Western Star Maintenance Manual

Western Star Maintenance Manual
®
WESTERN STAR
Maintenance Manual
STI-445-6
A24-01243-000
WESTERN STAR MAINTENANCE MANUAL
Models: 4700
4800
4900
5700
5900
6900
STI-445-6 (12/15)
Models
Models
Models
Models
Models
Models
Published by
Daimler Trucks North America LLC
4747 N. Channel Ave.
Portland, OR 97217
Printed in U.S.A.
Foreword
When performed on a regular basis, lubricating the parts of your vehicle is the least costly way of
obtaining safe and reliable vehicle operation. Added benefits and savings occur when you check that
the engine, undercarriage, and noise emission control parts are in good working order during
lubrication.
IMPORTANT: The maintenance operations in this manual are not all-inclusive. Also refer to
other component and body manufacturers’ instructions for specific inspection and maintenance instructions.
Perform the operations in this maintenance manual at scheduled intervals based upon distance
traveled or hours of operation. Perform daily, pretrip inspection and maintenance as outlined in the
Western Star Driver’s Manual.
IMPORTANT: Descriptions and specifications in this manual were in effect at the time of
printing. Western Star Trucks reserves the right to discontinue models and to change
specifications or design at any time without notice and without incurring obligation.
Descriptions and specifications contained in this publication provide no warranty, expressed
or implied, and are subject to revision and editions without notice.
Refer to www.Daimler-TrucksNorthAmerica.com and www.WesternStarTrucks.com for more
information, or contact Daimler Trucks North America LLC at the address below.
Environmental Concerns and Recommendations
Whenever you see instructions in this manual to discard materials, you should attempt to reclaim and
recycle them. To preserve our environment, follow appropriate environmental rules and regulations
when disposing of materials.
NOTICE: Parts Replacement Considerations
Do not replace suspension, axle, or steering parts (such as springs, wheels, hubs, and steering gears)
with used parts. Used parts may have been subjected to collisions or improper use and have
undetected structural damage.
© 2002–2016 Daimler Trucks North America LLC
All rights reserved. No part of this publication, in whole or in part, may be translated, reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Daimler Trucks North
America LLC. Daimler Trucks North America LLC is a Daimler company.
Daimler Trucks North America LLC
Service Systems and Documentation (CVI-SSD)
P.O. Box 3849
Portland, OR 97208–3849
Introduction
Descriptions of Service Publications
Daimler Trucks North America LLC distributes the following major service publications in paper and electronic
(via ServicePro®) formats.
Workshop/Service
Manual
Workshop/service manuals contain service and repair information for all vehicle
systems and components, except for major components such as engines, transmissions, and rear axles. Each workshop/service manual section is divided into
subjects that can include general information, principles of operation, removal,
disassembly, assembly, installation, and specifications.
Maintenance Manual
Maintenance manuals contain routine maintenance procedures and intervals for
vehicle components and systems. They have information such as lubrication
procedures and tables, fluid replacement procedures, fluid capacities, specifications, and procedures for adjustments and for checking the tightness of fasteners. Maintenance manuals do not contain detailed repair or service information.
Driver’s/Operator’s
Manual
Driver’s/operator’s manuals contain information needed to enhance the driver’s
understanding of how to operate and care for the vehicle and its components.
Each manual contains a chapter that covers pre-trip and post-trip inspections,
and daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance of vehicle components.
Driver’s/operator’s manuals do not contain detailed repair or service information.
Service Bulletins
Service bulletins provide the latest service tips, field repairs, product improvements, and related information. Some service bulletins are updates to information in the workshop/service manual. These bulletins take precedence over
workshop/service manual information, until the latter is updated; at that time, the
bulletin is usually canceled. The service bulletins manual is available only to
dealers. When doing service work on a vehicle system or part, check for a valid
service bulletin for the latest information on the subject.
IMPORTANT: Before using a particular service bulletin, check the current
service bulletin validity list to be sure the bulletin is valid.
Parts Technical Bulletins
Parts technical bulletins provide information on parts. These bulletins contain
lists of parts and BOMs needed to do replacement and upgrade procedures.
Web-based repair, service, and parts documentation can be accessed using the following applications on the
AccessFreightliner.com website.
ServicePro
ServicePro® provides Web-based access to the most up-to-date versions of the
publications listed above. In addition, the Service Solutions feature provides diagnostic assistance with Symptoms Search, by connecting to a large knowledge
base gathered from technicians and service personnel. Search results for both
documents and service solutions can be narrowed by initially entering vehicle
identification data.
PartsPro
PartsPro® is an electronic parts catalog system, showing the specified vehicle’s
build record.
EZWiring
EZWiring™ makes Western Star, Freightliner, Freightliner Custom Chassis Corporation, Sterling, and Thomas Built Buses products’ wiring drawings and floating pin lists available online for viewing and printing. EZWiring can also be accessed from within PartsPro.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, March 2011
I–1
Introduction
Descriptions of Service Publications
Warranty-related service information available on the AccessFreightliner.com website includes the following
documentation.
Recall Campaigns
Recall campaigns cover situations that involve service work or replacement of
parts in connection with a recall notice. These campaigns pertain to matters of
vehicle safety. All recall campaigns are distributed to dealers; customers receive
notices that apply to their vehicles.
Field Service Campaigns
Field service campaigns are concerned with non-safety-related service work or
replacement of parts. All field service campaigns are distributed to dealers; customers receive notices that apply to their vehicles.
I–2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, March 2011
Introduction
Page Description
For an example of a Western Star Maintenance Manual page, see Fig. 1.
A
B
C
35
Rear Axle
35−01 Drive Axle Lubricant
Level Check
NOTICE
Failure to keep the rear axle filled to the proper
level with the recommended lubricant can result in
rear axle damage.
1.
2
Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. If the vehicle has just been driven, allow a few
minutes for the lubricant to settle.
A
3. Clean the oil fill hole plug (located in the carrier
1
or the side of the axle housing) and the area sur−
rounding it, then remove the plug. For Freight−
liner axles, see Fig. 1 ; for Meritor axles, see Fig.
2 ; for Dana Spicer axles, see Fig. 3.
NOTE: Some Freightliner and Meritor axles
have a small tapped and plugged hole located
below the housing oil fill hole. This smaller hole
is for the lubricant temperature sensor only and
must not be used as a fill or level hole.
2
IMPORTANT: A lubricant level close enough to
be seen or touched is not sufficient. It must be
level with the bottom of the fill hole.
4. Check the level of the lubricant. The lubricant
must be level with the bottom of the oil fill hole
(see Fig. 4). If low, add lubricant.
For Freightliner axles, see Table 1 for approved
axle lubricants and lubricant capacities.
For Meritor axles, see Table 2 for approved axle
lubricants, and Table 3 and Table 4 for axle ca−
pacities.
For Dana Spicer axles, see Table 5 for approved
axle lubricants, and Table 6 for axle capacities.
5. Install the oil fill hole plug and tighten it per the
following:
For Freightliner axles: 37 lbf·ft (50 N·m).
For Meritor axles: 35 lbf·ft (47 N·m).
For Dana Spicer axles: 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
4
3
B
12/07/2010
A.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
f350509a
Front View
Rear View
Axle Breather
Breather Hose
Temperature Sensor Port
Oil Fill Plug
Fig. 1, Freightliner Tandem Axle (forward axle shown)
the possibility of dirt and road grime entering the
assembly. Remove the plug, and check the oil
level. If low, add fluid using the same lubricant
recommended for the drive axle.
6. On non−drive axles using oil−lubricated wheel
bearings, clean the hub cap and plug to minimize
Western Star Maintenance Manual, November 2011
D
35/1
E
09/13/2011
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
f020178
Maintenance Operation Number consists of the Group Number followed by the Sequence Number
Group Title
Group Number
Release Date
Group Number/Page Number
Fig. 1, Example Page
Western Star Maintenance Manual, March 2011
I–3
Introduction
Maintenance Manual Contents
Group No.
Group Title
00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Information
01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine
09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air Intake
13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air Compressor
15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternators and Starters
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engine Cooling/Radiator
25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clutch
26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission
31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame and Frame Components
32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension
33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Front Axle
35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rear Axle
40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wheels and Tires
41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Driveline
42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brakes
46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steering
47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel
49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhaust
60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cab
72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Doors
83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heater and Air Conditioner
88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hood, Grille, and Cab Fenders
I–4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, March 2011
General Information
00
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Determining Scheduled Maintenance Intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–01
Initial Maintenance (IM) Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–05
Lubrication and Fluid Level Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–06
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–07
M2 Maintenance Interval Operations Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–08
M3 Maintenance Interval Operations Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–09
M4 Maintenance Interval Operations Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–10
Maintenance Operation Sets Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–04
Maintenance Service Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–02
Noise Emission Controls Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–11
Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–03
Verification of Inspections Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00–12
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Determining Scheduled Maintenance Intervals: 00–01
Determining Scheduled
Maintenance Intervals
Performing regular maintenance will help ensure that
your Western Star vehicle delivers safe, reliable service and optimum performance for years to come.
Failure to follow a regular maintenance program can
result in inefficient operation and unscheduled downtime.
To determine the correct maintenance intervals for
your vehicle, you must first determine the type of service or conditions in which the vehicle will be operating. Generally, most vehicles operate under conditions that fall within one of the two types of service
described. Before placing your new vehicle in service, determine the type of service (Service Schedule
I or II) that applies to the intended use of the vehicle.
After determining the vehicle’s type of service, refer
to the Maintenance Service Table (00–02) or the Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables (00–03) to determine how often maintenance should be performed.
km) annually with minimal city or stop-and-go operation. Examples of Service Schedule II usage are:
• regional delivery that is mostly freeway miles
• interstate transport
• any highway operation with high annual mileage
NOTE: Maintenance instructions in this manual
are based on average vehicle use and normal
operating conditions. Unusual vehicle operating
conditions may require service at more frequent
intervals.
When the vehicle reaches the distance given for a
maintenance interval, see the applicable Maintenance Interval Operations Table for a list of the maintenance operations to be performed at that maintenance interval. Use the maintenance operation
numbers to find detailed instructions in the manual
on each operation.
Types of Service
Service Schedule I (severe service) applies to vehicles that travel less than 60,000 miles (100 000
km) annually or that operate under severe conditions.
Examples of Service Schedule I usage are:
• operation on extremely poor roads or where
there is heavy dust accumulation
• constant exposure to extreme hot, cold, salt air,
or other extreme climates
• frequent short-distance travel
• construction-site operation
• city operation such as fire truck or garbage
truck
• logging
• farm operation
Service Schedule II (long-haul transport) applies to
vehicles that travel more than 60,000 miles (100 000
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/1
00
General Information
Maintenance Service Table: 00–02
Maintenance Service Schedule Table
Service Schedule
Maintenance Interval Operation
Miles
km
Hours
first
1000
1600
100
Maintenance 1 (M1)
every
1000
1600
100
Maintenance 2 (M2)
every
5000
8000
500
Maintenance 3 (M3)
every
10,000
16 000
1000
Maintenance 4 (M4)
every
20,000
32 000
2000
Initial Maintenance (IM)
Service Schedule I* —
(severe service)
vehicles that travel up to 60,000
miles (100 000 km) annually
Initial Maintenance (IM)
Service Schedule II† —
(long-haul transport)
vehicles that travel over 60,000
miles (100 000 km) annually
Maintenance Intervals
Frequency
first
12,500
20 000
Maintenance 1 (M1)
every
12,500
20 000
Maintenance 2 (M2)
every
50,000
80 000
Maintenance 3 (M3)
every
100,000
160 000
Maintenance 4 (M4)
every
300,000
480 000
—
* For Service Schedule I (severe service) vehicles equipped with an hourmeter, use maintenance intervals based on hours of operation rather than distance
traveled.
† Use Service Schedule I (severe service) maintenance intervals for vehicles that operate under severe conditions, such as extremely poor roads, heavy dust
accumulation, extreme climate, frequent short distance travel, construction-site operation, logging, city operation, or farm operation.
Table 1, Maintenance Service Schedule Table
00/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables: 00–03
1st through 34th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
Maint.
No.
Required Maintenance Operation
Interval
1st
Service Date
Service I
Miles
km
Hours
Initial Maintenance (IM)/M1
1000
1600
100
2nd
M1
2000
3200
200
3rd
M1
3000
4800
300
4th
M1
4000
6400
400
5th
M1 and M2
5000
8000
500
6th
M1
6000
9600
600
7th
M1
7000
11 200
700
8th
M1
8000
12 800
800
9th
M1
9000
14 400
900
10th
M1, M2, and M3
10,000
16 000
1000
11th
M1
11,000
17 600
1100
12th
M1
12,000
19 200
1200
13th
M1
13,000
20 800
1300
14th
M1
14,000
22 400
1400
15th
M1 and M2
15,000
24 000
1500
16th
M1
16,000
25 600
1600
17th
M1
17,000
27 200
1700
18th
M1
18,000
28 800
1800
19th
M1
19,000
30 400
1900
20th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
20,000
32 000
2000
21st
M1
21,000
33 600
2100
22nd
M1
22,000
35 200
2200
23rd
M1
23,000
36 800
2300
24th
M1
24,000
38 400
2400
25th
M1 and M2
25,000
40 000
2500
26th
M1
26,000
41 600
2600
27th
M1
27,000
43 200
2700
28th
M1
28,000
44 800
2800
29th
M1
29,000
46 400
2900
30th
M1, M2, and M3
30,000
48 000
3000
31st
M1
31,000
49 600
3100
32nd
M1
32,000
51 200
3200
33rd
M1
33,000
52 800
3300
34th
M1
34,000
54 400
3400
Table 2, 1st through 34th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/3
00
General Information
Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables: 00–03
35th through 68th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
Maint.
No.
Required Maintenance Operation
Interval
35th
Service Date
Service I
Miles
km
Hours
M1 and M2
35,000
56 000
3500
36th
M1
36,000
57 600
3600
37th
M1
37,000
59 200
3700
38th
M1
38,000
60 800
3800
39th
M1
39,000
62 400
3900
40th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
40,000
64 000
4000
41st
M1
41,000
65 600
4100
42nd
M1
42,000
67 200
4200
43rd
M1
43,000
68 800
4300
44th
M1
44,000
70 400
4400
45th
M1 and M2
45,000
72 000
4500
46th
M1
46,000
73 600
4600
47th
M1
47,000
75 200
4700
48th
M1
48,000
76 800
4800
49th
M1
49,000
78 400
4900
50th
M1, M2, and M3
50,000
80 000
5000
51st
M1
51,000
82 000
5100
52nd
M1
52,000
83 700
5200
53rd
M1
53,000
85 300
5300
54th
M1
54,000
86 900
5400
55th
M1 and M2
55,000
88 500
5500
56th
M1
56,000
90 100
5600
57th
M1
57,000
91 700
5700
58th
M1
58,000
93 300
5800
59th
M1
59,000
94 900
5900
60th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
60,000
96 500
6000
61st
M1
61,000
98 200
6100
62nd
M1
62,000
99 800
6200
63rd
M1
63,000
101 400
6300
64th
M1
64,000
103 000
6400
65th
M1 and M2
65,000
104 600
6500
66th
M1
66,000
106 200
6600
67th
M1
67,000
107 800
6700
68th
M1
68,000
109 400
6800
Table 3, 35th through 68th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
00/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables: 00–03
69th through 100th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
Service I
Maint.
No.
Required Maintenance Operation
Interval
69th
M1
70th
M1, M2, and M3
70,000
112 700
7000
71st
M1
71,000
114 300
7100
72nd
M1
72,000
115 900
7200
73rd
M1
73,000
117 500
7300
74th
M1
74,000
119 100
7400
75th
M1 and M2
75,000
120 700
7500
76th
M1
76,000
122 300
7600
77th
M1
77,000
123 900
7700
78th
M1
78,000
125 500
7800
79th
M1
79,000
127 100
7900
80th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
80,000
128 700
8000
81st
M1
81,000
130 400
8100
Service Date
Miles
km
Hours
69,000
111 000
6900
82nd
M1
82,000
132 000
8200
83rd
M1
83,000
134 000
8300
84th
M1
84,000
135 200
8400
85th
M1 and M2
85,000
137 000
8500
86th
M1
86,000
138 400
8600
87th
M1
87,000
140 000
8700
88th
M1
88,000
141 600
8800
89th
M1
89,000
143 200
8900
90th
M1, M2, and M3
90,000
144 800
9000
91st
M1
91,000
146 500
9100
92nd
M1
92,000
148 100
9200
93rd
M1
93,000
150 000
9300
94th
M1
94,000
151 300
9400
95th
M1 and M2
95,000
153 000
9500
96th
M1
96,000
155 000
9600
97th
M1
97,000
156 100
9700
98th
M1
98,000
157 700
9800
99th
M1
99,000
159 300
9900
100th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
100,000
160 900
10,000
Table 4, 69th through 100th Maintenance for Service Schedule I Vehicles
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
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00
General Information
Vehicle Maintenance Schedule Tables: 00–03
1st through 24th Maintenance for Service Schedule II Vehicles
Maint.
No.
Required Maintenance Operation Interval
Service Date
Miles
km
1st
Initial Maintenance (IM)/M1
12,500
20 000
2nd
M1
25,000
40 000
3rd
M1
37,000
60 000
4th
M1 and M2
50,000
80 000
5th
M1
62,000
100 000
6th
M1
75,000
120 000
7th
M1
87,000
140 000
8th
M1, M2, and M3
100,000
160 000
9th
M1
112,000
180 000
10th
M1
125,000
200 000
11th
M1
137,000
220 000
12th
M1 and M2
150,000
240 000
13th
M1
162,000
260 000
14th
M1
175,000
280 000
15th
M1
187,000
300 000
16th
M1, M2, and M3
200,000
320 000
17th
M1
212,000
340 000
18th
M1
225,000
360 000
19th
M1
237,000
380 000
20th
M1 and M2
250,000
400 000
21st
M1
262,000
420 000
22nd
M1
275,000
440 000
23rd
M1
287,000
460 000
24th
M1, M2, M3, and M4
300,000
480 000
Table 5, 1st through 24th Maintenance for Service Schedule II Vehicles
00/6
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Maintenance Operation Sets Table: 00–04
IMPORTANT: At each Maintenance Operation Set, in
addition to the maintenance operations listed here,
perform all daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance
operations listed in the "Pretrip and Post-Trip Inspection and Maintenance" chapter of the Western Star
Driver’s Manual.
NOTE: Maintenance operations appearing in italics in
this table are for noise emission control components.
Numbers in this table are reference numbers matching those in the text of this manual.
Maintenance Operation Sets for Groups 00 through 88
Maint. Oper.
No.
Operation Description
01–01
Engine Noise Panel Inspection
01–02
Engine Belt Inspection
01–03
Packbrake® Inspection and Maintenance
01–04
Maintenance Interval
IM M1 M2 M3 M4
•
•
•
•
•
•
Engine-Support Fasteners Check
•
•
09–01
Intake Piping Inspection
•
•
09–02
Air Cleaner Element Inspection and Replacement*
•
•
09–03
Charge Air Cooler Inspection
•
•
13–01
Air Compressor Inspection
•
•
•
15–01
Alternator and Starter Check
•
•
•
15–02
Battery Check
•
20–01
Coolant Inspection
•
20–02
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cooling System Inspection
•
•
•
20–03
Pressure/Filler Cap Test
•
•
•
20–04
Cooling System Pressure-Flush
25–01
Clutch Release Bearing Lubrication†
•
•
•
•
•
25–02
Clutch Release Cross-Shaft Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
25–03
Sleeve Assembly Bronze Bushing Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
25–04
Fluid Level Check, Hydraulic Clutch Control
•
•
•
•
25–05
Fluid Change, Hydraulic Clutch Control
26–01
Transmission Fluid Level Inspection
•
26–02
Manual Transmission Fluid Change
26–03
Manual Transmission Air Filter/Regulator Check, and Cleaning or Replacement
26–04
ESS Transmission Filter and Boot Inspection
•
26–05
Transmission Inspection
•
26–06
Allison and Eaton Fuller Transmission Breather Check
26–07
Allison Transmission Fluid and Filter Change‡
31–01
Fifth Wheel Inspection
•
31–02
Fifth Wheel Lubrication
•
31–03
Holland Fifth Wheel Sliding Mechanism Inspection
31–04
Frame Fastener Torque Check
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
00/7
00
General Information
Maintenance Operation Sets Table: 00–04
Maintenance Operation Sets for Groups 00 through 88
Maint. Oper.
No.
Operation Description
Maintenance Interval
IM M1 M2 M3 M4
31–05
Trailer Electrical Connector Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
31–06
Premier 690 Coupling Inspection
•
•
32–01
Suspension Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
32–02
Suspension Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
32–03
Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check
•
33–01
Knuckle Pin Lubrication§
•
•
•
•
33–02
Tie Rod Lubrication§
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
33–03
Tie Rod Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
33–04
Front Axle Wheel Bearing Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
33–05
33–06
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check
•
•
•
•
•
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Change
•
•
•
33–07
Wheel Alignment Check
•
35–01
Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check
•
•
•
•
•
35–02
Two-Speed-Axle Shift Unit Lubricant Level Check
•
•
35–03
Drive Axle Breather Check
•
•
•
•
•
35–04
Drive Axle Lubricant Change
•
•
•
40–01
Wheel Nut and Rim Nut Torque Check
•
•
•
•
•
40–02
Tire Check
•
•
•
•
•
41–01
Driveline Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
41–02
Driveline Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
42–02
Air Dryer Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
42–03
Air Dryer Desiccant Replacement¶
•
•
•
•
42–04
Alcohol Evaporator Cleaning and Inspection
•
•
42–05
Camshaft Bracket Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
42–06
Slack Adjuster Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
42–07
Brake Inspection
•
42–08
Versajust Slack Adjuster Inspection and Lubrication**
46–01
Drag Link Inspection
46–02
Drag Link Lubrication
46–03
Power Steering Fluid and Filter Change
46–04
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power Steering Fluid Level Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
46–05
Power Steering Gear Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
46–06
Steering Shaft Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
47–01
Fuel Filter Replacement
•
•
•
•
•
47–02
Fuel Separator Sight Bowl Cleaning and Element Replacement
•
•
•
00/8
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Maintenance Operation Sets Table: 00–04
Maintenance Operation Sets for Groups 00 through 88
Maint. Oper.
No.
Operation Description
Maintenance Interval
IM M1 M2 M3 M4
47–03
Fuel Tank Band Nut Tightening
•
•
•
•
•
49–01
Exhaust System Inspection
•
•
•
•
•
49–02
CAT CGI Bellows Replacement
60–01
Cab Suspension Inspection
60–02
Mirror Folding Check
60–03
Aerodynamic Component Inspection
72–01
Door Seal, Door Latch, and Door Hinge Lubrication
83–01
Air Conditioner Inspection
83–02
HVAC Air Filter Cleaning and Replacement
88–01
Hood Rear Support Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
* For 5700 models, complete this procedure every 300,000 miles (485 000 km).
† For Eaton Easy Pedal Advantage clutches, the interval is 50,000 miles (161 000 km) for linehaul applications.
‡ Intervals vary by transmission model, application, lubricant, and use. Contact Allison to determine the precise interval(s) for the transmission model and lubri-
cant used on the vehicle.
§ For Detroit axles, complete this procedure once a year or at the following applicable interval, whichever comes first: every 5000 miles (8000 km) for Schedule
I vehicles; or every 100,000 miles (161 000 km) for Schedule II vehicles.
¶ If equipped with an oil-coalescing desiccant cartridge, replace the cartridge once a year, regardless of mileage. Otherwise use the M4 maintenance interval.
** Complete this procedure every 25,000 miles (40 225 km), 3 months, or 500 operating hours, whichever comes first.
Table 6, Maintenance Operation Sets for Groups 00 through 88
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/9
00
General Information
Initial Maintenance (IM) Operations: 00–05
IMPORTANT: After performing all operations listed in
this table, perform all daily and weekly maintenance
operations listed in the "Pretrip Inspection and Daily
Maintenance" chapter of the Western Star Driver’s
Manual.
NOTE: Numbers in this table are reference numbers
matching those in the text of this manual.
Initial Maintenance (IM) Operations
Maintenance
Operation Number
Operation Description
Check
00–07
MI Maintenance Interval Operations Table
15–01
Alternator and Starter Check
15–02
Battery Check
26–02
Manual Transmission Fluid Change
26–03
Manual Transmission Air Filter/Regulator Check, and Cleaning or Replacement
31–04
Frame Fastener Torque Check
31–06
Premier 690 Coupling Inspection
32–03
Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check
33–06
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Change
33–07
Wheel Alignment Check
35–04
Drive Axle Lubricant Change
Table 7, Initial Maintenance (IM) Operations for all Service Schedules
00/10
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Lubrication and Fluid Level Check: 00–06
Table 8 summarizes all operations that must be performed to complete Lubrication and Fluid Level
Check Operation 00–06 called for as an M1 maintenance interval for Service Schedule I and II vehicles.
Maintenance operation numbers given in the table
are reference numbers used to help you find detailed
instructions in the manual on the lubrication or fluid
checking.
Maintenance Operation 00–06, Lubrication and Fluid Level Check for Service
Maintenance
Operation No.
Operation Description
25–01
Clutch Release Bearing Lubrication*
25–02
Clutch Release Cross-Shaft Lubrication
25–03
Sleeve Assembly Bronze Bushing Lubrication
25–04
Fluid Level Check, Hydraulic Clutch Control
26–01
Transmission Fluid Level Inspection
31–02
Fifth Wheel Lubrication
31–05
Trailer Electrical Connector Lubrication
32–02
Suspension Lubrication
33–01
Knuckle Pin Lubrication†
33–02
Tie Rod Lubrication†
33–04
Front Axle Wheel Bearing Lubrication
33–05
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check
35–01
Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check
41–02
Driveline Lubrication
42–05
Camshaft Bracket Lubrication
42–06
Slack Adjuster Lubrication
46–02
Drag Link Lubrication
46–04
Power Steering Fluid Level Inspection
46–05
Power Steering Gear Lubrication
46–06
Steering Shaft Lubrication
72–01
Door Seal, Door Latch, and Door Hinge Lubrication
88–01
Hood Rear Support Lubrication
Check
* For Eaton Easy Pedal Advantage clutches, the interval is 50,000 miles (161 000 km) for linehaul applications.
† For Detroit axles, complete this procedure once a year or at the following applicable interval, whichever comes first: every 5000 miles (8000 km) for Schedule
I vehicles; or every 100,000 miles (161 000 km) for Schedule II vehicles.
Table 8, Maintenance Operation 00-06, Lubrication and Fluid Level Check for Service Schedules I and II
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/11
00
General Information
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations Table: 00–07
The M1 Maintenance Interval Operations table lists
all maintenance operations that are to be performed
at the M1 maintenance interval. Maintenance operation numbers are reference numbers used to help
you find detailed instructions in this manual on the
maintenance operations to be performed.
IMPORTANT: After performing all operations listed in
this table, perform all daily, weekly, and monthly
maintenance operations listed in the "Pretrip and
Post-Trip Inspections and Maintenance" chapter of
the Western Star® Driver’s Manual.
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Maintenance
Operation Number
Operation Description
Check
00–06
Lubrication and Fluid Level Check
13–01
Air Compressor Inspection
20–01
Coolant Inspection
26–06
Allison and Eaton Fuller Transmission Breather Check
31–01
Fifth Wheel Inspection
31–06
Premier 690 Coupling Inspection
32–01
Suspension Inspection
33–03
Tie Rod Inspection
35–03
Drive Axle Breather Check
40–01
Wheel Nut and Rim Nut Torque Check
40–02
Tire Check
41–01
Driveline Inspection
42–02
Air Dryer Inspection
42–03
Air Dryer Desiccant Replacement (with an oil-coalescing desiccant cartridge)*
42–07
Brake Inspection
42–08
Versajust Slack Adjuster Inspection and Lubrication†
46–01
Drag Link Inspection
47–01
Fuel Filter Replacement
47–02
Fuel Tank Band Nut Tightening
49–01
Exhaust System Inspection
60–03
Aerodynamic Component Inspection
83–02
HVAC Air Filter Cleaning and Replacement
* If equipped with an oil-coalescing desiccant cartridge, replace the cartridge once a year, regardless of mileage. Otherwise use the M4 maintenance interval.
† Complete this procedure every 25,000 miles (40 225 km), 3 months, or 500 operating hours, whichever comes first.
Table 9, MI Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
00/12
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
M2 Maintenance Interval Operations Table: 00–08
The M2 Maintenance Interval Operations table lists
all maintenance operations that are to be performed
at the M2 maintenance interval. Maintenance operation numbers are reference numbers used to help
you find detailed instructions in this manual on the
maintenance operations to be performed. Perform all
M1 maintenance interval operations at the M2 maintenance interval.
NOTE: Maintenance operations appearing in italics in
this table are for noise emission control components.
M2 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Maintenance
Operation Number
Operation Description
00–07
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
01–03
Pacbrake® Inspection and Maintenance
20–02
Cooling System Inspection
20–03
Pressure/Filler Cap Test
26–02
Manual Transmission Fluid Change
26–03
Manual Transmission Air Filter/Regulator Check, and Cleaning or Replacement
26–07
Allison Transmission Fluid and Filter Change*
31–03
Holland Fifth Wheel Sliding Mechanism Inspection
46–03
Power Steering Fluid and Filter Change
47–02
Fuel Separator Sight Bowl Cleaning and Element Replacement
60–01
Cab Suspension Inspection
83–01
Air Conditioner Inspection
Check
* Intervals vary by transmission model, application, lubricant, and use. Contact Allison to determine the precise interval(s) for the transmission model and lubricant used on the vehicle.
Table 10, M2 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/13
00
General Information
M3 Maintenance Interval Operations Table: 00–09
The M3 Maintenance Interval Operations table lists
all maintenance operations that are to be performed
at the M3 maintenance interval. Maintenance operation numbers are reference numbers used to help
you find detailed instructions in this manual on the
maintenance operations to be performed. Perform all
maintenance interval operations in M1 and M2 when
performing M3 maintenance interval operations.
NOTE: Maintenance operations appearing in italics in
this table are for noise emission control components.
M3 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Maintenance
Operation Number
Operation Description
00–07
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
00–08
M2 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
01–01
Engine Noise Panel Inspection
01–02
Engine Belt Inspection
01–04
Engine Support Fasteners Check
09–01
Intake Piping Inspection
09–02
Air Cleaner Element Inspection and Replacement*
09–03
Charge Air Cooler Inspection
15–01
Alternator and Starter Check
15–02
Battery Check
31–04
Frame Fastener Torque Check
32–03
Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check
33–06
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Change
35–02
Two-Speed-Axle Shift Unit Lubricant Level Check
35–04
Drive Axle Lubricant Change
42–04
Alcohol Evaporator Cleaning and Inspection
60–02
Mirror Folding Check
Check
* For 5700 models, complete this procedure every 300,000 miles (485 000 km).
Table 11, M3 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
00/14
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
M4 Maintenance Interval Operations Table: 00–10
The M4 Maintenance Interval Operations table lists
all maintenance operations that are to be performed
at the M4 maintenance interval. Maintenance operation numbers are reference numbers used to help
you find detailed instructions in this manual on the
maintenance operations to be performed. Perform all
maintenance interval operations in M1, M2, and M3
when performing M4 maintenance interval operations.
M4 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Maintenance
Operation Number
Operation Description
00–07
M1 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
00–08
M2 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
00–09
M3 Maintenance Interval Operations Table
20–04
Cooling System Pressure Flush
25–05
Fluid Change, Hydraulic Clutch Control
26–04
ESS Transmission Filter and Boot Inspection
26–05
Transmission Inspection
42–03
Air Dryer Desiccant Replacement
49–02
CAT CGI Bellows Replacement
Check
Table 12, M4 Maintenance Interval Operations for Service Schedules I and II
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/15
00
General Information
Noise Emission Controls Maintenance: 00–11
General Information
Federal Law, Part 205:
Transportation Equipment Noise
Emission Controls
Part 205, Transportation Equipment Noise Emission
Controls, requires the vehicle manufacturer to furnish
with each new vehicle, such written instructions for
the proper maintenance, use, and repair of the vehicle by the ultimate purchaser to provide reasonable
assurance of the elimination or minimization of noise
emission control degradation throughout the life of
the vehicle. In compliance with the law, the noise
emission controls maintenance information in each
applicable group of this manual, in conjunction with
the vehicle service manual, provides these instructions to owners.
Recommendations for
Replacement Parts
Replacement parts, used for the maintenance or repair of noise emission controls, should be genuine
Western Star parts. If other than genuine Western
Star parts are used, for replacement or repair of
components affecting noise emission control, the
owner should be sure that such parts are warranted
by their manufacturer or to be equivalent to the
genuine Western Star parts in performance and durability.
Western Star Noise Emission
Controls Warranty
Refer to the vehicle owner’s warranty information
book for warranty information concerning noise emission controls.
sale or delivery to the ultimate purchaser or while
the vehicle is in use.
2. The use of the vehicle after such a device or element of design for the purpose of noise control
has been removed or rendered inoperative by
any person.
