pco.edge family pco.

pco.edge family pco.
user manual
pco.edge family
pco.
Target Audience: This camera is designed for use by technicians,
engineers and scientists.
In case of any questions or comments, please contact us at PCO.
telephone
+49 (0) 9441 2005 50
fax
+49 (0) 9441 2005 20
email
[email protected]
postal address
PCO AG
Donaupark 11
93309 Kelheim, Germany
The cover photo shows an exemplary PCO camera system.
The lens is sold separately.
Copyright © 2015 PCO AG (called PCO in the following text), Kelheim,
Germany. All rights reserved. PCO assumes no responsibility for errors or
omissions in these materials. These materials are provided as is without
warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to,
the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, or
non-infringement. PCO further does not warrant the accuracy or
completeness of the information, text, graphics, links or other items
contained within these materials. PCO shall not be liable for any special,
indirect, incidental, or consequential damages, including without limitation,
lost revenues or lost profits, which may result from the use of these materials.
The information is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of PCO in the future. PCO hereby authorizes you to
copy documents for non – commercial use within your organization only. In
consideration of this authorization, you agree that any copy of these
documents, which you make, shall retain all copyright and other proprietary
notices contained herein. Each individual document published by PCO may
contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that
individual document. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as
conferring by implication or otherwise any license or right under any patent or
trademark of PCO or any third party. Except as expressly provided, above
nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right
under any PCO copyright. Note that any product, process, or technology in
this document may be the subject of other intellectual property rights
reserved by PCO, and may not be licensed hereunder.
Released: December 2015 © PCO AG
pco.edge family User Manual V2.20 © PCO AG, Germany
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOP
1. INTRODUCTION
5
1.1 DATA OVERVIEW
6
2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
7
3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
8
4. INSTALLATION
9
4.1 CAMERA DRIVER
9
4.2 CAMWARE
10
5. QUICK START
11
5.1 PREPARATION
11
5.2 START
11
5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE
12
6. CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
13
6.1 INTRODUCTION / CONTENT
13
6.2 CAMERA OVERVIEW / LIST
14
6.3 CAMERA PROPERTIES
15
6.3.1 TIMING
16
6.3.2 ROLLING SHUTTER
19
6.3.3 GLOBAL SHUTTER
23
6.3.4 GLOBAL RESET
26
6.3.5 IMAGE SIZE
28
6.3.6 SENSOR CONTROL
30
6.3.7 RECORDING CONTROL
31
6.3.8 I/O SIGNALS TAB
33
6.3.9 CONVERT CONTROL
35
6.4 RECORDER TOOLS
37
6.5 VIEW WINDOW
38
6.6 RECORDER (IMAGES)
39
6.7 CAMWARE TABS & FEATURES
40
6.7.1 DEMO MODE
40
6.7.2 FILE MENU
41
6.7.3 CAMERA MENU
42
6.7.4 ACQUISITION MENU
43
6.7.5 VIEW MENU
44
6.7.6 WINDOW MENU
44
6.7.7 HELP MENU
45
6.7.8 RIGHT-CLICK MENU
45
6.7.9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
47
3
APPENDIX
48
A1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
49
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
51
A3 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
52
A3.1 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
52
A3.2 FIRST TIME INSTALLATION
53
A3.3 OPERATION
54
A3.4 DIMENSIONS
55
A4 INTERFACES
56
A4.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES
56
A4.2 CAMERA LINK
57
A4.2.1 INSTALLATION OF FRAME GRABBER
57
A4.2.2 IMAGE DATA FLOW
59
A4.3 USB 3.0
61
A4.3.3 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS
61
A4.3.4 USB 3.0 FAQ
63
A4.3.5 INSTALLATION OF THE USB 3.0 CARD
65
A4.3.6 RING BUFFER AND FIFO
66
A5 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
67
A6 LIGHTSHEET SCANNING MODE
68
A7 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
69
A8 CUSTOMER SERVICE
71
A8.1 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
71
A8.2 TROUBLE SHOOTING
72
A9 INDEX
73
ABOUT PCO
74
4
1 INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCTION
Advantages of the pco.edge family
The pco.edge family is a breakthrough in scientific imaging
cameras. It has the distinctive ability to simultaneously deliver
extremely low noise, high frame rates, wide dynamic range, high
quantum efficiency, high resolution and a large field of view - all in
one image.
The camera’s main features (model-specific)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ultra low noise down to 0.8 electrons med
high resolution up to 5.5 megapixel
best dynamic range up to 40000:1
high-speed up to 100 fps @ full resolution
high quantum efficiency up to 80%
flexibility user selectable choice of shutter mode
free of drift stabilized Peltier cooling in order to avoid any drift
phenomena in image sequences
Areas of Application
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
live cell microscopy
single molecule detection
localization microscopy
lightsheet microscopy
selective plane illumination
microscopy
SPIM
structured illumination
microscopy
SIM
TIRF microscopy /
waveguides
spinning disk confocal
microscopy
genome sequencing (2nd
and 3rd gen)
FRET
5
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
FRAP
lucky astronomy / imaging
adaptive optics
solar astronomy
fluorescence spectroscopy
bio- & chemiluminescence
high content screening
photovoltaic inspection
x-ray tomography
ophthalmology
flow cytometry
biochip reading
machine vision
spectral (hyperspectral)
imaging
• laser induced breakdownspectroscopy (LIBS)
1.1 DATA OVERVIEW
Overview – Available camera models
This table shows an overview over all available camera models.
Type
pco.edge
3.1
Interface
USB 3.0
pco.edge
4.2 LT
USB 3.0
pco.edge
4.2
USB 3.0
pco.edge
4.2
Camera
Link
pco.edge
5.5
USB 3.0
Read Out
Frequency
Rolling
105 MHz
24.93
50
Global
204 MHz
12.80
48
Global
Reset
105 MHz
24.99
50
Rolling
110 MHz
24.10
40
Global
Reset
110 MHz
24.10
40
Rolling
110 MHz
24.10
40
Global
Reset
110 MHz
24.10
40
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
27.60
35
272.3 MHz
(fast scan)
9.65
100
Rolling
86 MHz
30.5
30
Global
160 MHz
16.40
28
Global
Reset
86 MHz
30.51
30
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
27.52
33
286 MHz
(fast scan)
9.17
100
286 MHz
9.17
50
95.3 MHz
(slow scan)
27.52
33
286 MHz
(fast scan)
9.17
100
Rolling
Rolling
pco.edge
5.5
Camera
Link
Global
Global
Reset
6
Line
time
(µs)
Shutter
FPS
Sensor
mono &
color
mono
mono
mono
mono &
color
mono &
color
2 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
2. SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
Please read the safety instructions completely
Never operate the camera in humid or dusty environments or in
places with high amounts of X-ray radiation. Humidity, dust or Xrays could damage the camera.
To avoid the risk of water condensation, protect the camera
against extreme changes of ambient temperature. If condensation
enters the camera, there is the risk of electric shock.
To prevent damage to the camera, the system must be kept stable
and protected against strong jolts or vibrations. The socket at the
bottom of the camera is to be used for mounting purposes only.
Electric shock warning – Never slide any items through slits or holes
into the camera because of the risk of electric shock if the voltage
parts inside are touched.
Each time the camera is used, check the power cable for any
damage.
Never position the cable in a way that it could become a tripping
hazard.
Do not force the lens onto the camera. To protect the lens
connector thread from damage, use minimal force when attaching a
lens to the camera.
If any of the following conditions apply, immediately switch off the
camera, separate it from the power line and contact our customer
support:
If the power cable or the power plug seems to be worn or
damaged.
If liquids have penetrated the device.
If, after thoroughly reviewing the instruction manual, the
device is still not operating properly.
If the camera has been dropped or the casing is damaged.
7
3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The camera system includes the following parts.
Camera Head
F-mount optical connection (standard)
For standard F-mount / SLR lenses and adapters.
C-mount ring provided (see appendix A2)
For standard C-mount and microscopy connectors.
DC Power Jack (connect to power supply)
Input/Output 4x SMA connectors 2x input - 2x output
Interface (user selectable) Dual Camera Link full or USB 3.0
LED indicates camera status
Green continuous: camera is booting
Green blinking:
camera is ready for operation
Yellow blinking: recording on
error
Red blinking:
Serial Number Tag (on the bottom of the camera)
Mounting Thread
1/4-20 UNC mounting thread
Camera Link Grabber Card / USB 3.0 PCI Interface Card
PCI Express x4 Card (Camera Link full) or
PCI Express x1 Card (2 x USB 3.0 connections)
A PCI Card with 4 x USB 3.0 connections is also available, contact PCO for further
details. A PCIe x4 slot is necessary for this card.
Power Supply
Your system will be equipped with either a 24 V or a 12 V power supply,
depending on the model you selected. (connector: Lemo FGG.0B)
Cable
CameraLink Cable (2x3m) or USB-A/USB-B cable (5m)
Digital Camera Tools (USB storage device content)
•
•
•
Camware: software for camera control & image acquisition
Camera driver & tools
Software development kit (SDK) & demo programs in C and C++
8
4 INSTALLATION
4. INSTALLATION
You will find all necessary files on the accompanying USB storage
device. You may also download the newest versions of our software,
camera driver and third party software drivers from the PCO website
(www.pco.de).
Minimum system requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
Clock speed > 2 GHz
RAM > 4 GB
Windows 7 or higher
1280 x 1024 pixel resolution display
USB 3.0 or Camera Link
4.1 CAMERA DRIVER
There are two different camera interfaces available:
Camera Link (Frame Grabber)
When operating the camera with Camera Link Interface: Please run
the appropriate grabber driver installation with default settings.
For detailed installation instructions please see A4 (microEnable IV
grabber instruction).
USB 3.0
When USB 3.0 is used as a camera interface, it is recommended to
use the enclosed PCI Interface card. For detailed installation
instructions or further hardware recommendations, see A4.3.
1
Install PCO USB 3.0 Driver
For pco.edge USB 3.0 you always need to install the latest USB
Driver version. After these two screens 1 2 the driver is completely
installed.
2
9
4.2 CAMWARE
The Camware Windows application software enables you to control
every camera parameter or setting. Images can be displayed on a
monitor and may be downloaded and stored. The USB storage
device contains the installation files for the software for latest
Windows operating systems in 32 & 64 bit.
After a successful installation, you will find the program file Digital
Camera Toolbox in your program directory and a Camware32/64
button on your desktop. Other helpful tools are also installed in the
same directory.
To uninstall the Camware program, please use the Software feature
under Windows’ System Control.
Please follow the installation wizard
-1
Install Camware as Admin to install to program folder, instead it
will be installed only to user folder
-2 Then choose install directory
-3
Choose components: Select additional drivers for Camera Link
Interface (Silicon Software Dll mE IV)
-4
After the next two screens installation is complete
1
2
3
4
10
5 QUICK START
5. QUICK START
In order to get familiar with your new camera and software it might be
helpful, if you first aim at an object that is easy to focus and that can
be seen at standard light conditions.
5.1 PREPARATION
•
Computer is turned on
• Installation is finished (see chapter 4)
• An appropriate lens is attached (remove cap) or the camera is
attached properly to the microscope, spectrograph or other
scientific device
• Camera is connected to the PC (USB 3.0 or Camera Link)
• Camera is connected
(green LED blinks)
to
the
power
supply
and
ready
5.2 START
Start Camware and the graphical user interface will start up:
NOTE
Always install latest Camware version to be able to use full
function of your pco camera.
11
5.3 YOUR FIRST IMAGE
2 3
Please follow the instructions:
1
• Camware must be started. 1
• A view window 2 is shown automatically /or open a new one.
• Start live preview. 3
• Right-click in the view window and apply Auto Range Peak. 4
• You may adjust exposure time 5 , aperture and focus.
4
•
Now you should clearly 6 see the object in the window.
5
6
If you need to change
exposure time (e.g.
the image is still either
too dark or too bright),
please go to chapter
6.3.2
If you want to record
and
save
images,
please see chapter
6.3.7 and chapter 6.5
for detailed information.
NOTE
Live preview: Useful for fast and easy camera adjustment and
focusing. This command disables the Camera Control window if it
is opened (except exposure time setting).
