AC 21-53 v1.0 - Electromagnetic compatibility

AC 21-53 v1.0 - Electromagnetic compatibility
ADVISORY CIRCULAR
AC 21-53
Electromagnetic compatibility
v1.0 – December 2015
ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Advisory Circulars are intended to provide advice and guidance to illustrate a means, but not necessarily the only
means, of complying with the Regulations, or to explain certain regulatory requirements by providing informative,
interpretative and explanatory material.
Advisory Circulars should always be read in conjunction with the relevant regulations.
Audience
This Advisory Circular (AC) applies to:
•
•
Subpart 21.J - Approved design organisations
Subpart 21.M - Authorised persons.
Purpose
The purpose of this AC is to provide guidance on aircraft electromagnetic interference,
electromagnetic compatibility, lightning protection and high-intensity radiated fields.
For further information
For further information on this AC, contact Civil Aviation Safety Authority's (CASA’s) Airworthiness
and Engineering Standards Branch (telephone 131 757).
Status
This version of the AC is approved by the Executive Manager, Standards Division.
Version
1.0
Date
December
2015
Details
Initial version
Unless specified otherwise, all subregulations, regulations, divisions, subparts and parts
referenced in this AC are references to the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR).
AC 21-53 v1.0
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Contents
1
2
3
4
5
Reference material
3
1.1
Acronyms
3
1.2
Definitions
5
1.3
References
7
Introduction
12
2.1
Failure modes
12
2.2
Environmental testing
12
2.3
Equipment, systems and installations
13
2.4
Coupling paths
13
2.5
Aircraft RF spectrum
17
Electromagnetic interference / electromagnetic compatibility
18
3.1
Interference
18
3.2
Compatibility
18
3.3
Portable electronic devices
21
3.4
Aircraft lighting
25
3.5
Cargo tracking devices
25
3.6
Medical equipment
25
3.7
Verification
26
Lightning
27
4.1
Overview
27
4.2
Lightning environment in Australia
27
4.3
Lightning protection in equipment
32
4.4
Lightning protection in aircraft
33
4.5
Showing compliance
35
High intensity radiated fields
37
5.1
Overview
37
5.2
Factors for change
37
5.3
HIRF regulations
38
5.4
Showing compliance
39
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
AC 21-53 v1.0
Victim/source testing
HIRF environments
Level of HIRF protection
December 2015
40
45
49
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
1
Reference material
1.1
Acronyms
The acronyms and abbreviations used in this AC are listed in the table below.
Acronym
Description
AC
Advisory Circular
ADO
Approved Design Organisation
AIP
Aeronautical Information Publication
ACMA
Australian Communication and Media Authority
AMC
Acceptable Means of Compliance
APU
Auxiliary Power Unit
ATL
Actual Transient Level
ATSB
Australian Transport Safety Bureau
CAAP
Civil Aviation Advisory Publication
CAO
Civil Aviation Order
CAR
Civil Aviation Regulations 1988
CASA
Civil Aviation Safety Authority
CASR
Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998
CS
Certification Specifications
DOT
Department of Transportation (United States of America)
EASA
European Aviation Safety Agency
EMC
Electro Magnetic Compatibility
EMI
Electro Magnetic Interference
ETDL
Equipment Transient Design Level
EUROCAE
European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (of the USA)
FAR
Federal Aviation Regulation (of the USA)
GM
Guidance Material
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System
HEC
Human External Cargo
HID
High Intensity Discharge
HIRF
High Intensity Radiated Fields
IPL
Interference Path Loss
JAA
Joint Aviation Authorities (of Europe)
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Acronym
Description
JAR
Joint Aviation Requirements (of Europe)
RF
Radio Frequency
OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer
PED
Portable Electronic Device
RFID
Radio Frequency Identification
RTCA
Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
SC
Special Conditions
TCDS
Type Certificate Data Sheet
TGA
Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
1.2
Definitions
Terms that have specific meaning within this AC are defined in the table below.
Term
Definition
Actual Transient Level
The level of transient voltage and/or current that appears at the equipment
interfaces as a result of the external lightning environment.
Airworthy
An aircraft is airworthy if it is in a state that conforms with its approved design
and is in a condition for safe operation as per subregulation 42.015 (2).
Aperture
An electromagnetically transparent opening.
Approved Design
The type design for the aircraft or aircraft engine and any changes to the type
design made in accordance with a Part 21 approval as per regulation 42.015.
Attachment Point
A point of contact of the lightning flash with the aircraft.
Back Door Coupling
Radio frequency transmissions that are radiated within the aircraft and
received by aircraft electronic systems through their interconnecting wires or
electronic equipment enclosures.
Breakdown
The production of a conductive ionised channel in a dielectric medium
resulting in the collapse of a high electric field.
Coupling
Process whereby electromagnetic energy is induced in a system by radiation
produced by a radio frequency source.
Dwell Point
A lightning attachment point.
Dwell Time
The time that the lightning channel remains attached to a single spot on the
aircraft.
Electromagnetic
Compatibility
Ability of any electrical or electronic equipment to simultaneously operate
without suffering or causing adverse degradation in performance attributed to
the interaction with electromagnetic energy present in the intended
operational environment.
Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI)
Phenomenon occurring when electromagnetic energy present in the intended
operational environment interacts with the electrical or electronic equipment
causing unacceptable or undesirable responses, malfunctions, interruptions,
or degradations in its performance.
EMI Source
Source of electromagnetic energy that has the potential to interfere with the
normal operation of other electrical or electronic equipment.
EMI Victim
Electrical or electronic equipment identified as likely to be affected by
electromagnetic energy generated by other electrical or electronic equipment.
Equipment Transient
Design Level
The peak amplitude of transients to which the equipment is qualified.
External Environment
Characterisation of the natural lightning environment for design and
certification purposes.
High-Intensity Radiated
Fields
Electromagnetic environment that exists from the transmission of high power
radio frequency energy into free space.
First Return Stroke
The high current surge that occurs when the leader completes the connection
between two charge centres.
Flashover
When the arc, produced by a gap breakdown, passes over or close to a
dielectric surface without puncture.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Term
Definition
Front door coupling
Radio frequency emissions that are radiated within the aircraft, propagating
through aircraft windows and doors, and received by aircraft radio receivers
through their antennae installed on the aircraft.
Indirect effects
Electrical transients induced by lightning in aircraft conductive components
such as electric circuits.
Leader
The low luminosity, low current precursor of a lightning return stroke,
accompanied by an intense electric field.
Lightning Channel
The ionised path through the air that the lightning current pulse follows.
Lightning Flash
The total lightning event. It may occur within a cloud, between clouds or
between a cloud and the ground. It can consist of one or more return strokes,
plus intermediate or continuing currents.
Lightning Strike
Any attachment of the lightning flash to the aircraft.
Lightning Strike Zones
Aircraft surface areas and structures classified according to the possibility of
lightning attachment, dwell time and current conduction.
Pinch effect
Crumpling damage due to electromagnetic forces created by the interaction
of magnetic fields generated by lightning electrical currents.
Portable Electronic
Device
Any piece of lightweight, electrically-powered equipment. These devices are
typically consumer electronics devices functionally capable of
communications, data processing and/or utility.
Reattachment
The establishment of new attachment points on the surface of an aircraft due
to the sweeping of the flash across the surface of the aircraft by the motion of
the aircraft.
Restrike
A subsequent high current surge attachment. This normally follows the same
path as the first return stroke, but may reattach to a new location further to
the rear of the aircraft.
Shield
A conductor which is grounded to an equipment case or aircraft structure at
both ends and is routed in parallel with and bond within a cable bundle.
Similarity
Applicable to systems similar in characteristics and usage to systems used on
previously certified aircraft.
Slit effect
Pressure increases when lightning creeps through a narrow slit. This results
in a higher voltage drop along the channel. As the current does not change
the resultant power increases that cause's intense heating along the channel.
This higher temperature produces higher pressures. If the pressure is high
enough and/or the material is weakened, rigid materials can fracture.
Susceptibility
The minimum radio frequency interference level will degrade system
performance requirements when in its most vulnerable state. Susceptibility is
the lack of immunity.
Swept Leader
A lightning leader that has moved its position relative due to aircraft
movement during leader propagation.
Swept Channel
The lightning channel relative to the aircraft that results in a series of
successive attachments due to the sweeping of the flash across the moving
aircraft.
System Redundancy
The practice of implementing two or more parallel systems that can take over
for each other in the event that one has a failure.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Term
Definition
Zoning
The process of determining the location on an aircraft to which the
components of the external environment are applied.