Among those acts presumed to constitute tampering are the acts listed below:
1. The removal of engine sound-suppression
panels.
2. The removal of cab tunnel or hood soundsuppression panels.
3. The removal of, or rendering inoperative, the
engine speed governor so as to allow the
engine speed to exceed the manufacturer’s
specifications.
4. The removal of, or rendering inoperative, the
engine fan clutch, including bypassing the
control on any thermostatic fan drive to
cause it to operate continuously.
5. The removal of the fan shroud.
6. The removal of, or rendering inoperative, engine exhaust components, including the exhaust pipe clamping.
7. The removal of air intake components.
Maintenance Instructions
Scheduled intervals are in the maintenance tables in
this group. A "Verification of Inspections Log (Groups
01, 20, and 49)" follows. These logs should be filled
in each time the noise emission controls on the vehicle are maintained, repaired, or replaced.
Tampering With Noise Controls is
Prohibited
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof:
1. The removal or rendering inoperative, by any
person (other than for the purposes of maintenance, repair, or replacement) of any device or
element of design incorporated into any new vehicle for the purpose of noise control prior to its
00/16
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00
General Information
Verification of Inspections Log: 00–12
Verification of Inspections Log
Verification of Inspections Log (Group 01) Engine Rear Supports and Engine Noise Panels
Date
Mileage
Item
Cost
Maintenance Facility
Table 13, Verification of Inspections Log (Group 01) Engine Rear Supports and Engine Noise Panels
Verification of Inspections Log (Group 20) Fan Drive
Date
Mileage
Item
Cost
Maintenance Facility
Table 14, Verification of Inspections Log (Group 20) Fan Drive
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
00/17
00
General Information
Verification of Inspections Log: 00–12
Verification of Inspections Log (Group 49) Exhaust System Components
Date
Mileage
Item
Cost
Maintenance Facility
Table 15, Verification of Inspections Log (Group 49) Exhaust System Components
00/18
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Engine
01
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Engine Belt Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01–02
Engine Noise Panel Inspection (Noise Emission Control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01–01
Engine-Support Fasteners Check (Noise Emission Control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01–04
Pacbrake® Inspection and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01–03
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01
Engine
01–00 Safety Precautions
01–02 Engine Belt Inspection
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
Belt and Pulley Inspection
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
01–01 Engine Noise Panel
Inspection (Noise
Emission Control)
If equipped, inspect for torn engine panels. See
Fig. 1 for Caterpillar noise panel locations. If the
panels are torn, contact your Western Star dealer to
have them replaced. Cummins M11, N14, ISC, and
ISL engines, and Detroit Diesel Series 60 and DD13
engines do not have engine noise panels.
Worn or loose drive belts may cause engine overheating or loss of alternator power. Replace the drive
belt if any conditions described in Fig. 2 are found.
To inspect a belt, gently twist it to view the belt sidewalls and bottom.
1. Inspect the belt contact surfaces for chips, flaking, cracks, discoloration, and other damage.
See Fig. 2.
IMPORTANT: For EPDM rubber drive belts, do
not rely on cracking as an indicator of belt wear.
EPDM rubber drive belts resist cracking better
than neoprene belts. A better indicator of wear
on EPDM belts is material loss.
2. For EPDM belts, check the belt for material loss,
which causes the belt to seat further down in the
pulley and to ride directly on the pulley tips. See
Fig. 3.
3. Inspect the pulleys for excessive play or wobble.
Excessive play or wobble indicates a failure of
the pulley bearing. Check for belt squealing or
squeaking. Replace the bearings as necessary.
NOTE: If it is difficult to distinguish the location
of a supposed bearing noise, place a stethoscope on the component being checked, not the
pulley, to isolate the area from outside interference.
2
4. Inspect all pulleys for foreign objects, oil, or
grease in the grooves.
Belt Tension Inspection
Some V-belts use a threaded adjustment, and the
ONLY accurate way to check belt tension is to use a
belt tension gauge. See your Western Star dealer for
this type of adjustment.
1
f011040
11/29/95
1. Oil Pan Noise Panel (C10 engine only)
2. Left-Side Noise Panel (3406 engines only)
Fig. 1, Caterpillar Engine Noise Panels
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Serpentine belts are tensioned by spring-loaded idler
pulleys that are usually maintenace free. Uneven belt
wear can indicate a loose, worn out, or bad bearing
on the auto tensioner. A build up of dirt or grime
around the front bearing surface of the wheel can
indicate a future bearing failure due to inadequate
lubrication.
01/1
01
Caterpillar
On Caterpillar engines, there is a red and green
decal on the side of the idler arm mount. See Fig. 4.
A properly tensioned belt is indicated by the shoulder
of the idler arm aligned with the green zone of the
decal. As the belt stretches, the shoulder will drift into
the red zone. If the idler arm shoulder moves into the
red zone, the belt needs to be replaced.
Cummins
On Cummins engines, a properly tensioned belt is
indicated by the stop bar being in the center between
the idler arm stops. See Fig. 5. As the belt stretches,
the idler arm stop will rotate to the stop bar. If the
idler arm stop has rotated to contact the stop bar, the
belt needs to be replaced.
Detroit Diesel Series 60
The idler arm pivot on Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines has a pointer cast into the arm. See Fig. 6.
This pointer should align with the V-groove mark at
the rear of the mount, when belt tension is correct.
As the belt stretches, the pointer will drift to the left
of the V-groove. If the pointer is moved past the end
of the V-groove, the belt needs to be replaced.
Belt Routing
Refer to the following diagrams for belt routings on
the various engines.
• Caterpillar:
Engine
01–03 Pacbrake® Inspection
and Maintenance
With frequent use, the Pacbrake exhaust brake will
operate maintenance-free. If the vehicle is used inconsistently or seasonally, it will be necessary to perform preventative maintenance. If the vehicle is exposed to excess moisture, or is used only for
periodical or seasonal use, perform the following
steps.
1. With the engine off, using any oil-free or nonpetroleum-based high-heat lubricant, spray or
coat a sufficient amount on the restricter valve
shaft and the attaching locations at each end of
the actuation cylinder.
2. With your hands or a pair of pliers, motion the
valve several times to distribute the lubricant
down the shaft and the attaching locations.
NOTE: Operation of the Pacbrake could be affected by starting the engine and idling for short
periods of time. During a cold engine start-up,
moisture occurs in the engine and exhaust system that creates a corrosion hazard. The brake
housing may trap water in the valve shaft bore,
causing a corrosion hazard. The brake housing
may trap water in the valve shaft bore, causing
corrosion resulting in an improper or nonfunctioning brake. If it is necessary to periodically start the engine, attain normal operating
temperatures before shutting the engine down.
See Fig. 7 for CAT 3126B model.
See Fig. 8 for CAT C10 and C12 models.
See Fig. 9 for CAT C15 and C16 models.
• Cummins:
See Fig. 10 for Cummins ISX Signature 600
model, pre-2007.
See Fig. 11 for Cummins ISM model.
See Fig. 12 for Cummins N14 model.
See Fig. 13 for Cummins ISX models, 2007 or
later.
See Fig. 14 for Cummins ISC and ISL models.
• Detroit Diesel:
See Fig. 15 for DD Series 60 model.
See Fig. 16 for DD 13/15/16 models.
01/2
01–04 Engine-Support
Fasteners Check (Noise
Emission Control)
Front and rear engine supports for vehicles built from
January 2007 require no periodic maintenance.
Mounts should be inspected when the engine is removed for service. For vehicles manufactured prior to
January 2007, perform the following check.
Check the rear engine-support fasteners (see
Fig. 17, Ref. 3) for tightness. Tighten the 5/8-inch
fasteners 150 to 180 lbf·ft (203 to 244 N·m).
Check the front engine-support fasteners for tightness. Tighten the 3/4-inch fasteners 260 to 310 lbf·ft
(350 to 420 N·m).
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01
Engine
1
2
4
3
5
7
6
8
01/18/2010
1. Abrasion
2. Chunk-out
3. Improper Install
f151148
4. Cracking
5. Pilling
6. Uneven Rib Wear
7. Misalignment
8. Gravel Penetration
Fig. 2, Damaged Belts
NOTE: At engine overhaul, and whenever the
engine has been removed, inspect the lower
and upper isolators (Refs. 6 and 7), and replace
them if they are worn.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01/3
01
Engine
A
B
C
09/21/2009
f012181
A. New Belt
B. Worn Belt
C. Material loss results in belt riding directly on pulley tips.
Fig. 3, EPDM Belt Wear
2
1
1
2
A
04/11/2001
2
A. Shoulder
1. Spring-Loaded Tensioner
2. Label Green Zone
f011982
04/05/2001
f011983
1. Stop Bar
2. Idler Arm Stops
Fig. 5, Cummins Self-Tensioner
Fig. 4, Caterpillar Self-Tensioner
01/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01
Engine
1
1
3
2
2
4
f011984
04/05/2001
f011976
04/30/2001
1. V-Groove
2. Pointer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Fig. 6, Detroit Diesel Self-Tensioner
Fan Clutch
Air Conditioning Compressor
Alternator
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
3
Fig. 8, Caterpillar C10 and C12
1
2
1
2
4
3
04/30/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
f011975
Fan Clutch
Air Conditioning Compressor
Alternator
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
Fig. 7, Caterpillar 3126B
f011977
04/30/2001
1. Fan Clutch
2. Air Conditioning Compressor
3. Alternator
Fig. 9, Caterpillar C15 and C16
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01/5
01
Engine
2
2
3
1
1
4
4
3
f011979
04/30/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
Fan Clutch
Air Conditioning Compressor
Alternator
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
Fig. 11, Cummins ISM
04/30/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
f011978
Fan Clutch
Air Conditioning Compressor
Alternator
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
3
1
Fig. 10, Cummins ISX Signature 600 (pre-2007)
2
04/30/2001
f011980
1. Fan Clutch
2. Air Conditioning Compressor
3. Alternator
Fig. 12, Cummins N14
01/6
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01
Engine
4
3
4
5
3
2
2
5
1
1
6
01/24/2011
f012192
1. Spring Tensioner
2. Alternator Pulley
3. AC Compressor
4. Fan Clutch
5. Drive Belt
6. Crank Shaft Pulley
Fig. 14, Cummins ISC/ISL
01/19/2012
f012182a
1. Fan Belt
2. Alternator
3. AC Compressor
4. AC Drive Belt
5. Fan Clutch
Fig. 13, Cummins ISX (2007 or later)
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01/7
01
Engine
3
3
5
4
2
6
4
6
2
1
5
1
6
01/19/2012
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
f012189
Front Belt
Rear Belt
AC Compressor
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
Fan Clutch
Water Pump
Fig. 16, DD 13/15/16
01/07/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
f012191
Alternator
AC Belt
Air Conditioning Compressor
Fan Clutch
Fan Belt
Spring-Loaded Tensioner
Fig. 15, Detroit Diesel Series 60
01/8
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01
Engine
1
2
3
7
6
5
4
08/22/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
f011992
Transmission Housing
Transmission Nodal Mount Bracket
Bolt, 5/8–18 x 4
Frame Bracket
Nut, 5/8–18
Lower Isolator
Upper Isolator
Fig. 17, Rear Engine-Support
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01/9
Air Intake
09
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Air Cleaner Element Inspection and Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09–02
Charge Air Cooler Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09–03
Intake Piping Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09–01
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09
Air Intake
09–01 Intake Piping Inspection
9
Engine-Mounted Air Cleaner,
5700 Models
1. Ensure that the mounting fasteners for the air
cleaner housing are tight. See Fig. 1.
2. Check the tightness and condition of the clamping hardware. The hose clamps should be tightened 40 lbf·in (4.5 N·m).
1
10
3. Ensure that the clamps are properly indexed.
9
4. Check the intake ducting for abrasions, cracks,
and holes. Replace as needed.
Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner,
4700 Models
1. Ensure that the fasteners for the air cleaner element and air cleaner housing are tight. See
Fig. 2.
2. Check the tightness and condition of the clamping hardware. The molded-duct-to-air-cleaner
and molded-duct-to-elbow clamps should be
tightened 40 lbf·in (4.5 N·m). The elbow-duct-toturbo clamp should be tightened 90 lbf·in (10.2
N·m).
3. Ensure that the molded-duct-to-air-cleaner clamp
is properly indexed.
4. Check the intake ducting for abrasions, cracks,
and holes. Replace as needed.
Cowl-Mounted Air Cleaner
1. Check the connections between the plastic or
aluminum piping and the rubber elbows. See
Fig. 3.
2. Check the tightness and condition of the clamping hardware. Clamps at rubber-to-plastic duct
connections should be tightened 39 to 41 lbf·in
(440 to 460 N·cm), and clamps at rubber-tometal duct connections should be tightened 90 to
100 lbf·in (1015 to 1130 N·cm).
3. Inspect the mating surfaces of the plastic or aluminum pipes. If it appears that the rubber elbow
has moved on the plastic pipe, or if the hose
clamps were loose, disassemble for further inspection.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
3
8
7
2
6
4
11/19/2014
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
5
f090512
Air Cleaner Housing
Air Cleaner Outlet Hose Clamp
Air Intake Duct
Air Intake Duct-to-Elbow Hose Clamp
Elbow
Elbow-to-Turbocharger Hose Clamp
Mounting Bolt
Mounting Bracket
Mounting Nut
Fig. 1, Engine-Mounted Air Cleaner and Ducting, 5700
Models
4. After disassembly of the plastic pipe from the
rubber connection elbow, inspect the ends of the
pipe for evidence of the rubber elbow rubbing on
it. If chaffing marks are visible replace the worn
pipe. Wipe any dust from the inside of the pipe.
5. Check the inside of the rubber elbow for wear
and contamination. If the rubber elbow is reusable, clean it internally with a shop towel, or
soap and water. Blow-dry the elbow as needed,
and install it.
6. Check the condition of the gear clamp. If wear is
evident, replace the gear clamp with a constanttorque clamp. Constant-torque clamps should be
09/1
09
Air Intake
used if a vehicle is routinely exposed to rough
road conditions or off-road applications.
1
7. Check the two band clamps that hold the air
cleaner in place on the cowl. Ensure the canister
has not slipped downwards. If this condition is
present, loosen the two band clamp bolts and
slide the canister upward until the outlet pipe is
properly aligned with the opening in the cowl.
2
5
8. Inspect the alignment and fit of the rubber elbow
that passes through the cowl and attaches the
intake duct to the canister outlet pipe. Adjust as
necessary to ensure a proper connection and
tighten the clamps as follows: clamps at rubberto-plastic duct connections should be tightened
39 to 41 lbf·in (440 to 460 N·cm), and clamps at
rubber-to-metal duct connections should be tightened 90 to 100 lbf·in (1015 to 1130 N·cm). Do
not over-tighten the clamps.
4
3
07/18/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f090491
Mounting Bolt, Air Cleaner Element
Capscrew, Air Cleaner Housing
Clamp, Molded Duct to Air Cleaner
Clamp, Molded Duct to Elbow
Clamp, Elbow Duct to Turbo
Fig. 2, Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner, 4700 Models
Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner,
Non–4700 Models
This style of air intake system has the air cleaner
element mounted horizontally across the left side of
the firewall. The air intake is through ducting built
into the hood and routed into the top of the air
cleaner canister. See Fig. 4.
1. Check that the bolts on the canister mounting
brackets are tight.
2. Check the mounting angle of the air cleaner canister inlet boot. It must be rotated forward slightly
to ensure a correct seal to the hood intake duct.
Inspect the hood and boot contact points for
proper contact as evident by the polished area
on the hood where the boot contacts it.
1
2
5
4
7
3
08/22/2001
1. Rubber Elbow
2. Gear Clamp
3. Constant-Torque
Clamp
6
f090418
4.
5.
6.
7.
Turbocharger
Plastic Pipe
Flex Hose
Air Cleaner
3. Check the connection points of the entire intake
system to ensure the alignment of the rubber
hoses to the charge air cooler pipe connections
are correct. Check the piping for evidence of
movement at the joint connections.
4. Check the tightness and condition of the clamping hardware. Clamps at rubber-to-plastic duct
connections should be tightened 39 to 41 lbf·in
(440 to 460 N·cm), and clamps at rubber-tometal duct connections should be tightened 90 to
100 lbf·in (1015 to 1130 N·cm). Replace any
clamps that are corroded or fail to operate
smoothly when tightened.
Fig. 3, Air Intake, Cowl-Mounted Air Cleaner
09/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09
Air Intake
2
1
3
1
4
2
5
10
3
11
9
7
5
6
8
4
f090419
08/24/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Restriction Indicator
Air Intake Boot
Canister Mounting Clamp
Spring Clamp
Charge Air Cooler Hose
Fig. 4, Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner, Non–4700
Models
09–02 Air Cleaner Element
Inspection and
Replacement
NOTICE
Do not use aftermarket air-cleaner elements. Aftermarket air-cleaner elements may not seal the
housing correctly, which can lead to engine damage and potentially the loss of warranty. When replacing an air-cleaner element, use only the part
listed in PartsPro for the serial number of the
vehicle.
Engine-Mounted Air Cleaner,
5700 Models
07/30/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
f090470
Air Cleaner Housing
Front Isolator Top Nut (2)
Air Restriction Indicator
Air Cleaner Outlet Hose Clamp
Air Intake Duct
Front Isolator (2)
Mounting Bracket
Rear Mounting Bracket Capscrew (2)
Rear Isolator
Rear Isolator Mounting Capscrew (2)
Rear Isolator Nut
Fig. 5, Air Cleaner Assembly and Mounting
Components, 5700 Models
the cab if the vehicle is equipped with a dashmounted restriction gauge.
Vehicles may be equipped with either a manual-reset
restriction indicator with graduations (Fig. 6), or a
go/no-go restriction indicator without graduations
(Fig. 7).
For an installation diagram of the engine-mounted air
cleaner used on 5700 models, see Fig. 5.
1. Inspect the air restriction indicator to see if air
restriction equals or exceeds the maximum allowable restriction. For instructions, see Group
09 of the Western Star Workshop Manual.
Restriction of air flow through the air cleaner element
is measured at the tap in the air cleaner outlet.
Check the restriction indicator at the air cleaner or in
2. Inspect the air cleaner housing for cracks, leaks,
and any other damage. If the air cleaner housing
or element is damaged, replace it.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09/3
09
Air Intake
5
1
2
3
08/07/2007
f090452
5
4
Fig. 6, Manual-Reset Air Restriction Indicator,
Graduated
11/07/2014
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
4
f090471a
Air Cleaner Element Housing
Air Cleaner Element
Housing Cover
Screws
Inserts
Fig. 8, Air-Cleaner Assembly, 5700 Models
If a mounting isolator is damaged, replace it. For
isolator replacement instructions, see Section
09.05 of the Western Star Workshop Manual.
04/08/2005
f090431
Fig. 7, Manual-Reset Air Restriction Indicator, Go/
No-Go
IMPORTANT: Each time the air cleaner housing
is replaced, perform the procedures in MOP
13–01.
3. Check the inserts at all four assembly fastener
locations (see Fig. 8). Each insert should protrude from the housing as shown in Fig. 9.
If the head/flange of any of the threaded inserts
is flush with or countersunk into the housing, replace the air cleaner assembly. See Section
09.05 of the Western Star Workshop Manual for
replacement instructions.
4. Inspect the forward and rear mounting isolators
(see Fig. 5) for damage. Ensure the bonds between the rubber and the steel plates are completely intact. See Fig. 10.
09/4
5. If necessary, replace the air cleaner element. For
air cleaner element replacement instructions, see
Section 09.05 of the Western Star Workshop
Manual.
6. Reset the air restriction indicator.
Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner,
4700 Models
Restriction of air flow through the air cleaner element
is measured at the tap near the air cleaner outlet.
Check the restriction indicator at the air cleaner or in
the cab if the vehicle is equipped with a dashmounted restriction gauge.
Vehicles may be equipped with either a manual-reset
restriction indicator with graduations (Fig. 11), or a
go/no-go restriction indicator without graduations
(Fig. 12).
1. Inspect the air restriction indicator to see if air
restriction equals or exceeds the maximum allowable restriction. For instructions, see the
Western Star Driver’s Manual.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09
Air Intake
2
1
1
2
A
01/17/2012
f090496
1. Steel Plate
2. Rubber
Fig. 10, Mounting Isolator
2. If necessary, replace the air cleaner element. For
air cleaner element replacement instructions, see
Group 09 of the Western Star Workshop
Manual.
OK
3. Inspect the air cleaner housing for cracks, leaks,
or any other damage. If the air cleaner housing
or element is damaged, replace it.
B
4. Reset the air restriction indicator.
5. Each time the air cleaner housing is replaced,
perform the procedures in MOP 13–01.
OK
C
11/19/2014
f090513
NOTE: Each insert should protrude from the housing as
shown in item A.
A.
B.
C.
1.
2.
Proper Fastener Installation
Damaged Insert, Flush
Damaged Insert, Countersunk
Insert
Screw
Fig. 9, Air-Cleaner-Housing Fasteners, 5700 Models
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
08/07/2007
f090452
Fig. 11, Manual-Reset Air Restriction Indicator,
Graduated
Cowl-Mounted Air Cleaner
The standard cowl-mounted air cleaner system used
on Western Star trucks is a reverse air flow design.
The air flow in this system flows from the inside of
09/5
09
Air Intake
1
2
3
4
04/08/2005
f090431
5
Fig. 12, Manual-Reset Air Restriction Indicator, Go/
No-Go
the element, outward through the filter element into
the canister, then into the air intake piping on route
to the turbocharger. It is highly recommended that
only original equipment filter elements are used to
service the air cleaner assemblies. Aftermarket replacement elements may vary in size to the original
equipment, or may use a different type of seal at the
top and bottom of the element. A variance in the size
of the element, or the thickness and type of seal material, can affect the crush of the gasket seal and
could result in a poor seal on one of the mating surfaces. Elements that do not fit properly may allow the
element to bounce in the canister and allow dirt to
pass over the upper seal and into the canister and
intake piping.
If the vehicle is equipped with dual air cleaners, replace both elements at the same interval.
1. Remove the cap nuts that secure the service
cover to the canister. See Fig. 13. Take note of
the orientation of the air intake screen so the
service cover can be reinstalled in the correct
position.
2. After removing the canister cap, carefully pull the
element straight up out of the canister, ensuring
no dust or debris is dropped into the canister.
3. Inspect the clean side of the element and canister for evidence of contamination. The clean side
of the element is the area outside the gaskets on
either end of the element, including the top
cover. If debris is present, find the leak, determine the cause, and correct the problem area
immediately.
6
08/22/2001
f090417
1. Cap Nut
2. Service Cover
3. Service Cover Gasket
4. Filter Element
5. Mounting Band
6. Canister
Fig. 13, Cowl-Mounted Air Cleaner
If unable to remove all debris, use a vacuum
cleaner to remove all remaining dirt, dust, and
contamination.
5. Clean the gasket sealing surfaces of the canister.
Properly fitted gaskets are crucial to prevent dirt
from entering the canister. Use a damp cloth to
wipe clean and remove any hard ridges of dirt
built up around the old gasket sealing area on
the top cover and the bottom of the canister.
6. Apply pressure to the new gasket with your fingers to test for resilience. When you release
pressure, the gasket should instantly spring back
to its original shape.
7. Slide in the new element, ensuring that the bottom gasket seats firmly.
NOTE: The element will be sitting higher than
normal until the cover bolts compress the gaskets.
4. Clean the inside of the canister thoroughly. Use
a clean damp cloth to wipe every surface clean.
09/6
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09
Air Intake
Install a new cover gasket, making sure the sealing area around the studs is clean and free of
any old gasket material.
8. Inspect the threaded area of the studs. They
should be clean and free of corrosion and foreign
material. Apply a light coating of oil.
Inspect the cap nuts. If wear is apparent replace
them with new ones.
Torque the cap nuts in sequence 96 lbf·in (1080
N·cm). Do not over-tighten the cap nuts. Be certain that the cover has pulled down evenly
around the canister, because both element gaskets and the cover gasket are being compressed
as the cap nuts are tightened.
9. Recheck the torque of the canister band mounting clamps and be certain the blank portion of
the top cap screen area is facing forward.
10. Press the reset button on the bottom of the air
restriction indicator to reset to zero. If the indicator fails to reset to zero, replace it with a new
one. If the truck is not equipped with a restriction
indicator or a dash-mounted restriction gauge,
check that the pipe plugs located in the canister,
or in the aluminum piping just before the turbocharger, are tight and correctly torqued.
Frontwall-Mounted Air Cleaner,
Non–4700 Models
5. If equipped with a dash-mounted restriction
gauge, inspect the tube and mounting fittings on
the air cleaner canister outlet pipe for tightness
and correct routing of the line to the dashmounted gauge.
6. If no restriction indicator of any kind is present,
check that the plugs in the canister are torqued
to specifications.
09–03 Charge Air Cooler
Inspection
1. Check the condition of the charge air cooler piping and clamping hardware. If damaged, replace
components and carefully reassemble it to ensure proper penetration and alignment. Tighten
the constant-torque clamps 98 lbf·in (11 N·m),
and the turbo-out-elbow clamp 62 lbf·in (7 N·m).
See Fig. 14.
2. Check the connections at the charge air cooler
and all pipe-to-hose penetrations. If acceptable,
tighten the constant-torque clamps 98 lbf·in (11
N·m) and the turbo-out-elbow clamp 62 lbf·in (7
N·m). Angle the clamps downward to prevent
interference with the hood.
3. Check the mounting and condition of the cooler
core.
1. Release the spring clamp fasteners located at
the left end of the air cleaner canister. See
Fig. 4, Ref. 4. Use caution when removing the
element from the canister as some maneuvering
may be necessary to avoid the radiator stay rod
or brackets mounted in that area.
2. Inspect the interior of the canister. The underhood air intake system has the air flow directed
from the outside of the element to the inside.
Therefore, all dirt will be accumulated inside the
canister housing, and it must be cleaned thoroughly before reinstalling a replacement element.
3. Use caution when installing the new element to
prevent damage to the paper pleats. Be certain
the element is properly seated in the canister,
then fasten the four spring clamp fasteners.
4. Inspect the air restriction indicator mounted at
the outlet end pipe of the canister, and reset it.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
09/7
09
Air Intake
1
2
2
2
3
4
07/18/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
f090492
Charge Air Cooler Core
Constant-Torque Clamps
Turbo Out Elbow
Clamp, Turbo Out Elbow
Fig. 14, Charge Air Cooler and Piping
09/8
Western Star Maintenance Manual, January 2015
Air Compressor
13
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Air Compressor Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–01
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Air Compressor
13
13–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
13–01 Air Compressor
Inspection
1. Inspect the air compressor intake hoses and
connections at the air intake and air compressor
for physical damage. If needed, change the
hoses, and/or tighten or replace the connections.
2. Inspect the coolant supply and return lines for
tight connections. Tighten the connections and
replace the lines and fasteners if needed.
3. For the air governor, inspect the piping and connections for leaks. Replace gaskets and faulty
components as needed.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
13/1
Alternators and Starters
15
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Alternator and Starter Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–01
Battery Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–02
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
15
Alternators and Starters
15–00 Safety Precautions
vented before disconnecting or connecting the
battery cables.
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
Battery acid is extremely harmful if splashed in
the eyes or on the skin. Always wear a face shield
and protective clothing when working around
batteries.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
CAUTION
The vehicle is equipped with an alternator charging system. Make sure the polarity (+ and –) is
correct when connecting battery cables. Reversing the polarity will damage the alternator.
1. Make sure the batteries are disconnected.
15–01 Alternator and Starter
Check
1. Disconnect the batteries.
2. Check the tightness of the alternator bracket fasteners; tighten the fasteners as needed. See
Group 00 for torque specifications.
3. Check the tension of the alternator belt. See
Group 01 for belt tension instructions.
2. Inspect the battery cables for wear and replace
as needed. Clean cable connector terminals with
a wire brush. Consult your Western Star Dealer
for troubleshooting, adjustment, and battery replacement.
2.1
Clean and tighten the battery cables, terminals, and clamps.
2.2
Inspect the battery hold-down assembly
and the battery box. Replace worn or
damaged parts. Remove any corrosion
with a wire brush, and wash with a weak
solution of baking soda and water. Rinse
with clean water, and dry. If needed, paint
the retainer assembly to prevent corrosion.
2.3
Check that foreign objects, such as
stones, bolts, and nuts are removed from
the battery box.
2.4
After cleaning, connect the cables to the
batteries, and tighten them to the specification listed on the battery. If no specifications are found, then use 10 to 15 lbf·ft
(14 to 20 N·m).
2.5
Coat the battery terminals with dielectric
grease.
Some engines are equipped with dual alternator
belts. Always check both belts for correct tension. Engines equipped with a serpentine or
poly-V belt have automatic belt tensioners and
do not require belt tension inspection.
4. Check that all electrical connections at the alternator and starter are clean. Clean and tighten all
charging system electrical connections as
needed.
5. Check the alternator wiring for missing insulation,
kinks, and heat damage. Replace or repair as
needed.
15–02 Battery Check
WARNING
Batteries generate explosive gas as a by-product
of their chemical process. Do not smoke when
working around batteries. Put out all flames and
remove any source of sparks or intense heat in
the vicinity of the battery compartment. Make sure
the battery compartment has been completely
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
3. Check the terminals on the battery shut-off
switch and the magnetic switch. Make sure the
terminal connections are clean and tight. Coat
the terminal connections with dielectric red
enamel after cleaning.
15/1
Engine Cooling/Radiator
20
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Coolant Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–01
Cooling System Inspection (Noise Emission Control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–02
Cooling System Pressure-Flush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–04
Pressure/Filler Cap Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–03
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
20
Engine Cooling/Radiator
20–00 Safety Precautions
distilled or de-ionized water to reduce the potential
and severity of silica dropouts.
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
Keep the cooling system filled. On vehicles equipped
with a frontwall-mounted translucent surge tank (see
Fig. 1), keep the coolant level between the FULL
and LOW marks. On vehicles equipped with a
frontwall-mounted steel surge tank (see Fig. 2), keep
the cooling system filled so that coolant can be seen
in the sight glass in the surge tank. On vehicles
equipped with a radiator-mounted translucent surge
tank (see Fig. 3), keep the coolant level between the
FULL and LOW marks. If the coolant is low, add the
antifreeze solution mixture specified for the vehicle in
PartsPro (Group 01).
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
20–01 Coolant Inspection
2
General Information
The engine produces large quantities of heat during
its operation. Too high or low an engine operating
temperature will damage the engine. The purpose of
the cooling system is to keep the engine at its optimum operating temperature. The optimum operating
temperature results in the most efficient use of fuel
and allows the engine oil to do its job properly.
1
The cooling system on Western Star vehicles is a
closed or pressure type system, with a mixture of
antifreeze and water. By pressurizing the system and
using an antifreeze/water mixture, the boiling temperature of the coolant is raised, permitting more efficient, higher operating temperatures.
The coolant supplied with a Western Star vehicle is a
50/50 mix of antifreeze and water giving protection
down to –35°F (–37°C). It is recommended that this
be the minimum antifreeze mixture strength used.
The maximum coolant mixture of 60 percent antifreeze to 40 percent water gives freeze protection to
–62°F (–52°C).
Over-concentration of antifreeze or coolant conditioner can cause silicate to settle out of the coolant,
forming a silica-gel on cooling system inner surfaces,
resulting in overheating.
In addition, the tendency for silica-gel to form increases with water hardness. Hard water (with high
levels of calcium and magnesium ions) increases
likelihood of the formation of silica-gel. Do not use
softened water. The salt used to artificially soften it is
corrosive. Most engine manufacturers prefer use of
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
09/07/2011
1. Surge Tank
f200745
2. Fill Cap
Fig. 1, Frontwall-Mounted Translucent Surge Tank
Inspection
WARNING
Do not remove or loosen the radiator cap until the
engine and cooling system have completely
cooled. Use extreme care when removing the cap.
A sudden release of pressure from removing the
cap prior to the system cooling can result in a
surge of scalding coolant that could cause serious personal injury.
20/1
20
Engine Cooling/Radiator
1
2
3
Every six months have the coolant mixture checked
to ensure it is at the proper concentration to protect
the cooling system from damage. Refer to the engine
manufacturer’s service literature for specific coolant
information.
4
NOTE: Checking the engine coolant level is part
of the Pre-trip Inspection. For more information,
see the Western Star Driver’s Manual.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Open the hood.
05/22/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
f200643
Steel Surge Tank
SAE Pressure/Filler Cap
Sight Glass
Low Coolant Sensor
WARNING
Fig. 2, Steel Surge Tank, High Flow Radiators
2
4
5
4
f500390
02/05/2013
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Surge Tank Pressure Relief Cap
Surge Tank Filler Cap
Cold Maximum Coolant Level
Cold Minimum Coolant Level
Coolant Level Sensor
Fig. 3, Radiator-Mounted Translucent Surge Tank
NOTICE
Never add cold water into the system when the
engine is hot as damage to the engine may result.
20/2
Do not remove or loosen the radiator cap until the
engine and cooling system have completely
cooled. Use extreme care when removing the cap.
