Steam Generator Installation Manual Fluid Heater

Steam Generator Installation Manual Fluid Heater
Cover
SigmaFire
Steam Generator
&
Fluid Heater
Installation Manual
Clayton Industries
City Of Industry, California
USA
R020932G
04-2015
WARRANTY
Clayton warrants its equipment to be free from defects in material and/or workmanship for a period of 1 year from date of
original installation, or 15 months from date of shipment from the factory, whichever is shorter. Upon expiration of such
warranty period, all liability of Clayton shall immediately cease. During the warranty period if the Clayton product is subjected
to improper installation, misuse, negligence, alteration, accident, improper repair, or operated contrary to Clayton’s printed
instructions; all liability of Clayton shall immediately cease. THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF
ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXCEPT TITLE AND DESCRIPTION, WHETHER WRITTEN, ORAL OR IMPLIED, AND
CLAYTON MAKES NO WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. No representative of Clayton
has any authority to waive, alter, vary, or add to the terms hereof without prior approval in writing executed by two officers of
Clayton Industries.
If within the period of such warranty the purchaser promptly notifies Clayton’s Service Department (Attention: Warranty
Repairs, Cincinnati, OH) in writing of any claimed defect; and if requested by Clayton, promptly returns the part(s) claimed
defective to Clayton’s manufacturing facility with all transportation charges prepaid to Clayton, Clayton will consider said
part(s) covered under this warranty. All parts returned must be shipped to Clayton’s Cincinnati, OH facility (Attention: Warranty
Repairs, Cincinnati, OH) except coils which must be shipped to Clayton’s City of Industry, CA facility (Attention: Warranty
Repairs, City of Industry, CA). Once reviewed by Clayton, if it appears to Clayton that such part(s) is defective in material and/
or workmanship, Clayton will at its sole discretion & choice repair such defective part(s), or replace same with like or similar
part(s), or provide a credit for the part(s). The purchaser shall be responsible for all transportation and labor charges relating
to installation of any replacement part or removal of a defective part.
It is expressly understood that the repair or replacement of such defective part(s) by Clayton shall constitute the sole
remedy of purchaser and sole liability of Clayton whether on warranty, contract, or negligence; and that Clayton shall not be
liable for any other expense, injury, loss, or damage whether direct, incidental, or consequential.
With respect to any non-Clayton part(s) supplied hereunder; other than the duration of the warranty, the OEM
manufacturer’s warranty shall apply and be exclusive.
Goods sold or delivered may, at Clayton’s discretion, consist in part of reconditioned or reassembled parts which have
been inspected and checked by Clayton and which are fully covered by such warranty as if new. In performing its warranty as
obligations hereunder, Clayton may in its discretion repair or replace any part with such a reconditioned or reassembled part.
Clayton Service Branches
U.S. & CANADA FACTORY DIRECT SERVICE BRANCHES
ATLANTA 125-A Howell Road, Tyrone, GA 30290 (770) 632-9790
CANADA 13 Edvac Drive, Unit 18, Brampton, ON L6S5W6 (905) 791-3322
CHICAGO 37 Sherwood Terrace Unit 110, Lake Bluff, IL 60044 (847) 295-1007
CINCINNATI 3051 Exon Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45241 (513) 563-1300
CLEVELAND 9241 Ravenna Road Suite C2, Twinsburg, OH 44087 (330) 425-8006
DALLAS 719 Ashford Lane, Wylie, TX 75098 (972) 224-5011
DETROIT 37648 Hills Tech Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331 (248) 553-0044
KANSAS CITY 1600 Genessee Suite 524, Kansas City, MO 64102 (816) 221-2411
LOS ANGELES 17477 Hurley Street, City of Industry, CA 91744 (626) 435-1200
NEW ENGLAND 387 Page Street, Unit 11A, Stoughton, MA 02072 (781) 341-2801
NEW JERSEY 10 South River Road Suite 6, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (609) 409-9400
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA P.O. Box 1956, Bethel Island, CA 94511 (510) 782-0283
Title Page
SigmaFire
Steam Generator
and
Fluid Heater
Installation Manual
CLAYTON INDUSTRIES
17477 Hurley Street
City of Industry, CA 91744-5106
USA
Phone: +1 (626) 435-1200
FAX: +1 (626) 435-0180
Internet: www.claytonindustries.com
Email: [email protected]
© Copyright 2009, 2011, 2013 Clayton Industries. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise) without written permission from Clayton Industries.
The descriptions and specifications shown were in effect at the time this publication was approved for printing. Clayton
Industries, whose policy is one of continuous improvement, reserves the right to discontinue models at any time, or
change specifications or design without notice and without incurring any obligation.
FACTORY DIRECT SALES AND SERVICE
UNITED STATES OFFICES
ATLANTA • CHICAGO • CINCINNATI • CLEVELAND • DALLAS • DETROIT
KANSAS CITY • LOS ANGELES • NEW ENGLAND • NEW JERSEY
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
LICENSEES, AFFILIATES, SALES and SERVICE DISTRIBUTORS WORLDWIDE
Table of Contents
Section 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1-1
Section 2 General Information .................................................................................................. 2-1
2.1
2.2
Location .............................................................................................................. 2-1
Positioning and Anchoring Equipment .............................................................. 2-2
2.2.1 General Installation Requirements ............................................................. 2-2
2.2.2 Equipment Anchoring ................................................................................ 2-3
2.2.3 Grouting ..................................................................................................... 2-3
2.2.4 Clayton PD Feedwater Pump Placement ................................................... 2-4
2.3 Combustion Air .................................................................................................. 2-4
2.4 Customer Connections - Steam Generator ......................................................... 2-4
2.5 Exhaust Stack Installation .................................................................................. 2-5
2.5.1 Installing Exhaust Stacks ........................................................................... 2-5
2.5.2 Installing Exhaust Stacks With External Condensing Economizer ......... 2-11
2.6 Piping ............................................................................................................... 2-13
2.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 2-13
2.6.2 Systems .................................................................................................... 2-13
2.6.3 Atmospheric Test Valve ........................................................................... 2-15
2.6.4 Steam Header and Steam Sample Points ................................................. 2-15
2.7 Feedwater Treatment ........................................................................................ 2-15
2.7.1 Water Softeners ........................................................................................ 2-16
2.7.2 Make-up Water Line Sizing ..................................................................... 2-16
2.8 Feedwater Supply Requirements ...................................................................... 2-17
2.8.1 Multi-unit Systems ................................................................................... 2-17
2.8.2 Velocity Requirements and Calculation ................................................... 2-18
2.8.3 Acceleration Head (Ha) Requirements .................................................... 2-21
2.9 Flexible Feedwater Hose Connection And Connection Sizing ........................ 2-22
2.9.1 Supply Side Connections ......................................................................... 2-22
2.9.2 Discharge Side Connections .................................................................... 2-22
2.10 Pump Suction and Discharge Piping System Design ....................................... 2-22
2.10.1 General Layout Guidelines ...................................................................... 2-22
2.10.2 Pipe Sizing Guidelines ............................................................................. 2-23
2.11 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) .................................................................. 2-24
2.11.1 NPSHA .................................................................................................... 2-25
2.11.2 NPSHR ..................................................................................................... 2-25
iii
2.11.3 Acceleration Head (Ha) ............................................................................ 2-26
2.12 General Installation Concerns .......................................................................... 2-28
2.12.1 Charge Pumps .......................................................................................... 2-28
2.12.2 Charge Pumps Are Not A Substitute ....................................................... 2-28
2.12.3 Multiple Pump Hookup ........................................................................... 2-28
2.12.4 Pumphead Cooling Water System (Clayton Feedwater Pumps) .............. 2-28
2.13 Electrical ........................................................................................................... 2-28
2.14 Electrical Grounding ........................................................................................ 2-29
Section 3 Clayton Feedwater Systems ...................................................................................... 3-1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
General ............................................................................................................... 3-1
Skid Packages ..................................................................................................... 3-1
Customer Connections ....................................................................................... 3-2
Open System ...................................................................................................... 3-3
Deaerator (DA) ................................................................................................... 3-5
Semi-closed Receiver (SCR) .............................................................................. 3-7
SCR Skids .......................................................................................................... 3-8
Head Tank .......................................................................................................... 3-8
Section 4 Fuel System ................................................................................................................. 4-1
4.1
4.2
4.3
General ............................................................................................................... 4-1
Natural Gas ......................................................................................................... 4-1
Oil ....................................................................................................................... 4-2
4.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 4-2
4.3.2 Light Oil ..................................................................................................... 4-2
Section 5 Trap Separators ......................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1
5.2
5.3
General ............................................................................................................... 5-1
Operation ............................................................................................................ 5-1
Installation .......................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3.1 General ....................................................................................................... 5-2
5.3.2 Trap Separator Vent ................................................................................... 5-2
5.3.3 Feedwater Receiver Supply Lines ............................................................. 5-2
Section 6 Technical Specifications ............................................................................................. 6-1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
General ............................................................................................................... 6-1
Agency Approvals .............................................................................................. 6-1
Construction Materials ....................................................................................... 6-1
Flame Safeguard ................................................................................................. 6-1
Safety Controls ................................................................................................... 6-2
iv
6.5.1 Temperature Control Devices .................................................................... 6-2
6.5.2 Regulator Approvals .................................................................................. 6-2
6.5.3 Steam Limit Pressure Switch ..................................................................... 6-2
6.5.4 Combustion Air Pressure Switch ............................................................... 6-2
6.5.5 Pressure Atomizing Oil Nozzles ................................................................ 6-2
6.5.6 Pump Oil Level Switch .............................................................................. 6-2
6.5.7 Overcurrent Protection ............................................................................... 6-2
6.6 Equipment Specifications ................................................................................... 6-2
6.6.1 Modulating and step-fired SigmaFire steam generators/fluid heaters. ...... 6-2
6.6.2 Table 6-1a and 6-1b Supplemental Information ........................................ 6-4
6.7 Equipment Layout And Dimensions .................................................................. 6-4
6.7.1 SigmaFire Steam Generators – Step-fired and Modulating ....................... 6-5
6.7.2 Blowdown Tanks ..................................................................................... 6-16
Section 7 Optional Equipment .................................................................................................. 7-1
7.1
7.2
Booster Pump(s) ................................................................................................. 7-1
Blowdown System .............................................................................................. 7-1
7.2.1 Blowdown Tank ......................................................................................... 7-1
7.2.2 Automatic TDS Controller ......................................................................... 7-2
7.2.3 Continuous Blowdown Valve .................................................................... 7-2
7.3 Valve Option Kit ................................................................................................. 7-2
7.4 Soot Blower Assembly ....................................................................................... 7-2
7.5 Pressure Regulating Valves (BPR/PRV) ............................................................ 7-2
7.5.1 Back Pressure Regulators .......................................................................... 7-2
7.5.2 Pressure Regulating Valves ........................................................................ 7-3
Supplement I
1.1
SCR .....................................................................................................................I-1
Semi-Closed Receiver Systems (SCR) ............................................................... I-1
1.1.1 Requirements .............................................................................................. I-1
1.1.2 Components of an SCR System refer to Drawing R-16596 ....................... I-1
1.1.3 Water Level Gauge Glass ............................................................................I-1
1.1.4 Steam Trap .................................................................................................. I-1
1.1.5 Vent ............................................................................................................. I-2
1.1.6 Level Control .............................................................................................. I-2
1.1.7 Steam Relief Valve ...................................................................................... I-2
1.1.8 Sparger Tube ............................................................................................... I-2
1.1.9 Back Pressure Regulator .............................................................................I-2
1.1.10 Pressure Reducing Valve ............................................................................I-2
1.1.11 Make-up Tank ............................................................................................. I-3
1.1.12 SCR Transfer Pump .................................................................................... I-3
v
1.1.13
1.1.14
1.1.15
1.1.16
Chemical Treatment .................................................................................... I-3
Hook-up ...................................................................................................... I-3
System Steam Traps .................................................................................... I-3
A General Statement ................................................................................... I-4
Supplement II Fluid Heater ..................................................................................................... II-5
2.1
Fluid Heaters ......................................................................................................II-5
Appendix A - Steam Generator Lifting Instructions ........................................................ A-1
Appendix B - Saturated Steam P-T Table ........................................................................... B-5
Appendix C - Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams ...................................................... C-7
Appendix D - Installing SE Option .................................................................................. D-25
vi
SECTION I - INTRODUCTION
The CLAYTON STEAM GENERATOR is manufactured in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section I. Construction and inspection procedures are regularly monitored by the ASME certification team and by
the Authorized Inspector (AI) commissioned by the Jurisdiction and the National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBI).
The NBBI is a nonprofit organization responsible for monitoring the enforcement of the various
sections of the ASME Code. Its members are the chief boiler and pressure vessel inspectors
responsible for administering the boiler and pressure vessel safety laws of their jurisdiction.
The electrical and combustion safeguards on each CLAYTON STEAM GENERATOR are
selected, installed, and tested in accordance with the standards of the Underwriters’ Laboratories
and such other agency requirements as specified in the customer’s purchase order.
NOTE
It is important that the steam generator(s)/fluid heaters and its
accessories be installed in accordance with ASME/ANSI Codes,
as well as, all applicable Federal, State, and local laws, regulations and codes.
NOTE
Clayton sales representatives and service technicians ARE NOT authorized to approve plant
installation designs, layouts, or materials of construction. If Clayton consultation or participation in plant
installation design is desired, please have your local
Clayton sales representative contact Clayton corporate headquarters for more information and pricing.
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SECTION II - GENERAL
INFORMATION
2.1
LOCATION
Give careful consideration to your Clayton equipment investment and the equipment warranty
when selecting an installation location. The equipment should be located within close proximity to necessary utilities, such as fuel, water, electricity, and ventilation. General consumption data for each model is
provided in Table 1 of Section VI. General equipment layout and dimensions are provided in Table 2 of
Section VI. For actual dimensions and consumption information, please refer to the data submitted with
each specific order.
NOTE
Clayton’s standard equipment is intended for indoor use only. Clayton’s equipment
must be protected from weather at all times. The steam generator/fluid heater, and
any associated water and chemical treatment equipment must be maintained at a
temperature above 45° F (7° C) at all times.
Maintain adequate clearance around your Clayton equipment for servicing needs. Maintain a minimum clearance of 60 inches (1.5 m) in front of the equipment, a minimum clearance of 36 inches (1 m) to
the left and right sides, and a minimum clearance of 18 inches (0.5 m) to the rear of the equipment. Ample
overhead clearance, including clearance for lifting equipment, should be considered in case the coil
requires removing. Equipment layout and dimensions are provided in Table 2 of Section VI. Review the
Plan Installation drawing supplied with the order for specific dimensions and clearance information.
