English Version
Table of Contents
i
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS OBD? ........................................................................
1
YOU CAN DO IT! ..............................................................................
2
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
SAFETY FIRST! .......................................................................
3
ABOUT THE CODE READER
VEHICLES COVERED .............................................................
ADJUSTMENTS AT FIRST USE .............................................
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS .............................................
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS ............................................................
4
5
6
7
ONBOARD DIAGNOSTICS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS .........................................
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) ..............................
OBD2 MONITORS ...................................................................
9
14
17
PREPARATION FOR TESTING
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET .........
BEFORE YOU BEGIN ..............................................................
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS ...............................................
26
29
30
USING THE CODE READER
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE ..........................................
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) .............
I/M READINESS TESTING ......................................................
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS® ................................................
31
37
38
43
ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS ...........................................
48
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS - ABS
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS – MAKES COVERED ...................
53
GLOSSARY
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................
54
WARRANTY AND SERVICING
LIMITED ONE YEAR WARRANTY...........................................
SERVICE PROCEDURES .......................................................
57
57
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Introduction
WHAT IS OBD?
WHAT IS OBD?
The Code Reader is designed to work on all OBD2 compliant
vehicles. All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars, light trucks and SUVs)
sold in the United States are OBD2 compliant.
One of the most exciting improvements in the
automobile industry was the addition of onboard diagnostics (OBD) on vehicles, or in more
basic terms, the computer that activates the
vehicle’s “CHECK ENGINE” light. OBD1 was
designed to monitor manufacturer-specific
systems on vehicles built from 1981 to 1995.
Then came the development of OBD2, which is
on all 1996 cars and light trucks sold in the U.S. Like its predecessor,
OBD2 was adopted as part of a government mandate to lower vehicle
emissions. But what makes OBD2 unique is its universal application for
all late model cars and trucks - domestic and import. This sophisticated
program in the vehicle’s main computer system is designed to detect
failures in a range of systems, and can be accessed through a universal
OBD2 port, which is usually found under the dashboard. For all OBD
systems, if a problem is found, the computer turns on the “CHECK
ENGINE” light to warn the driver, and sets a Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) to identify where the problem occurred. A special diagnostic tool,
such as the Code Reader, is required to retrieve these codes, which
consumers and professionals use as a starting point for repairs.
The Code Reader provides the additional ability to retrieve Anti-Lock
Brake System (ABS) DTCs from most Chrysler/Jeep, Ford/Mazda,
GM/Isuzu, Honda/Acura and Toyota/Lexus vehicles. Refer to Vehicle
Applications - ABS on page 53 for vehicles covered.
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1
You Can Do It!
EASY TO USE - EASY TO VIEW - EASY TO DEFINE
Easy To Use . . . .
„
Connect the Code Reader to the
vehicle’s test connector.
„
Turn the ignition key "On.” DO NOT
start the engine.
„
The Code Reader will automatically link
to the vehicle’s computer.
Easy To View . . . .
„
The Code Reader retrieves stored
codes, Freeze Frame data and I/M
Readiness Status.
„
Codes, I/M Readiness Status and
Freeze Frame data are displayed on the
Code Reader’s display screen. System
Status is indicated by LED indicators.
Easy To Define . . . .
2
„
Read code definitions from the Code
Reader’s display.
„
View Freeze Frame data.
„
View ABS DTCs.
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Safety Precautions
SAFETY FIRST
SAFETY FIRST!
This manual describes common test procedures used by experienced
service technicians. Many test procedures require precautions to avoid
accidents that can result in personal injury, and/or damage to your
vehicle or test equipment. Always read your vehicle's service manual
and follow its safety precautions before and during any test or service
procedure. ALWAYS observe the following general safety precautions:
When an engine is running, it produces carbon monoxide, a
toxic and poisonous gas. To prevent serious injury or death
from carbon monoxide poisoning, operate the vehicle ONLY
in a well-ventilated area.
To protect your eyes from propelled objects as well as hot
or caustic liquids, always wear approved safety eye
protection.
When an engine is running, many parts (such as the coolant
fan, pulleys, fan belt etc.) turn at high speed. To avoid serious
injury, always be aware of moving parts. Keep a safe distance
from these parts as well as other potentially moving objects.
Engine parts become very hot when the engine is running.
To prevent severe burns, avoid contact with hot engine
parts.
P RND L
Before starting an engine for testing or trouble-shooting, make
sure the parking brake is engaged. Put the transmission in
park (for automatic transmission) or neutral (for manual
transmission). Block the drive wheels with suitable blocks.
Connecting or disconnecting test equipment when the
ignition is ON can damage test equipment and the vehicle's
electronic components. Turn the ignition OFF before
connecting the Code Reader to or disconnecting the Code
Reader from the vehicle’s Data Link Connector (DLC).
To prevent damage to the on-board computer when taking
vehicle electrical measurements, always use a digital
multimeter with at least 10 MegOhms of impedance.
The vehicle's battery produces highly flammable hydrogen
gas. To prevent an explosion, keep all sparks, heated items
and open flames away from the battery.
Don't wear loose clothing or jewelry when working on an
engine. Loose clothing can become caught in the fan,
pulleys, belts, etc. Jewelry is highly conductive, and can
cause a severe burn if it makes contact between a power
source and ground.
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3
About the Code Reader
VEHICLES COVERED
VEHICLES COVERED
The Code Reader is designed to work on all OBD 2 compliant vehicles.
All 1996 and newer vehicles (cars and light trucks) sold in the United
States are OBD 2 compliant. This includes all Domestic, Asian and
European vehicles.
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles are OBD 2 compliant. To find out if a
1994 or 1995 vehicle is OBD 2 compliant, check the following:
1. The Vehicle Emissions Control Information (VECI) Label. This label
is located under the hood or by the radiator of most vehicles. If the
vehicle is OBD 2 compliant, the label will state “OBD II Certified.”
VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
ENGINE FAMILY
DISPLACEMENT
VEHICLE
MANUFACTURER
EFN2.6YBT2BA
2.6L
OBD II
CERTIFIED
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA AND STATE
OF CALIFORNIA REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO
1999 MODEL YEAR NEW TLEV PASSENGER CARS.
REFER TO SERVICE MANUAL FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
TUNE-UP CONDITIONS: NORMAL OPERATING ENGINE TEMPERATURE,
ACCESSORIES OFF, COOLING FAN OFF, TRANSMISSION IN NEUTRAL
EXHAUST EMISSIONS STANDARDS
CERTIFICATION
IN-USE
SPARK PLUG
TYPE NGK BPRE-11
GAP: 1.1MM
OBD II
CERTIFIED
STANDARD CATEGORY
TLEV
TLEV INTERMEDIATE
CATALYST
2. Government Regulations require that all
OBD2 compliant vehicles must have a
“common”
sixteen-pin
Data
Link
Connector (DLC).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10111213141516
Some 1994 and 1995 vehicles have 16-pin connectors but are not
OBD2 compliant. Only those vehicles with a Vehicle Emissions
Control Label stating “OBD II Certified” are OBD2 compliant.
Data Link Connector (DLC) Location
The 16-pin DLC is usually
located under the instrument
panel (dash), within 12 inches
(300 mm) of center of the panel,
on the driver’s side of most
vehicles. It should be easily
accessible and visible from a
kneeling position outside the
vehicle with the door open.
LEFT CORNER
OF DASH
NEAR
CENTER
OF DASH
BEHIND
ASHTRAY
On some Asian and European vehicles the DLC is located
behind the “ashtray” (the ashtray must be removed to access it)
or on the far left corner of the dash. If the DLC cannot be
located, consult the vehicle’s service manual for the location.
4
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About the Code Reader
ADJUSTMENTS AT FIRST USE
ADJUSTMENTS AT FIRST USE
The first time the Code Reader is connected to a vehicle, you must
select the desired display language (English, French or Spanish) and
unit of measurement (Standard or metric) as follows:
1. Connect the Code Reader’s cable
connector to the vehicle’s DLC.
„
The Select Language screen displays.
2. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight the desired display
language.
3. When the desired display language is
selected, press the ENTER
button to
confirm your selection.
„
The Select Unit screen displays.
button, as necessa4. Use the DOWN
ry, to highlight the desired unit of measurement.
5. When the desired unit of measurement
button
is selected, press the ENTER
to confirm your selection.
„
The Code Reader’s Firmware Version screen displays.
After the initial language and unit of measurement selections
are performed, these, as well as other settings, can be
changed as desired. Proceed to “ADJUSTMENTS AND
SETTINGS” on page 48 for further instructions.
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5
About the Code Reader
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
9
2
5
6
7
1
3
2
4
Figure 1. Controls and Indicators
See Figure 1 for the locations of items 1 through 9, below.
1.
ERASE button - Erases Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
and "Freeze Frame" data from your vehicle's computer, and resets
Monitor status.
2. DTC button - Displays the DTC View screen and/or scrolls the LCD
display to view DTCs and Freeze Frame data.
3.
4.
ENTER button - Confirms the selected option or value.
SCROLL button - Scrolls the LCD display to view DTCs when
more than one DTC is present.
5. GREEN LED - Indicates that all engine systems are running
normally (all Monitors on the vehicle are active and performing their
diagnostic testing, and no DTCs are present).
6
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About the Code Reader
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
6. YELLOW LED - Indicates there is a possible problem. A “Pending”
DTC is present and/or some of the vehicle's emission monitors have
not run their diagnostic testing.
7. RED LED - Indicates there is a problem in one or more of the
vehicle's systems. The red LED is also used to show that DTC(s)
are present. DTCs are shown on the Code Reader’s LCD display. In
this case, the Multifunction Indicator (“Check Engine”) lamp on the
vehicle's instrument panel will light steady on.
8. LCD Display - Displays test results, Code Reader functions and
Monitor status information. See DISPLAY FUNCTIONS, below, for
details.
9. CABLE - Connects the Code Reader to the vehicle's Data Link
Connector (DLC).
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
Figure 2. Display Functions
See Figure 2 for the locations of items 1 through 13, following.
1. I/M MONITOR STATUS field - Identifies the I/M Monitor status area.
2. Monitor icons - Indicate which Monitors are supported by the
vehicle under test, and whether or not the associated Monitor has
run its diagnostic testing (Monitor status). When a Monitor icon is
solid, it indicates that the associated Monitor has completed its
diagnostic testing. When a Monitor icon is flashing, it indicates that
the vehicle supports the associated Monitor, but the Monitor has not
yet run its diagnostic testing.
3.
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Vehicle icon - Indicates whether or not the Code Reader is
being properly powered through the vehicle’s Data Link Connector
(DLC). A visible icon indicates that the Code Reader is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
7
About the Code Reader
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
4.
Link icon - Indicates whether or not the Code Reader is
communicating (linked) with the vehicle’s on-board computer. When
visible, the Code Reader is communicating with the computer. If the
Link icon is not visible, the Code Reader is not communicating with
the computer.
5.
Computer icon - When this icon is visible it indicates that the
Code Reader is linked to a personal computer. Optional software is
available that makes it possible to upload retrieved data to a
personal computer.
6.
Code Reader Internal Battery icon - When visible, indicates the
Code Reader batteries are “low” and should be replaced. If the
batteries are not replaced when the battery symbol is "on", all 3
LEDs will light up as a last resort indicator to warn you that the
batteries need replacement. No data will be displayed on screen
when all 3 LEDs are lit.
7. DTC Display Area - Displays the Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
number. Each fault is assigned a code number that is specific to that
fault. The DTC number is color-coded as follows:
„
RED – Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a PERMANENT
DTC.
„
YELLOW – Indicates the currently displayed DTC is a
PENDING DTC.