12
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6. CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.1 INTRODUCTION / CONTENT
PCO’s Camware is an excellent for camera control, image
acquisition and archiving of images in various file formats.
Camware works with any kind of PCO camera. Please
see our Website for the latest version of this software.
Chapter 6.2: Camera Overview / List: shows all connected cameras
and all set recording profiles
Chapter 6.3 Camera Properties: main dialog for all camera settings:
6.3.1 Timing
6.3.2 Rolling Shutter
6.3.3 Global Shutter
6.3.4 Global Reset
6.3.5 Image Size
6.3.6 Sensor Control
6.3.7 Recording Control
6.3.8 I/O Signals
6.3.9 Convert Control Dialog
Timing settings / Trigger modes /
Synchronization
Explanation / Timing
Explanation / Timing
Explanation / Timing
ROI / Sensor format / Binning
CDI / Double shutter / Temperature
Recorder aquire mode / Timestamp /
Sequence trigger
Input - Output
Contrast, Saturation, Gamma…
Chapter 6.4/ 6.5 /6.6 describe the recording functions
Chapter 6.7 describes the available tabs (File, Camera Acquisation,
View, Window, Help) the right-click menu and additional features.
6.7.1 Demo Mode
6.7.2 File
6.7.3 Camera
6.7.4 Acquisation
6.7.5 View
6.7.6 Window
6.7.7 Help
6.7.8 Right-click menu
6.7.9 Additional features
13
No camera connected
Open, save and print files, Options…
Camera control; Settings; Rescan,
Setup…
Live preview; Acquire secquence;
Rec. memory settings; Rec. settings
B/W or Color window; Convert
Control, Image Browser
Cascade; Tile; Arrange; Close all
Logfiles, About
Zoom; Flip; Mirror; Rotate…
White Balance, Contrast, ROI by
Mouse, Short Cut list
6.2 CAMERA OVERVIEW / LIST
If closed, the Camera Overview window can be
opened by selecting the View tab and Toolbars
and Docking Windows → Camera Overview. 1
1
4 5
3
2
6
The Camera Overview window allows you to manage several
connected cameras. It displays a list of all connected PCO
cameras. Camware is able to scan 2 for connected cameras or
close a connected camera. It is possible to define many different
settings for each camera (max. 30 sets per camera → add new
set 3 ). Settings can be switched easily, at any time and copied
to other cameras. New view windows 4 can be opened and the
Live Preview 5 can be started. When unfolded Preview shows a
small preview window 66 (always monochrome) integrated to
the camera list.
Live preview gives the ability to adjust aperture and focus and to
have a first look at your object.
Click and drag camera setting: If you want to copy e.g. Camera
Setting 1 to Camera Setting 4 just drag & drop Setting 1 to Setting
4 and Camware will ask you if you want to copy the settings. It is
possible to copy each setting to every camera.
Important Setting (for cameras without internal memory)
Memory Allocation Dialog
If you want to change the number of recorded images in
Camware, you have to open the Acquisition Tab (see 6.7.4)
and choose Recorder Memory Settings.
This sets the number of images recorded in one sequence.
The maximum is defined by approved RAM size.
14
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3 CAMERA PROPERTIES
The Camera Properties window in Camware is the main interface for
all camera settings. The active set selected within Camera List can be
adjusted here.
The former main instance Camera Control (known from Camware
3.x) and the Convert Control (see 6.3.9) can be opened additionally.
Three view options with various functions can be selected: Standard,
Custom and Expert.
1
4
3
2
Standard mode 1 only shows camera name, type, set and serial
number and the exposure time. It is recommended for new Camware
users.
Custom mode 2 shows several more setting possibilities and can
be configured individually by the Custom Properties Button. 4
Additional to the standard mode Trigger mode, Image Size and
Recording control options are selectable.
Expert mode 3 (for advanced users) shows all possible camera
property settings.
An explanation for every setting is displayed below the properties
dialog.
15
6.3.1 TIMING
Introduction to timing
An important parameter for a camera is the frame rate. The
upper limit of the frame rate is defined by exposure and
readout time.
The figure below shows the timing scheme. Exposure and
readout are done simultaneously, this means while image n is
readout from the sensor, image n+1 is already integrated within
the sensor’s pixel elements.
Figure 1 shows, that in case of short exposure times, the
readout is the limiting factor. The second figure 2 shows
that for long exposure times the exposure time plus delay
(tdelay) is the limiting factor.
n+1
readout
n+1
exposure
texp
Figure
1
treadout
: Image timing for short exposure times
n+1
n+1
exposure
texp
Figure
n+2
n-1
readout
n+2
2
tdel
: Image timing for long exposure times
If a lower frame rate is desired, this can be achieved by inserting
additional delay times. These rules also apply in external trigger
mode, i . e . this defines when the next trigger can be applied or
recognized.
For further timing explanations (e.g. fps based timing) please read the
following chapters for Rolling Shutter, Global Shutter and Global
Reset.
16
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
Trigger Mode 1
In this context trigger means exposure trigger, i.e. the trigger
signal controls the exposure of a single image (light integration
time).
Auto Sequence: The camera will optimize the image recording
to achieve the best possible frame rate.
In the auto sequence exposure control mode, the camera
determines the fastest possible frame rate depending on the
adjusted exposure time and the required readout time.
After a start command is given, the sequential recording is
started until a stop command is given.
1
Soft Trigger: Single images can be recorded with this Camware
command. The single image can be acquired by pressing the
Single Trigger button. This button appears after pressing the
Start Record button (see 6.4 ). Other signals cannot influence
this operating mode.
NOTE
If the trigger rate of the
external signal is quite
near the maximum
possible frame rate
(difference < 1/1000), it
will be random, whether
or not a trigger is
accepted!
In the External Exposure Start exposure control mode, single image
recording is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage signal
at the BNC input #1(see 6.3.8). The frame rate cannot be set, as the
frame rate is defined by the frequency of the external signal. However
the predefined exposure time and ROI settings affect the maximum
possible frame rate.
The Busy Status signal at BNC #3 (BNC explanation see 6.3.8) will
indicate if a new trigger is accepted.
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
acc. not acc.
accepted
accepted
The maximum achievable frame rate in external trigger mode is
negligibly less (about 0.1%) than operating the camera in Auto
Sequence mode.
If the trigger rate of the external signal is higher than the maximum
possible frame rate, every second trigger pulse is ignored. Therefore
the actual frame rate drops to half of the external trigger rate. If the
trigger rate is increased further, then only every third, every fourth etc.
trigger edge will be accepted.
17
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
acc.
not acc.
acc. not acc. acc.
not acc.
acc.
not acc.
In order to avoid trade-offs at maximum frame rate use either the
Busy Status signal or make sure that the external trigger rate follows
this condition: 0.999 x External Trigger Rate ≤ fmax.
External Exp. Control An external signal applied at BNC #1 (see
6.3.8), controls the start and the duration of the exposure.
A new exposure is started by the falling or rising edge of the voltage
signal at the BNC input. The exposure is finished when the opposite
edge is detected. Thus in this mode, the start as well as the length of
the exposure time can be controlled.
No further settings can be made, as the image timing is completely
controlled by the external trigger signal.
Exp trig (in)
Exp Stat (out)
Busy Stat (out)
treadout
acc.
accepted
not acc.
accepted
Be aware, that the externally controlled exposure time is limited. The
integration will be stopped automatically if the maximum exposure
time is achieved.
The Busy Status signal at BNC #3 (see 6.3.8) indicates if a new
trigger is accepted.
Camera
Interface
pco.edge 3.1
USB 3.0
pco.edge 4.2LT
USB 3.0
Shutter Mode
Rolling
Global
Global Reset
Rolling
Global Reset
Max.exposure time
2s
100 ms
2s
10 s
2s
pco.edge 4.2
CameraLink
Rolling
10 s
pco.edge 4.2
USB 3.0
Rolling
20 s
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
18
Global
100 ms
Rolling &
Global Reset
2s
Rolling
2s
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3.2 ROLLING SHUTTER
In Rolling Shutter mode the pixel reset and exposure start is carried
out row by row. Each row has the same exposure time, but a different
start and end of exposure. The pco.edge image sensor consists of
two discrete halves, which are exposed and read out simultaneously,
i.e. from the outside to the center by default. Within one row, the
exposure starts simultaneously for all pixels. Available RS readout
modes see 6.7.3.
General Timing Diagram
reset
start
reset
end
readout
start
tglobal
tframe
readout
end
tframe
texposure (first row)
t t
texposure (last row)
tall rows
The exposure time of each row starts with the corresponding reset of
the row. Then after a predefined time, the exposure is stopped. The
light induced accumulated charge carriers of the pixels in a row are
recorded into memory in a low noise (readout) mode. This results in
the total image appearing in memory corresponding to the row
readout.
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of one line
time (see p.6).
Camera (RS only)
pco.edge 3.1
pco.edge 4.2 LT
Interface
USB 3.0
USB 3.0
Exposure time
500 µs … 2 s
100 µs … 10 s
Delay time
Camera Link
100 µs … 10 s
0…1s
pco.edge 4.2
USB 3.0
100 µs … 20 s
pco.edge 5.5
CL & USB 3.0
500 µs … 2 s
pco.edge 4.2
19
FPS based (only Camera Link interface)
The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected
frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as possible.
Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode and only available with
Camera Link Interface
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to
1 / treadout.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 mHz (Rolling Shutter).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(RS only)
pco.edge 4.2
(@ full resol.)
pco.edge 5.5
(@ full resol.)
Interface
Frame rate (FPS Based)
Camera
Link
0.1…35 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
0.1…100 Hz @ 272.3 MHz
0.5…33.3 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
0.5…100 Hz @ 286 MHz
Camera
Link
Exposure time
100 µs…10 s
500 µs…2 s
Exposure time > Sensor frame readout time (Auto Sequence)
In case the required exposure time is longer than the frame readout
time, the image sensor is completely exposed to light for some time
(tglobal). In case of a triggered flash illumination, this would be the best
moment to illuminate the image sensor.
t exposure
1st row, 2nd
image
t exposure
1st row, 1st
image
Trigger
(in)
Start
NOTE
Δ t = t : 1 line time
(See p.6)
Busy
(out)
Start
Expos
(out)
Start
Global
(out)
Start
tframe
t all rows 1st
t all rows 2nd
20
Δt
=t
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
The hardware signal for the time tglobal is available on connector #4
(Global out see 6.3.8).
Obviously, if during exposure and readout, parts of the viewed image
are moving horizontally, this would result in image distortion. This is
why the global shutter mode may be a prerequisite for some
applications.
However, most dynamic events can be captured in 1 ms, which is a
common integration time with SLR cameras set at 1/1000 exposure.
The time shift from one row to another is only about 10 µs (fast scan).
The resulting maximum readout time of 10 ms (at full resolution)
seems to be sufficient for a broad spectrum of dynamic events.
The 10 ms is also faster than the image shift process of most frame
transfer emCCD image sensors previously used for low light
applications. If this does not influence the image recording and
processing, then rolling shutter mode will not affect it either.
Exposure time < Sensor frame readout time (Auto Sequence)
In case the required exposure time is shorter than the frame readout
time, the image is composed of two exposure bands moving from the
outside to the center of the sensor.
exposure stop & readout
band of simultaneous exposure
reset & exposure start
For example, the shortest exposure time in RS is 500 µs (pco.edge
3.1 & 5.5) and 100 µs (pco.edge 4.2). The band of simultaneous
exposure is in this case (smallest possible height) at full resolution:
e.g. pco.edge 4.2: 100 µs / 24.93 µs (line time) = 4 → number of
simultaneous rows = 8 (Rolling Shutter mode A-D see 6.7.3)
Previous comments on image distortion (also known as Rolling
Shutter Effect) apply here as well.
Graph on next page.
21
Auto Sequence graph
Trigger
(in)
Start
Busy
(out)
Start
Expos
(out)
Start
tframe
tall rows 1st image
tall rows 2nd image
Details for External Exp. Start and External Exp. Ctrl
The detailed timing for external trigger includes system delay times,
an adjustable additional delay time, and the jitter.
