

ASI|NP|NP000|LALITPUR

Willemstad, AN

Almere, NL

Amersfoort, NL

Amsterdam, NL

Apeldoorn, NL

CAC|AN|NT---|WILLEMSTAD

EUR|NL|NL002|ALMERE

EUR|NL|NL010|AMERSFOORT

EUR|NL|NL008|AMSTERDAM

EUR|NL|NL004|APELDOORN

192

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Arnhem, NL

Breda, NL

Dordrecht, NL

Ede, NL

Eindhoven, NL

Emmen, NL

Enschede, NL

Geleen-Sittard, NL

Groningen, NL

Haarlem, NL

Haarlemmermeer, NL

Heerlen-Kerkrade, NL

Leiden, NL

Maastricht, NL

Nijmegen, NL

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Netherlands

Rotterdam, NL

S-Gravenhage, NL

S-Hertogenbosch, NL

Tilburg, NL

Utrecht, NL

Zaanstad, NL

Zoetermeer, NL

Zwolle, NL

New Caledonia Noumea, NC

New Zealand Auckland, NZ

New Zealand

New Zealand

Christchurch, NZ

Dunedin, NZ

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand

Hamilton, NZ

Manukau, NZ

Napier-Hastings, NZ

Northshore, NZ

New Zealand

New Zealand

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Niger

Niger

Niger

Nigeria

Nigeria

Waitakere, NZ

Wellington, NZ

Chinandega, NI

Granada, NI

Leon, NI

Managua, NI

Masaya, NI

Maradi, NE

Niamey, NE

Zinder, NE

Aba, NG

Abeokuta, NG

EUR|NL|NL004|ARNHEM

EUR|NL|NL007|BREDA

EUR|NL|NL012|DORDRECHT

EUR|NL|NL004|EDE

EUR|NL|NL007|EINDHOVEN

EUR|NL|NL001|EMMEN

EUR|NL|NL009|ENSCHEDE

EUR|NL|NL006|GELEEN-SITTARD

EUR|NL|NL005|GRONINGEN

EUR|NL|NL008|HAARLEM

EUR|NL|NL008|HAARLEMMERMEER

EUR|NL|NL006|HEERLEN-KERKRADE

EUR|NL|NL012|LEIDEN

EUR|NL|NL006|MAASTRICHT

EUR|NL|NL004|NIJMEGEN

EUR|NL|NL012|ROTTERDAM

EUR|NL|NL012|S-GRAVENHAGE

EUR|NL|NL007|S-HERTOGENBOSCH

EUR|NL|NL007|TILBURG

EUR|NL|NL010|UTRECHT

EUR|NL|NL008|ZAANSTAD

EUR|NL|NL012|ZOETERMEER

EUR|NL|NL009|ZWOLLE

OCN|NC|NC000|NOUMEA

OCN|NZ|NZ000|AUCKLAND

OCN|NZ|NZ000|CHRISTCHURCH

OCN|NZ|NZ000|DUNEDIN

OCN|NZ|NZ000|HAMILTON

OCN|NZ|NZ000|MANUKAU

OCN|NZ|NZ000|NAPIER-HASTINGS

OCN|NZ|NZ000|NORTHSHORE

OCN|NZ|NZ000|WAITAKERE

OCN|NZ|NZ000|WELLINGTON

CAC|NI|NU003|CHINANDEGA

CAC|NI|NU006|GRANADA

CAC|NI|NU008|LEON

CAC|NI|NU010|MANAGUA

CAC|NI|NU011|MASAYA

AFR|NE|NG004|MARADI

AFR|NE|NG005|NIAMEY

AFR|NE|NG008|ZINDER

AFR|NG|NI008|ABA

AFR|NG|NI000|ABEOKUTA

193

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

North Korea

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Abuja, NG

Ado-Ekiti, NG

Calabar, NG

Ede, NG

Enugu, NG

Ibadan, NG

Ife, NG

Ikere-Ekiti, NG

Ila, NG

Ilesha, NG

Ilorin, NG

Iwo, NG

Kaduna, NG

Kano, NG

Lagos, NG

Maiduguri, NG

Mushin, NG

Ogbomosho, NG

Onitsha, NG

Oshogbo, NG

Oyo, NG

Port Harcourt, NG

Zaria, NG

Chechon, KP

Chejung, KP

Haeju, KP

Hamhung, KP

Hyesan, KP

Inchon, KP

Kaesong, KP

Kanggye, KP

Pyongyang, KP

Sariwon, KP

Taejon, KP

Wonsan, KP

Aalesund, NO

Arendal, NO

Bergen, NO

Bodoe, NO

Drammen, NO

Fredrikstad, NO

Geilo, NO

Hammerfest, NO

AFR|NG|NI000|ABUJA

AFR|NG|NI000|ADO-EKITI

AFR|NG|NI000|CALABAR

AFR|NG|NI000|EDE

AFR|NG|NI000|ENUGU

AFR|NG|NI029|IBADAN

AFR|NG|NI000|IFE

AFR|NG|NI000|IKERE-EKITI

AFR|NG|NI000|ILA

AFR|NG|NI000|ILESHA

AFR|NG|NI000|ILORIN

AFR|NG|NI000|IWO

AFR|NG|NI019|KADUNA

AFR|NG|NI020|KANO

AFR|NG|NI024|LAGOS

AFR|NG|NI000|MAIDUGURI

AFR|NG|NI024|MUSHIN

AFR|NG|NI000|OGBOMOSHO

AFR|NG|NI000|ONITSHA

AFR|NG|NI000|OSHOGBO

AFR|NG|NI029|OYO

AFR|NG|NI031|PORT HARCOURT

AFR|NG|NI000|ZARIA

ASI|KP|KN000|CHECHON

ASI|KP|KN000|CHEJUNG

ASI|KP|KN005|HAEJU

ASI|KP|KN003|HAMHUNG

ASI|KP|KN013|HYESAN

ASI|KP|KN007|INCHON

ASI|KR|KS001|KAESONG

ASI|KP|KN001|KANGGYE

ASI|KP|KN000|PYONGYANG

ASI|KP|KN004|SARIWON

ASI|KP|KN010|TAEJON

ASI|KR|KS009|WONSAN

EUR|NO|NO007|AALESUND

EUR|NO|NO002|ARENDAL

EUR|NO|NO006|BERGEN

EUR|NO|NO009|BODOE

EUR|NO|NO003|DRAMMEN

EUR|NO|NO012|FREDRIKSTAD

EUR|NO|NO003|GEILO

EUR|NO|NO004|HAMMERFEST

194

Norway

Oman

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Norway

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Haugesund, NO

Hemsedal, NO

Hoenefoss, NO

Krageroe, NO

Kristiansand, NO

Kristiansund, NO

Larvik, NO

Lillehammer, NO

Lofoten, NO

Molde, NO

Oslo, NO

Stavanger, NO

Toensberg, NO

Tromsoe, NO

Trondheim, NO

Trysil, NO

Muscat, OM

Bahawalnagar, PK

Burewala, PK

Chiniot, PK

Dadu, PK

Daska, PK

Dera Ghazi Khan, PK

Faisalabad, PK

Gojra, PK

Gujranwala, PK

Gujrat, PK

Hafizabad, PK

Hyderabad, PK

Islamabad, PK

Jacobabad, PK

Jaranwala, PK

Jhang, PK

Jhelum, PK

Kamoke, PK

Karachi, PK

Kasur, PK

Khairpur, PK

Khanewal, PK

Khanpur, PK

Kohat, PK

Lahore, PK

Larkana, PK

EUR|NO|NO013|HAUGESUND

EUR|NO|NO003|HEMSEDAL

EUR|NO|NO003|HOENEFOSS

EUR|NO|NO016|KRAGEROE

EUR|NO|NO018|KRISTIANSAND

EUR|NO|NO007|KRISTIANSUND

EUR|NO|NO019|LARVIK

EUR|NO|NO010|LILLEHAMMER

EUR|NO|NO009|LOFOTEN

EUR|NO|NO007|MOLDE

EUR|NO|NO011|OSLO

EUR|NO|NO013|STAVANGER

EUR|NO|NO019|TOENSBERG

EUR|NO|NO017|TROMSOE

EUR|NO|NO015|TRONDHEIM

EUR|NO|NO005|TRYSIL

MEA|OM|MU006|MUSCAT

ASI|PK|PK007|BAHAWALNAGAR

ASI|PK|PK007|BUREWALA

ASI|PK|PK007|CHINIOT

ASI|PK|PK008|DADU

ASI|PK|PK007|DASKA

ASI|PK|PK007|DERA GHAZI KHAN

ASI|PK|PK007|FAISALABAD

ASI|PK|PK007|GOJRA

ASI|PK|PK007|GUJRANWALA

ASI|PK|PK007|GUJRAT

ASI|PK|PK007|HAFIZABAD

ASI|PK|PK007|HYDERABAD

ASI|PK|PK004|ISLAMABAD

ASI|PK|PK008|JACOBABAD

ASI|PK|PK007|JARANWALA

ASI|PK|PK007|JHANG

ASI|PK|PK007|JHELUM

ASI|PK|PK007|KAMOKE

ASI|PK|PK008|KARACHI

ASI|PK|PK007|KASUR

ASI|PK|PK008|KHAIRPUR

ASI|PK|PK007|KHANEWAL

ASI|PK|PK007|KHANPUR

ASI|PK|PK005|KOHAT

ASI|PK|PK007|LAHORE

ASI|PK|PK008|LARKANA

195

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Philippines

Pakistan

Pakistan

Panama

Panama

Panama

Papua New

Guinea

Paraguay

Paraguay

Paraguay

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Peru

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan

Mangora, PK

Mardan, PK

Mirpur Khas, PK

Multan, PK

Muridke, PK

Nawabshah, PK

Okara, PK

Pakpattan, PK

Peshawar, PK

Quetta, PK

Rahimyar Khan, PK

Rawalpindi, PK

Sadiqabad, PK

Sahiwal, PK

Sargodha, PK

Sukkur, PK

Tandoadam, PK

Ciudad De Colon, PA

Panama, PA

San Miguelito, PA

Port Moresby, PG

Asuncion, PY

Ciudad Del Este, PY

San Lorenzo, PY

Arequipa, PE

Ayacucho, PE

Cajamarca, PE

Chiclayo, PE

Chimbote, PE

Cuzco, PE

Huancayo, PE

Huanuco, PE

Ica, PE

Iquitos, PE

Juliaca, PE

Lima, PE

Piura, PE

Pucallpa, PE

Sullana, PE

Tacna, PE

Trujillo, PE

Angeles, PH

ASI|PK|PK001|MANGORA

ASI|PK|PK005|MARDAN

ASI|PK|PK008|MIRPUR KHAS

ASI|PK|PK007|MULTAN

ASI|PK|PK007|MURIDKE

ASI|PK|PK008|NAWABSHAH

ASI|PK|PK007|OKARA

ASI|PK|PK007|PAKPATTAN

ASI|PK|PK005|PESHAWAR

ASI|PK|PK002|QUETTA

ASI|PK|PK007|RAHIMYAR KHAN

ASI|PK|PK007|RAWALPINDI

ASI|PK|PK007|SADIQABAD

ASI|PK|PK007|SAHIWAL

ASI|PK|PK007|SARGODHA

ASI|PK|PK008|SUKKUR

ASI|PK|PK008|TANDOADAM

CAC|PA|PM004|CIUDAD DE COLON

CAC|PA|PM008|PANAMA

CAC|PA|PM008|SAN MIGUELITO

OCN|PG|PP013|PORT MORESBY

SAM|PY|PA008|ASUNCION

SAM|PY|PA001|CIUDAD DEL ESTE

SAM|PY|PA008|SAN LORENZO

SAM|PE|PE004|AREQUIPA

SAM|PE|PE005|AYACUCHO

SAM|PE|PE006|CAJAMARCA

SAM|PE|PE014|CHICLAYO

SAM|PE|PE002|CHIMBOTE

SAM|PE|PE008|CUZCO

SAM|PE|PE012|HUANCAYO

SAM|PE|PE010|HUÁNUCO

SAM|PE|PE011|ICA

SAM|PE|PE016|IQUITOS

SAM|PE|PE021|JULIACA

SAM|PE|PE015|LIMA

SAM|PE|PE020|PIURA

SAM|PE|PE025|PUCALLPA

SAM|PE|PE020|SULLANA

SAM|PE|PE023|TACNA

SAM|PE|PE013|TRUJILLO

ASI|PH|RP006|ANGELES

196

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Bacolod, PH

Bago, PH

Baguio, PH

Batangas, PH

Butuan, PH

Cabanatuan, PH

Cadiz, PH

Cagayan De Oro, PH

Calbayog, PH

Caloocan, PH

Cebu, PH

Cotabato, PH

Dagupan, PH

Davao, PH

General Santos, PH

Iligan, PH

Iloilo, PH

Legaspi, PH

Lipa, PH

Lucena City, PH

Makati, PH

Mandaluyong, PH

Mandaue, PH

Manila, PH

Marawi, PH

Muntinlupa, PH

Naga, PH

Olongapo, PH

Ormoc, PH

Ozamis, PH

Pagadian, PH

Pasay, PH

Pasig, PH

Puerto Princesa, PH

Quezon City, PH

Roxas, PH

San Carlos, PH

San Pablo, PH

Silay, PH

Surigao, PH

Tacloban, PH

Toledo, PH

Zamboanga, PH

ASI|PH|RP000|BACOLOD

ASI|PH|RP010|BAGO

ASI|PH|RP011|BAGUIO

ASI|PH|RP016|BATANGAS

ASI|PH|RP022|BUTUAN

ASI|PH|RP023|CABANATUAN

ASI|PH|RP024|CADIZ

ASI|PH|RP026|CAGAYAN DE ORO

ASI|PH|RP027|CALBAYOG

ASI|PH|RP028|CALOOCAN

ASI|PH|RP037|CEBU

ASI|PH|RP039|COTABATO

ASI|PH|RP040|DAGUPAN

ASI|PH|RP133|DAVAO

ASI|PH|RP049|GENERAL SANTOS

ASI|PH|RP052|ILIGAN

ASI|PH|RP055|ILOILO

ASI|PH|RP067|LEGASPI

ASI|PH|RP069|LIPA

ASI|PH|RP070|LUCENA CITY

ASI|PH|RP077|MAKATI

ASI|PH|RP035|MANDALUYONG

ASI|PH|RP072|MANDAUE

ASI|PH|RP073|MANILA

ASI|PH|RP074|MARAWI

ASI|PH|RP103|MUNTINLUPA

ASI|PH|RP082|NAGA

ASI|PH|RP089|OLONGAPO

ASI|PH|RP090|ORMOC

ASI|PH|RP092|OZAMIS

ASI|PH|RP093|PAGADIAN

ASI|PH|RP098|PASAY

ASI|PH|RP103|PASIG

ASI|PH|RP099|PUERTO PRINCESA

ASI|PH|RP100|QUEZON CITY

ASI|PH|RP027|ROXAS

ASI|PH|RP107|SAN CARLOS

ASI|PH|RP110|SAN PABLO

ASI|PH|RP111|SILAY

ASI|PH|RP118|SURIGAO

ASI|PH|RP121|TACLOBAN

ASI|PH|RP127|TOLEDO

ASI|PH|RP130|ZAMBOANGA

197

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Portugal

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Pitcairn Islands Adamstown, PN