A sudden release of pressure from removing the
cap prior to the system cooling can result in a
surge of scalding coolant that could cause serious personal injury.
3. Slowly turn the SAE pressure/filler cap until it
stops, to allow the coolant pressure to bleed off.
Press down on the cap and turn it at the same
time, then lift off the cap.
3
1
2. The level of coolant should be between the FULL
and LOW marks in a translucent surge tank (see
Fig. 1 and Fig. 3) or visible through the sight
glass on a steel surge tank (see Fig. 2). If the
coolant is low or not visible in the sight glass,
check the system for leaks.
4. While the SAE pressure/filler cap is OFF, smell
the coolant for strong odors (i.e., diesel fuel). A
strong diesel smell indicates that fuel is contaminating the coolant, and the vehicle must be taken
to a Western Star dealer to have the source
found and the cooling system chemically flushed.
5. Check the condition of the coolant. If the coolant
shows scale, rust, silica-gel, oil, or has a frothy
scum, the vehicle must be taken to a Western
Star dealer to have the contaminate source
found and fixed, and the cooling system chemically flushed.
NOTE: Due to environmental concerns, it is recommended that coolant flushing and the replacement of coolant conditioners and coolant
filters be performed by your Western Star
dealer.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
20
Engine Cooling/Radiator
20–02 Cooling System
Inspection (Noise
Emission Control)
A
B
1
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Open the hood.
WARNING
Do not remove or loosen the radiator cap until the
engine and cooling system have completely
cooled. Use extreme care when removing the cap.
A sudden release of pressure from removing the
cap prior to the system cooling can result in a
surge of scalding coolant that could cause serious personal injury.
2. Inspect the SAE pressure/filler cap gaskets. Replace the cap if the gasket shows any signs of
deterioration or damage. Install the cap and
check to ensure that it seals properly on the
surge tank filler neck. Replace the cap if it appears not to seat properly.
3. There is a valve on the bottom of the SAE
pressure/filler cap that opens under vacuum.
This prevents components in the cooling/heating
systems from collapsing. Inspect the vacuumrelief valve to be sure it is not stuck. Replace the
cap if the vacuum-relief valve is stuck.
4. Check the hoses for possible leaks. Replace any
worn, soft, or perforated hoses.
5. Western Star uses Breeze Constant-Torque hose
clamps on the radiator hoses. Check the hose
clamps to ensure that they are properly torqued.
See Fig. 4. The tip of the screw must extend
about 1/4 inch (6 mm) from the clamp housing,
and the washer stacks must be compressed almost flat. Hose clamps lose torque after installation due to "compression set." Breeze ConstantTorque hose clamps will hold enough torque to
automatically keep consistent sealing pressure.
Due to temperature changes, the screw tip extension may change. The clamp screw may need
to be adjusted for individual applications.
NOTE: Due to environmental concerns, it is recommended that coolant flushing and the replacement of coolant conditioners and coolant
filters be performed by your Western Star
dealer.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
08/15/94
f200286
A. Screw tip must extend about 1/4 inch (6 mm).
B. Washer stack must be compressed almost flat.
1. Adjusting Screw Hex
Fig. 4, Breeze Constant-Torque Hose Clamp
6. If the coolant is low, check the engine oil for possible coolant contamination. If the oil is discolored, there may be an internal engine leak, and
the unit should be taken to your Western Star
dealer to be repaired before the engine is damaged.
7. Check to see if the front of the radiator, charge
air cooler, and oil cooler fins are clogged. Material in the fins will cause the cooling system to
overheat. Pressure-wash the radiator to wash out
radiator clogging material.
8. Check the fan belts for wear and tightness. For
more information on fan belts, see Group 01. If
belts are damaged, replace them. If belts are
loose, have the proper belt tension set by your
Western Star dealer.
9. Check the fan and fan shroud for damage. A
damaged fan or shroud will affect the air flow
and can cause heating problems. Have the damaged fan or shroud replaced by your Western
Star dealer.
If all the previous steps are correct and the engine is
overheating, there may be a problem with the fan not
operating properly, or the thermostat may be stuck
closed. Take your vehicle to a Western Star dealer to
have the problem repaired.
If there is a tendency for the engine to run cool, the
fan may be running continously, or the thermostat
may be stuck open. Take the vehicle to a Western
Star dealer to have the problem repaired.
20/3
20
Engine Cooling/Radiator
20–03 Pressure/Filler Cap Test
WARNING
Do not remove or loosen the radiator cap until the
engine and cooling system have completely
cooled. Use extreme care when removing the cap.
A sudden release of pressure from removing the
cap prior to the system cooling can result in a
surge of scalding coolant that could cause serious personal injury.
NOTICE
The radiator cap currently installed may not be the
same one installed when the vehicle was built. If
the radiator cap must be replaced, make sure that
it is the correct cap for the cooling system of the
vehicle. Because the radiator cap pressure rating
affects the operating temperature of the engine,
installing an improperly rated radiator cap may
have adverse effects on the cooling system, and
engine operating temperatures. This could cause
premature engine wear or damage.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Open the hood.
2. After the coolant has cooled, loosen the
pressure/filler cap to relieve system pressure.
3. Remove the pressure/filler cap. Using a radiatorcap pressure tester, check the cap to see if it
maintains pressure to within 10 percent of the
pressure rating marked on the cap. If it doesn’t,
replace the cap. Make sure that the replacement
cap is correctly rated for the cooling system of
the vehicle.
4. Inspect the pressure/filler cap gaskets. Replace
the cap if the gasket shows any signs of deterioration or damage. Install the cap and check that
the cap seals properly on the surge tank filler
neck. Replace the cap if it appears not to seat
properly.
5. There is a valve on the bottom of the
pressure/filler cap that opens under vacuum.
This prevents components in the cooling/heating
systems from collapsing. Inspect the vacuumrelief valve to be sure it is not stuck. Replace the
cap if the vacuum-relief valve is stuck.
20/4
20–04 Cooling System
Pressure-Flush
NOTE: See the engine manufacturer’s operation
and maintenance manual for cooling system
maintenance. The engine manufacturer’s
manual is provided with each new vehicle at the
time of delivery.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake, and chock the wheels. Open the hood.
2. Place a suitable container under the lower elbow
of the radiator outlet pipe and under the radiator.
The container should be capable of holding 60
quarts (57 L) of fluid.
WARNING
Do not remove or loosen the radiator cap until the
engine and cooling system have completely
cooled. Use extreme care when removing the cap.
A sudden release of pressure from removing the
cap prior to the system cooling can result in a
surge of scalding coolant that could cause serious personal injury.
3. Remove the surge tank pressure/filler cap.
4. Remove the drain plug located at the elbow of
the lower radiator outlet pipe. Allow the coolant
to drain.
NOTE: Coolant, conditioners, and coolant filters
must be sent to proper recyclers.
5. Disconnect the radiator upper and lower hoses.
Attach the flushing gun nozzle to the radiator at
the lower radiator hose opening. Run the water
until the radiator is full.
NOTE: When flushing the radiator, do not apply
more than 10 psi (103 kPa) air pressure. Excessive pressure can damage the radiator.
6. Gradually, apply air pressure to help dislodge
sediment build up in the radiator core.
IMPORTANT: All liquid that is flushed out of the
radiator must be collected and disposed of properly. Pouring contaminated water down the drain
is illegal.
7. Shut off the air at the pressure gun nozzle and
allow the radiator to refill with water, then repeat
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Engine Cooling/Radiator
20
the previous two steps until clean water flows
from the radiator.
8. Detach the gun nozzle from the lower radiator
hose opening. Connect the hoses.
9. Place a pan under the coolant filter to catch engine coolant.
10. Remove the coolant filter. Install and tighten a
new filter.
11. Fill the cooling system with new coolant.
12. Install the pressure/filler cap.
13. Start the engine and turn on the cab heater.
Allow the engine to warm to normal operating
temperature. Check the radiator and hoses for
leaks. Repair as required.
14. Shut off the engine and check the coolant level.
See "Coolant Inspection" 20–01.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
20/5
Clutch
25
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Clutch Release Bearing Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–01
Clutch Release Cross-Shaft Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–02
Clutch Replacement, Detroit™ Automated Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–06
Fluid Change, Hydraulic Clutch Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–05
Fluid Level Check, Hydraulic Clutch Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–04
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–00
Sleeve Assembly Bronze Bushing Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–03
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
25
Clutch
25–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
25–01 Clutch Release Bearing
Lubrication
Lubricate the release bearing as follows:
1. With the vehicle parked on a level surface, apply
the parking brakes and chock the rear tires.
2. Remove the clutch inspection plate.
NOTE: For lubricating the release bearing,
Eaton Fuller recommends a lithium-base grease
that can operate up to at least 325°F (163·C)
and meets the NLGI Grade 2 or 3 specification.
f250081a
05/27/93
NOTE: Some clutch release bearings are equipped with
a lubrication extension that extends outside of the clutch
housing. It is not necessary to remove the clutch inspection plate when the lubrication extension is used.
Fig. 1, Release Bearing Grease Fitting
1
Meritor recommends a lithium-base hightemperature grease that meets the NLGI Grade
3 specification.
3. Wipe away any dirt from the grease fitting. See
Fig. 1. Using a pressure-type grease gun
equipped with the recommended grease, lubricate the bearing until excess grease purges from
the rear of the release bearing (toward the
transmission).
NOTICE
Do not over-lubricate the clutch release bearing.
Over-lubrication could contaminate the clutch internally, causing clutch slippage and premature
failure. Do not use chassis grease or multipurpose
lubricants.
4. Wipe off excess grease and apply it to both the
yoke finger and sleeve bushing contact points.
See Fig. 2.
5. Install the clutch inspection plate.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
2
f250444
08/10/2009
1. Sleeve Bushing Contact Point
2. Yoke Finger Contact Points
Fig. 2, Grease Contact Points
25–02 Clutch Release CrossShaft Lubrication
The clutch release cross-shaft is equipped with two
grease fittings in the transmission clutch housing.
See Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Wipe the dirt from the grease
fittings and lubricate with multipurpose chassis
grease.
25/1
25
Clutch
Depress the clutch pedal a couple of times before
starting the engine.
25–04 Fluid Level Check,
Hydraulic Clutch Control
1
WARNING
2
10/19/93
f250048a
1. Clutch Release Cross-Shaft
2. Grease Fitting
Use only approved fluid (DOT 4 brake fluid) in the
hydraulic clutch control system. Do not mix different types of brake fluid. The wrong fluid will damage the rubber parts of the system, causing loss
of clutch function and the risk of serious personal
injury.
NOTICE
Fig. 3, Cross-Shaft Grease Fitting, Left-Side
Do not allow the fluid level in the reservoir to go
below the MIN line. If air enters the system, the
hydraulic system will not operate correctly, and
the clutch could be damaged.
If the fluid level is below the MIN line, fill the reservoir with new DOT 4 brake fluid from a tightly sealed
container until the level reaches the MAX line. See
Fig. 5.
25–05 Fluid Change, Hydraulic
Clutch Control
05/27/93
f260146a
Fig. 4, Cross-Shaft Grease Fitting, Right-Side
25–03 Sleeve Assembly Bronze
Bushing Lubrication
Vehicles equipped with the sealed clutch-release
bearing have a lubrication extension outside of the
clutch housing. This extension is needed to provide
lubrication to the bronze bushing located between
the clutch bearing housing and the transmission input
shaft.
Replace the hydraulic clutch control fluid to ensure
clutch function is reliable and correct. It can be
changed by pressure bleeding or manual bleeding.
Pressure bleeding can be done by one person and
manual bleeding requires two.
WARNING
Hydraulic clutch control fluid (DOT 4 brake fluid)
is hazardous. It may be a skin irritant and can
cause blindness if it gets in your eyes. Always
wear safety glasses when handling it or bleeding
hydraulic lines. If you get it on your skin, wash it
off as soon as possible.
Using a pressure-type grease gun equipped with
high-temperature grease only, lubricate until grease
flows from the release bearing housing.
25/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
25
Clutch
4
1
2
3
A
05/24/2011
f250684
A. On vehicles where the pressure line slopes upward,
unclamp the hose before bleeding the system; when
finished, fasten the hose as removed.
1. Master Cylinder
2. Hydraulic Hose
3. Bracket and P-Clamp Assembly
4. Frontwall
Fig. 6, Hydraulic Hose, Upward Slope Installation
dure. To order these parts, call Kent-Moore at
1-800-328-6657.
10/25/2011
f250691
Fig. 5, Reservoir, Hydraulic Clutch Control
NOTICE
Do not spill hydraulic clutch control fluid on the
cab paint. Clean it off immediately if any is spilled.
Brake fluid can damage paint.
IMPORTANT: The pressure line must slope continuously downward between the master and
slave cylinders. On some vehicles, the securing
clamps may need to be removed to achieve this
and allow the air to be purged. See Fig. 6.
Pressure Bleeding
NOTE: A bleeder system (J-29532) and a bleed
adaptor (J-35798) for the fluid reservoir are
available through SPX Kent-Moore Tools and
may be used to complete the following proce-
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires and raise the hood.
2. Prepare the pressure bleeding equipment according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Use
new DOT 4 brake fluid from a tightly sealed container. Pressurize the bleeder system to 15 psi
(103 kPa).
3. Remove the reservoir lid (see Fig. 5) and install
the pressure bleed adaptor on the reservoir.
4. Bleed the hydraulic system as follows.
4.1
Open the bleed valve on the bleed tank
to pressurize the reservoir.
4.2
Remove the cap from the bleed valve of
the slave cylinder. See Fig. 7. On the
valve, install a transparent drain hose
connected to a catch bottle. The hose
needs to fit the bleed valve tight enough
so it does not fall off when fluid is
pumped out.
25/3
25
Clutch
4.3
Open the bleed valve on the slave cylinder.
4.4
When the draining fluid is clear and free
of air bubbles, close the bleed valve.
1
1. Bleed Valve
NOTE: The following steps require two people—
one in the cab to work the clutch pedal, and one
to open and close the bleed valve and watch
the fluid.
4. Bleed the system, as follows.
2
11/30/2010
bottle. The hose needs to fit the bleed valve tight
enough so it does not fall off when fluid is
pumped out.
f250682
2. Slave Cylinder
Fig. 7, Slave Cylinder, Hydraulic Clutch Control
5. Check the fluid level in the reservoir. If necessary, add or drain fluid to bring the fluid level to
between the MIN and MAX lines marked on the
side of the reservoir.
6. Install the reservoir lid.
7. Disconnect the transparent hose. Tighten the
bleed screw 88 lbf·in (1000 N·cm) and install the
cap on the slave cylinder bleed valve.
8. Depress the clutch pedal a few times. There
should be resistance over the full pedal stroke.
Manual Bleeding
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires and open the hood.
4.1
Open the bleed valve.
4.2
Depress the clutch pedal until it stops.
4.3
Close the bleed valve.
4.4
Return the pedal to the upper position.
4.5
Repeat the previous steps until the fluid is
clear and free of air bubbles.
4.6
Depress the clutch pedal. There should
be resistance over the full pedal stroke.
5. Check the fluid level in the reservoir. If necessary, add or drain fluid to bring the fluid level to
between the MIN and MAX lines marked on the
side of the reservoir. Install the reservoir lid.
6. Disconnect the transparent hose. Tighten the
bleed valve 88 lbf·in (1000 N·cm) and install the
cap on the slave cylinder bleed valve.
25–06 Clutch Replacement,
Detroit™ Automated
Transmissions
Replace the clutch assembly for a Detroit Automated
transmission at 750,000-mile (1 200 000-km) intervals. Follow the procedure published on the Detroit
Diesel Customer Support Network (DDCSN):
www.ddcsn.com
NOTE: The hydraulic system holds approximately 0.5 quart (0.5 liter) of fluid. It may need
to be refilled during the bleeding process to prevent air from re-entering the system.
2. Remove the reservoir lid and fill the reservoir
(see Fig. 5) with new DOT 4 brake fluid from a
tightly sealed container.
3. Remove the cap from the bleed valve of the
slave cylinder. See Fig. 7. On the valve, install a
transparent drain hose connected to a catch
25/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Transmission
26
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Allison Transmission Fluid and Filter Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–07
Allison and Eaton Fuller Transmission Breather Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–06
Detroit™ Automated Transmission Air Filter Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–10
Detroit™ Automated Transmission Fluid Change and Magnetic Plug Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–08
Detroit™ Automated Transmission Fluid Level Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–09
ESS Transmission Filter and Boot Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–04
Manual Transmission Air Filter/Regulator Check, and Clean or Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–03
Manual Transmission Fluid Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–02
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–00
Transmission Fluid Level Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–01
Transmission Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–05
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
26–00 Safety Precautions
5. Shift to NEUTRAL and allow the engine to idle at
500 to 800 rpm.
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
6. Open the hood, and with the engine running at
idle, remove the dipstick from the tube and wipe
it clean.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
26–01 Transmission Fluid
Level Inspection
7. Insert the dipstick into the tube completely, then
remove the dipstick.
8. Check the fluid level mark and repeat the check
procedure to verify the reading.
If the fluid level is within the COLD RUN band,
the transmission may be operated until the fluid
is hot enough to perform a hot check.
If the fluid level is not within the COLD RUN
band, add or drain fluid as needed to adjust the
fluid level to the middle of the COLD RUN band.
See Fig. 1.
Allison Transmission
B
NOTICE
A
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmission.
Do not mix types and brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, extreme-pressure gear
fluids, or multiviscosity lubricants.
f270002a
12/01/97
A. Cold Run Band
Fig. 1, Dipstick Markings
Cold Check
Clean all dirt from around the end of the fluid fill tube
before removing the dipstick. Do not allow foreign
matter to enter the transmission. Dirt or foreign matter in the hydraulic system may cause undue wear of
transmission parts, make valves stick, and clog passages.
It is important to check the fluid level cold to determine if the transmission has a sufficient amount of
fluid to be safely operated until a hot check can be
performed.
1. Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface.
2. Apply the parking brake and chock the tires.
3. Run the engine for at least one minute.
4. Shift from DRIVE to NEUTRAL, and then shift to
REVERSE to fill the hydraulic system.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
B. Hot Run Band
NOTICE
As the fluid temperature increases, so does the
fluid level. Do not fill above the COLD RUN band if
the transmission fluid is below normal operating
temperature.
NOTE: Perform a hot check at the first opportunity after the normal operating temperature, 160
to 200°F (71 to 93°C), has been reached.
Hot Check
1. Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface. Apply
the parking brake and chock the tires.
2. Shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.
3. Operate the engine at idle (500 to 800 rpm) until
normal operating temperature is reached. Check
that the sump temperature is 160 to 200°F (71 to
26/1
26
Transmission
93°C). Check that the converter-out temperature
is 180 to 220°F (82 to 104°C).
4. Open the hood, and with the engine idling, remove the dipstick from the tube and wipe it
clean.
5. Insert the dipstick completely into the tube, and
remove the dipstick.
6. Check the fluid level mark and repeat the check
procedure to verify the reading. Safe operating
level is within the HOT RUN band on the dipstick. The HOT RUN band is between the HOT
FULL and HOT ADD marks.
If the fluid level is not within the HOT RUN band,
add or drain fluid as needed to bring the fluid
level within the HOT RUN band. See Fig. 1.
Eaton/Fuller Transmission
NOTICE
B
A
05/27/93
A. Full
f260006a
B. Low
Fig. 2, Checking Transmission Fluid Level
5. Clean the fill plug, install it in the transmission,
then tighten it 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
Checking at the Sight Glass
If the transmission is equipped with a sight glass,
check the fluid level as follows:
1. Clean the oil level sight glass. See Fig. 3.
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmission. Overfilling will force fluid out of the case
through the main shaft openings.
Do not mix types and brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, extreme-pressure gear
fluids, or multiviscosity lubricants.
With the transmission at operating temperature, and
the vehicle on a level surface, check the fluid level in
the transmission.
Some transmissions are equipped with a sight glass
for checking the fluid level. For transmissions not so
equipped, check the fluid level at the fill plug.
Checking at the Fill Plug
1. Clean the area around the fill plug, and remove it
from the side of the case.
02/23/2015
2. Using your finger or a bent pipe cleaner, see if
the fluid is level with the fill opening. See Fig. 2.
1. Drain Plug
2. Fill Plug
3. If the transmission fluid level is low, check the
transmission for leaks, and correct as needed.
Fig. 3, Eaton Fuller Transmission With a Sight Glass
4. If needed, add the recommended fluid, until it is
level with the lower edge of the fill opening. See
Table 1 for approved transmission lubricants.
26/2
3
2
1
f261460
3. Sight Glass
2. Check the fluid level in the sight glass. When the
fluid level is at or above 3/4 of the sight glass,
then it is at or above the minimum fill level. See
Fig. 4.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
Do not mix types and brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, extreme-pressure gear
fluids, or multiviscosity lubricants.
1. Remove the fill plug from the transmission.
2. Insert a finger or pipe cleaner into the transmission.
02/23/2015
A
B
A. Full
f261461
B. Low
Fig. 4, Transmission Fluid Level Sight Glass
3. If the fluid level is low, check the transmission for
leaks, and correct as needed.
4. If needed, add the recommended fluid, until it is
at or above 3/4 of the sight glass. See Table 1
for approved transmission lubricants.
Meritor Transmission
3. Check that the fluid level is even with the base of
the fill plug.
The correct fluid capacity is established by the fill
opening. If the transmission has two fill plugs,
check that the fluid level is consistent at both fill
plugs.
4. If the transmission fluid level is low, check the
transmission for leaks, and correct as needed.
5. If needed, add the recommended fluid, until it is
level with the lower edge of the fill opening. See
Table 1 for approved transmission lubricants.
NOTICE
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmission.
Approved Transmission Lubricants
Lubricant Type*
Transmission Make
Temperature
SAE Viscosity
Eaton/Fuller†
Eaton® Roadranger® Synthetic Transmission
Lubricant, or Equivalent
All
50W
Meritor
Synthetic Engine Oil meeting Meritor Spec 0–81,
MIL SPEC MIL–L–2104D or E
All
50W
* Do not mix types or brands of fluid. Multi-weight and extreme-pressure gear fluids are not recommended.
† For a complete list of Eaton approved lubricants, and for more information about Eaton lubricant specifications and suppliers, call 1-800-826-4357 or see
www.roadranger.com.
Table 1, Approved Transmission Lubricants
6. Clean the fill plug, install it in the transmission,
then tighten it 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
26–02 Manual Transmission
Fluid Change
NOTICE
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmis-
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26/3
26
Transmission
sion. Overfilling will force fluid out of the case
through the main shaft openings.
Do not mix types and brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, extreme-pressure gear
fluids, or multiviscosity lubricants.
NOTE: Fluid change intervals are extended to
500,000 miles (800 000 km) on vehicles
equipped with a Meritor RM10–115A or
RM10–145A transmission or any vehicle
equipped with an Eaton/Fuller transmission filled
with synthetic transmission fluid.
1. Park the vehicle on level ground, apply the parking brakes, and chock the tires. Place a large
drain pan under the transmission.
sion case. For optimum transmission performance, change the filter each time the fluid is
changed.
4. For an Eaton/Fuller transmission with a transmission fluid filter(s), replace the filter(s), as follows.
4.1
CAUTION
To prevent skin burns from hot transmission fluid,
wear protective gloves when removing the drain
plugs.
4.2
Place a strap or chain wrench around the
filter canister, and rotate in a counterclockwise motion to separate the filter
from the mounting. Carefully spin the filter
off the mount and remove it.
4.3
Apply a light coat of transmission fluid to
the O-ring gasket on the new filter. Fill the
filter with the specified transmission fluid,
and spin the filter on the mount.
CAUTION
To prevent skin burns from hot transmission fluid,
wear protective gloves when removing the drain
plugs.
Place a drain pan under the transmission
fluid filter.
2. Clean the area around the fill plug, and remove it
from the side of the case. Remove each drain
plug from the bottom of the transmission case.
Drain the fluid while the transmission is warm.
NOTE: The filter fills slowly, so be patient to
ensure the proper fluid level has been
reached.
3. Clean the fill and drain plugs.
4.4
For magnetic plugs, use a piece of key stock or
any other convenient steel slug to short the two
magnetic poles and divert the magnetic field.
Clean the material that may have been attracted
to the magnet. The amount of material on the
magnetic plug shows the condition and wear in
the transmission; excessive material may indicate that the transmission should be looked at.
Remove the key stock or steel slug from the
magnetic drain plug.
Install and tighten each drain plug 50 lbf·ft (68
N·m).
NOTE: Eaton/Fuller transmissions are available
with an optional transmission fluid filter. The filter is a remote-mount, spin-on type, and is located between the transmission and the fluid
cooler. The filter bracket is attached to the frame
rail. The filter is mounted in a vertical position,
and should be filled with fluid before installation
to ensure the proper fluid level in the transmis-
26/4
Once the filter has made contact with the
mount, use a strap or chain wrench to
rotate the filter canister an additional 180
to 270 degrees to firmly tighten the filter.
Wipe the filter clean of any fluid after it is
tightened.
5. Add fluid until it is level with the lower edge of
the fill opening. See Fig. 1. If the transmission
has two fill openings, add fluid to the level of
both openings. See Table 1 for approved transmission lubricants, and Table 2 for lubricant capacities. The correct capacity is established by
the location of the fill opening.
6. For a transmission equipped with a fluid pump or
a fluid cooler, operate the engine for five minutes
after filling the transmission, then check the fluid
level again.
7. Install the fill plug, then tighten it 50 lbf·ft (68
N·m).
8. Operate the vehicle to check for correct operation.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
Transmission Lubricant Capacities
Transmission Make and Model*
Capacity: pt (L)
Eaton/Fuller 7-Speed
T–14607A/B
TX–14607B
Transmission Lubricant Capacities
Transmission Make and Model*
Capacity: pt (L)
RTX–15710B/C
26 (12.3)
37 (17.5)
RTO–16210C
22 (10.4)
37 (17.5)
RTLO–16610B
28 (13.2)
RTX–16710B
26 (12.3)
Eaton/Fuller 9-Speed
RT–11609A
27 (12.8)
RTX–11609B/R
27 (12.8)
RTLO–12713A
28 (13.2)
RT/RTX–11709H
27 (12.8)
RTLO–14713A
28 (13.2)
RT–12609A
27 (12.8)
RTLO–16713A
28 (13.2)
RTX–12609B/R
27 (12.8)
RT/RTX–12709H
27 (12.8)
RT/RTO/RTX–14715
28 (13.2)
RT–13609A
27 (12.8)
RT/RTO/RTX–15715
28 (13.2)
RTX–13609B/R
27 (12.8)
RT/RTX–13709H
27 (12.8)
RTLO–14718B
28 (31.2)
RT–14609A
27 (12.8)
RTLO–16718B
28 (13.2)
RTX–14609B/R
27 (12.8)
RTLO–18718B
RT/RTX–14709H
27 (12.8)
RTX–16709B/H
27 (12.8)
Eaton/Fuller 10-Speed
Eaton/Fuller 13-Speed
Eaton/Fuller 15-Speed
Eaton/Fuller 18-Speed
28 (13.2)
Meritor 9-Speed
RM9–115A
20 (9.5)
RMO9–115B
20 (9.5)
FR–11210B
23.5 (11)
RMX9–115B/R
20 (9.5)
FR–14210B
23.5 (11)
RM9–125A
20 (9.5)
FR–15210B
23.5 (11)
RMO9–125A/B
20 (9.5)
RTO/RTX–11708LL
28 (13.2)
RMX9–125A/B/R
20 (9.5)
RT–11710B
26 (12.3)
RM9–135A
20.5 (9.7)
RTX–11710B/C
26 (12.3)
RMO9–135A/B
20.5 (9.7)
RTO–11908LL
29 (13.7)
RMX9–135A/B/R
20.5 (9.7)
RTLO–12610B
26 (12.3)
RM9–145A
20.5 (9.7)
RT–12710B
26 (12.3)
RMO9–145A/B
20.5 (9.7)
RTX–12710B/C
26 (12.3)
RMX9–145A/B/R
20.5 (9.7)
RTL0–13610B
28 (13.2)
RM9–155A
20.5 (9.7)
RT–13710B
26 (12.3)
RMX9–155B
20.5 (9.7)
RTX–13710B/C
26 (12.3)
RTLO–14610B
28 (13.2)
RM10–115A
20 (9.5)
RTO/RTX–14708LL
29 (13.7)
RMX10–115A
20 (9.5)
RT–14710B
26 (12.3)
RM10–125A
20 (9.5)
RTX–14710B/C
26 (12.3)
RMX10–125A
20 (9.5)
RTLO–15610B
28 (13.2)
RM10–135A
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Meritor 10-Speed
20.5 (9.7)
26/5
26
Transmission
Transmission Lubricant Capacities
Transmission Make and Model*
Capacity: pt (L)
RMX10–135A
20.5 (9.7)
RM10–145A
20.5 (9.7)
RMX10–145A
20.5 (9.7)
RMX10–155A
20.5 (9.7)
RMX10–165A
20.5 (9.7)
Meritor 13-Speed
RMO13–145A
22 (10.4)
* For models not listed in this table see the Eaton Fuller website, www.roadranger.com.
Table 2, Transmission Lubricant Capacities
26–03 Manual Transmission Air
Filter/Regulator Check,
and Clean or Replace
f260037a
05/27/93
Eaton/Fuller
Fig. 5, Air Filter/Regulator Location (Eaton/Fuller
transmission shown)
1. Apply the parking brakes and chock the tires.
Drain the air reservoirs.
WARNING
2
3
4
5
6
7
Drain the air supply; if the air supply is not
drained before the air filter/regulator is serviced,
serious injury and component damage could result.
2. Clean the outside of the air filter/regulator with
cleaning solvent. See Fig. 5.
3. Remove the end cap, large O-ring, and filter element from the filter housing. See Fig. 6. Remove
the small O-ring from the end cap.
NOTE: Do not remove, disassemble, or adjust
the air regulator. If the air regulator is not keeping the air pressure between 58 and 63 psi (400
to 435 kPa), replace the air filter/regulator,
which is not serviceable.
WARNING
Wear safety goggles when using compressed air
to clean parts, as permanent harm to eyes could
result from flying debris.
26/6
1
f260052a
10/17/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
Air Regulator
Housing
Small O-Ring
Filter Element
5. Large O-Ring
6. End Cap
7. Plug
Fig. 6, Eaton/Fuller Transmission Air Filter/Regulator
Components
4. Clean the filter element by dipping it in alcohol or
other cleaning solvent. Blow compressed air
through the filter element (inside to outside) to
loosen surface dirt and to dry the element. If it is
not damaged, the sintered metallic filter element
will last the life of the vehicle.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
Wipe out the filter housing with a clean, dry, lintfree rag. Clean and inspect the O-rings and the
end cap. Replace any parts that are damaged.
5. Install the large O-ring, then the filter element
(small end first) into the filter housing.
6. Install the small O-ring in the end cap, then install the end cap and tighten it 8 to 12 lbf·ft (11
to 16 N·m).
NOTICE
A leaking air filter or air lines can cause slow or
hard shifting of the transmission, and eventual
transmission damage.
7. Start the engine, and build pressure in the air
system. Check for air leaks at the filter housing
and air line connections; repair any leaks.
Meritor
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface. Apply the
parking brakes and chock the tires.
2. Remove the element from the air filter/regulator
assembly. Inspect the O-rings in the end cap;
replace worn or damaged O-rings. Inspect the
element for fluid contamination. If fluid is present,
replace the element. Inspect the air supply system for the source of the fluid, and service it as
needed.
3. Install the element in the filter/regulator assembly.
4. Apply a light coat of silicone grease, or an
equivalent grease to the O-rings in the end cap.
Install and tighten the end cap 10 to 15 lbf·ft (14
to 20 N·m).
5. Build air pressure in the system, check for leaks,
and make any needed repairs.
26–04 ESS Transmission Filter
and Boot Inspection
On ESS transmissions only, inspect the filter and
protective boots.
1. Remove the filter from its location on the top
right-hand side of the transmission.
2. Clean the filter with solvent.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
3. Install the filter, as removed.
4. Inspect the protective boots, both right and left,
for tears or signs of cracking. Replace if needed.
26–05 Transmission Inspection
Check the transmission for oil leaks, as follows.
1. Check at the transmission output shaft for oil
leaks. A small amount of oil and dirt accumulation is normal, as a small amount of oil is allowed past the seal to lubricate it. If the rear of
the transmission is wet with oil, the rear seal
may need replacing.
2. Check for oil leaks around the speedometer
pickup.
3. Check the transmission case joints for oil leaks.
4. Check transmission oil line fittings for oil leaks.
5. Check the bottom of the flywheel housing for oil
accumulation. Oil along the bottom seam or
around the inspection cover of the flywheel housing may be an indication of a transmission input
seal leak. Not replacing a leaking input oil seal
will cause clutch slippage.
6. If leaks are found, take the vehicle to your Western Star dealer to have the problem corrected.
26–06 Allison and Eaton Fuller
Transmission Breather
Check
If the transmission is equipped with a housing
breather (see Fig. 7), it must remain clear. A plugged
breather could result in pressure build-up, which
could cause oil leakage.
