CM3185 How to Add Dynamic and Speed

CM3185 How to Add Dynamic and Speed
Application Note
How to add a Dynamic and a Speed
measurement point to a machine in
the SKF @ptitude Observer 9.1
By Ronny Sjoberg • SKF Condition Monitoring Center – Lulea
Introduction
Different types of measurement points can be added to a machine depending on the application. This application note will focus on how to
add and configure an analogue vibration point called Dynamic and a digital measurement point called Speed, to be able to collect vibration data and the rotational speed from the machine Fan 2, see Figure 1.
Dynamic based measurement
points for collecting of vibration
spectra, time waveform, etc.
Trend based measurement points
for collecting of process data, like power
in kW and rotational speed of a shaft.
Figure 1. Dynamic and Trend based measurement points in the SKF @ptitude Observer 9.1.
There are four main steps each to configure a Dynamic and a Speed measurement point, to be able to collect vibration data and rotational
speed on a machine in the on-line system SKF @ptitude Observer / SKF Multilog IMx-S. The first step is to initiate an SKF Multilog online system IMx-S unit and to upload the latest firmware (FW). In the second step an analogue and a digital channel are initiated in the
SKF Multilog IMx-S unit. When the first two steps are completed, a machine can be created in the hierarchy tree in the software SKF
@ptitude Observer. And finally, in the fourth step an analogue measurement point called Dynamic and a digital measurement point called
Speed, will be added to the machine Fan 2 in the hierarchy tree. These steps also applies on the other SKF Multilog IMx models: -B, -C, -P,
-T, and -W.
When measurement data have been stored on the Fan 1 in the SKF @ptitude Observer, the hierarchy tree will show the corresponding
alarm status for each machine including the measurement points, see Figure 2. The red icon in the hierarchy tree indicates the alarm status
DANGER, the yellow icon indicates the status WARNING, and the green icon indicates that status of the measurement point is OK (i.e. the
vibration level is below the actual alarm levels).
NOTE! Each SKF Multilog IMx-S 16 has four software controlled relay driver outputs labelled as Dig1 OUT to Dig4 OUT, and the SKF Multilog IMx-S 32 has eight. Please refer to the user manual for the other SKF Multilog IMx-models.
The icon question mark in the hierarchy tree, indicates status unknown for some of the measurement points. This icon is visible for example when a machine has been shut down for maintenance for some time, which results in that measurement data has not been able to be
collected according to the normal schedule defined by the user.
NOTE! Refer to the SKF @ptitude Observer manual to learn more about all the status icons that can be displayed in the hierarchy tree.
NOTE! See the application note CM3174
to learn how to tag measurement
points in the hierarchy tree.
}
}
Digital
points
Dynamic
points
Machine Fan 1 including measurement
points.
NOTE! See the application note CM3190
to learn how to detect the rotational direction of a shaft by using
the point "Time difference".
Figure 2. The machine Fan 1 including measurement points are highlighted in the hierarchy tree.
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Content
Section 1: Initiate the SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-S unit No. 21 and upload the latest firmware (FW)
Section 2: Configure an analogue and a digital channel on the SKF Multilog IMx-S unit No. 21
Section 3: Adding the belt driven machine Fan 2 to the hierarchy tree
Section 4: Adding an analogue Dynamic and a digital Speed measurement point to the belt driven machine Fan 2
Procedure
Section 1: Initiate the SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-S unit No. 21 and upload the latest
firmware (FW)
Before starting to add measurement points to a machine in the hierarchy tree in Figure 2, an SKF Multilog On-line System and channels
has to be initiated. In this example an SKF Multilog IMx-S device was selected. To select this device, go to On-line in the main menu and
select IMx/MasCon devices in Figure 3. The IMx/MasCon devices window in Figure 4a will be opened.
Figure 3. Indicates a SKF Multilog IMx-S device.
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Analogue channels for
the IMx-S unit No. 20.
IMx unit
No. 20
Press on the Initiate button
highlighted in blue to add the
new IMx device No. 21.
}
Figure 4b. Select the option a new IMx.
The digital channel No. 1 for tracking of
the rotational speed of the motor shaft.
Figure 4a. Initiating an SKF Multilog IMx-S device in the IMx/MasCon devices window.
Press on the Initiate button in BLUE in Figure 4a, to initiate a new IMx device. The
New device window in Figure 4b will be
opened. Select the option IMx, and then
press OK. The IMx window in Figure 4c will
automatically be opened.