Poland

Poland

Bialystok, PL

Bielsko-Biala, PL

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Bydgoszcz, PL

Bytom, PL

Chorzow, PL

Czestochowa, PL

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Poland

Dabrowa Gornicza, PL

Elblag, PL

Gdansk, PL

Gdynia, PL

Gliwice, PL

Gorzow Wielkopolski, PL

Jastrzebie, PL

Kalisz, PL

Katowice, PL

Kielce, PL

Koszalin, PL

Krakow, PL

Legnica, PL

Lodz, PL

Lublin, PL

Olsztyn, PL

Opole, PL

Plock, PL

Poznan, PL

Radom, PL

Ruda Slaska, PL

Rybnik, PL

Rzeszow, PL

Slupsk, PL

Sosnowiec, PL

Szczecin, PL

Tarnow, PL

Torun, PL

Tychy, PL

Walbrzych, PL

Warszawa, PL

Wloclawek, PL

Wroclaw, PL

Zabrze, PL

Zielona Gora, PL

Amadora, PT

OCN|PN|PC---|ADAMSTOWN

EUR|PL|PL010|BIALYSTOK

EUR|PL|PL012|BIELSKO-BIALA

EUR|PL|PL002|BYDGOSZCZ

EUR|PL|PL012|BYTOM

EUR|PL|PL012|CHORZÓW

EUR|PL|PL012|CZESTOCHOWA

EUR|PL|PL012|DABROWA GÓRNICZA

EUR|PL|PL014|ELBLAG

EUR|PL|PL011|GDANSK

EUR|PL|PL011|GDYNIA

EUR|PL|PL012|GLIWICE

EUR|PL|PL005|GORZÓW WIELKOPOLSKI

EUR|PL|PL012|JASTRZEBIE-ZDRÓJ

EUR|PL|PL015|KALISZ

EUR|PL|PL012|KATOWICE

EUR|PL|PL013|KIELCE

EUR|PL|PL016|KOSZALIN

EUR|PL|PL006|KRAKÓW

EUR|PL|PL001|LEGNICA

EUR|PL|PL003|LÓDZ

EUR|PL|PL004|LUBLIN

EUR|PL|PL014|OLSZTYN

EUR|PL|PL008|OPOLE

EUR|PL|PL007|PLOCK

EUR|PL|PL015|POZNAN

EUR|PL|PL007|RADOM

EUR|PL|PL012|RUDA SLASKA

EUR|PL|PL012|RYBNIK

EUR|PL|PL009|RZESZÓW

EUR|PL|PL011|SLUPSK

EUR|PL|PL012|SOSNOWIEC

EUR|PL|PL016|SZCZECIN

EUR|PL|PL004|TARNÓW

EUR|PL|PL007|TORUN

EUR|PL|PL012|TYCHY

EUR|PL|PL001|WALBRZYCH

EUR|PL|PL007|WARSZAWA

EUR|PL|PL002|WLOCLAWEK

EUR|PL|PL001|WROCLAW

EUR|PL|PL012|ZABRZE

EUR|PL|PL005|ZIELONA GÓRA

EUR|PT|PO012|AMADORA

198

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Portugal

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Qatar

Qatar

Republic of

Congo

Reunion

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Romania

Romania

Castelo Branco, PT

Coimbra, PT

Évora, PT

Faro, PT

Funchal, PT

Guarda, PT

Leiria, PT

Lisbon, PT

Ponta Delgada, PT

Portalegre, PT

Porto, PT

Santarém, PT

Setúbal, PT

Viana do Castelo, PT

Vila Real, PT

Viseu, PT

Arecibo, PR

Bayamon, PR

Caguas, PR

Carolina, PR

Guaynabo, PR

Mayaguez, PR

Ponce, PR

San Juan, PR

Ar Rayyan, QA

Doha, QA

EUR|PT|PO006|CASTELO BRANCO

EUR|PT|PO007|COIMBRA

EUR|PT|PO008|ÉVORA

EUR|PT|PO009|FARO

EUR|PT|PO013|FUNCHAL

EUR|PT|PO010|GUARDA

EUR|PT|PO011|LEIRIA

EUR|PT|PO012|LISBOA

EUR|PT|PO002|PONTA DELGADA

EUR|PT|PO014|PORTALEGRE

EUR|PT|PO015|PORTO

EUR|PT|PO016|SANTARÉM

EUR|PT|PO017|SETÚBAL

EUR|PT|PO018|VIANA DO CASTELO

EUR|PT|PO019|VILA REAL

EUR|PT|PO020|VISEU

CAC|PR|PR000|ARECIBO

CAC|PR|PR000|BAYAMÓN

CAC|PR|PR000|CAGUAS

CAC|PR|PR000|CAROLINA

CAC|PR|PR000|GUAYNABO

CAC|PR|PR000|MAYAGÜEZ

CAC|PR|PR000|PONCE

CAC|PR|PR000|SAN JUAN

MEA|QA|QA000|AR RAYYAN

MEA|QA|QA001|DOHA

Brazzaville, CG

Saint-Denis, RE

Arad, RO

Bacau, RO

Baia Mare, RO

Botosani, RO

Braila, RO

Brasov, RO

Bucuresti, RO

Buzau, RO

Cluj-Napoca, RO

Constanta, RO

Craiova, RO

Drobeta Turnu-Severin, RO

Galati, RO

AFR|CG|CF002|BRAZZAVILLE

AFR|RE|RE---|SAINT-DENIS

EUR|RO|RO002|ARAD

EUR|RO|RO004|BACAU

EUR|RO|RO026|BAIA MARE

EUR|RO|RO007|BOTOSANI

EUR|RO|RO008|BRAILA

EUR|RO|RO009|BRASOV

EUR|RO|RO010|BUCURESTI

EUR|RO|RO011|BUZAU

EUR|RO|RO001|CLUJ-NAPOCA

EUR|RO|RO015|CONSTANTA

EUR|RO|RO018|CRAIOVA

EUR|RO|RO027|DROBETA TURNU-

SEVERIN

EUR|RO|RO019|GALATI

199

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Romania

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Iasi, RO

Oradea, RO

Piatra Neamt, RO

Pitesti, RO

Ploiesti, RO

Rimnicu Vilcea, RO

Satu-Mare, RO

Sibiu, RO

Suceava, RO

Timisoara, RO

Tirgu-Mures, RO

Abakan, RU

Achinsk, RU

Angarsk, RU

Arkhangelsk, RU

Armavir, RU

Arzamas, RU

Astrakhan, RU

Balakovo, RU

Balashikha, RU

Barnaul, RU

Belgorod, RU

Berezniki, RU

Biisk, RU

Biysk, RU

Blagoveshchensk, RU

Bratsk, RU

Bryansk, RU

Cheboksary, RU

Chelyabinsk, RU

Cherepovets, RU

Cherkessk, RU

Chita, RU

Dimitrovgrad, RU

Dzerzhinsk, RU

Ekaterinburg, RU

Elektrostal, RU

Elets, RU

Elista, RU

Engels, RU

Glazov, RU

Gorkey, RU

Groznyi, RU

EUR|RO|RO025|IASI

EUR|RO|RO005|ORADEA

EUR|RO|RO029|PIATRA NEAMT

EUR|RO|RO003|PITESTI

EUR|RO|RO031|PLOIESTI

EUR|RO|RO039|RIMNICU VILCEA

EUR|RO|RO033|SATU-MARE

EUR|RO|RO034|SIBIU

EUR|RO|RO035|SUCEAVA

EUR|RO|RO037|TIMISOARA

EUR|RO|RO028|TIRGU-MURES

ASI|RU|RS033|ABAKAN

ASI|RU|RS041|ACHINSK

ASI|RU|RS021|ANGARSK

ASI|RU|RS005|ARKHANGELSK

ASI|RU|RS040|ARMAVIR

ASI|RU|RS055|ARZAMAS

ASI|RU|RS006|ASTRAKHAN

ASI|RU|RS069|BALAKOVO

ASI|RU|RS051|BALASHIKHA

ASI|RU|RS043|BARNAUL

ASI|RU|RS008|BELGOROD

ASI|RU|RS062|BEREZNIKI

ASI|RU|RS003|BIISK

ASI|RU|RS003|BIYSK

ASI|RU|RS007|BLAGOVESHCHENSK

ASI|RU|RS021|BRATSK

ASI|RU|RS010|BRYANSK

ASI|RU|RS016|CHEBOKSARY

ASI|RU|RS013|CHELYABINSK

ASI|RU|RS089|CHEREPOVETS

ASI|RU|RS029|CHERKESSK

ASI|RU|RS014|CHITA

ASI|RU|RS085|DIMITROVGRAD

ASI|RU|RS055|DZERZHINSK

ASI|RU|RS075|EKATERINBURG

ASI|RU|RS051|ELEKTROSTAL

ASI|RU|RS046|ELETS

ASI|RU|RS026|ELISTA

ASI|RU|RS069|ENGELS

ASI|RU|RS084|GLAZOV

ASI|RU|RS055|NIZHNY NOVGOROD

ASI|RU|RS012|GROZNYI

200

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Irkutsk, RU

Ivanovo, RU

Izhevsk, RU

Kaliningrad, RU

Kaluga, RU

Kamenskiy, RU

Kansk, RU

ASI|RU|RS021|IRKUTSK

ASI|RU|RS023|IVANOVO

ASI|RU|RS084|IZHEVSK

ASI|RU|RS025|KALININGRAD

ASI|RU|RS027|KALUGA

ASI|RU|RS075|KAMENSK-URALSKY

ASI|RU|RS041|KANSK

Kazan, RU

Kemerovo, RU

Khabarovsk, RU

Khanty-Mansiysk, RU

ASI|RU|RS077|KAZAN

ASI|RU|RS031|KEMEROVO

ASI|RU|RS032|KHABAROVSK

ASI|RU|RS034|KHANTY-MANSIYSK

Khimki, RU

Kirov, RU

Kiselevsk, RU

Kislovodsk, RU

Kolomna, RU

ASI|RU|RS052|KHIMKI

ASI|RU|RS035|KIROV

ASI|RU|RS031|KISELEVSK

ASI|RU|RS074|KISLOVODSK

Komsomolsk-Na-Amure, RU

Korolev, RU

Kostroma, RU

Kovrov, RU

Krasnodar, RU

Krasnoyarsk, RU

Kurgan, RU

Kursk, RU

Lipetsk, RU

Magadan, RU

Magnitogorsk, RU

Maikop, RU

Makhachkala, RU

Mezhdurechensk, RU

Miass, RU

Michurinsk, RU

Moscow, RU

Murmansk, RU

Murom, RU

Mytishchi, RU

ASI|RU|RS010|KOLOMNA

ASI|RU|RS032|KOMSOMOLSK-NA-

AMURE

ASI|RU|RS051|KOROLEV

ASI|RU|RS039|KOSTROMA

ASI|RU|RS087|KOVROV

ASI|RU|RS040|KRASNODAR

ASI|RU|RS041|KRASNOYARSK

ASI|RU|RS043|KURGAN

ASI|RU|RS044|KURSK

ASI|RU|RS046|LIPETSK

ASI|RU|RS047|MAGADAN

ASI|RU|RS013|MAGNITOGORSK

ASI|RU|RS001|MAIKOP

ASI|RU|RS017|MAKHACHKALA

ASI|RU|RS031|MEZHDURECHENSK

ASI|RU|RS013|MIASS

ASI|RU|RS076|MICHURINSK

ASI|RU|RS052|MOSKVA

ASI|RU|RS053|MURMANSK

ASI|RU|RS087|MUROM

ASI|RU|RS051|MYTISHCHI

Naberezhnyye Chelny, RU ASI|RU|RS077|NABEREZHNYYE CHELNY

Nakhodka, RU ASI|RU|RS063|NAKHODKA

Nalchik, RU

Naryan-Mar, RU

Neftekamsk, RU

Nevinnomyssk, RU

ASI|RU|RS024|NALCHIK

ASI|RU|RS054|NARYAN-MAR

ASI|RU|RS007|NEFTEKAMSK

ASI|RU|RS074|NEVINNOMYSSK

201

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Nizhnekamsk, RU

Nizhnevartovsk, RU

Nizhniy Novgorod, RU

Nizhny Tagil, RU

Noginsk, RU

Norilsk, RU

Novocheboksarsk, RU

Novocherkassk, RU

Novokuznetsk, RU

Novomoskovsk, RU

Novorossiysk, RU

Novoshakhtinsk, RU

Novosibirsk, RU

Novotroitsk, RU

Obninsk, RU

Odintsovo, RU

Omsk, RU

Orekhovo-Zuevo, RU

Orel, RU

Orenburg, RU

Orsk, RU

Penza, RU

Perm, RU

Pervouralsk, RU

Petropavlovsk, RU

Petrozavodsk, RU

Podolsk, RU

Prokpyevsk, RU

Pskov, RU

Pyatigorsk, RU

Rostov-Na-Donu, RU

Rubtsovsk, RU

Rybinsk, RU

Ryzan, RU

Saint Petersburg, RU

Salavat, RU

Samara, RU

Saransk, RU

Saratov, RU

Serpukhov, RU

Severodvinsk, RU

Seversk, RU

ASI|RU|RS077|NIZHNEKAMSK

ASI|RU|RS034|NIZHNEVARTOVSK

ASI|RU|RS055|NIZHNIY NOVGOROD

ASI|RU|RS075|NIZHNY TAGIL

ASI|RU|RS018|NOGINSK

ASI|RU|RS041|NORILSK

ASI|RU|RS016|NOVOCHEBOKSARSK

ASI|RU|RS059|NOVOCHERKASSK

ASI|RU|RS031|NOVOKUZNETSK

ASI|RU|RS080|NOVOMOSKOVSK

ASI|RU|RS079|NOVOROSSIYSK

ASI|RU|RS065|NOVOSHAKHTINSK

ASI|RU|RS057|NOVOSIBIRSK

ASI|RU|RS057|NOVOTROITSK

ASI|RU|RS027|OBNINSK

ASI|RU|RS051|ODINTSOVO

ASI|RU|RS058|OMSK

ASI|RU|RS051|OREKHOVO-ZUEVO

ASI|RU|RS062|OREL

ASI|RU|RS059|ORENBURG

ASI|RU|RS059|ORSK

ASI|RU|RS061|PENZA

ASI|RU|RS062|PERM

ASI|RU|RS075|PERVOURALSK

ASI|RU|RS028|PETROPAVLOVSK-

KAMCHATSKY

ASI|RU|RS030|PETROZAVODSK

ASI|RU|RS051|PODOLSK

ASI|RU|RS031|PROKPYEVSK

ASI|RU|RS064|PSKOV

ASI|RU|RS074|PYATIGORSK

ASI|RU|RS065|ROSTOV-NA-DONU

ASI|RU|RS003|RUBTSOVSK

ASI|RU|RS079|RYBINSK

ASI|RU|RS066|RYZAN

ASI|RU|RS073|SAINT PETERSBURG

ASI|RU|RS007|SALAVAT

ASI|RU|RS068|SAMARA

ASI|RU|RS050|SARANSK

ASI|RU|RS059|SARATOV

ASI|RU|RS051|SERPUKHOV

ASI|RU|RS005|SEVERODVINSK

ASI|RU|RS079|SEVERSK

202

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Russia

Rwanda

Saint Helena

Saint Kitts And

Nevis

Saint Lucia

Shakhty, RU

Shchelkovo, RU

Smolensk, RU

Sochi, RU

Solikamsk, RU

Stary Oskol , RU

Stavropol, RU

Sterlitamak, RU

Surgut, RU

Syktyvkar, RU

Syzran, RU

Taganrog, RU

Tambov, RU

Tolyatti, RU

Tomsk, RU

Tula, RU

Tver, RU

Tyumen, RU

Tyumen, RU

Ufa, RU

Ulan-Ude, RU

Ulyanovsk, RU

Velikiy Novgorod, RU

Vladikavkaz, RU

Vladimir, RU

Vladivostok, RU

Volgodonsk, RU

Volgograd, RU

Vologda, RU

Volzhskiy, RU

Voronezh, RU

Votkinsk, RU

Yakutsk, RU

Yaroslavl, RU

Yoshkar-Ola, RU

Yuzhno-Sahalinsk, RU

Zelenograd, RU

Zlatoust, RU

Kigali, RW

Jamestown, SH

Basseterre, GP

Castries, LC

ASI|RU|RS065|SHAKHTY

ASI|RU|RS051|SHCHELKOVO

ASI|RU|RS072|SMOLENSK

ASI|RU|RS040|SOCHI

ASI|RU|RS062|SOLIKAMSK

ASI|RU|RS008|STARY OSKOL

ASI|RU|RS074|STAVROPOL

ASI|RU|RS041|STERLITAMAK

ASI|RU|RS068|SURGUT

ASI|RU|RS036|SYKTYVKAR

ASI|RU|RS085|SYZRAN

ASI|RU|RS065|TAGANROG

ASI|RU|RS076|TAMBOV

ASI|RU|RS068|TOLYATTI

ASI|RU|RS079|TOMSK

ASI|RU|RS080|TULA

ASI|RU|RS082|TVER

ASI|RU|RS083|TYUMEN

ASI|RU|RS083|TYUMEN

ASI|RU|RS007|UFA

ASI|RU|RS086|ULAN-UDE

ASI|RU|RS085|ULYANOVSK

ASI|RU|RS056|VELIKIY NOVGOROD

ASI|RU|RS070|VLADIKAVKAZ

ASI|RU|RS087|VLADIMIR

ASI|RU|RS063|VLADIVOSTOK

ASI|RU|RS065|VOLGODONSK

ASI|RU|RS088|VOLGOGRAD

ASI|RU|RS089|VOLOGDA

ASI|RU|RS088|VOLZHSKIY

ASI|RU|RS090|VORONEZH

ASI|RU|RS084|VOTKINSK

ASI|RU|RS091|YAKUTSK

ASI|RU|RS093|YAROSLAVL

ASI|RU|RS049|YOSHKAR-OLA

ASI|RU|RS067|YUZHNO-SAHALINSK

ASI|RU|RS052|ZELENOGRAD

ASI|RU|RS013|ZLATOUST

AFR|RW|RW009|KIGALI

AFR|SH|SH000|JAMESTOWN

CAC|KN|SC003|BASSETERRE

CAC|LC|ST002|CASTRIES

203

Saint Pierre And

Miquelon

Saint Vincent

And The

Grenadines

Saint-Pierre, PM

Samoa

San Marino

Sao Tome And

Principe

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

Senegal

Senegal

Senegal

Senegal

Senegal

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Slovakia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Kingstown, VC