IMPORTANT: Do not spray water, steam, or
cleaning solution directly at the breather. These
actions can force water or cleaning solution into
the transmission and contaminate the transmission fluid.
If the breather is plugged, clean or replace it. If replacing it, use a correct-size wrench (pliers or a pipe
wrench can crush or damage the breather stem and
produce metal particles that could enter the transmission).
26/7
26
Transmission
Check more often if the vehicle is operating under
very dusty conditions.
NOTICE
To prevent dirt from entering the transmission,
use only clean containers and fillers for the transmission fluid. Do not use fillers or containers that
have been used for water or antifreeze. Dirt, water,
or antifreeze could damage the transmission.
2
Engine coolant in the transmission hydraulic system requires immediate action to prevent malfunction and possible serious transmission damage.
For more information, see the Allison Transmission website, www.allisontransmission.com.
1
IMPORTANT: When draining transmission fluid,
check for evidence of dirt or water contamination. A small amount of condensation could appear in the fluid during operation.
f260007b
11/30/2010
NOTE: Location of the transmission breather will vary
depending on transmission model.
1. Breather
2. Shift Tower
Fig. 7, Transmission Breather (Eaton Fuller shown)
26–07 Allison Transmission
Fluid and Filter Change
Allison 3000 Family and 4000
Family Transmissions
NOTE: When the optional prognostics feature is
enabled on an Allison transmission, the system
monitors oil life and filter life. To reset the indicator, press the Mode button (on the electronic
shift control) for 10 seconds with the ignition on
but the engine not running. For more information, see the Allison Transmission website,
www.allisontransmission.com.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and apply the
parking brakes.
2. Operate the vehicle until the transmission
reaches normal operating temperature: 160 to
200°F (71 to 93°C).
Water contamination is normally characterized
as a milky discoloration of the transmission fluid.
Obvious contamination of the transmission fluid
could indicate a leak between the water and
fluid areas of the transmission cooler. Inspect
and pressure-test the cooler to confirm the leak.
If the transmission cooler is leaking and the oil
has been contaminated, replace the transmission cooler and overhaul the transmission.
NOTE: If only the filters are being changed, do
not drain the fluid.
3. Clean the area around the drain plug and the
transmission fluid pan. Place a drain pan under
the transmission and remove the drain plug. Examine the fluid as it drains.
4. Remove the 12 mounting capscrews (six each)
from the two filter covers. See Fig. 8.
NOTE: A lot of fluid will drain when the filter
covers are removed.
5. Remove the filter covers, gaskets, O-rings, and
filters from the transmission.
6. Lubricate the new O-rings with transmission fluid,
and install them on the covers.
7. Install the filter over the gaskets.
8. Install the fluid filters on the cover assemblies.
9. Install the filter and cover assemblies into the
filter compartment. Align each cover assembly
26/8
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
NOTICE
2
Do not use the capscrews to draw the filter covers
to the sump. This can damage the covers, seals,
or sump.
10. Install six capscrews in each cover, and torque
the bolts 38 to 44 lbf·ft (51 to 61 N·m).
2
11. Install a new drain plug O-ring, and install the
drain plug. Tighten the drain plug 18 to 24 lbf·ft
(25 to 32 N·m).
NOTE: Fluids meeting specification TES 295 are
preferred over TES 389 fluids for use in Allison
3000 and 4000 family transmissions. See the
Allison Transmission website (www.allisontransmission.com) for a list of approved transmission fluids and usage recommendations.
12. Refill the transmission with fresh transmission
fluid. Use only a fluid that meets Allison Transmission specification TES 295 or TES 389. Castrol TranSynd® is a TES 295 fluid available
through Allison distributors and dealerships. See
Table 3 for lubricant refill capacities.
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
Lubricant Refill Capacities, Allison 3000 and 4000
Family Transmissions*
Family
3000
3
3
4000
2
2
1
1
NOTE: Allison 4000 Family transmission shown. Components and location are similar for Allison 3000 Family
transmissions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Capscrew
Filter Cover
Gasket
O-Ring
Capacity : qt (L)
4 Inch
19 (18)
2 Inch
17 (16)
4 Inch
39 (37)†
2 Inch
31 (30)†
* Quantities listed are approximate. Add listed amount of fluid, then perform
a "hot check" and add fluid as needed. Do not overfill.
f261435
09/12/2011
Sump Size
5. Filter Element O-Ring
6. Filter Element
7. Drain Plug
† Add 3 qt (2.8 L) for transmissions with PTO.
Table 3, Lubricant Refill Capacities, Allison 3000 and
4000 Family Transmissions
13. Check and adjust the fluid level using the appropriate Allison Transmission procedures in MOP
26–01.
Fig. 8, Allison Transmission Filter Locations and
Components
with the holes in the channel plate sump, and
push the cover assemblies in by hand to seat the
seals.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26/9
26
Transmission
26–08 Detroit™ Automated
Transmission Fluid
Change and Magnetic
Plug Cleaning
2
NOTICE
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmission. Overfilling will force fluid out of the case
through the main shaft openings.
Do not mix types or brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, or extreme-pressure gear
fluids.
IMPORTANT: Drain the transmission when the
fluid is warm. If not already warm, run the engine until the transmission fluid reaches operating temperature. Shift the transmission to neutral (N) and shut down the engine.
1
03/31/2014
1. Drain Plug
f270167
2. Fill Plug
Fig. 9, Drain and Fill Plugs, Detroit Automated
Transmissions
1
1. Apply the parking brakes, and chock the rear
tires. Place a large drain pan under the transmission.
2
2. Clean the area around the fill plug, then remove
it from the side of the gear case. Remove the
drain plug from the bottom of the case. See
Fig. 9.
3
4
3. Clean the fill plug and the drain plug.
4. Remove the oil pump screen and check it for
debris. See Fig. 10. Clean the screen, if needed,
then install it with a new seal washer. Tighten the
plug 90 lbf·ft (120 N·m).
5. Install a new seal on the drain plug, then install
the plug and tighten it 45 lbf·ft (60 N·m).
NOTICE
Detroit transmissions use synthetic lubricant that
meets the requirements of the MB 235.11 specification, such as Detroit Synth 75W-90. Using lubricant that does not comply with this specification
will result in damage to the transmission. The oil
part number can be found in module 348 in
PartsPro.
26/10
02/21/2014
1. Spring
2. Screen
f261459
3. Seal Washer
4. Plug
Fig. 10, Oil Pump Screen, Detroit Automated
Transmissions
6. Add fluid until it is level with the lower edge of
the fill opening; see Fig. 11. See Table 4 for approved transmission lubricants, and Table 5 for
transmission lubricant capacities.
NOTE: In all cases, the correct fluid level is established by checking at the fill opening.
7. Operate the engine for five minutes after filling
the transmission, then check the fluid level again.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
26
Transmission
8. Install a new seal on the fill plug, then install the
plug and tighten it 45 lbf·ft (60 N·m).
9. Operate the vehicle to check for correct
operation.
Do not mix types or brands of fluid, because of
possible incompatibility. Do not use fluid additives, friction modifiers, or extreme-pressure gear
fluids.
With the transmission at operating temperature, and
the vehicle on a level surface, check the fluid level in
the transmission.
1. Clean the area around the fill plug, then remove
it from the side of the gear case.
2. Using your finger or a bent pipe cleaner, see if
the fluid is level with the fill opening. See Fig. 11.
B
A
11/30/2010
f260006c
A. Full
B. Low
3. If the fluid level is low, check the transmission for
leaks, and correct as needed.
Fig. 11, Checking Transmission Fluid Level
NOTICE
Detroit Transmission Lubricants
Detroit transmissions use synthetic lubricant that
meets the requirements of the MB 235.11 specification, such as Detroit Synth 75W-90. Using lubricant that does not comply with this specification
will result in damage to the transmission. The oil
part number can be found in module 348 in
PartsPro.
Specification
Example
MB 235.11
Detroit Synth 75W-90
Table 4, Detroit Transmission Lubricants
Detroit Transmission Lubricant Capacities
Transmission Size
Refill Capacity*: qt (L)
Small
10.7 (10.1)
Large
15.4 (14.6)
NOTE: Transmission size is represented by the sixth digit
of the model name. An "A" indicates a large transmission,
and "B" indicates a small transmission. For example, a
DT12-DA-1550 is a large transmission.
* Quantities listed are approximate. Fill transmission until lubricant is level
with bottom of fill hole with vehicle in normal operating position.
Table 5, Detroit Transmission Lubricant Capacities
26–09 Detroit™ Automated
Transmission Fluid
Level Inspection
NOTICE
Operating a transmission with the fluid level
higher or lower than recommended can result in
transmission damage. Do not overfill the transmission. Overfilling will force fluid out of the case
through the main shaft openings.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
4. If needed, add the recommended fluid until it is
level with the lower edge of the fill opening. See
Table 4 for approved transmission lubricants.
5. Clean the fill plug and install a new seal on it.
Install the plug in the side of the gear case, then
tighten it 45 lbf·ft (60 N·m).
26–10 Detroit™ Automated
Transmission Air Filter
Replacement
NOTE: The information in this MOP only applies
if the vehicle is equipped with a transmission air
filter.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. Drain the main air system and the isolated transmission reserve air tank. See Fig. 12.
3. Remove the air filter canister, located between
the main air system and the transmission reserve
air tank. See Fig. 13.
26/11
26
Transmission
2
4
3
5
1
4
3
2
09/04/2012
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
f261445
Transmission
Air Supply to Transmission
Transmission Reserve Air Tank
Air Supply to Reserve Air Tank
Fig. 12, Isolated Transmission Reserve Air Tank (typical
installation)
4. Remove and discard the air filter.
01/08/2013
f261450
1. RH Frame Rail
2. Air Filter Canister
3. Air Inlet Hose
4. Air Outlet Hose
5. 5-Piece Crossmember
Fig. 13, Detroit Transmission Air Filter (typical
installation)
5. Install a new air filter.
6. Install the air filter canister.
7. Start the engine and charge the air system.
26/12
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Frame and Frame Components
31
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Fifth Wheel Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–01
Fifth Wheel Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–02
Frame Fastener Torque Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–04
Holland Fifth Wheel Sliding Mechanism Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–03
Premier 690 Coupling Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–06
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–00
Trailer Electrical Connector Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–05
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31
Frame and Frame Components
31–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
31–01 Fifth Wheel Inspection
WARNING
All fifth wheel maintenance, adjustment, and rebuilding must be done only by a qualified mechanic. Improper or incomplete procedures could
result in a possible disengagement of the trailer
from the tractor, which could result in personal
injury or property damage.
Parts are under spring compression. Wear safety
goggles while servicing the fifth wheel. Failure to
do so can result in personal injury, due to parts
ejecting with force.
Fontaine
1. Disconnect the tractor from the trailer. For instructions, see the Western Star Driver’s Manual.
2. Thoroughly steam clean the fifth wheel.
3. Check for cracks in the fifth wheel assembly,
mounting brackets, and mounting parts.
4. Ensure that both bracket pins are in place and
secured by retainer pins and cotter pins. See
Fig. 1.
5. For fifth wheels equipped with bracket liners,
rock the fifth wheel. If it does not rock freely, remove the top plate and inspect the bracket liners. Replace liners that are broken or less than
0.125 inch (3 mm) thick at the top of the liners.
For the liner replacement procedure, see the
Fontaine website, www.fifthwheel.com.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
6. Check the jaw and stationary jaw for mushrooming, and check that the serrations at the jaw and
wedge are in good condition.
7. Test the secondary safety lock latch for ease of
operation.
8. Check for loose nuts or bolts on the fifth wheel
and the mounting. Set a torque wrench to the
maximum torque value for the bolt being
checked, and confirm that the torque is to specification. Do not loosen the bolt to check the
torque. See Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
9. Check all springs to see if they are securely fastened, and are not deformed.
WARNING
Do not disassemble the fifth wheel to inspect the
springs. The springs are under extreme pressure,
and could cause serious injury.
10. Check wedge adjustment.
10.1
Open the kingpin lock, and vertically insert a 2-inch (50-mm) diameter shaft.
10.2
Release the lock by tripping the release
latch at the bottom of the throat.
10.3
Adjust the wedge stop at the end of the
wedge to approximately 1/4-inch (6-mm)
clearance by turning the wedge stop rod
located on the right side of the top plate.
11. Replace cracked, worn, or damaged parts with
new parts. Replace all loose mounting bolts with
5/8–11 SAE grade 8 bolts, grade C locknuts, and
hardened washers. Do not re-use bolts, nuts,
and washers on fifth wheel mountings.
12. After inspecting the fifth wheel, lubricate all moving parts with a chassis or multipurpose grease.
Apply a generous coating of grease to the top
plate to fill the grooves, or depressions, on the
top plate. See MOP 31–02 for lubrication instructions.
Holland FWS1
1. Disconnect the tractor from the trailer. For instructions, see the Western Star Driver’s Manual.
2. Thoroughly steam clean the fifth wheel.
31/1
31
Frame and Frame Components
16
13
12
8
8
7
14
15
17
5
12
12
12
18
11
10
12
19
6
5
15
20
9
21
22
5
8
27
5
7
26
6
8
25
1
15
12
2
3
4
12/02/2010
12
24
23
2
f311134
NOTE: 6000 Series shown; 7000 Series fifth wheels use similar parts.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Wedge Stop Rod Nut
Flat Washer, 5/8"
Wedge Stop Rod Spring
Wedge Stop Rod
Grease Fitting
Bracket Pin
Bracket Retainer Pin
Cotter Pin, 3/16" x 1"
Bumper Spring
Handle Spring
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Bolt, Secondary Safety Lock
Flat Washer
Secondary Safety Lock
Bushing, Secondary Safety
Lock
Hex Locknut
Pull Handle
Bolt, Bumper
Bushing
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Bumper
Timer Spring
Timer
Operating Handle
Bolt, Operating Handle
Bushing, Operating Handle
Hair Pin Cotter
Wedge
Step Jaw
Fig. 1, Fontaine Fifth Wheel
31/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31
Frame and Frame Components
3. Check the fifth wheel plate for cracks. Check for
sharp edges on top; the chamfer should be 1/8
to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm).
6. Check all cotter pins for cracking or damage. Replace any cotter pin that shows any signs of
damage.
4. When the wheel is locked, the safety latch must
swing free and fall freely into position. See Fig.
2.
7. Check all mounting bolts for signs of fatigue, and
tighten them to the proper torque. For torque
specifications, see Group 00. Inspect all angles,
plates, and brackets for cracks or other damage.
1
2
8. Replace cracked, worn, or damaged parts with
new parts. Replace all loose mounting bolts with
5/8–11 SAE grade 8 bolts, grade C locknuts, and
hardened washers. Do not re-use bolts, nuts,
and washers on fifth wheel mountings.
9. After inspecting the fifth wheel, lubricate all moving parts with a chassis or multipurpose grease.
See MOP 31–02 for lubrication instructions.
3
Holland FW35
4
1. Disconnect the tractor from the trailer. For instructions, see the Western Star Driver’s Manual.
10/29/2007
f311052
1. Lubricant Grooves
2. Safety Latch
3. Release Handle
4. Mount
2. Thoroughly steam clean all fifth wheel components before inspection.
3. Check for cracks in the fifth wheel assembly,
mounting brackets, and mounting parts.
Fig. 2, Holland FWS1 Fifth Wheel
5. The lever bar and release handle must be in
proper alignment. See Fig. 3. Compare the lever
bar and release handle alignment to a new, or a
properly operating lever bar and release handle.
Replace any bent or misaligned lever bar or release handle.
1
4. Check the fastener torques on the fifth wheel
assembly and fifth wheel mounting. Tighten bolts
and nuts as needed. Replace missing or damaged bolts.
5. Inspect the fifth wheel for bent, worn, damaged,
and missing parts; replace them as needed with
genuine Holland parts.
6. Using a Holland Kingpin Lock Tester (Holland
tool number TF-TLN-5001, available through the
PDCs as HLD TFTLN5001), check the operation
of the locking mechanism by opening and closing
the locks. See Fig. 4.
7. After inspecting the fifth wheel, lubricate all moving parts with a chassis or multipurpose grease.
See MOP 31–02 for lubrication instructions.
Castloc II and Simplex Series
2
f311140
03/28/2013
1. Release Handle
2. Lever Bar
1. Disconnect the tractor from the trailer. For instructions, see Chapter 10 of the Western Star
Driver’s Manual.
2. Thoroughly steam clean the fifth wheel.
Fig. 3, Lever Bar and Release Handle Alignment
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31/3
31
Frame and Frame Components
bar and operating handle alignment to a new, or
a properly operating lever bar and operating
handle. Replace any bent or misaligned lever bar
or operating rod.
A
1
B
04/11/2011
f310887
2
A. The nut and washer should be snug against the fifth
wheel.
B. The locks should be completely closed around the
kingpin.
Fig. 4, Holland Fifth Wheel Properly Closed
3. Check the fifth wheel plate for cracks. Check for
sharp edges on top; the chamfer should be 1/8
to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm).
4. When the wheel is locked, the safety latch must
swing free and fall freely into position. See Fig.
5.
1
2
3
4
10/26/2010
f310353b
1. Lubricant Grooves
2. Safety Latch
3. Lock Control Handle
4. Mount
Fig. 5, Simplex Series Fifth Wheel
5. The lever bar and operating handle must be in
proper alignment. See Fig. 6. Compare the lever
31/4
f310470
04/11/2011
1. Operating Handle
2. Lever Bar
Fig. 6, Lever Bar and Operating Handle Alignment
6. Check all cotter pins for cracking or damage. Replace any cotter pin that shows any signs of
damage.
7. Level the fifth wheel plate to a horizontal position. Measure the height from a stationary
mounting point (see Fig. 7, item 3), such as the
frame rail to the top of the fifth wheel plate (item
1). Pry up on the fifth wheel plate (item 4) below
the pin boss, and measure the vertical movement (item 5). The bracket connection provides a
9/32 inch (7 mm) vertical clearance to provide
cushioning and to avoid downward pin-loading
while retaining minimum plate lift. If the plate lift
(Ref. A) exceeds 5/16 inch (8 mm) as a result of
wear or rubber deterioration, install new bracketshoe rubber pads.
NOTE: Do not measure plate lift immediately
after a trailer has been uncoupled from the fifth
wheel. The rubber may have taken a temporary
set, which will normally recover after being uncoupled for a short period of time.
8. Check all mounting bolts for signs of fatigue, and
tighten them to the proper torque. For torque
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31
Frame and Frame Components
A
5
1
2
3
4
09/01/2009
04/11/2011
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f310475
Extended Top Plate Lift Height
Fifth Wheel Top Plate
Fifth Wheel Frame Mount
Frame Rail
Lifting Point
Static Top Plate Height
Fig. 7, Measuring Fifth Wheel Top Plate Lift
specifications, see Group 00. Inspect all angles,
plates, and brackets for cracks or other damage.
9. Replace cracked, worn, or damaged parts with
new parts. Replace all loose mounting bolts with
5/8–11 Grade 8 bolts, Grade C locknuts, and
hardened washers. Do not re-use bolts, nuts,
and washers on fifth wheel mountings.
10. After inspecting the fifth wheel, lubricate all moving parts with a chassis or multipurpose grease.
See Maintenance Operation 31–02 for lubrication instructions.
Jost
1. Disconnect the tractor from the trailer. For instructions, see the Western Star Driver’s Manual.
2. Thoroughly steam clean the fifth wheel.
3. Check the mounting for missing or damaged fasteners, and broken components. Replace or repair as needed.
4. Inspect the bracket pin bolts. Make sure the locking tabs are properly securing the bolts in place.
See Fig. 8.
5. Check the fifth wheel for bent, worn, or broken
parts. Replace as needed.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
f311101
Fig. 8, Bracket Pin Bolt Locking Tabs
6. If the fifth wheel is equipped with low-lube plates,
check the plates and replace if damaged or worn
down to the securing bolts. It is normal for outside edges of the plate to pucker slightly; this
does not affect performance.
7. Check the fifth wheel adjustment. Using a lock
tester, lock and unlock the fifth wheel several
times. Make sure that the locking mechanism
works properly.
The lock is properly adjusted if: the wheel locks
and unlocks easily each time and the lock tester
rotates freely.
The lock is too loose if: you feel fore-aft play
when pulling and pushing on the lock tester
handle. See Fig. 9, Ref. A.
The lock is too tight if: the lock tester does not
rotate freely in the lock. See Fig. 9, Ref. B.
8. If the lock is improperly adjusted, correct as follows.
If the lock is too tight, loosen the jam nut, turn
the adjustment bolt clockwise one full turn, then
reset the jam nut. Lock and unlock the mechanism several times to test. Repeat if necessary.
See Fig. 10.
If the lock is too loose, loosen the jam nut, turn
the adjustment bolt counterclockwise one full
turn, then reset the jam nut. Lock and unlock the
mechanism several times to test. Repeat if necessary. See Fig. 10.
9. If the fifth wheel is equipped with a sliding
mechanism, inspect and adjust it as follows.
31/5
31
Frame and Frame Components
C
1
E
2
D
3
A
F
09/02/2009
f311100
1. Jam Nut
2. Adjustment Bolt
Fig. 10, Jost Fifth Wheel
H
G
9.3
If the plungers are loose, check the
plunger adjustment and the plunger
springs for proper compression. Replace
if needed.
f311099
09/01/2009
Checking for fore/aft play.
Rotating tester in lock.
Engage hook.
Pull/push handle fore/aft.
Check for movement of kingpin in lock.
Disengage hook.
Push/pull handle inboard/outboard.
Rotate lock tester.
Fig. 9, Jost Fifth Wheel Adjustment
9.1
Check the bracket for any cracks or missing and damaged parts.
9.2
Inspect the locking plungers for full engagement.
31/6
Check the locking mechanism for proper
operation.
If the plungers will not release, check the
air cylinder or plunger adjustment.
B
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
3. Grease Zerk
9.4
The outboard slider assembly requires no
adjustment. If the plungers are loose, inspect and replace locking mechanism
parts as needed.
9.5
The inboard slider is adjustable for frame
width and plunger engagement. For adjustment, refer to the fifth wheel installation instructions.
10. Replace cracked, worn, or damaged parts with
new parts. Replace all loose mounting bolts with
5/8–11 SAE grade 8 bolts, grade C locknuts, and
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31
Frame and Frame Components
hardened washers. Do not re-use bolts, nuts,
and washers on fifth wheel mountings.
11. After inspecting the fifth wheel, lubricate all moving parts with a chassis or multipurpose grease.
Apply a generous coating of grease to the top
plate to fill the grooves, or depressions, on the
top plate. See MOP 31–02 for lubrication instructions.
31–02 Fifth Wheel Lubrication
To maintain proper fifth wheel operation, always lubricate the fifth wheel after an inspection has been
performed.
IMPORTANT: Lubricate the fifth wheel:
• After power washing or steam cleaning.
• If the vehicle operates in harsh conditions such
as salt spray from road surfaces, or in extremely dusty environments.
• After any service that requires removal of lubrication from the fifth wheel head or components.
WARNING
Failure to properly lubricate the fifth wheel could
result in a possible disengagement of the trailer
from the tractor, which could result in personal
injury or property damage.
Fontaine
1. Tilt the top plate forward (the front of the fifth
wheel is down) and apply grease to each bearing
area through the zerk fittings located on each
side of the top plate just to the front of the
bracket pins. Continue to apply grease until it is
coming out of the back of the bearing. It may be
necessary to raise the rear of the fifth wheel with
a pry bar to open up the pocket slightly and
allow the grease to flow through. A substantial
amount of grease may be required initially to fill
the reservoir.
Tilt the fifth wheel ramps down (the rear of the
fifth wheel is down) and repeat the greasing procedure. Rock the top plate back and forth several times to spread the grease over the bearing
surface.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
2. Inspect the trailer kingpin plate and top surface
of the fifth wheel to make sure each is properly
greased. A liberal coating of grease should be
applied to the complete surfaces of both the
trailer kingpin plate and the top surface of the
fifth wheel.
NOTE: Do not use a lube plate (high density
polyethylene) on top of the fifth wheel or on the
kingpin instead of grease without prior approval
by Fontaine Fifth Wheel. The additional thickness of this material can prevent the proper operation of the fifth wheel and may cause a dangerous condition.
NOTE: Fontaine suggests the use of a Moly
based lubricant such as Mobilgrease XHP 320
or equivalent when applying lubricant to the
locking jaw and wedge.
3. Lubricate the fifth wheel prior to opening and
closing it. Separate the jaw and wedge with a
screwdriver, and grease the full length of their
mating surfaces. Lubricate the top and bottom
contact surfaces of the jaw and wedge. See Fig.
1. Open and close the fifth wheel several times
to further distribute the grease.
Lightly oil other moving parts in the fifth wheel.
4. Apply grease to the top plate. Spread grease all
over the mating surface of the top plate. Be sure
the grease pockets built into the top plates are
full of grease.
Holland FWS1
Apply a heavy coat of grease to the top plate, either
through the grease fittings located on the underside
of the top plate, or by direct application.
Holland FW35
1. Using a water-resistant lithium-base grease,
grease the top plate.
2. Using a light oil (such as SAE 10W or 20W
motor oil), lubricate the cam track and pivot. See
Fig. 11.
3. Grease the yoke tips, locks, and the release
handle and spring; see Fig. 12. Grease the
mounting bracket supports through the grease
fittings. A “low temp” grade grease rated for
-30°F (-34°C) or lower such as Cato Oil and
31/7
31
Frame and Frame Components
Grease #5213, Craftsman Chemical Co. #LTF 2,
Mystic LP-200, or equivalent is recommended.
1
2
2
1
3
3
4
12/03/2010
12/03/2010
f311136
Use a light oil (such as SAE 10W or 20W motor oil) to
lubricate the cam track and pivot.
1. Cam Plate
Fig. 11, Holland FW35 Fifth Wheel, Oil Lubrication
Castloc II and Simplex Series
Use a chassis or multipurpose grease to lubricate the
two grease fittings located on either side of the fifth
wheel top plate. Lubricate the two grease fittings located in the grease grooves on the fifth wheel top
plate. Lubricate the two grease fittings located below
the top plate mounting pins. Lubricate the lock
mechanism.
Once the fifth wheel’s moving parts are lubricated,
apply a heavy coat of grease to the top plate, either
through the grease fittings located on the underside
of the top plate, or by direct application. On slidemount applications, lubricate the slider lock pockets
and the slider bracket.
Jost
Lubricate the kingpin lock using a hand pump grease
gun through the grease zerk on the skirt of the fifth
wheel; see Fig. 10. Apply a light oil to all moving
parts. For sliding fifth wheels spray diesel fuel on the
slide path of the base plate.
31/8
f311135
1. Release Handle and
Spring
2. Grease Fitting
3. Yoke Tip
4. Locks
Fig. 12, Holland FW35 Fifth Wheel, Grease Lubrication
NOTICE
Do not use a power grease gun. The pressure will
damage the lube line.
If the fifth wheel is not equipped with low-lube plates,
apply a lithium-based grease with extreme pressure
(EP) additive to the trailer contact surface of the fifth
wheel.
NOTE: If the fifth wheel is equipped with low-lube
plates, the top plate only requires lubrication at the
new product break-in stage. The low-lube plates require no further lubrication.
31–03 Holland Fifth Wheel
Sliding Mechanism
Inspection
1. Loosen the locking plunger jam nut and turn the
adjusting bolt out (counterclockwise). See
Fig. 13.
2. Disengage and engage the locking plungers.
Check that the plungers are securely seated
without binding. If the locking plungers do no op-
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
31
Frame and Frame Components
Inspect and check the fasteners at the following
locations:
• Air Tank Mounting Brackets
• Axle Stops
• Cab Mount Brackets
• Battery and Tool Box Brackets
• Engine Supports
4
2
3
• Equalizer Brackets
• Exhaust Brackets
• Fifth Wheel Legs
1
11/21/95
1. Rack
2. Plunger
f310371
3. Pocket
4. Plunger Adjusting Bolt
• Fifth Wheel Mounting
• Frame Crossmembers and Gussets
• Front Frame Brackets
Fig. 13, Holland Fifth Wheel Sliding Mechanism
• Front Suspension Spring Brackets
erate properly see Group 31 of the Western Star
Workshop Manual for adjustment procedures.
• Fuel Tank Brackets
3. Turn the adjusting bolt clockwise until it contacts
the rack. Turn the adjusting bolt an additional 1/2
turn, then securely tighten the locking nut.
31–04 Frame Fastener Torque
Check
Frame brackets and components are to be checked
at initial maintenance (IM). Check the torque of frame
fasteners to offset the effects of "bedding in" (or seating). When possible, always check the torque of the
nut, not the bolt head. This will give a true torque
reading by eliminating bolt body friction. When
checking the torque of frame fasteners, inspect the
frame for cracks and other damage. Set a click-type
torque wrench to the maximum torque of the fastener
you are checking. Apply pressure until the torque
wrench clicks. Do not loosen the fastener to check
the torque. See the applicable torque table in Group
00 for torque specifications.
• Radius Rods
• Rear Engine Supports
• Rear Suspension Spring Brackets
• Shock Absorbers
• All Other Frame Fasteners
Any component that shows signs of cracking or other
damage must be repaired or replaced.
31–05 Trailer Electrical
Connector Lubrication
In some cases, failure of trailer cables occurs due to
intrusion of chloride-based road deicing chemicals
into the trailer connector. Once inside the connector,
the chloride-based chemicals corrode the brass terminals and create bridging between positive and
ground terminals.
NOTICE
NOTE: The use of soap is not recommended for
cleaning the electrical connector, as some
soaps may increase the corrosion process.
Make sure frame fasteners are properly tightened.
Continued vehicle operation with loose fasteners
could result in bracket or frame damage.
1. Wash out any existing grease, dirt, and corrosion
on the trailer connectors with electrical contact
cleaner spray.
NOTE: Engine supports on vehicles built from
January 2007 do not require checking.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
2. Grease the trailer connector with a lithium-based
dielectric grease.
31/9
31
Frame and Frame Components
31–06 Premier 690 Coupling
Inspection
1
2
IMPORTANT: Before servicing the Premier coupling, refer to the Premier web site at
www.premier-mfg.com for complete safety,
operation, and maintenance instructions.
3
WARNING
If at any time the 690 coupling is bound up (jackknifed), the 294 bolt MUST be replaced immediately! Do not use the coupling until the bolt has
been replaced. In addition, carefully inspect the
690 coupling, drawbar, drawbar eye, front end assembly, and tail board for damage. Failure to do
so may result in trailer separation from the truck
while in use, resulting in serious personal injury
or property damage.
4
07/13/2010
f310313a
1. Linch Pin
2. Handle
3. Pintle Hook
4. 294 Bolt
Fig. 14, Premier 690 Trailer Coupling
The time-in-service of the 294 bolt located in the 690
coupling must be monitored, and maintenance performed as follows. See Fig. 14.
For a new or replaced 294 bolt:
• Record the date of installation.
6 months after installation date:
• Remove the 294 bolt. Using dye penetrate or
magnetic particle testing along the length of the
bolt, inspect for fractures.
• If the 294 bolt has no damage, install it and
continue to use for another 6 months.
• If the 294 bolt is fractured, DO NOT USE. Contact Premier Mfg. Co.
1 year after installation date:
• Regardless of service duty, replace the 294 bolt
with a new one.
31/10
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
Suspension
32
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–00
Suspension Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–01
Suspension Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–02
Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–03
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32
Suspension
32–00 Safety Precautions
dampened and therefore limited the amount of work
the shock needed to perform.
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
Low-friction suspensions, such as air and taper leaf,
have dramatically changed the shock’s role. Shocks
now play a critical role in dampening suspension
oscillation.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
32–01 Suspension Inspection
Front Suspension Check
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged leaf
spring assembly; replace the complete spring assembly. Visible damage (cracks or breaks) to one
leaf causes hidden damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the visibly damaged part(s) is
no assurance that the spring is safe. On front
spring assemblies, if cracks or breaks exist in the
two top leaves, a loss of vehicle control could
occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an accident resulting in property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
Inspect the front spring assemblies for cracked, broken, or abnormally bent leaves. If any of these conditions exist, replace the spring assembly. See your
Western Star dealer for replacement.
Front and Rear Suspension
Shock Absorber Check
Regularly checking shock absorbers and having
weak shock absorbers replaced will help avoid unscheduled down time and reduce overall maintenance costs.
The role of a shock has changed dramatically. Not so
many years ago, most suspensions had heavy multileaf springs with limited travel and a great deal of
inherent friction. These suspensions quickly self
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Properly functioning shocks can help to reduce the
wear of more expensive suspension components,
such as air bags, while assisting in the reduction of
tire wear. Worn shocks simply cannot assist in providing control over today’s sophisticated suspension
systems.
Quick Test
Shock absorbers function at temperatures ranging
from air temperature to 350°F (177°C). A shock’s
function is to slow the bounce of the vehicle’s
springs. It does this by transforming the energy produced by the spring to heat and dissipating it. As a
result the shock should be slightly warm to hot to the
touch after normal use.
