R&S®HMO Compact Series User Manual

R&S®HMO Compact Series User Manual
¸HMO Compact Series
Digital Oscilloscope
User Manual
*5800442802*
Version 03
User Manual
Test & Measurement
5800442802
General information regarding the CE marking
General Information Regarding the CE Marking
ROHDE & SCHWARZ measuring instruments comply with regulations of the
EMC Directive. ROHDE & SCHWARZ is basing the conformity assessment
on prevailing generic and product standards. In cases with potentially
different thresholds, ROHDE & SCHWARZ instruments apply more rigorous
test conditions. Thresholds for business and commercial sectors as well
as small business are applicable for interference emission (class 1B). As to
the interference immunity, the standard thresholds for the industrial sector
apply. Measurement and data lines connected to the measuring instrument
significantly affect compliance with specified thresholds. Depending on the
respective application, utilized lines may differ. In regards to interference
emission and immunity during measurements, it is critical that the following
terms and conditions are observed:
1. Data Cables
It is imperative to only use properly shielded cables when connecting
measuring instruments and interfaces to external devices (printers, computers, etc.). Unless the manual prescribes an even shorter maximum cable
length, data cables (input/output, signal/control) may not exceed a length
of 3m and may not be used outside of buildings. If the instrument interface
includes multiple ports for interface cables, only one cable at a time may be
connected. Generally, interconnections require double-shielded connecting
cables. The double-shielded cable HZ72 (available at ROHDE & SCHWARZ) is
well suitable as IEEE bus cable.
2. Signal Cables
In general, measuring cables for the transmission of signals between measuring point and measuring instrument should be kept as short as possible.
Unless the manual prescribes an even shorter maximum cable length, signal
cables (input/output, signal/control) may not exceed a length of 1m and may
not be used outside of buil-dings. In general, all signal cables must be used
as shielded conductors (coaxial cable- RG58/U). It is important to ensure proper ground connection. Signal generators require the use of double-shielded
coaxial cables (RG223/U, RG214/U).
General information regarding the CE
marking
3. Impact on Instruments
If strong high-frequency electric and magnetic fields are present, it may
occur despite diligent measurement setup that unwanted signal units are
injected into the instrument via connected cables and lines. This does not
result in destruction or shutdown of ROHDE & SCHWARZ instruments. In
individual cases, external circumstances may cause minor variations in the
display and measuring values beyond the selected specifications.
4. RF immunity of oscilloscopes.
4.1 Electromagnetic RF field
The influence of electric and magnetic RF fields may become visible (e.g. RF
superimposed), if the field intensity is high. In most cases the coupling into
the oscilloscope takes place via the device under test, mains/line supply,
test leads, control cables and/or radiation. The device under test as well as
the oscilloscope may be effected by such fields. Although the interior of the
oscilloscope is screened by the cabinet, direct radiation can occur via the
CRT gap. As the bandwidth of each amplifier stage is higher than the total
–3dB bandwidth of the oscilloscope, the influence of RF fields of even higher
frequencies may be noticeable.
4.2 Electrical fast transients / electrostatic discharge
Electrical fast transient signals (burst) may be coupled into the oscilloscope
directly via the mains/line supply, or indirectly via test leads and/or control
cables. Due to the high trigger and input sensitivity of the oscilloscopes,
such normally high signals may effect the trigger unit and/or may become
visible on the TFT, which is unavoidable. These effects can also be caused by
direct or indirect electrostatic discharge.
2
Content
Content
1
Installation and safety
instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2Unpacking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3 Setting up the instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Intended Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.6 Ambient conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.7 Warranty and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.8Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.9 Measurement categories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.10 Mains voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells . . . . . . 6
1.12 Product Disposal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Front view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 Control panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.4 General concept of instrument operation . . . . . . . . . 8
2.5 Basic settings and integrated help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6 Updates to Instrument Firmware, Language
and Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.7 Options / Voucher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.8 Self Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.9 Back Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
3
Quick Start Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on. . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture. . . . . . . . 13
3.3 Display of signal details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.4 Cursor Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.5 Automatic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.6 Mathematical functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.7 Storing data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Vertical system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4
4.1Coupling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion. . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.4 Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.5 Threshold Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.6 Name a channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5
Horizontal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.1 Acquisition modes RUN and STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.2 Time base setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.3 Acquisition modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.4 Interlace Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5 ZOOM function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.6 Navigation Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.7 Marker Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.8 Search Function
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6
Trigger System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.1 Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.2 Trigger sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.3 Trigger type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Signal Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7
7.1 Display Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.2 Usage of the Virtual Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.3 Signal intensity and persistence functions . . . . . . . 29
7.4 XY display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8.1 Cursor Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8.2 Automatic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.1 Mathematical Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
9.3 Quick View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
9.5 Component test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
10 Documentation, Storage and Recall . . . . . . . . 41
10.1 Device settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
10.2References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
10.3Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
10.4 Screenshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.4.1Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10.5 Formula Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11 Mixed-Signal Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.1 Logic Trigger for Digital Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.2 Display Functions for the Logic Channels. . . . . . . . 45
11.3 Display of Logic Channels as BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
11.4 Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels . . . . . . . 46
11.5 Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels . . . . 46
12 Serial Bus Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12.1 Software options (license key). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12.2 Serial Bus Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12.3 Parallel / Parallel Clocked BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12.4 I2C BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12.5 SPI / SSPI BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
12.6 UART/RS-232 BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
12.7 CAN BUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
12.8 LIN BUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
13 Remote control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
13.1RS-232. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
13.2USB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
13.3 Ethernet (Option HO730 / HO732). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740): . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
14 Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
15Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
15.1 List of figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
15.2Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3
Installation and safety instructions
1 Installation and
safety
instructions
1.1 Symbols
(1)
(2)
(5)
(3)
(4)
(6)
(7)
Symbol 1: Caution - Observe operating instructions
Symbol 2: Caution High Voltage
Symbol 3: Ground
Symbol 4: PE terminal
Symbol 5: ON/OFF supply voltage
Symbol 6: Stand by display
Symbol 7: Ground terminal
1.2Unpacking
While unpacking, check the package contents for completeness (measuring instrument, power cable, product
CD, possibly optional accessories). After unpacking, check
the instrument for mechanical damage occurred during
transport and for loose parts inside. In case of transport
damage, please inform the supplier immediately. The instrument must not be operated in this case.
1.3 Setting up the instrument
As you can see from the picture, there are small feets on
the bottom which can be folded out. Please make sure you
have fully folded out the feet‘s in order to ensure stability
of the instrument.
1.4Safety
The instrument fulfils the DIN EN 61010-1 (VDE 0411 part
1) regulations for electrical measuring, control and laboratory instruments and was manufactured and tested accordingly. It left the factory in perfect safe condition.
Hence it also corresponds to European Standard EN
61010-1 and Standard IEC 61010-1. In order to maintain
this condition and to ensure safe operation the user is required to observe the warnings and other directions for
use in this manual. Housing, chassis as well as all measuring terminals are connected to safety ground of the mains.
The instrument is designed in compliance with the regulations of protection class I. The exposed metal parts are
checked against the mains poles with 2200 VDC voltage.
The instrument is in accordance with overvoltage category
II.
It is prohibited to disconnect the earthed protective
connection inside or outside the instrument!
For safety reasons, the instrument may only be operated
with authorized safety sockets. The power cord must be
plugged in before signal circuits may be connected. Separating the grounds is prohibited. Never use the product if
the power cable is damaged. Check regularly if the power
cables are in perfect condition. Choose suitable protective
measures and installation types to ensure that the power
cord cannot be damaged and that no harm is caused by
tripping hazards or from electric shock, for instance. If it is
assumed that a safe operation is no longer possible, the instrument must be shut down and secured against any unintended operation.
Safe operation can no longer be assumed:
❙❙ in case of visible damage,
❙❙ in case loose parts were noticed,
❙❙ if it does not function any more,
❙❙ after prolonged storage under unfavourable conditions
(e.g. like in the open or in moist atmosphere),
❙❙ after rough handling during transport (e.g. packaging that
does not meet the minimum requirements by post office,
railway or forwarding agency).
1.5 Intended Operation
The measuring instrument is intended only for use by
personnel familiar with the potential risks of measuring
electrical quantities. For safety reasons, the instrument may
only be connected to properly installed safety socket
outlets. Separating the grounds is prohibited. The power
plug must be inserted before signal circuits may be
connected. The product may be operated only under the
operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
Fig. 1.1: Operating positions
The instrument must be installed in a way, that at any time
the disconnection of the power line is not restricted.
4
Use the measuring instrument only with original ROHDE &
SCHWARZ measuring equipment, measuring cables and power
cord. Never use inadequately measured power cords. Before each
measurement, measuring cables must be inspected for damage
and replaced if necessary. Damaged or worn components can
damage the instrument or cause injury.
Installation and safety instructions
manufacturer, without the products ventilation being
obstructed. If the manufacturers specifications are not
observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or
serious personal injury, and in some cases, death.
Applicable local or national safety regulations and rules for
the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed. The measuring instrument is designed for use
in the following sectors: Industry, residential, business and
commercial areas and small businesses. The measuring
instrument is designed for indoor use only. Before each
measurement, you need to verify at a known source if the
measuring instrument functions properly.
To disconnect from the mains, the low-heat device socket on the
back panel has to be unplugged.
1.6 Ambient conditions
Permissible operating temperatures during the operations
range from +5 °C to +40 °C. During storage or transportation the temperature may be between –20 °C and +70 °C.
In case of condensation during transportation or storage ,
the instrument will require approximately two hours to dry
and reach the appropriate temperature. It can then be operated. The measuring instrument is designed for use in
a clean and dry indoor environment. Do not operate with
high dust and humidity levels, if danger of explosion exists or with aggressive chemical agents. Any operating position may be used; however adequate air circulation must
be maintained. For continuous operation, a horizontal or
inclined position (integrated stand) is preferable.
The maximum operating altitude for the instrument is
2000m. Nominal data with tolerance details apply once
the ambient temperature of 23 °C has been reached after
about 30 minutes. Values without tolerance details are reference values of an average instrument.
Do not obstruct the ventilation holes!
1.7 Warranty and repair
ROHDE & SCHWARZ instruments are subject to strict quality controls. Prior to leaving the manufacturing site, each instrument undergoes a 10-hour burn-in test. This is followed
by extensive functional quality testing to examine all operating modes and to guarantee compliance with the specified technical data. The testing is performed with testing
equipment that is calibrated to national standards. The statutory warranty provisions shall be governed by the laws of
the country in which the ¸ product was purchased. In
case of any complaints, please contact your supplier.
The product may only be opened by authorized and
qualified personnel. Prior to working on the product or
before the product is opened, it must be disconnected
from the AC supply network. Otherwise, personnel will
be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
Any adjustments, replacements of parts, maintenance
and repair may be carried out only by authorized ROHDE
& SCHWARZ technical personnel. Only original parts may
be used for replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g. power
switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed after parts relevant to safety have been
replaced (visual inspection, PE conductor test, insulation
resistance measurement, leakage current measurement,
functional test). This helps ensure the continued safety of
the product.
1.8Maintenance
Clean the outer case of the measuring instrument at regular intervals, using a soft, lint-free dust cloth.
The display may only be cleaned with water or an appropriate glass cleaner (not with alcohol or other cleaning agents). Follow this step by rubbing the display down
with a dry, clean and lint-free cloth. Do not allow cleaning fluid to enter the instrument. The use of other cleaning
agents may damage the labeling or plastic and lacquered
surfaces.
Before cleaning the measuring instrument, please make sure that
it has been switched off and disconnected from all power supplies (e.g. AC supply network or battery).
No parts of the instruments may be cleaned with chemical cleaning agents (such as alcohol, acetone or cellulose thinner)!
1.9 Measurement categories
This oscilloscope is designed for measurements on circuits that are only indirectly connected to the mains or
not connected at all. Make sure the entry voltage of the
analog channels CH1/CH2 does not exceed 200 V (peak
value),150VRMS at 1 MΩ and and 5 VRMS at 50 Ω input impedance. The entry voltage of the external trigger input (TRIG. EXT.) does not exceeded 100V (peak value).
The maximum value allowed for transient overvoltages is
200V (peak value). To ensure compliance, it is necessary
to only use probes that have been manufactured and tested in accordance with DIN EN 61010-031in order to prevent transient overvoltages at the measurement input.
When performing measurements in category II, III or IV
circuits, it is mandatory to insert a probe that reduces the
voltage so that no transient overvoltages will be applied
to the instrument. Direct measurements (without galvanic isolation) to category II, III or IV circuits are prohibited. The measuring circuits are considered not connected to the mains if an isolation transformer in compliance
with class II is used. It is also possible to perform measurements on the mains if appropriate transformers (e.g.
current connectors) are used that are in compliance with
safety class II. The measurement category (for which the
manufacturer specified the required transformer) must be
observed.
5
Installation and safety instructions
The measurement categories refer to transients that are
superimposed on the mains voltage. Transients are short,
very fast (steep) current and voltage variations which may
occur periodically and non-periodically. The level of potential transients increases as the distance to the source of
the low voltage installation decreases.
❙❙ Measurement CAT IV: Measurements at the source of
the low voltage installations (e.g. meters)
❙❙ Measurement CAT III: Measurements in building
installations (e.g. power distribution installations, power
switches, firmly installed sockets, firmly installed engines
etc.).
❙❙ Measurement CAT II: Measurements on circuits
electronically directly connected to the mains (e.g.
household appliances, power tools, etc.)
❙❙ 0 (instruments without measured measurement
category): Other circuits that are not connected directly to
the mains.
1.10 Mains voltage
The instrument has a wide range power supply from 100
to 240 V (±10%), 50 or 60 Hz. There is hence no line voltage selector. The line fuse is accessible on the rear panel
and part of the line input connector. Prior to exchanging a
fuse, the line cord must be pulled out. Exchange is only allowed if the fuse holder is undamaged. It can be taken out
using a screwdriver put into the slot. The fuse can be pushed out of its holder and must be exchanged with the
identical type (type informations below). The holder with
the new fuse can then be pushed back in place against the
spring. It is prohibited to ”repair“ blown fuses or to bridge
the fuse. Any damages incurred by such measures will
void the warranty.
Type of fuse: IEC 60127 - T2.5H 250V (Size 5 x 20 mm).
1.11 Batteries and rechargeable batteries / cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/
cells is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire.
Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided. Keep cells
and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors
using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or
batteries must not be stored in a box or in a drawer
where they can short-circuit each other, or where they
can be short-circuited by other conductive materials.
6
Cells and batteries must not be removed from their
original packaging until they are ready to be used.
4. Keep cells and batteries out of the hands of children. If
a cell or a battery has been swallowed, seek medical
aid immediately.
5. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
6. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed
to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If contact
occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water
and seek medical aid.
7. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries can
cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with
the identical type in order to ensure the safety of the
product.
8. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate
from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium
are hazardous waste. Observe the national regulations
regarding waste disposal and recycling.
1.12 Product Disposal
Fig. 1.2:
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419
The German Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG)
Act is an implementation of the following EC directives:
❙❙ 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment
(WEEE) and
❙❙ 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain
hazardous substances in electrical and electronic
equipment (RoHS).
Once its lifetime has ended, this product should be disposed of separately from your household waste. The disposal at municipal collection sites for electronic equipment is also not permitted. As mandated for all manufacturers by the Electrical and Electronic Equipment Act (ElektroG), ROHDE & SCHWARZ assumes full responsibility for
the ecological disposal or the recycling at the end-of-life of
their products.
Please contact your local service partner to dispose of the
product.
Introduction
2 Introduction
Section A
3
4
7 9
6
10 12
13
15 16
A
2.1 Front view
On the instrument frontside you can find the power key
1 , in order to switch on the instrument or enter stand by
mode. If the instrument is in stand by mode, this key light
up red. If the instrument is switched off using the main power switch on the backside, the red light will also switch
off (this will take some seconds). Furthermore you find on
the front panel the control panel 2 , A , B , C , D , the BNC
connectors of the analog inputs 45 to 48 , the probe adjustment output 51 , the bus signal source 50 ,the connectors for
the optional logic probe ¸HO3508 53 , a USB port for
USB sticks 54 , the TFT screen 55 , the inputs for the component tester 52 and the LED 49 for showing activity on the
remote interface. On two channel versions you can find the
AUX connector for external trigger at the right side.
Use the connectors for the active logic probes 53 exclusively for
the logic probes of type ¸HO3508. Connecting other types
may demolish the input.
2.2 Control panel
The controls in the front panel allow access to all basic functions while advanced settings are easily accessible through the menu structure and gray soft menu keys.
The power button 1 is clearly set apart by its design. The
most significant controls feature colored LEDs, indicating
the current setting. The control panel is divided into four
sections.
Fig. 2.2:
Control
8
5
53
52
51 50
14
panel of
17
section A.
This section includes the CURSOR/MENU, ANALYZE and
GENERAL sections.
The CURSOR/MENU section includes cursor functions 8 ,
universal knob 4 , Intens/Persist control switch 7 , the option to select the virtual screen 6 , the key for switching
between fine and coarse resolution of the universal knob
3 and the key for the selection of virtual screen 5 . The
ANALYZE section allows users to directly access the FFT
displays 9 , the QUICK VIEW display 10 (all important parameters of the actual signal display), the PASS/FAIL mask
test and the AUTO MEASURE settings 11 . The GENERAL
section includes the Save/Recall key 12 . With this option,
you can control the settings to load and save instrument
settings, reference signals, traces and screenshots. Additional keys enable the user to access general settings 13
such as language, DISPLAY 14 , AUTOSET 15 as well as integrated HELP 16 and FILE/PRINT 17 . Depending on how
it is programmed, FILE/PRINT enables you to directly save
instrument settings, traces or screenshots.
1
55
54
11
49
48
A
2
47
B
46
C
45
D
Fig. 2.1: Frontview of the ¸HMO2024
7
Introduction
B
22
18
23
19
24
25
20
26
27
21
C
Section B
The VERTICAL section features all controls for analog
channels, such as the position
control knob 18 , the XY and
component test mode 19 , the
vertical gain adjustment knob
20 , the advanced menu options key 21 , the channel select keys 22 to 25 , (the twochannel versions have only 22
23 ) and the selection key for
the optional logic probes 24 (
25 ). You can also access the
MATH key 26 , the reference
signal settings and bus signal
settings key 27 .
divisions. Small arrows on the left of the display [1] indicate
the reference potentials of the channels. The line above the
graticule includes status and settings information such as
time base, trigger delay and other trigger conditions, the
current sampling rate and the acquisition mode. [2]. The
short menu to the right of the graticule contains the most
important settings of the currently active channel. You may
select these settings using the soft menu keys.[3].
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
D
37
38
37
41
Section C
The Trigger section includes all options to set the trigger level 28 , to switch between Auto and Normal mode
29 , to set the trigger type 31 ,
the source 32 , the single trigger 33 , to switch the trigger
slope 35 and to set the trigger
signal filters 36 . Additionally,
you can find status indicators,
and you can see if a signal fulfills the trigger conditions 30
and which slope is used 34 .
Section D
In
the Horizontal sec39
tion, users can shift the trigger position horizontally or set
43
and navigate markers manually, either step-by-step with
40
the keys 37 38 39 or alterna44
tively by using the smaller one
of the knobs 41 . In the menu,
Fig. 2.3: Control panel of
you can also set search critesection B, C and D
ria for events. The illuminated
key 39 allows the selection of
the Run and Stop mode. When the stop mode is selected,
the key will light up in red. 40 activates the zoom option,
44 selects the acquisition modes, 43 adjusts the time base
speed and 42 enables access to the time base menus. To
the left of the control panel, you also find the soft menu
keys 2 to control the menu options.
Measurement results for automated measurements and
cursors, settings for the activated vertical channels, reference signals and mathematically derived curves are
shown in the lower section of the screen [4]. Within the
graticule, signals of the selected channels are displayed.
By default, 8 scale divisions are shown. This can be extended virtually to 20 divisions which can be displayed using
the Scroll/Bar 5 key.
42
2.3Screen
The R&S®HMO Compact series is equipped with a 6.5”
(16.51 cm) TFT color monitor with LED backlight and VGA
resolution (640x480 pixels). In the default setting (no menus shown), the screen includes 12 scale divisions on the
time axis. If menus are shown, this will be reduced to 10
8
Fig. 2.4: Screen view
2.4 General concept of instrument operation
The general operating concept is based on a few key principals, recurring with various settings and functions:
❙❙ Keys that do not open a soft menu (e.g. SCROLL BAR)
activate a specific function; pressing this key a second
time will deactivate this function.
❙❙ Keys that open a soft menu when pressed once will close
the soft menu when pressed a second time.
❙❙ Depending on the requirements, the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU section is designed to either select a
numeric value or to navigate through submenus.
❙❙ The MENU OFF key below the soft menu keys closes the
current menu or switches to the next higher level.
❙❙ Pressing the appropriate key will activate a deactivated
channel. If a channel was already activated, selecting
another channel will change operation to the channel
whose key was pressed (its LED lights up).
❙❙ If cursor measurements are activated, the COARSE/FINE
key will select the cursor with the activated universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section. This key is used to
select or confirm input in all menus for alphanumerical
input and for the file manager.
Introduction
Fig. 2.5: Selection of basic soft
Fig. 2.6: Basic soft menu elements
menu elements
for settings and navigation
Fig. 2.7 shows, there are two basic soft menu parts. You
can select the respective element by pressing the corresponding soft menu key, and the element will be marked
in blue. Alternatively, you can press the soft menu key to
toggle between function options. The menus are used as
shown in Fig. 2.8. For functions that need to be activated
and require value selections, you may toggle between OFF
and the set value (e.g. DC OFFSET function). The round arrow in the menu window indicates that the value is to be
set by means of the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
control panel. If the respective function includes an additional menu level, it will be indicated by a small triangle on
the bottom right of a menu item. If additional menu pages
are available, you can navigate these on the same level by
using the last menu item. It includes the number of menu
pages on this level as well as the current page number.
You can advance to the next page by pressing the appropriate soft menu key. Once the last page was listed, the display will loop back to the first page.
2.5 Basic settings and integrated help
You can access important basic settings such as language
for user interface and help, general settings and interface
settings in the menu that opens when you press the SETUP key in the GENERAL section. On the first page of the
menu for the basic settings you can select the language
for user interface and help. The menu item INTERFACE activates the menus to perform the interface configuration
(USB or Ethernet). The menu item PRINTER includes settings for POSTSCRIPT and PCL compatible printers. When
pushing this soft menu key, a submenu opens allowing the
user to select the paper format and color mode. Using the
assigned soft menu key, the top menu item PAPER FORMAT allows you to choose from A4, A5, B5, B6, Executive, Letter and Legal in either portrait or landscape format. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to select the appropriate format. Following the same setup procedure, the menu item COLOR MODE allows you to
choose between Grayscale, Color and Inverted. The Grayscale mode converts the color image to a grayscale image
which can be printed on a black-and-white postscript printer. The Color mode prints the image in color as shown on
the screen (black background). The INVERTED mode prints
the color image with a white background on a color printer
thus saving toner and ink.
When using the INVERTED mode, you should set the intensity of
the signals to about 70% to allow a high contrast print.
The menu item DEVICE INFORMATION opens a window
with detailed information on hardware and software of the
measuring instrument. The soft menu key DEVICE NAME
allows you to define a name with up to 19 characters which
will be listed when screenshots are printed. The soft menu
MENU allows you to select whether soft menus are to be
closed manually or automatically after 4-30s. Use the soft
menu key LOGO IN SCREENSHOT to determine whether
the R&S logo displays on the top right corner of printouts or
not. The soft menu UPDATE for the instrument and help update and LICENCES to upgrade software options will be described in detail in the following chapters. The soft menu
DATE & TIME is used to set the date and time. The soft
menu SOUND is used to set the sound options. You can activate a sound as beeping during setup, in the event of an
error and for the triggers. The integrated help can be activated by pushing the HELP key in the GENERAL section.
This opens a window with explanatory text. The text in the
Differences within the HMO Compact series 72x...202x
Unit
Channels
Bandwidth
Vertical Settings at 1MOhm
Input Impedance
¸HMO722
2
70MHz
1 mV. to 10V/Div
1 MOhm
Offset Range
-
¸HMO724
4
70MHz
1 mV. to 10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
¸HMO1022
2
100MHz
1 mV. to 10V/Div
1 MOhm
¸HMO1024
4
100MHz
1 mV. to 10V/Div
1 MOhm
-
¸HMO1522
2
150MHz
1 mV to 5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0.2 to ±20 V
¸HMO1524
4
150MHz
1 mV to 5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0.2 to ±20 V
¸HMO2022
2
200MHz
1 mV to 5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0.2 to ±20 V
¸HMO2024
4
200MHz
1 mV to 5 V/Div
1 MOhm / 50 Ohm
±0.2 to ±20 V
For the complete and latest technical data of each oscilloscope of the HMO series please refer to
www.rohde-schwarz.com
Tab. 2.1: Differences HMO Compact series
9
Introduction
the existing firmware on the instrument is identical to the
latest version; otherwise the version number will be shown
in green. Only if this is the case, press the soft menu EXECUTE to start the update. Choose the HELP menu item in
the Update menu if you intend to update the help or add a
new language for help.
Only 4 languages can be installed. If four language places are assigned and you wish to install another one, you first need to delete one language.
Fig. 2.7: Menu for basic settings
The information window will now display all installed languages, the date and relevant information about the languages available on the stick. The soft menu allows you
to add, remove or update languages. Please note the date
format (YYYY-MM-DD) in compliance with multilingual
help ISO 8601 standards.
help window is dynamically updated with descriptions of
the corresponding setting or function. If you no longer require help, push the HELP key to close the HELP option.