1.3
References
Regulations
Regulations are available on the ComLaw website http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Home
Current CASA instruments are available https://www.casa.gov.au/regulations-and-policy/standard-page/legislativeand-non-legislative-instruments
Document
Title
Radiocommunications
Act 1992
Radiocommunications (Aircraft and Aeronautical Mobile Stations) Class
Licence 2006
Part 8 of the Civil
Aviation Regulations
1988 (CAR)
Radio systems for use in, or in connection with, aircraft
Part 21
Certification and airworthiness requirements for aircraft and parts
Part 23
Airworthiness standards for aeroplanes in the normal, utility, acrobatic or
commuter category
Part 27
Airworthiness standards for rotorcraft in the normal category
Part 42
Continuing airworthiness requirements for aircraft and aeronautical products
Part 174A of CAR
Visual flight rules
Part 177 of CAR
Instrument flight rules
CASA Instrument
EX102/14
Exemption – carriage of portable electronic devices during flight
CASA Instrument
EX66/14
Exemption – use of mobile phones and other electronic devices when loading
fuel
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Advisory material
ACs are available at http://www.casa.gov.au/AC
Civil Aviation Advisory Publications (CAAP) are available at http://www.casa.gov.au/CAAP
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Certification Specifications (CS) and acceptable means of compliance
(AMC) / guidance material (GM) are available at http://easa.europa.eu/regulations
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ACs are available at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/
New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority (NZCAA) ACs are available at https://www.caa.govt.nz/rules/ACs.htm
Directorate General Technical Airworthiness documents are available at http://www.defence.gov.au/dasp/
Military Standards are available at http://quicksearch.dla.mil/
SAE International publications are available at http://www.sae.org/aerospace/
RTCA Inc. publications are available at http://www.rtca.org/index.asp
European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) publications are available at
https://www.eurocae.net/publications/
Document
Title
CASA AC 21-99
Aircraft wiring and bonding
Appendix 1 to CASA AC
21-46
Existing avionics standards
Civil Aviation Order
(CAO) 20.16.3
Air service operations – Carriage of persons
AAP 7001.054
Australian Air Publication 7001.054. Electronic Airworthiness Design
Requirements Manual
Section S2C4 - Electromagnetic environmental effects
Section S5C6 - Role equipment and portable electronic devices
Aeronautical Information
Publication (AIP)
Air Services Australia - Aeronautical Information Package
AIP GEN 1.5
Aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents
AIP GEN 3.4
Communication Services
CAAP 232A-1
Administration of Aircraft & Related Ground Support Network Security
Programs
FAA AC 20-168
Certification Guidance for Installation of Non-Essential, Non-Required Aircraft
Cabin Systems & Equipment (CS&E)
FAA AC 43.13-1B
Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and
Repair
FAA AC 43.13-2B
Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices – Aircraft Alterations
FAA AC 21-16G
RTCA Document DO-160 versions D, E, F, and G, “Environmental Conditions
and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment
FAA AC 20-136B
Aircraft Electrical and Electronic System Lightning Protection
FAA AC 20-155A
Industry Documents To Support Aircraft Lightning Protection Certification
FAA AC 20-158A
The Certification of Aircraft Electrical and Electronic Systems for Operation in
the High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Environment
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Document
Title
FAA 20-164
Designing and Demonstrating Aircraft Tolerance to Portable Electronic
Devices
FAA AC 20-162
Airworthiness Approval and Operational Allowance of RFID Systems
FAA AC 20-164
Designing and Demonstrating Aircraft Tolerance to Portable Electronic
Devices
FAA AC 23.1311-1C
Installation of Electronic Display in Part 23 Airplanes
FAA AC 23.1309-1E
System Safety Analysis and Assessment for Part 23 Airplanes
FAA AC 25.1309-1A
System Design and Analysis
FAA AC 23-17C
Systems and equipment guide for certification of part 23 airplanes and
airships
FAA AC 27-1B
Certification of Normal Category Rotorcraft
FAA AC 29-2C
Certification of Transport Category Rotorcraft
FAA AC 33.4-3
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness; Aircraft Engine High Intensity
Radiated Fields (HIRF) and Lightning Protection Features
FAA AC 25-7C
Flight Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category Airplanes
FAA AC 23-8C
Flight test guide for certification of part 23 airplanes
FAA AC 21-22
Injury Criteria for Human Exposure to Impact
FAA AC 43-206
Inspection, prevention, control and repair of corrosion on avionics equipment
FAA AC 91.21-1C
Use of Portable Electronic Devices Aboard Aircraft
FAA report
Accident overview on Pan American flight 214
PED.ARC.RR.20130930
A Report from the PED ARC to the FAA
UK CAP 756
Portable Electronic Device Generated Electro-magnetic Fields on board a
Large Transport Aeroplane
UK CAP 1066
Flying with gadgets. The dos and don'ts of using mobile phones and electronic
devices on board aircraft
Joint Aviation
Requirement (JAR) TGL29
Guidance concerning the use of portable electronic devices on board aircraft
Joint Aviation Authorities
(JAA) INT POLs 23/1
JAA Interim Policy - Protection from the Effects of HIRF
JAA INT POLs 23/3
JAA Interim Policy - Lightning Protection; Indirect Effects for Small
Aeroplanes
JAA INT POLs 25/2
JAA Interim Policy - Protection from the Effects of HIRF
JAA INT POLs 27&29/1
JAA Interim Policy - Protection from the Effects of HIRF for Small and Large
Rotorcraft
TC AC 500-002
Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing of Electrical and Electronic Equipment
EASA AMC 20
General Acceptance Means of Compliance for Airworthiness of Products,
Parts and Appliances
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Document
Title
EASA Part-21/AMC/GM
AMC and GM to Part 21 Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance
Material
EASA CS-27
EASA Certification Specification Small Rotorcraft
EASA CS-29
EASA Certification Specification Large Rotorcraft
NZCAA AC 91-5
Operation of Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) During Flight Under IFR
Department of
Transportation
(DOT)/FAA/CT-89/22
Aircraft Lightning Protection Handbook
DOT/FAA/CT-86/40
Aircraft Electromagnetic Compatibility
A98H0003
Transportation Safety Board of Canada. Aviation Investigation Report: HighIntensity Radiated Fields
SAE ARP5412B
EUROCAE/ED-84A
Aircraft Lightning Environment and Related Test Waveforms
SAE ARP5414B
EUROCAE/ED-91
Aircraft Lightning Zoning
SAE ARP5415A
User's Manual for Certification of Aircraft Electrical/Electronic Systems for the
Indirect Effects of Lightning
SAE ARP5416A
EUROCAE/ED-105A
Aircraft Lightning Test Methods
SAE ARP
5583A/EUROCAE ED107A
Guide to Certification of Aircraft in a High-Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF)
Environment
SAE ARP5583A
Guide to Certification of Aircraft in a High-Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF)
Environment
SAE ARP4242A
Electromagnetic Compatibility Control Requirements System
MSG-3/2011
Operator Manufacturer Scheduled Maintenance Development
AECTP-250
NATO Standard. Electrical and electromagnetic environmental conditions
MIL-STD-464C
Electromagnetic environmental effects requirements for systems
MIL-STD-461F
Requirements for the control of Electromagnetic Interference characteristics of
subsystems and equipment
RTCA/DO-160G
EUROCAE/ED-14G
Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment
RTCA/DO-313
Certification Guidance for Installation of Non-essential, Non-required Aircraft
Cabin Systems & Equipment
RTCA/DO-294
Guidance on Allowing Transmitting Portable Electronic Devices (T-PEDS) on
Aircraft
EUROCAE/ED-130
Guidance for the use of Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) on Board Aircraft
EUROCAE/ED-81 Amd 1
Certification of Aircraft Electrical/Electronic Systems for the Indirect Effects of
Lightning
EUROCAE/ED-91 Amd 2
Aircraft Lightning Zoning Standard
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Document
Title
EUROCAE/ED-107A
Guide to certification of Aircraft in a High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF)
Environment
IEEE 802.15.1
Wireless personal area networks
Appendix F of PED ARC
Final Report
Recommendations on Expanding the Use of Portable Electronic Devices
During Flight
Mobile Architecture Lab
Technology & Research
Labs report
Safety Evaluation of Bluetooth Class ISM Brand Transmitters on board
Commercial Aircraft
Australian Transport
Safety Bureau (ATSB)
report 2004-2013
Aviation Occurrence Statistics
Bureau of Meteorology
(BOM)
BOM website
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2
Introduction
Aircraft rely on electrical and electronic equipment to provide various functions. Aircraft
equipment and associated wiring may either generate, or be susceptible to, electromagnetic
interference. This interference can couple into associated wiring and other apertures, causing
unintended consequences.
Electromagnetic fields are produced by the generation, transmission and utilisation of electrical
energy.
Electromagnetic compatibility is preserved by aircraft design specifications, equipment
environmental categories and installation compliance.
Generators of electromagnetic interference to an aircraft can come from several sources, for
example:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
lightning strikes
high intensity radiated fields (HIRF)
intentional transmitters installed on the aircraft
aircraft power sources
avionics and other electronic equipment
power generation, regulation and switching circuits
transients by switching on and off electrical equipment
electrostatic discharge.
Aircraft wiring function is to transfer data or power, but in turn can act to transfer interference.
Routing of wiring (whether through aircraft structure or shielded wiring) will have a dramatic
effect on elimination of electromagnetic interference. Deterioration at wiring termination points
can affect shields and grounds causing interference or degradation of performance.
2.1
Failure modes
2.1.1
Interference to avionic systems can cause varying function failures of the aircraft
systems. These failures can occur in both required and non-required aircraft systems. 1
2.2
Environmental testing
2.2.1
RTCA/DO-160 or EUROCAE/ED-14 testing qualifies equipment by a series of bench
tests to meet a certain environmental category rating. This environmental testing does
not qualify the equipment for automatic acceptance into any aircraft. Further verification
and testing on the aircraft may be required to address any compatibility issues. The
type of testing will depend on the aircraft design and complexity.
