MSP 430 family
Computational hardware
 
Digital logic (CSE370/351)
 
 
 
Programmable logic devices (CSE370/352, CSE467)
 
 
 
Gates and flip-flops: glue logic, simple FSMs, registers
Two-level PLDs: FSMs, muxes, decoders
Field-programmable gate arrays: FSMs, basic data-paths
Mapping algorithms to hardware
Microprocessors (CSE378/352)
 
 
 
General-purpose computer
Instructions can implement complex control structures
Supports computations/manipulations of data in memory
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
1
Microprocessors
 
Arbitrary computations
 
 
 
 
Arbitrary control structures
Arbitrary data structures
Specify function at high-level and use compilers and debuggers
Microprocessors can lower hardware costs
 
If function requires too much logic when implemented with gates/FFs
 
 
 
If function does not require higher performance of customized logic
 
 
CSE 466
Operations are too complex, better broken down as instructions
Lots of data manipulation (memory)
Ever-increasing performance of processors puts more and more applications
in this category
Minimize the amount of external logic
Microcontrollers
2
1
Microprocessor basics
 
Composed of three parts
 
 
 
 
Data-path: data manipulation and storage
Control: determines sequence of actions executed in data-path
and interactions to be had with environment
Interface: signals seen by the environment of the processor
Instruction execution engine: fetch/execute cycle
 
 
Flow of control determined by modifications to program counter
Instruction classes:
 
 
 
CSE 466
Data: move, arithmetic and logical operations
Control: branch, loop, subroutine call
Interface: load, store from external memory
Microcontrollers
3
Microprocessor basics (cont’d)
 
Can implement arbitrary state machine with auxiliary
data-path
 
 
 
 
CSE 466
Control instructions implement state diagram
Registers and ALUs act as data storage and manipulation
Interaction with the environment through memory interface
How are individual signal wires sensed and controlled?
Microcontrollers
4
2
Microprocessor organization
 
Controller
 
 
 
Data-path
 
 
 
 
Inputs: from ALU (conditions), instruction read from memory
Outputs: select inputs for registers, ALU operations, read/write to memory
Register file to hold data
Arithmetic logic unit to manipulate data
Program counter (to implement relative jumps and increments)
Interface
 
 
Data to/from memory (address and data registers in data path)
Read/write signals to memory (from control)
control
source bus
register
destination bus
source bus
CSE 466
file
Microcontrollers
arithmetic m m
logic
a d
unit
r
r
5
General-purpose processor
 
 
 
Programmed by user
New applications are developed routinely
General-purpose
 
 
Must handle a wide ranging variety of applications
Interacts with environment through memory
 
 
 
 
CSE 466
All devices communicate through memory data
DMA operations between disk and I/O devices
Dual-ported memory (e.g., display screen)
Generally, oblivious to passage of time
Microcontrollers
6
3
Embedded processor
 
Typically programmed once by manufacturer of system
 
 
 
Executes a single program (or a limited suite) with few
parameters
Task-specific
 
 
Many systems allow firmware updates
Can be optimized for a specific application
Interacts with environment in many ways
 
 
 
 
Direct sensing and control of signal wires
Communication protocols to environment and other devices
Real-time interactions and constraints
Power-saving modes of operation to conserve battery power
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
7
Why embedded processors?
 
High overhead in building a general-purpose system
 
 
 
 
Storing/loading programs
Operating system manages running of programs and access to data
Shared system resources (e.g., system bus, large memory)
Many parts
 
 
 
Optimization opportunities
 
As much hardware as necessary for application
 
As much software as necessary for application
 
Can integrate processor, memory, and I/O devices on to a single chip
 
 
CSE 466
Communication through shared memory/bus
Each I/O device often requires its own separate hardware unit
Cheaper, portable, lower-power systems
Doesn’t require a complete OS, get a lot done with a smaller processor
Microcontrollers
8
4
Typical general-purpose architecture
CPU
Memory
Display
(with
dual-port
video RAM)
system bus
I/O
(serial line,
keyboard,
mouse)
Disk
Network
Interface
Sound
Interface
all the parts around the
processor are usually required
standard interfaces
CSE 466
9
Microcontrollers
Typical task-specific architecture
medium-speed
interactions
General
Purpose
I/O
Special
I/O
Device
Driver
Microcontroller
(CPU+mem+…)
ROM
RAM
Timers
Custom
Logic
high-speed
interactions
any of the parts around the
microcontroller are optional
standard interface
CSE 466
A/D-D/A
Conversion
low-speed
interactions
Microcontrollers
10
5
How does this change things?
 
