CPE 323 Introduction to Embedded Computer Systems

CPE 323 Introduction to Embedded Computer Systems
CPE 323 Introduction to Embedded
Computer Systems:
The MSP430 Introduction
Instructor: Dr Aleksandar Milenkovic
Outline
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MSP430: An Introduction
The MSP430 family
Technology Roadmap
Typical Applications
The MSP430 Documentation
MSP430 Architecture
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Registers
Addressing Modes
Instruction Set
Instruction Formats and Encodings
Address Space
MSP430 Devices
Getting Started with EasyWeb2
MSP430 RISC core
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The Family (cont’d)
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Broad family of TI’s 16-bit microcontrollers
(over 150 different configurations)
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From 1 KB to 256 KB of flash memory
From 1 KB to 120 KB of ROM memory
From 128 B to 16 KB of RAM memory
With clock frequency of 8 KHz, 16 KHz, or 18 KHz
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The Family (cont’d)
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Non-LCD based subfamilies
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MSP430x1xx – Flash/ROM based MCUs offering 1.8V to 3.6V operation, up to
60kB, 8MIPS and a wide range of peripherals.
MSP430F2xx – Flash-based family featuring even lower power and up
to16MIPS with 1.8 to 3.6V operation. Additional enhancements include ±1% onchip very low power oscillator, internal pull-up/pull-down resistors and low-pin
count options.
MSP430x5xx – New Flash-based family featuring the lowest power consumption
up to 25 MIPS with 1.8 to 3.6V operation starting at 12 MIPS. Features include
an innovative Power Management Module for optimizing power consumption, an
internally controlled voltage regulator, and 2x more memory than previous
devices.
LCD based subfamilies
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MSP430x3xx – Older family of ROM/OTP devices offering 2.5V-5.5V operation,
up to 32kB and 4MIPS.
MSP430x4xx – Flash/ROM based devices offering 1.8V-3.6V operation, up to
120kB/ Flash/ ROM 8MIPS with FLL + SVS along with an integrated LCD
controller. Ideal for low power metering and medical applications.
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Part numbering convention
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MSP430MtFaFbMc
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Mt : Memory type
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C – ROM, F – Flash, P – OTP, E – EPROM
Fa,Fb
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10, 11 – basic
12, 13 – HW UART
14 – HW UART, HW multiplier
31, 32 – LCD Controller
33 – LCD controller, HW UART, HW multiplier
41 – LCD controller
43 - LCD controller, HW UART
44 - LCD controller, HW UART, HW multiplier
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Part numbering convention
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MSP430MtFaFbMc
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Mc : Memory capacity
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0: 1 Kb ROM, 128 b RAM
1: 2 KB ROM, 128 b RAM
2: 4 KB ROM, 256 b RAM
....
9: 60 KB ROM, 2 Kb RAM
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MSP 430 Roadmap
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MSP430 Typical Applications
Handheld Measurement
„ Air Flow measurement
„ Alcohol meter
„ Barometer
„ Data loggers
„ Emission/Gas analyser
„ Humidity measurement
„ Temperature
measurement
„ Weight scales
Medical Instruments
„ Blood pressure meter
„ Blood sugar meter
„ Breath measurement
„ EKG system
Utility Metering
Home environment
„ Gas Meter
„ Air conditioning
„ Water Meter
„ Control unit
„ Heat Volume Counter
„ Thermostat
„ Heat Cost Allocation
„ Boiler control
„ Electricity Meter
„ Shutter control
„ Meter reading system (RF) „ Irrigation system
„ White goods
Sports equipment
(Washing machine,..)
„ Altimeter
Misc
„ Bike computer
„ Diving watches
„ Smart card reader
„ Taxi meter
Security
„ Smart Batteries
„ Glass break sensors
„ Door control
„ Smoke/fire/gas detectors
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LCD
Adj. Vol. Regul.
RS232
RS232
controller
Analog I/O
2-axes
joystick
LEDs
Switches
Thermistor
μC
Keypad
An MSP430-Based
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Introduction To Embedded Computer Systems
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Another MSP430-Based System
Basic WISE
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Battery
Microcontroller
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Accelerometer
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TI MSP430F149
8-channel 12-bit AD conv.