Note: Compatibility of equipment takes into account other installed equipment, wiring and electrical
bonding.
1
For further information on the failures and their affects see FAA AC 23.1309-1E, 25.1309-1A, AC 27-1B,
AC 29-2C; or EASA Part-21/AMC/GM, as appropriate to the aircraft type certification basis.
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2.3
Equipment, systems and installations
2.3.1
Any equipment installed (whether required or non-required) must be designed to
minimise hazards to the aircraft in the event of a probable malfunction or failure. This is
a basic design requirement in accordance with:
−
−
United States of America - Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) 14CFR2X.1309
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) - Certification Specification JAR/CS2X.1309. 2
Note: Compliance with these airworthiness design standards are mandated by Parts 23, 25, 27 and 29.
2.3.2
Whilst aircraft type certified prior to 1987 may not have verified radio frequency (RF)
immunity on the type certification basis, there may be special conditions (SC) imposed,
for example:
−
−
−
−
−
23-140-SC - Pilatus PC-12
25-147-SC - Boeing Model 737-300/-400/-500
25-ANM-66 - Saab 2000 Airplane
27-009-SC - Eurocopter EC130
29-007-SC - Eurocopter EC155.
2.4
Coupling paths
2.4.1
RF signals travelling from one point to another can be conducted on wires and radiated
through space. Radiated emissions can couple to aircraft systems through apertures in
aircraft equipment, induce currents on aircraft wires or be received by antennae
providing a direct path into the aircraft radio receivers.
2.4.2
Aircraft electrical and electronic systems are protected against the effects of
electromagnetic interference, particularly against HIRF and the effects of lightning. The
system tolerance to RF fields depends on the system criticality and its location in the
aircraft.
2.4.3
When an electromagnetic wave is reflected back on itself, the incident and reflected
wave energy will combine to form deconstructive and constructive interference. This
can result in a standing wave in which there is an intensification of the energy density
compared to the original electromagnetic wave. A closed cavity, length of wire or
perimeter of an aperture can allow multiple reflections to occur, resulting in peak
amplitudes that are larger than the incident wave.
2.4.4
Front door coupling
2.4.4.1 RF energy radiates from a device and couples directly into the aircraft radio receiver
antennae. Front door coupling applies only to aircraft radio receivers (Figure 1).
2
For further information on the conduct of system safety analysis and assessment refer to
FAA AC 23.1309-1E, 25.1309-1A, AC 27-1B, AC 29-2C; or EASA Part-21/AMC/GM, as appropriate to the
aircraft type certification basis.
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Figure 1: Front door coupling
2.4.4.2 A system's robustness to interference is verified through the qualification of the receiver
(both in band frequencies and out of band frequencies) to the relevant minimum
operational performance standard (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Front door coupling of intentional radiated emissions
2.4.4.3 Interference path loss (IPL) is the ratio of power measured at the aircraft radio receiver
input to the power measured at the output of the transmitter reference antennae
terminals (Figure 3). For most aircraft radio receivers, the IPL includes cable losses. IPL
varies rapidly with frequency and position.
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Figure 3: How IPL works
2.4.4.4 Changes to the aircraft structure can affect coupling paths and therefore have a
significant impact on IPL values. IPL measurements are not required for frequencies
operating outside the aircraft radio bands.
2.4.4.5 Assessments involving a number of individual aircrafts may be accepted by analysis if it
can be shown that their configurations (including aircraft equipment, wiring, installation
and interior configuration) are sufficiently similar.
2.4.5
Back door coupling
2.4.5.1 Aircraft communication, navigation and surveillance radio receivers are protected for
backdoor coupling by environmental qualification testing using either RTCA/DO-160 or
EUROCAE/ED-14.
2.4.5.2 RF energy radiates from a device and couples directly into the aircraft electrical and
electronic equipment or into the wiring that connects to this equipment. Back door
coupling can affect any aircraft's electrical and electronic equipment (Figure 4).
Figure 4: Back door coupling
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2.4.5.3 The potential for interference depends on:
−
−
−
−
the strength of the transmitting signal
the design of the shielding
the bonding/grounding policy for power supplies, electrical signals and associated
filtering devices
the aircraft system susceptibility at the specific frequency of the interfering
transmission (Figure 5).
Figure 5: Backdoor coupling of radiated emissions
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2.5
Aircraft RF spectrum
2.5.1
Aircraft radio communication, navigation and surveillance frequency bands are
internationally harmonised through treaties. The Australian Communication and Media
Authority (ACMA) oversights the RF spectrum usage in Australia. Table 1 summarises
these operating frequency bands currently in use in aircraft.
Table 1: Aircraft radio frequency spectrum
Receiver
Frequency (MHz)
Automatic direction finding
0.190-1.750
High frequency voice and data
2-30
Marker beacon
75
Instrument landing system - localiser
108-112
Very high frequency - communications
118-137
Instrument landing system - glideslope
329-335
Distance measuring equipment
962-1213
Mode A/C/S transponder receiver
1030
Traffic collision avoidance system interrogator
1090
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) L5/E5 band
1164-1215
Satellite communications
1530-1559
GNSS L1 band
1559-1610
Radio altimeter
4200-4400
Microwave landing system
5030-5090
Weather radar - C band
4000-8000
Weather radar - X band
8000-15700
2.5.2
The ACMA chart details all allocated radio frequency usage in Australia. This chart
includes all aircraft communication, navigation and surveillance frequency bands.
2.5.3
The Radiocommunications (Aircraft and Aeronautical Mobile Stations) Class Licence
2006, issued under the Radiocommunications Act 1992, details all frequencies in use
for aeronautical and radionavigation frequency equipment. Radio systems for use in, or
in connection with, aircraft are approved under Part 8 of the Civil Aviation Regulations
1988 (CAR) or under regulations 21.305 or 21.305A.
2.5.4
Radio systems for use in, or in connection with, aircraft are approved under Part 8 of
CAR or Part 21 of CASR.
2.5.5
Under regulations 174A and 177, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) can issue
instructions specifying radio equipment systems in the Civil Aviation Orders (CAOs),
Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) or the AIP (i.e. AIP GEN 1.5 and AIP GEN 3.4).
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3
Electromagnetic interference / electromagnetic
compatibility
3.1
Interference
3.1.1
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is the phenomenon occurring when electromagnetic
energy present in the intended operational environment interacts with the electrical or
electronic equipment, causing unacceptable or undesirable responses, malfunctions,
interruptions, or degradations in its performance. Aircraft systems may suffer from
degraded system performance by EMI.
3.2
Compatibility
3.2.1
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is the ability of any electrical or electronic
equipment to operate without suffering or causing adverse degradation in performance
attributed to the interaction with electromagnetic energy present in the intended
operational environment.
3.2.2
Addressing EMC
3.2.2.1 The designs used in an aircraft have an effect on EMC. The following factors can help
to promote EMC:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
3.2.3
equipment/wiring isolation and separation (particularly in flight critical systems)
aircraft structure conductivity
transients caused by equipment
connectors
bonding
length of wiring
shielding
power and signal returns
earthing design
dielectrics of insulation material (which can weaken with altitude)
environmental qualification (paragraph 3.2.6).
Wiring techniques
3.2.3.1 In redundant aircraft systems, or systems critical to flight safety, the operator should
consider routing wiring through separate connectors (where possible). It is also a good
practice to separately route wiring associated with flight crew alerting functions.
3.2.3.2 Inadequate bonding or grounding can lead to EMI. Sufficient bonding provides
conductive paths for electric currents.
3.2.3.3 Sensitive circuits are more prone to the effects of EMI. Separately grounding two
components of a transducer system may introduce ground plane voltage variations.
3.2.3.4 Wiring terminations placed in external areas on an aircraft are particular prone to
corrosion as a failure mode and deterioration can cause EMI if not adequately
addressed.
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3.2.3.5 For further information on EMI techniques, if not detailed in the approved design, see:
−
−
−
3.2.4
AC 21-99
FAA AC 43.13-1B
FAA AC 43.13-2B.
Airworthiness design standards - aircraft systems and components
3.2.4.1 Table 2 contains the airworthiness design standards that are applicable under the FAA
and EASA.
Table 2: Electromagnetic interference airworthiness standards
Airworthiness Standard (14CFR), Joint Aviation Regulation (JAR) or
Certification Specification (CS)
Airworthiness standard requirement
Part 23
Part 25
Part 27
Part 29
Function and installation
23.1301
25.1301
27.1301
29.1301
Equipment, systems and installation
23.1309
25.1309
27.1309
29.1309
Electrical Systems and Equipment General
25.1353
External loads
29.1353
27.865
29.865
Lightning standards - see section 4
HIRF standards - see section 5
3.2.5
Airworthiness design standards - engines
3.2.5.1 EMI requirements for engines control systems were introduced in airworthiness
standard (14CFR) 33.28 (from amendment 33-26 in 2008).
3.2.5.2 EASA has requirements for EMI protection for engines in CS-E 80 and CS-E 170 from
the initial issue in 2003. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) protection requirements for control
systems are in CS-APU 90, released in the initial issue in 2003.