In the IMx window the user shall configure the IMx device by:
• Set a unique Number of the IMx device
and select a Model. In this case an IMx-S
device was chosen. The unit no. of the
IMx-S was set to 21 and the Name of the
IMx unit was IMx-S 21.
• Enabled the IMx-S unit!
• In this case the Reference time was set
to 1 AM. Every day at this time, the IMx
device will automatically store a vibration
spectrum on all the activated vibration
points on the machine / machines, and
then according to the configured schedule
on each point.
• Press then on the OK button in Figure 4c
to save the settings. The SKF Multilog
IMx-S unit No. 21, can now be seen in
the IMx/MasCon devices window in Figure 4d.
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Type the name
of the IMx-unit
Figure 4c. The configuration of the new IMx device No. 21.
NOTE! Always make sure that the latest
firmware (FW) is uploaded to the
SKF Multilog On-line System
IMx-S unit. By pressing on the
Firmware button highlighted in
RED, see Figure 4d, the On-line
device firmware window in Figure
5a will be opened. In this window
the user can check that the SKF
Multilog On-line System IMx-S
device has the latest (FW) or not. In
this case the SKF Multilog On-line
System IMx-S had an old firmware
version i.e FW 1.1.
The IMx-S No. 21 has
been added as a device.
Figure 4d. The new IMx-S device No. 21 has been added to list of Devices.
In this case an old version was installed i.e. version 1.1. The latest
firmware can always be downloaded from the DASHBOARD in
Figure 5b.
The firmware is downloaded to the IMx device, when
the device connects to the Server software.
NOTE! To force a download of a new firmware, always
restart the IMx device.
Figure 5a. The On-line device firmware window.
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SKF @ptitude
Observer service
patches are available for download
to upgrade to the
latest version of
the SKF @ptitude
Observer 9.1.3.
IMx
Firmware
version 2.0.
Figure 5b. The latest IMx firmware and Application notes can always be downloaded from the
Dashboard.
Select the option
download.
Figure 5c. The Observer version history window.
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The latest firmware for the SKF Multilog IMx
and service patches for the SKF @ptitude
Observer software can always be downloaded from the Dashboard in Figure 5b.
At this point of time the latest firmware
(FW) for the IMx unit was 2.0, and the latest
version of the SKF @Observer software was
9.1.3.
To upgrade to the latest firmware, press
on any of the Read more button in Figure
5b to open the Observer Version History
window in Figure 5c.
Then select the option Downloads in
Figure 5c, to open the window SKF
@ptitude Observer Service patches, see
Figure 5d.
Continue to scroll down in Figure 5d, to go
to the section Firmware as shown in Figure
5e. Then press on the option Download to
download the file IMx Version 2.0 (i.e. file
name: IMx2.0) to your desktop.
Figure 5d. To download the latest Service patches in the SKF @ptitude Observer.
Figure 5e. Download the latest IMx Firmware version 2.0 in SKF @ptitude Observer.
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The window in Figure 5f will be opened.
Select the option Save as to save the file.
The window Save as in Microsoft Windows
will be opened, see Figure 5g. Press on the
Save button in Figure 5g to save the file. In
this case the file IMx-2.0 was stored in the
folder Downloads on the computer, see
Figure 5g.
Figure 5f. Select the option Save as.
File name: IMx-2.0.
Figure 5g. The IMx firmware file IMx-2.0 was saved in the folder Downloads.
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Section 2: Configure an analogue and a digital channel on the SKF Multilog IMx-S unit No. 21
The configuration of the analogue vibration channel No. 1 for the measurement point Motor NDE.
To add the analogue vibration channel No. 1 to the machine Fan 2, select the IMx-S device No. 21 in Figure 4d and then press on the
Initiate button in GREEN in the IMx/MasCon devices window. The window for configuring an analogue channel will be opened, see Figure
6a.
Analogue channel
number No. 1.
Enable the channel.
The Sensitivity for the sensor
was to 100 mV/g. The Zero
level is normally set to zero
for a vibration sensor.
Figure 6a. The configuration of the analogue channel No. 1 Motor NDE.
• Select a channel: In this case the analogue channel No. 1 was selected.
• The name of the measurement point: Give the measurement point a proper name. In this case the point was called Motor NDE.
• Enable the measurement point. No data will be stored if the point is disabled.