Sense and control of environment
 
 
 
Measurement of time
 
 
 
Many applications require precise spacing of events in time
Reaction times to external stimuli may be constrained
Communication
 
 
 
CSE 466
Processor must be able to “read” and “write” individual wires
Controls I/O interfaces directly
Protocols must be implemented by processor
Integrate I/O device or emulate in software
Capability of using external device when necessary
Microcontrollers
11
Interactions with the environment
 
 
 
 
Basic processor only has address and data busses to memory
Inputs are read from memory
Outputs are written to memory
Thus, for a processor to sense/control signal wires in the
environment they must be made to appear as memory bits
 
CSE 466
How do we make wires look like memory?
Microcontrollers
12
6
Sensing external signals
 
 
Map external wire to a bit in the address space
of the processor
External register or latch buffers values coming
from environment
 
Map register into address space
 
Output enable (OE) to get value on to data bus
 
 
Decoder selects register for reading
Lets many registers use the same data bus
RD
WR
WAIT
Microprocessor
OE
to data bus
from address bus
read signal
OUT
ADDR
IN
DATA
CSE 466
decoder
from environment
13
Microcontrollers
Controlling external signals
 
 
Map external wire to a bit in the address space
of the processor
Connect output of memory-mapped register
to environment
 
Map register into address space
 
Input enable (EN) to take value from data bus
 
 
Microprocessor
Decoder selects register for writing (holds value indefinitely)
Lets many registers use the same data bus
RD
WR
WAIT
from address bus
write signal
decoder
OUT
ADDR
DATA
CSE 466
EN
from data bus
Microcontrollers
to environment
IN
14
7
Time and instruction execution
 
Keep track of detailed timing of each instruction's execution
 
 
 
 
 
Loops to implement delays
 
 
 
Highly dependent on code
Hard to use compilers
Not enough control over code generation
Interactions with caches/instruction-buffers
Keep track of time in counters
Keeps processor busy counting and not doing other useful things
Timer
 
 
 
CSE 466
Take differences between measurements at different points in code
Keeps running even if processor is idle to save power
An independent “co-processor” to main processor
Microcontrollers
15
Time measurement via parallel timers
 
Separate and parallel counting unit(s)
 
 
 
 
 
Co-processor to microprocessor
Does not require microprocessor intervention
May be a simple counter or a more featured real-time clock
Alarms can be set to generate interrupts
More interesting timer units
 
 
 
CSE 466
Self reloading timers for regular interrupts
Pre-scaling for measuring larger times
Started by external events
Microcontrollers
16
8
Input/output events
 
Input capture
 
 
 
Record time when input event occured
Can be used in later handling of event
Output compare
 
Set output event to happen at a point in the future
Reactive outputs
 
Processor can go on to do other things in the meantime
 
 
e.g., set output to happen a pre-defined time after some input
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
17
System bus based communication
 
 
 
 
 
 
Extend address/data bus outside of chip
Use specialized devices to implement communication protocol
Map devices and their registers to memory locations
Read/write data to receive/send buffers in shared memory or device
Poll registers for status of communication
Wait for interrupt from device on interesting events
 
 
CSE 466
Send completed
Receive occurred
Microcontrollers
18
9
Support for communication protocols
 
Built-in device drivers
 
For common communication protocols
 
Serial-line protocols most common as they require fewer pins
 
 
Serial-line controller
 
 
Special registers in memory space for interaction
May use timer unit(s) to generate timing events
 
 
 
e.g., RS232, IrDA, USB, Bluetooth, etc.
For spacing of bits on signal wire
For sampling rate
Increase level of integration
 
 
No external devices
May further eliminate need for shared memory or system bus
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
19
Microcontrollers
 
Embedded processor with much more integrated on
same chip
 
 
 
 
 
CSE 466
Processor core + co-processors + memory
ROM for program memory, RAM for data memory, special
registers to interface to outside world
Parallel I/O ports to sense and control wires
Timer units to measure time in various ways
Communication subsystems to permit direct links to other devices
Microcontrollers
20
10
Microcontrollers (cont’d)
 
Other features not usually found in
general-purpose CPUs
 
Expanded interrupt handling capabilities
 
 
 
 
More instructions for bit manipulations
 
 
Multiple interrupts with priority and selective enable/disable
Automatic saving of context before handling interrupt
Interrupt vectoring to quickly jump to handlers
Support operations on bits (signal wires) rather than just words
Integrated memory and support functions for cheaper
system cost
 
 
 
Built-in EEPROM, Flash, and/or RAM
DRAM controller to handle refresh
Page-mode support for faster block transfers
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
21
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
22
11
Block diagram of processor (Harvard)
 
Register transfer view of Harvard architecture
 
Separate busses for instruction memory and data memory
load
path
16
REG
16
AC
16
store
path
OP
N
rd wr
data
Data Memory
(16-bit words)
addr
16
Z
Control
FSM
16
IR
PC
data
Inst Memory
(8-bit words)
16
16
OP
addr
16
CSE 466
23
Microcontrollers
Block diagram of processor (Princeton)
 