Exp trig (in)
Exposure
trsys
NOTE
The jitter tjit can be a
maximum
of
one
row/line time.
Camera
(RS only)
tdelay
Interface
pco.edge 3.1
USB 3.0
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
pco.edge 4.2 /
4.2 LT
USB 3.0
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
tjit
tfsys
System
clock
100
MHz
tsys
(trsys/ tfsys)*
72 MHz
70 ns
100
MHz
100
MHz
72
MHz
tdelay
tjit (jitter)
tjit
tdelay
(delay)
50 ns
50 ns
50 ns
≤1 line time
0 … 1s
(see p.6)
70ns
* trsys/ tfsys = t rising edge / t falling edge
For optimized synchronization (minimized jitter time) use the falling
edge of the line signal at the status output (see 6.3.2).
22
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3.3 GLOBAL SHUTTER
NOTE
Global Shutter is only
available for pco.edge
3.1 and 5.5 Camera
Link & USB cameras.
First, all pixels are globally reset and these reset values are shifted
into so-called diffusion nodes. From there, they are non-destructively
read out into memory as reset dark images. The exposure starts after
transfer of the reset dark image to the diffusion nodes, where they are
stored on the chip. The exposure is stopped by global charge transfer
to the diffusion nodes. Then, the exposure image is read out to the
memory, where the former reset dark image is subtracted to perform
an external correlated double sampling, which reduces the noise.
Since two images have to be read out to receive one resulting image,
the sCMOS image sensor’s Global Shutter mode has only half of the
frame rate of the Rolling Shutter mode.
Reset
Exposure
Readout
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of one line
time (see page 6 ).
Camera (GS only)
pco.edge 3.1
pco.edge 5.5
pco.edge 5.5
Interface
USB 3.0
Camera Link
USB 3.0
Exposure time
20 µs … 100 ms
10 µs … 100 ms
20 µs … 100 ms
Delay time
0 µs … 1 s
FPS based (only edge 5.5 Camera Link)
The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected
frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as possible.
Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode and only available with
Camera Link Interface.
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced to
1 / treadout. Minimum frame rate is 1 / max. exposure time.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 MHz (Global Shutter).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(GS only)
Interface
Frame rate (FPS Based)
Exposure time
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
10 … 50 Hz @ 286 MHz
10 µs … 100 ms
23
External Exposure Start
(Auto Sequence respectively)
Trigger (in)
Busy (out)
Exposure (out)
Frame
# of lines
line time1
ROI (y) * line time1
Programmable:
1 line time1 … 100 ms
(tframe – texp)
line time1
tjit
tframe
texp
tdelay (system)
tif
1
line time → see p.6
The listed parameters can be output via SDK function Get Image
Timing dependent on the selected ROI.
NOTE
If texp < tframe system delay (tdelay) is added before exposure starts.
24
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
External Exposure Control
Trigger (in)
Busy (out)
Exposure (out)
Frame
# of lines
line time1
ROI (y) * line time1
Counted line time1
tjit
tframe
texp
1
line time → see p.6
In External Exposure Control trigger mode the external signal
controls start of image acquisition and duration of the exposure.
First, all pixels are globally reset and these reset values are shifted
into so-called diffusion nodes. From there, they are non-destructively
read out into memory as reset dark images.
In this mode, the exposure starts always after the readout of the dark
image is completed. The length of the exposure has been detected
by the sensor from the trigger input. The exposure is stopped by
global charge transfer to the diffusion nodes after the respective time.
Then, the exposure image is read out to the memory, where the
former reset dark image is subtracted to perform an external
correlated double sampling, which reduces the noise.
Since two images have to be read out to receive one resulting image
and the exposure cannot start during readout time of the dark image,
this specific Global Shutter mode provides less than half of the
frame rate of the Rolling Shutter mode.
25
6.3.4 GLOBAL RESET
NOTE
Global
Reset
is
available for pco.edge
5.5 CL and for all edge
USB 3.0 cameras.
All pixels are globally reset and the exposure starts for all rows at the
same time. The exposure stop is carried out row by row; therefore the
duration of the exposure is not the same for all pixels. The rolling
readout improves the image quality, but due to the difference in
exposure time, a flash illumination is recommended. The readout
(exposure stop) is done from the outside to the center.
General Timing Diagram
readout
start
reset /
exposure start
t global
readout
end
t frame
t exposure (first row)
t exposure (last row)
t all rows
The exposure time of all rows starts simultaneously. The exposure
time of the first row stops after the predefined time, the following
rows are read out from the outside to the center row by row. Please
note that this leads to a different duration of exposure time for all
rows.
Timing
The exposure and delay time can be adjusted in steps of one line
time (see p.6).
Camera (GR)
pco.edge 3.1
pco.edge 4.2 /
pco.edge 4.2 LT
pco.edge 5.5 /
pco.edge 5.5
Interface
Exposure time
USB 3.0
30 µs – 2 s
Camera Link
10 µs – 2 s
Delay time
0 µs … 1 s
pco.edge 4.2 (Camera Link Interface): Global Reset is not available.
26
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
FPS based (only edge 5.5 Camera Link)
The camera will optimize the image recording to achieve the selected
frame rate with chosen exposure time as close as possible.
Only for Auto Sequence trigger mode and only available with
Camera Link Interface.
First the frame rate is set. If the time required for readout of the image
is longer than 1 / frame rate, then the frame rate will be reduced
to 1 / treadout.
The frame rate can be adjusted in steps of 1 mHz (Global Reset).
If the selected exposure time would require a lower frame rate, the
exposure time is cut to the maximum possible time at that frame rate.
Camera
(GR only)
Interface
Frame rate (FPS Based)
Exposure
time
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
1…33.3 Hz @ 95.3 MHz
1…100 Hz @ 286 MHz
10 µs…2 s
Details for External Exp. Start and External Exp. Ctrl
The detailed timing for external trigger includes system delay times,
an adjustable additional delay time and the jitter.
Exp trig (in)
Exposure
trsys
Camera
(GR only)
tdelay
tjit
tfsys
Interface
tsys
t( rsys/tfsys)
USB 3.0
50 ns
tdelay
tjit
tjit (jitter)
tdelay (delay)
≤1 line time1
0 µs …1 s
pco.edge 3.1
pco.edge 4.2 LT
pco.edge 4.2
1
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
70 ns
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
50ns
line time → see p.6
For optimized synchronization (minimized jitter time) use the falling
edge of the line signal at the status output (see 6.3.8).
27
6.3.5 IMAGE SIZE
Region of Interest
3
1
2
1
The ROI (Region of Interest) selects only a part of the sensor to
be read out.
Vertical ROI: In order to speed up the frame rate and to reduce
the amount of image data, the selected ROI needs to be placed
symmetrical to the horizontal center line.
Horizontal ROI: In order to reduce the amount of image data a
horizontal ROI can be set. Please be aware, that changes in
horizontal direction will not increase the frame rate. The
decreased image size you see within Camware is a combination
of reduced sensor resolution and software downsizing (SoftROI).
NOTE
Software based ROI (Soft-ROI) is enabled within Camware
by default (not available for USB 3.0 versions). Due to this
functionality, the resolution of pco.edge cameras with
Camera Link interface can be adjusted in steps of 1 – 4
pixels. Since the readout architecture of these cameras is
not able to address single pixels, this downsizing is done by
software. If you work with Device Adapters (µManager,
Labview, etc.) or with our SDK, the Soft-ROI is disabled by
default. For further information, please see the SDK
description.
Interface
ROI,
horizontal
increments
ROI,
vertical
increments
Min.
ROI
Vert.
symm.
ROI
pco.edge 3.1
USB 3.0
4
1
64x16
no
pco.edge 4.2
Camera
Link
1
1
40x8
no
pco.edge 4.2 /
4.2LT
USB 3.0
4
1
64x16
no
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
4
1
160x8
no
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
4
1
64x16
no
Camera
Controlling the Soft-ROI Option (only Camera Link version)
pco.edge 4.2
pco.edge 5.5
Camera
Link
Camera
Link
20
1
40x8
yes
160
1
160x
16
yes
Under HKey-Current-User/Software/PCO/
Camware create a DWORD value with the
name DisableSoftROI. Set this value to 1 in
order to disable Soft-ROI. Remove or set this
value to 0 in order to enable Soft-ROI by
default. Keep in mind that unsymmetrical ROI
decreases FPS. Table below shows values for
Soft-ROI disabled.
28
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
Binning 2
Binning combines neighboring pixels (in either the horizontal and
vertical direction) to form super pixels. It increases the signal to noise
ratio (SNR), reduces the readout noise of the resulting pixels and
decreases the spatial resolution of the total image, which is recorded.
For further information see A5.
(pco.edge 5.5 CL: Binning only in Rolling Shutter mode)
Available Binning Modes:
H1xV1, H1xV2, H1xV4, H2xV1, H2xV2, H2xV4, H4xV1, H4xV2,
H4xV4.
Sensor Format 3
Camera
pco.edge 3.1
Interface
USB 3.0
Preselected Sensor Format
2048 x 1536
pco.edge 4.2
Camera Link
2048 x 2048
USB 3.0
2048 x 2048
pco.edge 5.5
Camera Link
2560 x 2160
1920 x 1080
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
2560 x 2160
pco.edge 4.2 / 4.2LT
29
6.3.6 SENSOR CONTROL
Pixelclock 1
The pixel clock sets the clock frequency and therefore the
image sensor readout speed.
(See overview table on page 6 for available readout
frequencies.)
3
B/W Noise Filter 2
In addition to the integrated static defect pixel list processing a
dynamic noise filter can be activated here in order to remove
so-called blinkers and high noise pixels. If you encounter
unexpected aliasing effects, turn this filter off.
1
For the following settings please start Camera Control 33 and
select Sensor (Misc.) Tab:
2
Conversion Factor
The conversion factor defines how many charge carriers
(electrons), which have been generated by light in the image
sensor in each pixel, are necessary to generate one count (one
intensity level) in the digital image. Therefore, the conversion factor
describes the gain that is applied to the signal before it is converted
into a digital value. The conversion is optimized for the pco.edge @
0.46 e-/count.
Cooling Setpoint
Display of sensor temperature: A peltier cooling unit is used to keep
the sensor's dark current to an acceptable minimum and in order to
allow for a continuous operation free of any drift phenomena in image
sequences. Either an internal fan or an external water cooling system
assures proper heat transfer from the peltier element to regulate the
temperature of the cameras.
Camera
Interface
Sensor Temperature
pco.edge 3.1
USB 3.0
5 °C
pco.edge 4.2 LT
USB 3.0
10 °C
pco.edge 4.2/5.5
Camera Link
5 °C
pco.edge 4.2
USB 3.0
0 °C
pco.edge 5.5
USB 3.0
5 °C
30
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3.7 RECORDING CONTROL
Recorder Mode 1
Camware will use free RAM space on your computer. The
recorded images will be temporally saved as 16bit multi TIFF. In
Sequence mode the recording stops when RAM space is full. In
Ring Buffer mode the camera will stop only by a stop
command, hence overwriting previous images. For longer
recording periods an appropriate RAID system is necessary,
see also the Direct Record to File option, see 6.7.2.
Acquire Mode 2
1
3
2
The acquire mode gives you the ability to enable or disable the
recording by an external signal. If set to Auto all images are
accepted and all images taken are saved. A signal at the acq
enbl input (see chapter 6.3.8) is ignored for this function.
Operation of the acquire mode depends on the selected
trigger mode.
If set to External, the camera will only record images if the
external signal enables recording.
Trigger mode Auto Sequence: This sensor timing scheme is paused
by the signal at the acq enbl input. The acq enbl input is sampled at
the beginning of the image generation, which can be seen at the
rising edge of the busy stat output. If the acq enbl input is high (low,
when inverted) when an image is acquired, it causes an idle state until
the acq enbl input is low (high, when inverted).
Busy Stat out)
Acq enbl (in)
image
image
image
image
In trigger mode External Exp. Start, the acq enbl input works like a
gate for the trigger signal. A trigger edge (rising, falling when exp trig
is inverted) is accepted only when the acq enbl signal is high (low,
when inverted).