This will turn the LED indicator for the key off and the text
window for the help will close.
2.6 Updates to Instrument Firmware, Language
and Help
Fig: 2.9: Menu and information window for help udates
Fig: 2.8: Updating menu and information window
The R&S®HMO Compact series is constantly being advanced. You can download the current firmware at www.
rohde-schwarz.com. Firmware and help (if available) are
packed in one ZIP file. Depending on the required extent of
the update, the ZIP file might include either all updates or
simply the instrument firmware, for instance. After downloading the ZIP file, unpack the data to the base directory of a USB stick. Then connect the USB stick with the
USB port of the oscilloscope and press the SETUP key in
the GENERAL section of the control panel. The menu item
UPDATE can be found on page 2|2. Selecting this menu
item opens a window displaying version number, date and
build information of the currently installed firmware. Instrument firmware or help can be updated at this point. Pressing the soft menu key update the instrument firmware
will result in a search for the corresponding file on the USB
stick. The information for the new firmware to be installed
will then be displayed on the stick below the row labeled
NEW:. The version number will be displayed in red in case
10
2.7 Options / Voucher
The R&S®HMO Compact series includes options which allow you to expand the range of application for the instrument (such as bus analysis functions). At this time, options R&S®HOO10/HOO11/HOO12 resp. the upgrade vouchers R&S®HV110/HV111/HV112 are available. The bus analysis functions R&S®HOO10, R&S®HOO11 and R&S®HOO12
can be purchased ex factory with an instrument of the
R&S®HMO Compact series. The bus analysis upgrade vouchers R&S®HV110, R&S®HV111 and R&S®HV112 allow for
an upgrade at a later date via licence key. The installed options and vouchers can be verified under Device Information in the SETUP menu.
Description
R&S®HMO
Compact series
Options1)
Upgrade
Voucher2)
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 trigger and
decoding option on analog and digital channels
R&S®HOO10
R&S®HV110
I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232 trigger and
decoding option on analog channels
R&S®HOO11
R&S®HV111
CAN/LIN trigger and decoding option on analog and digital channels
R&S®HOO12
R&S®HV112
Tab. 2.2: Overview R&S®HMO1002 Options / Voucher
1) o nly when ordering with an instrument of the R&S®HMO Compact series
2) Activation of R&S®HMO Compact series options at later date via upgrade voucher
Introduction
By default the R&S®HMO Compact series is equipped with
a dual interface USB/RS-232 (HO720). The following optional interface modules are available and may be installed by
the customer in the rear receptacle:
❙❙ HO730/HO732 (combination of Ethernet and USB with
integrated web server)
❙❙ HO740 (IEEE-488, GPIB, galvanically isolated)
Fig. 2.10: „UPGRADE“ menu.
Once you have entered the voucher code on the
homepage http://voucher.hameg.com, the licence key will
be generated („SERIAL NUMBER.hlk“). The ASCII file may
be opened with an editor. This allows you to read the
actual key in plain text. You can choose between two
methods to enable the desired option with this key: an
automated reading or manual input. The automated
reading via USB stick is the fastest and easiest method.
Store the licence file on a USB stick and then install it to
the instrument using the FRONT USB port. Press the
SETUP key in the GENERAL section of the HMO control
panel to open the SETUP menu. You will find the LICENCE
menu on page 2|2. Press the soft menu key READ KEYS
from licence file to open the file manager. Select the
required licence file with the universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU section and then use the soft menu key
LOAD to load it. This will load the licence key, making the
option instantly available by restarting the instrument.
All instruments of the R&S®HMO Compact series are prepared for mixed-signal operation and have the appropriate connectors on the front panel. Connecting an 8-channel logic probe R&S®HO3508 equips the scope with 8 logic
channels. Further options are the passive 500 MHz
10:1 probes of the type RT-ZP05, passive 1000:1 probes with up to 4000 V of the type HZO20, active 10:1 probes with <1 pF input capacity of the type HZO30, active
difference amplifier probes HZ100, HZ109 and HZ115 with
up to 1000 Vrms and 40 MHz, active high speed differential probes HZO40 and HZO41 with 200 or 800 MHz bandwidth, the current probes HZO50 and HZO51 with up to
100 kHz bandwidth and up to 1000 A, the 19“ rack-mount
set HZO91 and the type HZO90 transport bag for the protection of the instruments.
2.8 Self Alignment
The instrument must have reached the required operating temperature (switched on for at least 20 minutes) and all inputs must
be unused, in other words all cables and probes must be removed
from the inputs.
The R&S®HMO Compact series features an integrated self
alignment procedure to achieve the highest possible accuracy. During the standard self alignment the instrument adjusts vertical accuracy, offset, time base and several trigger settings and saves the identified correction data internally. To start the self alignment in the SETUP menu, press
the soft menu key SELF ALIGNMENT and press the START
key. The procedure will run for about 5-10 minutes. Each
step and its corresponding progress will be shown in a bar
display.
Fig. 2.11: Manual licence key input.
Alternatively, you can enter the licence key manually.
Select the menu UPGRADE and press the soft menu key
INPUT KEY manually. This will open an input window. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section and the
ENTER key to enter the licence key manually. After
entering the complete key, press the soft menu key
ACCEPT to confirm the entry. The option will be activated
after restarting the instrument.
Fig. 2.12: Successful self alignment
11
Introduction
If an error occurs during the self alignment although it has been
carried out as described, please send the exported .log file (see
Self Alignment menu) to [email protected]
or [email protected] You can save the .log file to a USB stick.
2.8.1 Logic Probe Self Alignment
The self alignment for the optional logic probe
R&S®HO3508 primarily aligns the switching levels. To start
the self alignment for the logic probe, it is necessary that
the logic probe type R&S®HO3508 is connected to the
R&S®HMO Compact series. It is imperative that the bit
connectors are not connected. To start the process, select
the menu item LOGIC PROBE in the SELF ALIGNMENT
soft menu. The process is similar to the basic instrument
alignment but it only takes a few seconds.
[1]
[2]
[5] [4]
[3]
[6][7]
Fig. 2.14: Rear panel of the R&S®HMO2024
notebooks as these are also able to process a 640x480 pixel resolution.
2.9.2 Y-Output connector
The output signal of the R&S®HMO Compact series shows a
small timeshift in the lower nano-seconds time domain.
Fig. 2.13: Logic probe self alignment
2.9 Back Panel
On the rear panel there are the main power switch [1], the
receptacle for interface modules [2] (USB / RS-232, USB/
Ethernet, IEEE-488), the DVI-D connector [3] for the connection of external monitors / projectors, the BNC connector for the Y output [4] (selected channel for triggering) and
the external trigger input [5]. With two-channel models this
connector is located on the front panel. You can also find
an additional USB port [6] and the main power input [7].
The R&S®HMO Compact series has an additional BNC connector (Y-Output) on the rear panel which is used to passthrough and output the analog signal of the triggered
channel on the one hand or to send alarm pulses when errors occur during mask tests (PASS / FAIL) on the other
hand (see chapter 9). This can be very useful for longterm
data-logging or if you want to trigger mask-fails during automated production or testing processes. The level of that
analog output signal is based on 200 mV/DIV (100 mV/
DIV at 50 Ω) of the ADC (analog-digital-converter). The following screenshot will show a 15 kHz sine wave with a 2 V
amplitude: CH1 (yellow) original signal, CH2 (blue) Y-Out
signal.
2.9.1 DVI Connector
The connection to current HDTVs via HDMI adapter can be problematically. The most television sets expect an HDTV signal of at
least 720p as input signal.
The rear panel of the oscilloscope includes a standard DVID connector to connect external monitors and projectors. The DVI-D connector can only send digital signals.
This means it is impossible to connect monitors or beamers via their analog inputs. The R&S®HMO Compact series yields a DVI signal with VGA resolution (640x480). This
design enables connectivity with all standard TFT monitors. Modern flat screens extrapolate the signal, allowing
users to see a full screen. Beamers can also be connected to the R&S®HMO Compact series. Ideal beamers in this
case are those designed to be connected to computers /
12
Fig. 2.15: Y-Out signal
Quick Start Guide
3 Quick Start Guide
DC. Briefly press the AUTOSET key once 15 .
The following chapter is an introduction to the most important R&S®HMO Compact series features and settings allowing you to use the instrument promptly. The integrated
calibrator signal output is used as the signal source which
means that the first steps will not require any additional
instruments.
3.1 Setting up and turning the instrument on
To optimally set up the instrument, position the handle so
that the display will be inclined slightly upwards. Plug the
power cord into the rear panel connector 1 on the front
panel. The display appears after a few seconds, and the
oscilloscope is ready for operation. Press the AUTOSET
key 15 until a beep. This will reset the most important oscilloscope settings to their default settings.
3
4
7 9
6
10 12
13
15 16
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling
After a few seconds, the oscilloscope will have automatically selected the sensitivity, time base and trigger settings. A
square wave signal will now be shown.
A
Fig. 3.1:
Control
5
8
11
14
17
panel of
section A
3.2 Connection of a probe and signal capture
Make sure to align the passive probes prior to their first use. For
more information, please refer to the probe manual. Place the
probe in the appropriate position on the ADJ. output.
Take one of the provided probes and remove the protective
cap from the tip. Apply the probe compensation box to the
BNC connector for channel 1 and turn it to the right until it latches into place. On the right hand side of the screen, you will
see the short menu for channel 1. Press the soft menu key to
the right of each menu item to select frequently used settings.
Press the top soft menu key to change the input coupling to
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
3.3 Display of signal
details
D
37
With the time base knob 43
you can change the displayed
38
41
time window. Turning it CCW
37
42
increases the time base. Con39
tinue to turn the knob CCW
until you can read “TB:5ms”
in the upper left corner of
43
the screen. Press the ZOOM
key 40 . You will see the two
40
window display: The upper
44
section of the window displays the entire captured sigFig. 3.5: Area of the control panel
nal whereas the lower seccontaining the ZOOM knob
tion shows an enlarged section. Use the time base knob
to select the zoom factor. The small knob allows you to determine the horizontal position of the section. Press the
ZOOM key 40 again to deactivate the zoom mode.
13
Quick Start Guide
3.5 Automatic Measurements
In addition to cursor measurements the most important signal parameters can be displayed. Your oscilloscope offers
these possibilities:
❙❙ Display definition of 6 parameters from varying sources
❙❙ Quick display of all important parameters of one source
by use of the QUICK VIEW feature
Fig. 3.6: Zoom function
3.4 Cursor Measurements
After displaying and reviewing the signal, the next step
will introduce cursor measurements of the signal. Again,
briefly press the AUTOSET key once followed by the CURSOR/MEASURE key. You can now select the desired type
of measurement cursor from the menu. Press the soft
menu key MEASURE TYPE to open the appropriate selection menu. You can specify your selection with the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section of the control panel. Turn the knob CCW until the entry V marker is marked in blue. Press the MENU OFF key to close
the menu or wait until it automatically closes after a few
seconds.
Now two cursors will be shown along the signal as well
as the measurement results on the bottom of the display.
Press the universal knob to select the active cursor and
turn the universal knob to position the cursor. The cursor
measurement results will be shown on the bottom of the
display. In this example with the entry “V marker”, the display includes the voltage at both cursor positions, their difference, and the time difference between the cursor positions. To switch off the cursor, press the Cursor Measure key again.
Fig. 3.8: Quick View parameter measurement
Please change the time base to 100 µs per scale division
and press the QuickView 10 key. You will see the most important parameters of a signal displayed:
❙❙ positive and negative peak voltages
❙❙ rise and fall times
❙❙ mean voltage
10 additional parameters are shown below the grid:
peak-peak voltage,
❙❙ RMS, period,
❙❙ frequency, number of rising edges,
❙❙ amplitude, ❙❙ pos. pulse width, neg. pulse width,
❙❙ pos. duty cycle, neg. duty cycle.
With just one key, you can view all available parameters simultaneously that characterize the signal. This feature always applies to the currently active display channel. You
may also display parameters for several signals. For this
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
Fig. 3.9: Auto Measure menu
14
Quick Start Guide
option, press the Quickview 10 key twice to deactivate this
mode, press the CH2 key 23 to activate CH2 and press the
Auto Measure 11 key to open the menu as displayed
below. Pressing the MEAS. PLACE soft key will display a
list. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to choose the appropriate measurement place. The parameters will be displayed at the bottom of the screen. This
menu allows you to define the parameters.
Fig. 3.12: Measuring the parameters of two sources
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameters
Press the CH2 key in the VERTICAL section. This will activate CH2. Press the AUTOMEASURE key to return to
the definition menu. Select Measurement Place 1, select
Mean as measurement type and CH1 as source. Press the
MEAS. PLACE soft menu key on top to select the second
measurement place. Define the measurement place as before as RMS value with the voltage of CH2. Once the menu
is closed, parameters can be easily identified by the colors
of the respective source signal (in this instance, yellow for
channel 1 and blue for channel 2).
3.6 Mathematical functions
In addition to cursor and automatic measurements, the
R&S®HMO Compact series can also apply mathematical
operations to the signals. Pressing the MATH 26 key opens
a menu enabling you to apply addition, subtraction, multiplication or division to two analog channels. This also displays the mathematical graph. The top soft menu key al-
Fig. 3.11: Formula editor
lows you to select the first operand. With the key below,
you can select the operator. The soft menu key below that
allows you to select the second operand. Only activated
and displayed channels are available for the operands. The
sources selected in the function must be activated so that
the mathematical graph can be calculated and the result
signals can be displayed. Press the bottom soft menu key
FORMULARY. This opens the formula editor to select and
define 5 sets of formulas with up to 5 mathematical functions each.
To change the settings, use the soft menu keys and the
universal knob 4 . You can define and store the most frequently used formulas. After selecting the desired formula
and pressing the soft menu key EDIT, you can edit individual formula functions. Once a mathematical function has
been defined and activated by pressing the soft menu key
VISIBLE (ON), the short menu for the mathematical functions will display this function. The graph will be marked in
the short menu by a red dot. The sources selected in the
function must be activated so that the mathematical graph
can be calculated and the result signals can be displayed.
3.7 Storing data
The R&S®HMO Compact series is able to store 5 different
types of data:
❙❙ Device settings
❙❙ Reference signals
❙❙ Traces
❙❙ Screenshots
❙❙ Formularies
Out of these data types, signals and screen displays can only
be stored on a USB stick. All other data types can be stored
on a USB stick or internally in the instrument to non-volatile storage media. To store data you have to define the data
type and the destination to be used for storing. First attach
a USB stick to the front USB connector of your oscilloscope.
Press the Save/Recall 12 key to open the respective menu.
Select the type of data you wish to store by pressing the respective soft menu key (in this example SCREENSHOTS).
This will open the settings menu. In the top menu make sure
15
Quick Start Guide
Press the soft menu key ACCEPT. The oscilloscope accepts
the name and returns to the settings menu. Here you can
store the current image by pressing the soft menu key SAVE.
Alternatively, you can move up one level in the menu by
using the OFF key on the bottom and select the menu item
FILE/PRINT. In the following menu press the soft menu key
SCREENSHOTS. This will assign the function Screenshot to
the FILE/PRINT 17 key with the selected settings. This enables you to generate a screenshot on your USB stick by pressing the FILE/PRINT key at any given time using any menu.
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
that Storage Front is selected. Press the soft menu key to
open the menu where you can select these settings. It is important to connect a USB stick with the front USB connector of your oscilloscope which must be recognized by your
instrument. Pressing the soft menu key SAVE allows you to
save a screenshot using the default file name (the current
file name is displayed in the menu item FILE NAME). You
can also select a name for the target file with up to 8 characters. Select the menu item FILE NAME and use the universal
knob to enter the name (in this example “TRC”).
Fig. 3.14: Menu Screenshots
16
Fig. 3.15: Defining a file name
PASS/FAIL
1.0
Vertical system
5800.3515.00 -
4 Vertical system
HMO 72x/202x- 4CH, RAL7047
HMO 72x/202x - 4CH, RAL5014
HMO724+1024 - TXT - 29.09.2014
You can select vertical settings using knobs for the verB
tical position and the sensiti22
vity. You may also use a menu
18
that is permanently displayed
23
as well as an advanced menu.
19
24
You can select for which
channel you want the set25
tings to be activated by pres20
sing the respective channel
26
key (CH1...CH4). Once a channel has been activated, the
27
21
key will be marked by a colored LED light. Additionally,
the screen display will include Fig. 4.1: Front panel area with
a frame around the activated
vertical system controls
channel with a frame and a
color brighter than that of deactivated channels. The corresponding short menu is always visible and you can push
the Menu 21 key to activate the advanced menu.
This should only be used with DC coupling. For all general applications, the probes supplied with the instrument
will be used. The probes are specified for 1 MΩ inputs.
With the HMO72x and HMO102x the RT-ZP03 probe is included in delivery which offers 10:1 / 1:1 switchable attenuation. The attenuation setting has to be set manually
in the channel menu. The HMO152x and HMO202x are
delivered with the HZO10 probe. The HZO10 probe has
an automatic attenuation 10:1 and an input impedance of
10MΩ.
Passive probes have be adjusted. Please refer to to the probe manual for the adjustment procedure.
The PROBE ADJUST output of the oscilloscope is only suitable
for 1:1 and 1:10 probes. 100:1 or 1000:1 probes require special
generators! Use the shortest possible ground connection to the
PROBE ADJUST output as shown in Fig. 4.3.
Fig. 4.3: Probe
max.
10 Vpk
USE RECOMMENDED PROBE ONLY
USE RECOMMENDED PROBE ONLY
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for the vertical settings
4.1Coupling
The analog channels have an input impedance of 1 MΩ
or 50Ω with R&S®HMO152x and R&S®HMO202x. The
R&S®HMO72x resp. R&S®HMO102x have only an input impedance of 1 MΩ.
.
Do not connect the 50 Ω inputs to effective voltage higher than 5V.
The 50 Ω input impedance should only be selected if the
signal source is 50 Ω, e.g. a generator with a 50 Ω output
where the termination within the scope is to be used. In
all other cases 1 MΩ is to be selected. The user determines if DC coupling or AC coupling is to be used. With DC
coupling, the DC voltage of the signal will be displayed.
With AC coupling, an input filter of 2 Hz suppresses the
display of DC voltage. Signals of up to 200 Vrms may be
connected directly to 1 MΩ inputs. Higher voltages can be
measured with external probes (up to 40 kV peak voltage).
BUS SIGNAL
SOURCE
connection to the
probe adjust output
You can set the coupling using the short menu or channel
menu. Simply press the respective soft menu key to set
the coupling and the graphic inversion of the input chan1 MΩ II 14 pF
nel. The menu applies to the corresponding active channel.
max.
200 Vpk
The illuminated channel key indicates which channel is active. You can switch between channels by pressing the reBUS SIGNAL
spective channel key.
SOURCE
4.2 Sensitivity, Y-Positioning, and Offset
You can select the sensitivity of the analog inputs by using
the knob in the VERTICAL section (VOLTS/DIV) in 1-2-5
steps of 1mV/div to 10V/div. The knob is associated with
the active channel (push the respective channel key to activate the desired channel). Pushing the knob once will
switch to a continuous sensitivity setting. You can use the
smaller knob in the VERTICAL section (POSITION) to determine vertical settings for the active channel. Press the
MENU key to access advanced options. On page 2|2 of
this menu, you can add a DESKEW. To activate this offset push the corresponding soft menu key. You can set the
offset value using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key
in the CURSOR/MENU section. Each analog channel may
be shifted in time by ±15 ns. This deskew setting is used to
compensate different signal delays when using different
cable lengths or probes.
4.3 Bandwidth Limit and Signal Inversion
Both the short menu and the advanced menu enable you
to insert an analog 20 MHz low pass filter to the signal
path. This will eliminate all higher frequency interference.
To activate the filter in the short menu, press the respec17
Vertical system
tive soft menu key BWL. In the advanced channel MENU
the bandwidth limit will be set with the soft menu key
BANDWIDTH. Once the filter is activated, the menu item
will be marked in blue, and the identifier BW will be displayed in the channel information window. Signal inversion
is available in the short menu and the advanced menu in
the VERTICAL section. An activated filter will be indicated
in blue in the menu and by a bar above the channel name.
4.4 Probe Attenuation and Unit Selection
(Volt/Ampere)
The HZO10 or optional RT-ZP05 probes are recognized by
the instrument which automatically selects the appropriate attenuation factor. If any other probe without automatic
attenuation or just a cable is connected to the instrument,
you can manually set the attenuation factor in the advanced menu in the VERTICAL section. This is possible with
the predefined steps x1, x10, x100, x1000 or, using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key, as defined by the user
from x0.001 to x1000.
4.6 Name a channel
The last entry NAME in the VERTICAL menu opens a submenu which allows you to enter a channel name. This
name will be displayed on the grid and the printout. Your
first option is to switch the display on (ON) or off (OFF).
The next option includes the menu item LIBRARY. After
selecting this option, you can use the universal knob to
choose a name from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL
key allows you to enter a completely new name or to customize the suggested name. You may enter up to 8 characters. Use the ACCEPT key to confirm the name in the editor. It will then be shown in the display. The name is assigned to that specific signal and will move alongside any set
offset value.
In this menu, you can also select the unit Ampere in case
you are using a current probe. If you select the unit Ampere (A), the menu shows the most common factors (1V/A,
100mV/A, 10mV/A, 1mV/A). You may also use the USER
setting to select any given value. You can set the value
using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section. This setting may also be used to measure the voltage via shunt. All measurements are always
displayed with the correct unit and scale.
Fig. 4.5: Name selection
4.5 Threshold Setting
On page 2|2 in the advanced menu in the VERTICAL section you can set a threshold. This threshold defines the
level to detect a High or a Low if analog channels are used
as source for the serial bus analysis or logic trigger. After
selecting this soft menu item, you can set the threshold
using the universal knob or the KEYPAD key.
Fig. 4.4: Threshold setting and name allocation
18
Horizontal System
5 Horizontal System
In the horizontal system
section, users can select time
base settings for capturing,
trigger time position, zoom
functions, acquisition modes,
marker functions and search
functions. Knobs allow you to
set time base and trigger time
position. A menu enables you
to select the desired acquisition mode. A separate key is
available to activate the zoom.
37
Use the arrow keys
and the SET/CLR key to select
marker functions.
5.3 Acquisition modes
The acquisition modes are selected by pressing the ACQUIRE 44 key. This opens a display menu which offers the
following acquisition modes:
D
37
38
37
41
42
39
43
40
44
Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the
horizontal system
5.1 Acquisition modes RUN and STOP
The acquisition mode can be selected with the RUN/STOP
key 39 In Run mode signals are shown on the screen according to the selected trigger conditions, discarding previously captured signals with each new capture. If you
wish to analyze a captured signal on the screen without
overwriting it, capture must be stopped by pressing the
RUN/STOP key. While in STOP mode, you may not capture
new signals and the key is illuminated in red.
5.2 Time base setting
The TIME/DIV knob in the Horizontal section of the
control panel is used to change the time base. The current
time base setting (e.g.”TB: 500 ns”) is displayed in the upper right above the graticule. To the right of the display you
can see the trigger time position in relation to the default
setting. The default setting shows the trigger time position in the center of the display, with 50% of the signal display before and 50% after this trigger position. The X-POSITION knob 41 allows continuous adjustment of the x position. The maximum values allowed depend on the time
base setting.
Pushing the SET/CLR key resets the value to its reference
position as long as the marker or search functions have not
37 allow you to change
been applied. The arrow keys
the X position by a fixed amount of 5 divisions in the respective direction. The MENU 42 key opens a menu to de37 and the
termine the function for the arrow keys
SET/CLR key. As described above, these keys allow you to
set the X position. Alternatively, you can use them to mark
events within the signal with the option to navigate between up to 8 markers. In the submenu NUMERIC INPUT
you can enter any horizontal position directly. This menu
also allows you to activate and set search functions. You
can also set the TIME REFERENCE (position for the trigger reference point, from -5 divisions to +5 divisions with 0
being the center and default setting).
5.3.1 Refresh
This mode allows the capture and display of current
signals.
5.3.2 Roll
This acquisition mode is intended specifically for very
slow signals, with the untriggered signal „rolling“ across
the screen from right to left (requires signals slower than
200 kHz). The R&S®HMO Compact series uses a ring buffer
to store the signal values in roll mode. Simply put, the instrument writes the first division to the first storage space,
the second division to the second storage space, etc.
Once the storage is full, the instrument overwrites the first
storage space with the data of the most recent measurement value. This creates a „ring“ or cycle run, similar to a
ticker.
The ZOOM feature is not available in the roll mode (also refer to
Chap. 5.5 ZOOM Function)
5.3.3 Envelope
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the Cursor/
Menu section of the control panel to set the number of signal periods for averaging, available in powers of 2 from 2
to 1024 (requires repetitive signals).
5.3.4 Average
In this mode, you can use the universal knob in the Cursor/
Menu section of the control panel to set the number of signal periods for averaging, available in powers of 2 from 2
to 1024 (requires repetitive signals).
5.3.5 Filter
In this mode, you can activate a low pass filter with adjustable cut off frequency to suppress unwanted high frequency interferences. The cut off frequency can be set
based on the sampling frequency. The minimum setting is
1/100 of the sampling frequency and the maximum value
is 1/4 of the sampling rate. You can select this setting with
the universal knob.