If ride deterioration is experienced and there is a
suspicion that a shock has failed internally, which is
visually undetectable, perform the following checks
within a few minutes of operating the vehicle.
1. Drive the vehicle at moderate speeds for at least
15 minutes.
2. Within a few minutes of driving, touch each
shock absorber carefully on its body below the
dust cover or tube. First touch a part close to the
shock absorber (spring, frame) to establish a reference temperature of metal.
3. All shock absorbers should be warmer than any
part near the shock absorber (spring, frame).
Suspect a failure in any shock absorber that is
noticeably cooler than the shock absorber on the
other end of the axle. Different temperatures
from axle to axle do not indicate failures, but
cooler temperatures on any one axle does warrant removal and examination of the cooler
shock absorber. See Fig. 1.
4. To inspect for an internal failure, remove and
shake the suspected shock. Listen for the sound
of metal rattling inside. Rattling of metal parts
can indicate that the shock has an internal
failure.
32/1
32
Suspension
06/18/2001
f320896
Fig. 1, Temperature Touch Test
f320892
06/18/2001
Fig. 2, Shock With Broken Eye and Tube
Shock Absorber Inspection
There are many conditions that indicate it may be
time to replace shocks. Check for the following conditions.
1. Uneven tire wear (check wheel balance first).
2. Ride deterioration.
3. Excess vibration.
4. Sagging taper leaf springs (this is not caused by
weak shocks).
5. Premature wear on cab, electrical, and cooling
system components.
6. Broken or torn air springs. Shocks will only affect
this if they are broken or missing.
7. Upper or lower mount eye broken and dust tube
broken. See Fig. 2.
8. Upper or lower bushing cracked or deformed
(when not under load). See Fig. 3.
9. Bent or dented body. See Fig. 4.
Misting shocks are often misdiagnosed as failures.
Misting is the process whereby very small amounts
of shock fluid evaporate at high operating temperatures. The mist passes through the upper seal of the
shock. When the mist reaches the cooler outside air
it condenses and forms a film on the outside of the
shock body. When mixed with road debris and dust,
32/2
f320893
06/18/2001
Fig. 3, Shock With Cracked Bushing
a grime will often coat the body of the shock. Misting
is perfectly normal and a necessary function of the
shock. The fluid which evaporates through the upper
seal area helps to lubricate and prolong the life of
the seal.
Many technicians find it difficult to differentiate between a misting shock and a true leaker, which
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32
Suspension
06/18/2001
f320891
06/18/2001
f320894
Fig. 6, Leaking Shock
Fig. 4, Bent and Dented Shock
needs replacing. A leaker will show clear signs of
fluid leaking in streams from the upper seal. These
streams can most easily be seen when the shock is
fully extended and one inspects as far up the main
body of the shock (underneath the dust cover or
tube) as possible. See Fig. 5 and Fig. 6.
Rear Suspension Check
TufTrac Suspension
1. Inspect the suspension spring assemblies for
pitted, cracked, broken, or abnormally bent
leaves, and extreme rust. If any of these conditions exist, replace the spring assembly.
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged leaf
spring assembly; replace the complete spring assembly. Visible damage (cracks or breaks) to one
leaf causes hidden damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the visibly damaged part(s) is
no assurance that the spring is safe. On front
spring assemblies, if cracks or breaks exist in the
two top leaves, a loss of vehicle control could
occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an accident resulting in property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
06/18/2001
f320895
Fig. 5, Misting Shock
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
IMPORTANT: On multi-leaf suspensions, closely
inspect each component of the leaf spring assemblies, including the brackets, U-bolts, and
related parts.
2. Inspect the brackets for cracks in the castings.
Inspect the V-rod tower welds for cracking or
other signs of damage. Also check for contact
between the frame rail and the upper axle clamp
32/3
32
Suspension
brackets. If contact exists, check the V-rod bushing for wear. Check the V-rod fastener torques.
bolts 45 lbf·in (500 N·cm). Any damage to the
valve housing will void the warranty.
3. Inspect the rubber center bearing and spring tip
pads for excessive wear, including de-lamination
of the rubber-to-metal shim interface, and distortion and degradation of rubber.
• Do not attempt to disassemble the Barksdale
valve body or the control lever. There are no
serviceable parts in the valve, and any disassembly will void the warranty.
4. Inspect the V-rods and lower control rods for
wear and looseness.
4.1
Without disconnecting the control rods,
use your hand to attempt to move each of
the control rod ends up, down, in, and
out. If there is any movement, examine
the control rods for wear or damage. Replace if necessary.
4.2
Inspect the rubber bushings for cracks or
cuts.
4.3
Check for any shifting of the barpin.
4.4
Check for cracks in the metal components and welds.
5. Check all fasteners for looseness.
6. Inspect the shock absorbers for oil leaks and
worn rubber bushings. Replace the shock absorbers and/or rubber bushings if wear or damage is noted.
AirLiner Suspension
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged leaf
spring assembly; replace the complete spring assembly. Visible damage (cracks or breaks) to one
leaf causes hidden damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the visibly damaged part(s) is
no assurance that the spring is safe. On front
spring assemblies, if cracks or breaks exist in the
two top leaves, a loss of vehicle control could
occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an accident resulting in property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
IMPORTANT: To prevent voiding the warranty
on Barksdale height-control valves, note the following:
• Do not overtighten the bolts in the Barksdale
height-control valve housing. The bolts should
not be loose, and should not require tightening.
Only if necessary, tighten the valve housing
32/4
NOTICE
When removing or loosening a Barksdale heightcontrol valve from a mounting bracket, always
hold the valve-side mounting studs in place with
an Allen wrench while loosening or tightening the
nuts that attach the valve to the bracket. Because
the mounting studs are threaded into the valve
body, loosening the nuts without holding the
studs can tighten the studs, which can crush the
valve body and damage the valve. Conversely,
tightening the nuts without holding the studs can
back the studs out, causing a separation of the
two halves of the valve body, and possibly a leak.
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
2. Inspect the forward and rear spring brackets for
wear, cracks, and other damage. If any of these
conditions exist, replace the damaged bracket(s).
WARNING
Replace worn, cracked, or damaged spring
brackets. Failure to do so could result in bracket
breakage, possibly leading to loss of vehicle control and resulting in personal injury or property
damage.
3. Inspect the crossmember(s) and gussets for
wear, cracks, and other damage. If any of these
conditions exist, replace the damaged parts.
4. Visually check the air spring piston for cracks,
chips, and broken areas. Check the air bag for
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32
Suspension
rips, tears, and holes. Verify that the air spring
assembly does not leak.
1
WARNING
If damaged air bags are found, do not continue to
use the vehicle, take the vehicle to your Western
Star dealer to have the air bags replaced because
the sudden loss of air bag pressure can cause
loss of vehicle control resulting in serious personal injury and property damage.
A
IMPORTANT: Before checking the AirLiner suspension height, make sure there is no load on
the chassis, and the trailer is unhitched.
5. Park the vehicle on a level surface, using a light
application of the brakes. Do not apply the parking brakes. Shift the transmission into neutral,
and build the secondary air pressure to at least
100 psi (690 kPa). Shut down the engine.
6. Mark the location of the front and rear tires on
the floor, and chock the tires on one axle only.
7. On single-drive rear axle configurations, measure
the distance from the bottom of the left axle stop
to the top of the U-bolt pad. On dual-drive rear
axle configurations, measure the distance from
the bottom of the forwardmost left axle stop to
the top of the axle U-bolt pad. See Fig. 7, Ref.
A. The correct distance for single and dual-drive
rear axles is from 2-3/8 to 2-7/8 inches (60 to 73
mm).
8. If the axle stop measurement is not correct, contact your Western Star dealer to adjust the leveling valves.
9. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension
Inspection."
Chalmers Suspension
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
08/16/96
f320453
A. Measure height here.
1. Left Forwardmost Axle Stop
Fig. 7, AirLiner Axle Stop Measurement
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
2. Chock the front tires to prevent the vehicle from
moving. Place the transmission in neutral, and
release the parking brakes before inspecting the
Chalmers rear suspension.
3. Power-wash the Chalmers rear suspension, or
clean it with a hard-bristle brush before performing a visual inspection.
4. Visually inspect the rubber bushings for cracks or
other damage.
Try to move the torque rod ends using your
hands only, and check for any free-play. If freeplay is felt, replace the torque rod end bushing.
Do not use a pry bar to check for free-play. Use
32/5
32
Suspension
of a pry bar may lead to premature bushing replacement.
5. Visually inspect the walking beam for cracks or
other damage. If damage is found, replace the
walking beam.
6. Visually inspect the restrictor cans for cracks,
severe corrosion, and distortion. If any of these
conditions are present, or the restrictor can is
missing, replace it.
WARNING
Replace all cracked or missing restrictor cans.
Failure to do so could lead to loss of vehicle control, which could result in property damage, serious personal injury, or death.
4. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension
Inspection."
Hendrickson RT Series
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame. See Fig. 8. See Group 00
for bolt torque specifications.
1
7. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension
Inspection."
2
3
Hendrickson RS Series
4
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
2. Visually inspect each frame hanger for any evidence of cracks and rust streaks coming out
from between the frame rail and the bracket.
3. Visually inspect the load cushions for cuts and
swelling. Cushions cut by the retaining lips of the
saddles of frame hangers indicate the cushions
may not be the correct hardness or configuration
for the use of the vehicle.
32/6
07/05/2001
1.
2.
3.
4.
f320906
Front Axle Stop
Number 1 Spring Bracket
Number 2 Spring Bracket
Number 3 Spring Bracket
Fig. 8, Hendrickson RT Series Suspension
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32
Suspension
2. Check that the torque on the number one spring
bracket lock bolts is 45 to 63 lbf·ft (62 to 85
N·m). See Fig. 8.
3. Inspect the leaf springs for worn or broken spring
leaves.
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged leaf
spring assembly; replace the complete spring assembly. Visible damage (cracks or breaks) to one
leaf causes hidden damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the visibly damaged part(s) is
no assurance that the spring is safe. On front
spring assemblies, if cracks or breaks exist in the
two top leaves, a loss of vehicle control could
occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an accident resulting in property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
4. Inspect the cam surfaces of the number two
spring bracket and number three spring bracket
for wear due to high mileage. See Fig. 8. Also
check the inner side edges of the hanger legs for
wear. Excessive wear on the sides of the legs is
an indicator there my be problems with the
spring eye bushing. Excessive wear at either
point requires that the spring hanger be replaced.
5. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension
Inspection."
Hendrickson HAS
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of compo-
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
nents, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
2. Check the torque of the suspension U-bolts
every 24,000 miles (40,000 kilometers). For instructions, see Maintenance Operation 32-03,
"Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check."
3. Visually inspect each suspension bracket for any
evidence of cracks and rust streaks coming out
from between the frame rail and the bracket.
4. Check shock absorbers every 18,000 miles
(30,000 kilometers). For instructions, see Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension Inspection."
5. Inspect the air bags for sufficient and equal pressure. Examine the air bags for wear and cuts.
WARNING
If damaged air bags are found, do not continue to
use the vehicle, take the vehicle to your Western
Star dealer to have the air bags replaced because
the sudden loss of air bag pressure can cause
loss of vehicle control resulting in serious personal injury and property damage.
6. Park the vehicle on a level surface, using a light
application of the brakes. Do not apply the parking brakes. Shift the transmission into neutral,
and build the secondary air pressure to at least
100 psi (690 kPa). Shut down the engine.
7. Mark the location of the front and rear tires on
the floor, and chock the tires on one axle only.
8. Check the ride height by measuring, directly
above the axle, the distance from the bottom of
the frame rail to the bottom of the main support
member. The correct ride height is 4-1/4 inches
(108 mm).
If any problem is found, take the vehicle to your
Western Star dealer to have the problem corrected.
Neway Suspension
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
32/7
32
Suspension
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
1. Inspect the fasteners that attach the suspension
brackets to the frame for proper torque. See
Group 00 for bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
Be sure that the fasteners are torqued correctly.
Fasteners that are not tight can cause separation
of components or premature failure of components, loss of vehicle control and possible personal injury or property damage.
2. Visually inspect each suspension bracket for any
evidence of cracks and rust streaks coming out
from between the frame rail and the bracket.
2. Check the torque of the suspension U-bolts. For
instructions, see Maintenance Operation 32-03,
"Suspension U-Bolt Torque Check."
3. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension Inspection."
3. Check the shock absorbers. For instructions, see
Maintenance Operation 32-01, "Suspension Inspection."
4. Inspect the air bags for sufficient and equal pressure. Examine the air bags for wear and cuts.
4. Inspect the leaf springs for worn or broken spring
leaves.
WARNING
If damaged air bags are found, do not continue to
use the vehicle, take the vehicle to your Western
Star dealer to have the air bags replaced because
the sudden loss of air bag pressure can cause
loss of vehicle control resulting in serious personal injury and property damage.
5. Park the vehicle on a level surface, using a light
application of the brakes. Do not apply the parking brakes. Shift the transmission into neutral,
and build the secondary air pressure to at least
100 psi (690 kPa). Shut down the engine.
WARNING
Do not replace individual leaves of a damaged leaf
spring assembly; replace the complete spring assembly. Visible damage (cracks or breaks) to one
leaf causes hidden damage to other leaves. Replacement of only the visibly damaged part(s) is
no assurance that the spring is safe. On front
spring assemblies, if cracks or breaks exist in the
two top leaves, a loss of vehicle control could
occur. Failure to replace a damaged spring assembly could cause an accident resulting in property
damage, serious personal injury, or death.
6. Mark the location of the front and rear tires on
the floor, and chock the tires on one axle only.
5. Inspect each frame hanger for any evidence of
cracks and rust streaks coming out from between
the frame rail and the bracket.
7. Check the ride height by measuring the distance
from the bottom of the frame rail to the center of
the axle. The correct ride height is from 9-3/4 to
10-1/4 inches (248 to 260 mm).
32–02 Suspension Lubrication
Reyco Suspension
WARNING
Before making any inspections, always make sure
that the vehicle’s park brake is set and that the
wheels are chocked to prevent accidental vehicle
movement to prevent serious injury.
32/8
Front Suspension
Weekly, grease the front spring pins and rear shackle
pins. Wipe all dirt away from grease fittings (if
equipped) on the spring-eye bushings. Apply multipurpose extreme pressure (EP) chassis grease with
a pressurized grease gun until old grease is forced
out. For some applications, like twin steer, the grease
fitting is toward the inside, for clearance. When
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32
Suspension
greasing the spring pins, always raise the vehicle to
remove vehicle weight from the springs.
Rear Suspension
Freightliner
Single Axle
No lubrication is required on a Freightliner single-axle
rear suspension.
Tandem Axle
2. Raise the rear of the vehicle until the rear wheels
are suspended in the air, then support the vehicle with safety stands. This relieves the load on
the bushings and pins to allow the proper flow of
lubricant around them.
3. Use a multipurpose chassis grease, and lubricate
the bronze, ball-indented bushings in the spring
eyes at the grease fitting. See Fig. 10. Continue
to lubricate until grease exits both ends of the
bushing. If the pin will not accept lubricant, remove the pin and clean the lubrication channels
where lubricant may have hardened.
Lubricate the equalizer cap-and-tube assembly bushings by applying multipurpose chassis grease at the
grease fitting until the old grease is forced out from
the cap-and-tube assembly. See Fig. 9.
4
2
3
1
A
2
4
1
05/27/93
09/15/95
320020a
A. Lubricate here.
1. Cap-and-Tube Assembly Bushing
Fig. 9, Equalizer Assembly Lubrication
1. Bronze Bushing
2. Lubrication Hole
1
f320424
3. Grease Fitting
4. Lubrication Groove
Fig. 10, Hendrickson RT2 and RTE2 Series Bushing
Lubrication
Chalmers
Neway
No lubrication is required on a Chalmers rear suspension.
No lubrication is required on a Neway rear suspension.
Hendrickson
Reyco
The Hendrickson RS Series suspension does not
require lubrication.
No lubrication is required on a Reyco rear suspension.
For Hendrickson RT2 and RTE2 Series, lubricate the
bronze, ball-indented bushings in the spring eye, as
follows.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and chock the front tires.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
32/9
32
Suspension
32–03 Suspension U-Bolt
Torque Check
CAUTION
Failure to retorque the U-bolt nuts could result in
spring breakage and abnormal tire wear.
1. Park the vehicle on a flat surface and apply the
parking brakes. Chock the tires.
2. Check U-bolt torque in a diagonal pattern. Set a
click-type torque wrench to the highest torque
value for the fastener being checked. See Group
00 for torque specifications. Turn the wrench in a
clockwise motion (looking up) until the torque
wrench clicks. See Fig. 11.
3. Remove the chocks.
07/13/2001
4
1
2
3
f320910
Fig. 11, Tightening Pattern for U-Bolt Nuts
32/10
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Front Axle
33
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Front Axle Wheel Bearing Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–04
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–06
Front Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–05
Knuckle Pin Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–01
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–00
Tie Rod Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–03
Tie Rod Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–02
Wheel Alignment Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–07
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33
Front Axle
33–00 Safety Precautions
1
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
A
33–01 Knuckle Pin Lubrication
NOTICE
Use regulated pressure when lubricating the
knuckle assemblies, otherwise damage could result to the knuckle caps.
Detroit™ Axles
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires. When lubricating upper and lower knuckle
assemblies, do not raise the front axle.
B
1
06/07/2012
f330272
A Upper View, LH Side
1. Grease Fitting
B
Lower View, LH Side
Fig. 1, Grease Fittings, Detroit Axles
2. Wipe the fittings clean.
3. Apply multipurpose chassis grease, NLGI Grade
1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate grease) or
NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease), until new grease is seen at the junctions
of the axle beam and knuckles. For locations of
grease fittings, see Fig. 1; for grease exit points,
see Fig. 2.
Dana Spicer Axles
Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the parking
brakes, and chock the tires. When lubricating upper
and lower knuckle assemblies, do not raise the front
axle. Wipe the fittings clean, then apply multipurpose
chassis grease, NLGI Grade 1 (6% 12-hydroxy
lithium stearate grease) or NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12hydroxy lithium stearate grease), until new grease is
seen at the junctions of the axle beam and knuckles.
See Fig. 3. Knuckle pins without grease fittings are
permanently lubricated.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
09/13/2012
f330275
Fig. 2, Knuckle Pin Grease Exit Points, Detroit Axles
Meritor Axles
Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the parking
brakes, and chock the tires. When lubricating knuckle
pin bushings, do not raise the front axle. Wipe the
lube fittings clean, and apply multipurpose chassis
33/1
33
Front Axle
1
1
A
A
1
11/21/95
f330129
A. Grease exits
1. Grease Fitting
Fig. 3, Dana Spicer Knuckle Pin Lubrication
grease, NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate grease), until new grease is seen at the bushing
grease seal opposite the fittings. The grease seal will
accept grease pressure without damage, and is designed to have grease pumped out through it during
lubrication. Even if grease leaks out around the top,
or bottom-plate gasket, continue pumping until new
grease is seen at the bushing seal opposite the
grease fitting; see Fig. 4.
1
09/06/96
f320032a
A. Grease exits
1. Grease Fitting
Fig. 4, Knuckle Pin Lubrication, Meritor Axles
2
NOTE: For operation in very cold climates, use
NLGI Grade 1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease).
33–02 Tie Rod Lubrication
1
06/12/2012
f330273
NOTE: Some axles require lubrication of the tie
rod ends.
NOTE: No grease should emit from the tie-rod boot. If
grease emits from the tie-rod boot, the boot is damaged.
1. Wipe the tie rod end grease fittings clean.
1. Grease Fitting
2. Pump multipurpose chassis grease, NLGI Grade
1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate grease) or
NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease), into the tie rod ends until all used
grease is forced out and fresh grease is seen at
the ball stud neck. See Fig. 5.
33–03 Tie Rod Inspection
IMPORTANT: If the tie rod end boot is torn or
missing, replace the entire tie rod end. Do not
replace the boot only.
33/2
2. Boot
Fig. 5, Grease Fitting and Boot (Detroit axle shown)
1. Shut off the engine, apply the brakes, and chock
the rear tires.
2. Check the tie rod boot for cracks, tears, or other
damage. If the tie rod boot is damaged, replace
the entire tie rod end.
3. Grasp by hand (or use a pipe wrench with jaw
protectors to avoid gouging the cross tube) and
slightly rotate the cross tube toward the front of
the vehicle and then slightly toward the rear.
Then center the cross tube between the stop po-
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33
Front Axle
sitions. If the cross tube does not rotate in either
direction, replace both tie rod ends.
4. Position yourself directly below the ball stud
socket. Using both hands, grab the end as close
to the socket as possible, no more than 6 inches
(15.2 cm) from the end. Firmly apply about 100
pounds of hand pressure in an up and down motion several times. When moving the assembly,
check for any movement at both tie rod ends.
See Fig. 6.
If any movement is detected at one tie rod end,
replace both tie rod ends. Always replace tie rod
ends in pairs, even if only one tie rod end is
damaged.
rod ends are threaded in the cross tube past the
clamps and the slots at the cross tube ends.
8. Check the zerk fittings for damage. If a zerk fitting is damaged, replace it.
Some tie rod ends have no zerk fittings because
they are not greaseable. Do not install a zerk
fitting on a nongreaseable tie rod end.
9. Check that the cotter pin is in place. If it is not,
tighten the tie rod end nut to one of the following
specs depending on the axle manufacturer.
For Detroit axles, tighten the castle nut to 120 to
170 lbf·ft (163 to 230 N·m). To align the cotter
pin hole with the castle nut slot, turn the nut up
to 1/6 turn (maximum).
For Meritor axles, tighten the tie rod end nut per
the size of the stud:
• 7/8–14, 160 to 300 lbf·ft (217 to 406 N·m)
• 1–14, 250 to 450 lbf·ft (339 to 610 N·m)
• 1-1/8–12, 350 to 650 lbf·ft (475 to 881
N·m)
• 1-1/4–12, 500 to 675 lbf·ft (678 to 915
N·m)
10/10/2001
f330195
Fig. 6, Check Movement of Tie Rod End
NOTICE
Do not attempt to straighten a bent cross tube.
Doing so could result in damage to the axle. Be
sure to replace the cross tube with an original
equipment cross tube with the same length, diameter, and thread size as the existing cross tube.
5. Check the cross tube for cracks or other damage. If the cross tube is bent or damaged, replace the cross tube.
6. Check the clamps for damage. If a clamp is
damaged, replace the clamp. Replace the entire
cross tube assembly if either clamp is welded to
the cross tube.
10. Check the steering arm bolts for a minimum
torque of 300 lbf·ft (406 N·m). If the steering arm
bolt torque has fallen below this specification,
remove the bolt, clean all the threads, and apply
new Loctite® 680. Tighten the bolt 300 to 450
lbf·ft (406 to 610 N·m).
33–04 Front Axle Wheel
Bearing Lubrication
Stemco front axle hub caps have a transparent inspection window with lubrication level marks for
checking the amount of lubricant available for the
front wheel bearings. See Fig. 7. If the lubricant level
is low, remove the center fill plug and add lubricant
until the level reaches the ’full’ mark. Fill the hub with
Hypoid Gear Oil API-GL-5 with Military Specification
MIL-L-2105C, SAE viscosity 75W-90.
7. Check for proper installation of the tie rod end
clamp to the cross tube. Make sure that the tie
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33/3
33
Front Axle
3
A
1
2
07/18/2001
07/17/2001
f330179
1. Correct Lubrication Level
Fig. 8, Drive Axle Housing
Fig. 7, Front Hubcap Inspection Window
33–05 Front Drive Axle
Lubricant Level Check
f350408
1. Temperature Sensor Plug
2. Fill Plug
3. Drive Axle Breather
4. Lubricant should be level with the bottom of the
fill hole. See Fig. 9. If low, check the axle for
leaks, and have any leaks corrected. Add lubricant as required. See Table 1 and Table 2 for
recommended drive axle lubricants.
NOTICE
Failure to keep drive axle lubricant filled to the
proper level with the recommended axle lubricant
can result in axle damage.
A
NOTE: Follow the recommended maintenance
schedule for draining and flushing the drive
axles. See Group 00 for time or mileage intervals.
B
1. With the vehicle parked on level ground, apply
the parking brakes and chock the tires.
08/17/2009
2. If the vehicle has just been driven, allow a few
minutes for the lubricant to settle.
A. Correct (lubricant level at bottom of fill hole)
B. Wrong (lubricant level below fill hole)
3. Clean the oil fill plug and the area surrounding it.
Remove the fill plug. See Fig. 8.
NOTE: A lubricant level close enough to be
seen or touched is not sufficient. It must be level
with the bottom of the fill hole.
33/4
f350061a
Fig. 9, Drive Axle Lubrication Level
5. Apply a small amount of thread sealant (Loctite®
or equivalent), to the threads of the filler plug.
Install and tighten the fill plug 40 to 60 lbf·ft (54
to 81 N·m).
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33
Front Axle
Eaton Drive Axle Recommended Lubricants
Lubricant Type
Conditions
Eaton® Roadranger® Synthetic Drive Axle Lubricants, Over-the-Road Service
or Equivalent with Military Specification MIL-L-2105D Off-Highway, or Under Extra-Heavy Loads
SAE Viscosity
75W-90
80W-140
Table 1, Eaton Drive Axle Recommended Lubricants
Meritor Drive Axle Recommended Lubricants
Lubricant Type
Hypoid Gear Oil API-GL-5 with Military Specification
MIL-L-2105C
Synthetic Gear Oil
Outside Air Temperature
SAE Viscosity
+10°F (-12°C) & Up*
85W-140
-40°F (-40°C) & Up*
75W-90
-40°F (-40°C) & Up*
75W-140
-40°F (-40°C) & Up*
75W-90
-40°F (-40°C) & Up*
75W-140
* There is no upper limit on these outside air temperatures, but axle sump temperature must never exceed 250°F (121°C).
Table 2, Meritor Drive Axle Recommended Lubricants
33–06 Front Drive Axle
Lubricant Change
NOTICE
Failure to change the axle lubricant at more frequent intervals, when adverse operating conditions require, could result in axle damage.
Refer to Table 1 and Table 2 for recommended
drive axle lubricants.
1. With the vehicle parked on level ground, apply
the parking brakes and chock the tires.
2. Clean the area around the fill plug. Remove the
fill plug.
3. Place a drain pan under the axle. Remove the
drain plug from the bottom of the housing and
completely drain the lubricant, while the unit is
warm.
4. The drained oil should be stored appropriately for
recycling.
5. It is necessary to flush the axle the first time
(ONLY) that the axle lubricant is changed. Flush
the axle with clean flushing oil, then drain it thoroughly. The drained oil should be stored appropriately for recycling.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
IMPORTANT: The axle should not be flushed
with any solvent, such as kerosene.
6. Clean the fill and drain plugs. A piece of keystock
or other convenient steel bar may be used
across the magnetic poles to divert the magnetic
field. Clean the metallic particles from the plug.
NOTE: The magnetic plug should have a minimum pickup capacity of 1-1/2 lb (0.7 kg) of lowcarbon steel, in bar or plate form. Magnets will
rapidly loose effectiveness as collected material
bridges the gap between the two poles. Clean
or change the plugs before this occurs. It may
be necessary to clean or change the plugs one
or more times between lubricant change intervals.
7. Install and tighten the drain plug to 35 lbf·ft (47
N·m).
8. Fill the axle housing to the bottom of the fill hole,
(Fig. 9) using the specified lubricant. See
Table 1 and Table 2 for recommended drive axle
lubricants.
9. Install and tighten the fill plug to 35 lbf·ft (47
N·m).
10. Remove the chocks. Then drive the vehicle, unloaded, for 1 to 2 miles (2 to 3 km) at speeds not
33/5
33
Front Axle
to exceed 25 mph (40 km/h), to thoroughly circulate lubricant throughout the carrier and housing
assembly.
33–07 Wheel Alignment Check
General Information
The axles and wheels are aligned at Western Star
using Hunter laser alignment equipment. Correct
front axle alignment is needed to ensure long tire life,
ease of handling, and steering stability.
on the road contact surfaces of the tread. Also, a
rapid wear on the steering axle could occur usually in a feathered-edge pattern. See Fig. 11.
Feathered-edging more often affects the front tire
on the passenger’s side of the vehicle, and is
usually more apparent on the outside groves of
the tire.
If any of these listed conditions occur, the vehicle
could need a front end alignment.
A
1. Camber is the vertical tilt of the wheel as viewed
from the front of the vehicle. Camber angle is
measured in degrees, and is not adjustable.
Negative camber is the top of the wheels tilted
inwards. Front tires wearing on the inboard side
may be due to excessive negative camber. See
Fig. 10.
A
08/29/94
f400094a
A. Feathered-Edges.
Fig. 11, Tire Wear Due to Excessive Toe-In
Toe-In Inspection
08/29/94
f400097a
A. One side of tread is worn excessively.
Fig. 10, Tire Wear Due to Excessive Camber
2. Caster is the tilt of the knuckle pin (or king-pin),
as viewed from the side. Caster angle is measured in degrees and is adjustable. An incorrect
caster angle does not cause tire wear. However,
a positive caster angle that exceeds specifications could cause vehicle shimmy and an increased steering effort. Excessive negative
caster angle could cause unstable steering, and
the vehicle may wander and weave.
3. Wheel toe-in is the distance that the front of the
wheels are closer together than the rear of the
wheels. Wheel toe-in is adjustable. If toe-in is not
correct, the vehicle could pull to one side while
driving. Wheel shimmy and excessive tire wear
could occur. The tires would display indentations
33/6
For vehicle alignment to be accurate, the shop floor
must be level in every direction. The turn plates for
the front wheels must rotate freely without friction,
and the alignment equipment must be calibrated
every three months by a qualified technician from the
equipment manufacturer. Western Star dealers must
have proof of this calibration history.
1. Apply the parking brakes and chock the rear
tires.
2. Raise the front of the vehicle until the tires clear
the ground. Check that the safety stands will
support the combined weight of the cab, axle,
and frame. Place safety stands under the axle.
3. Using spray paint or a piece of chalk, mark the
entire center rib of each front tire.
4. Place a scribe or pointed instrument against the
marked center rib of each tire, and turn the tires.
The scribe must be held firmly in place so that a
single straight line is scribed all the way around
each front tire.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33
Front Axle
5. Place a turn-plate or turntable under each front
tire. Remove the safety stands from under the
axle, then lower the vehicle. Remove the lockpins from the gauges; make sure the tires are
exactly straight ahead.
NOTE: If turn-plates or turntables are not available, lower the vehicle. Remove the chocks
from the rear tires and release the parking
brakes. Move the vehicle backward and then
forward about six feet (two meters).
6. Place a trammel bar at the rear of the front tires;
locate the trammel pointers at spindle height,
and adjust the pointers to line up with the scribe
lines on the center ribs of the front tires. See
Fig. 12. Lock the pointers in place. Check that
the scale is set on zero.
f330014a
08/30/94
Fig. 13, Trammel Bar Positioning
A
B
f330082a
08/29/94
NOTE: B minus A equals toe-in.
A. Distance at front of tires.
B. Distance at rear of tires.
Fig. 12, Wheel Toe-In (overhead view)
7. Place the trammel bar at the front of the tires,
see Fig. 13, and adjust the scale end so that the
pointers line up with the scribe lines. See
Fig. 14.
f400100a
08/30/94
Fig. 14, Setting Trammel Bar Pointers
8. Read the toe-in from the scale. Toe-in should be
in the range of -1/32 to +3/32 inch. If corrections
are needed, take the vehicle to your Western
Star Dealer to adjust the toe-in. The Toe-in
should be set as close as possible to +1/32 inch.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
33/7
Rear Axle
35
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Axle Lubricant and Filter Change, and Magnetic Strainer Cleaning and Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–04
Drive Axle Breather Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–03
Drive Axle Lubricant Level Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–01
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–00
Two-Speed-Axle Shift Unit Lubricant Level Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35–02
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35
Rear Axle
35–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
2
A
35–01 Drive Axle Lubricant
Level Check
1
NOTICE
Failure to keep the rear axle filled to the proper
level with the recommended lubricant can result in
rear axle damage.
2
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. If the vehicle has just been driven, allow a few
minutes for the lubricant to settle.
3. Clean the oil fill hole plug (located in the carrier
or the side of the axle housing) and the area surrounding it, then remove the plug. For Detroit
axles, see Fig. 1; for Meritor axles, see Fig. 2;
for Dana Spicer axles, see Fig. 3.
NOTE: Some Detroit and Meritor axles have a
small tapped and plugged hole located below
the housing oil fill hole. This smaller hole is for
the lubricant temperature sensor only and must
not be used as a fill or level hole.
IMPORTANT: A lubricant level close enough to
be seen or touched is not sufficient. It must be
level with the bottom of the fill hole.