Register transfer view of Princeton architecture
 
Single unified bus for instructions, data, and I/O
load
path
16
REG
16
AC
16
OP
N
rd wr
data
Data Memory
(16-bit words)
addr
8
Z
Control
FSM
store
path
MAR
16
IR
PC
16
16
OP
16
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
24
12
The MSP430: Introduction
MSP430: An Introduction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The MSP430 family
Technology Roadmap
Typical Applications
The MSP430 Documentation
MSP430 Architecture
MSP430 Devices
MSP430 RISC core
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
26
13
The Family
 
Broad family of TI’s 16-bit microcontrollers
 
 
 
from 1Kbytes ROM, 128 bytes RAM (approx. $1 )
to 256Kbytes ROM, 16Kbytes RAM ( $10)
Many subfamilies
 
 
 
 
MSP430x1xx: Flash/ ROM based MCUs offer 1.8V to 3.6V
operation, up to 60kB, 8MIPs with Basic Clock.
MSP430F2xx: 16 MHz. integrated on-chip oscillator,
internal pullup/pull-down resistors
MSP430x4xx: 120kB/ Flash/ ROM 8MIPS with FLL + SVS,
integrated LCD controller
MSP430x5xx: 25 MIPS, 1.8 to 3.6V, Power Management
Module for optimizing power consumption, 2x memory
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
27
Part numbering convention
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
28
14
MSP 430 Roadmap
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
29
MSP430 Typical Applications
Handheld Measurement
  Air Flow measurement
  Alcohol meter
  Barometer
  Data loggers
  Emission/Gas analyser
  Humidity measurement
  Temperature
measurement
  Weight scales
Medical Instruments
  Blood pressure meter
  Blood sugar meter
  Breath measurement
  EKG system
CSE 466
Utility Metering
Home environment
  Gas Meter
  Air conditioning
  Water Meter
  Control unit
  Heat Volume Counter
  Thermostat
  Heat Cost Allocation
  Boiler control
  Electricity Meter
  Shutter control
  Meter reading system (RF)   Irrigation system
  White goods
Sports equipment
(Washing machine,..)
  Altimeter
  Bike computer
Misc
  Diving watches
  Smart card reader
  Taxi meter
Security
  Smart Batteries
  Glass break sensors
  Door control
  Smoke/fire/gas detectors
Microcontrollers
30
15
An MSP430-Based System
Adj. Vol. Regul.
LCD
RS232
RS232
controller
Analog I/O
2-axes joystick
Switches
LEDs
Thermistor
µC
Keypad
CSE 466
31
Microcontrollers
Another MSP430-Based System
CC430F6137 MCU
3-Axis Accelerometer
Pressure & Altitude
Sensor
<1GHz RF
•  433, 868 & 915 MHz
Temperature
Sensor
2-Wire JTAG Access
96 segment LCD
Voltage & Battery
Sensor
Buzzer
CR2032 Battery
eZ430
Programmer
CSE 466
RF Access
Point
Microcontrollers
Chronos
Disassembly
Tool
32
16
Chronos | Teardown
10/4/10
CSE 466
33
Microcontrollers
CC430 | Low-Power RF + Ultra-Low Power MCU
MSP430™ Microcontroller
• Industry’s lowest power MCU
• 16-bit RISC architecture
• 27 MHz processor
• High-performance analog
• Sensor interface
CC1101 RF Transceiver SoC
• High sensitivity
• Low current consumption
• Excellent blocking performance
• Flexible data rate & modulation format
Intelligent Peripherals
• 100 nA comparator
• 8ch 12-bit ADC offering 200-ksps
• 96 segment LCD controller
• 128-bit AES security encryption/
decryption coprocessor
64QFN Pin Package
• 9.1 mm x 9.1 mm area
34
17
MSP430 Documentation
 
MSP430 home page (TI)
 
 
User’s manual (MSP430x2xx Family)
 
 
http://www.ti.com/litv/pdf/slau144e
Datasheet
 
 
www.ti.com/msp430
http://www.ti.com/lit/gpn/msp430f2013
Chronos:
 
CSE 466
http://www.ti.com/lit/pdf/slau292
Microcontrollers
35
MSP 430 Modular Architecture
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
36
18
CPU Introduction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RISC architecture with 27 instructions and 7 addressing modes.
Orthogonal architecture with every instruction usable with every
addressing mode.
Full register access including program counter, status registers, and
stack pointer.
Single-cycle register operations.
Large 16-bit register file reduces fetches to memory.
16-bit address bus allows direct access and branching throughout
entire memory range.
16-bit data bus allows direct manipulation of word-wide arguments.
Constant generator provides six most used immediate values and
reduces code size.
Direct memory-to-memory transfers without intermediate register
holding.
Word and byte addressing and instruction formats.
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
37
MSP430 16-bit RISC
 