„
GREEN – In cases where no codes are retrieved, a “No DTCs
are presently stored in the vehicle’s computer” message is
shown in green.
8. Code Number Sequence - The Code Reader assigns a sequence
number to each DTC that is present in the computer’s memory,
starting with “01.” This number indicates which code is currently
displayed. Code number “01” is always the highest priority code,
and the one for which “Freeze Frame” data has been stored.
If “01” is a “Pending” code, there may or may not be “Freeze
Frame” data stored in memory.
9. Code Enumerator - Indicates the total number of codes retrieved
from the vehicle’s computer.
10. Test Data Display Area - Displays DTC definitions, Freeze Frame
data and other pertinent test information messages.
11. SYSTEM icon - Indicates the system with which the code is
associated:
MIL icon
ABS icon
12. FREEZE FRAME icon - Indicates that there is Freeze Frame data
from “Priority Code” (Code #1) stored in the vehicle’s computer
memory.
13. Code type - Indicates the type of code being displayed; Generic
Stored, Generic Pending, Generic permanent, etc.
8
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Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Introduction of Electronic Engine Controls
Electronic Computer Control Systems make it possible
for vehicle manufacturers to comply with the tougher
emissions and fuel efficiency standards mandated by
State and Federal Governments.
As a result of increased air pollution (smog) in large cities,
such as Los Angeles, the California Air Resources Board
(CARB) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
set new regulations and air pollution standards to deal with
the problem. To further complicate matters, the energy crisis of
the early 1970s caused a sharp increase in fuel prices over a
short period. As a result, vehicle manufacturers were not only
required to comply with the new emissions standards, they also
had to make their vehicles more fuel-efficient. Most vehicles
were required to meet a miles-per-gallon (MPG) standard set by the U.S.
Federal Government.
Precise fuel delivery and spark timing are needed to reduce vehicle
emissions. Mechanical engine controls in use at the time (such as
ignition points, mechanical spark advance and the carburetor)
responded too slowly to driving conditions to properly control fuel
delivery and spark timing. This made it difficult for vehicle manufacturers
to meet the new standards.
A new Engine Control System had to be designed and integrated with
the engine controls to meet the stricter standards. The new system had
to:
„
Respond instantly to supply the proper mixture of air and fuel for any
driving condition (idle, cruising, low-speed driving, high-speed
driving, etc.).
„
Calculate instantly the best time to “ignite” the air/fuel mixture for
maximum engine efficiency.
„
Perform both these tasks without affecting vehicle performance or
fuel economy.
Vehicle Computer Control Systems can perform millions of calculations
each second. This makes them an ideal substitute for the slower
mechanical engine controls. By switching from mechanical to electronic
engine controls, vehicle manufacturers are able to control fuel delivery
and spark timing more precisely. Some newer Computer Control
Systems also provide control over other vehicle functions, such as
transmission, brakes, charging, body, and suspension systems.
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9
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
The Basic Engine Computer Control System
The Computer Control System consists of an on-board
computer and several related control devices (sensors,
switches, and actuators).
The on-board computer is the heart of the Computer
Control System. The computer contains several programs
with preset reference values for air/fuel ratio, spark or
ignition timing, injector pulse width, engine speed, etc.
Separate values are provided for various driving conditions,
such as idle, low speed driving, high-speed driving, low load,
or high load. The preset reference values represent the ideal
air/fuel mixture, spark timing, transmission gear selection,
etc., for any driving condition. These values are programmed
by the vehicle manufacturer, and are specific to each vehicle model.
Most on-board computers are located inside the vehicle behind the dashboard,
under the passenger’s or driver’s seat, or behind the right kick panel. However,
some manufacturers may still position it in the engine compartment.
Vehicle sensors, switches, and actuators are located throughout the
engine, and are connected by electrical wiring to the on-board computer.
These devices include oxygen sensors, coolant temperature sensors,
throttle position sensors, fuel injectors, etc. Sensors and switches are
input devices. They provide signals representing current engine
operating conditions to the computer. Actuators are output devices. They
perform actions in response to commands received from the computer.
The on-board computer receives information inputs from sensors and
switches located throughout the engine. These devices monitor critical
engine conditions such as coolant temperature, engine speed, engine
load, throttle position, air/fuel ratio etc.
The computer compares the values received from these sensors with its
preset reference values, and makes corrective actions as needed so
that the sensor values always match the preset reference values for the
current driving condition. The computer makes adjustments by
commanding other devices such as the fuel injectors, idle air control,
EGR valve or Ignition Module to perform these actions.
TYPICAL COMPUTER
CONTROL SYSTEM
OUTPUT DEVICES
Fuel Injectors
Idle Air Control
EGR Valve
Ignition Module
On-Board
Computer
INPUT DEVICES
Coolant Temperature Sensor
Throttle Position Sensor
Fuel Injectors
10
INPUT DEVICES
Oxygen Sensors
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Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
Vehicle operating conditions are constantly changing. The computer
continuously makes adjustments or corrections (especially to the air/fuel
mixture and spark timing) to keep all the engine systems operating
within the preset reference values.
On-Board Diagnostics - First Generation (OBD1)
With the exception of some 1994 and 1995 vehicles,
most vehicles from 1982 to 1995 are equipped with
some type of first generation On-Board Diagnostics.
Beginning in 1988, California’s Air Resources Board
(CARB), and later the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
required vehicle manufacturers to include a self-diagnostic
program in their on-board computers. The program would be
capable of identifying emissions-related faults in a system. The
first generation of Onboard Diagnostics came to be known as
OBD1.
OBD1 is a set of self-testing and diagnostic instructions
programmed into the vehicle’s on-board computer. The
programs are specifically designed to detect failures in the sensors,
actuators, switches and wiring of the various vehicle emissions-related
systems. If the computer detects a failure in any of these components or
systems, it lights an indicator on the dashboard to alert the driver. The
indicator lights only when an emissions-related problem is detected.
The computer also assigns a numeric code for each specific problem
that it detects, and stores these codes in its memory for later retrieval.
These codes can be retrieved from the computer’s memory with the use
of a “Code Reader” or a “Scan Tool.”
On-Board Diagnostics - Second Generation (OBD2)
In addition to performing all the
functions of the OBD1 System, the
The OBD2 System is
OBD2 System has been enhanced with
an enhancement of the
new Diagnostic Programs. These
OBD1 System.
programs closely monitor the functions
of various emissions-related components and systems (as well as other
systems) and make this information readily available (with
the proper equipment) to the technician for evaluation.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) conducted
studies on OBD1 equipped vehicles. The information that was
gathered from these studies showed the following:
„
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A large number of vehicles had deteriorating or degraded
emissions-related components. These components were
causing an increase in emissions.
11
Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Because OBD1 systems only detect failed components, the
degraded components were not setting codes.
„
Some emissions problems related to degraded components only
occur when the vehicle is being driven under a load. The emission
checks being conducted at the time were not performed under
simulated driving conditions. As a result, a significant number of
vehicles with degraded components were passing Emissions Tests.
„
Codes, code definitions, diagnostic connectors, communication
protocols and emissions terminology were different for each
manufacturer. This caused confusion for the technicians working on
different make and model vehicles.
To address the problems made evident by this study, CARB and the
EPA passed new laws and standardization requirements. These laws
required that vehicle manufacturers to equip their new vehicles with
devices capable of meeting all of the new emissions standards and
regulations. It was also decided that an enhanced on-board diagnostic
system, capable of addressing all of these problems, was needed. This
new system is known as “On-Board Diagnostics Generation Two
(OBD2).” The primary objective of the OBD2 system is to comply with
the latest regulations and emissions standards established by CARB
and the EPA.
The Main Objectives of the OBD2 System are:
„
To detect degraded and/or failed emissions-related components or
systems that could cause tailpipe emissions to exceed by 1.5 times
the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) standard.
„
To expand emissions-related system monitoring. This includes a set
of computer run diagnostics called Monitors. Monitors perform
diagnostics and testing to verify that all emissions-related
components and/or systems are operating correctly and within the
manufacturer’s specifications.
„
To use a standardized Diagnostic Link Connector (DLC) in all
vehicles. (Before OBD2, DLCs were of different shapes and sizes.)
„
To standardize the code numbers, code definitions and language
used to describe faults. (Before OBD2, each vehicle manufacturer
used their own code numbers, code definitions and language to
describe the same faults.)
„
To expand the operation of the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL).
„
To standardize communication procedures and protocols between
the diagnostic equipment (Scan Tools, Code Readers, etc.) and the
vehicle’s on-board computer.
OBD2 Terminology
The following terms and their definitions are related to OBD2 systems.
Read and reference this list as needed to aid in the understanding of
OBD2 systems.
12
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Onboard Diagnostics
COMPUTER ENGINE CONTROLS
„
Powertrain Control Module (PCM) - The PCM is the OBD2
accepted term for the vehicle’s “on-board computer.” In addition
to controlling the engine management and emissions systems,
the PCM also participates in controlling the powertrain
(transmission) operation. Most PCMs also have the ability to
communicate with other computers on the vehicle (ABS, ride
control, body, etc.).
„
Monitor - Monitors are “diagnostic routines” programmed into the
PCM. The PCM utilizes these programs to run diagnostic tests, and
to monitor operation of the vehicle’s emissions-related components
or systems to ensure they are operating correctly and within the
vehicle’s manufacturer specifications. Currently, up to fifteen
Monitors are used in OBD2 systems. Additional Monitors will be
added as the OBD2 system is further developed.
Not all vehicles support all fifteen Monitors.
„
Enabling Criteria - Each Monitor is designed to test and monitor
the operation of a specific part of the vehicle’s emissions system
(EGR system, oxygen sensor, catalytic converter, etc.). A specific
set of “conditions” or “driving procedures” must be met before the
computer can command a Monitor to run tests on its related system.
These “conditions” are known as “Enabling Criteria.” The
requirements and procedures vary for each Monitor. Some Monitors
only require the ignition key to be turned “On” for them to run and
complete their diagnostic testing. Others may require a set of
complex procedures, such as, starting the vehicle when cold,
bringing it to operating temperature, and driving the vehicle under
specific conditions before the Monitor can run and complete its
diagnostic testing.
„
Monitor Has/Has Not Run - The terms “Monitor has run” or
“Monitor has not run” are used throughout this manual. “Monitor
has run,” means the PCM has commanded a particular Monitor to
perform the required diagnostic testing on a system to ensure the
system is operating correctly (within factory specifications). The term
“Monitor has not run” means the PCM has not yet commanded a
particular Monitor to perform diagnostic testing on its associated part
of the emissions system.
„
Trip - A Trip for a particular Monitor requires that the vehicle is
being driven in such a way that all the required “Enabling Criteria”
for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing are met.
The “Trip Drive Cycle” for a particular Monitor begins when the
ignition key is turned “On.” It is successfully completed when all the
“Enabling Criteria” for the Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic
testing are met by the time the ignition key is turned “Off.” Since
each of the fifteen monitors is designed to run diagnostics and
testing on a different part of the engine or emissions system, the
“Trip Drive Cycle” needed for each individual Monitor to run and
complete varies.
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13
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
„
OBD2 Drive Cycle - An OBD2 Drive Cycle is an extended set of
driving procedures that takes into consideration the various types of
driving conditions encountered in real life. These conditions may
include starting the vehicle when it is cold, driving the vehicle at a
steady speed (cruising), accelerating, etc. An OBD2 Drive Cycle
begins when the ignition key is turned “On” (when cold) and ends
when the vehicle has been driven in such a way as to have all the
“Enabling Criteria” met for all its applicable Monitors. Only those
trips that provide the Enabling Criteria for all Monitors applicable to
the vehicle to run and complete their individual diagnostic tests
qualify as an OBD2 Drive Cycle. OBD2 Drive Cycle requirements
vary from one model of vehicle to another. Vehicle manufacturers
set these procedures. Consult your vehicle’s service manual for
OBD2 Drive Cycle procedures.