4. Check the level of the lubricant. The lubricant
must be level with the bottom of the oil fill hole
(see Fig. 4). If low, check for oil leaks (and make
corrections as needed), and add oil to the level
of the fill plug.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
4
3
B
12/07/2010
A.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
f350509a
Front View
Rear View
Axle Breather
Breather Hose
Temperature Sensor Port
Oil Fill Plug
Fig. 1, Detroit Tandem Axle (forward axle shown)
For Detroit axles, see Table 1 for approved axle
lubricants and Table 2 for lubricant capacities.
For Meritor axles, see Table 3 for approved axle
lubricants, and Table 4 and Table 5 for axle capacities.
35/1
35
Rear Axle
4
A
B
1
3
2
07/21/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
f350061a
08/17/2009
f350539
Oil Fill Plug
Temperature Indicator Plug
Oil Drain Plug
Breather Hose
A. Correct (lube level at bottom of fill hole)
B. Incorrect (lube level below fill hole)
Fig. 4, Axle Lubricant Level Check
Fig. 2, Plug and Breather Locations, Meritor Axles
3
6. On non-drive axles using oil-lubricated wheel
bearings, clean the hub cap and plug to minimize
the possibility of dirt and road grime entering the
assembly. Remove the plug, and check the oil
level. If low, add fluid using the same lubricant
recommended for the drive axle.
Detroit Drive Axle Lubricants*
IMPORTANT: Lubricant used in Detroit rear axles must
meet Mercedes-Benz specification 235.20 (mineral) or
235.8 (synthetic). Mobil Delvac™ Gear Oil A 80W-90 and
Mobilube™ HD-A Plus 80W-90 meet specification 235.20.
Mobil Delvac 1 Gear Oil 75W-90 and Mobilube 1 SHC
75W-90 meet specification 235.8. For more product
information, see http://bevo.mercedes-benz.com.
1
2
12/09/2010
f350531
1. Oil Fill Plug
2. Oil Drain Plug
3. Axle Breather
Type
Ambient Temperature
SAE
Viscosity
Grade
Mineral Oil
–15°F (–26.1°C) and up†
80W–90
Synthetic Oil
–40°F (–40°C) and up†
75W–90
* Detroit rear axles do not require the use of friction modifiers.
† There is no upper limit on the ambient temperature, but axle sump tem-
perature must never exceed 250°F (121°C).
Table 1, Detroit Drive Axle Lubricants
Fig. 3, Plug and Breather Locations, Dana Spicer Axles
For Dana Spicer axles, see Table 6 for approved
axle lubricants, and Table 7 for axle capacities.
5. Install the oil fill hole plug and tighten it per the
following:
• For Detroit axles: 30 lbf·ft (41 N·m).
• For Meritor axles: 35 lbf·ft (47 N·m).
• For Dana Spicer axles: 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
35/2
Detroit Rear Axle Lubricant Capacity
Oil Capacity:
Quarts (liters)
Axle
Forward-Rear
15.9 (15.0)*
Single and Rearmost Tandem
10.6 (10.0)*
* Actual oil capacity might vary slightly depending on gear ratio.
Table 2, Detroit Rear Axle Lubricant Capacity
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35
Rear Axle
Meritor Drive Axle Recommended Lubricant
Lubricant Type
Non-Extended Drain
Lubricants
Ambient Temperature
Viscosity Grade
Meritor Specification
10°F (–12.2°C) and up*
85W–140
0–76–A
–15°F (–26.1°C) and up*
80W–140
0–76–B
–15°F (–26.1°C) and up*
80W–90
0–76–D
–40°F (–40°C) and up*
75W–90
0–76–E
–40°F (–40°C) to 35°F (2°C)
75W
0–76–J
–40°F (–40°C) and up*
75W–140
0–76–L
Extended Drain Lubricants
–40°F (–40°C) and up*
75W–90
0–76–N
–40°F (–40°C) and up*
75W–140
0–76–M
* There is no upper limit on the ambient temperature, but axle sump temperature must never exceed 250° (121°C).
Table 3, Meritor Drive Axle Recommended Lubricant
Meritor Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities for Single
Axles
Axle Model
Capacity*:
Pints (liters)
RS–23–160
39.5 (18.7)
RS–23–161
37.2 (17.6)
RS–23–186
47.3 (22.4)
RS–25–160
37 (17)
RS–26–185
46.0 (22.0)
RS–30–185
46.0 (22.0)
RS–30–380
58.2 (27.5)
RS–38–380
53.1 (25.1)
* Quantities listed are approximate and include 1 pint (0.5 liter) for each
wheel end and with the drive pinion at 3 degrees.
Table 4, Meritor Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities for
Single Axles
Meritor Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities for Tandem
Axles
Axle Model
MT–40–14X
RT–40–145
RT–40–145P
Axle Position
Capacity*
Pints (liters)
Forward
30 (14.2)
Rear
32 (15.14)
Forward
30.2 (14.3)
Rear
25.8 (12.2)
Forward
30.2 (14.3)
Rear
25.8 (12.2)
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Meritor Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities for Tandem
Axles
Axle Model
RT–40–160
RT–44–145
RT–44–145P
RT–46–160
RT–46–164EH/P
RT–50–160
RT–52–185
RT–58–185
Axle Position
Capacity*
Pints (liters)
Forward
39.1 (18.5)
Rear
34.4 (16.3)
Forward
29.3 (13.9)
Rear
25.1 (11.9)
Forward
39.1 (18.5)
Rear
34.4 (16.3)
Forward
38.0 (18.0)
Rear
33.0 (15.0)
Forward
38.0 (18.0)
Rear
33.0 (15.0)
Forward
56.1 (26.5)
Rear
36.1 (17.1)
Forward
56.1 (26.5)
Rear
36.1 (17.1)
* Quantities listed are approximate and include 1 pint (0.5 liter) for each
wheel end and with the drive pinion at 3 degrees.:
Table 5, Meritor Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities for
Tandem Axles
35/3
35
Rear Axle
Dana Spicer Drive Axle Recommended Lubricant
Lubricant Type
Dana Spicer
Roadranger®
Synthetic Drive Axle
Lubricants, or
Equivalent with
Military Specification
MIL–L–2105D
Lubricant SAE
Viscosity
Grade
Condition
Over-the-Road
Service
75W–90
Off-Highway
Equipment, or
Under Extra
Heavy Loads
80W–140
Table 6, Dana Spicer Drive Axle Recommended
Lubricant
35–02 Two-Speed-Axle Shift
Unit Lubricant Level
Check
CAUTION
Failure to keep the two-speed-axle shift unit filled
to the proper level with the recommended lubricant can result in shift unit damage.
1. Clean the oil fill plug and the area surrounding it.
Remove the fill plug. See Fig. 6.
Dana Spicer Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities
Axle Model
Capacity*:
Pints (liters)
DD405
31 (14.7)†
DP463P
40 (18.9)†
1
* Quantities listed are approximate. Fill axle until lubricant is level with bottom of fill hole with vehicle on level ground.
† Add 2 pints (1 L) of additional lubricant to the power divider.
Table 7, Dana Spicer Drive Axle Lubricant Capacities
NOTE: The same lubricant that is used for the
drive axle lubricates the rear axle wheel bearings. See Fig. 5.
3
2
08/06/93
f350021a
1. Gasket
2. Fill Plug
3. Shift Unit Housing Cover
Fig. 6, Two-Speed-Axle Shift Unit
2. Lubricant should be level with the bottom of the
fill hole. If lubricant level is low, check for leaks
and have them corrected. Add lubricant as required. Use the same lubricant as the drive axle.
A
07/18/2001
f350407
A. Lubricant level.
Fig. 5, Drive Axle Wheel Bearing Lubrication
35/4
35–03 Drive Axle Breather
Check
Axle breathers must NOT be clogged. Whenever the
axle lubricant level is checked, be sure the axle
breather is also checked. If operating under adverse
conditions, check the breathers more often. If the
breather is damaged or plugged, have it cleaned or
replaced. For the location of the breather on Detroit
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35
Rear Axle
axles, see Fig. 1; for Meritor axles, see Fig. 2; and
for Dana Spicer axles, see Fig. 3.
35–04 Axle Lubricant and Filter
Change, and Magnetic
Strainer Cleaning and
Check
4.1
For magnetic plugs, use a piece of key
stock or any other convenient steel slug
to short the two magnetic poles and divert
the magnetic field.
4.2
Clean away the collected material deposited on each pole. Magnets will rapidly
lose their effectiveness as collected material bridges the gap between the two
poles.
4.3
After the first oil is changed, inspect the
drain plug each time for large quantities
of metal particles.
4.4
After cleaning, install the drain plug(s)
and tighten to 30 lbf·ft (41 N·m).
NOTICE
When operating under adverse conditions, it may
be necessary to change the axle lubricant at more
frequent intervals than listed in the scheduled
maintenance tables. Failure to do so could result
in axle damage.
Detroit™
IMPORTANT: On Detroit axles, the oil change
interval for long haul vehicles can be extended
to 500,000 miles (800 000 km) for axles with
weight ratings of 34,000 to 40,000 lb (15 000 to
18 000 kg) using synthetic lubricant if a lubricant
analysis shows adequate quality. Oil must be
changed at least every four years, and more
often if the axle is exposed to high temperatures
and steep grades.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. Clean the fill plug and the area around it. In the
axle housing rear cover, remove the plug from
the oil fill hole. See Fig. 1.
CAUTION
Be careful when draining the axle oil. It may be
very hot, and could cause personal injury if it contacts the skin.
5. Fill the axle with the recommended lubricant.
See Table 1 for recommended drive axle lubricants and Table 2 for lubricant capacities.
NOTE: Some Detroit axles have a small
tapped and plugged hole near and below the
housing oil fill hole. This smaller hole is for a
lubricant temperature indicator only, and
should not be used as a fill or level hole.
5.1
Fill the axle through the oil fill hole. Lubricant should be level with the bottom of
the oil fill hole. To check fluid level, see
Fig. 4.
5.2
Install and tighten the fill plug 30 lbf·ft (41
N·m).
Meritor Axles
IMPORTANT: If using synthetic lubricant, the
lubricant change interval is extended to 100,000
miles (160 000 km). On axles with a pump and
filter system, the filter change interval is 100,000
miles (160 000 km).
1. Park the vehicle on level ground, apply the parking brakes, and chock the front tires.
3. Place a drain pan under the rear axle drain plug.
Drain the oil when it is warm. At this temperature, the oil will run more freely and ensure that
the axle is flushed.
NOTE: Some Meritor axles have a small tapped
and plugged hole near and below the housing
lubricant fill hole. This smaller hole is for a lubricant temperature indicator only, and should not
be used as a fill or level hole.
4. Clean the fill and drain plugs. Change them if
necessary.
2. Clean the area around the fill plug, then remove
the fill plug.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35/5
35
Rear Axle
3. Place a drain pan under the drain plug, then remove the drain plug from the bottom of the housing. Completely drain the lubricant while the unit
is warm, to allow the lubricant to drain faster.
each pole. Magnets will rapidly lose their
effectiveness as collected material
bridges the gap between the two poles.
5.3
Meritor recommends plugs with elements
having a minimum pickup capacity of 1.5
pounds (0.7 kg) of low-carbon steel. Each
time the oil is changed, replace any magnetic drain plug that does not meet the
minimum pickup capacity.
5.4
Install the drain plug(s) and tighten to 35
lbf·ft (47 N·m).
On tandem-drive axles, it is also necessary to
remove the plug at the bottom of the interaxle
differential housing to drain that lubricant.
4. If equipped with an oil pump, replace the filter.
NOTE: There may be about one pint (0.5 L)
of lubricant remaining in the filter.
4.1
Remove the axle oil filter using a suitable
filter strap wrench (see Fig. 7) and discard it.
4.2
Using recommended drive axle lubricant
(see Table 3), coat the face of the gasket
on the new oil filter.
4.3
Install the filter over the adapter, and
tighten the filter one full turn after the
gasket contacts the base; do not
overtighten.
6. Fill the axle with recommended lubricant as follows. For lubricant capacities, see Table 4
(single axles) or Table 5 (tandem axles). See
Table 3 for recommended lubricant.
6.1
With the vehicle on a level surface, fill the
axle through the oil fill hole. Allow a few
minutes for the oil to flow into the axle.
Lubricant should be level with the bottom
of the oil fill hole.
6.2
Check the fluid level; see Fig. 4.
6.3
Install and tighten the fill plug 35 lbf·ft (47
N·m).
7. Whenever the interaxle differential housing has
been drained, add an additional 2 pints (0.9 L) of
the recommended lubricant directly into the interaxle differential housing.
8. Remove the chocks, then drive the vehicle, unloaded, for 1 or 2 miles (2 or 3 km) at speeds
not to exceed 25 mph (40 km/h), to thoroughly
circulate lubricant throughout the carrier and
housing assemblies.
Dana Spicer Axles
f350119a
05/27/93
Fig. 7, Meritor Axle Oil Filter Removal
5. Clean the fill and drain plugs as follows. Change
them if necessary.
5.1
For magnetic plugs, use a piece of key
stock or any other convenient steel slug
to short the two magnetic poles and divert
the magnetic field.
5.2
Check the drain plug for metal particles
every 100,000 miles (160 000 km). Clean
away the collected material deposited on
35/6
NOTE: If using a Roadranger synthetic drive
axle lubricant, the lubricant change interval is
extended to 180,000 miles (288 000 km).
1. Park the vehicle on level ground, set the parking
brakes, and chock the tires.
NOTE: Some Dana Spicer axles have a small
tapped and plugged hole near and below the
housing oil fill hole. This smaller hole is for a
lubricant temperature indicator only, and should
not be used as a fill or level hole.
2. Clean the oil fill plug and the area around it (see
Fig. 3), then remove it from the oil fill hole.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35
Rear Axle
3. Place a drain pan under the rear axle drain plug;
see Fig. 3. Drain the oil at normal operating temperature, 150°F to 200°F (65°C to 93°C). At this
temperature, the oil will run more freely and ensure that the axle is flushed.
NOTE: Some tandem-drive axles are equipped
with a cylindrical magnetic strainer, located
below the lube pump on the front of the power
divider cover. All rear axles are fitted with magnetic drain and fill plugs.
4.3
5. Clean the fill and drain plugs as follows. Change
them if necessary.
5.1
For magnetic plugs, use a piece of key
stock or any other convenient steel slug
to short the two magnetic poles and divert
the magnetic field.
5.2
Clean away the collected material deposited on each pole. Magnets will rapidly
lose their effectiveness as collected material bridges the gap between the two
poles.
5.3
Inspect the drain plug for large quantities
of metal particles.
5.4
After cleaning, install the drain plug(s)
and tighten to 40 to 60 lbf·ft (54 to 81
N·m).
4. At each axle oil change, remove and clean the
magnetic strainer, if equipped, as follows.
4.1
Remove the magnetic strainer from the
power divider cover. See Fig. 8.
Install and tighten the magnetic strainer
40 to 60 lbf·ft (54 to 81 N·m).
IMPORTANT: The use of friction modifiers is not
approved in Dana drive axles.
6. Fill the axle with the recommended lubricant as
follows. See Table 6 for recommended lubricants, and Table 7 for drive axle lubricant capacities.
2
1
05/27/93
f350017a
6.1
With the vehicle on a level surface, fill the
axle through the oil fill hole. Lubricant
should be level with the bottom of the oil
fill hole.
6.2
Check the fluid level; see Fig. 4.
6.3
Install and tighten the fill plug 50 lbf·ft (68
N·m).
1. Magnetic Strainer
2. Power Divider
Fig. 8, Dana Spicer Tandem-Drive Axle Magnetic
Strainer
WARNING
Always wear eye protection when using compressed air to clean parts, as flying debris could
cause permanent damage to unprotected eyes. Do
not point the air stream in the direction of other
persons.
4.2
Wash the strainer in solvent, and blow it
dry with compressed air to remove oil and
metal particles.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
35/7
Wheels and Tires
40
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Tire Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–02
Wheel Nut and Rim Nut Torque Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40–01
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
Wheels and Tires
40
40–01 Wheel Nut and Rim Nut
Torque Check
CAUTION
Insufficient wheel nut (rim nut) torque can cause
wheel shimmy, resulting in wheel damage, stud
breakage, and extreme tire tread wear. Excessive
wheel nut torque can break studs and clamps (if
so equipped), damage threads, and crack discs in
the stud hole area. Use the recommended torque
values, and follow the tightening sequence shown
in Fig. 1.
After an 8- or 10-stud wheel has been installed, the
wheel or rim nut torque must be rechecked after 50
to 100 miles (80 to 161 km) of operation.
See Table 1 for wheel nut torque specifications, and
see Fig. 1 for the wheel nut tightening sequence.
When checking wheel nuts on a dual disc assembly,
remove one outer nut at a time, tighten the inner nut,
then reinstall the outer nut. Repeat this procedure for
all wheel nuts, using the tightening sequence shown
in Fig 1.
After a 12-stud wheel rim has been installed, the
wheel or rim nut torque must be rechecked as follows:
• after the first load;
• every four hours of operation for a minimum of
five days;
• every 8 to 10 hours of operation.
When checking wheel or rim nut torque on 12-stud
wheel rims, use the tightening sequence shown in
Fig. 1 for each of the three stages of tightening as
follows:
1. Tighten each nut 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
2. Tighten each nut 100 lbf·ft (136 N·m).
3. Tighten each nut 150 lbf·ft (203 N·m).
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
40/1
40
Wheels and Tires
2
1
7
4
5
6
A
3
6
5
4
3
1
5
11
1
8
3
6
9
12
D
11
3
5
4
6
7
2
C
5
10
10 1 8
4
2
2
B
5
4
4
9
2
10
12
E
03/16/2012
6
5
7
8
1
8
3
8
3
1
1
10
6
4
3
7 2 9
2
9
7
F
A. 8-Stud Disc Wheel
B. 10-Stud Disc Wheel
f400057
C. 6-Spoke Wheel
D. 5-Spoke Wheel
E. 12-Stud Wheel Rim
F. 12-Stud Wheel Rim Adaptor
Fig. 1, Wheel Nut and Rim Nut Tightening Sequence
Wheel Fastener Torque
Application
Nut Size
Wheel Manufacturer
Torque (dry threads): lbf·ft (N·m)
8-Stud Disc Wheel With Two-Piece Flanged Locknuts
Front and Rear Wheel Nut
—
450–500 (610–680)*
All
10-Stud Disc Wheel With Two-Piece Flanged Nuts
Front and Rear Wheel Nut
M22 x 1.5
450–500 (610–680)*
All
10-Stud Disc Wheel With Inner and Outer Locknuts
Front Wheel Nut
Rear Wheel Inner Nut
Rear Wheel Outer Nut
Wheel Stud Retainer Nut
1-1/8–16
3/4–16
1-1/8–16
3/4–16
Alcoa
400–500 (540–680)
All Others
450–500 (610–680)
Alcoa
400–500 (540–680)
All Others
450–500 (610–680)
Alcoa
400–500 (540–680)
All Others
450–500 (610–680)
All
175–200 (235–270)
12-Stud Wheel Rim Clamp and Nuts
Adaptor Wheel Nut on Inside Bolt
Circle
Adaptor Wheel Nut on Outside Bolt
Circle
40/2
M22 x 1.5
OTR
450–500 (610–680)
3/4–10
OTR
50 (68)†
100 (136)
150 (203)
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
40
Wheels and Tires
Wheel Fastener Torque
Application
Rear Wheel Nut
Nut Size
Wheel Manufacturer
Torque (dry threads): lbf·ft (N·m)
3/4–10
OTR
50 (68)†
100 (136)
150 (203)
Spoke Wheel Rim Nuts
Front Wheel Nut, 5- and 6-Spoke
3/4–10
Gunite
200–225 (271–305)‡
Rear Wheel Nut, 5- and 6-Spoke With
Non-Corrugated Channel Spacer
3/4–10
Gunite
200–225 (271–305)
Rear Wheel Nut, 5- and 6-Spoke With
Corrugated Channel Spacer
3/4–10
Gunite
240–260 (325–350)
* Torque values given for these fasteners are for lubricated threads.
† Use the tightening sequence shown in Fig. 1 for each of the three stages of tightening.
‡ On front axles with over 12,000 lb (5448 kg) capacity, tighten the wheel nuts 240 to 265 lbf·ft (325 to 359 N·m). Gunite part number W–854 nut with a
phosphate-and-oil coating must be used.
Table 1, Wheel Fastener Torque
For additional information on 12-stud wheel rims, see
Section 40.00, Subject 220 of the Western Star
Workshop Manual.
40–02 Tire Check
Tires should be inspected closely during the first
3000 to 10,000 miles (5000 to 16 000 km) for abnormal wear.
Maintain the proper pressures for carried loads, per
the tire manufacturers’ recommendations, or the tire
pressure label on the driver’s door.
Have the wheel alignment checked after the first
10,000 miles (16 000 km), then every 40,000 miles
(60 000 km) thereafter.
Do not continue to drive the vehicle if tires develop
any of the following:
• blisters;
• cuts or punctures that reach to the cord;
• a nail, screw, rock, or other puncturing object;
• flat spots or irregular wear;
• tread worn to a minimum depth;
• inability to maintain proper tire pressure.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
40/3
Driveline
41
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Driveline Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41–01
Driveline Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41–02
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
41
Driveline
41–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
1
DANGER
2
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
ME
41–01 Driveline Inspection
1. Park the vehicle on a flat, level surface, apply
the parking brakes, and chock the tires.
CAUTION
R I T OR
1
1
f410155a
04/13/98
1. Self-Locking Capscrew
2. Adhesive Band
Fig. 1, Meritor U-Joint Fasteners for Bearing Caps
Due to the extreme load occurring at high-speed
rotation, a loose or broken capscrew at any point
in the driveline will weaken the driveline connection, which could eventually result in serious vehicle damage. Do not over-tighten bearing-cap
capscrews or yoke-strap capscrews.
2. For driveline universal joints with bearing caps,
tighten bearing-cap capscrews 43 lbf·ft (49 N·m).
See Fig. 1, item 1.
For RPL series universal joints, tighten bearingcap capscrews 125 lbf·ft (169 N·m). See Fig. 2.
For driveline universal joints with yoke straps,
tighten yoke-strap capscrews 125 lbf·ft (169
N·m). See Fig. 3.
3. Check the driveline yokes for cracks, and check
end-yokes for looseness. See Fig. 3.
Have any cracked yokes replaced by an authorized Western Star dealer.
If any end-yoke can be moved in or out on its
shaft, or can be rocked on its shaft, take it to an
authorized Western Star dealer for service.
4. Check U-joint assemblies for wear by moving the
driveshaft up and down, and from side to side. If
any movement of the U-joint cross in the bearings can be felt or seen, have the U-joint assembly replaced.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
12/09/97
f410182
Fig. 2, Meritor RPL Series U-Joint
5. Check if the midship bearing and mounting are
loose or have deteriorated, by attempting to
move the driveshaft up and down, and from side
to side. If the bearing is loose on its shaft, or
rattles, have it replaced. If the bearing mount is
loose on the frame, have your Western Star
dealer tighten the mounting fasteners to the
proper torque value. Have the midship bearing
assembly replaced if the rubber cushion is deteriorated or oil-soaked.
6. Check slip joints for spline wear by moving the
sleeve-yoke and splined shaft back and forth.
41/1
41
Driveline
14
15
13
3
9
8
7
16
12
11
1
2
10
6
5
4
3
05/01/95
f410067b
NOTE: Not all fasteners are shown.
1. Transmission
2. Transmission Output-Shaft
End-Yoke (yoke-strap type)
3. U-Joint Assembly
4. Bearing Cap Self-Locking
Capscrew
5. Bearing Cap
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
U-Joint Cross
Bearing Cup (for yoke strap)
Yoke Strap and Capscrew
Slip-Joint Assembly
Sleeve-Yoke (bearing-cap type)
Dust Cap
12.
13.
14.
15.
Splined Stub Shaft
Driveshaft Tube
Tube-Yoke (bearing-cap type)
Axle Input-Shaft End-Yoke
(yoke-strap type)
16. Rear Axle
Fig. 3, Components of a Basic Driveline
See Fig. 4. If the slip joint can be twisted in a
clockwise or counterclockwise movement greater
than 0.007 inch (0.18 mm), have both the
sleeve-yoke and the splined shaft replaced.
7. Visually examine the driveshaft tubes for dents,
bends, twists, or other damage. If any tube appears to be damaged, have it repaired or replaced by an authorized Western Star dealer.
8. Examine the driveshaft for evidence of missing
balance weights, and for build-up of foreign material. Remove any foreign material. If there is
41/2
any evidence that balance weights are missing,
have the driveshaft removed and balanced.
9. For driveshafts with slip joints, check to be sure
the yoke plug is not loose or missing. See Fig. 5,
item 2. Have your Western Star dealer repair or
replace the yoke plug as needed. If the yoke
plug is missing, the splined shaft may be hitting
the plug and knocking it out; have your Western
Star dealer determine the correct driveshaft
length.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
41
Driveline
5
1
2
f410012a
05/27/93
7
3
4
3
6
Attempt to move the sleeve-yoke and splined shaft back
and forth.
8
Fig. 4, Slip Joint Spline Wear Checking
3
41–02 Driveline Lubrication
A
Universal Joint Lubrication
NOTE: Vehicles equipped with Meritor RPL Series drivelines do not require periodic lubrication.
1. Park the vehicle on a flat surface, apply the parking brakes, and chock the tires.
2. Wipe all old grease and dirt from each U-joint
grease fitting. See Fig. 5, Ref. 8.
3. Use a hand-type grease gun, or a high-pressure
gun with a low-pressure adapter, to lubricate
U-joints. If a low-pressure adapter is not used,
U-joints may not receive enough grease.
Using lithium 12-Hydroxy stearate grease (NLGI
Grade 1 or Grade 2, with EP additives), lubricate
until new grease can be seen at all four U-joint
seals. Fresh grease must be seen escaping from
all four bearing-cap seals of each U-joint. On
yokes equipped with a yoke-bearing cap, if most
of the grease being added to a U-joint can be
seen escaping from just one of the U-joint seals,
check the torque on the capscrews at that seal.
4. Tighten the bearing-cap capscrews 43 lbf·ft (49
N·m). If the capscrews were already tight, or all
of the U-joint seals still do not purge, remove the
bearing cap at that seal, and examine the seal
for damage. If the seal is damaged, replace the
complete U-joint.
1
10/20/93
f410050a
A. After grease appears, cover the pressure-relief hole
while continuing to lubricate.
1. Slip Joint Grease Fitting (with grease gun attached)
2. Yoke Plug
3. Grease
4. Half-Round Yoke
5. Yoke Plug Pressure-Relief Hole
6. Slip Joint Seal
7. Full-Round Yoke
8. U-Joint Grease Fitting
Fig. 5, Slip Joint and U-Joint Lubrication
with a plastic or rawhide mallet on the side opposite the dry seal, while continuing to lubricate. If
grease still does not appear, loosen the capscrews at the bearing with the dry seal, to relieve
seal tension. Lubricate the U-joint until new
grease is seen at the seal, then tighten the capscrews to the correct torque specifications. If the
bearing will not take grease, have the U-joint replaced.
6. Check the purged grease. If it appears rusty,
gritty, or burned, have the U-joint replaced.
7. Wipe the purged grease from the seals, and any
excess grease from the grease fitting.
5. If grease does not appear at one seal, use a prying tool to pry the U-joint trunnion away from the
non-purging seal, or tap the driveshaft or yoke
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
41/3
41
Driveline
Slip Joint Spline Lubrication
NOTE: Vehicles equipped with Meritor RPL Series drivelines do not require periodic lubrication.
1. If equipped with a grease fitting, wipe all old
grease and dirt from the slip joint grease fitting.
See Fig. 5, Ref. 1.
2. Use a hand-type grease gun or a high-pressure
gun with a low-pressure adapter, to lubricate the
slip joint. Add multipurpose chassis grease
(lithium 12-hydroxy stearate, NLGI Grade 1 or
Grade 2, with EP additives) until it appears at the
pressure-relief hole in the yoke plug. Then cover
the relief hole with your finger, while continuing
to apply gun pressure until new grease appears
at the slip joint seal. See Fig. 5. This ensures
complete lubrication of the splines.
3. Wipe the purged grease from the pressure-relief
hole and slip joint seal, and any excess grease
from the grease fitting.
41/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Brakes
42
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Air Brake System Valve Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–01
Air Dryer Desiccant Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–03
Air Dryer Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–02
Alcohol Evaporator Cleaning and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–04
Brake Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–07
Camshaft Bracket Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–05
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–00
Slack Adjuster Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–06
Versajust Slack Adjuster Inspection and Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–08
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
42–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
5. Place your hand under the air dryer purge valve,
located at the base of the dryer; see Fig. 1. You
should feel a light air flow that will continue until
the air compressor unloads.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
42–01 Air Brake System Valve
Inspection
NOTE: There is no scheduled air valve maintenance on vehicles equipped with Bendix air
valves and a Bendix air dryer if the air dryer
desiccant is replaced at 350,000 miles (563 000
km). If the desiccant is not changed at 350,000
miles (563 000 km), or if the vehicle is equipped
with another air dryer, maintenance will have to
be performed on the air brake valves.
IMPORTANT: For vehicles equipped with an oilcoalescing air dryer desiccant cartridge, replace
the cartridge once a year, regardless of mileage.
42–02 Air Dryer Inspection
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and apply the
parking brakes. Shut down the engine. Chock
the tires.
2. Completely drain all air reservoirs. Air pressure
gauges should read 0 psi (0 kPa).
3. Close the drain cocks on all reservoirs.
4. Start the vehicle and allow the air system pressure to build while the engine idles.
Note: Some compressors may need to run
above idle to build system air pressure in a reasonable time. If air pressure build-up is extremely slow after two to three minutes, raise
the engine speed to 1000 to 2000 rpm.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
07/10/2001
f422259
Fig. 1, Air Dryer Inspection
6. On the System Saver Twin only, if the compressor continues to run, after 50 to 60 seconds you
will feel a "mini-purge", or exhaust of air, as the
dryer switches cartridges. This is normal and will
recur every 50 to 60 seconds as long as the
compressor is running.
7. When the air system reaches "cut-out" pressure,
the dryer will purge completely. After this, the
dryer will not exhaust any air until the compressor starts up again.
8. Shut off the engine and apply a soap solution to
each connection that contains pressurized air.
If soap bubbles do not appear, connections are
sealed properly.
If soap bubbles appear, drain all reservoirs and
remove the leaking connection. Inspect it for
damaged threads or cracks, and replace as necessary. Apply pipe sealant or teflon tape to the
connection before re-installing it. Repeat the process until all connections are properly sealed.
42/1
42
Brakes
42–03 Air Dryer Desiccant
Replacement
NOTE: A substantial torque, up to 50 lbf·ft (68
N·m), may be necessary to remove the desiccant cartridge.
IMPORTANT: For vehicles equipped with an oilcoalescing air dryer desiccant cartridge, replace
the cartridge once a year, regardless of mileage.
11. Inspect the condition of the O-ring seals. If they
are cracked, crimped, or otherwise damaged,
replace them to ensure an airtight seal. Clean
the O-ring grooves of any dirt or obstruction.
Bendix AD-9 Air Dryers
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. Completely drain all air reservoirs. Air pressure
gauges should read 0 psi (0 kPa).
IMPORTANT: The compressor discharge line
may still contain residual air pressure.
3. Identify, tag, and disconnect the three air lines
from the end cover.
4. Disconnect the harness connector from the
heater and thermostat assembly.
5. Loosen the capscrew that secures the upper
mounting bracket strap.
6. Remove the two capscrews that secure the air
dryer to the lower mounting bracket. Mark the
position of the mounting bracket to the end cover
and mark the capscrews to ease installation.
7. Remove the upper mounting bracket strap capscrew, and remove the air dryer from the vehicle.
8. Place the air dryer on a bench and remove the
remaining 6 capscrews, 12 washers, 6 Nylok®
nuts, and the air dryer housing; see Fig. 2. Discard the Nylok nuts. Remove the end-cover-tohousing O-ring.
9. Clamp the desiccant cartridge in a vise.
WARNING
Clamping the end cover or housing in a vise could
seriously compromise the air dryer’s ability to
hold air pressure, which could cause a failure in
the brake system, resulting in property damage,
personal injury, or death.
10. Twist the end cover counterclockwise to release
the cartridge from the end cover. Rotate the end
cover until it completely separates from the desiccant cartridge.
42/2
NOTICE
Dirt or obstructions in the O-ring grooves can
cause an O-ring failure that will result in an air
leak.
12. Lubricate the O-rings with silicone or lithium
grease, and install them in the end cover.
13. Install the desiccant cartridge on the end cover.
Turn the cartridge clockwise until the desiccant
cartridge makes contact with the end cover.
14. Place the desiccant cartridge in a vise, and turn
the end cover clockwise an additional 180 to 225
degrees to fully tighten the desiccant cartridge to
the end cover.
NOTE: Desiccant cartridge torque should not
exceed 50 lbf·ft (68 N·m).
15. Place the housing over the desiccant cartridge
and align the mounting holes with the end cover.