CAUTION
ALL combustible materials must be kept a minimum of 48 inches (1.2 m) from the
front and 18 inches (0.5 m) from the top, rear, and sides of the equipment. A minimum clearance of 18 inches (0.5 m) must also be maintained around the flue pipe.
Flooring shall be non-combustible. This equipment must not be installed in an area
susceptible to corrosive or combustible vapors.
IMPORTANT
KEEP CLAYTON EQUIPMENT CLEAR OF ALL OBSTRUCTIONS. DO NOT
ROUTE ANY NON-CLAYTON PIPING, ELECTRICAL CONDUIT, WIRING, OR
APPARATUS INTO, THROUGH, OR UNDER CLAYTON EQUIPMENT. ANY
OBSTRUCTIONS CREATED BY SUCH NON-CLAYTON APPARATUS WILL VERY
LIKELY INTERFERE WITH THE PROPER OPERATION AND SERVICING OF THE
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EQUIPMENT. ALL SUCH INTERFERENCE IS THE SOLE RESPOSIBILITY OF THE
CUSTOMER. CLAYTON’S PLAN INSTALLATION DRAWINGS, INCLUDING JOBSPECIFIC DRAWINGS, ARE FOR VISUAL REFERENCE ONLY.
2.2
2.2.1
POSITIONING AND ANCHORING EQUIPMENT
General Installation Requirements
Lifting instructions are provided in Appendix A. Proper rigging practices and equipment must be
applied when lifting this equipment. Forklifts with roll bars can be used for installations with overhead space
limitations.
WARNING
DO NOT attach rigging gear to the top coil lifting hook or any part of this equipment
other than the main frame.
Proper floor drains must be provided under the generator(s). MAKE SURE ALL EQUIPMENT IS
LEVELED AND ALL ANCHORING POINTS ARE USED.
Level the equipment using full-size, stainless steel, slotted shims that match the equipment pads
designed and provided on the equipment. Clayton recommends full-size slotted shims. If slotted machine
shims are used, Clayton requires C-size or larger for pump skids and E-size for generator and water skids.
Use full-sized anchors to anchor the equipment. Make sure anchors are strong enough to withstand operating, wind, and seismic loads that exists in the installation location.
To enhance serviceability and accommodate service personnel, Clayton recommends placing its generators, main positive displacement (PD) feedwater pumps, feedwater skids, and water treatment skids on 4–
6 inch (10–15 cm) high equipment maintenance pads. These equipment maintenance pads on which the
equipment will be installed must be 3–6 inches (8–15 cm) wider and longer than the equipment base plates.
Make sure the equipment maintenance pads are properly reinforced and leveled.
Fully grout into place all generators, pumps, and skids, after leveling and anchoring, to provide adequate support and minimize equipment vibration. Grouting is important, but it does not replace the
use of metal shims under each anchor bolt location. Every anchor hole location on the equipment
skid(s) requires an anchor bolt.
It is recommended the mass of the concrete foundation be sufficient to absorb the dynamic and static
forces from the operation, wind, or seismic conditions that exist at the specific equipment installation location. Accepted concrete construction guidelines, for equipment installation, recommends that the concrete foundation be at least 5 1/2” to 7 1/2” (14 cm to 19 cm) thick, depending on soil, underground
water, environmental, and seismic conditions.
If Clayton’s generator, pump, or skid are mounted on a surface other than a concrete foundation, such
as a steel structure, then the equipment base frame must be supported on rigid steel beams that are aligned
along the length of the equipment base frame. It is strongly recommended that Clayton’s equipment be supported with horizontal and vertical main structural members at all its equipment anchor pads.
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Section II - General Information
Perform stress calculations for the steel structure
to confirm it has adequate rigidity to minimize baseplate
distortion and vibration during operation. Clayton recommends incorporating vibration isolation on this type
of installation.
2.2.2
1/2 in.
(1.5 cm)
NUT
WASHER SET
EQUIPMENT
BASE FRAME
Equipment Anchoring
To properly secure the equipment base frames to
the equipment maintenance pads and foundation, proper
anchor bolts are required. The anchor bolt diameter must
be fully sized to the anchor bolt holes in Clayton’s
equipment base frame. For required bolt sizes, see the
plan installation drawings for the specific Clayton
equipment. The anchor bolt length extending above the
foundation should equal the total height of all shimming
and leveling devices, 3/4–1 1/2 inch (2–4 cm) grout
filler for leveling, the equipment base frame thickness,
washer set, anchor bolt nut, and an additional 1/2 inch
(1.5 cm) above anchor bolt nut (See Figure 2-1.).
The proper anchor bolt length and its embedded
depth must meet all static and dynamic loading from the
operation of the equipment, wind loading, and seismic
loading.
*SHIM/LEVELING
GROUT FILLER
FOUNDATION
EQUIPMENT
MAINTENANCE
PAD
ANCHOR BOLT
* SHIMS MUST BE C-SIZE, OR LARGER, FOR
PUMP SKIDS AND E-SIZE, OR LARGER, FOR
GENERATOR AND WATER SKID FRAMES.
Figure 2-1 Anchor bolt installation
CAUTION
Failure to adequately support Clayton’s equipment can lead to excessive vibration,
which is detrimental to Clayton’s product and component life cycle, especially electrical components.
2.2.3
Grouting
Make sure to grout the entire equipment base frame before making any additional connections to
your Clayton equipment. Grouting the equipment base frame to the foundation provides a good and sturdy
union between them. Grout is a concrete-type material that is used to fill the gap between the equipment
base frame and the foundation. The grout increases the mass of the base to help reduce equipment vibration,
which is fundamental to product life. In addition, the grout will fill any voids or imperfections in the foundation surface to increase proper equipment support. When the grout hardens, the equipment base frame and
the foundation becomes one solid unit to support the equipment.
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2.2.4
Clayton PD Feedwater Pump Placement
Clayton’s PD pump placement and its relative position to Clayton’s generator is critical for managing
pump-induced equipment vibration; therefore, this helps to extend equipment and component life. Substantial hydraulic vibration can develop when pipe runs between the PD feedwater pump(s) and the heating coil
inlet are lengthened and/or elevated without additional piping design and component changes.
IMPORTANT
To prevent voiding Clayton’s equipment warranty, it is required that any intended relocation of Clayton’s PD feedwater pump from the generator be pre-approved by
Clayton’s engineering group prior the equipment installation design.
DO NOT MOVE OR RELOCATE THE POSITION OF CLAYTON’S MAIN PD FEEDWATER PUMP, RELATIVE TO THE GENERATOR, AS SHOWN ON CLAYTON’S
PLAN INSTALLATION DRAWING, WITHOUT FIRST CONSULTING WITH CLAYTON’S ENGINEERING GROUP.
Clayton’s service team is restricted from commissioning or starting any Clayton equipment where
the main PD feedwater pump(s) has been relocated without prior approval.
2.3
COMBUSTION AIR
A sufficient volume of air must be continuously supplied to the boiler room to maintain proper combustion. Boiler room fresh air vents must be sized to maintain air velocity less than 400 scfm with less
than 1/4 inch water pressure drop. Ventilation openings must be sized at 3 ft2/100 bhp or larger. As a
guideline, there should be 12 cfm of air per boiler horsepower.1 This will provide sufficient air for combustion and outer shell cooling. Refer to Table 6.1A and 6.1B of Section VI for the required area of free air
intake.
An inlet air duct should be used when there is insufficient boiler room air, when the boiler room air
supply is contaminated with airborn material or corrosive vapors, and when noise consideration is required.
A suitable inlet weather shroud is required and an air filter should be installed when there is a potential for
airborn contaminates. Air inlet filters capable of filtering airborn contaminates down to 3 microns are
required for FMB equipped units. If an inlet air duct is used in cold weather climates, it must contain a motor
operated damper with a position interlock switch to prevent freezing of the heating coil. The maximum
allowable pressure drop in the inlet air duct system is 0.5 inch water column.
2.4
CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS - STEAM GENERATOR
The number, type, and size of required customer connections will vary with equipment size and type
of skid package provided. Table 2-1 below identifies the required steam generator customer connections for
the various skid packages. The equipment connections and sizes are provided in Tables 6-2 through 6-6 in
Section VI.
1 This
guideline is based on an installation at about sea level; high altitude installations require more air.
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Section II - General Information
Additional customer connection tables located in Section III provide detailed descriptions of connections for Clayton water treatment packages.
Steam generator installation guidelines are provided in the following sections. Water treatment component installation guidelines are provided in Section III.
Table 2-1: Customer Connections
EQUIPMENT PACKAGES
STEAM GENERATORS
WITH
Steam
Generator
only
Hot-well
Tank
Water Skid
Generator
Skid
Exhaust Stack
X
X
X
X
Separator Steam Outlet
X
X
X
X
Safety Relief Valves Discharge
X
X
X
X
Feedwater Inlet
X
X
X
Coil Drain(s)
X
X
X
Separator Drain
X
X
X
Steam Trap(s) Outlet
X
X
X
Fuel Inlet
X
X
X
X
Fuel Return (Oil Only)
X
X
X
X
Atomizing Air Inlet (Oil Only)
X
X
X
X
Electrical Connection-Primary
X
X
X
X
X
X
Required Customer Connections
Include:
Electrical-Generator Skid Interconnect
2.5
Coil Gravity Drain
X
X
X
X
Fuel Pump Relief Valve (Oil Only)
X
X
X
X
EXHAUST STACK INSTALLATION
(See Figures 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, and 2-6)
2.5.1
Installing Exhaust Stacks
Clayton strongly recommends a barometric damper on all installations. Proper installation of
the exhaust stack is essential to the proper operation of the Clayton steam generator. Clayton specified
allowable back-pressure of 0.0 to -0.25 w.c.i. must be considered when designing and installing the exhaust
stack. The stack installer is responsible for conforming to the stack draft back-pressure requirements.
Ninety-degree elbows should be avoided. Forty-five degree elbows should be used when the stack cannot be
extended straight up. Stacks in excess of 20 feet (6 m) may require a barometric damper. Stacks for all low
NOx generators require a barometric damper.
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The material and thickness of the exhaust stack must comply with local code requirements, and be
determined based on environmental and operating conditions (exposure to the elements, humidity, constituents of fuel, etc.). The area of free air space between the exhaust stack and building, roof, or flashings must
also comply with local codes. The material used for roof flashings must be rated at a minimum of 600° F
(315° C). A “weather cap” must be installed on top of the exhaust stack.
IMPORTANT
The specified exhaust stack connection size (shown in Tables 6-2 through 6-5, in
Section VI, and in Clayton’s Plan Installation Drawings) is the minimum required for
Clayton’s equipment. It is NOT indicative of the required stack size to meet installation requirements or by local codes. All exhaust stack installations must be sized to
meet prevailing codes, company and agency standards, and local conditions, as well
as, the recommended requirements specified above.
NOTE
Clayton recommends all generators purchased with our integral economizers be installed with stainless steel, insulated, double-walled exhaust stacks. All units operating on light or heavy oil should use stacks constructed with stainless steel. Clayton
recommends all heavy oil units use a free-standing, vertical stack, with clean-out access, as shown in Figure 2-3
NOTE
All oil-fired units must have an exhaust gas temperature indicator installed in the
stack.
A removable spool piece must be installed at the generator flue outlet to facilitate removal and
inspection of the heating coil. To permit sufficient vertical lift, the spool piece should be at least 4 feet
(1.2 m) tall. The spool installation should be coordinated with the customer supplied rigging. If operating on
any type of fuel oil, an access door must be provided immediately at the generator flue outlet (first vertical
section) to provide a means for periodic water washing of the heating coil. The section of the stack located
inside the building should be insulated to reduce heat radiation and noise.
Exhaust stacks are to be self-supporting (maximum stack connection load is 50 lbs. {22 kg}) and
must extend well above the roof or building, (refer to local building codes). If nearby structures are higher
than the building housing the steam generator(s), the stack height should be increased to clear these structures.
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Section II - General Information
NOTE
It is strongly recommended that a back draft damper (full size and motor operated
with position interlock switch) be installed to prevent freeze damage to the heating
coil. Machine installations, in cold weather zones, that plan to lay the machine up wet
and may encounter freezing conditions must install an air-tight back draft damper in
the exhaust stack to prevent down-draft freezing.
Clayton recommends insulating all exhaust stacks to maintain gas temperatures
above dew point.
Special consideration should be given to installations in and around residential areas. Depending on
the design, some noise and harmonic vibration may emanate from the exhaust stack. The noise/harmonics
may bounce off surrounding structures and be offensive to employees and neighbors. If this condition
occurs, a stack muffler is recommended. In-line stack mufflers are typically used, installed vertically and
above roof level. They may be installed horizontally or closer to the equipment.
See Figures 2-2, 2-3, and 2-4 for stack configurations.
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NOTE 1: Barometric dampers are recommended on all installations with stack heights over 20 feet (6 meters)
and on any low NOx units.
NOTE 2: A removable, 4 feet (1.2 meters) minimum, stack section is recommended to facilitate steam
generator/fluid heater maintenance and repair.
NOTE 3: A backdraft damper must be installed in the exhaust stack for installations in cold weather climates.
All backdraft dampers must be air-tight and proof-of-position switches.
NOTE 4: Oil-fired units require a 2W x 3H feet (0.6W x 0.9H meter) access portal in the stack for inspection and
water washing. A floor drain is required at the bottom of the generator under or close to the burner
opening.
Figure 2-2 Standard exhaust stack layout for natural gas and light-oil installations only. Not
recommended for heavy-oil machines.
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* See Notes 1 – 4 in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-3 Alternate multi-unit exhaust stack layout for natural gas and light-oil installations only.
Not recommended for heavy-oil machines.
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* See Notes 1–4 in Figure 2-2.
NOTE: Exhaust stacks connecting to a common main stack must be offset from each other.
Figure 2-4 Recommended heavy-oil exhaust stack layout for single or multi-unit installations.
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NOTE 4: It is recommended that all stack sections be manufactured from 316L stainless steel
NOTE 3: An air-tight backdraft (shutoff) damper must be installed in the exhaust stack for installations in cold
weather climates.
2.5.2
NOTE 2: A removable, 4 feet (1.2 meters) minimum, stack section is recommended to facilitate steam
generator/fluid heater maintenance and repair.
NOTE 1: Barometric dampers are recommended on all installations with stack heights over 20 feet (6 meters)
and required on low NOx units.
Section II - General Information
Installing Exhaust Stacks With External Condensing Economizer
Figure 2-5 OPTION 1: Recommended exhaust stack installation for steam generator/fluid heaters
with Clayton condensing economizer.
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NOTE 1: Barometric dampers are recommended on all installations with stack heights over 20 feet (6 meters)
and on low NOx units.