Apia, WS

San Marino, SM

Sao Tome, ST

Al khobar, SA

Dammam, SA

Jeddah, SA

Makkah, SA

Medina, SA

Riyadh, SA

Ta'if, SA

Dakar, SN

Kaolack, SN

Mbour, SN

Saint Louis, SN

Thies, SN

Ziguinchor, SN

Beograd, CS

Cacak, CS

Kragujevac, CS

Kraljevo, CS

Krusevac, CS

Leskovac, CS

Nis, CS

Novi Sad, CS

Pancevo, CS

Smederevo, CS

Subotica, CS

Zrenjanin, CS

Victoria, SC

Freetown, SL

Singapore, SG

Bratislava, SK

Kosice, SK

Ljubljana, SI

Solomon Islands Honiara, SB

Somalia Mogadishu, SO

South Africa Alexander Bay, ZA

NAM|PM|SB000|SAINT-PIERRE

CAC|VC|VC005|KINGSTOWN

OCN|WS|WS000|APIA

EUR|SM|SM008|SAN MARINO

AFR|ST|TP002|SAO TOME

MEA|SA|SA008|AL KHOBAR

MEA|SA|SA008|DAMMAM

MEA|SA|SA011|JEDDAH

MEA|SA|SA011|MAKKAH

MEA|SA|SA005|MEDINA

MEA|SA|SA007|RIYADH

MEA|SA|SA011|TA'IF

AFR|SN|SG001|DAKAR

AFR|SN|SG004|KAOLACK

AFR|SN|SG009|MBOUR

AFR|SN|SG000|SAINT LOUIS

AFR|SN|SG009|THIÈS

AFR|SN|SG010|ZIGUINCHOR

EUR|CS|YI003|BEOGRAD

EUR|CS|YI003|CACAK

EUR|CS|YI003|KRAGUJEVAC

EUR|CS|YI003|KRALJEVO

EUR|CS|YI003|KRUSEVAC

EUR|CS|YI003|LESKOVAC

EUR|CS|YI003|NIS

EUR|CS|YI003|NOVI SAD

EUR|CS|YI003|PANCEVO

EUR|CS|YI003|SMEDEREVO

EUR|CS|YI003|SUBOTICA

EUR|CS|YI003|ZRENJANIN

AFR|SC|SE000|VICTORIA

AFR|SL|SL004|FREETOWN

ASI|SG|SN---|SINGAPORE

EUR|SK|LO002|BRATISLAVA

EUR|SK|LO003|KOSICE

EUR|SI|SI000|LJUBLJANA

OCN|SB|BP000|HONIARA

AFR|SO|SO002|MOGADISHU

AFR|ZA|SF008|ALEXANDER BAY

204

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

Alexandra, ZA

Aliwal North, ZA

Alldays, ZA

Amanzimtoti, ZA

Badplaas, ZA

Barberton, ZA

Barkly West, ZA

Barrydale, ZA

Beaufort West, ZA

Bela-Bela, ZA

Belfast, ZA

Benoni, ZA

Bethlehem, ZA

Bhisho, ZA

Bloemfontein, ZA

Boksburg, ZA

Botshabelo, ZA

Brits, ZA

Burgersdorp, ZA

Caledon, ZA

Calvinia, ZA

Cape Point, ZA

Cape Town , ZA

Carnarvon, ZA

Ceres, ZA

Chrissiesmeer, ZA

Clanwilliam, ZA

Clarens, ZA

Coffee Bay, ZA

Colesberg, ZA

Cradock, ZA

Danielskuil, ZA

De Aar, ZA

Dewetsdorp, ZA

Dundee, ZA

Durban, ZA

East London, ZA

Edenburg, ZA

Ellisras, ZA

Empangeni, ZA

Ermelo, ZA

Eshowe, ZA

Excelsior, ZA

AFR|ZA|SF004|ALEXANDRA

AFR|ZA|SF002|ALIWAL NORTH

AFR|ZA|SF009|ALLDAYS

AFR|ZA|SF005|AMANZIMTOTI

AFR|ZA|SF006|BADPLAAS

AFR|ZA|SF006|BARBERTON

AFR|ZA|SF008|BARKLY WEST

AFR|ZA|SF011|BARRYDALE

AFR|ZA|SF011|BEAUFORT WEST

AFR|ZA|SF005|BELA-BELA

AFR|ZA|SF006|BELFAST

AFR|ZA|SF004|BENONI

AFR|ZA|SF003|BETHLEHEM

AFR|ZA|SF002|BHISHO

AFR|ZA|SF003|BLOEMFONTEIN

AFR|ZA|SF004|BOKSBURG

AFR|ZA|SF007|BOTSHABELO

AFR|ZA|SF007|BRITS

AFR|ZA|SF002|BURGERSDORP

AFR|ZA|SF011|CALEDON

AFR|ZA|SF008|CALVINIA

AFR|ZA|SF011|CAPE POINT

AFR|ZA|SF011|CAPE TOWN

AFR|ZA|SF008|CARNARVON

AFR|ZA|SF011|CERES

AFR|ZA|SF006|CHRISSIESMEER

AFR|ZA|SF011|CLANWILLIAM

AFR|ZA|SF003|CLARENS

AFR|ZA|SF002|COFFEE BAY

AFR|ZA|SF008|COLESBERG

AFR|ZA|SF002|CRADOCK

AFR|ZA|SF008|DANIELSKUIL

AFR|ZA|SF008|DE AAR

AFR|ZA|SF003|DEWETSDORP

AFR|ZA|SF005|DUNDEE

AFR|ZA|SF005|DURBAN

AFR|ZA|SF002|EAST LONDON

AFR|ZA|SF003|EDENBURG

AFR|ZA|SF009|ELLISRAS

AFR|ZA|SF005|EMPANGENI

AFR|ZA|SF006|ERMELO

AFR|ZA|SF005|ESHOWE

AFR|ZA|SF003|EXCELSIOR

205

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

Fauresmith, ZA

Ficksburg, ZA

Fort Beaufort, ZA

Franschhoek, ZA

Fraserburg, ZA

Gansbaai, ZA

George, ZA

Germiston, ZA

Giants Castle, ZA

Gordons Bay, ZA

Graaff Reinet, ZA

Grabouw, ZA

Grahamstown, ZA

Graskop, ZA

Griekwastad, ZA

Groblersdal, ZA

Haenertsburg, ZA

Harrismith, ZA

Hartbeespoort, ZA

Hartenbos, ZA

Hazyview, ZA

Heidelberg, ZA

Hermanus, ZA

Hibberdene, ZA

Hluhluwe, ZA

Hoedspruit, ZA

Hogsback, ZA

Hondeklip Bay, ZA

Howick, ZA

Ixopo, ZA

Jacobsdal, ZA

Johannesburg, ZA

Joubertina, ZA

Kakamas, ZA

Kamieskroon, ZA

Kempton Park, ZA

Kimberley, ZA

King Williams Town, ZA

Klerksdorp, ZA

Knysna, ZA

Kokstad, ZA

Komatipoort, ZA

Kroonstad, ZA

AFR|ZA|SF003|FAURESMITH

AFR|ZA|SF003|FICKSBURG

AFR|ZA|SF002|FORT BEAUFORT

AFR|ZA|SF011|FRANSCHHOEK

AFR|ZA|SF008|FRASERBURG

AFR|ZA|SF011|GANSBAAI

AFR|ZA|SF011|GEORGE

AFR|ZA|SF004|GERMISTON

AFR|ZA|SF005|GIANTS CASTLE

AFR|ZA|SF011|GORDONS BAY

AFR|ZA|SF002|GRAAFF REINET

AFR|ZA|SF011|GRABOUW

AFR|ZA|SF002|GRAHAMSTOWN

AFR|ZA|SF006|GRASKOP

AFR|ZA|SF008|GRIEKWASTAD

AFR|ZA|SF006|GROBLERSDAL

AFR|ZA|SF009|HAENERTSBURG

AFR|ZA|SF003|HARRISMITH

AFR|ZA|SF007|HARTBEESPOORT

AFR|ZA|SF011|HARTENBOS

AFR|ZA|SF006|HAZYVIEW

AFR|ZA|SF004|HEIDELBERG

AFR|ZA|SF011|HERMANUS

AFR|ZA|SF005|HIBBERDENE

AFR|ZA|SF005|HLUHLUWE

AFR|ZA|SF009|HOEDSPRUIT

AFR|ZA|SF002|HOGSBACK

AFR|ZA|SF008|HONDEKLIP BAY

AFR|ZA|SF005|HOWICK

AFR|ZA|SF005|IXOPO

AFR|ZA|SF003|JACOBSDAL

AFR|ZA|SF004|JOHANNESBURG

AFR|ZA|SF002|JOUBERTINA

AFR|ZA|SF008|KAKAMAS

AFR|ZA|SF008|KAMIESKROON

AFR|ZA|SF004|KEMPTON PARK

AFR|ZA|SF008|KIMBERLEY

AFR|ZA|SF002|KING WILLIAMS TOWN

AFR|ZA|SF007|KLERKSDORP

AFR|ZA|SF011|KNYSNA

AFR|ZA|SF005|KOKSTAD

AFR|ZA|SF006|KOMATIPOORT

AFR|ZA|SF003|KROONSTAD

206

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

Krugersdorp, ZA

Kuruman, ZA

Ladysmith, ZA

Langebaan, ZA

Lephalale, ZA

Levubu, ZA

Lichtenburg, ZA

Loeriesfontein, ZA

Lydenburg, ZA

Mafikeng, ZA

Magaliesburg, ZA

Malmesbury, ZA

Margate, ZA

Mazeppa Bay, ZA

Messina, ZA

Middelburg, ZA

Midrand, ZA

Mmabatho, ZA

Mokopane, ZA

Mooi River, ZA

Mossel Bay, ZA

Mthatha, ZA

Musina, ZA

Nelspruit, ZA

Newcastle, ZA

Ngqura, ZA

Nieu Bethesda, ZA

Nieuwoudtville, ZA

Nylstroom, ZA

Ohrigstad, ZA

Oudtshoorn, ZA

Paarl, ZA

Petrusburg, ZA

Phalaborwa, ZA

Philippolis, ZA

Piet Retief, ZA

Pietermaritzburg, ZA

Pietersburg, ZA

Pilgrims Rest, ZA

Plettenberg Bay, ZA

Polokwane, ZA

Port Alfred, ZA

Port Elizabeth, ZA

AFR|ZA|SF004|KRUGERSDORP

AFR|ZA|SF008|KURUMAN

AFR|ZA|SF005|LADYSMITH

AFR|ZA|SF011|LANGEBAAN

AFR|ZA|SF009|LEPHALALE

AFR|ZA|SF009|LEVUBU

AFR|ZA|SF007|LICHTENBURG

AFR|ZA|SF008|LOERIESFONTEIN

AFR|ZA|SF006|LYDENBURG

AFR|ZA|SF007|MAFIKENG

AFR|ZA|SF004|MAGALIESBURG

AFR|ZA|SF011|MALMESBURY

AFR|ZA|SF005|MARGATE

AFR|ZA|SF002|MAZEPPA BAY

AFR|ZA|SF009|MESSINA

AFR|ZA|SF006|MIDDELBURG

AFR|ZA|SF004|MIDRAND

AFR|ZA|SF007|MMABATHO

AFR|ZA|SF009|MOKOPANE

AFR|ZA|SF005|MOOI RIVER

AFR|ZA|SF011|MOSSEL BAY

AFR|ZA|SF002|MTHATHA

AFR|ZA|SF009|MUSINA

AFR|ZA|SF006|NELSPRUIT

AFR|ZA|SF005|NEWCASTLE

AFR|ZA|SF002|NGQURA

AFR|ZA|SF002|NIEU BETHESDA

AFR|ZA|SF008|NIEUWOUDTVILLE

AFR|ZA|SF009|NYLSTROOM

AFR|ZA|SF006|OHRIGSTAD

AFR|ZA|SF011|OUDTSHOORN

AFR|ZA|SF011|PAARL

AFR|ZA|SF003|PETRUSBURG

AFR|ZA|SF009|PHALABORWA

AFR|ZA|SF003|PHILIPPOLIS

AFR|ZA|SF006|PIET RETIEF

AFR|ZA|SF005|PIETERMARITZBURG

AFR|ZA|SF009|PIETERSBURG

AFR|ZA|SF006|PILGRIMS REST

AFR|ZA|SF011|PLETTENBERG BAY

AFR|ZA|SF009|POLOKWANE

AFR|ZA|SF002|PORT ALFRED

AFR|ZA|SF002|PORT ELIZABETH

207

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

Port Shepstone, ZA

Port St. Johns, ZA

Postmasburg, ZA

Potchefstroom, ZA

Potgietersrus, ZA

Pretoria, ZA

Prieska, ZA

Queenstown, ZA

Richards Bay, ZA

Riversdale, ZA

Robertson, ZA

Roodepoort, ZA

Rustenburg, ZA

Sabie, ZA

Saint Francis, ZA

Saint Lucia, ZA

Saldanha, ZA

Sandton, ZA

Sasolburg, ZA

Sedgefield, ZA

Skukuza, ZA

Slangkop, ZA

Smithfield, ZA

Somerset East, ZA

Somerset West, ZA

Soweto, ZA

Springbok, ZA

Springs, ZA

Standerton, ZA

Standerton, ZA

Stellenbosch, ZA

Stillbaai, ZA

Strand, ZA

Sutherland, ZA

Swellendam, ZA

Taung, ZA

Tembisa, ZA

Thabazimbi, ZA

Thohoyandou, ZA

Tzaneen, ZA

Uitenhage, ZA

Ulundi, ZA

Umhlanga Rock, ZA

AFR|ZA|SF005|PORT SHEPSTONE

AFR|ZA|SF002|PORT ST. JOHNS

AFR|ZA|SF008|POSTMASBURG

AFR|ZA|SF007|POTCHEFSTROOM

AFR|ZA|SF009|POTGIETERSRUS

AFR|ZA|SF004|PRETORIA

AFR|ZA|SF008|PRIESKA

AFR|ZA|SF002|QUEENSTOWN

AFR|ZA|SF005|RICHARDS BAY

AFR|ZA|SF011|RIVERSDALE

AFR|ZA|SF011|ROBERTSON

AFR|ZA|SF004|ROODEPOORT

AFR|ZA|SF007|RUSTENBURG

AFR|ZA|SF006|SABIE

AFR|ZA|SF002|SAINT FRANCIS

AFR|ZA|SF005|SAINT LUCIA

AFR|ZA|SF011|SALDANHA

AFR|ZA|SF004|SANDTON

AFR|ZA|SF003|SASOLBURG

AFR|ZA|SF011|SEDGEFIELD

AFR|ZA|SF006|SKUKUZA

AFR|ZA|SF011|SLANGKOP

AFR|ZA|SF003|SMITHFIELD

AFR|ZA|SF002|SOMERSET EAST

AFR|ZA|SF011|SOMERSET WEST

AFR|ZA|SF004|SOWETO

AFR|ZA|SF008|SPRINGBOK

AFR|ZA|SF004|SPRINGS

AFR|ZA|SF006|STANDERTON

AFR|ZA|SF006|STANDERTON

AFR|ZA|SF011|STELLENBOSCH

AFR|ZA|SF011|STILLBAAI

AFR|ZA|SF011|STRAND

AFR|ZA|SF005|SUTHERLAND

AFR|ZA|SF011|SWELLENDAM

AFR|ZA|SF007|TAUNG

AFR|ZA|SF004|TEMBISA

AFR|ZA|SF009|THABAZIMBI

AFR|ZA|SF009|THOHOYANDOU

AFR|ZA|SF009|TZANEEN

AFR|ZA|SF002|UITENHAGE

AFR|ZA|SF005|ULUNDI

AFR|ZA|SF005|UMHLANGA ROCK

208

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Africa

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

Umlazi, ZA

Umtata, ZA

Underburg, ZA

Upington, ZA

Uvongo, ZA

Vaalwater, ZA

Vanderbijlpark, ZA

Vereeniging, ZA

Virginia, ZA

Volksrust, ZA

Vredendal, ZA

Vryburg, ZA

Vryheid, ZA

Welkom, ZA

Wellington, ZA

Wepener, ZA

White River, ZA

Wilderness, ZA

Winburg, ZA

Witbank, ZA

Worcester, ZA

Zastron, ZA

Andong, KR

Ansan, KR

Cheju, KR

Cheongju, KR

Chuncheon, KR

Chungju, KR

Hanam, KR

Iri, KR

Kangnung, KR

Kimhae, KR

Kunsan, KR

Kwangchu, KR

Kyong Ju, KR

Masan, KR

Onyang, KR

Pohang, KR

Pusan, KR

Seoul, KR

Suwon, KR

Taebaek, KR

Taegu, KR

AFR|ZA|SF005|UMLAZI

AFR|ZA|SF002|UMTATA

AFR|ZA|SF005|UNDERBURG

AFR|ZA|SF008|UPINGTON

AFR|ZA|SF005|UVONGO

AFR|ZA|SF009|VAALWATER

AFR|ZA|SF004|VANDERBIJLPARK

AFR|ZA|SF004|VEREENIGING

AFR|ZA|SF003|VIRGINIA

AFR|ZA|SF006|VOLKSRUST

AFR|ZA|SF011|VREDENDAL

AFR|ZA|SF007|VRYBURG

AFR|ZA|SF005|VRYHEID

AFR|ZA|SF003|WELKOM

AFR|ZA|SF011|WELLINGTON

AFR|ZA|SF003|WEPENER

AFR|ZA|SF006|WHITE RIVER

AFR|ZA|SF011|WILDERNESS

AFR|ZA|SF003|WINBURG

AFR|ZA|SF006|WITBANK

AFR|ZA|SF011|WORCESTER

AFR|ZA|SF003|ZASTRON

ASI|KR|KS010|ANDONG

ASI|KR|KS009|ANSAN

ASI|KR|KS003|CHEJU

ASI|KR|KS001|CHEONGJU

ASI|KR|KS007|CHUNCHEON

ASI|KR|KS001|CHUNGJU

ASI|KR|KS009|HANAM

ASI|KR|KS004|IRI

ASI|KR|KS007|KANGNUNG

ASI|KR|KS011|KIMHAE

ASI|KR|KS004|KUNSAN

ASI|KR|KS008|KWANGCHU

ASI|KR|KS010|KYONG JU

ASI|KR|KS011|MASAN

ASI|KR|KS002|ONYANG

ASI|KR|KS010|POHANG

ASI|KR|KS012|PUSAN

ASI|KR|KS013|SEOUL

ASI|KR|KS002|SUWON

ASI|KR|KS007|TAEBAEK

ASI|KR|KS002|TAEGU

209

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

South Korea

Spain

Spain

Spain

Uijeongbu, KR

Ulsan, KR

Wonju, KR

Yosu, KR

Acala De Henares, ES

Albacete, ES

Alcobendas, ES

Alcorcon, ES

Algeciras, ES

Alicante, ES

Almeria, ES

Badajoz, ES

Badalona, ES

Baracaldo, ES

Barcelona, ES

Bilbao, ES

Burgos, ES

Cadiz, ES

Cartagena, ES

Castellon, ES

Cordoba, ES

Elche, ES

Fuenlabrada, ES

Getafe, ES

Gijon, ES

Granada, ES

Huelva, ES

Jaen, ES

Jerez, ES

La Laguna, ES

Las Palmas De Gran

Canaria, ES

Leganes, ES

Leon, ES

Lleida, ES

Logrono, ES

Madrid, ES

Malaga, ES

Mataro, ES

Mostoles, ES

Murcia, ES

Ourense, ES

Oviedo, ES

ASI|KR|KS009|UIJEONGBU

ASI|KR|KS016|ULSAN

ASI|KR|KS007|WONJU

ASI|KR|KS005|YOSU

EUR|ES|SP013|ALCALÁ DE HENARES

EUR|ES|SP006|ALBACETE

EUR|ES|SP013|ALCOBENDAS

EUR|ES|SP013|ALCORCÓN

EUR|ES|SP001|ALGECIRAS

EUR|ES|SP016|ALICANTE

EUR|ES|SP001|ALMERÍA

EUR|ES|SP010|BADAJOZ

EUR|ES|SP008|BADALONA

EUR|ES|SP017|BARACALDO

EUR|ES|SP008|BARCELONA

EUR|ES|SP017|BILBAO

EUR|ES|SP007|BURGOS

EUR|ES|SP001|CÁDIZ

EUR|ES|SP014|CARTAGENA

EUR|ES|SP016|CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA

EUR|ES|SP001|CÓRDOBA

EUR|ES|SP016|ELCHE

EUR|ES|SP013|FUENLABRADA

EUR|ES|SP013|GETAFE

EUR|ES|SP003|GIJÓN

EUR|ES|SP001|GRANADA

EUR|ES|SP001|HUELVA

EUR|ES|SP001|JAÉN

EUR|ES|SP001|JÉREZ DE LA FRONTERA

EUR|ES|SP018|LA LAGUNA

EUR|ES|SP018|LAS PALMAS DE GRAN

CANARIA

EUR|ES|SP013|LEGANÉS

EUR|ES|SP007|LEÓN

EUR|ES|SP008|LLEIDA

EUR|ES|SP012|LOGROÑO

EUR|ES|SP013|MADRID

EUR|ES|SP001|MÁLAGA

EUR|ES|SP008|MATARÓ

EUR|ES|SP013|MÓSTOLES

EUR|ES|SP014|MURCIA

EUR|ES|SP011|OURENSE

EUR|ES|SP003|OVIEDO

210

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Sudan

Suriname

Swaziland

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Spain

Sri Lanka

Palma De Mallorca, ES

Pamplona, ES

Sabadell, ES

Salamanca, ES

San Sebastian, ES

Santa Coloma De

Gramanet, ES

Dehiwala, LK

Jaffna, LK

Kandy, LK

Moratuwa, LK

Juba, SD

Kassala, SD

Khartoum, SD

EUR|ES|SP004|PALMA DE MALLORCA

EUR|ES|SP015|PAMPLONA

EUR|ES|SP008|SABADELL

EUR|ES|SP007|SALAMANCA

EUR|ES|SP011|SAN SEBASTIÁN

EUR|ES|SP008|SANTA COLOMA DE

GRAMANET

Santa Cruz De Tenerife, ES EUR|ES|SP018|SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE

Santander, ES EUR|ES|SP005|SANTANDER

Sevilla, ES

Tarragona, ES

EUR|ES|SP001|SEVILLA

EUR|ES|SP008|TARRAGONA

Tarrasa, ES

The Groyne, ES

Valencia, ES

Valladolid, ES

EUR|ES|SP008|TARRASA

EUR|ES|SP011|LA CORUÑA

EUR|ES|SP016|VALENCIA

EUR|ES|SP007|VALLADOLID

Vigo, ES

Zaragoza, ES

Colombo, LK

EUR|ES|SP011|VIGO

EUR|ES|SP002|ZARAGOZA

ASI|LK|CE009|COLOMBO

ASI|LK|CE009|DEHIWALA-MOUNT

LAVINIA

ASI|LK|CE010|JAFFNA

ASI|LK|CE001|KANDY

ASI|LK|CE009|MORATUWA

AFR|SD|SU027|JUBA

Khartoum North, SD

Kosti, SD

Nyala, SD

Omdurman, SD

Port Sudan, SD

Paramaribo, SR

Mbabane, SZ

Aare, SE

AFR|SD|SU029|KASSALA

AFR|SD|SU005|KHARTOUM

AFR|SD|SU005|KHARTOUM NORTH

AFR|SD|SU028|KOSTI

AFR|SD|SU016|NYALA

AFR|SD|SU005|OMDURMAN

AFR|SD|SU029|PORT SUDAN

SAM|SR|NS007|PARAMARIBO

Boraas, SE

Gaevle, SE

Gothenburg, SE

Helsingborg, SE

Idre, SE

Joenkoeping, SE

Kalmar, SE

Karlskrona, SE

Karlstad, SE

AFR|SZ|WZ000|MBABANE

EUR|SE|SW006|AARE

EUR|SE|SW021|BORAAS

EUR|SE|SW003|GAEVLE

EUR|SE|SW021|GOTHENBURG

EUR|SE|SW013|HELSINGBORG

EUR|SE|SW002|IDRE

EUR|SE|SW007|JOENKOEPING

EUR|SE|SW008|KALMAR

EUR|SE|SW001|KARLSKRONA

EUR|SE|SW017|KARLSTAD

211

Syria

Syria

Syria

Syria

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland

Syria

Syria

Syria

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Sweden

Kiruna, SE

Kristianstad, SE

Linkoeping, SE

Luleaa, SE

Lund, SE

Malmoe, SE

Norrkoeping, SE

Oestersund, SE

Orebro, SE

Saelen, SE

Skoevde, SE

Stockholm, SE

Sundsvall, SE

Trelleborg, SE

Trollhaettan, SE

Uddevalla, SE

Umeaa, SE

Uppsala, SE

Vaesteraas, SE

Visby, SE

Ystad, SE

Bale, CH

Berne, CH

Geneve, CH

Lausanne, CH

Luzern, CH

Winterthur, CH

Zurich, CH

Aleppo, SY

Al-Hasakeh, SY

Al-Rakka, SY

Damascus, SY

Hama, SY

Homs, SY

Lattakia, SY

Hsinchu, TW

Hualien, TW

Kao-Hsiung, TW

Keelung, TW

Taichung, TW

Tainan, TW

Taipei, TW

Taitung, TW

EUR|SE|SW010|KIRUNA

EUR|SE|SW013|KRISTIANSTAD

EUR|SE|SW012|LINKOEPING

EUR|SE|SW010|LULEAA

EUR|SE|SW013|LUND

EUR|SE|SW013|MALMOE

EUR|SE|SW012|NORRKOEPING

EUR|SE|SW006|OESTERSUND

EUR|SE|SW011|OREBRO

EUR|SE|SW002|SAELEN

EUR|SE|SW021|SKOEVDE

EUR|SE|SW015|STOCKHOLM

EUR|SE|SW019|SUNDSVALL

EUR|SE|SW013|TRELLEBORG

EUR|SE|SW021|TROLLHAETTAN

EUR|SE|SW021|UDDEVALLA

EUR|SE|SW018|UMEAA

EUR|SE|SW016|UPPSALA

EUR|SE|SW020|VAESTERAAS

EUR|SE|SW004|VISBY

EUR|SE|SW013|YSTAD

EUR|CH|SZ005|BÂLE

EUR|CH|SZ006|BERNE

EUR|CH|SZ008|GENÈVE

EUR|CH|SZ024|LAUSANNE

EUR|CH|SZ012|LUZERN

EUR|CH|SZ026|WINTERTHUR

EUR|CH|SZ026|ZÜRICH

MEA|SY|SY009|ALEPPO

MEA|SY|SY001|AL-HASAKEH

MEA|SY|SY004|AL-RAKKA

MEA|SY|SY008|DAMASCUS

MEA|SY|SY010|HAMA

MEA|SY|SY011|HOMS

MEA|SY|SY002|LATTAKIA

ASI|TW|TW018|HSINCHU

ASI|TW|TW018|HUALIEN

ASI|TW|TW006|KAO-HSIUNG

ASI|TW|TW018|KEELUNG

ASI|TW|TW018|TAICHUNG

ASI|TW|TW018|TAINAN

ASI|TW|TW018|TAIPEI

ASI|TW|TW018|TAITUNG

212

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

The Bahamas

The Gambia

Togo

Tonga

Trinidad And

Tobago

Tajikistan

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Tanzania

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Thailand

Tunisia

Tunisia

Tunisia

Tunisia

Tunisia

Turkey

Dushanbe, TJ

Arusha, TZ

Dar Es Salaam, TZ

Dodoma, TZ

Mbeya, TZ

Morogoro, TZ

Mwanza, TZ

Shinyanga, TZ

Tanga, TZ

Zanzibar, TZ

Bangkok, TH

Chiang Mai, TH

Chon Buri, TH

Kanchanaburi, TH

Khon Kaen, TH

ASI|TJ|TI000|DUSHANBE

AFR|TZ|TZ000|ARUSHA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|DAR ES SALAAM

AFR|TZ|TZ000|DODOMA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|MBEYA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|MOROGORO

AFR|TZ|TZ000|MWANZA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|SHINYANGA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|TANGA