Do not confuse a “Trip” Drive Cycle with an OBD2 Drive Cycle.
A “Trip” Drive Cycle provides the “Enabling Criteria” for one
specific Monitor to run and complete its diagnostic testing. An
OBD2 Drive Cycle must meet the “Enabling Criteria” for all
Monitors on a particular vehicle to run and complete their
diagnostic testing.
„
Warm-up Cycle - Vehicle operation after an engine off period where
engine temperature rises at least 40°F (22°C) from its temperature
before starting, and reaches at least 160°F (70°C). The PCM uses
warm-up cycles as a counter to automatically erase a specific code
and related data from its memory. When no faults related to the
original problem are detected within a specified number of warm-up
cycles, the code is erased automatically.
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are
Diagnostic Trouble
meant to guide you to the proper
service procedure in the vehicle’s
Codes (DTCs) are
service manual. DO NOT replace parts
codes that identify a
based only on DTCs without first
specific problem area.
consulting the vehicle’s service manual
for proper testing procedures for that
particular system, circuit or component.
DTCs are alphanumeric codes that are used to identify a
problem that is present in any of the systems that are
monitored by the on-board computer (PCM). Each trouble
code has an assigned message that identifies the circuit,
component or system area where the problem was found.
OBD2 diagnostic trouble codes are made up of five characters:
„
The 1st character is a letter (B, C, P or U). It identifies the
“main system” where the fault occurred (Body, Chassis, Powertrain,
or Network).
„
The 2nd character is a numeric digit (0 thru 3). It identifies the
“type” of code (Generic or Manufacturer-Specific).
Generic DTCs are codes that are used by all vehicle manufacturers. The standards for generic DTCs, as well as their
definitions, are set by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
14
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Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
Manufacturer-Specific DTCs are codes that are controlled by
the vehicle manufacturers. The Federal Government does not
require vehicle manufacturers to go beyond the standardized
generic DTCs in order to comply with the new OBD2 emissions
standards. However, manufacturers are free to expand beyond
the standardized codes to make their systems easier to
diagnose.
„
The 3rd character is a letter or a numeric digit (0 thru 9, A thru F).
It identifies the specific system or sub-system where the problem is
located.
„
The 4th and 5th characters are letters or numeric digits (0 thru 9, A
thru F). They identify the section of the system that is malfunctioning.
OBD2 DTC EXAMPLE
P0201 - Injector Circuit Malfunction, Cylinder 1
B
C
P
U
-
Body
Chassis
Powertrain
Network
P0201
0 - Generic
1 - Manufacturer Specific
2 - Generic ("P" Codes) and Manufacturer
Specific ("B", "C" and "U" Codes)
3 - Includes both Generic and Manufacturer
Specific Codes
Identifies the system where the problem is
located. "P" Code systems are listed below.
"B", "C" and "U" Code systems will vary.
0 - Fuel and Air Metering; Auxiliary Emission
Controls
1 - Fuel and Air Metering
2 - Fuel and Air Metering (injector circuit
malfunction only)
3 - Ignition System or Misfire
4 - Auxiliary Emission Control System
5 - Vehicle Speed Control and Idle Control
System
6 - Computer Output Circuits
7 - Transmission
8 - Transmission
9 - Transmission
A - Hybrid Propulsion
B - Hybrid Propulsion
C - Hybrid Propulsion
Identifies what section of the system
is malfunctioning
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15
Onboard Diagnostics
DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
DTCs and MIL Status
When the vehicle’s on-board computer detects
a failure in an emissions-related component or
system, the computer’s internal diagnostic
program assigns a diagnostic trouble code
(DTC) that points to the system (and subsystem)
where the fault was found. The diagnostic
program saves the code in the computer’s
memory. It records a “Freeze Frame” of conditions present when the fault was found, and lights the Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL). Some faults require detection for two trips in a row
before the MIL is turned on.
The “Malfunction Indicator Lamp” (MIL) is the accepted term
used to describe the lamp on the dashboard that lights to warn
the driver that an emissions-related fault has been found.
Some manufacturers may still call this lamp a “Check Engine”
or “Service Engine Soon” light.
There are two types of DTCs used for emissions-related faults: Type “A”
and Type “B.” Type “A” codes are “One-Trip” codes; Type “B” DTCs are
usually Two-Trip DTCs.
When a Type “A” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer commands the MIL “On” when the failure is first found.
„
If the failure causes a severe misfire that may cause damage to the
catalytic converter, the MIL “flashes” once per second. The MIL
continues to flash as long as the condition exists. If the condition
that caused the MIL to flash is no longer present, the MIL will light
“steady” On.
„
A DTC is saved in the computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
A “Freeze Frame” of the conditions present in the engine or emissions
system when the MIL was ordered “On” is saved in the computer’s
memory for later retrieval. This information shows fuel system status
(closed loop or open loop), engine load, coolant temperature, fuel trim
value, MAP vacuum, engine RPM and DTC priority.
When a Type “B” DTC is found on the First Trip, the following events
take place:
„
The computer sets a Pending DTC, but the MIL is not ordered “On.”
“Freeze Frame” data may or may not be saved at this time
depending on manufacturer. The Pending DTC is saved in the
computer’s memory for later retrieval.
„
If the failure is found on the second consecutive trip, the MIL is
ordered “On.” “Freeze Frame” data is saved in the computer’s
memory.
„
If the failure is not found on the second Trip, the Pending DTC is
erased from the computer’s memory.
The MIL will stay lit for both Type “A” and Type “B” codes until one of
the following conditions occurs:
16
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
„
If the conditions that caused the MIL to light are no longer present
for the next three trips in a row, the computer automatically turns the
MIL “Off” if no other emissions-related faults are present. However,
the DTCs remain in the computer’s memory as a history code for 40
warm-up cycles (80 warm-up cycles for fuel and misfire faults). The
DTCs are automatically erased if the fault that caused them to be
set is not detected again during that period.
„
Misfire and fuel system faults require three trips with “similar
conditions” before the MIL is turned “Off.” These are trips where the
engine load, RPM and temperature are similar to the conditions
present when the fault was first found.
After the MIL has been turned off, DTCs and Freeze Frame
data stay in the computer’s memory.
„
Erasing the DTCs from the computer’s memory can also turn off the
MIL. See ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) on
page 37, before erasing codes from the computer’s memory. If a
Code Reader or Scan Tool is used to erase the codes, Freeze
Frame data will also be erased.
OBD2 MONITORS
To ensure the correct operation of the various emissions-related
components and systems, a diagnostic program was developed and
installed in the vehicle’s on-board computer. The program has several
procedures and diagnostic strategies. Each procedure or diagnostic
strategy is made to monitor the operation of, and run diagnostic tests on,
a specific emissions-related component or system. These tests ensure
the system is running correctly and is within the manufacturer’s
specifications. On OBD2 systems, these procedures and diagnostic
strategies are called “Monitors.”
Currently, fifteen Monitors are supported by OBD2 systems. Additional
monitors may be added as a result of Government regulations as the
OBD2 system grows and matures. Not all vehicles support all fifteen
Monitors. Additionally, some Monitors are supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only, while others are supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only.
Monitor operation is either “Continuous” or “Non-Continuous,”
depending on the specific monitor.
Continuous Monitors
Three of these Monitors are designed to constantly monitor their
associated components and/or systems for proper operation.
Continuous Monitors run constantly when the engine is running. The
Continuous Monitors are:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM)
Misfire Monitor
Fuel System Monitor
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17
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Non-Continuous Monitors
The other twelve Monitors are “non-continuous” Monitors. “Noncontinuous” Monitors perform and complete their testing once per trip.
The “non-continuous” Monitors are:
Oxygen Sensor Monitor
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor
Catalyst Monitor
Heated Catalyst Monitor
EGR System Monitor
EVAP System Monitor
Secondary Air System Monitor
The following Monitors became standard beginning in 2010.
The majority of vehicles produced before this time will not
support these Monitors
NMHC Monitor
NOx Adsorber Monitor
Boost Pressure System Monitor
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor
PM Filter Monitor
The following provides a brief explanation of the function of each Monitor:
Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM) - This Monitor
continuously checks all inputs and outputs from sensors,
actuators, switches and other devices that provide a signal to the
computer. The Monitor checks for shorts, opens, out of range value,
functionality and “rationality.”
Rationality: Each input signal is compared against all other
inputs and against information in the computer’s memory to see
if it makes sense under the current operating conditions.
Example: The signal from the throttle position sensor indicates
the vehicle is in a wide-open throttle condition, but the vehicle is
really at idle, and the idle condition is confirmed by the signals
from all other sensors. Based on the input data, the computer
determines that the signal from the throttle position sensor is not
rational (does not make sense when compared to the other
inputs). In this case, the signal would fail the rationality test.
The CCM is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The CCM may be either a “One-Trip” or
a “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the component.
18
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Fuel System Monitor - This Monitor uses a Fuel System
Correction program, called Fuel Trim, inside the on-board
computer. Fuel Trim is a set of positive and negative values that
represent adding or subtracting fuel from the engine. This program is
used to correct for a lean (too much air/not enough fuel) or rich (too
much fuel/not enough air) air-fuel mixture. The program is designed to
add or subtract fuel, as needed, up to a certain percent. If the correction
needed is too large and exceeds the time and percent allowed by the
program, a fault is indicated by the computer.
The Fuel System Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles
and “compression ignition” vehicles. The Fuel System Monitor may be a
“One-Trip” or “Two-Trip” Monitor, depending on the severity of the
problem.
Misfire Monitor - This Monitor continuously checks for engine misfires. A misfire occurs when the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder does
not ignite. The misfire Monitor uses changes in crankshaft speed to sense an
engine misfire. When a cylinder misfires, it no longer contributes to the speed
of the engine, and engine speed decreases each time the affected cylinder(s)
misfire. The misfire Monitor is designed to sense engine speed fluctuations
and determine from which cylinder(s) the misfire is coming, as well as how
bad the misfire is. There are three types of engine misfires, Types 1, 2, and 3.
- Type 1 and Type 3 misfires are two-trip monitor faults. If a fault is sensed
on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as
a Pending Code. The MIL is not commanded on at this time. If the fault is
found again on the second trip, under similar conditions of engine speed,
load and temperature, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and the
code is saved in its long term memory.
- Type 2 misfires are the most severe type of misfire. When a Type 2
misfire is sensed on the first trip, the computer commands the MIL to
light when the misfire is sensed. If the computer determines that a
Type 2 misfire is severe , and may cause catalytic converter damage,
it commands the MIL to “flash” once per second as soon as the
misfire is sensed. When the misfire is no longer present, the MIL
reverts to steady “On” condition.
The Misfire Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles.
Catalyst Monitor - The catalytic converter is a device that is
installed downstream of the exhaust manifold. It helps to oxidize
(burn) the unburned fuel (hydrocarbons) and partially burned fuel
(carbon monoxide) left over from the combustion process. To
accomplish this, heat and catalyst materials inside the converter react
with the exhaust gases to burn the remaining fuel. Some materials
inside the catalytic converter also have the ability to store oxygen, and
release it as needed to oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. In
the process, it reduces vehicle emissions by converting the polluting
gases into carbon dioxide and water.
The computer checks the efficiency of the catalytic converter by
monitoring the oxygen sensors used by the system. One sensor is located
before (upstream of) the converter; the other is located after (downstream
of) the converter. If the catalytic converter loses its ability to store oxygen,
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19
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
the downstream sensor signal voltage becomes almost the same as the
upstream sensor signal. In this case, the monitor fails the test.
The Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
Catalyst Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Heated Catalyst Monitor - Operation of the “heated” catalytic
converter is similar to the catalytic converter. The main difference
is that a heater is added to bring the catalytic converter to its operating
temperature more quickly. This helps reduce emissions by reducing the
converter’s down time when the engine is cold. The Heated Catalyst
Monitor performs the same diagnostic tests as the catalyst Monitor, and
also tests the catalytic converter’s heater for proper operation.
The Heated Catalyst Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. This Monitor is also a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Monitor - The Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR) system helps reduce the formation of
Oxides of Nitrogen during combustion. Temperatures above 2500°F
cause nitrogen and oxygen to combine and form Oxides of Nitrogen in
the combustion chamber. To reduce the formation of Oxides of Nitrogen,
combustion temperatures must be kept below 2500°F. The EGR system
recirculates small amounts of exhaust gas back into the intake manifold,
where it is mixed with the incoming air/fuel mixture. This reduces
combustion temperatures by up to 500°F. The computer determines
when, for how long, and how much exhaust gas is recirculated back to
the intake manifold. The EGR Monitor performs EGR system function
tests at preset times during vehicle operation.
The EGR Monitor is supported by both “spark ignition” vehicles and
“compression ignition” vehicles. The EGR Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Evaporative System (EVAP) Monitor - OBD2 vehicles are
equipped with a fuel Evaporative system (EVAP) that helps
prevent fuel vapors from evaporating into the air. The EVAP system
carries fumes from the fuel tank to the engine where they are burned
during combustion. The EVAP system may consist of a charcoal
canister, fuel tank cap, purge solenoid, vent solenoid, flow monitor, leak
detector and connecting tubes, lines and hoses.
Fumes are carried from the fuel tank to the charcoal canister by hoses
or tubes. The fumes are stored in the charcoal canister. The computer
controls the flow of fuel vapors from the charcoal canister to the engine
via a purge solenoid. The computer energizes or de-energizes the purge
solenoid (depending on solenoid design). The purge solenoid opens a
valve to allow engine vacuum to draw the fuel vapors from the canister
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
into the engine where the vapors are burned. The EVAP Monitor checks
for proper fuel vapor flow to the engine, and pressurizes the system to
test for leaks. The computer runs this Monitor once per trip.
The EVAP Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles only. The
EVAP Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip,
the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a Pending
Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time. If the
fault is sensed again on the second trip, the PCM commands the MIL
“On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor Heater
Monitor tests the operation of the oxygen sensor’s heater. There
are two modes of operation on a computer-controlled vehicle: “openloop” and “closed-loop.” The vehicle operates in open-loop when the
engine is cold, before it reaches normal operating temperature. The
vehicle also goes to open-loop mode at other times, such as heavy load
and full throttle conditions. When the vehicle is running in open-loop, the
oxygen sensor signal is ignored by the computer for air/fuel mixture
corrections. Engine efficiency during open-loop operation is very low,
and results in the production of more vehicle emissions.
Closed-loop operation is the best condition for both vehicle emissions
and vehicle operation. When the vehicle is operating in closed-loop, the
computer uses the oxygen sensor signal for air/fuel mixture corrections.
In order for the computer to enter closed-loop operation, the oxygen
sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600°F. The oxygen sensor
heater helps the oxygen sensor reach and maintain its minimum
operating temperature (600°F) more quickly, to bring the vehicle into
closed-loop operation as soon as possible.
The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is supported by “spark ignition”
vehicles only. The Oxygen Sensor Heater Monitor is a “Two-Trip”
Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Oxygen Sensor Monitor - The Oxygen Sensor monitors how
much oxygen is in the vehicle’s exhaust. It generates a varying
voltage of up to one volt, based on how much oxygen is in the exhaust
gas, and sends the signal to the computer. The computer uses this
signal to make corrections to the air/fuel mixture. If the exhaust gas has
a large amount of oxygen (a lean air/fuel mixture), the oxygen sensor
generates a “low” voltage signal. If the exhaust gas has very little
oxygen (a rich mixture condition), the oxygen sensor generates a “high”
voltage signal. A 450mV signal indicates the most efficient, and least
polluting, air/fuel ratio of 14.7 parts of air to one part of fuel.
The oxygen sensor must reach a temperature of at least 600-650°F,
and the engine must reach normal operating temperature, for the
computer to enter into closed-loop operation. The oxygen sensor only
functions when the computer is in closed-loop. A properly operating
oxygen sensor reacts quickly to any change in oxygen content in the
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21
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
exhaust stream. A faulty oxygen sensor reacts slowly, or its voltage
signal is weak or missing.
The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is supported by “spark ignition” vehicles
only. The Oxygen Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Secondary Air System Monitor - When a cold engine is first
started, it runs in open-loop mode. During open-loop operation,
the engine usually runs rich. A vehicle running rich wastes fuel and
creates increased emissions, such as carbon monoxide and some
hydrocarbons. A Secondary Air System injects air into the exhaust
stream to aid catalytic converter operation:
1. It supplies the catalytic converter with the oxygen it needs to oxidize
the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons left over from the
combustion process during engine warm-up.
2. The extra oxygen injected into the exhaust stream also helps the
catalytic converter reach operating temperature more quickly during
warm-up periods. The catalytic converter must heat to operating
temperature to work properly.
The Secondary Air System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Secondary Air System Monitor is a “Two-Trip” monitor. If a fault is
found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves this fault in its
memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL
on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Catalyst (NMHC) Monitor - The
non-methane hydrocarbon catalyst is a type of catalytic
converter. It helps to remove non-methane hydrocarbons (NMH) left
over from the combustion process from the exhaust stream. To
accomplish this, heat and catalyst materials react with the exhaust
gases to convert NMH to less harmful compounds. The computer checks
the efficiency of the catalyst by monitoring the quantity of NMH in the
exhaust stream. The monitor also verifies that sufficient temperature is
present to aid in particulate matter (PM) filter regeneration.
The NMHC Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles only.
The NMHC Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first
trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
NOx Aftertreatment Monitor - NOx aftertreatment is based on
a catalytic converter support that has been coated with a special
washcoat containing zeolites. NOx Aftertreatment is designed to reduce
oxides of nitrogen emitted in the exhaust stream. The zeolite acts as a
molecular "sponge" to trap the NO and NO2 molecules in the exhaust
stream. In some implementations, injection of a reactant before the
aftertreatment purges it. NO2 in particular is unstable, and will join with
hydrocarbons to produce H2O and N2. The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor
monitors the function of the NOx aftertreatment to ensure that tailpipe
emissions remain within acceptable limits.
The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The NOx Aftertreatment Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If
a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault
in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not command the
MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the
computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term
memory.
Boost Pressure System Monitor - The boost pressure system
serves to increase the pressure produced inside the intake
manifold to a level greater than atmospheric pressure. This increase in
pressure helps to ensure compete combustion of the air-fuel mixture.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor checks for component integrity and
system operation, and tests for faults in the system. The computer runs
this Monitor once per trip.
The Boost Pressure System Monitor is supported by “compression
ignition” vehicles only. The Boost Pressure System Monitor is a “TwoTrip” Monitor. If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily
saves the fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does
not command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor - The exhaust gas sensor is
used by a number of systems/monitors to determine the content
of the exhaust stream. The computer checks for component integrity,
system operation, and tests for faults in the system, as well as feedback
faults that may affect other emission control systems.
The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is supported by “compression ignition”
vehicles only. The Exhaust Gas Sensor Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor.
If a fault is found on the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the
fault in its memory as a Pending Code. The computer does not
command the MIL on at this time. If the fault is sensed again on the
second trip, the computer commands the MIL “On,” and saves the code
in its long-term memory.
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23
Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
PM Filter Monitor - The particulate matter (PM) filter removes
particulate matter from the exhaust stream by filtration. The filter
has a honeycomb structure similar to a catalyst substrate, but with the
channels blocked at alternate ends. This forces the exhaust gas to flow
through the walls between the channels, filtering the particulate matter
out. The filters are self-cleaning by periodic modification of the exhaust
gas concentration in order to burn off the trapped particles (oxidizing the
particles to form CO2 and water). The computer monitors the efficiency
of the filter in trapping particulate matter, as well as the ability of the filter
to regenerate (self-clean).
The PM Filter Monitor is supported by “compression ignition” vehicles
only. The PM Filter Monitor is a “Two-Trip” Monitor. If a fault is found on
the first trip, the computer temporarily saves the fault in its memory as a
Pending Code. The computer does not command the MIL on at this time.
If the fault is sensed again on the second trip, the computer commands
the MIL “On,” and saves the code in its long-term memory.
OBD2 Reference Table
The table below lists current OBD2 Monitors, and indicates the following
for each Monitor:
A.
24
Monitor Type (how often does the Monitor run; Continuous or
Once per trip)
B.
Number of trips needed, with a fault present, to set a pending DTC
C.
Number of consecutive trips needed, with a fault present, to
command the MIL “On” and store a DTC
D.
Number of trips needed, with no faults present, to erase a Pending
DTC
E.
Number and type of trips or drive cycles needed, with no faults
present, to turn off the MIL
F.
Number of warm-up periods needed to erase the DTC from the
computer’s memory after the MIL is turned off
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Onboard Diagnostics
OBD2 MONITORS
Name of
Monitor
A
B
C
D
E
F
Comprehensive
Component Monitor
Continuous
1
2
1
3
40
Misfire Monitor
(Type 1 and 3)
Continuous
1
2
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
Misfire Monitor
(Type 2)
Continuous
1
3 - similar
conditions
80
80
Fuel System Monitor
Continuous
1
1 or 2
1
3 - similar
conditions
Catalytic Converter
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Oxygen Sensor
Heater Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas
Recirculation (EGR)
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Evaporative
Emissions Controls
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Secondary Air
System (AIR) Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
NMHC Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Nox Adsorber Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Boost Pressure
System Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
Exhaust Gas Sensor
Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
PM Filter Monitor
Once per
trip
1
2
1
3 trips
40
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25
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
The purpose of this form is to help you gather preliminary information on
your vehicle before you retrieve codes. By having a complete account of
your vehicle's current problem(s), you will be able to systematically
pinpoint the problem(s) by comparing your answers to the fault codes
you retrieve. You can also provide this information to your mechanic to
assist in diagnosis and help avoid costly and unnecessary repairs. It is
important for you to complete this form to help you and/or your
mechanic have a clear understanding of your vehicle's problems.
NAME:
DATE:
VIN*:
YEAR:
MAKE:
MODEL:
ENGINE SIZE:
VEHICLE MILEAGE:
*VIN: Vehicle Identification Number, found at the base of the windshield
on a metallic plate, or at the driver door latch area (consult your vehicle
owner's manual for location).
TRANSMISSION:
†
Automatic
†
Manual
Please check all applicable items in each category.
DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM:
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3030g
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
WHEN DID YOU FIRST NOTICE THE PROBLEM:
†
Just Started
†
Started Last Week
†
Started Last Month
†
Other:
m
LIST ANY REPAIRS DONE IN THE PAST SIX MONTHS:
PROBLEMS STARTING
† No symptoms
†
Cranks, but will not start
†
†
Starts, but takes a long
time
†
Right after vehicle
comes to a stop
Will not crank
ENGINE QUITS OR STALLS
No symptoms
†
†
Right after starting
†
When shifting into gear
†
While idling
During steady-speed
driving
†
During acceleration
When parking
†
IDLING CONDITIONS
No symptoms
†
†
†
Is sometimes too fast or
too slow
†
Is rough or uneven
†
Fluctuates up and down
RUNNING CONDITIONS
No symptoms
†
Backfires
†
†
†
Misfires or cuts out
Engine knocks, pings or
rattles
†
Is too slow at all times
†
Is too fast
†
†
Runs rough
Lacks power
†
Bucks and jerks
†
Poor fuel economy
†
Surges
†
Hesitates or stumbles on
accelerations
†
Dieseling or run-on
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27
Preparation for Testing
PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC WORKSHEET
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS (if applicable)
†
†
†
†
No symptoms
Shifts too early or too late
Changes gear incorrectly
PROBLEM OCCURS
Morning
†
†
†
Vehicle does not move
when in gear
Jerks or bucks
Afternoon
†
Anytime
†
Hot
ENGINE TEMPERATURE WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
†
Cold
†
Warm
DRIVING CONDITIONS WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
†
†
†
†
†
†
†
†
Short - less than 2 miles
2 - 10 miles
Long - more than 10 miles
Stop and go
While turning
While braking
At gear engagement
With A/C operating
†
†
†
†
†
†
†
With headlights on
During acceleration
Mostly driving downhill
Mostly driving uphill
Mostly driving level
Mostly driving curvy
roads
Mostly driving rough
roads
DRIVING HABITS
†
†
†
†
†
Mostly city driving
Highway
Park vehicle inside
Park vehicle outside
†
†
Drive less than 10 miles per day
Drive 10 to 50 miles per day
Drive more than 50 miles per
day
GASOLINE USED
†
†
†
87 Octane
89 Octane
†
91 Octane
More than 91 Octane
WEATHER CONDITIONS WHEN PROBLEM OCCURS
†
†
32 - 55° F (0 - 13° C)
Below freezing (32° F / 0° C)
†
Above 55° F (13° C)
CHECK ENGINE LIGHT / DASH WARNING LIGHT
†
Sometimes ON
†
†
Always ON
Never ON
PECULIAR SMELLS
†
†
†
"Hot"
Sulfur ("rotten egg")
Burning rubber
†
†
†
Gasoline
Burning oil
Electrical
STRANGE NOISES
†
†
28
Rattle
Knock
†
†
Squeak
Other
3030g
Preparation for Testing
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
The Code Reader aids in monitoring electronic- and emissionsrelated faults in your vehicle and
retrieving fault codes related to
malfunctions in these systems.
Mechanical problems such as low
oil level or damaged hoses, wiring
or electrical connectors can cause poor engine performance and may also
cause a fault code to set. Fix any known mechanical problems before
performing any test. See your vehicle’s service manual or a mechanic for
more information.
Check the following areas before starting any test:
„
Check the engine oil, power steering fluid, transmission fluid (if
applicable), engine coolant and other fluids for proper levels. Top off
low fluid levels if needed.
„
Make sure the air filter is clean and in good condition. Make sure all
air filter ducts are properly connected. Check the air filter ducts for
holes, rips or cracks.
„
Make sure all engine belts are in good condition. Check for cracked,
torn, brittle, loose or missing belts.
„
Make sure mechanical linkages to engine sensors (throttle, gearshift
position, transmission, etc.) are secure and properly connected. See
your vehicle’s service manual for locations.
„
Check all rubber hoses (radiator) and steel hoses (vacuum/fuel) for
leaks, cracks, blockage or other damage. Make sure all hoses are
routed and connected properly.
„
Make sure all spark plugs are clean and in good condition. Check
for damaged, loose, disconnected or missing spark plug wires.
„
Make sure the battery terminals are clean and tight. Check for
corrosion or broken connections. Check for proper battery and
charging system voltages.
„
Check all electrical wiring and harnesses for proper connection.
Make sure wire insulation is in good condition, and there are no bare
wires.
„
Make sure the engine is mechanically sound. If needed, perform a
compression check, engine vacuum check, timing check (if
applicable), etc.
3030g
29
Preparation for Testing
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
VEHICLE SERVICE MANUALS
Always refer to the manufacturer’s service manual for your vehicle
before performing any test or repair procedures. Contact your local car
dealership, auto parts store or bookstore for availability of these
manuals. The following companies publish valuable repair manuals:
„
Haynes Publications
861 Lawrence Drive
Newbury Park, California 91320
Phone: 800-442-9637
Web: www.haynes.com
„
Mitchell 1
14145 Danielson Street
Poway, California 92064
Phone: 888-724-6742
Web: www.m1products.com
„
Motor Publications
5600 Crooks Road, Suite 200
Troy, Michigan 48098
Phone: 800-426-6867
Web: www.motor.com
FACTORY SOURCES
Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Isuzu, Hyundai and Subaru Service
Manuals
„
30
Helm Inc.
14310 Hamilton Avenue
Highland Park, Michigan 48203
Phone: 800-782-4356
Web: www.helminc.com
3030g
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
Retrieving and using Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) for
troubleshooting vehicle operation is only one part of an
overall diagnostic strategy.
Never replace a part based only on the DTC definition.
Each DTC has a set of testing procedures, instructions and
flow charts that must be followed to confirm the location of
the problem. This information is found in the vehicle's
service manual. Always refer to the vehicle's service manual
for detailed testing instructions.
Check your vehicle thoroughly before performing
any test. See BEFORE YOU BEGIN on page 29 for
details.
ALWAYS observe safety precautions whenever working on a
vehicle. See SAFETY PRECAUTIONS on page 3 for more
information.
1. Turn the ignition off.
2. Locate the vehicle's 16-pin Data Link
Connector (DLC). See page 4 for
connector location.
Some DLCs have a plastic cover
that must be removed before
connecting the Code Reader
cable connector.
3. Connect the Code Reader cable connector to the vehicle’s DLC. The cable
connector is keyed and will only fit one
way.
„
If you have problems connecting the cable connector to the DLC,
rotate the connector 180° and try again.
„
If you still have problems, check the DLC on the vehicle and on
the Code Reader. Refer to your vehicle’s service manual to
properly check the vehicle’s DLC.
4. After the Code Reader’s cable connector is properly connected to
the vehicle’s DLC, the vehicle icon
will display to confirm a good
power connection.
3030g
„
If the LCD is blank, it indicates there is no power at the vehicle’s
DLC. Check your fuse panel and replace any burned out fuses.
„
If replacing the fuse(s) does not correct the problem, see your
vehicle’s repair manual to locate the proper computer (PCM)
fuse/circuit. Perform any necessary repairs before continuing.
31
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
5. Turn the ignition on. DO NOT start the
engine.
6. The Code Reader will automatically
start a check of the vehicle’s computer
to determine which type of communication protocol it is using. When the Code
Reader identifies the computer’s communication protocol, a communication
link is established.
A PROTOCOL is a set of rules and
procedures for regulating data
transmission between computers,
and between testing equipment
and computers. As of this writing, five different types of protocols
(ISO 9141, Keyword 2000, J1850 PWM, J1850 VPW and CAN)
are in use by vehicle manufacturers. The Code Reader
automatically identifies the protocol type and establishes a
communication link with the vehicle’s computer.
„
If the Code Reader fails to link to the
vehicle’s computer, a “Communication
Error” message shows on the Code
Reader’s display.
- Ensure your vehicle is OBD2
compliant.
See
VEHICLES
COVERED on page 4 for vehicle
compliance verification information.
- Verify the connection at the DLC, and verify the ignition is ON.
- Turn the ignition OFF, wait 5 seconds, then back ON to reset
the computer.
- Press the ENTER
„
button to continue.
If the Code Reader cannot link to
the vehicle’s computer after three
attempts, a “Contact Technical
Support” message displays.
- Turn the ignition off, and
disconnect the Code Reader.
- Contact Technical Support for
assistance.
7. If the Code Reader can decode the
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) for
the vehicle under test, the Vehicle
Information screen displays.
„
32
If the information shown is correct
for the vehicle under test, use the
DOWN
button, as necessary, to
highlight Yes, then press the
ENTER
button. Proceed to step 9.
3030g
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
If the information shown is not correct for the vehicle under test,
or if you wish to manually select the vehicle, use DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight No, then press the ENTER
button. Proceed to step 8.
„
If the Code Reader cannot decode
the Vehicle Identification Number
(VIN) for the vehicle under test, the
Select Vehicle screen displays.
Proceed to step 8.
8. When No is selected from the Vehicle
information screen, the Select Make
screen displays.
„
Use the DOWN
button, as
necessary, to highlight the desired
vehicle make, then press the
ENTER
button to continue. If
necessary, select Next to view
additional options.
-
The Vehicle Information screen
displays.
„
If the information shown is correct for the vehicle under test, use
the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Yes, then
button. Proceed to step 9.
press the ENTER
„
If the information shown is not correct for the vehicle under test,
or if you wish to reselect the vehicle, use DOWN
button, as
necessary, to highlight No, then press the ENTER
button to
return to the Select Make screen.
9. After approximately 10~60 seconds, the Code Reader will retrieve and
display any powertrain Diagnostic Trouble Codes, Monitor Status and
Freeze Frame Data retrieved from the vehicle’s computer memory.
„
The Code Reader will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
codes are present, the message
“No DTCs or Freeze Frame Data
presently stored in the vehicle’s
computer” displays.
10. To read the display:
Refer to DISPLAY FUNCTIONS on page 7 for a description of
display elements.
„
„
3030g
A visible
icon indicates that the Code Reader is being
powered through the vehicle’s DLC connector.
A visible
icon indicates that the Code Reader is linked to
(communicating with) the vehicle’s computer.
33
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
„
The I/M Monitor Status icons indicate the type and number of
Monitors the vehicle supports, and provides indications of the
current status of the vehicle’s Monitors. A solid green Monitor
icon indicates the associated Monitor has run and completed its
testing. A blinking red Monitor icon indicates the associated
Monitor has not run and completed its testing.
„ The upper left hand corner of the
display shows the DTC and number of
the code currently being displayed
and the total number of codes
retrieved. The upper right hand corner
shows whether or not the displayed
code commanded the MIL on. If the
code being displayed is a PENDING
code, the PENDING icon is shown. If
the code being displayed is a
PERMANENT code, the PERMANENT icon is shown.
„ The Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) definition is shown in the
lower section of the display.
In the case of long code definitions, a small arrow is shown in the
upper/lower right-hand corner of the Code Reader display area to
indicate the presence of additional information. Use the
button,
as necessary, to view the additional information.
If a definition for the currently
displayed code is not available, an
advisory message shows on the
Code Reader’s display.
11. Read and interpret Diagnostic Trouble
Codes/system condition using the display
and the green, yellow and red LEDs.
The green, yellow and red LEDs are
used (with the display) as visual aids
to make it easier to determine
engine system conditions.
„ Green LED – Indicates that all engine
systems are “OK” and operating
normally. All monitors supported by
the vehicle have run and performed
their diagnostic testing, and no trouble
codes are present. All Monitor icons
will be solid.
„ Yellow LED – Indicates one of the
following conditions:
A. A PENDING CODE IS PRESENT – If
the yellow LED is illuminated, it may
indicate a Pending code is present.
Check the Code Reader’s display for
confirmation. A Pending code is confirmed by the presence of a numeric
code and the word PENDING on the
Code Reader’s display.
34
3030g
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
B. MONITOR NOT RUN STATUS – If
the Code Reader’s display shows a
zero (indicating there are no DTC’s
present in the vehicle’s computer
memory), but the yellow LED is
illuminated, it may be an indication
that some of the Monitors
supported by the vehicle have not
yet run and completed their
diagnostic testing. Check the Code
Reader’s display for confirmation.
All Monitor icons that are blinking
have not yet run and completed
their diagnostic testing; all Monitor
icons that are solid have run and
completed their diagnostic testing.
„
Red LED – Indicates there is a
problem with one or more of the
vehicle’s systems. The red LED is
also used to indicate that DTC(s)
are present (displayed on the Code
Reader’s screen). In this case, the
Malfunction Indicator (Check Engine)
lamp on the vehicle’s instrument
panel will be illuminated.