Movement detection
Analog Device ADXL202
Transceiver
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LINX 916 MHz
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Tmote Sky Platform
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Texas Instruments 16-bit MSP430F149
microcontroller (2KB RAM, 60KB ROM)
Chipcon 2420, 250kbps, 2.4GHz, IEEE
802.15.4 compliant wireless transceiver
with programmable output power
Integrated onboard antenna with 50m range
indoors and 125m range outdoors
Integrated humidity, temperature, and light
sensors
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Tmote Sky Platform
http://www.moteiv.com
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MSP430 Documentation
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MSP430 home page (TI)
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User’s manual for MSP430x1xx family of devices
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http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe323-08F/docs/slau056g.pdf
Datasheets
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http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe323-08F/docs/slau049f.pdf
User’s manual for MSP430x4xx family of devices
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www.ti.com/msp430
http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe32308F/docs/msp430f149.pdf
http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe32308F/docs/msp430f1611.pdf
http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe32308F/docs/msp430fg4619.pdf
TI Workshop document
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http://www.ece.uah.edu/~milenka/cpe42106S/docs/msp430/430_2002_atc_workshop.pdf
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MSP 430 Modular Architecture
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MSP430 16-bit RISC
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Large 16-bit register file
eliminates single accumulator
bottleneck
High-bandwidth 16-bit data and
address bus with no paging
RISC architecture with 27
instructions and 7 addressing
modes
Single-cycle register operations
with full-access
Direct memory-memory transfer
designed for modern
programming
Compact silicon 30% smaller
than an ‘8051 saves power and
cost
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Registers
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PC/R0 – Program Counter
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The 16-bit program counter (PC/R0) points to the next
instruction to be executed
Each instruction uses an even number of bytes (two,
four, or six), and the PC is incremented accordingly.
Instruction accesses in the 64-KB address space are
performed on word boundaries, and the PC is aligned to
even addresses
PC can be addressed by all instructions and all
addressing modes
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MOV #LABEL,PC ; Branch to address LABEL
MOV LABEL,PC ; Branch to address contained in LABEL
MOV @R14,PC ; Branch indirect to address in R14
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SP/R1 – Stack Pointer
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The stack pointer (SP/R1) is used by the CPU to store the return
addresses of subroutine calls and interrupts. It uses a predecrement,
postincrement scheme.
In addition, the SP can be used by software with all instructions and
addressing modes.
Examples
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MOV 2(SP),R6 ; Item I2 −> R6
MOV R7,0(SP) ; Overwrite TOS with R7
PUSH #0123h ; Put 0123h onto TOS
POP R8 ; R8 = 0123h
Question: Illustrate the stack contents after PUSH SP and POP SP
instructions are executed?
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SR/R2 – Status Register
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The status register (SR/R2),
used as a source or
destination register, can be
used in the register mode only
addressed with word
instructions.
The remaining combinations of
addressing modes are used to
support the constant
generator.
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Constant Generation
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Six commonly-used constants are generated with the constant
generator registers R2 and R3,
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Adv.: No special instructions, no special code, no extra memory access
Assembler uses the constant generator automatically if one of the
six constants is used as an immediate source operand. Registers
R2 and R3, used in the constant mode, cannot be addressed
explicitly; they act as source-only registers.
The constants are selected with the source-register addressing
modes (As), as described below.
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Constant Generation
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Constant generator allows for additional 24
instructions that are emulated
Examples
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CLR dst
INC dst
MOV R3,dst
ADD 0(R3),dst
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General-Purpose Registers
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The twelve registers, R4−R15, are general-purpose registers. All of
these registers can be used as data registers, address pointers, or
index values and can be accessed with byte or word instructions as
shown below
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Addressing Modes
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Seven addressing modes for the source operand and four
addressing modes for the destination operand can address the
complete address space with no exceptions.
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Addressing Modes
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The bit numbers in the table below describe the contents of the As
(source) and Ad (destination) mode bits.
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Register Addressing Mode
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Register Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Register-Indexed
Addressing Mode
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Register-Indexed
Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Symbolic Addressing Mode
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Symbolic Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Absolute Addressing Mode
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Absolute Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Register Indirect
Addressing Mode
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Register Indirect
Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Register Indirect Autoincrement
Addressing Mode
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Register Indirect Autoincrement
Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Immediate Addressing Mode
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Immediate Addressing Mode (cont’d)
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Instruction Set
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27 core instructions
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24 emulated instructions
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Make code easier to write and read, but do not have op-codes;
instead an equivalent core instruction is generated
No code or performance penalty for using emulated instructions
3 core instruction formats
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Have unique op-codes decoded by the CPU
Dual-operand
Single-operand
Jump
All single- and dual-operand instructions can be byte or
word instructions by using .B or .W (default) extensions
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Byte instructions are used to access
byte data or byte peripherals
Word instructions are used to access
word data or word peripherals.
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27 Core RISC Instructions
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Emulated Instructions
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51 Total Instructions
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Double operand instructions
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Single Operand Instruction
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Jump Instructions
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3 Instruction Formats
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Instruction Cycles and Lengths
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The number of CPU clock cycles required for an
instruction depends on the instruction format
and the addressing modes used - not the
instruction itself
The number of clock cycles refers to the MCLK
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Format I:
Instruction Cycles and Length
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Format II and Format III:
Instruction Cycles and Length
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Format III: all jump instructions take 2 clock cycles to
execute and are 1 word long
Interrupt and reset cycles
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Instruction Encoding
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Address Space
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The MSP430x1xx von-Neumann
architecture has one address space
shared with special function registers
(SFRs), peripherals, RAM, and
Flash/ROM memory as shown
Memory maps are device specific
Code access are always performed on
even addresses.
Data can be accessed as bytes or
words.
The addressable memory space is 64
KB with future expansion planned.