3.2.6
Environmental equipment qualification
3.2.6.1 Equipment that is qualified through technical standard orders will meet a minimum
performance specification, which includes environmental testing in accordance with
RTCA/DO-160 or EUROCAE/ED-14. 3
3
For equipment qualified to older versions of RTCA/DO-160, see FAA AC 21-16G for acceptance.
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3.2.6.2 The following sections of industry standards RTCA/DO-160 or EUROCAE/ED-14 are
relevant for EMC:
−
Section 15 - Magnetic Effect: finding the closest distance to compasses or flux
valves at which that a unit is allowed to be installed
Section 18 - Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility: Power Inputs: provides
test procedures and test levels that can be used to test equipment for audio
frequency conducted susceptibility of power input lines
Section 19 - Induced Signal Susceptibility: test determines whether the equipment
interconnect circuit configuration will accept a level of induced voltages caused by
the installation environment
Section 20 - Radio Frequency Susceptibility: tests whether the equipment will
operate within performance specifications when the equipment and its
interconnecting wiring are exposed to a level of RF modulated power
Section 21 - Emission of Radio Frequency Energy: tests determine that the
equipment does not emit undesired RF noise.
−
−
−
−
3.2.6.3 Equipment that does not have environmental qualification may require further
verification as there is an assumption it may cause EMI. The category rating specified in
the environmental qualification determines the suitability of its intended installation.
Note: Additional testing beyond RTCA/DO-160 may be required following installation of equipment.
3.2.7
Victim/source testing
3.2.7.1 Victim/source testing requires observation of the behaviour of aircraft systems in a
condition as close as possible to the intended operating environment. Some systems in
an aircraft may not operate on ground and these may require verification during in-flight
testing. Ground testing should also take into account any possible interference or
reflections around the general testing area that may cause unintended results.
3.2.7.2 Interference during testing can result in false warnings of unsafe conditions. This can
lead to an increased work load for the flight crew and a reduced confidence in aircraft
systems. This human/machine interface issue can lead to genuine warnings and
cautions being ignored.
3.2.7.3 A victim/source testing is a complementary approach and should only be considered in
specific cases for which the demonstrated margins are not considered reliable or
sufficient. Rigorous testing is usually based on analytical methods based on verification
of emission levels or induced threats for HIRF and lightning. An EMI victim/source
matrix provides a means for identifying the equipment, modes of operation and potential
EMI victims.
3.2.7.4 The matrix may be populated by identifying the equipment by type or by specifying the
function performed by the equipment. The approved design, aircraft records and flight
manuals can assist in the identification of installed equipment. Each aircraft may require
further verification depending on the installed equipment present in its configuration.
3.2.7.5 Appendix 1 of CASA AC 21-46 lists avionics equipment according CASA's standard,
and provides a list of equipment that can populate a victim/source matrix. An example
of a victim/source matrix for a simple aircraft is available at Appendix A.
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3.2.7.6 Most mobile phones can output between 20 mW to 5 W. The transmitting power of a
mobile phone is dependent on:
−
−
−
traffic on the network
distance to the nearest mobile phone tower
any obstacles or attenuation in the signal path.
3.2.7.7 There is a likelihood of proximity to mobile phone towers during ground testing near
airport locations and, under these circumstances a mobile phone is likely to output a low
power signal. A mobile phone in standby mode can maintain a link to the mobile
network. Mobile phones have been identified as providing false smoke detection
warnings (Figure 6). In the tests provided in the example, severe interference resulted
in continuous smoke detector warnings and moderate interference resulted in
intermittent smoke detector warnings. It is recommended the design engineer check
warning circuits, displays and other malfunction detection systems during tests.
Examples of mitigation strategies are provided in Appendix A.
Figure 6: Example of false smoke detection identified during mobile phone testing
3.2.7.8 Bluetooth is an industry specification for short range and ad-hoc connectivity for
personal devices. The Bluetooth standard is published by the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers under standard 802.15.1. There are three different classes of
power output ranging from 100 m down to 1 m. Wireless LAN operates on the same
band between 2.4–2.485GHz. 4
3.3
Portable electronic devices
3.3.1
A portable electronic device (PED) is any piece of lightweight, electrically powered
equipment. These devices are typically consumer electronic devices that are
functionally capable of communications, data processing and/or entertainment. It is
assumed that the definition of PEDs also includes intentionally transmitting PEDs, as
consumer electronic devices generally incorporate at least one radio technology for
communication and data networking.
3.3.2
While aircraft systems are subject to Part 21 design requirements, PEDs are not
assessed to this criterion. PED manufacturers do not typically perform fault mode
analysis and airworthiness environmental testing on their products. Analysis is typically
performed on PEDs to ensure that they operate reliably on communication networks,
4
For analysis on Bluetooth transmitters see Mobile Architecture Lab Technology & Research Labs report
on Safety Evaluation of Bluetooth Class ISM Brand Transmitters on board Commercial Aircraft.
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meet market demands for customer satisfaction and meet revenue expectations.
Because detailed fault mode data is unavailable for PEDs, alternative approaches are
needed to consider worst-case scenarios.
3.3.3
There are four conditions under which PEDs could contribute interference to aircraft
electrical and electronic systems (Figure 7):
−
the PED must have RF emissions that occur at a frequency at which the aircraft
system may be susceptible
the aircraft system must be sensitive to the PED emissions at the particular
frequencies of the emissions
PED emissions must have an RF emission of a high enough field strength to
exceed the appropriate susceptibility level when measured at the appropriate point
there must be a path for the RF emissions to be radiated or conducted to the
potentially susceptible aircraft system.
−
−
−
Figure 7: Potential portable electronic device emissions to aircraft systems
3.3.4
There is usually no control over variations in characteristics of PEDs, which can result in
various RF output levels. Decreasing the sensitivity of aircraft radio is not an option, as
decreasing aircraft receiver sensitivity will cause a decrease in effective range and
performance. Operational frequencies allocated to transmitting PEDs should not
interfere with aircraft receivers however unintentional spurious radiations may cause
interference.
3.3.5
Commercial PED manufacturers test each of their products to ensure compliance with
government telecommunications regulations mandated by ACMA. The manufacturers
test for power output, modulation and frequency spectrum.
3.3.6
The results of the tests performed on each device are only valid at the time of
manufacture or repair. Once a PED leaves the factory it is no longer within a controlled
environment and there are no guarantees regarding its physical state or the correctness
of its operation.
3.3.7
Typically, PEDs are in close proximity to aircraft systems or wiring, as they are located
within the flight deck, cabin or baggage areas and potentially operate for large portions
of the flight. This results in very low path loss, increasing the path loss by using
shielding materials is generally considered impractical. The most viable option is to
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increase the RF immunity of aircraft systems. If adequate aircraft system RF immunity
is established, then the aircraft system installations are tolerant of PED emissions. With
the use of PEDs, the following are assumed:
−
−
−
3.3.8
almost one third of passengers will accidently leave PEDs on during flight
passengers will only put their PEDs into aircraft mode
passengers who will disregard instructions to switch off mobile devices.
Responsibilities
3.3.8.1 There are no CASA regulations prohibiting the use of PEDs in flight. The responsibility
for permitting the use of PEDs lies solely with the operator. The decision to allow the
use of PEDs is based on a risk based assessment of the potential for EMI with aircraft
systems.
3.3.8.2 Under subregulation 224 (2) of CAR, the pilot-in-command of an aircraft is responsible
for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight. Under regulation 309A of CAR,
an operator or pilot-in-command may give instructions limiting activity on board the
aircraft during flight.
3.3.8.3 The operator, or pilot-in-command, must not give an instruction unless they are satisfied
on reasonable grounds that the instruction is necessary in the interests of the safety of
air navigation. These instructions can require switching off any PEDs that may cause
EMI with aircraft systems.
3.3.9
Assessing PEDs
3.3.9.1 The potential for PEDs to cause EMI is assessed by one of the following methods:
−
−
−
evaluating potential EMI using RTCA/DO-294C
demonstrating aircraft tolerance EMC using RTCA/DO-307: FAA AC 20-164
conducting a safety risk assessment (see Appendix F of PED ARC Final Report).
3.3.9.2 Aircraft designed and certified after 1987 were subject to FAA and Joint Aviation
Authorities (JAA) HIRF protection requirements. Therefore, these aircraft have some
level of HIRF protection for systems with catastrophic, hazardous and major failure
conditions, which may meet RF susceptibility requirements.
Note: Appendix C lists steps to determine the level of HIRF protection applied to an aircraft.
3.3.9.3 The FAA has published extensive guidance for operators that expands on the use of
PEDs. To determine if further assessment is required see:
−
−
−
FAA InFO 13010
FAA 13010SUP
FAA AC 91-21-1C.
3.3.9.4 If PEDs cause interference with aircraft systems during flight, the types of devices
causing interference should be isolated, turned off and applicable conditions recorded.
PEDs are not subject to any form of acceptable airworthiness configuration control.
3.3.10 Stowage of PEDs
3.3.10.1 Section 9 of CAO 20.16.3 requires stowage of loose articles in flight. CASA Instrument
EX102/14 allows carriage of PEDs during flight provided they weigh less than 1 kg. This
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exemption is subject to a number of conditions as listed in the CASA Instrument, in
order to avoid the risk of injury or damage.
