feasa led analyser

feasa led analyser
FEASA LED ANALYSER
User Manual for Functional Models
Feasa 20-F, 10-F and 6-F
Feasa Enterprises Ltd,
Holland Road,
National Technology Park,
Castletroy,
Limerick,
Ireland.
www.feasa.ie
Email: sales@feasa.ie
Rev. 2.2 Functional Version
Date: March, 2010
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
About this Manual
Feasa operates a policy of continuous development. Feasa reserves the right
to make changes and improvements to any of the products described in this
document without prior notice.
Feasa reserves the right to revise this document or withdraw it at any time
without prior notice.
This manual is written for models Feasa 20-F, 10-F and 6-F Functional Test LED
Analysers.
The 20-F model will test up to 20 LED's, the 10-F will test up to 10 LED's and
the 6-F will test up to 6 LED's.
© Copyright 2005-2010 by Feasa Enterprises Ltd. All rights reserved. No parts
of this manual may be reproduced or retransmitted in any form or means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any other
storage and retrieval system without prior permission in writing from Feasa
Enterprises Ltd.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Table of Contents
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................5
Color and Saturation.............................................................................................................................6
Intensity................................................................................................................................................8
White LED's.........................................................................................................................................9
Setting Tolerance Limits for Color and Intensity................................................................................11
Physical Layout...................................................................................................................................12
USB Port Control................................................................................................................................12
Serial Port Control..............................................................................................................................13
Capture Commands.............................................................................................................................14
CAPTURE ­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data.........................................................................15
CAPTURE# ­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data.......................................................................16
CAPTUREPWM ­ Capture PWM LED Color and Intensity.........................................................17
CAPTURE#PWM@@ ­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data PWM LED's................................18
Get Data Commands...........................................................................................................................19
Under Range Condition..................................................................................................................19
Over Range Condition....................................................................................................................19
getRGBI## ­ Get RGB and Intensity for a LED............................................................................20
getHSI## ­ Get Hue, Saturation and Intensity...............................................................................21
getxy## ­ Return the xy Chromaticity values................................................................................22
getxoffset## ­ Return the x Chromaticity offset.............................................................................23
getyoffset## ­ Return the y Chromaticity offset.............................................................................24
getuv## ­ Return the u'v' Chromaticity values...............................................................................25
getINTENSITY## ­ Get the Intensity............................................................................................26
getIntGain ­ Get the Intensity Gain Factor.....................................................................................27
getfactor ­ Get the exposure Factor................................................................................................28
get7seg# ­ Get the value of a 7 Segment Display..........................................................................29
Set Commands....................................................................................................................................31
SetIntGain ­ Set the Intensity GainFactor.....................................................................................32
SetFactor## ­ Set the Exposure Factor..........................................................................................33
setxoffset##0.xxx ­ Set the x Chromaticity Offset.........................................................................34
setyoffset##0.yyy ­ Set the y Chromaticity Offset.........................................................................35
Daisy Chain Mode..............................................................................................................................36
BusFree ­ Deactivate any active Analysers ...................................................................................37
BusGet#### ­ Activate a LED Analyser .......................................................................................38
BusC ­ Initiate Capture for all LED Analyser's ............................................................................39
BusC# ­ Initiate Capture for all LED Analyser's ..........................................................................40
Ports Description and Wiring.........................................................................................................41
Daisy Chain Pinout........................................................................................................................42
Step­by­Step method for DaisyChaining ......................................................................................43
Example.........................................................................................................................................45
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands............................................................................................................................46
getSerial ­ Get the Serial Number of the Analyser........................................................................46
getVersion ­ Get the Firmware Version..........................................................................................47
getHW ­ Get the Hardware Version..............................................................................................48
Setbaud ­ Change the baud rate.....................................................................................................49
help ­ Command Summary Listing................................................................................................50
Step­by­Step approach to Testing a LED............................................................................................51
Effect of PWM on Intensity Testing...................................................................................................52
Step­by­Step approach to Testing a PWM LED.................................................................................53
Testing a 7­Segment Display..............................................................................................................54
Intensity Responses............................................................................................................................55
Command Summary...........................................................................................................................56
Specifications......................................................................................................................................57
Warranty ............................................................................................................................................58
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Introduction
The Feasa LED Analyser is an instrument that tests the Color and Intensity of
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in a test process.
The Analyser has 20* flexible Fiber-Optic Light Guides which are mounted
individually over the LEDs to be tested.
Emitted Light from the LEDs is guided through these Fiber-Optic Light Guides to
the Analyser where the Color, Saturation and Intensity are tested. The test
results can then read out of the Analyser through the Serial or USB Interfaces.
The USB Interface is 2.0 compatible and the Serial Interface is RS-232C
compatible.
Color, Saturation and Intensity values are output as ASCII strings through the
USB and Serial Interfaces.
All colors are derived from the three primary colors, Red, Green and Blue
(RGB). The RGB values are used to identify different color LEDs.
Every LED tested by the LED Analyser will have a set of RGB values generated
for analysis. The RGB results for each LED tested can be read out through the
Serial or USB Port.
* There are 10 channel and 20 channel versions available.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Color and Saturation
Figure 1: Hue (Color) Wheel
RED
GREEN
BLUE
=
=
=
0º
120º
240º
Colours can represented by a 360° degree circular Colour wheel. The three
Primary RGB values can also be represented as a single value called Hue.
Hue is a measured location on a Colour wheel and is expressed in degrees.
For example, Red will have a Hue value near 0°, Green will have a Hue value
near 120° and Blue will have a value near 240°.
A pure Colour will be represented on the Colour wheel as a point near the outer
edge. White will be represented by a point near the center of the wheel.
The degree of whiteness in a LED will affect its position on the wheel – the
greater the amount of white the closer it will be to the center.
The degree of whiteness emitted by the LED is represented by the term
Saturation. A Saturation value of 0% represents pure White. A Saturation
value of 100% represents a pure Colour such as Red, Blue, Green, etc.