5.3.6 Peak Detect
This mode is used for very large time base settings to detect even short signal changes. You can also deactivate
this function within the menu (OFF) or you can select the
automatic switching mode (AUTO). The following conditions must be met to activate the PEAK DETECT mode:
❙❙ Function HIGH RESOLUTION is deactivated
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
During peak detection, the oscilloscope distinguishes between two types:
19
Horizontal System
❙❙ Acquisition peak detection:
Each A/D converter converts at the full sampling rate (no
Interlace mode), even if results have not been written to
the acquisition memory at full sampling rate (for slow time
bases, for instance). If peak detection is activated, unused
converter values will be evaluated to detect minimum and
maximum amplitudes. During this process, the identified
minimum and maximum values including sampling
interval are written to the acquisition memory. As a result,
the acquisition memory stores data pairs representing the
signal sequence according to the sampling interval. The
smallest detectable pulse is the period of the maximum
sampling rate (no Interlace mode). This describes the
so-called acquisition peak detection.
❙❙ Memory peak detection:
A hardware peak detection is not available if data is
written to the acquisition memory at the ADC‘s maximum
sample rate. For slow time bases and the record mode is
set to automatic or MA.WFM.RATE, not all data from
the acquisition memory will display on the screen. With
peak detection activated when reading out, skipped data
will be used to create a minimum and maximum value.
The smallest detectable pulse is the period of the sample
rate used to write to the acquisition memory. This
describes the so-called memory peak detection.
If one of the peak detection modes or a combination of
the two are used, the corresponding detection mode is
marked with „PD“ in the upper right of the display.
5.3.7 High Resolution
This mode uses Boxcar Averaging via adjacent detection
points (i.e. the converter runs at the maximum sampling
rate) to increase the vertical resolution to up to 10 bit. You
can deactivate this function within the menu (OFF) or you
can select the automatic switching mode (AUTO).
Averaging several adjacent sampling rates creates a value with a higher degree of accuracy than the input data.
The resulting data is called high resolution data. The process of merging multiple sampling rates to one new value only allows a sampling rate that is smaller than the maximum value. If the HIGH RESOLUTION mode is activated
and the current instrument setting allows the use of the
HIGH RESOLUTION mode, the detection mode is marked
with „HR“ in the upper right of the display. The following
requirements must be met to activate the HIGH RESOLUTION mode:
❙❙ Sampling rate is smaller than the maximum sampling rate
(no Interlace mode)
❙❙ Peak detection is deactivated
❙❙ No active logic pod
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
By default, all functions listed above are deactivated.
20
5.3.8 Interpolation
With the soft menu item INTERPOLATION users can select Sinx/x, Linear or Sample-Hold as interpolation type to
display acquired data points. The default setting is Sinx/x
interpolation which is the best option for displaying analog
signals. Linear interpolation (LINEAR) uses a line to connect acquired data points. Sample-Hold allows a more
precise assessment of the position for the acquired data
points.
5.3.9 Waveform Rate
This soft menu item provides the following functions.
5.3.9.1 MAX. WFM RATE
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and
sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
This mode allows you to select the memory depth and
sampling rate to obtain the maximum trigger repeat rate.
When using the MAX. WAVEFORM RATE mode, the oscilloscope is set to display the maximum amount of captures
per second in the signal window. Each column in the signal window displays a captured date. When peak detection
is activated, each column displays a pair of min/max values. The R&S®HMO Compact series displays a signal window of 600x400 pixels (Yt without zoom). This translates
into 600 data points per detection. When peak detection is
activated, 600 pairs of min/max values or 1,200 data values
are displayed. The memory depth corresponds to at least
the displayed time window (time base x signal window grid
section in horizontal direction) multiplied by the current
sampling rate. The minimum value is determined by the
maximum sampling rate and the maximum signal repeat
rate of the oscilloscope. The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided by the amount
of data skipped while reading out from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed sampling
rate corresponds to the current sampling rate.
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum repeat rate
5.3.8.2 MAX. SAMPL. RATE
If this function is activated, the instrument always sets the
maximum sampling rate while using the maximum memory available. The MAX. SAMPLE RATE function always
uses the maximum sampling rate and displays the maxi-
Horizontal System
Fig.5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum sampling rate
mum amount of data. Each column in the signal window
displays up to 40 detected data values (limited by processor performance). How much data is currently displayed
depends on the displayed time window and the current
sampling rate. If peak detection is activated, each column displays up to 20 pairs of min/max values. The memory depth always corresponds to the maximum acquisition memory. The displayed sampling rate is identical with
the current sampling rate. Peak detection is used if the displayed time window contains more data than 40 * signal
window columns in the acquisition memory or min/max
data in the acquisition memory.
The entire oscilloscope memory can only be read out in STOP
mode if the maximum sampling rate has been activated.
5.3.8.3 AUTOMATIC
This function is the default setting and offers the best
compromise between maximum repeat rate and maximum
sampling rate (selection of memory depth). Each column in
the signal window displays up to 10 captured data values.
How much data is currently displayed depends on the displayed time window and the current sampling rate. When
peak detection is activated, each column displays up to
5 pairs of min/max values. The memory depth is at least
twice as much as the storage capacity set for the maximum repeat rate (limited by the maximum acquisition me-
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting
mory). The displayed sampling rate corresponds to the current sampling rate divided by the amount of data skipped
while loading from the acquisition memory. If peak detection is activated, the displayed sampling rate corresponds
to the current sampling rate.
All settings apply the identical current sampling rate (sampling rate used to write to the acquisition memory). In
STOP mode it is also possible to change menu items.
This does not impact the current memory depth but the
amount of displayed data will be adjusted. Peak detection is also activated in STOP mode (time base in microseconds). In time bases displaying each sampling point,
all three settings behave identically (except used memory
depth and signal update rate). Table 5.1 displays advantages and disadvantages of each setting. Finally, it needs to
be mentioned that this menu replaces the adjustable memory depth, a standard for other manufacturers. An adjustable memory depth is intended to allow users to understand the relation between memory depth, time base and
sampling rate and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages. With this option, the oscilloscope always captures signals with the maximum sampling rate. This allows users
in STOP mode to zoom in retrospectively, even at the maximum repeat rate. It is also possible to zoom out at the
maximum repeat rate if the STOP mode was run at fast
Setting
Advantages
Disadvantages
Application
Max. Waveform Rate
ıı Many captures in one image
ıı Rare events can be detected more
quickly in connection with persistence
ıı Quick response to Operation or
change in signal
ıı Low noise band
ıı High aliasing risk
ıı Low accuracy of details
ıı Low accuracy of measurements
due to reduced amount of data
ıı Search for rare events
ıı Displaying modulated signals
Maximum Sampling Rate
ıı Maximum accuracy of details
ıı Lowest aliasing risk
ıı High accuracy of measurements
ıı Slow response to operation or
change in signal
ıı Low signal update rate
ıı Higher visibility of noise
ıı For signals with high frequency
parts
ıı Assessment of small signal
details
Automatic:
ıı Average signal update rate
ıı Reasonably smooth operation
ıı Good accuracy of measurements
ıı Low noise band
ıı Possible aliasing
ıı Default application
Tab. 5.1: Advantages and disadvantages of each setting
21
Horizontal System
time bases. If a high repeat rate can only be attained by
means of low memory depth (as is the case with other manufacturers) it is nearly impossible to zoom in retrospectively in STOP mode.
5.4 Interlace Mode
In interlace mode, ADC and storage of two channels are
connected. This doubles the sampling rate and the acquisition memory. Interlace groups are channels 1 and 2 and
channels 3 and 4. If an interlace group is not interlace-capable, the non-interlace mode is also applied to the related
group. A channel is considered active even if it has been
deactivated while still serving as the trigger source. If a
channel is activated, the respective LED next to the input
connector is illuminated. The following conditions must be
met to activate the Interlace mode:
❙❙ No active logic pod
❙❙ None of the serial or parallel buses are active
❙❙ Logic trigger not active
The interlace mode will be activated automatically. The following table shows the channel configurations that allow
the operation in interlace mode.
Interlace group 1
Interlace group 2
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
Off
Off
Off
Off
ON
ON
Off
ON
Off
Off
ON
ON
Off
Off
ON
Off
ON
Tab. 5.2: Channel configuration in interlace mode
5.5 ZOOM function
The R&S®HMO Compact series features a memory depth
of 1 MByte per channel. This allows the user to record
long and complex signals which can be analyzed in full detail with the Zoom function. To activate this feature, press
the ZOOM key 40 . The screen will be divided into two sections. The upper window displays the entire time base window whereas the lower graticule shows an enlarged section of the upper window. The enlarged signal section is
marked by two blue cursors in the original signal (upper
window). If several channels are activated in Zoom mode,
all displayed channels will be zoomed simultaneously by
the same factor and at the identical position. Fig. 5.5 displays the Zoom window with 100 µs per division. The signal was captured within a time window of 12ms. The zoom
area (lower grid) also displays the parameter for zoom time
base whereas time is displayed above the zoom window.
Z indicates the zoom time base (zoom factor) and determines the width of the zoom area displayed in the zoom
window (10 divisions x scaling per division). Tz indicates
the zoom time and determines the position of the zoom
area. The time base setting in the upper right of the display is highlighted in gray while the zoom time base above
22
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
the zoom window is marked in white. The large knob in
the horizontal menu is used to change the zoom factor. You can also press this knob. If the knob is pushed, the
time base setting is highlighted in white and the zoom time
base in gray. Now the knob is available to select the time
base setting. This allows you to change time base settings
without having to leave the zoom mode. Pressing the knob
again will highlight the cursors limiting the zoom area in
white, allowing you to use the knob to change the zoom
area. Now you can use the small knob in the horizontal
area of the control panel to move the position of the zoomed section across the entire signal. As described above,
pressing the large knob enables you to set the time base
but not the zoom factor. This in turn enables the small
knob to move the trigger position to define the relationship
of pre- and post captures/records.
The ZOOM function is not available in ROLL mode.
In the acquisition mode ROLL, it is generally not possible to zoom in on the memory because the signal values
of the X axis are always captured with the maximum memory depth. The acquisition mode NORMAL always includes more samples in the memory than what can be shown
in the display. That explains why in this mode you are able
to zoom in on the memory. The same does not apply to
the values in the Y axis (amplitude). These values apply to
a specified axis and can therefore also be scaled in ROLL
mode.
5.6 Navigation Function
The X-POS. function (MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section) offers easy trigger time handling and allows it to be
entered numerically. The soft menu keys allow you to set
the trigger time to the minimum or the maximum value,
for instance. You can use the soft menu key TIME REFERENCE to define where in the signal window to find the
trigger point value “0”. The signal is scaled by this reference point. You can use the universal knob in the Cursor/Menu section to select the desired setting.
Horizontal System
5.7 Marker Function
Markers allow you to highlight specific positions on the
screen, e.g. a rising or falling slope, an unexpected signal value or a search result. Markers can be used to identify specific signal sections to zoom in on and to analyze
the data more closely. Use the soft menu to activate the
marker function. Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section to open the soft menu. Use the universal knob
in the menu to select MARKER. Once this mode is activated, you can press the SET/CLR key to set a time marker at the 6th time unit (the menu in the center of the grid
must be deactivated). The time markers are marked by a
vertical line in gray-blue. The knob X Position allows you to
move the signal including the set marker. After identifying
an important signal position and setting it to the center of
the screen using the position knob, you can set an additional marker. This procedure allows you to mark up to 8 interesting positions within the signal. You can toggle bet37 . These
ween markers by pressing the arrow keys
keys also allow you to center the markers in the middle of
the screen. This feature enables you to quickly compare
marked signal sections in ZOOM mode. To delete a marker,
center it in the middle of the screen and press the SET/CLR
key once again. You can also delete all time markers simultaneously in the marker soft menu. With the soft menu
key TRIGGER TIME TO ZERO the triger time can be set to
0 s. Additionally, CLEAR ALL MARKER removes all defined
time stamp markers.
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
5.8 Search Function
The search function of the R&S®HMO Compact series enables you to search for all slopes, pulse widths, peaks or additional events in the detection mode that match the manually specified search criteria. Specific settings are available for each search type. Searches can be performed on
any analog channel or mathematical signal. The searched
time base section can be restricted by defining a level.
Press the MENU key in the HORIZONTAL section of the
control panel to activate the search function in the soft
menu. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the menu item SEARCH. Once this mode
is activated, you can define events, e.g. a rise time with
specific attributes. The search function will check these
events in STOP mode. Press the menu item SEARCH TYPE
and use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to select the desired search criteria. The following functions are available:
❙❙ Slope: Comparable to the slope trigger; this function
searches for slopes in the signal. The point in time of a
detected slope corresponds to the point in time when the
signal leaves the set hysteresis. The soft key LEVEL
selects a level for the slope detection of the search
function. The search function level matches the trigger
level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level and hysteresis
will display in the signal window. The hysteresis
determines the area that the signal has to pass until a
valid slope is detected. This area also defines the rise time
of the slope. It is recommended to select a sufficiently
large hysteresis to reduce noise on the signal slope.
❙❙ Pulse: Comparable to the pulse width trigger; this function
searches for pulses with a predetermined pulse width. A
pulse always consists of a rising and a falling slope.
Leaving the hysteresis defines the start and end time of the
pulse. The level for the search function corresponds to the
trigger level of the slope trigger, for instance. Level and
hysteresis will display in the signal window. The adjustable
comparison type is a search criterium for the detected time
event width. The pulse width is the time period between
start and stop slope of the pulse.
❙❙ Peak: The peak search function searches for pulses
within the signal. The time of the event is the maximum
value of the peak.
❙❙ Rise time / fall time: This function searches for slopes
with a specific rise/fall time within the signal. The point in
time of a detected slope corresponds to the point in time
when the signal leaves the set hysteresis. The upper and
lower level define the upper/lower position of the
hysteresis. The adjusted level will display in the signal
window. The adjustable comparison type is a search
criterium for the detected time event width.
❙❙ Runt: A runt is an aborted pulse within a signal. This
occurs when the rise times of the system are greater than
necessary for the desired pulse width. A positive runt
exceeds the lower level of the hysteresis, for instance, but
does not reach the upper level. The analyzing digital
circuits of this signal fail to detect the pulse which leads to
transmission errors. The pulse width of the runt is defined
by the entry and exit point from the hysteresis (duration
between start and stop slope of the pulse). The adjustable
comparison type is a search criterium for the detected
time event width. The difference defines the maximum
time range by which the specified event width may vary.
Once you have selected the appropriate search type, you
can choose the desired SOURCE (choose from any of the
activated analog channels including mathematical channels). Use the menu item SETUP to open a submenu
where you can choose the settings for the selected search
criterium (e.g. greater than a specific pulse width). Some
of the adjustable parameters may be dependent on the
23
Horizontal System
time base (for a time base of 100 μs/Div the smallest time
is 2 μs, for 1 μs/Div the corresponding time value is 20 ns).
If events match the search criterium, they will be highlighted. The soft menu VIEW EVENT TABLE allows you to display the search results in a table format. Use the arrow
keys or the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to navigate the events in STOP mode. SET allows you to
center the selected event. When the zoom function is activated, the selected event will automatically be centered in
the zoom window.
6 Trigger System
The trigger system of the
R&S®HMO Compact series
is easy to handle by just observing the concept of instrument operation. There are 4
keys destined for frequently
used functions:
❙❙ TYPE: selection of trigger
type (EDGE A/B), PULSE, LOGIC and VIDEO
❙❙ SLOPE: type of slope
❙❙ SOURCE: Determines the
triggers source
❙❙ FILTER: Determines the
trigger conditions
C
28
29
33
30
34
31
35
32
36
Fig. 6.1: Front panel control
area of the trigger system
Additional keys are available to select the trigger modes
(AUTO, NORMAL and SINGLE).
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
6.1 Trigger modes Auto, Normal, Single
The AUTO/NORM 29 key allows you to toggle directly
between the basic trigger modes. If Auto mode is activated, the key is not illuminated. Pressing the key will activate NORMAL mode, and a red LED will highlight the
key. In AUTO mode, the screen always displays a signal. If
a signal fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope will
synchronize with this event and triggers when the set condition is met. In case of a signal that does not fulfill the
trigger condition (a simple case would be direct current),
the oscilloscope itself will generate a trigger event. This allows a glance at the input signals at any time, regardless
of the trigger condition. In NORMAL mode, the signal will
now be captured and displayed if the trigger condition is
met. In case no new signal fulfills the set trigger condition,
the signal that was triggered last will be displayed. To ensure that only a signal that meets the trigger condition is
detected and displayed, press the Single key to 33 activate
this mode. This key is highlighted in white when the SINGLE mode is activated. The R&S®HMO Compact series detection and trigger system is now activated, indicated by
a blinking RUN/STOP key 39 . If the trigger condition is fulfilled, the trigger system is activated, data is stored and the
oscilloscope switches to STOP mode (the RUN/STOP key
is permanently highlighted in red).
6.2Trigger sources
The two resp. four analog channels are available as trigger
sources (SOURCE key). If the optional extension with active logic probes R&S®HO3508 including 8 digital inputs
is connected, up to 8 digital inputs are available as trigger
source. The soft menu key AC LINE enables you to trigger
the trigger at system frequency. The trigger signal is extracted internally from the power supply.
24
Trigger System
6.3 Trigger type
The trigger type can be selected with the TYPE key 17 in
the TRIGGER section. A submenu will be opened.
6.3.1 Slope trigger
The easiest and by far the most frequently used trigger is
the slope trigger. The oscilloscope triggers if slopes that
were set with the EDGE key occur within the signal selected in the SOURCE menu. The signal slope has to pass
through the set trigger level. The trigger type EDGE Trigger is selected in the Autosetup mode (AUTOSET key).
If, for instance, you select the pulse trigger and press the
AUTOSET key the setting will switch to Edge Trigger. The
TYPE key 31 in the trigger section allows you to set the
trigger type. This opens a menu with corresponding options. If the edge type is not active (highlighted in blue),
you can press the respective soft menu key to select this
type. The slope type (rising, falling or both) can be set directly with the SLOPE 35 key. This will shift the setting forward by one, i.e. from rising to falling slope, to both slopes, and pressing the key yet one more time will trigger
another rising slope. The center of the status line on the
top of the display and the display above the SLOPE key 35
show which slope type has been selected.
❙❙ HF: The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency (-3 dB) of 30 kHz and is
automatically limited when triggering the level with
normal trigger. This coupling type should only be applied
to very high frequency signals.
❙❙ LP (low pass): The trigger signal is coupled via low pass
with a maximum cut-off frequency of 5 kHz. This filter
removes high frequencies and is available with AC and
DC coupling.
❙❙ NR (noise reduction): A low pass filter with a maximum
cut-off frequency of 100 MHz will improve the noise
performance for the trigger amplifier. This filter removes
high frequencies and is available with AC and DC
coupling.
The coupling types low pass and noise reduction may not be activated simultaneously.
Fig. 6.3: The type B-Trigger
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
The FILTER 36 key allows you to select how to couple the
signal for the trigger circuit:
❙❙ AUTO LEVEL: Automatic filter setting (default setting).
❙❙ AC: The trigger signal is coupled via high pass filter with a
minimum cut-off frequency of 5 Hz which suppresses the
DC portion of the triggering signal. With a changing DC
portion, the trigger level remains at the set point in the AC
signal. The trigger type AUTO (AUTO/NORM key) includes
the Peak-Peak mode which sets limits for the trigger in the
AC signal. This setting means that the trigger condition
will be met for any applied signal without having to set the
level. For the trigger type NORM (AUTO/NORM key), the
Peak-Peak mode is deactivated, allowing the trigger level
to be moved past the peak values of the signal.
❙❙ DC: The trigger signal is coupled to the trigger circuit with
all signal portions (AC and DC voltage). This has no
impact on the triggering signal.
The slope trigger can be coupled with a so called „B Trigger“. This option is available via soft menu key SLOPE A/B.
This function allows you to adjust the trigger such that first
condition „A“ must be met and then another condition „B“
before the trigger will respond (refer to Fig. 6.3). E.g. it is
possible to define a source (channel) and a level of 120 mV
on the rising slope of that signal and for the second condition a level of 80 mV on the falling slope. Additionally, it is
possible to define whether the B event should occur a time
(min. 32 ns, max. 10 s) or a number (min. 1, max. 216) of
times after the A event. The level or time or the number of
events can be entered numerically with the universal knob
or in a submenu. In order to do this first select the setting,
then push the soft key next to NUMERIC INPUT. In the
window which will open, you can enter numbers and units
with the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section or
numerical with KEYPAD button.
6.3.2 Pulse trigger
The pulse trigger allows triggering for specific pulse widths
of positive or negative pulses or for pulse width ranges.
The oscilloscope triggers if a pulse occurs within the signal
selected in the SOURCE menu that matches the properties
set in the FILTER menu. If a pulse fulfills the trigger conditions, the oscilloscope triggers on the trailing slope, i.e. for
a positive pulse it triggers on the falling slope and for a ne25
Trigger System
Fig. 6.4: Pulse trigger menu
Fig. 6.5: Logic trigger menu
gative pulse on a rising slope. Activate the pulse trigger by
pressing the TYPE key 31 in the trigger section. Press
the FILTER key 36 , then you can select additional settings
for the pulse trigger in the soft menu. There are six different settings:
❙❙ ti > t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
greater than the adjustable reference time t.
❙❙ ti < t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
less than the adjustable reference time t.
❙❙ ti = t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger
equals the adjustable reference time t. The reference time
is a combination of time t plus the adjustable deviation.
❙❙ ti ≠ t: The pulse width ti, which will generate the trigger is
unequal to the adjustable reference time t. The reference
time is a combination of time t plus the adjustable
deviation.
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger
is less than the adjustable reference time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the
trigger is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and
less than the adjustable reference time t1.
key LOGIC CHANNEL enables you to select a logic channel
for which you wish to determine the trigger condition. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section for this
purpose. In the general menu, the selected digital input is
marked with a blue background. In the field, the trigger level is marked as High (H), Low (L) or (X). Use the corresponding soft menu key to select the trigger level. The soft
menu item COMBINATION allows the logic combination of
the digital channels. They can be combined by logic AND
or OR. If AND is selected, the set conditions of all channels
must be met simultaneously for the input signal so that the
combination produces a logic High (H) as a result. If OR is
selected, at least one of the defined level conditions must
be met. The last item in this menu is the option TRIGGER
ON. Use the soft menu key to select TRUE or FALSE. This
allows you to preselect whether the trigger will be generated at the beginning (TRUE) or the end of the logic condition (FALSE).
The time resp. the variation (tolerance zone) can be selected via universal knob or KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/
MENU section. Selecting the corresponding soft menu
item allows you to set any of these settings for positively
(POS.) or negatively polarized pulses (NEG.). For the associated positive pulse, you define the width from rising to
falling slopes, and accordingly for the associated negative
pulse from falling to rising slopes. As is consistent with the
principle, triggering always occurs on the second slope of
the pulse.
6.3.3 Logic Trigger
You may test all settings in the logic trigger without any active
logic probes R&S®HO3508 connected.
Selecting the LOGIC trigger in the soft menu after pressing the TYPE key 31 will switch the trigger source to the
digital inputs. Pressing the SOURCE key 32 after selecting
this trigger type displays a soft menu for additional settings and a window to list these settings. The soft menu
26
After selecting the desired set of conditions, you can use
the FILTER key 36 for additional settings. A soft menu will
open allowing you to add a time limit to the TRIGGER ON
option (this menu shows the condition selected in the
SOURCE menu). Press the top soft menu key DURATION
to add a time limit. This option compares the duration of
the output signal for the combination of the logic conditions to the set duration ti. If the duration is identical or not
identical, you can set the deviation ∆t. If t is within these
parameters, the trigger condition has been met. The menu
field below allows the selection of the comparison criteria.
The following criteria are available:
❙❙ ti ≠ t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is unequal to the adjustable reference
time.
❙❙ ti = t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is equal to the adjustable reference
time.
❙❙ ti < t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is less than the adjustable reference
time
❙❙ ti > t: The duration of the applied bit pattern which will
generate the trigger is greater than the adjustable
reference time.
Trigger System
❙❙ t1<ti<t2: The pulse width ti which will generate the trigger
is less than the adjustable referance time t2 and greater
than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ not(t1<ti<t2): The pulse width which will generate the
trigger is greater than the adjustable reference time t2 and
less than the adjustable reference time t1.
❙❙ Timeout: Triggers if the combination is still valid after
time t. Time t defines the trigger time limit for the timeout.
Fig. 6.6: Logic channels’ settings display
As with the pulse trigger, for ti ≠ t or ti = t you can set a reference time with the soft menu key TIME and the universal knob. Selecting the soft menu item DEVIATION allows
you to use the universal knob and KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU control panel to set the deviation ∆t which defines the tolerance between set reference time t and valid
and real pulse width ti (permissible tolerance range)..
To change the threshold values for the logic states “one”
and “zero”, it is necessary to use settings in the channel menu (MENU key in the VERTICAL section). Select the
POD 24 ). If logic mode is already activated, the digital channels will be displayed in the channel display section of the
display (framed and marked with “POD:xxxV“). Pressing
the MENU key 21 in the VERTICAL section allows you to
activate one of five predefined logic levels. Three of these
are fixed for TTL, CMOS and ECL. After pressing the respective menu item, two customized logic levels may be set
from –2 V to 8 V (USER1 / USER2) with the universal knob
or the KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section. The soft
menu key SET TO DEFAULT POS. & SIZE activates the display for all digital channels of the selected group by using
default values for the vertical position and size. You may
also define the name for the current signal by using the soft
menu LABEL. A library provides a list of predefined names.
The name can be activated, deactivated or edited.
6.3.4 Video trigger
The video trigger allows you to trigger on PAL, NTSC
SECAM standard video signals or on HDTV signals. After
selecting the VIDEO trigger press the SOURCE 32 key. The
FILTER 36 menu allows you to define additional settings.