3.3.11 On-ground usage of PEDs
3.3.11.1 Paragraph 4.2 of CAO 20.9 requires that persons on board may not use certain
electrical equipment during fuelling operations while passengers are on board. The
electrical equipment specified in clause 4 of Appendix to CAO 20.9 refers to electrical
items that are declared or prescribed on the approval list of SAA. These electrical items
are connected to a general power outlet and are not PEDs, which are categorised by
other standards under ACMA.
3.3.11.2 CASA Instrument EX66/14 allows the use of mobile phones and other electronic
devices inside the cabin when loading fuel.
3.3.11.3 Use of mobile phones while walking can lead to increased distraction, reduced
situational awareness and increases in unsafe behaviour. CASA recommends
procedures that exercise caution using mobile phones in apron areas outside of fuelling
areas.
Note: Studies have proven that using mobile devices while walking impacts executive brain function,
working memory and influences gait to such a degree that it may compromise safety around the ramp.
3.3.12 Airborne mobile phone/internet access nodes
3.3.12.1 Dedicated access nodes allow wireless voice and/or data services to PEDs during flight.
These access nodes may interface with the ability of aircraft systems to provide
information such as location and altitude.
3.3.12.2 Testing of access nodes is required to demonstrate that the aircraft continues to remain
airworthy. This is usually achieved by completion of a safety assessment/analysis for
the system components and installation. The safety analysis should address any
possible failure effects of the access nodes on the aircraft systems.
3.3.12.3 As a minimum, the following considerations should be reviewed for all access node
components:
−
−
−
−
−
node components should not cause interference with aircraft systems
power management should be kept to the minimum required to provide service to
the occupied spaces of the aircraft
fire hazards
security of aircraft systems (refer CAAP 232A-1)
impact on crew workload for normal and abnormal access node operation.
3.3.12.4 Testing regimes should maintain an acceptable level of accuracy and repeatability.
Victim/source testing is an acceptable method (paragraph 3.2.7). 5
5
Further guidance on certification of access node installations is detailed in Appendix 12 of RTCA/DO294C.
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3.4
Aircraft lighting
3.4.1
EMI is considered a concern for light emitting diodes (LED) and high intensity discharge
(HID) lights. Unshielded wiring from the lighting system wires to lights could act as an
antenna and affect other installed equipment.
3.4.2
HID lights can be a source of EMI. Installation of lighting may require ground testing and
possible EMI shielding. Lighting may also require further verification for other lightingrelated performance specifications and installation requirements that are not within the
scope of this AC. 6
3.5
Cargo tracking devices
3.5.1
Cargo tracking devices are usually based on mobile phone technology.
3.5.2
There are no CASA regulations prohibiting the use of cargo tracking devices. Cargo
tracking devices are usually inaccessible to the flight crew during flight. It is assumed
that the flight crew cannot manually turn off these devices in the event of an emergency.
Therefore, cargo tracking devices may cause a hazard if they continue to operate
unintentionally during flight. 7
3.5.3
Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems can be installed in baggage, mail
containers, cargo devices and galley carts. These are considered passive and are
different to mobile phone devices, which use higher power transmissions.
3.5.4
Any safety assessment should demonstrate that any failures or malfunctions will not
have greater adverse impact than minor failure criticality. 8
3.6
Medical equipment
3.6.1
There are no CASA regulations that specifically prohibit the use of medical equipment.
An operator’s risk assessment and procedures need to address the security of
installation and any associated unintentional interference of medical devices during
aircraft operations. It is recommended that any small medical devices are secured
during aircraft taxiing, take-off, approach and landing.
3.6.2
Some medical equipment may come with alerts or alarms that are not normally
observed during normal operations. These functions should be evaluated to ensure
there is no unintentional interference to aircraft systems.
3.6.3
The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and ACMA specify acceptable
standards for medical devices. Equipment that is approved to standards specified by
the TGA or ACMA should come with accompanying documents from the Original
Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), which detail radio frequencies of the operation and
bandwidth. These frequencies require evaluation for possible EMI compared to known
aircraft frequencies (paragraph 2.5). If the equipment uses Wi-Fi or Bluetooth for
wireless interconnectivity, it is acceptable to use guidance in paragraph 3.3.
6
FAA AC 23-17C provides guidance on installation of non-required lights.
FAA AC 91.21-1C provides guidance on various automatic methods to switch off these devices inflight.
8
FAA AC 20-162 provides further guidance on airworthiness approval of RFID systems.
7
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3.6.4
Deviations from the OEM instructions, including any interconnections specified as any
variation, could cause EMI and non-compliance with the TGA or ACMA accepted
standard.
3.7
Verification
3.7.1
Verification that any installed equipment complies with the airworthiness design
standards is met by one or more of the following methods:
−
−
−
−
−
inspection or review
analysis
test or demonstration - ground and/or flight testing
modelling
service experience.
Note: The use of service history will require comparison to the requirements of similar in-service items or
systems. It is possible that not all in-service history will be relevant when claiming similarity.
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4
Lightning
4.1
Overview
4.1.1
Lightning strike punctures on aircraft are common. The use of software and digital
electronics in aircraft components has made aircraft more susceptible to transient
effects of induced electrical current and voltage caused by lightning. This chapter
addresses lightning strike damage that causes latent or intermittent faults in equipment,
otherwise known as indirect effects of lightning.
4.1.2
There are three types of lightning flashes:
−
−
−
discharges between cloud and ground
inter-cloud discharges
intra-cloud discharges (over 50% of lightning flashes are intra-cloud).
4.1.3
Lightning events are usually accompanied by precipitation. Due to the location of cloud,
lightning strikes are more commonly encountered by aircraft flying at less than 15,000 ft
altitude. The majority of lightning strikes occur when the aircraft is climbing or
descending within clouds, or in cloud that is near freezing point; due to lower
breakdown voltage.
4.1.4
There have been rare occasions of aircraft being struck by lightning when there was no
nearby precipitation. Piston-engine aircraft are struck more often due to the longer
exposure time in the presence of storms and the plane’s flight path being predominately
at low or intermediate altitudes.
4.1.5
Lightning may be either a positive flash or a negative flash. Positive flashes are
responsible for the highest peak current ever recorded. The positive flash usually
consists of one high current strike and lacks the restrike phase typical of negative
flashes.
4.2
Lightning environment in Australia
4.2.1
Lightning is the second most commonly reported weather-related incident according to
the ATSB. Most of the reported lightning strikes have resulted in no reported damage or
injury, and only about 10% result in an operational deviation.
4.2.2
Lightning activity is recorded from meteorological observation sites around Australia
and is commonly expressed as the number of days per year when thunder is heard.
These observations are backed up by data received from satellite based instruments.
4.2.3
Thunderstorms are most frequent over the northern half of Australia, with the frequency
generally decreasing southward. The lowest frequencies occur in southeast Tasmania.
The northern regions of Australia are prone to thunderstorms as the result of unstable
atmospheric conditions caused by:
−
−
−
−
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high surface temperatures
rapid temperature of the atmosphere with height
convergence of airstreams
high atmospheric moisture levels.
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4.2.4
There is a secondary area with a high frequency of thunder days in southeast
Queensland, through NSW and extending into north-eastern Victoria (Figure 8). 9
Figure 8: Lightning activity in Australia
4.2.5
Electric field effects
4.2.5.1 Aircraft in flight are assumed to have the electrical potential of the surrounding air,
provided there is no deterioration to the aircraft structure, bonding, surfaces or wiring.
The aircraft is conductive, the electric fields are reinforced because the airframe is an
equipotential with sharp edges resulting in a compression of the electrical field lines and
field reinforcement at all edges and extremities.
4.2.5.2 If the aircraft is near the start of the lightning strike (which is referred to as the
leader)the increased field intensity may attract the strike towards the aircraft. When the
leader advances to the point where the electric field adjacent to an aircraft extremity is
approximately 30 kV/cm, the air will ionise and electrical sparks will form at the
extremities and extend in the direction of the oncoming leader.
4.2.5.3 A group of several of these sparks is called a streamer. These usually occur
simultaneously from several extremities and will continue to propagate outward until the
electric fields drops to approximately 5 kV/cm (Figure 9). When the aircraft is attached
to the leader some of the charge, in the form of free electrons, will flow a stream of
energy towards the aircraft.
9
For further information on lightning activity including current data, see the Bureau of Meteorology
website.
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Figure 9: Aircraft interaction with a lightning leader and streamer
4.2.5.4 Lightning strikes expose equipment installed in an aircraft to electromagnetic fields.
Electromagnetic fields can penetrate through windows, seams or other apertures
(Figure 10).
Figure 10: Propagation of an electromagnetic field through a window or other aperture
4.2.5.5 The resistance of structural joints and non-metallic structures permit voltages to occur
between equipment locations in the aircraft. Sparking or arcing can occur on fasteners,
causing strong currents to flow (Figure 11). This can have hazardous effects in the fuel
tank area.
4.2.5.6 When lightning strikes, a significant part of the current may cross gaps between the
rivet and the surrounding skin or rib. The intense energy in this small gap creates arc
plasma that increases the internal pressure and blows out in the form of sparks. In the
past, accidents have been linked to rivets in fuel tanks where the rivets and surrounding
skin were melted away by hot lightning arc. 10
10
Refer to accident overview on Pan American flight 214 for further information as referenced in
section 1.3.