Acq enbl (in)
Exp trig (in)
Busy Stat
(out)
accepted
not acc.
not acc.
accepted
accepted
In trigger mode External Exp. Ctrl, the acq enbl input works very
similar to the mode External Exp. Start. However, the acq enbl input
is ignored for the edge which is closing the exposure time (started
exposure will be finished accordingly).
31
When using acq enbl in external trigger modes, the following timing
specification should be met:
Exp trig (in)
tsu = 70ns
th = 70ns
Acq enbl (in)
tsu
th
If the acq enbl signal changes within the window of tsu (set up) to th
(hold), the behavior is random. The trigger may be accepted or
ignored.
Sequence Trigger
Once, a falling or rising edge at the acquire enable trigger input
(see chapter 6.3.8) is recognized, an internal image counter
starts to run. It will count all acquired images and will stop the
recording when the predefined number of images is reached.
Example timing diagram: Trigger mode = external exposure start;
Acquire mode = sequence trigger; Image counter = 3
Acq enbl (in)
Exp. trig. (in)
Status busy (out)
not acc.
Image 1
Image 2
Image 3
not acc.
Timestamp 3
A time stamp can be placed into the upper left corner of the image. It
can be either put off, binary or binary with text.
The time resolution is 1μs. In binary mode the first 16 pixels will be
filled with the time stamp information (binary code). The numbers are
coded in BCD with one byte per pixel, which means that every pixel
can hold 2 digits. If the pixels have more resolution than 8 bits, then
the BCD digits are right bound adjusted and the upper bits are zero.
(1 BCD digit ≙ 4 bits; 2 numbers ≙ 2 BCD ≙ 8 bits = 1 byte; every
pixel can hold 2 digits)
For further information please refer to the SDK.In binary and ASCII
mode text will be placed into the image replacing the content of the
image (271x 8 pixels). Time step shows the end of exposure time.
Three different information is stamped onto the image: number of
the image 1 , date 2 and time 3 .
1
32
2
3
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3.8 I/O SIGNALS TAB
Start Camera Control (see 6.3) and select the I/O Signals Tab.
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Exposure Trigger 1
If checked, a signal for External Exp. Start or External Exp. Ctrl trigger
mode (see chapter 6.3.1) is accepted at the exp trig BNC input #1.
Aquire Enable 2
If checked, a signal for Acquire Mode or Sequence Trigger Mode (see
chapter 6.3.7) is accepted at the acq enbl BNC input #2.
Status Busy 3
If checked, a signal indicating busy status is given at the status busy
output. Once an acceptable trigger edge is received, busy will go on
status high. As soon as busy goes low again, a new trigger edge is
accepted.
Status Expos 4
If checked, a signal indicating exposure status is given at the status
output. Status Expos indicates the actual exposure window for one
frame.
Status Line 4
If checked, a signal indicating line status is given at the status output.
Use the falling line edge for optimized synchronization (minimized
jitter time; see page 22).
Polarity
Type
active for high/low signal
or rising/falling edge
Maximum low level: 0.8V
Minimum high level: 2V
Slew Rate >1ms/V
TTL Electrically grounded, no opt
coupler.
3,3Volt LVTTL out , short time
short-circuit-proof.
Continuous overvoltage withstand:
+10V and -5V.
1ms pulse overvoltage withstand:
+33V and -33V
ESD pulse: +- 4kV
33
Rolling Shutter signal type
At the I/O-signal tab Rolling Shutter signal
type options are available (only Status
Exposure and if Shutter is set to Rolling
Shutter, see 6.7.3 Setup.
There are four signal types available:
-1 Shows the exposure time of the first rolling shutter line (tfirstline)
-2 Shows when all sensor lines are exposed (tglobal)
-3 Shows the exposure time of the last rolling shutter line (tlastlinel)
-4 Shows if any sensor line is integrating (talllines)
1
2
4
3
34
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.3.9 CONVERT CONTROL
Start the Convert Control Dialog with the Black/White
Button in Camera Properties.
Convert Control BW
The user can influence how the 16 bit intensity values of the original
image are displayed in 8 bit values in different ways.
BW Settings (includes histogram of original
data)
It is possible to hide the histogram of original
data 1 and to switch tab/histogram 2 .
4
1
Green sliders in histogram 3
left slider = Min controller (corresponds to
value 0 of the 8 bit display). Values below that
mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as black.
right slider = Max controller (corresponds to
value 255). Values above that mark are set to
255, i.e. displayed as white.
2
3
The values in-between are converted into a
value between 0 and 255 according to Contrast and Gamma
settings. See the small graph 4 , which reflects the calculation.
Proc config tab: please see under Convert Control Color
Converted Hist
This tab shows
converted data.
35
you
the
histogram
of
Convert Control Color (only pco.edge color)
Color Balance (Histogram of original data)
Intensity of single color can be controlled by
Saturation and Vibrance 1 .
1
2
3
7
4
Press the Auto button to set the white
balance 2 .
5
The balancing of RGB can be controlled by
Col.Temp and Tint 3 .
6
It is possible to hide the histogram of original
data 4 and to switch tab/histogram 5 .
The user can influence how the 16 bit intensity values of the original
image are displayed in 8 bit values in different ways.
White sliders in histogram 6
left slider = Min controller (corresponds to value 0 of the 8 bit
display). Values below that mark are set to 0, i.e. displayed as no
color.
right slider = Max controller (corresponds to value 255). Values
above that mark are set to 255, i.e. displayed as full color.
The values in-between are converted into a value between 0 and 255
according to Contrast and Gamma settings. See the small graph 7 ,
which reflects the calculation.
Converted RGB Hist
This tab shows you
converted data.
the
histogram
of
Proc. Config (Process configuration)
Due to proprietary high-end algorithms used for these image
processing features, no detailed description is given here
1
2
1 switch on in order to significantly reduce
processing time (increases refresh rate of
the live image
2 pixel color correction
3 non local means algorithm
4 adaptive to brightness and patterns
5 sharpen
3
4
5
36
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.4 RECORDER TOOLS
Play Speed: selectable play speed from x1 to
x256 or from 1fps to 16fps. E.g. in mode x1 a
recording with 1000 fps is played with 25fps.
1 fps means that only one frame per second is
played.
Play Mode: selects play mode of the recorder
(continuous or single time (re)play).
Recording: in record state Camware software
is highlighted in red.
Start/Stop record: with Record Button.
Software Trigger Mode: after record is started
an arrow pointing downwards applies a single
trigger.
Extended Recorder can be activated (see
6.7.5) via
Recording with multiple cameras:
If all cameras are activated the recording is started simultanously
for all cameras.
Recorder will use Recorder mode settings (Sequence or Ring
Buffer) of the seleted camera for all cameras (see 6.3.7)
For single camera recording, deactivate cameras by removing
the check mark from the box. 1
1
37
6.5 VIEW WINDOW
More View Windows
It is possible to open more view windows from
1 1
one camera: just click on new view window
and Camware will create a new one 22 .
Even when multiple view windows (or from
multiple cameras) are open, the same image
number is always shown in all of the view
windows.
2
1
A dropdown menu 3 helps to select a view
window. If you have more view windows than
can be displayed on the desktop, you will be
able to select each view window.
3
Split View Window
4
5
The view window can be split. Choose
Window → Split 44 and a split cross will be
shown. You can easily adjust the size of the
splitted window elements by grabbing and
dragging the dividing lines 55 .
The main function is that you are able to view
four regions of your image in one view. Choose
the Zoom± function to zoom in the image (first
turn off Stretched
View) (See 6.7.8 )
If you want to undo
the split, you have to
double click on the
6
deviding line (after symbol 6 is visible).
Two Tabs side by side or on top of each other
If you want to view two tabs side by side or
arranged one above the other just drag a tab
and then Camware will ask you if you want to
create a new horizontal or vertical tab group.
Undo this very easily by draging the tab back
to its former position.
This also applies for view windows of several
cameras.
38
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.6 RECORDER (IMAGES)
When recording is done, small preview images (thumbnails) are built
and displayed automatically, this will take some time depending on
the performance of your computer system.
1
If you click (left mouse button) within the upper scale bar 11 , you can
adjust the number of images which are shown, by moving the mouse
(left or right).(minimum is 20 and maximum is half of the recorded
images in this scale)
Quick scrolling: you can quickly scroll through the thumbnails by
dragging the orange bar with the mouse.
If you click on a thumbnail image it will be shown on the view
window. You can scroll via mouse wheel through the thumbnails.
The upper blue bar correlates to the number of displayed
thumbnails. The lower blue bar shows the range of the upper scale in
relation to the whole record.
2
The second scale shows the total number of
recorded images. It allows to scroll fast through the
images 22 .
Right-click menu (click on thumb-nails):
Allows you to rebuild all thumbnails and to search for
events.
3
Furthermore the Set In / Out gives you the
possibility to set values for a sequence, which can be
played via play button. Reset In / Out discards these
settings.
If Set In / Out is active: if you save/export your
images, only the selected images are saved/exported
(see 6.7.2).
The light gray area 3 in the upper scale shows an
In-Out example area. It is very easy to define a new
area: just right-click on the start and end frame in
one of the scales. The In image must be left to the
red bar, the Out image to the right of the red bar.
Search Events in Thumbnails: Detected events are displayed as
green bars
39
6.7 CAMWARE TABS & FEATURES
This chapter describes in detail the Camware Demo Mode and the
Camware Tabs: File, Camera, Acquisition, View and Window.
Furthermore the right-click menu and some additional features are
listed.
6.7.1 DEMO MODE
When Camware is started, it automatically recognizes the
camera type of the connected and running cameras.
Camware will start in Demo Mode, if your camera is switched
off or no camera is connected
In this mode all image processing features are available, but
all camera settings are deactivated. The user only has to tell
Camware what type of image he wants to open. For that
purpose, the Demo Mode Setup window opens and asks
for the corresponding input.
Need Help? If this window pops up because you have trouble
running the camera, please see instructions in appendix A8.
Resolution
The drop down list displays the existing image sensor spatial
resolutions of all PCO camera systems. Please select the specific
resolution and bit depth of the images to be opened. If double shutter
images have been recorded and should be opened, Double Shutter
Mode should be checked.
Color
With the radio buttons, the user can specify whether the image type
is monochrome (b/w) or color.
Alignment
These two radio buttons adjust whether MSB (most significant bit)
aligned (upper) or LSB (least significant bit) aligned (lower) images
have been stored.
Example settings to view the b16 files of the pco.edge:
Camera
pco.edge
5.5 color
pco.edge
4.2 mono
Resolution
2560x2160
bit
16
DoubleShutter
<no>
Sensor
color
Alignment
-
2048x2048
16
<no>
mono
-
40
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.7.2 FILE MENU
Open RAW File (single image only)
This command should be used to import a single
image into the currently active image window. Only
files with the extension and format of *.b16 (=PCO
proprietary binary image format) and *.tif (16 bit
TIFF image format) can be imported. If the recorder
is enabled, each imported image will be transferred
to the buffer shown in the picture number. The
image itself will be fitted to the current image size.
If the recorder is disabled, the current image sizes
will be set to the parameters of the imported image.
Open RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from one camera)
This command is used to import a sequence of images. If more than
one camera is connected and an image window is currently open, the
sequence will be loaded to the active window. If no image window is
open, the images will be loaded to camera #1. This command opens
the Open file dialog box. Only files with the extension and the format
of *.b16, *.pcoraw, *.tif and multi tif can be imported.
NOTE
Be aware of the
different storage abilities of the formats, for
example *.bmp - the
bitmap format only
allows for 8bit values
to be stored and
therefore the image
content of a 16 bit
image is reduced, if
stored as bitmap.
Save RAW File (single image only)
This command should be used to save the image, which is displayed
in the active window. The command opens the Save file dialog box.
The image file can be saved in 16bit *.b16 and *.tif format. If more
than one camera is connected, it is possible to save all current
images by selecting Export all images in the Save file dialog box.
With this feature it is possible to save one image of each active
camera within one process step (it is not necessary to repeat the
save process for each camera). The Save command will not be
available, if no image window is open.