Usually the user must determine the Hue and Saturation values by testing a
number of LED's and recording the results.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
The RGB and Hue values in Figure 2 show how different Colour LEDs can be
identified.
LED
R
G
B
HUE
SATURATION
Red
253
1
1
0
100%
Green
24
208
23
120
89%
Blue
2
13
240
238
99%
Yellow
76
171
8
95
96%
Orange
224
28
2
7
99%
White
71
72
112
See Page 8
37%
Figure 2
The RGB or Hue values are used to identify different Colour LEDs.
Every LED tested by the LED Analyser will have a set of RGB values generated
for analysis. These values are converted automatically to Hue and Saturation
(whiteness) and can be read out through the Serial or USB ports.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Intensity
Intensity is a measure of the amount of light being emitted by the LED.
The Analyser tests the Intensity of each LED and outputs this value to the Test
System.
The value is output as a number in the range 0-99,999. The Analyser is
calibrated to a fixed standard and all measurements are relative.
Factors that influence Intensity Measurement:
• The position of the Fiber in relation to the LED.
• Offset from the Optical Centre of the LED.
• The Gap between the end of the Fiber Light Guide and LED to be measured.
• The condition of the Fiber end. It must be kept clean with a 90º Cleave.
• Is the LED Static or Flashing ?
• External Influences – Other LEDs in close proximity, Ambient Lighting.
100000
90000
80000
RELATIVE INTENSITY
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0
100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000
lx (X1000)
Figure 2. Relative Intensity vs LUX using the Medium Range
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
White LED's
White LED's must be treated differently to coloured LED's when being tested.
White is not a colour – it is a mix of all other colours. The three Primary
colours Red, Green and Blue will be mixed in approximately equal proportions
to display a White colour. The Hue and Saturation values must be used when
testing White LED's. The Saturation is a value between 0% and 100%. A
value of 0% indicates a pure white and a value of 100% indicates a pure Colour.
In reality, the Saturation value of white LED's vary significantly with values of
30% being typical. Remember, the Saturation value is an indication of how
white the LED is.
The correct values must be determined experimentally with the particular
LED's to be tested.
Most LED manufacturers will specify their White LED's using Chromaticity coordinates xy. This is a two-dimensional Chart with x on the horizontal axis and
y on the vertical axis. The range of x and y lies between 0 and 1.
y
x
Figure 3. CIE 1931 Chromaticity Co-Ordinates
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
White LED's Cont'd
White LED's will have approximate co-ordinates of 0.33, 0.33. This may vary
depending on the manufacturer of the LED where some LED's will have a Blue
tint and other LED's will have an Orange tint.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Setting Tolerance Limits for Color and Intensity
The test procedure requires the user to set the Pass/Fail limits for Color and
Intensity for each LED which then become the standard against which LEDs to
be tested are compared.
The Pass/Fail limits for Color are chosen, in conjunction with manufacturer’s
specifications, from measurements taken from a sample number of typical
LEDs.
Because Hue is expressed as a single number it is more convenient to set the
limits for the color in terms of their Hue value.
Sample Hue Pass/Fail Limits
LED
Red
Green
Blue
Amber
Yellow
Orange
Minimum
0
110
220
5
60
10
Maximum
5
130
250
10
80
20
Figure 4.
White LED's should be identified in RGB or XY Chromaticity co-ordinates. The
Red, Green and Blue values should all lie between 70-90 for a white LED and
approximately 0.3,0.3 in XY. The Saturation value should be determined
experimentally and should be less than 60%.
The Pass/Fail limits for intensity are chosen from the average intensity values
from a number of sample LEDs.
Sample Intensity Pass/Fail Limits
Intensity Value
Upper Limit
Lower Limit
Comments
125
150
100
Dim LED
25000
28000
22000
Average LED
60000
64000
56000
Bright LED
Figure 5.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Physical Layout
20
11
LED
Daisy Out
USB
Power
Serial
1
10
Daisy In
Figure 6.
Figure 6 shows the physical layout of the Analyser. The fibers are labeled 1-20.
USB Port Control
Connect the LED Analyser to the PC using the supplied USB cable.
Power is supplied through the USB Cable so there is no need to plug in the
Power cable.
The installed Software Driver will configure the USB Port automatically.
The USB Port is configured as a Virtual Com Port and will be designated a name
such as COM5, COM6, etc.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Serial Port Control
For serial communications the LED Analyser must be connected from the 3-pin
Serial Connector to the PC or Controller using the supplied serial cable.
5V DC Power must be supplied to the 2-pin Power Connector using the Power
Cable. The Green LED should turn on to indicate the Analyser is ready for use.
The default serial communications settings are 57,600 Baud, 8 Data bits, 1
Stop bit and No Parity.
The baud rate can be changed to any of the following:- 9600, 19200,
38400,57600, 115200. These can be selected using the setbaud command.
Serial Connector (RS232C)
Pin
Signal
Pin on 9Pin D-type
1
Tx from LED Analyser
2
2
Rx from LED Analyser
3
3
GND
5
Power Connector
Pin No
Signal
1
Power (5V DC)
2
GND
Figure 7.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Capture Commands
The Capture commands are used to capture the Color and Intensity of the
LED's to be tested and store the results in the memory of the Analyser.
These results can be read out later using the GET DATA commands.
Commands are transmitted and received using ASCII characters and are caseinsensitive.
All commands must be terminated with a <CR> or <LF>
character.
There are two Programs on the supplied CD that can be used to send
commands to the Analyser:- Feasa LED Analyser User and the Feasa LED
Analyser Test Programs.
The Feasa LED Analyser User Program is a graphical tool that can be used to
send commands and receive results from the Analyser. It allows one LED to
be tested at a time. This Program also allows a Terminal Window to be opened
so that the User can type the commands directly and send them to the
Analyser. The responses from the Analyser can be observed in the Window.
The Feasa LED Analyser Test Program allows the User to test all the LED's
together. Pass and Fail limits can be set and results can be printed and logged.
Alternately, the User may generate a customised Program that sends
commands and receives data through the virtual USB Com Port.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Capture Mode
CAPTURE
­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data
Transmit
Receive
capture
OK
Description
This command instructs the LED Analyser to capture and store the Color and
Intensity of all the LED's positioned under the fibers.
The Analyser
automatically determines the correct settings to capture the LED data. In the
case of a 20 channel unit the data for all 20 LED's is captured simultaneously
and stored in internal memory of the LED Analyser. The data is stored until the
power is removed or another capture command is issued. When completed
the Analyser will transmit the character OK on the receive line to the
transmitting device (i.e. the PC).
This command uses a wide Intensity range to be able to test dim and bright
LED's simultaneously.
However, if the LED's to be tested are of similar
Intensity then better results will be obtained by using the Capture# command
described on the next page.
Example:
The PC transmits capture to the LED Analyser and the LED Analyser sends OK
to the PC to acknowledge that the command is completed.
capture
OK
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Capture Mode
CAPTURE#
­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data
Transmit
Receive
CAPTURE#
OK
Where:
# represents the ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
The LED brightness level for each range is as follows:Range
Range
Range
Range
Range
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
Low
Medium
High
Super
Ultra
Description
This command uses a pre-selected exposure time designated Range1, Range2
etc. For low light or dim LED's use Range 1 and for brighter LED's use higher
ranges. The higher ranges lead to faster test times because the exposure time
is shorter.
This command instructs the LED Analyser to read and store the Color and
Intensity of all the LED's positioned under the fibers using a fixed range.
The range setting must be specified. The data is stored until the power is
removed or another capture command is issued.
When completed the
Analyser will transmit the character OK on the receive line to the transmitting
device (i.e. the PC).
Example:
The PC transmits capture to the LED Analyser and the LED Analyser sends OK
to the PC to acknowledge that the command is completed.
capture2
OK
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Capture Mode
CAPTUREPWM
- Capture PWM LED Color and Intensity
Transmit
Receive
CAPTUREPWM
OK
Description
Pulse-Width-Modulated(PWM) LED's are switched on and off rapidly to save
power and to control Intensity.
The Analyser automatically determines the
correct settings required to execute the test.
This command uses the auto-ranging feature and a pre-set averaging factor to
capture the LED data. This command is useful if it is required to test very dim
and very bright PWM LED's together.
The command instructs the LED Analyser to read and store the Color and
Intensity of all the LED's positioned under the fibers. The data is stored until
the power is removed or another capture command is issued.
When
completed the Analyser will transmit the character OK on the receive line to
the transmitting device (i.e. the PC).
Example:
The PC transmits capturepwm to the LED Analyser. The Analyser sends OK to
the PC to acknowledge that the command is completed.
capturepwm
OK
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Capture Mode
CAPTURE#PWM@@ ­ Store LED Color and Intensity Data PWM LED's
Transmit
Receive
CAPTURE#PWM@@
OK
Where:
#
represents the exposure Range 1 – 5.
@@ represents an averaging factor in the range 1 - 15.
Description
This command allows the User to specify the exposure range and an averaging
factor when testing PWM LED's. Select the exposure range (1-5) to match the
Intensity of the LED's. The Analyser tests these LED's by taking a number of
readings and averaging the results. A larger factor will lead to more stable
results. The averaging factor is a number in the range 1-15.
This command instructs the LED Analyser to read and store the Color and
Intensity of all the LED's positioned under the fibers. The data is stored until
the power is removed or another capture command is issued.
When
completed the Analyser will transmit the character OK on the receive line to
the transmitting device (i.e. the PC).
capture1pwm05
OK
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Commands
The get data commands are used to read out the Color, Saturation and
Intensity data stored by the capture commands.
The data from the last capture command remains in memory until a new
capture command is issued or the power is removed from the Analyser.
Commands are transmitted and received using ASCII characters and are caseinsensitive.
All commands must be terminated with a <CR> or <LF>
character.
Under Range Condition
An under range condition will occur when insufficient light from the LED
reaches the sensor for the range selected. This will be indicated by
999.99 999 00000 for HSI, 000 000 000 00000 for RGBI and
0.0000 0.0000 for xy and uv.
If this condition occurs select the next lower range and test again.
Over Range Condition
An over range condition will occur when too much light from the LED reaches
the sensor for the range selected by the switch. This will be indicated by
999.99 999 99999 for HSI, 255 255 255 99999 for RGBI and
0.0000 0.0000 for xy and uv.
If this condition occurs select the next higher range and test again.
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getRGBI##
­ Get RGB and Intensity for a LED
Transmit
Receive
getRGBI##
Rrr ggg bbb iiiii
Where:
## represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
rrr , ggg and bbb are the red, green and blue components of the LED color.
These values are normalized and are in the range 0 – 255.
iiiii represents the intensity value of the LED under Fiber xx.
This 5-digit
number is in the range 0000 – 99999.
0000 represents no Intensity or under
range(i.e. the LED is off) and 99999 will represent over range or the LED is too
bright.
Description
This command instructs the LED Analyser to return RGB and Intensity data for
fiber ## (01-20) in format rrr ggg bbb iiiii where rrr, ggg and bbb are the
red, green and blue components of the color. The iiiii value indicates the
intensity value.
This command should be preceded by a capture command to ensure valid LED
data is stored in the memory of the LED Analyser. The data for each LED can
only be read out one-at-the-time, in any order.
Note: it is important for the
PC to use 01, 02, 03, etc to indicate Fibers 1, 2 and 3, etc.
Example:
The PC transmits getrgbi05 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored Color and Intensity data for the LED positioned under Fiber No 5. The
LED Analyser will return a string rrr ggg bbb iiiii to the PC.
Getrgbi05
006 230 018 06383
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getHSI##
­ Get Hue, Saturation and Intensity
Transmit
Receive
getHSI##
Hhh.hh sss iiiii
Where:
## represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
hhh.hh represents the Hue (color) and is a number in the range 0.00 – 360.00.
sss represents the Saturation (whiteness) and is a number in the range 0–100.
iiiii represents the intensity value of the LED under fiber ##.
This 5-digit
number is in the range 0000 – 99999.
0000 represents no Intensity or under
range(i.e. the LED is off) and 99999 will represent over range or the LED is too
bright.
Description
This command instructs the LED Analyser to return Hue, Saturation and
Intensity data for fiber ## (01-20) in format hhh.hh sss iiiii where hhh.hh
represents the Hue(Color), sss represents the Saturation(whiteness) of the LED
under Fiber ##. The iiiii value indicates the intensity value.
This command should be preceded by a capture command to ensure valid LED
data is stored in the memory of the LED Analyser. The data for each LED can
only be read out one-at-the-time, in any order. Note: it is important for the PC
to use 01, 02, 03, etc to indicate Fibers 1, 2 and 3, etc.
Example:
The PC transmits gethsi05 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the stored
Color and Intensity data for the LED positioned under Fiber No 5. The LED
Analyser will return a string hhh.hh sss iiiii to the PC.
gethsi05
123.47 098 06383
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getxy## ­ Return the xy Chromaticity values
Transmit
Receive
getxy##
0.xxxx 0.yyyy
Where:
##
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
0.xxxx represents the x Chromaticity value
0.yyyy represents the y Chromaticity value
Description
This command is used to return the xy Chromaticity value for the LED under
the Fiber number ##. This command is used for testing White LED's.
This command should be preceded by a capture command to ensure valid LED
data is stored in the memory of the LED Analyser. The data for each LED can
only be read out one-at-the-time, in any order. Note: it is important for the PC
to use 01, 02, 03, etc to indicate Fibers 1, 2 and 3, etc.
Example:
The PC transmits getxy01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the stored
xy Chromaticity data for the LED positioned under Fiber No 1.
The LED
Analyser will return a string 0.xxxx 0.yyyy to the PC.
getxy01
0.6461 0.3436
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getxoffset## - Return the x Chromaticity offset
Transmit
Receive
getxoffset##
±0.xxx
Where:
##
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
±0.xxx represents the x Chromaticity offset
Description
This command is used to return the x Chromaticity offset for the LED under the
Fiber number ##. The value of this offset must be set by the setxoffset##
command. The default value is 0.000.
Example:
The PC transmits getxoffset01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored x Chromaticity offset for the LED positioned under Fiber No 1. The LED
Analyser will return a string ±0.xxx to the PC.
getxoffset01
+0.155
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getyoffset## - Return the y Chromaticity offset
Transmit
Receive
getyoffset##
±0.yyy
Where:
##
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
±0.yyy represents the y Chromaticity offset
Description
This command is used to return the y Chromaticity offset for the LED under the
Fiber number ##. The value of this offset must be set by the setyoffset##
command. The default value is 0.000.
Example:
The PC transmits getyoffset01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored y Chromaticity offset for the LED positioned under Fiber No 1. The LED
Analyser will return a string ±0.yyy to the PC.
getyoffset01
-0.025
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getuv## ­ Return the u'v' Chromaticity values
Transmit
Receive
getuv##
0.uuuu 0.vvvv
Where:
##
0.uuuu
0.vvvv
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
represents the u Chromaticity value
represents the v Chromaticity value
Description
This command is used to return the u'v' Chromaticity value for the LED under
the Fiber number ##. This command is used for testing White LED's.
The u'v' values are derived from the xy Chromaticity co-ordinates including any
xy offsets that may be applied.
This command should be preceded by a capture command to ensure valid LED
data is stored in the memory of the LED Analyser. The data for each LED can
only be read out one-at-the-time, in any order. Note: it is important for the PC
to use 01, 02, 03, etc to indicate Fibers 1, 2 and 3, etc.
Example:
The PC transmits getuv01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the stored
XY Chromaticity data for the LED positioned under Fiber No 1.
The LED
Analyser will return a string 0.uuuu 0.vvvv to the PC.
getuv01
0.1809 0.4414
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getINTENSITY## ­ Get the Intensity
Transmit
Receive
getINTENSITY##
IIIII
Where:
## represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
IIIII represents the Intensity value.
Description
This command is used to get the Intensity value for the LED under the Fiber
number ##.
This command should be preceded by a capture command to ensure valid LED
data is stored in the memory of the LED Analyser. The data for each LED can
only be read out one-at-the-time, in any order. Note: it is important for the PC
to use 01, 02, 03, etc to indicate Fibers 1, 2 and 3, etc.
Example:
The PC transmits getintensity01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored XY Chromaticity data for the LED positioned under Fiber No 1. The LED
Analyser will return a string IIIII to the PC.
getintensity01
06734
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getIntGain
- Get the Intensity Gain Factor
Transmit
Receive
getIntGain##
xxx
Where:
##
xxx
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
represents the Intensity gain value. Default 100.
Description
This command is used to get the Intensity gain value for each Fiber.
The default values set at the factory are 100 i.e. 100% of nominal. The values
can be adjusted by the SetIntGain command.
Example:
The PC transmits getintgain01 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored intensity gain data for Fiber No 1.
getIntGain01
100
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
getfactor
- Get the exposure Factor
Transmit
Receive
getfactor
xx
Where:
xx
represents the exposure factor value. The default value is 01.
Description
This command is used to get the exposure factor value for all Fibers.
The default value set at the factory are 01. The values can be adjusted by the
SetFactor command.
Example:
The PC transmits getfactor to the LED Analyser to instruct it to send the
stored exposure factor for all Fibers. The default value is 01.
getfactor
01
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FEASA LED ANALYSER
Get Data Mode
get7seg#
- Get the value of a 7 Segment Display
Transmit
Receive
get7seg#
x
Where:
#
represents the Number 1 or 2
x
represents the value of the display 0 - 9
Description
The LED Analyser can be used to test LED-based 7-Segment displays. To set
up the LED Analyser to interrogate a single 7-Segment display, fit fibers labeled
1 to 7 over segments a-g on the 7-Segment display. See Figure 8 on the next
page.
To set up the LED Analyser to interrogate an additional 7-Segment display, fit
fibers labeled 11 to 17 over segments a-g on the additional display.
To interrogate the digit displayed on the first 7-Segment Display send the
command get7seg1 to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the
digit displayed. The LED Analyser will return the character X when the
displayed value is not recognized (0 to 9).
To interrogate the digit displayed on the second 7-Segment display send the
command get7seg2 to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the
digit displayed. Again, the LED Analyser will return the character X when the
displayed value is not recognized (0 to 9).
Note:- it is not necessary to send any capture commands prior to using the
get7seg1 or get7seg2 commands.
29
FEASA LED ANALYSER
a
f
g
b
c
e
d
Figure 8.
Example:
The PC transmits get7seg1 to the LED Analyser and the Analyser will return
the value of the display.
get7seg1
6
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30
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Set Commands
The Set commands are used to adjust various settings in the LED Analyser such
as Intensity and Exposure.
These settings remain programmed in the Analyser even when the power is
removed.
Commands are transmitted and received using ASCII characters and are caseinsensitive.
All commands must be terminated with a <CR> or <LF>
character.
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31
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Set Data Mode
SetIntGain
- Set the Intensity GainFactor
Transmit
Receive
SetIntGain##xxx
OK
Where:
##
xxx
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
represents a 3 digit gain factor, default 100.
Description
This command allows the user to adjust the Intensity Gain Factor for each Fiber.
This is useful when it is required to balance all or some of the Fibers to give the
same Intensity when Testing similar LED's. The Factory default setting is 100.
The value for each Fiber can be adjusted from 050 – 200.
These values are stored permanently in memory and can only be changed by
using the setIntGain command again.
The command getIntGain will display the current stored gain setting.
Example:
Set the Intensity gain for Fiber 1 to 095.
setIntGain01095
OK
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32
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Set Data Mode
SetFactor##
- Set the Exposure Factor
Transmit
Receive
SetFactor##
OK
Where:
##
represents the Factor Number and is in the range 01 – 20 (default 01).
Description
This command allows the user to adjust the Exposure Factor for all Fibers.
This is useful when it is required to test very dim LED's.
The Factory default
setting is 01. The value can be adjusted from 01 to 20. The exposure time
will be increased when the factor is increased which will lead to longer test
times.
Try the low range(capture1) first before adjusting the Exposure Factor.
These values are stored permanently in memory and can only be changed by
using the setFactor command again.
The current value can be read out using the getfactor command.
Example:
Set the Factor Number for all Fibers to 05.
setfactor05
OK
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33
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Set Data Mode
setxoffset##0.xxx- Set the x Chromaticity Offset
Transmit
Receive
Setxoffset##±0.xxx
OK
Where:
##
0.xxx
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
represents the x Chromaticity offset value (±0.000 – 0.300).
Description
This command is used to set an offset to the displayed x Chromaticity value.
The limit of the offset is ±0.300 which means values must be in the range
±0.000 – 0.300. This command is useful when the user wishes to set the x
Chromaticity to be the same as that specified by the LED Manufacturer. The
default value of the offset is 0.000. The offset is stored in non-volatile memory
and will remain at the programmed setting until changed by a new Setxoffset
command.
Example:
The PC transmits setxoffset01+0.050 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to set
the X offset on Fiber 1 to +0.050.
setxoffset01+0.050
OK
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34
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Set Data Mode
setyoffset##0.yyy
- Set the y Chromaticity Offset
Transmit
Receive
Setyoffset##±0.yyy
OK
Where:
##
0.yyy
represents the Fiber Number and is a number in the range 01 – 20.
represents the y Chromaticity offset value (±0.000 – 0.300).
Description
This command is used to set an offset to the displayed y Chromaticity value.
The limit of the offset is ±0.300 which means values must be in the range
±0.000 – 0.300. This command is useful when the user wishes to set the y
Chromaticity to be the same as that specified by the LED Manufacturer. The
default value of the offset is 0.000. The offset is stored in non-volatile memory
and will remain at the programmed setting until changed by a new Setyoffset
command.
Example:
The PC transmits setyoffset01-0.050 to the LED Analyser to instruct it to set
the y offset on Fiber 01 to -0.050.
setyoffset01-0.050
OK
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35
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
The Daisy chain is a method used to communicate with multiple Led Analyser
units to save connections and simplify the wiring.
One Led Analyser (1st in the chain) is connected to the computer using a
RS232 or USB cable and the remaining LED Analysers are interconnected in a
Daisy Chain or Serial Bus. The LED Analyser connected to the computer
receives a command and this command is received by all the other LED
Analysers through the Daisy Chain Bus.
Figure 9 Daisy Chain Only one LED Analyser is active at any one time and all commands from the
Controlling Computer are directed to the active LED Analyser. All responses
received by the Computer will be from the active LED Analyser.
Each LED Analyser is identified using a unique 4-character Serial Number. This
Serial Number is fixed to each Analyser or can be read out using the getSerial
command.
There are a number of commands which are used to control the Analysers in
the Daisy Chain. These commands are described on the following pages.
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36
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
BusFree - Deactivate any active Analysers
Transmit
Receive
BusFree
OK
Description
This command is used to deactivate any active Analysers on the Daisy Chain
Bus.
This will free the Bus to allow an Analyser to be made active.
This
command should be issued at the start of a sequence. It is the responsibility
of the Controlling Computer to issue commands and monitor the responses. If
an Analyser does not respond within 500mSec then the Controlling Computer
should issue a new BusFree command and report an error.
The Analyser connected to the computer will operate as a standalone unit after
the command is issued.