NOTE 2: A removable, 4 feet (1.2 meters) minimum, stack section is recommended to facilitate steam
generator/fluid heater maintenance and repair.
NOTE 3: An air-tight backdraft (shut off) damper must be installed in the exhaust stack for installations in cold
weather climates.
NOTE 4: It is recommended that all stack sections be manufactured from 316L stainless steel
Figure 2-6 OPTION 2: Recommended exhaust stack installation for steam generator/fluid heaters
with Clayton condensing economizer.
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2.6
PIPING
2.6.1
General
Make sure no excessive strain or load is placed on any Clayton piping or their connections. Construct
secure anchoring and support systems for all piping connected to the steam generator unit and associated
water treatment package(s). Make sure anchoring and support systems keep motion and vibration to an absolute minimum. Ensure no extraneous vibrations are transferred to or from Clayton equipment. DO NOT use
Clayton connections as anchor points.
Spring-loaded pipe hangers are not recommended. All customer connections are limited to +200
pounds (+90 kg) of load and +150 foot-pounds (+200 N•m) of torque in all directions (X, Y, and Z). Properly
designed flex lines and anchoring may be used to meet loading requirements. Fuel, combustion exhaust
ducts, and fresh air supply connections are not designed for loads.
Pipe routes must not be obstructive or create any potential safety hazards, such as a tripping hazard.
Pipe trenches should be considered for minimizing pipe obstructions. Piping used to transfer a hot fluid
medium must be adequately insulated.
Pipe unions or flanges should be used at connection points where it is necessary to provide sufficient
and convenient disconnection of piping and equipment.
Steam, gas, and air connections should enter or leave a header from the top. Fluids, such as oil and
water, should enter or leave a header from the bottom. A gas supply connection must have a 12–18 inch (30–
45 cm) drip leg immediately before Clayton’s fuel connection.
Prevent dissimilar metals from making contact with one another. Dissimilar metal contact may promote galvanic corrosion.
Globe valves are recommended at all discharge connections from Clayton equipment that may
require periodic throttling, otherwise gate or ball valves should be used to minimize pressure drops.
2.6.2
Systems
Table 2-2 below is for steam generators rated below 250 psig (17.2 bar). It indicates the recommended material to be used for the various piping systems associated with the installation.
Table 2-2: Piping Recommendations
SYSTEM
RECOMMENDED MATERIAL / COMPONENTS
Steam and Condensate System
Steam and condensate system piping should be a minimum Schedule 40
black steel (seamless Grade B preferred). Refer to ASME guidelines for
proper pipe schedules. Steam headers should contain a sufficient number
of traps to remove condensed steam, and help prevent “water hammer.”
The separator discharge requires one positive shut off globe valve at the
separator discharge flange.
Blowoff/Drain
ASME codes require that all blow-off piping be steel with a minimum
Schedule 80 thickness and all fittings be steel and rated at 300 psi. Boiler
blow off piping should not be elevated.
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Table 2-2: Piping Recommendations
SYSTEM
RECOMMENDED MATERIAL / COMPONENTS
Steam Trap(s) Discharge
Steam trap(s) discharge piping should be Schedule 40 black steel. Pipe
size should be the same as that of the separator trap(s) connection up to
the first elbow. The pipe size must be increased one pipe size after the first
elbow, and again after manifolding with additional units. It is preferable to
have the trap return line installed so its entire run is kept below the hot-well
tank connection (to assist in wet layup). If this is not possible, then the line
must be sloped downward toward the receiver at a rate of 1/8 inch per foot.
Fuel (gas or oil)
Schedule 40 black iron (See Section IV), local agencies/codes may require
heavier pipe, and heavier fittings for oil lines.
Atomizing Air (oil only)
Schedule 40 black iron (See Section IV)
Safety Relief Valve Discharge
Safety relief valves must discharge to atmosphere in a direction that will
not cause harm to personnel or equipment. The discharge piping must not
contain any valves or other obstruction that could in any way hinder the
release of steam. A drip pan elbow with appropriate drains should be
installed as shown in Figure 2-7.
Back Pressure Regulator
Installing a Back Pressure Regulator (BPR) on all installations is highly
recommended by Clayton Industries. A BPR is required for all units sold
with Auxiliary Pressure Control (APC), Master Lead-Lag, and automated
startup controls. The BPR protects against drying-out and localized overheating of the heating coil during large steam pressure changes.
Figure 2-7 Safety Relief Valve Discharge
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NOTE
It is the responsibility of the installer to ensure that all piping and fittings are properly
rated (material type, thickness, pressure, temperature) for the intended system application. It is also the responsibility of the installing party to design all piping systems
so as to ensure that Clayton specified flow and pressure requirements (See Section
VI, Table 1) are satisfied.
2.6.3
Atmospheric Test Valve
An important, yet often overlooked, function of a properly installed steam piping system is the ability to perform full load testing of the steam generator(s) when the main steam header is restricted from
accepting steam. This is most commonly encountered during the initial start-up when commissioning a
steam generator. This condition will also occur when it is necessary to test or tune a steam generator during
periods of steam header or end-user equipment repairs, when header pressure must be maintained to prevent
cycling the generator off, or when an overpressure condition exists while in manual operation.
To facilitate full load testing of a steam generator, an easily accessible or chain operated, globe-type,
atmospheric test valve must be installed in the steam header (downstream of a back pressure regulator, if so
equipped, and upstream of at least one steam header isolation valve). The atmospheric test valve must be
capable of passing 100 percent of the generator’s capacity.
WARNING
A discharging atmospheric test valve produces extremely high noise levels.
Extended exposure to a discharging atmospheric test valve can lead to hearing loss.
Installing a silencer is strongly recommended.
2.6.4
Steam Header and Steam Sample Points
Clayton requires appropriately constructed steam header connections, and at least one steam sample
point per generator. All steam header connections from and to Clayton’s equipment must originate from the
steam header vertically upward prior to changing direction toward Clayton’s equipment.
Clayton requires all steam sample connections used to measure steam quality, or efficiency, originate
from the steam header vertically upward prior to heading to any sample cooler, water quality, or efficiency
testing/measuring equipment. Clayton requires the equivalent of three (3) pipe diameters of uninterrupted
straight lengths of steam header prior to and after the sample point.
2.7
FEEDWATER TREATMENT
The importance of proper feedwater treatment cannot be over-emphasized. The Clayton steam generator is a forced-circulation, monotube, single pass, watertube-type packaged boiler requiring continuous
feedwater treatment and monitoring. The water in the hot-well tank is actually boiler feedwater.
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NOTE
It is imperative that proper feedwater treatment chemicals and equipment are in
place and operational prior to filling the heating coil.
The Clayton Feedwater Treatment Manual, furnished with each new unit, provides detailed information regarding Clayton feedwater treatment requirements, products, and equipment.
In general, the feedwater supplied to your Clayton steam generator must:
• Hardness: 0 ppm (4 ppm maximum)
• pH 10.5–11.5 (normal range), maximum of 12.5
• Oxygen free with an excess sulfite residual of 50–100 ppm during operation (>100 ppm during
wet lay-up)
• Maximum TDS of 8,550 ppm (normal range 3,000–6,000 ppm)
• Maximum dissolved iron of 5 ppm
• Free of suspended solids
• Maximum silica of 120 ppm with the proper OH alkalinity
NOTE
Review the Clayton Industries Feedwater Treatment Reference Manual (P/N:
R15216) for additional feedwater quality requirements.
2.7.1
Water Softeners
Refer to the Clayton Water Softener Instruction Manual for detailed information regarding the installation, dimensions, and operation of Clayton water softening equipment. Some general guidelines are provided below.
Cold water piping to the water softener(s), and from the water softeners to the makeup water control
valve should be schedule 40 galvanized steel or schedule 80 PVC.
Install anti-siphon device (if required by local health regulations) in the raw water supply line.
2.7.2
Make-up Water Line Sizing
Table 2-3 shows the pipe sizes required from the water softener to hotwell. The supply pressure must
be at least 65 psi (450 kPa).
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Table 2-3: Makeup water valve and pipe sizes
BHP
25
35
50
75
100
125
Make-up
Valve
(in.)
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
Minimum
Line Size
(in.)
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
1
1
BHP
150
200
250
300
350
400
Make-up
Valve
(in.)
3/4
3/4
1
1
1
1
Minimum
Line Size
(in.)
1
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/4
1 1/4
BHP
500
600
700
1200
1600
2000
Make-up
Valve
(in.)
1
1
2
1 1/2
2
2
Minimum
Line Size
(in.)
1 1/2
1 1/2
2
2
2 1/2
3
Note 1: All models use a makeup water solenoid valve.
Note 2: Water flow is based on 44 lb. per hour per bhp (boiler horsepower).
2.8
FEEDWATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
The feedwater supply line sizing will be a minimum of one line size larger than the inlet connection
size of the Clayton feedwater pump. Fractional dimensions will be rounded up to the larger whole-sized
dimension.
NOTE
Clayton, like all OEMs, takes advantage of the limited length and lower velocities to
minimize its internal line sizes. Like most manufacturers, this works well on Clayton’s
internal piping and pump head designs because of the very short equivalent pipe
lengths and quickly dividing flows (lower velocities) within our pump designs, which
yield lower velocities and acceleration head.
Unfortunately, the customer and installing contractor experience the reverse when
designing their feedwater piping system as they are usually faced with much longer
equivalent length pipe runs and/or have to deal with a pipe required to carry more
than one generator’s flow. Therefore, it is critical for the installation designer to increase supply line sizes to meet Clayton’s requirements for velocity and acceleration
head. See paragraph 2.8.2 and 2.8.3.
2.8.1
Multi-unit Systems
A common design mistake is the installing of a single feedwater supply line to a common suction
header for multiple reciprocating PD pumps. The preferred feedwater line design is providing each reciprocating PD pump with its own supply line and suction header.
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Connecting two or more reciprocating PD pumps to a common suction header IS NOT recommended. Designing such a pump system can frequently cause severe pump pounding, vibration, and premature check-valve, diaphragm, and electrical component failure. In addition, attempting to analyze the
operation of multiple pumps connected to a common suction header through mathematical calculations is
very difficult.
2.8.2
Velocity Requirements and Calculation
Clayton requires the feedwater supply line maintain all flow velocities under one feet per second
(1 ft/s). Customers must ensure their line sizing calculations clearly show that supply pipe sizes are sufficiently large to maintain the less than 1 ft/s under all operational conditions. Refer to the charts in Figure 2-8
and 2-9 for velocity requirements.
Velocity of a fluid is the amount of fluid F low passing through an Area, and the formula is V=F/A.
Velocity is required in ft/sec for our use, so we must express our generators water flow in cubic feet and
divide that by an area expressed in square feet. Clayton’s generator water flows are all based on 44 lbs per
boiler horsepower per hour; therefore, we must convert the pounds of water to cubic feet of water, and then
convert the hour to seconds.
Let us find the velocity of 3 x 150 bhp generators running at 100% in a common manifold. This can
be done by first calculating the total flow of water at the maximum firing rate. Since Clayton wants a minimum of 44 lbs/bhp-hr, the total flow required is:
F = (3 × 150 bhp × 44 lbs/bhp-hr) = 19,800 lbs/hr
Next, we need to convert the flow from lbs/hr to ft3/hr by multiplying the flow by the conversion factor of 0.01602 ft3/lb of water. The converted flow is:
F = 19,800 lbs/hr × 0.01602 ft3/lb = 317.2 ft3/hr
Then, we need to convert hours to seconds. Since one hour has 3600 seconds, we simply divide the
317.2 ft3/hr by 3600. The converted flow is:
F = (317.2 ft3/hr) ÷ (3600 sec/hr) = 0.0881 ft3/sec
Now that we have the flow (F), we need to know the area through which it will flow. Area is calculated by the formula A = r2 were  is a constant equal to 3.14159, and r is the radius of the pipe ID being
used. For this example, we will use 3-inch pipe. We will discount the differences between the ID of varying
pipe schedules, water temperature, etc., to make this simple for the field. These are not meaningful for a
quick check of the installation. To successfully complete the velocity calculation, we need to work with feet,
so a conversion from inches to feet is required.
A 3 inch ID pipe has a radius of 1.5 inch. To convert inches to feet, divide the inches by 12 in./ft;
therefore, in our example the radius is 1.5 in. ÷ 12 in./ft = 0.125 ft
A = r2 = 3.14159 × (0.125 ft) 2 = 0.049 ft2
Now that we have both the desired flow (0.088 ft3/sec) and the available area (0.049 ft2) of the
3-inch pipe it must pass through, we can calculate the velocity.
V = F÷A = (0.0881 ft3/sec) ÷ (0.049 ft2) = 1.8 ft/sec
NOTE: Unfortunately, the velocity (V) in our example exceeds Clayton’s maximum ft/sec.
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Figure 2-8 Velocity requirements for 25–1,000 bhp
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Figure 2-9 Velocity requirements for 1,200–4,000 bhp
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The more relevant issue for this example is what size pipe manifold, as a minimum, do the 3 x 150
bhp generators need to meet Clayton’s 1 ft/sec maximum flow velocity. This can be calculated using the
same velocity equation V = F ÷ A. To find and area, we solve the equation for A (area), which is done by
multiplying both sides of the equation by A, and dividing both sides of the equation by V; therefore, the area
is equal to the flow divided by the velocity, or A = F ÷ V.
From our example above, we know that the flow is 0.0881 ft3/sec, and the maximum velocity Clayton requires is 1 ft/sec; therefore, we simply divide them get the area.
A = F ÷ V= 0.0881 ft3/sec ÷ 1 ft/sec = 0.0881 ft2
But we want a pipe size so we must convert an area in ft2 backwards to a diameter in inches. To
accomplish this we simply work the area of a circle backwards. From above we learned that the area of a
pipe ID is A = r2 so to find the r (radius) we simply divide both side by , and then take the square root of
the result, r = (A ÷ ).
R = (A ÷ ) = (.0881 ft2 ÷ 3.14159) =
0.028 = 0.1675 ft
Remember this is a radius in feet, so we need to convert it to a diameter by multiplying by 2 and converting feet to inches for pipe sizes.
Pipe diameter size in feet = 0.1675 ft × 2 = 0.3349 ft
Now feet to inches:
0.3349 ft × 12 in./ft = 4.02 inch pipe
This shows that the 3 x 150 bhp generators require at least a 4-inch pipe size to manifold all 3 x 150s
and meet Clayton’s maximum flow velocity of 1 ft/sec. Remember that this must be done for each leg of the
entire supply piping system using the specific flows in each leg.