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Figure 11: Sparking rivets
4.2.5.7 These voltages caused by lightning strikes may damage or upset electrical or electronic
equipment. Figure 12 depicts the catastrophic failure of a surface mounted transistor
fitted on a microprocessor circuit board, caused by a lightning strike.
Figure 12: Microprocessor damage by the indirect effects of lightning
4.2.5.8 Potential hazards are increased by the reliance on computerised equipment, which are
more prone to damage due to their lower operating voltages, and composite materials
used in aircraft construction, which rely on different methods of conduction. The
proximity of components and tracks in integrated circuits is also a significant factor in
equipment catastrophic failure.
4.2.5.9 Since bonding and wiring extend throughout the aircraft, an issue can occur anywhere
in an aircraft at some distance away from a direct lightning strike. For further information
on bonding and the protection of equipment, see the approved data for the design; in
the absence of this information, refer to paragraph 4.3.11.
4.2.6
Lightning strike zones
4.2.6.1 An aircraft is moving throughout the duration of a lightning strike. This movement can
cause successive lightning attachment points on the aircraft (Figure 13). As a result,
there are some regions on the aircraft where lightning is likely to attach, and others
which are only exposed to attachment for a short duration of the lightning flash. These
regions that the lightning attaches to an aircraft are called lightning zones (refer
paragraph 4.2.6.3).
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4.2.6.2 There are a number of factors that affect the dwell time of the attachment point, such as
the aircraft speed, insulation conductivity and paint thickness.
Figure 13: Leader and return stroke attachment
4.2.6.3 There are 3 major lightning zones on an aircraft (Figure 14) 11:
−
−
−
Zone 1: likely to experience initial lightning attachment and first return strokes
Zone 2: likely to experience subsequent return stroke caused by the relative motion
of the aircraft and lightning channel
Zone 3: likely to conduct lightning current between attachment points.
Figure 14: Examples of aircraft lightning strike zones
4.2.6.4 The amount of damage to on any dwell point or attachment point on the aircraft
depends on:
−
−
−
−
11
the type of aircraft skin material
dwell time
lightning currents
any deterioration previously present on the aircraft surface.
For further information on assessing lighting zones see SAE ARP 5414.
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4.2.6.5 Indirect effects of lightning can include malfunctions such as:
−
−
−
tripped circuit breakers
computer malfunctions
physical damage to electronic equipment.
4.2.6.6 Location of components in a lightning zone will require analysis of potential failures
depending on their susceptibility to damage from lightning (see paragraph 4.3).
4.3
Lightning protection in equipment
4.3.1
Significant effects, other than what lightning strikes can generate, are magnetic field
effects and capacitive changes.
4.3.2
Induced transient current and voltages can degrade electronic system performance by
damaging components or malfunctions in system functions. Damage can occur by
breakdown of dielectric material and effects from heat on components.
4.3.3
Function upset refers to impairment of operation that is either permanent or momentary
in nature. Upsets can cause logic changes in any systems with computers or
processors causing undesirable consequences.
4.3.4
Lightning can induce dynamic forces, such as pinch effect and slit effect. Metal skins or
structures may also be deformed as a result of intense magnetic fields, which
accompany lightning currents near attachment points.
4.3.5
Parallel wires with current travelling in the same direction are mutually attracted to each
other. Lightning can draw wiring together due to dynamic forces. If a structure is not
rigid enough, pinching or crimping can occur.
4.3.6
The slit effect can occur when narrow apertures are affected by lightning. If lightning
strikes an aperture, there is an increase in pressure caused by a higher voltage across
the aperture—the higher pressure is caused by an increase in power leading to intense
heating. If the pressure across the aperture is high enough, then surrounding material
can fracture or deform. One of the threats linked to the direct strike to external
equipment is an internal voltage breakdown that could result in a massive current
injection into system parts that would not be designed for that purpose. 12
Note: Qualified equipment that is mounted externally is required to meet Section 23 of RTCA/DO-160.
12
Section 22 of RTCA/DO-160 or EUROCAE/ED-14 provides procedures for dealing with lightninginduced transient susceptibility.
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4.3.7
Category designation in accordance with section 22 of RTCA/DO-160 or
EUROCAE/ED-14 appears on the equipment qualification as shown in Figure 15:
Figure 15: Section 22 category designation for Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility
4.3.8
RTCA/DO-160 and EUROCAE/ED-14 provide further details on each of the
designations and their applicability in an installation. Responsibility exists for authorised
persons or approved design organisations under regulation 21.437 to make sure the
test results satisfy the requirements of the proposed installation and the aircraft
continues to meet the type design. 13
4.3.9
Assuming that a piece of equipment has not maintained in accordance with the OEM
instructions, it will still meet the original environmental qualification. Equipment that has
not been qualified to acceptable standards may fail to meet any lightning-related
specifications and may require further verification. A subpart 21M authorised person or
21J approved design organisations should ensure that unqualified equipment has not
compromised the aircraft type certification basis by addressing the criticality of the item
and safety of flight. Refer paragraph 4.4.7 for information on conducting a system safety
analysis.
4.3.10
The location of equipment can have an impact on lightning protection, depending on:
−
−
−
−
proximity to the surface of the aircraft or separation inboard
distance to any apertures
surrounding materials
other proximity-related issues.
4.3.11
Interconnection and wiring of equipment will determine the degree of additional testing
or analysis required. The more that unprotected wiring is used to install any equipment
in addition to the aircraft type certification basis, the greater the potential for damage to
occur. This interface includes any wiring, connectors, terminations and structure used in
the connection of the equipment to the aircraft. In the absence of OEM data, it is
recommended to use wiring practices as per AC 21-99 or FAA AC 43.13-1B.
4.4
Lightning protection in aircraft
4.4.1
The standards for aircraft electrical and electronic system lightning protection are based
on the aircraft’s potential for lightning exposure and the consequences of system failure.
An example would be legacy aircraft that were type certified at a different amendment
status, which were designed with mechanical systems or simple avionics systems. The
airframe components were made from aluminium alloys that provided electrical
conductivity and offered protection against lightning as long as there was no
13
For equipment qualified to older versions of RTCA/DO-160, refer to FAA AC 21-16G for acceptance
criteria.
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deterioration of paint or corrosion protection, and no conductivity change as a result of
corrosion.
4.4.2
Installation of new equipment into any type of aircraft may require development of a
new certification basis in accordance with regulation 21.101.
4.4.3
Table 3 shows the airworthiness design standards applicable for lightning protection on
various aircraft types. This table is applicable to FAA, JAR and EASA regulations and
CASA highly recommend that the operator check the amendment status of the
applicable airworthiness standard according to the type certificate data sheet.
Table 3: Airworthiness design standards applicable to lightning protection
Code of Federal Regulations 14CFR, Joint Aviation Requirement JAR or Certification
Specification CS
Airworthiness standard requirement
Part 23
Part 25
Part 27
Part 29
Lightning protection
25.581
Electrical bonding and protection against 23.867
static electricity
25.889
27.610
29.610
Fuel systems lightning protection
23.954
25.954
27.954
29.954
Equipment, systems and installation
23.1309
25.1309
27.1309
29.1309
Electrical and electronic system lightning 23.1306
25.1316
27.1316
29.1316
protection
Not JAR/CS Not JAR/CS Not JAR/CS Not
JAR/CS
External loads
27.865
29.865
4.4.4
There are also lightning requirements in 14CFR 33.28 for engine electrical and
electronic control systems (from amendment 33-15 in 1993). EASA has requirements
for engine lightning protection in CS-E 80 and CS-E 170, released in the initial issue in
2003. CS-APU 90 has requirements for lightning protection in APU control systems,
released in the initial issue in 2003.
4.4.5
FAA AC 20-136 and EASA AMC 20-136 provide guidance for FAA and EASA
regulations/specifications 23.1306, 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316. These regulations
require lightning protection of aircraft electrical and electronic systems with catastrophic,
hazardous, or major failure conditions for aircraft certificated under Parts 25 and 29.
CASR Parts 23, 25, 27 and 29 mandates these requirements specified under CFR or
JAR/CS.
4.4.6
The requirements also apply to Part 23 (airplanes) and Part 27 (rotorcraft) approved for
operations under instrument flight rules, which are mandated under these parts. These
categories that are approved solely for operations under visual flight rules require
lightning protection for electrical or electronic systems that have catastrophic failure
conditions. 14
14
Additional guidance on protection against lightning damage for external equipment and sensor
installations is available in SAE ARP 5577.
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4.4.7
Rotorcraft external loads
4.4.7.1 Introduced requirements for protection against EMI and lightning, so as to prevent
inadvertent load release, are available in:
−
−
Amendment 36 of 14CFR 27.865 (b) (3) (ii)
Amendment 43 of 14CFR 29.865 (b) (3) (ii).
4.4.7.2 These requirements are more stringent when human external cargo (HEC) is being
carried. Prior to these amendments, carriage of HEC was not previously addressed in
the type certification basis.
4.4.7.3 Equipment for the carriage of HEC that was installed into rotorcraft before the above
mentioned amendment status for the type certification basis may require re-evaluation.