The oscilloscope triggers if the CVBS signal (Color Video
Baseband Signal) selected in the SOURCE menu features
the attributes set in the FILTER menu. Select the desired
standard by pressing the respective soft menu key STAN-
DARD. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section or press the soft menu key again to select the desired
standard. The following modes are available:
❙❙ PAL
❙❙ NTSC
❙❙ SECAM
❙❙ PAL-M
❙❙ SDTV 576i Interlaced
❙❙ HDTV 720p Progressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080pProgressive
❙❙ HDTV 1080i Interlaced
The second setting will apply to the polarity of the sync
pulse (may be positive or negative). With positive video
modulation (the highest brightness is represented in the
image by the maximum signal voltage), the synchronization pulses are negative, with negative modulation they are
positive. The slopes of the synchronization pulses are used
for triggering which explains why a faulty polarity setting
causes irregular triggering by image information. Next you
can select between frame triggering (FRAME) and line triggering (LINE). Selecting LINE allows you to define the exact line between 1 and 625 via universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU section.
The soft menu item ALL LINES enables the oscilloscope to
trigger on the start of the lines in the video signal. This key
selects all lines i.e. even when other trigger conditions are
met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each line. If FRAME
is selected for frame triggering, the lower menu items
will allow to trigger on ODD or only EVEN half frames. In
this case, the oscilloscope will trigger on the start of the
half frames in the video signal. The respective key will select the odd (even) half frames, i.e. even if the other trigger
conditions are met, the oscilloscope will trigger on each
odd (even) half frame.
Fig. 6.7: Video trigger menu
27
Trigger System
7 Signal Display
The following chapter describes the selection and display
of signals from various sources as well as all available display modes.
7.1 Display Settings
The R&S®HMO Compact series features a high quality
TFT display with VGA (640x480 pixels resolution) including LED backlighting. Basic display settings can be defined by pressing the DISPLAY 14 key in the GENERAL section. When the soft menu item VIRTUAL SCREEN is activated, a scroll bar will display to the right of the display
graticule. Use the universal knob to upload and download
the display window within the 20 divisions of the virtual
screen. You will find a detailed description of the VIRTUAL
SCREEN option in the next chapter. The following settings
can be selected:
❙❙ DOTS ONLY:
If this option is activated (ON), only the acquired data
points will be shown. This means that the data points of
all signals will not be connected by vertical lines. If this
option is deactivated (OFF), interpolated data points will
also be shown.
❙❙ INVERSE BRIGHTN.:.
This setting inverts the brightness of the displayed signals.
Normally, frequently captured dots will be displayed more
brightly than rare dots. The INVERSE BRIGHTNESS option
reverses the circumstances. Rare events display a higher
brightness compared to frequent events. To capture rare
events in a signal, this setting can be used in combination
with persistence.
❙❙ FALSE COLORS:
This setting converts the brightness levels of the
displayed signals to a color scale (ranging anywhere from
blue, magenta, red and yellow to white). Thanks to the
higher contrast, users can view signal details more easily.
This setting applies to all signals simultaneously.
❙❙ GRID:
This soft menu allows you to display the graticule as
LINES (the graticule is divided into horizontal and vertical
divisions), as CENTER CROSS (displays one horizontal
and one vertical zero line, showing the divisions as dots)
or as OFF (the entire graticule will include no dots or
lines).
❙❙ INFO WINDOWS:
Selecting this soft menu item will open a submenu which
allows you to set the transparency for the info windows.
Info windows are small windows that appear on the
screen depending on the particular application (e.g.
values are displayed when offset is changed). A
transparency value of 0% to 100% is selectable. Use the
universal knob or the KEYPAD key to define this setting.
Additional menu items allow you to activate or deactivate
the info windows for POSITION and TRACE BRIGHTN.. If
POSITION is activated and the vertical position is
changed, the respective value on the zero line will be
28
displayed. Depending on the selected trigger type, the
user will see specific information about the acquisition
status. This information will only be displayed if the signal
changes on the screen can persist over a longer period. If
the trigger condition has been met, the information
window shows a progress display for the post-trigger and
pre-trigger. If the trigger condition has not been met, the
information window shows the time of the last trigger
event (Trig?). If the trigger type AUTOMATIC is selected,
the instrument will switch to non-triggered acquisition
mode in case of a non-triggered condition over an extended period of time. This acquisition mode does not
display an info window as the data currently captured is
displayed.
❙❙ AUX. CURSORS:
This soft menu allows you to define the settings for
auxiliary cursors. Pressing the function keys enables you
to activate or deactivate the cursors. The menu item
DEFAULTS resets the default settings.
7.2 Usage of the Virtual Screen
Fig. 7.1: Drawing of the virtual screen area
The graticule for the R&S®HMO Compact series includes
8 vertical divisions but also has a virtual range of 20 divisions. These 20 divisions may be used entirely by the optional digital channels D0 to D7, the mathematical channels
and the references signals. The analog channels may use
up to ±10 divisions from the center.
Fig. 7.1 illustrates the functionality of the virtual screen.
The display includes a section of 8 vertical divisions in
gray. This section enables you to display analog signals.
The small bar next to the graticule indicates the position of
the 8 visible divisions within the available 20 divisions. By
pressing the SCROLL BAR 5 the bar will be activated and
displayed in blue and you can use the universal knob to
shift the 8 visible divisions (gray section) within the available 20 divisions. This allows a simple and clear display of
many individual signal portions.
Signal Display
7.3Signal intensity and persistence functions
Fig. 7.2: Menu for setting the signal display intensities
The default setting (indicated as active when the INTENS/
PERSIST 7 key is illuminated in white) allows you to use
the universal knob to change the intensity of the signal display to anywhere from 0% to 100%. Persistence mode allows the display of varying signals by enabling the instrument to write several signals on the display simultaneously. It is also possible to induce accelerated aging of signals with an adjustable persistence from 50ms to infinite.
Signals occurring less frequently will be displayed in darker color and signals occurring more frequently will be displayed in lighter color. Press the INTENS/PERSIST key in
the soft menu to select this mode. The soft menu items
TRACE, GRID and BACKLIGHT allow you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to adjust the
grid intensity and the backlighting. The soft menu SETTINGS allows you to select the persistence settings for
the signals on the screen. The persistence function ensures that signals will not be replaced when the screen is updated. Instead, the signals will pause for a specific amount
of time and then slowly begin to fade. This type of display
is very similar to that of an analog oscilloscope. There are
three possible settings for the duration of the persistence:
Off, Automatic and MANUAL.
key. If a finite duration was selected, new signals will be
written on top of one another within this timeframe where
the most recent captures will be displayed more brightly
than older signals. For instance, if 300 ms is selected, the
display for the signal curves will become darker in 50ms
intervals and will be erased after 300 ms. The AUTOMATIC
setting allows you to select the automatic configuration of
the persistence. If this setting is activated, the instrument
attempts to select the optimal time. If OFF is selected, the
persistence function is deactivated.
Another available option is the BACKGROUND function.
With this key, you can activate or deactivate a mode which
allows older signal curves to not disappear entirely after
the set persistence time. Instead, these signals will continue to be displayed in the background with low brightness. This display is useful for the analysis of peak values
in signals, for instance.
7.4 XY display
The R&S®HMO Compact series features a key that allows
you to switch directly to the XY display. Two signals will
be displayed simultaneously, one in Y direction and one in
X direction. This implicates that the time base X will be replaced by amplitude values of a secondsource. The resulting signal curves for harmonic signals are known as Lissajous figures and allow the analysis of frequency and phase
position for these two signals. In case of a nearly identical frequency the figure will rotate. If the frequency is exactly identical, the figure will stand still and the phase position can be deduced from its shape. You can activate the
XY display by pressing the XY key 19 in the VERTICAL section. The display will divided into one large and three small
display areas.
With two-channel instruments R&S®HMO722, R&S®HMO1022,
R&S®HMO1522 and R&S®HMO2022 only basic XY display is
possible.
The option MANUAL allows you to set a duration of 50ms
to infinite by using the universal knob or the KEYPAD
The large grid shows the XY display while the small grids
show the source for X, Y1, Y2 and Z. The small windows
feature the classical signal display as Y vs. time. The ana-
Fig. 7.3: Persistence function
Fig. 7.4: XY settings menu
29
Signal Display
log channels can be selected as source. It is possible to
define two signals as Y input and display vs. x input to perform a comparison. Press the soft menu key Z SETTINGS
to determine the settings for the Z input. The function
SOURCE Z allows you to use any of the analog channels as
source for the Z input. Use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the desired setting. The Z
input allows you to control the brightness of the XY signal. This can be static or dynamic, by setting an adjustable
threshold or by modulating the brightness with the amplitude change of the Z input. In the MODULATION setting,
large amplitudes of the Z source will display the XY points.
The transition is continuous. The setting On|Off displays values below the selected threshold of the Z source
and the XY points with the lowest brightness. Values exceeding the threshold will be displayed with the selected
brightness. There is no transition between the two states.
You can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD button in
the CURSOR/MENU section to select the threshold.
8 Measurements
There are two different types of measurements on signals:
cursor measurements and automatic measurements. All
measurements are stored in a buffer memory that is larger
than the display memory. The integrated hardware counter shows the frequency and period duration for the selected input.
8.1 Cursor Measurements
The measurement option that is most frequently used with
an oscilloscope is the cursor measurement. Depending on
the measurement type up to three markers are available. To
control cursor measurements, you may use the keys CURSOR MEASURE and KEYPAD as well as the universal knob.
The menu CURSOR MEASURE allows you to select cursorbased measurements for an activated signal source on the
oscilloscope. The measurement type can be defined in the
menu that opens when you press the CURSOR MEASURE
key. Following measurement types can be selected:
VOLTAGE: This mode provides two cursors to
measure three different voltages. The values V1
and V2 correspond to the voltage between the
zero base line of the selected signal and the current position of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV corresponds to the amount of voltage between the two cursors.
Fig. 7.5: Settings for the Z input
TIME: This mode provides two cursors to measure three different times and an equivalent frequency. The values t1 and t2 correspond to the
time between the trigger and the current position of the
first or second cursor. The value Δt corresponds to the
amount of time between the two cursors.
RATIO X: This mode provides three cursors to
measure a ratio in X direction (e.g. a duty ratio)
between the first two cursors and the first and
the third cursor. The measurement values are displayed in
four different formats (floating point, percent, degrees and
radians).
RATIO Y: This mode provides three cursors to measure a ratio in Y direction (e.g. an
overshoot) between the first two cursors and
the first and the third cursor. The measurement values
are displayed in two different formats (floating point and
percent).
COUNT: This mode provides three cursors to
count signal changes that exceed the threshold
within a specific interval. The interval may be
set by using the first two cursors and the threshold may be
set by using the third cursor. The measurement values are
displayed in four different formats (number of rising and
falling slopes and number of positive and negative pulses).
30
Measurements
PEAK VALUES: This mode provides two cursors to measure the minimum and the maximum voltage of a signal within the interval set
by using both cursors. The values Vp- and Vp+
correspond to the minimum and the maximum voltage.
The peak value (Vpp) corresponds to the amount of voltage between the minimum and maximum value.
RMS, MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION: This
mode provides two cursors to measure the effective value (RMS – Root Mean Square), the
mean value and the standard deviation within the interval
set by using both cursors.
DUTY RATIO: This mode provides three cursors to determine the duty ratio between the
two horizontal cursors. The third cursor is
used to specify the threshold at which the duty ratio is
measured.
RISE TIME 90%: This mode provides two cursors to measure the rise and fall time of the first
rising slope in the displayed view of the screen
within the time span set by the cursors. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of
its amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%: This mode provides two cursors to measure the rise and fall time of the first
rising slope in the displayed view of the screen
within the time span set by the cursors. The rise time identifies the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80%
of its amplitude.
V-MARKER: This mode provides two cursors to measure
three different voltages and a
time. The values V1 and V2 correspond to the voltage between the zero base line of the selected curve and the current position of the first or second cursor. The value ΔV
corresponds to the amount of voltage between the two
cursors. The value Δt corresponds to the amount of time
between the two cursors.
To move cursors, press the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section and position the cursor by turning the universal knob. The measurement types have the following functions. The measurement results are displayed at the bottom
of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement is not
applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the case
for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If “?” is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement
result. For instance, the period to be measured may not display completely and can consequently not be identified.
Fig. 8.1: Cursor measurements selection menu
ted (Off), the channel set under SOURCE will be applied
even if it is not targeted. Pressing the soft menu key SET
TO TRACE places the selected cursors in their optimal position on the signal curve. This allows very fast and typically optimal automatic positioning of the cursors. For the
most part, only fine tuning is required at this point and the
tedious major adjustments to the cursors will no longer be
necessary. In case the automated function SET TO TRACE
does not provide the anticipated results due to complex
signals, you can press the key SET TO TRACE to position the cursors in a predefined starting position. This allows you to return distant cursors to the screen. The soft
menu key GLUE TO TRACE allows cursors to stay on the
selected data point without changing the position in the
measurement signal even if the scaling is modified (cursors will be „glued“ to the signal). This function can be activated or deactivated. If this mode is deactivated, the cursor stays in position on the screen if scaling occurs. With
GLUE TO TRACE deactivated, the measured value changes
while it remains unmodified when the mode is activated.
The cursors will be deactivated by pressing the CURSOR
MEASURE key. The cursor menu will be closed.
8.2 Automatic Measurements
The R&S®HMO1002 features cursor measurements and
also various automatic measurements. These may be activated by pressing the key AUTO MEASURE 11 in the section ANALYZE. This menu allows you to select up to six
automatic measurement functions by using the soft menu
key MEAS. PLACE and the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section. Following automatic measurement types
can be selected:
MEAN VALUE: This mode measures the mean
value of the signal amplitude (Mean). If the signal is periodic, the first period on the left of the
screen will be used for the measurement. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
If the function AUTOM. SOURCE is activated (On), the
currently targeted channel will be used as source for the
measurement automatically. If the setting is deactiva31
Measurements
RMS VALUE: This mode identifies the effective value from the displayed view of the signal.
If the signal is periodic, the first period on the
left of the screen will be used for the measurement. The
effective value is not applied to a sine signal will be calculated directly (so-called TrueRMS). The measurement will
only be applied to the selected channel.
PEAK-PEAK: This mode measures the difference in voltage between the maximum and
the minimum peak value of the signal within
the displayed view (Vpp).
PEAK + : This mode measures the maximum voltage value in the displayed view of the
screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel (Vp+).
PEAK – : This mode measures the minimum
voltage value in the displayed view of the
screen. The measurement will only be applied
to the selected channel (Vp-).
FREQUENCY: This mode identifies the frequency of the signal from the reci-procal value
of the first signal period T (f). The measurement
will only be applied to the selected channel.
PERIOD: This mode measures the duration of
the signal period T. The period identifies the duration between two equal values of one periodically repeated signal.
AMPLITUDE: This mode measures the amplitude of a square wave signal (VAmp). This
mode calculates the difference in voltage between the upper and the lower level (Vbase and Vtop). The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel
and requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal.
TOP LEVEL: This mode measures the mean
voltage level of an upper square wave (V Top).
This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
BASE LEVEL: This mode measures the mean
voltage level of the lower square wave (VBase).
This mode calculates the mean value of the
slope (without overshoot). The measurement will only be
applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of
one complete period of a triggered signal.
PULSE WIDTH +: This mode measures the
width of the positive pulse. A positive pulse
consists of a rising slope followed by a falling slope. This measurement type identifies the two slo32
pes and calculates the pulse width from their time difference. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of one completely
displayed period of a triggered signal.
.
PULSE WIDTH –: This mode measures the
width of the negative pulse. A negative pulse
consists of a falling slope followed by a rising
slope. This measurement type identifies the two slopes
and calculates the pulse width from their time difference
(t). The measurement will only be applied to the selected
channel and requires a minimum of one completely displayed period of a triggered signal.
DUTY CYCLE +: This mode measures the positive duty ratio. In this mode, positive signal portions are identified over a specific period and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal. The measured value Dty+ is displayed as a percentage of the signal period.
DUTY CYCLE –: This mode measures the negative duty ratio. In this mode, positive negative portions are identified over a specific period and will then be analyzed in relation to the signal period. The measurement will only be applied to the selected channel and requires a minimum of one complete period of a triggered signal. The measured value Dty+ is displayed as a percentage of the signal period.
RISE TIME 90%: This mode measures the rise
time of the first rising slope in the displayed
view of the screen (tr). The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 10% to 90% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 90%: This mode measures the fall
time of the first falling slope in the displayed
view of the screen (t f). The fall time identifies
the time in which the signal falls from 90% to 10% of its
amplitude.
RISE TIME 80%: This mode measures the rise
time of the first rising slope in the displayed
view of the screen (tr80). The rise time identifies
the time in which the signal rises from 20% to 80% of its
amplitude.
FALL TIME 80%: This mode measures the fall
time of the first falling slope in the displayed
view of the screen (t f80). The fall time identifies the time in which the signal falls from 80% to 20% of
its amplitude.
Measurements
σ-STD. DEVIATION: This mode measures the
standard deviation of the signal amplitude in
the displayed view of the screen. The standard
deviation is the measurement for the deviation
of a signal from its mean value. A low result indicates that
the values are close to the mean value. A higher result illustrates that on average the difference between the values is greater.
DELAY: This mode measures the time delay between the set measurement source and
the reference source. This mode searches for
the slope of the measurement source that is closest to
the time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it
searches for the nearest slope of the reference source.
This time difference indicates the measurement result. A
submenu (DELAY SETUP) allows you to select the setting
for measurement source, reference source and slopes.
PHASE: This mode measures the phase between two slopes of two channels in the displaced view of the screen (Phs). This mode
measures the relation of the time delay between the set
sources to the signal period of the measurement source.
This mode searches for the slope of the measurement
source that is closest to the time reference. Then, beginning from this point, it searches for the nearest slope of
the reference source. The time difference and the signal
period indicate the measurement result in degrees. A submenu (MEASUREMENT SOURCE/ REFERENCE SOURCE)
allows you to select the measurement source and the reference source with the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section.
COUNT + : This mode counts positive pulses
in the displayed view of the screen. A positive
pulse consists of a rising slope followed by a
falling slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if
the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT – : This mode counts negative pulses
in the displayed view of the screen. A negative
pulse consists of a falling slope followed by a rising slope. The mean value is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if
the signal runs through the mean value. A pulse that passes the mean value only once will not be calculated. The
measurement will only be applied to the selected channel.
COUNT +/ : This mode counts signal changes (slopes) from Low Level to High Level in the
displayed view of the screen. The mean value
is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
COUNT –/ : This mode counts signal changes
(slopes) from High Level to Low Level in the
displayed view of the screen. The mean value
is calculated from the amplitude of the measurement signal. A slope will be counted if the signal runs through the
mean value. The measurement will only be applied to the
selected channel.
TRIGGER FREQUENCY: This mode measures the frequency of the trigger signal bases
on the period duration (f Tr). The source for the
measurement is the currently set trigger source. The frequency will be determined with a hardware counter with a
high accuracy of 5 digits.
TRIGGER PERIOD: This mode measures the
duration of periods of the trigger signal (with a
hardware counter T Tr).
Fig. 8.2: Menu for the automatic measurements settings
The list of available sources only includes displayed channels
(possible sources are analog, digital and mathematical channels).
The automatic measurement results are displayed at the bottom of the screen. If “n/a” is displayed, the measurement
is not applicable to the signal. For instance, this may be the
case for a voltage measurement on a POD because only logic states without voltage reference are displayed here. If
“?” is displayed, the display does not show a complete measurement result. For instance, the period to be measured
may not display completely and can consequently not be
identified.
With the soft menu key CLEAR ALL the activated automatic measurements will be switched off.
8.2.1 Statistics for Automatic Measurements
If automatic measurement functions are defined, you can
view statistics for these parameters on page 2|2 of the
AUTO MEASURE menu. The statistics allow you to evaluate a periodic signal over a number of measurements. The
results (current value, minimum, maximum, mean value,
standard deviation and number of measurements) are
shown in table format in the display window. Statistics are
33
Measurements
available for up to 1,000 captures. You can define the desired number with the universal knob or the KEYPAD key
in the CURSOR/MENU section. The mean value and the
standard deviation are identified by means of the most current n values where n corresponds to the set captures (soft
menu key NO. OF AVERAGES). Minimum and maximum
of the measurement value applies to the total number of
measurements. The total number of measurements will be
displayed in the statistics. The key RESET STATISTIC resets
the statistics. All recorded values are erased. This function
can be used to restart the statistics at a defined point. The
key CLEAR MEASUREMENTS deactivates the automatic
measurements.
9 Analysis
The R&S®HMO Compact series features different analysis functions for the collected data records which are displayed on the screen. Simple mathematical functions can
be performed with the mathematical function while more
complex functions and the linking of functions can be accomplished with the formula editor. The MATH menu includes mathematical functions for the recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track the changes of the
included signals and only apply to the visible area. You can
also activate the frequency analysis (FFT) by pressing the
respective key. The function QUICK VIEW provides a quick
overview for the signal properties. A masked-based PASS/
FAIL test allows you to monitor signals automatically.
9.1 Mathematical Functions
The MATH menu in the VERTICAL section includes mathematical functions for the recorded signal types. The mathematical functions track the changes of the included signals and only apply to the visible area.of the screen. If a signal is cut off at the edge of the screen may indicate that
the corresponding mathematical curve is also truncated.
The VOLTS/DIV knob can be used to scale an activated
mathematical curve.
Fig. 8.3: Statistic for Automeasurements
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
The MATH menu includes the Quick Mathematics (QM)
and formula sets (MA). Quick Mathematics is designed for
simple and quick calculations. The formula sets allow formular combinations.
9.1.1Quick mathematics (QM)
Pressing the MATH key in the VERTICAL section will activate the math short menu. The lowest soft menu key activates the Quick Mathematics (QM) or the formula editor
(MA). In the QM short menu the configuration of the math
function can be selected with the soft menu key. Pressing the MENU key in the VERTICAL section the configuration menu will be opened. With the first and the third soft
menu key OPERAND, you can choose the respective channel (source) for the mathematical calculation. You may only
choose activated analog channels. The central soft menu
34
Analysis
key OPERATOR allows you to select the calculation type.
Following calculation types (OPERATOR) can be selected.
Addition
(ADD)
Multiplication
(MUL)
Subtraction
(SUB)
Division
(DIV)
You can use the universal knob in the Cursor/ Menu
section to select operands and operators.
Fig. 9.2: Quick mathematics menu
9.1.2 Formula editor (MA)
The formula editor menu (soft menu key MA) allows you to
activate and deactivate mathematical equations which are
defined and displayed within the selected formula set. The
MENU key in the VERTICAL control panel opens a menu to
select the formula set and its corresponding formulas. The
R&S®HMO Compact series includes five mathematical formula sets. Each of these formula sets contains five formulas which may be edited with a formula editor to also define linked mathematical functions. These are labeled MA1
to MA5. You can use the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section to select the formula set. The formula set
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
editor (soft menu key EDIT FORMULARY) lists all existing
equations which may be edited. A blue bar indicates that
an equation is selected. It is important to distinguish between editing the display and editing the parameters. Use
the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the respective equation and activate by pressing the
soft menu key VISIBLE. An activated, visible equation is
marked by a filled-in eye symbol in the formula editor and
is listed in the short menu. With the soft menu UNIT you
can use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section
to select the following units:
❙❙ Hz(Hertz)
❙❙ V(Volt)
❙❙ F(Farad)
❙❙ A(Ampere)
❙❙ H(Henry)
❙❙ Ω
(Ohm)
❙❙ %(percent)
❙❙ V/A (Volt per Ampere)
❙❙ º(degree)
❙❙ W(Watt)
❙❙ π
(Pi)
❙❙ VA (Volt Ampere)
❙❙ Pa(Pascal)
❙❙ VAr (reactive power)
❙❙ m(meter)
❙❙ dB(decibel)
❙❙ g(Acceleration)
❙❙ m (Milli, 10 -3)
❙❙ µ
(Mikro, 10 -6)
❙❙ ºC (Degress Celsius)
-9
❙❙ n
(Nano 10 )
❙❙ K(Kelvin)
❙❙ p
(Piko, 10 -12)
❙❙ ºF (Degrees Fahrenheit)
❙❙ f
(Femto, 10 -15)
❙❙ N(Newton)
❙❙ a
(Atto, 10 -18)
❙❙ J(Joule)
❙❙ z
(Zepto 10 -21)
❙❙ C(Coulomb)
-24
❙❙ y
(Yokto, 10 )
❙❙ Wb(Weber)
❙❙ K
(Kilo, 103)
❙❙ T(Tesla)
❙❙ M (Mega, 106)
❙❙ (dez)(decimal)
❙❙ G
(Giga, 109)
❙❙ (bin)(binary)
❙❙ T
(Tera, 1012)
❙❙ (hex)(hexadecimal)
❙❙ P
(Peta, 1015)
❙❙ (oct)(octal)
18
❙❙ E
(Exa, 10 )
❙❙ DIV (Division, division)
❙❙ Z
(Zetta 1021)
❙❙ px(pixel)
❙❙ Y
(Yotta, 1024)
❙❙ Bit(Bit)
❙❙ dBm (decibel milliwatt)
❙❙ Bd(Baud)
❙❙ dBV (decibel Volt)
❙❙ Sa(Sample)
❙❙ s(second)
The selected equation unit will be applied to the channel description, cursor types and automatic measurement
types. The equation name is listed in the formula set editor
and is used as label in the curve window. The soft menu
key DELETE removes the equation from the formula set.