2.8.3
Acceleration Head (Ha) Requirements
On feedwater supply runs longer than 15 feet (4.5 m), or with multiple pump sets, customers must
complete acceleration head loss calculations to show acceleration head losses are less than 0.75 foot/foot of
equivalent pipe run for open hotwell systems (water temperatures less than 210° F {99° C}), and less than
0.5 foot/foot of equivalent pipe run for deaerator or semi-closed systems (water temperatures over 212° F
{100° C}). UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE IMPACT FROM Ha TO NPSHA BE
IGNORED (See paragraph 2.11.1.).
NOTE
All water flow calculations must be based on 44 lb. per hour per boiler horsepower
adjusted for feedwater temperature.
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2.9
FLEXIBLE FEEDWATER HOSE CONNECTION AND CONNECTION
SIZING
A two-foot flexible hose is required for connecting directly to the inlet of a Clayton reciprocating PD
pump from the feedwater supply line. In some cases, a two-foot flexible hose may also be required at the
reciprocating PD pump discharge outlet. The flexible section must be appropriately rated to satisfy pressure
and temperature requirements.
2.9.1
Supply Side Connections
Clayton’s reciprocating PD pumps require that the connection made directly to the pump’s inlet be a
flexible hose section. This hose section should be a bellows-type hose protected by a stainless steel wire
mesh sleeve. It must have at least a 24 inch (61 cm) length with a minimum 18 inch (45.5 cm) long-live
length. This flexible hose section must be appropriately rated to meet the pressure and temperature requirements of the feedwater supply system. The supply-side piping system must include a pipe anchor directly at
the inlet (hotwell/DA) side of the flexible connector.
2.9.2
Discharge Side Connections
A flexible hose section is required at the reciprocating PD pump discharge outlet whenever it is relocated from its original, factory-designed, installation location. This hose section should be a bellows-type
hose protected by a stainless steel wire mesh sleeve. It must have at least a 24 inch (61 cm) length with a
minimum 18 inch (45.5 cm) long-live length. Because Clayton’s mono-flow heating coil design usually
increases feedwater discharge pressures from Clayton’s reciprocating PD pump, this flexible hose section
must be appropriately rated to meet the pressure and temperature requirements of the reciprocating PD pump
output. The flexible hose rating requirements for the discharge will differ from the rating requirements for
the inlet flexible hose section. Contact Clayton Engineering for the feedwater pressure of the specific generator model.
2.10 PUMP SUCTION AND DISCHARGE PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN
The suction piping system is a vital area of the piping supply system. Therefore, its design requirements deserves more careful planning.
2.10.1 General Layout Guidelines
• Lay out piping so no high points occur where vapor pockets may form. Vapor pockets reduce the
effective flow area of the pipe and consequently make pump priming and operation difficult. Vent
any unavoidable high points and provide gauge and drain connections adjacent pump.
• Install eccentric-type pipe reducers when required. Make sure these reducers are installed with the
flat side up.
• Keep piping short and direct.
• Keep the number of turns to a minimum.
• Keep friction losses to a minimum by incorporating smooth fluid flow transitions in the piping layout. This can be accomplished with long radius elbows, two 45o elbows, or 45o branch laterals
instead of tees.
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• DO NOT use Clayton equipment for pipe support or pipe anchoring. It is the responsibility of the
installation contractor and the customer to provide adequate and proper pipe supports and anchors.
Clayton recommends all steam/fluid heaters, PD feedwater pumps, and water treatment skid pipe
supports and anchors use floor-mounted structural steel.
2.10.2 Pipe Sizing Guidelines
2.10.2.1 Suction Piping
Clayton tends to follow the guidelines set forth by the Hydraulic Institute (HI) for positive displacement piston pumps. Equivalent pipe lengths for pipe fittings (elbows, tees, etc.) can be found in the HI reference charts.
NOTE
While Clayton cannot assume responsibility for the piping system into which our
pump is installed, we can provide valuable guidelines for designing a piping system
properly.
Suction line sizing is a major factor in the successful operation of any pump. Many pump problems
result from a suction line that is too small in diameter, or too long. A properly designed piping system can
prevent problems, such as:
• Fluid flashing—Entrained fluid gases effuse when pressure in piping or pump falls below fluid
vapor pressure.
• Cavitation—Free gases in a fluid being forced back into the fluid. These implosions cause severe
pressure spikes that pit and damage pump internal parts.
• Piping vibration—This can result from improper piping support, cavitation, or normal reciprocating pump hydraulic pulses.
• Noisy operation—Most present when pump is cavitating.
• Reduced capacity—Can result from fluid flashing. If it is, this is an indication that the pumping
chambers are filling up with gases or vapors.
These problems can reduce a pump’s life and are a potential hazard to associated equipment and personnel. It is possible to fracture piping and damage the pump components with high pressure surges occurring when fluid is flashing or cavitating.
Suction piping must be a minimum of one size larger than the pump suction connection. The actual
line sizes will depend on meeting flow velocity maximums (see Figure 2-8 and 2-9 on page 2-19 and 2-20,
respectively), acceleration head calculations (see paragraph 2.11.3), and NPSH requirements (see Table 2-4
on page 2-26).
2.10.2.2 Discharge Piping
Normally, discharge pipe sizing is not an issue for a standard Clayton generator installation. But,
when floor space is limited at the installation site, Clayton’s close-coupled reciprocating PD pump will
require relocating from its originally-designed location. In these cases, certain precautionary changes must
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be made to the pipe runs between the reciprocating PD pump and the heating coil inlet. Clayton recommends
contacting a factory engineer to discuss any piping changes and obtain the generator’s necessary feedwater
pressure requirement.
The required piping changes are as follows:
• Connect a flexible hose section directly to the reciprocating PD pump’s discharge outlet. (See paragraph 2.9.2 for flexible hose section requirements.)
• Keep discharge lines as short and direct as possible, well supported, and firmly anchored. This will
ensure minimal pipe vibration, whether hydraulic or mechanical, that can be detrimental to the
pump and generator. Avoid “dead ends” and abrupt direction changes as much as possible.
• Always incorporate 45o angles in the discharge pipe runs by using lateral tees and 45o elbows. DO
NOT connect the pump’s discharge piping directly to a 90o tee/elbow pipe, or other acute-angled
piping. These types of connections will create “standing wave” or “bounce-back,” either audible or
sub-audible, that causes excessive vibration and noise.
• Use laterals in place of tees with the bottom of the Y facing the direction of pumped water flow.
Use long radius elbows, or two 45o elbows, throughout the discharge piping system from the flexible hose discharge connection to the heating coil inlet connection.
• Increase the pipe sizes by at least one full size over the PD feedwater pump’s discharge connection
(i.e.: a 1 1/2 or 2 inch discharge requires an increase to 3 inches minimum).
• Use of butt-weld pipe with weld-neck flange construction throughout the discharge pipe run is recommended.
• Discharge flow velocities must be maintained below 5 ft/sec. maximum.
• DO NOT install angle valves, globe valves, reduced port regular opening valves, restricting plug
valves, flow restriction orifices, or small ventures in the discharge pipe run.
• DO NOT install any quick-closing valves, which can cause hydraulic shock (water hammering) in
the discharge piping run.
• Connect the pressure relief valve and pressure gauge with snubber ahead of any block valve so that
the pump discharge pressure is always reflected at the relief valve. The relieving capacity of the
valve must exceed the full capacity of the pump to avoid excessive pressure while relieving flow.
Use only full-sized relief line design with no restrictions.
• Should the Clayton reciprocating PD pump’s pressure relief valve be removed, it must be replaced
with a properly sized and correctly set pressure relief valve. Relief valve discharge must not be
piped to reciprocating PD pump’s suction line.
• Install a 2-inch NPTF weld couplet vertically upward, as close as possible, to the reciprocating PD
pump’s discharge connector to allow the addition of nitrogen-filled pulsation dampeners.
• All discharge pipe and pipe fittings must be at minimum Schedule 80.
2.11 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH)
NPSH relates to the pressure (generally in terms of “head” of water, or psi) that a pump needs to prevent flashing or cavitation within the pump, primarily in the suction check-valve area. Flashing and cavitation will reduce necessary flow rates and cause damage to the internal pump components and coil.
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NPSH is divided into two important aspects: what is available (NPSHA) from the suction vessel and
piping, and what is required by the pump (NPSHR).
2.11.1 NPSHA
Pump NPSHA is the usable pressure (usually expressed in feet of water column or psi) available at
the inlet of the pump. For Clayton systems that typically operate with near-boiling water, NPSHA is determined by the elevation difference between the operating hot-well tank water level and the inlet to the pump,
minus frictional losses and minus acceleration head losses.
NOTE
If a hot-well tank cannot be sufficiently elevated to supply the required NPSHA, a
booster pump will be required. To convert booster pump pressure (psi) to foot of
head, use the following formula: psi (2.3067)=ft of water.
Booster pumps should be placed adjacent to the feedwater supply (suction) vessel. The total suction
system’s NPSHA must be greater than the booster pump’s NPSHR. The discharge head of the booster pump
must be sufficient to provide a pressure of at least 25% greater than Clayton’s reciprocating PD pump’s
NPSHR, plus pipe friction losses, plus acceleration head losses, and plus 2.5 ft. Velocity and acceleration
head design requirements are specified in paragraphs 2.8.2, page 2-18, and 2.8.3, page 2-21, and velocity
charts in Figures 2-8 and 2-9, pages 2-19 and 2-20, respectively.
1) Suction System: NPSHA = Receiver Elevation Head or Booster Pump Head – Friction Loss
– Acceleration Head Loss – Pump Head Elevation (Typically 2.5 ft. [0.76 m] above ground.)
2) NPSHR = Clayton Feedwater Pump Net Positive Suction Head Required (See Table 2-4.).
3) NPSHA must be at least 25% greater than NPSHR. (NPSHA > 1.25 NPSHR)
NOTE: NPSHA is increased by increasing receiver head, booster pump head, or line size.
A suction pulsation dampener or stabilizer directly adjacent to the Clayton feedwater pump connection is required.
2.11.2 NPSHR
Pump NPSHR is the pressure (usually expressed in feet of water column or psi) required at the inlet
of the pump that will enable the pump to operate at rated capacity without loss of flow due to flashing or
cavitation in the pump. The NPSHR is relative to the pump inlet (suction) connection. The NPSHR number
for a Clayton pump was determined experimentally by Clayton (see Table 2-4).
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Table 2-4: Clayton’s NPSH height requirements a
Model
Feet
Meters
Model
Feet
Meters
SF-25
SF-35
SF-50
SF-75
7
7
7
10
2.1
2.1
2.1
3.0
SF-100
SF-125
SF-150
SF-200
10
10
18
13
3.0
3.0
5.5
4.0
a Requirements
shown are based on Clayton’s standard reciprocating PD pump usage. Alternate pumps that require
higher NPSHR are used on some generators. Check Clayton’s P & I D drawing for specific requirements.
NOTE
Water flow is based on 44 lb. per hour per bhp. NPSHRs shown are for 150 psi design steam pressure. Higher steam pressures could change these numbers.
2.11.3 Acceleration Head (Ha)
Unlike centrifugal pumps that provide a smooth continuous flow, positive displacement pumps (typically used by Clayton) cause an accelerating and decelerating fluid flow as a result of the reciprocating
motion and suction valves opening and closing. This accelerated and decelerated pulsation phenomenon is
also manifested throughout the suction pipe. The energy required to keep the suction pipe fluid from falling
below vapor pressure is called acceleration head. For installations with long piping sections, this becomes a
significant loss to overcome and must be carefully considered. If sufficient energy is absent, then fluid flashing, cavitation, piping vibration, noisy operation, reduced capacity, and shortened pump life can occur.
To calculate the Ha required to overcome the pulsation phenomenon, use the following empirical
equation:
Ha =
LVNC
gk
where:
Ha = Head in feet (meters) of liquid pumped to produce required acceleration
L = Actual suction pipe length in feet (meters)
V = Mean flow velocity in suction line in feet per second (m/s) (See Figure 2-8 and 2-9, page 2-19
and 2-20, respectively.)
N =Pump speed in rpm (See Table 2-5, below.)
C = Pump constant factor of ...
0.400 for simplex single acting
0.200 for duplex single acting (J2 pump)
0.066 for triplex single acting
0.082 for quadplex single acting (J4 pump)
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g = Acceleration of gravity = 32.2 ft/s2 (9.8 m/s2)
k = Liquid factor of ...
1.5 for water
1.4 for deaerated water
1.3 for semi-closed receiver water
Table 2-5: Clayton Pump Speeds
Generator
SF25
SF35
SF50
SF75
SF100
SF125
SF150
SF200
Pump Speed
(RPM)
336
294
330
372
330
384
432
288
Since this equation is based on ideal conditions of a relatively short, non-elastic suction line, calculated values of Ha should be considered as approximations only.
NOTE
As pump speed (N) is increased, mean flow velocity (V) also increases. Therefore,
acceleration head (Ha) varies as the square of pump speed.
NOTE
Acceleration head varies directly with actual suction pipe length (L).
IMPORTANT
ACCELERATION HEAD IS A SUCTION PIPING SYSTEM FACTOR THAT MUST BE
ACCOUNTED FOR BY THE PIPING SYSTEM DESIGNER. MANUFACTURERS
CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR THIS IN THEIR DESIGNS BECAUSE OF THE LARGE
VARIETY OF APPLICATIONS AND PIPING SYSTEMS PUMPS ARE INSTALLED
IN.
NOTE
If acceleration head is ignored or miscalculated, significant pump and piping system
problems (suction and discharge) may result.
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Clayton recommends placing a suction pulsation dampener or stabilizer adjacent to the positive displacement reciprocating pump suction connection. This will help to protect the booster pump from the pulsating fluid mass inertia of the positive displacement reciprocating pump and to reduce the effect of
acceleration head.
2.12 GENERAL INSTALLATION CONCERNS
2.12.1 Charge Pumps
Charge (booster) pumps should be sized to 150% of rated Clayton pump volume. Charge pumps
must be centrifugal-type pumps—not positive displacement pumps.
2.12.2 Charge Pumps Are Not A Substitute
Charge pumps are not a good substitute for short, direct, oversized, suction lines. They are also not a
substitute for the computation of available NPSH, acceleration head (Ha), frictional head (HF), vapor pressure, and submergence effects being adequately considered.
2.12.3 Multiple Pump Hookup
The preferred configuration for connecting two or more reciprocating pumps in a system is to provide each pump with their own piping system. This will ensure each pump is isolated from the effects of
another pump’s cyclical demands.
Connecting two or more reciprocating pumps to a common suction header IS NOT recommended.
Designing such a pump system can frequently cause severe pump pounding, vibration, and premature checkvalve and diaphragm failure. In addition, attempting to analyze the operation of multiple pumps connected
to a common suction header through mathematical calculations becomes impossible.