IMPORTANT: Replace, do not reuse the Nylok
nuts on the air dryer cover.
16. Install the 6 capscrews, 12 washers, and 6 new
Nylok nuts. Torque the capscrews in a star pattern 270 to 385 lbf·in (3050 to 4350 N·cm); see
Fig. 3.
17. Install the air dryer on the lower mounting
bracket. Install the two previously marked capscrews, four washers, and two new Nylok nuts.
Torque the two remaining capscrews 270 to 385
lbf·in (3050 to 4350 N·cm). Install the capscrew,
two washers, and a new Nylok nut in the upper
mounting bracket strap. Torque the upper mounting bracket strap capscrew 80 to 120 lbf·in (904
to 1356 N·cm).
18. Connect and tighten the three air lines. Connect
the harness connector to the heater and thermostat assembly until the lock tab snaps in place.
19. Start the engine, build air pressure, and check
the air brake system for leaks.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
1
2
11
9
3
4
25
5
10
8
10
14
12
10
10
10
10
23
8
6
13
10
24
22
15
7
8
21
20
18
17
19
16
08/09/95
1. 5/16" x 4-1/2" Upper Mounting
Bracket Capscrew
2. Upper Mounting Bracket Strap
3. 5/16" i.d. Lockwasher
4. 5/16" Nylok Nut
5. Upper Mounting Bracket
6. Housing
7. Nylok Nut
8. 3/8" i.d. Special Washer
f421383
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Desiccant Cartridge
O-Ring
Safety Valve
Lower Mounting Bracket
3/8" Capscrew (long)
Check Valve Assembly
Purge Valve Assembly
Purge Valve Bolt
Exhaust Diaphragm
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Purge Valve
1/4" Tapping Screw
Purge Valve Housing
Heater and Thermostat
Housing
Return Spring
Purge Piston
3/8" Capscrew
End Cover
Fig. 2, AD-9 Air Dryer (exploded view)
Bendix AD–IP Air Dryers
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
2. Using a wrench or a socket, loosen the desiccant
cartridge bolt. Then separate the desiccant cartridge from the end cover.
WARNING
Do not attempt to disassemble the desiccant cartridge assembly. Parts for the assembly are not
available and the cartridge contains a 150 lb
spring that cannot be mechanically caged. Disassembly could release the spring, resulting in personal injury.
3. Pull the cartridge bolt out of the cover and remove the cartridge.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42/3
42
Brakes
6
properly aligned and allow the cartridge to rest
flush against the end cover.
2
11. Using a wrench or socket, tighten the desiccant
cartridge bolt 70 lbf·ft (95 N·m). Do not overtighten.
4
5
1&9
12.1
Close all reservoir drain cocks.
12.2
Build system pressure to governor cutout, and note that the AD-IP air dryer
purges with an audible escape of air.
12.3
Fan the service brakes to reduce system
air pressure to governor cut-in. Note that
the system once again builds to full pressure and is followed by a purge at the
AD-IP air dryer exhaust.
12.4
Check for excessive leakage around the
head of the desiccant cartridge where it
contacts the end cover. With the compressor in loaded mode (compressing
air), apply a soapy solution to these
areas, and observe that any leakage
does not exceed a 1-inch bubble in 1
second. If leakage exceeds this measure,
remove and re-install the desiccant
cartridge.
3
7
09/20/94
12. Before placing the vehicle in service, perform the
test below.
8
f420544a
Fig. 3, End Cover to Housing Torque Pattern
4. Remove and discard both O-rings from the cartridge bolt.
5. Using a clean rag, wipe clean the inside of the
end cover. Clean the cartridge bolt bore in the
end cover, and the sealing surfaces for the largeand small-diameter desiccant cartridge sealing
rings.
6. Inspect the end cover for physical damage, then
inspect all air line fittings for corrosion; replace
as necessary.
Bendix AD-9si, AD-IS and CR
Turbo 2000 Air Dryers
7. Clean and inspect the bolt, paying attention to
the threads and O-ring grooves.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires.
IMPORTANT: Use only the grease supplied with
Bendix replacement kits.
8. Lubricate the O-rings, bolt O-ring grooves, sealing rings, and cartridge grooves. Lubricate the
end cover bore for the bolt.
9. Install both O-rings on the cartridge bolt, then,
using a twisting motion, insert the assembled
desiccant cartridge bolt in the end cover.
10. Install the desiccant cartridge on the end cover,
making sure the cartridge is properly seated and
flush on the end cover.
NOTE: It may be necessary to rotate the cartridge slightly until the anti-rotation lugs are
42/4
2. Drain the air reservoirs.
3. Using a strap wrench or equivalent, loosen the
desiccant cartridge. See Fig. 4. Spin the cartridge off by hand and discard it.
4. On the new desiccant cartridge, lubricate the
sealing rings with silicone grease.
IMPORTANT: Only use the silicone grease supplied with Bendix replacement kits.
5. Screw the desiccant cartridge onto the body by
hand until the seal makes contact with the body.
Rotate the cartridge clockwise about one full
turn. Tighten the cartridge firmly.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
2
1
3
2
1
3
f421910
04/16/98
1. Desiccant Cartridge
2. Cartridge Sealing Ring
3. Threaded Base Post
Fig. 4, Desiccant Cartridge Replacement
WABCO System Saver 1200,
1200 Plus, and Twin Air Dryers
NOTICE
The WABCO System Saver air dryers can use either a standard or oil coalescing desiccant cartridge. When replacing the desiccant cartridge, it
is very important to use the same type of cartridge that was originally installed on the dryer. Oil
coalescing cartridges can be used in any application, but require more frequent service intervals
(every 1 to 2 years instead of every 2 to 3 years
for a standard cartridge). Do not replace an oil coalescing cartridge with a standard cartridge, as
this may result in contamination and malfunctioning of downstream air system components.
f421292
08/05/94
1. Seal
2. O-Ring
3. Air Dryer Base
Fig. 5, Desiccant Cartridge Replacement, WABCO Air
Dryers
IMPORTANT: If the air dryer base is damaged,
preventing a tight seal, replace the air dryer.
5. Using a multipurpose, high-temperature grease
that resists water, steam, and alkali, lightly coat
the surfaces of the new O-ring and the dryer
base. Install the O-ring.
6. Thread the desiccant cartridge onto the dryer
base (turn clockwise). When the seal contacts
the base, tighten the cartridge one complete turn
more. Do not overtighten.
42–04 Alcohol Evaporator
Cleaning and Inspection
Refer to Fig. 5 for cartridge replacement.
Midland
1. Drain the air system.
Maintenance is required during both the freeze season and the off season to keep the alcohol evaporator in good working order.
2. Using a strap wrench, turn the desiccant cartridge counterclockwise and remove it.
3. Remove and discard the O-ring.
4. Clean the top surface of the dryer base with a
commercial cleaning solvent.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Off Season
During the off season, drain the unit of alcohol. At
regular engine service intervals, open the drain cock
to remove moisture from the alcohol evaporator. Be-
42/5
42
fore reactivating the evaporator for the next freeze
season, drain, disassemble, inspect, and steamclean the unit of any sludge that may have accumulated. It is advisable to replace any rubber parts
when assembling the alcohol evaporator. Perform
this service just before the freeze season.
Brakes
For camshaft brackets with grease fittings, use an
NLGI Grade 1 or Grade 2 multipurpose chassis
grease.
Lubricate the camshaft bushings through the grease
fitting on the camshaft bracket or the spider until new
grease flows from the inboard seal. See Fig. 6.
Freeze Season Reactivation
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface and apply the
parking brakes. Shut down the engine. Chock
the tires.
1
2. Remove the filler cap, and check the cap tetraseal.
3. Remove the capscrews and reservoir from the
cover.
3
4. Remove the cover tetraseal.
2
5. Drain the air tank, and disconnect the line from
the evaporator outlet. Remove the check-valve
retainer, spring, and disc.
6. Install the disc, spring, and check-valve retainer,
and connect the line to the evaporator outlet.
7. Install the cover tetraseal.
8. Install the reservoir on the cover and tighten the
capscrews.
9. Fill the reservoir with 40 ounces (1183 mL) of
methyl alcohol, then install the filler cap.
10. Remove the chocks from the tires.
42–05 Camshaft Bracket
Lubrication
IMPORTANT: Perform MOP 42–07 before lubricating the camshaft brackets.
NOTE: If equipped with a Meritor extendedmaintenance Q Plus™ brake system, the camshaft bracket will not have a grease fitting.
These camshafts use a special NLGI Grade
synthetic polyurea grease, and do not require
lubrication for 3 years or 500,000 miles (800
000 km), whichever comes first. The extended
maintenance camshaft bushings are lubricated
during the brake reline service interval.
42/6
A
05/28/93
A. Grease Exit
1. Brake Chamber
2. Slack Adjuster
f420011a
3. Non-Pressure-Relief
Grease Fitting
Fig. 6, Camshaft Bracket Lubrication
WARNING
If grease leaks out under the camhead, the camshaft bracket grease seal is worn or damaged and
should be replaced. If this seal is not replaced, the
brake linings could become contaminated with
grease. The stopping distance of the vehicle will
be increased, which could result in personal injury
or property damage.
42–06 Slack Adjuster
Lubrication
IMPORTANT: Perform MOP 42–07 before lubricating the slack adjusters.
Slack adjusters that have a grease fitting must be
lubricated periodically to ensure proper brake operation.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
For operating temperatures between –20°F (–29°C)
and –40°F (–40°C), use Lubriplate Aero grease.
WARNING
Failure to lubricate slack adjusters could lead to
dragging brakes or a brake failure, resulting in
property damage, personal injury, or death.
Lubricate a Gunite slack adjuster at the grease fitting
until grease appears on the camshaft, or flows from
the grease relief. See Fig. 8.
Dana Spicer and Haldex
CAUTION
4
5
Do not use moly-disulfide-loaded grease or oil.
Both the life and reliability of the slack adjuster
will be reduced if this type of grease is used.
6
7
Lubricate the slack adjuster at the grease fitting. See
Fig. 7. Use standard chassis lubricant for Haldex
slack adjusters. Dana Spicer Low Lube slack adjusters should be lubricated with SHC 460 synthetic
lubricant.
3
8
2
9
1
1
10
f420653a
10/27/93
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2
7/16" Adjusting Nut
Grease Fitting
Boot
Link
Brake Chamber Piston
Rod
6.
7.
8.
9.
Clevis
1/2" Clevis Pin
1/4" Clevis Pin
Grease Relief
Opening
10. Slack Adjuster Spline
Fig. 8, Gunite Slack Adjuster
02/01/2001
f421649a
1. Grease Fitting
2. Slack Adjuster
Fig. 7, Dana Spicer Slack Adjuster
Gunite
For operating temperatures of –20°F (–29°C) and
higher, use Texaco Multifak EP-2 or Mobil Grease
No. 77.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
The newest Gunite slack adjusters are produced
without a grease relief. During lubrication with a
grease gun, the lubricant is forced through the drilled
worm wheel onto the camshaft. Lubricate the slack
adjuster at the grease fitting until grease appears on
the camshaft. See Fig. 8.
Meritor
NOTE: If equipped with an extendedmaintenance Q Plus™ brake system, the slack
adjuster will not have a grease fitting. These
42/7
42
Brakes
slack adjusters use a special NLGI Grade synthetic polyurea grease, and do not require lubrication for 3 years or 500,000 miles (800 000
km), whichever comes first. The extendedmaintenance slack adjusters are lubricated during the brake reline service interval.
For slack adjusters with grease fittings and for operating temperatures above –40°F (–40°C), use a
NLGI Grade 1 clay-base grease or a NLGI Grade 1
and 2 lithium-base grease.
For slack adjusters with grease fittings and for operating temperatures below –40°F (–40°C) and above
–65°F (–54°C), use a NLGI Grade 2 synthetic oil,
clay-base grease.
Lubricate the slack adjuster at the grease fitting until
grease is forced past the pressure-relief capscrew or
past the gear splines around the inboard snap ring.
See Fig. 9.
1
2
42–07 Brake Inspection
IMPORTANT: This procedure should be performed prior to lubrication of the brake components.
Parking Brake Operational Check
CAUTION
Perform the following check in a clear safe area. If
the parking brakes fail to hold the vehicle, personal injury or property damage may result.
1. With the engine running, and air pressure at cutout pressure, set the parking brake.
2. Put the vehicle in the lowest gear and gently attempt to move it forward. The vehicle should not
move. If the vehicle moves, the parking brakes
are not operating correctly and must be repaired
before the vehicle is returned to service. See
Group 42 of the Western Star Workshop Manual
for repair procedures.
Brake Component Inspection
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake, and chock the tires. Once the tires are
chocked, release the parking brake.
3
4
WARNING
5
7
10/20/93
6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f420012a
Brake Chamber
Clevis
Actuator Rod
Boot
Pressure-Relief Capscrew, Gasket, Pawl Spring,
and Pawl
6. Manual Adjusting Nut
7. Grease Fitting (or plug)
Fig. 9, Meritor Slack Adjuster
Manually adjusting an automatic slack adjuster to
bring the pushrod stroke within legal limits is
likely masking a mechanical problem. Adjustment
is not repairing. Before adjusting an automatic
slack adjuster, troubleshoot the foundation brake
system and inspect it for worn or damaged components. Improperly maintaining the vehicle braking system may lead to brake failure, resulting in
property damage, personal injury, or death.
2. With the engine off, and 100 psi (689 kPa) of air
tank pressure, have an assistant apply and hold
an 80 to 90 psi (550 to 620 kPa) brake application.
3. Check to see if the colored over-stroke band on
each brake chamber pushrod is exposed.
If a band shows, the stroke is too long. Check
the foundation brake components for wear or
damage, and repair as needed. See Group 42 of
42/8
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
5. Start the engine and build air pressure to at least
100 psi (689 kPa). Shut down the engine.
the Western Star Workshop Manual for inspection, troubleshooting, and repair procedures.
4. Measure the applied chamber stroke. See
Table 1 for the proper stroke for the type of
chamber being used. If the stroke is too short,
the brakes may drag or will not fully apply. Check
for improper operation or adjustment of the slack
adjuster. See Group 42 of the Western Star
Workshop Manual for inspection and troubleshooting procedures.
6. Check all of the foundation brake components for
damage, wear, and loose or missing parts. Repair as needed. See Group 42 of the Western
Star Workshop Manual for repair procedures.
Brake Chamber Stroke Specifications
Chamber
Type*
Manufacturer
Size†
9
12
Max Applied Stroke: inch (mm)
1-3/8 (35)
16
Standard Stroke
20
1-3/4 (45)
24
Gunite
30
2 (51)
36‡
2-1/4 (57)
16
20
Long Stroke
24 (2-1/2 inch rated stroke)
24 (3-inch rated stroke)
30
12
Standard Stroke
Haldex
2 (51)
2-1/2 (64)
1-3/8 (35)
16
20
1-3/4 (44)
24
2-1/2-Inch Extended Stroke
24
2 (51)
3-Inch Extended Stroke
24
2-1/2 (64)
Standard Stroke
30
2 (51)
Long Stroke
30
2-1/2 (64)
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42/9
42
Brakes
Brake Chamber Stroke Specifications
Chamber
Type*
Manufacturer
Max Applied Stroke: inch (mm)
Size†
9
Less than 1-1/2 (38)
12
Standard Stroke
16
Less than 1-3/4 (44)
20
Meritor
24
Long Stroke
24
Standard Stroke
30
Less than 1-7/8 (48)
Less than 2 (51)
* Long stroke design is indicated by a tag, or embossing, on the brake chamber.
† Specifications are relative to a brake application with 80 to 90 psi (550 to 620 kPa) air pressure in the brake chambers.
‡ If type 36 chamber is used, slack length should be less than 6 inches.
Table 1, Brake Chamber Stroke Specifications
42–08 Versajust Slack Adjuster
Inspection and
Lubrication
IMPORTANT: Perform the Brake Inspection
maintenance operation before lubricating the
slack adjusters.
1. Visually check for physical damage, such as broken air lines and broken or missing parts.
2. Using a quality multipurpose chassis lubricant,
NLGI Grade 2, lubricate the slack adjuster
through the grease fitting until clean lubricant
flows from the grease relief opening in the boot.
any components are damaged, repair or replace
them as necessary.
3. Measure the brake actuator pushrod stroke while
making an 80 to 90 psi (552 to 621 kPa) brake
application. Actuator pushrod strokes should not
exceed the values shown in Table 2 and
Table 3. To achieve the correct pressure for this
test, build the system pressure up to a 100 psi
(690 kPa). Shut down the engine. Fan the
brakes to attain a 90 to 95 psi (621 to 655 kPa)
reading. Make and hold a full brake application
while the strokes are checked.
Actuator Stroke–Standard Stroke
Brake Actuator Size
Recommended Maximum
Operating Stroke (Inches)
30
2
24
1-3/4
20
1-3/4
16
1-3/4
12
1-3/8
3. Perform the "In Service Inspection."
In Service Inspection
1. Apply and release the brakes several times while
observing the slack adjuster. The slack adjuster
and brake actuator should move freely, without
binding or interference, and should return to the
full released position. Observe the looseness that
exists between the clevis and adapter bushing
and the yoke and link pins and their mating parts
(clevis, body, link). Replace these parts if looseness appears excessive. Make certain the brake
actuator pushrod jam nut is tightened securely.
2. Inspect the slack adjuster for physical damage,
paying attention to the link, boot, and clevis. If
42/10
Table 2, Actuator Stroke–Standard Stroke
Actuator Stroke–Long Stroke
Brake Actuator Size
Recommended Maximum
Operating Stroke (Inches)
30 Long Stroke
2-1/2
24 Long
2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42
Brakes
Actuator Stroke–Long Stroke
Brake Actuator Size
Recommended Maximum
Operating Stroke (Inches)
24 Long Stroke
2-1/2
20 Long
2
16 Long
2
Table 3, Actuator Stroke–Long Stroke
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
42/11
Steering
46
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Drag Link Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–01
Drag Link Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–02
Power Steering Fluid and Filter Changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–03
Power Steering Gear Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–05
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–00
Steering Shaft Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–04
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
46
Steering
46–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
46–01 Drag Link Inspection
WARNING
All steering system components are critical for
safe operation of the vehicle. Failure to maintain
the steering system as specified may result in
loss of steering control, which could lead to personal injury and property damage.
Have someone turn the steering wheel from left to
right. Check for movement between the ball stud end
at both the pitman arm and the steering arm. Also
check if the ball stud nut is loose.
If the ball stud end is loose, replace the drag link. If
the ball stud nut is loose, replace the nut and cotter
key. See Group 00 for proper torque specifications.
Inspect the boot of the drag link at both the pitman
arm and the steering arm end for cracks, splits, or
other damage. Replace the boot as needed.
Grasp the drag link near the pitman arm end, then
push and pull laterally to check for axial movement in
the ball stud end. If it is loose, replace the drag link.
If there is 1/8-inch (3-mm) movement or more, do not
drive the vehicle until the drag link has been replaced.
46–02 Drag Link Lubrication
1. Using a clean rag, wipe all dirt from both drag
link grease fittings. See Fig. 1.
2. Using a pressure gun, apply clean grease at the
grease fittings until old grease is forced out of
the socket. Use multipurpose chassis grease
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
11/27/95
1
2
f461072
1. Grease Fitting at Pitman Arm
2. Grease Fitting at Axle Steering Arm
Fig. 1, Drag Link
NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease) or NLGI Grade 1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium
stearate grease); Grade 2 is preferred.
46–03 Power Steering Fluid
and Filter Changing
WARNING
Fill only with approved clean fluid. Failure to use
the proper fluid could cause seal deterioration and
leaks. Fluid leaks could eventually cause loss of
power steering assist. This could lead to an accident resulting in personal injury or property damage. Wear eye protection when changing the fluid
and filter.
Cylindrical Reservoir, Bottom
Return Port (Fig. 2)
1. Set the parking brake and chock the rear tires.
2. Raise the front of the vehicle and support it with
jack stands.
3. Put the vehicle in neutral.
4. Open the hood.
5. Wipe down the area around the steering gear
and related hydraulic lines.
6. Place a drain pan under the steering gear and
power steering reservoir.
7. Remove the pressure line and return hose (see
Fig. 3) from the steering gear and allow the oil to
drain.
46/1
46
Steering
9. Remove the filter. It may be necessary to wiggle
the filter to remove it from its base.
10. Turn the steering wheel from full left to full right
three times to purge oil from the gear.
11. Connect the pressure line and return hose to the
steering gear.
12. Install a new filter into the reservoir. Position the
new filter with the larger opening up.
1
13. Clean the reservoir cover and gasket. Inspect the
O-ring and the cover for cracks, deformities, or
damage. Replace the gasket seal or cover as
needed.
2
14. Install the reservoir cover along with the spring
and the top plate. Make sure the center of the
top plate fits into the opening at the top of the
filter.
15. Place the clamp over the flanges of the cover
and shell assembly, then tighten 25 to 30 lbf·ft
(35 to 40 N·m).
02/10/2015
f462251
1. Pressure Line
2. Return Hose
Fig. 2, Power Steering Reservoir, Side View
16. Fill the reservoir with an approved power steering fluid. See Table 1 for approved power steering fluids.
Approved Power Steering Fluids
Fluid Type
Approved Fluid
Dexron® III
Automatic Transmission Fluid
Super ATF
TES-389
Table 1, Approved Power Steering Fluids
1
17. With the engine off, turn the steering wheel from
full left to full right three times. Add more power
steering fluid as needed.
2
02/10/2015
f462251a
1. Pressure Line
2. Return Hose
Fig. 3, Power Steering Reservoir, Top View
18. Start the engine and operate the engine at idle.
Check the power steering fluid and add more
fluid if needed.
19. Turn the steering wheel from full left to full right
several times. Add fluid to the reservoir as
needed to maintain the fluid level.
20. Shut down the engine.
8. Loosen the clamp, and remove the cover along
with the filter spring and the filter top plate.
21. Raise the vehicle, remove the jack stands, and
lower the vehicle.
Do not use pliers to aid in removal of the filter;
pliers could cause metal chips to enter the
steering system.
Flat Reservoir, Top Return Port
46/2
1. Set the parking brake and chock the rear tires.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
46
Steering
MAX HOT lines. See Fig. 4. See Table 1 for approved power steering fluids.
2
1
12. Apply a thin film of power steering fluid on the
gasket of the new filter, then attach the filter to
the filter cap and install the cap on the reservoir.
• For filter caps with a separate retaining
ring, hand-tighten the filter, then turn it an
additional 1/4 turn.
3
• For one-piece filter caps, the filter is not
threaded.
13. With the engine off, turn the steering wheel from
full left to full right three times. Add more power
steering fluid as needed.
4
02/03/2015
f462253a
1. Reservoir
2. Filter Cap
3. Pressure Line
4. Return Hose
14. Start the engine and operate the engine at idle.
Check that the power steering fluid level is between the MIN COLD and MAX HOT lines. Add
more power steering fluid if needed.
2. Raise the front of the vehicle and support it with
jack stands.
15. Turn the steering wheel from full left to full right
several times. Add fluid to the reservoir as
needed to maintain the fluid level between the
MIN COLD and MAX HOT lines.
3. Put the vehicle in neutral.
16. Shut down the engine.
4. Open the hood.
17. Raise the vehicle, remove the jack stands, and
lower the vehicle.
Fig. 4, Power Steering Reservoir
5. Wipe down the area around the steering gear
and related hydraulic lines.
6. Place a drain pan under the steering gear and
power steering reservoir.
7. Remove the pressure line and return hose (see
Fig. 4) from the steering gear and allow the oil to
drain.
8. Remove the filter cap from the reservoir, then
remove and discard the filter.
• Filter caps with a separate retaining ring
have a threaded connection with the filter.
Unscrew the filter and discard it.
• One-piece filter caps do not have a
threaded fit with the filter. Pull off the filter
and discard it.
46–04 Steering Shaft
Lubrication
IMPORTANT: Only steering shafts with zerk fittings should be lubricated. Shafts without zerk
fittings come with grease sealed inside and
should not be greased.
IMPORTANT: Some vehicles may have additional U-joints on the steering column or stubshaft. These should also be lubricated at this
interval.
1. Open the hood and locate the lower steering
shaft U-joint grease fitting.
9. Turn the steering wheel from full left to full right
three times to purge oil from the gear.
2. Using a clean rag, wipe all dirt from the grease
fitting.
10. Connect the pressure line and return hose to the
steering gear.
3. Using a pressure gun, apply clean grease at the
grease fitting until old grease is forced out of the
seals. Use multipurpose chassis grease NLGI
Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate grease)
11. Fill the reservoir with an approved power steering fluid to the line between the MIN COLD and
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
46/3
46
Steering
or NLGI Grade 1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease); Grade 2 is preferred. See Fig. 5.
4. Locate the upper steering shaft slip joint and
U-joint grease fittings.
5. Using a clean rag, wipe all dirt from the grease
fittings.
6. Using a pressure gun, apply clean grease at
both grease fittings until old grease is forced out
of the seals. Use multipurpose chassis grease
NLGI Grade 2 (8% 12-hydroxy lithium stearate
grease) or NLGI Grade 1 (6% 12-hydroxy lithium
stearate grease); Grade 2 is preferred. See
Fig. 6.
1
2
3
08/16/2001
2
f461912
1. Slip Joint Grease Fitting
2. U-Joint Grease Fitting
Fig. 6, Steering Shaft, Inside the Cab
1
Using a hand-type grease gun, apply NLGI Grade 2
or 3 multipurpose chassis grease until it starts to
come out past the sector shaft seal.
1
08/16/2001
f461913
1. Steering Gear
2. U-Joint Grease Fitting
3. Steering Shaft
Fig. 5, Steering Shaft, Under-Hood
46–05 Power Steering Gear
Lubrication
TRW TAS Series
CAUTION
Apply grease to the sector shaft only with a handtype grease gun. See Fig. 7. Use of a highpressure power grease gun will supply grease too
quickly and could affect the high pressure seal,
contaminating the hydraulic fluid.
46/4
11/28/95
f461071
1. Sector Shaft Grease Fitting
Fig. 7, TRW TAS Series Sector Shaft Lubrication
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Fuel
47
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Fuel Filter Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–01
Fuel Separator Sight Bowl Cleaning and Element Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–02
Fuel Tank Band Nut Tightening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–03
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
47
Fuel
47–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
47–01 Fuel Filter Replacement
Refer to the engine manufacturer’s service manual
for removal and installation procedures.
47–02 Fuel Separator Sight
Bowl Cleaning and
Element Replacement
Alliance/Racor
The only maintenance necessary on an Alliance or
Racor fuel/water separator is to replace the filter
element.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires and open the hood.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel/water
separator.
IMPORTANT: When draining fluid from a
fuel/water separator, drain the fluid into an appropriate container, and dispose of it properly.
Many jurisdictions now issue fines for draining
fuel/water separators onto the ground.
3. Turn the drain plug counterclockwise to open it.
4. When the fuel/water separator is completely
drained, turn the drain plug clockwise to close it.
WARNING
Diesel fuel is flammable and can ignite if exposed
to an open flame, intense heat, or other ignition
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
source. Do not drain fuel near, or expose fuel
vapor to open flame or intense heat. Exposure to
open flame or intense heat could start a fire, possibly resulting in personal injury or property damage. When working on a fuel system, have a fire
extinguisher within easy reach.
5. Disconnect the wiring harnesses from the waterin-fuel sensor and, if equipped, the heater. See
Fig. 1.
6. Spin off the sight bowl and the filter element as a
unit. Remove the O-ring from the top of the filter
element.
7. Remove the sight bowl from the filter element.
Clean the O-ring seating surface.
8. Apply a thin coating of clean diesel fuel or engine oil to the O-rings.
9. Spin the sight bowl onto the new filter element
and then fill the filter element and sight bowl assembly with clean diesel fuel.
10. Spin the entire assembly onto the mounting head
and tighten by hand until snug.
11. Connect the wiring harnesses for the water-infuel sensor and, if equipped, the heater.
12. Prime the fuel/water separator, as follows.
If equipped with a primer pump, operate the
primer pump until fuel comes out at the drain.
If not equipped with a primer pump, fill the filter
element and sight bowl with clean fuel and crank
the engine until it starts.
13. Start the engine and check for leaks.
14. Shut down the engine and repair any leaks.
DAVCO Fuel Pro® 382 and 482,
and Diesel Pro® 243
NOTE: In the event of an emergency, when the
filter needs replacement but a DAVCO filter is
not available, a temporary filter can be used;
see Chapter 21 of the Western Star Driver’s
Manual for instructions.
WARNING
Fluid circulated through the fuel/water separator
to heat the fuel may be diesel fuel returned from
the engine, or engine coolant. Drain the fuel/water
47/1
47
Fuel
If returning fuel is released into the atmosphere,
its vapors can ignite in the presence of any ignition source. Do not expose the fuel to, or work
with the fuel system near, open flame or intense
heat. To do so could cause fire, possibly resulting
in serious personal injury or property damage.
1
2
The filter element should be changed only when the
fuel level has reached the top of the filter element.
There is no significant restriction to fuel flow until the
element is completely clogged.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires and open the hood.
2. Check the fuel level in the fuel filter. Replace the
fuel/water separator element only when the filter
element is completely covered. If the fuel level
has reached the top of the filter element, follow
the procedure below to replace the element.
3
3. Put a clean receptacle under the fuel/water separator and attach a piece of hose to the drain
valve, to direct fuel into the receptacle.
4
The drain valve has a 1/2-inch (12.7-mm) pipe;
use a hose with a 1/2-inch pipe thread to fit correctly.
4. Remove the vent cap (Fig. 2, Item 4) and open
the drain valve (Fig. 2, Item 1) to drain the fuel
completely, then close the drain valve.
9
8
01/27/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Primer Pump
Mounting Head
O-Ring
Filter Element
Sight Bowl
Water-in-Fuel Sensor
3
5. Using a DAVCO Collar Wrench (Fig. 3), remove
the clear cover and collar.
5
NOTE: Broken vent cap and collar warranty
claims will not be accepted if any tool other than
a DAVCO Collar Wrench is used for removal.
During installation, the vent cap and collar are
to be hand-tightened only, not tightened with a
wrench. Use part number 482017 on Fuel Pro
482 units; part number 380134 on Fuel Pro 382
units.
6
7
f470566
7. Wiring Harness,
Water-in-Fuel Sensor
8. Wiring Harness,
Heater
9. Drain Plug
Fig. 1, Fuel/Water Separator Assembly, Alliance/Racor
separator only when the engine and fluids have
cooled. Draining it when the engine is hot could
cause severe personal injury due to scalding.
47/2
6. Remove the filter, cover O-ring, and vent cap
O-ring. Dispose of them in an environmentally
acceptable manner. See Fig. 4, Fig. 5, or Fig. 6.
7. Clean all threads and sealing surfaces very thoroughly. Even a small amount of dirt will prevent
the fuel/water separator from sealing, and an air
leak may result.
8. On Fuel Pro 382 units, install the grommet on
the bottom of the new filter.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
47
Fuel
increase engine speed to high idle for
one to two minutes to purge air from the
system.
4
11.5
While the engine is running, and after the
air is purged from the system, loosen the
vent cap until the fuel level falls to about
one inch (2.5 cm) above the collar, then
hand-tighten the vent cap.
11.6
Check for leaks and shut down the
engine.
3
5
2
ConMet Fuel Separator Sight
Bowl Cleaning
6
1
05/05/2009
f470506b
1. Drain Valve
2. Lower Housing
3. Clear Cover
4. Vent Cap
5. Collar
6. Inlet Port/Check Valve
VENT CAP
Fig. 2, DAVCO Fuel/Water Separator (Fuel Pro 382
Shown)
FOR REMOVAL OF TOP COLLAR ONLY
The only maintenance necessary on ConMet fuel
separators is to clean the sight bowl, if equipped.
See Fig. 7.
WARNING
Diesel fuel is flammable and can ignite if exposed
to an open flame, intense heat, or other ignition
source. Do not drain fuel near, or expose fuel
vapor to open flame or intense heat. Exposure to
open flame or intense heat could start a fire, possibly resulting in personal injury or property damage. When working on a fuel system, have a fire
extinguisher within easy reach.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, shut down
the engine, and set the parking brake. Chock the
tires and open the hood.
02/16/2009
f470277
Fig. 3, DAVCO Collar Wrench
9. Install the new filter and grommet assembly and
cover O-ring on the housing.
10. Install the clear cover and the collar. Handtighten the collar.
11. Prime the system.
11.1
Ensure that the drain valve is closed.
11.2
Fill the housing to the top with clean diesel fuel.
11.3
Install and hand-tighten the vent cap
O-ring and vent cap.
11.4
Start the engine. When the lubricating oil
reaches its normal operating pressure,
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
IMPORTANT: When draining fluid from a
fuel/water separator, drain the fluid into an appropriate container, and dispose of it properly.
Many jurisdictions now issue fines for draining
fuel/water separators onto the ground.