An equation consists of an operator (mathematical function) and up to two operands. Use the universal knob in
the CURSOR/MENU section to choose the operators:
❙❙ Addition
❙❙ Subtraction
❙❙ Multiplication
❙❙ Division
❙❙ Maximum
❙❙ Minimum
❙❙ Square
❙❙ Root
❙❙ Amount
❙❙ Pos. Wave
❙❙ Neg. Wave
❙❙ Reciprocal
❙❙ Inverted
❙❙ Common logarithm
❙❙ Natural logarithm
❙❙ Derivation
❙❙ Integral
❙❙ IIR Low Pass Filter
❙❙ IIR High Pass Filter
35
Analysis
For each corresponding equation, the input channels CH1,
CH2, CH3, CH4 and an adjustable constant are allowed as
OPERAND (sources). For the formula MA2, MA1 is added
as source, for MA3 the added source is MA2, for MA4 it is
MA3 and finally for MA5 the added source is MA4. From
these five equations, you can create, save and retrieve a
total of five different sets. New equations can be added by
using the universal knob to select the menu item NEW in
the formula set editor. Pressing the soft menu key ADD allows you to edit the new equation.
use the universal knob to enter the name of your choice
and you can save it by using the ACCEPT key. The name
will now be displayed Instead of the generic labels MA1 to
MA5. You can specify the names for all equations separately. Once all equations, constants and names have been
entered, you may also choose a name for this formula set
by pressing the NAME key in the formula set menu and
entering the name of your choice.
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
Fig. 9.5: Definition of the current equation
Use the soft menu key EDIT CONSTANT and the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to choose from the
following constants:
❙❙ Pi
❙❙ 2x Pi
❙❙ 0,5 x Pi
❙❙ User 1 to 10 (up to 10 customized constants are available)
This example shows the analysis of an electrical energy
waveform. The voltage across the load is being measured
with differential probe and applied to channel 2. The current is being measured with a current probe and applied to
channel 1. First, the conversion factor of the current probe
(100 mV/A) will be entered. The formula set 1 will be opened and the equation MA1 will be defined. After pushing
the soft menu key EDIT, the appropriate functions can be
selected using the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU
section. In this example, channel CH1 will be multiplied
with a constant (0.1) and the unit A (Ampere) will be assigned. This ensures the correct display of the scale factors
as well as the units for cursors and automatic measurements. The equation MA1 can be named „CURRENT using
the soft menu key LABEL.
For instance, if you select USER1 as constant, you can
press the soft menu key VALUE and use the universal knob
in the CURSOR/MENU section to select a numeric value.
You can apply the same method to set a DECIMAL POINT
and enter an additional SI prefix (soft menu key PREFIX).
You may choose a UNIT from the same SI prefixes as
those that are available in the soft menu EDIT. Press SAVE
to store these settings as USER 1 and return to the menu
to edit the equation. You can store up to 10 of these customized constants. When saving a formula set, you may also
add a comment (soft menu key COMMENT). Press the key
SAVE to save this formula set with the determined name
and comment to the selected location. Stored formula sets
may be reloaded at any time. Press the MATH key to activate the Mathematics menu and then press the MENU key
below the VOLTS/DIV key. This menu displays the menu
item LOAD. This will start the file manager which will display the internal memory or the connected USB stick as
possible storage location. Select the respective formula set
file and press the key LOAD to load the file. It will be calculated, but will not be included in the display. You can also
choose a NAME with a maximum of 8 characters, load a
formula set (from the internal memory or from a USB stick)
or save a formula set (internally or on a USB stick). You can
36
9.1.3 Example for using the extended math
Fig. 9.6: Definition of the power equation
Analysis
Afterwards, a new equation MA2 will be entered and adjusted. The result of the equation calculation „CURRENT“
and channel CH2 will be multiplied which will be yielded
to a power curve. The equation MA2 can be named „POWER“ using the soft menu key LABEL. At last, a 3rd equation MA3 will be added to the set of formulas which will
be defined as the integral of the equation „POWER“. The
equation MA3 can be named „ENERGY“ using the soft
menu key LABEL.
Now, all definitions will be completed and the results can
be displayed and analysed. The math analysis can be performed with cursor or automatic measurement functions.
All measurement results will be correctly shown and scaled with correct units: Ampere, Watt, Joule.
9.2 Frequency Analysis (FFT)
In general, the FFT in an oscilloscope works differently than
in a spectrum analyzer and is affected not only by the time
base setting, but also by the available number of used
acquired data points when calculating the FFT. The
R&S®HMO1002 allows you to include up to 65k point in the
FFT.
The FFT is not suitable for the analysis of very slow signals (Hzrange); this type of analysis requires a classic oscilloscope mode.
tion can be determined by selecting the center value. You
may use the horizontal encoder X Position for this purpose.
The shown frequency range ranges from (Center - Span/2)
to (Center + Span/2).
The minimum increment depends on the time base. The greater the
time base, the smaller the span. Another important element for the
FFT is the setting “Max. Sampling Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu.
The soft menu key MODE allows you to choose from the
following display types:
❙❙ REFRESH:
This mode calculates and displays the FFT without
additional evaluation or editing of the captured data. The
new input data is captured, displayed and overwrites
previously stored and displayed values.
❙❙ ENVELOPE:
In the Envelope mode, the maximum deflections of all
spectra will be stored separately in addition to the current
spectrum and will be updated with each new spectrum.
These maximum values will be displayed with the input
data and create an envelope curve. The spectrum is
located within the envelope limits. This forms an area or a
sleeve including all occurrences of FFT signal values.
With each signal parameter change the envelope curve
will be reset.
❙❙ AVERAGE:
This mode calculates the mean value from several
spectra. It is applicable for noise reduction. The soft
menu key #AVERAGES allows you to select the number
of spectra used to calculate the mean value by setting
the universal knob in the power of 2 from 2 to 512.
Fig. 9.7: FFT illustration
The menu entry POINTS allows you to select the maximum
number of capture points to be included in the calculation
by using the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
The possible settings are 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768,
65536 points. The soft menu WINDOWS allows you to
improve the FFT display in case of irregularities at the
margins of the measurement interval. Irregularities are
calculated as a leap by a computing algorithm and interfere
with the measurement result. In the event of a bell-shaped
window function, the margins with lower values are
The FFT menu in the ANALYZE section allows a quick Fourier transformation which displays the frequency spectrum of the measured signal. The changed display allows
you to determine the most frequent frequencies in the signal and the corresponding amplitude. Once the FFT key
was pressed, the screen will be divided into two graticules. The upper left of the display shows information about
the settings in the time range, the area between the upper
and the lower window shows details about zoom and position, and the section below the large FFT display window
indicates the settings (Span and Center) in the frequency
range. The lower FFT display window will be outlined in
white when the FFT is activated. This means that the large
knob in the time range section is used to select the span.
The span is specified in the unit Hz (Hertz) and identifies
the width of the shown frequency range. The span posi-
Fig. 9.8: Advanced FFT menu
37
Analysis
multiplied and the impact is damped. The soft menu item
WINDOW allows you to choose from the following window
functions:
Hanning: The Hanning window function is
bell-shaped. In contrast to the Hamming window function, it is equal to zero at the margin of
the measurement interval. Therefore the noise level is reduced in the spectrum and the width of the spectral lines
is increased. This function is useful for a precise amplitude
measurement of a period signal, for instance.
Hamming: The Hamming window function is bell-shaped. In contrast to the Hanning
and Blackman window function, it is not equal
to zero at the margin of the measurement interval. Therefore the height of the noise level in the spectrum is greater than with the Hanning and Blackman window function
but less than with the square wave window function. However, the spectral lines not as wide as in other bell-shaped
functions. This function is useful for a precise amplitude
measurement of a period signal, for instance.
Blackman: The Blackman window function
is bell-shaped and its waveform features the
steepest fall-off among the available functions.
Is is zero at both ends of the measurement interval. The
Blackman window function allows you to measure the amplitudes with high accuracy. However, it is more difficult
to determine the frequency due to the wide spectral lines.
This function is useful for a precise amplitude measurement of a period signal, for instance.
❙❙ Maximum voltage (Vp+)
❙❙ Mean voltage (Mean)
❙❙ Minimum voltage (Vp-)
❙❙ Rise time (tr)
❙❙ Fall time (tf)
The following ten measurement values are displayed at the
bottom of the screen:
Period
❙❙ RMS value
Frequency
❙❙ Peak to peak voltage
Number of positive /slopes
❙❙ Amplitude Neg. pulse width
❙❙ Pos. pulse width Neg. duty ratio
❙❙ Pos. duty ratio
Pressing the AUTO MEASURE key allows you to change
the six measurement parameters on the bottom right. You
may undo these changes by choosing RESET or restore
the default setting. Only one channel can be active in the
Quickview mode. All measurements will be performed on
the active channel. Pressing the QUICK VIEW key again
switched off the function.
9.4 PASS/FAIL Test Based on Masks
The Pass/Fail test allows you to evaluate if a signal is located
within defined limits. This limits are set by a so-called mask.
If the signal exceeds the mask, there is an error. These errors will be displayed together with successful sweeps and
the total of all sweeps at the bottom of the screen. It is also
possible to perform certain actions if errors are discovered.
RECTANGLE: The rectangle function multiplies
all points by 1. This results in a high frequency
accuracy with narrow spectral lines and increased noise. This function can be used for pulse
response tests with start and end values of zero.
The menu item Y-SCALING allows you to scale the FFT in
the amplitude logarithmically (dBm / dBV) or linear (Veff).
The unit dBm (Decibel-Milliwatt) refers to 1mW. The unit
dBV (Decibel-Volt) refers to 1Veff. The displayed values refer to a 50Ω terminating resistor. You can use an external
terminating resistor parallel to the high impedance input.
You can deactivate the FFT function by pressing the soft
menu key FFT OFF or pressing the FFT key on the control
panel again.
9.3 Quick View
Pressing the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section activates several basic automatic measurements. The
QUICK VIEW function allows a quick overview of the typical signal size. Measurement results are displayed at the
bottom of the screen and with a cursor on the signal. The
following five measurement values are displayed directly in
the signal:
38
Fig. 9.9: PASS/FAIL mask test.
Press the QUICKVIEW key 10 in the ANALYZE section of
the control panel and press the soft menu key PASS/FAIL
to activate the mode which opens a menu to set and use
the mask test. Prior to starting the test by pressing the top
soft menu key TEST ON/OFF, it is necessary to generate
or load a mask and to select an action. To generate a new
mask, press the soft menu key NEW MASK. Masks are displayed as light gray curves/waveforms on the screen. If a
mask was copied or loaded, you can use menu items to
change the expansion of the signal form and consequently
the limits for the test. In the menu that opens you can use
Analysis
the key COPY CHANNEL to copy the current signal into a
mask memory. The mask displays in white and appears as
an overlay of the output signal. The menu keys Y-POSITION
and STRETCH Y enable you to shift this curve vertically or
to enlarge it. The two menu items WIDTH Y and WIDTH
X allow you to set the tolerance for the mask. The universal knob or the KEYPAD button in the CURSOR/MENU section are used to enter values with a resolution of 1/100 division. A mask includes a minimum and a maximum value for
each captured data value. The minimum and maximum value for a source curve with only one value per data are identical. The width indicates the distance between the peripheral points and the original point. The greater the selected value is, the greater are the potential curve deviations in the
amplitude. The tolerance mask is displayed in white in the
background. The generated and edited mask can be used
immediately for the test, however, it is only saved temporarily in the instrument storage. The soft menu key SAVE can
be used to store the mask permanently to a USB stick or to
the internal memory. Press the key MENU OFF to return to
the start menu.
Press the soft menu key LOAD MASK to open a file browser
which allows you to load previously stored masks for the
test (file extension .HMK). A loaded mask can be changed
in the menu NEW MASK. Changes will be applied to the file
when the mask is edited and saved. Pressing the soft menu
key ACTIONS in the PASS/FAIL main menu opens a menu
with the available actions. The following four actions can be
performed:
❙❙ Audio signal if the tolerance limits have been exceeded
❙❙ Stop for first-time failure (number is adjustable)
❙❙ Pulse for first-time failure (emits a pulse at the AUX output
in case of failure)
❙❙ Screen dump for first-time failure on USB stick
❙❙ Screen dump for first-time failure on printer
An action is performed if the respective condition is met
(e.g. a specific number of mask failures). Each action is assigned a unique condition which can be defined separately
from the other actions. The respective condition can be defined in the menu for the corresponding action. Select the
respective action by pressing the appropriate soft menu
key; the corresponding soft menu item will be highlighted in
blue. Press the MENU OFF key to return to the main menu
and to start the mask test.
9.5 Component test
9.5.1General
The R&S®HMO Compact series has a built-in component
tester. This can be activated by pushing the XY/CT button
(VERTICAL section) with the soft menu key CT. The unit under test is connected to the two contacts below the screen.
After switch on the component tester mode, the Y preamplifiers and the time base are disconnected. While using the
component tester, signals may be present at the inputs as
long as the unit under test is not connected to any other circuit. It is possible to test components remaining in their circuits, but in such cases all signals must be disconnected
from the front panel BNC connectors (see the following paragraph: „Test in circuits“). The test principle is a generator
within the R&S®HMO Compact series generates a 50 Hz or
200 Hz (±10 %) sine wave which feeds the series connection of the test object and a sense resistor. If the test object has only a real part such as a resistor, both voltages will
be in phase; the display will be a straight line, more or less
slanted. Is the test object short-circuited, the line will be
vertical (no voltage, current maximum). If the test object is
open-circuited or missing a horizontal line will appear (voltage, but no current). The angle of the line with the horizontal is a measure of the resistance value, allowing for measurements of resistors between Ω and kΩ.
Fig. 9.10: Component tester at short
If components are tested which are located in circuits or instruments, the circuits resp. instruments must be disconnected first!
If they are operated from the mains, the mains plug of the test
object has to be pulled out. This ensures that there will be no
loops between the scope and the test object via the safety earth
which might cause false results.
Capacitors and inductors cause phase shift between voltage and current and hence between the voltages. This will
cause displays of ellipses. The location and the form factor
of the ellipse are determined by the apparent impedance at
50 Hz (resp. 200 Hz). Capacitors can be measured between
µF and mF. An ellipse with its longer axis horizontal indicates a high impedance (small capacitance or large inductance). An ellipse with its longer axis vertical indicates a low
impedance (large capacitance or small inductance). An ellipse with its longer axis slanted indicates a relatively large
resistive loss in series with the impedance of the capacitor
or inductor.
Only discharged capacitors may be tested!
With semiconductors the transition from the non-conduc39
Analysis
Like mentioned in the chapter Safety, all measurement connectors as well as COMP.TESTER contacts are connected to the
mains safety earth (in proper operation). As long as individual
components are tested, this has no consequences because these
components are not connected to the mains safety earth.
ting to the conducting state will be indicated in their characteristic. As far as is possible with the available voltages and
currents the forward and backward characteristics are displayed (e.g. with zener diodes up to 9 V). Because this is a
two-pole measurement, the gain of a transistor can not be
determined, however, the B-C, B-E, C-E diodes can be measured. With this exception the diodes can be measured without fear of destruction as the maximum voltage is limited to 9 V and the current to a few mA. This implies, however, that a measurement of breakdown voltages > 9 V is not
possible. In general this is no disadvantage because, if there
is a defect in a circuit, gross deviations are to be expected
which will point to the defective component. Rather exact
results may be achieved if the measurements are compared
to those of intact components. This is especially true for semiconductors. The polarity of diodes or transistors can thus
be identified if the lettering or marking is missing. Please
note that with semiconductors changing the polarity will
cause the display to rotate 180 degrees around the screen
center. More important in practice is the quick determination of plain shorts and opens which are the most common
causes of requiring service.
Fig. 9.11: Excamples of Component test
40
Please note that with semiconductors changing the polarity (e.g. by exchanging the COMP.TESTER and ground terminals) will cause the display to rotate 180 degrees around
the screen center. More important in practice is the quick
determination of plain shorts and opens which are the
most common causes of requiring service.
It is highly recommended to observe the necessary precautions
when handling MOS components which can be destroyed by static charges and even tribo electricity.
9.5.2 In-circuit tests
They are possible in many cases but deliver rarely clear results. By paralleling of real or complex impedances – especially if those are fairly low impedance at 50 Hz/200 Hz
– there will be mostly great differences compared to individual components. If circuits of the same type have to be
tested often (service), comparisons with intact circuits may
help again. This is also quickly done because the intact circuit has not to be functional, also it should not be energized. Just probe the various test points with the cables
of the component tester of the unit under test and the intact unit and compare the screen displays. Sometimes the
unit under test may already contain an intact portion of the
same type, this ist e.g. the case with stereo circuits, pushpull circuits or symmetrical bridge circuits. In cases of doubt
one side of the dubious component can be unsoldered and
this free contact should be connected to the COMP.TESTER contact which is not identified as the ground contact.
This will reduce hum pick-up. The contact with the ground
symbol is connected to the scope chassis and is thus not
susceptible to hum pick-up.
Documentation, Storage and Recall
10Documentation,
Storage and Recall
The oscilloscope allows all screen displays that store user
settings (e.g. trigger condition and time base setting),
reference curves, formularies and traces. An internal
memory integrated with the instrument is available for
reference curves and instrument settings. Screenshots and
trace data can also be stored on a connected USB stick.
tings file has been selected, you can load the file by pressing the soft menu key LOAD. To remove files that are no
longer required you can use the universal knob to select
the respective settings file and remove it by pressing the
soft menu key REMOVE FILE. If a USB stick is connected,
you can also change and delete directories. Use the soft
menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings files by
name, type, size or date.
The USB stick should not exceed 4 GB and must be FAT formatted (FAT32). It should be avoided to store a large number of files
on the USB stick.
You can access the main menu to store and load functions by pressing the SAVE/RECALL key in the GENERAL
section.
10.1 Device settings
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
The soft menu IMPORT/EXPORT allows you to copy a file
from an internal memory to an external storage medium
(USB stick) or vice versa. Source (SOURCE FILE) and target (DEST. PATH) must be selected for copying. Use the
universal knob to select a storage location which will open
a file manager. Pressing the IMPORT/EXPORT key by default will copy the selected settings file.
To import or export instrument settings, you must have a USB
stick connected, otherwise the menu cannot be selected.
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for device settings
The soft menu DEVICE SETTINGS allows you to save current instrument settings load saved settings and import or
export instrument settings.
Press the soft menu key SAVE to open the Save menu.
You can use the soft menu key STORAGE to select a possible location (internal memory or front USB connection)
where you would like to save the instrument settings. Pressing this key opens the file manager. The FILE NAME can
be changed or adjusted to the corresponding setting (SET
is the default label). You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment which will be displayed in the
file manager footer once a file has been selected. The
option SAVE allows you to store the settings. To reload
stored preference files, press the respective soft menu key
to open the soft menu LOAD. This opens the file manager
where you can use the universal knob to select the respective file. Once the storage location and the respective setDevice settings of an older firmware version can not be loaded
with a newer firmware version.
The menu item DEFAULT SETT. also allows you to load the
factory default settings.
10.2References
References are data sets which consist of settings information and A/D converter data. These may be stored and
reloaded internally or externally. Data can be reloaded into
one of the 4 reference memories (RE1 to RE4) which can
also be displayed. The main feature of references is the
fact that all information (e.g. vertical gain, time base setting, A/D converter data) is included when saving or reloading, enabling a comparison between the original signal
and its corresponding values.
The soft menu REFERENCES only allows you to import or
export references (IMPORT/EXPORT). The transfer of references to other R&S®HMO instruments is possible. The
standard menu for the file manager opens which allows
you to copy references between the internal memory and
the external USB stick. The top soft menu SOURCE allows
you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the source for the reference to be saved. You
can select from the activated channels and mathematical curves. Open the menu to store and load by pressing
41
Documentation, Storage and Recall
the REF key in the VERTICAL section of the control panel. With the soft menu key RE1 to RE4 up to 4 references
can be activated. The top soft menu SOURCE allows you
to use the universal knob to select the source for the reference to be saved. You can select from the activated channels and mathematical curves. Press the soft menu key
DISPLAY to display the selected reference curve or to update the current reference curve.
Fig. 10.4: Menu for storing curves
Fig. 10.3: Storage menu for references
To load a reference from a USB stick or the internal memory, open the soft menu LOAD. This shows a window
displaying the internally stored references. You can select the desired target reference curve in the top menu
item and by pressing LOAD in the file manager. To complete loading and displaying the reference, press LOAD in
the file manager menu again. To save a reference, press
the SAVE key, determine the source, storage location, file
name and curve, and press the soft menu key SAVE (with
the disk icon). The FILE NAME can be changed or adjusted
to the corresponding setting (REF ist the default label). You
can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment
which will be displayed in the file manager footer once a
file has been selected.
10.3Traces
In addition to references, you can also store A/D converter
data. Traces can only be stored to externally connected
USB sticks (not internally). Depending on the selected time
base and sample rate in the ACQUIRE menu (AUTOMATIC,
MAX. SAMPLE RATE or MAX. WAVEFORM RATE) the
maximum read-out measurement points varies..
The full memory can only be read out via interface in STOP mode
with the maximum sampling rate setting (ACQUIRE menu).
In the soft menu STORAGE the USB connection on the
front of the instrument is selected as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a
USB stick has been recognized. If a USB stick is connected, you can also change, create or delete directories. Use
the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES to sort several settings
files by name, type, size or date. Press ACCEPT DIR. to
confirm the target directory and you will automatically return to the curve main menu.
42
The soft menu CURVE allows you to use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select a channel which will be saved as a curve. You may only select
channels that have been activated via channel keys. The
soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name
entry, where you can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section to enter a name
and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (TRC is the
default name). The curve main menu will display automatically. You can open a selection window by pressing the
soft menu key FORMAT to determine the file format. The
universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section allows you
to select the desired format. You can choose from the following formats:
❙❙ BIN:
A binary file may contain any type of Byte value. The
captured curve data will be stored without any time
information.
❙❙ CSV (Comma Separated Values):
In CSV files, curve data is stored in table format. Each
table row is separated by a comma.
Example:
[s],CH1[V]
-4.99500E-07,-2.601E-03
-4.99000E-07,-6.012E-04
-4.98500E-07,-6.012E-04
-4.98000E-07,1.399E-03
If you choose the “Max. Sampling Rate” in the ACQUIRE menu,
two rows will be affixed with a time stamp during the CSV export
because a minimum and a maximum value must be assigned to
this time value. To acquire an amplitude value per time stamp, activate “Automatic” in the ACQUIRE menu.
❙❙ TXT:
TXT files are ASCII files that only contain amplitude
values (no time values). Amplitude values are separated
by a comma. The value pairs are listed as single values
without identification.
Example:
1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,1.000E-02,3.000E-02
Documentation, Storage and Recall
❙❙ HRT (HAMEG Reference Time): Files with this extension
are reference curves of the time domain. If the displayed
curve is saved in this format, it can be used in the
reference menu. The HRT format also allows you to
generate files that can be reloaded into the oscilloscope
via reference menu.
You can use the soft menu key COMMENT to enter a comment which will be displayed in the file manager footer
once a file has been selected. After you made all entries,
press the menu key STORE to save the selected curve(s)
according to the settings.
10.4 Screenshots
The most important format to store information for documentation purposes is the screenshot. A screenshot is an
image file which shows the current screen content at the
time that storage takes place. The soft menu STORAGE
only allows you to use the USB connection on the front
as storage location. Selecting the respective storage location is possible when a USB stick has been recognized. If
a USB stick is connected, you can also change, create or
delete directories. Use the soft menu key SORT ENTRIES
to sort several settings files by name, type, size or date.
Press ACCEPT DIR. to confirm the target directory and you
will automatically return to the screenshot main menu. The
soft menu key FILE NAME opens the menu for the name
entry where you can use the universal knob or the KEYPAD key in the CURSOR/MENU section to enter a name
and confirm your entry by pressing ACCEPT (SCR is the
default name). The screenshot main menu will display automatically. The file format of a graphics file determines
the color depth and the type of compression. The quality
of the various formats is identical for the oscilloscope graphics. You can choose from the following file formats:
❙❙ BMP = Windows Bitmap Format
❙❙ GIF = Graphics Interchange Format
❙❙ PNG = Portable Network Graphic
With the soft menu key COLOR MODE and the universal
knob in the CURSOR/MENU section you can choose from
the following color modes:
❙❙ GRAYSCALE:
If GRAYSCALE is selected, the colors are converted to
gray scales when the waveform is stored
❙❙ COLOR:
If COLOR is selected, the waveform is stored as it displays
in the screen,
❙❙ INVERT:
If INVERT is activated, waveform is stored in color with
white background.
If you press the key SAVE, the current screen will be saved
immediately to the selected storage location with the selected name and format.
10.4.1Printer
The soft menu key Print allows you to print a screenshot
immediately to a connected printer. PCL-5, PCL-XL (= PCL-
6) and Postscript settings are supported as „printer language“ (PCL-3 is not supported). If a printer is detected,
the soft menu key Print will no longer be grayed out.
Fig. 10.5: Supported printer example
The supported printer will be displayed in the soft menu
DEVICE INFOS. The message „This printer is supported“
does not guaranteed the the connected printer will be supported. This message only means that the USB printer
connection was successful and the important printer properties are available.(e.g. printer language PCL or PCL-XL).
Connected PLC printers send an identification string to the
instrument. This identification string should be for all printers the same (standard), but there are many printers on
the market, which have another identification string. In this
case, the instrument is not able to detect the printer because the instrument does not have a Windows system internally to handle the identification string deviation.
If a printer connection is not possible, you have the possibillity to use the HMExplorer software with the screenshot software module. The free software HMScreenshot
(software module of the HMExplorer software) enables the
transfer of screenshots in bitmap format from the device
via interface to a connected PC where the screenshots
may then be saved or printed. For additional information
on the software, refer to the internal HMExplorer software
manual.