2.12.4 Pumphead Cooling Water System (Clayton Feedwater Pumps)
Clayton feedwater pumps require pumphead cooling water in the following applications:
• high coil feed pressures - for pump discharge pressures above 500 psi (34.5 bar)
• high-temperature supply water - supply water from a DA, SCR, or receiver with temperatures
above 210° F (98° C)
The cooling water temperature must be below 75° F (24° C). The supplied water pressure should be
35–65 psi (2.4–4.5 bar) with a flow rate of 1.5 gpm (5.7 lpm) minimum.
2.13 ELECTRICAL
All customer-supplied electrical wiring must be properly sized for the voltage and amperage rating of
the intended application. Full load amperage (FLA at 460V) requirements for each model are provided in
Table 6-1 of Section VI. Use the appropriate multiplier, provided in the table below, to determine the full
load amperage requirements for other voltages (FLA at 460V times the multiplier).
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VOLTAGE
208
230
380
575
MULTIPLIER
2.2
2.0
1.1
0.8
A fused disconnect switch (customer furnished) must be installed in accordance with NEC 430 and
should be located within view of the steam generator. The switch should be easily accessible to operating
personnel. Clayton provides a set of terminals in the steam generator electrical control cabinet for wiring an
emergency stop device (customer furnished).
NOTE
Additional access holes are located in the bottom of the electronics control cabinet.
DO NOT make any holes in the sides or top of the electrical cabinet(s).
Clayton strongly recommends surge protection for all its equipment. Isolation transformers are recommended for areas subject to electrical variations due to weather, weak or varying plant power, or old systems.
Isolation transformers are required on all electrical systems that are based on delta distribution systems. Clayton recommends electrical connections be made through a grounded wire system only.
Clayton electronics cabinet devices are rated to function properly at typical boiler room temperatures
not exceeding 120° F (49° C). For boiler room installations where temperatures are expected to rise above
120° F (49° C), installation of a Clayton electronics cabinet cooler is required. This cooler requires a supply
of clean, dry compressed air at 40 scfm (1.13 m3/min.) at 100 psi (6.9 bar).
2.14 ELECTRICAL GROUNDING
Clayton’s steam generator, fluid heater, and water skid installations must have an electrical grounding network with a resistance no higher than 2 Ohms to earth ground when measured at its control box(es).
Clayton requires a separate, direct earth ground at each of its unit installations.
Grounding wires must be routed directly with electrical power supply wiring and sized according to
the connected amperage, but never less than 8 awg. A separate ground wire must be run to each steam
generator/fluid heater frame and water skid frame
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SECTION III - CLAYTON
FEEDWATER SYSTEMS
3.1
GENERAL
Clayton steam generator feedwater systems are designed with an open (hotwell), deaerator
(DA), or Semi-Closed Receiver (SCR). The selection of the proper feedwater system is determined by the steam generator’s application, the installation environment, and other factors. Each
system is discussed in detail in later paragraphs in this section.
The feedwater system’s pipes, as well as the heating coil, are susceptible corrosion if
proper feedwater treatment is neglected. Corrosion in the pipes are due to three fundamental factors—dissolved oxygen content, low pH, and temperature. Oxygen is required for most forms of
corrosion. The dissolved oxygen content is a primary factor in determining the severity of the corrosion. Removing oxygen, and carbon dioxide, from the feedwater is essential for proper feedwater conditioning. Temperature and low pH affects the aggressiveness of the corrosion.
Deaerators are designed to remove most of the corrosive gases from the feedwater. Deaeration can be defined as the mechanical removal of dissolved gases from a fluid. There are many
types of Deaerators; however, the ones most commonly used for deaerating boiler feedwater are
the open (atmospheric), pressurized jet spray, and tray type. To effectively release dissolved gases
from any liquid, the liquid must be kept at a high temperature. Deaerators are pressurized above
atmospheric pressure (typically 3–15 psig) to maintain the feedwater at a higher boiling point.
The increased pressure and temperature releases the dissolved gases from the feedwater and those
gases are vented to atmosphere.
There are four skid package options available depending on the feedwater system (all
options are not available for all models - contact your Clayton Sales Representative). The systems, skid package options, and required customer connections are described below.
3.2
SKID PACKAGES
A. Individual Components The steam generator unit and all water treatment components
are furnished separately. Placement of each component and its assemblies and interconnections
are determined by the installer.
B. Feedwater Receiver Skid A separate skid consisting of the feedwater receiver,
booster pump(s), and electrical control box mounted on a common frame is provided along with
the steam generator. Interconnecting piping between the feedwater receiver and booster pump(s),
if applicable, and feedwater receiver trim component mounting, are included. If applicable (>200
bhp), electrical connections between the water level control, makeup water valve, and skid electrical control box are also included. No other water treatment components or interconnections are
provided on this skid.
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C. Water Treatment Skid All water treatment components are mounted on a skid and
provided along with the steam generator. Components include receiver, softeners, chemical
pumps, blowdown tank, control box, and booster pumps if applicable. Skid piping and electrical
interconnections between the skid components are included.
NOTE
All Clayton-supplied water skids must be fully grouted in place once leveling and anchoring are complete.
D. Generator Skid The steam generator(s) and water treatment components as listed in
“C” above, are all mounted on a single skid. Skid piping and electrical interconnections between
components are included.
NOTE
On SCR system skids, the SCR is mounted and piped, but removed for
shipment for reassembly by the installing contractor.
NOTE
Clayton reserves the right to ship loose any equipment that cannot be safely shipped in installed. Some skid components may require re-installation
on site.
NOTE
All Clayton-supplied water skids must be fully grouted in place once leveling and anchoring are complete.
3.3
CUSTOMER CONNECTIONS
The required customer connections for the typical water treatment components included
with open and deaerator feedwater receiver systems are identified in Tables 3-1 and 3-2 below.
The type and size of each is provided on supplemental drawings and instructional literature.
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Table 3-1: Hotwell (Open) and Deaerator Systems
Customer
Connection
Skid Type
None
Condensate Skid
Water Skid
Generator Skid
a Feedwater
Feedwatera
Overflow/ Condensate Traps Steam Chemical Makeup
Outlet
Vent Drain Overflow Drain
Returns Returns Heating Injection Water
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
outlet connections apply only on Condensate and Water Skids without Booster Pumps.
Table 3-2: Hotwell (Open) and Deaerator Systems
DA ONLY
Customer
Connections
Skid Type
None
Condensate Skid
Water Skid
Generator Skid
3.4
Booster Pump(s)
Water Softener(s)
Blowdown Tank
Cooling Safety
Water Valve BPR PRV
Inlet Outlet Recirc Inlet Outlet Drain Inlet Outlet Vent Inlet
Out Outlet Inlet
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
OPEN SYSTEM
(Refer to P&ID drawing R-19477.)
In an open system, the makeup water, condensate returns (system and separator trap
returns), chemical treatment, and heating steam are blended in an atmospheric feedwater receiver
tank, (vented to atmosphere - under no pressure). Open feedwater receiver systems are sized to
provide the necessary volume of feedwater and sufficient retention time for the chemical treatment to react. Condensate, separator trap returns and feedwater treatment chemicals are injected
at the opposite end of the tank as the feedwater outlet connection. This helps to avoid potential
feedwater delivery problems to the booster or feedwater pump(s), and to provide sufficient reaction time for the chemical treatment.
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Installation guidelines for the feedwater receiver are provided below. Descriptions for the
other water treatment and accessory components, shown in R-19477, are provided in Section VII
(Optional Equipment) and/or in the Clayton Feedwater Treatment Manual.
NOTE
All piping to and from the feedwater receiver must remain the same or
larger size as the tank connection and not reduced. See Table 3-3 below for
connection requirements.
Table 3-3: Feedwater Receiver Connections
Feedwater
Outlet
Gravity Fill
Vent
Chemical
Injection
Overflow
Drain
This is the supply connection for properly-treated feedwater to the booster pump(s) or
feedwater pump(s). Depending on the tank size, this connection may be either on the
bottom or on the side of the tank. A valve and strainer (0.125 mesh) must be installed in
the feedwater supply piping at the inlet to each pump (shipped loose if Clayton
furnished - except on Skids). Feedwater line must be constructed to provide
the required NPSH, velocity under 1 ft/s, and acceleration head losses
less than those shown in Section 2.11 to the feedwater pump inlet.
Restrictions in this line will cause water delivery problems that may result in pump
cavitation and water shortage problems in the heating coil.
Install a pipe tee in the feedwater outlet line just below the feedwater outlet connection.
On an elevated receiver system, this pipe tee provides a connection for the gravity fill
plumbing coming from the heating coil.
Vent piping must be installed so as not create back pressure on the hotwell. The vent
pipe should be as short as possible, contain no valves or restrictions, and run straight up
and out. Ninety degree elbows are to be avoided. A 45o offset should be provided at the
end of the vent line to prevent system contamination during severe weather conditions
and/or during shutdown periods.
One common feedwater chemical injection connection is provided into which all
feedwater treatment chemicals are introduced. A check-valve must be installed in the
discharge line of each chemical pumping system.
No valves are to be installed in the overflow piping. Overflow piping must be plumbed
to the blowdown tank discharge piping at a point prior to the temperature valve sensor.
The overflow line must be full size, not reduced. Clayton recommends installing a “Ptrap” on all overflow lines.
A valve must be provided in the drain line. As indicated above, the drain line can be tied
into the overflow line as long as the line size downstream of the merge remains at least
the size of the overflow connection on the tank.
NOTE
The feedwater receiver drain and overflow lines (run independently or tied together) may contain up to 212o F water and must be routed to the Blowdown
Tank discharge piping at a point prior to the temperature valve sensor.
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Table 3-3: Feedwater Receiver Connections
Condensate
Returns,
Temperature
Control
&
Sparger
Tube(s)
The condensate return connection is the point where all system condensate returns,
separator trap discharge, and heating steam are introduced. The hotwell may use one or
two condensate return connections, depending on the tank size and return volume. This
injection point is located below the water line and connected to a sparger tube(s).
Introducing the steam and hot condensate below the water line in conjunction with
using the sparger tube reduces the velocity and turbulence created at the injection point,
while minimizing flash steam losses and noise. On tanks containing two condensate
return connections one is used for system condensate returns, the other is used for the
separator trap discharge and heating steam. In all cases, a check-valve must be installed
in the condensate return and steam supply lines to prevent back-feeding. The checkvalve must be located as close to the feedwater tank as possible. When installing a
sparger tube(s) it must be installed so that the holes are in a horizontal position. This is
confirmed on Clayton manufactured hotwells (up to 200 bhp) by visual verification that
the “X” stamping on the external section is in the “12 o’clock” position. Refer to
drawing R-19477 for the proper temperature control valve configuration.
NOTE
Clayton feedwater receivers are sized for proper flow and chemical mixture. If a customer’s condensate system creates large surges in returns at
start up or while in operation, it may cause the feedwater receiver to overflow. Proper evaluation of the condensate return system and final feedwater receiver sizing is the customer’s responsibility.
3.5
DEAERATOR (DA)
Effective control of the pressure in the deaerator is essential to proper performance and
operation of the Clayton steam generator system. Most deaerators have high and low pressure
condensate return inlet connections. The high temperature condensate should be introduced into
the DA through a sparger tube. Condensate returns affect the pressure and water temperature in
the DA. Introducing condensate return increases the pressure in the DA and, conversely, reducing
the amount of condensate return decreases the pressure in the DA. When the quantity of condensate return is insufficient to maintain the desired water level in the DA, relatively cool makeup
water is admitted. This results in a pressure drop (sometimes sudden) in the DA. This distorts the
saturation pressure-temperature relationship causing the high temperature water in the DA to
flash, releasing steam. Some amount of the water in the supply line to the feedwater pump also
flashes. This condition may result in cavitation of the feedwater pump, impeding feedwater delivery to, and resulting in an overheat condition of the heating coil. On the other hand, if the water in
the DA is overheated due to an excessive amount of condensate return, some of this heat is vented
off as steam to prevent over-pressurizing the DA.
Pressure regulating valves, PRV/BPR, are used to maintain a stable pressure in the DA. A
Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) is used to inject steam into the DA when a pressure drop is
sensed. The PRV for this service is typically pilot operated. The downstream sensing line should
be connected to the deaerator head rather than the PRV downstream pipe line. This will prevent
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any control variations due to the pressure loss in the line. A Back Pressure Regulator (BPR) is
used to vent steam during periods of overpressure. When large amounts of hot condensate are
returned, an amount of steam will be released momentarily—this is normal. Clayton uses a separator with dual steam traps on deaerator applications to minimize this condition. With intermittent conditions of condensate returns at different temperatures and cold makeup, it may not be
possible to absorb all the heat from the hot condensate. Deaerator pressure fluctuations should be
controlled to within 2-3 psig.
The deaerator should be installed horizontally. The higher the DA can be elevated above
the booster pump(s) the less sensitive the feedwater delivery system will be to pressure variations.
Other factors, such as friction loss in the feedwater supply line and the Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSH) characteristics of the booster pump(s), should be considered when planning the deaerator
installation. Clayton requires booster pumps for most DA installations. The deaerator can be insulated to maximize heat retention.
Descriptions for the water treatment and accessory components are provided in Section
VII (Optional Equipment) and in the Clayton Feedwater Treatment Manual.
NOTE
All piping to and from the deaerator must remain the same size or larger
than the tank connection. Always check feedwater pump pipe size requirements and follow the larger pipe size. See Table 3-4 below.
Table 3-4: Deaerator Connections
Feedwater
Outlet
Gravity Fill
Vent
Chemical
Injection
Overflow
Trap
This connection is used to deliver properly treated feedwater to the booster pump(s) it is
typically on the bottom of the tank. A valve and strainer must be provided in the
feedwater supply piping at the inlet to each pump. The feedwater line must be constructed
so as to provide the required NPSH to the feedwater pump inlet. Restrictions in this line
will cause water delivery problems that may result in pump cavitation and water shortage
problems in the heating coil. Do not insulate this line. Cooling in the pump suction line
is beneficial during periods of fluctuating pressure in the deaerator. See Section 2.9.
A pipe tee should be installed in the feedwater outlet line just below the feedwater outlet
connection. On an elevated DA System, this pipe tee provides a connection for the gravity
fill plumbing. On a receiver system which uses Booster Pumps, install a pipe plug in the
gravity fill tee connection.
The deaerator must vent the liberated gases to be effective. Some steam is always vented
with these gases.
One common feedwater chemical injection connection is provided into which all
feedwater treatment chemicals are introduced. A check valve must be installed in the
discharge line of each chemical pumping system.
No valves are to be installed in the overflow trap piping. The overflow trap piping must
be plumbed to the blowdown tank discharge piping at a point prior to the temperature
valve sensor.