2. Drain the fuel separator.
3. Unscrew the sight bowl from the fuel separator.
4. Wipe the sight bowl clean using a soft cloth.
5. Lubricate the gasket with a film of oil, and reinstall it on the sight bowl. If the gasket appears
dry-rotted or damaged, replace the gasket.
6. Lightly lubricate the threads on the sight bowl
with oil, then thread the sight bowl into the bottom of the fuel separator.
47/3
47
Fuel
10
11
9
10
8
9
8
7
6
7
5
6
4
12
11
3
5
12
2
4
13
3
14
2
13
1
1
05/05/2009
12/13/2010
f470531a
1. Drain Valve
2. Bottom Plate
Assembly
3. Bottom Plate O-Ring
4. Lower Housing
5. Cover O-Ring
6. Filter Element
7. Spring
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Clear Cover
Vent Cap O-Ring
Vent Cap
Collar
Grommet
Inlet Port/Check Valve
Heat Exchanger
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
f470530
Inlet Port/Check Valve
Lower Housing
Bypass Valve
Filter Element
Spring
Clear Cover O-Ring
Clear Cover
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Vent Cap O-Ring
Vent Cap
Lower Housing Collar
120VAC Pre-Heater
12VDC Pre-Heater
Drain Valve
Fig. 5, DAVCO Fuel Pro 482
Fig. 4, DAVCO Fuel Pro 382
47/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
47
Fuel
7. Hand-tighten until the gasket is in full contact
with the fuel separator, then tighten an additional
1/4 to 1/3 turn.
6
8. Check that the drain valve is tightened and
closed.
5
9. To prime the fuel separator, remove the vacuum
breaker fitting and fill the unit with diesel fuel,
then install and close the fitting when the unit is
full.
4
IMPORTANT: The fitting must be air-tight and
the valve closed.
7
47–03 Fuel Tank Band Nut
Tightening
3
8
IMPORTANT: Do not overtighten the nuts.
Rectangular Fuel Tank
9
Hold the retention nut on the fuel tank band with a
wrench while backing off the jam nut. Then tighten
the retention nut 13 to 17 lbf·ft (18 to 23 N·m). After
the retention nut has been tightened, hold the retention nut with a wrench while tightening the jam nut 13
to 17 lbf·ft (18 to 23 N·m).
10
Cylindrical Fuel Tank
2
11
13
1
Hold the retention nut on the fuel tank band with a
wrench while backing off the jam nut. Then tighten
the retention nut 30 to 35 lbf·ft (41 to 46 N·m). After
the retention nut has been tightened, hold the retention nut with a wrench while tightening the jam nut 30
to 35 lbf·ft (41 to 46 N·m).
12
14
02/09/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
f470568
Drain Valve
Lower Housing
Cover O-Ring
Vent Cap O-Ring
Vent Cap
Collar
Clear Cover
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Spring
Filter Element
Check Valve Assembly
Fuel Inlet Port
Pre-Heater
Fuel Outlet Port
Water-In-Fuel Sensor
Fig. 6, DAVCO Diesel Pro 243
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
47/5
47
Fuel
1
2
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
f470146
08/25/95
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Vacuum Breaker/Drain Valve
Reducer Bushing
Mounting Brackets
O-ring (when equipped with heater)
Stainless Steel V-Clamp (when equipped with
heater)
Heater Assembly
Gasket
Sight Bowl Heater Rod
Sight Bowl Assembly
Vacuum Breaker/Drain Valve
Fig. 7, ConMet Fuel Separator
47/6
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Exhaust
49
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
CAT CGI Bellows Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49–02
Exhaust System Inspection (Noise Emission Control). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49–01
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49
Exhaust
49–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
49–01 Exhaust System
Inspection (Noise
Emission Control)
In addition to inspecting the exhaust system at the
scheduled maintenance interval, inspect the exhaust
system if the noise level of the vehicle has increased. Western Star Trucks recommends replacing
parts that show leakage, wear, or damage, with
genuine Western Star parts.
The exhaust system must be free of leaks, binding,
grounding, and excessive vibrations. These conditions are usually caused by loose, broken, or misaligned clamps, brackets, or pipes. If any of these
conditions exist, check the exhaust system components and alignment. Align or replace as necessary;
see Group 49 of the Western Star Workshop
Manual, or take the vehicle to an authorized Freightliner dealer.
It is a violation of US federal law to alter exhaust
plumbing or aftertreatment in any way that would
bring the engine out of compliance with certification
requirements. (Ref: 42 U.S.C. S7522(a) (3).) It is the
owner’s responsibility to maintain the vehicle so that
it conforms to EPA regulations.
EPA10 and Newer Exhaust
System
Definitions of Aftertreatment (ATS)
Terms
Refer to the following list of definitions of ATS terms
and components.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
• Aftertreatment System (ATS)—the entire exhaust system from the turbocharger to the exhaust stack or tail pipe.
• Aftertreatment Device (ATD)—a housing that
contains the DOC and DPF (also the SCR and
the mixing tube in one-box systems).
• BlueTec®—Daimler’s proprietary SCR technology.
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)—a flowthrough device that oxidizes soot in the ATD.
• Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)—a component in
the ATD that traps soot from the exhaust gas.
• Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)—the chemical agent
that reacts with the exhaust gases in the SCR
to reduce NOx.
• DEF Pump—filters and supplies DEF to the
DEF metering unit.
• DEF Tank—holds DEF and regulates its temperature.
• DEF Metering Unit—mixes DEF with compressed air, and meters this mixture into the
exhaust flow via an injection nozzle.
• SCR Catalyst—the housing containing a treated
ceramic flow-through block where the DEF and
exhaust gases undergo selective catalytic reduction (SCR).
• Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)—a process
used to reduce NOx emissions.
Inspection
To meet EPA10 emissions regulations for vehicles
domiciled in the USA or Canada, engines manufactured after December 31, 2009 are equipped with an
emission aftertreatment system. Vehicles domiciled
outside of the USA and Canada may not have aftertreatment equipment, depending upon local statutory
emissions guidelines.
IMPORTANT: The aftertreatment device (ATD),
which is part of the aftertreatment system (ATS),
requires special attention during regularly
scheduled maintenance inspections. No leaks
are allowed anywhere in the system. If any discrepancies are discovered, refer to the engine
manufacturer’s service literature for repair instructions.
49/1
49
1. Check for leakage at the clamp that attaches the
exhaust pipe to the turbocharger exhaust outlet.
If leakage exists, tighten the nut on the clamp to
the required torque. If leakage persists, install a
new clamp.
2. Check the exhaust pipe, bellows, and each exhaust seal clamp for leakage, wear, cracks, or
damage. Replace damaged components as
needed. If leakage exists at a clamp, tighten the
nuts to the required torque. If leakage persists,
install a new exhaust seal clamp. Do not reuse
seal clamps. Once a seal clamp is loosened or
removed, it must be replaced.
Exhaust
11. Check any wires, lines, or hoses within 4 inches
(10 cm) of the exhaust system for heat damage.
Repair or reroute as needed.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Filter
Replacement
The Environmental Protection Agency’s 2010 regulations require lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) exhaust
emissions. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) uses
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) to lower NOx emissions in
the vehicle exhaust. A filter in the DEF pump prevents clogging of the DEF metering unit injection
nozzle.
3. If present, check the condition of the insulation
material around the exhaust pipe between the
turbocharger and the ATD.
See the engine manufacturer’s maintenance manual
for filter replacement instructions and maintenance
intervals.
4. Check the ATD mounting bands for tightness.
Tighten to 30 lbf·ft (41 N·m) if needed. Do not
overtighten.
EPA07 Exhaust System
5. Check for leaks around the clamps that attach
the ATD in the ATS, and around the clamps that
retain the DPF in the ATD.
6. Check all sensors attached to the ATS for leaks
or damaged wires. No leaks are allowed. See
Fig. 1, Fig. 2, or Fig. 3 for Detroit Diesel ATS
sensor locations.
7. Check the DPF exterior surface for dents or
other damage. A dent over 3 inches (76 mm) in
diameter and 1/4-inch (6-mm) deep could cause
internal damage to the DPF, causing it to
malfunction.
8. Check the SCR catalyst for dents and other
damage.
9. Check for heat discoloration on the surface of
the ATD. Heat discoloration may indicate internal
damage; especially around the DPF.
NOTE: Diesel exhaust fluid creeps, causing
white crystals to form around the line fittings.
The presence of crystals does not mean the
system has a leak. Replacing fittings or troubleshooting components is not necessary unless
there is a system failure or a fault code.
10. Check the DEF tank, pump, metering unit, and
lines for leaks. See Section 49.02 of the Western Star Workshop Manual for repair procedures.
49/2
Definitions of ATS Components
Refer to the following list of definitions of ATS components.
• Aftertreatment System (ATS)—the entire exhaust system from the turbocharger to the exhaust stack or tail pipe.
• Aftertreatment Device (ATD)—a muffler-like canister that houses a DPF, DOC, and sensors.
• Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)—a filter that collects and holds particulate matter (soot and
ash).
• Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)—oxidizes hydrocarbons and reduces NOx.
• Sensors—detect temperatures and pressures in
the ATS.
Inspection
To meet EPA07 emissions regulations for vehicles
domiciled in the USA or Canada, engines manufactured after December 31, 2006 are equipped with an
emission aftertreatment system. Vehicles domiciled
outside of the USA and Canada may not have aftertreatment equipment, depending upon local statutory
emissions guidelines.
IMPORTANT: The aftertreatment device (ATD),
which is part of the aftertreatment system (ATS),
requires special attention during regularly
scheduled maintenance inspections; see Fig. 4.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49
Exhaust
13
14
12
9
9
1
2
8
3
7
11
10
6
4
15
5
08/20/2009
f490355
NOTE: The sensor box (item 8) contains the SCR inlet and outlet NOx sensors, DPF outlet pressure sensor, and the
DOC inlet pressure sensor.
1. DOC Outlet Temperature
Sensor
2. DOC Inlet Pressure Sensor
Port
3. DOC Inlet Temperature Sensor
4. Front Heat Shield
5. DEF Nozzle
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Exhaust Outlet
DEF Metering Unit
Sensor Box (see note above)
Exhaust Inlet
SCR Outlet Temperature
Sensor
11.
12.
13.
14.
SCR Outlet NOx Sensor Port
SCR Inlet NOx Sensor Port
14-Pin Connectors
DPF Outlet Pressure Sensor
Port
15. SCR Inlet Temperature Sensor
Fig. 1, One-Box ATS Sensor Locations
No leaks are allowed anywhere in the system. If
any discrepancies are discovered, refer to the
engine manufacturer’s service literature for repair instructions.
1. Check for leakage at the clamp that attaches the
exhaust pipe to the turbocharger exhaust outlet.
If leakage exists, tighten the nut on the clamp to
the required torque. If leakage persists, install a
new clamp.
2. Check the exhaust pipe, bellows, and each exhaust seal clamp for leakage, wear, cracks, or
damage. Replace damaged components as
needed. If leakage exists at a clamp, tighten the
nuts to the required torque. If leakage persists,
install a new exhaust seal clamp. Do not reuse
seal clamps. Once a seal clamp is loosened or
removed, it must be replaced.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
NOTICE
A leak in the CGI piping, including the bellows,
will allow unfiltered air and contaminants into the
engine intake, and can cause serious engine damage.
NOTE: Because the CGI bellows is covered
with a metal mesh, it is difficult to see cracks or
damage that may cause a leak.
3. On vehicles with CAT engines, inspect the CGI
bellows and piping for evidence of damage or
leakage. See Fig. 5. If the bellows is damaged
or leaking, replace it. See 49–02 for the replacement procedure.
4. If present, check the condition of the insulation
material around the exhaust pipe between the
turbocharger and the ATD.
49/3
49
Exhaust
1
2
11
10
3
9
8
4
10
8
9
7
6
5
09/16/2009
1. DEF Metering Unit
2. DEF Nozzle
3. SCR Outlet Temperature
Sensor
4. SCR Inlet Temperature Sensor
f490353
5.
6.
7.
8.
DOC Inlet Temperature Sensor
DOC Inlet Pressure Sensor
DPF Inlet Temperature Sensor
DPF Outlet Pressure Sensor
9. DPF Outlet Temperature
Sensor
10. DPF Outlet NOx Sensor
11. SCR Outlet NOx Sensor
Fig. 2, 2V2 Two-Box ATS Sensor Locations
5. Check the ATD mounting bands for tightness.
Tighten to 30 lbf·ft (41 N·m) if needed. Do not
overtighten.
9. Check for heat discoloration on the surface of
the ATD. Heat discoloration may indicate internal
damage; especially around the DPF.
6. Check for leaks around the clamps that attach
the ATD in the ATS, and around the clamps that
retain the DPF in the ATD.
10. Check any wires, lines, or hoses within 4 inches
(10 cm) of the exhaust system for heat damage.
Repair or reroute as needed.
7. Check all sensors attached to the ATD for leaks
or damaged wires. No leaks are allowed.
Pre-EPA07 Exhaust System
Inspection
8. Check the DPF exterior surface for dents or
other damage. See Item A of Fig. 4. A dent over
3 inches (76 mm) in diameter and 1/4-inch (6mm) deep could cause internal damage to the
DPF, causing it to malfunction.
49/4
1. On all vehicles, check the condition of the muffler
body and the top stack. Check the inlet/outlet
tubes for leakage, dents, and corrosion, and
check for holes in the muffler. Replace parts as
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49
Exhaust
1
11
10
2
9
3
7
4
8
5
6
09/16/2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
f490354
DPF Inlet Temperature Sensor
DOC Inlet Temperature Sensor
DOC Inlet Pressure Sensor
DPF Sensor Box
DPF Outlet Pressure Sensor
6. DPF Outlet Temperature
Sensor
7. DPF Outlet NOx Sensor
8. SCR Inlet Temperature Sensor
9. SCR Outlet Temperature
Sensor
10. SCR Sensor Box
11. SCR Outlet NOx Sensor
Fig. 3, 2HV Two-Box ATS Sensor Locations
required. Use new parts, equivalent to parts
originally installed on the vehicle.
2. Inspect the exhaust flex hose (see Fig. 6) for
leakage, wear, or damage. Replace with new
parts if replacement is needed.
3. Check for leakage at the V-band coupling, which
attaches the exhaust pipe to the turbocharger
exhaust outlet. See Fig. 6.
4. If leakage exists, tighten the nut on the V-band
coupling 85 lbf·in (940 N·cm). If leakage persists,
install a new V-band coupling.
5. Inspect the turbocharger outlet pipe, and replace
it as needed.
6. Check the U-bolt clamps for tightness, and
tighten as needed.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
7. Check the isolator at the base and the top of the
exhaust stack (see Fig. 7) for cracking, damage,
and dry rot. Replace as needed.
8. Check for leakage at all wide-band exhaust
clamps. See Fig. 8.
If leakage exists, tighten the nuts 40 to 60 lbf·ft
(54 to 81 N·m). If leakage persists, inspect the
wide-band exhaust clamps. Install a new Donaldson SealClamp™ if necessary.
49–02 CAT CGI Bellows
Replacement
On vehicles with CAT EPA07 compliant engines, replace the CGI bellows at the M4 maintenance interval to prevent a later failure.
49/5
49
Exhaust
6
5
3
2
1
2
4
7
5
8
9
3
A
10/20/2006
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Inspect this area of the canister for dents.
Marmon Fitting at Inlet from Turbocharger
DOC Temperature Sensor
ATD Mounting Band
DPF Intake Pressure Sensor
DPF V-Band Mounting Clamps
6.
7.
8.
9.
f490283
Sensor Housing
DPF Outlet Temperature Sensor
Exhaust Outlet Marmon Fitting
DPF Outlet Pressure Sensor
Fig. 4, Typical EPA07 Aftertreatment Device
1
2
3
4
5
6
5
3
7 8
9
3
10
02/24/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
f490456
Clamp
Inlet Pipe
U-Clamp
Forward Pipe-Support Brace
5. Slip Clamp
6. CGI Bellows
7. Center Pipe-Support Brace
8. Center Pipe
9. Clamp
10. Outlet Pipe
Fig. 5, CAT EPA07 Exhaust Installation with CGI Bellows
49/6
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49
Exhaust
2
1
3
4
06/01/93
f490024a
1. Flex Hose
2. V-Band Coupling
3. Exhaust Pipe
4. Turbocharger Exhaust
Outlet
05/28/93
f490025a
Fig. 8, Donaldson SealClamp Wide-Band Exhaust
Clamp
3. Remove the right side inner fender/splash shield
as needed.
Fig. 6, V-Band Coupling and Flex Hose
4. Remove the CGI piping between the engine and
aftertreatment device (ATD).
See Fig. 9.
1
5. On the workbench, remove the CGI bellows from
the exhaust piping. Do not damage the piping.
NOTE: The following step, and its substeps, is
to be done without the bellows installed. This
will align the pipes so that the bellows can be
installed correctly.
2
6. Install the CGI piping (without CGI bellows) and
align piping.
06/28/2001
f490241
1. Exhaust Elbow
6.1
Attach the aft CGI pipe to the ATD.
6.2
Attach the forward CGI pipe to the engine.
2. Exhaust Isolator
Fig. 7, Exhaust Isolator
NOTICE
NOTICE
When the CGI pipes and bellows are installed,
there should be approximately 3/4 inch (19 mm)
clearance from the main bellows. Contact between
the bellows could result in an exhaust leak, which
in this case may allow ingestion of contaminants
into the engine causing engine damage.
A leak in the CGI piping, including the bellows,
will allow unfiltered air and contaminants into the
engine intake, and can cause serious engine
damage.
1. Park the vehicle, set the parking brake, chock
the wheels.
6.3
Use a straightedge to align the pipes so
that the pipe ends that attach to the bellows are parallel and concentric.
2. Open the hood.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49/7
49
Exhaust
1
2
3
4
5
6
5
3
7 8
9
3
10
02/24/2011
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
f490456
Clamp
Inlet Pipe
U-Clamp
Forward Pipe-Support Brace
5. Slip Clamp
6. CGI Bellows
7. Center Pipe-Support Brace
8. Center Pipe
9. Clamp
10. Outlet Pipe
Fig. 9, CAT EPA07 Exhaust Installation with CGI Bellows
1
NOTICE
2
When shortening the CGI pipe(s), it is critical to
leave a minimum of 1 inch (25.4 mm) of straight
pipe on the end of each CGI pipe to allow for pipe
insertion and clamp clearance. Failure to do this
could result in an exhaust leak, which in this case
may allow ingestion of contaminants into the engine causing engine damage.
A
7. Once the pipes are aligned, measure the pipe
gap between the CGI pipes and record the distance. See Fig. 10, Ref. A.
The existing pipe gap is designed at 10 inches
(254 mm). A 10.75 inches (273 mm) pipe gap is
required for the replacement CGI bellows and
clamps. This requires one or both of the CGI
pipes to be shortened.
8. Using a yellow paint pen, mark the pipes 1.5
inches (38 mm) in from the end of each pipe.
These two marks will be used to center the bellows between the two pipes.
9. Once the pipes are correctly aligned and separated at the correct distance, secure the aft CGI
pipe to the ATD and to any CGI pipe support
brackets.
10. Remove the forward CGI pipe from the truck.
49/8
02/23/2011
f490457
A. Measure the pipe gap.
1. CGI Aft Pipe
2. CGI Forward Pipe
Fig. 10, Measuring the Pipe Gap (typical)
11. Slide the slip clamp, with the retaining ring and
graphite gasket ring, on the aft CGI pipe. See
Fig. 11 for proper installation.
12. Slide the new bellows onto the aft CGI pipe as
far as it will go. See Fig. 12, Ref. A. Measurement A should be at least 7/16 inch (10 mm)
past the face of the flange.
13. Install the slip clamp with the retaining ring and
graphite gasket ring onto the forward CGI pipe.
See Fig. 13 for proper installation.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49
Exhaust
1
3
2
4
5
1
01/29/2010
f490415
1. Aft CGI Pipe
2. Retaining Ring
3. Graphite Gasket
4. Slip Clamp
5. CGI Bellows
1. CGI Bellows
2. Slip Clamp
3. Retaining Ring
Fig. 11, Aft Facing Slip Clamp Installation
A
1
02/08/2010
2
3
4
5
f490417
4. Graphite Gasket
5. Forward CGI Pipe
Fig. 13, Forward Facing Slip Clamp Installation
A
2
02/23/2011
3
f490458
A. At least 7/16 inch (10 mm)
1. Forward CGI Pipe
3. Aft CGI Pipe
2. CGI Bellows
Fig. 12, CGI Bellows Installation
14. Slide the end of the forward CGI pipe into the
bellows, and properly align the pipe.
15. Secure the forward CGI pipe to the engine and
any CGI pipe support brackets.
16. Using the yellow marks, center the bellows between the exhaust pipes. Verify that the pipe is
inserted at least 7/16 inch (10 mm) past the face
of the flange. See Fig. 12, Ref. A.
17. Install the slip clamps on the bellows. Tighten the
slip clamps 11 lbf·ft (15 N·m).
18. Start the engine and check for exhaust leaks.
Tighten any clamps as needed.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
49/9
Cab
60
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Aerodynamic Component Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60–03
Cab Suspension Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60–01
Mirror Folding Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60–02
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
60
Cab
60–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
1
DANGER
5 1/2"
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
60–01 Cab Suspension
Inspection
1. On single and dual air spring systems, inspect
the air spring(s) at the rear of the cab. Check for
wear, air leaks, and damage. See Fig. 1 for typical single air spring suspension, Fig. 2 for a typical dual air spring suspension. Replace damaged
components if necessary.
On combined air spring/shock absorber suspension, check for wear, air leaks, fluid leaks, and
damage. See Fig. 3 for air spring/shock absorber
suspension. Replace damaged components if
necessary.
2. On single or dual air spring suspensions, check
the distance between the top and bottom air
spring mounting brackets. the air spring(s)
should be inflated so that the distance between
the top and bottom brackets measures 5-1/2
inches (140 mm). See Fig. 1 for typical single air
spring suspension, Fig. 2 for a typical dual air
spring suspension.
3. Inspect the cab suspension shock absorbers for
wear, damage, or leaking fluid. See Fig. 1 for
single air spring suspension, Fig. 2 for dual air
spring suspension or, Fig. 3 for air spring/shock
absorber suspension. Replace if necessary.
60–02 Mirror Folding Check
For vehicles with folding cab-mounted main mirrors,
make sure that the mirrors fold freely on the pivot
points. Pivot each mirror fully forward and backward
2
07/05/2001
f310872
1. Air Spring
2. Shock Absorber
Fig. 1, Single Air Spring Cab Suspension (typical)
A
1
2
1
2
02/16/2015
A. 5-1/2 inches (140 mm)
1. Shock Absorber
f602538
2. Air Spring
Fig. 2, Dual Air Spring Cab Suspension (typical)
two times to break loose any debris that may affect
the fold-away feature of the mirror.
60–03 Aerodynamic
Component Inspection
Inspect aerodynamic components, if equipped, for
structural damage, cracks, or wear. These may
include:
• Cab side extenders
• Roof fairing/deflector
• Bumper
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
60/1
60
Cab
1
1
02/13/2015
f602539
Ride height is not adjustable.
1. Combined Air Spring/Shock Absorber
Fig. 3, Air Spring/Shock Absorber Suspension
• Hood
• Side fairings
Replace or repair damaged or missing components
as needed.
60/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, December 2015
Doors
72
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Door Seal, Door Latch, Door Hinge, and Door Check Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72–01
Western Star Maintenance Manual, June 2010
72
Doors
72–01 Door Seal, Door Latch,
Door Hinge, and Door
Check Lubrication
NOTE: Light penetrating oils, such as WD–40,
should not be used because they wash out beneficial factory-installed grease, and they evaporate.
Door Seals
Lightly coat the door seals with a lubricant that’s safe
for rubber.
Door Latches
Wipe old grease and dirt from all door latch assemblies, then apply liberal amounts of an approved
grease to each moving joint; see Table 1. Use an
appropriate applicator that will not leave material
behind.
Door Hinges
Lubricate external hinges every six months. Wipe old
grease and dirt from the hinge, then force an approved grease into the hinge components; see Table
1. Use an appropriate applicator that will not leave
material behind. Wipe off any excess grease.
Door Checks
Wipe old grease and dirt from door checks. Lubricate
each moving joint of the door checks at installation
and every six months thereafter, with an approved
grease; see Table 1. Use an appropriate applicator
that will not leave material behind.
Approved Grease
Application
Lubricant
Door Latches
ConocoPhillips Triton® 460
Door Checks
ConocoPhillips Megaplex® XD3
NLGI
Grade
1.5
2
Table 1, Approved Grease
Western Star Maintenance Manual, June 2010
72/1
Heater and Air Conditioner
83
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Air Conditioner Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83–01
HVAC Air Filter Cleaning and Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83–02
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83–00
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
83
Heater and Air Conditioner
83–00 Safety Precautions
Safety Precautions in this section apply to all
procedures within this group.
DANGER
When working on the vehicle, shut down the engine, set the parking brake, and chock the tires.
Before working under the vehicle, always place
jack stands under the frame rails to ensure the
vehicle can not drop. Failure to follow these steps
could result in serious personal injury or death.
83–01 Air Conditioner
Inspection
For a Climate Control compressor, if the clearance is 0.035 inch (0.89 mm) or greater, replace
the clutch. For instructions, see Section 83.00,
Subject 140 of the Western Star Workshop
Manual.
4. Check the overall condition of the air conditioning
hoses. Look for cracks, cuts, and abrasions on
the hoses. Replace damaged hoses. Also check
for signs of loose fittings on all of the air conditioning components.
1
2
A
WARNING
Wear eye protection, gloves, and protective clothing when working on the air conditioning system.
Leaking refrigerant from a damaged hose or line
could cause blindness or serious skin burns.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brake, and chock the tires.
2. Inspect the A/C compressor hub. A torn or
melted rubber dampener (center section) indicates internal damage has occurred within the
compressor. Inspect friction surfaces for wear,
oil-soaked conditions, or discoloration due to excessive heat.
3. With the belt removed, check to make sure that
the rotor (pulley) spins freely. It should not
wobble or contact the hub when it is spinning.
Using a feeler gauge, check the clearance between the rotor and hub at several locations, and
average the results. See Fig. 1. See Table 1 for
acceptable clearances.
For a Denso compressor, if the clearance is
greater than 0.024 inch (0.6 mm), replace the
clutch. For instructions, see Section 83.04, Subject 140 of the Western Star Workshop Manual.
For a Sanden compressor, if the drive plate
clutch needs adjustment, see Section 83.01,
Subject 130 of the Western Star Workshop
Manual.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
01/13/2010
f831825
See Table 1 for acceptable clearances.
A. Clearance
1. Hub
2. Rotor Magnetic Clutch
Fig. 1, Hub/Rotor Clearance
Acceptable Compressor Clutch Clearances
Compressor
Acceptable Clearance:
inch (mm)
Denso
0.014 to 0.024 (0.35 to 0.6)
Sanden
0.016 to 0.031 (0.40 to 0.78)
Climate Control
0.020 to 0.030 (0.50 to 0.76)
Table 1, Acceptable Compressor Clutch Clearances
83–02 HVAC Air Filter Cleaning
and Replacement
The cab HVAC assembly has either two pleated,
dust/odor air filters that are not cleanable and must
be replaced every three months, or two foam air filters with aluminum screens that can be cleaned
every three months and replaced once a year.
83/1
83
Heater and Air Conditioner
Additionally, some vehicles are equipped with an
HVAC pre-filter that should be cleaned every three
months and replaced once a year.
On sleeper cabs, the sleeper HVAC assembly has
either two pleated, dust/odor air filters that are not
cleanable and must be replaced every three months,
or two foam air filters with aluminum screens that
can be cleaned every three months and replaced
once a year.
Cab Fresh-Air Filter
Replacement
1
1. Shut down the engine, set the parking brake,
and chock the tires.
2. From inside the cab, remove the fasteners that
attach the HVAC cover, if equipped, to the HVAC
assembly. Remove the HVAC cover. See Fig. 2.
05/19/2003
f831576
1. Air Filters
Fig. 3, Cab Fresh-Air Filters
1
5. Install two new air filters in the air intake plenum.
Make sure the arrow on the air filter is pointing in
the direction shown in Fig. 3.
6. Using screws, attach the air filter cover to the
HVAC assembly.
05/19/2003
f831577
1. HVAC Cover
Fig. 2, HVAC Cover
7. Attach the HVAC cover, if equipped, to the HVAC
assembly.
Cab Fresh-Air Filter Cleaning,
Foam Filters
3. To access the air filters, remove the screws that
attach the air filter cover to the HVAC assembly.
Remove the air filter cover.
1. Shut down the engine, set the parking brake,
and chock the tires.
4. Remove the two air filters from the air intake plenum. See Fig. 3.
2. From inside the cab, remove the fasteners that
attach the HVAC cover, if equipped, to the HVAC
assembly. Remove the HVAC cover. See Fig. 2.
83/2
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
83
Heater and Air Conditioner
3. To access the air filters, remove the screws that
attach the air filter cover to the air intake plenum.
Remove the air filter cover.
4. Remove the two air filters from the air intake plenum. See Fig. 3.
5. Clean the air filters, as follows.
5.1
Wash the air filters by flushing soapy
water from the air-outlet side of the filter
to the air-intake side of the filter.
5.2
Rinse the air filters by flushing clear water
from the air-outlet side of the filter to the
air-intake side of the filter.
5.3
Allow the air filters to air dry.
6. Install the air filters in the air intake plenum.
Make sure the arrow on the air filter is pointing in
the direction shown in Fig. 3.
1
7. Using screws, attach the air filter cover to the
HVAC assembly.
8. Attach the HVAC cover, if equipped, to the HVAC
assembly.
HVAC Pre-Filter Cleaning
NOTE: On vehicles equipped with an HVAC prefilter, the pre-filter should be cleaned every three
months and replaced yearly.
1. Shut down the engine and set the parking brake.
Chock the tires.
2. Open the hood.
3. Remove the pre-filter mounted at the HVAC intake. See Fig. 4.
4. Clean the pre-filter, as follows.
09/09/2011
f831898
NOTE: On vehicles equipped with an HVAC pre-filter,
the pre-filter is held in place by friction and a small
clamping force; it has no fasteners.
1. Pre-Filter
Fig. 4, HVAC Pre-Filter
Sleeper Fresh-Air Filter
Replacement
1. Shut down the engine, set the parking brake,
and chock the tires.
4.1
Wash the pre-filter by flushing soapy
water from the air-outlet side of the filter
to the air-intake side of the filter.
2. To access the sleeper HVAC assembly, enter the
sleeper and remove the bottom drawer from the
left-side cabinet.
4.2
Rinse the pre-filter by flushing clear water
from the air-outlet side of the filter to the
air-intake side of the filter.
3. Remove the air filters from the sleeper HVAC
assembly. See Fig. 5.
4.3
Allow the pre-filter to air dry.
5. Install the pre-filter, as removed.
4. Install new air filters in the sleeper HVAC assembly. Make sure the arrow on the air filter is pointing toward the sleeper HVAC assembly; see
Fig. 5.
5. Install the drawer in the cabinet.
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
83/3
83
Heater and Air Conditioner
f831578
05/21/2003
Fig. 5, Orientation of Sleeper Fresh-Air Filters
Sleeper Fresh-Air Filter Cleaning,
Foam Filters
1. Shut down the engine, set the parking brake,
and chock the tires.
2. To access the sleeper HVAC assembly, enter the
sleeper and remove the bottom drawer from the
left-side cabinet.
3. Remove the air filters from the sleeper HVAC
assembly. See Fig. 5.
4. Clean the air filters, as follows.
4.1
Wash the air filters by flushing soapy
water from the air-outlet side of the filter
to the air-intake side of the filter.
4.2
Rinse the air filters by flushing clear water
from the air-outlet side of the filter to the
air-intake side of the filter.
4.3
Allow the air filters to air dry.
5. Install the air filters in the sleeper HVAC assembly. Make sure the arrow on the air filter is pointing toward the sleeper HVAC assembly; see
Fig. 5.
6. Install the drawer in the cabinet.
83/4
Western Star Maintenance Manual, September 2015
Hood, Grille, and Cab Fenders
88
Index, Alphabetical
Title of Maintenance Operation (MOP)
MOP Number
Hood Rear Support Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88–01
Western Star Maintenance Manual, June 2010
Hood, Grille, and Cab Fenders
88
88–01 Hood Rear Support
Lubrication
1. Apply the parking brakes and chock the tires.
2. Open the hood.
3. Clean both the hood- and cab-mounted hood
rear support components with a soapy water solution.
4. Cover all contact surfaces of the hood rear support brackets and isolators with an approved
multi-purpose, lithium-complex, soap-based
grease; see Table 1.
5. Close the hood.
Approved Suppliers of Multi-Purpose Lithium Grease
Supplier
Grease
Chevron
Delo Heavy Duty EP
Exxon
Unirex EP2
Mobil
Mobil Grease XHP 222
Shell
Retinax LC Grease
Texaco
Starplex 2
Table 1, Approved Suppliers of Multi-Purpose Lithium
Grease
Western Star Maintenance Manual, June 2010
88/1
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