• Senor type: Accelerometer (g)
• Cable check: The selected vibration sensor was an SKF CMSS 2200 accelerometer. The bias voltage for this sensor is around 12000 mV,
resulting in that the Cable check setting for this sensor was set to 10000 to 14000 mV.
• Sensivity: The sensitivity for the selected vibration accelerometer SKF CMSS 2200 was 100 mV/g.
NOTE! Refer to the SKF Multilog On-line System IMx-S user manual to correctly configure the DIP-switch settings on the IMx-board
for this sensor.
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The configuration of the digital channel No.
1 for the measurement point Rot. Speed 1.
To add a digital channel, press on the
Initiate button in BLUE in Figure 4d. The
window in Figure 6b will be opened.
In this case the digital channel No. 1 was
selected. The clutch can be the place on the
shaft where the tachometer is installed,
unless you want to do simultaneously
measurement. Set the number of pulses
during one revolution of the shaft. In this
case the clutch had eight bolts, resulting in
eight pulses/rev.
NOTE! When collecting simultaneously
vibration and phase measurement
data, only one pules per revolution
can be used on the shaft. Refer to
the Application Note CM3211.
Figure 6b. The configuration of the digital channel No. 1.
Analogue channel
No. 1 Motor NDE.
IMx-S unit No. 21.
Digital channel No. 1
Rotational speed.
Figure 6c. An analogue and a digital channel have been added to the IMx-S unit No. 21.
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An analogue and a digital channel have
been added to the IMx-S No. 21. These two
channels are now visible in the IMx/MasCon
devices window in Figure 6c. Refer to the
IMx-S User Manual regarding how to configure the DIP-switches on the IMx board
for your selected sensors.
Section 3: Adding the belt driven machine Fan 2 to the hierarchy tree
To create a new machine Fan 2, right click
on the plant Paper mill and select the
option Add in first drop down list. A second
drop down list will now be visible, see Figure 7.
By selecting the option Machine in the
second dropdown list, the New machine
window in Figure 8 will be opened.
Select the option Blank machine and
press on the OK button. The Machine properties window in Figure 9a will be opened.
Select the option
Machine in the
second drop
down list.
Figure 7. Adding a belt driven machine called Fan 2.
Figure 8. Select the option Blank machine.
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In this window the user shall configure the
tabs, see Figures 9a-9d.
Name: Fan 2.
Description: Belt driven fan.
Machine code: FL 3143.
ISO Class: II (only
for information).
Figure 9a. General tab – Name, description, machine code and ISO class.
Figure 9b. Extended information tab – Manufacturer / type for driving unit, driven unit and transmission.
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• General
• Extended information
• Diagnosis
• Attachments
• Advanced
These tabs are self-explaining except the
Diagnoses tab in Figure 9c and the
Advanced tab in Figure 9f.
Diagnoses are assigned to measurement
points on a machine. The diagnose rule
Bearing Motor NDE has been attached to
the measurement point Motor NDE, see
Figure 9c. The three other diagnosis rules
in Figure 9c, can also be added to both the
measurement points Motor NDE and Motor
DE.
Diagnose Bearing
Motor NDE.
By checking the check box in RED,
the diagnose Bearing Motor NDE
has been added to the measurement point Motor NDE.
Figure 9c. Diagnosis tab – Add standard and private diagnosis rules to the vibration measurement
points.
NOTE 1: The diagnoses tab has to be configured after a Dynamic measurement points have been created.
NOTE 2: To be able to add a machine part
to a diagnose rule, the machine
part tool has to be configured.
Refer to the Application Note
CM3213 to learn how to build the
Machine parts.
NOTE! Refer to the following application
notes:
• CM3203 Machine diagnostics – Standard
rules
• CM 3218 Machine diagnostics – Private
rules
These application notes can be downloaded
from the in the Dashboard in the SKF @ptitude Observer, see Figure 5b.
Attachments regarding the machine can be
stored on this tab, i.e. drawings, maintenance
instructions, etc. Refer to the SKF @ptitude
Observer User Manual to learn about what
kind of format that can be stored on this tab.
By pressing on the OK button in Figure 9d,
the machine Fan 2 will be visible in the hierarchy tree in the plant called Paper mill, see
Figure 9e.
Figure 9d. Attachments – Add attachments that are important to store during the lifetime of the
machine.
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To learn more about OPC data tagging on
the Advanced tab, refer to the Application
Note CM3169 Observer and OPC.
Plant:
Paper mill.
Machine:The Fan 2
has been added to
the hierarchy tree.
Figure 9e. The new machine Fan 2 has been added to the plant Paper mill in the hierarchy tree.
The machine and measurement points should
only be enabled and collect data, when the
following OPC data tagging condition is met.
Figure 9f. The new machine Fan 2 has been added to the hierarchy tree.
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Section 4: Adding a Speed and Dynamic measurement point to the belt driven machine Fan 2
Machine Fan 2.
Figure 10a. Adding a Dynamic measurement point to the machine Fan 2.
To collect measurement data, measurement
points have to be added to the Fan 2. Right
click on the machine in Figure 10a, and
select the option Add in the first drop down
list. Then select the option Meas. point in
the second drop down list to open the window called New meas. point in Figure 10b.
The sub sections in Section 4 for the Fan
2 are:
• Section 4.1: Adding the digital measurement point called Speed
• Section 4.2: Create the machine parts for
the belt driven Fan 2
• Section 4.3: Adding a Dynamic measurement point called Motor NDE to the
machine Fan 2
• Section 4.4: The Operating and Storage condition tab
• Section 4.5: The configuration of the
Trend on the Monitoring tab
• Section 4.6: Three examples will be
showed regarding how to configure Frequency tabs 1, 2 and 3 on the belt
driven machine Fan 2.
NOTE! The configuration of the digital
Speed measurement point in Figure
11a, shall be configured first, to be
able to add the Speed measurement
point to the Dynamic measurement
point later on. When the Speed point
has been created, the Machine parts
in Figure 11b shall also be configured before a Dynamic point is created.
Figure 10b. Adding a Speed and a Dynamic measurement point to the machine Fan 2.
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Section 4.1: Adding the digital measurement point called Speed
To create a Speed measurement point for
the rotational speed of the motor shaft,
select the trend based measurement point
called Speed in Figure 10b, and press on
the OK button to open the window in Figure
11a.
Then select:
• The device SKF Multilog IMx unit No.
21 and,
• The digital channel No.1 for the Rotational speed that were created in Figure 6c. These two settings are highlighted
in RED in Figure 6c.
Figure 11a. Creating a Speed measurement point to the machine Fan 2.
Section 4.2: Create the machine parts for the belt driven Fan 2
This icon includes
information regarding
the rotational speed
of the motor shaft.
Figure 11b. The machine parts for the belt driven fan called Fan 2.
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The Machine Part Tool has to be configured before the vibration Trend can be configured. The machine parts for the belt
driven Fan 2 is displayed in Figure 11b. See
the Application Note CM3213 to learn
more about how to build the machine parts.
The gear ratio between the motor shaft
and the fan shaft is equal to the ratio
0.75". A ratio lower than one (i.e., 1), means
that the fan shaft is running at a lower
speed than the motor shaft.
Section 4.3: Adding a Dynamic measurement point called Motor NDE to the machine Fan 2
The Adaptive
Alarming tab.
Vibration channel
No. 1 called
Motor NDE
Select the measurement point Dynamic in
this window and press on the OK button.
The Meas. Point window in Figure 12a will
be opened. In this window the user shall
configure the tabs as follows:
• General (see Figure 12a)
• Acquisition (see Figure 12b)
• Operating and Storage Conditions (see
Figure 12b)
• Monitoring
• Adaptive alarming (see the NOTE! in Figure 12a)
General tab
NOTE! To learn about the Adaptive alarming in Figure 12a,
refer to Application Note CM3206 for the SKF @ptitude Observer 9.1.
Figure 12a. The configuration of the General tab for dynamic vibration measurement point Motor
NDE.
On the General tab in Figure 12a, the user
shall configure the measurement point by
adding:
• the Name of the measurement point was
called Motor NDE
• the IMx device No. 21 which was created
in Figure 4d
• the vibration channel No. 1 Motor
NDE, which was created in Figure 6a
• the digital channel No. 1, which was
created in Figure 6b
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Acquisition tab
On the Acquisition tab in Figure 12b, the
user shall configure the measurement point
based on the application. In this case the
machine Fan 2 was running at a variable
speed, where the maximum speed is 1485
rpm. The first section to be configured is the
area called Acquisition, and then the section called Trend Configuration. This section is marked with a BLACK dotted line.
The Low frequency
filter was set to 2 Hz
• No. of lines: Normally you would like to
have a high resolution (Hz/line) in the
vibration spectrum. In this case 1600
lines were selected. The more lines you
add to the selected frequency spectrum,
the higher resolution you get.
Add the measurement point
Rotational speed as a
simultaneous measurement.
The digital meas. point was
configured in Figure 6b,
and then added as digital
channel in Figure 6c.
NOTE! A higher resolution requires also a
longer sampling time to collect
the vibration spectrum.
• Frequency range: SKF recommend
selecting a frequency range depending on Figure 12b. The configuration of the Acquisition tab to collect high resolution dynamic vibration
data on the measurement point Motor NDE.
the type of defect on the machine. This
kind of information teaches on the SKF
vibration training courses.
• Low freq.: The vibration level can sometimes be very high in
• Window: In the SKF @ptitude Observer two options of windows
amplitude at the very beginning of the vibration spectrum, on
can be selected, the Hanning or Uniform window. If you do not
machines running at a very low speed 5 to 100 rpm. To elimiknow the nature of the signal, but you want to apply a smoothing
nate all vibration peaks for example between 0 to 1 Hz, the low
window, start then with the Hanning window. In general the
cut-off filter can be applied. The accuracy of the frequency range
Hanning window is satisfactory in 95% of cases, and this “winfor the sensor model CMSS 2200 has an error of (± 10%) in the
dow” has also good:
frequency range 1 to 5000 Hz.
–– Frequency resolution, and a
• Data regarding the vibration measurement which is displayed in
–– Reduced spectral leakage.
the GREEN box in Figure 12b.
The Hanning window will windowing the collected time wave–– The Measurement time (in seconds) to collect the vibration
form data to make sure that the ends of the waveform will match
spectrum was 1.6 sec. The measurement time is calculated as
up, which greatly reduces the spectral leakage. If the signal
1600 lines divided by the frequency range 1000 Hz. The result
spectrum is rather flat or broadband in frequency content, use
will be 1.6 sec.
the Uniform window.
–– The Resolution for the vibration spectrum is presented in
(Hz/line). In this case the resolution was 0.625 Hz/line. This
parameter is calculated as: Frequency range/No. of lines.
Type of
–
–
The No. of samples: This feature is applies on machines where
Type of signal
window
the load varies during the sampling of data (i.e. collecting) of a
Transients whose duration is longer than the length of
Hanning
vibration data. This results in that the overall vibration level will
the window
vary over time. By averring several vibration measurements
General-purpose applications
Hanning
(i.e., No. of samples), will result in that the overall vibration
Spectral analysis (frequency response measurements)
Hanning
level of the spectra will be more stable over time.
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Sine wave or combination of sine waves
Hanning
Narrowband random signal (vibration data)
Hanning
Broadband random (white noise)
Uniform
Closely spaced sine waves
Uniform
Unknown content
Hanning
The configuration of the section Trend Configuration, in the dotted black box in
Figure 12c.
}
The configuration of the
vibration spectrum.
Settings for the Trend
Configuration.
The drop down list for
the setting Exponential averaging
0% = a Rapid update
rate of Trend data
90% = a Slow update
rate of Trend data
Figure 12c. Configuration of the section Trend Configuration on the Acquisition tab for the dynamic vibration measurement point Motor NDE.
• No. of lines: The trend measurement in
Figure 12c shall have a much faster
update rate of data than the Vibration
spectrum, to be able to trigger an alarm
very fast. Due to that the spectrum for the
Trend does always has a lower resolution than the Vibration spectrum. The
no. of lines for the trend measurement
may vary between 100 to 400 lines. The
user cannot see the trend spectrum,
since it is only used by the SKF @ptitude
Observer when trending the frequencies
that has been specified on the Monitoring tab in BLUE, see Figure 12e.
NOTE! The frequency range for the
Trend spectrum will per default
always have the same frequency
range as the Vibration spectrum.
• Engineering unit (E.U.): Velocity in
(mm/s Rms) is normally selected on
machine where the rotational speed of
the shaft is constant. If the load, or the
load and speed varies, the user shall consider to use the (E.U.) (m/s2 Rms)
• Exp. Averaging: Exponential averaging is
a setting to perform:
–– an automatic trend curve smoothing,
or to
–– avoid the SKF Multilog IMx on-line system to trigger an alarm when an intermittent disturbance occurs in the
vibration trend. Refer to the SKF
@ptitude Observer manual to see the
formula.
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Section 4.4: The Operating and Storage condition tab
On this tab there are three sections that the
user shall configure. Each section which is
marked with a BLACK BOX will be commented in Figure 12d.
The Operating
Condition to collect Trend data
NOTE!The Operating Condition for the
rotational speed of the motor shaft
when storing Scheduled Dynamic
Data, has to be inside the Operating Condition of the Scheduled
Trend Storage.
What kind of Trend data to store from the Rolling
buffer, and how often shall the data be collected?
Description of features in Figures 12d
Max allowed delta
The parameter Max allowed delta is an
important setting on machines where the
operating condition varies. This parameter
will for example control the maximum variation of the rotational speed, when collecting:
• Trend, Dynamic and Process data from
the machine.
The Operating Condition to collect Scheduled Dynamic data
Figure 12d. The configuration of the Operating and Storage Condition tab to collect scheduled Dynamic and Trend data on the vibration measurement point Motor NDE.
NOTE! It is recommended to play with this
parameter until an unacceptable
smearing occurs in the vibration peaks in the vibration spectrum. A too high value will cause a smearing of the frequency peaks in the vibration spectrum. For example, a variation of 30 rpm of a shaft that runs at 1000 rpm (i.e. 3%),
will still generate a good enough vibration data. In this case
the Max allowed delta was set to 10 rpm when collecting
Trend data, and 6 rpm when collecting Dynamic data, see
Figure 12d. If the range is set to wide for this parameter, the
vibration peaks in the spectrum will be smeared out. The
best way to find out if smearing occurs, is to observe the collected frequency spectrum live.
The Rolling buffer
The Rolling buffer determines which trend value that shall be
stored in the buffer, when trend data storage occurs. There are
three options that the user can select between when storing data:
Max, Min and First. To enable this buffer, check the Enable box in
the section Scheduled Trend Storage in Figure 12d.
The most common setting for the Rolling buffer is the filter
called First. This filter will store a new trend value every time a new
Interval begins. In this case the Interval was set to every seven
minutes. The other two options will store the minimum Min or the
maximum Max value, every time a new Interval begins. These two
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options can for example be applied on machines running at a variable load. The user will then get information about the extreme
values, which might indicate that the machine sometimes is
exposed to very high vibration or load levels, which the machine was
not designed for.
Activate data storage
Enable the three boxes in GREEN to be able to collect Dynamic and
Trend data, and to monitor the Valid measurement range. The
latest feature will raise an alarm for a possible damage sensor, if
the vibration amplitude is above a certain vibration level. In this case
an alarm will be raised if the vibration level is above 100 mm/s.
Scheduled Trend and Dynamic Storage
The Interval to collect Trend data was set to every 7 min, and the
Interval to collect Dynamic data was set to every 17 hour. Selecting an odd number like 17, which is not an integer of 24, will make
sure that data will be collected at different hours during the day.
Interval alarm
NOTE! The configured alarm interval is based on how critical the
machine is for the process. In this case the parameter Interval alarm was set to every 0.5 min to check Trend alarm.
Section 4.5: The configuration of the Trend on the Monitoring tab
Exception based storage
Alarm group Fan 2
The vibration Trend is the primary alarm
in the SKF Multilog on-line system. On the
Monitoring tab in BLUE, the user shall
specify the most important machine frequencies to trend on the machine.
On each Dynamic measurement point,
the user can trend four single Frequencies, one Overall band and ten Custom frequency bands, see Figure 12e.
NOTE!The primary alarms will still be
able to trigg an alarm relay in the
SKF Multilog IMx-S device, even if
the SKF Multilog IMx-S device has
lost the connection to the SKF
@ptitude Observer Monitor Service Manager.
Automatic alarms
Figure 12e. The configuration of the General tab for the dynamic vibration measurement point
Motor NDE.
If the feature Automatic alarms is enabled
in Figure 12e, the SKF @ptitude Observer
9.1 will automatically calculate the
Warning and Alarm levels for the vibration Trend.
To open the window called Options in
Figure 13, select Database/Options in the
drop down list as shown in Figure 12f.
Figure 12f. The configuration of the feature Auto alarm.
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Select the tab Alarm and Relays in Figure
13, and choose the default option 3 as a
starting point in the drop down list. Later on,
and when some data has been collected, the
parameter Auto alarm can be edited based
on your own experiences of the machine's
and its behavior in operation.
The calculation of the Automatic alarms
in SKF @ptitude Observer:
• WARNING = (STD * Auto alarm No.) +
(AVG)
• Alarm = (2 * STD * Auto alarm No.) +
(AVG)
• STD = the standard deviation of the
vibration trend
• AVG = the average value of the vibration
trend
Figure 13. The configuration of the feature Auto alarm.
Automatic alarms = Select a number in
the drop down list in Figure 13, where:
• No. 0: is an Aggressive alarm setting (i.e. the alarm level is setting is very close to the vibration trend graph)
• No. 3: is the Default alarm setting
• No. 10: is a Conservative alarm setting
Additional features as shown Figure 12e
Alarm hysteresis: The feature Alarm hysteresis has built in delay
to trigg an alarm. The default setting in the SKF @ptitude Observer,
is that two consecutive trend measurements has to be above the
alarm level to Enter alarm, and five consecutive trend measurements has to be below the alarm level to Leave the alarm condition.
NOTE! This setting shall of course be modified based on your experiences of the machine. The table for all the options of
the parameter Automatic alarm has been included in
Figure 13. Refer to spike filter and alarm hysteresis Application Note.
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Alarm group is a useful tool from a vibration analysis point of view.
The alarm group includes a set of measurement points that automatically stores data on all the measurement points in the group,
when one of the points goes into an alarm condition. The data for
the alarm group is stored upon either reaching a Warning or an
Alarm. Thereby, the alarm group will provide the vibration analyst a
more extensive data to analyse upon an alarm. The type of data that
can be stored by the alarm group, can be one of the following options on the parameter Exception based storage, see Figure 12e.
• None,
• Static
• Static and Dynamic
To learn more about the Alarm group in Figure 12e, refer to Application Note CM3184 Alarm group in SKF @ptitude Observer
9.1.
Section 4.6: Three examples will be described regarding how to configure the Frequency tabs 1, 2 and 3 on the Monitoring tab.
The machine faults are:
• Unbalance on the fan wheel produce a
high vibration peak at the running speed
of the fan shaft (NFan).
• Axial Misalignment of a pulley on the
belt transmission on the fan shaft, will
predominately produces high vibrations in
the axial direction at the running speed
of the fan shaft (NFan).
• Stator eccentricity on an AC induction
motor generates high vibration at 2X the
electrical line frequency 100 Hz (i.e., 2 ™
50 Hz in Europe). Stator eccentricity
Figure 14a. To monitor the Frequency tabs 1, 2, and 3, and the Overall and Custom band on the
produces an uneven stationary air gap
Monitoring tab, for the dynamic vibration measurement point Motor NDE.
between the rotor and the stator which in
turn produces very directional vibrations.
Soft foot and Warped bases on the
• The width of a spectral line in the frequency spectrum is calcuelectrical motor can also cause an eccentric stator.
lated as: (60000/1600) = 37.5 cpm (i.e., cycles per minute)
• The Search range is normally calculated as: 5 ™ the width of a
NOTE! 1 x N = rotational speed of the motor shaft.
spectral line
• The Search range is calculated as: (5 ™ 37.5) = 187.5 cpm/line.
NOTE! On the tabs Overall and Custom band, the user can configThis number is normally rounded to 200 cpm/line.
ure their own overall bands to trend. This may be a frequency peak that now and then occurs in the vibration specHow to configure the tabs Frequency 1-3
trum, which the vibration analyst would like to trend and
follow over time.
How to calculate the Search range in Figure 14a
NOTE! In this case the Search range will be the same for all the
three fault frequencies. The Search range is normally calculated as five times the width of a spectral line in the
vibration spectrum.
In this case the configuration of the frequency range is 1000 Hz (i.e.
60000 cpm) and 1600 lines.
When configuring what to trend on the Frequency 1-3 tabs in Figure 14a, there are three options in the drop down list for the
parameter Type highlighted in GREEN.
• The type None means that the user will not trend any frequency.
• The type Fixed frequency means that the user will trend a fixed
frequency in the vibration spectrum.
• The type Speed following means that the user will trend a frequency where the frequency varies with the rotational speed of
the machine, for example the shaft of the electrical motor
In this case two Speed following frequencies will be configured for
the machine faults Unbalance and Axial Misalignment, and one
Fixed frequency to monitor Stator eccentricity on the electrical
motor.
23
Monitoring Unbalance on fan shaft on the
belt driven machine Fan 2
Press on the button highlighted
in black with the three dots to
select a machine part.
Figure 14b. Monitor the Unbalance on the fan shaft on the Monitoring tab, for the dynamic vibration measurement point Fan 2 NDE.
Figure 14c. Select the machine part Fan shaft to monitor the Frequency 1.
24
The tab Frequency 1 is configured to monitor unbalance on the on the fan wheel for
the machine Fan 2, see Figure 14c.
To monitor the machine fault Unbalance
on the fan wheel, select the parameter Type
and then select the option Speed following
in the drop down list in Figure 14b. To select
a machine part to trend, press on the button
highlighted in black with the three dots to
open the window called Select gear in Figure 14c.
Select the machine part called Fan shaft
to monitor unbalance on the fan shaft and
press on the OK button. The parameter
called Multiple highlighted in GREEN has
now got the information regarding the gear
ratio between the motor and the fan shaft,
see Figure 14b. Based on the machine
parts in Figure 11b, the SKF @ptitude
Observer calculated the gear ratio between
the motor shaft and the fan shaft to 0.75.
NOTE! A gear ration lower than 1, means
that the fan shaft is running at a
lower rotational speed than the
motor shaft.
Monitoring Axial Misalignment of a fan
pulley on the belt transmission on the
belt driven machine Fan 2
The tab Frequency 2 is configured to monitor axial misalignment on the belt transmission on fan shaft for the machine Fan 2,
see Figure 14c.
To monitor the machine fault Axial Misalignment on the fan wheel, select the
parameter Type and then select the option
Speed following in the drop down list in
Figure 14d. To select a machine part to
trend, press on the button highlighted in
black with the three dots, to open the window called Select gear in Figure 14c, and
select the fan shaft.
The characteristic frequency for this
machine fault in the vibration spectrum is a
vibration peak at (2xN), where N is equal to
the running speed of the motor shaft.
Figure 14d. Monitor the Axial misalignment on the fan shaft on the Monitoring tab, for the dynamic vibration measurement point Fan 2 NDE.
Monitoring Stator eccentricity on the
motor shaft on the belt driven machine
Fan 2
The tab Frequency 3 is configured to monitor the machine fault stator eccentricity on
the electrical motor.
To monitor the machine fault Stator
eccentricity on an AC induction motor that
generates high vibrations at the electrical
frequency 6000 cpm (100 Hz), i.e., 2 ™ 50
Hz in Europe, select the option Fixed frequency in the drop down list in Figure 14e.
The stator eccentricity produces an uneven
stationary air gap between the rotor and the
stator, which produces very directional
vibrations. The machine faults Soft foot and
Warped bases on the electrical motor can
also cause an eccentric stator.
Figure 14e. Monitor the electrical frequency 100 Hz on the motor 2 shaft on the Monitoring tab, for
the dynamic vibration measurement point Fan 2 NDE.
25
NOTE! You can use the wizards in the SKF @ptitude Observer to update the parameters on the
measurement points, and to copy machines, and to edit the settings on the measurement
points like frequency range, number of lines etc.
• Multiple point update wizard, see Figures 15a and 15b
• Machine copy wizard, see Figures 16a and 16b
Figure 15a. The multiple point update wizard.
The wizard will help you to configure
common parameters and properties
in a few simple steps.
Figure 15b. Welcome to the multiple point update wizard.
26
The wizard will help you to copy a
machine to a new location.
To open the wizard: Right click
on the machine in the hierarchy
tree that you want to copy. The
drop down list in Figure 16a will
then be opened. Select the Copy
to open the Machine copy wizard
in Figure 16b.
Figure 16a. The Machine copy wizard.
Figure 16b. The Machine copy wizard.
Reference the follwoing application notes. These application notes can be downloaded to
your computer via the Dashboard in the SKF @ptitude Observer, see Figure 5b.
• Create, Export and Import Machine Templates in the SKF @ptitude Observer 9.1
publication number: CM3196/1 EN, May 2014
• Machine Part Tool in the in the SKF @ptitude Observer 9
publication number: CM3213 EN, January 2014
• Machine diagnostics – Standard rules in the SKF @ptitude Observer 9
publication number: CM3203 EN, January 2014
• Machine diagnostics – Private rules in the SKF @ptitude Observer 9
publication number: CM3218 EN, February 2014
27
Bearings and
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Seals
Mechatronics
Lubrication
systems
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Please contact:
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PUB CM3185 EN · April 2015
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