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Table 3-4: Deaerator Connections
Drain
A drain valve must be provided in the drain line. As indicated above, the drain line can be
tied into the overflow line as long as the line size downstream of the merge remains at
least the size of the overflow connection on the tank.
NOTE
The deaerator drain and overflow lines (run independently or tied together) typically contain water at >230o F and must be routed to a blowdown tank discharge
piping at a point prior to the temperature valve sensor.
Condensate
Most deaerators have a high and low pressure condensate return connection. The high
Returns
pressure condensate return connection is where all system condensate return and
separator trap discharge is introduced. Low pressure returns are typically pumped from a
&
condensate collection tank to the low pressure return connection. The high pressure
condensate return connection(s) is located below the water line with a sparger tube
Sparger Tube installed internally. Introducing the steam and hot condensate below the water line in
conjunction with using the sparger tube reduces the velocity and turbulence created at the
injection point, while minimizing flash steam losses and noise. In all cases, a check valve
must be installed, as close to the DA as possible, in the steam heat and condensate return
lines to prevent back-feeding. When installing a sparger tube(s) it must be installed so
that the holes are in a horizontal position.
Pressure
Steam is injected into the high pressure side of the tank to maintain the desired operating
Regulating
Valve
pressure. A Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) is used for pressure regulation.
Safety Relief Each deaerator is equipped with a safety relief valve to prevent overpressurizing of the
Valve
tank. This valve is typically rated at 50 psi. The safety relief valve must discharge to
atmosphere and in a direction that will not cause harm to personnel or equipment. The
discharge piping must not contain any valves or other obstructions that could hinder the
release of steam.
Back Pressure A back pressure regulator is used to help maintain a steady operating pressure in the DA.
Regulation
This valve is set below the safety valves and will vent during minor periods of over
Valve
pressurization.
NOTE
BPR sensing line must be plumbed directly to DA pressure sensing port at the
gauge connection on top of the DA tank.
3.6
SEMI-CLOSED RECEIVER (SCR)
Semi-Closed Receiver (SCR) systems are used only in applications that return a large
amount (typically > 50%) of high pressure, high temperature, condensate. The SCR is a pressurized vessel that is maintained at a pressure that will minimize venting (wasting) of the excess system heat contained in the hot condensate returns. Feedwater outlet line sizing is critical. See
Section 2.11.
Each SCR system is unique and requires individual attention to ensure proper application,
installation and operation.
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Due to the nature and selected use of Semi-Closed Receiver systems, they are addressed in
Supplemental Instructions.
3.7
SCR SKIDS
These skids must be shipped with the SCR tank loose. Tank and interconnecting piping
must be assembled by the installer.
3.8
HEAD TANK
A 10-gallon head tank is required when proper receiver tank elevation is unavailable. A
head tank provides the necessary positive coil feed pressure during wet layup. The tank must be
installed at least two (2) feet above the steam generator coil inlet connection.
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SECTION IV - FUEL SYSTEM
4.1
GENERAL
Clayton’s SigmaFire steam generators are designed to fire on natural gas, propane, or No.
2 distillate light fuel oil. On combination natural/propane gas and fuel oil machines, each fuel
type requires its designated burner manifold to operate. These burner manifolds must be
exchanged, manually, to match the fuel-type desired. Characteristics of, and installation guidelines for, both gas and oil fuel systems are described in detail in the following paragraphs.
The SigmaFire models SF-25 and SF-35 steam generators/fluid heaters are step-fired
combustion machines only. The SigmaFire models SF-50 through SF-200 steam generators/fluid
heaters are step-fired as standard, but ordered as modulating on gas combustion and step-fired on
oil combustion.
NOTE
The installing contractors are responsible for ensuring that all piping
and fittings are rated for the intended system installation (material
type, thickness, pressure, temperature). The installing contractors
are also responsible for ensuring the steam system design meets the
flow and pressure requirements of a Clayton steam generator (see
Section VI, Table 1).
4.2
NATURAL GAS
Clayton’s SigmFire steam generators are built in accordance with ANSI/ASME CSD-1,
(C)UL [(Canada) Underwriters Laboratories], FM (Factory Mutual) guidelines, and IRI (Industrial Risk Insurers)/GEGAP compliance. High and low gas pressure switches (with manual reset)
are standard on all gas trains.
Unless otherwise stated (liquid petroleum and other gas operation requires engineering
evaluation), the standard Clayton gas burner is designed for operation using pipeline-quality natural gas. Gas supply connection sizes and rated gas flows for each model are provided in Tables
1and 2 of Section VI. The gas supply line must be sized to provide both the supply pressure and
full rated flow indicated in Table 1 of Section VI without “sagging” (pressure drop). The gas supply pressure must not vary more than +5% of Clayton’s required supply pressure.
NOTE
All gas supply piping must include a minimum 12-inch drip leg immediately before Clayton’s gas train connection, and be fully selfsupporting.
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Gas pressure regulation is required. A regulated minimum of 2 psi gas pressure is required
at the inlet to the gas train. Pressure regulators should be sized to pass 25% excess gas at full open
position with minimal pressure drop. One-eighth inch vent lines are needed for both the high and
low gas pressure switches.
NOTE
Refer to local codes regarding vent manifolding.
4.3
OIL
4.3.1
General
Clayton SigmaFire oil-fired steam generators are step-fired and designed with pressure
atomizing-type oil burners. A 0.5–10 psig fuel oil pressure is required at the inlet to the fuel oil
pump.
NOTE
All Clayton liquid fuel systems require a fuel return line in addition
to the fuel supply line. Clayton recommends fuel return lines have
no isolation valve, or only valves with position open locking mechanisms.
NOTE
It is the customer’s responsibility to implement and meet state, local
and EPA code requirements for fuel oil storage.
4.3.2
Light Oil
The Clayton light-oil burner is designed for operation with No. 2 distillate light fuel oil as
defined by ASTM D 396 - Standard Specifications for fuel oils.
NOTE
A fusible-link-actuated shutoff valve is required in the fuel oil supply line when a machine is installed within FM (Factory Mutual) jurisdiction. This is not within the Clayton scope of supply and must
be provided by the installer.
A Clayton step-fired light-oil fuel system uses a direct-fire ignition.
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SECTION V - TRAP
SEPARATORS
5.1
GENERAL
Clayton Steam Generators require the same basic boiler feedwater treatment as any other watertube or firetube boiler. All require soft water with little or no dissolved oxygen, a sludge conditioner, and
a moderate to high pH. The water supplied from the Condensate Receiver should meet these conditions.
The primary distinction between a Clayton Steam Generator and drum type boiler is how and
where the desired pH levels are achieved. The feedwater in the Feedwater Receiver is boiler water for the
Clayton but similar to makeup water for the drum type boiler. Conventional boilers concentrate the boiler
feedwater in the drum and maintain total dissolved solids (TDS) levels and pH through blowdown. A system consisting of only Clayton Steam Generators uses the Feedwater Receiver much the same way conventional boilers use drums except that blowdown is taken off the separator trap discharge. Typically,
drum type boilers cannot tolerate the higher pH levels that must be maintained in the Feedwater Receiver
to satisfy Clayton feedwater requirements. Both systems work well independently, however feedwater
chemical treatment problems arise when the two are operated in tandem with a common feedwater
receiver - Clayton(s) with conventional boiler(s).
The Clayton Trap Separator was designed to remedy the boiler compatibility problem. Using a
Trap Separator allows both the Clayton(s) and conventional boiler(s) to operate together while sharing
the same Feedwater Receiver. Each system receives feedwater properly treated to suit its respective
operating requirements. If a Trap Separator is not used, pH is either too high for the conventional
boiler(s) or too low for the Clayton(s).
5.2
OPERATION
The separator trap returns from the Clayton Steam Generator(s) contain a high concentration of
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). This high concentration of TDS is undesirable to conventional boilers
because the blowdown rate would have to be increased (and could not be increased enough if the feedwater TDS level was over 3000 ppm). By routing the separator trap returns to the Trap Separator, rather than
to the common Feedwater Receiver, the high concentration of TDS in the trap returns is isolated to the
Clayton system. This not only eliminates the conventional boiler blowdown problems, but also satisfies
the higher pH requirement of the Clayton(s) Feedwater. The construction of a Trap Separator is very similar to that of a Blowdown Tank. Separator trap return enters tangentially creating a swirling action. Flash
steam is vented out the top and low pressure condensate is fed to the Booster Pump(s) from the outlet.
This relatively small amount of concentrated water blends with the larger volume of less concentrated feedwater being supplied from the Feedwater Receiver (ideally, the chemical treatment for both
systems is injected into the Feedwater Receiver) to produce a mixture of properly treated feedwater entering the Clayton Heating Coil(s). The other boiler(s) receive feedwater containing the pH and TDS levels
they require.
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INSTALLATION MANUAL
5.3
INSTALLATION
(Refer to Figures 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3.)
5.3.1
General
As shown on Figures 5-3 three sizes of Trap Separators have been designed to handle a
broad range of boiler horsepowers. Typical dimensions for each Trap Separator are provided in
Figure 3. Line sizes for the Trap Separator connections are provided and should be kept full size
(no reductions). The Trap Separator and connected piping must be properly supported. The Trap
Separator is maintained at the same pressure and water level as the Feedwater Receiver and
should be installed at an elevation that puts the water level midpoint in the sight glass.
5.3.2 Trap Separator Vent
The Trap Separator vent line must be large enough to handle the flash steam with little or
no pressure drop and without affecting the water level. Proper vent line sizes for specific horsepower ranges are indicated on Figures 5-1 and 5-2 and must not be reduced. On Deaerator (DA)
applications the vent flash steam should be introduced into the same section of the Deaerator as
the Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) steam injection. On open system applications, the vent line
should be introduced to the top of the Feedwater Receiver. Refer to Figure 5-1.
The Trap Separator Outlet is tied into the Booster Pump(s) feedwater supply line from the
common Feedwater Receiver. The outlet piping should be constructed so as to provide the
required NPSH to the booster pump(s) inlet. (any frictional loss subtracts from the available
NPSH). The outlet piping should contain a minimum number of elbows and fittings, and no
valves or check valves.
5.3.3 Feedwater Receiver Supply Lines
Provisions should be made for the Feedwater Receiver to have independent feed lines for
the Clayton and conventional boiler feedwater supply. If not isolated, there is a potential for the
larger feedwater pumps of the conventional boiler system to draw the water out of the Trap Separator and away from the Clayton feedwater supply system. This disrupts the chemical treatment
in both systems and may cause water shortage and pump cavitation problems in the Clayton system. If independent feed lines are not possible, a swing check valve must be installed in the feedwater supply line to prevent backflow away from the Clayton system. (Refer to Figure 5.1)
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R020202
Figure 5-1 Trap separator hookup with hotwell
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R020202
Figure 5-2 Trap separator hookup with deaerator
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R020202
Figure 5-3 Trap separator dimensions
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SECTION VI - TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATIONS
6.1
GENERAL
The following pages contain Tables with general reference information intended to assist in the
installation of your Clayton SigmaFire steam generator. The information is provided only for standard
Clayton thermal products. Specially designed equipment, such as Clayton Steam Generators with Low
NOx Burners, are addressed in Supplemental Instructions.
6.2
AGENCY APPROVALS
All standard SigmaFire steam generators are designed and built to meet ANSI, ASME, Boiler
Pressure Vessel Code Section I, ASME CSD-1, IRI/GEGAP, FM, UL, CUL, and CRN requirements.
The marine listings ABS, USCG, DNV, and CCG, are available.
6.3
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Only high quality materials are used in the manufacturing of the Clayton Steam Generator.
The Heating Coil in the generator is manufactured by Clayton using ASME SA178 or SA192
steel tubing. All welds are performed by Clayton ASME certified welders. The coil is then hydrostatically tested to 1.5 times the design pressure or 750 psig (52 bars) which ever is greater. The coil is
encased in a mild steel jacket that contains all combustion gases.
The steam separator shell is constructed of SA53 seamless black pipe. The heads are made of
ASME SA 285 carbon steel. The separator also has openings for steam safety relief valves.
6.4
FLAME SAFEGUARD
Combustion safety control is accomplished by an Electronic Safety Control (ESC) flame monitoring system. The ESC is a microprocessor-based, burner management, control system designed to provide
proper burner sequencing, ignition, and flame monitoring protection. In conjunction with limit and operating controls, it programs the Burner, Blower Motor, ignition, and fuel valves to provide for proper and
safe burner operation. The control monitors both pilot and main flames. It also provides current operating
status and lockout information in the event of a safety shutdown.
The programmer module, a component of the ESC, provides functions such as pre-purge, recycling interlocks, high-fire proving interlock, and trial for ignition timing of the pilot and main flame.
Burner flame is monitored by a flame sensor mounted in the Burner Manifold Assembly. The flame signal is sent to the amplifier module in the ESC. An optional display module may be added to provide readouts of main fuel operational hours and the flame signal.
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6.5
SAFETY CONTROLS
In addition to the combustion safety control, the following safety devices are continuously monitored during the Steam Generator operation.
6.5.1
Temperature Control Devices
There are three temperature control devices that continuously monitor the machine. The first
device monitors the temperature of the steam to prevent against a superheat condition. The second and
third temperature devices are a dual element thermocouple that provides continuous monitoring of the
coil face temperature in the combustion chamber.
6.5.2
Regulator Approvals
Fuel systems are designed to comply with ANSI/ASME CSD-1, Underwriters Laboratory, FM
approval, and IRI/GEGAP.
6.5.3
Steam Limit Pressure Switch
A steam limit pressure switch protects against an over-pressure condition.
6.5.4
Combustion Air Pressure Switch
A combustion air pressure switch is used to prove that sufficient air is present for proper combus-
tion.
6.5.5
Pressure Atomizing Oil Nozzles
The SigmaFire step-fired fuel system uses pressure atomizing oil nozzles—no pressurized air supply required.
6.5.6
Pump Oil Level Switch
A switch is available that monitors the Clayton feedwater pump crankcase oil level for both a high
and low oil level condition.
6.5.7
Overcurrent Protection
The electrical circuits (primary and secondary) and all motors are protected against an overcurrent
condition.
6.6
6.6.1
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS
Modulating and step-fired SigmaFire steam generators/fluid heaters.
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Section VI
Table 6-1a
MODEL
SPECS
SF-25
SF-35
SF-50
SF-75
2,510,625
A. Net heat output (Btu/hr)
836,875
1,171,625
1,673,750
B. Gross steam output (lb/hr)
863
1,207
1,725
2,587
Design pressure (psi)
65–500
15–500
15–500
15–500
Steam operating pressure (psi)
60–450
12–450
12–450
12–450
Oil 81
81
82
82
Gas 80
80
80
80
Blower (hp) 2
2
3
5
Feedwater Pump (hp) 1
1
2
3
10 amps
9 amps
20 amps
C. Thermal efficiencies at 100%
firing rate, w/o SE (%):
D. Motor sizes (up to -3 design)
E. Full load amperage (FLA)
F.