AFR|TZ|TZ000|ZANZIBAR

ASI|TH|TH017|BANGKOK

ASI|TH|TH008|CHIANG MAI

ASI|TH|TH010|CHON BURI

ASI|TH|TH014|KANCHANABURI

ASI|TH|TH015|KHON KAEN

Nakhon Pathom, TH

Nakhon Ratchasima, TH

ASI|TH|TH026|NAKHON PATHOM

ASI|TH|TH028|NAKHON RATCHASIMA

Nakhon Sawan, TH ASI|TH|TH029|NAKHON SAWAN

Nakhon Si Thammarat, TH ASI|TH|TH030|NAKHON SI THAMMARAT

Pathum Thani, TH

Pattaya, TH

Phuket, TH

Rayong, TH

ASI|TH|TH036|PATHUM THANI

ASI|TH|TH010|PATTAYA

ASI|TH|TH047|PHUKET

ASI|TH|TH052|RAYONG

Samut Prakan, TH

Samut Sakhon, TH

Saraburi, TH

Songkhla, TH

Sukhothai, TH

Surat Thani, TH

Ubon Ratchathani, TH

Udon Thani, TH

Nassau, BS

Banjul, GM

Lome, TG

Nuku'Alofa, TO

ASI|TH|TH056|SAMUT PRAKAN

ASI|TH|TH057|SAMUT SAKHON

ASI|TH|TH059|SARABURI

ASI|TH|TH063|SONGKHLA

ASI|TH|TH064|SUKHOTHAI

ASI|TH|TH066|SURAT THANI

ASI|TH|TH071|UBON RATCHATHANI

ASI|TH|TH072|UDON THANI

CAC|BS|BF016|NASSAU

AFR|GM|GA001|BANJUL

AFR|TG|TO000|LOME

OCN|TO|TO002|NUKU'ALOFA

Port-of-Spain, TT

Bizerte, TN

Gabes, TN

Kairouan, TN

Sfax, TN

Tunis, TN

Adana, TR

CAC|TT|TD005|PORT-OF-SPAIN

AFR|TN|TS008|BIZERTE

AFR|TN|TS013|GABES

AFR|TN|TS005|KAIROUAN

AFR|TN|TS015|SFAX

AFR|TN|TS000|TUNIS

MEA|TR|TU001|ADANA

213

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Adiyaman, TR

Afyon, TR

Aksaray, TR

Ankara, TR

Antalya, TR

Aydin, TR

Balikesir, TR

Batman, TR

Bursa, TR

Corum, TR

Cotyaeum, TR

Denizli, TR

Diyarbakir, TR

Edirne, TR

Elazig, TR

Erzurum, TR

Eskisehir, TR

Gaziantep, TR

Gebze, TR

Hatay, TR

Icel, TR

Iskenderun, TR

Isparta, TR

Istanbul, TR

Izmir, TR

Kahramanmaras, TR

Karabuk, TR

Karaman, TR

Kayseri, TR

Kirikkale, TR

Kocaeli, TR

Konya, TR

Malatya, TR

Manisa, TR

Mardin, TR

Ordu, TR

Osmaniye, TR

Sakarya, TR

Samsun, TR

Siirt, TR

Sivas, TR

Tarsus, TR

Tekirdag, TR

MEA|TR|TU002|ADIYAMAN

MEA|TR|TU003|AFYON

MEA|TR|TU042|AKSARAY

MEA|TR|TU007|ANKARA

MEA|TR|TU008|ANTALYA

MEA|TR|TU011|AYDIN

MEA|TR|TU012|BALIKESIR

MEA|TR|TU000|BATMAN

MEA|TR|TU021|BURSA

MEA|TR|TU024|CORUM

MEA|TR|TU054|KÜTAHYA

MEA|TR|TU025|DENIZLI

MEA|TR|TU026|DIYARBAKIR

MEA|TR|TU027|EDIRNE

MEA|TR|TU028|ELAZIG

MEA|TR|TU030|ERZURUM

MEA|TR|TU031|ESKISEHIR

MEA|TR|TU032|GAZIANTEP

MEA|TR|TU052|GEBZE

MEA|TR|TU036|HATAY

MEA|TR|TU037|IÇEL

MEA|TR|TU036|ISKENDERUN

MEA|TR|TU039|ISPARTA

MEA|TR|TU040|ISTANBUL

MEA|TR|TU041|IZMIR

MEA|TR|TU042|KAHRAMANMARAS

MEA|TR|TU000|KARABUK

MEA|TR|TU044|KARAMAN

MEA|TR|TU047|KAYSERI

MEA|TR|TU000|KIRIKKALE

MEA|TR|TU052|KOCAELI

MEA|TR|TU053|KONYA

MEA|TR|TU055|MALATYA

MEA|TR|TU056|MANISA

MEA|TR|TU047|MARDIN

MEA|TR|TU062|ORDU

MEA|TR|TU000|OSMANIYE

MEA|TR|TU065|SAKARYA

MEA|TR|TU066|SAMSUN

MEA|TR|TU000|SIIRT

MEA|TR|TU071|SIVAS

MEA|TR|TU037|TARSUS

MEA|TR|TU072|TEKIRDAG

214

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Turks And Caicos

Islands

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Uganda

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Trabzon, TR

Urfa, TR

Usak, TR

Van, TR

Zonguldak, TR

Ashkhabad, TM

Chardzhou, TM

Tashauz, TM

Grand Turk, TC

Arua, UG

Entebbe, UG

Fort Portal, UG

Gulu, UG

Jinja, UG

Kampala, UG

Lira, UG

Masaka, UG

Mbale, UG

Mbarara, UG

Moroto, UG

Port Bell, UG

Soroti, UG

Alchevsk, UA

Berdyansk, UA

Bila Tserkva, UA

Cherkassy, UA

Chernigov, UA

Chernovtsy, UA

Dneprodzerzhinsk, UA

Dnepropetrovsk, UA

Donetsk, UA

Gorlovka, UA

Ivano-Frankovsk, UA

Kertch, UA

Kherson, UA

Khmelnitsky, UA

Kiev, UA

Kirovograd, UA

Kramatorsk, UA

Lugansk, UA

Lutsk, UA

Lvov, UA

MEA|TR|TU074|TRABZON

MEA|TR|TU067|URFA

MEA|TR|TU076|USAK

MEA|TR|TU077|VAN

MEA|TR|TU000|ZONGULDAK

ASI|TM|TX001|ASHKHABAD

ASI|TM|TX004|CHARDZHOU

ASI|TM|TX003|TASHAUZ

CAC|TC|TK---|GRAND TURK

AFR|UG|UG000|ARUA

AFR|UG|UG000|ENTEBBE

AFR|UG|UG000|FORT PORTAL

AFR|UG|UG000|GULU

AFR|UG|UG000|JINJA

AFR|UG|UG000|KAMPALA

AFR|UG|UG000|LIRA

AFR|UG|UG000|MASAKA

AFR|UG|UG000|MBALE

AFR|UG|UG000|MBARARA

AFR|UG|UG000|MOROTO

AFR|UG|UG000|PORT BELL

AFR|UG|UG000|SOROTI

EUR|UA|UP012|ALCHEVSK

EUR|UA|UP004|BERDYANSK

EUR|UA|UP009|BELAYA TSERKOV

EUR|UA|UP024|CHERKASSY

EUR|UA|UP001|CHERNIGOV

EUR|UA|UP002|CHERNOVTSY

EUR|UA|UP003|DNEPRODZERZHINSK

EUR|UA|UP003|DNEPROPETROVSK

EUR|UA|UP006|DONETSK

EUR|UA|UP004|GORLOVKA

EUR|UA|UP005|IVANO-FRANKOVSK

EUR|UA|UP011|KERTCH

EUR|UA|UP007|KHERSON

EUR|UA|UP008|KHMELNITSKY

EUR|UA|UP009|KIEV

EUR|UA|UP010|KIROVOGRAD

EUR|UA|UP004|KRAMATORSK

EUR|UA|UP012|LUGANSK

EUR|UA|UP020|LUTSK

EUR|UA|UP013|LVOV

215

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

Lysychansk, UA

Makeyevka, UA

Mariupol, UA

Melitopol, UA

Odessa, UA

Pavlograd, UA

Poltava, UA

Rovno, UA

Sevastopol, UA

Severodonetsk, UA

Simferopol, UA

Slavyansk, UA

Stakhanov, UA

Sumy, UA

Ternopol, UA

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine

United Arab

Emirates

United Arab

Emirates

United Arab

Emirates

United Arab

Emirates

United Arab

Emirates

United Arab

Emirates

Uzhgorod, UA

Zaporozhye, UA

Zhitomir, UA

Abu Dhabi, AE

Al Ain, AE

Al Fujairah, AE

Dubai, AE

Ras Al Khaimah, AE

Sharjah, AE

United Kingdom Aberdeen, UK

United Kingdom Ashfield, UK

United Kingdom Banstead, UK

EUR|UA|UP012|LYSYCHANSK

EUR|UA|UP004|MAKEYEVKA

EUR|UA|UP004|MARIUPOL

EUR|UA|KZ000|MELITOPOL

EUR|UA|UP015|ODESSA

EUR|UA|UP003|PAVLOGRAD

EUR|UA|UP026|POLTAVA

EUR|UA|UP016|ROVNO

EUR|UA|UP011|SEVASTOPOL

EUR|UA|UP012|SEVERODONETSK

EUR|UA|UP011|SIMFEROPOL

EUR|UA|UP004|SLAVYANSK

EUR|UA|UP012|STAKHANOV

EUR|UA|UP017|SUMY

EUR|UA|UP018|TERNOPOL

EUR|UA|UP021|UZHGOROD

EUR|UA|UP022|ZAPOROZHYE

EUR|UA|UP023|ZHITOMIR

MEA|AE|AE002|ABU DHABI

MEA|AE|AE002|AL AIN

MEA|AE|AE003|AL FUJAIRAH

MEA|AE|AE005|DUBAI

MEA|AE|AE006|RAS AL KHAIMAH

United Kingdom Barking and Dagenham, UK

United Kingdom Barnet, UK

United Kingdom Barnsley, UK

United Kingdom Basildon, UK

Baskingstoke and Deane,

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

UK

Bath and North East

Somerset, UK

United Kingdom Bedford, UK

United Kingdom Bedworth, UK

United Kingdom Belfast, UK

MEA|AE|AE004|SHARJAH

EUR|UK|UK002|ABERDEEN

EUR|UK|UK001|ASHFIELD

EUR|UK|UK224|BANSTEAD

EUR|UK|UK001|BARKING AND

DAGENHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|BARNET

EUR|UK|UK001|BARNSLEY

EUR|UK|UK001|BASILDON

EUR|UK|UK001|BASKINGSTOKE AND

DEANE

EUR|UK|UK001|BATH AND NORTH EAST

SOMERSET

EUR|UK|UK001|BEDFORD

EUR|UK|UK238|BEDWORTH

EUR|UK|UK002|BELFAST

216

United Kingdom Bexley, UK

United Kingdom Birmingham, UK

United Kingdom Blackburn, UK

United Kingdom Blackpool, UK

United Kingdom Bolton, UK

United Kingdom Bournemouth, UK

United Kingdom Bradford, UK

United Kingdom Braintree, UK

United Kingdom Brent, UK

United Kingdom Bridgend, UK

United Kingdom Brighton, UK

United Kingdom Bristol, UK

United Kingdom Bromley, UK

United Kingdom Bury, UK

United Kingdom Caerphilly, UK

United Kingdom Calderdale, UK

United Kingdom Cambridge, UK

United Kingdom Camden, UK

United Kingdom Canterbury, UK

United Kingdom Cardiff, UK

United Kingdom Carlisle, UK

United Kingdom Chelmsford, UK

United Kingdom Cheltenham, UK

United Kingdom Chester, UK

United Kingdom Chesterfield, UK

United Kingdom Chichester, UK

United Kingdom Colchester, UK

United Kingdom Conwy, UK

United Kingdom Coventry, UK

United Kingdom Crewe, UK

United Kingdom Croydon, UK

United Kingdom Darlington, UK

United Kingdom Derby, UK

United Kingdom Doncaster, UK

United Kingdom Dover, UK

United Kingdom Dudley, UK

United Kingdom Dumfries and Galloway, UK

United Kingdom Dundee, UK

United Kingdom Ealing, UK

United Kingdom Eastleigh, UK

United Kingdom Edinburgh, UK

United Kingdom Elmbridge, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|BEXLEY

EUR|UK|UK001|BIRMINGHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|BLACKBURN

EUR|UK|UK001|BLACKPOOL

EUR|UK|UK001|BOLTON

EUR|UK|UK001|BOURNEMOUTH

EUR|UK|UK001|BRADFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|BRAINTREE

EUR|UK|UK001|BRENT

EUR|UK|UK003|BRIDGEND

EUR|UK|UK001|BRIGHTON

EUR|UK|UK001|BRISTOL

EUR|UK|UK001|BROMLEY

EUR|UK|UK001|BURY

EUR|UK|UK004|CAERPHILLY

EUR|UK|UK001|CALDERDALE

EUR|UK|UK001|CAMBRIDGE

EUR|UK|UK001|CAMDEN

EUR|UK|UK001|CANTERBURY

EUR|UK|UK004|CARDIFF

EUR|UK|UK001|CARLISLE

EUR|UK|UK001|CHELMSFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|CHELTENHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|CHESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|CHESTERFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|CHICHESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|COLCHESTER

EUR|UK|UK004|CONWY

EUR|UK|UK001|COVENTRY

EUR|UK|UK001|CREWE

EUR|UK|UK001|CROYDON

EUR|UK|UK001|DARLINGTON

EUR|UK|UK001|DERBY

EUR|UK|UK001|DONCASTER

EUR|UK|UK001|DOVER

EUR|UK|UK001|DUDLEY

EUR|UK|UK002|DUMFRIES AND

GALLOWAY

EUR|UK|UK002|DUNDEE

EUR|UK|UK001|EALING

EUR|UK|UK001|EASTLEIGH

EUR|UK|UK002|EDINBURGH

EUR|UK|UK001|ELMBRIDGE

217

United Kingdom Enfield, UK

United Kingdom Exeter, UK

United Kingdom Falkirk, UK

United Kingdom Fareham, UK

United Kingdom Gateshead, UK

United Kingdom Gedling, UK

United Kingdom Glasgow, UK

United Kingdom Gloucester, UK

United Kingdom Guildford, UK

United Kingdom Hackney, UK

United Kingdom Halton, UK

Hammersmith and Fulham,

United Kingdom UK

United Kingdom Haringey, UK

United Kingdom Harrogate, UK

United Kingdom Harrow, UK

United Kingdom Havant, UK

United Kingdom Havant and Waterloo, UK

United Kingdom Havering, UK

United Kingdom Hillingdon, UK

United Kingdom Horsham, UK

United Kingdom Hounslow, UK

United Kingdom Ipswich, UK

United Kingdom Islington, UK

United Kingdom Kensington and Chelsea, UK

Kings Lynn and West

United Kingdom Norfolk, UK

United Kingdom Kingston-Upon-Hull, UK

United Kingdom Kingston-Upon-Thames, UK

United Kingdom Kirklees, UK

United Kingdom Lambeth, UK

United Kingdom Lancaster, UK

United Kingdom Leeds, UK

United Kingdom Leicester, UK

United Kingdom Lewisham, UK

United Kingdom Lisburn, UK

United Kingdom Liverpool, UK

United Kingdom London, UK

United Kingdom Luton, UK

United Kingdom Macclesfield, UK

United Kingdom Maidstone, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|ENFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|EXETER

EUR|UK|UK002|FALKIRK

EUR|UK|UK001|FAREHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|GATESHEAD

EUR|UK|UK001|GEDLING

EUR|UK|UK002|GLASGOW

EUR|UK|UK001|GLOUCESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|GUILDFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|HACKNEY

EUR|UK|UK001|HALTON

EUR|UK|UK001|HAMMERSMITH AND

FULHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|HARINGEY

EUR|UK|UK001|HARROGATE

EUR|UK|UK001|HARROW

EUR|UK|UK148|HAVANT

EUR|UK|UK001|HAVANT AND

WATERLOO

EUR|UK|UK001|HAVERING

EUR|UK|UK001|HILLINGDON

EUR|UK|UK001|HORSHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|HOUNSLOW

EUR|UK|UK001|IPSWICH

EUR|UK|UK001|ISLINGTON

EUR|UK|UK001|KENSINGTON AND

CHELSEA

EUR|UK|UK001|KINGS LYNN AND WEST

NORFOLK

EUR|UK|UK001|KINGSTON-UPON-HULL

EUR|UK|UK001|KINGSTON-UPON-

THAMES

EUR|UK|UK001|KIRKLEES

EUR|UK|UK001|LAMBETH

EUR|UK|UK001|LANCASTER

EUR|UK|UK001|LEEDS

EUR|UK|UK001|LEICESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|LEWISHAM

EUR|UK|UK002|LISBURN

EUR|UK|UK001|LIVERPOOL

EUR|UK|UK001|LONDON

EUR|UK|UK001|LUTON

EUR|UK|UK001|MACCLESFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|MAIDSTONE

218

United Kingdom Manchester, UK

United Kingdom Mansfield, UK

United Kingdom Merton, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|MANCHESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|MANSFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|MERTON

United Kingdom Milton Keynes, UK

United Kingdom Newbury, UK

United Kingdom Newcastle-Under-Lyme, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|MILTON KEYNES

EUR|UK|UK001|NEWBURY

EUR|UK|UK001|NEWCASTLE-UNDER-

LYME

United Kingdom Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, UK EUR|UK|UK001|NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE

United Kingdom Newham, UK EUR|UK|UK001|NEWHAM

United Kingdom Newport, UK

United Kingdom Northampton, UK

United Kingdom Norwich, UK

United Kingdom Nottingham, UK

United Kingdom Nuneaton, UK

Nuneaton and Bedworth,

United Kingdom UK

United Kingdom Oldham, UK

United Kingdom Oxford, UK

United Kingdom Peterborough, UK

United Kingdom Plymouth, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|NEWPORT

EUR|UK|UK001|NORTHAMPTON

EUR|UK|UK001|NORWICH

EUR|UK|UK001|NOTTINGHAM

EUR|UK|UK238|NUNEATON

EUR|UK|UK001|NUNEATON AND

BEDWORTH

EUR|UK|UK001|OLDHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|OXFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|PETERBOROUGH

EUR|UK|UK001|PLYMOUTH

United Kingdom Poole, UK

United Kingdom Portsmouth, UK

United Kingdom Preston, UK

United Kingdom Reading, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|POOLE

EUR|UK|UK001|PORTSMOUTH

EUR|UK|UK001|PRESTON

EUR|UK|UK001|READING

United Kingdom Redbridge, UK

United Kingdom Reigate, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|REDBRIDGE

EUR|UK|UK224|REIGATE

United Kingdom Reigate and Banstead, UK EUR|UK|UK001|REIGATE AND BANSTEAD

United Kingdom Rhondda Cynon Taff, UK EUR|UK|UK004|RHONDDA CYNON TAFF

United Kingdom Rochdale, UK

United Kingdom Rotherham, UK

United Kingdom Salford, UK

United Kingdom Salisbury, UK

United Kingdom Sandwell, UK

United Kingdom Scarborough, UK

United Kingdom Sefton, UK

United Kingdom Sevenoaks, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|ROCHDALE

EUR|UK|UK001|ROTHERHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|SALFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|SALISBURY

EUR|UK|UK001|SANDWELL

EUR|UK|UK001|SCARBOROUGH

EUR|UK|UK001|SEFTON

EUR|UK|UK001|SEVENOAKS

United Kingdom Sheffield, UK

United Kingdom Slough, UK

United Kingdom Solihull, UK

United Kingdom Southampton, UK

United Kingdom Southend-On-Sea, UK

United Kingdom Southwark, UK

United Kingdom St Albans, UK

EUR|UK|UK001|SHEFFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|SLOUGH

EUR|UK|UK001|SOLIHULL

EUR|UK|UK001|SOUTHAMPTON

EUR|UK|UK001|SOUTHEND-ON-SEA

EUR|UK|UK001|SOUTHWARK

EUR|UK|UK001|ST ALBANS

219

United Kingdom St Helens, UK

United Kingdom Stafford, UK

United Kingdom Stockport, UK

United Kingdom Stockton-On-Tees, UK

United Kingdom Stoke-On-Trent, UK

United Kingdom Stratford-On-Avon, UK

United Kingdom Stroud, UK

United Kingdom Sunderland, UK

United Kingdom Sutton, UK

United Kingdom Swansea, UK

United Kingdom Tendring, UK

United Kingdom Thamesdown, UK

United Kingdom Thanet, UK

United Kingdom Tonbridge, UK

United Kingdom Tonbridge and Malling, UK

United Kingdom Torbay, UK

United Kingdom Tunbridge Wells, UK

United Kingdom Wakefield, UK

United Kingdom Walsall, UK

United Kingdom Warrington, UK

United Kingdom Warwick, UK

United Kingdom Waterloo, UK

United Kingdom Westminster, UK

United Kingdom Wigan, UK

United Kingdom Winchester, UK

Windsor and Maidenhead,

United Kingdom UK

United Kingdom Wirral, UK

United Kingdom Wokingham, UK

United Kingdom Wolverhampton, UK

United Kingdom Wycombe, UK

United Kingdom York, UK

United States Abilene, TX, US

United States

United States

Akron, OH, US

Albany, NY, US

United States

United States

United States

United States

Albuquerque, NM, US

Alexandria, VA, US

Allentown, PA, US

Amarillo, TX, US

United States

United States

United States

Anaheim, CA, US

Anchorage, AK, US

Ann Arbor, MI, US

EUR|UK|UK001|ST HELENS

EUR|UK|UK001|STAFFORD

EUR|UK|UK001|STOCKPORT

EUR|UK|UK001|STOCKTON-ON-TEES

EUR|UK|UK001|STOKE-ON-TRENT

EUR|UK|UK001|STRATFORD-ON-AVON

EUR|UK|UK001|STROUD

EUR|UK|UK001|SUNDERLAND

EUR|UK|UK001|SUTTON

EUR|UK|UK004|SWANSEA

EUR|UK|UK001|TENDRING

EUR|UK|UK001|THAMESDOWN

EUR|UK|UK001|THANET

EUR|UK|UK160|TONBRIDGE

EUR|UK|UK001|TONBRIDGE AND

MALLING

EUR|UK|UK001|TORBAY

EUR|UK|UK001|TUNBRIDGE WELLS

EUR|UK|UK001|WAKEFIELD

EUR|UK|UK001|WALSALL

EUR|UK|UK001|WARRINGTON

EUR|UK|UK001|WARWICK

EUR|UK|UK148|WATERLOO

EUR|UK|UK001|WESTMINSTER

EUR|UK|UK001|WIGAN

EUR|UK|UK001|WINCHESTER

EUR|UK|UK001|WINDSOR AND

MAIDENHEAD

EUR|UK|UK001|WIRRAL

EUR|UK|UK001|WOKINGHAM

EUR|UK|UK001|WOLVERHAMPTON

EUR|UK|UK001|WYCOMBE

EUR|UK|UK001|YORK

NAM|US|TX|ABILENE

NAM|US|OH|AKRON

NAM|US|NY|ALBANY

NAM|US|NM|ALBUQUERQUE

NAM|US|VA|ALEXANDRIA

NAM|US|PA|ALLENTOWN

NAM|US|TX|AMARILLO

NAM|US|CA|ANAHEIM

NAM|US|AK|ANCHORAGE

NAM|US|MI|ANN ARBOR

220

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Annapolis, MD, US

Arlington, VA, US

Arlington, TX, US

Arvada, CO, US

Athens, GA, US

Atlanta, GA, US

Augusta, GA, US

Aurora, CO, US

Aurora, IL, US

Austin, TX, US

Bakersfield, CA, US

Baltimore, MD, US

Baton Rouge, LA, US

Beaumont, TX, US

Bellevue, WA, US

Berkeley, CA, US

Birmingham, AL, US

Bismarck, ND, US

Boise, ID, US

Boston, MA, US

Bridgeport, CT, US

Brownsville, TX, US

Buffalo, NY, US

Burbank, CA, US

Cambridge, MA, US

Cape Coral, FL, US

Carrollton, TX, US

Carson City, NV, US

Casper, WY, US

Cedar Rapids, IA, US

Chandler, AZ, US

Charleston, WV, US

Charleston, SC, US

Charlotte, NC, US

Chattanooga, TN, US

Chesapeake, VA, US

Cheyenne, WY, US

Chicago, IL, US

Chula Vista, CA, US

Cincinnati, OH, US

Clarksville, TN, US

Clearwater, FL, US

Cleveland, OH, US

NAM|US|MD|ANNAPOLIS

NAM|US|VA|ARLINGTON

NAM|US|TX|ARLINGTON

NAM|US|CO|ARVADA

NAM|US|GA|ATHENS

NAM|US|GA|ATLANTA

NAM|US|GA|AUGUSTA

NAM|US|CO|AURORA

NAM|US|IL|AURORA

NAM|US|TX|AUSTIN

NAM|US|CA|BAKERSFIELD

NAM|US|MD|BALTIMORE

NAM|US|LA|BATON ROUGE

NAM|US|TX|BEAUMONT

NAM|US|WA|BELLEVUE

NAM|US|CA|BERKELEY

NAM|US|AL|BIRMINGHAM

NAM|US|ND|BISMARCK

NAM|US|ID|BOISE

NAM|US|MA|BOSTON

NAM|US|CT|BRIDGEPORT

NAM|US|TX|BROWNSVILLE

NAM|US|NY|BUFFALO

NAM|US|CA|BURBANK

NAM|US|MA|CAMBRIDGE

NAM|US|FL|CAPE CORAL

NAM|US|TX|CARROLLTON

NAM|US|NV|CARSON CITY

NAM|US|WY|CASPER

NAM|US|IA|CEDAR RAPIDS

NAM|US|AZ|CHANDLER

NAM|US|WV|Charleston

NAM|US|SC|Charleston

NAM|US|NC|CHARLOTTE

NAM|US|TN|CHATTANOOGA

NAM|US|VA|CHESAPEAKE

NAM|US|WY|CHEYENNE

NAM|US|IL|CHICAGO

NAM|US|CA|CHULA VISTA

NAM|US|OH|CINCINNATI

NAM|US|TN|CLARKSVILLE

NAM|US|FL|CLEARWATER

NAM|US|OH|CLEVELAND

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United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Colorado Springs, CO, US NAM|US|CO|COLORADO SPRINGS

