WSG-1068 6.8 LITER - EDI Ford Industrial Engine Documentation

WSG-1068 6.8 LITER - EDI Ford Industrial Engine Documentation
 WSG‐1068 6.8 LITER INDUSTRIAL ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL EDI # March, 2009 Pages 1 ‐ 28 Pages 29 ‐ 158
Pages 159 ‐ 183
Pages 184 ‐ 188
Section
Index
Pages 189 ‐ 219
Pages 220 ‐ 233
Pages 234 ‐ 250
Reproduction in any manner, in whole or in
part, is prohibited without the express
permission in writing from:
Pages 251‐ 298
Engine Distributors Inc.
Engine Distributors Inc policy is one of
continuous improvement and while every effort
is made to ensure that this publication is up to
date and correct in all respects, the right to
change prices, specifications and equipment at
any time without notice is reserved. Accordingly
this publication is not to be regarded as a
final description of any individual engine.
Pages 299 ‐ 312
1 Page 313 HEALTH & SAFETY
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING HEALTH AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE
CAREFULLY OBSERVED
WARNING: CARRYING OUT CERTAIN OPERATIONS AND HANDLING SOME
SUBSTANCES CAN BE DANGEROUS OR HARMFUL TO THE OPERATOR IF THE
CORRECT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT OBSERVED. SOME SUCH PRECAUTIONS
ARE RECOMMENDED AT THE APPROPRIATE POINTS IN THIS BOOK.
WARNING: WHILE IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THESE RECOMMENDED SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS ARE OBSERVED, CARE NEAR MACHINERY IS ALWAYS NECESSARY,
AND NO LIST CAN BE EXHAUSTIVE. ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS TO AVIOD POTENTIAL
SAFETY RISKS.
The following recommendations are for general guidance:
1. Always wear correctly fitting protective clothing which should be laundered regularly. Loose or baggy clothing
can be extremely dangerous when working on running engines or machinery. Clothing which becomes
impregnated with oil or other substances can constitute a health hazard due to prolonged contact with the skin
even through underclothing.
2. So far as practicable, work on or close to engines or machinery only when they are stopped. If this is not
practicable, remember to keep tools, test equipment and all parts of the body well away from the moving parts
of the engine or equipment—fans, drive belts and pulleys are particularly dangerous. The electric cooling fan
used on some installations is actuated automatically when the coolant reaches a specified temperature. For this
reason, care should be taken to ensure that the ignition/isolating switch is OFF when working in the vicinity of
the fan as an increase in coolant temperature may cause the fan suddenly to operate.
3. Avoid contact with exhaust pipes, exhaust manifolds and silencers when an engine is, or has recently been
running; these can be very hot and can cause severe burns.
4. Many liquids used in engines or vehicles are harmful if taken internally or splashed into the eyes. In the event of
accidentally swallowing gasoline (petrol), oil, diesel fuel, antifreeze, battery acid etc, do NOT encourage vomiting
and OBTAIN QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
Wear protective goggles when handling liquids which are harmful to the eyes; these include ammonia and battery
acid. If any of these substances are splashed in the eyes, wash out thoroughly with clean water and OBTAIN
QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation of all
industrial engines as well as the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This Service Manual provides
general directions for accomplishing service and repair work with tested, effective techniques. Following them will
help assure reliability.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................
Safety Notice..........................................................................................................................................
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings.............................................................................................................
Battery Handling and Charging .............................................................................................................
Forward .................................................................................................................................................
Engine Identification...............................................................................................................................
Parts and Service ..................................................................................................................................
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
Diagnosis and Testing
Special Tools.........................................................................................................................................
Inspection and Verification ....................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ......................................................................................................................................
Engine Oil Leaks ...................................................................................................................................
Compression Tests ................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Leakage Detection ..................................................................................................................
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test.................................................................................................................
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption .......................................................................................................
Oil Pressure Test....................................................................................................................................
Valve Train Analysis – Static..................................................................................................................
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic.............................................................................................................
Camshaft Lobe Lift ................................................................................................................................
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster .........................................................................................................................
11
12
13
15
16
17
17
19
20
21
21
22
23
General Service Procedures
Camshaft Journal Diameter....................................................................................................................
Camshaft Journal Clearance..................................................................................................................
Camshaft Lobe Surface..........................................................................................................................
Camshaft Lobe Lift ................................................................................................................................
Camshaft Runout ...................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter ...........................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper.................................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance..........................................................................................
Bearing Inspection .................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft End Play...............................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Runout .................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Taper ..............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round...................................................................................................................
Piston Inspection ...................................................................................................................................
Piston Diameter.....................................................................................................................................
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance ........................................................................................................
Piston Selection .....................................................................................................................................
Piston Ring End Gap..............................................................................................................................
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance ..........................................................................................................
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Diameter.......................................................................................
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper............................................................................................
Connecting Rod Cleaning ......................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore .........................................................................................................
Piston Pin Diameter................................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter .......................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Bend ...........................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Twist ...........................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance...........................................................................................
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance .......................................................................................................
24
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
28
29
29
29
29
30
30
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
32
32
33
33
1 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
INDEX (CONT.)
Subject
Page
General Service Procedures
Bearing Inspection ......................................................................................................................................
Roller Follower Inspection...........................................................................................................................
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection ............................................................................................................
Valve Stem Diameter ..................................................................................................................................
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance........................................................................................................
Valve Inspection..........................................................................................................................................
Valve Guide Inner Diameter........................................................................................................................
Valve Guide Reaming .................................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Installed Length......................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Free Length............................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Out-of-Square ........................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Compression Pressure ..........................................................................................................
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements....................................................................................................
Valve Seat Width.........................................................................................................................................
Valve Seat Runout ......................................................................................................................................
Flywheel Inspection.....................................................................................................................................
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance................................................................................................................
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection ..........................................................................................................................
Oil Pump Side Clearance............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Honing ..................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Cleaning ...............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Repair - Cast Iron Porosity Defects.....................................................................................
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement ......................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Distortion ...........................................................................................................................
Spark Plug Thread Repair...........................................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold Straightness....................................................................................................................
SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................................................................
2 34
34
34
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
36
37
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
39
39
40
40
40
42
43
43
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction
This section covers various engine tests, adjustments, service procedures and cleaning/inspection procedures. Engine
assembly and service specifications appear at the end of the Section 02.
For engine disassembly, assembly, installation, adjustment procedures and specifications, refer to Section 02.
This WSG-1068 engine incorporates a closed-type crankcase ventilation system.
To maintain the required performance level, the fuel system, ignition system and engine must be kept in good operating
condition and meet recommended adjustment specifications.
Before replacing damaged or worn engine components such as the crankshaft, cylinder head, valve guide, valves,
camshaft or cylinder block, make sure part(s) is not serviceable.
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE, DO NOT OPERATE THE
ENGINE UNTIL THE FAN BLADE HAS FIRST BEEN EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE CRACKS OR SEPARATION.
CAUTION: Use of abrasive grinding discs to remove gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces during
repair procedures can contribute to engine damage and wear. Airborne debris and abrasive grit from
the grinding disc may enter the engine through exposed cavities causing premature wear and eventual engine
damage.
Engine Distributors Inc does not recommend using abrasive grinding discs to remove engine gasket material. Use manual
gasket scrapers for removing gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces.
Take added care to prevent scratching or gouging aluminum sealing surfaces.
3 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Safety Notice
There are numerous variations in procedures, techniques, tools and parts for servicing equipment, as well as in the skill of
the individual doing the work. This manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or cautions as
to each. Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instructions provided in this Manual must first establish that neither
personal safety nor equipment integrity are compromised by the choice of methods, tools or parts.
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
As you read through the procedures, you will come across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each one is there for a
specific purpose. NOTES gives you added information that will help you to complete a particular procedure. CAUTIONS
are given to prevent you from making an error that could damage the equipment. WARNINGS remind you to be especially
careful in those areas where carelessness can cause personal injury. The following list contains some general
WARNINGS that you should follow when you work on the equipment.
GENERAL WARNINGS:
TO HELP AVOID INJURY:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ƒ
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR EYE PROTECTION.
USE SAFETY STANDS WHENEVER A PROCEDURE REQUIRES YOU TO BE UNDER THE EQUIPMENT.
BE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH IS ALWAYS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS OTHERWISE
REQUIRED BY THE PROCEDURE.
SET THE PARKING BRAKE (IF EQUIPPED) WHEN WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT. IF YOU HAVE AN
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION, SET IT IN PARK (ENGINE OFF) OR NEUTRAL (ENGINE ON) UNLESS
INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE FOR A SPECIFIC OPERATION. PLACE WOOD BLOCKS (4”X 4” OR LARGER)
TO THE FRONT AND REAR SURFACES OF THE TIRES TO PROVIDE FURTHER RESTRAINT FROM
INADVERTENT EQUIPMENT MOVEMENT.
OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A WELL VENTILATED AREA TO AVOID THE DANGER OF CARBON
MONOXIDE.
KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR CLOTHING AWAY FROM MOVING PARTS WHEN THE ENGINE IS
RUNNING, ESPECIALLY THE FAN BELTS.
TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID CONTACT WITH HOT METAL PARTS SUCH AS THE RADIATOR,
EXHAUST MANIFOLD, TAIL PIPE, CATALYTIC CONVERTER AND MUFFLER.
DO NOT SMOKE WHILE WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT.
ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES, LOOSE HANGING JEWELRY, AND LOOSE CLOTHING BEFORE
BEGINNING TO WORK ON THE EQUIPMENT. TIE LONG HAIR SECURELY BEHIND THE HEAD.
KEEP HANDS AND OTHER OBJECTS CLEAR OF THE RADIATOR FAN BLADES. ELECTRIC COOLING
FANS CAN START TO OPERATE AT ANY TIME BY AN INCREASE IN UNDERHOOD TEMPERATURES,
EVEN THOUGH THE IGNITION IS IN THE OFF POSITION. THEREFORE, CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO
ENSURE THAT THE ELECTRIC COOLING FAN IS COMPLETELY DISCONNECTED WHEN WORKING
UNDER THE HOOD.
1 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Battery Handling and Charging
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is not as hazardous provided that sensible precautions are observed
and that operatives have been trained in their use and are adequately supervised.
It is important that all labelling on the battery is carefully read, understood and complied with. The format of the following
symbols and labels is common to most brands of lead acid battery.
NOTE: Observe all manufacturers’ instructions when using charging equipment.
CAUTION: Batteries should not be charged in the vehicle or equipment. May damage electrical components.
2 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Forward
This book contains operating and maintenance instructions for the engine(s) listed on the title page.
The life of your engine unit and the delivery of the high performance built into it will depend on the care it receives
throughout its life. It is the operator’s responsibility to ensure that the engine is correctly operated and that the
maintenance operations outlined in this book are carried out regularly after the specified hours of operation have been
reached. We consider it to be in your interests to enlist the aid of an authorized EDI Distributor not only when repairs are
required but also for regular maintenance. Distributors are listed at the back of this manual.
Regular maintenance will result in minimal operating costs.
Engines manufactured by Ford Motor Company are available through Engine Distributors Incorporated. When in need of
parts or service, contact your local Authorized Distributor. In overseas territories, in the event of difficulties, communicate
directly with the supervising Ford affiliated Company in your area whose address appears at the end of this book.
Where the terms “Right” or “Left” occur in this publication, they refer to the respective sides of the engine when viewed
from the rear or flywheel end.
Pistons and valves are numbered from the front or timing cover end of the engine commencing at No. 1.
You may find that your engine assembly includes optional equipment not specifically covered in the following text.
Nevertheless, the maintenance procedures outlined in this book still apply to your engine.
3 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Engine Identification
Because of such a wide range of industrial engines – manufactured both in the U.S. and overseas – it is important that
you have as complete identification of the engine as possible in order to provide the correct replacement parts. New
engines being shipped include a standard parts listing describing the parts which does not tell the owner the part number.
It remains a distributor function to identify the part number. The key to identifying the engine is the identification decal
mounted on the engine rocker cover. That decal provides not only the engine serial number, but also the exact model or
type, options and S.O. (Special Order). The combination of that data permits you to isolate the precise engine, build level
and customer so you can determine the correct replacement parts.
Engine Identification Decal
An identification Decal is affixed to the valve cover of the engine. The decal contains the engine serial number which
identifies this unit from all others. Use all numbers when seeking information or ordering replacement parts for this engine.
For a handy reference, keep this information recorded in a separate location.
4 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Parts and Service
Replacement parts can be obtained through your local EDI Distributors listed in the back portion of this manual. They also
may be found in the yellow pages under “Engines” or contact Engine Distributors.
Engine Distributors Inc are equipped to perform major and minor repairs. They are anxious to see that all of your
maintenance and service needs are quickly and courteously completed.
5 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Special Tools
6 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer concern by operating the engine to duplicate the condition.
2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and electrical damage:
ƒ Engine coolant leaks.
ƒ Engine oil leaks.
ƒ Fuel leaks.
ƒ Damaged or severely worn pads.
ƒ Loose mounting bolts, studs, and nuts.
3. If the inspection reveals obvious concerns that can be readily identified, repair as required.
4. If the concerns remain after the inspection, determine the symptoms and go to the symptom
chart.
7 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Symptom Chart
Condition Possible Source Action
8 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
9 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Engine Oil Leaks
NOTE: When diagnosing engine oil leaks, the source
and location of the leak must be positively identified
prior to service.
Testing Procedure
Prior to performing this procedure, clean the cylinder
block, cylinder heads, valve covers, oil pan and flywheel
with a suitable solvent to remove all traces of oil.
•
•
Fluorescent Oil Additive Method
Use the 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic Inspection Kit to
perform the following procedure for oil leak diagnosis.
1. Clean the engine with a suitable solvent to
remove all traces of oil.
2. Drain engine oil crankcase and refill with
recommended oil, premixed with Diesel Engine
Oil Dye 164-R3705 meeting Ford specification
ESEM9C103- B1 or equivalent. Use a minimum
14.8 ml (0.5 ounce) to a maximum 29.6 ml (1
ounce) of fluorescent additive to all engines. If
the oil is not premixed, fluorescent additive must
first be added to crankcase.
3. Run the engine for 15 minutes. Stop the engine
and inspect all seal and gasket areas for leaks
using the 12 Volt Master UV diagnostic
Inspection Kit. A clear bright yellow or orange
area will identify the leak. For extremely small
leaks, several hours may be required for the
leak to appear.
4. If necessary, pressurize the main oil gallery
system to locate leaks due to improperly sealed,
loose or cocked plugs.
5. Repair all leaks as required.
Pressure Method
The crankcase can be pressurized to locate oil leaks.
The following materials are required to fabricate the tool
to be used:
• air supply and air hose
• air pressure gauge that registers pressure in 4 kPa
(1 psi) increments
• air line shutoff valve
• appropriate fittings to attach the above parts to oil
fill, PCV grommet hole and crankcase ventilation
tube
• appropriate plugs to seal any openings leading to
the crankcase
• a solution of liquid detergent and water to be applied
with a suitable applicator such as a squirt bottle or
brush
Fabricate the air supply hose to include the air line
shutoff valve and the appropriate adapter to permit the
air to enter the engine through the crankcase ventilation
tube. Fabricate the air pressure gauge to a suitable
adapter for installation on the engine at the oil filler
opening.
Open the air supply valve until the pressure gauge
maintains 34 kPa (5 psi).
Inspect sealed or gasketed areas for leaks by
applying a solution of liquid detergent and water
over areas for formation of bubbles which
indicates leakage.
Leakage Points - Above Engine
Examine the following areas for oil leakage.
• valve cover gaskets
• intake manifold gaskets
• cylinder head gaskets
• oil bypass filter
• oil level indicator tube connection
• oil pressure sensor
Leakage Points - Under Engine
• oil pan gaskets
• oil pan sealer
• oil pan rear seal
• engine front cover gasket
• crankshaft front seal
• crankshaft rear oil seal
• crankshaft main bearing cap side bolts
Leakage Points - with Flywheel Removed
NOTE: Air leakage in the area around a crankshaft rear
oil seal does not necessarily indicate a crankshaft rear
oil seal leak. However, if no other cause can be found
for oil leakage, assume that the crankshaft rear oil seal
is the cause of the oil leak.
NOTE: Light foaming equally around valve cover bolts
and crankshaft seals is not detrimental; no repairs are
required.
• crankshaft rear oil seal
• rear main bearing cap parting line
• rear main bearing cap and seals
• flywheel mounting bolt holes (with flywheel installed)
• camshaft rear bearing covers or pipe plugs at the
end of oil passages
Oil leaks at crimped seams in sheet metal parts and
cracks in cast or stamped parts can be detected when
pressurizing the crankcase.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Compression Tests
Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Compression Gauge Check
1. Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the
correct viscosity and at the proper level and that
the battery is properly charged. Operate until
the engine is at normal operating temperature.
Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position,
then remove all the spark plugs.
2. Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
3. Install a Compression Tester in the No. 1
cylinder.
4. Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. With the ignition switch in the OFF
position, and using the auxiliary starter switch,
crank the engine a minimum of five compression
strokes and record the highest reading. Note the
approximate number of compression strokes
required to obtain the highest reading.
5. Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the
engine approximately the same number of
compression strokes.
Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are considered
within specification if the lowest reading cylinder is
within 75 percent of the highest reading. Refer to the
Compression Pressure Limit Chart.
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt approximately
one tablespoon of clean engine oil meeting Ford
specification ESE-M2C153-E on top of the pistons in
the low-reading cylinders. Repeat the compression
pressure check on these cylinders.
Interpreting Compression Readings
1. If compression improves considerably, with the
addition of oil, piston rings are faulty.
2. If compression does not improve with oil, valves
are sticking or seating improperly.
3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low
compression pressures and squirting oil on
each piston does not increase compression, the
head gasket may be leaking between cylinders.
Engine oil or coolant in cylinders could result
from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart when
checking cylinder compression so that the lowest
reading is within 75 percent of the highest reading.
1 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Leakage Detection
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of the
Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit
will be helpful in pinpointing the exact cause.
Bring the engine to normal operating temperature.
Connect the Vacuum/Pressure Tester to the intake
manifold. Run the engine at the specified idle speed.
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug hole,
the piston is brought up to dead center on the
compression stroke, and compressed air is admitted.
The vacuum gauge should read between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) depending upon the engine condition and
the altitude at which the test is performed. Subtract
4.0193 kPa (1 in-Hg) from the specified reading for
every 304.8 m (1,000 feet) of elevation above sea level.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a special
gauge included in the kit will read the percentage of
leakage. Leakage exceeding 20 percent is excessive.
The reading should be steady. If necessary, adjust the
gauge damper control (where used) if the needle is
fluttering rapidly. Adjust the damper until the needle
moves easily without excessive flutter.
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder, listen
for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the intake valve will
be heard in the throttle body. A leak at the exhaust valve
can be heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the piston
rings will be audible at the positive crankcase ventilation
(PCV) connection. If air is passing through a blown
head gasket to an adjacent cylinder, the noise will be
evident at the spark plug hole of the cylinder into which
the air is leaking. Cracks in the cylinder blocks or gasket
leakage into the cooling system may be detected by a
stream of bubbles in the radiator.
Oil Leak and Valve Stem Seal Test
The cylinder leakage detector tests for engine oil leaks
and checks the valve stem seals for leakage.
1. Plug all crankcase openings except the one
used for connecting the leakage detector.
2. Connect the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air
Pressurization Kit to a crankcase opening (an oil
level indicator tube is convenient). Adjust the air
pressure to approximately 34 kPa (5 psi).
3. Using a solution of liquid soap and water, brush
the solution along the gasket sealing surfaces
and bearing seals. Look for bubbles or foam.
4. Remove the spark plugs and rotate the
crankshaft slowly with a wrench. Check for large
amounts of air escaping into the cylinders as
each intake valve and exhaust valve opens.
5. The spark plugs on the leaking cylinders will
probably show deposits of burned oil.
2 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Interpreting Vacuum Gauge Readings
A careful study of the vacuum gauge reading while the
engine is idling will help pinpoint trouble areas. Always
conduct other appropriate tests before arriving at a final
diagnostic decision. Vacuum gauge readings, although
helpful, must be interpreted carefully.
needle drops to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). Upon
deceleration, the needle runs slightly above 74
kPa (22 in-Hg).
5. STICKING VALVES: When the needle (dotted)
remains steady at a normal vacuum but
occasionally flicks (sharp, fast movement) down
and back about 13 kPa (4 in-Hg), one or more
valves may be sticking.
6. BURNED OR WARPED VALVES: A regular,
evenlyspaced, downscale flicking of the needle
indicates one or more burned or warped valves.
Insufficient hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic
lash adjuster (HLA) clearance will also cause this
reaction.
7. POOR VALVE SEATING: A small but regular
downscale flicking can mean one or more valves
are not seating.
8. WORN VALVE GUIDES: When the needle
oscillates over about a 13 kPa (4 in-Hg) range at
idle speed, the valve guides could be worn. As
engine speed increases, the needle will become
steady if guides are responsible.
9. WEAK VALVE SPRINGS: When the needle
oscillation becomes more violent as engine rpm
is increased, weak valve springs are indicated.
The reading at idle could be relatively steady.
10. LATE VALVE TIMING: A steady but low reading
could be caused by late valve timing.
11. IGNITION TIMING RETARDING: Retarded ignition
timing will produce a steady but somewhat low
reading.
12. INSUFFICIENT SPARK PLUG GAP: When spark
plugs are gapped too close, a regular, small
pulsation of the needle can occur.
13. INTAKE LEAK: A low, steady reading can be
caused by an intake manifold or throttle body
gasket leak.
14. BLOWN HEAD GASKET: A regular drop of fair
magnitude can be caused by a blown head
gasket or warped cylinder head-to-cylinder block
surface.
15. RESTRICTED EXHAUST SYSTEM: When the
engine is first started and is idled, the reading
may be normal, but as the engine rpm is
increased, the back pressure caused by a clogged
muffler, kinked tail pipe or other concerns will cause the
needle to slowly drop to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). The needle then
may slowly
rise. Excessive exhaust clogging will
cause the
needle to drop to a low point even if the
engine is only idling.
When vacuum leaks are indicated, search out and
correct the cause. Excess air leaking into the system
will upset the fuel mixture and cause concerns such as
rough idle, missing on acceleration or burned valves. If
the leak exists in an accessory unit such as the power
brake booster, the unit will not function correctly. Always
fix vacuum leaks.
Most vacuum gauges have a normal band indicated on
the gauge face.
The following are potential gauge readings. Some are
normal; others should be investigated further.
1. NORMAL READING: Needle between 51-74
kPa (15-22 in-Hg) and holding steady.
2. NORMAL READING DURING RAPID
ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION:
When the engine is rapidly accelerated (dotted
needle), the needle will drop to a low reading
(not to zero). When the throttle is suddenly
released, the needle will snap back up to a
higher than normal figure.
3. NORMAL FOR HIGH-LIFT CAMSHAFT WITH
LARGE OVERLAP: The needle will register as
low as 51 kPa (15 in-Hg) but will be relatively
steady. Some oscillation is normal.
4. WORN RINGS OR DILUTED OIL: When the
engine is accelerated (dotted needle), the
3 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
the Engine Operator’s handbook.
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption
The amount of oil an engine uses will vary with the way
the equipment is driven in addition to normal engine-to
engine variation. This is especially true during the first
340 hours or 16,100 km (10,000 miles) when a new
engine is being broken in or until certain internal engine
components become conditioned. Engines used in
heavy-duty operation may use more oil. The following
are examples of heavy-duty operation:
• severe loading applications
• sustained high speed operation
Oil Consumption Test
The following diagnostic procedure is used to determine
the source of excessive internal oil consumption.
NOTE: Oil use is normally greater during the first 300
hours of service. As hours increase, oil use generally
decreases. Engines in normal service should get at
least 31.7 hours per quart (900 miles per quart) after
300 hours of service. High speeds, heavy loads, high
ambient temperature and other factors may result in
greater oil use.
1. Determine customer’s engine load habits, such
as sustained high speed operation, extended
idle, heavy work loads and other considerations.
2. Verify that the engine has no external oil leak as
described under Engine Oil Leaks in the
Diagnosis and Testing portion of this section.
3. Verify that the engine has the correct oil level
dipstick.
4. Verify that the engine is not being run in an
overfilled condition. Check the oil level at least
five minutes after a hot shutdown with the
engine/vehicle parked on a level surface. In no
case should the level be above the top of the
cross-hatched area and the letter F in FULL. If
significantly overfilled, perform steps 5 through
9. If not proceed to step 10.
5. Drain the engine oil, remove and replace the oil
bypass filter and refill with one quart less than
the recommended amount.
6. Run the engine for three minutes (10 minutes if
cold), and allow the oil to drain back for at least
five minutes with the engine/vehicle on a level
surface.
7. Remove oil level dipstick and wipe clean.
CAUTION: Do not wipe with anything contaminated
with silicone compounds.
8. Reinstall the oil level dipstick, being sure to seat
it firmly in the oil level indicator tube. Remove
the oil level dipstick and draw a mark on the
back (unmarked) surface at the indicated oil
level. This level should be about the same as
the ADD mark on the face of the oil level
dipstick.
9. Add one quart of oil. Restart the engine and
allow to idle for at least two minutes. Shut off
the engine and allow the oil to drain back for at
least five minutes. Mark the oil level dipstick,
using the procedure above. This level may
range from slightly below the top of the crosshatched area to slightly below the letter F in
FULL.
10. Record the vehicle mileage or hours.
Engines need oil to lubricate the following internal
components:
• cylinder block, cylinder walls
• pistons, piston pins and rings
• intake and exhaust valve stems
• intake and exhaust valve guides
• all internal engine components
When the pistons move downward, a thin film of oil is
left on the cylinder walls. As the engine is operated,
some oil is also drawn into the combustion chambers
past the intake and exhaust valve stem seals and
burned.
The following is a partial list of conditions that can affect
oil consumption rates:
• engine size
• operator driving habits
• ambient temperature
• quality and viscosity of the oil
Operating under varying conditions can frequently be
misleading. An engine that has been run for short hours
or in below-freezing ambient temperatures may have
consumed a “normal” amount of oil. However, when
checking engine oil level, it may measure up to the full
mark on the oil level dipstick due to dilution
(condensation and fuel) in the engine crankcase. The
engine might then be run at high speeds where the
condensation and fuel boil off. The next time the engine
oil is checked, it may appear that a liter (quart) of oil was
used in about 3 to 3-1/2 hours. This perceived 3 to 3-1/
2 hours per liter (quart) oil consumption rate causes
customer concern even though the actual overall oil
consumption rate is about 50 hours per liter (quart).
Make sure the selected engine oil meets Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-F and the recommended
API performance category “SJ” or higher and SAE
viscosity grade as shown in the equipment Owner’s or
Operators Engine handbook. It is also important that the
engine oil is changed at the intervals specified. Refer to
4 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
11. Instruct the customer to run engine as usual and
perform the following:
ƒ Check the oil level regularly at intervals of
3 to 3-1/2 hours.
ƒ Return to the service point when the oil level
drops below the lower (ADD) mark on the oil
level dipstick.
ƒ Add only full quarts of the same oil in an
emergency. Note the mileage at which the
oil is added.
12. Check the oil level under the same conditions
and at the same location as in Steps 7-9.
ƒ Measure the distance from the oil level to
the UPPER mark on the oil level dipstick
and record.
ƒ Measure the distance between the two
scribe marks and record.
ƒ Divide the first measurement by the second.
ƒ Divide the hours run during the oil test by
the result. This quantity is the approximate
oil consumption rate in hours per quart.
13. If the oil consumption rate is unacceptable,
proceed to next step.
14. Check the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. Make sure the system is not plugged.
15. Check for plugged oil drain-back holes in the
cylinder heads and cylinder blocks.
16. If the condition still exists after performing the
above steps, proceed to next step.
17. Perform a cylinder compression test or perform
a cylinder leak detection test with Engine
Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit.
This can help determine the source of oil
consumption such as valves, piston rings or
other areas.
20. Perform the oil consumption test to confirm the
oil consumption concern has been resolved.
Oil Pressure Test
1. Disconnect and remove the oil pressure sensor
from the engine.
2. Connect the Engine Oil Pressure Gauge and
Transmission Test Adapter to the oil pressure
sender oil gallery port.
3. Run the engine until normal operating
temperature is reached.
4. Run the engine at 3000 rpm and record the
gauge reading.
5. The oil pressure should be within specifications.
6. If the pressure is not within specification, check
the following possible sources:
ƒ insufficient oil
ƒ oil leakage
ƒ worn or damaged oil pump
ƒ oil pump screen cover and tube
ƒ excessive main bearing clearance
ƒ excessive connecting rod bearing
clearance
NOTE: After determining if worn parts should be
replaced, make sure correct replacement parts are used.
18. Check valve guides for excessive guide
clearances. REPLACE all valve stem seals after
verifying valve guide clearance.
19. Worn or damaged internal engine components
can cause excessive oil consumption. Small
deposits of oil on the tips of spark plugs can be
a clue to internal oil consumption. If internal oil
consumption still persists, proceed as follows:
ƒ Remove the engine from the vehicle and
place it on an engine work stand.
ƒ Remove the intake manifolds, cylinder
heads, oil pan and oil pump.Check
piston ring clearance, ring gap and ring
orientation. Repair as required.
ƒ Check for excessive bearing clearance.
Repair as required.
5 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic
Valve Train Analysis – Static
Start the engine and, while idling, check for proper
operation of all parts. Check the following:
With engine off and valve cover removed, check for
damaged or severely worn parts and correct assembly.
Make sure correct parts are used with the static engine
analysis as follows.
Rocker Arm
ƒ Check for plugged oil in the rocker arms or
cylinder head.
ƒ Check for proper overhead valve train
lubrication.
Rocker Arm
ƒ Check for loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts.
ƒ Check for plugged oil feed in the rocker arms or
cylinder head.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, accelerate the engine
to 1200 rpm ± 100 rpm with the transmission in
NEUTRAL or load removed and the engine at normal
operating temperature. Oil should spurt from the rocker
arm oil holes such that valve tips and rocker arms are
well oiled or, with the valve covers off, oil splash may
overshoot the rocker arms. If oiling is insufficient for this
to occur, check oil passages for blockage.
Camshaft Roller Followers and Hydraulic Lash
Adjusters
ƒ Check for loose mounting bolts on camshaft
carriers.
ƒ Check for plugged oil feed in the camshaft roller
followers, hydraulic lash adjusters (HLA) or
cylinder heads.
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer Keys
ƒ Check for proper operation of positive rotator.
Camshaft
ƒ Check for broken or damaged parts.
ƒ Check the bolts on the intake manifold.
Valves and Cylinder Head
ƒ Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
ƒ Check for missing or damaged valve stem seals
or guide mounted valve stem seals.
Valve Springs
ƒ Check for broken or damaged parts.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, check oil passages for
blockage, then accelerate the engine to 1200 rpm with
the transmission in NEUTRAL or load removed and the
engine at normal operating temperature. Oil should
spurt from the rocker arm oil holes such that valve tips
and camshaft roller followers are well oiled. With the
valve covers off, some oil splash may overshoot
camshaft roller followers.
Valve Spring Retainer and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
ƒ Check for proper seating of the valve spring
retainer key on the valve stem and in valve
spring retainer.
Valve Spring Retainer Keys
ƒ Check for proper seating on the valve stem.
Valves and Cylinder Head
ƒ Check the head gasket for proper installation.
ƒ Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
ƒ Check for worn or damaged valve tips.
ƒ Check for missing or damaged guide-mounted
valve stem seal.
ƒ Check collapsed lash adjuster gap.
ƒ Check installed valve spring height.
ƒ Check for missing or worn valve spring seats.
ƒ Check for plugged oil metering orifice in cylinder
head oil reservoir (if equipped).
Static checks (engine off) are to be made on the engine
prior to the dynamic procedure.
6 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order and
make a note of the readings.
1. Remove the valve covers.
7. Compare the total lift recorded on the dial
indicator with specifications.
8. To check the accuracy of the original dial
indicator reading, continue to rotate the
crankshaft until the indicator reads zero.
2. Remove the rocker arm seat bolts, rocker arm
seat and rocker arms.
9. Remove the dial indicator, adapter and auxiliary
starter switch.
CAUTION: After installing rocker arms, do not rotate
the crankshaft until lash adjusters have had
sufficient time to bleed down. To do otherwise may
cause serious valve damage. Manually bleeding
down lash adjusters will reduce waiting time.
10. Install the rocker arm seats, rocker arms and
rocker arm seat bolts.
11. Install the valve covers.
12. Install the spark plugs.
3. Make sure the lash adjuster is seated against
camshaft. Install the dial Indicator with Bracketry
so the ball socket adapter of the indicator is on
top of the hydraulic lash adjuster or the Cup
Shaped Adapter is on top of the push rod and in
the same plane as the lash adjuster push rod
movement.
4. Remove the spark plugs.
5. Connect an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. Crank the engine with the ignition switch
in the OFF position. Bump the crankshaft over
until the hydraulic lash adjuster is on the base
circle of the camshaft lobe. At this point, the
hydraulic lash adjuster will be in its lowest
position. If checking during engine assembly,
turn the crankshaft using a socket or ratchet.
6. Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the
crankshaft slowly until the camshaft lobe is in
the fully-raised position (highest indicator
reading).
NOTE: If the lift on any lobe is below specified service
limits, the camshaft and any component operating on
worn lobes must be replaced.
7 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
1. Clean the lash adjuster to remove all traces of
engine oil.
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster
Hydraulic lash adjuster noise can be caused by any of
the following:
• excessive collapsed lash adjuster gap
• sticking lash adjuster plunger
• lash adjuster check valve not functioning
properly
• air in lubrication system
• leakdown rate too rapid
• excessive valve guide wear
NOTE: lash adjusters/lash adjuster cannot be checked
with engine oil in them. Use only testing fluid. New
hydraulic lash adjusters/lash adjusters are already filled
with testing fluid.
2. Place the lash adjuster in the tester with the
plunger facing upward. Position the steel ball
provided in the plunger cap. Add testing fluid to
cover the hydraulic tappet/lash adjuster and
compress Hydraulic Tappet Leakdown Tester until
the hydraulic lash adjuster is filled with testing fluid
and all traces of air bubbles have disappeared.
The fluid can be purchased from
the tester’s manufacturer. Using kerosene or
any other fluid will not provide an accurate test.
Excessive collapsed lash adjuster gap can be caused
by loose rocker arm seat bolts/nuts, incorrect initial
adjustment or wear of lash adjuster face, or worn roller
lash adjusters, push rod, rocker arm, rocker arm seat or
valve tip. With lash adjuster collapsed, check gap
between the valve tip and the rocker arm to determine if
any other valve train parts are damaged, worn or out of
adjustment.
A sticking lash adjuster plunger can be caused by dirt,
chips or varnish inside the lash adjuster.
A lash adjuster check valve that is not functioning can
be caused by an obstruction such as dirt or chips that
prevent it from closing when the camshaft lobe is lifting
the lash adjuster. It may also be caused by a broken
check valve spring.
3. Adjust the length of the ram so the pointer is just
below the start timing mark when the ram contacts
the hydraulic lash adjuster. Start Timing as the pointer
passes the start timing mark and end timing as the pointer
reaches the center
mark.
Air bubbles in the lubrication system will prevent the
lash adjuster from supporting the valve spring load. This
can be caused by too high or too low an oil level in the
oil pan or by air being drawn into the system through a
hole, crack or leaking gasket on the oil pump screen
cover and tube.
If the leakdown time is below the specified time for used
lash adjusters, noisy operation can result. If no other
cause for noisy lash adjusters can be found, the
leakdown rate should be checked and any lash
adjusters outside the specification should be replaced.
4. A satisfactory lash adjuster must have a leakdown
rate (time in seconds) within specified minimum
and maximum limits.
5. If the lash adjuster is not within specification,
replace it with a new lash adjuster. Do not
disassemble and clean new lash adjusters/lash
adjuster before testing because oil contained in
the new lash adjuster is test fluid.
6. Remove the fluid from the cup and bleed the fluid
from the lash adjuster by working the plunger up
and down. This step will aid in depressing the lash
adjuster plungers when checking valve clearance.
Assembled lash adjusters can be tested with Hydraulic
lash adjuster Leakdown Tester to check the leakdown
rate. The leakdown rate specification is the time in
seconds for the plunger to move a specified distance
while under a 22.7 kg (50 lb.) load. Test the lash
adjusters as follows:
Leakdown Testing
NOTE: Do not mix parts from different hydraulic valve
tappets/lash adjusters. Parts are select-fit and are not
interchangeable.
8 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO THE
EQUIPMENT, DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE WITH
THE HOOD OPEN UNTIL THE FAN BLADE HAS
BEEN EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE CRACKS AND
SEPARATION.
NOTE: Specifications show the expected minimum or
maximum condition.
NOTE: If a component fails to meet the specifications, it
is necessary to replace or refinish. If the component can
be refinished, wear limits are provided as an aid to
making a decision. Any component that fails to meet
specifications and cannot be refinished must be
replaced.
Camshaft Lobe Surface
Camshaft Journal Diameter
•
•
•
Measure each camshaft journal diameter in two
directions.
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
Camshaft Journal Clearance
NOTE: The camshaft journals must meet specifications
before checking camshaft journal clearance.
• Measure each camshaft bearing in two
directions.
• Subtract the camshaft journal diameter from the
camshaft bearing diameter
9 Inspect camshaft lobes for pitting or damage in
the active area. Minor pitting is acceptable
outside the active area.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Camshaft Runout
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Special Tool(s)
1. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft intake lobe lift.
NOTE: Camshaft journals must be within specifications
before checking runout.
•
•
2. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
3. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft exhaust lobe lift.
4. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
10 Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
the camshaft runout.
Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter
•
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions.
•
•
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
•
11 Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing
journal diameters in at least two directions at
each end of the main bearing journal.
If it is out of specifications, replace as
necessary.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal
Clearance
4. Verify the crankshaft journal clearance.
• If it is out of specification, replace as necessary
Special Tool(s)
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking journal clearance.
1. Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and
bearings.
2. Lay a piece of Plastigage® across the face of
each crankshaft main surface.
Bearing Inspection
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
• Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
• Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
• Scratching – dirty (C)
• Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
• Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
• One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not
seated (F)
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft while doing this
procedure.
3. Install and remove the crankshaft main bearing
cap.
12 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft End Play
Crankshaft Runout
Special Tool(s)
Special Tool(s)
1. Measure the crankshaft end play. Use the Dial
Indicator with Bracketry to measure crankshaft
end play.
2. Position the crankshaft to the rear of the cylinder
block.
3. Zero the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking runout.
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure the
crankshaft runout.
• Rotate the crankshaft and subtract the lowest
dial indicator reading from the highest dial
indicator reading to figure the crankshaft runout.
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
4. Move the crankshaft to the front of the cylinder
block. Note and record the camshaft end play
• If camshaft end play exceeds specifications,
replace the crankshaft thrust washers or thrust
bearing.
Cylinder Bore Taper
Measure the cylinder bore at the top and bottom. Verify
the cylinder bore is within the wear limit. The difference
indicates the cylinder bore taper. Bore the cylinder to
the next oversize.
13 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round
Measure the cylinder bore in two directions. The
difference is the out-of-round. Verify the out-of-round is
within the wear limit and bore the cylinder to the next
oversize limit.
2. Use the Piston Ring Groove Cleaner to clean
the piston ring grooves.
• Make sure the oil ring holes are clean.
Piston Inspection
Special Tool(s)
Piston Diameter
• Measure the piston skirt diameter.
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
a wire brush to clean the pistons or possible
damage can occur.
1. Clean and inspect the ring lands, skirts, pin
bosses, and the tops of the pistons. If wear
marks or polishing is found on the piston skirt,
check for a bent or twisted connecting rod.
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance
Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore
diameter to find the piston-to-cylinder bore clearance.
14 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Piston Selection
NOTE: The cylinder bore must be within the
specifications for taper and out-of-round before fitting a
piston.
1. Select a piston size based on the cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Use care when fitting piston rings to
avoid possible damage to the piston ring or the
cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Piston rings should not be transferred
from one piston to another to prevent damage to
cylinder worn or piston.
NOTE: Cylinder bore must be within specification for
taper and out-of-round to fit piston rings.
1. Use a piston without rings to push a piston ring
in a cylinder to the bottom of ring travel.
NOTE: For precision fit, new pistons are divided into
three categories within each size range based on their
relative position within the range. A paint spot on the
new pistons indicates the position within the size range.
2. Use a feeler gauge to measure the top piston
ring end gap and the second piston ring end
gap.
2.
•
•
•
Choose the piston with the proper paint color.
Red – in the lower third of the size range.
Blue – in the middle third of the size range.
Yellow – in the upper third of the size range.
Piston Ring End Gap
Special Tool(s)
15 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance
• Measure the crankshaft rod journal diameters in
two directions perpendicular to one another at
each end of the connecting rod journal. The
difference in the measurements from one end to
the other is the taper. Verify measurement is
within the wear limit.
Special Tool(s)
1. Inspect for a stop in the grooves.
2. Measure the piston-to-groove clearance.
Connecting Rod Cleaning
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
damage to connecting rods can occur.
NOTE: The connecting rod large end is mechanically
split or cracked to produce a unique parting face. This
produces a locking joint. Parts are not interchangeable.
• Mark and separate the parts and clean with
solvent. Clean the oil passages.
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal
Diameter
• Measure the crankshaft connecting rod journal
diameters in at least two directions
perpendicular to one another. The difference
between the measurements is the out-of-round.
Verify the journal is within the wear limit
specification.
16 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore
• Measure the inner diameter of the connecting
rod bushing. Verify the diameter is within
specification.
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.
• Measure the bore in two directions. The
difference is the connecting rod bore out-ofround. Verify the outof- round is within
specification.
Connecting Rod Bend
• Measure the connecting rod bend on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the bend
measurement is within specification.
Piston Pin Diameter
• Measure the piston pin diameter in two
directions at the points shown. Verify the
diameter is within specifications.
Connecting Rod Twist
• Measure the connecting rod twist on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
17 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft during this step.
• Measure the clearance between the connecting
rod and the piston. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
3. Install and torque to specifications, then remove
the connecting rod bearing cap.
4. Measure the Plastigage® to get the connecting
rod bearing journal clearance. The Plastigage®
should be smooth and flat. A change width
indicates a tapered or damaged connecting rod
bearing or connecting rod.
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance
Special Tool(s)
NOTE: The crankshaft connecting rod journals must be
within specifications to check the connecting rod
bearing journal clearances.
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.
1. Remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
2. Position a piece of Plastigage® across the
bearing surface.
18 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Roller Follower Inspection
Bearing Inspection
• Inspect the roller for flat spots or scoring. If any
damage is found, inspect the camshaft lobes
and hydraulic lash adjusters for damage.
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
• Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
• Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
• Scratching – dirty (C)
• Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
• Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
• One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not
seated (F)
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection
• Inspect the hydraulic lash adjuster and roller for
damage. If any damage is found, inspect the
camshaft lobes and valves for damage.
19 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Stem Diameter
2. Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool toward the
Dial Indicator and zero the Dial Indicator. Move
the Valve Stem Clearance Tool away from the
Dial Indicator and note the reading. The reading
will be double the valve stem-to-valve guide
clearance. Valves with oversize stems will need
to be installed if out of specification.
• Measure the diameter of each intake and
exhaust valve stem at the points shown. Verify
the diameter is within specification.
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Valve Inspection
Inspect the following valve areas:
• The end of the stem for grooves or scoring.
• The valve face and the edge for pits, grooves or
scores.
• The valve head for signs of burning, erosion,
warpage and cracking. Minor pits, grooves and
other abrasions may be removed.
• The valve head thickness for wear.
NOTE: Valve stem diameter must be within
specifications before checking valve stem to valve
guide clearance.
NOTE: If necessary, use a magnetic base.
1. Install the Valve Stem Clearance Tool on the
valve stem and install the Dial Indicator with
Bracketry. Lower the valve until the Valve Stem
Clearance Tool contacts the upper surface of
the valve guide.
20 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Spring Installed Length
Valve Guide Inner Diameter
• Measure the installed length of each valve
spring.
1. Measure the inner diameter of the valve guides
in two directions where indicated.
2. If the valve guide is not within specifications,
ream the valve guide and install a valve with an
oversize stem or remove the valve guide and
install a new valve guide.
Valve Spring Free Length
• Measure the free length of each valve spring.
Valve Guide Reaming
1. Use a hand-reaming kit to ream the valve guide.
Valve Spring Out-of-Square
Measure the out-of-square on each valve spring.
• Turn the valve spring and observe the space
between the top of the valve spring and the
square. Replace the valve spring if out of
specification.
2. Reface the valve seat.
3. Clean the sharp edges left by reaming.
21 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Seat Width
Valve Spring Compression Pressure
• Measure the valve seat width. If necessary,
grind the valve seat to specification.
Special Tool(s)
• Use the Valve/Clutch Spring Tester to check the
valve springs for proper strength at the specified
valve spring length.
Valve Seat Runout
• Use the Valve Seat Runout Gauge to check
valve seat runout.
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements
NOTE: After grinding valves or valve seats, check valve
clearance.
• Check the valve seat and valve angles.
22 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection
• Inspect the oil pump rotor tips for damage or
wear.
Flywheel Inspection
Special Tool(s)
1.
•
•
•
2.
Inspect the flywheel for:
Cracks (A).
Worn ring gear teeth (B).
Chipped or cracked ring gear teeth (C).
Inspect the flywheel ring gear runout.
Oil Pump Side Clearance
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance
• Measure the clearance between the rotor and
the pump housing.
• Place the Straight Edge across the top of the oil
pump and rotors and use the Feeler Gauge to
measure the clearance between the rotors and
the Straight Edge.
23 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Bore Cleaning
Cylinder Bore Honing
Special Tool(s)
CAUTION: If these procedures are not followed,
rusting of the cylinder bores may occur.
1) Clean the cylinder bores with soap or detergent and
water.
2) Thoroughly rinse with clean water and wipe dry with
a clean, lint-free cloth.
3) Use a clean, lint-free cloth and lubricate the cylinder
bores.
*
NOTE: Before any cylinder bore is honed, all main
bearing caps must be installed so the crankshaft
bearing bores will not become distorted.
NOTE: To correct taper or out-of-round, bore the
cylinder block.
NOTE: Honing should be done when fitting new piston
rings or to remove minor surface.
• Hone with the Engine Cylinder Hone Set, at a
speed of 300-500 rpm and a hone grit of 180220 to provide the desired cylinder bore surface
finish.
24 Use Engine Oil XO-10W30-QSP or -DSP or
equivalent meeting Ford specification
ESEM2C153-E.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Block Repair - Cast Iron Porosity
Defects
2. Inspect the cylinder block plug bore for any
damage that would interfered with the proper
sealing of the plug. If the cylinder block plug
bore is damaged, bore for the next oversize
plug.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to repair cracks, areas
where temperature will exceed 260°C (500°F) or
areas exposed to engine coolant or oil. These areas
will not repair and could cause future failure.
NOTE: Oversize plugs are identified by the OS stamped
in the flat located on the cup side of the plug.
3. Coat the cylinder block core plug and bore lightly
with Threadlock® 262 E2FZ-19554-B or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSKM2G351-A6 and install the cylinder block core
plug.
Repair porosity defects with an epoxy sealer meeting
Ford specification M3D35-A (E).
1. Clean the surface to be repaired to a bright, oilfree metal surface.
2. Chamfer or undercut the repair area to a greater
depth than the rest of the cleaned surface. Solid
metal must surround the area to be repaired.
3. Apply the epoxy sealer and heat-cure with a
250- watt lamp placed 254 mm (10 inches) from
the repaired surface, or air dry for 10-12 hours at
a temperature above 10°C (50°F).
4. Sand or grind the repaired area to blend with the
general contour of the surface.
5. Paint the surface to match the rest of the
cylinder block.
Cylinder Head - Distortion
Special Tool(s)
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement
•
Special Tool(s)
1. Use a slide hammer or tools suitable to remove
the cylinder block core plug.
25 Use a straight edge and a feeler gauge to
inspect the cylinder head for flatness. If the
cylinder head is distorted, install a new cylinder
head.
WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Cup-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the flange when installing
a cup type cylinder block core plug as this could
damage the sealing edge and result in leakage.
NOTE: When installed, the flanged edge must be below
the chamfered edge of the bore to effectively seal the
bore.
•
Use a fabricated tool to seat the cup type
cylinder block core plug.
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Expansion-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the crown when installing
an expansion type cylinder block core plug. This
could expand the plug before seating and result in
leakage.
•
Use a fabricated tool to seat the expansion type
cylinder block core plug.
26 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
Spark Plug Thread Repair
2. Start the tap into the spark plug hole, being
careful to keep it properly aligned. As the tap
begins to cut new threads, apply aluminum
cutting oil.
Special Tool(s)
3. Continue cutting the threads and applying oil
until the stop ring bottoms against the spark plug
seat.
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be removed from
the engine before installing a tapersert. If this
procedure is done with the cylinder head on the
engine, the cylinder walls can be damaged by metal
chips produced by the thread cutting process.
4. Remove the tap and metal chips.
5. Coat the threads of the mandrel with cutting oil.
Thread the tapersert onto the mandrel until one
thread of the mandrel extends beyond the
tapersert.
CAUTION: Do not use power or air-driven tools for
finishing taperserts.
NOTE: This repair is permanent and will have no effect
on cylinder head or spark plug life.
1. Clean the spark plug seat and threads.
NOTE: A properly installed tapersert will be either flush
with or 1.0 mm (0.039 inch) below the spark plug gasket
seat.
27 WSG-1068 GENERAL INFORMATION
6. Tighten the tapersert into the spark plug hole.
Exhaust Manifold Straightness
Special Tool(s)
•
Place the Straightedge across the exhaust
manifold flanges and check for warping with a
feeler gauge.
NOTE: The exhaust manifold shown is a typical exhaust
manifold.
7. Turn the mandrel body approximately one-half
turn counterclockwise and remove.
SPECIFICATIONS
NOTE: Ford Power Products industrial engines are
designed to perform with engine oils that are licensed
by the American Petroleum Institute (API), and oils
carrying the most current API classification should be
used.
:
28 WSG-1068 ENGINE
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Description..........................................................................................................................................
Engine Identification............................................................................................................................
Engine Code Information....................................................................................................................
Module View.......................................................................................................................................
Engine Intake Components................................................................................................................
Low End Components........................................................................................................................
Upper End Components.....................................................................................................................
Major Front End Components ...........................................................................................................
46
46
46
47
48
50
52
54
Diagnosis and Testing....................................................................................................................................
55
Engine Repair
Intake Manifold - Variable Resonance Induction System (VRIS) - Removal......................................
Intake Manifold - Variable Resonance Induction System (VRIS) - Installation...................................
Valve Cover - Left - Removal .............................................................................................................
Valve Cover - Left - Installation ..........................................................................................................
Valve Cover - Right -Removal............................................................................................................
Valve Cover - Right - Installation........................................................................................................
Crankshaft Pulley - Removal..............................................................................................................
Crankshaft Pulley - Installation...........................................................................................................
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal - Removal..................................................................................................
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal - Installation...............................................................................................
Front Engine Cover - Removal...........................................................................................................
Front Engine Cover - Installation........................................................................................................
Timing Drive Components - Removal ................................................................................................
Timing Drive Components - Installation .............................................................................................
Camshaft - Removal...........................................................................................................................
Camshaft - Installation........................................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold - RH - Removal .....................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold - RH - Installation ..................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold - LH - Removal.......................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold - LH - Installation....................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Removal ...................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Installation ................................................................................................................
Oil Level Indicator Tube - Removal ...................................................................................................
Oil Level Indicator Tube - Installation ................................................................................................
Oil Pan - Removal ..............................................................................................................................
Oil Pan - Installation ...........................................................................................................................
Oil Pump - Removal ...........................................................................................................................
Oil Pump - Installation ........................................................................................................................
Flywheel - Removal............................................................................................................................
Flywheel - Installation.........................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal - Removal ..................................................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal - Installation ...............................................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal (with retainer plate) - Removal ..................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal (with retainer plate) - Installation ...............................................................
Engine - Removal...............................................................................................................................
Engine - Disassembly.........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Disassembly.............................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Assembly..................................................................................................................
Engine - Assembly .............................................................................................................................
Engine - Installation............................................................................................................................
56
58
62
63
65
65
68
69
70
71
72
73
77
81
91
92
96
97
98
99
99
101
103
103
104
106
108
108
109
109
110
111
112
113
115
119
136
139
143
168
29 WSG-1068 ENGINE
INDEX (CONT.)
Subject
Page
Specifications
Torque Specifications..........................................................................................................................
General Specifications ........................................................................................................................
171
171
30 WSG-1068 ENGINE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
The 6.8 liter engine consists of four basic modules that
can be repaired individually. Remove only those
components required to repair the module.
The induction module consists of an upper and lower
intake manifold (9424).
Each aluminum cylinder head module utilizes a single
overhead camshaft (6250) to operate the two-valvespercylinder design. Individual ignition coils (12029) are
used for each spark plug (12405).
The cylinder block module is a cast iron, 90-degree V-10
cylinder block (6010).
The basic engine components consist of the following:
•
Two overhead camshafts.
•
Engine dynamic balance shaft.
•
Two valves per cylinder.
•
Aluminum cylinder heads (6049).
•
Cast iron, 90-degree V-10 cylinder block.
•
Two-piece aluminum intake manifold system.
Engine Identification
It is important the engine codes and the calibration
number be used when ordering parts or making inquiries
about the engine.
Engine Code Information
The engine code information label, located on the valve
cover, contains the following:
•
Engine build date.
•
Engine code.
31 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Module View
32 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Engine Intake Components
33 WSG-1068 ENGINE
34 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Low End Components
35 WSG-1068 ENGINE
36 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Upper End Components
37 WSG-1068 ENGINE
38 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Major Front End Components
39 WSG-1068 ENGINE
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Refer to Section 01 for basic mechanical concerns.
40 WSG-1068 ENGINE
ENGINE REPAIR
Intake Manifold – Variable Resonance
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY
LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE
WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED
COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE
ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN BE IGNITED,
RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM
REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN WHEN THE
ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING.
Induction System (VRIS) - Removal
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Drain the coolant system.
3. Loosen and slide the hose clamp and disconnect
the water outlet hose.
4. Remove the engine vacuum hoses.
5. Disconnect the water temperature indicator sender
unit electrical connectors.
6. Disconnect and remove the ten ignition coils (12029);
refer to Section 03.
7. Remove the drive belt (8620); refer to Section 05.
8. Remove the generator (GEN) (10300); refer to Section
06.
41 WSG-1068 ENGINE
9. Disconnect the hose clamps and remove the heater
water hose (18472).
10. Remove the water thermostat (8575).
11. Remove the two studs retaining the heater water
return tube.
12. Remove the bolts, the upper intake manifold and the
intake manifold gasket (9439). Discard the intake
manifold gaskets.
13. Pull back and remove the heater water return tube.
Inspect the O-rings and replace if required.
42 WSG-1068 ENGINE
14. Separate the upper and lower intake manifolds (9424).
•
•
Remove the ten bolts.
Discard the intake manifold gasket.
15. Clean all mating surfaces.
Intake Manifold – Variable Resonance
Induction System (VRIS) - Installation
1. Position the lower intake manifold gasket (9461) and
the upper intake manifold on the intake manifold and
loosely install the ten bolts.
43 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. NOTE: Tighten the bolts in two stages.
Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
• Stage 1: Tighten to 2 Nm (18 lb/in).
• Stage 2: Tighten to 8-12 Nm (71-106 lb/in).
3. Position the water return tube as shown.
4. Install the heater water return tube studs.
44 WSG-1068 ENGINE
5. Install the upper intake manifold.
•
Position the upper intake manifold gaskets and
the intake manifold, and loosely install the bolts.
6. Install the thermostat, gasket and the thermostat
housing and loosly install the bolts.
7. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts in two stages.
Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
•
•
45 Stage 1: Tighten to 2 Nm (18 lb/in).
Stage 2: Tighten to 20-30 Nm (15-22 lb/ft).
WSG-1068 ENGINE
8. Install the heater water hose and position the clamp.
9. Connect the water temperature indicator sending unit
electrical connector.
10. Install the generator.
11. Install the drive belt
12. Install the ignition coils.
46 WSG-1068 ENGINE
13. Connect the engine vacuum hoses.
•
Vacuum source.
14. Connect the engine water outlet hose and position
the hose clamp.
15. Install the air cleaner outlet tube (9B659).
16. Fill the cooling system; refer to Section 05.
17. Install the engine cover.
18. Connect the battery ground cable.
Valve Cover – Left - Removal
1. NOTE: The bolts are a part of the valve cover (6582)
and are not to be removed.
Fully loosen the valve cover.
•
47 Remove the two nuts and the sixteen bolts, and
remove the valve cover and the valve cover gasket
(6584).
WSG-1068 ENGINE
Valve Cover – Left - Installation
1.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292-A.
2. Apply silicone in two places where the engine front
cover (6019) meets the cylinder head.
•
Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
3. Position the valve cover and the valve cover gasket
on the cylinder head and loosely install the bolts and nuts.
48 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Tighten the nuts and bolts in the sequence shown.
49 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Valve Cover – Right - Removal
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY
LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE
WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED
COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES
ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN BE IGNITED,
RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
1.
2. NOTE: The bolts are a part of the valve cover and are not
to be removed.
Fully loosen the bolts, and remove the valve cover
and the valve cover gasket (6584).
Valve Cover – Right - Installation
1.
Remove the PCV valve.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact to
each other within 4 minutes and connecting bolts must
be torqued within 15 minutes after applying sealant.
Failure to follow this procedure can cause future oil
leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323- A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
50 WSG-1068 ENGINE
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M5B292-A.
2. Apply silicone in two places where the engine front
cover (6019) meets the cylinder head (6049).
3. Position the valve cover on the cylinder head and
loosely install the bolts.
51 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
5. Reinstall the PCV valve.
52 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Pulley - Removal
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1. Remove the engine cooling fan and fan shroud (8146).
2. Remove the drive belt (8620).
3. Remove the crankshaft pulley bolt (6A340).
4. Using the Crankshaft Damper Remover, remove the
crankshaft pulley (6312).
53 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Pulley - Installation
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact to each other
within 4 minutes and connecting bolts must be torqued within
15 minutes after applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with solvent if
above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M5B292-A.
1. Use the Crankshaft Damper Replacer to install the crankshaft
pulley.
2.
•
•
•
•
Tighten the crankshaft pulley bolt in four stages.
Stage 1: Tighten to 90 Nm (66 lb/ft).
Stage 2: Loosen 360 degrees.
Stage 3: Tighten to 47-53 Nm (35-39 lb/ft).
Stage 4: Tighten an additional 85-95 degrees.
54 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal - Removal
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures can
be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1. Remove the crankshaft pulley (6312); refer to this
section.
2. Using the (a) Front Cover Seal Remover, remove the
(B) crankshaft front seal (6700).
55 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal - Installation
1. Lubricate the (A) engine front cover (6019) and the
(B) crankshaft front seal inner lip.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO-5W30-QSP or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G.
2. Use the (A) Crankshaft Seal Replacer to install the
(B) crankshaft front seal into the (C) engine front cover.
3. Install crankshaft pulley; refer to Crankshaft Pulley
in this section.
56 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Front Engine Cover - Removal
1.
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR
CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF
ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY
FUEL-RELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY
FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT
AND CAN BE IGNITED, RESULTING IN POSSIBLE
PERSONAL INJURY.
Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the valve covers (6582); refer to Valve Cover
in this section.
3. Remove the radiator (8005).
4. Disconnect the camshaft position sensor (CMP
sensor) (6B288).
5. Remove the drive belt (8620).
6. Disconnect the crankshaft position (CKP) sensor
electrical connector.
7. Remove the drain plug and drain the engine oil.
8. Remove the crankshaft front seal (6700); refer to
Crankshaft Front Oil Seal in this section.
9. Remove the bolts from the front of the oil pan that
hold the front cover.
57 WSG-1068 ENGINE
10. Remove the engine front cover fasteners.
11. Remove the engine front cover (6019) from the front
cover to cylinder block dowels (6C002).
1. Install a new engine front cover gasket (6020) on the
engine front cover, then position the engine front cover
on the front cover to cylinder block dowels.
58 WSG-1068 ENGINE
59 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. Tighten the fasteners in two stages following the
sequence shown.
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten fasteners 1 through 5 to 20-30
Nm (15-22 lb/ft).
Stage 2: Tighten fasteners 6 through 15 to 40-55
Nm (30-41 lb/ft).
3. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts through the front
of the oil pan
•
•
in two stages.
Stage 1: Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb/ft).
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 60 degrees.
60 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Connect the CKP sensor electrical connector.
5. Install the water pump pulley.
6. Connect the CMP electrical connector.
7. Install a new crankshaft front seal and the crankshaft
pulley (6312); refer to Crankshaft Pulley in this section.
8. Install the drive belt (8620).
9. Install the valve covers; refer to Valve Cover in this
section.
10. Fill the engine (6007) with oil.
•
Use engine oil meeting Ford specification D9AZ-19579A.
61 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Timing Drive Components - Removal
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures can
be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
1. Remove the engine front cover (6019); refer to Engine
Front Cover in this section.
2. Remove the crankshaft sensor ring from the
crankshaft (6303).
3. Remove the six bolts and remove the balance shaft
bearing caps.
62 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Remove the balance shaft.
5.
63 CAUTION: Unless otherwise instructed,
at no time when the timing chains (6268) are
removed and the cylinder heads (6049) are
installed may the crankshaft or camshaft (6250)
be rotated. Severe piston (6108) and valve
damage could occur.
Use the Crankshaft Holding Tool to position the
crankshaft as shown.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
6. Install the Camshaft Holding Tools on the camshafts.
7. Remove the bolts and the timing chain tensioners
(6L266). Remove the timing chain tensioner arms
(6L253) from the dowel pins.
64 WSG-1068 ENGINE
8. Remove the LH and RH timing chain and
the crankshaft sprockets (6306).
1. Remove the RH timing chain from the
camshaft sprocket (6256).
2. Remove the RH timing chain and outer
crankshaft sprocket from the crankshaft.
3. Repeat for the LH timing chain and
crankshaft sprocket.
65 WSG-1068 ENGINE
9. Remove the timing chain guides (6K297).
• Remove the bolts.
• Remove the timing chain guides.
Timing Drive Components - Installation
CAUTION: Timing chain procedures must
be followed exactly or damage to valves and
pistons will result.
1.
CAUTION: Do not compress the ratchet
assembly. This will damage the ratchet assembly.
Compress the tensioner plunger, using an edge of a
vise.
66 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. Using a small screwdriver or pick, push back and
hold the ratchet mechanism.
3. While holding the ratchet mechanism, push the
ratchet arm back into the tensioner housing.
4. Install a paper clip into the hole in the tensioner
housing to hold the ratchet assembly and plunger in
during installation.
67 WSG-1068 ENGINE
5. If copper links are not visible, mark two links on one
end and one link on the other end, and use as timing
marks.
6. Install the timing chain guides.
68 WSG-1068 ENGINE
10. NOTE: Be sure the upper half of the
timing chain is below the tensioner
7. Remove the Crankshaft Holding Tool
8. Install the inner crankshaft sprocket with the long
hub facing outward.
9. Install the inner timing chain on the crankshaft
sprocket with the timing marks aligned.
69 WSG-1068 ENGINE
11.
CAUTION: The camshaft sprocket can jump
time if the Camshaft Holding Tool is not
secured.
NOTE: Be sure the chain link and crankshaft
sprocket timing marks are aligned.
NOTE: The lower half of the timing chain must
be positioned above the dowel.
Install the outer crankshaft sprocket and timing
chain belt with the long hub of the crankshaft
sprocket facing inward.
12. Position the timing chain on the camshaft sprocket.
Make sure the two copper-colored links align
with the camshaft sprocket timing mark.
13. Check for proper alignment of all timing marks.
70 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Camshaft Assembly Timing Mark Alignment
71 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Timing Chains, Camshaft Gears and Crankshaft Gears Alignment
72 WSG-1068 ENGINE
14. Position the LH and RH timing chain tensioner arms
on the dowel pins. Position the timing chain
tensioners and install the bolts.
15. Remove the retaining pins from the RH and LH timing
chain tensioners.
73 WSG-1068 ENGINE
16. Remove the Camshaft Holding Tools from the
camshafts.
17. Install the crankshaft sensor ring on the crankshaft.
18. Lubricate the balance shaft journals with engine oil.
• Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO5W30-QSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
19. Position the balance shaft on the journals.
20. Align the balance shaft timing marks as shown.
74 WSG-1068 ENGINE
21. Lubricate the bearing caps with engine oil.
• Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO- 5W30-QSP or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G.
22. Install the bearing caps, the bolts and tighten the
bolts in the sequence shown.
23. NOTE: The timing chain is removed for clarity.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact to
each other within 4 minutes and connecting bolts
must be torqued within 15 minutes after applying
sealant. Failure to follow this procedure can cause
future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M5B292-A.
24. Install engine front cover; refer to Engine Front Cover
in this section.
75 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Camshaft - Removal
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY
LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY
TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUELRELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE
MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN BE
IGNITED, RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL
INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the intake manifold (9424); refer to Intake
Manifold – Variable Resonance Induction System
(VRIS) in this section.
3. Remove the timing chains (6268); refer to Timing Drive
Components in this section.
CAUTION: The caps must be marked for
installation in their original location or damage
to the engine may occur.
4. Remove the six bolts retaining the balance shaft
bearing caps and remove the bearing caps.
5. Remove the balance shaft.
76 WSG-1068 ENGINE
6. Use the Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs (6513) and remove the camshaft roller
followers.
CAUTION: The caps must be marked for
installation in their original location or damage
to the engine may occur.
7. Remove the bolts, the camshaft bearing caps (6B280)
and the camshaft (6250) from the cylinder block (6010).
Camshaft - Installation
1. Lubricate the camshaft journals and bearing caps.
• Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSS-M2C153-G.
77 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. Install the bearing caps in their original locations and
the bolts.
3. Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
78 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Use the Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs and install the camshaft roller
followers.
5. Lubricate the balance shaft journals with engine oil.
• Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSS-M2C153-G.
6. Using the index mark on the balance shaft, mark the
corresponding teeth on the gear with chalk.
7. Position the balance shaft on the journals.
8. Align the balance shaft timing marks as shown.
Align the chalk mark on the balance shaft with the
camshaft timing mark as shown.
79 WSG-1068 ENGINE
9. Lubricate the balance shaft journals with engine oil.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSS-M2C153-G.
10. Position the bearing caps in their original locations
and the bolts. Tighten the bolts in the sequence
shown.
11. Install the intake manifold; refer to Intake Manifold –
Variable Resonance Induction System (VRIS) in this
section.
12. Install the timing chains; refer to Timing Drive
Components in this section.
80 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Exhaust Manifold – RH - Removal
1. Remove the nuts from exhaust pipe and remove
exhaust pipe.
2. Remove the ten nuts and the exhaust manifold (9430)
and exhaust manifold gasket (9448). Discard the
exhaust manifold gasket.
3. Clean and inspect the exhaust manifold; refer to
Section 01.
81 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Exhaust Manifold - RH - Installation
1. Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
82 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Exhaust Manifold – LH - Removal
1. Remove the nuts from the exhaust pipe and remove
pipe.
2. Remove the exhaust manifold nuts and the exhaust
manifold (9430). Discard the exhaust manifold gaskets
(9448).
3. Clean and inspect the exhaust manifold; refer to
Section 01.
83 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Exhaust Manifold – LH - Installation
1. Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
Cylinder Head - Removal
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the
procedures can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
84 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1.
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY
LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY
TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL
RELATED COMPONENTS. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE
MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN BE
IGNITED, RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL
INJURY.
2. Remove the intake manifold (9424); refer to Intake
Manifold – Variable Resonance Induction System
(VRIS) in this section.
3. Remove the timing chains (6268); refer to Timing Drive
Components in this section.
4. Compress and slide the hose clamp back and remove
the evaporation water hose (18472) if so equipped.
5. Install the Lifting Handles.
6.
CAUTION: These bolts must be replaced with
new bolts. They are tighten-to-yield designed
and cannot be reused.
Remove the bolts and the cylinder head (6049).
•
Discard the head gasket (6051), the cylinder head
bolts (6049) and clean the engine block surface.
•
The LH is shown. The RH is similar.
85 WSG-1068 ENGINE
7. NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvent.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M4G323A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M5B292-A.
1. Rotate the crankshaft (6303) to position the keyway
at 12 o’clock.
2. NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft until otherwise
instructed.
Install the head gasket over the dowel pins.
86 WSG-1068 ENGINE
3. NOTE: Head bolts are torque to yield and must be
replaced whenever cylinder head is removed.
Install the cylinder head on the head gasket and
loosely install new bolts.
•
The LH is shown; the RH is similar.
4. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts in three stages.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 37-43 Nm (27-32 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
•
Stage 3: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
5. Install the timing chains; refer to Drive Components
in this section.
6. Install the intake manifold; refer to Intake Manifold –
Variable Resonance Induction System (VRIS) in this
section.
87 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Remove the bolt and remove the oil level indicator
tube (6754).
2. Inspect the oil level indicator tube for damage.
1. Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
2. Replace and lubricate the O-rings with Super Premium
SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ-19579-A or equivalent
meeting Ford specification WSS-M2C153-G.
3. Replace oil level indicator (oil dipstick).
88 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Partially drain the radiator (8005) and disconnect the
upper radiator hose (8260) at the radiator.
3. Drain the engine oil and remove the oil bypass filter
(6714).
4. Remove the nuts retaining the front engine support
insulator (6038) to the front engine support bracket
(6028). The RH is shown, the LH is typical.
89 WSG-1068 ENGINE
5. Remove the flywheel inspection plate.
6. Remove the bolts and partially lower the oil pan (6675).
90 WSG-1068 ENGINE
7. Remove the two bolts and the nut retaining the oil
pump screen cover and tube (6622) and let them drop
into the oil pan.
8. Remove the oil pan and oil pan gasket (6710) from
the rear of the engine.
9. Clean the mating surfaces and thoroughly clean the
oil pan.
1. Install the oil pump screen cover and tube.
2.
•
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
91 Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSE-M5B292-A.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
3. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts in three
stages.
Replace oil pan and bolts.
Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 2 Nm (18 lb/in).
•
Stage 2: Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb/ft).
•
Stage 3: Tighten an additional 60 degrees.
4. Install oil drain plug 11-16 Nm (98-143 lb/in).
5. Tighten the front engine support insulators.
6. Connect the battery ground cable.
7. Fill the engine with oil.
•
Use Motorcraft Engine Oil XO-5W30-QSP or
equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSSM2C153-G.
8. Fill the cooling system.
92 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the engine front cover (6019) and crankshaft
sprockets (6306); refer to Engine Front Cover in this
section.
3. Remove the oil pan (6675); refer to Oil Pan in this
section.
•
•
4. Remove the oil pump (6600).
Remove the bolts.
Remove the oil pump
1. Clean and inspect the mating surfaces.
2. Position the oil pump and loosely install the bolts.
Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
3. Install the oil pan; refer to Oil Pan in this section.
4. Install the timing chain (6268); refer to Timing Drive
Components in this section.
5. Connect the battery ground cable.
93 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove generator from bell housing.
3. Remove bell housing.
4. Remove the bolts and the flywheel (6375).
1. Follow the removal procedure in reverse order.
94 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the flywheel (6375); refer to Flywheel
in this section.
3. Use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Remover and
the Slide Hammer to remove the crankshaft
oil slinger (6310).
4. Use the Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover and
the Impact Slide Hammer to remove the
crankshaft rear oil seal (6701).
95 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal - Installation
1.
•
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
2. Using the Rear Crankshaft Seal Replacer and the
Rear Crankshaft Seal Adapter, install the crankshaft
rear oil seal.
3. With the Rear Crankshaft Seal Adapter still installed,
use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Replacer and the
Rear Crankshaft Seal Replacer to install the rear main
seal slinger.
4. Install the flywheel; refer to Flywheel in this section.
5. Connect the battery ground cable.
96 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal (with retainer plate) - Removal
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
Remove the flywheel (6375); refer to Flywheel in this
section.
2. Use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Remover and the
Impact Slide Hammer to remove the crankshaft oil
slinger (6310).
97 WSG-1068 ENGINE
3. Use the Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover and the
Impact Slide Hammer to remove the crankshaft rear
oil seal (6701).
4. Remove the oil pan; refer to Oil Pan in this section.
5. Remove the crankcase bolts and the crankshaft rear
oil seal retainer plate.
1.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
• Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
• Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
2. Apply a bead of silicone around the rear oil seal
retainer sealing surface.
•
98 Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ-19562-A or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323-A6.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
3. NOTE: If the rear main oil seal is still in place and
being reinstalled, be sure the lip is not folded over or
wrinkled during the retainer plate installation. The seal
lip must start squarely on the crankshaft journal.
Position the crankshaft rear oil seal and retainer
(6K301), install the bolts. Then install the oil pan and
the two bolts. Tighten in two stages.
• Stage 1: Tighten retainer plate bolts to 8-12 Nm
(71-107 lb/in).
• Stage 2: Tighten oil pan bolts to 14-20 Nm 10-15
lb/ft) then tighten an additional 90°.
4. Use the Rear Crankshaft Seal Replacer and Rear
Crankshaft Seal Adapter to install the crankshaft rear
oil seal.
5. With the Rear Crankshaft Seal Adapter still installed,
use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Replacer and Rear
Crankshaft Seal Replacer to install the crankshaft oil
slinger.
6. Install the flywheel; refer to Flywheel in this section.
7. Connect the battery ground cable.
99 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable (14301).
2. Remove the intake manifold (9424); refer to Intake
Manifold – Variable Resonance Induction System
(VRIS) in this section.
3. Remove the radiator upper and lower radiator supports
(16138).
4. Remove the radiator (8005), fan shroud (8146) and
engine cooling fan.
5. Remove the drive belt (8620); refer to Section 05.
100 WSG-1068 ENGINE
6. At the oil cooler water inlet, disconnect and set aside
the lower radiator hose (8286).
7. Disconnect the engine harness.
8. Remove exhaust pipe nuts.
9. Drain engine oil and remove the oil bypass filter
(6714).
10. Remove the starter motor (11002); refer to Section
07.
101 WSG-1068 ENGINE
11. Remove the engine support insulator nuts.
12. Install the Modular Lifting Bar.
13. Remove the engine from the equipment.
102 WSG-1068 ENGINE
14. Remove the bolts, and remove the flywheel.
15. Use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Remover and the
Impact Slide Hammer to remove the crankshaft oil
slinger (6310).
16. Use the Rear Crankshaft Seal Remover and the
Impact Slide Hammer to remove the crankshaft rear
oil seal (6701).
17. Remove the bolts and remove the crankshaft rear oil
seal retainer plate.
18. Mount the engine on an engine stand.
19. Remove the Modular Lifting Bar.
103 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Engine - Disassembly
1. With the engine on the engine stand, remove the
engine wiring harness.
104 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. Remove the bolts, the oil pan (6675), and the oil pan
gasket (6710).
3. Remove the two bolts and nut retaining the oil pump
screen cover and tube (6622) and remove the oil
pump screen cover and tube.
105 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. NOTE: The bolts are a part of the valve cover (6582)
and are not to be removed.
LH is shown; RH is similar.
•
106 Fully loosen the sixteen bolts, and remove the
valve cover gasket (6584).
WSG-1068 ENGINE
5. Remove the drive belt.
6. Remove the water pump pulley (8509).
1. Remove the four bolts.
2. Remove the water pump pulley.
7. Remove the four bolts from the water pump.
8. Remove the (A) water pump (8501) from the (B)
cylinder block (6010).
107 WSG-1068 ENGINE
9. Remove the crankshaft pulley bolt (6A340).
Use the Crankshaft Damper Remover to remove the
crankshaft pulley (6312).
10. Use the (A) Front Cover Seal Remover to remove the
(B) crankshaft front seal (6700).
11. Remove the engine front cover fasteners.
12. Remove the engine front cover (6019) from the front
cover to cylinder block dowels (6C002).
108 WSG-1068 ENGINE
13. Remove the crankshaft sensor ring from the
crankshaft (6303).
14. Remove the balancing shaft bearing caps.
15. Remove balancing shaft.
109 WSG-1068 ENGINE
16.
CAUTION: Unless otherwise instructed, at
no time when the timing chains (6268) are
removed and the cylinder heads (6049) are
installed is the crankshaft or camshaft (6250) to
be rotated. Severe piston (6108) and valve
damage will occur.
Position the crankshaft with the Crankshaft Holding
Tool as shown.
17. Install the Camshaft Holding Tools on the
camshafts (2).
110 WSG-1068 ENGINE
18. Remove the bolts and the timing chain tensioners
(6L266). Remove the timing chain tensioner arms
(6L253) from the dowel pins.
111 WSG-1068 ENGINE
CAUTION: Unless otherwise instructed, at
19.
no time when the timing chain are removed and
the cylinder heads are installed is the crankshaft
or camshaft to be rotated. Severe piston and
valve damage will occur.
•
Remove the Crankshaft Holding Tool.
•
Remove the RH timing chain from the camshaft
sprocket (6256).
Remove the RH timing chain and outer crankshaft
sprocket from the crankshaft.
Repeat for the LH timing chain and crankshaft
sprocket.
•
•
112 WSG-1068 ENGINE
20. Remove the timing chain guides (6K297).
• Remove the bolts.
• Remove the timing chain guides.
113 WSG-1068 ENGINE
21. Remove the ten nuts and the RH exhaust manifold
(9430) and exhaust manifold gasket (9448). Discard
the exhaust manifold gasket.
22. Remove the ten nuts, the LH exhaust manifold and
the exhaust manifold gaskets. Discard the exhaust
manifold gasket.
114 WSG-1068 ENGINE
23. Remove the oil level dipstick, the bolt and the oil
level indicator tube (6754).
24. Install the Lifting Handles on both ends of the cylinder
head.
25.
CAUTION: These bolts must be replaced
with new bolts. They are tighten-to-yield
designed and cannot be reused.
Remove the bolts, cylinder head, and head gasket.
115 •
Discard the head gasket (6051), cylinder head
bolts and clean the engine block surface.
•
LH is shown; RH is similar.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
26. Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562AA equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSE-M4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area
cleaned with solvent if above instructions are not
followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM5B292-A.
27. Remove the bolts and remove the engine
mounts.
28. Remove the bolts and nut retaining the oil filter
adapter (6881) to the cylinder block. Remove
the oil filter adapter and clean the gasket
surface.
29. Remove the bolts and the oil pump (6600).
116 WSG-1068 ENGINE
30. Remove the twelve bolts and the two lower crankshaft
bearing supports.
31.
CAUTION: Make sure connecting rods (6200)
and rod caps are numbered, to keep in proper
orientation.
Remove the bolts and the connecting rod caps.
•
Rotate the crankshaft so that the connecting rod
is at bottom dead center.
•
Remove the bolts and discard them.
117 WSG-1068 ENGINE
32.
CAUTION: Do not scratch the cylinder
walls or the crankshaft journals with the
connecting rod.
Remove the piston and rod assembly.
•
Use the Connecting Rod Guide Tools to guide
the
piston and rod assembly out of the cylinder.
33. Repeat the previous steps until all ten piston and
rod assemblies have been removed from the
cylinder block.
118 WSG-1068 ENGINE
34. Remove and discard the twelve cross-mounted bolts.
35. Remove the main bearing bolts and discard the
bolts.
36. Remove the main bearing cap dowel pins.
119 WSG-1068 ENGINE
37. Remove the main bearing caps, the lower crankshaft
main bearings (6333) and the thrust washer.
38. Remove the crankshaft and the crankshaft main
bearings from the cylinder block.
120 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Remove the Camshaft Holding Tool from the
camshaft(6250).
121 WSG-1068 ENGINE
2.
CAUTION: Do not remove the camshaft
before removing the roller followers.
CAUTION: Place the cylinder head on a
cardboard or wood surface to prevent damage
to the joint face.
Install the Valve Spring Spacer between the valve
spring coils to prevent valve stem seal damage.
3. Use the Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs (6513), and remove the roller followers.
4. Remove the hydraulic lash adjusters.
5. Use the Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve springs.
122 WSG-1068 ENGINE
6.
CAUTION: Keep the valves and the valve
spring retainer keys (6518) in order so they can
be installed in the same positions.
NOTE: The 8-cylinder is shown. The 10-cylinder is
similar.
NOTE: Shown without camshaft for clarity.
Remove the (A) valve spring retainer keys, the (B)
valve spring retainers (6514), the (C) valve springs,
and the valves.
7. Remove the valve stem seals (6571).
8.
CAUTION: The caps must be marked for
installation in their original location or damage
to the engine may occur.
Remove the bolts, the bearing caps and the camshaft.
123 WSG-1068 ENGINE
Cylinder Head - Assembly
1.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
2. Lubricate the camshaft journals.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSS-M2C153-C.
3. Install the camshaft and the camshaft bearing caps
in their original location and the bolts.
•
Lubricate and position the camshaft bearing caps.
--Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil
D9AZ-19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
124 WSG-1068 ENGINE
4. Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
5. Install the valves in the valve guides located in the
cylinder block (6010).
125 WSG-1068 ENGINE
6. Install the valve spring and the valve spring retainer
onto the valve.
7. Install the valve spring spacer between the valve spring
coils to prevent valve stem seal damage.
8. Use the Valve Spring Compressor to compress the
valve spring, and install the valve spring retainer keys.
9. Install the hydraulic lash adjusters.
126 WSG-1068 ENGINE
10. Install the roller followers.
11. Remove the Valve Spring Spacer.
127 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. NOTE: Before assembling the cylinder block (6010),
all seating surfaces must be free of chips, dirt, paint
and foreign material. Also, make sure the coolant
and oil passages are clear.
Lubricate and install the crankshaft upper main
bearings into the cylinder block.
•
128 Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil D9AZ19579-A or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSS-M2C153-G.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
2. Install the crankshaft (6303) into the cylinder block
and onto the upper crankshaft main bearings (6333).
3. Push the crankshaft rearward and install the rear
lower crankshaft thrust washer (6334) at the back
of the No. 6 main boss.
4. Push the crankshaft forward and install the front
lower crankshaft thrust washer at the front of the
No. 6 main boss.
5. NOTE: To aid in assembly, apply petroleum jelly to
the back of the crankshaft thrust washer.
Install the upper crankshaft thrust washer to the back
side of the No. 6 main bearing cap, with oil grooves
facing the crankshaft surface, and install the No. 6
rear main bearing cap.
129 WSG-1068 ENGINE
6. Install the No. 1 through No. 5 crankshaft lower main
bearings into the main bearing caps. Locate the main
bearing caps on the cylinder block and tap into place
using a plastic or dead-blow hammer.
7. Install new main cap bearing bolts.
8. Install the ten dowel pins so that the flat sides face
the crankshaft. Install the cross-mounted bolts.
130 WSG-1068 ENGINE
9. Tighten fasteners 1 through 12 in two stages in the
sequence shown.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 37-43 Nm (22-32 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
10. Tighten fasteners 13 through 24 in two stages in the
sequence shown.
131 •
Stage 1: Tighten to 27-33 Nm (20-26 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
11. Use the Connecting Rod Guide Tool and Piston Ring
Compressor to install the piston and connecting rod
assembly.
12.
CAUTION: Do not scratch the cylinder walls
or crankshaft journals with the connecting rod
(6200).
Once the connecting rod is seated on the crankshaft
journal, remove the connecting rod guide tools.
13.
CAUTION: The rod cap installation must
keep the same orientation as marked during
disassembly.
NOTE: The connecting rod caps are of the “cracked’’
design and must mate with the connecting rod ends.
Excessive bearing clearance will result if not mated
properly.
Install the connecting rod bearings, position the
connecting rod cap and loosely install the two new
bolts.
14. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts in two stages.
Tighten the connecting rod bolts in the sequence
shown.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 40-45 Nm (30-33 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 90 degrees to 120
degrees.
15. Rotate the crankshaft and repeat the procedure to
position each connecting rod at bottom dead center
until all bolts are tightened to specification.
132 WSG-1068 ENGINE
16. Install the oil filter adapter (6881).
17. Install the front engine support insulators (6038).
18. Install the lower crankshaft bearing supports and
tighten fasteners in the sequence shown.
133 WSG-1068 ENGINE
19. Install the oil level indicator tube (6754).
20. Position the oil pump (6600) and install the bolts
loosely. Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
21. Rotate the crankshaft to position the keyway at 12
o’clock.
NOTE: After crankshaft has been positioned, do not
turn the crankshaft until instructed to do so.
134 WSG-1068 ENGINE
22. Install the head gasket (6051) over the dowel pins.
23. Install the Camshaft Holding Tools.
24. Install the Lifting Handles.
25. Install the cylinder head (6049) on the head gasket
and loosely install new bolts.
•
The LH is shown; the RH is similar.
26. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the new bolts in three
stages.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 37-43 Nm (27-32 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
•
Stage 3: Tighten an additional 85 degrees to 95
degrees.
135 WSG-1068 ENGINE
27. Install the left and right exhaust manifold gaskets
(9448) and exhaust manifolds (9430). Loosely install
the nuts. Tighten the nuts in the sequence shown.
136 WSG-1068 ENGINE
CAUTION: Timing chain procedures must
28.
be followed exactly or damage to valves and
pistons (6108) will result.
If removed, install the left and right camshaft
sprockets (6256).
29.
CAUTION: Do not compress the ratchet
assembly. This will damage the ratchet
assembly.
Compress the tensioner plunger, using an edge of a
vise.
30. Using a small screwdriver or pick, push back and
hold the ratchet mechanism.
31. While holding the ratchet mechanism, push the
ratchet arm back into the tensioner housing.
137 WSG-1068 ENGINE
32. Install a paper clip into the hole in the tensioner
housing to hold the ratchet assembly and
plunger in during installation.
33. If the copper links are not visible, mark two links
on one end and one link on the other end to
use as timing marks.
34. Loosen the Camshaft Holding Tools on both
camshafts (6250).
138 WSG-1068 ENGINE
35. Install the timing chain guides (6K297).
139 WSG-1068 ENGINE
36. Rotate the LH camshaft sprocket until the timing mark is approximately at 12 o’clock.
Rotate the RH camshaft until the timing mark is approximately at 11 o’clock. Tighten the
Camshaft Holding Tools to maintain camshaft pre-positioning.
37. CAUTION: Unless otherwise instructed, at
no time when the timing chains (6268) are
removed and the cylinder heads are installed
is the crankshaft or camshaft to be rotated.
Severe piston and valve damage will occur.
CAUTION: Rotate the crankshaft
counterclockwise only. Do not rotate past the
position shown or severe piston or valve
damage can occur.
Position the crankshaft with the Crankshaft
Holding Tool.
38. Remove the Crankshaft Holding Tool.
140 WSG-1068 ENGINE
39. Position the inner crankshaft sprocket (6306) with
the long hub facing outward.
40. Install the LH timing chain/belt onto the crankshaft
sprocket, aligning the one copper link on the timing
chain with the slot on the crankshaft sprocket.
41. NOTE: Make sure the upper half of the timing chain
is below the tensioner guide dowel. If necessary, use
the Camshaft Holding Tool to adjust.
NOTE: If necessary, adjust the camshaft sprocket
slightly to obtain timing mark alignment.
Position the timing chain on the camshaft sprocket
with the two copper chain links and the camshaft
sprocket timing mark aligned.
141 WSG-1068 ENGINE
42. CAUTION: The camshaft sprocket can
jump time if the Camshaft Holding Tool
is not secured.
NOTE: Be sure the copper chain link and
the crankshaft sprocket timing mark are
aligned.
NOTE: The lower half of the timing chain
must be positioned above the dowel.
Position the outer camshaft sprocket and
the RH timing chain with the long hub of the
camshaft sprocket facing inward.
43. NOTE: If necessary, adjust the camshaft
sprocket slightly to obtain timing mark
alignment.
Position the RH timing chain on the
camshaft sprocket. Make sure the two
copper-colored links align with the camshaft
sprocket timing mark.
142 WSG-1068 ENGINE
44. As a post-check, verify timing mark alignment.
45. Position the LH and RH timing chain tensioner arm
(6L253) on the dowel pins. Position the timing chain
tensioners (6L266), and install the bolts.
46. Remove both the RH and LH retaining pins from the
timing chain tensioner assembly.
143 WSG-1068 ENGINE
47. Remove the Camshaft Holding Tools from the
camshafts.
48. Lubricate the balance shaft journals with engine oil.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO5W30-QSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
49. Position the balance shaft on the journals.
50. Align the balance shaft timing marks as shown.
144 WSG-1068 ENGINE
51. Lubricate the balance shaft journals with engine oil.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO5W30-QSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
52. Install the bearing caps and the bolts. Tighten the
bolts in the sequence shown.
53. Position the crankshaft sensor ring.
145 WSG-1068 ENGINE
54.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting bolts
must be torqued within 15 minutes after applying
sealant. Failure to follow this procedure can cause
future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM4G323A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned
with solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
NOTE: The RH timing chain is removed for clarity.
•
Apply a bead of silicone along the cylinder headtoblock surface and the oil pan-to-cylinder block
surface as specified.
55. Install a new engine front cover gasket (6020) onto
the engine front cover (6019), then position the engine
front cover on the front cover to cylinder block dowel
(6C002).
146 WSG-1068 ENGINE
57. Tighten the fasteners in two stages; refer to the
preceding illustration.
•
Stage 1: Tighten fasteners 1 through 5 to 20-30
Nm (15-22 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Tighten fasteners 6 through 15 to 40-55
Nm (30-41 lb/ft).
147 WSG-1068 ENGINE
58. Position the oil pump screen cover and tube (6622)
and install the bolts and nut.
59. CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
•
Apply a bead of silicone where the rear crankshaft
seal retainer plate and the front cover meets the
cylinder block.
•
Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ-19562AA or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM4G323-A6.
60. NOTE: Be sure to tighten the bolts in three stages.
Install the oil pan (6675). Tighten the bolts in the
sequence shown.
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 2 Nm (18 lb/in).
•
Stage 2: Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb/ft).
•
Stage 3: Tighten an additional 60 degrees.
61. Install the oil drain plug. 11-16 Nm (98-143 lb/in).
148 WSG-1068 ENGINE
62.
CAUTION: Do not rotate the water pump
housing once the water pump (8501) has been
positioned in the cylinder block. Damage to the
O-ring seal will occur.
Install the water pump.
1. Lubricate the new O-ring seal using Premium
Cooling Fluid E2FZ-19549-AA or equivalent
meeting Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A and
install the O-ring seal onto the water pump.
2. Position the water pump into the cylinder block.
3. Install the water pump retaining bolts.
63. Lubricate the (A) engine front cover and the (B) front
oil seal inner lip.
•
Use Super Premium SAE 5W30 Motor Oil XO5W30-QSP or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-G.
64. Use the (A) Crankshaft Seal Replacer/Aligner to
install the (B) crankshaft front seal (6700) into the
(C) engine front cover.
149 WSG-1068 ENGINE
65.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this procedure
can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562-AA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area cleaned with
solvent if above instructions are not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA or
equivalent meeting Ford specification WSEM5B292A.
Apply silicone to the Woodruff key slot on the
crankshaft pulley (6312).
•
Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ-19562-A
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM4G323-A6.
66. Use the Crankshaft Damper Replacer to install the
crankshaft pulley.
67. Tighten the crankshaft pulley bolt (6A340) in four
stages.
150 •
Stage 1: Tighten to 90 Nm (66 lb/ft).
•
Stage 2: Loosen 360 degrees.
•
Stage 3: Tighten to 47-53 Nm (35-39 lb/ft).
•
Stage 4: Tighten an additional 85-90 degrees.
WSG-1068 ENGINE
68. Position the water pump pulley (8509) on the water
pump and install the bolts.
151 WSG-1068 ENGINE
69.
•
CAUTION: Mating parts must make
contact to each other within 4 minutes
and connecting bolts must be torqued
within 15 minutes after applying sealant.
Failure to follow this procedure can
cause future oil leakage.
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ19562-AA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area
cleaned with solvent if above instructions are
not followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536RA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSEM5B292-A.
Apply silicone in two places where the engine
front cover meets the cylinder head.
•
Use Silicone Gasket and Sealant F6AZ19562- AA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification WSEM4G323-A6.
70. Position the valve covers (6582).
71. Tighten the bolts in the sequence shown.
72. Install the engine control wire harness.
152 WSG-1068 ENGINE
1. Attach the Modular Lifting Bar.
2. Remove the engine from the engine stand.
3.
CAUTION: Mating parts must make contact
to each other within 4 minutes and connecting
bolts must be torqued within 15 minutes after
applying sealant. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
•
Use silicone gasket and sealant F6AZ-19562AA or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM4G323-A6.
NOTE: Sealant must be removed and area
cleaned with solvent if above instructions are not
followed.
•
Use metal surface cleaner F4AZ-19A536-RA
or equivalent meeting Ford specification
WSEM5B292-A.
4. Apply a bead of silicone around the rear oil seal
retainer sealing surface.
153 WSG-1068 ENGINE
5. Install the retainer plate. Tighten the bolts to 8-12
Nm (71-107 lb/in).
6. Use the Rear Crankshaft Seal Replacer and Rear
Crankshaft Seal Adapter to install the crankshaft rear
oil seal (6701).
7. With the Rear Crankshaft Seal Adapter still installed,
use the Rear Crankshaft Slinger Replacer to install
the crankshaft oil slinger.
8. Install the flywheel (6375).
9. Install the starter motor (11002).
154 WSG-1068 ENGINE
10. Connect the left and right exhaust pipes and install
and tighten the nuts.
NOTE: Apply a light coat of anti-sieze compound
F6AZ-9L494-AA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESE-M12A4-A to the threads of the
exhaust manifold studs.
11. Connect the LH and RH heated exhaust gas oxygen
sensor connector if equipped.
12. Install the intake manifold (9424); refer to Intake
Manifold – Variable Resonance Induction System
(VRIS) in this section.
13. Install vacuum hoses.
14. Install the drive belt (8620).
15. Install the upper and lower radiator supports (16138).
16. Install the radiator (8005).
17. Install the engine air cleaner (ACL) (9600) and the air
cleaner outlet tube (9B659).
18. Fill all fluids to the proper levels.
19. Connect the battery ground cable (14301).
20. Start the engine and check for leaks. Stop the engine
and recheck the fluid levels.
155 WSG-1068 ENGINE
SPECIFICATIONS
156 WSG-1068 ENGINE
157 WSG-1068 ENGINE
158 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Color Abbreviations....................................................................................................................
How to Find Electrical Concerns ...............................................................................................
Troubleshooting Tools................................................................................................................
Switch Circuit Check and Voltage Check...................................................................................
Continuity Check (locating open circuits) ..................................................................................
Short Check ..............................................................................................................................
Ground Check ...........................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Wiring Harness & Connector Hidden Concerns .............................................
Electrical Symbols .....................................................................................................................
Description.................................................................................................................................
Operation ..................................................................................................................................
Overview ...................................................................................................................................
Electronic Ignition System..........................................................................................................
Starting RPM..............................................................................................................................
Camshaft Position Sensor..........................................................................................................
The Fuel Select Switch..............................................................................................................
Run Mode...................................................................................................................................
Inputs to the GCP Effecting the Ignition ....................................................................................
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP Sensor)................................................................................
Coil on Plug................................................................................................................................
Engine Crank/Engine Running...................................................................................................
CMP FMEM................................................................................................................................
Cranking Mode...........................................................................................................................
Transient Mode .........................................................................................................................
Overspeed Mode........................................................................................................................
Electronic Engine Controls ........................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor................................................................................
Starting Mode............................................................................................................................
CHT Effects ...............................................................................................................................
IAT Effects (Not Used) .............................................................................................................
Overspeed Protection................................................................................................................
Engine Protection.......................................................................................................................
Starter Lockout..........................................................................................................................
Tachometer Output ...................................................................................................................
Ignition System - Components Location....................................................................................
Firing Order ...............................................................................................................................
Ignition Coil-on Plug - Removal..................................................................................................
Ignition Coil-on Plug - Installation...............................................................................................
Harness Connector Pinout Description .....................................................................................
Fuel Select Operation ...............................................................................................................
175
175
175
176
176
177
177
178
179
180
180
181
181
181
181
182
182
182
182
183
183
183
183
183
183
184
184
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
186
187
188
188
189
190
Diagnosis and Testing
Service Adjustments and Checks..............................................................................................
Diagnostic Equipment ...............................................................................................................
Preliminary Checks ...................................................................................................................
Visual / Physical Check.............................................................................................................
Intermittent Problems ................................................................................................................
Electrical Schematics ................................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test A - Ignition Check.................................................................................................
191
191
192
192
192
193
197
159 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Step 5: Make the repair.
•
Repair or replace the inoperative component.
Step 6: Verify the repair.
•
Operate the system as in Step 1 and check that
your repair has removed all symptoms without
creating and new symptoms.
Troubleshooting Tools
Jumper Wire
NOTE: Whenever a wire is labeled with two colors, the
first color listed is the basic color of the wire, and the
second color listed is the stripe marking of the wire.
This is a test lead used to connect two points of a circuit.
A Jumper Wire can bypass an open in a wire to
complete
a circuit.
How to Find Electrical Concerns
Troubleshooting Steps
These six steps present an orderly method of
troubleshooting.
WARNING: NEVER USE A JUMPER WIRE
ACROSS LOADS (MOTORS, ETC.) CONNECTED
BETWEEN HOT AND GROUND. THIS DIRECT
BATTERY
SHORT MAY CAUSE INJURY OR FIRE.
Step 1: Verify the concern.
• Operate the complete system to check the
accuracy and completeness of the customer’s
complaint.
Voltmeter
Step 2: Narrow the concern.
•
Using a DVOM, narrow down the possible
causes and locations of the concern to pinpoint
the exact cause.
•
Read the description about the components and
study the wiring schematic. You should then
know enough about the circuit operation to
determine where to check for the trouble.
A DC Voltmeter measures circuit voltage. Connect
negative
(- or black) lead to ground, and positive (+ or red) lead to
voltage measuring point.
Ohmmeter
Step 3: Test the cause.
•
Use electrical test procedures to find the specific
cause of the symptoms.
Step 4: Verify the cause.
•
Confirm that you have found the correct cause
by connecting jumper wires and/or temporarily
installing a known good component and
operating the circuit.
Figure 1 – Resistance Check
An Ohmmeter shows the resistance between two
connected points (Figure 1).
160 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Switch Circuit Check & Voltage
Check
Figure 2 – Test Lamp
A Test Light is a 12-volt bulb with two test leads
(Figure 2).
Uses: Voltage Check, Short Check.
Self-Powered Test Lamp
Figure 4 – Switch Circuit Check and
Voltage Check
In an inoperative circuit with a switch in series with the
load, jumper the terminals of the switch to power the
load. If jumpering the terminals powers the circuit, the
switch is inoperative (Figure 4).
Continuity Check (Locating open circuits)
Figure 3 – Continuity Check
Connect one lead of test lamp to a known good ground
or the negative (-) battery terminal. Test for voltage by
touching the other lead to the test point. The bulb goes
on when the test point has voltage (Figure 4).
The Self-Powered Test Lamp is a bulb, battery and set
of test leads wired in series (Figure 3). When connected
to two points of a continuous circuit, the bulb glows.
Uses: Continuity Check, Ground Check.
CAUTION: When using a self-powered test
lamp or ohmmeter, be sure power is off in circuit
during testing. Hot circuits can cause equipment
damage and false readings.
161 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
•
Short Check
If the Test Lamp goes on, the short is in the
wiring.You must find the short by
disconnecting the circuit connectors, one at a
time, until the Test Lamp goes out. For
example, in Figure 5 with a ground
at X, the bulb goes out when C1 or C2 is
disconnected, but not after disconnecting C3.
This means the short is between C2 and C3.
Figure 5 – Short Check
A fuse that repeatedly blows is usually caused by a short
to ground. It’s important to be able to locate such a short
quickly (Figure 5).
Figure 6 – Ground Check
1. Turn off everything powered through the fuse.
Ground Check
Turn on power to the circuit. Perform a Voltage Check
between the suspected inoperative ground and the
frame. Any indicated voltage means that the ground is
inoperative (Figure 6).
2. Disconnect other loads powered through the
fuse:
• Motors: disconnect motor connector
(Connector C4 in Figure 5).
• Lights; remove bulbs.
Turn off power to the circuit. Connect one lead of a SelfPowered Test Lamp or Ohmmeter to the wire in question
and the other lead to a known ground. If the bulb glows,
the circuit ground is OK (Figure 6).
3. Turn the Ignition Switch to RUN (if necessary) to
power fuse.
4. Connect one Test Lamp lead to the hot end of
the blown fuse. Connect the other lead to
ground. The bulb should glow, showing power to
fuse. (This step is just a check to be sure you
have power to the circuit).
The circuit schematics in this manual make it easy to
identify common points in circuits. This knowledge can
help narrow the concern to a specific area. For example,
if several circuits fail at the same time, check for a
common power or ground connection. If part of a circuit
fails, check the connections between the part that works
and the part that doesn’t work.
5. Disconnect the test lamp lead that is connected
to ground, and reconnect it to the load side of
the fuse at the connector of the disconnected
component. (In Figure 5, connect the test lamp
lead to connector C4).
• If the Test Lamp is off, the short is in the
disconnected component.
For example, if the low beam headlamps work, but the
high beams and the indicator lamp don’t work, then the
power and ground paths must be good. Since the
dimmer switch is the component that switches this power
to the high beam lights and the indicator, it is most likely
the cause of failure.
162 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Troubleshooting Wiring Harness and
Connector Hidden Concerns
The following illustrations are known examples of wiring
harness, splices and connectors that will create
intermittent electrical concerns. The concerns are hidden
and can only be discovered by a physical evaluation as
shown in each illustration.
NOTE: When servicing gold plated terminals in a
connector, only replace with gold plated terminals
designed for that connector.
163 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
164 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
The crankshaft position sensor (CKP sensor):
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
SERVICE OPERATIONS ON AN ENGINE
EQUIPPED WITH DISTRIBUTORLESS
IGNITION. FOLLOW ALL THE USUAL
SAFETY MEASURES TO PREVENT THE
POSSIBILITY OF ELECTRIC SHOCKS
SHOULD BE FOLLOWED.
Description
Is essential for calculating spark timing.
•
Sends the ignition control module a signal
indicating the temperature of the air entering the
engine, but is not used on this engine.
•
Resistance decreases as temperature
increases.
•
Engine Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor
(CHT) Input.
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMP) Input.
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) Input.
Fuel Select Switch.
From these inputs, the GCP computes spark strategy
(spark advance) and fuel mixture (air/fuel) to obtain
optimum engine performance for correct load conditions.
Operation
The ignition control module needs the following
information to calibrate the engine properly:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The cylinder heat temperature (CHT sensor):
The WSG-1068 engine uses a Coil On Plug Ignition
System to ignite the fuel/air mixture at the correct time
and sequence based upon the input it receives. The
brain of this system is a Global Control Platform (GCP).
The GCP has the capability at the OEM option to protect
the engine from over heating and low oil pressure. Inputs
are sensors or switches that feed the GCP information.
•
•
•
Sends the Ignition Control Module a signal
indicating crankshaft position.
The intake air temperature sensor (IAT sensor):
NOTE: High tension voltage produced by a
distributorless ignition system is higher than for a
conventional ignition system. It is in excess of 55,000
Volts.
•
•
Crankshaft position.
Engine RPM.
Engine temperature.
Engine load and altitude.
Fuel select switch.
The camshaft position sensor (CMP sensor):
• Sends the Ignition Control Module a signal
indicating camshaft position used for fuel
synchronization.
165 Sends a signal to the Ignition Control Module
indicating the cylinder head temperature.
WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Overview
The Ignition System is designed to ignite the
compressed air/fuel mixture in an internal combustion
engine by a high voltage spark from an ignition coil. The
ignition system also provides engine timing information
to the GCP for proper engine operation and misfire
detection.
Electronic Ignition System
The Coil On Plug (COP) EI System uses a separate coil
per spark plug and each coil is mounted directly onto the
plug. The COP EI System eliminates the need for spark
plug wires but does require input from the camshaft
position (CMP) sensor. Operation of the components are
as follows:
Camshaft Position Sensor
1. Note: Electronic Ignition engine timing is entirely
controlled by the GCP. Electronic Ignition engine
timing is NOT adjustable. Do not attempt to
check base timing. You will receive false
readings.
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor detects the
position of the camshaft. The CMP Sensor identifies
when piston #1 is on its compression stroke.
The CMP Sensor is a magnetic transducer mounted on
the engine front cover adjacent to the camshaft. By
monitoring a target on the camshaft sprocket, the CMP
sensor identifies cylinder one to the GCP. The COP EI
system uses this information to synchronize the firing of
the individual coils.
2. The GCP uses the CMP sensor not shown on
COP EI Systems to identify top dead center of
compression of cylinder 1 to synchronize the
firing of the individual coils.
3. The GCP acts as an electronic switch to ground
in the coil primary circuit. When the switch is
closed, battery positive voltage (B+) applied to
the coil primary circuit builds a magnetic field
around the primary coil. When the switch opens,
the power is interrupted and the primary field
collapses inducing the high voltage in the
secondary coil windings and the spark plug is
fired. A kickback voltage spike occurs when the
primary field collapses.
4. The GCP processes the CKP signal and uses it
to drive the tachometer as the Clean Tach Out
(CTO) signal.
Starting RPM
The program strategy requires the engine to obtain a
minimum of 100-140 RPM before the GCP will allow
ignition spark to be generated. Any failure with an
auxiliary system can cause excessive engine crank
(load) force, which may cause the engine too not reach
the required starting RPM. Perform a thorough
inspection of all auxiliary systems and components,
inspect for binding hydraulic pumps and misalignment of
drive systems.
166 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
The Fuel Select Switch
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP Sensor)
In the event that the engine is operated on alternate
fuels such as natural gas, compressed natural gas
(CNG), or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), timing can be
modified with a Fuel Select Switch.
The CKP sensor is a magnetic transducer mounted on
the engine block adjacent to a pulse wheel located on
the crankshaft. By monitoring the crankshaft mounted
pulse wheel A , the CKP is the primary sensor for
ignition information to the GCP. The pulse wheel located
behind the crankshaft pulley B , has a total of 39 teeth
spaced 9 degrees apart with one empty space C for a
missing tooth. An A/C voltage signal is generated which
increases with engine rpm and provides engine speed
and crankshaft position information to the GCP. By
monitoring the pulse wheel, the CKP sensor signal
indicates crankshaft position and speed information to
the GCP. The CKP sensor is also able to identify piston
travel in order to synchronize the ignition system and
provide a way of tracking the angular position of the
crankshaft relative to a fixed reference for the CKP
sensor configuration. GCP also uses the CKP signal to
determine if a misfire has occurred by measuring rapid
decelerations between teeth.
NOTE: Fuel select switch is supplied by the customer.
•
Sends a signal to the GCP to adjust base timing
for alternate fuel
•
Is manually controlled.
With this system, the GCP monitors the engine load,
speed, operating temperature, air intake temperature
and decides what degree of spark advance is correct for
all of the operating conditions. Because timing is set for
life inherently in the design of the engine, and there are
no moving parts in the ignition system itself, no
maintenance is required except for periodic spark plug
checks. The system provides for fixed spark advance at
start-up, for cold weather starting, and for “average
value” default settings in case of component failure.
Particular attention has been given to spark optimization
for excellent fuel economy and power in the warm-up
mode.
The spark plugs are paired so that one plug fires during
the compression stroke and its companion plug fires
during the exhaust stroke. The next time that coil is fired,
the plug that was on exhaust will be on compression,
and the one that was on compression will be on exhaust.
The spark in the exhaust cylinder is wasted but little of
the coil energy is lost.
Run Mode
The GCP interprets engine speed above100 RPM as
Run Mode.
The Base Spark Advance (BSA) is calculated by the
(GCP) module processing the engine speed and load
plus sensors mentioned in operation of this section and
Fuel Select Switch.
Inputs to the GCP Effecting the Ignition
The spark strategy is based on sensors and manifold
vacuum input to the GCP module, which include the
following inputs:
167 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Coil On Plug
The coil on plug (COP) ignition operates similar to
standard coil pack ignition except each plug has one coil
per plug. COP has three different modes of operation:
engine crank, engine running and CMP Failure Mode
Effects Management (FMEM).
Engine Crank/Engine Running
During engine crank the GCP will fire two spark plugs
simultaneously. Of the two plugs simultaneously fired
one will be under compression the other will be on the
exhaust stroke. Both plugs will fire until camshaft
position is identified by a successful camshaft position
sensor signal. Once camshaft position is identified only
the cylinder under compression will be fired.
CMP FMEM
During CMP FMEM the COP ignition works the same as
during engine crank. This allows the engine to operate
without the GCP knowing if cylinder one is under
compression or exhaust.
Cranking Mode
Cranking mode is the area of engine operating speed
within which the ignition timing is at a static position. The
static spark advance is fixed at 10 degrees BTDC up to
250 RPM.
Transient Mode
This function is to provide a limp in mode whenever
certain components fail. The engine will run but at a set
timing and batch fuel delivery. This mode will stay in
effect until problem is corrected or ignition turned off and
back on if an intermittent problem.
Overspeed Mode
Over-speed protection is available on certain GCP
modules that have set RPM limits. Refer to the GCP
Replacement chart. When the module senses the engine
RPM is at the preset limit, grounding of the Coil on Plugs
is removed stalling the engine. The ignition must cycle
from on to off and to start in order to restart the engine.
Note: this strategy must be compatible with governor
controllers.
168 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Electronic Engine Controls
Refer to Section 08 of this manual.
Cylinder Head Temperature Sensor (CHT
Sensor)
The cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor is a
thermistor device in which resistance changes with
temperature. The electrical resistance of a thermistor
decreases as temperature increases, and increases as
temperature decreases. The varying resistance affects
the voltage drop across the sensor terminals and
provides electrical signals to the GCP corresponding to
temperature.
Thermistor-type sensors are considered passive
sensors. A passive sensor is connected to a voltage
divider network so that varying the resistance of the
passive sensor causes a variation in total current flow.
Voltage that is dropped across a fixed resistor in series
with the sensor resistor determines the voltage signal at
the GCP. This voltage signal is equal to the reference
voltage minus the voltage drop across the fixed resistor.
The CHT sensor is installed in the aluminum cylinder
head and measures the metal temperature. The CHT
sensor communicates an overheating condition to the
GCP. The GCP would then initiate a cooling strategy
based on information from the CHT sensor. A cooling
system failure such as low coolant or coolant loss could
cause an overheating condition. As a result, damage to
major engine components could occur. Using a CHT
sensor and cooling strategy would prevent damage by
allowing air cooling of the engine and limp home
capability.
169 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Starting Mode
Module enters start mode at first application of power.
No spark is applied for first turn of crankshaft. Timing is
fixed at 10 degrees BTDC. Dwell is fixed at 10 degrees
of crankshaft rotation. Start mode remains in effect until
10 turns of the crankshaft @ 500 rpm. If drops below
500 rpm at any time, turn counter is reset. Once 10 turns
are made @ 100 rpm or greater, module is set to run
mode. In transitioning to run mode, calculated timing
values are ramped into system during approximately 3.5
revolutions to ensure transition. Dwell is determined with
a base value plus a correction factor based on system
voltage.
exists which caused the engine to stall. Over
temperature reaction is experienced when temperature
reaches 250°F. Low oil pressure reaction is experienced
when oil pressure drops below 6 psi +/- 1.5 psi. Oil
pressure switch position is normally open when engine is
off.
Starter Lockout
Starter lockout relay control open drain (GCP switch to
ground). Activated once engine is in the run mode and
has reached 600 RPM. Will not allow start until ignition
voltage to GCP module is switched off and back on.
CHT Effects
Tachometer Output
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) is monitored and a
correction factor is applied to engine timing based on
one of three 1 X 8 tables. OCT1 selects which timing
table will be used for correction.
Tachometer output will be from Pin #2 of the 42 pin
harness. The pulses per revolution will be determined by
the number of cylinders the GCP will control. The four
cylinder GCP will output 2 pulses per revolution, the six
cylinder GCP output 3 pulses per revolution, the eight
cylinder output 4 pulses per revolution, and the ten
cylinder 5 pulses per revolution. The intention of this is to
allow for use of a conventional tachometer from this
output.
IAT Effects (Not Used)
Intake Air Temperature (IAT) is monitored and a
correction factor is applied to engine timing based on
one of three 1 X 8 tables. OCT1 selects which timing
table will be used for correction.
Overspeed Protection
The GCP module contains an RPM limit that is set at
3200 RPM. Reaction is the module will be shut off,
stalling the engine. Key must cycle from run to off to start
in order to restart engine. Note: this strategy must be
compatible with governor controllers.
Engine Protection
Reaction for overtemp (based on CHT input) and low oil
pressure (based on oil pressure switch input) the module
will be shut off, stalling the engine. Key must cycle from
run to off to start in order to restart engine. Engine
protection becomes active after 240 crankshaft
revolutions and when 800 rpm is exceeded. The purpose
of having to meet these conditions provides an
opportunity for the engine to restart if the failure still
Global Control Platform (GCP)
170 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Ignition System - Components Location
The 6.8L engine is equipped with a coil on plug ignition
system. This system has a separate ignition coil
mounted on each spark plug. Operation of the coils is
controlled by global control platform (GCP), which
computes ignition timing based on inputs from the
electronic engine control system sensors. For additional
information on sensor inputs related to ignition control;
refer to Section 08.
The ignition coils change a supplied low voltage signal
into high voltage pulses to the spark plugs. The ignition
control module controls the low side of each coil.
The ignition system is set for base timing at 10 degrees
before top dead center (BTDC) and is not adjustable.
Refer to Specifications for firing order.
171 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Firing Order
172 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Ignition Coil-On Plug - Removal
1. Disconnect the wiring at the coil.
2. Remove the bolt and the coil.
Ignition Coil-On Plug - Installation
WARNING: ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY
GLASSES TO PROTECT EYES FROM FLYING
FOREIGN MATERIAL.
1. NOTE: Remove any foreign material from spark
plug wells with compressed air.
2. Insert a small amount of dielectric grease into
each boot using Motorcraft Silicone Brake
Caliper Grease and Dielectric Compound XG-3
or equivalent meeting Ford specification ESEM1C171-A.
To install, reverse the removal procedure.
173 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Harness Connector Pinout Description
I / O = Input / Output
174 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Fuel Select Operation
Fuel Select is Used to select ignition table for fuel type. The user has several options for this which is all
dependent on whether pin 7 of the 42 pin connector is Open, grounded or has 12 volts. The configurations are
listed below.
Fuel Select Configuration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
GND = LP, Open = Gsln , +V = NG
Gnd = NG, Open = Gsln, +V = LP
Gnd/Open = Gsln, +V = LP
Gnd/Open = Gsln, +V = NG
Gasoline Only
LP Only
NG Only
Gnd/Open = LP, +V = NG
Gnd/Open = NG, +V = LP
Gnd = LP, Open = NG, +V = Gsln
175 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
DIAGN0SIS AND TESTING
Service Adjustments And Checks
CAUTION: There should be no wires spliced
to the main wire harness for source of power or RPM
signal unless pre-approved by Ford Power Products.
Otherwise, any alteration will void the warranty.
Altering of wire harness may cause lack of power,
no start, or erratic running.
1. Each 400 hours of engine operation remove the
spark plugs and clean and adjust the electrode.
2. Clean and visually check each coil-on plug
connectors, check for secure fit.
NOTE: When using the spark plug firing indicator, place
the grooved end as close as possible to the plug boot.
Very weak or no flashing may be caused by a fouled
plug.
Diagnostic Equipment
To accurately diagnose Coil on Plug (COP), certain
diagnostic equipment and tools are required. In addition,
the suggested diagnostic equipment may make the job
easier and more convenient.
NOTE: Do not use an incandescent test lamp to check
CKPS- or CKPS+ circuits. The lamp will prevent the
circuit from operating.
Prior to diagnosing COP, obtain the following test
equipment or equivalent.
•
Spark tester, neon bulb type (Champion CT436).
•
Spark tester, gap type (special service tool
D81P-6666-A).
Connect this gap type spark tester between any COP
and engine ground to instantly determine if spark is
being provided to the plug. A spark plug with a broken
side electrode is not sufficient to check for spark and
may lead to incorrect results.
•
Volt-ohmmeter (Rotunda 73111 Automotive
Meter 105- R005 7 or equivalent).
A volt-ohmmeter is essential for gathering system
operating data during diagnosis, testing, and engine
servicing procedures. This digital volt ohmmeter (DVOM)
can also be used for general purpose electrical
troubleshooting on conventional starting and charging
systems.
176 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Preliminary Checks
Before using this section verify the customer complaint
and refer to the appropriate symptom chart. Perform the
procedure included in the symptom chart.
Shorts to Power
Key ON to power up circuit. Measure voltage between
the suspect circuit at the harness connector and a
reliable ground. The voltage must be less than 1.0 volt.
Basic Circuit Checks
Visual/Physical Check
Several of the symptom procedures call for a careful
visual/ physical check. This can often lead to repairing a
problem without performing unnecessary steps. Use the
following guidelines when performing a visual/physical
check:
Basic circuit checks help to minimize pinpoint test steps
by providing a procedure to diagnose harness faults
associated with the Electronic Engine Control (EC)
System. The following techniques provide helpful
reminders for diagnosing open circuits (continuity),
shorts to ground and shorts to power.
NOTE:
• The suspect circuit must be isolated before
testing.
Inspect unit for modifications or aftermarket equipment
that can contribute to symptom, verify that all electrical
and mechanical loads or accessory equipment is “OFF’’
or disconnected before performing diagnosis.
•
•
When disconnecting any harness connector,
always inspect for damaged or pushed out pins,
corrosion and loose wires. Repair as necessary.
•
The digital multimeter must be set to the correct
scale.
•
The techniques do not apply in all situations,
therefore, it is necessary to follow each pinpoint
test step accurately and completely.
•
General resistance and voltage values are
specified below. Always use the pinpoint test
values if they differ.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspect engine fluids for correct levels and evidence
of leaks.
Inspect vacuum hoses for damage, leaks, cracks,
kinks and improper routing, inspect intake manifold
sealing surface for a possible vacuum leak.
Inspect all wires and harnesses for proper
connections and routing, bent or broken connector
pins, burned, chafed, or pinched wires, corrosion, and
verify harness grounds are clean and tight.
Inspect GCP, sensors and actuators for physical
damage.
Inspect fuel system for adequate fuel level, and fuel
quality (concerns such as proper fuel pressure and
contamination).
Inspect intake air system and air filter for restrictions.
Intermittent Problems
Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty
electrical connections or wiring. Perform a careful
visual/physical check for the following conditions:
• Poor mating of the connector halves or a
terminal not fully seated in the connector
(backed out).
• Improperly formed or damaged terminals.
• Improper contact tension. All connector
terminals in the problem circuit should be
carefully checked.
• Poor terminal-to-wire connections. This requires
removing the terminal from the connector body
to check.
• Improperly installed aftermarket equipment or
accessories.
Operate the engine with accessories “OFF’’ and a
suitable multimeter connected to the suspected circuit.
An abnormal voltage when the malfunction occurs is a
good indication that there is a fault in the circuit being
monitored
Always turn the key to the OFF position unless
directed otherwise by the pinpoint test.
Each of the following procedures will require the Global
Control Platform (GCP) and component to be
disconnected to isolate the harness.
Open Circuit (Continuity)
Disconnect GCP. Measure the harness resistance
between the suspect circuit at the harness connector
and the appropriate GCP harness connector pin. The
resistance must be less than 5.0 ohms.
Shorts to Ground
Measure the harness resistance between the suspect
circuit at the harness connector and a reliable ground
(B+, chassis ground or PWR GND). The resistance must
be greater than 10,000 ohms.
177 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Engine Controls
178 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Engine Sensors (part of SK2U1L-12A200-BA)
179 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
42 Pin Engine Harness Connectors
F8JL-14324-AC & F8JL-14324-BA SH 4/5/06
42 pin engine to frame harness (6.8L)
GCP Engine to Frame Harness Pinout (Harness Part # F8JL-14324-AC or BA)
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Wire Color
Red/Light Green
Tan/Yellow
Pink / Light Blue
Not populated
Pink/Black
Pink/Light Green
Y / Bk or BR / W
Yellow
Yellow
Not populated
Tan / Orange
Not populated
Red/Light Blue
Light Blue/Black
Dark Blue
Red/White
Not populated
White / Purple
Not populated
Not populated
Not populated
Purple
Not populated
Tan/Light Blue
Black/Yellow
Dark Green/White
Not populated
Not populated
Not populated
Not populated
Brown/White
Not populated
Gray/Red
Black/White
Not populated
Not populated
Dark Green / Orange
Description
+12 V switched
Tachometer output
RS232 Rx / Self Test Input
Brake input
To f uel pump positive
To MIL
Fuel select
Not used
Not used
Aux. Analog PUD1
RS232 Tx
FPP2
Not used
FPP1
To start switch "S" terminal
Aux. PWM 4
Not used
To f uel pump negativ e
Autocrank start
Not used
Aux. PWM 5
Not used
GVS 2
GVS 1
IVS
Oil pressure
Aux. Out 2
CAN +
CAN Not used
+5v ref
Aux. Analog PD1
Analog return
Not used
Roadspeed +
Roadspeed Analog aux. PUD2
180 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
90 Pin GCP Connector
181 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test A - Ignition Check
The ignition system check will verify the required inputs and outputs recommended by Engine Distributors Inc.
Always locate and inspect all power, ground and terminal connections prior to the start of this
test, as failures and corrosion associated with these areas can adversely affect the engine to start
properly.
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and electrical damage.
2. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the recommended wiring
schematic.
182 WSG-1068 IGNITION SYSTEM
183 WSG-1068 FUEL SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
General Information
System Operation - LPG ....................................................................................................................
System Operation - Natural Gas ........................................................................................................
Diagnosis and Testing
Pinpoint Test A - Fuel Pressure Check ..............................................................................................
Page
200
200
202
NOTE: For further information on Servicing the fuel system, refer to Manufacturer’s Service Information.
04
184 WSG-1068 FUEL SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
System Operation - LPG
High pressure liquefied Petroleum Gas passes through a
solenoid operated fuel shut-off valve into an engine
coolant heated vaporizer/regulator unit where it is
converted into a low pressure gas. This gas is then fed
into the carburetor body/mixer where a vacuum operated
gas metering valve ensures that the correct air-to-fuel
ratio is maintained.
When the engine is switched off, the electrical supply to
the fuel shut-off solenoid is disconnected and the valve
closes, cutting off the high pressure fuel supply to the
vaporizer/regulator. The electrical supply to fuel shut-off
valve passes through a vacuum operated safety switch.
Should the engine stall, the vacuum switch opens and
cuts off the electrical supply to the fuel shut-off valve.
When starting the engine, there is sufficient vacuum
present, even at cranking speed, to close the safety
switch.
FUEL SYSTEMS – FIELD CALIBRATIONS/GENERAL
When performing field calibrations on LPG & NG
systems, it should be noted that improper fuel
calibrations and/or improper hardware installation may
result in decreased durability/life of the cylinder head
valve train. Validation testing on the valve train was
conducted in a controlled laboratory environment with
proper air-fuel distribution and proper air-fuel ratios
which fall within acceptable ranges.
185 WSG-1068 FUEL SYSTEM
System Operation – Natural Gas
Natural gas passes through a vacuum operated fuel
shutoff valve into a regulator unit where it is converted
into a low pressure gas. This gas is then fed into the
mixer where a vacuum operated gas metering valve
ensures that the correct air-to-fuel ratio is maintained.
When the engine is switched off, vacuum supply to the
fuel shut-off vacuum is disconnected and the valve
closes, cutting off the fuel supply to the regulator.
Should the engine stall, the loss of vacuum will close the
fuel shut-off valve. When starting the engine, there is
sufficient vacuum present, even at cranking speed, to
open the fuel shut-off valve.
The system is similar to the LPG system, except a
convertor (vaporizer) is not used, and the coolan
connections are also not needed. A regulator is required
and must be supplied by the OEM to suit the mains gas
supply pressure.
186 WSG-1068 FUEL SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Pinpoint Test A - Fuel Pressure Check
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and electrical damage.
2. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the Recommended
Customer Connections Wiring Schematic.
Normal Operation
Fuel pressure is customer supplied. The following test is a generalized procedure, which should be completed prior to all
test.
187 WSG-1068 FUEL SYSTEM
188 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
INDEX
Page
Subject
General Information
Engine Cooling...................................................................................................................................
Coolant Flow ......................................................................................................................................
Coolant...............................................................................................................................................
Recycled Coolant ...............................................................................................................................
Unsatisfactory Coolant Materials........................................................................................................
206
207
207
207
207
General Service Procedures
Cooling System Draining....................................................................................................................
Cooling System Filling........................................................................................................................
Drive Belt Routing .............................................................................................................................
Cooling System Flushing....................................................................................................................
208
210
212
212
Removal and Installation
Radiator Hose - Removal....................................................................................................................
Radiator Hose - Installation................................................................................................................
Thermostat - Removal........................................................................................................................
Thermostat - Installation.....................................................................................................................
Removal of Heater Water Inlet Tube..................................................................................................
Installation of Water Heater Return Tube Assembly with by-pass Hose............................................
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor - Replacement ...............................................................
Fan Drive Belt - Removal & Installation..............................................................................................
Belt Tensioner - Removal...................................................................................................................
Belt Tensioner - Installation................................................................................................................
Belt Idler Pulley - Removal .................................................................................................................
Belt Idler Pulley - Installation ..............................................................................................................
Water Pump - Removal......................................................................................................................
Water Pump - Installation....................................................................................................................
213
213
213
213
214
214
215
215
216
216
217
217
218
218
Diagnosis and Testing
Visual Inspection ................................................................................................................................
Cooling System Visual Test ...............................................................................................................
Thermostat Test - Thermostat Removed ...........................................................................................
Radiator Leak Test, Removed from Vehicle.......................................................................................
Engine Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor............................................................................
V-Ribbed Serpentine Drive Belt .........................................................................................................
Drive Belt Symptom Chart..................................................................................................................
Drive Tensioner / Belt Length Indicator ..............................................................................................
Drive Belt Misalignment......................................................................................................................
Visual Inspection Chart ......................................................................................................................
Inspection and Verification .................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ..................................................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test A: Loss of Coolant ........................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test B: The Engine Overheats .............................................................................................
Pinpoint Test C: The Engine Does Not Reach Normal Operating Temperature ................................
220
221
222
223
223
225
225
226
226
227
227
227
228
230
233
189 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
INDEX (CONT.)
Subject
Page
Specifications
General Specifications .......................................................................................................................
Torque Specifications.........................................................................................................................
190 234
234
WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Engine Cooling
Walter C. Avrea, the owner of patents 3,601,181 and
RE27,965, has granted Ford Motor Company rights with
respect to cooling systems covered by these patents.
The cooling system components are:
•
Cylinder head temperature sensor (CHT sensor).
•
Water thermostat and gasket assembly.
•
Water pump assembly.
191 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Coolant Flow is as follows:
•
•
The water pump (8501) circulates the coolant.
From the water pump to the engine block and
the cylinder heads (6049) to the thermostat.
– Thermostat closed, the coolant returns to the
water pump through bypass hose.
CAUTION: Alkaline brine solutions will cause
serious engine cooling system damage.
– Thermostat open, the coolant flows back to the
radiator.
CAUTION: Do not use. 100,000 mile, red in
color antifreeze, it is not compatible with copper
radiators.
– To the radiator for heat rejection then back to
the lower radiator hose.
– From the lower radiator hose (8286) to the
water pump.
Coolant:
•
Use a 50/50 mix of Ethylene Glycol Permanent
Antifreeze and water. This mixture is to be used
year round with temperatures above -30°F.
Recycled Coolant:
•
Use recycled engine coolant produced by Ford
approved processes. Not all coolant recycling
processes produce coolant which meets Ford
specification ESE-M97B44- A or WSS-M97B44D, and use of such a coolant may harm engine
and cooling system components.
Unsatisfactory Coolant Material:
•
Alcohol-type antifreeze does not provide
adequate water pump lubrication.
– Has a lower boiling point.
– Provides reduced antifreeze protection.
192 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING OR
WHEN THE COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO COOLING
SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID HAVING SCALDING
HOT COOLANT OR STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE
DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS
COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST 110°F.
Cooling System Draining
1. Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap
and turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released
from the cooling system.
2. When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn the pressure
relief cap counterclockwise and remove.
193 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
CAUTION: The coolant must be recovered in
a suitable, clean container for reuse. If the coolant
is contaminated it must be recycled or disposed of
properly.
NOTE: About 80% of coolant capacity can be recovered
with the engine in the vehicle. Dirty, rusty or
contaminated coolant requires replacement.
3. Place a suitable container below the radiator
draincock (8115). If equipped, disconnect the
coolant return hose at the fluid cooler.
4. Open the radiator draincock.
5. Remove the cylinder drain plug, if equipped, to
drain the coolant from the cylinder block (6010).
1. Place a drain pan below the cylinder block.
2. Remove the drain plugs.
194 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
6. When the coolant is drained, make sure drain
plugs are installed and tight.
7. Close the radiator draincock when finished.
Cooling System Filling
1. Add the proper engine coolant mixture to the
degas bottle or radiator.
2. Move the temperature blend selector to the full
warm position when equipped.
3. Run the engine until it reaches operating
temperature.
195 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
4. Add the proper engine coolant mixture to the
degas bottle or radiator until the coolant level is
between the “COOLANT FILL LEVEL’’ marks.
NOTE: Systems without degas bottle fill radiator
up to 1 inch below the filler neck.
5. Turn off the engine and allow the cooling system
to cool.
6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 until the radiator level
is OK.
196 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Drive Belt Routing
Cooling System Flushing
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
197 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Radiator Hose - Removal
Radiator hoses should be replaced whenever they
become cracked, rotted or have a tendency to collapse.
Drain the radiator into appropriate container then loosen
the clamps at each end of the hose to be removed. Slide
the hose off the radiator connection and the engine
water outlet connection (upper hose) or the water pump
connection (lower hose).
Thermostat - Installation
NOTE: Thermostat must be installed as illustrated.
Radiator Hose - Installation
1. Install the (B) water thermostat and use a new
(A) Oring seal to position the (B) water
thermostat in the (C) upper intake manifold
(9424).
Position the clamps at least 1/8 inch from each end of
the hose. Coat the connection areas with an approved
water-resistant sealer and slide the hose on the
connection. Make sure the clamps are beyond the bead
and placed in the center of the clamping surface of the
connections. Tighten the clamps. Fill the radiator with
the recommended permanent antifreeze and water
50/50 mixture. Operate the engine for several minutes,
then check the hoses and connections for leaks.
Thermostat - Removal
WARNING: AVOID INJURY FROM HOT
COOLANT WHEN ENGINE IS HOT.
2. Install the water outlet connection.
1. Position the (A) water outlet connection on
the (B) upper intake manifold.
1. Partially drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Flushing in this section.
2. Install the bolts.
2. Disconnect the upper radiator hose.
3. Remove the water outlet connection.
•
Remove the bolts.
•
Remove the water outlet connection.
4. Remove the (B) O-ring seal and the (A) water
thermostat (8575).
3. Connect the upper radiator hose.
•
Discard the (B) O-ring seal.
4. Fill the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Flushing in this section.
198 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
With or Without Dry Fuel Evaporator Plumbing
Installation of Water Heater Return Tube
Assembly with by-pass Hose
Removal of Heater Water Inlet Tube
(18663)
1. Lightly lubricate the o-rings prior to installing the
water outlet tube.
1. Drain the cooling system.
2. Remove the upper and lower intake manifold
together. Refer to Section 01 for details.
3. Remove the two studs securing the tube to the
rear of the right side cylinder head and remove
the tube.
4. Inspect the water pump tube assembly o-rings
for damage.
2. Install the heater water outlet tube.
3. Install the water tube-mounting studs.
4. Install the lower and upper intake manifold.
(Refer to Section 01.
5. Install rubber cap and clamp on outlet tube if not
using LPG or cab heater.
6. Refill the cooling system.
199 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor
- Replacement
Fan Drive Belt - Removal and Installation
1. Remove the upper and lower intake manifold
together. For additional information, refer to
Section 01.
2. Remove the cylinder head temperature (CHT)
sensor.
1. Disconnect the electrical connector.
2. Remove the CHT sensor.
1. Rotate the drive belt tensioner counterclockwise
and remove the drive belt.
2. NOTE: Refer to 05-9 for correct drive belt
routing. To install, reverse the removal
procedure.
3. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
CAUTION: Do not over torque. May damage
sensor.
200 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Belt Tensioner - Removal
1. Remove the drive belt (8620). For additional
information, refer to Fan Drive Belt page 05-12.
2. Remove the belt tensioner.
1. Remove the bolts.
2. Remove the belt tensioner.
Belt Tensioner - Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
201 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Belt Idler Pulley - Removal
1. Remove the fan drive belt (8620) off of the belt
idler pulley (8678). For additional information,
refer to Fan Drive Belt page 05-12.
2. Remove the bolt and the belt idler pulley.
Belt Idler Pulley - Installation
1. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
202 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Water Pump - Removal
Material
1. Drain the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Flushing page 05-05.
6. Remove the (A) water pump from the (B)
cylinder block.
•
2. Remove the engine cooling fan.
Clean and inspect the mating surfaces.
3. Remove the drive belt. For additional
information, refer to Fan Drive Belt page 05-12.
4. Remove the water pump pulley (8509).
•
Remove the water pump pulley.
Water Pump - Installation
1.
CAUTION: Cooling systems are
recommended to be filled with Motorcraft
Premium Engine Coolant VC-4-A meeting
Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A (green
color). Do not mix coolant types.
Install the water pump:
1. Lubricate the new O-ring seal using engine
coolant and install the O-ring seal onto the
water pump.
2. Position the water pump into the engine block
and heater water outlet tube.
3. Install the bolts.
5. Remove the water pump bolts.
203 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
2. Position the pulley onto the water pump.
3. Install the fan spacer and fan.
4. Install the drive belt.
5. Refill the cooling system. For additional
information, refer to Cooling System Draining,
Filling and Flushing in this section.
204 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
DIAGNOSING AND TESTING
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out the
water pump weep hole may be normal.
Refer to the following Diagnosis Chart for cooling
system problems, their possible cause and
recommended correction. Refer to the pertinent part for
testing and repair.
Most vehicles use an ethylene glycol base antifreeze
solution to which the manufacturers have added a dye
color. The dye color makes the antifreeze solution an
excellent leak detector. If this type of solution is not
being used in the cooling system, a vegetable dye may
be added to aid in locating external leakage.
The most frequent cooling system complaints are
leakage and overheating. Either of these problems will
soon render the vehicle inoperable.
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out the
water pump weep hole may be normal.
Visual Inspection
Check for leakage at:
1. All hoses and hose connections.
2. Radiator seams, radiator core, and radiator drain
petcock.
3. All block core plugs and drain plugs.
4. Edges of all cooling system gaskets.
Examine oil dipstick for evidence of coolant
contaminated engine oil (white milky appearance).
5. Water pump shaft and bushing.
205 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling System Visual Test
Special Tool(s)
3. Inspect the coolant in both the radiator and the
degas bottle for coolant color:
•
Clear, light green or blue indicates higher
water
content than required
•
Dark brown indicates unauthorized stop leak
may have been used. Use cooling system
Stop Leak Powder E6AZ-19558-A or
equivalent meeting Ford specification ESEM99B170-A only.
•
A light or reddish-brown color indicates rust
in the cooling system. Flush the system and
refill with the correct mixture of water and
Premium Engine Coolant (green in color),
E2FZ-19549-AA or equivalent meeting Ford
specification ESEM97B44-A.
•
An irridescent sheen on top of the coolant
indicates a trace of oil is entering the cooling
system.
•
A milky-brown color indicates that oil is
entering the cooling system.
•
The causes of the leak might be:
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING OR
WHEN THE COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO COOLING
SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO AVOID HAVING SCALDING
HOT COOLANT OR STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE
DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN REMOVING THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP, WAIT UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS
COOLED DOWN TO AT LEAST 110°F.
1. Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap
and turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released
from the cooling system.
– A blown head gasket (6051).
2. When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn
counterclockwise and remove the pressure relief
cap.
– A cracked or warped cylinder head (6049).
– A crack in the engine oil gallery and the
cooling passageways.
•
CAUTION: If there is engine coolant in
the engine oil the cause must be corrected
and the oil changed or engine damage may
occur.
If engine coolant is present in the engine oil,
the cause of the leak might be:
– A blown head gasket.
– A cracked or warped cylinder head.
NOTE: Check the engine coolant in the degas
bottle and radiator (8005) when vehicle has
been allowed to reach normal operating
temperature. This will make sure sufficient
engine coolant exchange has occurred.
– A crack in the engine oil gallery and
cooling passageways.
206 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
4. If the engine coolant appearance is good, test
the engine coolant range with the battery and
antifreeze tester:
•
Maximum ratio is 60/40.
•
Minimum ratio is 45/55.
Thermostat Test – Thermostat Removed
WARNING: USE CAUTION WORKING WITH
HOT BOILING WATER AND WEAR APPROPRIATE
PROTECTIVE GEAR. MAY CAUSE BODILY HARM.
Remove the thermostat and immerse it in boiling water.
Replace the thermostat if it does not open at least 0.230"
after one minute at 212°F.
5. Check the engine coolant system conditions:
•
If the engine cooling fluid is low, add
specified coolant mixture only.
•
If the engine coolant fluid tests weak, add
straight engine coolant until the readings are
within acceptable levels.
•
If the engine coolant tests strong, remove
some of the engine coolant and add water
until readings are within acceptable levels.
If the problem being investigated is the inability of the
cooling system to reach normal operating temperature,
the thermostat should be checked for leakage. This
may be done by holding the thermostat up to a lighted
background. Leakage of light all around the thermostat
valve (thermostat at room temperature) indicates that
the thermostat is unacceptable and should be
replaced. It is possible, on some thermostats, that a
slight leakage of light at one or two locations on the
perimeter of the valve may be detected. This should be
considered normal.
6. Check for electrical charge in coolant. Using a
DVOM, insert the (+) probe into coolant without
touching radiator. Hold the (-) probe to radiator
shell or a good ground and read the volts.:
•
Less then 1.5 volts is good.
•
If voltage is above 1.5 volts - drain, flush and
replace coolant with a 50/50 mixture.
NOTE: Above 3 volts may indicate a bad head gasket.
207 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Radiator Leak Test, Removed From
Vehicle
•
The electrical resistance of the (CHT) sensor
changes with temperature. As engine coolant
temperature increases, the (CHT) resistance
decreases.
•
Output is a variable voltage signal which
typically ranges from 0.3 volt to 4.5 volts.
•
At -40°F (CHT) resistance is approximately
925K ohms.
1. Always install plugs in the oil cooler fittings before
leak-testing or cleaning any radiator.
•
At 77°F (CHT) resistance is approximately 30K
ohms.
2. Clean the radiator before leak-testing to avoid
contamination of the tank.
•
At 248°F (CHT) resistance is approximately 1.2K
ohms.
CAUTION: Never leak test an aluminum
radiator in the same water that copper/brass
radiators are tested in. Flux and caustic cleaners
may be present in the cleaning tank and they will
damage aluminum radiators.
3. Leak-test the radiator in clean water with 138 kPa
(20 psi) air pressure.
NOTE: Complete list of temperature sensor
characteristics can be found on page 05-21 of
this section.
Engine Cylinder Head Temp.
(CHT) Sensor
Diagnostic Aids
The (CHT) sensor shares the same ground with other
sensors. Check the ground circuit 359 (Gray)
if other shared components.
NOTE: Refer to Section 08 for further diagnostics.
Inspect the harness connectors for backed-out terminals,
improper mating, broken locks, improperly formed or
damaged terminals, and poor terminal-to-wire
connections. Inspect the wiring harness for damage. If
the harness appears to be OK, back probe the CHT
sensor connector with a digital voltmeter and observe
the voltage while moving connectors and wiring
harnesses related to the CHT sensor. A change in the
voltmeter display will indicate the location of the fault.
Circuit Description
The engine cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor is
a thermistor which measures the temperature of the
engine cylinder head. The GCP supplies a ground
(Gray/Red) from the sensor and monitors
voltage signal (Lt Green / Red) to the
sensor. When the engine coolant is cold, the sensor
resistance is high and the GCP will monitor a high
signal voltage at the CHT signal circuit. If the engine
cylinder head is warm, the sensor resistance is lower,
causing the GCP to monitor a lower voltage.
•
Engine cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor
is a type of thermistor that converts engine
temperature to an electrical voltage signal.
208 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
CHT Sensor Data
Temperature Sensor Characteristics
209 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
V-Ribbed Serpentine Drive Belt
Cracks Across Ribs - Normal
Chunks of Rib Missing - Replace Belt
Drive Belt Symptom Chart
210 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Drive Tensioner/Belt Length Indicator
Drive Belt Misalignment
CAUTION: Incorrect drive belt installation will
cause excessive drive belt wear and may cause the
drive belt to come off the drive pulleys.
Non-standard replacement drive belts may track
differently or improperly. If a replacement drive belt
tracks improperly, replace it with an original equipment
drive belt to avoid performance failure or loss of belt.
With the engine running, check drive belt tracking. If the
A edge of the drive belt rides beyond the edge of the
pulleys, noise and premature wear may occur. Make
sure the B drive belt rides correctly on the pulley. If a
drive belt tracking condition exists, proceed with the
following:
Visually check the drive belt tensioner for damage,
especially the mounting pad surface. If the drive belt
tensioner is not installed correctly, the mounting surface
pad will be out of position. This will result in a chirp or
squeal noises.
• With the engine running, visually observe the
grooves in the pulleys (not the pulley flanges or
pulley front surfaces) for excessive wobble.
Replace components as required.
Automatic tensioners are calibrated at the factory to
provide the correct amount of tension to the belt. Unless
a spring within the tensioner assembly breaks or some
other mechanical part of the tensioner fails, there is no
need to check tensioners for proper tension.
The only mechanical check that need be made, if you
have any doubt about the tensioner function, would be to
remove the belt in the area of the tensioner, to avoid belt
contact, then using the proper tool, rotate the tensioner
from its relaxed position through its full stroke and back
to the relaxed position to assure that there is no “stick,
grab, bind,” and to assure that there is tension on the
spring. It is a normal condition for the tensioner to be
moving, under certain conditions, when the engine is
running. If the tensioner meets this criteria, it should be
assumed to be a good tensioner.
211 •
Check all accessories, mounting brackets and
the drive belt tensioner for any interference that
would prevent the component from mounting
properly. Correct any interference condition and
recheck belt tracking.
•
Tighten all accessories, mounting brackets, and
drive belt tensioner retaining hardware to
specification.
Recheck the drive belt tracking.
WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
Visual Inspection Chart
Inspection and Verification
Special Tool(s)
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer’s concern by operating the
engine to duplicate the condition.
3. If the inspection reveals an obvious concern that
can be readily identified, repair as necessary.
2. Inspect to determine if any of the following
mechanical or electrical concerns apply.
4. If the concern remains after the inspection,
determine the symptom(s) and go to the
Symptom Chart.
Symptom Chart
212 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT
213 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT (Continued)
214 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST A: LOSS OF COOLANT (Continued)
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS
215 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS (Continued)
216 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST B: THE ENGINE OVERHEATS (Continued)
217 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
PINPOINT TEST C: THE ENGINE DOES NOT REACH NORMAL OPERATING TEMPERATURE
218 WSG-1068 COOLING SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
General Specifications
NOTE: Bolt information on installation page this section.
Torque Specifications
219 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Generator ................................................................................................................................................
Circuit Description ..................................................................................................................................
236
236
Diagnosis and Testing
Recommended Accessory Wiring ...........................................................................................................
Recommended Generator Wiring............................................................................................................
Voltage Regulator and Back of Governor................................................................................................
Visual Inspection .....................................................................................................................................
Generator Output Test ............................................................................................................................
Generator Voltage Test ..........................................................................................................................
Battery - Drain Test .................................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart .......................................................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test A: Generator Output Voltage.............................................................................................
Pinpoint Test B: Voltage Output High......................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test C: Indicator Lamp ON, Engine Running............................................................................
237
238
238
239
239
239
239
241
242
244
245
Removal and Installation
Generator - Removal...............................................................................................................................
Generator - Installation............................................................................................................................
R
Regulator - Removal ...............................................................................................................................
R
Regulator - Installation ............................................................................................................................
246
246
246
247
Specifications
Torque Specifications.............................................................................................................................
Generator Parts Cross-Reference..........................................................................................................
Special Tools..........................................................................................................................................
248
248
248
06
220 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Battery Positive Voltage (B+) Output
Generator
With the key in the RUN position, voltage is applied
through the charge indicator lamp “I” circuit to the
voltage regulator. This turns the voltage regulator on
allowing current to flow from the battery sense “A” circuit
to the generator field coil. When the engine (6007) is
started, the generator (10346) begins to generate
alternating (AC) current which is converted to direct (DC)
current by the rectifier internal to the generator. This
current is then supplied to the electrical system through
the Battery Positive voltage (B+) terminal located on the
rear of the generator.
The generator output circuit 38 (BK/O) is supplied
through the battery positive voltage (B+) output
connection to the battery and electrical system. The B+
circuit is hot at all times. This circuit is protected by a 12
gage fuse link.
“I” Circuit
The “I” circuit, or ignition switch (11572), (R/Tan) is used
to turn on the voltage regulator. This circuit is closed with
the ignition switch in the RUN position. This circuit is
also used to turn the charge indicator lamp on if there is
a fault in the charging system operation or associated
wiring circuits.
Once the generator begins generating current, a voltage
signal is taken from the stator and fed back to the
voltage regulator “S” circuit, turning off the charge
indicator/lamp.
“A” Circuit
With the system functioning normally, the generator
output current is determined by the voltage at the “A”
circuit. This voltage is compared to a set voltage internal
to the voltage regulator, and the voltage regulator
controls the generator field current to maintain proper
generator output. The set voltage will vary with
temperature and is typically higher in the winter than in
the summer, allowing for better battery recharge.
NOTE: The “A” circuit is electrically hot at all
times.
The “A” circuit, or battery sense circuit, (Red) is used to
sense the battery voltage. This voltage is used by the
voltage regulator to determine the output. This circuit is
also used to supply power to the field coil. This circuit is
recommended to be protected by a 10 amp fuse or a
fuse link.
“S” Circuit
The “S” circuit, or stator circuit is used to feed back a
voltage signal from the generator to the voltage
regulator. This voltage, typically 1/2 battery voltage when
the generator is operating, is used by the voltage
regulator to turn off the charge indicator lamp.
Not used with this system.
Circuit Description
221 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Recommended Accessory Wiring
222 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Recommended Generator Wiring
Before performing generator tests on the unit, note
conditions such as: slow cranking, dead battery, charge
indicator lamp stays on with engine running, etc. This
information will aid in isolating the part of the system
causing the symptom.
Voltage Regulator and Back of Governor
223 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Visual Inspection
Generator Voltage Test
1. Switch the tester to the voltmeter function.
2. Connect the positive lead to the generator Aterminal connector and the negative lead to
ground.
3. Turn off all electrical accessories.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, check the
generator voltage.
5. Voltage should be between 13.0-15.5 volts.
Preliminary checks to the charging system should be
made regardless of the fault condition. These checks
include:
1. Check battery posts and cable terminals for
clean and tight connections. Clean the posts and
the cables to ensure good electrical contact.
2. Check for secure connections at the generator
output, regulator, and engine ground. Also check
the connection at the load distribution point
(starter relay).
3. Check the fuses/fuse links and wiring to the
generator to ensure that they are not burned or
damaged. This condition, resulting in an open
circuit or high resistance, can cause erratic or
intermittent charging system concerns.
4. Check the battery voltage. If the voltage is less
than 12.3 volts with the engine and all
accessories off, charge battery before
proceeding.
NOTE: If voltage is not within specifications,
refer to symptom chart.
Battery — Drain Test
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT THIS TEST ON A
LEAD-ACID BATTERY THAT HAS RECENTLY BEEN
RECHARGED. EXPLOSIVE GASES MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL
INJURY.
In order to check the generator, the use of Rotunda
Starting and Charging System Tester 078-00005 (VAT40) [Rotunda Tools (1-800-578-7375)] or equivalent, is
recommended.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the meter, do not
crank the engine or operate accessories that draw
more than 10A.
NOTE: No accessory system should have more
than a 50 mA (0.050 amp) draw.
Generator Output Test
NOTE: Refer to the test equipment user’s manual for
complete directions on examining the charging system.
1.
2.
3.
4.
NOTE: Many modules draw 10 mA (0.010 amp) or
more continuously.
Switch the tester to ammeter function.
Connect the positive and negative leads of the tester
to the battery.
Connect current probe to generator B+ output lead
Circuit 38 (BK/O) (to measure generator output).
With the engine running at 2000 rpm, adjust the VAT40 or equivalent load bank to determine the output of
the generator. Generator output should be greater
than values given in graph below. If not, refer to
symptom chart in this Section
NOTE: Use an in-line ammeter between the
battery positive or negative post and its respective
cable.
NOTE: Typically, a drain of approximately one
amp can be attributed to a lamp staying on
continually. Other component failures or wiring
shorts may be located by selectively pulling fuses
to pinpoint the location of the current drain. When
the current drain is found, the meter reading will
fall to an acceptable level. If the drain is still not
located after checking all the fuses, it may be due
to the generator.
NOTE: To accurately test the drain on a battery, an
in-line digital ammeter must be used. Use of a test
lamp or voltmeter is not an accurate method.
224 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Check for current drains on the battery in excess of 50
milliamps (0.050 amp) with all the electrical
accessories off and the engine off. Current drains can
be tested with the following procedure:
NOTE: If the meter settings need to be switched or the
test leads need to be moved to another jack, the jumper
wire must be reinstalled to avoid breaking continuity.
1. Make sure the junction box/fuse panels are
accessible without turning on auxiliary
components.
6. Remove the jumper wire.
NOTE: Amperage draw will vary from engine to engine
depending on the equipment package. Compare to a
similar engine for reference.
2. Operate the engine at least five minutes and
exercise systems.
NOTE: No engine application should have more than a
50 mA (0.050 amp) draw.
3. Allow the engine to sit with the key OFF for at
least 40 minutes to allow modules to time
out/power down.
7. If the draw is found to be excessive, pull fuses or
disconnect suspected draws one at a time and
note the current drop. Do not reinstall the fuses
or connections until you are finished testing.
4. Connect a fused jumper wire between the
negative battery cable and the negative battery
post to prevent modules from resetting and to
catch capacitive drains.
8. Check the wiring for any auxiliary circuits that
run from the battery. Disconnect these circuits if
the draw is still excessive.
5. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
post without breaking the connection of the
jumper wire.
NOTE: It is very important that continuity is not
broken between the battery and the negative
battery cable when connecting the meter. If this
happens, the entire procedure must be
repeated. Connect the tester between the
negative battery cable and the post. The meter
must be capable of reading milliamps and
should have a 10amp capability.
225 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Symptom Chart
226 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test A: Generator Output Voltage
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of terminal corrosion and electrical harness damage.
2. Inspect fusible links and generator connector for bent or backed-out connector pins, or damage to wiring.
3. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the Recommended
Customer Connections Wiring Schematic.
Normal Operation
With voltage applied to the generator I circuit, the regulator is activated, allowing current to flow from the sense A circuit to
generator field coil. The generator then generates an internal AC current, which is converted to a DC output by the
rectifier assembly internal to the generator, and is supplied to the battery through the B+ terminal. The S (stator) circuit is
used to feed back a voltage signal from the generator to the regulator. This voltage (typically half battery voltage) is used
by the regulator to turn off the charge indicator.
227 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
228 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test B: Voltage Output High
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of terminal corrosion and electrical harness damage.
2. Inspect for poor ground connections or backed-out connector pins, or damage to wiring.
3. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the Recommended Customer
Connections Wiring Schematic.
229 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test C: Indicator Lamp ON, Engine Running
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of terminal corrosion and electrical harness damage or a bulb failure.
2. Inspect fusible links and generator connector for bent or backed-out connector pins, or damage to wiring.
3. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the Recommended Customer
Connections Wiring Schematic.
Normal Operation
With voltage applied the high side of a charge warning indicator lamp, the generator will momentarily will pull the warning
lamp to ground and illuminate the indicator until the regulator is activated. The S (stator) circuit NOT USED, is used to
feed back a voltage signal from the generator to the regulator. This voltage (typically half battery voltage) is used by the
regulator to turn off the charge indicator.
230 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
Regulator - Removal
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. NOTE: for ease or removal and installation of
regulator, remove the generator from engine as
described above.
Generator - Removal
1. Disconnect battery ground cable (14301).
Remove the four screws (T20 Torx type head)
attaching the voltage regulator to the generator
housing. Remove the voltage regulator with
generator brush holder (10351) attached, from
the generator.
2. Remove snow/ice shield.
3. Disconnect the generator voltage regulator
wiring (14305) to the voltage regulator.
4. Remove wiring connector bracket.
5. Relieve the tension of the drive belt tensioner
(613209) and remove the drive belt.
6. Remove the bolts holding the generator to the
generator bracket (10A313).
7. Remove the generator from the generator
bracket.
Generator - Installation
1. Position the generator on the generator bracket.
2. Install the bolts and tighten to 40-55 Nm (30 -40
ftlb).
3. Install the drive belt over the generator pulley.
4. Relieve the tension of the drive belt tensioner
and install the drive belt over tensioner.
5. Connect generator voltage regulator wiring to
the voltage regulator. Tighten generator Battery
Positive Voltage (B+) wire attaching nut to 9-12
Nm (6.5-9 ftlb).
6. Install wiring connector bracket.
7. Install snow/ice shield.
8. Connect battery ground cable.
231 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
2. Hold the voltage regulator in one hand and pry
off the cap covering the “A” screw head with a
screwdriver.
Regulator - Installation
1. Replace generator brush holder to voltage
regulator and install attaching screws.
3. Remove two screws (T20 Torx type head)
attaching the regulator to the generator brush
holder. Separate the regulator from generator
brush holder. 06-15
2. Replace cap on the head of the “A” terminal
screw.
3. Depress the generator brushes in the generator
brush holder.
•
Hold the generator brushes in position by
inserting a standard size paper clip (or
equivalent) through both the location hole in
the voltage regulator and through the holes in
the generator brush holders.
4. Install the voltage regulator and generator brush
holder to the generator with attaching screws.
•
Remove paper clip (or equivalent) from the
regulator.
5. Install generator following installation in this
section.
NOTE: Only the regulator, brush holder and
generator pulley are serviceable. If the generator
needs further service, it must be replaced as an
assembly.
232 WSG-1068 CHARGING SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
Torque Specifications
Generator Parts Cross-Reference
Special Tools
233 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Sequence of Operation ........................................................................................................................
Jump Starting .......................................................................................................................................
Negative Grounded Battery...................................................................................................................
250
251
251
Diagnosis and Testing
Starter Load Test .................................................................................................................................
Bench Tests .........................................................................................................................................
Starter No-Load Test.............................................................................................................................
System Inspection and Verification ......................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ....................................................................................................................................
Pinpoint Test A - Starter Lockout Relay Check.....................................................................................
Pinpoint Test B - Starter Does Not Crank ............................................................................................
Component Tests..................................................................................................................................
Starter Drive and Flywheel Ring Gear Insection ..................................................................................
252
252
253
254
254
255
256
258
260
Removal and Installation
Starter Motor - Battery Cable Routing ..................................................................................................
Starter Motor - Removal........................................................................................................................
Starter Motor - Installation ....................................................................................................................
261
262
263
Specifications
Torque Specifications............................................................................................................................
General Specifications .........................................................................................................................
Special Tools.........................................................................................................................................
Electronic Specifications ......................................................................................................................
265
265
265
265
234 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
5. When the iron plunger core is all the way into
the coil, its contact disc closes the circuit
between the battery and the motor terminals.
6. The current flows to the motor, and the drive
pinion gear drives the flywheel and the engine
crankshaft.
7. As current flows to the motor, the solenoid pull in
coil is bypassed.
8. The hold-in coil keeps the drive pinion gear
engaged with the flywheel.
9. The gear remains engaged until the ignition
switch is released from the START position.
The function of the starting system is to crank the engine
at a speed fast enough to permit the engine to start.
Heavy cables, connectors, and switches are used in the
starting system because of the large current required by
the starter while it is cranking the engine. The amount of
resistance in the starting circuit must be kept to an
absolute minimum to provide maximum current for
starter operation. A discharged or damaged battery,
loose or corroded connections, or partially broken cables
will result in slower than normal cranking speeds, and
may even prevent the starter from cranking the engine.
The starting system includes the permanent magnet
gearreduction starter motor with a solenoid-actuated
drive, the battery, a remote control starter switch (part of
the ignition switch), the starter relay, the heavy circuit
wiring, and may include starter lock-out, controlled by
the GCP through a starter lockout relay.
Field Service
NOTE: The GCP is programmed to lock the starter out
when the engine is operating over 600 rpm and the
following sequence takes place:
Starter Lockout Relay
See page 07-6 for further details.
1. During start up with key in the on position 12V
(B+) is applied to relay PIN 72 of the GCP (Lt
Gn/ Pr).
2. With ignition switch turned to the crank position,
current flows from ignition switch to relay circuit
87A (LB/Pink) 16G through relay and out circuit
30 (LB/Pink) 16G to starter solenoid.
3. The starter than should respond as in steps 2
through 9. The GCP keeps the starter relay
closed until it reads 400+ engine rpm. Over 600
rpm the GCP grounds circuit causing the relay to
open. This will prevent starter engagement while
engine is running.
Sequence Of Operation
1. The ignition switch is turned to the START
position.
2. A remote starter relay is energized, which
provides voltage to the starter solenoid. The
starter solenoid is energized, creating a
magnetic field in the solenoid coil.
3. The iron plunger core is drawn into the solenoid
coil.
4. A lever connected to the drive assembly
engages the drive pinion gear to the flywheel
ring rear.
NOTE: An overrunning clutch in the drive assembly
protects the starter from the excessive speeds during
the brief period before the driver releases the ignition
switch from the START position (as the engine starts).
235 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
For cases of a starter that cranks the engine very slowly,
connect a 12-volt booster battery to the system.
AN EXPLOSION. REFER TO WARNING AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE JUMP STARTING PROCEDURE.
NOTE: Engine may not start if crank sensor reads
less than 140 RPM.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER UNDERHOOD WORK IN THE
VICINITY OF THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE
HEAVY GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE
STARTER SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT
ALL TIMES.
Jump Starting
To avoid damage to the vehicle or equipment and
battery or the possibility of personal injury, follow these
instructions and precautions:
WARNING: HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN
GASES ARE PRODUCED DURING NORMAL
BATTERY OPERATION. THIS GAS MIXTURE CAN
EXPLODE IF FLAMES, SPARKS OR LIGHTED
TOBACCO ARE BROUGHT NEAR THE BATTERY.
WHEN CHARGING OR USING A BATTERY IN AN
ENCLOSED SPACE, ALWAYS PROVIDE
VENTILATION AND SHIELD YOUR EYES.
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF
CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID.
AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING.
ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR
THE BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST POSSIBLE
SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF
ACID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES. IF ACID IS
SWALLOWED, DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF
MILK OR WATER, FOLLOWED BY MILK OF
MAGNESIA, A BEATEN EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL.
CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
NOTE: Be sure to disconnect battery negative cable
before servicing starter.
2. Make jumper cable connections.
a) Connect one end of first jumper cable to
positive (+) 1 terminal of discharged battery
and other end of positive (+) 2 terminal of
booster battery.
b) Connect one end of second jumper cable to
negative (-) 3 terminal of booster battery.
Connect other end to an engine bolthead or
good metallic contact spot on engine 4 of
equipment to be started. NOT TO
NEGATIVE (-) BATTERY TERMINAL.
c) Make sure jumper cables are not in way of
moving engine parts.
d) Start engine of vehicle with good battery.
Run engine at a moderate speed.
e) Start engine of vehicle with discharged
battery. Follow starting instructions in the
Owner Guide.
3. Completely discharged batteries may require an
electrical load to initialize charging.
CAUTION: Do not disconnect the battery of
the vehicle to be started. Disconnecting the battery
could damage the vehicle’s electronic system.
Negative Grounded Battery
WARNING:TO AVOID INJURY, USE
PARTICULAR CARE WHEN CONNECTING A
BOOSTER BATTERY TO A DISCHARGED BATTERY.
1. Position vehicles or equipment so jumper cables
will reach, being careful that vehicles do not
touch.
4. Remove cables in exact REVERSE sequence.
Begin by removing negative (-) cable from
engine of vehicle
WARNING: MAKING THE FINAL CABLE
CONNECTION COULD CAUSE AN ELECTRICAL
SPARK NEAR THE BATTERY AND COULD CAUSE
If the starter does not turn the engine over, even with the
booster battery attached, refer to On Vehicle Testing.
236 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Starter Load Test
ignition off, and determine exact reading on
voltmeter. This test is accomplished by
disconnecting push-on connector “S’’ at starter
relay and by connecting a remote control starter
switch from positive battery terminal to “S’’
terminal starter relay.
Conduct this test if the starter cranks slowly and it is
desired to compare current to specifications.
1. Connect Rotunda Starting and Charging Tester
078-00005 or equivalent. Make sure that current
is not flowing through ammeter and heavy-duty
carbon pile rheostat portion of circuit (rheostat at
maximum counterclockwise position).
3. Stop cranking engine and reduce resistance of
carbon pile until voltmeter indicates same
reading as that obtained while starter cranked
the engine. The ammeter will indicate starter
current draw under load. Check this with value
listed in Specifications on page 07-19.
2. Disconnect load from engine. Place
transmission in NEUTRAL. Crank engine with
3. The starter motor should eject the starter drive
and run smoothly. If the starter motor does not
run smoothly, replace it.
4. While the starter motor is running, check the
voltmeter and ammeter.
5. If the voltage is lower than the 11.0 volts, or the
amperage is higher than 70 amps, replace the
starter motor.
Bench Tests
CAUTION: Make sure that the starter is
securely mounted in bench vise while energizing,
as starter will move or jump.
1. Connect a fully charged battery, Rotunda
Starting and Charging Tester 078-00005, or
equivalent. Make sure that the battery and
starter motor are grounded.
2. Engage the remote starter switch.
NOTE: Service parts for rebuilding permanent magnet
starter are not available from Ford Power Products.
1Rotunda 1-800-578-7375
237 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
Starter No-Load Test
Wire Color
Relay
Terminal
Lt Bl / Pink
30
Red / Lt Gn
86
Circuit
Description
Voltage to
Starter
Relay Coil
Power
Lt Gn / Pr
85
To GCP
Lt Bl / Pink
87A
Ignition Feed
W / Pink
87
Auxiliary Run
Output
NOTE: All readings are made with connector attached to
relay and back probing connector using a paper clip and
fully charged battery.
CAUTION: Make sure that the starter is
securely mounted in bench vise while energizing,
as starter will move or jump.
238 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
System Inspection and Verification
NOTE: Be sure to disconnect battery negative cable
before servicing starter.
CAUTION: When disconnecting the plastic
hardshell connector at the solenoid “S” terminal,
grasp the plastic connector and pull lead off. DO
NOT pull separately on lead wire.
1. Inspect starting system for loose connections.
2. If system does not operate properly, note
condition and continue diagnosis using the
symptom chart.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER WORK IN THE VICINITY OF
THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE HEAVY
GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE STARTER
SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT ALL TIMES.
WARNING: WHEN WORKING IN AREA OF
THE STARTER, BE CAREFUL TO AVOID TOUCHING
HOT EXHAUST COMPONENTS.
SYMPTOM CHART
239 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test A - Starter Lockout Relay Check
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and electrical damage.
2. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the recommended wiring
schematic.
3. >= Greater than
4. < = Less than
Normal Operation
Terminals 30 and 87A of the starter lockout relay are normally closed while the ignition switch is in the start/crank position
and the engine rpm is less than 600. When the engine has reached 600 rpm or greater the GCP will ground the relay
terminal 85 and open terminals 30 & 87A which will not allow the starter to be engaged while the engine is operating
above 600 rpm.
240 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
Pinpoint Test B - Starter Does Not Crank
Inspection and Verification
1. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and electrical damage.
2. Visually inspect for and note auxiliary system connections not shown on the Recommended
Customer Connections Wiring Schematic.
Normal Operation
Terminals 30 and 87A of the starter lockout relay are normally closed while the ignition switch is in the
start/crank position and the engine rpm is less than 600. Battery voltage flows to the starter solenoid
engaging the starter. When the engine has reached 600 rpm or greater the GCP will ground the relay
terminal 85 and open terminals 30 & 87A which will not allow the starter to be engaged while the engine
is operating above 600 rpm. Once the relay is energized it will not reset until the GCP is turned off and
then back on.
241 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
242 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
gage the remote starter switch. Read and record
the voltage. The voltage reading should be 0.5
volts or less.
Component Tests
Starter Motor - Voltage Drop Test
5. If the voltage reading is 0.5 volts or less -- Refer
to“Starter Motor - Motor Ground Circuit” on page
14.
WARNING: WHEN REPAIRING THE STARTER
MOTOR OR PERFORMING OTHER UNDERHOOD
WORK IN THE VICINITY OF THE STARTER MOTOR,
BE AWARE THAT THE HEAVY GAUGE BATTERY
INPUT LEAD AT THE STARTER SOLENOID IS
“ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT ALL TIMES. WHEN
SHORTED TO GROUND, MAY CAUSE PERSONAL
INJURY.
6. If the voltage reading is greater than 0.5 volts,
indicating excessive resistance, move the 73
Digital Multimeter negative lead to the starter
motor B-terminal and repeat the test. If the
voltage reading at the B-terminal is lower than
0.5 volts, the concern is either in the
connections at the starter motor solenoid or in
the starter motor solenoid contacts.
CAUTION: A protective cap or boot is provided over
the battery input terminal on all vehicle lines and
must be replaced after repairing. Failure to replace
protective cap could cause electrical short that may
damage electrical system. Be sure to disconnect
the battery ground cable before repiaring the starter
motor.
7. Remove the cables from the starter motor
solenoid B-, S- and M-terminals. Clean the
cables and connections and reinstall the cables
to the proper terminals. Repeat Steps 3 through
6. If the voltage drop reading is still greater than
0.5 volts when checked at the M-terminal or less
than 0.5 volts when checked at the B-terminal,
the concern is in the solenoid contacts. Replace
the starter motor.
NOTE: Always connect the 73 Digital Multimeter at the
component terminal rather than at the wiring end
connector. Making a connection at the wiring end
connector could result in false readings because the
meter will not pick up a high resistance between the
wiring connector and the component.
8. If the voltage reading taken at the starter motor
solenoid B-terminal is still greater than 0.5 volts
after cleaning the cables and connections at the
solenoid, the concern is either in the positive (+)
battery cable connection or in the positive
battery cable itself.
Starter Motor - Motor Feed Circuit
1. Make sure the battery is fully charged.
2. Connect a remote starter switch between the
starter motor solenoid S-terminal and the battery
positive (+) terminal.
9. By moving the 73 Digital Multimeter negative
lead toward the battery and checking each
mechanical connection point, the excessive
voltage drop can be located. When the high
reading disappears, the last mechanical point
that was checked is the concern. Repair or
replace this connection as required.
3. Connect the 73 Digital Multimeter positive lead
to the battery positive (+) post. Connect negative
lead to the starter motor solenoid M-terminal.
4. E
n
243 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
4. Engage the remote starter switch and crank the
engine. Read and record the voltage reading.
The reading should be 0.5 volts or less.
Starter Motor - Motor Ground Circuit
A slow cranking condition can be caused by resistance
in the ground or return portion of the cranking circuit.
Check the voltage drop in the ground circuit as follows:
1. Disconnect the inertia fuel shutoff switch (on
road vehicle only).
5. If the voltage drop is more than 0.5 volts, clean
the negative cable connections at the battery
and body connections, and retest.
2. Connect a remote starter switch between the
starter motor solenoid S-terminal and the battery
positive (+) terminal.
6. If the voltage drop is greater than 0.5 volts,
determine which way the current is flowing in the
cable. Connect the 73 Digital Multimeter positive
lead to the end of the cable nearest battery
positive.
3. Connect the 73 Digital Multimeter positive lead
to the starter motor housing (the connection
must be clean and free of rust or grease).
Connect the negative lead to the negative (-)
battery terminal.
7. Connect the multimeter negative lead to the
terminal at the other end of the cable.
8. Crank the engine and observe the voltage
reading. The voltage reading should be 0.5 volts
or lower. If the voltage drop is too high, clean the
terminal ends. Retest, and if still high, replace
the cable. If the voltage reading is less than 0.5
volts and the engine still cranks slowly, replace
the starter motor.
244 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
Starter Drive and Flywheel Ring Gear Inspection
1. Check the wear patterns on the (A) starter drive
(11350) and the (B) flywheel ring gear. If the
wear pattern is normal, install the starter motor;
refer to Starter Motor - Installation on page 0718.
2. If the (A) starter drive gear and the flywheel ring
gear are not fully meshing or the gears are (B)
milled or damaged, replace the starter motor;
refer to Starter Motor - Installation on page 0718. Replace the flywheel ring gear.
245 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
CAUTION: A jumper wire must not be
installed between the large round electrical
terminal and the solenoid blade terminal at the
starter. If done, voltage is generated to the
solenoid by the spinning starter after release of
the start key or button, causing the starter to
remain engaged, resulting in failure.
246 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
Starter Motor - Removal
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM BE
AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS OR
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY. MAKE
SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN PLACE WHEN
MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Raise and support the vehicle or equipment.
3. Remove the starter motor solenoid terminal
cover (11N087).
4. Disconnect the starter motor electrical
connections.
1. Remove the two nuts.
2. Remove the battery cable.
3. Remove the starter solenoid wire.
5. Remove the nut and the starter motor ground
cable when equipped.
247 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
6. Remove the bolt and nut.
7. Remove the starter motor.
Starter Motor - Installation
WARNING: WHEN CARRYING OUT
MAINTENANCE ON THE STARTER SYSTEM BE
AWARE THAT HEAVY GAUGE LEADS ARE
CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE BATTERY. MAKE
SURE PROTECTIVE CAPS ARE IN PLACE WHEN
MAINTENANCE IS COMPLETE. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
NOTE: It is recommended that wiring service kit F2PZ11K162-A be used, which includes a 70 inch long #12
gauge wire, a terminal nut, a terminal cover, four tie
wraps and insulation instructions.
1. Install the starter motor.
1. Position the starter motor.
2. Install the bolts.
248 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
2. Connect the starter motor electrical connections.
1. Position the starter solenoid wire.
2. Position the battery cable.
3. Install the nuts.
3. Install the starter motor solenoid terminal cover.
4. Connect the battery ground cable.
249 WSG-1068 STARTER SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
Torque Specifications
Electrical Specifications
General Specifications
Special Tools
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures
can be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
250 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Subject
Page
General Information.......................................................................................................................
GCP and Sensors .................................................................................................................
Fuel System Components - Gasoline....................................................................................
Coil-on-plug Ignition ..............................................................................................................
Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation................................................................................
Adaptive Learn ......................................................................................................................
hhhh GCP Service Precautions.......................................................................................................
Use of Circuit Testing Tools ...................................................................................................
Electrostatic Discharge Damage.............................................................................................
Diagrams and Schematics .....................................................................................................
Engine Component Locator View...........................................................................................
267
267
273
274
275
275
275
275
275
276
288
Diagnosis and Testing...................................................................................................................
Diagnostic Approach ..............................................................................................................
GCP Diagnostic Overview......................................................................................................
On-Board Diagnostics - GCP .................................................................................................
Engine Control Module (GCP) Limp Home Mode Strategy....................................................
Intermittent MIL ......................................................................................................................
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) DTC Retrieval Procedure..................................................
Diagnosis Using a Personal Computer ..................................................................................
Visual Inspection ....................................................................................................................
Intermittent Problems .............................................................................................................
Symptom Charts.....................................................................................................................
Engine Control Module (GCP) - Diagnostic Trouble Codes....................................................
289
289
289
289
289
290
290
291
301
301
302
305
Removal and Installation...............................................................................................................
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor - Replacement....................................................................
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor - Removal.........................................................................
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor - Installation......................................................................
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor - Replacement ....................................................
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) - Replacement .....................................................................
Knock Sensor (KS) - Replacement .........................................................................................
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP) Sensor - Replacement.............................
309
309
309
310
311
311
312
312
Specifications.................................................................................................................................
313
251 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
GENERAL INFORMATION
GCP and Sensors
Engine Control Module (GCP)
•
The Engine Control Module (GCP) has the following
features:
• Programmable four speed electronic governing,
• Automatic altitude compensation.
• Sequential port fuel injection (gasoline) with
pressure regulator to precisely control fuel
delivery.
• Dry fuel lockout controlled by the GCP produces
a reliable transition when switching fuels.
• Certified closed loop dry fuel control.
• Configurable inputs available based on
customer requirements.
• Configurable outputs available based on ECT,
RPM or MAP signals and customer
requirements.
• Starter lockout.
• Auto crank
• Programmable overspeed protection.
• Diagnostic software allows viewing of historical
and active faults with on-demand diagnostics to
throttle-by-wire or variable speed control
governing.
Programmable emergency warning/shut-down
feature for high water temperature, low oil
pressure, etc
assist technicians and reduce equipment
downtime.
The Engine Control Module (GCP) engine control
system is a complete engine control system for Ford
industrial engines running on gasoline, propane or
natural gas. Each module can be set up to run an
engine on any two of the three fuels in certified closed
loop control, with virtually transparent on-the-fly fuel
switching.
Each module can also be set up to run on a variety of
electronic governing:
• It can be programmed to provide up to four
specific speeds with use of a matching toggle
switch.
• It can be programmed to provide an infinite
variety of
252 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
•
•
speeds (with customer-specified minimum and
maximum) based on a variable signal input.
It can be an electronic replacement for a throttle
cable with maximum speed governing (throttlebywire).
Or it can switch between throttle-by-wire and a
second fixed or variable input based on a
neutral/parking brake signal.
The GCP constantly observes the information from
various sensors. The GCP controls the systems that
affect engine performance. The GCP performs the
diagnostic function of the system. It can recognize
operational problems, alert the operator through the
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), and store diagnostic
trouble codes (DTC’s). DTC’s identify the problem
areas to aid the technician in making repairs.
With the GCP system, a laptop and a communications
cable, diagnosis becomes simpler. The technician can
either view engine data with a real time graphing
program, or store that data into a numeric data file.
The GCP supplies either 5 or 12 volts to power various
sensors or switches. The power is supplied through
resistances in the GCP which are so high in value that
a test light will not light when connected to the circuit. In
some cases, even an ordinary shop voltmeter will not
give an accurate reading because its resistance is too
low. Therefore, a digital voltmeter with at least 10
megohms input impedance is required to ensure
accurate voltage readings. The GCP controls output
circuits such as the fuel injectors, electronic governor,
etc., by controlling the ground or the power feed circuit
through transistors or other solid state devices.
Every time a fault is set, the laptop will give you detailed
information about the fault, including:
• when it happened
• if the fault still exists
• a list of essential engine data from the time of
the fault.
It can also display a 10 second graph of critical engine
data, from 8 seconds before the fault occurred to two
seconds after. And if you only want to view engine
parameters and fault codes, all you need is a Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA) and our easy to load software
and a communications cable.
The GCP is designed to maintain exhaust emission
levels to government mandated standards while
providing excellent operation and fuel efficiency. The
GCP monitors numerous engine functions via electronic
sensors such as the throttle position (TP) sensor and
the heated oxygen sensor (HO2S).
With many OEMs using control modules to control their
machinery, the GCP has the ability to communicate
engine data to and receive commands from other
control modules through a Controller Area Network
(CAN) link, with messages written in the J1939 protocol.
This allows large amounts of data to move throughout
the machine through only two wires, and can be used to
run some module based gauge packages.
GCP Inputs (operating conditions read)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The GCP also carries auxiliary features that can be
programmed to control OEM devices, allowing the OEM
to eliminate components from their machinery.
The GCP is also equipped with multiple safety and
protection devices that protect the user and engine from
hazards such as:
• over speed
• over temperature
• over voltage
• low oil pressure
• unauthorized tampering
• over cranking starter motor.
Engine Coolant Temperature
Crankshaft Position
Exhaust Oxygen Content
Manifold Absolute Pressure
Battery Voltage
Throttle Position / Electronic Actuator
Fuel Pump Voltage
Intake Air Temperature
Camshaft Position
GCP Outputs (systems controlled)
• Fuel control
• Electronic Throttle Control
• Electric Fuel Pump
• Diagnostics - Malfunction Indicator Lamp (check
engine lamp)
• Diagnostics - Data Link Connector (DLC)
The GCP controls the following:
• Fuel metering system
• Ignition timing
• On-board diagnostics for engine functions
253 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor provides a
signal used by the Engine Control Module (GCP) to
calculate the ignition sequence. The sensor initiates the
reference pulses which the GCP uses to calculate RPM
and crankshaft position.
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor uses a variable
reluctor sensor to detect camshaft position. The CMP
signal is created as piston #1 is a pre-determined
number of degrees after top dead center on the power
stroke.
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor sends a CMP
signal to the GCP. The GCP uses this signal as a “sync
pulse” to trigger the injectors in the proper sequence.
The GCP uses the CMP signal to indicate the position
of the #1 piston during its power stroke. The CMP uses
a Hall Effect sensor to measure piston position. This
allows the GCP to calculate true sequential fuel
injection (SFI) mode of operation. If the GCP detects an
incorrect CMP signal while the engine is running, DTC
245 will set.
If the CMP signal is lost while the engine is running, the
fuel injection system will shift to a calculated sequential
fuel injection mode based on the last fuel injection
pulse, and the engine will continue to run. As long as the
fault (DTC 244) is present, the engine can be restarted.
It will run in the previously established injection
sequence.
254 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor is a
thermistor (a resistor which changes value based on
temperature) mounted in the engine coolant stream.
Low coolant temperature produces a high resistance of
100,000 ohms at -40°C (-40°F). High temperature
causes a low resistance of 70 ohms at 130°C (266°F).
The GCP supplies a 5 volt signal to the ECT sensor
through resistors in the GCP and measures the voltage.
The signal voltage will be high when the engine is cold
and low when the engine is hot. By measuring the
voltage, the GCP calculates the engine coolant
temperature. Engine coolant temperature affects most
of the systems that the GCP controls.
After engine start-up, the temperature should rise
steadily to about 85°C (185°F). It then stabilizes when
the thermostat opens. If the engine has not been run for
several hours (overnight), the engine coolant
temperature and intake air temperature displays should
be close to each other. A fault in the engine coolant
sensor circuit will set a DTC 221 or DTC 222.
255 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
isolated case ground which goes to Signal Return
(SIGRTN) either in the processor (as a dedicated HO2S
ground) or as a jumper to SIGRTN in the wiring
harness.
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor
The Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor is a
thermistor which changes its resistance based on the
temperature of cylinder head. Low temperature
produces a high resistance of 100,000 ohms at -40°C (40°F). High temperature causes a low resistance of 70
ohms at 130°C (266°F). The GCP supplies a 5 volt
signal to the sensor through a resistor in the GCP and
monitors the signal voltage. The signal voltage will be
high when the cylinder head is cold and low when the
cylinder head is hot. By measuring the voltage, the GCP
calculates the cylinder head temperature. The CHT
sensor signal is used to adjust spark timing according to
the incoming air density.
Low HO2S voltage indicates a lean mixture which will
result in a rich command to compensate.
High HO2S voltage indicates a rich mixture which will
result in a lean command to compensate.
Specifications
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) is mounted in the
exhaust stream where it can monitor the oxygen content
of the exhaust gas. The oxygen present in the exhaust
gas reacts with the sensor to produce a voltage output.
This voltage should constantly fluctuate from
approximately 100mV to 900 mV, when the engine is
running in closed loop fuel control.
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) voltage can be
monitored on an IBM PC compatible computer with
diagnostic software. By monitoring the voltage output of
the oxygen sensor, the GCP calculates the pulse width
command for the injectors to produce the proper
combustion chamber mixture.
The 4-wire HO2S indicates whether the air/fuel ratio is
rich or lean with respect to stoichiometry. The signal
from this sensor contains valid air/fuel ratio information
only when the sensor element has reached its normal
operating temperature. The 4-wire HO2S also has an
256 •
Accuracy of measurement: ±1.5%
•
Operating Temp. Range: 350°C to 850°C
(sensor tip)
•
Sensor Response Time: 300-1500 msec.
•
Heater Current Draw: 1 A steady state
•
Voltage Output:
0 - 450 mV (lean exhaust gas)
450 - 1000 mV (rich exhaust gas)
WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
reference voltage and ground to the sensor and
monitors the sensor’s ratio metric output voltage to
determine precise throttle position. The electronic
actuator has two TP outputs that the GCP monitors.
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP)
Sensor
The Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP)
Sensor responds to changes in intake manifold
pressure (vacuum). The TMAP sensor signal voltage to
the GCP varies from below 2 volts at idle (high vacuum)
to above 4 volts with the ignition ON, engine not running
or at wide-open throttle (low vacuum).
The Electronic Actuator consists of a throttle body, an
electronically-actuated throttle plate, and a built-in
throttle position (TP) Sensor.
The TMAP sensor consists of a pressure sensing
element (capacitor) and signal conditioning electronics.
The capacitor has a vacuum/pressure reference which
results in one surface (diaphragm) of the capacitor
being partially deflected. Further changes in pressure
produce corresponding changes in the deflection of the
diaphragm and therefore a change in capacitance. This
capacitance change is converted to a frequency by the
conditioning electronics.
The Electronic Actuator also acts as an idle air control
(IAC) valve. Changes in engine load are detected by the
GCP by comparing manifold absolute pressure (TMAP)
with throttle position. When the GCP detects a change
in engine load, it can adjust idle speed by changing the
PWM signal to the actuator.
The TMAP sensor is used to determine the following:
• Engine vacuum level for engine control
purposes.
• Barometric pressure (BARO).
As the throttle valve opens, the output increases so that
at wide open throttle (WOT), the output voltage should
be above 4 volts.
The GCP calculates fuel delivery based on throttle valve
angle (operator demand). A hard failure in the TP
sensor 5 volt reference or signal circuits for greater than
2 consecutive seconds will set a DTC 531 or DTC 533.
A hard failure with the TP sensor ground circuit for more
than two consecutive seconds may set DTC 532. If any
(TP) DTC is set the GCP will shut down the engine
immediately.
Specifications:
• Range of Measurement: 1.7 - 15.2 psi.
• Measurement Accuracy: ± 0.2 psi
• Sensor Response Time: 3-15 msec.
• Resolution: 0.02 psi
Specifications:
• Range of Measurement: 0-85° (angular)
• Measurement Accuracy: ±2% of VREF
• Resolution: 0.5° max.
Present design: Silicon Capacitive Absolute Pressure
(SCAP) sensor with a maximum operating temperature
of 100°C. The output is a 50% duty cycle wave form
whose frequency is proportional to the pressure input.
Throttle Position (TP) Sensor / Electronic Actuator
The Throttle Position (TP) Sensor is a dual track rotary
potentiometer that uses a variable resistive element
which is packaged inside a plastic housing. The
resistive element varies linearly and is directly
proportional to the throttle plate angle. The GCP applies
257 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel System Components - Gasoline
Fuel Injector
The fuel metering system is made up of the following
parts:
• The fuel injectors
• The fuel rail
• The fuel filter
• The GCP
• The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
• The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
• The fuel pump
• The fuel pump relay
• Heated Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor
• Temp/Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP)
Sensor
The Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) fuel injector is a
solenoid operated device controlled by the GCP. The
GCP energizes the solenoid, which opens a valve to
allow fuel delivery.
The fuel is injected under pressure in a conical spray
pattern at the opening of the intake valve. Excess fuel
not used by the injectors passes through the fuel
pressure regulator before being returned to the fuel
tank.
The basic function of the air/fuel metering system is to
control the air/fuel delivery to the engine. Fuel is
delivered to the engine by individual fuel injectors
mounted in the intake manifold near each intake valve.
The fuel metering system starts with the fuel in the fuel
tank. The fuel is drawn up to the fuel pump through a
pre-filter. The electric fuel pump then delivers the fuel to
the fuel rail through an in-line fuel filter. The pump is
designed to provide fuel at a pressure above the
pressure needed by the injectors. A fuel pressure
regulator in the fuel filter assembly keeps fuel available
to the fuel injectors at a constant pressure. ?A return
line delivers unused fuel back to the tank?.
A fuel injector which is stuck partly open will cause a
loss of fuel pressure after the engine is shut down,
causing long crank times.
Fuel Rail
The fuel rail is mounted to the top of the engine and
distributes fuel to the individual injectors. Fuel is
delivered to the fuel inlet tube of the fuel rail by the fuel
lines.
The main control sensor is the heated oxygen sensor
(HO2S) located in the exhaust system. The HO2S tells
the GCP how much oxygen is in the exhaust gas. The
GCP changes the air/fuel ratio to the engine by
controlling the amount of time that the fuel injector is
“ON”. The best mixture to minimize exhaust emissions
is 14.7 parts of air to 1 part of gasoline by weight, which
provides the most efficient combustion. Because of the
constant measuring and adjusting of the air/fuel ratio,
the fuel injection system is called a “closed loop”
system.
The GCP monitors signals from several sensors in
order to determine the fuel needs of the engine. Fuel is
delivered under one of several conditions called
“modes”. All modes are controlled by the GCP. Refer to
“Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation” for more
information.
258 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel Filter
The fuel filter is an inline filter assembly. Refer to
Section 4 for information on relieving fuel pressure,
disconnecting fuel lines and fuel filter replacement.
•
Increased available ignition coil saturation time
•
Elimination of high tension wires
Fuel Pump Electrical Circuit
When the key is first turned “ON”, the GCP energizes
the fuel pump relay for two seconds to build up the fuel
pressure quickly. If the engine is not started within two
seconds, the GCP shuts the fuel pump off and waits
until the engine is cranked. When the engine is cranked
and crankshaft position signal has been detected by the
GCP, the GCP supplies 12 volts to the fuel pump relay
to energize the electric fuel pump.
The coil-on-plug design has individual coils mounted
directly over each spark plug. Each cylinder is paired
with its opposing cylinder in the firing order, so that one
cylinder on compression fires simultaneously with the
opposing cylinder on exhaust. The spark that occurs in
the cylinder on the exhaust stroke is referred to as a
“waste spark”.
An inoperative fuel pump will cause a “no-start”
condition. A fuel pump which does not provide enough
pressure will result in poor performance.
Coil-on-plug Ignition
The coil-on-plug ignition system controls fuel
combustion by providing a spark to ignite the
compressed air/fuel mixture at the correct time. To
provide optimum engine performance, fuel economy,
and control of exhaust emissions, the GCP controls the
spark advance of the ignition system. Coil-on-plug
ignition has the following advantages over a mechanical
distributor system:
•
No moving parts
•
Less maintenance
•
Remote mounting capability
•
No mechanical load on the engine
•
More coil cooldown time between firing events
•
Elimination of mechanical timing adjustments
The primary coils in the coil pack are triggered by the
“ignition coil feed#1” and ignition coil feed #2” signals
from the GCP.
259 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
•
Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation
NOTE: No DTC will be set unless engine has operated
in closed loop status for more than 6 seconds.
The GCP will operate in the following two modes:
• Open loop
• Closed loop
•
•
When the engine is first started, the system is in “open
loop” operation. In open loop, the GCP ignores the
signal from the Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S). It uses
a pre-programmed routine to calculate the air/fuel ratio
based on inputs from the TP, ECT, TMAP & CKP
sensors.
Use of Circuit Testing Tools
Do not use a test light to diagnose the engine electrical
systems unless specifically instructed by the diagnostic
procedures. A test light can put an excessive load on a
GCP circuit and result in component damage. For
voltage measurements, use only a digital voltmeter with
an input impedance of at least 10 megohms.
The system remains in open loop until the following
conditions are met:
• The ECT has reached 95°F (35°C).
• 15 seconds has elapsed since starting the engine.
Electrostatic Discharge Damage
Electronic components used in the GCP are often
designed to carry very low voltage. Electronic
components are susceptible to damage caused by
electrostatic discharge. Less than 100 volts of static
electricity can cause damage to some electronic
components. By comparison, it takes as much as 4000
volts for a person to feel the spark of a static discharge.
After these conditions are met, the engine is said to be
operating in “closed loop”. In closed loop, the GCP
continuously adjusts the air/fuel ratio by responding to
signals from the HO2S (except at wide-open throttle).
When the HO2S reports a lean condition (low sensor
signal voltage), the GCP responds by increasing the
“on” time of the fuel injectors, thus enriching the mixture.
When the HO2S reports a rich condition (high sensor
signal voltage), the GCP responds by reducing the “on”
time of the fuel injectors, thus leaning out the mixture.
There are several ways for a person to become
statically charged. The most common methods of
charging are by friction and induction.
Adaptive Learn
Adaptive Learn is a fuel correction coefficient that is
derived from the closed loop correction and is stored in
the GCP’s memory.
An example of charging by friction is a person sliding
across a seat.
Charge by induction occurs when a person with well
insulated shoes stands near a highly charged object
and momentarily touches ground. Charges of the same
polarity are drained off, leaving the person highly
charged with the opposite polarity. Static charges can
cause damage, therefore it is important to use care
when handling and testing electronic components.
The normal purpose of the Adaptive Learn is to
compensate fuel flow for the following:
• Fuel composition variance
• Engine wear
• Component variation
• Component degradation
CAUTION: To prevent possible electrostatic discharge damage,
follow these guidelines:
The GCP system will operate in closed loop plus
adaptive learn when the ECT reaches 165°F.
NOTE: The adaptive learn coefficient will get erased if
battery power falls below 9.5 volts.
•
•
GCP Service Precautions
The GCP is designed to withstand normal current draws
associated with engine operation. When servicing the
GCP, observe the following guidelines:
• Do not overload any circuit.
•
When measuring voltages, use only a digital
voltmeter with an input impedance of at least 10
megohms.
Do not employ any non-standard practices such as
charging the battery with an arc welder.
Take proper precautions to avoid static damage to
the GCP. Refer to “electrostatic Discharge
Damage” for more information.
•
•
When testing for opens and shorts, do not ground
or apply voltage to any of the GCP’s circuits unless
instructed to do so.
260 Do not touch the GCP connector pins or
soldered components on the GCP board.
Do not open the replacement part package until
the part is ready to be installed.
Before removing the part from the package,
ground the package to a known good ground on
the equipment.
If the part has been handled while sliding across
a seat, while sitting down from a standing
position, or while walking a distance, touch a
known good ground before installing the part
WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Diagrams and Schematics
Symbols
261 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
GCP - Power Distribution Box
262 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Wire Colors
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
263 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Power Distribution
264 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Ignition System
265 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Starting System
266 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Charging System
267 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Sensors (1 of 2)
268 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Sensors (2 of 2)
269 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel Injectors
270 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Actuator / Data Link Connector (DLC)
WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
271 Engine Controls - Dry Fuel EPR
272 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Component Locator View
273 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
If more than one DTC is detected, begin with the lowest
number DTC and diagnose each problem to correction
unless directed to do otherwise by the fault tree. The
DTC’s are numbered in order of importance. Having
DTC 112 and DTC 122, both concerning the oxygen
sensor, is possible. By repairing DTC 112 first, the
problem causing the DTC 122 may also be corrected.
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Diagnostic Approach
Use the following step by step approach when
diagnosing an engine performance problem:
1.
Verify the concern and determine if it is a deviation
from normal operation.
2. Once the concern has been verified, preliminary
checks can be done. Conduct a thorough visual
inspection, be alert for unusual sounds or odors,
and gather diagnostic trouble code (DTC)
information.
3. If a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is stored, follow
the designated DTC chart exactly to make an
effective repair.
4. If no DTC is stored, select the symptom from the
symptom charts and follow the suggestions to
complete the repair.
5. If no matching symptom is available, analyze the
complaint and develop a plan for diagnostics
utilizing the wiring diagrams, technical
assistance and repair history.
6. Some diagnostic charts contain diagnostic aids
which give additional information about a system.
Be sure to use all of the information that is available to you.
On-Board Diagnostics - GCP
The diagnostic tests and circuit charts are designed to
assist the technician to locate a faulty circuit or
component through a process of logical decisions. The
tests and charts are prepared with the requirement that
the engine functioned correctly at the time of assembly
and that there were not multiple faults present.
There is a continuous self-diagnosis on certain control
functions. This diagnostic capability is complimented by
the diagnostic procedures contained in this section. The
language for communicating the source of the
malfunction is a system of diagnostic trouble codes.
When a malfunction is detected by the Engine Control
Module (GCP), a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is set
and the Malfunction Indicator (MIL) lamp will be
illuminated (refer to MIL DTC Retrieval Procedure for
process description) -- Refer to“Diagnosis Using a
Personal Computer” on page 26 or Palm Pilot
Diagnosis, for information regarding performing GCP
and engine control system diagnosis.
GCP Diagnostic Overview
FORD Diagnostic Trouble Codes are set when the
FORD system GCP runs a diagnostic self-test and the
test fails. When a DTC is set, the FORD system GCP
will illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) on
the instrument panel and save the code in memory. The
FORD system GCP will continue to run the self-test
unless the DTC is an oxygen sensor lean, oxygen
sensor rich, or a GCP related DTC. If the system
continues to fail the test, the lamp will stay illuminated
and the DTC is current (ACTIVE). All DTC’s are stored
as historical faults until they are cleared. All DTC’s
except the GCP related DTC’s will automatically clear
from memory if the DTC does not reset within 50
consecutive engine run cycles.
Engine Control Module (GCP) Limp Home
Mode Strategy
The GCP has four settings for limp home mode.
Depending on what Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is
set, one or more of the limp home modes will be in
effect. The four limp home modes are as follows:
Power Derate 1
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of 50%. If
“Power Derate 1” is active, it will remain active until the
active DTC goes away.
While a Diagnostic Trouble Code is current for a sensor,
the FORD system GCP may assign a default limp home
value and use that value in its control algorithms. All of
the FORD system diagnostic self-tests run continuously
during normal engine operation.
The following DTC’s will cause Power Derate 1 to take
affect:
•
•
The Diagnostic Trouble Codes can be read by using
either the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or a Laptop
computer. Refer to Using a Laptop Computer to
Diagnose the FORD System and Using a Diagnostic
Jumper to Diagnose the FORD System, located in this
section. Diagnostic Trouble Codes can be cleared from
memory with a laptop computer or by turning the ignition
key to the OFF position and removing the FORD system
main power fuse (F3) for 15 seconds.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DTC 1521: CHT/ECT higher than expected (CHT/ECT is
greater than 240 °F).
DTC 111: IAT higher than expected 1. (IAT is greater
than 200°F).
DTC 327: Knock sensor open. (1.6L and 4.2L only)
DTC 326: Excessive knock signal. (1.6L and 4.2L only)
DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.
DTC 2123: FPP1 low voltage.
DTC 2128: FPP2 high voltage.
DTC 2127: FPP2 low voltage.
DTC 1531: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
Power Derate 2
274 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of 20%. If
“Power Derate 2” is active, it will remain active until the
active DTC goes away and the igniti n input to the GCP
(usually the ignition switch) is cycled.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RPM. If the “Force to Idle” is active, it will remain active
until the active DTC goes away.
• DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.
• DTC 2123: FPP1 low voltage.
• DTC 2128: FPP2 high voltage.
• DTC 2127: FPP2 low voltage.
• DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
• DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
• DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
• DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
• DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
• DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
DTC 1171: MegaJector delivery pressure higher
than expected.
DTC 1172: MegaJector delivery pressure lower
than expected.
DTC 1173: MegaJector communication lost.
DTC 1176: MegaJector internal actuator fault
detection.
DTC 1177: MegaJector internal circuitry fault
detection.
DTC 1178: MegaJector internal communication
fault detection.
DTC 606: COP failure (Internal GCP failure).
DTC 1612: RTI 1 loss (internal GCP failure).
DTC 1613: RTI 2 loss (internal GCP failure).
DTC 1614: RTI 3 loss (internal GCP failure).
DTC 1615: A/D loss (internal GCP failure).
DTC 1616: Invalid interrupt (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 601: Flash checksum invalid (internal GCP
failure).
DTC 604: RAM failure (internal GCP failure).
Intermittent MIL
Conditions that are only present from time to time are
called intermittents. To resolve intermittents, perform
the following steps:
1. Evaluate the history of DTC’s observed with this
particular engine.
2. Evaluate the symptoms and conditions described by
the customer.
3. Use strategy-based diagnosis, especially where it
relates to the elimination of bad connectors and
wiring.
4. When using a personal computer with Ford
software, data-capturing capabilities are
available
that can assist in detecting
intermittents. Contact an
EDI customer service
representative at (1 800 220 2700)
for more
information.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) DTC
Retrieval Procedure
NOTE: DTC’s can be retrieved from the engine control
module (GCP) by using either the MIL or an IBM
compatible personal computer or hand held Palm Pilot®
using the optional serial interface available. Refer to
Equipment Setup for information about using a personal
computer to assist with unit diagnosis.
Fault Low Rev Limit
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of 1600
RPM. If the “Fault Low Rev Limit” is active, it will remain
active until the active DTC goes away and the ignition
input to the GCP (usually the ignition switch) is cycled.
• DTC 2122: FPP1 high voltage.
• DTC 2123: FPP1 low voltage.
• DTC 2115: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
• DTC 2139: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
• DTC 2116: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
• DTC 2140: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
• DTC 2126: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
• DTC 2121: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
• DTC 1531: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
DTC’s can be retrieved by shorting the Self Test Input
(STI) connector to ground. The STI circuit is a white/
purple wire exiting pin 3 of the 42 pin connector. The STI
white/purple wire branches off to terminal “A” of the 4
pin diagnostic connector. If no DTC is stored with key
on/engine off (KOEO), a DTC 123 is flashed, indicating
that all systems are OK.
Force to Idle
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of 800
During key on/engine running (KOER) operation, with
no DTCs stored, the MIL is not illuminated. If during
275 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
KOER operation a DTC is stored, the MIL will illuminate
and remain on steady if the code is active.
Diagnosis Using a Personal Computer
Equipment Requirements
MIL Bulb Test
You will need a laptop computer (with a serial port) or
personal digital assistant (PDA) and a communications
cable/interface cable kit:
• Kit for laptop part #: PN 5080050
The MIL bulb test occurs KOEO with the STI connector
not grounded. The MIL bulb will stay on and remain on
if no DTCs are present. If DTCs are present (except
DTC 123), the MIL bulb will blink. If the MIL bulb does
not illuminate when bulb test is performed, access
diagnostic software and view the fault indicator on
screen. If the screen fault indicator is illuminated and
the MIL light is not, inspect the bulb and replace it if
damaged. If bulb is OK or does not illuminate after
replacement, refer to MIL circuit test procedure. Once
MIL bulb illumination has been verified or established,
DTCs can be extracted from the MIL as follows:
The required software is available from your local EDI
distributor or you can download it from:
web.fpp.ford.com
Laptop Requirements:
• USB Port
• 800 x 600 dpi screen
• Windows 95 or newer operating system
• No speed minimum
• 32 MB of RAM
DTC Extraction
• KOEO, short the STI circuit to a known good
ground. There will be a 5 second delay before
DTCs begin flashing.
When extracting DTCs via the MIL the following apply:
•
The flashing MIL is on for 0.4 second and off for
0.4 second.
•
The MIL is off for 1.2 seconds between digits of
three digit DTCs.
•
The MIL is off for 2.4 seconds between DTCs.
•
Each DTC repeats 3 times before the next
stored DTC begins flashing.
•
Up to 6 DTCs can be stored.
•
Once all stored DTCs are flashed, the process
repeats with the first stored DTC.
•
DTCs are flashed in the order in which they
were set.
Once the DTC(s) is retrieved, refer to the appropriate
DTC chart for explanation of what caused the DTC to
set. Perform component and circuit test as required to
conduct repair.
276 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Interface Hook-up
For connection to a laptop, use kit PN 5080050.
Connect USB port on the back of the
laptop computer. Connect interface cable to the to the
diagnostic connector on the engine harness.
Laptop Computer Diagnostic Connector USB Connection
277 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
GCP Software Installation
Insert CD into CD-ROM drive.
Double click “My Computer” Icon.
Double Click CD-ROM drive letter
This will display the contents of the CD as shown.
A screen will pop up telling you the name of the
destination folder.
Double click FPP Display icon.
You will now see a welcome screen.
Click next.
You will now see a screen telling you it is ready to install
the software.
Click next.
Click next.
278 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Using GCP Software - Menu Functions
You will see an Installation Success” screen when the
software is finished installing.
You can begin using the technicians GCP software after
installation, by clicking Start - Programs - GCP Display GCP Display as shown.
Click Finish.
A screen will pop up asking if it is ok to reboot your
system.
Type in the Password which can be found on the label
of the CD-ROM.
Click yes.
Your system will shut down and reboot.
The software is now installed on your system in a folder
called “FPP Display”. Refer now to “Using Technicians
GCP Software” in this Section.
Place the ignition key in the ON position.
The GCP system Gauge screen should now appear
and a green banner in the upper left hand corner will
read “Connected”.
279 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Hear is an example of a DTC Dialogue Box.
The System Fault screen is used to view and clear
DTC’s, which have been set.
Snap Shot Data
The Snap Shot Data is a listing of specific engine
system variables. These variables are recorded by the
GCP at the instant the DTC sets. By clicking on the
“View Snap Shot Data” button, a new window will pop
up and you will be able to view these variables. Here is
an example of a Snap Shot Data window.
Checking Diagnostic Trouble Codes
The System Fault screen contains a listing of all of the
Historic and Active DTC’s set within the FORD system.
If a DTC is stored in memory, the screen will display that
fault in the Historic Faults column. If the fault condition
currently exists, the DTC will also show up in the Active
Faults column.
Opening Diagnostic Trouble Codes
To open a DTC, click on the DTC in the Historic Faults
column. A DTC Dialog Box will pop up on the screen.
The DTC Dialog Box contains the following useful
information:
• If the fault occurred during the current key cycle.
• If the fault caused current engine shutdown.
• How many key cycles since the fault was active.
• Snapshot Data (explained later).
• Flight Data Recorder (explained later).
The DTC Dialogue Box also allows you to clear a single
fault by clicking on the “Clear This Fault” button and it
allows you to clear all faults by clicking on the “Click All
Faults” button.
NOTE: Record faults before clearing them. This will aid
in diagnosis.
280 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Data Stream - Reading Sensor & Actuator Values
Flight Data Recorder
The Flight Data Recorder is also a listing of specific
engine system variables. These variables are recorded
by the GCP for an interval of 10 seconds. The 10
second interval includes 8 seconds before the DTC sets
and 2 seconds after the DTC sets. By clicking on the
“View Flight Data Recorder Data” button, a new window
will pop up and you will be able to view these variables.
Here is an example of a flight Data Recorder Data
window.
Most applicable sensor and actuator values are
displayed on the Gauges Screen. The display shows
the voltage the FORD system GCP is reading and, for
sensors, the sensor value in engineering units.
This is one of three main screens (GAUGES, FAULTS
AND RAW VOLTS).
The GAUGES screen shows the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The FAULTS screen shows the following:
• Fault Access
• System States
• DBW Variables
• Closed Loop Control
• Digital Input Voltages
• Diagnostic Modes
• Historic Faults
• Active Faults
keys at the upper left corner
Use the
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
Throttle Position (TP)
Foot Pedal Position (FPP)
Battery Voltage
Engine speed (RPM)
Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HO2S)
Hour meter
Number of continuous starts
Run mode, power mode and fuel type
keys at the upper left corner
Use the
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
NOTE: If a DTC for a sensor is current, the engineering
value for that sensor may be a default, limp home value
and the voltage value will be the actual sensor voltage.
Use the voltage value when performing diagnostics
unless directed to do otherwise by the diagnostic
trouble tree.
281 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Plotting and Data Logging
Here is a sample of a plot.
Recording the values and voltages can be a very useful
tool while diagnosing engine problems. The FORD
diagnostic software includes real time plotting and real
time logging capabilities. These features enhance the
ability to diagnose and repair possible problems with the
FORD system. Both plotting and logging allows the user
to record, in real time, any variable that can be seen in
the FPP_Dis software. In order to record variables, the
FPP_Dis software must be “Connected” to the GCP.
Logging
Logging variables means the variables are stored to the
PC. During logging, there is no plot shown on the
screen. To log variables you must first “TAG” the
variables by right clicking them (same as plotting). Next,
click on Plot / Log and then Log Tags. An “Edis Log”
window will pop up. You can type in a custom log File
name or select a custom folder to save the log file to.
The default filename is “edis.log” and the default folder
is FPP_Dis. The sample interval and time interval can
also be changed from the default. To start logging, click
on the “START” button. You will see the progress bar
moving from 0 to 100%. When the logging is complete,
you can close the Edis Log box or start another log file.
If you start another log file, you must change the Log
File name or the first log file will be overwritten. To view
the contents of a saved log file, you can use Notepad or
Excel.
Plotting
To plot a variable, you must first “TAG” the variable. To
do this, use the mouse to right click on the variable. The
variable will highlight in green to let you know it is
“TAGGED”.
Next, press the “P” key or click the Plot/Log button and
then click the Plot Tags button to invoke the plotting
feature. This begins the plot function and you can
observe the plotted variables. The plot sweeps from
right to left. To stop the plotting feature, simply click the
“STOP” button. To restart the plotter, click on the
“START” button. The maximum number of variables
that can be plotted at one time is 10. The range of the
selected variables will be shown on the Y-axis and the
time will be shown on the x-axis. You may change the
desired time interval and sample interval for the plot by
stopping the plot and typing in a new intervals.
The following are examples showing the Edis Log box
before starting a log file and during a log file.
The plot can be saved to the PC by stopping the plot
and clicking the “SAVE” button. When saving a plot, you
will have to type in a filename. Plot files can later be
viewed with the edis_saplot software located in the
Windows Start Programs FPP_Dis folder, or the data
can be viewed in Notepad or Excel.
282 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Ignition System Test
The Spark Kill diagnostic mode allows the technician to disable the ignition on individual cylinders. If the Spark Kill
diagnostic mode is selected with the engine running below 1000 RPM, the minimum throttle command will lock into
the position it was in when the test mode was entered. If the Spark System Test mode is selected with the engine
running above 1000 RPM, the throttle will continue to operate normally.
Disabling Ignition Ouputs
To disable the ignition system for an individual cylinder, use the mouse to highlight the “Spark Kill” button and select
the desired coil. The spark output can be re-enabled by using the mouse to highlight the “Spark Kill” button and
selecting “Normal”. If the engine is running below 1000 RPM, the spark output will stay disabled for 15 seconds and
then re-set. If the engine is running above 1000 RPM, the spark output will stay disabled for 5 seconds and then reset.
This test mode has a timeout of 10 minutes. Record the rpm drop related to each spark output disabled.
The Spark outputs are arranged in the order which the engine fires, not by cylinder number.
283 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Injector Test
Throttle Test
The Injector Kill mode is used to disable individual fuel
injectors. If the Injector Kill mode is selected with the
engine running below 1000 RPM, the minimum throttle
command will lock into the position it was in when the
test mode was entered. If the Injector Kill mode is
selected with the engine running above 1000 RPM, the
throttle will continue to operate normally.
To select this test mode the engine must be off, but the
key must be in the ON position.
The DBW Test mode allows the technician to control the
throttle directly (without the engine running) with the foot
pedal or entering a number into the “TPS Command”
box. It is used during the diagnostic routines specified
for FPP and TPS related faults.
Disabling Injectors
FPP position displays the current position of the foot
pedal as a percentage. FPP volts display the voltage
that the GCP is reading from the FPP sensor.
To disable an injector, use the mouse to select the
desired injector. The word “Normal” will change to the
Injector you have selected. The injector driver can be
re-enabled by selecting again. If the engine is running
below 1000 RPM, the injector driver will stay disabled
for 15 seconds and then re-set. If the engine is running
above 1000 RPM, the injector driver will stay disabled
for 5 seconds and then re-set. Record the change in
rpm or closed loop multiplier while each driver is
disabled.
TPS Command displays the commanded throttle
position expressed as a percentage, which is being sent
to the throttle. TPS Position is the actual percent of
throttle opening being sent to the GCP from the throttle.
TPS volts display the actual TPS signal voltage the
GCP is receiving from the throttle.
284 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
RAW VOLTS Screen
The RAW VOLTS screen shows actual voltage
readings from various circuits.
keys at the upper left corner
Use the
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
285 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Visual Inspection
Intermittent Problems
Perform a careful visual and physical engine inspection
before performing any diagnostic procedure. Perform
all necessary repairs before proceeding with additional
diagnosis, this can often lead to repairing a problem
without performing unnecessary steps. Use the
following guidelines when performing a visual/physical
inspection check:
NOTE: An intermittent problem may or may not turn on
the MIL or store a DTC. Do not use the DTC charts for
intermittent problems. The fault must be present to
locate the problem.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
NOTE: Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty
electrical connections or wiring. Perform a careful visual
inspection for the following conditions:
Inspect engine for modifications or aftermarket
equipment that can contribute to the symptom;
verify that all electrical and mechanical loads or
accessory equipment is “OFF” or disconnected
before performing diagnosis.
Inspect engine fluids for correct levels and
evidence of leaks.
Inspect vacuum hoses for damage, leaks,
cracks, kinks and improper routing, inspect
intake manifold sealing surface for a possible
vacuum leak.
Inspect PCV valve for proper installation and
operation.
Inspect all wires and harnesses for proper
connections and routing; bent or broken
connector pins; burned, chafed, or pinched
wires; and corrosion. Verify that harness
grounds are clean and tight.
Inspect GCP, sensors and actuators for physical
damage.
Inspect GCP grounds for cleanliness, tightness,
and proper location.
Inspect fuel system for adequate fuel level, and
fuel quality (concerns such as proper octane,
contamination, winter/summer blend).
Inspect intake air system and air filter for
restrictions.
Inspect battery condition and starter current
draw.
•
•
•
•
•
Poor mating of the connector halves or a
terminal not fully seated in the connector
(backed out).
Improperly formed or damaged terminals
Improper contact tension. All connector
terminals in the problem circuit should be
carefully checked.
Poor terminal-to-wire connections. This requires
removing the terminal from the connector body
to check.
Improperly installed aftermarket equipment or
accessories.
Operate the engine with accessories “OFF” and a
suitable multimeter connected to the suspected circuit.
An abnormal voltage when the malfunction occurs is a
good indication that there is a fault in the circuit being
monitored.
To check GCP for loss of diagnostic code memory,
disconnect the MAP sensor connector and idle the
engine until the MIL illuminates. Perform MIL DTC
retrieval procedure. DTC should be stored and kept in
memory when the ignition is turned “OFF”. If not, the
GCP is faulty. When this test is completed, make sure
that you clear the DTC from memory. An intermittent
MIL with no stored DTC may be caused by the
following:
•
If no evidence of a problem is found after visual
inspection has been performed, proceed to “Diagnostic
System Check”
•
•
286 Ignition coil shorted to ground and arcing at
plugs.
MIL circuit to GCP shorted to ground.
Poor GCP grounds.
WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Symptom Charts
NOTE: EDI engines are used in many different
applications and equipment. When performing any
system diagnosis be aware of any OEM inputs or
equipment monitoring devices that may have an effect
on the engine’s performance or any of the engine’s
operating systems.
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not working,
and no DTC is set, go to the voltage screen and check
pedal voltage. If pedal voltage is.75-1.25 volts, and idle
validation switch says you're at idle - replace the pedal.
NOTE: Items listed in the possible cause column
generally do not set a diagnostic trouble code (DTC)
orilluminate the MIL light.
Engine Performance - No Load
287 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Performance - While Under Load
288 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Concerns
289 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Control Module (GCP) - Diagnostic
Trouble Codes
CAUTION: When checking codes with the diagnostic
software, the DTC terminal can NOT be grounded.
CAUTION: Removing battery power before accessing
diagnostic program will erase all codes recorded.
This section contains circuit description information and
troubleshooting charts on all the DTC’s obtained by
diagnostic software or a Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL). When diagnostic trouble codes are obtained by a
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), the following
sequence will be flashed:
•
123 will flash 3 times to indicate the beginning of the
flash code display sequence.
•
Any active DTC’s will flash 3 times each.
•
123 will flash 3 times indicating the end of the code
display sequence.
If code 123 is the only code present, the system does
not have any active codes - all systems are working
fine.
If an active DTC is present, refer to the corresponding
DTC chart. Begin with the lowest number code first.
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not working,
and no DTC is set, go to the voltage screen and check
pedal voltage. If pedal voltage is .75 - 1.25 volts, and
idle validation switch says you’re at idle - replace the
pedal.
290 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
265 Injector Coil Shorted 11 Diagnostic Trouble Code Intake cam / distributor position 267 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 16 Never crank synced at start 268 Injector Coil Shorted 24 Exhaust cam position 270 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 91 FP low voltage 271 Injector Coil Shorted 92 FP high voltage 273 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 107 MAP Low Voltage 274 Injector Coil Shorted 108 MAP High Pressure 276 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 111 IAT higher than expected 1 277 Injector Coil Shorted 112 IAT low voltage 279 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 113 IAT high voltage 280 Injector Coil Shorted 116 ECT higher than expected 1 282 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 117 ECT/CHT Low Voltage 283 Injector Coil Shorted 118 ECT/CHT High Voltage 285 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 121 TPS1 lower than TPS2 286 Injector Coil Shorted 122 TPS1 low voltage 288 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 123 TPS1 high voltage 289 Injector Coil Shorted 127 IAT higher than expected 2 301 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 129 BP low pressure 302 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 134 EGO open/lazy pre‐cat 1 303 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 140 EGO open/lazy post‐cat 1 304 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 154 EGO open/lazy pre‐cat 2/post‐cat 1 305 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 160 EGO open/lazy post‐cat 2 306 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 171 AL high gasoline bank1 307 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 172 AL low gasoline bank1 308 Emissions/catalyst damaging misfire 174 AL high gasoline bank2 326 Knock 1 Excessive Signal 175 AL low gasoline bank2 327 Knock 1 sensor Open 182 FT Gasoline Low Voltage 331 Knock 2 Excessive Signal 183 FT Gasoline High Voltage 332 Knock 2 sensor Open 187 FT Gaseaous fuel low voltage 336 Crank sync noise 188 FT Gaseaous fuel high voltage 337 Crank loss 217 ECT higher than expected 2 341 Cam sync noise 219 Max govern speed override 342 Cam loss 221 TPS1 higher than TPS2 420 Gasoline cat monitor 222 TPS2 low voltage 430 Gasoline cat monitor 223 TPS2 high voltage 524 Oil pressure low 236 TIP Active 562 Battery Voltage Low 237 TIP Low Voltage 563 Battery Voltage High 238 TIP High Voltage 601 Flash checksum invalid 261 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 604 RAM failure 262 Injector Coil Shorted 606 COP failure 264 Injector Loop Open or Low‐side short to Ground 615 Start relay coil open 291 616 Start relay control ground short 1183 Megajector autozero / lockoff failed 617 Start relay coil short to power 1311 Misfire detected 627 Fpump relay coil open 1312 Misfire detected 628 1313 Misfire detected 628 Fpump relay control ground short FPump motor loop open or high‐side shorted to ground 1314 Misfire detected 629 Fpump relay coil short to power 1315 Misfire detected 629 FPump motor high‐side shorted to power 1316 Misfire detected 642 5VE1 low voltage 1317 Misfire detected 643 5VE1 high voltage 1318 Misfire detected 650 MIL open 1511 AUX analog PU1 high 652 5VE2 low voltage 1512 AUX analog PU1 low 653 5VE2 high voltage 1513 AUX analog PU2 high 685 Relay Coil Open 1514 AUX analog PU2 low 686 Relay Control ground short 1515 AUX analog PD1 high 687 Relay coil short to power 1111 Fuel rev limit 1112 Spark rev limit 1121 FPP1/2 simultaneous voltages out of range 1122 FPP1/2 do not match each other or the IVS 1151 CL high LPG 1152 CL low LPG 1153 CL high NG 1154 CL low NG 1155 CL high gasoline bank1 1156 CL low gasoline bank1 1157 CL high gasoline bank2 1158 CL low gasoline bank2 1161 AL high LPG 1162 AL low LPG 1163 AL high NG 1164 AL low NG 1165 LPG cat monitor 1166 1172 NG cat monitor Megajector delivery pressure higher than expected Megajector delivery pressure lower than expected 1173 Megajector comm lost 1174 Megajector voltage supply high 1175 Megajector voltage supply low 1176 Megajector internal actuator fault detection 1177 Megajector internal circuitry fault detection 1178 Megajector internal comm fault detection 1181 Fuel run‐out longer than expected 1182 Fuel impurity level high 1171 292 1516 AUX analog PD1 low 1517 AUX analog PU3 high 1518 AUX analog PU3 low 1521 CHT higher than expected 1 1522 CHT higher than expected 2 1531 IVS/Brake/Trans‐Park interlock failure 1541 AUX analog PUD1 high 1542 AUX analog PUD1 low 1543 AUX analog PUD2 high 1544 AUX analog PUD2 low 1545 AUX analog PUD3 high 1546 AUX analog PUD3 low 1547 AUX analog PUD4 high 1548 AUX analog PUD4 low 1551 AUX DIG1 high 1552 AUX DIG1 low 1553 AUX DIG2 high 1554 AUX DIG2 low 1555 AUX DIG3 high 1556 AUX DIG3 low 1561 AUX analog PD2 high 1562 AUX analog PD2 low 1563 AUX analog PD3 high 1564 AUX analog PD3 low 1611 5VE 1/2 simultaneous out‐of‐range 1612 RTI 1 loss 1613 RTI 2 loss 1614 RTI 3 loss 1615 A/D loss 1616 Invalid interrupt 1621 Rx Inactive 2122 FPP1 high voltage 1622 Rx Noise 2123 FPP1 low voltage 1623 Invalid Packet Format 2125 FPP2 invalid voltage and FPP1 disagrees with IVS 1626 CAN Tx failure 2126 FPP1 higher than FPP2 1627 CAN Rx failure 2127 FPP2 low voltage 1628 CAN addresss conflict failure 2128 FPP2 high voltage 1629 J1939 TSC1 message receipt lost 2130 IVS stuck at‐idle, FPP1/2 match 1630 J1939 ETC message receipt lost 2131 IVS stuck off‐idle, FPP1/2 match 1631 PWM1‐Gauge1 open / ground short 2135 TPS1/2 simultaneous voltages out of range 1632 PWM1‐Gauge1 short to power 2139 FPP1 lower than IVS limit 1633 PWM2‐Gauge2 open /ground short 2140 FPP2 lower than IVS limit 1634 PWM2‐Gauge2 short to power 2229 BP high pressure 1635 PWM3‐Gauge3 open / ground short 2300 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1636 PWM3‐Gauge3 short to power 2301 Primary Coil Shorted 1637 PWM4 open / ground short 2303 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1638 PWM4 short to power 2304 Primary Coil Shorted 1639 PWM5 open / ground short 2306 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1640 PWM5 short to power 2307 Primary Coil Shorted 1641 Buzzer control ground short 2309 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1642 Buzzer open 2310 Primary Coil Shorted 1643 Buzzer control short to power 2312 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1644 MIL control ground short 2313 Primary Coil Shorted 1645 MIL control short to power 2315 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1661 PWM6 open / ground short 2316 Primary Coil Shorted 1662 PWM6 short to power 2318 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1663 PWM7 open / ground short 2319 Primary Coil Shorted 1664 PWM7 short to power 2321 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1665 PWM8 open / ground short 2322 Primary Coil Shorted 1666 PWM8 short to power 2324 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 1669 PWM9 open / ground short 2325 Primary Coil Shorted 1670 PWM9 short to power 2327 Primary Loop Open or Low‐side Short to Ground 2111 Unable to reach lower TPS 2328 Primary Coil Shorted 2112 Unable to reach higher TPS 2618 Tach output ground short 2115 FPP1 higher than IVS limit 2619 Tach output short to power 2116 FPP2 higher than IVS limit 1624/1625 Shutdown Request 2120 FPP1 invalid voltage and FPP2 disagrees with IVS 2121 FPP1 lower than FPP2 293 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor Replacement
5. Install special tool 303-507 and turn the
crankshaft pulley bolt to position the No. 1
cylinder at top dead center (TDC).
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CMP Sensor.
3. Disconnect CMP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and CMP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
• Use a new o-ring seal
• Lubricate o-ring with clean engine oil prior
to installation
• Tighten bolt to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
6. Remove 2 bolts and CKP sensor.
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Removal
7. Install an M6 bolt in the position shown.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CKP Sensor.
3. Disconnect CKP electrical connector.
4. Remove plug.
294 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Installation
1. Position CKP sensor and loosely install the 2
bolts.
6. Install the plug:
• Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
NOTE: The CKP sensor alignment tool is supplied with
the new sensor and is not available separately.
7. Reconnect or install any other component that
was removed.
8. Reconnect battery cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Adjust the CKP sensor with the alignment tool
and tighten 2 bolts.
• Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
3. Connect CKP sensor electrical connector
4. Remove the M6 bolt.
5. Remove special tool 303-507.
295 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor Replacement
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) Replacement
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CHT Sensor.
3. Pull back the CHT sensor cover and disconnect
electrical connector.
4. Remove the CHT Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
• Tighten CHT sensor to 12 Nm (9 lb-ft).
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the HO2S Sensor.
3. Disconnect HO2S electrical connector.
NOTE: Use penetrating oil to assist in removal.
4. Remove HO2S sensor using special tool 303476.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
• Apply a light coat of anti-seize lubricant to
the threads of the sensor.
• Tighten sensor to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
296 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
Knock Sensor (KS) - Replacement
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure
(TMAP) Sensor - Replacement
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the knock sensor.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to
section 6.
3. Disconnect KS sensor electrical connector.
NOTE: The KS sensor is a one-time use item
and a new KS sensor must be installed.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the TMAP sensor.
3. Disconnect TMAP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and KS sensor and discard sensor
4. Remove bolt and TMAP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
• Install a new KS sensor
• Tighten bolt to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
5. Reverse procedure to install:
• Use a new o-ring seal
• Tighten bolt to ?? Nm (?? lb-??).
297 WSG-1068 ENGINE CONTROLS
SPECIFICATIONS
298 WSG-1068 METRICS
INDEX
Page
Subject
Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................
Nomenclature for Bolts ..................................................................................................................................
Bolt Strength Identification............................................................................................................................
Hex Nut Strength Identification .....................................................................................................................
Other Types of Parts.......................................................................................................................................
English/Metric conversion .............................................................................................................................
Decimal and Metric Equivalents ....................................................................................................................
Torque Conversion ........................................................................................................................................
J1930 Terminology List ..................................................................................................................................
09
299 315
315
316
316
317
318
319
319
320
WSG-1068 METRICS
INTRODUCTION
Most threaded fasteners are covered by specifications that define required mechanical properties, such as tensile
strength, yield strength, proof load and hardness. These specifications are carefully considered in initial selection of
fasteners for a given application. To ensure continued satisfactory vehicle performance, replacement fasteners used
should be of the correct strength, as well as the correct nominal diameter, thread pitch, length, and finish.
Most original equipment fasteners (English or Metric system) are identified with markings or numbers indicating the
strength of the fastener. These markings are described in the pages that follow. Attention to these markings is
important to ensure that the proper replacement fasteners are used.
Further, some metric fasteners, especially nuts, are colored blue. This metric blue identification is in most cases a
temporary aid for production start-up, and color will generally revert to normal black or bright after start-up.
English or Metric system fasteners are available through your Ford Parts and Service operation.
NOMENCLATURE FOR BOLTS
* The Property class is an Arabic numeral distinguishable from the slash SAE English grade system.
** The length of all bolts is measured from the underside of the head to the end.
300 WSG-1068 METRICS
BOLT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
English System
English (inch) bolts: Identification marks correspond to bolt strength, increasing number of slashes represent increasing
strength.
Metric System
Metric (mm) bolts: Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength, increasing numbers represent increasing
strength. Common metric fastener bolt strength property are 9.8 and 10.9 with the class identification
embossed on the bolt head.
HEX NUT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
301 WSG-1068 METRICS
OTHER TYPES OF PARTS
Metric identification schemes vary by type of part, most often a variation of that used of bolts and nuts. Note that many
types of English and Metric fasteners carry no special identification if they are otherwise unique.
302 WSG-1068 METRICS
ENGLISH/METRIC CONVERSION
303 WSG-1068 METRICS
DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS
TORQUE CONVERSION
304 WSG-1068 METRICS
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
Certain Ford Component names have been changed in this Service Manual to conform to Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) directive J1930.
SAE J1930 standardizes automotive component names for all vehicle manufacturers.
305 WSG-1068 METRICS
306 WSG-1068 METRICS
307 WSG-1068 METRICS
308 WSG-1068 METRICS
309 WSG-1068 METRICS
310 WSG-1068 METRICS
311 WSG-1068 METRICS
312 313 EDI Worldwide Service
Engine Distributors Inc
400 University Court
Blackwood NJ 08012
Service/Warranty
1-800-220-2700
1-856-228-7298
1-856-228-5657(fax parts & service)
1-856-228-5531(fax sales)
314 
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