Save RAW Recorder Sequence (image sequence from one
camera)
The Save Recorder command
should be used to save or export
image sequences. If more than
one camera is connected and an
image window is currently open,
the record of the active window
will be saved. The command
opens the Save recorder file
dialog box. It is possible to select
the number of saved images, to step images and to choose the first
image number.
Export File (not reloadable!)
Use this command to export the image of the active image window.
This command will open the Export Image dialog box. Files with the
extensions fts, tif, bmp, asc, jpg, and jp2 can be exported. This item
will not be visible, if no image window is open
41
Export Recorder Sequence (not reloadable!)
Use this command to export a sequence of images.
If more than one camera is connected and an
image window is currently open, the record of the
window which has got the input focus will be
saved. If no image window is open the Export
Recorder Sequence menu does not appear. This
command will open the Export recorder box. Files
with the extensions fts, tif, bmp, asc, avi, mpg, jpg,
jp2, and wmv can be exported (see Appendix A6).
Load Lookup Table (monochrome cameras only)
With the Pseudo LUT (Lookup-Table) feature you can load any LUT
with one of four different formats and you can view the result in the
color view window. Use one of the attached predefined LUTs or
define your own.
Direct Record to File
This command is intended for cameras with internal memory. With
this command you can preset a certain number of images to be
stored. If the camera captures images faster than the computer can
save to disk, then you will lose images. The displaying of the images
doesn't interfere with the record process.
Exit
This command exits the program and closes all channel dialog
windows. Window positions, settings and sizes are stored in the
windows registry and will be loaded again at next start-up.
6.7.3 CAMERA MENU
Camera Control
Use this command to open the camera control window.
Close
Disconnects camera and switches Camware to Demo Mode. In case
of multiple cameras, all cameras must be closed in order for
Camware to switch to Demo Mode.
Rescan
Disconnects and reconnects all cameras.
42
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
Setup
Switch between Rolling Shutter, Global Shutter and Global
Reset Mode. The camera will automatically restart.
A
B
C
Five different readout modes are available in Rolling
Shutter (6.3.2). Standard mode is Dual Outside in. In
Single Top down, the pco.edge provides only half of the
normal frame rate. Camware rotates the image that was
recorded by the sensor, by 180°. This means, that the last
line of the image is the first line of the sensor. PCO SDK
names are from A to E.
D
E
A
B
C
D
E
6.7.4 ACQUISITION MENU
Live Preview
The Live Preview is useful for fast and easy adjusting and
focusing of the camera. The active window will be updated.
To see another window, simply click on the window. This
option is not available in double shutter mode.
Acquire Picture (not available)
Acquire Sequence
Starts recording images into the system memory according to
Trigger Mode selection (see 6.3.1). During recording, all camera
controls are locked.
Rec. Memory Settings
This sets the number of images recorded in one sequence. The
maximum is defined by approved RAM size.
43
6.7.5 VIEW MENU
B/W or Color Window
Use this command to open a new display window.
Convert Control
See chapter 6.3.9.
Toolbars and Docking Windows
Standard Toolbars of Camware 4 are Recorder /
Recorder Tools / Camera View and Camera
Properties. Additional Toolbars know from
Camware 3.x are displayable, but not essentially
needed: Main Toolbar / Extended Recorder /
Cursor
Application Look
The Style and Look of Camware can be customized;
many different style sheets are selectable. The Tabbed
MDI function (un)docks the view windows.
Reset layout to default
This resets all your customized changes and restores the default
layout.
6.7.6 WINDOW MENU
New Window
A new view window will be opened.
Close Active Window
Active window will be closed.
Split
The view window will be split in four quarters.
Camera overview
Shows all connected cameras.
44
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.7.7 HELP MENU
Contents
Opens the main page of the program help.
Search for Help on
Opens an index list for help.
Create Support File
This will activate the Camware log files. Press YES to
activate log files and reboot Camware and your pco.edge.
After log files are activated it is possible to create a support
file. Please send this file to the PCO support.
Logging
Enable Logging:
Activates Camware log files (this cuts down performance)
Clear Logfiles: (only visible if logging is enabled)
This command erases all actual log files
Explore Logfiles:
Opens windows explorer
Disable Logging (only visible if logging is enabled)
Disables logging
Support Mail
This command opens your email-program and an already
created support file will be added automatically as file
attachment.
About Camware
This window shows program information.
6.7.8 RIGHT-CLICK MENU
View Color: color window
View Window B: if Double Shutter mode is activated, this will switch
to window B (second image)
Stretched View: image will be fitted into the display window
Stretched View Ratio: aspect ratio are maintained
Zoom +/-: image zoom (only available if Stretched View is
deactivated)
45
Zoom set the factor of the Zoom (from 0.0625 to 32)
Scroll Synchronous if more than one image window
is opened, it is possible to scroll synchronous
through the images (only available if Stretched View
is deactivated)
Show Image Info: resolution/ dynamic/ alignment /
time.. are shown
Open LUT: opens look-up table file for false-color
illustration
Auto Range Peak searches for the minimum and
maximum 16 bit intensity values of the image. Given
these numbers the converter scales the 8 bit display
(256) within these two values.
Auto Range Crop sets the converter to ignore the extreme intensity
values of the image and scales the display in a smaller range. Thus
dark or bright light spots, reflections, etc. are cut off.
Continuous Auto Range (Crop):
This option enables the automatic min/max function during record
and replay.
Flip/Mirror: image will be flipped or mirrored
Set ‘File Save ROI’: if you want to save just a
part of the recorded image (region of interest),
it is possible to draw a rectangle with the
mouse. This rectangle is valid for all recorded
images and can be dragged at its edges.
Line Tool
Select Line Tool to show a graph, which
shows the intensity of the pixels under the red
line shown in the image window. The selection
of this menu item determines the location of
the first point. After this you can move the
mouse to the second point, which can be
selected by a left click. Now a Line Diagram opens and the length
of the line (unit: pixel) is shown in a bubble and displayed in the
window.
Copy to Clipboard: will copy the actual image to clipboard
46
6 CAMWARE 4 SOFTWARE
6.7.9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES
White Balance by Mouse
It is possible to change white balance easily by mouse: You only
have to press the CTRL (Strg) and the shift button at the same time
and select a white or gray area within the image. The pixel values
within the coordinates of the selection rectangle are used for
calculating a new white balance.
For best results we recommend to use the white balance button in
the Convert Control Color (see 6.3.9).
Fold Up Window
1
The Convert Control windows can be
minimized / folded up 1. Just move the pointer
over the bar and the window will unfold
again 2 .
2
Setting Contrast Area by Mouse
You can control the minimum and maximum values used for the
conversion from 16 bit to 8 bit with the mouse. Move the mouse
cursor into a region which should be shown with maximum contrast.
Press the shift and the left mouse button. Hold down the mouse
button while increasing the size of the selection rectangle with mouse
moves. After releasing the mouse button the coordinates of the
selection rectangle act as a border for calculating the minimum and
maximum values.
Setting a new ROI by Mouse
In the same manner you can setup a new region of interest (see ROI)
for the camera. You only have to press the CTRL (Strg) button and
drag an area with the left mouse button. The coordinates of the
selection rectangle are used for calculating a new region of interest,
which will be adapted to the camera capabilities automatically. You
can reset the ROI to maximum by pressing the CTRL (Strg) button
and the right mouse button.
Short Cut List
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acquire Picture: SPACE
Acquire Sequence: STRG + A
Export File (Image): STRG + T
Export Recorder Sequence (Video) STRG + O
Open Raw Image File: STRG + I
Open Raw Recorder (Video) Sequence: STRG + R
Save Raw Image File STRG + E
Save Raw Recorder Sequence (Video) STRG + S
47
APPENDIX
A1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
49
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
51
A3 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
52
A3.1 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
52
A3.2 FIRST TIME INSTALLATION
53
A3.3 OPERATION
54
A3.4 DIMENSIONS
55
A4 INTERFACES
56
A4.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES
56
A4.2 CAMERA LINK
57
A4.2.1 INSTALLATION OF FRAME GRABBER
57
A4.2.2 IMAGE DATA FLOW
59
A4.3 USB 3.0
61
A4.3.3 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS
61
A4.3.4 USB 3.0 FAQ
63
A4.3.5 INSTALLATION OF THE USB 3.0 CARD
65
A4.3.6 RING BUFFER AND FIFO
66
A5 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
67
A6 LIGHTSHEET SCANNING MODE
68
A7 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
69
A8 CUSTOMER SERVICE
71
A8.1 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
71
A8.2 TROUBLE SHOOTING
72
A9 INDEX
73
ABOUT PCO
74
48
A1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
A1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Standard Version (pco.edge 3.1/ 4.2 (LT) / 5.5: Camera Link or USB 3.0)
Water Cooled Standard Version (pco.edge 4.2 / 5.5 Camera Link)
49
Water Cooled Standard Version (pco.edge 4.2 / 5.5, USB 3.0)
The housing size is similar to the dimensions of
the standard version, except the camera design
with the USB 3.0 interface allows to locate the
water connections on the back of the camera.
Specifications:
General
power supply
power consumption
weight
operating temperature
operating humidity range
storage temperature range
optical interface
CE / FCC certified
12 .. 24 VDC (+/- 10 %)
21 W max. (typ. 11 W @ 20 °C)
700 g (CL) / 930 g (USB)
+ 10 °C .. + 40 °C
10 % .. 80 % (non-condensing)
- 10 °C .. + 60 °C
F-mount & C-mount
yes
Sensor
type of sensor
image sensor
resolution (h x v)
pixel size (h x v)
sensor format / diagonal
fullwell capacity (typ.)
spectral range
50
scientific CMOS (sCMOS)
CIS2020
CIS 2521
2048 x 2048 active
2560 x 2160 active
pixel /
pixel
6.5 µm x 6.5 µm
6.5 µm x 6.5 µm
13.3 mm x 13.3 mm /
16.6 mm x 14.0 mm /
18.8 mm
21.8 mm
30 000 e30 000 e370 nm .. 1100 nm
370 nm .. 1100 nm
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
A2 CHANGE FROM F-MOUNT TO C-MOUNT
Instructions on how to change the optical input from F-mount to Cmount:
Step 1: Remove F-mount Adapter
Grasp the F-mount adapter at the blue ring (counter ring) and turn it
counter clockwise.
F-mount adapter
Step 2: Insert C-mount Ring
Carefully screw the ring completely in and tighten the two Allen
screws.
C-mount ring
Adjust Back Focal Length
First of all, attach a lens to your c-mount adapter. Then set the focus
of your lens to infinity. After that, look for a point in infinity* and
generate a sharp image by turning the smaller ring of the adapter.
Then fix this position with the two small indented screws.
*rule of thumb: object should be away about 2000 times the focal length in mm
Allen screws
Limitations of C-mount lenses
Keep in mind that c-mount lenses could
cause shadings at the edges of big sized
sensors. Most c-mount lenses are able
to illuminate a maximum image circle of
11 mm (2/3”), 16 mm (1”) or 22 mm
(4/3”) diameter only. The pco.edge
cameras have a sensor diagonal from
18.8 to 21.8 mm, it follows that you have
to use the ROI function for a shade less image while using the cmount adapter with the two smaller C-mount diameters.
51
A3 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A3.1 SYSTEM COMPONENTS
This is the re-cooling
system for pco.edge
cameras with watercooling.
1
2
3
5
4
Material No.
Description
1
30108000211
pco.aquamatic II
2
30108000212
Connection Tube 5m PVC 3541-01 PCO
(with Colder NS212 fittings)
3
50402000055
Power supply ETC 70-12 1.2m
4
20307500024
Power cable
5
10307000226
EDGE WAT camera cable 5m FGG-RG58NC3MX
6
10305000190
Innovatec Protect IP 1L
The operation of the pco.aquamatic is simple and uncomplicated.
Normally no maintenance and nearly no attention are needed. Only
the liquid level of the reservoir (water tank) should be controlled from
time to time.
6
Only use Innovatec Protect IP for the pco.aquamatic! Do not use
or add any other cooling liquid or normal water! If you need to add
cooling liquid in order to maintain level in the tank, please contact
PCO for additional supply.