Fig. 10.6: Screenshot-Modul
Press the RUN/STOP key to stop acquisition prior to printing
which will allow a correct printout.
To achieve prints with well-defined contrasts when using the
color mode INVERTED, the curve intensity should set to (via
INTENS/PERSIST and universal knob) approx. 70%.
43
Documentation, Storage and Recall
10.5 Formula Sets
In the soft menu FORMULARIES you can import or export
formula sets. This allows the data exchange between different storage media (internal memory / external USB sticks).
The exact procedure is described in chapter 9.1.2.
10.6 FILE/PRINT Key Definition
The FILE/PRINT key in the GENERAL section allows you
to save instrument settings, curves, screenshots and
screenshot settings simultaneously with just one key. As
described in previous chapters, you must first select the
corresponding settings for storage location, name etc.
The soft menu key FILE/PRINT in the SAVE/RECALL main
menu opens the setup menu for the FILE/PRINT key. You
may choose from the following actions:
❙❙ DEVICE SETTINGS: Stores settings
❙❙ TRACES: Stores curves
❙❙ SCREENSHOTS: Stores screenshots
❙❙ SCREEN & SETUP: Stores screenshots and settings
❙❙ PRINT: Prints directly to a compatible printer (Postscript,
some PCL and PCLX capable printer)
If you press the respective soft menu key to activate the
required operation, the corresponding menu will be displayed with a blue background. Press the MENU OFF key
to quit the selection menu. If you press the FILE/PRINT
key, the selected function will be performed.
Fig. 10.7: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
44
Mixed-Signal Operation
11 Mixed-Signal
Operation
As a standard, the R&S®HMO Compact series is equipped with the connectors for the R&S®HO3508 logic probe
to add 8 digital logic inputs. All software required for the
mixed signal operation is already included in the firmware
of each instrument. It is only necessary to purchase and
connect the active R&S®HO3508 logic probe (8 channels).
With 4-channel instrument types the activation of the Pod
will deactivate the analog channel 3. The configuration of 3
analog channels plus 8 digital logic channels are possible.
You may now choose the Y position and the size of the logic channel display just as you would for the analog channels. Use the knobs Y-POSITION 18 and VOLTS/DIV 20 to
select the settings (if the soft menu key “0/7“ is selected,
indicated by a blue background). If you wish to display fewer than 8 logic channels or change the position and size
of a particular logic channel, you can use the short menu
in combination with the soft menu keys (channel 0 to 7)
and the buttons Y-POSITION 18 and VOLTS/DIV 20 to select the respective settings. You can choose a channel by
pressing the and soft menu keys. This allows you to resize and position specific channels individually.
You can reset the position and size of the individual logic channels on page 2|2 of the POD menu. You also have
the option to label the individual bits of the logic channel by using the soft menu NAME. This name will be displayed on the grid and the printout. Your first option is to
switch the display on (ON) or off (OFF). The next option includes the menu item LIBRARY. After selecting this option,
you can use the universal knob to choose a name from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows you to enter a completely new name or to customize the suggested
name. You may enter up to 8 characters. Use the ACCEPT
key to confirm the name in the editor. It will then be shown
in the display. The name is assigned to that specific signal
and will move alongside any set offset value.
Fig. 11.1: Optional logic probe R&S®HO3508
11.1 Logic Trigger for Digital Input
Please find an additional description of the logic trigger for the
inputs of the logic probe in chapter 6.5.
11.2 Display Functions for the Logic Channels
With the 4-channel instrument types the short menu is
used to switch an analog channel to a digital channel. If
channel CH3 is activated and the short menu is displayed,
the digital channels 0 to 7 can be switched on via PO soft
menu key. To switch on the digital channels with 2-channel instrument types, press the POD key in the VERTICAL
section. The digital channels 0 to 7 will now display on the
screen.
For the logic channels, a logic „1“ will be indicated by a bar
that is two pixels wide, and a logic „0“ will be indicated by
a bar that is one pixel wide. The set logic level and a figure
which shows the logical states will be shown next to the
name POD in the information field in the bottom left of the
display.
You must always set the level to distinguish between the logic
states (High/Low) in the VERTICAL MENU..
Fig. 11.2: Logic channels’ settings display
11.3 Display of Logic Channels as BUS
You also have the option to combine digital channels to
form buses which will then be displayed on the screen as
a cell in a table. Basically, two independent buses are possible. For instance, it would be possible to combine an 8
bit address bus and an 8 bit data bus. To select the settings for the buses, press the BUS button in he VERTICAL section. Then press the MENU button in the VERTICAL section. In the menu that opens you can press the top
soft menu key BUS to select which BUS you want to define, B1 or B2. You can use the soft menu key BUS TYPE
to choose the BUS type for the display and the analysis. The BUS type determines the bus structure and is organized differently depending on serial vs. parallel or the
45
Mixed-Signal Operation
number of data and clock signals. The universal knob allows you to select the BUS type PARALLEL or PARALLEL
CLOCKED. Select CONFIGURATION to determine the bus
source and structure. The contents of the menu change
with the selected BUS type. After pressing the top soft
menu key BUS WIDTH, you can use the universal knob to
select a bus width from 1-8 bits. The table displaying the
bit assignments will be adjusted dynamically depending
on your choice. Each bit of the displayed bus has a source.
The source refers to the individual POD bits. Based on the
measurement setup, the sources can be assigned via soft
menu key SOURCE and the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
❙❙ TIME:
The display will include the time position of both cursors
relative to the trigger time, the time difference between
the two positions and the resulting frequency.
❙❙ RATIO X:
In this measurement type, three cursors are used to
display a time ratio between the first two cursors plus the
first and third cursor. The results are shown in floating
point format, in percent, in degrees and in radians.
❙❙ V-MARKER:
For the logic channels, the logic value of the selected POD
will be measured at the respective cursor and shown in
hexadecimal and decimal format.
The soft menu keys PREVIOUS/NEXT BIT allow you to
move the position of the selection bar for the source of
the individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted in blue.
The left side of the table contains the bits in fixed sequence, beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows you to assign a real logic channel to the
selected BUS bit. The allocation is not subject to restrictions; you can also use partially identical logic channels in
the two possible buses. If you select PARALLEL CLOCKED
as BUS TYPE, you can also use the bottom soft menu key
CONTROL WIRES to select sources for CHIP SELECT, and
you can use the universal knob to select the settings for
CLOCK. The soft menu key ACTIVE is used to determine if
the chip select signal High or Low Active is selected.
The soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising, falling and both slopes. The active selection is always
highlighted in blue and is listed after the label CLK in the
bit source window. Press the MENU OFF button to return
to the BUS main menu.
11.5 Automatic Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you can use the automatic measurement functions to determine several
parameters.
For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can choose
from the measurement types:
❙❙ FREQUENCY
❙❙ PERIOD
❙❙ PULSE WIDTH +/–
❙❙ DUTY CYCLE+/–
❙❙ DELAY
❙❙ PHASE
❙❙ BURST WIDTH
❙❙ COUNT PULSE +/–
❙❙ COUNT (pos./neg.)
The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP opens a menu to select
the display format and its extent. The universal knob in the
submenu allows you to choose the format to decode the
bus values. You can choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
The decoded values will be shown in the cells/tables of
the buses according to the selected format. The next soft
menu key BITS can also be used to activate (ON) or deactivate (OFF) the table display for the individual bus bits. You
can use the position control knob to determine the position of the bus display on the screen. The VOLT/DIV knob
allows you to determine the size of the table display. This
may be particularly useful for the binary display as it allows
the display of the complete value in up to 4 rows even for
short tables.
11.4 Cursor Measurements for Logic Channels
If the logic channels are activated, you may select several
parameters via cursor measurements (CURSOR MEASURE
button). For all activated logic channels of a POD, you can
choose from the following measurement types:
46
Serial Bus Analysis
12 Serial
Bus Analysis
12.1 Software options (license key)
The R&S®HMO Compact series can be upgraded with options / voucher to trigger and decode serial buses.
❙❙ R&S®HOO10 / R&S®HV110:
The option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110
can be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI and UART/
RS-232 buses on the digital channels (option logic probe
R&S®HO3508 needed) and on the analog inputs. This
option allows the decoding of two serial buses
simultaneously.
❙❙ R&S®HOO11 / R&S®HV111:
The option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 can
be used to trigger and decode I2C, SPI and UART/RS-232
buses on analog inputs only and it only allows the
decoding of one serial bus at a time.
❙❙ R&S®HOO12 / R&S®HV112:
The option R&S®HOO12 resp. the voucher R&S®HV112
can be used to trigger and decode CAN and LIN buses on
the digital channels (option logic probe R&S®HO3508
needed) and on the analog inputs. This option allows the
decoding of two serial buses simultaneously.
The options R&S®HOO10, R&S®HOO11 and R&S®HOO12
can be ordered in combination with a R&S®HMO1002 ex
factory. The upgrade voucher R&S®HV110, R&S®HV111
and R&S®HV112 can be activated by a software license key
(please refer to chapter 2.7).
The analysis of parallel and serial data consists of the following three basic steps:
❙❙ Protocol configuration (BUS type / protocol-specific
settings)
❙❙ Decoding (Display of decoded data / Zoom / BUS table)
❙❙ Trigger (Start / Stop / serial samples)
The serial bus analysis is performed with 1/8 of the sampling
rate.
12.2 Serial Bus Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
It is necessary to define a BUS before you can determine
the settings for the serial trigger and decoding functions. A
maximum of two buses, B1 and B2, may be defined. Press
the BUS button in the VERTICAL section. This will open
a short menu where you can press the bottom soft menu
key B1 or B2. Additionally you can use the MENU button in
the VERTICAL section and the top soft menu key to define
the respective BUS (B1 or B2).
Depending on the installes option use the soft menu key
BUS TYPE to choose from the following BUS types:
❙❙ Parallel (Standard)
❙❙ Parallel Clocked (Standard)
❙❙ SSPI (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ SPI (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ I2C (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ UART (only available with R&S®HOO10/HV110/HOO11/HV111)
❙❙ CAN (only available with R&S®HOO12/HV112)
❙❙ LIN (only available with R&S®HOO12/HV112)
Fig. 12.1: Menu for the definition of buses
The soft menu key CONFIGURATION allows you to invoke
a menu corresponding to the selected bus type. A menu
description can be found in the chapters of the respective
BUS configuration. The soft menu DISPLAY SETUP is identical for all buses and allows you to select the decoding
format. You may choose from the following formats:
❙❙ Binary
❙❙ Hexadecimal
❙❙ Decimal
❙❙ ASCII
Use the soft menu key BITS to activate or deactivate the
display of individual bit lines (above the table display). The
last entry NAME in the VERTICAL menu opens a submenu
which allows you to enter a BUS name. This name will be
displayed on the grid and the printout. Your first option is
to switch the display on (ON) or off (OFF). The next option includes the menu item LIBRARY. After selecting this
option, you can use the universal knob to choose a name
from several suggestions. The EDIT LABEL key allows you
to enter a completely new name or to customize the suggested name. You may enter up to 8 characters. Use the
ACCEPT key to confirm the name in the editor. It will then
be shown in the display. The name is assigned to that specific signal.
12.2.1 BUS Table
The soft menu BUS TABLE allows you to configure / export a list of all decoded messages in storage. The table
content is protocol specific and the table display can be
activated for each individual BUS type. The top soft menu
key BUS TABLE allows you to activate or deactivate the list
47
Serial Bus Analysis
view (blue highlighted). By default, the table is displayed at
the bottom of the screen. Generally, a complete message
of a protocol is displayed in a row. The columns include
important information, e.g. address and date of the message. The number of rows in the table is identical to the
number of complete message frames in storage. The decoding results may be saved as CSV file by using the soft
menu key SAVE (e.g. save to a USB stick).
12.2.2 Bus Signal Source
The R&S®HMO Compact series features 4 contacts left of
the channel CH1 which provide the following signals according to the respective settings:
❙❙ Square wave: Probe compensation (standard setting),
frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz.
❙❙ SPI: Data rates 100 kbits/s, 250 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
❙❙ I2C: Data rates 100 kbits/s, 400 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
❙❙ UART: Data rates 9600 bits/s, 115.2 kbits/s or 1 Mbits/s
❙❙ Pattern: Frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
❙❙ Counter: Frequency 1 kHz or 1 MHz
The contact at the upper left is always ground and the signal levels are about 1 V. The following table shows how the
are used, depending on the
four outputs S1, S2, S3 and
signal.
Signal
Square Wave
SPI
Fig. 12.2: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
Make sure that a complete message of a serial protocol is always
displayed on the screen to ensure decoding can function properly. The Zoom function allows you to view details for any specific message.
Example of I2C BUS table:
“Bus table: BUS1 (I2C: Clock SCL = D0, Dates SDA = D1)“
Frame,Mark,Start time[s],Type,ID,Length,Date,Condition
1,,-197.89200e-6,Read,0x2D,5,0xF110E55D31,OK
2,,28.00000e-9,Write,0x42,8,0xEB8DC599AE5D6FC0,OK
3,,217.74000e-6,Write,0x3B,6,0xA113B7263E5B,OK
4,,376.07200e-6,Read,0x0E,6,0x55C3EB71D9E8,OK
5,,613.58000e-6,Write,0x66,8,0x91B86EE6655E2300,Data Error
A BUS table can only be stored if the STOP mode is active.
The soft menu key TRACK FRAME allows you to scroll
through the BUS table and simultaneously jump to the corresponding position in the memory via universal knob to
display details on the screen. However, this is only possible if acquisition has been stopped. This option is also
available in the short menu BUS via soft menu key Trk (=
Track). If you activate the soft menu key FRAME TIME DIFFERENCE (highlighted in blue), the time difference to the
previous frame (data packet) will be displayed in the BUS
table. This column will be labeled in the table as Time
diff. If this function is deactivated, the absolute time in relation to the trigger point will be displayed in the column
Start time. The soft menu key Tab in the BUS short
menu allows you to activate or deactivate the BUS table
without opening a menu. You can use the soft menu item
POSITION to move the table to the top or bottom of the
screen. In addition, it is possible to display the BUS table
in full screen. Select the position via universal knob in the
BUS menu or directly via soft menu key Pos in the BUS
short menu.
48
S1
S2
S3
No Signal
No Signal
No Signall
Chip Select
Clock,
Data,
Low Aktive Rising Edge High Active
Square Wave
No Signal
I2C
No Signal
Clock SCL
Data SDA
No Signal
UART
No Signal
No Signal
Data
No Signal
Pattern
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
Counter
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
Tab. 13.1: Pin assignment of the BUS signal source
Press the key SETUP in the general section and the
PROBE ADJUST & BUS SIG. SOURCE to open the bus
signal source menu on page 2|2. Now you can select the
operational mode for the bus signal source. An information
box is displayed for each operating mode, displaying the
corresponding connector assignment. By pressing the respective soft menu key, you can open a submenu with the
bit rate setting of the selected operating mode. The square
wave signal for probe compensation is available with 1 kHz
(low frequency compensation) and 1 MHz (high frequency
compensation). In the automatic mode (standard setting),
the output will provide 1 kHz at sweep speeds from 100 µs/
div, at faster sweep speeds 1 MHz will be available. These
signals allow to check the settings for parallel and optional
serial bus analysis.
Fig. 12.3: I2C BUS signal source
Serial Bus Analysis
12.3 Parallel / Parallel Clocked BUS
The R&S®HMO Compact series has a Parallel and Parallel Clocked BUS function installed ex factory and
is able to analyze up to 7 bit lines. The soft menu key BUS
WIDTH and the universal knob allow you to select the
number of bit lines. The soft menu keys PREV./NEXT BIT
allow you to move the position of the selection bar for the
source of the individual bits. The selected bit is highlighted
in blue. The left side of the table contains the bits in fixed
sequence, beginning at the top with D0 (= LSB). The universal knob allows you to assign a real logic channel to the
selected BUS bit. The allocation is not subject to restrictions; you can also use partially identical logic channels in
the two possible buses. If you select PARALLEL CLOCKED
as BUS TYPE, you can also use the bottom soft menu key
CONTROL WIRES to select sources for CHIP SELECT, and
you can use the universal knob to select the settings for
CLOCK. The soft menu key ACTIVE is used to determine if
the chip select signal High or Low Active is selected. The
soft menu key SLOPE allows you to toggle between rising,
falling and both slopes. The active selection is always highlighted in blue and is listed in the bit source window. Press
the MENU OFF button to return to the BUS main menu.
To trigger on parallel buses, it is recommended to use the
logic trigger (see chapter 6.5).
12.4 I2C BUS
The I2C bus is a two-wire bus which was developed by
Philips (today known as NXP Semiconductor). A I2C BUS
has the following properties:
❙❙ Two wire bus (2-wire): Clock (SCL) and data (SDA)
❙❙ Master-Slave Communication: the master provides the
clock pulse and selects the slave
❙❙ Addressing: Each slave can be addressed via unique
address; multiple slaves can be linked with each other and
can be addressed by the same master
❙❙ Read/Write bit: Master reads data (=1) or writes data (=0)
❙❙ Acknowledge: issued after each byte
The format of a simple I2C message (frame) with an
address length of 7 bit is structured as follows:
❙❙ Start condition: Falling slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
❙❙ 7 bit address (write or read slave)
❙❙ Read/Write bit (R/W): Indicates, if the data is to be
written or read out from the slave
Fig. 12.4: I2C 7 bit address
❙❙ Acknowledge bit (ACK): Is issued by the recipient of the
previous byte if transmission was successful (exception:
for read access, the master terminates the data
transmission with a NACK bit after the last byte)
❙❙ Data: a series of data bytes with a ACK bit after each byte
❙❙ Stop condition: rising slope on SDA (Serial Data), while
SCL (Serial Clock) is HIGH
12.4.1 I2C BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
To decode the I2C bus it is necessary to determine during the bus configuration which logic channel will be connected to the clock (SCL) and which one to the data line
(SDA). This setting is selected after choosing the BUS
TYPE I2C in the BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key
CONFIGURATION. In the menu, choose the top soft menu
key CLOCK SCL and use the universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section to select the source channel. You can
define the data channel by pressing the soft menu key
DATA SDA. A small window provides information about
the current settings. Press the MENU OFF button twice to
close all menus.
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source. If
the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed,
both analog and digital channels are available as source.
Fig. 12.5: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
Certain portions of the I2C messages will be displayed in
color to distinguish between the different elements. If the
data lines are selected with the table display, the respective sections will also be displayed in color. These are described as follows:
❙❙ Read address:
Yellow
❙❙ Write address:
Magenta
❙❙ Data:Cyan
❙❙ Start:White
❙❙ Stop:White
❙❙ No acknowledge:
Red
❙❙ Acknowledge:
Green
49
Serial Bus Analysis
12.4.2I2C Bus Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and choose I2C Bus. This will only be available if it was
configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER
section to list all available I2C trigger conditions.
Following trigger conditions can be defined:
❙❙ START: The oscilloscope triggers on the frame start
sequence.The start sequence is the falling slope on SDA
when SCL is high.
❙❙ STOP: The oscilloscope triggers on the frame stop
sequence. The start signal is the rising slope on SDA
when SCL is high.
❙❙ RESTART: The oscilloscope triggers, if a new start
sequence occurs before the stop condition. The new start
signal is a repeated start signal.
❙❙ NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE: The NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE bit is
the 9th bit in a data or address unit of the SDA line. For
NOT-ACKNOWLEDGE, the Acknowledge bit is on SDA
high, although it should be low.
❙❙ READ/WRITE: The soft menu key READ/WRITE offers
additional trigger options. You can use the soft menu key
MASTER to toggle the trigger condition between read and
write access. The 8th bit of the first data unit (depending
on the address length) is used to distinguish between
read and write access. The selected condition is displayed
in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the menu
key in blue. The address length (in bit) defines the
maximum number of slave addresses to be used with the
bus. For a 7 bit address length, the maximum number of
available addresses is 112. The 10 bit addressing mode is
downward compatible with the 7 bit addressing mode by
using 4 of 16 reserved addresses and can be used
simultaneously. For a 10 bit address length, a total of
1136 addresses (1024 + 128 - 16) is available. The highest
10 bit address is 1023 (0x3FF). The selected address
length is displayed in the I2C settings window and is highlighted by the menu key in blue. The SLAVE ADDRESS is
the address used on the BUS to distinguish which slave
the master communicates with. Use the universal knob in
the CURSOR/MENU section to select the address for the
Fig. 12.6: I2C data trigger menu
50
Fig. 12.7: I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
observing bus participant to be triggered. The soft menu
DATA enables you to enter specific data in addition to the
address. With this menu, you can trigger on clearly
defined data bytes (color cyan) within the transmission,
allowing you to filter out irrelevant transmissions. You can
trigger on up to 24 bit (3 byte) of data. An offset of 0 to
4095 to the address is allowed. Select BYTE OFFSET
which defines the distance between the bytes relevant
for the trigger condition and the address. In most cases,
the byte offset is zero if the trigger is to occur on the
maximum first 24 bits after the address. The soft menu
key NUMBER OF BYTES allows you to define how many
bytes are to be analyzed for the trigger condition. The
input may be binary or hexadecimal (PATTERN INPUT). If
binary input is selected, the individual bits can be
assigned to any condition via soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE allows
you to set the state H (=1), L (=0) or X (don’t care) for
each bit. The state X defines any state. If the input is
hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. If you
choose the hexadecimal input, use the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob to set the respective byte
value. The soft menu key SELECT BYTE allows you to
edit the different bytes (byte 1 to byte 2 to byte 3 etc.)
sequentially (depending on the defined NUMBER OF
BYTES). The active byte will be marked with a green
border in the display window of the trigger condition.
Fig. 12.8: I2C BUS
Serial Bus Analysis
Press the MENU OFF button several times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set address
and data. For measurements without measuring object
please refer to chapter 12.2.2.
12.5 SPI / SSPI BUS
For SPI/SSPI BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO10
resp. R&S®HOO11 option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV110
resp. R&S®HV111.
The Serial Peripheral Interface SPI is used to communicate
with slow peripheral devices, in particular for the transfer
of data streams. The SPI bus was developed by Motorola
(today known as Freescale); however, it has not been formally standardized. Generally, this is a bus with clock and
data lines and a select line (3-wire). If only one master and
one slave are present, the select line may be deleted. This
type of line is also called SSPI (Simple SPI) (2-wire). A SPI
BUS has the following properties:
❙❙ Master-slave communication
❙❙ No instrument addressing
❙❙ No acknowledge to confirm data reception
❙❙ Duplex capability
The address decoding is a 7-bit value. The 8th bit of write-read is
decoded in color, not in the HEX value of the address.
Most SPI buses have 4 common lines, 2 data lines and 2
control lines:
❙❙ Clock to all slaves (SCLK)
❙❙ Slave select or chip select lines (SS or CS)
❙❙ Master-Out-Slave-In, Slave-Data-Input (MOSI or SDI)
❙❙ Master-In-Slave-Out, Slave-Data-Output (MISO or SDO)
option SSPI; for a 3-wire SPI system, select the option SPI.
Then press the CONFIGURATION button to open the setup
menu for SPI. Use the top soft menu key SOURCE to select the respective channel for chip select (CS), clock (Clk)
and data. Select the respective soft menu key CS, Clk or
Data and then use the soft menu key DATA and the universal knob to the select the respective source channel. For
the 2-wire SPI, select the possible TIME OUT instead of a
chip select source. During the time out, data and clock line
are at Low. When the time out has been reached, a new
frame begins. If the time intervals between the data packets are shorter than the time out, these packets belong
to the same frame. You can select the dead time via universal knob or via numeric input (KEYPAD button). A small
window provides information about the current settings.
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source.
If the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed, both analog and digital channels are available as source.
In addition to assigning the source, the soft menu key ACTIVE allows you to select the following settings:
❙❙ CS: Chip select high or low active (low active is the
default setting)
❙❙ CLK: Data will be stored with rising or falling slope (rising
slope is the default setting)
❙❙ DATA: Data high or low active (high active is the default
setting)
If the master generates a clock pulse and selects a slave,
data can be transmitted in either one direction or simultaneously in both directions (only available with
R&S®HOO10/R&S®HV110).
Fig. 12.9: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
Fig. 12.10: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
12.5.1 SPI / SSPI BUS Konfiguration
You can use the soft menu key BIT ORDER to determine if
the data of each message starts with the MSB (most significant bit) or the LSB (least significant bit). The soft menu
key WORD SIZE allows you to select via universal knob
how many bits are included per message. You may select
any value between 1 and 32 bits.
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV. With 3-wire SPI the CS (chip select) has to be
connected to the external trigger input. The level can be set in
the BUS configuration menu via EXTERNAL LEVEL.
Certain settings are necessary to guarantee that a SPI bus
is decoded correctly. First, you have to determine if a SPI
system with or without chip select is available (2-wire or
3-wire SPI). This can be done in the BUS setup menu when
selecting the BUS type. For a 2-wire SPI system, select the
12.5.2 SPI / SSPI BUS Triggering
After the SPI/SSPI BUS configuration, it will be possible
to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the
TRIGGER section of the control panel and choose the soft
menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE but51
Serial Bus Analysis
ton in the TRIGGER section and choose SPI Bus. This will
only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel to
list all available SPI trigger conditions. The following trigger
conditions can be defined:
❙❙ FRAME START: Sets the trigger event on the start of the
frame. The frame starts when the chip select (CS) signal
switches to the selected active mode.
❙❙ FRAME END: Sets the trigger event on the end of the
frame. The frame ends when the chip select (CS) signal
switches from the selected active to the inactive mode.
❙❙ BIT: Selects the trigger time to the set bit within the set
bit sequence with the universal knob in the CURSOR/
MENU section. You can also enter a numeric value to
determine the desired bit number (KEYPAD button).
Fig. 12.12: SPI data trigger menu
Press the MENU OFF button several times to close all menues, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit sequence. For measurements without measuring object please refer to chapter 12.2.2.
12.6 UART/RS-232 BUS
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
Fig. 12.11: SPI trigger menu
❙❙ SER. PATTERN: Use the soft menu SER. PATTERN to
define a specific bit sequence within the frame which
start the trigger event. The soft menu key BIT OFFSET
allows you to select the first bit of the predefined bit
sequence within the frame. The bits in front of it have no
impact on the trigger event (for instance, if the bit offset =
2, bit 0 and bit 1 after CS will be ignored and the pattern
begins with bit 2). You can select a value between 0 and
4095 via universal knob or enter it numerically (KEYPAD
button). The soft menu key NUMBER OF BITS allows you
to select how many bits will be analyzed for the trigger
condition. You can select a value between 1 and 32 bit via
universal knob. The serial bit sequence (PATTERN INPUT)
can be entered as binary or hexadecimal value. If you
choose the binary input, the soft menu key SELECT BIT
and the universal knob allow you to select which
individual bits within the data are to be edited. The option
STATE allows you to assign a logic state to each bit (High
= H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow
you to set the value for the respective nibble (4 bit). If the
input is hexadecimal, only the entire nibble can be set to
X. Use the soft menu key SELECT NIBBLE to toggle
between nibbles. The active nibble will be marked with a
green border in the display window of the trigger
condition.
52
The UART bus (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) is a general bus system and the base for many protocols. One example is the RS-232 protocol. It consists of a
frame with a start bit, 5 to 9 data bits, one parity bit and a
stop bit. The stop bit can assume the single length, or 1.5
or twice the length of a normal bit.
Fig. 12.13: UART bit sequence
12.6.1 UART/RS-232 BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
To decode the UART BUS it is necessary to first determine
which channel will be connected to the data line. This setting is selected after choosing the bus type UART in the
BUS menu and pressing the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can press the top soft
menu key DATA SOURCE to select the desired channel via
universal knob.
If the option R&S®HOO11 resp. the voucher R&S®HV111 is installed, it it only possible to select analog channels as source. If
the option R&S®HOO10 resp. the voucher R&S®HV110 is installed,
both analog and digital channels are available as source.
The soft menu key ACTIVE can be used to determine if
the data transferred to the BUS are active high (High = 1)
or active low (Low = 1) (for RS-232, choose Low). Use the
Serial Bus Analysis
Fig. 12.14: Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
Fig. 12.15: Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
soft menu key SYMBOL SIZE and the universal knob to select a value between 5 bit to 9 bit for the bits that form a
symbol. Another setting can be selected via soft menu
key PARITY. Parity bits are used to detect errors during a
transmission. The soft menu PARITY offers the following
options:
❙❙ None: Use no parity bits
❙❙ Even: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is uneven (without parity bit)
❙❙ Odd: The parity bit is set to “1” if the number of ones in a
specific set of bits is even (without parity bit)
❙❙ START BIT: Sets the start bit as trigger event. The start
bit is the first 0 bit that succeeds a stop bit or idle time.
❙❙ FRAME START: Defines the first start bit after idle time.
❙❙ SYMBOL<N>: Assigns a predefined N-th symbol as
trigger event.
❙❙ ANY SYMBOL: The soft menu ANY SYMBOL allows you
to define any symbol to trigger on. The symbol can be
located anywhere within a frame. The serial bit sequence
(PATTERN INPUT) can be entered as binary or
hexadecimal value. If you choose the binary input, the soft
menu key SELECT BIT and the universal knob allow you to
select which individual bits within the data are to be
edited. Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to
each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care).
The state X defines any state. If you choose the
hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE and the
universal knob allow you to set the value for the
respective symbol. If the input is hexadecimal, only the
entire symbol can be set to X. Use the soft menu key
SELECT SYMBOL to toggle between symbols.
❙❙ PATTERN: Offers additional options for UART trigger
settings. The soft menu key SYMBOL OFFSET and the
universal knob are used to select the number of irrelevant
symbols that proceed the pattern within the frame that
are relevant for the trigger event. Any value between 0 to
4095 symbols after the start bit may be entered. Use the
soft menu key NUMB. OF SYMB. to select the number of
The bottom soft menu key STOP BITS allows you to define the length of the stop bit (1 = single, 1.5 = 1 1/2 or 2 =
double).
On page 2|2 of the UART BUS setup menu, you can select the BIT RATE (symbol rate) via universal knob in the
CURSOR/MENU section. The bit rate defines how many
bits are sent per second. The soft menu key BIT RATE allows you to select standard numeric values. Press the
soft menu key USER if you wish to define customized rates via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
The IDLE TIME describes the minimum time between the
stop bit of the last data and the start bit of the new data.
The sole purpose of the idle time is to define the start of a
transmission and consequently the exact start of a frame
(one or more symbols, most commonly bytes). Only this
information can guarantee correct decoding and triggering
(regardless of the trigger type). A start bit within the idle
time will not be recognized. You can enter the value via
universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section or numeric
input (KEYPAD button).
12.6.2 UART/RS-232 BUS Triggering
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on
various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and choose UART. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
UART trigger conditions:
Fig. 12.16: Trigger menu UART data
53
Serial Bus Analysis
relevant symbols as 1, 2 or 3. The number of symbol
defines the pattern size. The symbol length (5 to 9 bit) was
configured at the time of the bus definition and will be
observed accordingly in the trigger menu. The value input
for the symbols may be binary or hexadecimal (as
described above). Use the soft menu key PATTERN INPUT
for this selection. If binary input is selected, the individual
bits can be assigned via soft menu key SELECT BIT and
the universal knob. The soft menu key STATE allows you
to determine the state for each bit (1, 0 or X). If you
choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key VALUE
and the universal knob allow you to set the value for the
respective symbol. Use the soft menu key SELECT
SYMBOL to toggle between symbols. The active byte will
be marked with a green border in the display window of
the trigger condition.
❙❙ PARITY ERROR: Trigger with a parity filter
❙❙ FRAME ERROR: Trigger with a frame error
❙❙ BREAK: Trigger with a break. The BREAK condition is
fulfilled if a stop bit does not succeed a start bit within a
specified time period. The stop bits low are active during
the break.
12.7.1 CAN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
After choosing the bus type CAN in the BUS menu the
configuration menu will open after pressing the soft menu
key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that opens you can
press the top soft menu key DATA to select the desired
channel via universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section.
An analog or a digital channel can be connected to CANHigh or CAN-Low. In addition, it is possible to connect a
differential probe (e.g. HZO40) to an analog channel. When
using a differential probe, select CAN High if the positive
input of the probe is connected to CAN-H and the negative
input to CAN L. If the probe is connected with reversed
polarity, you must select CAN L.
Fig. 12.18: Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the CAN configuration
Fig. 12.17: UART trigger menu page 2
Press the MENU OFF button several times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set bit sequence. For measurements without measuring object please refer to chapter 12.2.2.
12.7 CAN BUS
The CAN bus (Controller Area Network) is a bus system primarily developed for automotive applications and
is used for the data exchange between controller units
and sensors. It can be found increasingly in the aviation,
healthcare, and general automation industries. At the physical level, CAN is a differential signal, therefore a differential probe (e.g. HZO40) is recommended for decoding, although standard probes are equally suitable to capture the
signals. The standard data rates range between 10 kBit/s
and 1 MBit/s. A CAN message primarily consists of a start
bit, the Frame ID (11 or 29 bit), the data length code DLC,
the data, a CRC, acknowledge and an end bit.
For CAN BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO12 option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV112.
54
The soft menu key SAMPLE POINT allows you to specify the exact point within the bit at which the value for
the current bit is sampled. You can select a value in percent (25% to 90%) via universal knob or KEYPAD key in
the CURSOR/MENU section. The option BIT RATE defines
how many bits are transmitted per second and allows you
to select default data rates (10 / 20 / 33.333 / 50 / 83.333
/ 100 / 125 / 250 / 500 kBit/s and 1 MBit/s) via universal
knob. Use the soft menu key USER to specify user-defined
bit rates. You can enter the value via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD button).
12.7.2 CAN BUS Triggering
After the CAN BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER section and choose the soft menu key SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the TRIGGER section and choose CAN. This will only be available if it was
configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in the TRIGGER
section to list all available CAN trigger conditions:
❙❙ START OF FRAME: Triggers on the first slope of the
SOF bit (synchronizing bit).
❙❙ END OF FRAME: Triggers on the end of the frame.
Serial Bus Analysis
❙❙ FRAME: The submenu offers different options, like
trigger on ERROR (general frame error), OVERLOAD
(trigger on CAN Overload frames) or DATA (trigger on
data frames). With the soft menu key READ/DATA you
are able to trigger on read and data frames. With the soft
menu key IP TYPE the identifier type (11 bit, 29 bit or
any.) can be selected.
❙❙ ERROR S: Identifies various errors in a frame. This menu
allows you to choose one or several error message types
as trigger condition. Individual frame segments (e.g.
frame start etc.) are coded during the bit stuffing
procedure. The transmitter automatically adds a
complimentary bit to the bit stream if it detects 5
consecutive bits with identical value in the bit stream to
be transmitted. A “stuff” error occurs if the 6th
identical bit level is detected in the specified sections. A
form error occurs if a fixed bit field contains one or
several invalid bits. An authentication error occurs if the
transmitter receives no authentication (acknowledge).
CAN BUS applies a complex checksum calculation
(Cyclic Redundancy Check). The transmitter calculates
the CRC and transmits the result in a CRC sequence. The
receiver calculates the CRC in the same manner. A CRC
error occurs if the calculated result deviates from the
received CRC sequence.
❙❙ IDENTIFIER: Identifies the priority and the logical
address of a message. In the menu that opens you can
press the top soft menu key to select the FRAME TYPE
(general data, read data or read/write data) via universal
knob. The soft menu IDENTIFIER SETUP below allows
you to specify the length of the identifier type via soft
menu key ID TYPE and universal knob (11 bit base or 29
bits for extended CAN frames). The soft menu key
COMPARE defines the comparison function. If the pattern
includes at least one X (don’t care), it is possible to trigger
on a value equal or not equal to the specified value. If the
pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is possible to trigger on an
area greater than or less than the specified value. The
PATTERN INPUT may be binary or hexadecimal. If you
choose the binary input, the soft menu key BIT and the
universal knob allow you to select which individual bits
within the data are to be edited. Select the option STATE
to assign a logic state to each bit (High = H = 1, Low = L
= 0 or X = don’t care). The state X defines any state. If
you choose the hexadecimal input, the soft menu key
VALUE and the universal knob allow you to set the value
for the respective byte. If the input is hexadecimal, only
the entire byte can be set to X. Use the soft menu key
BYTE to toggle between bytes.
❙❙ IDENTIFIER AND DATA: Includes the same settings as
the soft menu IDENTIFIER. In the menu that opens you
can select the FRAME TYPE (general data or read data)
via top soft menu key and universal knob. In the menu
IDENTIFIER SETUP below you can enter the address of
the respective pattern.
❙❙ DATA SETUP: Allows you to specify the data bit pattern
or HEX values for up to 8 bytes (only available if DATA
was selected as frame type). Available comparisons for
address and data values are GREATER, EQUAL OR LESS,
EQUAL and NOT EQUAL.
Fig. 12.20: CAN BUS
Press the MENU OFF button several times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data. For
measurements without measuring object please refer to
chapter 12.2.2.
12.8 LIN BUS
For CAN BUS trigger and decoding you need the R&S®HOO12 option or the upgrade voucher R&S®HV112.
The LIN bus (Local Interconnect Network) is a simple master/slave bus system for automotive applications and is
used for the data exchange between controller units and
sensors or actuators. The signal is transmitted on one line
with ground reference to the vehicle mass. A LIN BUS has
the following properties:
❙❙ Serial single-wire communication protocol (byte-oriented)
❙❙ Master-slave communication (generally up to 12 knots)
❙❙ Master-controlled communication (master initiates /
coordinates communication)
The data is transmitted in bytes without parity (based on
UART). Each byte consists of a start bit, 8 data bits and a
stop bit.
Fig. 12.19: CAN data trigger menu
55
Serial Bus Analysis
Fig. 12.21: Layout LIN byte structure
12.8.1 LIN BUS Configuration
Prior to the BUS configuration it is necessary to set the correct
logic level (threshold). Please refer to chapter 4.5. The default
setting is 500 mV.
After choosing the bus type LIN in the BUS menu press
the soft menu key CONFIGURATION. In the menu that
opens you can press the top soft menu key DATA to select the desired channel via universal knob in the CURSOR/MENU section. The soft menu key POLARITY allows
you to toggle between High and Low; the active function
will be highlighted in blue. An analog or a digital channel
can be connected to LIN-High or LIN-Low. You can select
any version for the LIN standard (version 1x, version 2x,
J2602 or any) via soft menu key VERSION and universal
knob. The option BIT RATE allows you to specify the number of transmitted bits per second. You can use the universal knob to choose from predefined standard data rates
and user-defined data rates (USER). The highest possible
user-defined data rate is 4MBit/s. You can enter the userdefined value via universal knob or numeric input (KEYPAD
button).
12.8.2 LIN BUS Triggerung
After the BUS configuration, it will be possible to trigger
on various events. Press the TYPE button in the TRIGGER
section of the control panel and choose the soft menu key
SERIAL BUSES. Then press the SOURCE button in the
TRIGGER section and choose LIN. This will only be available if it was configured earlier. Press the FILTER button in
the TRIGGER section of the control panel to list all available
CAN trigger conditions:
❙❙ START OF FRAME: Triggers on the stop bit of the
synchronizing field.
❙❙ WAKE UP: Triggers after a wake-up frame.
❙❙ ERROR C:Identifies various errors in a frame. This menu
allows you to choose one or several error message types
Fig. 12.22: Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
56
as trigger condition. LIN BUS applies a complex
checksum calculation (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The
transmitter calculates the CRC and transmits the result in
a CRC sequence. The receiver calculates the CRC in the
same manner. A CRC error occurs if the calculated result
deviates from the received CRC sequence. With soft
menu key PARITY triggering occurs on a parity error.
Parity bits are bit 6 and bit 7 of the identifier. The correct
transfer of the identifier is verified. With the soft menu
key SYNCHRONISATION triggering occurs if the
synchronizing field indicates an error.
❙❙ ID: With the soft menu key IDENTIFIER you can set the
trigger to a specific identifier or a specific identifier range.
The soft menu key COMPARE defines the comparison
function. If the pattern includes at least one X (don’t care),
it is possible to trigger on a value equal or not equal to the
specified value. If the pattern includes only 0 or 1, it is
possible to trigger on an area greater than or less than the
specified value. The PATTERN INPUT may be binary or
hexadecimal. If you choose the binary input, the soft
menu key BIT and the universal knob allow you to select
which individual bits within the data are to be edited.
Select the option STATE to assign a logic state to each bit
(High = H = 1, Low = L = 0 or X = don’t care). The state X
defines any state. If you choose the hexadecimal input,
the soft menu key VALUE and the universal knob allow
you to set the value for the respective byte. If the input is
hexadecimal, only the entire byte can be set to X. Use the
soft menu key BYTE to toggle between bytes.
❙❙ ID and DATA: The soft menu IDENTIFIER AND DATA
and the soft menu key IDENTIFIER SETUP include the
same settings as the soft menu IDENTIFIER. The soft
menu DATA SETUP allows you to specify the data bit
pattern or HEX values for up to 8 bytes. Available
comparisons for address and data values are EQUAL and
NOT EQUAL.
Press the MENU OFF button several times to close all menus, and the oscilloscope will trigger on the set data. For
measurements without measuring object please refer to
chapter 12.2.2.
Fig. 12.23: LIN data trigger menu
Remote control
13 Remote control
By default, the R&S®HMO Compact series includes a
HO720 USB/RS-232 interface. You can find the drivers for
this interface on the product CD enclosed with the instrument or on the ROHDE & SCHWARZ Homepage.
To achieve external control, the R&S®HMO Compact series
uses the scripting language SCPI (= Standard Commands
for Programmable Instruments). The provided USB/RS232
dual interface (optional Ethernet/USB or IEEE-488 GPIB)
enables you to control the ROHDE & SCHWARZ
instrument externally via remote connection (remote
control). As a result, you can access nearly all functions
that are available during the manual operating mode via
front panel. To download a PDF document with a detailed
list of supported SCPI commands, please visit the ROHDE
& SCHWARZ homepage.
To enable communication, the selected interface and the respective settings in the measuring instrument must be identical to the
selections for the PC.
13.1RS-232
Pin
2 Tx Data (data from oscilloscope to external device)
3 Rx Data (data from external device to oscilloscope)
7 CTS Clear to Send
8 RTS Request to Send
5 ground (reference potential, connected via oscilloscope
(measuring category 0) and power cable to the grounding
conductor
9 +5V supply voltage for external devices (max. 400mA)
Fig. 13.1: Pin assignment of the RS-232 interface
❙❙ 8-N-1 (8 data bits, no parity bit, 1 stop bit)
❙❙ RTS/CTS hardware protocol: none.
The RS-232 interface parameters can be set in the SETUP
menu via soft menu key INTERFACE. Please make sure
that the RS-232 soft menu key is blue highlighted. A soft
menu will be opened where you can set and save all RS232 interface parameters.
13.2USB
The currently available USB driver have been fully tested and released for Windows XP™, VISTA™, Windows 7™ and Windows
8™ (32 + 64 Bit).
The USB interface must be selected in the menu of the oscilloscope and requires no further action. The actual USB
driver can be downloaded from the ROHDE & SCHWARZ
homepage for free. If a connection between PC and
the instrument has been established and no R&S®HMO
Compact series driver is installed, the operating system answers with “Found New Hardware”. Only in this
case the USB driver must be installed. Further information about the USB driver installation you can find in the
HO720/HO730/HO732 installation guide internal of the driver file.
The following requirement for USB driver installation are
necessary:
1 R&S®HMO Compact series with an activated USB interface.
2 A PC with operating system Windows XP™, VISTA™, Windows 7™, Windows 8™ or Windows 10™ (32 or 64Bit).
3 Administrator rights are necessary for the installation of the
driver. If an error message regarding spelling errors appears,
the rights to install the driver are not given. In this case, please contact your IT department to obtain the necessary
rights.
In addition, you may use the free software HMExplorer.
This Windows application offers the R&S®HMO Compact
series a terminal function, the option to create screenshots
and to sort the measured data storage.
13.3 Ethernet (Option HO730 / HO732)
For the direct connection with a host (PC) or indirect connection over a SWITCH, a doubly protected network
cable (e.g. CAT.5, CAT.5e, CAT.5+, CAT.6 or CAT.7) is required, equipped with an Ethernet plug type the RJ-45 at
each end. Either an uncrossed or a crossed network cable
(cross over cable) can be used.
The RS-232 interface is built with a 9-pin D-SUB connector. This bidirectional interface allows the transfer of setup
parameters, data and screenshots from an external device
(e.g. PC) to the oscilloscope or vice versa. It is possible to
establish a direct connection from the PC (serial port ) to
the interface via 9-pin shielded cable (1:1 wired). The maximum length must not exceed 3 m. The pin assignment for
the RS-232 interface (9-pin D-SUB connector) please refer
to fig. 13.1.
13.3.1 IP networks (IP – Internet protocol)
In order that two or several network elements (e.g. measuring instruments, host/PC‘s, …) can communicate over a
network with one another, some fundamental connections
have to be considered, so that data communication is error
free and unimpaired.
The maximum voltage variation at the Tx, Rx, RTS and CTS
connections is ±12 Volt. The RS-232 standard parameters
for the interface are as follows:
For each element in a network an IP address has to be assigned, so that they can exchange data among themselves.
IP addresses are represented (with the IP version 4) as four
57
Remote control
decimal numbers separated by points (e.g. 192.168.15.1).
Each decimal number is represented by a binary number
of 8 bits. IP addresses are divided into public and private
address ranges. Public IP addresses will be able to route
by the Internet and an Internet service Provider (ISP) can to
be made available. Public IP addresses can be reached directly over the Internet to directly exchange internet data.
Private IP addresses are not routed by the Internet and are
reserved for private networks. Network elements with private IP addresses cannot be reached directly over the Internet so no data can be directly exchanged over the Internet.
To allow network elements with a private IP address to exchange data over the Internet, they require a router for IP
address conversion (English NAT; Network address translation), before connection to the Internet. The attached elements can then data exchange over this router, which possesses a private IP address (LAN IP address) and also a public IP address (WAN IP address), via the Internet.
If network elements exchange data only over a local network (without connection with the Internet), appropriate
use private IP addresses. Select in addition e.g. a private IP
address for the instrument and a private IP address for the
host (PC), with which you would like to control the instrument. If you might connect your private network with the
Internet later via a router, the private IP addresses used in
your local network can be maintained. Since within each
IP address range the first IP address is used as network
IP address and the last IP address is used as Broadcast IP
address, in each case two IP addresses have to be taken
off from the “number of possible host addresses“ (see table 1: Private IP address ranges). Apart from the organization of IP addresses into public and private address ranges, IP addresses are also divided into classes (Class: A, B,
C, D, E). Within the classes A, B, and C are also include the
private IP of address ranges described before. The categorisation from IP addresses is for the assignment of public
IP address ranges of importance and essentially depends
on the size of a local network (maximum number of hosts
in the network), which is to be connected with the Internet
(see table 2: Classes of IP addresses). IP addresses can fix
(statically) or variable (dynamically) to be assigned.
If IP addresses in a network are assigned fix, an IP address
must be preset manually with each network element. If IP
addresses in a network are assigned to the attached network elements automatically (dynamically), a DHCP server (English DHCP becomes; Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is required for the dispatching of IP addresses. With a DHCP server an IP address range for the automatic dispatching of IP addres ses can be preset. A DHCP
server is usually already integrated in a router (DSL router,
ISDN router, Modem router, WLAN router, …) integrated.
If a network element (e.g. an instrument) is connected by
a network cable directly with a host (PC), the IP addresses
cannot be assigned to the instrument and the host (PC) automatically, since no network with DHCP server is present
here. They have to be preset therefore at the instrument
and at the host (PC) manually.
IP addresses are divided by using subnet mask into a network quota and into a host quota, so similarly e.g. a telephone number is divided in pre selection (land and local area network number) and call number (user number). Subnet mask have the same form as IP addresses.
They are represented with four decimal numbers separated by points (e.g. 255.255.255.0). As is the case for the IP
addresses here each decimal number represents a binary
number of 8 bits. The separation between network quota
and host quota is determined by the subnet mask within
an IP address (e.g. the IP address 192.168.10.10 by the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is divided into a network quota
192.168.10.0 and a host quota of 0.0.0.10). The allocation
takes place via the transformation of the IP address and
the subnet mask in binary form and afterwards a bit by bit
one logical AND operation between IP address and subnet
mask. The result is the network quota of the IP address.
The host quota of the IP address takes place via the bit by
bit logical NAND operation between IP address and subnet mask. By the variable allocation of IP addresses in network quota and host quota via subnet masks, one can specify IP address ranges individually for large and small networks. Thus one can operate large and small IP networks
and connect if necessary to the Internet via a router. In
smaller local networks the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 is
mostly used. Network quota (the first 3 numbers) and host
adress range
subnetz mask
CIDR way of writing
number of possible host adresses
10.0.0.0 –10.255.255.255
255.0.0.0
10.0.0.0/8
224 − 2 = 16.777.214
172.16.0.0 –172.31.255.255
255.240.0.0
172.16.0.0/12
220 − 2 = 1.048.574
192.168.0.0 –192.168.255.255
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
192.168.0.0/16
192.168.0.0/24
216 − 2 = 65.534
28 − 2 = 254
Table 13.1: Private IP adress ranges
class
adress range
net quota
host quota
max. number of networks max. number of hosts
A
0.0.0.1 - 127.255.255.255
8 Bit
24 Bit
126
16.777.214
B
128.0.0.1 - 191.255.255.255
16 Bit
16 Bit
16.384
65.534
C
192.0.0.1 - 223.255.255.255
24 Bit
8 Bit
2.097.151
254
D
224.0.0.1 - 239.255.255.255
Reserved for multicast applications
E
240.0.0.1 - 255.255.255.255
Reserved for special applications
Table 13.2: Classes of IP adresses
58
Remote control
quota (the last number) are simple here without much mathematical expenditure to determine and it can with these
subnet mask up to 254 network elements (e.g. measuring
instruments, hosts/PC‘s...) in a network be operated at the
same time.
Often also a standard gateway is present in a network. In
most local networks is this gateway with the router to the
Internet (DSL router, ISDN router etc.) is identical. Using
this (gateway -) router a connection can be manufactured
with another network. Thus also network elements, which
are not in the same (local) network, can be reached and/
or network elements from the local network are able to exchange data with network elements from other networks.
For a network-spreading data exchange the IP address of
the standard gateway must also be preset. In local networks, mostly the first IP address within a network for this
(gateway -) router is used. Mostly routers in a local network to be used as gateway have an IP address with a „1“
in the last place of the IP address (e.g. 192.168.10.1).
tion bar on your browser (http//xxx.xxx.xxx.xx). This opens
a window that includes the device name and type, serial
number and interfaces with technical information and configured parameters.
13.4 IEEE 488.2 / GPIB (Option HO740):
The optional interface card HO740 does have a IEEE488.2
connection. The settings of the interface can be done in
the oscilloscope after chose the IEEE488 as interface and
hitting the soft key PARAMETER.
Further information you can find at the manual of the
HO740.
13.3.2 Ethernet Settings
PC and instrument have to be connected to the same network.
Otherwise a remote connection is not possible.