„
DTC’s that start with “P0”, “P2” and some “P3” are considered
Generic (Universal). All Generic DTC definitions are the same on all
OBD2 equipped vehicles. The Code Reader automatically displays
the code definitions (if available) for Generic DTC’s.
„
DTC’s that start with “P1” and some “P3” are Manufacturer specific
codes and their code definitions vary with each vehicle manufacturer.
12. If more than one DTC was retrieved, and to view Freeze Frame
Data, press and release the DTC button, as necessary.
3030g
„
Each time the DTC button is pressed and released, the Code
Reader will scroll and display the next DTC in sequence until all
DTCs in its memory have displayed.
„
Freeze Frame Data (if available) will display after DTC #1.
„
In OBD2 systems, when an
emissions-related engine malfunction
occurs that causes a DTC to set, a
record or snapshot of engine conditions at the time that the malfunction
occurred is also saved in the vehicle’s
computer memory. The record saved
is called Freeze Frame data. Saved
engine conditions include, but are not
limited to: engine speed, open or closed loop operation, fuel system
commands, coolant temperature, calculated load value, fuel
pressure, vehicle speed, air flow rate, and intake manifold pressure.
35
Using the Code Reader
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
If more than one malfunction is present that causes more than
one DTC to be set, only the code with the highest priority will
contain Freeze Frame data. The code designated “01” on the
Code Reader display is referred to as the PRIORITY code,
and Freeze Frame data always refers to this code. The priority
code is also the one that has commanded the MIL on.
Retrieved information can be uploaded to a Personal Computer
(PC) with the use of optional software (see instructions included
with the software for more information).
13. When the last retrieved powertrain DTC
has been displayed and the DTC button
is pressed, the Code Reader displays
any ABS DTCs retrieved from the
vehicle’s computer memory.
„
The Code Reader will display a
code only if codes are present in the
vehicle’s computer memory. If no
ABS codes are present, the
message “No ABS DTCs are
presently stored in the vehicle’s
computer” displays.
If ABS DTCs are not supported
by the vehicle under test, the
message “ABS is not supported
for this vehicle” displays.
14. When the last retrieved ABS DTC has
been displayed and the DTC button is
pressed, the Code Reader returns to
the “Priority Code.”
15. Determine engine system(s) condition by
viewing the Code Reader’s display for any
retrieved Diagnostic Trouble Codes, code
definitions and Freeze Frame data,
interpreting the green, yellow and red
LEDs.
36
„
If DTC’s were retrieved and you are going to perform the repairs
yourself, proceed by consulting the Vehicle’s Service Repair
Manual for testing instructions, testing procedures, and flow
charts related to retrieved code(s).
„
If you plan to take the vehicle to a professional to have it
serviced, complete the PRELIMINARY VEHICLE DIAGNOSTIC
WORKSHEET on page 26 and take it together with the retrieved
codes, freeze frame data and LED information to aid in the
troubleshooting procedure.
3030g
Using the Code Reader
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
ERASING DIAGNOSTIC TROUBLE CODES (DTCs)
When the Code Reader’s ERASE function is used to erase
DTCs from the vehicle's on-board computer, "Freeze
Frame" data and manufacturer-specific-enhanced data are
also erased. "Permanent" DTCs ARE NOT erased by the
ERASE function.
If you plan to take the vehicle to a Service Center for repair, DO NOT
erase the codes from the vehicle's computer. If the codes are erased,
valuable information that might help the technician troubleshoot the
problem will also be erased.
Erase DTCs from the computer's memory as follows:
When DTCs are erased from the vehicle's computer memory, the
I/M Readiness Monitor Status program resets the status of all
Monitors to a not run "flashing" condition. To set all of the Monitors
to a DONE status, an OBD2 Drive Cycle must be performed.
Refer to your vehicle's service manual for information on how to
perform an OBD2 Drive Cycle for the vehicle under test.
1. If not connected already, connect the
Code Reader to the vehicle's DLC, and
turn the ignition "On.” (If the Code
Reader is already connected and linked
to the vehicle's computer, proceed
directly to step 3. If not, continue to step
2.)
2. Perform the Code Retrieval procedure
as described on page 31.
„
Wait until the codes are displayed
on the Code Reader’s LCD and
then proceed to step 3.
3. Press and release the ERASE
button. A confirmation message shows
on the LCD display.
„
If you are sure you want to proceed,
use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Yes, then press
the ENTER
button to continue.
„
If you do not want to proceed, use
button, as necessary,
the DOWN
to highlight No, then press the
ENTER
button to cancel the
erase procedure.
4. If you chose to erase DTCs, a “One
moment please…” message displays
while the erase function is in progress.
3030g
37
Using the Code Reader
I/M READINESS TESTING
If the vehicle’s engine is running,
an advisory message shows on
the Code Reader’s display. Turn
the engine OFF, then turn the
ignition back to ON. DO NOT start
the engine. Press the ENTER
button to continue.
„
If the erase was successful, a
confirmation message shows on the
display. Press the DTC button to
return to the DTC Display screen.
„
If the erase was not successful, an
advisory message shows on the display. Press the DTC button to return
to the DTC Display screen.
I/M READINESS TESTING
I/M is an Inspection and Maintenance program legislated by the
Government to meet federal clean-air standards.
The program requires that a vehicle be taken periodically to an
Emissions Station for an "Emissions Test" or "Smog Check,” where the
emissions-related components and systems are inspected and tested
for proper operation. Emissions Tests are generally performed once a
year, or once every two years.
On OBD2 systems, the I/M program is enhanced by requiring vehicles
to meet stricter test standards. One of the tests instituted by the Federal
Government is called I/M 240. On I/M 240, the vehicle under test is
driven under different speeds and load conditions on a dynamometer for
240 seconds, while the vehicle's emissions are measured.
Emissions tests vary depending on the geographic or regional
area in which the vehicle is registered. If the vehicle is
registered in a highly urbanized area, the I/M 240 is probably
the type of test required. If the vehicle is registered in a rural
area, the stricter “dynamometer type” test may not be required.
I/M Readiness Monitors
I/M Readiness shows whether the various emissions-related systems on
the vehicle are operating properly and are ready for Inspection and
Maintenance testing.
State and Federal Governments enacted Regulations, Procedures and
Emission Standards to ensure that all emissions-related components
and systems are continuously or periodically monitored, tested and
diagnosed whenever the vehicle is in operation. It also requires vehicle
manufacturers to automatically detect and report any problems or faults
that may increase the vehicle's emissions to an unacceptable level.
38
3030g
Using the Code Reader
I/M READINESS TESTING
The vehicle's emissions control system consists of several components
or sub-systems (Oxygen Sensor, Catalytic Converter, EGR, Fuel
System, etc.) that aid in reducing vehicle emissions.
To have an efficient Vehicle Emission Control System, all the emissionsrelated components and systems must work correctly whenever the
vehicle is in operation.
To comply with State and Federal Government regulations, vehicle
manufacturers designed a series of special computer programs called
"Monitors" that are programmed into the vehicle's computer. Each of
these Monitors is specifically designed to run tests and diagnostics on a
specific emissions-related component or system (Oxygen Sensor,
Catalytic Converter, EGR Valve, Fuel System, etc.) to ensure their
proper operation. Currently, there are a maximum of fifteen Monitors
available for use.
Each Monitor has a specific function to test and diagnose only its
designated emissions-related component or system. The names
of the Monitors (Oxygen Sensor Monitor, Catalyst Monitor, EGR
Monitor, Misfire Monitor, etc.) describe which component or
system each Monitor is designed to test and diagnose.
Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Readiness
Monitor Status Information
I/M Readiness Monitor Status shows which of the vehicle's Monitors
have run and completed their diagnosis and testing, and which ones
have not yet run and completed testing and diagnosis of their
designated sections of the vehicle's emissions system.
„
If a Monitor was able to meet all the conditions required to enable it
to perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine
system, it means the monitor "HAS RUN.”
„
If a Monitor has not yet met all the conditions required for it to
perform the self-diagnosis and testing of its assigned engine system;
it means the Monitor "HAS NOT RUN.”
The Monitor Run/Not Run status does not show whether
or not a problem exists in a system. Monitor status only
indicates whether a particular Monitor has or has not run
and performed the self-diagnosis and testing of its
associated system.
Performing I/M Readiness Quick Check
When a vehicle first comes from the factory, all Monitors
indicate a “HAVE RUN” status. This indicates that all Monitors
have run and completed their diagnostic testing. The “HAVE
RUN” status remains in the computer's memory, unless the
Diagnostic Trouble Codes are erased or the vehicle's
computer memory is cleared.
3030g
39
Using the Code Reader
I/M READINESS TESTING
The Code Reader allows you to retrieve Monitor/System Status
Information to help you determine if the vehicle is ready for an
Emissions Test (Smog Check). In addition to retrieving Diagnostic
Trouble Codes, the Code Reader also retrieves Monitor Run/Not Run
status. This information is very important since different areas of the
state/country have different emissions laws and regulations concerning
Monitor Run/Not Run status.
Before an Emissions Test (Smog Check) can be performed, your
vehicle must meet certain rules, requirements and procedures legislated
by the Federal and state (country) governments where you live.
1. In most areas, one of the requirements that must be met before a
vehicle is allowed to be Emissions Tested (Smog Checked) is that
the vehicle does not have any Diagnostic Trouble Codes present
(with the exception of PENDING Diagnostic Trouble Codes).
2. In addition to the requirement that no Diagnostic Trouble Codes be
present, some areas also require that all the Monitors that a
particular vehicle supports indicate a "Has Run" status condition
before an Emissions Check may be performed.
3. Other areas may only require that some (but not all) Monitors
indicate a "Has Run" status before an Emissions Test (Smog Check)
may be performed.
Monitors with a "Has Run" status indicate that all the
required conditions they needed to perform diagnosis and
testing of their assigned engine area (system) have been
met, and all diagnostic testing has completed successfully.
Monitors with a "Has Not Run" status have not yet met the
conditions they need to perform diagnosis and testing of
their assigned engine area (system), and have not been
able to perform diagnostic testing on that system.
The green, yellow and red LEDs provide a quick way to help you
determine if a vehicle is ready for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
Follow the instructions below to perform the Quick Check.
Perform the CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE as described on page
31, then interpret the LED indications as follows:
Interpreting I/M Readiness Test Results
1. GREEN LED - Indicates that all engine
systems are "OK" and operating
normally (all Monitors supported by the
vehicle have run and performed their
self-diagnostic testing). The vehicle is
ready for an Emissions Test (Smog
Check), and there is a good possibility
that it can be certified.
2. YELLOW LED - Determine from the
CODE RETRIEVAL PROCEDURE
(page 31) which of the two possible
conditions is causing the yellow LED to light.
40
3030g
Using the Code Reader
I/M READINESS TESTING
„
If a "PENDING" Diagnostic Trouble
Code is causing the yellow LED to
light, it is possible that the vehicle will
be allowed to be tested for emissions
and certified. Currently, most areas
(states / countries) will allow an
Emissions Test (Smog Check) to be
performed if the only code in the
vehicle's computer is a "PENDING"
Diagnostic Trouble Code.
„
If the illumination of the Yellow LED
is being caused by monitors that
“have not run” their diagnostic
testing, then the issue of the vehicle
being ready for an Emissions Test
(Smog Check) depends on the
emissions regulations and laws of
your local area.
- Some areas require that all
Monitors indicate a "Has Run"
status before they allow an
Emissions Test (Smog Check) to be performed. Other areas
only require that some, but not all, Monitors have run their
self-diagnostic testing before an Emissions Test (Smog
Check) may be performed.