10 amps
(up to -3 design, w/o SE)
@ 460 V
@460 V
@460 V
@460 V
Oil consumption, w/o SE (gph)
7.3
10.2
14.5
21.8
G1. Natural gas consumption, w/o SE
(ft3/hr)
G2. Gas supply pressure (psig)
H. Water supply (gph)
1,046
1,465
2,092
3,138
2
2
2
2
398
106
212
265
Area of free air intake (sq. ft.)
2
2
2
3
Exhaust Stack diameter, o.d. (in.)
8
10
12
12
Table 6-1b
MODEL
SF-100
SF-125
SF-150
SF-200
A. Net heat output (Btu/hr)
SPECS
3,347,500
4,184,375
5,021,250
6,695,000
B. Gross steam output (lb/hr)
3,450
4,312
5,175
6,900
Design pressure (psi)
15–500
15–500
15–500
15–500
Steam operating pressure (psi)
12–450
12–450
12–450
12–450
Oil 82
82
82
82
Gas 80
80
80
80
7.5
7.5
10
5
5
7.5
25 amps
30 amps
35 amps
C. Thermal efficiencies at 100%
firing rate, w/o SE (%):
D. Motor sizes (up to -3 design)
Blower (hp) 5
Feedwater Pump (hp) 3
E. Full load amperage (FLA)
F.
13 amps
(up to -3 design, w/o SE)
@ 460 V
@ 460 V
@ 460 V
@ 460 V
Oil consumption, w/o SE (gph)
29.1
36.3
43.6
58.1
8,369
G1. Natural gas consumption, w/o SE
(ft3/hr)
04/22/2015
4,184
5,230
6,277
G2. Gas supply pressure (psig)
2
2
2
2
H. Water supply (gph)
530
662
795
1,065
Area of free air intake (sq. ft.)
3
4
4.5
6
Exhaust Stack diameter, o.d. (in.)
12
12
18
18
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6.6.2
Table 6-1a and 6-1b Supplemental Information
NOTE
All values are rated at maximum continuous firing rate.
A. Net heat output is calculated by multiplying boiler horsepower by 33,475 Btu/hr. Net heat input
can be calculated by dividing net heat output by the rated efficiency.
B. Gross steam output, from and at 212o F, is calculated by multiplying boiler horsepower by 34.5
lb/hr.
C. Thermal efficiencies are based on high heat or gross caloric (Btu) values of the fuel. Efficiencies shown are nominal. Small variations may occur due to manufacturing tolerances. Consult
factory for guaranteed values.
D. Consult factory for motor horsepowers for units with design pressures above 300 psi.
E. Except where noted, indicated full load amperage (FLA) is for 460 VAC primary voltage supply. See paragraph 2.7, Section II, to obtain FLA for other voltages. Consult factory for FLA
for Units with design pressures above 300 psi.
F. Oil consumption based on 140,600 Btu/gal. of commercial standard grade No. 2 oil (ASTM
D396).
Oil Consumption =
100
( 33,475bhpBtu/hr) (bhp) (efficiency
)(
1 gal.
140,600 Btu
)
G. Natural Gas consumption based on 1000 Btu/ft3 gas. Use the following formula to determine
gas consumption for gases with other heat values:
Gas Consumption =
100
(33,475bhpBtu/hr) (bhp) (efficiency
)(
1 ft3
1,000 Btu
)
H. Water supply is based on 44 lb/hr per boiler horsepower.
6.7
EQUIPMENT LAYOUT AND DIMENSIONS
NOTE
The steam generator layouts and dimensions given in this section are approximate. The illustration in each figure is a general outline that depicts
multiple steam generator models. Refer to the corresponding tables that follow each figure for the specific steam generator model dimensions.
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Section VI
6.7.1
SigmaFire Steam Generators – Step-fired and Modulating
A
STACK
OUTLET
CENTER
AE
Q
AH
AB
X1
B
X
U
N
M
P
T
AG
S
C
C1
AI
O
V
R
Y
AF
AC
AD
AA
W
Figure 6-1 SigmaFire steam generator equipment dimensions (typical)
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A
T
U
STACK
OUTLET
CENTER
B
Q
AH
X
N
M
P
AG
S
C
C1
AI
O
V
R
Y
W
Figure 6-2 SigmaFire steam generator equipment dimensions, FMB (typical)
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Section VI
J
H
AJ
I
AK
F
G
E
( A)
I
( 3x)
AK
AJ
G
( 2x)
F
( 2x)
E
( 2x)
H ( 3x)
( B)
Figure 6-3 SigmaFire frame mounting dimensions, (a) SF25-75 (b) SF100-200 (typical)
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Table 6-2 - Equipment layout dimensions for SigmaFire Steam Generators. (Refer to Figures 6-1,
6-2, and 6-3 for corresponding item call-outs.)
(See Note 1.)
(See Note 1.)
n/a: not available
Note 1: The additional clearance required for hoisting apparatus is not included in this dimension.
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Section VI
Table 6-3 - Equipment layout dimensions for SigmaFire Steam Generators. (Refer to Figures 6-1,
6-2, and 6-3 for corresponding item call-outs.)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
a
Standard “flathead” separator
High-efficiency separator
c Low pressure separator
n/a: not available
Note 1: The additional clearance required for hoisting apparatus is not included in this dimension.
b
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Table 6-4 - Equipment layout dimensions for SigmaFire Steam Generators. (Refer to Figures 6-1,
6-2, and 6-3 for corresponding item call-outs.)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
a
Standard “flathead” separator
High-efficiency separator
c Low pressure separator
n/a: not available
Note 1: The additional clearance required for hoisting apparatus is not included in this dimension.
b
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Section VI
Table 6-5 - Equipment layout dimensions for SigmaFire Steam Generators. (Refer to Figures 6-1,
6-2, and 6-3 for corresponding item call-outs.)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
a
Standard “flathead” separator
High-efficiency separator
c Low pressure separator
n/a: not available
Note 1: The additional clearance required for hoisting apparatus is not included in this dimension.
b
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Table 6-6 - SigmaFire Steam Generator customer connection sizes.
a Standard “flathead” separator
b High-efficiency separator
c Low pressure separator
d FPT
e Raised flange
n/a: not available
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Section VI
BHP
250
350
750
900
1600
Operating
Volume
180 GAL.
250 GAL.
425 GAL.
551 GAL.
757 GAL.
Full Volume
266 GAL.
372 GAL.
667 GAL.
865 GAL.
1,135 GAL.
Part No.
UH31909
UH32701
UH32791
UH32377
UH33814
A
31.33
31.33
41.12
41.12
48.00
B
28.34
28.34
36.00
36.00
44.00
C
60.83
84.69
93.12
120.62
145.12
D
36.36
36.36
46.36
46.50
63.00
E
40.00
40.00
60.00
84.00
101.00
F
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
G
5.09
5.16
3.29
6.48
3.80
H
37.92
37.83
51.98
53.48
68.52
SF1 - Condensate Return
SF2 - Low Pressure Condensate Return
SF3 - Optional HP condensate return,
w/ sparger tube for 50%
or higher return
SA - Feedwater Outlet
SB - Vent
SC - Drain
SE - Steam Heat
SF - Trap Return
SH - Make Up Return
Note: 1) Refer to applicable P&ID drawing for hotwell trim connections.
2) Sparger tube for SF1 optional. Recommended for condensate returns over 50%.
R019740
Figure 6-4 Horizontal hotwell dimensions and specifications
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R019910D
Figure 6-5 Vertical hotwell dimensions and specifications
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Section VI
Table 6-7 - Specifications for Vertical Hotwell w/ Booster Pump
BHP
Operating Volume
Full Volume
Part Number
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
04/22/2015
50
134 gal.
162 gal.
UH33780
35 ”
35 ”
73.90 ”
22.38 ”
32.5 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
95.61 ”
75–100
(SHORT)
193 gal.
250 gal.
UH33784
53 ”
35 ”
71.18 ”
28 ”
50.5 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
93.63 ”
75–100 (TALL)
276 gal.
330 gal.
UH33698
35 ”
35 ”
101.18 ”
28 ”
32.5 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
123.62 ”
6-15
125–200
(SHORT)
270 gal.
345 gal.
UH33758
60.25 ”
40 ”
73 ”
34 ”
56.50 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
93.81 ”
125–200
(TALL)
412 gal.
487 gal.
UH33753
60.25 ”
40 ”
101 ”
34 ”
56.50 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
123.8 ”
400 (SHORT)
420 gal.
536 gal.
UH34132
68.25 ”
48 ”
73 ”
42.36 ”
64.50 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
93.62 ”
400 (TALL)
588 gal.
716 gal.
UH33770
68.25 ”
48 ”
101 ”
42.36 ”
64.50 ”
24.5 ”
3.29 ”
123.8 ”
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Blowdown Tanks
CLAYTON PART NO.: 0028689
BHP: 25–200
6.7.2
Figure 6-6 Blowdown tank dimensions and specifications (illustration rotated 90o
counterclockwise)
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SECTION VII - OPTIONAL
EQUIPMENT
7.1
BOOSTER PUMP(S)
Booster pumps are required on an open system when the required NPSH to the feedwater
pump cannot be achieved from an elevated hotwell. In a deaerator (D/A) system, booster pumps
are required for most installations. Due to the low NPSH characteristics of these pumps, they are
less sensitive to feedwater delivery problems caused by fluctuating pressure in the D/A than the
Clayton feedwater pump(s).
Booster pumps must be sized to provide 150 percent of the total system water flow at 150
percent of the total system head pressure. Total system head pressure includes the Clayton feedwater pump NPSHR, plus calculated pipe losses, and plus acceleration head loss.
Most systems use two pumps. One of the two pumps is a standby pump, or the usage of
the two pumps are alternated to balance operating hours. Only booster pumps with mechanical
seals rated at a minimum of 250o F (121o C) should be used. The booster pumps cannot be rated at
a discharge pressure that is lower than the system operating pressure
NOTE
Each booster pump must have a 1/4 inch (6 mm) recirculation line, with
a check-valve, piped from the discharge side of the pump back to the
condensate receiver. This prevents overheating during “dead head”
conditions. Clayton recommends using this return line to facilitate
chemical injection at a common manifold on the condensate receiver.
7.2
BLOWDOWN SYSTEM
7.2.1
Blowdown Tank
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that high temperature discharges be cooled to a temperature below 140o F (60o C) prior to entering a drainage system. A blowdown tank is performs this function. All blowdown and high temperature drain lines
are to be piped to the blowdown tank. A capillary tube-type temperature sensor, mounted in the
blowdown tank discharge line, actuates a temperature control valve, also mounted in the discharge line, to inject cooling water into the hot fluid. The temperature control valve can be
adjusted to achieve the desired discharge fluid temperature. The blowdown tank vent should be a
straight run of full size iron or steel pipe.
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7.2.2
Automatic TDS Controller
Total dissolved solids can be controlled automatically. This is accomplished by installing
a TDS (conductivity) sensing probe in the feedwater line, this is connected to the Clayton Boiler
Master controller that, in turn, controls a dump valve installed in the trap discharge line. The discharge from the dump valve is then piped to the blowdown tank. Refer to Drawing R-16099.
Feedwater testing is still required per the Clayton Feedwater Manual.
7.2.3
Continuous Blowdown Valve
The continuous blowdown valve, if used, is installed in the trap discharge line. It consists
of a needle valve that is throttled for the proper flow rate to keep TDS within parameters. Refer to
Drawing R-16099.
7.3
VALVE OPTION KIT
The valve option kit consists of a separator drain valve, coil gravity drain valve, coil blowdown valve, and separator-trap discharge valve. The valve kit also includes the required hardware, such as nuts, bolts, gaskets, and pipe nipples, for the valve installation. With the exception
of generator skids and the steam trap discharge valve, all valves are shipped loose for customer
installation. If the valve option kit is not supplied by Clayton, it is the customers responsibility to
provide these valves. All these valves are required for proper installation and operation.
7.4
SOOT BLOWER ASSEMBLY
For generators that burn oil, a provision for steam soot blowing is required. Clayton Industries can provide an optional steam pipe spool piece with all piping and valves required for the
proper removal of accumulated soot. If this item is not purchased the customer must supply a
valved line from the steam header to the soot blow inlet for this purpose.
7.5
PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES (BPR/PRV)
7.5.1
Back Pressure Regulators
Back Pressure Regulators (BPR), in the separator discharge piping, are required when the
system requirements exceed the capacity of the steam generator/fluid heater, where there are
cycling loads, such as those created from a fast-acting motorized valve, or on steam generators/
fluid heaters that are started remotely or automatically, such as master lead-lag or auxiliary pressure control systems. BPRs are recommended on all Clayton installations. The BPRs assure that
sufficient pressure is maintained in the steam generator/fluid heater to protect the heating coil
from a possible overheat condition.
Pilot operated BPRs are meant to be mounted at the steam header top elevation, immediately next to the steam stop valves above Clayton’s (remote) separator. They are not meant to be
floor mounted. Pilot lines must be trapped to prevent liquid lockout. Customers who desire
mounting BPRs at floor level must use pilotless electro-pneumatic BPRs.
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Section VII
7.5.2
Pressure Regulating Valves
Pressure Regulating Valves (PRV) control the pressure in the feedwater supply vessel,
either D/A or Semi-closed Receiver (SCR) Systems. These valves ensure positive pressure is
maintained on these vessels. The PRV receives steam from the main header and injects steam into
the tank when a drop in pressure is detected. A check-valve must be installed in this line to protect
the system in the event of flooding the tank.
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SUPPLEMENT I - SCR
1.1
SEMI-CLOSED RECEIVER SYSTEMS (SCR)
1.1.1 Requirements
A Semi-closed Receiver system is used when condensate can be returned at relatively high
pressure and temperature. The pressure of the receiver tank is determined by the condensate
return system. When the system is warm and operating at its normal “balanced pressure” the Back
Pressure Regulator and Pressure Regulating Valve may be set. SCR systems typically operate
between 50–125 psi and must be at least 50 psi below the anticipated steam pressure. Because of
these higher operating pressures/temperature (feedwater will be between 300o–350o F) feedwater
chemical treatment is reduced but not eliminated. Because of the elevated feedwater temperature,
cooling water is circulated over the pump heads in the feedwater pump. This helps keep the pump
diaphragms cool thereby extending the life. The pump head cooling water does not have to be
softened water unless it is returned to the hotwell. Installation of cooling water lines to the pump
head connections is the responsibility of the installing contractor.