 
 
 
 
 
CSE 466
Large 16-bit register file
eliminates single
accumulator bottleneck
High-bandwidth 16-bit data
and address bus with no
paging
RISC architecture with 27
instructions and 7
addressing modes
Single-cycle register
operations with full-access
Direct memory-memory
transfer designed for
modern programming
Compact silicon 30%
smaller than an ‘8051 saves
power and cost
Microcontrollers
38
19
CPU Registers
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
39
Registers: PC (R0)
 
 
Each instruction uses
an even number of bytes (2, 4, or 6)
PC is word aligned (the LSB is 0)
MOV #LABEL,PC ; Branch to address LABEL
MOV LABEL,PC ; Branch to address contained in LABEL
MOV @R14,PC ; Branch indirect, indirect R14
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
40
20
Registers: SP (R1)
 
 
 
Stack pointer for return addresses of subroutines
and interrupts
SP is word aligned (the LSB is 0)
Pre-decrement/post-increment scheme
MOV 2(SP),R6 ; Item I2 –> R6
MOV R7,0(SP) ; Overwrite TOS with R7
PUSH #0123h ; Put 0123h onto TOS
POP R8 ; R8 = 0123h
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
41
Registers: SR (R2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CSE 466
C: SR(0)
Z: SR(1)
N: SR(2)
GIE (Global interrupt enable): SR(3)
CPUOff: SR(4)
OSCOff: SR(5)
SCG1, SCG0: SR(7), SR(6)
V: SR(8)
Microcontrollers
42
21
Status bits
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
43
Constant Generators
 
As – source register addressing mode in the instruction
word
CPE/EE 421/521 Microcomputers
44
22
CISC / RISC Instruction Set
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
45
27 Core RISC Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
46
23
Emulated Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
47
51 Total Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
48
24
Double operand instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
49
Single Operand Instruction
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
50
25
Jump Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
51
3 Instruction Formats
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
52
26
Addressing Modes
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
53
Register Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
54
27
Register-Indexed Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
55
Symbolic Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
56
28
Absolute Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
57
Register Indirect Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
58
29
Register Indirect
Autoincrement Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
59
Immediate Addressing Mode
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
60
30
Code Reduction Effect of
Constant Generator
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
61
Machine Cycles for Format I Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
62
31
Machine Cycles for
Format II/III Instructions
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
63
MSP430 Memory Model
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
64
32
Memory Organization
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
65
MSP 430 Architecture: A Closer Look
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
66
33
MSPx430x14x Architecture
64 TQFP (The The Thin Quad Flat Pack package
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
67
Microcontrollers
68
Basic Clock System
Basic Clock Module
provides the clocks for the
MSP430 devices
CSE 466
34
Watchdog Timer
WDT module performs a controlled
system restart after a software
problem occurs
•  Can serve as an interval timer
(generates interrupts)
•  WDT Control register is
password protected
•  Note: Powers-up active
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
69
Microcontrollers
70
Timer_A
Timer_A is a 16-bit timer/counter
with three capture/compare
registers
•  Capture external signals
•  Compare PWM mode
•  SCCI latch for
asynchronous
communication
CSE 466
35
Comparator_A
Comparator_A is an analog voltage
comparator
•  Supports precision slope
analog-to-digital
conversions
•  Supply voltage
supervision, and
•  Monitoring of external
analog signals.
CSE 466
71
Microcontrollers
Digital I/O
Independently programmable individual
I/Os
Function Select Register PxSEL
yes
yes
yes
no
Interrupt Enable Register PxIE
yes
no
Interrupt Flag Register PxIFG
yes
no
Direction Register PxDIR
yes
yes
Output Register PxOUT
yes
yes
yes
yes
•  Each has 8 I/O pins
•  P1 and P2 pins can be
configured to assert an
interrupt request
CSE 466
Port3
…
Port6
Interrupt Edge Select Register PxIES
•  Up to 6 ports (P1 – P6)
•  Each pin can be
configured as input or
output
Port1
Port2
Input Register PxIN
P1.
P2.
P3.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
P4.
P5.
P6.
Microcontrollers
72
36
ADC12
High-performance 12-bit analog-todigital converter
•  More than 200 Ksamples/sec
•  Programmable sample&
hold
•  8 external input channels
•  Internal storage
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
73
USART Serial Port
The universal synchronous/ asynchronous
receive/transmit (USART) peripheral interface
supports two serial modes with
one hardware module
•  UART or SPI (Synchronous
Peripheral Interface) modes
•  Double-buffered
•  Baud-rate generator
CSE 466
Microcontrollers
74
37
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