- From the code retrieval procedure, determine the status of
each Monitor (a solid Monitor icon shows Monitor "Has Run"
status, a flashing Monitor icon indicates "Has Not Run" status).
Take this information to an emissions professional to
determine (based on your test results) if your vehicle is ready
for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
3. RED LED - Indicates there is a problem
with one or more of the vehicle's
systems. A vehicle displaying a red LED
is definitely not ready for an Emissions
Test (Smog Check). The red LED is
also an indication that there are
Diagnostic Trouble Code(s) present
(displayed on the Code Reader's
screen). The Malfunction Indicator
(Check Engine) Lamp on the vehicle's
instrument panel will light steady. The
problem that is causing the red LED to
light must be repaired before an Emissions Test (Smog Check) can
be performed. It is also suggested that the vehicle be inspected/
repaired before driving the vehicle further.
If the Red LED was obtained, there is a definite problem present in
the system(s). In these cases, you have the following options.
„
3030g
Repair the vehicle yourself. If you are going to perform the
repairs yourself, proceed by reading the vehicle service manual
and following all its procedures and recommendations.
41
Using the Code Reader
I/M READINESS TESTING
„
Take the vehicle to a professional to have it serviced. The
problem(s) causing the red LED to light must be repaired before
the vehicle is ready for an Emissions Test (Smog Check).
Using the I/M Readiness Monitor Status to Confirm a Repair
The I/M Readiness Monitor Status function can be used (after repair of a
fault has been performed) to confirm that the repair has been performed
correctly, and/or to check for Monitor Run Status. Use the following
procedure to determine I/M Readiness Monitor Status:
1. Using retrieved Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) and code
definitions as a guide, and following manufacturer's repair
procedures, repair the fault or faults as instructed.
2. After the fault or faults have been repaired, connect the Code
Reader to the vehicle's DLC and erase the code or codes from the
vehicle's computer memory.
„
See page 37 for procedures for ERASING DIAGNOSTIC
TROUBLE CODES (DTCs) from the vehicle's on-board
computer.
„
Write the codes down on a piece of paper for reference before
erasing.
3. After the erase procedure is performed, most of the Monitor icons on
the Code Reader’s display will be flashing. Leave the Code Reader
connected to the vehicle, and perform a Trip Drive Cycle for each
"flashing" Monitor:
Misfire, Fuel and Comprehensive Component Monitors run
continuously and their icons will always be on solid, even after
the erase function is performed.
„
Each DTC is associated with a specific Monitor. Consult the
vehicle's service manual to identify the Monitor (or Monitors)
associated with the faults that were repaired. Follow the
manufacturer's procedures to perform a Trip Drive Cycle for the
appropriate Monitors.
„
While observing the Monitor icons on the Code Reader’s display,
perform a Trip Drive Cycle for the appropriate Monitor or
Monitors.
If the vehicle needs to be driven in order to perform a Trip
Drive Cycle, ALWAYS have a second person help you.
One person should drive the vehicle while the other
person observes the Monitor icons on the Code Reader for
Monitor RUN status. Trying to drive and observe the Code
Reader at the same time is dangerous, and could cause a
serious traffic accident.
4. When a Monitor's Trip Drive Cycle is performed properly, the
Monitor icon on the Code Reader’s display changes from "flashing"
to "solid,” indicating that the Monitor has run and finished its
diagnostic testing.
42
3030g
Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
„
If, after the Monitor has run, the MIL on the vehicle's dash is not
lit, and no stored or pending codes associated with that
particular Monitor are present in the vehicle's computer, the
repair was successful.
„
If, after the Monitor has run, the MIL on the vehicle's dash lights
and/or a DTC associated with that Monitor is present in the
vehicle's computer, the repair was unsuccessful. Refer to the
vehicle's service manual and recheck repair procedures.
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
RepairSolutions® is a web-based service that provides you with the tools
and information you need to quickly and accurately diagnose and repair
today’s vehicles. RepairSolutions® lets you view, save, and email the
diagnostic data retrieved from a vehicle’s on-board computer(s) using an
Innova Code Reader. At the core of RepairSolutions® is an extensive
knowledge database, developed by compiling and analyzing years worth
of “real world” vehicle service data. RepairSolutions® builds on
manufacturer-recommended diagnostic and repair information by
providing verified, vehicle-specific fixes supplied by ASE technicians
across the country. The basic RepairSolutions® account is free, and is
available immediately upon purchase of your Innova tool and a one-time
software download. Certain “value added” premium information is
available on demand at nominal charge or through “premium” subscription.
The RepairSolutions® Diagnostic Report
The RepairSolutions® Diagnostic Report provides you with detailed
information for diagnosing and repairing vehicle issues. The Diagnostic
Report gives you the following information:
Some features are available only with a “premium” subscription to RepairSolutions®.
„
Summary – The Summary page shows the current status of your
vehicle’s emissions, engine/transmission, supplemental restraint
(airbag) and anti-lock brake systems, and provides a summary of
the issues associated with your vehicle.
„
Verified Fixes – The Verified Fixes page lists the most likely
repair(s) needed by your vehicle based on the DTCs retrieved. It
includes cost estimates for the repair(s) based on your geographic
location, provides access to detailed instructions for performing the
repair(s), and includes links to supplemental information (including
articles and videos) related to the affected component or system.
„
Diagnostic Data – The Diagnostic Data page provides detailed
information related to the DTCs retrieved from your vehicle’s
computer. It includes descriptions of the retrieved DTCs including
the conditions under which each DTC was set, the probable causes
for the issue and recommendations for verifying the problem. You
can also view Freeze Frame data for the “priority” DTC (the DTC
that caused the MIL to illuminate) and current I/M Monitor status.
„
TSBs / Recalls - Even with the exhaustive testing a vehicle
undergoes before being made available to the public, some issues are
discovered only under “real world” driving conditions. Depending on
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Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
the severity of the problem, the vehicle manufacturer may issue a
Technical Service Bulletin describing the problem, and providing the
procedures necessary to correct it. For safety related problems,
vehicle manufacturers are required to issue vehicle recalls to correct
the problem. The TSBs / Recalls page lists three main categories for
issues related to your vehicle: Factory Technical Service Bulletins
(TSBs), Factory Recalls, and Government-mandated NHTSA Safety
Recalls. This information can help you identify a problem before it
occurs, and ensure your vehicle meets Federal safety standards.
„
Maintenance - The Maintenance page provides information to help
keep your vehicle in top running condition. The page uses your
vehicle’s year, make, model and current mileage to provide a list of
manufacturer-recommended periodic maintenance procedures that
should be performed during its next scheduled service. These
maintenance items are highly recommended and should be performed to best protect against premature failure. The page also
includes additional recommended service procedures based on
analysis of component failures reported by the RepairSolutions®
network of technicians for vehicles of your make, model and mileage.
All procedures include estimates of cost and level of difficulty.
„
Warranty – Warranties are the vehicle manufacturer's promise to
cover certain repair/replacement costs for a specific amount of time or
until the vehicle has been driven for a specific number of miles. The
Warranty page provides an estimation of the current state of your
vehicle’s warranties (whether they are active, expired, and/or
transferable). This information is intended for reference only. It is
based on manufacturer published data available at the time the data
was gathered and may not fully reflect your actual warranty coverage.
„
Predicted Repairs – Solving a problem before it becomes a problem
can reduce out-of-pocket cost and minimize personal inconvenience.
Through detailed analysis of historical repair information supplied by
technician across the country, RepairSolutions® is able to provide highly
accurate predictions of potential service and repair requirements based
on your vehicle’s year, make, model and mileage. The Predicted
Repairs page provides a list of predicted repairs for your vehicle over
the next 12 months. The predicted repairs are weighted by probability
(high, moderate or low) and include cost estimates.
„
Vehicle History Reports – Thinking of buying a vehicle?
RepairSolutions® provides “one click” access for the purchase of a
vehicle history report.
The Portal Page
The Portal page gives you an overview of your RepairSolutions®
account. It shows your Account Status and provides access to the
reports you have most recently generated using a registered Innova tool.
Innova Account
The Innova Account section lets you manage the vehicles and tools you’ve
registered with your account and manage your personal information.
„
44
My Garage – Your RepairSolutions® account can be used for
multiple vehicles. The My Garage page you add, view and edit
vehicles for your account.
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Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
„
Report History – Each report you create through RepairSolutions® is
retained through the lifetime of your membership, giving you an
overview of the health of your vehicles. The Report History page lets
you browse a list of all reports created through RepairSolutions® for all
vehicles registered to your account, and view any report listed. You can
also search the list based on the criteria (report #, VIN, etc.) you specify.
„
Registered Devices – You can register all of your Innova tools with
your RepairSolutions® account. The Registered Devices page
shows all the tools registered to your account along with the date on
which the device was activated.
„
Order History – You can purchase “premium” access to
RepairSolutions® on a monthly or annual basis. The Order History
page lists all subscriptions you’ve purchased for your account.
„
Profile and Reset Password – These pages let you update and
maintain your personal account information and change the
password you use to log in to RepairSolutions®.
Tools
The RepairSolutions® Tools section provides access to several
databases offering maintenance and repair instruction, “tech tips,” safety
information and general reference data.
„
How-To Videos – With the complexity of today’s vehicles, repair
tasks can seem daunting even to the seasoned do-it-yourselfer.
RepairSolutions® offers a rich selection of How-To Videos that
provide step-by-step instruction for a variety of tasks, including
general maintenance, diagnosis and troubleshooting, and detailed
repair information. The “basic” membership provides access to a
selection of available videos, while the “premium” subscription
allows access to the complete video library.
„
Recalls – Even with the exhaustive testing a vehicle undergoes
before being made available to the public, some issues are
discovered only under “real world” driving conditions. When an issue
that affects personal safety is found, or if a vehicle does not meet
Federal safety standards, the Government mandates that the
vehicle manufacturer issue a “safety recall.” Safety recalls are
official notices that describe known vehicle issues as well as the
related safety concerns. Repairs performed to address a safety
recall are provided free of cost by the vehicle manufacturer’s
dealership. The Recalls database helps you ensure the safety of
your vehicle. You can search for safety recalls by entering a
vehicle’s year, make and model.
„
DTC Library – Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are the starting
point for identifying, troubleshooting and repairing vehicle issues. The
DTC Library contains definitions for “generic” and “manufacturerspecific” OBD2 DTCs as well as OBD1 codes. Currently, the database
provides code definitions for 43 different vehicle makes. Select the
desired make and enter the DTC to retrieve the specific definition for
your vehicle. Because OBD2 is an evolving system, the DTC Library
is continuously updated to include additional “manufacturer-specific”
definitions as the system matures.
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Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
„
DLC Locator – The key to unlocking the wealth of information
available through OBD2 is the Data Link Connector (DLC), the
doorway to your vehicle’s computer. The DLC Locator is a
comprehensive database of DLC locations for all OBD2-certified
vehicles. Simply enter a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), or
select the desired year, make and model, and the DLC Locator will
return a description and photo illustration of the DLC location.
„
Tech Tips – Updated quarterly, RepairSolutions® Tech Tips are
designed to provide basic solutions to everyday vehicle issues,
explain how to perform much needed maintenance, and provide
basic information on how to take care of your vehicle. All Tech Tips
are prepared, reviewed and approved with the support of ASE
Certified Technicians.
„
Shop Locator – Whether you want to purchase parts to make a
repair yourself or find a local repair shop, the Shop Locator will return
a list facilities near your location based on the Zip Code you provide.