Failure of an external hook in HEC operations is considered hazardous, as it can prove
fatal for the human cargo if the external hook releases unintentionally.
4.4.7.4 HEC requirements state the equipment must be able to absorb a minimum of 200 V/m
designated as category ’Y’ RF field strength. 15 16
4.4.7.5 For EASA certified rotorcraft, HEC requirements were required from the initial issues of
EASA CS-27 and CS-29.
4.5
Showing compliance
4.5.1
The following steps describe how an operator may comply with the requirements of 14
CFR/CS 23.1306, 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316 for their aircraft’s electrical and
electronic systems, in accordance with guidance material detailed in FAA AC 20-136B
or EASA AMC 20-136. The operator must do the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Identify systems:
i. identify systems to be assessed
ii. address failures that may cause or contribute to an adverse effect on the
aircraft – this should cover all aircraft operating modes, stages of flight and
operating conditions
iii. identify lightning-related failure conditions and their subsequent effect on
aircraft operations and the flight crew
iv. conduct safety assessment as per FAA ACs 23.1309-1, 25.1309-1, 27-1 or 292C, or EASA AMC 25.1309.
Determine the lightning strike zones for the aircraft as per FAA AC 20-155 or EASA
AMC 20-136.
Establish the aircraft lightning environment for each zone.
Determine the lightning transient environment associated with the systems.
Establish equipment transient design levels (ETDLs - as determined by SAE
ARP5415) and determine/specify the ETDL that defines the voltage, current and
waveforms that the systems, wiring, structure and equipment must withstand
without any adverse effects. The margin between the ETDLs and the actual
15
In accordance with RTCA/DO-160G or EUROCAE/ED-14.
Further guidance for this information is provided in section 27.865B of FAA AC 27-1 and FAA AC 29-2C
depending on the type of rotorcraft.
16
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f.
g.
h.
transient levels (ATLs - as determined by SAE ARP5415) then must be established
(see Figure 16). 17
Determine the lightning transient environment associated with the systems.
Verify compliance to the requirements. The ETDL should exceed the ATL.
Verification may be accomplished by test, analysis or demonstrating similarity.
Take corrective measures (if needed).
Figure 16: Margin between ETDL and ATL
4.5.2
Similarity
4.5.2.1 CASA may accept compliance demonstrated by similarity. To use similarity, the
operator should assess the aircraft, wiring, and system installation differences that can
adversely affect the system susceptibility. When assessing a new installation, the
operator should consider differences affecting the internal lightning environment of the
aircraft and its effects on the system.
4.5.2.2 Similarity can be used for credit in showing compliance only when:
−
−
minor differences have been introduced since the previously certified aircraft and
system installation
there are no unresolved in-service history of problems related to lightning strikes for
the previously certified aircraft.
17
The ATL is the actual voltage, current and waveforms generated by the aircraft, as determined by test,
analysis or similarity.
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5
High intensity radiated fields
5.1
Overview
5.1.1
The electromagnetic HIRF environment results from transmission of electromagnetic
energy from radar, radio, television, and other ground-based shipborne or airborne RF
transmitters. This environment has the potential to adversely affect the operation of
aircraft electrical and electronic systems.
5.1.2
HIRF transmitters are typically very high power transmitters in specific geographic
locations, usually at some distance to the aircraft. The exposure time for HIRF is
typically only for a few seconds.
5.1.3
The HIRF environment has been divided into four distinct environments. External HIRF
emitters are classified in the following environments:
−
−
−
−
airport
non-airport ground
shipboard
air-to-air.
5.2
Factors for change
5.2.1
External HIRF environments did not pose a significant threat to earlier generations of
aircraft. However, in the late 1970’s, proposed designs for civil aircraft included flightcritical electronic controls, electronic displays, and electronic engine controls similar to
those used in military aircraft. These systems are more susceptible to the adverse
effects of operation in the HIRF environment.
5.2.2
Accidents and incidents involving civil aircraft with flight-critical electrical and electronic
systems have highlighted the need to protect critical aircraft systems from HIRF.
5.2.3
Concern for the protection of aircraft electrical and electronic systems has increased
substantially in recent years due to:
−
−
−
−
−
−
5.2.4
a greater dependence on electrical and electronic systems to perform functions
required for the continued safe flight and landing of aircraft
reduced electromagnetic shielding afforded by some composite materials used in
aircraft designs
increased susceptibility of electrical and electronic systems to HIRF because of
increased data bus or processor operating speeds, higher density integrated
circuits and cards, and greater sensitivities of electronic equipment
expanded frequency usage, especially above 1 GHz
increased severity of the HIRF environment due to an increase in the number and
power of RF transmitters
adverse effects experienced by some aircraft when exposed to HIRF.
In the example in Figure 17, a temporary restriction was issued for an area around
Tidbinbilla ACT, where a high-powered ground-based transmitter for space
communication was exceeding HIRF limits during 2 days of trial operations.
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Figure 17: Example of temporary HIRF restriction
5.3
HIRF regulations
5.3.1
Since 1986, the FAA has required operators to comply with HIRF requirements. Before
this, HIRF special conditions were applied to systems whose failure or malfunction
would prevent continued safe flight and landing of the aircraft.
5.3.2
For European type certified aircraft, the majority of aircraft certified since 1989 have
certified to JAA/EASA to meet HIRF by special conditions, which requires compliance
for major, hazardous and catastrophic failure conditions.
Note: Appendix C includes a procedure to determine the level of HIRF protection that should be applied
to an aircraft.
5.3.3
The FAA issued HIRF regulations under FARs Parts 23, 25, 27 and 29 in 2007. Table 4
lists applicable FAA regulations.
Table 4: HIRF airworthiness standards in FAA Parts 23, 25, 27 and 29
14CFR, JAR or CS
Airworthiness standard requirement
Part 23
Part 25
Part 27
Part 29
HIRF Protection
23.1308
25.1317
27.1317
29.1317
Equipment systems and installations
23.1309
25.1309
27.1309
29.1309
5.3.4
EASA has only amended the certification specification to introduce HIRF requirements
into regulation 25.1316 (introduced in JAR-25 Change 15). EASA relies upon
certification review items to introduce special conditions and interpretative material
based on JAA INT POLs 23/1, 23/3, 25/2, 25/4, 27 and 29/1. 18
18
Referring to the draft JAA NPAs, AMJ 20.1317 and EUROCAE Documents ED-81, ED-84, ED-91.
EASA is in the process of updating the certification specifications.
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5.4
Showing compliance
5.4.1
The following activities are established steps for HIRF certification as per FAA AC 20158A or EASA AMC 20-158:
−
−
−
−
−
identify the systems requiring HIRF assessment
establish the applicable aircraft external HIRF environment (see Appendix B)
establish the test environment for installed systems
apply the appropriate method for HIRF compliance verification
verify HIRF protection effectiveness.
Note: Further information is provided in industry standard documentation SAE ARP 5583A/EUROCAE
ED-107A.
5.4.2
HIRF compliance plan
5.4.2.1 The HIRF compliance plan should be discussed with, and submitted to, either CASA, an
authorised person or an approved design organisation (ADO) for approval before
initiating HIRF compliance activities.
5.4.2.2 If the aircraft, system, or installation design is modified after approval, a revised HIRF
compliance plan should be submitted for re-approval (to CASA, an authorised person or
an ADO). The HIRF compliance plan should include the following:
−
−
−
−
HIRF compliance plan summary
identification of the aircraft systems, with classification based on the safety
assessment as it relates to HIRF
HIRF environment for the aircraft and installed systems
verification methods (i.e. test, analysis, or similarity).
5.4.2.3 Test, analysis and similarity in HIRF compliance are all acceptable approval methods
that can be used in preparing an HIRF compliance plan.
5.4.3
Similarity
5.4.3.1 Similarity reports should document the aircraft, equipment and installation features that
remain unchanged between the previously certified system and the proposed
installation.
5.4.3.2 The operator must identify all significant differences encountered, along with an
assessment of the impact of these differences on HIRF compliance.
5.4.3.3 Similarity may be used as the basis for system-level verification without the need for
additional integrated system testing, provided there are no unresolved in-service HIRF
problems related to the previously certified system.
5.4.3.4 If there is uncertainty about the effects of the differences, then additional tests and
analyses should be conducted by subpart 21M authorised persons or subpart 21J
approved design organisations as necessary and appropriate to resolve the uncertainty.
The extent of additional testing should be commensurate with the degree of difference
identified between the proposed new system and the system previously certified.
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Appendix A
Victim/source testing
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A.1
Victim/source test
A.1.1
Plan conditions
A.1.1.1 The scope of the victim/source test plan should be defined such documents as:
−
−
−
the aircraft type certification basis
subsequent modification
alteration (as per engineering drawings, aircraft flight manuals or aircraft records).
Note: Appendix 1 of AC 21-46 contains a detailed list of avionics equipment and their relevant standards.
A.1.1.2 The aircraft ground test should represent as close to flight conditions as practical. A
comprehensive ground test may reduce or eliminate the requirements to conduct a flight
test. A check flight may be required if the equipment or function is not operable on
ground (e.g. weight on wheels function).
A.1.1.3 Acceptable requirements for a test plan are:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
The victim/source test plan should specify the relevant test conditions and
assumptions for conducting the test. The operator must identify any prerequisite or
aircraft preconditioning for conducting the test.
Select test conditions on the basis of establishing a test environment that will
reasonably likely reveal any EMI.
Verify the correct functioning of all the electrical and electronic equipment before
commencing the victim/source test.
Close aircraft doors and windows during the victim source testing. This is to provide
the similar conditions of apertures that are representative of the aircraft in flight.
Close all normally closed circuit breakers that are representative of inflight
condition.
Avoid using ground support equipment (where practical) to provide a realistic
operating environment as possible.
During the victim/source test use:
o the aircraft engine(s)
o auxiliary power unit(s) (when installed)
o aircraft electrical systems
o aircraft hydraulic power systems
o any installed aircraft environmental control systems.
Note: Ground power units may have poor output quality which can affect tests.
−
−
−
AC 21-53 v1.0
The normal practice for communication and navigation equipment is to select three
test frequencies:
o one at the lower end
o one at mid-range
o one at the higher end of the operating range.
Use additional test frequencies where there are potential susceptibility issues (refer
paragraph 2.5) for aircraft avionics systems frequency spectrum, emergency
frequencies (e.g. 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz) and where harmonic components are
known to exist.
Aircraft control settings should be in positions that are representative of inflight
conditions (where practical).
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−
A.1.2
Locate the site for conducting victim/source test away from large reflecting surfaces
such as buildings or other aircraft.
Victim/source testing equipment
A.1.2.1 The operator should identify all test equipment required for the purpose of the
victim/source test. This includes:
−
−
−
−
−
−
any ramp equipment
test setup
stands
any lighting required
specialised equipment
any commercial testing equipment.
A.1.2.2 The operator should identify equipment considered as EMI source and EMI victim. The
use of a tailored matrix specific to the actual aircraft configuration to assist testing and
record results is recommended (Table 5).
A.1.2.3 It is possible that equipment is both a victim and a potential source EMI. It is
recommended that the operator list equipment by ATA chapter number (or in the same
manner the OEM uses) to provide a cross references to various operational tests in the
aircraft maintenance manual.
Note: Engineering judgement can reduce the number of source/victim pairs when conducting a test.
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Table 5: Example of a victim/source matrix
Victims
A
B
C
D
E
F
ATA 22
ATA 23
ATA 31
ATA 34
ATA 73
ATA 77
Sources
Equipment A
N/A
• Function 1
in equipment A
N/A
• Function 2
in equipment A
N/A
• Function 3
in equipment A
etc.
N/A
Equipment B
N/A
Equipment C
N/A
Equipment D
N/A
Equipment E
N/A
Equipment F
N/A
A.1.2.4 To determine that no significant conducted or radiated interference exists, the operator
must individually operate, switch on/off, cycle or exercise each electrically operated
piece of equipment and system identified in the plan.
A.1.2.5 The operator must record results of operation during the test, including:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
A.1.3
successful operation
upsets
circuit breaker disconnection
changes in state
autopilot disconnect (if fitted)
warning/caution/status annunciations
flags or any failure.
Victim/source test report
A.1.3.1 The victim/source test report should detail the following:
−
−
−
AC 21-53 v1.0
details of personnel who carried out the test
equipment used
environmental conditions
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−
−
−
−
test location
date
aircraft registration
aircraft serial number.
Note: CASA can request this report in accordance with regulation 21.455.
A.1.3.2 The operator must provide an assessment of the results, evaluated with respect to the:
−
−
criticality of function performed by the equipment
pilot workload i.e. does the equipment recover automatically or is pilot action
required?
possible phase of flight that EMI could occur—problems identified on the ground
may behave differently inflight
severity of effects—whether there is nuisance or misleading information presented
to the pilot
presence of any other factors considered relevant to the safe operation of the
aircraft
−
−
−
−
EMI found to pose an adverse effect will require possible corrective action and
retesting (corrective action is not always practical). Appropriate mitigation can
include:
o
o
o
aircraft flight manual revision
prohibition during certain phases of flight
placarding, or other CASA acceptable methods.
Note: A re-engineering solution is preferable to flight operations procedures.
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Appendix B
HIRF environments
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B.1
Certification - HIRF environment I
B.1.1
Emitter databases from the United States together with designated minimum distances
were used to calculate the values of field strengths for the various operating
environments. The average field strength is based on the maximum average field
strength (peak output power of the transmitter times the maximum duty cycle times the
antenna gain) for the frequency range. All the measurements or calculations of the field
strength were derived from power density then converted to linear volts per metre.
B.1.2
Certification HIRF environment I serve as test and/or analysis levels to demonstrate that
the aircraft and its systems meet the certification requirements (Table 6).
Table 6: Certification HIRF environment I
Frequency
Field strength (linear volts per metre)
Lower limit
Upper limit
Peak
Average
10 kHz
2 MHz
50
50
2 MHz
30 MHz
100
100
30 MHz
100 MHz
50
50
100 MHz
400 MHz
100
100
400 MHz
700 MHz
700
50
700 MHz
1 GHz
700
100
1 GHz
2 GHz
2000
200
2 GHz
6 GHz
3000
200
6 GHz
8 GHz
1000
200
8 GHz
12 GHz
3000
300
12 GHz
18 GHz
2000
200
18 GHz
40 GHz
600
200
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B.2
Normal - HIRF environment II
B.2.1
The normal HIRF environment is the electromagnetic field strength level in the airspace
on and about airports in which routine departure and arrival operations take place. It
does not include the shipboard or air to air intercept environments and Table 7 includes
the frequency ranges and field strength values in volts per meter.
Table 7: Normal HIRF environment II
Frequency
Field strength (Volts per metre)
Lower limit
Upper limit
Peak
Average
10 kHz
500 kHz
20
20
500 kHz
2 MHz
30
30
2 MHz
30 MHz
100
100
30 MHz
100 MHz
10
10
100 MHz
200 MHz
30
10
200 MHz
400 MHz
10
10
400 MHz
1 GHz
700
40
1 GHz
2 GHz
1300
160
2 GHz
4 GHz
3000
120
4 GHz
6 GHz
3000
160
6 GHz
8 GHz
400
170
8 GHz
12 GHz
1230
230
12 GHz
18 GHz
730
190
18 GHz
40 GHz
600
150
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B.3
Rotorcraft severe - HIRF environment III
B.3.1
The rotorcraft severe HIRF environment is derived from a worst case estimate of the
electromagnetic field strength levels in the airspace in which rotorcraft flight operations
are permitted (Table 8). Environment III was established to allow rotorcraft to fly and
hover closer to obstacles and the ground during operations.
Table 8: Rotorcraft severe HIRF environment III
Frequency
Field strength (Volts per metre)
Lower limit
Upper limit
Peak
Average
10 kHz
100 kHz
150
150
10 0kHz
400 MHz
200
200
400 MHz
700 MHz
730
200
700 MHz
1 GHz
1400
240
1 GHz
2 GHz
5000
250
2 GHz
4 GHz
6000
490
4 GHz
6 GHz
7200
400
6 GHz
8 GHz
1100
170
8 GHz
12 GHz
5000
330
12 GHz
18 GHz
2000
330
18 GHz
40 GHz
1000
420
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Appendix C
Level of HIRF protection
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C.1
Level of HIRF protection
The following procedure may assist the operator to determine the level of HIRF protection
applied to an aircraft:
1. Find the Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) for the make and model of aircraft being
assessed.
2. Check the type certification basis for the aircraft make and model. Does the certification basis
include Amendment Nos. 23-57, 25-122, 27-42 or 29-49?
YES – The aircraft incorporates the necessary HIRF certification levels. No further
review is necessary unless the aircraft has been modified or repaired and the
possibility exists that it no longer complies with the above amendment.
NO – Proceed to step 3.
3. Search the TCDS for HIRF special conditions.
Is there an HIRF special condition listed for the make and model?
YES – Record the number of the special condition. Review the special condition to
ensure it covers electrical and electronic systems. If it does, proceed to step 6. If not,
proceed to step 5.
NO – Proceed to step 4.
4. Is there a HIRF special condition applicable to aircraft electrical and electronic systems for the
make and model of aircraft?
YES – Record the number of the special condition and return to the TCDS for your
make and model. Search the TCDS to verify that the special condition is listed for your
aircraft. If it is, proceed to step 6.
NO – Proceed to step 5.
5. Is there a HIRF special condition applicable to a specific critical electrical or electronic system
on the make and model of aircraft?
YES – Record the number(s) of the special condition(s), and the system(s) covered.
Proceed to step 6.
NO – Proceed to step 7.
6. Review the critical aircraft systems to determine if any electrical or electronic system(s) was
type-certificated with a Hazard Class (failure condition) of ‘Catastrophic’.
Does a special condition cover the critical system(s)?
YES – The critical systems are adequately covered for PED tolerance to back-door
interference. No further review is necessary unless the aircraft has been modified or
repaired and the possibility exists that it no longer complies with the above
amendment.
NO – Proceed to step 7.
7. The critical systems for the aircraft cannot be determined to be PED tolerant to back-door
interference based on HIRF certification. Testing and analysis for critical systems (those certified
with a catastrophic failure effect) to ensure PED tolerance to back-door interference must be (or
have been) accomplished.
AC 21-53 v1.0
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