Example:
The PC transmits BusFree to the 1st LED Analyser to instruct it to free up the
Daisy Chain Bus.
busfree
OK
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37
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
BusGet#### - Activate a LED Analyser
Transmit
Receive
BusGet####
OK
Where:
####
represents the Serial Number of the Analyser.
Description
This command will activate the LED Analyser with the specified Serial Number.
This command should be preceded by a BusFree command.
All the Capture,
Set, Get, etc commands can now be used with the active Analyser in the chain.
It is the responsibility of the Controlling Computer to issue commands and
monitor the responses. If an Analyser does not respond within 500mSec then
the Controlling Computer should issue a new BusFree command and report an
error.
Example:
The PC transmits BusGet#### to the Master LED Analyser to instruct it to
activate the LED Analyser with Serial Number ####.
busgetF044
OK
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38
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
BusC
- Initiate Capture for all LED Analyser's
Transmit
Receive
BusC
OK
Description
This command will cause all LED Analysers in the Daisy Chain to initiate a
capture sequence using the Automatic Range Mode.
To specify a Range
manually see the command BusC# on the next page.
This command should be preceded by a BusFree command.
After the capture cycle use the the command BusGet#### to activate a
specific LED Analyser. All the standard commands can then be used to read
back the LED Test data.
Example:
The PC transmits BusC to the 1st LED Analyser to instruct all LED Analysers in
the Daisy Chain to initiate a Capture cycle.
busc
OK
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39
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
BusC#
- Initiate Capture for all LED Analyser's
Transmit
Receive
BusC#
OK
Where:
# represents the ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
The LED brightness level for each range is as follows:Range
Range
Range
Range
Range
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
Low
Medium
High
Super
Ultra
Description
This command uses a pre-selected exposure time designated Range1, Range2
etc. For low light or dim LED's use Range 1 and for brighter LED's use higher
ranges. The higher ranges lead to faster test times because the exposure time
is shorter.
This command should be preceded by a BusFree command.
This command instructs all LED Analyser's in the Daisy Chain to capture and
store the Color and Intensity of all the LED's positioned under the fibers using a
fixed range.
The range setting must be specified. The data is stored until the power is
removed or another capture command is issued.
When completed the
Analyser will transmit the character OK on the receive line to the transmitting
device (i.e. the PC).Example:
The PC transmits BusC# to the 1st LED Analyser to instruct all LED Analysers
in the Daisy Chain to initiate a Capture cycle.
busc2
OK
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40
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
Ports Description and Wiring.
USB
Serial
D_OUT
1
2
3
Power
0V
5V
D_IN
1
2
3
Figure 10
The Daisy Chain Connectors are shown on the right-hand side of figure 10.
The D_OUT connector is connected to the D_IN connector of the next Analyser
in the chain.
The Power Connector is used to supply +5V DC to each Analyser in the chain.
Allow 200mA @5V for each Analyser and ensure the wiring is adequate to
supply the current without incurring large voltage drops. For reliable
operation it is necessary to have 5V at the Power Connector of each
Analyser.
There is one exception for the 1st Analyser in the chain. If the USB Connector
is used on the 1st Analyser then the power for it will be supplied by the USB
Connection.
If the Serial Connector is used for communications then +5V must also be
supplied through the 2-pin Power Connector.
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41
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
Daisy Chain Pinout
5V GND
3
2
3
1
D_IN
POWER SUPPLY
PIN
D_IN
D_OUT
1
RX_in
RX_out
2
TX_out
TX_in
3
GND
GND
2
1
D_OUT
Figure 11
Figure 11 shows the layout of the Connectors viewed from the edge of the
board.
The GND line of D_OUT is connected with the GND line of D_IN, the RX_out of
D_OUT is connected to RX_in of D_IN and the line TX_in of D_OUT is connected
to the line TX_out of D_IN.
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42
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
Step­by­Step method for DaisyChaining To sucessfully implement Daisychaining the following steps are recommended:1.
Decide how many Analysers are to be daisychained.
2.
Make a list of the Serial Numbers of the Analysers and note the order
in which they will be interconnected.
Chain Order
Serial No
Comments
1
F3041
Tests D40 – D59 Connected to PC
2
F4611
Tests D60 - D69
3
F2014
Tests LED01 – LED20 All White
4
F0061
Tests LED21 – LED40 All Red
3.
Locate the Daisy Chain cables and connect the Daisy_Out of F3041 to the
Daisy_In of F4611. Connect Daisy_Out of F4611 to Daisy_In of F2014.
Connect Daisy_Out of F2014 to Daisy_In of F0061.
4.
Next locate the 2-pin Power cable supplied with each Analyser. It is
necessary to apply 5V power to each LED Analyser in the chain using this
cable. The only exception to this is if Analyser 1 (F3041) is connected to
the Host Computer using the USB Cable. In this case Analyser 1 will
draw its Power from the USB port.
5.
Connect Analyser 1 to the Host Computer using either a Serial or USB
cable. Apply power to all the Analysers. The Green LED on each
Analyser should come on.
6.
The supplied Terminal Program can be used to verify the operation of
the Daisy Chain. Connect to the port on which the 1st Analyser
is installed. See USB Port Control
43
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
7.
Send 'CAPTURE' to verify the communications with the 1st Analyser.
The response should be 'OK'.
8.
Send 'GETSERIAL' and the response should be 'F3011'.
9.
To connect to Analyser 2 (F4611) send:BUSFREE
OK
BUSGETF4611
OK
Response from the Analyser
Response from the Analyser
The host computer is now connected to Analyser 2 (F4611).
This can be verified by requesting the Serial Number:GETSERIAL
F4611
Response from the Analyser
All the LED Analyser commands can now be directed to Analyser 2.
10.
To connect to Analyser 3 (F2014) send the following:BUSFREE
OK
BUSGETF2014
OK
11.
Response from the Analyser
Response from the Analyser
It is possible to instruct all Analysers in the chain to capture LED data
simultaneously. This makes programming easier and saves time.
There are six capture commands in total but only one can be used
at a time. The commands are busc, busc1, busc2, busc3, busc4 and
busc5. Busc uses the automatic capture range whereas busc1 – busc5
use pre-selected manual ranges. It is recommended to use the manual
ranges busc1 – busc5 wherever possible. The busc command should
only be used where dim and bright LED's must be tested simultaneously.
44
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Daisy Chain Mode
Example
BUSFREE
'free the bus
OK
BUSC3
'All Analysers capture using range 3 High
OK
BUSFREE
OK
BUSGETF3041
'Connect to the 1st Analyser
OK
GETSERIAL
'Confirm to Analyser
F3041
GETHSI01
'Get the Data for Fiber 1
000.51 100 36491
GETHSI02
.
.
GETHSI20
120.51 100 66542 'Get the Data for Fiber 20
BUSFREE
OK
BUSGETF4611
'Connect to the 1st Analyser
OK
GETSERIAL
'Confirm to Analyser
F4611
GETHSI01
'Get the Data for Fiber 1
000.51 100 36491
GETHSI02
.
.
GETHSI20
'Get the Data for Fiber 20
.
Repeat this sequence for all Analysers in the chain.
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45
FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands
getSerial
­ Get the Serial Number of the Analyser
Transmit
Receive
getSerial
xxxx
Where: xxxx is an alphanumeric value.
Description
This command will return the Serial Number of the Analyser. This is a unique
number and is useful if multiple LED Analysers are used in a System.
The
Controlling Software can query each LED Analyser for it's Serial Number to
ensure the correct Analyser is being controlled.
Example:
The PC transmits getserial to the LED Analyser an it will return xxxx to the PC.
getserial
75A6
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46
FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands
getVersion
­ Get the Firmware Version
Transmit
Receive
getVersion
xxxx
Where: xxxx is an alphanumeric value.
Description
This command will return the Version Number of the firmware in the Analyser.
Example:
The PC transmits getversion to the LED Analyser an it will return xxxx to the
PC.
getversion
F002
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47
FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands
getHW
­ Get the Hardware Version
Transmit
Receive
getHW
xxxxxxxxxx
Where: xxxxxxxxxx is an alphanumeric value.
Description
This command will return the hardware version of the Analyser.
Example:
The PC transmits gethw to the LED Analyser an it will return xxxxxxxxxx to
the PC.
gethw
Feasa 20-F
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48
FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands
Setbaud ­ Change the baud rate
Transmit
Receive
SetbaudX
OK
Where: X = 9600,19200,38400,57600,115200,230400
Description
This command will change the baud rate of the Serial and USB Port's in the
Analyser.
The default Port settings of the Analyser are 57,600, 8 Data bits, 1 Stop bit and
No Parity.
Example:
To change the baud rate to 9600 transmit the command setbaud9600 to the
Analyser .
Setbaud9600
OK
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49
FEASA LED ANALYSER
General Commands
help­ Command Summary Listing
Transmit
Receive
help
Command listing
Description
This command will generate a summary listing of all the LED Analyser
commands.
This is useful when using a terminal program such as
HyperTerminal.
Example:
To generate the listing transmit help to the Analyser .
help
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50
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Step-by-Step approach to Testing a LED
Standard Capture Mode
To Test the Color and Intensity of up to 20 LEDs simultaneously carry out the
following:
1. Ensure that the LEDs to be Tested are turned on and that the fibers are
centered over the LEDs.
2. To Test the Color and Intensity in RGB first send the command capture to
the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the characters OK indicating
that the Color and Intensity data for the LEDs has been stored in the internal
memory.
3. Transmit the command getrgbi01 to retrieve the results for Fiber 1. Any
fiber can be queried by sending the command getrgbi## to the LED
Analyser, where ## is the fiber number in the range 01 to 20. The LED
Analyser will return the results in the format rrr ggg bbb iiiiiE where rrr,
ggg and bbb are the red, green and blue components of the light in
decimal format in the range 000 to 255. The iiiii value indicates the
intensity value of the light in the
range 00000 to 99999.
4. Alternatively, the Led Analyser may also be queried to retrieve the Hue,
Saturation and Intensity results for the LEDs under test. After step 2 send
the command gethsi## to the LED Analyser where ## is the fiber number.
The LED Analyser will return the results for that fiber in the format hhh.hh
sss iiiiiE where hhh.hh is the Hue, sss is the Saturation(whiteness) and
iiiii are the Intensity results for that Fiber.
5. An Intensity value of 0000 will indicate that the LED under test is not bright
enough. To compensate for this move the fiber closer to the LED or increase
the LED intensity. An Intensity value of 99999 will indicate that the LED is
too bright and the LED Analyser has an over-range condition. In this case
increase the distance of the LED to the Fiber or decrease the LED Intensity.
6. In general, try to keep the Intensity less than 80,000 and greater than
20,000.
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51
FEASA LED ANALYSER
PWM LED Mode
Effect of PWM on Intensity Testing
The effect of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of a typical LED on the Analyser
Intensity can be seen in Figure 8.
In this graph the LED will always be on at
100% modulation.
When the modulation has been reduced to 50% (i.e. the
LED is off 50% of the time) the relative Intensity drops to approximately 90%.
At 20% modulation ( the LED is off 80% to the time) the relative Intensity drops
to approximately 50%.
PWM vs Intensity
70
60
Relative Intensity
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
% PWM
Figure 12: Relative Intensity versus Modulation
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52
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Step-by-Step approach to Testing a PWM LED
PWM LED Mode *
To test PWM LEDs use the following commands on the LED Analyser for Fiber 1:
1. Decide how many readings are required to test the PWM LED's. The
Analyser can be programmed to take between 1 and 15 readings. The
more readings that are taken the greater the stability of the results.
2. Send the command CAPTURE#PWM@@, where @@ is the number of
readings to take and # is the Intensity range. The LED Analyser will capture
and store the Color, Saturation and Intensity data for all fibers. The LED
Analyser will respond with the Characters OK indicating that the command
has been completed.
3. To read back the RGB and Intensity of the LED under fiber ## send the
command GETRGBI## to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return
the data in the format rrr ggg bbb iiiii where rrr, ggg and bbb are the red,
green and blue components of the color. The iiiii value indicates the
intensity value.
4. To read back the Hue and Intensity of the LED under fiber xx send the
command GETHSI## to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the
data in the format hhh.hh sss iiiii where hhh.hh represents the Hue value,
sss represents the Saturation(whiteness) and iiiii indicates the intensity
value.
* If the switching frequency for the LED > 150Hz then stable results can be
obtained using the capture# commands.
These commands are quicker to
execute and will save test time.
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53
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Testing a 7-Segment Display
The LED Analyser can be used to test LED-based 7-Segment displays. To set
up the LED Analyser to interrogate a single 7-Segment display, fit fibers labeled
1 to 7 over segments a-g on the 7-Segment display.
To set up the LED Analyser to interrogate an additional 7-Segment display, fit
fibers labeled 11 to 17 over segments a-g on the additional display.
To interrogate the digit displayed on the first 7-Segment Display send the
command get7seg1 to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the
digit displayed. The LED Analyser will return the character X when the
displayed value is not recognized (0 to 9).
To interrogate the digit displayed on the second 7-Segment display send the
command get7seg2 to the LED Analyser. The LED Analyser will return the
digit displayed. Again, the LED Analyser will return the character X when the
displayed value is not recognized (0 to 9).
Note:- it is not necessary to send any capture commands prior to using the
get7seg1 or get7seg2 commands.
a
f
g
b
c
e
d
Figure 13: 7-Segment LED Display
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54
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Intensity Responses
100000
90000
80000
RELA TIVE IN TENSITY
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0
100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000
lx (X1000)
Figure 14: Relative Intensity vs LUX for the LED Analyser
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55
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Command Summary
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Busfree
Free the Daisy Chain Bus of the active Analyser
Busget####
Make Analyser #### active on the Daisy Chain Bus
BusC
All Analysers on the Daisy Chain to Auto Capture
BusC#
All Analysers on the Daisy Chain to Manual Capture
Capture
Capture LED Color and Intensity Data - Auto Range
Capture#
Capture LED Color and Intensity Data - Manual Range
Capture#PWM@@
Capture LED Color and Intensity Data PWM Mode
getRGBI##
Get RGB, Saturation and Intensity for a LED
getHSI##
Get Hue, Saturation and Intensity for a LED
getxy##
Get the xy Chromaticity values
getuv##
Get the u'v' Chromaticity values
getIntensity##
Get the Intensity for a LED
get7seg#
Read a 7 Segment Display
getSerial
Get the Serial Number of the Analyser
getVersion
Get the Firmware Revision of the Analyser
getHW
Get the Hardware Version of the Analyser
Setbaud
Set the baud rate of the Serial and USB Port
help
Command Summary Listing
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56
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Specifications
Part Number(s)
Feasa 20-F
Feasa 10-F
Feasa 6-F
LED Analyser with 20 Fibers
LED Analyser with 10 Fibers
LED Analyser with 6 Fibers
Physical
Dimensions 120mm x 54mm x 38mm (L x W x H)
Fiber Length 0.6m
Fiber Diameter 1.0mm
Fiber Core Diameter 0.5mm
Number of Fibers 6, 10, 20
Operating Temperature Range 00C to +500C
Electrical
Supply Voltage 5.0V
Supply Current 200 mA
USB 2.0 Interface, Serial RS232 Interface
Output Data Format RGB, HSI, XY, UV
Optical
Red Peak Efficiency Wavelength 615 nm
Green Peak Efficiency Wavelength 540 nm
Blue Peak Efficiency Wavelength 465 nm
Total Operating Wavelength Range 450 nm to 650 nm
Accuracy
White
Red (630nm)
Green (540nm)
Blue (630nm)
X=± 0.0015, Y = ± 0.0015
± 3nm
± 4nm
± 3nm
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57
FEASA LED ANALYSER
Warranty
1.
Feasa Enterprises Limited (herein referred to as Feasa) warrants Feasa hardware,
accessories and supplies against defects in materials and workmanship for the period of one
year. If Feasa receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, Feasa will, at its
option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. Replacement products
may be either new or like-new.
2.
Feasa warrants that Feasa software will not fail to execute its programming instructions,
for the period of one year, due to defects in material or workmanship when properly installed
and used.
If Feasa receives notice of defects during the warranty period, Feasa will replace software
media
which does not execute its programming instructions due to such defects.
3.
Feasa does not warrant that the operation of Feasa products will be uninterrupted or error
free.
If Feasa is unable, within a reasonable time, to repair or replace any product to a condition as
warranted, customer will be entitled to a refund of the purchase price upon prompt return of the
product to Feasa.
4.
Feasa products may contain remanufactured parts equivalent to new in performance or
may
have been subject to incidental use.
5.
The warranty period begins on the date of delivery.
6.
Warranty does not apply to defects resulting from:
(a) improper or inadequate maintenance or calibration,
(b) software, interfacing, parts or supplies not supplied by Feasa,
(c) unauthorized modification or misuse,
(d) operation outside the published environmental specifications for the product, or
(e) improper site preparation or maintenance.
7.
TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE ABOVE WARRANTIES ARE EXCLUSIVE AND
NO OTHER WARRANTY OR CONDITION, WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL, IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED AND FEASA SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF
MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
8.
TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT
ARE CUSTOMERʼS SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS INDICATED ABOVE, IN NO
EVENT WILL FEASA OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF DATA OR FOR DIRECT, SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING LOST PROFIT OR DATA), OR OTHER DAMAGE
WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE.
Back to Index
58
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