The cooling liquid will turn yellow after some hours of operation. This
is normal and no sign of wear or malfunction. The optimum pH-value
is between 8 and 9 (please check this value if you are concerned
about the cooling liquid quality).
NOTE
The recommended service interval for the change of the cooling
liquid is four years.
52
A3 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A3.2 FIRST TIME INSTALLATION
3
5
4
2
Please take care to situate the unit on a flat and firm surface. Do
not cover the air intakes of the unit. Please ensure free airflow
around the pco.aquamatic to ensure maximum cooling
performance. All tubes and power cords need to run kink-free.
Before installation of the unit carefully read the Innovatek Protect
IP safety datasheet (see Innovatek Website).
outlet flow
inlet flow
1
6
Please follow steps 1 – 6.
•1 Connect tubes to cooling unit and camera. The two arrows on the
housing of the cooling unit only indicate flow direction. Either
connection of the camera can be used for in or out.
•2 Attach power connection.
•3 Open tank cover.
•4 Turn power switch to on position (I).
•5 Slowly fill in the cooling application mixture while the unit is
running, you have to constantly refill liquid.
•6 While the cooling liquid flows back to the reservoir make sure that
the whole air escapes from the system – this takes a few minutes
(move hoses if necessary).
The cooling liquid reservoir (tank) is filled when liquid level is
approximately 1-2 cm from the top of the tank. The integrated pump
only works when the pump chamber is completely filled. To ensure
this please move hoses or remove air by evacuating. Reservoir
capacity is approximately 500 ml.
After steps 1 – 6 are completed successfully the system is ready for
operation.
NOTE
The hose connectors are waterproof in not connected state.
Maybe they lose one drop of cooling liquid from time to time. You
don’t have to empty the hoses while storing the camera system.
53
A3.3 OPERATION
First connect the power out of the cooling unit with the power in of
the pco.edge camera by using the PCO WAT camera cable.
The cooling unit provides two
operation modes.
Operation Mode on: the cooling unit
is turned on permanently and
provides the camera with power.
Your camera can be switchted on
and off as needed.
Operation mode follow: the cooling unit will turn on when the
camera is switched on and vice versa.
Error Codes
The coolant temperature sensor is located in the water tank.
Temperature
27°C
36°C
55°C
60°C
Action
fan turns off
fan turns on
warning message
error message
If a warning level is passed, the Power LED blinks slowly and the
Error LED displays the error code. If a failure level is passed, the
Power LED blinks fast and the Error LED shows the error code.
Error / Failure
on
1Hz
flash
2Hz
flash
off
one short flash
1Hz
flash
two short
flashes
one short flash
none
Warning when temperature at 55 °C
(also if sensor is defect or missing)
Failure when temperature at 60 °C
Fan speed
(also if a high deviation of the standard value
is reached)
NOTE
The camera has its own protection circuit and will shut down
Peltier cooling automatically when the electronics temperature
exceeds safety level. The camera itself will keep on running, but
sensor temperature will increase. (valid for air and water cooling!)
If the camera and the water cooler have a different power supply,
always first shut down camera and then the cooling system to
avoid damages.
54
A3 WATER COOLING OPTION PCO.AQUAMATIC II
A3.4 DIMENSIONS
All dimensions are given in millimeter.
Weight: 4kg (completely filled cooling liquid tank)
General Information
You are not restricted to purchase the pco.aquamatic system - it is
possible to use an own water cooling solution. A separate power
supply will be provided to every pco.edge camera with water
connectors. The hardware of the pco.edge cameras with USB 3.0
Interface is designed to work with or without a water cooling system,
because a fan that provides adequate cooling is inside the camera
anyway.
In case you use an own water cooling system, please make sure that
the liquid you use to cool your camera is at all times NEVER below
the dew point of the ambient temperature! In order to avoid any
appearance of condensation, use a cooling liquid at room
temperature. A liquid flow rate of 1–2 litres per minute is sufficient.
55
A4 INTERFACES
Two different interfaces are available for the pco.edge camera. This
chapter describes the installation and configuration of USB and
Camera Link interfaces.
Furthermore USB range extension, Ring Buffer and FIFO Buffer are
described in detail.
A4.1 CABLE POSSIBILITIES
NOTE
Please
only
use
Camera Link cable,
which have been are
approved by PCO.
Otherwise
full
functionality is not
guaranteed.
Overview of the maximum cable lengths
Camera Link base:
• standard:
3m
• optional:
5m
• maximum:
10 m (active cable)
• no cables are included in the camera price
USB 3.0:
• standard: 3 m
• cable and proper PCI express board included in the camera
price
56
A4 INTERFACES
A4.2 CAMERA LINK
A4.2.1 INSTALLATION OF FRAME GRABBER
NOTE
Hardware Installation must be performed by a technician, because high
voltages can occur on
the device. Always pull
the main plug before
opening the device.
Instructions for installing and testing the SILICONSOFTWARE
microEnable IV (ME4) Camera Link grabber card.
Please install the latest silicon software runtime package before
installing the hardware. (Download: www.pco.de/support)
When working on a 64 bit operating system, please make sure to
install the proper (64 bit) runtime when also a 64 bit application will be
operated. If the application is 32 bit, you need to install the 32 bit
runtime accordingly.
-1 If there is no Gigabit Ethernet board installed (standard), please
deselect Support for…
-2 Let the program also update device drivers.
-3 Shutdown your computer, open the computer case and install the
grabber card
4 The grabber card should be displayed within the device manager.
If the device is not shown this way, please reinstall the
SiliconSoftware device driver.
-5 After the installation, please start the program microDiagnostics.
(see next page)
-
2
1
3
4
5
57
How to use microDiagnostics Tool
Please
verify
the
firmware 1 version,
which must be 1.40
(1.28 in hex) or above.
1
To test the board,
select the board in
Hardware 1 and click
Test Board. 2
2
3
4
If the firmware is not
1.40 (1.28 in hex),
please upgrade to the
latest firmware. Select
Flash Board(s) 3, then
select the grabber in
the dialog and open
the appropriate hap
file.
Then click on Yes when you’re asked to proceed. You must power
cycle your computer after the upgrade.
In case the firmware version is ok, please click on Test
Performance. 4
It is mandatory that
PCIe is Highspeed
Capable 5 is shown.
Otherwise the board is
probably not able to
transfer the necessary
data rate.
5
The transfer rates, as
shown, should be
displayed. 6
6
For further information
or
problems
with
mainboards
please
contact our support
section.
58
A4 INTERFACES
A4.2.2 IMAGE DATA FLOW
The sCMOS image sensors provide an extremely high frame rate
compared to other scientific image sensors. The high frame rate,
along with the high dynamic, creates a large amount of data that
must be handled and stored. The maximum data rate of the sCMOS
image sensor is given by:
pco.edge 5.5 Camera Link:
[2560 * 2160 (pixel in 1 frame) * 2 Byte (= 16bit dynamic)] * 100
[frames/s] = 1.1 GB/s (pco.edge 5.5, Camera Link)
To handle this considerable amount of data, there are two options
available:
Option 1: Real-time Recording to Computer
The pco.edge sCMOS camera series uses this option. For this
purpose, the interface must be capable of transmitting data at the
required speed. Interfaces such as GigE, USB 3.0 and Camera Link
are not fast enough to transmit this data, which is delivered by the
largest sCMOS image sensor. Nevertheless, there is a sophisticated
solution that uses the Camera Link interface, which is integrated into
the pco.edge camera. It is a fact of nature that light, itself, has its
own noise component called photon or shot noise, which increases
with light signal. In this approach, no compression is made in small
signals, while for large signals a suitable compression is applied.
Since the introduced compression error is always smaller than the
photon noise induced error, it is not seen and a so called visual
lossless compression has been performed.
It can be shown that this is possible without any significant loss of
information. Therefore, the calculation for the pco.edge camera at
full speed and full frame has to be re-written:
[2560 * 2160 (pixel in 1 frame) * 1.5 Byte (= 12bit dynamic)] * 100
[frames/s] = 0.829 GB/s
The Camera Link interface can transmit this in real-time. In the future,
recently introduced machine vision interfaces including CoaXPress
and Camera Link HS are capable of transmitting sCMOS image data
without any compression. A network type interface, 10GigE, is
similar with respect to hardware to Camera Link HS, but incorporates
all of the known GigE advantages and disadvantages. Here, the
usual protocols are not favorable for image data transmission, and
any network traffic can dramatically reduce available transmission
speed. The real-time data transmission into the computer allows
for a variety of applications, since it is free from camera memory
limitations. Image data can be stored directly in the computer’s
random access memory (RAM) up to more than 64 gigabyte. With an
appropriate RAID system, the data can be stored directly to hard
disks and there is no delay involved.
Option 2: Recording in the Camera
For high-speed imaging applications where data transfer rates are in
the range of several GB/s it is accepted that the primary image
memory (camRAM) must be located in the camera. Two examples of
59
such high-speed cameras are the pco.dimax with 36 GB of camRAM
and the pco.dimax HD with 18 GB of camRAM memory. This allows
for fast recording, but just up to the integrated memory limit. Before a
second sequence can be recorded, one must endure the wait time
until data is downloaded to computer storage. Therefore, this option
can only be used for recording short sequences with enough time
between each event to download the image data. This option is not
necessary for the pco.edge as either with USB 3.0 or Camera Link
interface, the image data will be recorded to the computer in realtime.
Memory Structure / Organization
As the memory is software-controlled in both options, it does not
matter how the data is stored. The memory can be organized for ring
buffer or FIFO recording, or for a specified number of images like a
burst mode. The pco.edge camera enables all of these possibilities
with the integrated dynamic link libraries and proprietary Camware
application software. This allows the customer to select the memory
structure and organization that is optimized for the application at
hand.
Recommendations
In the following you can find two exemplary systems for RAID and
RAM storage options that have been successfully tested by pco for
high performance and which we sell directly to our customers.
They only show a configuration example, for actual system
configuration please call us directly.
RAID 0
SYSTEM
RAM
RECORD
ER
11x 2TB SATA 6 GB/s
16 GB DDR3 RAM
Intel® Core™ i7-3820 processor 3.6 GHz
GeForce GTS 640 2GB (NVIDIA CUDA)
Windows 7 Professional 64 bit
64 GB DDR3 RAM
Intel® Core™ i7-3820 processor 3.6 GHz
GeForce GTS 640 2GB (NVIDIA CUDA)
Windows 7 Professional 64 bit
NOTE
Items are exemplary and subject to change. Please contact PCO
for recommendation of current systems and sell of these systems.
The use of normal consumer PCs is not recommended!
ASUS mainboards seem to fail generally during the HS-mode test
and are not recommended.
Recommended minimum configuration (or better):
•
•
•
CPU >= i7 2.5 GHz
RAM >= 1066MHz, 8GB
Mainboard ≥ Supermicro X9SRA (socket 2011)
60
A4 INTERFACES
A4.3 USB 3.0
A4.3.3 HARDWARE RECOMMENDATIONS
The pco USB 3.0 interface is based on the Cypress EZ-USB FX31
device and it is compatible to pco software such as Camware and
SDK. To run a pco USB 3.0 camera successfully the user should
consider a number of important issues that are discussed in the
following chapters.
Motherboard and Chipset Configuration
It is recommended to use a Motherboard with a state of the art USB
3.0 host controller for the onboard USB 3.0 ports. The latest
generation of USB 3.0 xHCI host controllers manufactured by Intel,
Renesas (NEC), Fresco, Via Labs, ASMedia and Texas Instruments
Inc. (TI) are tested by Cypress Semiconductor Corporation. (see
Cypress EZ-USB® FX3TM SDK Release Notes, Version 1.2.3,
chapter 1.3). Currently pco recommends only motherboards with the
following onboard xHCI host controllers:
• Renesas/NEC μPD720202 Host Controller
• Intel® USB 3.0 eXtensible Host Controller
If the motherboard does not have an onboard USB 3.0 port or the
onboard USB 3.0 port does not work properly with a pco USB 3.0
camera, please use an independent PCIe USB 3.0 extension card.