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Address Space (cont’d)
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Special Function Registers (SFRs)
„ Some peripheral functions are configured in the SFRs
„ The SFRs are located in the lower 16 bytes of the
address space, and are organized by byte
„ SFRs must be accessed using byte instructions only.
See the device-specific data sheets for applicable SFR
bits
Peripheral modules (PM)
„ Peripheral modules are mapped into the address space
„ Address space 0100-01FFh is reserved for 16-bit PMs
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Should be accessed with word instructions.
If byte instructions are used, only even addresses are
permissible, and the high byte of the result is always 0.
Address space 010h-0FFh is reserved for 8-bit PMs
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Should be accessed with byte instructions.
Read access of byte modules using word instructions
results in unpredictable data in the high byte.
If word data is written to a byte module only the low byte is
written into the peripheral register, ignoring the high byte.
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Address Space (cont’d)
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RAM
„ RAM starts at 0200h.
„ End address of RAM depends on the amount of RAM
present and varies by device.
„ RAM can be used for both code and data
Flash/ROM
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Start address of Flash/ROM depends on the amount of
Flash/ROM present and varies by device.
End address for Flash/ROM is 0FFFFh
Flash can be used for both code and data. Word or byte tables
can be stored and used in Flash/ROM without the need to copy
the tables to RAM before using them.
Interrupt vector table
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Is mapped into the upper 16 words of Flash/ROM address
space, with the highest priority interrupt vector at the highest
Flash/ROM word address (0FFFEh).
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Memory Organization
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Word alignment
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Bytes are located at even or odd
addresses
Words are only located at even
addresses
Endianess (little-endian)
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When using word instructions,
only even addresses may be
used. The low byte of a word is
always an even address.
The high byte is at the next odd
address.
For example, if a data word is
located at address xxx4h, then
the low byte of that data word is
located at address xxx4h, and
the high byte of that word is
located at address xxx5h.
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MSP 430 System Architecture:
A Closer Look
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MSPx430x14x Architecture
64 TQFP (The The Thin Quad Flat Pack package
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Basic Clock System
Basic Clock Module
provides the clocks
for the MSP430
processor and
peripherals
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Watchdog Timer
WDT module performs a
controlled system restart
after a software problem
occurs
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Can serve as an interval timer
(generates interrupts)
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WDT Control register is
password protected
•
Note: Powers-up active
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Timer_A
Timer_A is a 16-bit
timer/counter with three
capture/compare registers
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Capture external signals
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Compare PWM mode
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SCCI latch for
asynchronous
communication
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Comparator_A
Comparator_A is an analog
voltage comparator
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Supports precision slope
analog-to-digital
conversions
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Supply voltage
supervision, and
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Monitoring of external
analog signals.
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Digital I/O
Independently programmable
individual I/Os
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Up to 6 ports (P1 – P6)
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Each has 8 I/O pins
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Each pin can be
configured as input or
output
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P1 and P2 pins can be
configured to assert an
interrupt request
Port1
Port2
Port3
…
Port6
Function Select Register PxSEL
yes
yes
Interrupt Edge Select Register PxIES
yes
no
Interrupt Enable Register PxIE
yes
no
Interrupt Flag Register PxIFG
yes
no
Direction Register PxDIR
yes
yes
Output Register PxOUT
yes
yes
yes
yes
Input Register PxIN
P1.
P2.
P3.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P4.
P5.
P6.
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ADC12
High-performance 12-bit
analog-to-digital converter
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More than 200 Ksamples/sec
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Programmable sample&
hold
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8 external input channels
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Internal storage
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USART Serial Port
The universal synchronous/
asynchronous receive/transmit
(USART) peripheral interface
supports two serial modes with
one hardware module
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UART or SPI (Synchronous
Peripheral Interface) modes
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Double-buffered
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Baud-rate generator
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Getting Started with EasyWeb2
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Getting Started with EasyWeb2
//********************************************
#include <msp430x14x.h>
// MSP-FET430P140 Demo - Software Toggle P2.1
//
void main(void)
// Description; Toggle P2.1 by xor'ing P2.1
{
// inside of a software loop.
// Stop watchdog timer
// ACLK = n/a, MCLK = SMCLK = default DCO ~
800k
WDTCTL = WDTPW + WDTHOLD;
//
P2DIR |= 0x02; // Set P2.1 to output direction
//
MSP430F149
for (;;)
//
----------------{
//
/|\|
XIN|unsigned int i;
//
| |
|
// Toggle P2.1 using exclusive-OR
//
--|RST
XOUT|P2OUT ^= 0x02;
//
|
|
i = 50000;
// Delay
//
|
P2.1|-->LED
do (i--);
//
while (i != 0);
// M. Buccini
}
// Texas Instruments, Inc
// January 2002
}
// Built with IAR Embedded Workbench Version:
1.25A
//
// @Alex Milenkovich, milenkovic@computer.org
// The University of Alabama in Huntsville
// February 2005
// Modified for easyWeb2 board to blink
// the Status led (port P2.1)
//********************************************
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CPE 323 Introduction To Embedded Computer Systems
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