Hardware Requirements:
„ Innova Code Reader
„
Mini USB Cable (included with tool)
Minimum System Operating Requirements:
Windows®
„
OS Requirements
- Windows® XP / Windows® Vista (32/64-bit editions) / Windows®
7 (32/64-bit editions) / Windows® 8 / Windows® 8.1
Minimum Hardware Requirements
- 50 MB free hard disk space
- 128 MB RAM
- Pentium processor or better
- 1 USB port (preferably 2.0)
Other Requirements
- Internet connection
- Internet Explorer 5.5, Netscape 7.0 or Firefox 2.0 or newer browser
„
MAC®
OS Requirements
- Mac OS 10.4.4 and newer
Minimum Hardware Requirements
- 100 MB free disk space
- 256 MB of RAM
- Intel PowerPC G3, G4 or G5 processor running at 700 MHz or more
- 1 USB port
46
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Using the Code Reader
ABOUT REPAIRSOLUTIONS®
Other Requirements
- Internet Connection
- Safari 3.0, Netscape 7.2 or Firefox 3.0 or newer browser
Accessing RepairSolutions®
1. Link your Code Reader to a vehicle and retrieve diagnostic data.
2. Visit www.innova.com to download and install the latest PC-Link
software for your Scan Tool. Select the Support tab, the choose
Manuals and Software. Use the drop down menu provided to
select your tool Category and tool Model and download the latest
PC-Link software.
3. Connect the Code Reader to your PC using a Mini USB cable (cable
included).
„
Your default web browser launches automatically and connects
to the www.innova.com website.
4. Login to your RepairSolutions® account using your registered Email
Address and Password.
If you have not yet established an account, you must register
for a FREE RepairSolutions® account before proceeding.
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Additional Functions
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
The Code Reader lets you make several
adjustments and settings to configure the
Code Reader for your particular needs. The
following adjustments and settings are
available:
„
Tool Icons: Shows the full names for the I/M MONITOR STATUS
icons shown on the Code Reader’s display.
„
LED Meaning: Provides descriptions of the meaning of the Code
Reader SYSTEM STATUS LEDs.
„
Adjust Brightness: Adjusts the brightness of the display screen.
„
Audible Tone: Turns the Code Reader’s audible tone “on” and “off.”
When turned “on,” a tone sounds each time a button is pressed.
„
Footer: Turns the navigational “footers” at the bottom of most
display screens “on” and “off.”
„
Hotkeys Legends: Shows functional descriptions for the Code
Reader’s hotkeys.
„
Language Selection: Sets the display language for the Code
Reader to English, French or Spanish.
„
Unit of Measurement: Sets the Unit of Measurement for the Code
Reader’s display to USA or Metric.
Accessing the Main Menu
1. While linked to the vehicle, press and
hold the ENTER
button.
„
The “Main Menu” displays.
2. Make adjustments and settings as
described in the following paragraphs.
Viewing Tool Icon Descriptions
The I/M MONITOR STATUS icons on the
Code Reader’s LCD display provide an
indication of the “Completed / Not Complete”
status for all I/M Monitors supported by the
vehicle under test. The Tool Icons function
displays the full name for each Monitor icon.
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Tool Icons, then press
the ENTER
button.
48
„
The Tool Icons screen displays.
„
The screen shows a list of the 15
Monitor icons, along with the full name
for each icon. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to scroll the list.
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Additional Functions
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
2. When you have finished viewing the Tool Icon descriptions, press
and hold the ENTER
button to return to the Main Menu.
Viewing the LED Meaning
The SYSTEM STATUS LEDs on the Code Reader provide a visual
indication of the I/M Readiness status of the vehicle under test. The
LED Meaning function provides a description of the meanings of the
green, yellow and red SYSTEM STATUS LEDs.
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight LED Meaning, then
press the ENTER
button.
„
The LED Meaning screen displays.
„
The screen provides a description of
the meanings of the green, yellow
and red SYSTEM STATUS LEDs.
Use the DOWN
button, as
necessary, to scroll the display.
2. When you have finished viewing the
LED meanings, press and hold the
ENTER
button to return to the Main
Menu.
Adjusting Display Brightness
button, as neces1. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight Adjust Brightness in
the Main Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Adjust Brightness screen displays.
„
The Brightness field shows the
current brightness setting, from 1 - 4.
2. Press the DOWN
button to increase
the brightness of the display (make the
display lighter).
„
When
the
brightness
setting
reaches 4 and the DOWN
button is pressed again, the
brightness setting returns to 1.
3. When the desired brightness is obtained, press the ENTER
button to save your changes and return to the Main Menu.
To exit the Adjust Brightness screen and return to the Main
Menu without making changes, press and hold the ENTER
button.
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Additional Functions
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
Enabling the Audible Tone
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Audible Tone in the
Main Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Audible Tone screen displays.
button, as neces2. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight ON or OFF as desired.
3. When the desired option is selected,
press the ENTER
button to save
your changes and return to the Main
Menu.
To exit the Audible Tone
screen and return to the Main
Menu without making changes,
press and hold the ENTER
button.
Disabling Navigational Footers
Navigational “footers” are shown at the bottom of most display
screens.
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Footer in the Main
Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
„
The Footer screen displays.
button, as neces2. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight ON or OFF as desired.
3. When the desired option is selected,
press the ENTER
button to save
your changes are return to the Main
Menu.
To exit the Footer screen and
return to the Main Menu without
making changes, press and hold
button.
the ENTER
Viewing Hotkey Legends
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Hotkey Legends in
the Main Menu, then press the ENTER
button.
50
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Additional Functions
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
„
The Hotkey Legends screen displays.
„
The screen shows a functional
description of each of the Code
Reader’s hotkeys.
2. When you have finished viewing the
Hotkey Legends, press the ENTER
button to return to the Main Menu.
Selecting the Display Language
button, as neces1. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight Language Selection
in the Main Menu, then press the
ENTER
button.
„
The Select Language screen displays.
„
The currently selected display language is highlighted.
button, as neces2. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight the desired display
language.
3. When the desired display language is
highlighted, press the ENTER
button to
save your changes and return to the Main
Menu (shown in the selected display
language).
To exit the Select Language screen and return to the Main
Menu without making changes, press and hold the ENTER
button.
Setting the Unit of Measurement
1. Use the DOWN
button, as necessary, to highlight Unit of Measurement
in the Main Menu, then press the
ENTER
button.
„
The Unit of Measurement screen
displays.
„
The currently selected Unit of
Measurement is highlighted.
button, as neces2. Use the DOWN
sary, to highlight the desired Unit of
Measurement.
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Additional Functions
ADJUSTMENTS AND SETTINGS
3. When the desired Unit of Measurement value is selected, press the
ENTER
button to save your changes and return to the Main Menu.
To exit the Unit of Measurement screen and return to the
Main Menu without making changes, press and hold the
ENTER
button.
Exiting the Main Menu
„
52
Press any hotkey to exit the Main Menu.
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Vehicle Applications - ABS
VEHICLE APPLICATIONS – MAKES COVERED
The Code Reader has the ability to retrieve and erase ABS codes. Vehicle
Makes supported by the Code Reader are shown below. Please visit
www.innova.com for a complete list of vehicles covered.
ACURA
AM GENERAL
BUICK
CADILLAC
CHEVROLET
CHRYSLER
DAEWOO
DODGE
FORD
GENERAL MOTORS
GEO
GMC
HONDA
HUMMER
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JEEP
LEXUS
LINCOLN
MERCURY
OLDSMOBILE
PLYMOUTH
PONTIAC
RAM
SAAB
SATURN
SCION
SRT
TOYOTA
53
Glossary
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ABS – Anti-Lock Brake System
CARB – California Air Resources Board
CCM – Central Control Module
Computer Control System – An electronic control system, consisting
of an on-board computer and related sensors, switches and actuators,
used to ensure peak performance and fuel efficiency while reducing
pollutants in the vehicle’s emissions.
DIY – Do-It-Yourself
DLC – Data Link Connector
Drive Cycle – An extended set of driving procedures that takes into
consideration the various types of driving conditions encountered in real
life.
Driving Condition – A specific environmental or operation condition
under which a vehicle is operated; such as starting the vehicle when
cold, driving at steady speed (cruising), accelerating, etc.
DTC(s) – Diagnostic Trouble Code(s)
EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
EVAP – Evaporative Emissions System
Fault Code – See DTCs
Freeze Frame – A digital representation of engine and/or emissions
system conditions present when a fault code was recorded.
FTP – Fuel Tank Pressure
Generic Code – A DTC that applies to all OBD2 compliant vehicles.
I/M Readiness – An indication of whether or not a vehicle’s emissionsrelated system are operating properly and are ready for Inspection and
Maintenance testing.
I/M Test / Emissions Test / Smog Check – A functional test of a
vehicle to determine if tailpipe emissions are within Federal/State/Local
requirements.
LCD – Liquid Crystal Display
LED – Light Emitting Diode
LTFT – Long Term Fuel Trim, is a program in the vehicle’s computer
designed to add or subtract fuel from the vehicle to compensate for
operating conditions that vary from the ideal A/F ratio (long term).
Manufacturer Specific Code – A DTC that applies only to OBD2
compliant vehicles made by a specific manufacturer.
MIL – Malfunction Indicator Lamp (also referred to as “Check Engine”
light
54
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Glossary
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
OBD1 – On-Board Diagnostics Version 1 (also referred to as “OBD I”)
OBD2 – On-Board Diagnostics Version 2 (also referred to as “OBD II”)
On-Board Computer – The central processing unit in the vehicle’s
computer control system.
PCM – Powertrain Control Module
Pending Code – A code recorded on the “first trip” for a “two-trip” code.
If the fault that caused the code to be set is not detected on the second
trip, the code is automatically erased.
PID – Parameter Identification
SRS – Supplemental Restraint System
STFT – Short Term Fuel Trim, is a program in the vehicle’s computer
designed to add or subtract fuel from the vehicle to compensate for
operating conditions that vary from the ideal A/F ratio. The vehicle uses
this program to make minor fuel adjustments (fine tune) on a short-term
basis.
Trip Drive Cycle – Vehicle operation that provides the necessary
driving condition to enable a vehicle Monitor to run and complete its
diagnostic testing.
VECI – Vehicle Emission Control Information Decal
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55
Notes
56
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Warranty and Servicing
LIMITED ONE YEAR WARRANTY
The Manufacturer warrants to the original purchaser that this unit is free
of defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and
maintenance for a period of one (1) year from the date of original
purchase.
If the unit fails within the one (1) year period, it will be repaired or
replaced, at the Manufacturer’s option, at no charge, when returned
prepaid to the Service Center with Proof of Purchase. The sales receipt
may be used for this purpose. Installation labor is not covered under this
warranty. All replacement parts, whether new or remanufactured,
assume as their warranty period only the remaining time of this warranty.
This warranty does not apply to damage caused by improper use,
accident, abuse, improper voltage, service, fire, flood, lightning, or other
acts of God, or if the product was altered or repaired by anyone other
than the Manufacturer’s Service Center.
The Manufacturer, under no circumstances shall be liable for any
consequential damages for breach of any written warranty of this unit.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
rights, which vary from state to state. This manual is copyrighted with all
rights reserved. No portion of this document may be copied or
reproduced by any means without the express written permission of the
Manufacturer. THIS WARRANTY IS NOT TRANSFERABLE. For
service, send via U.P.S. (if possible) prepaid to Manufacturer. Allow 3-4
weeks for service/repair.
SERVICE PROCEDURES
If you have any questions, require technical support or information on
UPDATES and OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES, please contact your local
store, distributor or the Service Center.
USA & Canada:
(800) 544-4124 (6:00 AM-6:00 PM PST, 7 days a week)
All others: (714) 241-6802 (6:00 AM-6:00 PM PST, 7 days a week)
FAX: (714) 241-3979 (24 hr.)
Web: www.innova.com
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