Columbia, SC, US

Columbus, OH, US

NAM|US|SC|COLUMBIA

NAM|US|OH|COLUMBUS

Columbus, GA, US

Concord, CA, US

Coral Springs, FL, US

Corona, CA, US

NAM|US|GA|COLUMBUS

NAM|US|CA|CONCORD

NAM|US|FL|CORAL SPRINGS

NAM|US|CA|CORONA

Corpus Christi, TX, US

Costa Mesa, CA, US

Dallas, TX, US

Daly City, CA, US

Dayton, OH, US

Denver, CO, US

Des Moines, IA, US

Detroit, MI, US

NAM|US|TX|CORPUS CHRISTI

NAM|US|CA|COSTA MESA

NAM|US|TX|DALLAS

NAM|US|CA|DALY CITY

NAM|US|OH|DAYTON

NAM|US|CO|DENVER

NAM|US|IA|DES MOINES

NAM|US|MI|DETROIT

Dothan, AL, US

Dover, CO, US

Dover, DE, US

Downey, CA, US

Durham, NC, US

Eau Claire, WI, US

El Monte, CA, US

El Paso, TX, US

Elizabeth, NJ, US

Elk Grove, CA, US

Erie, PA, US

Escondido, CA, US

Eugene, OR, US

Evansville, IN, US

Fayetteville, NC, US

Fayetteville, AR, US

NAM|US|AL|Dothan

NAM|US|CO|DOVER

NAM|US|DE|DOVER

NAM|US|CA|DOWNEY

NAM|US|NC|DURHAM

NAM|US|WI|Eau Claire

NAM|US|CA|EL MONTE

NAM|US|TX|EL PASO

NAM|US|NJ|ELIZABETH

NAM|US|CA|ELK GROVE

NAM|US|PA|ERIE

NAM|US|CA|ESCONDIDO

NAM|US|OR|EUGENE

NAM|US|IN|EVANSVILLE

NAM|US|NC|FAYETTEVILLE

NAM|US|AR|Fayetteville

Flint, MI, US

Fontana, CA, US

Fort Collins, CO, US

Fort Lauderdale, FL, US

Fort Wayne, IN, US

Fort Worth, TX, US

Frankfort, KY, US

Fremont, CA, US

Fresno, CA, US

Fullerton, CA, US

Gainesville, FL, US

Garden Grove, CA, US

NAM|US|MI|FLINT

NAM|US|CA|FONTANA

NAM|US|CO|FORT COLLINS

NAM|US|FL|FORT LAUDERDALE

NAM|US|IN|FORT WAYNE

NAM|US|TX|FORT WORTH

NAM|US|KY|FRANKFORT

NAM|US|CA|FREMONT

NAM|US|CA|FRESNO

NAM|US|CA|FULLERTON

NAM|US|FL|Gainesville

NAM|US|CA|GARDEN GROVE

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United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Garland, TX, US

Gary, IN, US

Gilbert, AZ, US

Gillette, NJ, US

Gillette, WY, US

Glendale, CA, US

Grand Island, NE, US

Grand Prairie, TX, US

Grand Rapids, MI, US

Green Bay, WI, US

Greensboro, NC, US

Hampton, VA, US

Harrisburg, PA, US

Hartford, CT, US

Hattiesburg, MS, US

NAM|US|TX|GARLAND

NAM|US|IN|GARY

NAM|US|AZ|GILBERT

NAM|US|NJ|GILLETTE

NAM|US|WY|GILLETTE

NAM|US|CA|GLENDALE

NAM|US|NE|Grand Island

NAM|US|TX|GRAND PRAIRIE

NAM|US|MI|GRAND RAPIDS

NAM|US|WI|GREEN BAY

NAM|US|NC|GREENSBORO

NAM|US|VA|HAMPTON

NAM|US|PA|HARRISBURG

NAM|US|CT|HARTFORD

NAM|US|MS|Hattiesburg

Hayward, CA, US

Helena, MT, US

Henderson, NV, US

Hialeah, FL, US

NAM|US|CA|HAYWARD

NAM|US|MT|HELENA

NAM|US|NV|HENDERSON

NAM|US|FL|HIALEAH

Hollywood, FL, US

Honolulu, HI, US

NAM|US|FL|HOLLYWOOD

NAM|US|HI|HONOLULU

Houston, TX, US NAM|US|TX|HOUSTON

Huntington Beach, CA, US NAM|US|CA|HUNTINGTON BEACH

Huntsville, AL, US

Independence, MO, US

Indianapolis, IN, US

Inglewood, CA, US

Irvine, CA, US

Irving, TX, US

Jackson, MS, US

Jackson, WY, US

NAM|US|AL|HUNTSVILLE

NAM|US|MO|INDEPENDENCE

NAM|US|IN|INDIANAPOLIS

NAM|US|CA|INGLEWOOD

NAM|US|CA|IRVINE

NAM|US|TX|IRVING

NAM|US|MS|JACKSON

NAM|US|WY|JACKSON

Jackson, MI, US

Jacksonville, FL, US

Jefferson City, MO, US

Jersey City, NJ, US

Joliet, IL, US

Juneau, AK, US

Kansas City, MO, US

Kansas City, KS, US

Knoxville, TN, US

Lafayette, LA, US

Lakewood, CO, US

Lancaster, CA, US

NAM|US|MI|Jackson

NAM|US|FL|JACKSONVILLE

NAM|US|MO|JEFFERSON CITY

NAM|US|NJ|JERSEY CITY

NAM|US|IL|JOLIET

NAM|US|AK|JUNEAU

NAM|US|MO|KANSAS CITY

NAM|US|KS|KANSAS CITY

NAM|US|TN|KNOXVILLE

NAM|US|LA|LAFAYETTE

NAM|US|CO|LAKEWOOD

NAM|US|CA|LANCASTER

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United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Lansing, MI, US

Laramie, WY, US

Laredo, TX, US

Las Vegas, NV, US

Lexington, KY, US

Lincoln, NE, US

Little Rock, AR, US

Livonia, MI, US

Long Beach, CA, US

Los Angeles, CA, US

Louisville, KY, US

Lowell, MA, US

Lubbock, TX, US

Madison, WI, US

Manchester, NH, US

Mcallen, TX, US

Memphis, TN, US

Mesa, AZ, US

Mesquite, TX, US

Miami, FL, US

Milwaukee, WI, US

Minneapolis, MN, US

Mobile, AL, US

Modesto, CA, US

Montgomery, AL, US

Montpelier, VT, US

Moreno Valley, CA, US

Myrtle Beach, SC, US

Naperville, IL, US

Nashville, TN, US

New Haven, CT, US

New Orleans, LA, US

New York, NY, US

Newark, NJ, US

Newport News, VA, US

Norfolk, VA, US

North Las Vegas, NV, US

Norwalk, CA, US

Oakland, CA, US

Oceanside, CA, US

Oklahoma City, OK, US

Olympia, WA, US

Omaha, NE, US

NAM|US|MI|LANSING

NAM|US|WY|LARAMIE

NAM|US|TX|LAREDO

NAM|US|NV|LAS VEGAS

NAM|US|KY|LEXINGTON

NAM|US|NE|LINCOLN

NAM|US|AR|LITTLE ROCK

NAM|US|MI|LIVONIA

NAM|US|CA|LONG BEACH

NAM|US|CA|LOS ANGELES

NAM|US|KY|LOUISVILLE

NAM|US|MA|LOWELL

NAM|US|TX|LUBBOCK

NAM|US|WI|MADISON

NAM|US|NH|MANCHESTER

NAM|US|TX|MCALLEN

NAM|US|TN|MEMPHIS

NAM|US|AZ|MESA

NAM|US|TX|MESQUITE

NAM|US|FL|MIAMI

NAM|US|WI|MILWAUKEE

NAM|US|MN|MINNEAPOLIS

NAM|US|AL|MOBILE

NAM|US|CA|MODESTO

NAM|US|AL|MONTGOMERY

NAM|US|VT|MONTPELIER

NAM|US|CA|MORENO VALLEY

NAM|US|SC|Myrtle Beach

NAM|US|IL|NAPERVILLE

NAM|US|TN|NASHVILLE

NAM|US|CT|NEW HAVEN

NAM|US|LA|NEW ORLEANS

NAM|US|NY|NEW YORK

NAM|US|NJ|NEWARK

NAM|US|VA|NEWPORT NEWS

NAM|US|VA|NORFOLK

NAM|US|NV|NORTH LAS VEGAS

NAM|US|CA|NORWALK

NAM|US|CA|OAKLAND

NAM|US|CA|OCEANSIDE

NAM|US|OK|OKLAHOMA CITY

NAM|US|WA|OLYMPIA

NAM|US|NE|OMAHA

224

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Ontario, CA, US

Orange, CA, US

Orlando, FL, US

Overland Park, KS, US

Oxnard, CA, US

Palmdale, CA, US

Panama City, FL, US

Pasadena, CA, US

Pasadena, TX, US

Paterson, NJ, US

Pembroke Pines, FL, US

Peoria, IL, US

Philadelphia, PA, US

Phoenix, AZ, US

Pierre, SD, US

NAM|US|CA|ONTARIO

NAM|US|CA|ORANGE

NAM|US|FL|ORLANDO

NAM|US|KS|OVERLAND PARK

NAM|US|CA|OXNARD

NAM|US|CA|PALMDALE

NAM|US|FL|Panama City

NAM|US|CA|PASADENA

NAM|US|TX|PASADENA

NAM|US|NJ|PATERSON

NAM|US|FL|PEMBROKE PINES

NAM|US|IL|PEORIA

NAM|US|PA|PHILADELPHIA

NAM|US|AZ|PHOENIX

NAM|US|SD|PIERRE

Pittsburgh, PA, US

Plano, TX, US

Pomona, CA, US

Port Saint Lucie, FL, US

Portland, OR, US

Portsmouth, VA, US

Providence, RI, US

Provo, UT, US

NAM|US|PA|PITTSBURGH

NAM|US|TX|PLANO

NAM|US|CA|POMONA

NAM|US|FL|PORT SAINT LUCIE

NAM|US|OR|PORTLAND

NAM|US|VA|PORTSMOUTH

NAM|US|RI|PROVIDENCE

NAM|US|UT|PROVO

Pueblo, CO, US

Raleigh, NC, US

NAM|US|CO|PUEBLO

NAM|US|NC|RALEIGH

Rancho Cucamonga, CA, US NAM|US|CA|RANCHO CUCAMONGA

Reno, NV, US NAM|US|NV|RENO

Richmond, VA, US

Riverside, CA, US

Rochester, NY, US

Rock Springs, MD, US

NAM|US|VA|RICHMOND

NAM|US|CA|RIVERSIDE

NAM|US|NY|ROCHESTER

NAM|US|MD|ROCK SPRINGS

Rock Springs, WY, US

Rockford, IL, US

Roswell, NM, US

Sacramento, CA, US

Saint Louis, MO, US

Saint Paul, MN, US

Salem, OR, US

Salinas, CA, US

Salt Lake City, UT, US

San Antonio, TX, US

San Bernardino, CA, US

San Diego, CA, US

NAM|US|WY|ROCK SPRINGS

NAM|US|IL|ROCKFORD

NAM|US|NM|Roswell

NAM|US|CA|SACRAMENTO

NAM|US|MO|SAINT LOUIS

NAM|US|MN|SAINT PAUL

NAM|US|OR|SALEM

NAM|US|CA|SALINAS

NAM|US|UT|SALT LAKE CITY

NAM|US|TX|SAN ANTONIO

NAM|US|CA|SAN BERNARDINO

NAM|US|CA|SAN DIEGO

225

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United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

San Francisco, CA, US

San Jose, CA, US

Santa Ana, CA, US

Santa Clara, CA, US

Santa Clarita, CA, US

Santa Fe, NM, US

Santa Rosa, CA, US

Savannah, GA, US

Scottsdale, AZ, US

Seattle, WA, US

Shreveport, LA, US

Simi Valley, CA, US

Sioux Falls, SD, US

South Bend, IN, US

Spokane, WA, US

NAM|US|CA|SAN FRANCISCO

NAM|US|CA|SAN JOSE

NAM|US|CA|SANTA ANA

NAM|US|CA|SANTA CLARA

NAM|US|CA|SANTA CLARITA

NAM|US|NM|SANTA FE

NAM|US|CA|SANTA ROSA

NAM|US|GA|SAVANNAH

NAM|US|AZ|SCOTTSDALE

NAM|US|WA|SEATTLE

NAM|US|LA|SHREVEPORT

NAM|US|CA|SIMI VALLEY

NAM|US|SD|SIOUX FALLS

NAM|US|IN|SOUTH BEND

NAM|US|WA|SPOKANE

Springfield, IL, US

Springfield, MA, US

Springfield, MO, US

St Petersburg, FL, US

NAM|US|IL|SPRINGFIELD

NAM|US|MA|SPRINGFIELD

NAM|US|MO|SPRINGFIELD

NAM|US|FL|ST PETERSBURG

Stamford, CT, US NAM|US|CT|STAMFORD

Steamboat Springs, CO, US NAM|US|CO|STEAMBOAT SPRINGS

Sterling Heights, MI, US

Stockton, CA, US

NAM|US|MI|STERLING HEIGHTS

NAM|US|CA|STOCKTON

Sunnyvale, CA, US

Syracuse, NY, US

Tacoma, WA, US

Tallahassee, FL, US

Tampa, FL, US

Tempe, AZ, US

Thousand Oaks, CA, US

Toledo, OH, US

NAM|US|CA|SUNNYVALE

NAM|US|NY|SYRACUSE

NAM|US|WA|TACOMA

NAM|US|FL|TALLAHASSEE

NAM|US|FL|TAMPA

NAM|US|AZ|TEMPE

NAM|US|CA|THOUSAND OAKS

NAM|US|OH|TOLEDO

Topeka, KS, US

Torrance, CA, US

Traverse City, MI, US

Trenton, NJ, US

Tucson, AZ, US

Tulsa, OK, US

Valdosta, GA, US

Vallejo, CA, US

Vancouver, WA, US

Ventura, CA, US

Virginia Beach, VA, US

Waco, TX, US

NAM|US|KS|TOPEKA

NAM|US|CA|TORRANCE

NAM|US|MI|Traverse City

NAM|US|NJ|TRENTON

NAM|US|AZ|TUCSON

NAM|US|OK|TULSA

NAM|US|GA|Valdosta

NAM|US|CA|VALLEJO

NAM|US|WA|VANCOUVER

NAM|US|CA|VENTURA

NAM|US|VA|VIRGINIA BEACH

NAM|US|TX|WACO

226

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Vanuatu

Vatican City

Venezuela

Venezuela

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

United States

Uruguay

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan

Warren, MI, US

Washington, DC, US

Waterbury, CT, US

West Covina, CA, US

West Valley City, UT, US

Westminster, CO, US

Wichita, KS, US

Wichita Falls, TX, US

Winston-Salem, NC, US

Worcester, MA, US

Yonkers, NY, US

Montevideo, UY

Almalyk, UZ

Andizhan, UZ

Angren, UZ

Bukhara, UZ

Chirchik, UZ

Fergana, UZ

Karshi, UZ

Kokand, UZ

Margilan, UZ

Namangan, UZ

Navoi, UZ

Nukus, UZ

Samarkand, UZ

Tashkent, UZ

Termez, UZ

Vila, VU

Vatican City, VA

Acarigua-Araure, VE

Barcelona, VE

Barinas, VE

Barquisimeto, VE

Baruta, VE

Bolivar, VE

Cabimas, VE

Caracas, VE

Carupano, VE

Catia La Mar, VE

Ciudad Guayana, VE

Coro, VE

Cumana, VE

Guanare, VE

NAM|US|MI|WARREN

NAM|US|DC|WASHINGTON

NAM|US|CT|WATERBURY

NAM|US|CA|WEST COVINA

NAM|US|UT|WEST VALLEY CITY

NAM|US|CO|WESTMINSTER

NAM|US|KS|WICHITA

NAM|US|TX|WICHITA FALLS

NAM|US|NC|WINSTON-SALEM

NAM|US|MA|WORCESTER

NAM|US|NY|YONKERS

SAM|UY|UY010|MONTEVIDEO

ASI|UZ|UZ013|ALMALYK

ASI|UZ|UZ001|ANDIZHAN

ASI|UZ|UZ013|ANGREN

ASI|UZ|UZ002|BUKHARA

ASI|UZ|UZ013|CHIRCHIK

ASI|UZ|UZ003|FERGANA

ASI|UZ|UZ008|KARSHI

ASI|UZ|UZ003|KOKAND

ASI|UZ|UZ003|MARGILAN

ASI|UZ|UZ006|NAMANGAN

ASI|UZ|UZ007|NAVOI

ASI|UZ|UZ009|NUKUS

ASI|UZ|UZ010|SAMARKAND

ASI|UZ|UZ013|TASHKENT

ASI|UZ|UZ012|TERMEZ

OCN|VU|NH009|VILA

EUR|VA|-|VATICAN CITY

SAM|VE|VE019|ACARIGUA-ARAURE

SAM|VE|VE002|BARCELONA

SAM|VE|VE005|BARINAS

SAM|VE|VE014|BARQUISIMETO

SAM|VE|VE016|BARUTA

SAM|VE|VE006|CIUDAD BOLÍVAR

SAM|VE|VE025|CABIMAS

SAM|VE|VE011|CARACAS

SAM|VE|VE020|CARÚPANO

SAM|VE|VE011|CATIA LA MAR

SAM|VE|VE006|CIUDAD GUAYANA

SAM|VE|VE012|CORO

SAM|VE|VE020|CUMANÁ

SAM|VE|VE019|GUANARE

227

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Vietnam

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Venezuela

Vietnam Vinh, VN

Western Sahara El Aaiun, EH

Yemen

Yemen

Aden, YE

Hodeidah, YE

Yemen

Yemen

Zambia

Zambia

Sanaa, YE

Taiz, YE

Chingola, ZM

Kabwe, ZM

Zambia

Zambia

Zambia

Zambia

Kitwe, ZM

Luanshya, ZM

Lusaka, ZM

Mufulira, ZM

Guarenas, VE

La Victoria, VE

Lagunillas, VE

Los Teques, VE

Maracaibo, VE

Maracay, VE

Maturin, VE

Merida, VE

Petare, VE

Puerto Cabello, VE

Punto Fijo, VE

San Cristobal, VE

Turmero, VE

Valencia, VE

Valera, VE

Campha, VN

Cantho, VN

Da Nang, VN

Dalat, VN

Haiphong, VN

Hanoi, VN

Ho Chi Minh City, VN

Hon Gai, VN

Hue, VN

Longxuyen, VN

Mytho, VN

Namdinh, VN

Nhatrang, VN

Qui Nhon, VN

Rach Gia, VN

Thai Nguyen, VN

SAM|VE|VE016|GUARENAS

SAM|VE|VE004|LA VICTORIA

SAM|VE|VE015|LAGUNILLAS

SAM|VE|VE016|LOS TEQUES

SAM|VE|VE025|MARACAIBO

SAM|VE|VE004|MARACAY

SAM|VE|VE017|MATURÍN

SAM|VE|VE015|MÉRIDA

SAM|VE|VE016|PETARE

SAM|VE|VE007|PUERTO CABELLO

SAM|VE|VE012|PUNTO FIJO

SAM|VE|VE021|SAN CRISTÓBAL

SAM|VE|VE002|TURMERO

SAM|VE|VE007|VALENCIA

SAM|VE|VE022|VALERA

ASI|VN|VM052|CAMPHA

ASI|VN|VM041|CANTHO

ASI|VN|VM016|DA NANG

ASI|VN|VM037|DALAT

ASI|VN|VM029|HAIPHONG

ASI|VN|VM017|HANOI

ASI|VN|VM060|HO CHI MINH CITY

ASI|VN|VM052|HON GAI

ASI|VN|VM044|HUÉ

ASI|VN|VM060|LONGXUYEN

ASI|VN|VM059|MYTHO

ASI|VN|VM042|NAMDINH

ASI|VN|VM011|NHATRANG

ASI|VN|VM019|QUI NHON

ASI|VN|VM060|RACH GIA

ASI|VN|VM057|THAI NGUYEN

ASI|VN|VM060|VINH

AFR|EH|WI---|EL AAIUN

MEA|YE|YM001|ADEN

MEA|YE|YM004|HODEIDAH

MEA|YE|YM000|SANAA

MEA|YE|YM008|TAIZ

AFR|ZM|ZA001|CHINGOLA

AFR|ZM|ZA007|KABWE

AFR|ZM|ZA001|KITWE

AFR|ZM|ZA001|LUANSHYA

AFR|ZM|ZA000|LUSAKA

AFR|ZM|ZA001|MUFULIRA

228

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Ndola, ZM

Bulawayo, ZW

Chitungwiza, ZW

Gweru, ZW

Harare, ZW

Mutare, ZW

AFR|ZM|ZA001|NDOLA

AFR|ZW|ZI005|BULAWAYO

AFR|ZW|ZI003|CHITUNGWIZA

AFR|ZW|ZI000|GWERU

AFR|ZW|ZI003|HARARE

AFR|ZW|ZI000|MUTARE

229

12 Rain8 Hardware Setup

12.1 Rain8 Net

The Rain8net is a modular 8-zone sprinkler controller module that is driven by a RS232 serial port.

Additional units may be daisy chained to provide control and 24 VAC power to as many as 2040 irrigation zones from a single COM port.

A 12 position terminal strip is found on all modules. Connect the 24 VAC to only one module; the remaining modules are powered by means of the 8-conductor network cable.

There is a single RS232 connection between the controlling computer and the "master" Rain8. The 24VAC power and network communications are transferred from master to slave-to-slave etc.

If the Rain8Net is used in a multi-master configuration, such as when the valve clusters are in locations where it is easier to run two connections from the PC than to run a connection between the two valve clusters. A remote connection such as using an IP/RS232 adapter may be a situation where this is appropriate.

The network connection for the slave units is an 8 conductor RJ45. Each slave has a pair of these modular jacks to pass on data and power to the next one in a daisy chain. Each slave also has a RS232 connection that is used only to assign the address during the initial configuration.

12.1.1 Equipment List

Initial Module

1. Rain8net controller with detachable terminal block in place.

2. 24VAC transformer

3. RS232 Cable with DB9 Connectors

Expansion / Slave Module(s)

1. Rain8net controller with detachable terminal block in place.

2. Network cable, item 10004

Interface Components

Serial Surge Protection

12.1.2 Installation

Controller Location

• Select a mounting location that is close to an electrical outlet and the valve wires that will connect to it.

• The controller should not be exposed to water. If used outside, it is necessary to provide a weather proof housing for your Rain8. http://www.wgldesigns.com/r8outdoor.html

• Mount your controller to a smooth dry surface by means of the enclosed Velcro strips.

Wiring the Valves

230

• If the maximum distance is less then 600 feet, use a single 20 gauge, plastic insulated wire for each valve.

• Each valve has two wires. One wire is designated as the common. All of the common valve wires can be connected together to one wire going to the controller.

• All connections should be made using wire nuts in grease caps to prevent corrosion.

• Only one valve should be connected to each zone.

• The rated output is 24 VAC at .25 amps (250ma), per zone. Some valves require a greater current then

.25 amps to initially open and drop back to a lower value. This will present no problem as long as the drop back value is .25 amps or less.

Connecting the Valve Wires to the Controller

Determine which valve is to be connected to each zone. Insert each valve wire into its respective position on the terminal strip and gently tighten the setscrew.

Connect the common wire from the valves to the terminal labeled “common”.

Connecting the Counter/Switch Wires to the Controller

Connect the rain sensor or flow meter to terminals identified as “input” and second “24VAC”( #12).

Connecting the Transformer

(Master unit only)

Connect the 24-VAC transformer to the two terminals labeled “24 VAC”. Note that this is required only on the first module installed as the power for additional units is supplied by means of the network connections.

Wiring the RS232 connection (Master unit only)

Connect the RS232 cable’s RJ11 plug to the RJ11 jack labeled “RS-232” on the left side of the module.

The other end of the cable with the DB9 connector attaches to your computers serial port. The maximum allowed distance for this connection is 1000’.

It is strongly recommended that a RS232

Serial Surge Protector be installed on outdoor installations of the Rain8net

Available from http://www.tmanufacturing.com

Adding additional modules

As many as 254 additional 8 zone modules may be added by daisy chaining the modules “Rain8 Network Jacks”. See

Figure 77.

Individual Rain8net modules are shipped set to an address of “1” and the default run timers disabled. For most eight zone, single module applications this is the desired configuration and the hardware installation is complete.

231

Figure 77 Rain8 Master and Expansion Wiring

Prepare to Configure the Rain8 module (only if you are installing multiple modules)

Please note that the Rain8 terminal strip is removable. Gently unplug the portion with screw heads from the socket mounted on the PCB. Remove the Rain8 from the wall and bring it to the location of the PC that will be used for programming.

Connect the DB9 cable and adapter into the RJ11 jack on the Rain8 labeled “RS-232”. The DB9 end is plugged into a serial port on your PC. It is not necessary to provide power for the unit as it can derive what it needs for programming from the serial port.

It is very important that no attempt is made to program modules that are still connected to the network.

12.1.3 EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 78 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com

.

• At this point there is no need for anything to be connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

• Select the PC serial port that is connected to the Rain8

• Select desired address (1 – 255) for this module. Each module that is programmed must have a unique address. Convention is to start at 1 and proceed upward.

• Select the Enable Rain8 Timers checkbox so the Rain8 will turnoff each zone as a safety precaution

• Enter the timeout amount for each of the 8 valves. This value will be a few minutes longer than the longest that a zone will be run at any one time

• Click on the Write EPROM button to save the setup

• Click on the Read EPOM button to confirm the setup

232

Figure 78 Rain8Net EPROM Setup

233

12.2 Rain8 Wireless

The Rain8wireless is an 8-zone irrigation controller capable of accepting X10 RF codes to control each zone.

12.2.1 Equipment List

Initial Module

1. Rain8 Wireless controller with detachable terminal block in place.

2. 24VAC transformer

3. RS232 Cable with DB9 Connectors

4. Coax Cable

5. Antenna and mounting bracket

Expansion / Slave Module(s)

1. Rain8 Wireless controller with detachable terminal block in place.

2. Network cable

Interface Components

CM17A X10 RF PC Interface

12.2.2 Installation

Controller Location

• Select a mounting location that is close to an electrical outlet and the valve wires that will connect to it.

• The controller should not be exposed to water. If used outside, it is necessary to provide weather proof housing for your Rain8. http://www.wgldesigns.com/r8outdoor.html

• Mount your controller to a smooth dry surface by means of the enclosed Velcro strips.

Connecting the Antenna

• Connect one end the RG6 coaxial cable to the F connector on the Rain8 module.

• Connect the other end to the quarter wave whip antenna.

• The antenna should me mounted on the furnished bracket at a location clear of interfering RF noise and metallic items like air handling ducts.

Wiring the Valves

• If the maximum distance is less then 600 feet, use a single 20 gauge, plastic insulated wire for each valve.

• Each valve has two wires. One wire is designated as the common. All of the common valve wires can be connected together to one wire going to the controller.

• All connections should be made using wire nuts in grease caps to prevent corrosion.

• Only one valve should be connected to each zone.

• The rated output is 24 VAC at .25 amps (250ma), per zone. Some valves require a greater current then

.25 amps to initially open and drop back to a lower value. This will present no problem as long as the drop back value is .25 amps or less.

Connecting the Valve Wires to the Controller

234

• Determine which valve is to be connected to each zone. Insert each valve wire into its respective position on the terminal strip and gently tighten the setscrew.

• Connect the common wire from the valves to the terminal labeled “common”.

Connecting the Transformer & Interface

• Locate the two terminals labeled “24-vac in”. Connect the two transformer wires to these terminals.

Prepare to Program the Rain8 module

• Please note that the Rain8 terminal strip is removable. Gently unplug the portion with screw heads from the socket mounted on the PCB. Remove the Rain8 from the wall and bring it to the location of the PC that will be used for programming. Disconnect Antenna coax.

• Connect the Rain8wireless RJ11 RS232 jack on the left side of the housing to a serial (COM) port on your PC with the WGL 10002 cable.

• Important! At completion of programming, disconnect serial cable before reconnecting terminal strip and antenna.

12.2.3 EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers

At this point there should be nothing connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 78 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com.

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 79 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com

.

• At this point there is no need for anything to be connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

• Select the PC serial port that is connected to the Rain8

• Select desired address for this module. Each module that is programmed must have a unique address.

The address consists of an X10 House code in the range “A” through “P” and one of two banks of eight unit codes.

• Select the Enable Rain8 Timers checkbox so the Rain8 will turnoff each zone as a safety precaution

• Enter the timeout amount for each of the 8 valves. This value will be a few minutes longer than the longest that a zone will be run at any one time

• The Rain8 Wireless can be configured so the 8th valve will turn ON when any of the other seven are

ON. Since mcsSprinklers manages the pump, the selection for this setting should be to configure to use valve 8 as a valve.

235

• Click on the Write EPROM button to save the setup

• Click on the Read EPOM button to confirm the setup

Figure 79 Rain8 Wireless EPROM Setup

12.2.4 Check Out

To test these new settings, unplug the RS232 cable and return the Rain8 to its original location. Plug in the terminal and connect the antenna. Verify the 24-vac transformer is plugged in. Connect the antenna coax cable.

Using the settings of the module configured at E1, sending the X10 signal E1-ON with a X10 PalmPad

HR12A would cause the valve connected to terminal 1 to open. Sending it an E1-OFF it would close. If nothing were done, it would turn itself off at the end of three minutes. If the EPROM was configured with a different X10 code then selected the one used rather than E1.

236

12.3 Rain8 X10

The Rain8 is an 8-zone irrigation controller capable of controlling irrigation zones using X10 power line protocol. A CM11A is connected to the PC that host mcsSprinklers to provide the power line commands to the Rain8 X10.

12.3.1 Equipment List

Initial Module

1. Rain8 module

2. 110 to 24-vac, 20VA transformer

3. Modular cable, black

4. RS232 serial cable, DB9 both ends.

5. PSC05 power line interface

Expansion / Slave Module(s)

1. Rain8 module

2. Modular cable, black

3. Modular cable splitter

Interface Components

1. CM11A X10 Power line PC Interface

2. 5 for 1 splitter 80069

12.3.2 Installation

Controller Location

• Select a mounting location that is close to an electrical outlet and the valve wires that will connect to it.

• The controller should not be exposed to water. If used outside, it is necessary to provide a weather proof housing for your Rain8. http://www.wgldesigns.com/r8outdoor.html

• Mount your controller to a smooth dry surface by means of the enclosed Velcro strips.

Wiring the Valves

• If the maximum distance is less then 600 feet, use a single 20 gauge, plastic insulated wire for each valve.

• Each valve has two wires. One wire is designated as the common. All of the common valve wires can be connected together to one wire going to the controller’s “common” terminal.

• All connections should be made using wire nuts in grease caps to prevent corrosion.

• Only one valve should be connected to each zone.

• The rated output is 24 VAC at .35 amps (350ma), per zone. Some valves require a greater current then

.35 amps to initially open and drop back to a lower value. This will present no problem as long as the drop back value is .35 amps or less.

Connecting the Valve Wires to the Controller

237

• Determine which valve is to be connected to each zone. Insert each valve wire into its respective position on the terminal strip and gently tighten the setscrew.

• Connect the common wire from the valves to the terminal labeled “common”.

Connecting the Transformer & Interface

• Locate the two terminals labeled 24-vac on the Rain8 module and connect an appropriate length of 18 gauge, 2 conductor zip cord to the transformer screw terminals. The same is done for the 24VAC power connection for all expansion Rain8 units.

Warning!

Make sure that 24VAC terminal 11 on one unit connects to terminal 11 on the next and 24VAC terminal 12 to 12 in a similar manner. Your Rain8 modules and transformer will be damaged if the wires connecting between units are reversed.

• Connect the Rain8 to a PSC05 power line interface using only the WGL furnished black modular cable. An alternate power line interface, the Smarthome powerlinc 1132B, can be used rather than the

PSC05. In this case, connect it to the Rain8 module using only the RJ11 to RJ45 (wide plug) cable

that came with the 1132B.

• Up to 5 Rain8 modules may share a single power line interface.

PSC05 interface

• A 2 for 1 splitter is provided in this package for two Rain8s sharing one Interface for 16-zone operation. PSC05 or TW523 only.

• A 5 for 1 splitter (item 80069) is available for installations of up to 40 zones.

Powerlinc 1132B interface

• A 5 for 1 splitter (item 80071) is available for PowerLinc installations of up to 40 zones.

• Use the enclosed black modular cable to connect from the splitter to each Rain8 module.

238

Figure 80 Rain8 X10 Power line and Valve Connections

Prepare to Program the Rain8 module

• Please note that the Rain8 terminal strip is removable. Gently unplug the portion with screw heads from the socket mounted on the PCB. Remove the Rain8 from the wall and bring it to the location of the PC that will be used for programming.

• Connect the DB-9 connector on the Rain8 to a serial cable, with the other end plugged into a serial port on your PC. It is not necessary to provide power for the unit as it can derive what it needs for programming from the serial port.

12.3.3 EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 81 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com

.

• At this point there is no need for anything to be connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

• Select the PC serial port that is connected to the Rain8

• Select desired address for this module. Each module that is programmed must have a unique address.

The address consists of an X10 House code in the range “A” through “P” and one of two banks of eight unit codes.

• Select the Enable Rain8 Timers checkbox so the Rain8 will turnoff each zone as a safety precaution

• Enter the timeout amount for each of the 8 valves. This value will be a few minutes longer than the longest that a zone will be run at any one time

239

• Click on the Write EPROM button to save the setup

• Click on the Read EPOM button to confirm the setup

Figure 81 Rain8X10 EPROM Setup

240

12.4 Rain8 X10 II

The Rain8II is an 8-zone irrigation controller that responds to ON and OFF X10 commands that are unique to each zone. This product supports the standard X10 Status Request codes for true 2-way operation. A

CM11A is connected to the PC that host mcsSprinklers to provide the power line commands to the Rain8

X10 II.

12.4.1 Equipment List

Initial Module

1. Rain8II module

2. 110 to 24-vac, 20VA, wall-mounted transformer

3. Black modular cable

4. RS232 serial cable, DB9 both ends.

5. PSC05 Power line interface

Expansion Module(s)

1. Rain8II module

2. Black modular cable

3. Modular cable splitter

Other Interface Components

1. CM11A PC Power line Interface

2. 5 for 1 splitter 80069

12.4.2 Installation

Controller Location

• Select a mounting location that is close to an electrical outlet and the valve wires that will connect to it.

• The controller should not be exposed to water. If used outside, it is necessary to provide a weather proof housing for your Rain8. http://www.wgldesigns.com/r8outdoor.html

• Mount your controller to a smooth dry surface by means of the enclosed Velcro strips.

Wiring the Valves

• If the maximum distance is less then 600 feet, use a single 20 gauge, plastic insulated wire for each valve.

• Each valve has two wires. One wire is designated as the common. All of the common valve wires can be connected together to one wire going to the controller.

• All connections should be made using wire nuts in grease caps to prevent corrosion.

• Only one valve should be connected to each zone.

• The rated output is 24 VAC at .25 amps (250ma), per zone. Some valves require a greater current then

.25 amps to initially open and drop back to a lower value. This will present no problem as long as the drop back value is .25 amps or less.

Connecting the Valve Wires to the Controller

• Determine which valve is to be connected to each zone. Insert each valve wire into its respective position on the terminal strip and gently tighten the setscrew.

• Connect the common wire from the valves to the terminal labeled “common”.

241

Connecting the Transformer & Interface

• Locate the two terminals labeled 24-vac on the Rain8 module and connect an appropriate length of 18 gauge, 2 conductor zip cord to the transformer screw terminals. The same is done for the 24VAC power connection for all expansion Rain8 units.

Warning!

Make sure that 24VAC terminal 11 on one unit connects to terminal 11 on the next and 24VAC terminal 12 to 12 in a similar manner. Your Rain8 modules and transformer will be damaged if the wires connecting between units are reversed.

• Connect the Rain8 to a PSC05 power line interface using only the WGL furnished black modular cable. An alternate power line interface, the Smarthome powerlinc 1132B, can be used rather than the

PSC05. In this case, connect it to the Rain8 module using only the RJ11 to RJ45 (wide plug) cable

that came with the 1132B.

• Up to 5 Rain8 modules may share a single power line interface.

PSC05 interface

• A 2 for 1 splitter is provided in this package for two Rain8s sharing one Interface for 16-zone operation. PSC05 or TW523 only.

• A 5 for 1 splitter (item 80069) is available for installations of up to 40 zones.

Powerlinc 1132B interface

• A 5 for 1 splitter (item 80071) is available for PowerLinc installations of up to 40 zones.

• Use the enclosed black modular cable to connect from the splitter to each Rain8 module.

Figure 82 Rain8 X10 II Power line and Valve Connections

242

Prepare to Program the Rain8 module

• Please note that the Rain8 terminal strip is removable. Gently unplug the portion with screw heads from the socket mounted on the PCB. Remove the Rain8 from the wall and bring it to the location of the PC that will be used for programming.

• Connect the DB-9 connector on the Rain8 to a serial cable, with the other end plugged into a serial port on your PC. It is not necessary to provide power for the unit as it can derive what it needs for programming from the serial port.

12.4.3 EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 83 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com

.

• At this point there is no need for anything to be connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

• Select the PC serial port that is connected to the Rain8

• Select desired address for this module. Each module that is programmed must have a unique address.

The address consists of an X10 House code in the range “A” through “P” and one of two banks of eight unit codes.

• Select the Enable Rain8 Timers checkbox so the Rain8 will turnoff each zone as a safety precaution.

• Enter the timeout amount for each of the 8 valves. This value will be a few minutes longer than the longest that a zone will be run at any one time

• The Rain8 X10 II is a two way X10 device that is able to provide its status immediately after a command is received or provide its status only when explicitly polled for a status response. When using mcsSprinklers as the only X10 controller then the configuration of “Ack on Cmd and Poll” will provide the most efficient user of the power line bandwidth. The “Ack on Poll Only” can be used in all cases where compatibility with other X10 controllers is a concern.

• Click on the Write EPROM button to save the setup

• Click on the Read EPOM button to confirm the setup

243

Figure 83 Rain8 X10 II EPROM Setup

12.4.4 Troubleshooting with the Status LED

This Rain8 features a status LED visible from the bottom on the module just the left of the RJ11 interface jack.

No LED

The Rain8 is not running. Verify 24VAC transformer is connected to the last two terminals on the detachable terminal strip.

Steady LED

Everything is working okay. No incoming X10 commands.

Regular flashing LED

No power line interface detected. Check modular cable and verify correct type. Verify interface plugged in to outlet and connected to Rain8.

If is still flashing try replacing cable or interface module.

Intermittent flashing LED, 1 – 2 seconds OFF

Normal operation.

Incoming X10 command detected with a house code and unit code that is enabled. The specified zone will now have 24VAC between in and the common terminal(s).

Intermittent flashing LED, very short OFF

244

Incoming X10 signal detected with house & unit codes that are not enabled. No zones will be active. Verify Rain8 configuration matches transmitted X10 address.

245

12.5 Rain8 UPB

The Rain8upb is a modular 8-zone sprinkler controller module that is driven by a UPB power line interface

(PIM). It is configured as either a master or expansion unit. The difference being that only the master is connected to the PIM and 24VAC transformer.

A system UPB configuration consists of a UPB PIM connected to the PC running mcsSprinklers, a UPB

PIM connected to the master Rain8 UPB module, 24VAC transformer connected to the master Rain8 UPB module, optional expansion modules that are connected with daisy chained RJ45 wiring.

12.5.1 Equipment List

Initial Module

1. Rain8upb master module

2. 110 to 24-vac, 20VA, transformer

3. 3 piece RJ11 – DB9 cable assembly

Expansion / Slave Module(s)

1. Rain8upb controller with detachable terminal block in place.

2. Network cable, item 10004

Interface Components

1. Rain8 Master UPB power line interface (PIM).

2. PC UPB power line interface (PIM)

(PCS PIM-R, Simply Automated UMC-DB9 or HAI 36A00-1)

12.5.2 Installation

Controller Location

• Select a mounting location that is close to an electrical outlet and the valve wires that will connect to it.

• The controller should not be exposed to water. If used outside, it is necessary to provide a weather proof housing for your Rain8. http://www.wgldesigns.com/r8outdoor.html

• Mount your controller to a smooth dry surface by means of the enclosed Velcro strips.

Wiring the Valves

• If the maximum distance is less than 600 feet, use a single 20 gauge, plastic insulated wire for each valve.

• Each valve has two wires. One wire is designated as the common. All of the common valve wires can be connected together to one wire going to the controller.

• All connections should be made using wire nuts in grease caps to prevent corrosion.

• Only one valve should be connected to each zone.

The rated output is 24 VAC at .35 amps (350ma), per zone. Some valves require a greater current then

.35 amps to initially open and drop back to a lower value. This will present no problem as long as the drop back value is .35 amps or less.

246

Connecting the Valve Wires to the Controller

• Determine which valve is to be connected to each zone. Insert each valve wire into its respective position on the terminal strip and gently tighten the setscrew.

• Connect the common wire from the valves to the terminal labeled “com”.

Figure 84 UPB Rain8 Valve and 24VAC Connections

Connecting the Counter/Switch Wires to the Controller

• Connect the rain sensor or flow meter to terminals identified as “input” and second “24VAC”( #12).

Connecting the Transformer (Master unit only)

Connect the 24-VAC transformer to the two terminals labeled “24 VAC”. Note that this is required only on the first module installed as the power for additional units is supplied by means of the network connections.

Connecting the UPB PIM (Master unit only)

There are two techniques for connecting the UPB PIM to the RJ11 jack on your Rain8 module depending on which manufacturers PIM you are using

1. The HAI PIM connects directly to the Rain8 using the 6-conductor modular cable that came with your

Rain8upb. Do not use the cable that came with your HAI PIM.

OR

2. The PCS & Simply Automated PIMs have female DB9 jacks so it is necessary to use the enclosed DB9

– RJ11 adapter and the M-M gender changer in addition to the modular cable.

247

Figure 85 UPB PIM Connection to Rain8

Congratulations you are now ready to apply power. The first thing you should see is the green LED blinking. This indicates the Rain8upb is looking for a PIM. When it finds one, the LED stops blinking and stays on steady. This normally just takes a few seconds.

Prepare to Program the Rain8 module

• Using the RJ11 cable and the DB9 adapter (but not the gender changer), connect DB9 end to a COM port or USB adapter on your PC. Connect the RJ11 end to the jack labeled “PIM-config”” on the left.

• It is not necessary to provide 24VAC power at this point as it is supplied over the RS232 link. The green LED to the left of the RJ45 jacks should be off.

12.5.3 EPROM Programming for use with mcsSprinklers

Setup of the Rain8 EPROM is done from the Rain8 Setup page of mcsSprinklers. Figure 83 shows the

setup parameters that are available. It can also be done with a Rain8Cfg.exe utility that is available from http://wgldesigns.com

.

• At this point there is no need for anything to be connected to the Rain8 other than the serial cable. The power for the unit is derived from the serial port.

• Select the PC serial port that is connected to the Rain8

• Select desired address for this module. There are two part to the UPB address. One is the network address (NID) and the second is the device ID (DID). These are selected based upon compatibility with other UPB components installed at the site. If no others are installed then values of 1 for the NID will be fine. It will also need to be configured in the UPB Processor Interface Module (PIM) for network compatibility.

• The module ID will need to be unique for each Rain8 module. Each module maps into 8 UPD DID’s.

For use of UPB DID’s 1 through 8, a value of 1 would be entered into the Module ID setup field to indicate that this UPB Rain8 Module #1. If the value of 2 is entered for the DID, then the UPB DID’s

248

to which the module will respond will be 9 through 16. The same relationship exists for modules 3 and above.

• Select the Enable Rain8 Timers checkbox so the Rain8 will turnoff each zone as a safety precaution.

• Enter the timeout amount for each of the 8 valves. This value will be a few minutes longer than the longest that a zone will be run at any one time

• The timer resolution expected by mcsSprinklers is in Minutes so that selection should be made at the radio button.

• mcsSprinklers will support either a counter input for water use measurement or a switch input for an inhibit. Select the radio for how it will be used in this application. If input is not used then select the unused radio position. The input data will be presented on a UPB DID that is entered on the input.

This is a single DID and not a Rain8 Module ID that is used for the output control. If the counter input data is to be delivered when UPB DID 99 is queried, t hen a value of 99 would be entered on the setup.

The same is true for any other input UPB DID

• Click on the Write EPROM button to save the setup

• Click on the Read EPOM button to confirm the setup

Figure 86 Rain8 UPB EPROM Setup

12.5.4 The Rain8UPB and UPStart

In the UPB world everything is setup with UPStart. The export from UPStart is used as the input when other automation is integrated with UPB. Unfortunately UPStart does not see the Rain8UPB as a standard

UPB module. The solution is to create 8 UPB Appliance modules with their DID’s mapped into the 8

Rain8 DIDs to become “place holders” for the Rain8UPBs.

249

To installer must enter the module numbers that were previously programmed into the Rain8UPB. For example you have one Rain8UPB module and it is configured to be module ID #3, the actual UPB device

ID’s will be 17 through 24 for these 8 valves. As the user/installer you need to select module ID’s that will result in Device IDs that are not already being used by UPStart.

If what you have selected overlaps with your existing UPB network then you will need to reprogram the

Rain8UPB to find an unused sequence of UPB DID’s. It also means that in the future when you add other

UPB modules you will not want to add these at the same device address as the Rain8UPBs.

12.5.5 Troubleshooting with the Status LED

This Rain8 features a status LED visible from the bottom on the module just the left of the RJ45 network jacks.

No LED

The Rain8 is not running. Verify 24VAC transformer is connected to the last two terminals.

Steady LED

Everything is working okay. No incoming commands.

Regular flashing LED

No PIM detected. Check modular cable and verify correct type. Verify interface plugged in to outlet and connected to Rain8.

Intermittent flashing LED, 1 – 2 seconds OFF

Normal operation to turn on or off a zone.

Incoming command detected with a NID code and DID code that is enabled. The specified zone will now have 24VAC between in and the common terminal(s).

Intermittent flashing LED, very short OFF

Incoming UPB signal detected with NID or DID codes that are not enabled. No zones will be active.

Checking it out

Checkout can be done after setup of the Rain8UPB within mcsSprinklers by running the Communication test. It can also be setup with a test application that is available from http://wgldesigns.com/rain8upb.html

This program runs on a PC and requires a second PIM to communicate with the power line and present

UPB signals to your Rain8UPB.

1. Verify your Rain8upb’s green LED is on steady.

2. Select the COM port number your second PIM is connected to and click “connect”.

3. Enter the NID that was configured earlier.

4. Enter the assigned rain8 module number.

5. Click on the key that represents the zone you wish to activate.

6. Click on “send on cmd” and specified zone should now have 24VAC between its terminal and common (COM).

7. If the “auto query” is enabled, an automatic status request is transmitted each time a command is sent.

The results of the query are a sold green circle if the zone is active and a checkered one if it is off. A gray circle indicates no response from the query. Possibly due to no matching NID or DID. The query command can also be sent manually by clicking its button.

250

13 RS-232 Adapters

13.1 USB – Serial

USB to RS-232 COM adapters are available at most computer hardware suppliers. Typically the hardware quality is similar for most products, but the software drivers do vary in quality. Products based upon the

FTDI chipset have well supported software drivers. Two known products that have had good success are:

Byterunner: http://www.byterunner.com/byterunner/new_frontpage=usbserialadapters

Digi Edgeport: http://www.digi.com/products/usb/edgeport.jsp#overview

IP – Serial

IP to RS-232 adapters have been in use for 20+ years in applications of printer and terminal servers. This means surplus hardware is often available for the wired version of IP to Serial. New technology is in widespread use with many suppliers that have both wired and WiFi versions.

Two primary issue that have been experienced are software drivers and voltage levels. A driver can be used to emulate a COM port such as redirector software from Lantronix. This is needed for the Basic and

Standard mcsSprnklers versions. The Professional version is able to communicate directly in IP using a raw (no protocol) mode. The driver problem typically arrises as new operating systems are released and especially for the x64 versions.

The second issue is for voltage level. Many IP/Serial products use TTL (3.5V/0V) rather than RS-232

(12V/-12V). The standard Rain8Net operates at the lower voltage levels, but the Rain8Net PRO does not.

Some suppliers for new products are:

Comtrol DeviceMaster: http://www.comtrol.com/pub/products/category/cid/63

Lantronix: http://www.lantronix.com/device-networking/embedded-device-servers/

Bluetooth – Serial

Bluetooth is a new technology with wireless connectivity that has coverage typical of a home installation.

While the advertised range is over 100 ft, it will depend upon installation specifics that allow clear RF transmission.

A supplier which has yielded good results is:

WCSC: http://store.wcscnet.com/cgi/display.cgi?item_num=HDWBTRS232

251

14 User Access Control and Confirmation Prompts

When running on Windows version starting with Vista enhanced security needs to be considered. mcsSprinklers must be “run as administrator” since it communicates with hardware resources. When User

Access Control (UAC) is enabled then a user prompt will be presented to confirm startup intent with the additional privileges. This prompt is usually not desirable, especially with unattended restarts. This can be overcome with a shortcut that enables elevated operation. A tutorial is provided at http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/11949-elevated-program-shortcut-without-uac-prompt-create.html

which is shown in the steps below.

1.

Press the Windows + R keys to open the Run dialog, type taskschd.msc, and press Enter.

NOTE:

This will open Task Scheduler. This file is located at:

C:\Windows\system32\taskschd.msc.

2.

While having Task Scheduler Library selected in the left pane, click/tap on

Create task in the far right pane. (see screenshot below)

3.

Under the General tab, type in the "Name" of the program you want to create this shortcut for. (see screenshot below)

NOTE:

This will be the name of the task. As an example, I will use CCleaner for that

program. Make note of this name, you will need it later in step 12 and 14 below.

252

4.

Check the Run with highest privileges box. (See screenshot below)

253

5.

Click/tap on the Configure for drop down box to open it, and select Windows®

7, Windows Server™ 2008 R2 or the Windows you are currently in. (see screenshot above and below)

NOTE:

This is like

compatibility mode

. If the program does not support running in

Windows 7 normally, then you can select the OS that is does support running in instead to have it run in compatibility mode as if it was running in that OS instead of

Windows 7.

6.

Click/tap on the Actions tab, then on the New button. (see screenshot below)

254

7.

In the Program/script: box in the Actions tab, copy and paste the path below.

(see screenshot below step 9)

NOTE:

Thank you to

chillz

for the updated steps 7 and 8.

%windir%\System32\cmd.exe

8.

In the Add arguments (optional): box in the Actions tab, type in the argument below. (see screenshot below step 9)

NOTE:

Substitute

Task Name

in the argument below with the name you entered in

step 3 (ex: CCleaner) within quotes, and substitute

Full Path of Program

in the

argument below with the actual full path of the program's .exe file within quote.

/c start " Task Name " " Full Path of Program

"

For example:

Code:

/c start "CCleaner" "C:\Program Files \CCleaner\CCleaner64.exe"

9.

Click/tap on OK. (see screenshot below)

255

10.

Click/tap on the Conditions tab, and uncheck the Stop if the computer

switches to battery power box first, then uncheck the Start the task only if the

computer is on AC power box. (see screenshots below)

NOTE:

This step is mostly for laptops, so that you will be able to run the program

when the laptop is running on battery power.

256

257

11.

Click/tap on OK. (See screenshots above)

12.

You will now see your new task created with the name (ex: CCleaner) you gave it in step 3. Close Task Scheduler. (see screenshot below)

258

13.

Right click or press and hold on an empty area of your desktop , then click/tap on New and Shortcut.

14.

Type in the target below for the location field, then click/tap on the Next button. (see screenshot below)

NOTE:

Subsitute

task-name

in the target with the name (ex: CCleaner) within

quotes that you used in step 3.

schtasks /run /tn " task-name

"

For example:

For my task name CCleaner I used from step 3, I would type:

schtasks /run /tn "CCleaner"

259

15.

Type in a name you want for the shortcut (ex: CCleaner), then click/tap on the

Finish button. (see screenshot below)

260

16.

Right click on the new shortcut (ex: CCleaner) on the desktop, then click/tap on

Properties.

17.

Click/tap on the Shortcut tab, and on the Change Icon button. (see screenshot below)

261

18.

Click/tap on OK. (see screenshot below)

19.

Click/tap on the Browse button. (see screenshot below)

262

20.

Navigate to the .exe file of the program that you have created this shortcut with, select it, and click/tap on Open. (see screenshot below)

NOTE:

If you have a icon of your own that you would prefer to use instead, then

navigate to where you have that icon saved at instead.

263

21.

Select the icon you want for the shortcut, then click/tap on OK. (see screenshot below)

264

22.

Click/tap on OK. (see screenshot below)

23.

You can now use this elevated shortcut to

run at startup in your "Startup" folder

,

run at startup as a task

,

Pin to Start Menu

,

Pin to Taskbar

,

assign a keyboard shortcut

, or move to where you like for easy use.

Note

If you would like to stop the quick flashing CMD pop-up when using the shortcut, then you can do this below to do so.

• Right click on the shortcut and click on Properties.

Click on the Shortcut tab.

Select Minimized in the drop down menu to the left of Run, and click/tap

OK.

24.

When you run this new elevated shortcut, you will now no longer have to click/tap on YES to approve the UAC prompt to allow the program

run as administrator

.

265

Tip

To Undo and Remove this Task:

While having Task Scheduler Library selected in the left pane, right click on the task in the right pane that you created in step 12, then click on Delete and Yes to approve.

• Delete the shortcut.

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