In this case, pco recommends the following:
• DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
PCIe 1x (μPD720202 host controller)
(This board is sent with your pco.edge USB 3.0 camera system as standard)
• DELOCK 89325 (U3X4-PCIE4XE101)
PCIe 4x (μPD720202 host controller)
USB 3.0 extension card with xHCI4 host controller
The following companies manufacture USB 3.0 xHCI host controller:
• Renesas Electronics America Inc. (earlier NEC),
• Texas Instrument Inc.,
• VIA Labs Inc (Diamond),
• Fresco Logic Inc.,
• Intel Inc.,
• AMD Inc. and
• Etron Technology, Inc.
NOTE
To determine suitable manufacturers of the xHCI controller,
please use the Windows Device Manager. For example, in
Windows 7 drop down the USB Controller entry and find the USB
3.0 host xHCI controller of the USB 3.0 device in the sub-tree.
Then right-click to open the properties dialog, click the details
tab, and choose Vendor in the properties pull-down box.
NOTE
USB 3.0 interface cards with controllers from Etron Technology,
Inc. have not yet been tested.
61
The following table gives an overview about tested
recommended system configurations or hardware components.
Component
Motherboard
USB 3.0
extension card
PCIe Slot
USB 3.0 Cable
USB 3.0 Hub
Operating System
Multiple pco USB
3.0 cameras
connected to a
PC
FOL adapter
and
Recommendation
There is no recommendation for a manufacturer. But
if an onboard USB 3.0 port is used, the Renesas´s
xHCI host controller μPD720202 is recommended.
• DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
PCIe 1x (μPD720202 host controller),
• DELOCK 89325 (U3X4-PCIE4XE101)
PCIe 4x (μPD720202 host controller)
A PCIe 4x, 8x or 16x slot is recommended.
USB 3.0 cable included in the packaging of your pco
USB 3.0 camera
Not recommended
Windows XP 32 Bit, Win7 32 / 64 Bit, Win8 32 / 64 Bit
A separate DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10)
extension card for each camera should be used to
guaranty maximum data throughput of each camera.
See A4.3.7
Recommended Software Components
The pco USB 3.0 driver supports Windows 7/8 (x86 or x64) and
Windows XP x86 operating systems. Microsoft does not support USB
3.0 natively for Win 7 or older Windows versions. Therefore use the
manufacturers’ supplied xHCI host controller driver. By contrast, in
Windows 8 Microsoft does provide a native generic xHCI Driver but
pco recommends using the driver from the corresponding
manufacturer of the xHCI host controller. Currently there are seven
different vendors producing USB 3.0 host controllers:
•
•
•
Renesas Electronics
America Inc. (earlier NEC)
Texas Instrument Inc.
Intel Inc.
•
•
•
•
VIA Labs Inc (Diamond),
Fresco Logic Inc.
AMD Inc.
Etron Technology, Inc.
Please make sure that the most recent driver from the manufacturer
is installed before a pco USB 3.0 camera is connected to a USB 3.0
port of your computer. The appropriate driver for the USB 3.0 port
could be loaded from the website of the manufacturer of the USB 3.0
host xHCI controller; or from the website of the USB 3.0 extension
card vendor. The current driver of the extension card included in the
packaging of your pco USB 3.0 camera is added to the pco.USB
stick delivered with each pco.edge.
.
NOTE
To determine the driver currently in use for the xHCI controller, use
the Windows Device Manager. For example in Win 7, drop down
the USB-Controller entry and find the USB 3.0 host xHCI controller
of the USB 3.0 device in the sub-tree. Then right-click to open the
Properties dialog, click the driver tab and choose driver details
Before the pco.edge USB 3.0 camera is connected to the computer
the pco USB 3.0 Driver has to be installed. (see 4.1) Please visit the
support section of our website to get the latest USB 3.0 camera
driver.
62
A4 INTERFACES
A4.3.4 USB 3.0 FAQ
Can I use USB 2.0 PC components?
If the USB Port, the USB Cable, or the USB Hub does not support
USB 3.0, a USB 3.0 PCO camera will not operate properly. The
camera will be recognized in the Device Manager as a USB 2.0
device. Operation of the PCO camera using Camware or one of the
PCO SDK camera related functions will fail and the following
message box will appear: “Please make sure your camera is
connected to a USB 3.0 port. If your camera is connected to a USB
3.0 port, please read the application note APL_USB3_xxx.pdf”.
How to identify the manufacturer of the USB 3.0 host controller?
If a driver for the onboard USB3.0 port or an independent PCIe USB
3.0 interface card is already installed, open the Windows Device
Manager. Then extend the ‘USB-Controller’ entry and find the USB
3.0 host controller of the specific USB 3.0 device in the sub-tree.
Right click to open the Properties dialog and then click the ‘details’
tab which will allow you to identify the correct manufacturer
of the USB 3.0 controller.
Why can’t the PCO USB 3.0 camera be opened with Camware or
the PCO SDK?
In case a PCO USB 3.0 camera is connected to your PC and the
Camware software starts in Demo Mode; or, the Camera Open
Function of the PCO SDK returns an error, the explanation could be:
The PCO USB 3.0 driver is not installed to your system and the PCO
USB 3.0 device is listed as “unknown device” in the Device Manager.
If so, right click the unknown device to open the properties dialog
and install the PCO USB 3.0 driver. The driver can be downloaded
from our website at http://www.pco.de/drivers/. If the PCO USB 3.0
driver is properly installed, there will be a PCO cameras entry with a
‘pco.camera with USB 3.0’ device listed in the Device Manager. ––
Another issue could be that the USB 3.0 camera is not recognized by
the OS and it does not appear in the Device Manger, meaning it is
even not shown as ‘unknown device’. In this case please refer to
Chapter 4.1 and follow the instructions provided.
Why was the PCO USB 3.0 camera not recognized by the OS?
There could be a problem with the USB 3.0 xHCI host controller of
the Motherboard or with the extension card installed in the PC.
Additionally, a bad USB 3.0 cable could be the problem.
How to increase the performance of the USB 3.0 data transfer?
To make sure the full data-throughput of the camera can be
transferred to the PC’s RAM, it is recommended to use a PCIe 4x, 8x
or 16x slot in the PC.
In the case of using Windows 8, poor performance could be caused
by the Microsoft`s automatically installed generic xHCI USB 3.0
driver. In this case please load and install the driver of the
manufacturer`s xHCI host controller.
63
If more than one PCO USB 3.0 camera is operated on a single PC,
please note that extension cards have maximum bandwidths that
with two or more cameras are being exceeded.
There exists a maximum bandwidth of an extension card, e.g. if the
DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10) PCIe 1x card is connected to a
PCIe 16x slot of the PC the effective bandwidth is about 360 MB/s. If
two PCO USB 3.0 cameras are connected to both ports of the
extension card, the accumulated data throughput of both cameras
cannot exceed this 360 MB/s maximum. In this case it would help to
use a second DELOCK 89348 (U3-PCIE1XG202-10) PCIe 1x card
connected to a
second PCIe 16x slot of the PC for the second PCO USB 3.0 camera.
How many PCO USB 3.0 cameras can be connected to and
operated with one PC? How many PCO USB 3.0 cameras are
supported by the PCO USB 3.0 driver?
The PCO USB 3.0 driver supports up to eight cameras using one PC
The USB 3.0 PCO Driver Installer does not work.
The installer will return a warning that the current OS is not
supported. The installer supports the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of
Windows 7 and Windows 8.
If the installer file is executed and a no dialog window appears:
Please try to install the driver manually using the Windows Device
Manager. Contact our support team to get the driver files for manual
installation.
The driver is correctly installed, but the USB 3.0 PCO camera does
not appear in the Device Manager:
Make sure the PCO USB 3.0 camera is ready, the power switch is
turned on, and the camera is connected to the PC.
Note that while installing the camera to the PC that during the USB
3.0 driver installation it could take a minute or more until the PCO
USB 3.0 device recognized and is available for use.
64
A4 INTERFACES
A4.3.5 INSTALLATION OF THE USB 3.0 CARD
An external USB 3.0 Host Controller Card is enclosed to each
pco.edge USB 3.0 camera.
Hardware Installation
First shut down your computer and install the USB 3.0 Host
Controller.
Driver Installation Instructions
• Within the provided installation files USB_HBA, open the folder
U3X4-PCIE4XE101, U3X4-PCIE1XE101, U3-PCIE1XG202.
NOTE
Hardware Installation must be performed by a technician, because high
voltages can occur on
the device. Always pull
the main plug before
opening the device.
• Open the subfolder Driver and run RENESAS-USB3-Host-Driver30230-setup.exe.
• If your current OS is Win7/8 and the User Account Control is
enabled, a dialog could occur asking, if you wish to launch the
setup: Accept with Yes.
•1 At first the installation is prepared.
•2 Secondly the software components are copied.
•3 Finally the installation is completed and the Delock USB 3.0
extension card can be used.
2
1
3
65
A4.3.6 RING BUFFER AND FIFO
Compared to the pco.edge cameras with Camera Link interface, the
pco.edge with USB 3.0 interface has a small internal buffer memory
integrated. Each recorded and read out image is directly transferred
to this internal buffer and subsequently the image is transmitted to
the computer, where it is either stored into the RAM or onto the hard
disk drive. There are two transfer modes available: Ring Buffer and
FIFO buffer which can be accessed via SDK function:
PCO_SetStorageMode (see SDK manual).
From user perspective the main difference between both modes
occurs, if for some reasons the USB 3.0 interface behaves slower
than its usual speed. In this case the Ring Buffer delivers faster the
most recent image than the FIFO Buffer mode, which can be helpful
for example if the image should be focused.
Ring Buffer (in camera memory-standard mode)
1
2
As described the read out and recorded image is directly
transferred into the internal buffer memory. Subsequently the
next image is stored to the next free space. For the
transmission from the camera to the computer always the
most recent image is used, which works fine in case the
computer does not do anything else than transfer images to its
internal storage memory (RAM). 1
Now, if the transmission speed of the computer system is
interrupted by e.g. software, it can happen that images get
lost, because in Ring Buffer mode the most recent image has
to be transmitted to the PC. In case of a delay in transmission,
the image in the memory, which waits for transmission will
lose its status as most recent image to the next image, and
will be disregarded for transmission. Hence this image will be
irretrievably lost. 2 Because Ring Buffer always transmits the
most recent image and therefore the most real-time
transmission, it is the ideal mode for e.g. adjustment of focus.
FIFO Buffer (in camera memory)
Like above the read out and the recorded image is directly
transferred into the internal buffer memory. Subseqently
the next image is stored to the next free space in memory.
If all the memory space is occupied the camera stops
storing. In FIFO buffer mode like name stated, FIFO =
first-in first-out, the first stored image is read-out from the
memory first and subsequently transmitted to the
computer. This as well works fine in case the computer
does not do anything else than transfer of images to its
internal storage memory.
Now, if the transmission speed of the computer system is interrupted
by e.g. software, then still the first stored image is readout, and then
the next image is read out and transmitted. However there could be a
delay time (but need not). If now the slowdown causes the FIFO
buffer to be completely filled, then the camera stops storing images
and the next image will irretrievably lost as well, but in this mode it
is lost before storing. This mode is ideal for users who need
maximum transmission security; an image loss is very unlikely.
66
A5 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
A5 BINNING IN CMOS SENSORS
Binning describes the summation of single pixels to form larger pixels
and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
Binning in CCD image sensors
The term binning comes from scientific CCD image sensors. The
prominent feature of charge-coupled-devices (CCD) is the lossless
transport or shifting of charge packages until an amplifier circuit
converts them into a voltage at the output, where the main readout
noise contribution occurs. If charge packages from two or more
pixels are added before they are read out (past the output amplifier)
because of very low light signals; this process is called binning.
Since the signal is increased before it is read out, and the image
sensor’s readout characteristics remain unchanged, binning improves
the SNR, and the image sensor’s resolution is reduced. The lossless
transport feature of CCD image sensors makes binning possible.