1.1.2 Components of an SCR System refer to Drawing R-16596
The Semi-closed Receiver must be sized to a total capacity of 1.5 gallons per boiler horsepower. Multiple generators may be operated from one receiver if the installation is operating at a
common pressure. The receiver tank must comply with the ASME Section VIII Code specifications for unfired Pressure Vessels. There must also be a large valved drain line in the bottom of
the receiver to permit periodic draining and flushing of the tank.
NOTE
Receiver must be installed to provide sufficient NPSH to the feedwater pump(s). See Section 2.11.
1.1.3 Water Level Gauge Glass
A sight glass must be mounted on the receiver for visual verification of the operating
water level. This glass must be rated for the operating pressure/temperature and be at least one
foot long.
1.1.4 Steam Trap
An overflow steam trap is required to control the maximum water level, when above normal amounts of condensate are being returned. The trap inlet must have a priming drip leg at least
eighteen inches long. The trap discharge must be piped to the make-up tank.
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1.1.5 Vent
The receiver must have a vent to discharge non-condensable gases from the feedwater.
The Clayton vent most often provided is a 3/4 inch orifice union with a 1/8 inch orifice. This will
continuously vent a small amount of steam with the gases.
1.1.6 Level Control
A liquid level controller is mounted on the receiver to control the make-up water pump.
This control starts and stops the make-up pump as required. The differential between the high and
low levels is a narrow band (2 to 3 inches). The water level should be maintained approximately
one quarter from the top of the tank, and at the proper height for the required NPSH of the generator feedwater pump.
1.1.7 Steam Relief Valve
The SCR must have a steam safety relief valve with a setting not greater than the design
pressure of the tank. This valve must comply with all safety codes and must be capable of relieving at least 25 percent of the connected Generator Steaming capacity at the SCR operating pressure. The discharge from this valve must be piped to atmosphere and in a direction that will not
cause harm to equipment or personnel.
1.1.8 Sparger Tube
The high pressure condensate returns must be injected into the SCR through a sparger
tube. The sparger tube inlet must be 8–12 inches below the lowest water level so the heat will be
transferred from the condensate to the liquid in the SCR with the least possible noise and vibration. The trap returns from the Clayton Separator should also be piped into the sparger tube.
1.1.9 Back Pressure Regulator
A Back Pressure Regulator (BPR) must be installed on the receiver to help control the
tank pressure during large load swings, or in the event of system traps malfunction. The BPR
should be set at 3–5 psi above the normal operating pressure.
1.1.10 Pressure Reducing Valve
A Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV) must be installed on the SCR to maintain a preset
pressure. The PRV senses the SCR pressure and injects steam (above the water level) from the
header in the event of a reduction in the tank pressure. The PRV should be set at 1–2 psi below the
normal operating pressure. The PRV design flow must be equal to 25 percent of the maximum
steam production rate. If low pressure steam is to be drawn from the receiver for other uses, this
capacity must be considered when sizing the PRV. A check-valve must be installed between the
PRV and the receiver to prevent backflow in the event of a flooded condition in the receiver.
NOTE
The PRV and BPR are not options. They must be installed to ensure
the effective and efficient operation of the Clayton Semi-closed Receiver System.
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1.1.11 Make-up Tank
A make-up tank is required to collect low pressure condensate and fresh softened make-up
water. Steam is introduced to the make-up tank through a temperature control valve. The make-up
tank temperature should be maintained between 190o–200o F. The make-up tank must be sized
for the total boiler horsepower rating of the system. The make-up tank must also have sufficient
elevation to provide the required NPSH of the make-up.
1.1.12
SCR Transfer Pump
An SCR transfer pump is required to transfer water from the make-up tank to the SCR
(regenerative turbine type preferred). This pump must have a capacity that is at least equal to the
total boiler feedwater pump capacity. The make-up pump must have a discharge head not less
than 25 percent higher than the maximum receiver operating pressure. The discharge from this
pump must enter the SCR below the minimum water level.
NOTE
A check-valve must be installed in the make up pump discharge line
as close to the SCR as possible. This will prevent exposing the pump
seal to excessive fluid temperatures.
1.1.13
Chemical Treatment
Feedwater Chemical Treatment is injected into the SCR below the water level. Feedwater
treatment Chemicals are also be injected into the make-up tank to help protect the make up
against corrosion. Both of these chemical injection lines must have a check-valve installed to prevent back feeding into the chemical pumps. Chemical pump output pressure must be greater than
SCR pressure.
1.1.14 Hook-up
The feedwater line between the SCR and the Generator feedwater water pump must have
an inside diameter of 1.5 times that of the feedwater pump inlet connection. Elbows and restrictions must be kept at a minimum, and a flex section (2 feet minimum) must be installed on the
feedwater pump inlet. Provision for a thermometer must be as close to the feedwater pump inlet
as possible.
1.1.15 System Steam Traps
The steam traps in the system must be rated for the system pressure, and sized for the difference between the steam system and the receiver. This usually requires the traps be one size
larger than on an open system. The steam traps in the system must be properly maintained for the
system to function normally. If there are traps “blowing by” the SCR will be pressurized above
the Back Pressure Regulator set point and steam will be needlessly vented to atmosphere.
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1.1.16 A General Statement
Because of the uniqueness of an SCR system, the requirements put forth here must be
closely followed to ensure trouble free operation. If properly installed and maintained the Clayton
Semi-closed Receiver System will operate with a high degree of reliability and economic benefits.
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SUPPLEMENT II - FLUID
HEATER
2.1 FLUID HEATERS
The Clayton Fluid Heater is provided with an off frame mounted steam separator. This
type of unit carries a “DZ” model designation. A stand pipe with ASME safety valve remains on
the main frame of the fluid heater. This type of equipment layout requires remote mounting of the
fluid separator with interconnecting piping between the main shut off valve, mounted on the stand
pipe, and the inlet of the separator. The piping between the stand pipe mounted main steam shut
off valve, and the inlet to the fluid heater should be run full size with a minimum of elbows.
The remote mounted separator is available without legs, for mounting in the steam header,
or with legs/skirt for floor mounting close to the fluid heater.
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Appendix A - Steam Generator Lifting Instructions
Appendix A
Appendix A
Steam Generator
Lifting Instructions
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INSERT FORKLIFT PRONGS IN
THE FRAME’S LIFTING SLOTS
FORKLIFT PRONGS
INSERT FORKLIFT PRONGS IN
THE FRAME’S LIFTING SLOTS
6 in. minimum
Fig. 1 - Use a forklift truck to for moving SigmaFire Steam Generators
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Appendix A
Lifting Instructions (See Fig. 1 above.)
1. Use appropriate-sized forklift truck for lifting and moving a SigmaFire Steam
Generator/Fluid Heater.
2. Lift unit from heating coil side.
3. Insert forklift prongs in the lifting slots in the frame of the unit.
CAUTION
DO NOT lift from any other part of the unit except from the lifting
slots!
4. Maintain a minimum clearance of six inches between the forklift and any component of the unit.
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Appendix B - Saturated Steam P-T Table
Appendix B
Appendix B
Saturated Steam
Pressure-Temperature Table
GAUGE
GAUGE
GAUGE
GAUGE
GAUGE
GAUGE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PSIG
TEMP F
kPa
TEMP C
PSIG
TEMP F
kPa
TEMP C
PSIG
TEMP F
kPa
TEMP C
60
308
413.6
153
270
413
1,861.5
211
600
489
4,136.8
254
70
316
482.6
158
280
416
1,930.5
213
650
497
4,481.6
259
80
324
551.5
162
290
419
1,999.4
215
725
509
4,998.7
265
90
331
620.5
166
300
422
2,068.4
217
750
513
5,171.1
267
100
338
689.4
170
310
425
2,137.3
218
775
517
5,343.4
269
110
344
758.4
173
320
428
2,206.3
220
800
520
5,515.8
271
120
350
827.3
177
330
431
2,275.2
222
825
524
5,688.2
273
130
356
896.3
180
340
433
2,344.2
223
850
527
5,860.5
275
140
361
965.2
183
350
436
2,413.2
224
875
531
6,032.9
277
150
366
1,034.2
186
360
438
2,482.1
226
900
534
6,205.3
279
160
370
1,103.2
188
370
441
2,551.1
227
925
537
6,377.7
281
170
375
1,172.1
191
380
443
2,620.0
229
950
540
6,550.0
282
180
380
1,241.0
193
390
445
2,689.0
230
975
543
6,722.4
284
190
384
1,310.0
196
400
448
2,757.9
231
1000
546
6,894.8
286
200
388
1,378.9
198
410
450
2,826.9
233
1050
552
7,239.5
289
210
392
1,447.9
200
420
453
2,895.7
234
1100
558
7,584.2
292
220
396
1,516.8
202
440
457
3,033.6
236
1150
564
7,929.0
295
230
399
1,585.7
204
460
462
3,171.5
239
1200
569
8,273.7
298
240
403
1,654.7
206
480
466
3,309.4
241
1250
574
8,618.4
301
250
406
1,723.6
208
500
470
3,447.3
243
1300
579
8,963.2
304
260
409
1,792.6
210
550
480
3,792.1
249
1350
584
9,307.9
307
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Appendix C - Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
Appendix C
Appendix C
Piping and Instrumentation
Diagrams
(P & I D)
Contents
Drawing No.
Drawing Title
Page
R019477f
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
R019477f
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
R019478d
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Generator Skid, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
R019478d
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Generator Skid, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
R019520b
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Water Skid, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
R019520b
(S)SFOG-100M/S, Water Skid, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
R019717d
(S)SFOG-50M/S, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
R019717d
(S)SFOG-50M/S, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
R020010e
(S)SFOG-75M/S, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
R020010e
(S)SFOG-75M/S, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
R020047b
(S)SFG-125M-FMB, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
R020047b
(S)SFG-125M-FMB, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
R020094b
(S)SFOG-150M, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
R020094b
(S)SFOG-150M, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
R020136c
(S)SFOG-125M/S, Hotwell, Fuel-Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
R020136c
(S)SFOG-125M/S, Hotwell, Water-Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
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Appendix D - Installing SE Option
Appendix D
Appendix D
Installing SE
(Super Economizer)
Option
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Appendix D
INTRODUCTION
A Clayton SE (Super Economizer) Coil provides added efficiency to your existing Clayton steam generator/fluid heater. The SE coil allows feedwater supply to be preheated prior to
entering the main heating section. This preheated fluid helps to reduce the energy consumption of
the machine without compromising its output capacity.
An SE coil is offered as a kit. This kit includes the coil assembly, outer shell extensions,
band clamps, piping, and necessary hardware.
IMPORTANT
Before ordering an SE Kit, verify there is ample overhead clearance
above the machine. An SE section adds twenty-four to forty-eight
inches of height to the machine. Additional clearance must also be
available for lifting SE coil onto the main coil. See Section 6.7 for
height requirements.
WARNING
An SE coil assembly weighs several hundred pounds. Make sure all
safety measures are observed throughout the SE Kit installation process. Make sure the lifting apparatus that will be used to hoist the SE
coil assembly is designed for lifting such weights.
NOTE
It is always recommended that these procedures be reviewed completely before beginning the SE Kit installation.
INSTALLATION
Execute a dry shutdown of the machine. See Section IV in the Steam Generator/Fluid
Heater Instruction Manual for procedure. Allow the machine to cool.
WARNING
Secure the machine to prevent accidental start up during SE Kit installation.
Remove Heater Covers
a. Disconnect and remove the flue exhaust duct from the heater cover.
b. Disconnect and remove the existing feedwater supply and discharge piping
from the machine.
c. Remove the outer heater cover clamp bands and outer heater cover (See
Figure 1.)
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Figure 1 SE Coil Kit installation diagram (typical)
d. If applicable, remove the outer shell extension clamp bands and outer shell
extension.
e. Remove the inner heater cover clamp bands and inner heater cover.
Install SE Coil Assembly
(See Figure 1.)
a. Prepare the main heating section flange ring surface with a layer of G. S. Teflon Thread Sealing Compound. This will aid in adjusting the SE coil assembly
into alignment with the main heating section.
b. Lift the SE coil assembly up onto the main heating section.
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NOTE
If desired, the inner heater cover may be installed on the SE coil assembly prior to lifting it onto the main heating section.
c. Align the SE coil assembly’s bottom flange ring with the main coil section
flange ring.
d. Rotate the SE coil assembly, as needed, to align the feedwater inlet(s), as
shown in Figure 2.
e. Install the inner clamp bands around the main heating section flange ring and
the SE coil assembly’s bottom flange ring. Secure the clamp bands with their
attaching hardware.
f. Place and align the inner heater cover on SE coil assembly.
g. Install the inner heater cover clamp bands around the heater cover and the SE
coil assembly’s top flange ring. Secure the clamp bands with their attaching
hardware.
Install Outer Shells
a. Lift the rear outer shell piece (the shell piece with the cut-outs) up around the
rear-side of the SE coil assembly and the feedwater inlet/discharge, allowing it
to rest on the main outer shell below. Using a set of self-locking clamps,
Vise-Grip® pliers for example, clamp the SE outer shell to the main outer shell.
b. Lift the remaining outer shell piece into place. Screw the two shell ends
together. Align the assembled SE outer shells with the main outer shells below.
c. Install the outer clamp bands around the main outer shell flange and the SE
outer shell flange. Secure the clamp bands with their attaching hardware.
d. Install the outer heater cover in the same manner as the inner heater cover was
installed. Refer to steps f and g in the previous section.
e. Install the patch plates around the feedwater inlet piping and the feedwater discharge piping.
Install Piping
a. Pre-assemble the SE Kit feedwater supply and feedwater discharge piping and
flanges.
b. Install the pre-assembled SE piping to the feedwater supply side and the feedwater discharge side of the machine, as shown in Figure 2.
IMPORTANT
Before starting the steam generator/fluid heater, verify all piping
connections, outer shell assemblies, and clamp bands are secure.
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FEEDWATER
DISCHARGE–
SE COIL
FEEDWATER INLET–SE COIL
FEEDWATER
INLET–
MAIN COIL
Figure 2 SE Kit completed hookup
Check Completed SE Kit Installation
a. Start and fill the heating unit without burner operation. See the filling procedure in Section IV of the Steam Generator/Fluid Heater Instruction Manual.
b. Check for leakage around connections of the newly installed SE Kit piping.
c. Boil out SE coil using soft water. See the “Conditioning of New Installations”
procedure in Section III of the Steam Generator/Fluid Heater Instruction Manual.
The machine should be ready to be placed into regular operation at this point.
NOTE
Some parameters of the control system may require adjustment with
the added SE Kit. Consult your Clayton Service Representative for
further details.
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Back Cover
17477 Hurley Street, City of Industry, California 91744-5106, USA
Phone: +1 (626) 435-1200 Fax: +1 (626) 435-0180
Internet: www.claytonindustries.com
Email: [email protected]
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