In addition to the USB interface, the interface card includes an Ethernet interface. Configure the settings in the oscilloscope for all necessary parameters after you select
ETHERNET as interface and press the soft menu key PARAMETER. You can specify all parameters and assign a
fixed IP address. You can also assign a dynamic IP address
with the activated DHCP function. Please contact your IT
management to con-figure the settings properly.
If DHCP is used and the system cannot assign an IP address to
the R&S®HMO Compact series (for instance, if no Ethernet cable
is connected or the network does not support DHCP), it may take
up to three minutes until a timeout allows the interface to be
configured again.
Fig. 13.2: Ethernet-settings dialog box
If the device has an IP address, it can be accessed via web
browser at this IP since the Ethernet interface includes an
integrated web server. Enter the IP address in the loca59
Specifications
Specifications
Specifi
cations
14 Specifications
HMO Compact Series
2- or 4-channel mixed signal oscilloscopes
HMO722, HMO724: 70 MHz
HMO1022, HMO1024: 100 MHz
HMO1522, HMO1524: 150 MHz
HMO2022, HMO2024: 200 MHz
from firmware version 4.527
Display
Offset control (HMO152x, HMO202x only)
1 mV/Div, 2 mV/Div
±0.2 V - 10 Div x sensitivity
5 mV/Div to 50 mV/Div
±1.0 V - 10 Div x sensitivity
100 mV/Div
±2.5 V - 10 Div x sensitivity
200 mV/Div to 2V/Div
±40 V - 10 Div x sensitivity
5 V/Div to 10 V/Div
±100 V - 10 Div x sensitivity
XY/XYZ mode
selectively all analog channels
Inversion
selectively all analog channels
Logic Channels (with logic probe HO3508)
Thresholds
TTL, CMOS, ECL, user-definied (-2 V to
+8 V)
Impedance
100kΩ||4pF
Screen size / type
16,5 cm (6,5“) VGA Color Display
Coupling
DC
Resolution (L x W)
640 x 480 Pixel
Max. input voltage
40 Vp
Backlight
400 cd/m2 (LED)
Trigger System
Display range in horizontal direction
without menu bar
12 Div (600 Pixel)
with menu bar
10 Div (500 Pixel)
Trigger Mode
Auto
Triggers automatically also without any
specific trigger event
Display range in vertical direction
8 Div (400 Pixel)
Normal
Triggers only on specific trigger events
with Virtual Screen usage
20 Div
Single
Triggers once on a trigger event
Color depth
256 colors
Trigger indicator
Screen and panel (LED)
Trace display
pseudo-color, inverse brightness
Trigger sensitivity
Levels of trace brightness
32
up to 5mV/Div
1.5 Div
Button brightness
light, dark
from 5mV/Div
0.8 Div
Vertical System
Trigger level setting
DSO Mode
2-channel models
CH1, CH2
4-channel models
CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4
MSO Mode
with auto level
Linking peak value and trigger level,
adjustable between peak values of a
signal
without auto level
±10 Div (from center of screen)
Trigger coupling
2-channel models
CH1, CH2, POD
4-channel models
CH1, CH2, CH3|POD, CH4
AC
5 Hz to 100 MHz (HMO72x)
5 Hz to 150 MHz (HMO102x)
5 Hz to 200 MHz (HMO152x)
5 Hz to 250 MHz (HMO202x)
(1 mV, 2 mV)/Div
20 MHz (HMO72x, HMO102x)
100 MHz (HMO152x, HMO202x)
DC
(5 mV to 10 V)/Div
70 MHz (HMO72x)
100 MHz (HMO102x)
150 MHz (HMO152x)
200 MHz (HMO202x)
DC to 100 MHz (HMO72x)
DC to 150 MHz (HMO102x)
DC to 200 MHz (HMO152x)
DC to 250 MHz (HMO202x)
HF
30 kHz to 100 MHz (HMO72x)
30 kHz to 150 MHz (HMO102x)
30 kHz to 200 MHz (HMO152x)
30 kHz to 250 MHz (HMO202x)
Analog Channels
Y-bandwidth (-3 dB)
Lower AC bandwidth
2 Hz
Bandwidth limitation (switchable) about 20 MHz
Rise time (computed)
selectable filters
LF
DC to 5 kHz, selectable in DC and auto
level mode
Low-pass
(noise rejection)
min. level: 1.5 Div (> 5 mV/Div)
selectable with AC, DC
HMO72x
<5 ns
HMO102x
<3.5 ns
HMO152x
<2.4 ns
HMO202x
<1.75 ns
External Trigger Input (BNC)
2% of full scale
Impedance
1MΩ||14pF±2pF
Trigger level
0.3 Vpp to 10 Vpp
DC gain accuracy
Input sensitivity range
all analog channels
1 mV/Div to 10 V/Div
Max. input voltage
100 Vp
coarse stepping
13 calibrated steps, 1-2-5 sequence
Coupling
DC, AC
variable stepping
freely between calibrated steps
Trigger Types
Impedance
1MΩII14pF±2pF
(50Ωswitchable:HMO152x,HMO202x)
Edge
Direction
rising, falling, both
Coupling
DC, AC, GND
Switchable filters
LF, noise rejection
Sources
all analog and digital channels, AC line,
external (AC, DC)
Max. input voltage
1MΩ
200 Vp (derates at 20 db/decade to
5 Vrms above 100 kHz)
Edge A/B
50Ω(HMO152x,HMO202x)
5 Vrms
Direction
rising, falling, both
±10 Div (from center of screen)
Frequency range
DC to 70/100/150/200 MHz
Position range
60
2
Specifi
Specifications
cations
Min. signal amplitude
0.8 Div
Trigger level range (seperately
adjustable with different sources)
±10 Div (from center of screen)
Time base
Accuracy
50.0 x 10-6
Aging
10.0 x 10-6 per year
Operation Modes
Trigger settings for state B
time based
32 ns to 17 s, resolution min. 8 ns
REFRESH
2 ns/Div to 50 s/Div
event based
1 to 216 events
ROLL
50 ms/Div to 50 s/Div
Pulse width
Acquisition System
Polarity
positive, negative
Realtime Sampling Rate
Functions
equal, not equal, lower, higher, within/
without a range
2-channel models
2 x 1 GSa/s or 1 x 2 GSa/s
4-channel models
4 x 1 GSa/s or 2 x 2 GSa/s
Pulse duration
32ns to 17s, resolution min. 8ns
Logic channels
8 x 1 GSa/s
Sources
all analog channels
Memory Depth
Logic
2-channel models
2 x 1 MPts or 1 x 2 MPts
Functions
4-channel models
4 x 1 MPts or 2 x 2 MPts
boolean operators
AND, OR, TRUE, FALSE
Resolution
8 Bit, (HiRes up to 10Bit)
time based operators
equal, not equal, lower, higher, within/
without a time range, timeout
Waveform arithmetics
refresh, roll (loose/triggered), average
(up to 1024), envelope, peak detect
(1 ns), filter (low-pass, adjustable), high
resolution (up to 10 Bit)
Record modes
automatic, max. sampling rate, max.
waveform rate
Duration
8 ns to 2 s, resolution min. 1 ns
States
H, L, X
Sources
all logic and analog channels
Video
Interpolation
Sync. pulse polarity
positive, negative
all analog channels
sin(x)/x, linear, sample-hold
supported standards
NTSC, SECAM, PAL, PAL-M, SDTV 576i,
HDTV 720p, HDTV 1080i, HDTV 1080p
logic channels
pulse
Delay
Field
even/odd, either
pre-trigger
0 to 8 x 106 Sa x (1/sample rate)
Line
line number selectable, all
post-trigger
0 to 2 x 106 Sa x (1/sample rate)
Sources
all analog channels, external (AC, DC)
Waveform update rate
up to 2,000 Wfm/s
Waveform display
dots, vectors, persistence afterglow
Up to two busses can be analyzed at
the same time. Color-coded display of
decoded data in ASCII, binary, decimal
and hexadecimal format.
Persistence afterglow
min. 50 ms
Operation
menu-driven (multilingual), auto-set,
help functions (multilingual)
HOO10/HV110
Analysis of I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232
signals on analog and logic channels
Automatic measurements
HOO11/HV111
Analysis of I2C, SPI, UART/RS-232
signals on all analog channels
HOO12/HV112
Analysis of CAN and LIN signals on
analog and logic channels
voltage (Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vavg, Vmin,
Vmax), amplitude, phase, frequency,
period, rise/fall time (80%, 90%), pulse
width (pos/neg), duty cycle (pos/neg),
standard deviation, delay, crest factor,
edge/pulse count (pos/neg), trigger
period, trigger frequency
Automatic search functions
Edge, pulse, peak, rise/fall time, runt
Cursor measurements
voltage(V1,V2,∆V),time(t1,t2,∆t,
1/∆t),ratioX,ratioY,pulseandedge
count (pos/neg), peak values (Vpp, Vp+,
Vp-), mean/RMS/standard deviation,
duty cycle (pos/neg), rise/fall time (80%,
90%), ratio marker
Quick measurements
(QUICKVIEW)
voltage (Vpp, Vp+, Vp-, Vrms, Vmean), rise/
fall time, frequency, period plus 6
additional measurement functions (see
automatic measurement functions,
freely selectable)
Marker
up to 8 freely positionable markers for
easy navigation, automatic marker
positioning based on search
specification
Serial Busses (HOO10/11/12)
Bus representation
Waveform measurements and Operation
Option / Voucher code
Trigger types by protocols
I2C
Start, Stop, ACK, NACK, Address/Data
SPI
Start, End, Serial Pattern (32 Bit)
UART/RS-232
Startbit, Frame Start, Symbol, Pattern
LIN
Frame Start, Wake Up, Identifier, Data,
Error
CAN
Frame Start, Frame End, Identifier, Data,
Error
Horizontal System
Time domain (Yt)
main screen, time domain and zoom
window
Frequency domain (FFT)
time domain and frequency domain
window (FFT)
Frequency counter (hardware based)
XY/XYZ mode
voltage (XY), intensity (Z)
Resolution
6 digit
VirtualScreen
virtual display of 20 Div for all math,
logic, bus, reference signals
Frequency range
0.5 Hz to 70/100/150/200 MHz
Accuracy
50.0 x 10-6
Component tester
voltage (X), current (Y)
Aging
±10.0 x 10-6 per year
Reference signals
up to 4 references
Mask Testing
Channel deskew
-15 ns to +16 ns, step size 1 ns
Functions
Memory Zoom
up to 50.000:1
Pass/Fail comparison with an userdefinied mask performed on waveforms
61
3
Specifications
Specifi
cations
Sources
all analog channels
Reference potential
Mask definition
Mask enclosing acquired waveform
with user-defined tolerance
Interfaces
Actions
on mask violations
beep, acquisition stop, screenshot,
trigger pulse, automatically saving trace
data
during acquisiton
Statistics: number of completed tests
(max. 4x10-9 events), number of
passes / failed acquisitions (absolute
and in percent), test duration
Waveform maths
Connectors and ports
for mass storage (FAT16/32)
2 x USB-Host (Typ A), max. 500 mA
for remote control
HO720 dual interface:
USB Device (Typ B), RS-232
Optional interfaces
HO730 dual interface:
USB Device (Typ B), Ethernet (RJ45)
HO740 interface: IEEE-488 (GPIB)
External monitor interface
DVI-D (480p, 60Hz) HDMI compatible
Y-OUT (BNC)
Trigger event on mask violation:
pulse:>0.5μs
Quickmath
Functions
addition, substraction, multiplication,
division
Sources
2 analog channels
Mathematics
Ground (PE)
General Data
Application memory
4 MB for references, formulas, device
settings, language and help functions
Save/Recall
addition, substraction, multiplication,
division, minimum / maximum, square,
square root, absolute value, pos/neg
wave, reciprocal, inverse, log10/ln,
derivation, integration, filter (lowpass/
highpass)
device settings
on internal file system or external USB
memory, available file format: HDS
reference waveforms
on internal file system or external USB
memory, available file formats: BIN,
CSV, TXT, HRT
Editing
formula editor, menu-driven
traces
Sources
all analog channels, user-defined
constants
on external USB memory, available file
formats: BIN, CSV, TXT, HRT
data
display or acquisition data
Storage location
math. memory
sources
single or all analog channels
Number of formula sets
5 formula sets
Number of equations
5 equations per formula set
Simultaneous display of math.
functions
1 formula set with max. 4 equations
Functions
screenshots
Math equation sets
on internal file system or external USB
memory
Realtime Clock (RTC)
date and time
Frequency Analysis (FFT)
Parameters
FFT length
frequency span, center frequency,
vertical scale, vertical position
2 Kpts, 4 Kpts, 8 Kpts, 16 Kpts, 32 Kpts,
64 Kpts
Window
Hanning, Hamming, Rectangular,
Blackman
Scale
dBm, dBV, Vrms
Waveform arithmetics
refresh, envelope, average (up to 512)
Cursor measurement
2 horizontal cursors, previous/next peak
search
Sources
all analog channels
Pattern Generator
Functions
Power supply
AC supply
100 V to 240 V, 50 Hz to 60 Hz, CAT-II
Power consumption
2-channel models
max. 45W
4-channel models
max. 55W
Safety
in line with IEC 61010-1 (ed. 3), IEC
61010-2-30 (ed. 1), EN 61010-1, EN
61010-2-030 , CAN/CSA-C22.2 No.
61010-1-12 , CAN/CSA-C22.2 No.
61010-2-030-12 ,UL Std. No. 61010-1
(3rd Edition) , UL61010-2-030
Temperature
square wave / probe adjust, bus signal
source, counter, pseudo-random
pattern
Square wave
(Probe ADJ output)
frequencies: 1 kHz, 1 MHz
level: 1 Vpp (ta <4 ns)
Bus Signal Source (4 Bit)
I2C
(100 kBit/s, 400 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s), SPI
(100 kBit/s, 250 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s), UART
(9600 Bit/s, 115,2 kBit/s, 1 MBit/s)
Counter (4 Bit)
frequencies: 1 kHz, 1 MHz
direction: decrementing
Random pattern (4 Bit)
frequencies: 1 kHz, 1 MHz
Component Tester
Parameters
voltage (X), current (Y)
Testing frequency
50 Hz, 200 Hz
Voltage
10 Vp (open)
Current
10 mA (short)
62
4
on external USB memory, available file
formats: BMP, GIF, PNG
(color, inverted, grey-scale)
Operating temperature range
+5 °C to +40 °C
Storage temperature range
-20 °C to +70 °C
Rel. humidity
5% to 80% (without condensation)
Mechanical Data
Dimensions (W x H x D)
285 x 175 x 140 mm
Net weight
2.5 kg
All specifications at 23°C after 30 minutes warm-up.
Specifications
Appendix
Accessories included:
HO720 RS-232/USB dual interface, line cord, printed operating manual, software-CD, 2/4 probes (model depending):
RT-ZP03 (up to 100 MHz, 10:1/1:1 switchable) or
HZO10 (up to 250 MHz, 10:1)
Accessories:
HO3508 8 channel logic probe (350 MHz, 4 pF)
HZ115
Differential Probe 100 : 1/1000 : 1
HZO20 High voltage probe 1000 : 1 (400 MHz,
1000 Vrms)
HZO30 1GHzactiveprobe(0.9pF,1MΩ)
HZO40 Active differential probe 200 MHz (10 : 1, 3.5 pF,
1MΩ)
HZO41 Active differential probe 800 MHz (10 : 1, 1 pF,
200kΩ)
HZO50 AC/DC Current Probe 30 A, DC to 100 kHz
HZO51 AC/DC Current Probe 100/1000 A, DC to 20 kHz
HZ51 150MHzpassiveprobe10:1(12pF,10MΩ)
HZ52 250MHzpassiveprobe10:1(10pF,10MΩ)
HZ53 100MHzpassiveprobe100:1(4.5pF,100MΩ)
HZO90 Carrying case for protection and transport
HZO91 4 RU 19” rackmount kit
15 Appendix
15.1 List
Fig. 1.1: Fig. 1.2: Fig. 2.1: Fig. 2.2: Fig. 2.3: Fig. 2.4: Fig. 2.5: Fig. 2.6: of figures
Operating positions
4
Product labeling in accordance with EN 50419 6
Frontview of the ¸HMO2024
7
Control panel of section A.
7
Control panel of section B, C and D
8
Screen view
8
Selection of basic soft menu elements
9
Basic soft menu elements for settings and
navigation9
Fig. 2.7: Menu for basic settings 10
10
Fig: 2.8: Updating menu and information window
Fig: 2.9: Menu and information window for help udates10
11
Fig. 2.10: „UPGRADE“ menu.
Fig. 2.11: Manual licence key input.
11
11
Fig. 2.12: Successful self alignment
12
Fig. 2.13: Logic probe self alignment
Fig. 2.14: Rear panel of the R&S®HMO2024
12
Fig. 2.15: Y-Out signal
12
Fig. 3.1: Control panel of section A
13
Fig. 3.2: Screen display after connection of the probe 13
Fig. 3.3: Screen display after changing to DC coupling 13
13
Fig. 3.4: Screen display after Autosetup
Fig. 3.5: Area of the control panel containing the
ZOOM knob
13
14
Fig. 3.6: Zoom function
14
Fig. 3.7: Cursor measurements
Fig. 3.8: Quick View parameter measurement
14
14
Fig. 3.9: Auto Measure menu
Fig. 3.10: Selection of parameters
15
15
Fig. 3.11: Formula editor
Fig. 3.12: Measuring the parameters of two sources
15
16
Fig. 3.13: Save/Recall menu
Fig. 3.14: Menu Screenshots
16
Fig. 3.15: Defining a file name
16
Fig. 4.1: Front panel area with vertical system controls 17
Fig. 4.2: Short menu for the vertical settings 17
Fig. 4.3: Probe connection to the probe adjust output 17
Fig. 4.4: Threshold setting and name allocation
18
Fig. 4.5: Name selection
18
Fig. 5.1: Control panel of the horizontal system
19
Fig. 5.2: AM modulated signal with maximum
repeat rate
20
Fig.5.3: AM modulated signal with maximum
sampling rate
21
Fig. 5.4: AM modulated signal with automatic setting 21
Fig. 5.5: Zoom function
22
Fig. 5.6: Marker in zoom mode
23
Fig. 5.7: Search mode with event list
24
Fig. 6.1: Front panel control area of the trigger system 24
25
Fig. 6.2: Coupling modes with slope trigger
Fig. 6.3: The type B-Trigger 25
Fig. 6.4: Pulse trigger menu
26
Fig. 6.5: Logic trigger menu
26
Fig. 6.6: Logic channels’ settings display
27
5
63
Appendix
Fig. 6.7: Fig. 7.1: Fig. 7.2: Fig. 7.3: Fig. 7.4: Fig. 7.5: Fig. 8.1: Fig. 8.2: Video trigger menu
27
Drawing of the virtual screen area
28
Menu for setting the signal display intensities 29
Persistence function
29
XY settings menu
29
Settings for the Z input
30
Cursor measurements selection menu
31
Menu for the automatic measurements
settings33
Fig. 8.3: Statistic for Automeasurements
34
Fig. 9.1: Mathematics short menu
34
35
Fig. 9.2: Quick mathematics menu
Fig. 9.3: Formula editor for formula sets
35
36
Fig. 9.4: Entry of constants and units
Fig. 9.5: Definition of the current equation
36
36
Fig. 9.6: Definition of the power equation
Fig. 9.7: FFT illustration
37
37
Fig. 9.8: Advanced FFT menu
38
Fig. 9.9: PASS/FAIL mask test.
Fig. 9.10: Component tester at short
39
40
Fig. 9.11: Excamples of Component test
Fig. 10.1: Basic menu for device settings
41
Fig. 10.2: Storing instrument settings
41
42
Fig. 10.3: Storage menu for references
42
Fig. 10.4: Menu for storing curves
Fig. 10.5: Supported printer example
43
43
Fig. 10.6: Screenshot-Modul
Fig. 10.7: Definition of FILE/PRINT key
44
Fig. 11.1: Optional logic probe R&S®HO3508
45
45
Fig. 11.2: Logic channels’ settings display
Fig. 12.1: Menu for the definition of buses
47
48
Fig. 12.2: Example I2C BUS with BUS table
2
48
Fig. 12.3: I C BUS signal source
49
Fig. 12.4: I2C 7 bit address
49
Fig. 12.5: Menu for the definition of I2C sources
50
Fig. 12.6: I2C data trigger menu 50
Fig. 12.7: I2C READ/WRITE trigger menu
2
50
Fig. 12.8: I C BUS
Fig. 12.9: Simple configuration of a SPI BUS
51
Fig. 12.10: Menu for the definition of a SPI bus
51
52
Fig. 12.11:SPI trigger menu
Fig. 12.12:SPI data trigger menu
52
52
Fig. 12.13:UART bit sequence
Fig. 12.14:Page 1 of the menu to define a UART bus
53
Fig. 12.15:Page 2|2 UART BUS setup menu
53
53
Fig. 12.16:Trigger menu UART data
Fig. 12.17:UART trigger menu page 2
54
Fig. 12.18:Setting the SAMPLE POINT during the
CAN configuration
54
Fig. 12.19:CAN data trigger menu
55
Fig. 12.20:CAN BUS
55
56
Fig. 12.21:Layout LIN byte structure
Fig. 12.22:Menu for the definition of a LIN bus
56
Fig. 12.23:LIN data trigger menu
56
Fig. 13.1: Pin assignment of the RS-232 interface
57
Fig. 13.2: Ethernet-settings dialog box
59
15.2Glossary
A
AC coupling: 18
Ambient temperature: 5
analog channel: 24, 46
attenuation: 18
automatic measurement: 34, 36
AUTOMATIK: 22
Average: 22, 38
B
Bandwidth Limit: 18
bidirectional interface: 58
Blackman window function: 39
brightness: 28, 29, 30, 31
bus analysis: 11, 12, 19, 48
BUS configuration: 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57
bus signal source: 8, 49
BUS type: 46, 47, 48, 52
C
CAN bus: 55
component tester: 8, 40, 41
component test mode: 9
current probe: 19
cursor measurements: 10, 15, 31, 32, 47
CVBS signal: 28
D
DC coupling: 14, 18, 26
Driver: 58
duty cycle: 15
DVI-D connector: 13
E
ENVELOPE: 38
Ethernet: 10, 60
F
fall time: 24, 39
formula editor: 16, 35, 36
frequency interferences: 20
G
Grayscale mode: 10
H
Hamming window function: 39
Hanning window function: 39
High Pass Filter: 36
hysteresis: 24
I
I2C BUS: 49, 50
IEEE-488: 12, 13
interlace mode: 23
L
licence key: 12, 48
LIN bus: 56, 57
64
Appendix
Lissajous: 30
logic channels: 46, 47, 50
logic mode: 28
logic probe: 8, 12, 13, 25, 27, 46, 48
Logic Trigger: 27, 46
low pass filter: 18, 20, 26, 36
M
Marker Function: 24
mask test: 39, 40
mathematical functions: 16, 35, 36
mathematical graph: 16
maximum repeat rate: 22
Maximum voltage: 39
mean value: 32, 33, 34, 35, 38
mean voltage: 15, 33
measurement source: 34
Measuring category: 6
memory depth: 21, 22, 23
Minimum voltage: 39
mixed-signal operation: 12
P
Pass/Fail test: 39
peak detection: 20, 21, 22
peak voltage: 15, 18, 39
period: 15, 21, 24, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 55
persistence: 30
polarity: 28, 41, 55
probe compensation: 14
pulse trigger: 26, 27, 28
pulse width: 15, 24, 26, 27, 28, 33, 39
Q
Quick mathematics: 35, 36
Quick View: 15, 39
R
rectangle function: 39
reference curves: 44
reference signal: 9, 16
reference time: 27, 28
remote interface: 8
rise and fall times: 15
rise time: 24, 32, 33
RMS: 15, 16, 32, 33, 39
RS-232 interface: 59
runt: 24
S
sampling frequency: 20
sampling rate: 9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 43, 48
Save/Recall: 17
SCPI: 58
screen displays: 16, 41, 42
screenshot: 13, 17, 44, 45
Scripting language SCPI: 58
Self Alignment: 12, 13
semiconductors: 40, 41
sensitivity: 2
serial bus analysis: 49
signal amplitude: 32, 34
signal source: 8, 18, 49
signal voltage: 28
slope trigger: 24, 26
SPI bus: 52
square wave signal: 14, 33, 49
standard deviation: 32, 34, 35
Storage: 5
sweep: 49
T
termination: 18
threshold: 19, 28, 31, 32, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57
time base setting: 20, 23, 42
trigger conditions: 9, 20, 25, 26, 28, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57
trigger event: 25, 29, 53, 54, 55
trigger input: 13, 52
trigger level: 9, 24, 26, 27
trigger modes: 25
trigger signal: 9, 25, 26, 34
trigger slope: 9
trigger source: 23, 25, 27, 34
Triggersystem: 25
trigger time: 20, 23, 28, 47, 53
trigger type: 9, 25, 26, 27, 29, 54
U
UART bus: 53
UART/RS-232 Bus: 53
UART trigger settings: 55
USB/Ethernet: 13
USB interface: 59, 60
USB port: 8, 11, 12, 13
USB stick: 8, 37
V
video modulation: 28
virtual screen: 8
V marker: 15, 32, 47
Voltage variation: 58
Y
Y-Output: 13
Z
Z input: 31
zoom: 24, 25
ZOOM: 14, 20, 23, 24
zoom function: 25
65
Appendix
66
© 2015 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Customer Support: www.customersupport.rohde-schwarz.com
Service: www.service.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
5800.4428.02 │ Version 03 │R&S®HMO Compact Series
The follwowing abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®HMO Compact Series is abbreviated as R&S HMO Compact Series.
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