Binning in CMOS image sensors
In general, binning is not possible in CMOS image sensors because
voltages are processed and no charges are transported. In each
pixel, the light generated charges are converted into voltages with the
readout noise contribution of these amplifiers. Therefore, as opposed
to CCD image sensors, if these voltages were combined, the readout
noise would also be combined, which would not have the same
positive effect on the SNR.
Nevertheless, such a summation or even an averaging would be
beneficial for the SNR, but with a smaller impact compared to CCD
image sensors. Since such CMOS binning cannot be done within the
image sensor, it either has to be done in the camera or in the
computer.
NOTE
The current default
binning mode is
accumulation. Averaging is not available
within Camware.
CMOS binning 1 – accumulation: Pixel values can accumulate,
causing an effective dynamic reduction or larger number formats,
because the result might exceed the original format -- two times
maximum 8 bit values will result in a 9 bit value. This will not be a
problem if 12 bit values are accumulated and transported as 16 bit
images. However, in the case of scientific CMOS, if 16 bit values are
transmitted in 16 bit images, only two times 15 bit maximum values
are allowed. The signal of the binned pixels will be accumulated, due
to the properties of readout noise; the increase of the noise itself will
only be as big as the square root of the number of binned pixels. The
SNR will improve and in addition, a reduction of the stored image
data is achieved.
CMOS binning 2 – averaging: Pixel values can be averaged, which
has the same effect on the SNR as accumulation due to the
properties of noise. This would keep the image output format the
same and would reduce the amount of image data that can be
stored. When this type of CMOS binning is processed in the camera
it is called hardware binning. This should not be confused with real
binning in CCD image sensors, because the hardware that
processes this binning is not much different from the hardware in
computer processing. Therefore, the term hardware binning may be
misleading.
67
A6 LIGHTSHEET SCANNING MODE
4
The pco.edge Lightsheet scanning mode is a
special mode for lightsheet microscopy and only
available for Camera Link versions via SDK (not in
Camware).
Idle
It is based on Rolling Shutter mode with slow
scan rate (95.3MHz) and uses the readout mode
1
single top down (Mode E see 6.7.3).
1
Standard line time value is 40 µs 22 and it can be
set from camera specific line time (see p.6) up to
100 ms. An exposure area (between the orange
bars, e.g. five lines 3 ) can be user defined. It is
possible for the user to select the number of lines
and the exposure time per line.
3
This user-defined capability makes it possible to
synchronize the pco.edge cameras with a
lightsheet microscope that requires this method of
camera exposure timing
2
Workflow (only PCO SDK)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set Rolling Shutter mode
Set pixel rate to slow scan
Set readout format E 1
Set line timing on and the appropriate line time 2
Set number of exposure lines 3
Set number of delay lines 4
Trigger mode and acquire mode and hwio settings are free to
select by the user
SDK settings: (see SDK manual)
SC2_SDK_FUNC int WINAPI
PCO_SetCmosLineTiming
wParameter 1
wTimeBase (e.g. µs 2 )
dwLineTime (e.g. 40 2 )
SC2_SDK_FUNC int WINAPI
PCO_SetCmosLineExposureDelay
dwExposureLines (e.g. 5 3 )
dwDelayLines (e.g. 4 4 )
68
A7 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
A7 IMAGE FILE FORMATS
There are different file formats available for saving camera images
with Camware.
b16
The b16 16 bit format is similar to the bmp format. However, 16 bit
pixel values are used instead of 8 bit pixel values.
The file format consists either of a Basic Header (6 Long-parameter)
or of an Extended Header (32 Long-parameter), the latter of which is
optionally for additional information. There might follow a variable
comment field (ASCII code). Finally, there is the actual data set that is
saved linearly (as in the case of BMP files).
With the exception of the first value, all parameters are Long Integers
(4 Byte). The first 6 parameters must always exist. The rest of the
parameters, as well as the comment field, are optional.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Parameter
pcofile size
header length
image width
image height
extended header
color mode
b/w min
b/w max
b/w linlog
Function
the first 4 byte are the characters pcofile size in byte
header size + comment filed in byte
image width in pixel
image height in pixel
-1 (true), extended header follows
0 = black/with camera, 1 = color camera
black/white LUT-setting, minimum value
black/white LUT-setting, maximum value
black/white LUT-setting,
0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
red LUT-setting, minimum value
red LUT-setting, maximum value
green LUT-setting, minimum value
green LUT-setting, maximum value
blue LUT-setting, minimum value
blue LUT-setting, maximum value
color LUT-setting, 0 = linear, 1 = logarithmic
11
red min
12
red max
13
green min
14
green max
15
blue min
16
blue max
17
color linlog
18

internal use
266
Comment file in ASCII characters with variable length of 0…XX.
The length of the comment filed must be documented in the header length
field.
16 bit pixel data
line 1, pixel 1
value of the first pixel
line 1, pixel 2
value of the second pixel
…
…
We recommend that all images should be saved first in the b16
or TIFF format. The advantage is to have the b16 or tiff images
available all the time. You will always have the maximum 16 bit
information. Please note that not all image analysis programs can
accommodate 16 bit data. The 8 bit format saves only the information
displayed on the monitor screen. The 16 bit information will be lost
and cannot be displayed later.
69
pcoraw
This 16 bit pco file format is based on the new BigTIFF format, thus
allowing for file size > 4GB. A new pco proprietary compression
scheme is added in case it is necessary.
Standard File Formats
TIFF
Tag Image File Format, version 6.0 and lower. There is a 16bit
monochrome and color image format.
BMP
Windows Bitmap Format, b/w or color 8 bit format-images, which
have been saved in BMP format can be loaded later only as 8 bit
images, i.e. part of the original information (16 bit) is lost.
FTS
Flexible Image Transport System, Version 3.1. There is a 16 bit image
format. The NASA/Science Office of Standards and Technology
(NOST) has defined this format. Some programs use the FIT
extension for this format.
ASCII
16 bit format, some mathematical programs prefer ASCII data.
JPG
JPEG (named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group who
created the standard) is a commonly used method of lossy
compression for photographic images. The degree of compression
can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size
and image quality.
JP2
JPEG 2000 is a wavelet-based image compression standard and
coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts
Group committee in the year 2000 with the intention of superseding
their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard
(created 1992).
AVI
Audio Video Interleave is a multimedia container format introduced by
Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows
technology.
MPG
MPEG-1, similar to JPEG, is a standard for lossy compression of
video and audio developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group
(MPEG).
WMV
Windows Media Video (WMV) is a compressed video compression
format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft. The
original video format, known as WMV, was originally designed for
Internet streaming applications, as a competitor to RealVideo.
70
A8 CUSTOMER SERVICE
A8 CUSTOMER SERVICE
A8.1 SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
Service
The camera is designed to operate with no need of special
adjustments or periodic inspections.
Maintenance
Unplug the camera from any power supply before cleaning it.
Use a soft, dry cloth for cleaning the camera.
Do not use liquid cleaners or sprays.
The lens is best cleaned with pressurized air or with liquid cleaners
such as pure alcohol or with special optical cleaners that are
available at high quality photo stores.
Never use aggressive cleaning liquids such as gasoline, acetone,
spirits or nitro cleanser.
Every time the input window is cleaned, there is the possibility of
surface damage. Do not clean the input window unless it is absolutely
necessary. Be careful and avoid scratches and damage to the input
window surface.
Use a cotton swab dipped in pure alcohol or optical cleaning liquid
and wipe only on the glass surface. Do not get any cleaning liquid on
the metallic parts such as the lens thread, because tiny detached
particles may scratch the surface.
Always store the camera with the protective cap or with a lens
mounted to avoid dust and dirt on the input window!
Camera Disposal
The camera includes electronic devices, which can contain materials
harmful to the environment. If the camera is to be discarded, please
dispose of it in an environmentally responsible manner and use
recycling facilities, where available.
71
A8.2 TROUBLE SHOOTING
If you have a question, which is not adequately addressed in this
manual, please contact PCO or your local dealer.
To speed your request, we need the following information:
Short description of the problem
Description of your application
Camera settings
Type and version of camera
Software being used
Camera serial number
Operating system (PC)
Processor type (PC)
Memory
Graphic card
Graphic card setup
How to create a logfile:
• Enable log files: ? Help Menu → Logging → Enable Logfile
→Camware will ask you to press NO to activate Logfiles after
restart of Camware
• Repeat the workflow which produces the faults.
• Open the Help Menu and click Support Mail (+ Support File) →
Camware will ask you: Generate support file?
• Save this file (CWSupport.zip – don’t rename it) and send it to
PCO Support ([email protected])
• Or visit our website: http://www.pco.de/support/
Repair
Before sending the camera for repair, first contact your local
dealer or PCO respectively.
When shipping the camera for repair, be certain to carefully pack the
camera with proper shipping materials. If possible use the original
packaging. Use the protection cap to protect the camera on the lens
thread.
Firmware, Software and Driver Update
You will find all necessary software and drivers on the accompanying
USB storage device.
For the latest versions please check our website:
http://www.pco.de/support/supportProducts/scmos-cameras/
72
A9 INDEX
A9 INDEX
NOTE:
The mentioned page is
always the starting
page of a chapter!
Key word
Acquire mode
Binning
C-mount
Cable lengths
Camware software
Camera Link
Connection options
Contrast settings (Convert control)
Demo mode (Camware)
Dimensions
Direct record to file
Double image mode
Driver installation
Global Reset
Global Shutter
Input / Output possibilities
Interfaces
Logfiles
Lightsheet scanning mode
Live preview
Recorder modes
Recorder
Recorder memory settings
Region of interest (Sensor)
Rescan for cameras
Ring Buffer
Rolling Shutter
Safety instructions
Save / Open / Print files
Sequence trigger mode
Short cuts
Support
Time stamp
Timing
Trigger Mode
USB
Water cooling
White Balance
73
Chapter
Page
6.3.7
31
6.3.5, A5
28, 67
A2
51
A4.1
56
6
13
A4.2
57
6.3.8
33
6.3.9
35
6.7.1
40
A1
49
6.7.2
41
6.3.6
30
4.1
9
6.3.4
26
6.3.3
23
6.3.8
33
A4
56
6.7.7
45
A6
68
6.2
14
6.3.7
31
6.4; 6.6
37; 39
6.2
14
6.3.5
28
6.7.3
42
6.3.7; A4.3.6
31; 66
6.3.2
19
2
7
6.7.2
41
6.3.7
31
6.7.9
47
6.7.7
45
6.3.7
31
6.3.1; 6.3.2; 6.3.3;
6.3.4
6.3.1
16; 19; 23;
26
A4.3
61
A3
52
6.7.9
47
16
ABOUT PCO
pco.
In 1987, PCO was founded with the objective to develop and to
produce specialized, fast and sensitive video camera systems, mainly
for scientific applications. Meanwhile the product range of PCO
cameras covers digital camera systems with high dynamic range,
high resolution, high-speed and low noise, which are sold in the
scientific and industrial market all over the world.
Currently PCO is one of the leading manufacturers of scientific
cameras. Worldwide representatives, together with our own sales
department and technical support assure that we keep in touch with
our customers and their needs. The actual wide range of specialized
camera systems is the result of technical challenge and product
specific know-how. A design according to advanced techniques, a
high standard of production and strict quality controls guarantee a
reliable operation of the cameras. Our own developments in
conjunction with an excellent contact to leading manufacturers of
image sensors ensure our access to state-of-the-art CCD- and
CMOS-technology for our cameras.
Since 2001, PCO is located in its own facility building in Kelheim at
the shore of the beautiful and international river Danube. Here in the
county Bavaria, which is well known for its excellent support and
conditions for high technology companies, we share the benefits of
the simple access to high performance products and services in the
surrounding area.
Kelheim itself is a historical town, first documented in 866. The small
city is founded at the confluence of the Danube and the Altmühl,
which has been converted into the Rhine-Main-Danube bypass
channel for water transport. Located in Danube-valley, it is the heart
of a beautiful river and forest covered lime plateau landscape. It´s
landmark, the Hall of Liberation, was built by Ludwig I. in 1863 on the
Mount Michael and is visible from all over the city and valley. The
beautiful Danube-Gorge, which is protected as natural monument
since 1840, is located between Kelheim and the famous abbey
Weltenburg.
74
pco.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement