Zeiss LSM 510 META Specifications

Zeiss LSM 510 META Specifications
LSM 510
Laser Scanning Microscope
Operating Manual
I
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
Knowledge of this manual is required for the operation of the instrument. Would you therefore please
make yourself familiar with the contents of this manual and pay special attention to hints concerning the
safe operation of the instrument.
The specifications are subject to change; the manual is not covered by an update service.
©
Unless expressly authorized, forwarding and duplication of this document, and the utilization and
communication of its contents are not permitted. Violations will entail an obligation to pay
compensation.
All rights reserved in the event of granting of patents or registration of a utility model.
Issued by:
Carl Zeiss
Mikroskopie
D-07740 Jena
Telephone: (**49) 03641 / 64-1616
Telefax:
(**49) 03641 / 64-3144
Internet:
[email protected]
http://www.zeiss.de
Number of this manual: B 40-051 e
Date of issue: 07/98
II
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
Developed in Collaboration with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)
PF 102209
Meyerhofstr. 1
D-69012 Heidelberg
Phon: ++49-(0)-62221-387-0
Fax:
++49-(0)-62221-387-306
B 40-051 e 07/98
III
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
IV
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
How to make best use of the LSM 510 operating instructions
A few symbols in these operating instructions will help you to recognize the nature and purpose of
information immediately:
The WARNING symbol warns against hazards for the user that might arise when operating the
laser.
This WARNING symbol warns against hazards from dangerously high voltages.
The CAUTION symbol warns against faults and hazards that might arise during operation and
which might cause damage to the unit.
☞
The NOTE symbol will help you to optimally solve your work problem. It represents a practical
tip which will help you to find out which settings and methods are capable of improving or
accelerating a procedure.
The HOT SURFACE symbol warns against hazards for the user that might arise when touching
the lamp housing during operation.
The MAINS PLUG symbol remembers service personal to pull the mains plug before opening
the device housing.
Depending on the problem, these operating instructions will supply you with various possibilities:
If you want to know where to find certain general areas of information, refer to the following outline
of sections to get a general overview.
You will find a detailed table of contents at the start of every chapter. There you will see at a glance
what topics are dealt with in detail.
Always remember: The time you invest in getting acquainted with the product will pay
for itself many times over in your application task.
B 40-051 e 07/98
V
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
Scope of Equipment Supplied
Country:
Order number:
Serial number:
Delivery date:
Custom configuration:
Axioplan 2 MOT
Axiovert 100 M SP
Axiovert 100 M BP
Objectives:
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
000000-1028-778
000000-1028-779
000000-1028-780
..............................................
..............................................
..............................................
Confocal Laser Scanning Module LSM 510
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Configuration 3
Configuration 4
Configuration 5
Configuration 6
Configuration 7
Configuration 8
Configuration 9
Configuration 10
Configuration 11
Configuration 12
Configuration 13
Configuration 14
Configuration 15
Configuration 16
000000-1027-076
000000-1027-077
000000-1027-078
000000-1027-079
000000-1027-080
000000-1027-081
000000-1027-082
000000-1027-083
000000-1027-084
000000-1027-085
000000-1027-086
000000-1027-087
000000-1027-088
000000-1031-725
000000-1031-726
000000-1031-727
Control computer with 21“ monitor
Control computer with two 21“ monitors
000000-1032-142
000000-1032-143
The license to the LSM control software is included in each configuration 1...16.
Optional software;
LSM 510 basis software release 2.0
LSM 510 evaluation software physiology
LSM 510 software 3D for LSM
VI
000000-1027-554
000000-1027-556
000000-1024-966
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
Kodak XLS 8650 PS printer
Transparency exposure device (D)
417735 9003-000
412410 9011-000
Large system table
Small sytem table
System baseplate
453031-0000-000
453032-0000-000
453030-0101-000
UV laser
412410 9015-000
High resolution z-stage HRZ 200 for Axiovert
High resolution z-stage HRZ 200 for Axioplan 2
000000-1013-186
000000-1013-187
XY scanning stage for Axiovert 100 M BP
XY scanning stage for Axioplan 2 MOT
000000-1017-917
000000-1027-823
Filter changer 18 mm
Set of INDO filters
Set of SNARF filters
453070-0000-000
447960-0000-000
447961-0000-000
The LSM 510 in the configuration as checked above
was installed and handed to the customer in functional condition
on
................................................
by
................................................
Phone:
................................................
Fax:
................................................
The customer has been instructed on how to operate and
maintain the equipment.
(Place)......................................................, (date) .....................................
...............................................................
Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH
Microscopy Division
...............................................................
Customer
One copy to be kept by customer
One copy to be kept by Carl Zeiss
B 40-051 e 07/98
VII
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
1
This section contains general notes on device safety, safe operation, and possible hazards
caused by failure to observe the instructions.
2
The Setup Requirements section outlines the installation and supply requirements of the
LSM 510 Microscope System, together with the relevant specifications.
3
Here you will find an introduction to Laser Scanning Microscopy, with an explanation of the
principles of confocal imaging. The section also outlines the ways to present LSM image
series in three dimensions, and introduces you to the performance features of your
LSM 510.
4
In the Operation section you will find the most important steps and procedures of the LSM
menu structure.The step-by-step description how to get an image will be shown by typical
application examples including the WINDOWS NT 4.0 graphic user environment.
5
This section contains a description of the LSM 3D software package (basic program and
add-ons. At the same time, all functions and settings are presented in a systematic form
and in order in which they can be reached from the basic menu via sub-menus and dialog
boxes
.
VIII
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
1
Notes on Device Safety
2
LSM 510 Setup Requirements
3
Introduction to Laser Scanning Microscopy
4
Operation
5
Software 3D Description
B 40-051 e 07/98
IX
INTRODUCTION
LSM 510
X
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Contents
LSM 510
CHAPTER 1
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
CONTENTS
1
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY ...........................................................................................1-3
1.1
General ...........................................................................................................................1-3
1.2
Regulations .....................................................................................................................1-3
1.3
Notes on setting up the microscope system......................................................................1-4
1.4
Notes on handling the computer and data media .............................................................1-5
1.5
Notes on care, maintenance and service...........................................................................1-6
1.6
Notes on handling the laser components..........................................................................1-7
1.7
Warning and information labels .......................................................................................1-7
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-1
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Contents
1-2
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
General / Regulations
LSM 510
1
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
1.1
General
The LSM 510 laser scanning microscope, including its original accessories and compatible accessories
from other manufacturers, may only be used for the purposes and microscopy techniques described in
this manual (intended use).
The manufacturer will not assume liability for any malfunction or damage caused by any thing
other than the intended use of the LSM 510 or individual modules or parts of it, nor by any
repair or other service operation performed or attempted by persons other than duly
authorized service staff. Any such action will invalidate any claim under warranty, including
parts not directly affected by such action.
1.2
Regulations
Extensive knowledge of the hardware/the system is indispensable for safe operation of the LSM 510.
☞
Read these operating instructions and all device publications belonging to the system
conscientiously before operating the LSM 510! You can obtain additional information on the
hardware configuration delivered and on optional system extensions from the manufacturer or
via the service hotline.
The LSM 510 has been designed, built and tested in conformity with the standards DIN EN 61010-1
(IEC 1010-1) "Safety requirements for electrical instrumentation and control and laboratory
apparatus", and DIN EN 60825-1 (IEC publication 825-1) "Safety of laser equipment", and taking
relevant CSA and UL specifications into account.
As the system is largely operated via menus on a computer, you should be acquainted with the
principles of the operating system and its WINDOWS NT 4.0 graphical user interface. The respective
manuals are supplied together with the programs.
In accordance with WHO regulations, the LSM 510 is a device that belongs to laser hazard class 3 B.
WHO recommendations concerning health and industrial protection when handling laser devices
must be observed. The operator of the unit must also observe all and any relevant statutory
accident prevention regulations.
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-3
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Notes on setting up the microscope system
1.3
☞
LSM 510
Notes on setting up the microscope system
Setting up, assembly on the system base plate and commissioning of the LSM 510 must be
performed by authorized Carl Zeiss service staff, who are also advised to give the customer's
operators a basic introduction to operation and maintenance.
The LSM 510 laser scanning microscope is delivered in several crates:
Crate 1: microscope stand, laser scanning module, control unit
Crate 2: computer
Crate 3: monitor
Crate 4: large system table
Crate 5: second microscope stand
Crate 6: small system table
The LSM 510 must be set up so as to ensure that the minimum clearance between the wall
and the rear of the system is no less than 0.5 m. This clearance is needed for adjustment and
maintenance operations.
Do not set up the unit in the proximity of heat sources such as radiators or direct sunlight. To avoid heat
build-ups, the ventilation louvers on the microscope system must not be covered up.
The unit must be connected to a properly installed socket outlet with earthing contact by means of the
mains cables supplied. Continuity of PE connection must not be affected by the use of extension leads.
Before connecting the mains cables, please check whether your mains voltage corresponds to
the voltage specified on the rating plate of the laser module.
Maintenance, repairs, modifications, removal or exchange of components, or other
interference with the equipment beyond the operations described in this manual may only be
carried out by the manufacturer Carl Zeiss or by persons expressly authorized by us to do so.
This applies especially to the microscope system, the laser scanning module, lasers, the PC
system, the power supply units, cable connections and other system components.
Please note that the LSM 510 is a high-precision opto-electronic instrument. Inexpert handling
may easily impair it’s function or even damage it.
After installation or after conversion of the LSM system, authorized specialized staff must carefully check
that it is in a proper condition and, particularly, that covers protecting against laser radiation are
provided.
Tube openings or other unused mounts should always be protected against dust and moisture with the
corresponding device components or with termination covers/blind plugs.
By establishing a corresponding workplace environment, please ensure that the formation of electrostatic
charges by electronic components is avoided.
To avoid vibrations during operation, the LSM 510 should only be operated in conjunction with the
system table (vibration damping).
1-4
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Notes on handling the computer and data media
LSM 510
1.4
Notes on handling the computer and data media
The computer used as standard in your LSM system is an IBM-compatible high-end pentium computer
with WINDOWS NT (Version 4.0) operating system.
As standard, your computer has one hard disk drive, one drive for 1.44 MB diskettes and one CD-ROM
drive. An additional 640 MB 3.5" MOD drive is installed.
☞
Do make sure, though, that you receive your LSM system with the operating system installed,
with initialization and start files set up and with the LSM program also installed.
☞
When working with the hard disk, it is important to know that the more data it contains, the
slower its operation will become. Therefore, data that you do not need permanently should be
stored on a diskette or MOD.
When handling diskettes, avoid data losses by protecting them against extreme temperatures,
moisture and magnetic fields. The data on a diskette is stored in the form of magnetic signals.
To some extent, monitors, telephones or even lamps generate magnetic fields that might
destroy this data. Also, never open the metal cover on diskette cases. A diskette´s surface can
also be destroyed by touching it.
Never turn your computer off before you have exited the LSM program and run down the
WINDOWS NT operating system. Otherwise, the program and/or data files may get lost.
When handling discs of the CD-ROM reader, do not touch the data side of the disc (the side of
the disc with no label or printing).
Do not apply paper labels or write on any part of the disc, data side or label side. If dust or
fingerprints get on the disc, wipe it with a soft cloth from the center to the edge, but do not
use benzine, paint thinner, record cleaner, or static repellent. This can damage the disc.
Do not place the disc in any place where it is exposed to direct sunlight or high temperatures.
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-5
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Notes on care, maintenance and service
1.5
LSM 510
Notes on care, maintenance and service
The manufacturer of the unit cannot be held liable for damage resulting from operating errors,
negligence or unauthorized tampering with the device system, particularly as the result of removal or
replacement of parts of the unit or as the result of the use of unsuitable accessories from other
manufacturers.
Any such action will also render all warranty claims null and void.
You are well advised to arrange a service agreement with your nearest Zeiss representative to guarantee
perfect functioning of the microscope system in the long term.
Modifications and conversion work on the components of the system must only be carried out by the
manufacturer, by the service agency or by persons authorized and trained for this purpose by the
manufacturer.
Damaged units or parts may only be repaired or maintained by the responsible service agency.
Care operations that may be carried out by operating staff are limited to cleaning painted and glass
surfaces.
Cleaning painted surfaces
To do this, use a clean cloth that has been moistened in a mixture of water and some detergent; do
not use any solvent, however. Dry with a lint-free cloth.
Cleaning glass surfaces
Glass surfaces that have become soiled or which are marked with fingerprints may be rubbed with a
clean optical cleaning cloth.
If soiling is persistent, dip the optical cleaning cloth into a mixture of distilled water and a small
quantity of detergent.
To complete cleaning, lightly breathe on the glass surface and rub it dry with a clean cloth. Lint or
dust is best removed with a clean hairbrush.
The air filter mat at the bottom of the LSM 510 Control Unit must be cleaned every six months.
Filter mats can be ordered from our Service Department.
1-6
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Notes on handling the laser components
LSM 510
1.6
Notes on handling the laser components
The LSM 510 is a laser hazard class 3 B instrument and is marked as such.
This moderate-risk class embraces medium-power lasers. You must take care not to expose
yourself to the radiation of such lasers. In particular, never look into the laser beam!
The following laser types are currently recommended for use in the LSM 510.
1 Ar 351/364 (UV)
2 Ar 488
3 Ar/ML 458/488/514
4 HeNe 543
5 ArKr 488/568
6 HeNe 633
☞
Please contact Carl Zeiss if you intend to use a laser type with a wavelength other than the
ones above.
If used properly, the LSM 510 will not pose any laser radiation risks for operating staff. The dangerous
laser radiation area is limited to the beam path and to a distance of up to around 10 cm from the
specimen. Nevertheless, you should observe the following warnings:
☞
If necessary - insofar as specified by law - inform the laser protection officer before
commissioning the laser.
Always store laser key switches and, if applicable, keys for further laser power supply units,
where they are inaccessible to persons not authorized to operate the laser.
Do not place any reflecting objects into the beam path.
Never open any covers or panelings.
Never look into the laser beam, not even to simply view the specimen, whether with the aid
of optical instruments or without. Otherwise you risk going blind!
Do not leave any srew positions of the nosepiece uncovered.
Suitable protective measures must be taken if gases, dust or vapors hazardous to health,
secondary radiation or explosive objects should arise on the specimen as a result of laser
radiation.
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-7
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Warning and information labels
1.7
LSM 510
Warning and information labels
The warning and information labels attached on the LSM 510 must be observed. Check
whether all of the labels shown below are provided on your instrument, and contact Carl Zeiss
Germany or one of the service agencies if you should discover that any of the labels should be
missing. You will receive a free replacement.
label means: "Do not remove securing screw as otherwise laser beam will escape. For
The
use by service only!"
HA
L1
00
DANGER
0W
. 10
ax
Vm
12
Laser radiation when parts removed.
Avoid direct exposure to beam.
See instruction manual.
19
72
44
WARNING: LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam
when cover is removed.
0W
V 10
0
0
0
11
0
12
0
13
14
0
15
0
16
17
12
50
60
70
80
90
M
0
10
LS
51
0
LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam
Laser class 3D (IEC 825)
LASER
Exit aperture
Fig. 1-1
1-8
Warning and information labels on the Axiovert 100 M microscope with the LSM 510
scanning module
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Warning and information labels
LSM 510
Fig. 1-2
Warning and information labels on the Axioplan 2 microscope with LSM 510 scanning
module
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-9
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Warning and information labels
LSM 510
WARNING: LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam
when cover is removed
Carl Zeiss
VIS
LASERMODUL
POWER
REMOTE CONTROL
F1
AOTF
AOM
F2
I
230V/
2x400VA
POWER 2
O
F3/T3,15A-H
ION
ION
REMOTE
LASER
SAFETY
POWER 3
230V/2300VA
LASER
POWER 1 230V/1300VA
SAFETY
EXTENSION
CAN
Om
nic
hro
me
Se
rie
s
43
DANGER
DANGER
LASER RADIATION - AVOID DIRECT
EXPOSURE TO BEAM
Om
IO
N
LA
nic
hro
SE
R
PO
WE
R
SU
LASER RADIATION
AVOID DIRECT EXPOSURE TO BEAM
me
PP
LY
<400mw Kr-AR 457-675nm
CLASS IIIb LASER PRODUCT
ARGON-LASER
450-514 200mW Max Output
CLASS III b LASER PRODUCT
LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam.
Laser class 3B DIN EN 60825-1, 1994
Max. output power 200 mW
Wavelength 450-514 nm
l
ON
0
OF POWE
F
R
0
l
LAS
ER
LAS
ER
HE
MO
TE
INT
CO ER
N
2 FAC
23
1
RE
ON
AD
Lase
r-
0V
ac
E
Ferti
gung
Gmb
H
AR
GO
PO N
WE LA
LG R SE
N
78 SUPPR
12
LY
CAUTION
Laser radiation when open
and interlock failed or defeated
D0 N0T STARE INT0 BEAM
Fig. 1-3
1-10
Warning and information labels on laser components (page 1)
B 40-051 e 07/98
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Warning and information labels
LSM 510
BEAM
OPEN
CLOSED
AVOID EXPOSURE
LASER RADIATION IS EMITTED
FROM THIS APERTURE
BEAM
OPEN
CLOSED
Laser - Fertigung GmbH
TATZENPROMENADE 1a D-07745 JENA
LGK 7774
Q4001-K7784 S.NO.000
MADE IN GERMANY
CERTIFICATION
THIS PRODUCT CONFORMS TO ALL
APPLICABLE STANDARDS OF
21 CFR 1040.10 AND 1040.11
AVOID EXPOSURE
LASER RADIATION IS EMITTED
FROM THIS APERTURE
DANGER
LASER RADIATION
AVOID DIRECT EYE EXPOSURE
Laser - Fertigung GmbH
HELIUM-NEON LASER
5 MILLIWATT MAXIMUM OUTPUT
WAVE LENGTH 543 nm
CLASS IIIa LASER PRODUCT
ACCORDING TO CDRH
TATZENPROMENADE 1a D-07745 JENA
LGK 7628-1
Q4001-K9100 S.NO.000
MADE IN GERMANY
LICENSED BY PATLEX CORPORATION
UNDER U.S. PATENT N0. 4.704.583
CERTIFICATION
THIS PRODUCT CONFORMS TO ALL
APPLICABLE STANDARDS OF
21 CFR 1040,10 AND 1040,11
LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam.
Laser class 3B DIN EN 60825-1, 1994
DANGER
Max. output power 5 mW
Wavelength 543 nm
LASER RADIATION
AVOID DIRECT EXPOSURE TO BEAM
HELIUM NEON LASER
15 MILLIWATT MAXIMUM OUTPUT
CLASS IIIb LASER PRODUCT
LICENSED BY PATLEX CORPORATION
UNDER U.S. PATENT N0. 4.704.583
LASER RADIATION
Avoid exposure to beam.
Laser class 3B DIN EN 60825-1, 1994
DANGEROUS VOLTAGES
UNDER THIS COVER
DANGEROUS VOLTAGES
UNDER THIS COVER
Max. output power 15 mW
Wavelength 633 nm
CO
HE
RE
nT
En
TE
RP
RIS
E
VISIBLE AND
INVISIBLE LASER RADIATION
IS EMITTED
FROM THIS APERTURE
AVOID EXPOSURE
DANGEROUS VOLTAGES
UNDER THIS COVER
AK
PE
DANGER
CH
AR
SE
E4
En
VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE LASER RADIATION
AVOID EYE OR SKIN EXPOSURE TO
DIRECT OR SCATTERED RADIATION
ARGON ION LASER
2 WATTS MAX CW
PRACTICAL LIMIT
Fig. 1-3
um
im
max terre
wasu
.
presp.s.I
60
T
OU
ter
wa
7
J3
TE
RP
RIS
E5
E
CO
E4
HE
RE
J6
nT
CLASS IV LASER PRODUCT
Warning and information labels on laser components (page 2)
B 40-051 e 07/98
1-11
NOTES ON DEVICE SAFETY
Warning and information labels
1-12
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Contents
LSM 510
CHAPTER 2
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
CONTENTS
2
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS............................................................................2-3
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
Space Requirements....................................................................................................2-3
LSM (one microscope, large system table): 320 cm x 220 cm .......................................2-3
LSM with Ar laser (UV): 340 x 260 cm .........................................................................2-3
LSM with Ar laser (UV) and two microscopes: 450 x 220 cm ........................................2-4
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
Power Requirements ...................................................................................................2-5
Phase 1 (LSM) .............................................................................................................2-6
Phase 2 (LSM, Power 3)...............................................................................................2-6
Separate connection: ..................................................................................................2-6
2.3
Physical Dimensions.....................................................................................................2-6
2.4
Dimension of shipment crates .....................................................................................2-7
2.5
Environmental Requirements .......................................................................................2-7
2.6
Vibrations ...................................................................................................................2-7
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5
Laser Specifications .....................................................................................................2-8
Coherent Enterprise 653 II: 352, 364 nm, 80 mW, laser power class 3 B.......................2-8
Uniphase M. 1674 P: 543 nm, 1 mW...........................................................................2-8
LASOS LGK 7628-1: 633 nm, 5 mW ............................................................................2-8
LASOS LGK 7812 ML-1/LGN 7812: 458, 488, 514 nm, 25 mW, laser power class 3 B ...2-9
Omnichrome 50YB 643/171B: 488, 568 nm, 30 mW, laser power class 3 B..................2-9
2.8
Microscopes.............................................................................................................. 2-10
2.9
Scanning Module ...................................................................................................... 2-10
2.10
Laser Module VIS ...................................................................................................... 2-11
2.11
Laser Module UV....................................................................................................... 2-11
B 40-051 e 07/98
2-1
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Contents
2-2
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Space Requirements
LSM 510
2
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
2.1
Space Requirements
2.1.1
LSM (one microscope, large system table): 320 cm x 220 cm
Fig. 2-1
2.1.2
☞
LSM with Ar laser (UV): 340 x 260 cm
We recommend placing the cooling unit of the Ar laser (UV) in a separate room to prevent
heat accumulation and vibration. Length of the water hose: 400 cm
Fig. 2-2
B 40-051 e 07/98
2-3
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Space Requirements
2.1.3
☞
LSM 510
LSM with Ar laser (UV) and two microscopes: 450 x 220 cm
We recommend placing the cooling unit of the Ar laser (UV) in a separate room to prevent
heat accumulation and vibration. Length of the water hose: 400 cm.
Fig. 2-3
2-4
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Power Requirements
LSM 510
2.2
☞
Power Requirements
The LSM 510 comes with a mains power supply cord and plug, either CEE red (230 V, 16 A,
3 phases), or CEE yellow (115 V, 32 A, 3 phases), and with the matching mains socket outlet.
Line voltage
Line frequency
LSM incl. VIS laser
Max. current
Power consumption
Power plug
Argon UV laser
- Max. current
- Power consumption
Class of protection
Type of protection
Overvoltage category
Pollution degree
☞
Europe
230 V AC: 220...240 V AC (±10 %)
50...60 Hz
Japan/USA
115 V AC: 100...125 V AC (±10 %)
50...60 Hz
2 phases at 16 A
Phase 1 = 1.8 kVA max.
Phase 2 = 2 kVA max.
2000 VA per phase
CEE red (230 V, 16 A):
3 phases+N+PE, phases 1 and 2
connected
2 phases at 25 A
Phase 1 = 1.8 kVA max.
Phase 2 = 2 kVA max.
2000 VA per phase
CEE yellow (115 V, 32 A):
3 phases+N+PE, phases 1 and 2
connected
1 phase at 32 A
7400 VA
I
IP 20
II
2
1 phase at 63 A
7400 VA
I
IP 20
II
2
If the line voltage in your country is 115 V AC, you need to order an additional 2.5 kW stepup-transformer, part no. 234.366, to be able to run the ArKr laser. Reason: The ArKr laser
requires a 220 V input.
Power distribution inside the Laser Module VIS:
Fig. 2-4
B 40-051 e 07/98
2-5
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Power Requirements / Physical Dimensions
2.2.1
LSM 510
Phase 1 (LSM)
feeds the following units:
Laser Module
HeNe 2x
via Power 1 (5-socket adapter)
Computer + monitor
Microscope
MCU 28
Scanning Module
via Power 2:
HAL lamp
HBO lamp
2.2.2
Phase 2 (LSM, Power 3)
feeds the following units:
Ar laser
or ArKr laser
2.2.3
Separate connection:
Ar laser (UV)
2.3
2 kW
2 kW
7 kW
Physical Dimensions
Large system table
Small system table
Scanning Module
Microscope
Laser Module, VIS(ible light)
Laser Module, UV
Electronics box
Power supply for Ar, ArKr
Power supply for Ar (UV)
Cooling unit for Ar (UV)
Water hose for Ar (UV)
Fiber optic cable, VIS(ible)
Fiber optic cable, UV
Cables
SCSI cable
2-6
Length (cm)
Width (cm)
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
150
65
25
50
80
140
50
30
50
80
400
200
200
250
100
80
80
20
35
40
20
30
30
50
45
78
78
25
50
50
20
30
20
30
50
100
60
15
20
60
60
10
10
30
30
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Dimensions ... / Envirenment Requirements / Vibrations
LSM 510
2.4
Dimension of shipment crates
Crate containing
Length (cm)
Width (cm)
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
Large system table
160
85
95
120
Small system table
90
75
80
80
LSM
190
85
120
350
Monitor, computer
120
80
90
80
UV laser unit
125
55
50
100
UV cooling unit
120
60
90
50
2.5
Environmental Requirements
Operation, specified performance
T = 22 °C ±3 °C
Operation, reduced performance
T = 10 °C to 35 °C
Storage, less than 16h
T = -40 °C to 55 °C
Storage, less than 6h
T = -55 °C to 70 °C
Temperature gradient
±3 °C/h
Warm up time
1h
Relative humidity
< 65 % at 30 °C
2.6
Vibrations
Vibrations under operation conditions
Shipping shock (LSM 5 box)
(with system table)
5 µm pp at 5 Hz
3g
10 µm pp at 10 Hz
10 µm pp at 20 Hz
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2-7
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Laser Specifications
LSM 510
2.7
Laser Specifications
2.7.1
Coherent Enterprise 653 II: 352, 364 nm, 80 mW, laser power class 3 B
Line voltage
100...240 V
Line frequency
50...60 Hz
Max. current
1 phase at 32...63 A
Power consumption
7400 VA
With heat exchanger LP5:
Water flow
8.0 l/min (max 16 l/min)
Water pressure
1.4...4.2 kg/cm²
Water temperature
10...60 °C at 8.0 l/min
Power to water cycle
max. 4500 W
Power from power supply
max. 300 W
Power from LP5
max 6000 W
2.7.2
Uniphase M. 1674 P: 543 nm, 1 mW
Line voltage
100...240 V
Line frequency
50...60 Hz
Power consumption
20 VA
2.7.3
LASOS LGK 7628-1: 633 nm, 5 mW
Line voltage
100...240 V
Line frequency
50...60 Hz
Power consumption
20 VA
2-8
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LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Dimensions ... / Envirenment Requirements / Vibrations
LSM 510
2.7.4
LASOS LGK 7812 ML-1/LGN 7812: 458, 488, 514 nm, 25 mW, laser power class 3 B
Line voltage
100...240 V
Line frequency
50...60 Hz
Max. current
1 phases at 25 A
Power consumption
2000 VA
Cooling fan
on top of laser head
2.7.5
Omnichrome 50YB 643/171B: 488, 568 nm, 30 mW, laser power class 3 B
Line voltage
208...240 V
Line frequency
50...60 Hz
Max. current
1 phase at 16 A
Power consumption
2000 VA
Distance to external fan
100 mm
Power from laser head
max. 300 W
Power from power supply
max 6000 W
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2-9
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Laser Specifications
2.8
LSM 510
Microscopes
Inverted Axiovert 100 M BP or SP
Upright Axioplan 2 MOT
All Zeiss ICS objectives and accessories can be
accommodated.
Z motor
DC servomotor, opto-electronically coded
Least Z interval: 100 nm
HRZ-200
Galvanometer-driven precision focusing stage
Max. travel 200 µm; resolution 6 nm;
accuracy 40 nm
Allows continuous Z-scan at up to 10 Hz
2.9
Scanning Module
2 individually driven galvanometric scanners
Scanning speed
Up to 2.6 frames/sec (512 x 512 pixels)
Field resolution
Max. 2048 x 2048 pixels (individually adjustable for each axis)
Field of view
10 x 10 mm² with a 1.25x objective
Zoom
1x ... 8x, continuous control
Channels
Up to 4 channels simultaneously
4 confocal reflection/fluorescence channels (PMT)
1 transmitted light channel (PMT)
1 reference monitor diode
Cooled PMTs (option, forthcoming)
Fiber-optic adaptation of external detectors (option, forthcoming)
Dynamic range
12-bit DAC for each detection channel
Pinholes
4 individual variable pinholes (for each confocal channel)
Computer controlled automatic alignment
2-10
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LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Microscopes / Scanning Module
LSM 510
2.10
Laser Module VIS
Single-mode polarization preserving fiber
Laser beam attenuation for all lasers by VIS-AOTF
HeNe laser (543 nm, 1 mW)
HeNe laser (633 nm, 5 mW)
Ar laser (458, 488, 514 nm, 25 mW)
Ar laser (488 nm, 15 mW)
ArKr laser (488, 568 nm, 30 mW)
Fuses and automatic circuit breakers
for 230 V:
G-type fuse 5 x 20 mm; slow-blow 3.15 A / H / 250 V, acc. to IEC 127
2 circuit breakers; C 10 A
for 110 V:
G-type fuse 5 x 20 mm; slow-blow 3.15 A / H / 250 V, acc. to IEC 127
Circuit breaker; B 25 A
Circuit breaker; C 25 A
Circuit breaker; B 16 A
Circuit breaker; B 10 A
2.11
Laser Module UV
Single-mode polarization preserving fiber
Laser beam attenuation for all lasers by UV-AOTF
Ar laser (351, 364 nm, 80 mW)
B 40-051 e 07/98
2-11
LSM 510 - SETUP REQUIREMENTS
Laser Module VIS / Laser Module UV
2-12
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Contents
LSM 510
CHAPTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO
LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
CONTENTS
3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY .............................................3-3
3.1
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy ........................................................................3-3
3.2
Three-Dimensional Presentations of LSM Image Stacks.................................................3-4
3.3
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510 (Schematic) ...............................................................3-6
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
Performance Features of the LSM 510 .........................................................................3-7
Optical and mechanical aspects ...................................................................................3-7
Microscope equipment of the LSM 510 system ............................................................3-8
Computer hardware and software............................................................................. 3-11
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-1
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Contents
3-2
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy
LSM 510
3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
3.1
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy
To yield information on their inner structure by conventional transmitted-light microscopy, specimens
have to be very thin and translucent; otherwise image definition will be poor. In many cases it is a
problem to satisfy these requirements.
The essential considerations have led to trailblazing changes in conventional microscopy and supplied a
successful solution to the above problem.
Unlike the practice of even illumination in conventional microscopy, the LSM technique projects the
light of a point light source (a laser) through a high-NA objective onto a certain object plane of
interest as a nearly diffraction-limited focus. However, if not for another "trick", the stray light
produced outside the object plane, or the fluorescence of fluorescent specimens, would disturb the
in-focus image of object point of interest, resulting in a blurred image of poor contrast. The problem
is therefore, how to capture only the light coming immediately from the object point in focus, while
obstructing the light coming from out-of-focus areas of the specimen.
The light reflected, or the fluorescence light
produced, at the focus of the high-NA objective
is projected onto a variable pinhole diaphragm
by the same objective and a tube lens. The
focus inside the specimen and the pinhole are
situated at optically conjugate points (confocal
imaging). The decisive advantage of this
arrangement is the fact that essentially no other
light than that coming from the object plane of
interest can pass the narrow pinhole and be
registered by a detector. Unwanted light
coming from other specimen areas is focused
outside the pinhole, which passes only a small
fraction of it. The smaller the pinhole, the less
stray light or fluorescence from out-of-focus
areas will get on the detector. The image point
thus generated is largely free from blur caused
by unwanted light.
Fig 3-1
B 40-051 e 07/98
Principle of confocal imaging
3-3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Three-Dimensional Presentation of LSM Image Stacks
LSM 510
In order to obtain an image of the selected object plane as a whole, it is necessary to scan the object
plane in a point-by-point, line-by-line raster by means of an XY light deflection system. The detectors as a rule, photomultipliers - convert the optical information into electric signals. This allows the image
of any object plane to be generated and stored within less than a second. By a defined focusing
(Z axis) movement it is possible to look at any object plane of interest. By scanning a succession of
object planes in a specimen, a stack of slice images can be produced.
This way, the LSM technique in conjunction with ICS optics (Infinity Color-Corrected System) has brought
decisive improvements over conventional microscopy in terms of resolving power and confocal depth
contrast:
Object features in the order of 0.2 m can be resolved, and height differences of less than
0.1 m made visible, without the use of interference methods.
3.2
Three-Dimensional Presentations of LSM Image Stacks
One of the advantages of the LSM technique is that it can present structures in three dimensions. This
opens up many ways to process images. Outlined below are some of the possible methods to extract
spatial information from stacks of slice images.
Gallery
The simplest presentation of 3D information is a gallery showing the individual slice images (sections)
of a stack arranged side by side, with each slice apart from the next by a defined, selectable interval
on the Z axis.
Virtually infinite depth of focus
The entire set of data can be imaged as a single projection. The computer establishes an image
composed of all in-focus optical sections. The image produced by this so-called composite method
has a virtually infinite depth of focus, since the result is made up of information from in-focus planes
only.
Rotary animation
A sequence of projections is computed, with the specimen being apparently rotated by a certain
angle from image to image, for example by a full turn about an axis. If such a sequence is displayed
on the monitor screen in rapid succession, the visual effect is that of a rotating three-dimensional
object.
Stereo image pairs
The computer establishes a pair of images corresponding to those we see with the right and the left
eye, respectively. The two images forming the stereo pair can be shown on the monitor side by side.
They can be seen as a 3D image with suitable optical aids. Another possibility is to present both
images in registration, with one image in the red channel and the other in the green one (anaglyph).
Viewed through red and green color filters in a spectacle frame, which only pass the image intended
for the respective eye, the two images form a 3D image in the brain
Color-coded height slices
Each level, i.e. each slice is assigned a different color. For direct evaluation, a color scale is shown,
indicating the actual height above the bottom slice.
3-4
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Three-Dimensional Presentation of LSM Image Stacks
Orthogonal sections
This computation produces a triplet of mutually perpendicular sectional images.
Oblique sections
A section through the stack is made along an oblique plane defined by the selection of five
coordinates, i.e. X, Y, Z, angle of rotation, and angle of tilt.
Topography (forthcoming)
A computing program for surface topography presentations (as required in materials research) is
available.
Kinetics (forthcoming)
With a special software, kinetic processes can be tracked, which is especially of interest to physiology.
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-5
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510
3.3
LSM 510
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510 (Schematic)
Mirror
VIS Fiber
Collimator
DBC
UV Fiber
LSF NDF
Monitor
Diode
Plate
Scan
Lens
Scanner
Pinhole
Optics
Fiber Coupler
AOTF
Shutter
X
y
Fiber Coupler
AOTF
Shutter
MDBS
Tube Lens
DBS2
DBS1
DBS3
T-PMT
HAL
Microscope
Fig. 3-2
AOTF
DBC
DBS
EF
HAL
HBO
LSF
MDBS
NDF
VP
PMT
T-PMT
VP2
EF2
PMT1
Condensor
PMT2
Specimen
PMT4
VP4
EF4
Ar/ArKr Laser
Objective
VP3
EF3
Ar-UV Laser
PMT3
HBO
VP1
EF1
Scan Module
Laser
Module UV
HeNe Laser
Tube Lens
HeNe Laser
Eyepiece
Laser
Module VIS
Optical path, schematic (4-channel configuration)
Acousto Optical Tunable Filter
Dichroic Beam Combiner
Dichroic Beam Splitter
Emission Filter
Halogen Lamp
Mercury Vapor Short-Arc Lamp
Line Selection Filter
Main Dichroic Beam Splitter
Neutral Density Filter
Variable Pinhole
Photomultiplier
Transmission-Photomultiplier
The diagram above is a schematic representation of the LSM system.
Laser light is focused onto the specimen through an objective in a diffraction-limited mode. Light emitted
at the focal plane and at planes below and above it is directed via an XY scanner onto a main dichroic
beam splitter (MDBS), which separates the emissions from the excitation light. The fluorescences are
separated from each other by a series of dichroic beam splitters (DBS1 ... maximally DBS4) and directed
to individual photomultipliers (PMT1 ... maximally PMT4).
3-6
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
3.4
Performance Features of the LSM 510
3.4.1
Optical and mechanical aspects
The highly integrated system design makes for the shortest possible optical paths, top-grade optical
precision and high stability. The compact scanning module can be fitted to an inverted (Axiovert 100 M
BP or SP) or upright (Axioplan 2 MOT) microscope in less than three minutes. On the Axiovert, the
scanning module may be mounted either to the base port directly below the microscope or to the side
port.
The spectral range available extends from the UV to the IR region.
For the VIS (visible-light) Laser Module, the user can select from up to five lasers with wavelengths of
633, 568, 543, 514, 488 and 458 nm. The UV Laser Module provides wavelengths of 351 and 364 nm.
Coupling of the laser light is through polarization-preserving single-mode optical fibers. One variable
beam collimator each for the UV and visible ranges provides optimum adaptation of the respective laser
wavelength to the objective used and, thus, optimum correction for Z aberrations.
Acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTF) adjust the necessary brightness for all desired laser lines within
microseconds.
A monitor diode permanently registers the laser output; it can be used for the on-line checking of the
intensity of the exciting light. This check is also possible selectively for the different wavelengths if a line
selection filter is inserted.
The four simultaneous image acquisition channels, usable for reflection or fluorescence, and an
additional transmitted-light channel are ideal for the investigation of multiple fluorescence specimens.
Separately in each of the four channels, the diameters of the pinholes and their XY positions can be
optimized, and the desired emission filter placed into the beam path, by servo-motor control. In the case
of pinhole VP1, this adjustment also includes positioning along Z. In the simultaneous registration of
multiple fluorescences, identical optical sections can be obtained in each confocal channel. This is of
importance, e.g., with the FISH method (fluorescence in-situ hybridization) used for genome analysis in
cytogenetic studies.
The microscope's transmitted-light channel is equipped with a photomultiplier, too. It is therefore
possible to superimpose a multiple fluorescence image on a brightfield, differential interference or phase
image.
A fiber-optic cable connection to external special detectors, such as cooled PMTs or spectrometers, is
under development.
In addition to the emission filters for all standard and special applications, available in motor-controlled
filter wheels, the user can easily install his own emission filters in two of the channels.
The high-NA C-APOCHROMAT objectives specially developed for the LSM technique reach the physical
limit in resolving power, and can be used throughout the 350...700 nm spectral range with the same
high quality, producing brilliant images.
A two-mirror scanner system, controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP), offers several advantages.
The large deflection angle of the scanning mirrors allows a wide area to be scanned. With a 1.25x
objective, the object area scanned is 10 x 10 mm².
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-7
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
The scanning field size can be freely selected between 2 x 2 and 2048 x 2048 pixels.
It is possible to rotate the XY scanning field through 360° and carry out XY scans without having to
rotate the specimen itself under laser radiation load.
Selection of the specimen detail of interest for zooming is fast and convenient, and the zoomed image is
automatically centered. This saves the job of specimen centration with the microscope stage.
Using a bi-directional scanning facility (forthcoming) will double the scanning rate to 2.6 frames/sec (at
512 x 512 pixels); if two different lasing wavelengths are used for the two scanning directions
(wavelength 1 for left-to-right, and wavelength 2 for right-to-left scanning), two fluorochrome dyes can
be viewed and documented in a quasi-simultaneous mode. This will absolutely prevent "bleeding".
3.4.2
Microscope equipment of the LSM 510 system
The LSM 510 system is equipped either with the Axiovert 100 M BP or SP microscope which is founded
on the Axiovert 100/135 microscope serie, or with the Axioplan 2 MOT microscope.
Referring to the delivered operating manual "Axiovert 100, Axiovert 135 and 135 M Transmitted and
fluorescent reflected light" only differences to this manual will be explained.
(1) Stand
a) The motorized objective nosepiece 5x H DIC is firmly fixed to the stand, where no operating elements
can be found for the nosepiece. Operation will be done LSM 5 software controlled. The "Restriction of
revolver hight to protect the objectives when changing the objectives motorized" is inactivated. The
nosepiece will be moved down automatically before each motorized objective change.
b) The reflector mount is motorized and provided with the LSM 5 Axiovert reflector slider (451333). The
reflector slider has 4 positions: One transmitting light position, which is identically the LSM position and
three further positions for fluorescence filter sets. If you want to use more than three conventional
fluorescence filter sets it is advisable to use further reflector sliders (451333). When changing the
reflector slider you have to look that the slider will click into place otherwise the image area will be
cutted.
c) The stand has a motorized focusing drive. Switching between fine and coarse drive can be done by
push button on the left beside the focusing drive. Sensitivity of the focusing drive is adjusted to the
delivered objectives by manufacturer. If you want to use other objectives, sensitivity and parfocality can
be adjusted with the CLM program (configuration and light manager). After changing an objective the
focusing drive will be located in fine focusing mode.
d) The stand featuring an integrated power supply for the internal motors and stand electronics. The
power supply can be switched-on at rear side of the stand. External power supply units will be used for
the mains of halogen lamp or mercury vapour short arc lamp.
3-8
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
e) The analyzer slider for conventional DIC methods will be operated from the right side and is located
just below the nosepiece.
When the rod is pushed in, the analyzer is located in the beam path. In LSM-mode the analyzer must not
be located in the beam path, analyzer rod must be pulled out.
f) The stands dispose of two additional ports, a side port and a base port respectively.
One of these ports is equipped with the LSM 5 special interface, the other one with the TV interface. The
LSM 5 scanning module can be mounted to the special interface port. Different camera systems can be
adapted to the TV interface using the TV adapters 452982/83/92/94/95/97/98.
The light reaches the ports over full mirrors. Therefore all light is available at side port, base port or for
conventional microscopy.
Bringing the beam path to the desired direction you must use the two rods on the right side of the
stand.
The upper rod is designed to the side port. When the rod is pulled out, all the light is directed to the side
port.
The lower rod is designed for the base port. When the rod is pushed in, all the light is directed to the
base port, however the upper rod must be pushed in too.
To direct light to the tube, the upper rod must be pushed in, the lower rod must be pulled out.
Logic scheme of the rods:
(2) Specimen stages
a) Mechanical stage 000000-1017-918
The stage must be mounted with the coaxial drive on the right side of the stand.
b) Scanning stage 000000-1017-917
The scanning stage can only be used, when the LSM 5 scanning module is mounted to the base port.
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-9
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
(3) Transmitted-light illumination
a) The illuminator support contains a security circuit, which activates a shutter preventing laser light from
reaching the stand when the support is moved to back. A complementary shutter built-in the stand
prevents laser light from reaching the eye pieces during scanning mode.
b) The illuminator support is equipped with a rotatable polarizer. The Axiovert description contains the
adjustment for DIC mode during conventional observation.
For scanning transmitted light DIC mode the polarizer in the transmitted light support works like an
analyzer and must be adjusted in such a manner, that direct laser light will be blocked.
The conventional analyzer slider in the stand is not allowed be located in the beam path because of the
laser light already is polarized.
c) On the illuminator support as an option there is mounted a LSM 5 software controlled switching
mirror fully motorized. Alternatively the light is directed to the LSM 5 T-light detector or enables
conventional transmitted-light observation.
d) The focusing screen for conventional transmitted-light is located in a support in front of the halogen
lamp housing.
e) Further information to halogen lamp and condensers you will find in the Axiovert operating manual.
(4) Reflected light fluorescence
All Axiovert fluorescence accessories exceptional the reflector slider can be used.
Further information you will find in the Axiovert operation manual.
(5) Imaging optics
Optovar sliders are not usable.
The analyzer for conventional DIC mode will be operated from the right side and is located just below
the nosepiece.
Use of sliders with auxiliary objects (473704/14) is not possible.
(6) Photo equipment
The stand doesn´t have an integrated SLR-port, but microscope cameras, as described in the Axiovert
operation manual, can be used.
(7) TV adaption
The TV port aside and the tubes can be used as described in the Axiovert operation manual.
The TV interface side port or base port can only be used with TV adapters 44.
3-10
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
3.4.3
Computer hardware and software
The LSM 510 is controlled through a standard high-end Pentium PC. Linking with the electronic control
system is via an ultrafast SCSi interface. The PC comes with the 32-bit WINDOWS NT 4.0 operating
system.
The instrument is fully motorized, permitting fast change-over between methods as well as automatic
operation. Parameters once set or complex examination sequences once established can be saved and
reproduced; this way, complete application programs can be loaded and executed by pushbutton
control.
The software of the LSM 510 has two levels. On the simple operator interface level, a result will be
achieved after a few prompts; graphical prompting of the user in conjunction with automatic setting of
many parameters is an ideal tool for daily routine jobs. The expert level offers perfect facilities for
individual settings of functions and parameters.
Conversion of the light signals into a digital image is effected by means of four 12-bit A/D converters,
each of which can generate 4096 brightness levels.
The software provides a enormously wide range of image processing functions, including all standard
2D/3D (stereo, projection) functions same as sophisticated 3D reconstruction capabilities (surface and
alpha rendering), digital processing of voxels and 3D measurement functions (surface areas, volumes).
As all files and images are recorded in MS Access databases, elegant image database editing is just as
easy as transferring the records to other programs.
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-11
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
3-12
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Contents
LSM 510
CHAPTER 3
INTRODUCTION TO
LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
CONTENTS
3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY .............................................3-3
3.1
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy ........................................................................3-3
3.2
Three-Dimensional Presentations of LSM Image Stacks.................................................3-4
3.3
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510 (Schematic) ...............................................................3-6
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
Performance Features of the LSM 510 .........................................................................3-7
Optical and mechanical aspects ...................................................................................3-7
Microscope equipment of the LSM 510 system ............................................................3-8
Computer hardware and software............................................................................. 3-11
B 40-051 e 07/98
3-1
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Contents
3-2
LSM 510
B 40-051 e 07/98
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy
LSM 510
3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
3.1
Principle of Laser Scanning Microscopy
To yield information on their inner structure by conventional transmitted-light microscopy, specimens
have to be very thin and translucent; otherwise image definition will be poor. In many cases it is a
problem to satisfy these requirements.
The essential considerations have led to trailblazing changes in conventional microscopy and supplied a
successful solution to the above problem.
Unlike the practice of even illumination in conventional microscopy, the LSM technique projects the
light of a point light source (a laser) through a high-NA objective onto a certain object plane of
interest as a nearly diffraction-limited focus. However, if not for another "trick", the stray light
produced outside the object plane, or the fluorescence of fluorescent specimens, would disturb the
in-focus image of object point of interest, resulting in a blurred image of poor contrast. The problem
is therefore, how to capture only the light coming immediately from the object point in focus, while
obstructing the light coming from out-of-focus areas of the specimen.
The light reflected, or the fluorescence light
produced, at the focus of the high-NA objective
is projected onto a variable pinhole diaphragm
by the same objective and a tube lens. The
focus inside the specimen and the pinhole are
situated at optically conjugate points (confocal
imaging). The decisive advantage of this
arrangement is the fact that essentially no other
light than that coming from the object plane of
interest can pass the narrow pinhole and be
registered by a detector. Unwanted light
coming from other specimen areas is focused
outside the pinhole, which passes only a small
fraction of it. The smaller the pinhole, the less
stray light or fluorescence from out-of-focus
areas will get on the detector. The image point
thus generated is largely free from blur caused
by unwanted light.
Fig 3-1
B 40-051 e 07/98
Principle of confocal imaging
3-3
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Three-Dimensional Presentation of LSM Image Stacks
LSM 510
In order to obtain an image of the selected object plane as a whole, it is necessary to scan the object
plane in a point-by-point, line-by-line raster by means of an XY light deflection system. The detectors as a rule, photomultipliers - convert the optical information into electric signals. This allows the image
of any object plane to be generated and stored within less than a second. By a defined focusing
(Z axis) movement it is possible to look at any object plane of interest. By scanning a succession of
object planes in a specimen, a stack of slice images can be produced.
This way, the LSM technique in conjunction with ICS optics (Infinity Color-Corrected System) has brought
decisive improvements over conventional microscopy in terms of resolving power and confocal depth
contrast:
Object features in the order of 0.2 m can be resolved, and height differences of less than
0.1 m made visible, without the use of interference methods.
3.2
Three-Dimensional Presentations of LSM Image Stacks
One of the advantages of the LSM technique is that it can present structures in three dimensions. This
opens up many ways to process images. Outlined below are some of the possible methods to extract
spatial information from stacks of slice images.
Gallery
The simplest presentation of 3D information is a gallery showing the individual slice images (sections)
of a stack arranged side by side, with each slice apart from the next by a defined, selectable interval
on the Z axis.
Virtually infinite depth of focus
The entire set of data can be imaged as a single projection. The computer establishes an image
composed of all in-focus optical sections. The image produced by this so-called composite method
has a virtually infinite depth of focus, since the result is made up of information from in-focus planes
only.
Rotary animation
A sequence of projections is computed, with the specimen being apparently rotated by a certain
angle from image to image, for example by a full turn about an axis. If such a sequence is displayed
on the monitor screen in rapid succession, the visual effect is that of a rotating three-dimensional
object.
Stereo image pairs
The computer establishes a pair of images corresponding to those we see with the right and the left
eye, respectively. The two images forming the stereo pair can be shown on the monitor side by side.
They can be seen as a 3D image with suitable optical aids. Another possibility is to present both
images in registration, with one image in the red channel and the other in the green one (anaglyph).
Viewed through red and green color filters in a spectacle frame, which only pass the image intended
for the respective eye, the two images form a 3D image in the brain
Color-coded height slices
Each level, i.e. each slice is assigned a different color. For direct evaluation, a color scale is shown,
indicating the actual height above the bottom slice.
3-4
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LSM 510
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Three-Dimensional Presentation of LSM Image Stacks
Orthogonal sections
This computation produces a triplet of mutually perpendicular sectional images.
Oblique sections
A section through the stack is made along an oblique plane defined by the selection of five
coordinates, i.e. X, Y, Z, angle of rotation, and angle of tilt.
Topography (forthcoming)
A computing program for surface topography presentations (as required in materials research) is
available.
Kinetics (forthcoming)
With a special software, kinetic processes can be tracked, which is especially of interest to physiology.
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3-5
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510
3.3
LSM 510
Optical Diagram of the LSM 510 (Schematic)
Mirror
VIS Fiber
Collimator
DBC
UV Fiber
LSF NDF
Monitor
Diode
Plate
Scan
Lens
Scanner
Pinhole
Optics
Fiber Coupler
AOTF
Shutter
X
y
Fiber Coupler
AOTF
Shutter
MDBS
Tube Lens
DBS2
DBS1
DBS3
T-PMT
HAL
Microscope
Fig. 3-2
AOTF
DBC
DBS
EF
HAL
HBO
LSF
MDBS
NDF
VP
PMT
T-PMT
VP2
EF2
PMT1
Condensor
PMT2
Specimen
PMT4
VP4
EF4
Ar/ArKr Laser
Objective
VP3
EF3
Ar-UV Laser
PMT3
HBO
VP1
EF1
Scan Module
Laser
Module UV
HeNe Laser
Tube Lens
HeNe Laser
Eyepiece
Laser
Module VIS
Optical path, schematic (4-channel configuration)
Acousto Optical Tunable Filter
Dichroic Beam Combiner
Dichroic Beam Splitter
Emission Filter
Halogen Lamp
Mercury Vapor Short-Arc Lamp
Line Selection Filter
Main Dichroic Beam Splitter
Neutral Density Filter
Variable Pinhole
Photomultiplier
Transmission-Photomultiplier
The diagram above is a schematic representation of the LSM system.
Laser light is focused onto the specimen through an objective in a diffraction-limited mode. Light emitted
at the focal plane and at planes below and above it is directed via an XY scanner onto a main dichroic
beam splitter (MDBS), which separates the emissions from the excitation light. The fluorescences are
separated from each other by a series of dichroic beam splitters (DBS1 ... maximally DBS4) and directed
to individual photomultipliers (PMT1 ... maximally PMT4).
3-6
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INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
3.4
Performance Features of the LSM 510
3.4.1
Optical and mechanical aspects
The highly integrated system design makes for the shortest possible optical paths, top-grade optical
precision and high stability. The compact scanning module can be fitted to an inverted (Axiovert 100 M
BP or SP) or upright (Axioplan 2 MOT) microscope in less than three minutes. On the Axiovert, the
scanning module may be mounted either to the base port directly below the microscope or to the side
port.
The spectral range available extends from the UV to the IR region.
For the VIS (visible-light) Laser Module, the user can select from up to five lasers with wavelengths of
633, 568, 543, 514, 488 and 458 nm. The UV Laser Module provides wavelengths of 351 and 364 nm.
Coupling of the laser light is through polarization-preserving single-mode optical fibers. One variable
beam collimator each for the UV and visible ranges provides optimum adaptation of the respective laser
wavelength to the objective used and, thus, optimum correction for Z aberrations.
Acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTF) adjust the necessary brightness for all desired laser lines within
microseconds.
A monitor diode permanently registers the laser output; it can be used for the on-line checking of the
intensity of the exciting light. This check is also possible selectively for the different wavelengths if a line
selection filter is inserted.
The four simultaneous image acquisition channels, usable for reflection or fluorescence, and an
additional transmitted-light channel are ideal for the investigation of multiple fluorescence specimens.
Separately in each of the four channels, the diameters of the pinholes and their XY positions can be
optimized, and the desired emission filter placed into the beam path, by servo-motor control. In the case
of pinhole VP1, this adjustment also includes positioning along Z. In the simultaneous registration of
multiple fluorescences, identical optical sections can be obtained in each confocal channel. This is of
importance, e.g., with the FISH method (fluorescence in-situ hybridization) used for genome analysis in
cytogenetic studies.
The microscope's transmitted-light channel is equipped with a photomultiplier, too. It is therefore
possible to superimpose a multiple fluorescence image on a brightfield, differential interference or phase
image.
A fiber-optic cable connection to external special detectors, such as cooled PMTs or spectrometers, is
under development.
In addition to the emission filters for all standard and special applications, available in motor-controlled
filter wheels, the user can easily install his own emission filters in two of the channels.
The high-NA C-APOCHROMAT objectives specially developed for the LSM technique reach the physical
limit in resolving power, and can be used throughout the 350...700 nm spectral range with the same
high quality, producing brilliant images.
A two-mirror scanner system, controlled by a digital signal processor (DSP), offers several advantages.
The large deflection angle of the scanning mirrors allows a wide area to be scanned. With a 1.25x
objective, the object area scanned is 10 x 10 mm².
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INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
The scanning field size can be freely selected between 2 x 2 and 2048 x 2048 pixels.
It is possible to rotate the XY scanning field through 360° and carry out XY scans without having to
rotate the specimen itself under laser radiation load.
Selection of the specimen detail of interest for zooming is fast and convenient, and the zoomed image is
automatically centered. This saves the job of specimen centration with the microscope stage.
Using a bi-directional scanning facility (forthcoming) will double the scanning rate to 2.6 frames/sec (at
512 x 512 pixels); if two different lasing wavelengths are used for the two scanning directions
(wavelength 1 for left-to-right, and wavelength 2 for right-to-left scanning), two fluorochrome dyes can
be viewed and documented in a quasi-simultaneous mode. This will absolutely prevent "bleeding".
3.4.2
Microscope equipment of the LSM 510 system
The LSM 510 system is equipped either with the Axiovert 100 M BP or SP microscope which is founded
on the Axiovert 100/135 microscope serie, or with the Axioplan 2 MOT microscope.
Referring to the delivered operating manual "Axiovert 100, Axiovert 135 and 135 M Transmitted and
fluorescent reflected light" only differences to this manual will be explained.
(1) Stand
a) The motorized objective nosepiece 5x H DIC is firmly fixed to the stand, where no operating elements
can be found for the nosepiece. Operation will be done LSM 5 software controlled. The "Restriction of
revolver hight to protect the objectives when changing the objectives motorized" is inactivated. The
nosepiece will be moved down automatically before each motorized objective change.
b) The reflector mount is motorized and provided with the LSM 5 Axiovert reflector slider (451333). The
reflector slider has 4 positions: One transmitting light position, which is identically the LSM position and
three further positions for fluorescence filter sets. If you want to use more than three conventional
fluorescence filter sets it is advisable to use further reflector sliders (451333). When changing the
reflector slider you have to look that the slider will click into place otherwise the image area will be
cutted.
c) The stand has a motorized focusing drive. Switching between fine and coarse drive can be done by
push button on the left beside the focusing drive. Sensitivity of the focusing drive is adjusted to the
delivered objectives by manufacturer. If you want to use other objectives, sensitivity and parfocality can
be adjusted with the CLM program (configuration and light manager). After changing an objective the
focusing drive will be located in fine focusing mode.
d) The stand featuring an integrated power supply for the internal motors and stand electronics. The
power supply can be switched-on at rear side of the stand. External power supply units will be used for
the mains of halogen lamp or mercury vapour short arc lamp.
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LSM 510
INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
e) The analyzer slider for conventional DIC methods will be operated from the right side and is located
just below the nosepiece.
When the rod is pushed in, the analyzer is located in the beam path. In LSM-mode the analyzer must not
be located in the beam path, analyzer rod must be pulled out.
f) The stands dispose of two additional ports, a side port and a base port respectively.
One of these ports is equipped with the LSM 5 special interface, the other one with the TV interface. The
LSM 5 scanning module can be mounted to the special interface port. Different camera systems can be
adapted to the TV interface using the TV adapters 452982/83/92/94/95/97/98.
The light reaches the ports over full mirrors. Therefore all light is available at side port, base port or for
conventional microscopy.
Bringing the beam path to the desired direction you must use the two rods on the right side of the
stand.
The upper rod is designed to the side port. When the rod is pulled out, all the light is directed to the side
port.
The lower rod is designed for the base port. When the rod is pushed in, all the light is directed to the
base port, however the upper rod must be pushed in too.
To direct light to the tube, the upper rod must be pushed in, the lower rod must be pulled out.
Logic scheme of the rods:
(2) Specimen stages
a) Mechanical stage 000000-1017-918
The stage must be mounted with the coaxial drive on the right side of the stand.
b) Scanning stage 000000-1017-917
The scanning stage can only be used, when the LSM 5 scanning module is mounted to the base port.
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INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
(3) Transmitted-light illumination
a) The illuminator support contains a security circuit, which activates a shutter preventing laser light from
reaching the stand when the support is moved to back. A complementary shutter built-in the stand
prevents laser light from reaching the eye pieces during scanning mode.
b) The illuminator support is equipped with a rotatable polarizer. The Axiovert description contains the
adjustment for DIC mode during conventional observation.
For scanning transmitted light DIC mode the polarizer in the transmitted light support works like an
analyzer and must be adjusted in such a manner, that direct laser light will be blocked.
The conventional analyzer slider in the stand is not allowed be located in the beam path because of the
laser light already is polarized.
c) On the illuminator support as an option there is mounted a LSM 5 software controlled switching
mirror fully motorized. Alternatively the light is directed to the LSM 5 T-light detector or enables
conventional transmitted-light observation.
d) The focusing screen for conventional transmitted-light is located in a support in front of the halogen
lamp housing.
e) Further information to halogen lamp and condensers you will find in the Axiovert operating manual.
(4) Reflected light fluorescence
All Axiovert fluorescence accessories exceptional the reflector slider can be used.
Further information you will find in the Axiovert operation manual.
(5) Imaging optics
Optovar sliders are not usable.
The analyzer for conventional DIC mode will be operated from the right side and is located just below
the nosepiece.
Use of sliders with auxiliary objects (473704/14) is not possible.
(6) Photo equipment
The stand doesn´t have an integrated SLR-port, but microscope cameras, as described in the Axiovert
operation manual, can be used.
(7) TV adaption
The TV port aside and the tubes can be used as described in the Axiovert operation manual.
The TV interface side port or base port can only be used with TV adapters 44.
3-10
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INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
LSM 510
3.4.3
Computer hardware and software
The LSM 510 is controlled through a standard high-end Pentium PC. Linking with the electronic control
system is via an ultrafast SCSi interface. The PC comes with the 32-bit WINDOWS NT 4.0 operating
system.
The instrument is fully motorized, permitting fast change-over between methods as well as automatic
operation. Parameters once set or complex examination sequences once established can be saved and
reproduced; this way, complete application programs can be loaded and executed by pushbutton
control.
The software of the LSM 510 has two levels. On the simple operator interface level, a result will be
achieved after a few prompts; graphical prompting of the user in conjunction with automatic setting of
many parameters is an ideal tool for daily routine jobs. The expert level offers perfect facilities for
individual settings of functions and parameters.
Conversion of the light signals into a digital image is effected by means of four 12-bit A/D converters,
each of which can generate 4096 brightness levels.
The software provides a enormously wide range of image processing functions, including all standard
2D/3D (stereo, projection) functions same as sophisticated 3D reconstruction capabilities (surface and
alpha rendering), digital processing of voxels and 3D measurement functions (surface areas, volumes).
As all files and images are recorded in MS Access databases, elegant image database editing is just as
easy as transferring the records to other programs.
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INTRODUCTION TO LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY
Performance Features of the LSM 510
3-12
LSM 510
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OPERATION
Contents
LSM 510
CHAPTER 4
OPERATION
CONTENTS
Page
4
OPERATION ...................................................................................................................4-3
4.1
General ...........................................................................................................................4-3
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
Software .........................................................................................................................4-3
Boot WINDOWS NT .........................................................................................................4-4
Log on to WINDOWS NT..................................................................................................4-5
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
Quick start.......................................................................................................................4-7
Starting the LSM Program ................................................................................................4-7
Creating a data base for image storage............................................................................4-8
Turning the Lasers On......................................................................................................4-9
Look in the Microscope and Visually Set Up Your Specimen ............................................ 4-10
Setting the Beam Path ................................................................................................... 4-12
Laser Scanning............................................................................................................... 4-14
Z Sectioning .................................................................................................................. 4-19
4.4
Overview of the Menu Items .......................................................................................... 4-22
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
Image Acquisition (Acquire) ........................................................................................... 4-27
Laser settings................................................................................................................. 4-28
Microscope settings (conventional microscopy)............................................................... 4-30
Beam path / Configuration............................................................................................. 4-39
Scanning modes ............................................................................................................ 4-54
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
Routine Mode................................................................................................................ 4-71
Activate Standard Examination Methods in the Routine Mode ........................................ 4-71
Apply Standard Examination Methods in the Routine Mode............................................ 4-73
Export User-Defined Examination Methods to the Routine Mode .................................... 4-75
Activate User-Defined Examination Methods in the Routine Mode .................................. 4-76
Apply User-defined Examination Methods in the Routine Mode ..................................... 4-77
Acquisition of a Z Stack in the Routine Mode ................................................................. 4-78
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4-1
OPERATION
Contents
LSM 510
Page
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
Image optimization........................................................................................................ 4-81
Detector Gain/Ampl. Offset/Ampl. Gain ......................................................................... 4-85
Pinhole adjustment........................................................................................................ 4-89
Scan speed.................................................................................................................... 4-93
Channel Shift Function .................................................................................................. 4-98
4.8
Analysis of Images and Stacks...................................................................................... 4-101
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
Data base / Loading and Storing of images .................................................................. 4-138
Create a new image database ..................................................................................... 4-138
Loading an image from database................................................................................. 4-141
Saving an image.......................................................................................................... 4-145
Import of images......................................................................................................... 4-148
Export of images ......................................................................................................... 4-149
4.10
4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
4.10.5
Macro ......................................................................................................................... 4-151
Macro language .......................................................................................................... 4-151
Macro Control............................................................................................................. 4-151
Recording and running of macros ................................................................................ 4-153
Assignment of macros to the macro buttons in the main window ................................ 4-154
Editing and debugging of macros ................................................................................ 4-155
4.11
4.11.1
4.11.2
Shut-Down Procedure ................................................................................................. 4-156
Exiting the LSM program ............................................................................................. 4-156
Running down the operating system............................................................................ 4-157
4.12
4.12.1
4.12.2
4.12.3
4.12.4
4.12.5
4.12.6
4.12.7
Annex ......................................................................................................................... 4-160
Application-specific configurations............................................................................... 4-160
Filter change in the detection beam path of channels 1 and 2 ...................................... 4-171
Detaching / Attaching the Scanning Module from / to Microscope Stands..................... 4-172
Hints on the use of the HRZ 200 fine focusing stage .................................................... 4-174
Scanning stages .......................................................................................................... 4-179
Specification of Trigger-Interface LSM510 .................................................................... 4-185
Monitordiode .............................................................................................................. 4-188
4-2
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OPERATION
General / Software
LSM 510
4
OPERATION
4.1
General
This section describes the operation of the LSM 510 Laser Scanning Microscope exemplified by typical
applications in conjunction with the LSM 510 Software and its graphic user environment.
When starting up and operating the microscope system, mind the operating instruction manuals for the
Axioplan 2 and Axiovert 100 M microscopes:
B 40-042 e
Axioplan 2, Operating manual
B 42-513 e
Axiovert 100, 135 and 135M, Operating manual
4.2
Software
The LSM 510 Software, Version 2.01, controls the microscope, the scanning and laser modules, tools
(objectives, filters, CLM 32 ...) and the image acquisition process, and presents and analyzes the image
data. It is based on the network-capable graphic 32-bit Microsoft ® WINDOWS NT 4.0 operating system.
Portions ©Copyright 1996, Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
☞
The installation of the software for the LSM 510 and the basic settings of the equipment
components are exclusively carried out by Carl Zeiss service staff. This job includes the
creation of a customized software configuration in line with the specific hardware components
of the customer's microscope system.
A description of how to use the graphic user interface of the WINDOWS NT 4.0 operating system and
the LSM program can be found in the Annex.
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4-3
OPERATION
Software
4.2.1
☞
LSM 510
Boot WINDOWS NT
Drive "A" must not contain a diskette.
Normally, the LSM system is turned on with the REMOTE CONTROL switch. If this switch is not
used, turn the system on with the "I" button on the laser module; in addition, the jumper plug
supplied must be plugged at the POWER REMOTE CONTROL terminal.
Turn the REMOTE CONTROL main switch to the "ON" position.
Computer boots up.
Computer hardware system test runs.
The monitor shows a dialog box for selecting the operating system version.
Fig. 4-1
4-4
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OPERATION
Software
LSM 510
WINDOWS NT operating system is being loaded.
The "Begin Logon" WINDOWS dialog box appears on the monitor.
Fig. 4-2
4.2.2
Log on to WINDOWS NT
Press the three keys <Ctrl>, <Alt> and <Del> at the same time.
The Logon Information dialog box appears on the monitor, permitting you to log on to operating
system WINDOWS NT 4.0.
Fig. 4-3
Enter the declared user name into the User name text box.
Enter your password into the Password text box.
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4-5
OPERATION
Software
LSM 510
After you have made the two entries, confirm them by clicking on the <OK> button or hitting the
<Enter> key.
The WINDOWS NT operating system desktop appears on the monitor, showing a number of icons.
Axiovert icon
Start LSM 510
Dummy icon
Axioplan icon
Change Objectives
icon
Change Filters
icon
Stand Select
icon
Start LSM 510
icon
Start CLM 32
icon (Parfocal
Settings)
Fig. 4-4
☞
4-6
Start LSM 510 dummy:
A program that starts the LSM in only dummy mode. Useful in case of working with stored
images with a separate workstation or when demonstrating the system without microscope,
scan module, electronic box and laser module.
Also a dongle is necessary for operation of the dummy mode.
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OPERATION
Quick start
LSM 510
4.3
Quick start
4.3.1
Starting the LSM Program
(1)
From the Windows NT operating system desktop double click on Start LSM 510 icon.
The "LSM 510 Switchboard" menu appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-5
(2)
From the LSM 510 Switchboard menu, click on the <Scan New Images> button and <Start Expert
Mode> button.
The LSM will go through a CP initialization and open a toolbar labeled LSM 510 expert mode. This
tool bar LSM 510 - Expert Mode appears on the screen.
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4-7
OPERATION
Quick start
4.3.2
LSM 510
Creating a data base for image storage
Fig. 4-6
(1)
Click on the <File> button from LSM 510 tool bar.
(2)
Click on the <New> button.
This will allow you to create a new data base to store your images, experimental setup and
comments from your confocal session. If you have previously created a data base, click on the
<Open> button instead of <New> button.
(3)
Type in a data base name in the File name field.
The name can consist of as many characters as you like. Before clicking the create button in the
"Create New Database" window, set the location in which the data base will be created by
selecting the drive in the Create in field, and double-click on the required folder icon from the list
displayed.
Fig. 4-7
(4)
4-8
Click on the <Create> button. All images which are saved during your confocal session will be
automatically saved in this data base.
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OPERATION
Quick start
LSM 510
4.3.3
Turning the Lasers On
Fig. 4-8
(1)
Click on the <Acquire> button from the LSM 510 tool bar.
(2)
Click on the <Laser> button.
(3)
You will see a Laser-Control menu with a list of available lasers. Using the mouse, click on the
laser(s) which has the appropriate wavelength to excite the dyes labeling your specimen.
Fig. 4-9
(4)
In the case of the argon and UV laser, click on the <Standby> button first.
Warming Up appears and, when the warming-up phase is finished, the Ready message. Then
click on the <On> button: the laser is switched on.
(5)
Use Power[%] scrollbar to set the required laser power in %.
(6)
In the case of the HeNe laser, click on the <On> button directly.
(7)
Close menu.
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4-9
OPERATION
Quick start
4.3.4
(1)
LSM 510
Look in the Microscope and Visually Set Up Your Specimen
Click on the <Micro> and <VIS> buttons from the LSM 510 tool bar.
The Axioplan Control menu or the Axiovert Control menu appears on the screen.
Dialog unit for
Microscope Axioplan
Fig. 4-10
4-10
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Quick start
Dialog unit for
Microscope Axiovert
Fig. 4-11
(2)
Move the silver slider on the side of the microscope to the appropriate position - the correct
position will be shown in a message box on the monitor .
(3)
Apply appropriate immersion fluid to objective if needed (see attached table for Common
Objective Characteristics).
Select the Objective by clicking in the Objectives area of the Axioplan Control menu or
Axiovert Control menu. Put specimen on the stage - make sure the specimen is mounted
securely and flat.
(4)
You can view the specimen in either fluorescence (reflected light) or transmitted light.
(5)
button and click on the
To view in fluorescence click in the Reflector Turret area on the
^
^
Appropriate FSET (FSET 9 ^
FITC,
FSET
15
Rhodamine,
FSET
01
=
=
= DAPI) and set the check
box for Reflected Light On.
(6)
To view specimen in transmitted light set the Relflector Turret position to None and check box
for Transmitted Light On.
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4-11
OPERATION
Quick start
LSM 510
(7)
Note that there is a course/fine control button on the side of the microscope next to the focus
knob.
(8)
After the specimen is focused and the area of interest is selected, close the menu and click on the
<LSM> button from the LSM 510 tool bar. The software will direct you regarding the appropriate
setting of the silver slider. If required, push silver slider to the correct position.
4.3.5
(1)
Setting the Beam Path
Click on the <Config> button from the LSM 510 tool bar.
The "Configuration Control" window appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-12
4-12
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LSM 510
(2)
OPERATION
Quick start
Click on the <Recording Configurations> button in the "Configuration Control" window.
The "Recording Configurations" window appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-13
(2)
button.
A list of configurations will appear by clicking on the
Choose a configuration from the list based on what you need to image from your specimen
(e.g. FITC).
(3)
Click on the <Apply> button.
(4)
Settings will appear in the Beam Path and Channel Assignment portion of the menu.
(5)
Close the menu.
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4-13
OPERATION
Quick start
4.3.6
(1)
LSM 510
Laser Scanning
Click on the <Scan> button from the LSM 510 tool bar.
The "Scan Control" window appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-14
(2)
4-14
Click on the <Find> button on the right side of the Scan Control menu.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Quick start
(3)
Click on the <Single> button on the right side of the Scan Control menu.
(4)
For multi-labeled specimens it is easier to view the image in Split screen where each label is
arranged side by side.
The <Split> button is located on the right side of the image.
Fig. 4-15
(5)
If you want to optimize the intensity of an image, you can adjust the detector gain (sensitivity) and
Amplifier Offset (black level) as follows:
(6)
Click on the <Channels> button from the Scan Control menu.
(7)
Press on the <Cont.> (continuous scan) button on right side of the menu.
(8)
Under Channel Settings you will see buttons for each channel you have set up.
Click Ch 1-1, for example, if you want to adjust the first image displayed in the split mode
window.
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4-15
OPERATION
Quick start
(9)
LSM 510
To make the image brighter or dimmer, adjust Detector Gain. This adjustment is very sensitive.
Try using the left and right arrows to make the adjustment instead of dragging the slider bar.
(10) To adjust the black level (background) use Ampl. Offset.
Fig. 4-16
(11) Also, try adjusting the microscope by manual focusing. Sometimes you will find that there are
other focal planes within the specimen which are brighter, and therefore the detector gain will
need to be turned down.
4-16
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Quick start
(12) Once you have optimized a particular channel, you can switch to the next channel desired and
repeat steps 8, 9, and 10.
(13) As soon as all channels are optimized, click on the <Stop> button.
(14) To zoom into an area of interest click on the <Crop> button on the right side of the image.
Zooming will enlarge an area of interest by scanning the laser into a smaller area of the field of
view. This function can actually increase the X,Y resolution of an image.
(15) A red box will appear on the image.
Fig. 4-17
Press and hold the mouse button on a corner of the red box and drag diagonally to resize the area.
To move the entire box, just click into the box and move it to the required position by keeping the
left mouse button pressed.
(16) Click on the <Cont.> button from the Scan Control menu and the image will now be zoomed up.
You may have to readjust the Detector gain and Ampl. Offset.
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4-17
OPERATION
Quick start
LSM 510
(17) To further improve image quality you can slow the scan rate allowing more photons to integrate
on the detector, or apply image averaging to remove random noise, or a combination of both.
These adjustments are made by clicking on the <Mode> button on the Scan Control menu. Set
the Scan Speed in the Speed area and Number in the Depth, Scan Direction & Scan Average
area accordingly by observing your image. The setting average of 8 (Number 8) should improve
signal/noise dramatically, however, the image acquisition rate will be slower.
(18) If your specimen is sensitive to photobleaching, you can attenuate the laser illumination by clicking
on the <Channels> button from the Scan Control menu. At the bottom of the menu you can set
the percentage of laser power (Excitation %) for each excitation wavelength. You will probably
have to inrease the Detector Gain if you decrease the laser power. This setting controls the
transmission degree of the AOTF.
(19) To save your image click on the <Save> or <Save As> button on the right side of the image.
Fig. 4-18
4-18
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OPERATION
Quick start
LSM 510
4.3.7
Z Sectioning
Once you have set up your image as defined in the above section, you can collect a series of confocal
images through the different focal planes of your specimen.
(1)
Click on the <Z Stack> button on the Scan Control menu.
(2)
If you have reduced the scan speed or have set image averaging, you should use the fast scanning
mode to find the lowest and highest points of focus. These settings are made under Mode on the
Scan Control menu, or directly via the <FAST XY> button.
Fig. 4-19
(3)
Click on the <Z Slice> button in the Z Settings panel.
(4)
Click on the Mark First/Last register in the Z Settings panel.
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4-19
OPERATION
Quick start
(5)
LSM 510
Click on the <XY cont.> button to begin scanning.
Fig. 4-20
(6)
Move the focus down manually (clockwise) until the image of the specimen begins to disappear,
then click on the <Mark First> button in the Mark First/Last register.
(7)
Now move the focus in the opposite direction (up) until the image of the specimen begins to
disappear.
Click on the <Mark Last> button in the Mark First/Last register.
4-20
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Quick start
(8)
Click on the <Stop> button.
(9)
Click on the <Optimal Interval> button in the "Optical Slice" window.
The optimum parameters are transferred to the Z-Sectioning section.
(10) Click on the <Start> button. The system will automatically start Z sectioning. Be careful not to
bump the air table or the microscope until z sectioning is completed. Each successive z-slice can be
viewed by changing to the Gallery Mode. This button is located on the right side of the image.
Fig. 4-21
(11) A black bar will be shown under the image and will move from left to right, showing that the
LSM 510 is in the process of Z sectioning. The laser will automatically stop scanning when zsectioning is completed.
(12) The entire stack of images can be saved using the <Save> or <Save As> buttons on the right side
of the image.
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4-21
OPERATION
Overview of Menu Items
4.4
LSM 510
Overview of the Menu Items
Start the LSM program as follows:
Double-click on the Start LSM 510 icon on the desktop.
Fig. 4-22
LSM 5 Switchboard menu
The switchboard menu presents the following items for selection:
Scan New Images
Clicking on this button activates the complete LSM hardware.
Use Existing Images
This item allows you to process and analyze previously acquired images with the LSM software. In this
mode, control of the hardware (laser module...) is not possible.
☞
Please note that the <Scan New Images> button must be activated before setting up the
Routine Mode or the Expert Mode. Otherwise, the hardware can not be controlled by the LSM
software.
4-22
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OPERATION
Overview of Menu Items
LSM 510
Operating modes
Start Routine Mode
Click on this button if you want to work with pre-configured system settings (typical applications).
Start Expert Mode
Use of this mode requires that you are thoroughly familiar with the exact microscope procedures and
interrelations.
You need to set all parameters and functions upon your own decision; this mode therefore provides
you with the greatest flexibility of operation.
It is also possible, however, to call up stored configurations and to modify the parameters/settings if
necessary.
☞
Start LSM Program:
Some printers (for example KODAK Thermo Printer) will produce an error message "hard key
not found" in case the printer is not powered on.
Fix: turn on the printer before starting the LSM software.
Don’t switch off the KODAK printer during the scanning process.
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4-23
OPERATION
Overview of Menu Items
LSM 510
Click on the <Start Expert Mode> button.
The "LSM 510 - Expert Mode" main menu appears on the screen.
Main menu
Toolbar
of File menu
Fig. 4-23
The <File> button is active automatically, and the submenus selectable in it are shown in the
second (bottom) toolbar.
The buttons of the main menu (upper toolbar) have the following meanings:
File
Open, save, import and export of image data.
Acquire
Calling up and setting the necessary operating parameters. During the
preparation for, and execution of, laser scan image acquisition, this menu
item is used as the working dialog between the computer and the
microscope.
Fig. 4-24
4-24
Toolbar
of Acquire
menu
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LSM 510
Process
OPERATION
Overview of Menu Items
Used for the mathematical integration of acquired images.
<Shift> allows you to perform a pixel shift correction.
Toolbar
of Process
menu
Fig. 4-25
3D
Fig. 4-26
Macros
Fig. 4-27
B 40-051 e 07/98
For three-dimensional image processing.
Toolbar
of 3D View
menu
Makes it possible for the user to store frequently used processes and to run
them automatically.
Toolbar
of Options
menu
4-25
OPERATION
Overview of Menu Items
Options
LSM 510
For custom-configuration of software and hardware options, and for
exporting system operating sequences to the Routine Mode.
Under this menu item access to the colouring table will be enabled.
In the "Settings for User" window you can specify essential operating modes
and informative help, organized by registers, which have an effect on the
user interface.
Fig. 4-28
Maintain
Fig. 4-29
4-26
Toolbar
of Options
menu
This is a service mode for the adjustment and setting of other parameters
(e.g. objectives).
Toolbar
of Maintain
menu
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
In the main menu toolbar, click on <Acquire>.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-30
☞
Toolbar subordinate to the
<Acquire> item
For preparing and acquiring a scanning image, it is recommended to call up and use the tools
of the subordinate toolbar in succession from left to right.
Laser setting.
Conventional microscope setting.
Configuring the optical system for the Scanning Mode.
Setting of scan parameters.
<EditROI> permits up to 10 areas within a frame to be defined and scanned.
<TimeSeries> permits user-specific time series to be selected for the scan procedure.
The <EditBleach> function is used to bleach a defined, freely selectable area within the scanning field.
Upon selecting <Stage> you can set the focus (Z coordinate) and the Z step size between successive
slices. If the optional, motorized X/Y-stage is connected, the X and Y-positions of the sample can also
be selected.
With the <VIS>, <TV> and <LSM> buttons you can effect a PC-supported switching of the beam
path.
VIS for conventional microscopy through the eyepieces.
TV conventional microscopy for observation by means of a TV camera.
LSM Laser scanning mode.
☞
For the scanning process, the <LSM> button in the toolbar subordinate to the "Acquire" item
must be activated, and the silver slider on the microscope must be in the LSM position.
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4-27
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.1
LSM 510
Laser settings
Click on the <Laser> button.
This opens the "Laser Control" window, which shows all lasers connected to the system.
The Laser Selection and Power Status panel,
shows the types, operating statuses and excitation
wavelengths of the lasers available.
Click on the desired laser on the Laser
Selection and Power Status panel.
This highlights the selected laser.
Fig. 4-31
On the "Laser Control" window, activate the laser as follows:
This applies to Coherent UV-Laser 653 II (Enterprise) and Ar-multiline Laser:
Click on the <Standby> button.
Wait for the laser to heat up, until the Status ready - Standby message appears.
Click on the <On> button.
Status ready - On appears.
Use the Power [%] slider to set the laser power which is ideal for the measurement job. To do this,
click on the slider and drag it while keeping the left mouse button depressed.
To change the laser power in steps of 1%, keep the <Ctrl> key depressed while clicking the mouse
on the
or
arrow buttons.
Thus, the laser needed for image acquisition is available.
Enterprise:
Set power between 50 and 100 % of the maximum tube current.
Optimum operation is at 20 A (Tube Current [A]).
Argon:
Set power between 25 and 100 % of the maximum tube current.
Optimum operation is at 8 A.
4-28
B 40-051 e 07/98
LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
To switch on the Enterprise laser, proceed as follows:
(1)
The internal water cooling LP 5 is running.
(2)
Start the PC, wait until NT system is booted.
(3)
Switch on the Power Supply of the Enterprise laser, power potentiometer turned to maximum.
(4)
Start the LSM 510 software.
If the LSM 510 software is already running and you want to use the UV laser, do the following:
(1)
Close the LSM 510 software.
(2)
Switch on the power supply of the Enterprise / power potentiometer turned to maximum.
(3)
Start the LSM 510 software again.
This applies to HeNe lasers:
After selecting the laser, click on the <On> button.
After a short heat-up phase of about 15 seconds, "Status ready - On" appears.
The required laser for image acquisition is now available.
Click on the <Close> button to close the "Laser Control" window.
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4-29
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.2
LSM 510
Microscope settings (conventional microscopy)
Place specimen on microscope stage.
The cover slip must face up on an upright microscope, down on an inverted microscope.
Select the objective to suit the job - dry, water or oil immersion (see inscriptions on objectives: w for
water and oil for immersion oil).
Click on the <Micro> button.
This opens the "Microscope Control" window on the screen.
If you are using the Axioplan 2 MOT, the "Microscope Control" menu shown in Fig. 4-32 appears with
the title "Axioplan Control".
Fig. 4-32
If you are using the Axiovert 100 M, the "Microscope Control" menu shown in Fig. 4-33 appears with
the title "Axiovert Control".
4-30
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
With Transmitted Light activated
mode.
, the halogen lamp is automatically occluded in the laser scanning
Please bear in mind that the light intensity does not automatically correspond to 0 % when Light
Remote is deactivated. The microscope setting (light intensity) of the last session, which was not
remote-controlled, is restored on exit of the program.
Fig. 4-33
In the Objectives list box, select the required objective as follows:
Open the list box.
Click on the objective you want to select.
The selected objective will automatically move into the beam path.
☞
Note that the nosepiece of the Axiovert 100 M microscope must not be moved manually. To
bring another objective into the beam path, move the objective nosepiece only softwarecontrolled.
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4-31
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
If you want to use an objective which is not contained in the nosepiece, proceed as follows:
(1)
Change objectives
(2)
Click on the "Change Objectives" icon. The submenu "Modify Objectives Settings" appears.
Change
Objectives
icon
Fig. 4-34
(3)
Choose the objective corresponding to the desired position.
Fig. 4-35
4-32
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
(4)
Click on the <Maintain> button in the main menu and then on the <Reboot> button in the
submenu.
(5)
Confirm the selection in the "Reboot Components" dialog box by clicking on the <Reload
Objectives from DB> button.
Fig. 4-36
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4-33
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.2.1
LSM 510
Transmitted-light observation (Axioplan 2 MOT)
Push in the silver slider (4-37/8) on the microscope tube as far as it will go.
This opens the light path for specimen observation through the eyepieces.
Actuate the shutter switch (4-37/4) to open the light path of the halogen lamp, and control its
brightness with the potentiometer (4-37/3).
Use the focusing drive (4-37/5) to focus the required object plane.
Select specimen detail by moving the stage in X and Y using the XY stage fine motion control (4-37/6
and 7).
Fig. 4-37
4-34
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.2.2
Epi-fluorescence observation (Axioplan 2 MOT)
Turn on the HBO 100 W power supply with switch (4-37/2).
Push in the silver slider (4-37/8) on the microscope tube as far as it will go.
This opens the light path for specimen observation through the eyepieces.
Switch on the reflected light.
Pull out the occluding slider (4-37/1) to a light-passing position; actuate shutter switch (4-37/4) for
reflected light if it is in transmitted-light position.
☞
To avoid excessive bleaching, expose the specimen to the minimum possible irradiation, i.e.
keep the irradiation time as short as possible.
In the Reflector Turret list box, select the reflector module (filter sets) to suit the type of fluorescence
excitation. Proceed as follows:
Open the Reflector Turret list box.
Click on the desired reflector module.
The reflector turret moves the selected
reflector module into the beam path.
☞
The FITC filter set (FSET09) consists
of an excitation filter for the
450 - 490 nm spectral range, an
FT color splitter for 510 nm and an
LP long pass filter, which passes
emission light wavelengths greater
than 510 nm.
Fig. 4-38
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4-35
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Other filter sets:
The filter sets described in this section are included in the standard configuration, but other sets are
available on request.
DAPI:
BP 365
FT 395
LP 397
FSET01
TRITC:
BP 546
FT 580
LP 590
FSET15
Use the focusing drive (4-37/5) to focus the required object plane.
Select specimen detail by moving the stage in X and Y via the XY coaxial drive (4-37/6 and 7).
This completes the conventional setting of the microscope before starting the laser scanning of the
specimen.
Click on the <Close> button to close the "Microscope Control" window.
4-36
B 40-051 e 07/98
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.2.3
Transmitted-light observation (Axiovert 100 M BP)
Pull out the silver slider (4-39/1) on the microscope tube as far as it will go.
This opens the light path for specimen observation through the eyepieces.
Push in the sideport slider (4-39/2) as far as it will go.
Pull out the VIS slider (4-39/3) as far as it will go.
Use the focusing drive (4-39/7) to focus the required specimen plane.
Select specimen detail by moving the stage in X and Y via the XY stage fine motion control (4-39/6
and 5).
Fig. 4-39
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4-37
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.2.4
LSM 510
Epi-fluorescence observation (Axiovert 100 M BP)
Turn on the HBO 50 power supply switch (4-39/4).
Pull out the silver slider (4-39/1) on the microscope tube as far as possible.
This opens the light path for specimen observation through the eyepieces.
Push in the sideport slider (4-39/2) as far as possible.
Pull out the VIS slider (4-39/3) as far as possible.
In the Reflector Turret list box, select the desired filter set by clicking on it.
Fig. 4-40
The filter is automatically moved into the beam path to enable observation in epi-fluorescence.
In the Objectives list box, select the objective.
4-38
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.3
Beam path / Configuration
Click on the <Config> button.
This opens the "Configuration Control" window, in which you can configure the system for
scanning. The window contains two panels: Beam Path and Channel Assignment and Ratio
Settings.
Fig. 4-41
☞
The Beam Path and Channel Assignment panel differs according to the hardware
configuration supplied.
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4-39
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.3.1
LSM 510
Taking over the configuration with Configuration Control
After clicking on the <Recording Configurations> button, the Recording Configurations dialog box
appears on the screen and allows the following settings to be made:
Selection and calling up a configuration, whether factory-preset or created by the user on the Store /
Apply Configuration panel
Saving a user-created configuration under a freely selectable name
Deletion of a configuration
A configuration stored in the database, whether factory-supplied or user-created, can be accepted or
selected for active operation as follows:
Fig. 4-42
On the Store / Apply Configuration panel, click on the arrow button
.
This opens a drop-down list of all stored configurations.
Browse through the configurations by clicking, or use the scroll bar at the side of the drop-down list.
4-40
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Click on the desired configuration.
The selected configuration is shown in the Configurations status box.
Click on the <Apply> button.
This results in the stored instrument parameters being taken over for active use.
☞
The optical diagram of the configuration selected appears on the Beam Path and Channel
Assignment panel.
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4-41
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.3.2
LSM 510
Tracks function
If the existing four channels are not sufficient for image acquisition (use of more than four excitation
laser wavelengths or recording of more than four emission ranges), it is possible to use eight channels
or the maximum of four tracks in one scanning procedure. If a second track or further tracks are used,
the scan parameters can be changed as required. This allows "cross-talking" from one channel to
another being avoided when different tracks are used.
(1)
Click on the <Acquire> and <Config> buttons from the LSM 510 tool bar. The
Configuration Control menu appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-43
4-42
B 40-51 e 07/98
LSM 510
(2)
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
Click on the <Show Tracks> button on the right side of the window.
Within the "Configuration Control" window, the additional List of Tracks panel appears. The following
functions are available in this dialog box:
Fig. 4-44
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4-43
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
<Add Track> button
An additional track is added to the configuration list. The
maximum of four tracks can be added.
<Delete> button
The track previously marked in the List of Tracks panel in the
Name column is deleted.
<Enabled> button
The track previously marked in the List of Tracks panel in the
Name column is activated or deactivated. A tick
in the button
and also in the List of Tracks indicates that the relevant track is
activated.
When adding new tracks, the following sequence should be followed:
(1)
Add a track by clicking on the <Add Track> button.
(2)
Determine the configuration of the track in the Beam Path and Channel Assignment panel or
select an existing one from Track Configurations and activate it via the <Apply> button.
(3)
Store the name of a configuration defined via the <Track Configurations> button via <Store> and
use <Apply> for activation. The new track will then be displayed in the List of Tracks.
(4)
Add the next track via the <Add Track> button and then configure and store it again.
The following different functions are available for storage:
<Recording Configurations> button
Stores the complete configuration data and not just the
track configuration.
<Track Configurations> button
Only the configuration of the selected track is stored.
☞
When the Recording Configurations function is used, additional tracks cannot be
configured. Only the entire configuration can be changed.
4-44
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Fig. 4-45
<Frame> button
The entire area is scanned, and then the parameters are reset.
<Fast Switch> button
The scanning procedure can be made faster.
Only the Acousto-Optical Tunable Filters (AOTF) are switched, and
no other hardware components.
<Line> button
☞
The new parameters are called up after every scanned line.
When <Line> is selected, the same rules apply as for <Fast switch>.
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4-45
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Clicking the <Scan> button in the LSM 510 tool bar and the <Channels> button in the <Scan Control>
window allows viewing of the channel configuration set before.
Fig. 4-46
4-46
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
The following scan image shows the result with two defined tracks plus the ratio track and the overlay.
Fig. 4-47
Overlay
B 40-051 e 07/98
2. Track:
-Ch 1-2
-Ch 4-2
Ratio-Track:
-R 1-1
1. Track:
-Ch 1-1
-Ch 3-1
-Ch D-1
4-47
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
The Ratio Settings box in the "Configuration Control" window makes it possible to determine from
which of the two channels a ratio channel is created. The interrelation between the channels can be
determined through three formulas available for selection.
Clicking on the <Scan> button in the LSM 510 tool bar and the <Channels> button in the "Scan
Control" window will display the defined channels and the ratio channel in the Channel Settings panel.
Clicking on the <R1-1> button for the ratio channel will open the following window:
Fig. 4-48
Three formulas are available for the linking of the two channels. Selecting the formula via the <Type1>,
<Type 2> and <Type 3> buttons will automatically store the formula and thus define the ratio channel.
Note:
Recording Configuration is not applicable in the case of Add Track
If a Track is deactivated via Ratio Channel, the ratio channel is deleted.
Optimization via the Find function is possible only for each individual Track.
4-48
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Laser attenuation
On the Beam Path and Channel Assignment
panel, move the cursor to the <Excitation>
button.
Once the cursor has changed into a hand
symbol, click on the button.
This opens a drop-down list of all available
lasers with their wavelengths and their
usable AOTF attenuation.
To select the desired laser, click on the
respective line in the list.
The selected laser will be highlighted in blue.
Use the Excitation [%] slider to set the laser
power (recommendation: start at 50 %).
The transmittance of the Acousto-Optical
Tunable Filter (AOTF) changes accordingly.
Fig. 4-49
☞
If you deactivate "Line On", the laser wavelengths for Enterprise and argon lasers are
deselected by means of the AOTF, i.e. these lasers change into standby status.
If you interrupt your work with the LSM for a break, it is recommended not to switch the
Enterprise and argon lasers off by hardware action, but to put them into standby status as
described.
Scanning operation is not possible in the standby status.
Operate the Excitation slider as follows:
Click on the slider and shift it while keeping the left mouse button pressed.
Keep the <Shift> key pressed and click on the
or
arrow button to vary the power in steps of
ten.
Keep the <Caps Lock> key pressed and click on the
or
arrow button to vary the power in steps
of one.
Keep the <Ctrl> key pressed and click on the
or
arrow button to vary the power in steps of one
tenth.
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4-49
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Use the AOTF to set the laser intensity not completely to zero, but only to 0.1 %.
This allows you to adapt the laser intensity very sensitively to the job.
☞
Click on <Line On>.
This activates the selected laser power for use. This is indicated by the laser status line
displaying "On".
By clicking on the <Excitation> button you can check at any time which lasers are available
for active operation.
Click on the <Close> button to conclude the settings procedure.
Emission filter
NFT 3
NFT 2
NFT 1
Main beam splitter HFT
Fig. 4-50
4-50
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Beam path - Main beam splitter
On the Beam Path and Channel Assignment panel, move the cursor to the symbol of the main
beam splitter HFT
.
Click on the symbol once the cursor has changed into a hand.
This opens a drop-down list of all beam splitters available.
To select a beam splitter, click on the respective line of the list.
The selected beam splitter moves into the beam path.
Photomultipliers
On the Beam Path and Channel Assignment
panel, move the cursor on one of the channel
symbols, e.g. Ch1.
Click on the symbol once the cursor has
changed into a hand.
This opens a color selection table "Channel
Color Selection" on the Beam Path and
Channel Assignment panel.
Click on the desired color spot.
This activates photomultiplier PMT1.
Proceed in the same way for the other PMTs.
Fig. 4-51
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4-51
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Clicking on the OFF spot results in deactivation of the corresponding channel.
Further colors for the corresponding channel can be produced as follows:
Clicking on the <Define> button will open a further "Channel Colors" window. Via a reticule in the
"Define Color" dialog box, any desired color can be produced. Clicking on the <Add> button allows the
color to be used for further channel coloring.
Choose the desired color with the reticule (the reticule is in the left corner at the bottom of the color
range).
Define the brightness by use of the scroll bar.
Use the <Add> button to add the color to the color range or remove the marked color using the
<Remove> button.
Reticule
Fig. 4-52
4-52
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Emission filter
On the Beam Path and Channel Assignment
panel, move the cursor to the
symbol.
emission filter
Click on the symbol once the cursor has
changed into a hand.
This opens a drop-down list of all available
emission filters (e.g. BP for band pass, or LP
for long pass) with their wavelengths.
To select an emission filter, click on the
respective line in the list.
The emission filter selected moves into the
beam path in front of the PMT.
Fig. 4-53
Depending on the application, it may be necessary to insert additional mirrors, dichroic beam splitters
or neutral glass filters between the main dichroic splitter HFT and the photomultiplier PMT. To select
symbols.
these components, click on the respective
Click on the <Close> button to quit the "Configuration" window.
This completes the configuration for the scanning process described in section 4.5.4.
☞
The
symbols for the transmitted-light PMT (Transmission) and Monitor Diode can be
activated in the same way as the PMTs of channels 1 to 4.
When changing from NFT 1, intelligent adaptation of NFT 3 is performed automatically.
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4-53
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.4
LSM 510
Scanning modes
Taking a simple configuration as an example, the sections below describe the procedure for acquiring a
single scanned image in single-channel presentation, using fluorescence and confocal imaging.
Requirements
Axioplan 2 MOT
Push in the silver slider (4-37/8) on the microscope tube as far as it will go.
Activate the "Axioplan Control" window by mouse click, or, if the window was closed before, call it
up again by clicking on the <Micro> button.
Continue as described in sections 4.5.2.1 and 4.5.2.2.
The specimen must have been positioned and focused by conventional eyepiece observation in
fluorescent or transmitted light.
Axiovert 100 M BP
Perform the settings in the same way as described for the Axioplan. Make sure that the sideport slider
(4-39/2) and VIS slider (4-39/3) are in the correct positions.
Scanning
Click on the <Scan> button in the main menu.
This opens the "Scan Control" window, in
which all necessary scanning parameters can
be set.
The first selection to be made is whether you want
to perform a
Line scan
Frame scan
Use ROI or
Z stack.
This selection will be made via the <Mode>
button, followed by activation of the desired scan
mode.
The following description is limited to the Frame
and Z modes. For "Line Scan", proceed in the
same way.
Fig. 4-54
4-54
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.4.1
Frame
Before starting, click on the <Mode> button on
the upper toolbar.
Click on <Frame> on the lower toolbar.
The toolbar changes to correspond to the
Frame selection.
On the Objective Lens & Image Size panel,
select the following parameters:
Objective (the objective currently in the
beam path is indicated)
Frame Size (on the Scan Size panel, select
the size of the scanning frame by clicking on
the respective button. It is also possible to
directly enter the frame dimensions in
pixels).
Recommended setting to start with:
512x512 pixels.
On the Speed panel, select the following
parameter:
Use the Scan Speed slider to set the
scanning speed needed.
Recommended: 7 for the first scan.
☞
Fig. 4-55
Speed 10 = fast xy, only for fast image acquisition during parameter setup
Pixel time and scan time will be shown.
On the Pixel Depth, Scan Direction & Scan Average panel, select the following parameters:
Pixel Depth (intensity steps).
Scan Direction (uni- or bidirectional scan).
When clicking on the button for bidirectional scanning, a possibility to correct the pixel shift is offered.
The correction possibly required depends on the scanning speed.
Select the number of image averaging (can be selected from 1 to 8 under "Number") to improve
the quality of noise-impaired images.
Line Scan is only possible in the unidirectional mode.
☞
The greater the number of averages selected, the better the image quality will be; the scanning
time will be prolonged accordingly.
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4-55
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
On the Zoom, Rotation & Offset panel, use the slider to set the desired zoom factor between 1
and 8. This adjustment is infinite.
The scanning frame thus defined is shown by a red outline.
The scanning frame can be rotated and translated at liberty.
Recommended setting
to start with:
Zoom 1
Rotation 0
Please bear in mind that a reference scale which might be included in the image during the scanning
procedure will only be activated after the end of the scanning procedure if you change the zoom factor
Click on <Channels> in the upper toolbar.
This opens the new dialog boxes Channel
Settings and Excitation of Track, showing
the previously set parameters, which can,
however, be edited.
Optimize the image quality by varying the
pinhole aperture:
A small pinhole diameter will increase the
depth of focus, but reduce the light intensity
received by the PMT.
When you vary the pinhole diameter, an
Optical Slice value is displayed. For optimum
depth resolution, Airy values should be
small, but not below 1.0 to keep the
intensity loss within a reasonable limit.
☞
The parameters
Detector Gain
Ampl. Offset
Ampl. Gain
Fig. 4-56
are described in sections 4.7.1 in the
context of image optimization.
In the Excitation of Track dialog box you can
select other lasers and vary laser intensities.
4-56
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.4.2
Z mode
This mode allows you to create a stack of images
at different Z levels (slices).
In
the "Scan Control"
<Z Stack> button.
window
on
the
This opens the Z Settings panel in the
"Scan Control" window.
The scanning range in Z can be determined as an
option via the following functions:
Z Sectioning (input of numerical values)
Cutline and Range (in monitor dialog with
the specimen)
Mark First/Last (in monitor dialog with the
specimen)
Z Sectioning
Activate the Z Sectioning register
Use the Num Slices slider to select the number
of slices in the stack.
Use the Interval [µm] slider to select the
Z interval between successive slices.
Use the Current Slice slider to select the center
Fig. 4-57
of the stack.
Click on the <Start> button to trigger Z Sectioning.
Optimization of intervals, number of slices and
pinhole diameter
Click on the <Z Slice> button to determine the
optimum interval
The Optical Slice dialog box (see Fig 4-59) will
appear, from which the optimum interval
(depending on the used objective and pinhole
diameter) can be seen and made available to the
active mode.
Fig. 4-58
Clicking on the <Optimal Pinhole Diameter>
button also enables the optimum pinhole diameter
to be set.
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4-57
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
The Optical Slice dialog box displays the following information:
Black:
Stack Z Size (µm)
Optimal Interval
=
=
intervals x (number of slices - 1)
depending on the objective used and the pinhole diameter setting
Red and other colors:
Presentation of the actual data set by the operator helps to optimize stack creation.
Click on the <XY scan> button.
This opens an extra window showing the scanned image.
☞
The scanned image can be optimized by modifying the relevant parameters with the XY Cont.
function (continuous scanning, section 4.9.2).
Fig. 4-59
4-58
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
Cutline and Range
For a useful evaluation of the z stack you must proceed as follows:
Click on the <Cutline> button.
The image window shows the course of the red cutline.
Clicking on the cutline allows you to remove the line to the position where the specimen should be cut.
Fig. 4-60
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Red cutline
4-59
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Click on the <Range> button.
The image window marks the range to be scanned by red outlines.
☞
Not only the current slice (green cutline) but also the red range lines can be removed by
moving the cursor in the image window.
Red upper Z range limit
Green cutline (current line)
Red lower Z range limit
Fig. 4-61
4-60
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
Mark First/Last
Optimum stack size can be obtained by manual
focusing during scan movement to the level where
the stack should start. Proceed as follows
Open the Mark First/Last register.
Start the scanning process by clicking the
<XYcont> button.
Use focusing drive to set the focus position to
the required Z-plane and press Mark First
button.
Then focus on the opposite Z-plane and press
Mark Last button.
The XY-Cont Scan must be finished via <Stop>
before acquisition of Z Stacks can be startet via
<Start>.
The <First>, <Mid> and <Last> buttons allow a
fast overview of the first, middle and last scanning
step.
Click on the <Stop> button.
Click on the <Start> button.
Scanning process for stack recording will be
started.
Fig. 4-62
Before the <Start> button is pressed, the following
settings must be made and checked:
Depending on the immersion medium used,
the suitable correction value must be
selected under Refr. Corr. This correction
value is the quotient of n/n’, n = refractive
index of the sample and n’ = refractive index
of immersion medium.
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4-61
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
When the <Z Stack> and <Mode> buttons are
activated, objective can be changed, number of
pixel and scan speed can be set; desired average
and number of gray shade can be chosen as well
as uni- or bidirectional scan; and the desired zoom,
rotation and offset can be set.
When <Z Stack> and <Channels> are activated,
picture can be optimized during scan.
Fig. 4-63
4-62
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.4.3
ROI function / Region of Interest
A scan image allows certain areas (ROIs) to be defined. Only these areas of interest will be scanned. The
laser beam will be switched in only in these areas via AOTF.
(1)
Click on the <Acquire> and <Edit ROI> buttons from the LSM 510 tool bar. The "Edit ROI"
window appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-64
(2)
In the tool bar of the Interactive ROI Definition panel, click on the symbol of the area you want
to use to mark the region of interest in the scanning image. Five different area symbols are
available in the form of buttons.
(3)
Click on the marking area and keep the mouse button pressed to drag the area into the region of
interest in the scanning image. The marking area will be numbered automatically and entered in
the Interactive ROI Definition panel with its position and dimension parameters and the
appropriate number.
(4)
The dragged marking area is marked by clicking on its outline; its size can be increased or reduced
by clicking on the marking points. Clicking on the area edge beside the marking points allows
repositioning of the area on the scanning image.
(5)
If you have framed all the required ROIs in accordance with steps 2 to 4, you can store these ROIs
under any required name via the <Add to Lists> button.
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4-63
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
(6)
LSM 510
The "Add ROI List" window will appear. Enter any required name to store the ROIs and click on
the <OK> button.
Fig. 4-65
(7)
This stored ROI configuration appears in the ROI Lists panel of the "Edit ROI" window.
The following functions are also available in the "Edit ROI" window:
<Close> button
The "Edit ROI" dialog box is closed.
<Remove> button
An entry marked in ROI Lists (stored ROI configuration) is deleted.
<Waste-paper basket> button
All the ROIs dragged to the scanning image are deleted. If an area
outline was marked before, this area is now deleted in the
scanning image.
<Auto> button
A defined color from the list of colors can be assigned to the ROIs.
In the Auto position, the outlines of the dragged ROIs are
automatically colored differently.
<—> button
This button allows you to determine the line thickness of the area
outline.
< > button
Clicking on this button in the Edit box allows a ROI to be
deactivated. The tick disappears from the button, as does the
relevant marked area from the scanning image. Clicking on the
button again will reactivate the ROI.
The Use ROI status display in the "Scan Control" window shows whether the ROI mode is activated or
not. When Edit ROI is activated, the ROI mode is active automatically. If ROIs shall not be taken in
consideration during scanning, this button must be used to deactivate the function prior to the scanning
procedure.
4-64
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
The following is an example of a scanning procedure where the ROI function was activated.
Only the regions of interest defined before are visible in the scanning image, the other areas remain
dark.
Fig. 4-66
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4-65
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
4.5.4.4
LSM 510
Time Series function
The Time Series function offers the following options for the creation of a scanning image:
Definition of break times between 0.1 ms and 10 hours.
Determination of the number of steps from 1 to 10,000 for one scanning procedure.
Setting of markers for a scanning procedure.
Interruption of time control via break function, and start of the time function.
Triggering of time series via:
numeric input
external trigger pulses
time
(1)
Click on the <Acquire> and <TimeSeries> buttons in the LSM 510 tool bar. The "Time Series
Control" window appears on the screen.
(2)
Set the relevant parameters for time control in the Start Series, End Series and Cycle Delay
boxes.
(3)
Use the <Set 1> to <Set 7> buttons to set markers during the scanning procedure which will allow
you to evaluate interesting scanning images later.
Note:
"Time end" will finish time series even if you have created a program which would exceed the
time end.
Bleach times will be added.
No break is possible during bleaching.
If you want to integrate a bleaching procedure in a time series, start must be triggered via
"Start B".
If a time series is interrupted before its programmed end, the programmed number of images will
be taken over in the database. However, only those images are stored which were created before
interrupting the time series. This is due to the fact that the original image parameters are to be
taken over via the Reuse function.
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
"Time Series Control" window enabling the entry of parameters for time series control.
Fig. 4-67
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4-67
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
The following example of a scanning image was taken using the Time Series function. Both the time
and the markers set during the scanning procedure are projected in the image series in different colors.
If the cursor is moved to a marker position in the scanning image, the relevant information on the image
detail is automatically provided in an additional window.
Fig. 4-68
4-68
Colored marker positions
with time
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OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
4.5.4.5
Edit Bleach function
The use of this function permits the intense
bleaching of a defined sample area.
To use the Edit Bleach function, proceed as
follows:
Click on the <Edit Bleach> button.
The "Bleach Control" window appears.
The Start Settings panel allows you to
determine when an how the bleaching process
shall be triggered (only works in connection
with time series).
The
Bleach Parameter allows you to
determine how often the bleaching process
shall be performed, and to select the area for
bleaching in the scan image via the <Define
Region> button.
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Fig. 4-69
4-69
OPERATION
Image Acquisition (Acquire)
LSM 510
Click on the <Define Region> button.
The "Bleach Regions" window appears.
Define the required bleach regions in the scan
image.
Select the required laser wavelength and its
intensity under Excitation of Bleach Track in
the "Bleach Control" window.
The bleaching process will be started via the
<Bleach> button. However, it is also possible to
start the bleaching process via <Bleach> button
in the "Time Series Control" window and to
combine it with a time series.
The bleaching process can be finished via
<Stop> in the "Bleach Control" window.
Fig. 4-70
4-70
☞
<Stop> does not only stop the
bleaching process, but the entire
scanning process.
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OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
4.6
Routine Mode
The Routine Mode of the LSM 510 software
permits the fast and easy acquisition of scanning
images
by
using
time-tested
Standard
Examination Methods or by User Defined
Examination Methods.
Standard Examination Methods are included in
the LSM 510 software package and must only be
activated once during the first application of the
routine mode.
User Defined Examination Methods are
methods which were already created and
optimized in the Expert Mode. If User Defined
Examination Methods are also to be used in the
Routine Mode, they must be exported in the
Routine Mode first. Apart from User Defined
Examination Methods, stacks and time series
can also be exported to the routine mode in
addition to simple frames.
4.6.1
Fig. 4-71
Activate Standard Examination
Methods in the Routine Mode
Start the LSM program.
Click on the <Start Routine Mode> button (Fig.
4-71) in the LSM 510 switchboard menu.
The "Routine Mode - Select Examination
Method" window will appear.
Click on the <Add method> button.
The "Select Method To Add" window
appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-72
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4-71
OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
Select the method in the filed Name and click
on the <Standard> button. An icon appears
beside the name.
Click on the <Close> button in the "Select
Method To Add" window.
The
standard examination methods are
taken over and are then available in the
LSM 510 switchboard menu.
The relevant labeling appears beside the
buttons.
Fig. 4-73
Fig. 4-74
4-72
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OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
4.6.2
Apply
Standard
Examination
Methods in the Routine Mode
Click on the button of the required standard
examination
method,
Rhodamine / FITC.
e.g.
Standard:
The "Routine Mode - Microscope Setup"
window will appear.
Prepare your specimen for examination in the
same way as in the Expert Mode.
Click on the <Next> button.
The "Routine Mode - Image Setup" window
will appear.
Fig. 4-75
Click on <Single Scan> or <Cont. Scan>, to
trigger the scanning procedure. If required,
optimize the default parameters in the
Excitation, Zoom & Orientation, Image
Quality Parameters and Noise Reduction
panels.
Click on <Stop Scan> and <Next>.
The set parameters are displayed in the
Information For Method: Standard / FITC
panel.
☞
A bidirectional scan is not possible in
the routine mode.
Fig. 4-76
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4-73
OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
Click on <Save> or <Save As> to store the
acquired image.
Click on <Finish> to exit the Routine Mode and
return to the LSM 510 switchboard menu.
Fig. 4-77
4-74
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OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
4.6.3
Export User-Defined Examination Methods to the Routine Mode
Click on the <Start Expert Mode> button (Fig. 4-71) in the LSM 510 switchboard menu.
The "LSM 510 - Expert Mode" main menu appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-78
Load a Stack or Time Series image which was scanned using optimized parameters.
Fig. 4-79
Click on the <Reuse> button (Fig. 4-79) in the opened image to take over the parameters.
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4-75
OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
Click on the <Options> button of the main menu and then on <Export To> (Fig. 4-78).
The "Export To Routine Mode" window appears.
Enter any name for the method to be taken
over.
Click on <OK>.
The method used for image acquisition is
taken over in the Routine Mode.
Fig. 4-80
Exit the Expert Mode by clicking on <File> and then on <Exit>.
Fig. 4-81
The LSM 510 switchboard menu appears on the screen again.
4.6.4
Activate User-Defined Examination Methods in the Routine Mode
Start the Routine Mode.
Click on the <Add method> button.
The "Select Method To Add" window appears on the screen.
The method taken over from the Expert Mode appears, with the entered name, in the upper display field
of the "Select Method To Add" window, though with an icon. The method can now be activated as
Standard or User-Defined Examination Method.
4-76
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OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
Click on the <Standard> or the <Mark for List>
button.
Close the "Select Method To Add" window by
clicking on <Close>.
The "Routine Mode - Select Examination
Method" window appears on the screen
again. Depending on the allocation
performed before, the method is assigned to
a button of the Standard methods or
appears in the list of User-Defined
Examination Methods. The maximum of 5
methods can be defined as a standard and
assigned to a button.
Fig. 4-82
4.6.5
Apply User-defined Examination
Methods in the Routine Mode
After a single click on the name entered in the
list the method is displayed in the Preview box
and can be started via <Next>.
A double click on the name entered in the list
activates the Preview display box and the
method is started immediately.
User-defined Examination Methods are
operated in the same way as the Standard
methods.
Fig. 4-83
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4-77
OPERATION
Routine Mode
4.6.6
LSM 510
Acquisition of a Z Stack in the
Routine Mode
Load the required stack, the parameters of
which you want to use for further work.
The "Routine Mode - Microscope Setup"
window becomes visible.
Prepare your specimen for examination in the
same way as in the Expert Mode.
Click on the <Next> button.
The "Routine Mode - Image Setup" window
becomes visible.
You can optimize the scan parameters in the
"Routine Mode - Image Setup" window.
Click on the <Next> button.
The "Routine Mode - Image Stack Setup"
window becomes visible.
Fig. 84
You can take over the offered parameters by
clicking on the <Use Parameter of Method>
button.
An x-y-frame of the stack center is produced
and displayed.
Fig. 85
4-78
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Routine Mode
If you are satisfied with the setting, start by
clicking on <Next>.
The "Routine Mode - Image Acquisition"
window appears (Fig. 86).
Click on <Start> to trigger acquisition of the
stack.
Fig. 86
If you want to correct the parameters offered,
click on the <Make Z Cut> in the "Routine
Mode - Image Stack Setup" window button.
Define Stack Parameter panel appears in
the "Routine Mode - Image Stack Setup"
window
Fig. 87
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4-79
OPERATION
Routine Mode
LSM 510
You can now select Z-stack limits (symmetrically
to the central Z-frame), the number of steps
and the interval size.
Fig. 88
Further modifications of the stack parameters can
be performed as follows:
Click on the <Use New Parameter> button.
It is possible to select from fixed stack sizes of
10 µm, 20 µm, 30 µm, 50 µm and 100 µm.
After selection of the stack size, choose <Make
Z Cut> or <Next>.
Start acquisition of the stack by clicking on
<Start> in the "Routine Mode - Image
Acquisition" window.
Fig. 89
4-80
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
4.7
Image optimization
Single frames
Described below is the example of the acquisition of an image, using an excitation wavelength of 488
nm and a fluorescence emission range above 505 nm.
Let the specimen be a thin section through a stem of Convallaria majalis (Lily-of-the-Valley). The
description applies to the use of the Axioplan microscope, and analogously also to the Axiovert.
Requirements
The suitable laser is switched on.
The specimen has been positioned and focused
for scanning.
The slide rod on the microscope tube has been
pulled out as far as it will go.
Click on the <Config> button in the Acquire
main menu item.
This opens the "Configuration Control"
window.
Click on the <Recording Configuration> button. A
window with the same title will open where you
can select the relevant configuration and activate it
via the <Apply> key.
Open the list box.
Select
the necessary
488 nm, LP 505).
configuration
(e.g.
Activate the selected configuration by clicking
on the <Apply> button.
The Beam Path and Channel Assignment panel
displays the configuration loaded.
Fig. 4-90
☞
The set laser intensity can be subsequently optimized for the current situation via the
<Excitation> button.
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4-81
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
In the main menu click on the <Scan> button.
This opens the "Scan Control" window.
Click on the <Mode > button.
For a frame scan, click on the <Frame> button.
On the Objective Lens & Image Size panel,
select Objective and Frame size for the scan
(e.g. X 512 / Y 512 scan)
On the Speed panel, enter a scanning speed of
e.g.7 to start with.
Start with the following settings on the Pixel
Depth, Scan Direction & Scan Average
panel:
Data depth:
8 bits
Scan direction:
unidirectional
Average:
Number:
1
On the Zoom, Rotation & Offset panel, set a
Zoom of 1 and a Rotation of 0.
☞
Using the <Fast XY> button is a
convenient way of creating an
overview scan.
Fig. 4-91
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Optimization
Click on the <Channels> button.
This displays the preset parameters of the configuration loaded.
Fig. 4-92
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4-83
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Find> button. Make sure to position the slider correctly. Then scan while the slider is in
the LSM position.
This starts the scanning process.
The image is seen to build up gradually in a new window.
Fig. 4-93
As a rule, the first scanned image (Pre-Scan) is not ideal, since the photomultiplier is not matched to the
light output. More often than not, the screen image is dull and needs subsequent optimization.
Click on the <Single> button to release a single scan, or click on the <Cont.> button to release a
continuous scan.
You can stop the scanning process with the <Stop> button at any time. Clicking on the <New> button
opens a new window for the next scan.
4-84
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
4.7.1
Detector Gain/Ampl. Offset/Ampl. Gain
In the "Scan Control" window, click on the <Cont.> button.
This starts a continuous scan.
Click on the <Palette> button of the image processing toolbar.
This opens the "Color Palette" window.
Fig. 4-94
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4-85
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
In the Color Palette List panel, click on the "Range Indicator" item.
The scanned image appears in a false-color presentation.
☞
If the image is too bright, it appears red on the screen.
Fig. 4-95
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
☞
If the image is not bright enough, it appears blue on the screen.
Fig. 4-96
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4-87
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
On the Channel Settings panel of the "Scan Control" window, set the PMT gain with the Detector
Gain slider.
The image should not have more than a trace of red.
Adjust the Ampl. Offset slider so that areas without picture content just show a trace of blue.
If necessary, re-amplify brightness with the Ampl. Gain slider.
☞
Do not change the Ampl. Gain setting unless the settings made so far are insufficient for
optimizing the image.
Fig. 4-97
In the Color Palette List panel of the "Color Palette" window click on "No Palette".
This deselects the "Range Indicator" and activates the new presentation.
In the "Scan Control" window click on the <Stop> button.
This stops the continuous scan.
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
4.7.2
Pinhole adjustment
☞
In all existing standard configurations, the pinholes have already been adjusted at the factory.
These settings are taken over for active operation when a standard configuration is loaded.
If you want to create a setting that differs from the standard configurations, adjust the pinhole
as follows:
Manual pinhole adjustment
The position of the pinhole relative to the detector in terms of X-Y-Z coordinates contributes substantially
to image optimization.
Requirements to make pinhole position changes visible immediately:
The image must be scanned by the continuous scan method.
Select a fast scanning speed (see next section).
Measurement with Average Number 1 only (no averaging of several measurements).
On the Channel Settings panel (click on <Channels> button in the "Scan Control" window),
select the pinhole diameter so as to have the best possible image contrast (Airy Units 1.0).
Click on the <Maintain> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-98
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4-89
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Pinhole> button.
This
opens the "Pinhole & Collimator
Control" window.
Select the pinhole to be adjusted from the
Description list box.
☞
If several channels are used to produce
the image, all the used pinholes must
be adjusted separately.
Use the Dia. (diameter) slider to set the smallest
possible size which produces a good, highcontrast image.
This setting changes the pinhole diameter.
The
Z Slice display box simultaneously
displays the depth resolution corresponding
to the pinhole diameter.
Fig. 4-99
☞
Image optimization can be effected with the "Range Indicator" or in the Line-Scan mode.
Optimize the pinhole position in X, Y and Z relative to the PMT with the X, Y and Z sliders to
maximum image brightness.
Click on the <Save current Position> button to save the pinhole adjustment.
Removing the "Current Position" slider, allows the collimator to be adjusted to maximum image
brightness. Optimum collimator adjustment received in this way can be stored by clicking on the
<Save current Position> button.
Click on the <Stop> button to stop the continuous scan.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Optimization
Automatic pinhole adjustment and collimator
The position of the pinhole (X-Y-Z-coordinates) in
relation to the detector makes a major
contribution to image optimization.
In all of the available standard configurations, the
pinhole positions are factory-adjusted and are
activated when a standard configuration is loaded.
The automatic adjustment allows the LSM 510
pinholes to be used with any combination of beam
splitters.
Click on the < Adjust Automatically > button.
The Requirements for Adjustment dialog
box will then appear.
Meet the requirements listed in the dialog box
and press the <OK> button
Pinhole
adjustment
will
then
run
automatically. The adjusting procedure takes
approx. 3 min.
The
determined
data
are
stored
automatically and will be available for all
further examinations using the same
configuration
B 40-051 e 07/98
Fig. 4-100
4-91
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Optimal Position> button in the
Collimator box. Optimum positioning of the
collimator will be performed. The <Default
Position> button enables the collimator to be
set back to the factory-adjustment.
Note:
A change of the pinhole diameter made manually
in the Pinhole box will not be activated in the
Scan Control box. Therefore, changes must
always be made in the Channel Settings box.
A filter change in Autoadjust is not displayed in
"Config. Control" window.
Configuration 1 is equipped in such a way that
pinhole adjustment for channel 1 can only be
made with = 488 nm, NFT 545, NFT 610 or
NFT 570.
Fig. 4-101
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
4.7.3
Scan speed
The signal-to-noise ratio can be substantially
improved by reducing the scanning speed to an
acceptable level and averaging over several scans
(i.e. with an Average Number greater than 1 in
the "Scan Control" window).
Use the Scan Speed slider on the Speed panel
to set the slowest acceptable scanning speed.
The corresponding pixel scanning time (Pixel
Time) and the total scanning time (Scan
Time) are shown in the dialog box.
In the Number text box of the Pixel Depth,
Scan Direction & Scan Average panel enter
the number of measurements to be averaged.
☞
Image optimization can be effected
much faster if you select a smaller
frame, since less data have to be
processed.
Fig. 4-102
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4-93
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Multiple-channel
Requirements:
The suitable lasers are on.
The specimen has been positioned and focused
for scanning.
The slide rod on the microscope tube has been
pulled out as far as it will go.
In the "Acquire" main menu item, click on the
<Config> button.
This opens the "Configuration Control"
window.
Select the necessary configuration by clicking
the <Recording Configurations> button,
selecting a proper configuration and pressing
the <Apply> button (e.g. 488 nm/543 nm).
The configuration loaded is displayed on the
Beam Path and Channel Assignment
panel.
Close the "Recording Configurations" window.
☞
Fig. 4-103
4-94
The laser intensity set can be
subsequently optimized for the job via
the <Excitation> button.
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Scan> button in the main menu.
This opens the "Scan Control" window.
In the "Scan Control" window, set the parameters in the same way as described for single-channel
presentation.
Click on the <Find> button in the "Scan Control" window.
This starts the scanning process. The scanned image appears in a separate window.
Fig. 4-104
☞
As a rule, the first scanned image (Pre-Scan) is not ideal, since the photomultiplier is not
matched to the light output. More often than not, the screen image is dull and needs
subsequent optimization.
Click on the <Single> button to release a single scan, or on the <Cont.> button to release a
continuous scan.
You can stop the scanning process with the <Stop> button at any time. Clicking on the <New> button
opens a new window for the next scan.
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Channels> button in the "Scan Control" window.
This opens the Channel Settings and Excitation of Track panels.
The channels used are color-highlighted.
The image optimization processes
Detector Gain / Ampl. Offset / Ampl. Gain
Pinhole adjustment
Scanning speed and Average
must be carried out separately for each channel used.
Click on the <Cont.> button in the "Scan Control" window.
This starts a continuous scan.
Now click on the <Ch1> button on the Channel Settings panel.
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OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
Click on the <Display - Split xy> button of the image processing toolbar.
This displays the separate images scanned in the channels and the composite image.
Scan image 1
Scan image 2
Cumulative scan image
Fig. 4-105
Now effect image optimization as explained for the single-channel mode, but separately for each
channel.
Now click on the <Display - xy> button.
The composite scan image of two channels is presented in a common window.
☞
Image optimization can be effected much faster if you select a smaller frame, since less data
have to be processed.
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4-97
OPERATION
Image Optimization
4.7.4
LSM 510
Channel Shift Function
The Channel Shift function is used to produce a congruent image with relation to the pixels of the
various channels.
This pixel correction function is particularly important in UV applications.
(1)
Click on the <Process> and <Shift> buttons from the LSM 510 tool bar. The Channel Shift menu
appears on the screen.
Fig. 4-106
(2)
Select the channels required for processing in the Shift box by clicking on the <Ch1> or <Ch3>
buttons. A tick will appear in the button when the channels are activated.
(3)
Use the scrollbar or the <
vertical direction.
(4)
Click on the <Apply> button to activate the setting. If <
shift is shown in a separate image window.
4-98
> and <
> buttons to select the pixel shift in the horizontal and
Preview> is activated, a preview of the
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Image Optimization
The following image shows the result of a pixel shift via the Shift function. This image change can be
stored in the image database via the <Save> or <Save As> buttons.
Fig. 4-107
For applications requiring 3- or 4-channel scanning, proceed in the same way as described for the 1- or
2-channel mode.
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4-99
OPERATION
Image Optimization
LSM 510
For overlaying fluorescence and transmitted-light
images, click on the <Transmission> button on the
Beam Path and Channel Assignment panel.
The transmitted light PMT will be switched active.
Of course, all other transmitted light applications
like
phase contrast
differential interference contrast (DIC)
polarization contrast (Pol)
darkfield
can also be performed.
Image optimization must be performed
described in the previous chapter.
as
Fig. 4-108
For the generation of images in reflection, the main dichroic beam splitter must be a neutral-density
filter.
Standard equipment contains a neutral-density filter with a division ratio of 80 to 20 % (at 543 nm).
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
4.8
Analysis of Images and Stacks
Call up an image just scanned, or an image from the database.
Fig. 4-109
The image information called up is shown in a window. The two columns of buttons headed "Select"
and "Display" of the toolbar on the right allow you to select a wide variety of image post-processing
actions.
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4-101
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(1) Select - Chan
You can assign any color from the color palette to a channel, so as to highlight or suppress certain image
details.
Fig. 4-110
(2) Select - Zoom
The image can be zoomed by various methods.
Zoom-Auto
The scanned image is automatically zoomed to the window size.
Resize
Restores the image to its initial size.
☞
4-102
Zoom-+, Zoom-–, Zoom 1:1 and Zoom-Mouse can only be defined when the Zoom-Auto
function is deactivated.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
Zoom-+
Enlarges the image by factor 2.
Zoom-–
Reduces the image by factor 2.
Zoom 1:1
Restores an image zoomed in any way to its original size.
Zoom-Mouse
Allows you to enlarge/reduce an image using the left/right mouse button, provided that the cursor is
inside the image.
Fig. 4-111
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4-103
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(3) Select - Slice
This function allows you to select and view individual slices from a stack.
Fig. 4-112
Example:
Slice No. 4 from a stack of 15 slices
Select the slices using the slider on the right.
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(4) Select - Overlay
This option makes available a number of measurement functions, such as length, angle, area and
circumference measurements. Furthermore, you can enter comments into the image.
Measurement
functions
Text
Dimensioning
Icon paper
basket
Line widths
Colors
Fig. 4-113
Using the "paper basket" icon you can delete markings and dimensions in the image.
☞
After an objective change, a new scan must be performed to receive correct measurement
results in the actual frame.
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4-105
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(5) Select - Contr
This function allows you to vary the contrast and brightness of an image, either separately for each
channel or jointly for all channels. Further image processing possibilities can be activated or deactivated
alternately using the <More> and <Less> buttons.
Fig. 4-114
(6) Select - Palette
This option allows you to view the image in different color presentations. The image can be modified
according to mathematical functions.
Range
Indicator
Variable
transfer
function
Fig. 4-115
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(7) Select - Anim
This option allows you to call up the individual slice images of a stack in continuous succession
(animation).
The additional Animate dialog box allows you to influence the animation action.
Control the
animation of
slices in a stack
Button unit
right
Button unit
left
Fig. 4-116
Using the left button unit, the stack can be passed automatically. The right button unit allows you to leaf
through the stack manually.
Using the <Speed1> and <Speed2> buttons, the preadjusted running speed can be interrogated.
With the <Increment> function, you can define the step width within the stack.
Only these step-by-step images will be shown in a running stack sequence.
(8) Select - Reuse
The parameters used for the creation of an image are stored together with the relevant image data. The
<Reuse> function allows the parameters of the loaded image to be automatically set in the instrument
and to continue working with this setting.
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4-107
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(9) Select - Crop
Here, you can define an area of any size, position and rotation which you want to scan.
Offset:
Click into the square (scanning field), keep the left mouse button pressed and drag the square to the
required position. Release the mouse button.
Zoom:
Click on a corner of the square, keep the left mouse button pressed and set the required size. Release
the mouse button.
Rotation:
Click on one end of the crosslines, keep the left mouse button pressed and set the required rotation
angle. Release the mouse button. For better orientation during the rotation, one side of the square is
highlighted in blue.
Fig. 4-117
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(10) Select - Copy
Copies the image content to the clipboard, from where the image can be accessed and copied to other
programs/applications (e.g. the MS-WORD word processor).
(11) Select - Save
Allows you to save the scanned image(s) under the existing name.
(12) Select - Save As
Allows you to save the scanned image(s) under a freely selectable name.
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4-109
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(13) Display - xy
Allows you to switch back to the original image from a different presentation mode, such as Split-Mode
or Gallery.
(14) Display - Split xy
In multiple-channel scanning, the image is seen to be generated in the different channels, together with
the composite image.
Channel images
Fig. 4-118
☞
4-110
Composite image
The Display-Split function is helpful in optimizing the various channels in image acquisition.
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(15) Display - Ortho
Orthogonal sections can be made anywhere in a stack. Furthermore, it is possible to measure spatial
distances.
Clicking on "Display-Ortho" makes section lines and the correlated section projections in the image
appear. On the right, another menu panel entitled Orthogonal Section is shown.
YZ plane (red)
XZ plane (green)
XY plane (blue)
Section
result,
XZ plane
Fig. 4-119
Section result, YZ plane
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4-111
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
By changing the parameters X, Y and Z on the Orthogonal Sections panel, the section plane can be
positioned at liberty within the specimen.
The position of the section plane is shown by colored lines.
Fig. 4-120
☞
The XY plane (blue) corresponds to the slice planes of the stack.
The position of section planes can be changed in various ways:
By shifting the sliders on the Orthogonal Sections panel.
X and Y settings may range from 1 up to the maximum number of pixels scanned (in the example
shown: 512).
Z settings may range from 1 to a maximum of n, with n standing for the number of slices in the stack
produced.
If you move the cursor into the image window, it changes into a crosshairs symbol
. By dragging this
symbol with the mouse you can position the XZ and YZ section planes to any point of intersection
with the XY plane. A click with the left mouse button places the intersection to the desired position.
If you move the crosshair symbol
onto the intersection of the red and green section planes, it
symbol. If you now press the left mouse button and keep it pressed you can
changes into the:
reposition both section planes at a time.
If you move the crosshairs symbol
onto the green section plane, it changes into the
symbol. If
you now press the left mouse button and keep it pressed, you can reposition the (green) XZ section
plane.
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
You can reposition the (red) YZ plane in the same way using the
symbol.
The result of an orthogonal section is visible at the image margin, no matter which method you used.
Section of the XZ plane (green) through the stack:
above the image.
Section of the YZ plane (red) through the stack:
right of the image.
☞
Activating the <Dist.> button makes length measurements of spatial diagonals possible. The
length of the yellow measuring line is shown in µm below the button, e.g.
3D Distance: 52.00 m
Fig. 4-121
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Yellow measuring line
4-113
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(16) Display - Cut
In a stack you can generate sections along a plane of freely selectable positions.
Clicking on the <Display-Cut> button opens the Cut dialog panel to the right of the image processing
toolbar.
Positioning the
section planes
View of
section plane
Fig. 4-122
By varying the parameters X, Y, Z, Pitch and Yaw, you can position a section plane of any inclination,
with any point within the stack volume as the datum.
The resulting position of the section plane is shown as a red area below the <Trilinear Interpolation>
button. At the same time, the result is shown in the image window.
A click on the <Reset All> button restores the original position.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(17) Display - Gallery
The various slices of a stack are shown in a tiled presentation of several rows (called a gallery), in
chronological order of their generation.
A click on the <Display-Gallery> button not only produces the gallery itself but also the Gallery panel
with two buttons: <Data> button and <Subset> button.
Gallery
Fig. 4-123
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4-115
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
Clicking on the <Data> button causes the Z data to be entered into the images of the stack. This
provides you with information on the Z distance of each section (slice) relative to the first section plane.
In a time series, the temporal interval is shown in seconds.
Clicking on the <Subset> button opens another window entitled "Subset", in which you can select
certain images of the stack.
The system then generates and displays a stack consisting of the selected images only.
Fig. 4-124
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(18) Display - 2.5D
Clicking on this button displays an image in a pseudo-3D mode, representing the intensity distribution
over the scanned area, and opens a panel headed "Pseudo 3D", in which you can select various
presentations with the <Profile>, <Grid> and <Filled> buttons.
Via the <Filled> button you can select between monochrome and color presentations.
In the "Channel" list box you can select the desired channel.
The scroll bars on the right of the image window permit the viewing plane to be rotated and tilted and
the intensity scale to be varied.
Type of
pseudo-3D
presentation
Select channel
Select monochrome / color
presentation
Fig. 4-125
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4-117
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(19) Display - Histo
The histogram function displays a graph of the intensity distribution of an image as well as information
on the frequency of the various intensities, separate for each channel.
Control of
histogram
presentation
Fig. 4-126
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(20) Display - Profile
The Display-Profile function shows the intensity profile across the image along a freely selectable line. In
multiple-channel mode, the intensity profile is shown separately for each channel.
The intensity curves are shown in a graph below the scanned image.
On the Profile panel you can select the width and color of the cutline.
Fig. 4-127
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4-119
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
You can place markings wherever you like and follow up this line detecting the intensity profile.
Freely selectable line for
intensity
profile
Marking
Fig. 4-128
Click on the <Diagr. in Image> button to overlay an intensity graph directly on the image.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(21) Display - Coloc.
The Display-Coloc. function presents a comparison between two images by computing a scatter diagram
(colocalization).
How a scatter diagram is generated:
All pixels having the same positions in both images are considered a pair. Of every pair of pixels (P1, P2)
from the two source images, the brightness level of pixel P1 is interpreted as X coordinate, and that of
pixel P2 as Y coordinate of the scatter diagram. The value of the pixel thus addressed is increased by one
every time, up to the maximum number of pixels used. This way, each pixel of the scatter diagram is a
value that shows how often a particular pair of pixels has occurred.
Differences between the images cause irregular spots in the scatter diagram.
Fig. 4-129
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4-121
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
Scatter diagram
LSM 510
Colocalization dialog box
Fig. 4-130
Identical images produce a clean diagonal line running from bottom left to top right, because only pixel
pairs (0,0), (1,1), (2,2) etc. can occur. Differences between the images cause irregular spots in the scatter
diagram.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(22) Display - Area
Clicking on the <Display-Area> button opens the Area Measure dialog box. The top area of this panel
shows the geometric size of the scanned image.
This function allows you to measure the area of any plane geometric figure within the scan image. The
(polyline). The figure of
function can be activated by clicking on one of the geometry buttons, e.g.
interest can be marked in the image by cursor control in conjunction with a mouse click.
Area Measure dialog box
Fig. 4-131
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4-123
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
Clicking on the <Flood fill> button (paint jar) and moving the cursor to the area to be excluded causes
the remaining area to be computed and the result indicated under Area Measure.
Fig. 4-132
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
If you specify a top and bottom intensity threshold, the area lying within this intensity interval can be
computed.
Specify the thresholds either with the Threshold low and Threshold high sliders, or with the
buttons.
and
Fig. 4-133
Click on the <Display> button if you want to return to the original image.
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4-125
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(23) Display - Prev.
This function enables you to assemble a preview of all pictorial, textual and graph information you want
to print out.
The size and position of the image can be varied using the mouse pointer in the image window.
Click on the <Info> button of the image processing toolbar if you want to view print status information
and include it in the print preview.
☞
The information shown is limited to that previously specified via Options/Settings/Register Print
Status Display.
Click on the <Arrange> button for optimum layout of image size and position relative to the textual
information.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
Assembly of
image,
intensity
profile and
scan info
Fig. 4-134
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4-127
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
A layout generated with Prev. (Preview) can be printed by clicking on the <Print-Print> button.
Clicking on the <Print-Setup> button opens the "Print Setup" window, in which you can specify print
parameters.
Fig. 4-135
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(24) Display - Info
☞
Clicking on the <Info> button, all parameters used to generate the image appear at the left
image side.
Image parameters
Fig. 4-136
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4-129
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(25) 3D View
For the further three-dimensional analysis of image sequences (stacks), click on the <3D View> button
in the main menu.
This opens a submenu bar with the buttons <Depth Cod.>, <Projection> and <Stereo>.
Fig. 4-137
(a) 3D-DepthCod (Color coded depth map)
Requirement:
A stack of images must be available.
Clicking on the <Depth Cod.> button opens the "Depth Coding" window.
The system then generates a color-coded depth map for the selected channel. On the Depth Coding
panel you can set the desired parameters. Activate the Scale Bar check box
to be shown.
if you want a color scale
Fig. 4-138
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
☞
The "Preview" function permits you to regard the influence of parameter changes in an image
window.
After finding the optimum adjustment using the "preview" function, you have to generate the
final version of the image using the <Apply> button, and the print will be prepared.
Fig. 4-139
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4-131
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
(b) Projection
Requirement:
A stack of images must be available.
Clicking of the <Projection> button opens the "Projection" window.
On the Projection panel, set the parameters needed for the animation: Turning Axis, First Angle,
Number Projection and Difference Angle.
Fig. 4-140
Click on the <Apply> button to have the sequences computed.
The projection appears. The computation can be followed in the image or by the progress bar.
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OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
☞
The computed 3D sequence can be animated with the <Anim> button in the Select bar.
In addition, the "Animate" dialog box appears, in which you can influence the direction
and speed of 3D image rotation.
Fig. 4-141
You can browse through the rotation sequence manually with the <Slice> button in the Select bar and
the "Slice" slider.
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4-133
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
☞
LSM 510
To view the computed 3D sequence as a gallery on the screen, click on the <Display-Gallery>
button.
Fig. 4-142
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
(c) Stereo
Requirement:
A stack of images must be available.
Clicking on the <Stereo> button opens the "Stereo Images" window.
The image to be processed appears on the Source panel.
On the Stereo Images panel, set the parameters needed for stereoscopic viewing, such as
In the Projection register:
Mode: activate Red/Green Image
Basic Angle:
Right Left Angle:
Number Images:
Difference Angle:
Enter desired values
Fig. 4-143
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4-135
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
LSM 510
To start computation of the stereoscopic image, click on the <Apply> button.
The image is built up twice (once each for the red and green colors), resulting in a stereoscopic
image.
☞
The stereoscopic effect can only be seen with the aid of red/green 3D goggles.
Fig. 4-144
☞
4-136
The presentation can be modified by selecting the Split Images function in the Projection
register of the Stereo Images panel.
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Analysis of Images and Stacks
On clicking on the <Apply> button, the two stereo mates are presented side by side and can be viewed
without red/green 3D goggles.
Fig. 4-145
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4-137
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
4.9
LSM 510
Data base / Loading and Storing of images
All the generated images are stored in existing or new databases (*.mdb). To load an image, the relevant
database must be opened first. Individual images can be loaded using the Import function.
4.9.1
Create a new image database
Click on the <File> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-146
Subordinate toolbar for the
File menu item
Click on the <New> button.
This opens the "Create New Database" window for the selection of drives, directories and
subdirectories.
Fig. 4-147
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Enter the name of the database you want to create in the File name text box, e. g. "Convallaria".
If you want to create the image database in a certain folder (drive/directory), click on the arrow
button next to the Create in box.
This opens a drop-down list box showing all folders available for selection.
☞
To look into a superordinate folder, click on the
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button.
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Click on the <Create> button.
This creates the new image database in the selected drive and directory.
The "Convallaria.mdb" window appears, presenting the opened database with 0 of 0 image entries.
Fig. 4-148
The new image database stores a newly created or changed image (see section 4.11.3).
4-140
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
4.9.2
Loading an image from database
Click on the <File> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-149
Subordinate toolbar
for File menu item
Click on the <Open> button.
This opens the "Open Database" window
for selection of the database in which
images have been stored.
If you want to load a database in another folder
(drive/directory), click on the arrow button to
the right of the Look in box.
This opens a drop-down list box in which
you can select from all available folders.
Fig. 4-150
The window displays the various Access image
databases with the file extension ".mdb".
Open the image database by a double click
on
the
respective
key
icon
(e.g.
Multi Channel 2_0.mdb), or click on the name
of the image database for selection and open it
by clicking on the <Open> button.
Fig. 4-151
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4-141
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
This opens a window, e.g. Multi Channel 2_0.mdb - LSM 510, with buttons which can be used to call
up the individual images in the database and to have them presented in various ways.
From the image database you can call up images in the following ways:
to the next image
back to the previous image
to the last image of the image database
to the first image of the image database
☞
The image number (Recordset) of the currently displayed image of an image series is indicated.
You can browse through the series by dragging the slider using the mouse.
To view the slices in a stack one by one, drag the Slice slider.
Configuration
data of a scan
image
Fig. 4-152
4-142
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Click on the <Gallery> button.
All images of the image database, e.g. Multi Channel 2_0.mdb, (image series) are shown in a tiled
arrangement on the screen.
Fig. 4-153
To select one of the images of the series for normal-size presentation, double-click on the desired
image.
☞
The same can be achieved by clicking on the desired image in the gallery and then clicking on
the <Load> button.
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4-143
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Image processing and analysis can be
effected via the two-column toolbar (see
section 4.8)
Fig. 4-154
4-144
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
4.9.3
Saving an image
Click on the <File> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Click on the <Save> or <Save As> button.
Fig. 4-155
☞
Subordinate toolbar for the
File menu item
Save
Stores a newly created or changed image. Newly created images must be given
a name and assigned to an existing or new database.
Save As
Stores a previously stored and called up image under a different name.
Clicking on either of these buttons opens the "Save As" window to create and open an image
database.
Click on the <Open MDB> button if you want to open an existing image database in which
you want to save the current image. Click on the <New MDB> button if you want to create a
new database to save the current image.
Fig. 4-156
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4-145
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Enter the name of the image in the Name textbox, e.g. Spores.
Click on the <New MDB> button.
This opens the "Create New Database" window in which you can create a new image database.
Enter the name of the database you want to create in the File name text box, e.g. "Single
Channel 2_0".
If you want to create the image database in a certain folder (drive/directory), click on the arrow
button next to the Create in box.
This opens a drop-down list box showing all folders available for selection.
After selection, click on the <Create> button.
This creates the image database in the selected drive and directory.
Fig. 4-157
4-146
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
The "Single Channel 2_0.mdb-LSM510" window appears.
The window now shows the saved image.
The Recordset box indicates the current number of the image in the image series contained in this
database.
In the Description textbox you can enter, for example, the configuration of the image.
In the Notes textbox you can enter further information about the image content.
Fig. 4-158
☞
The "Acquisition" dialog box displays the parameters with which the scan image has been
acquired.
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4-147
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
4.9.4
LSM 510
Import of images
Click on the <File> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-159
Subordinate toolbar for the
File menu item
Fig. 4-160
Click on the <Import> button.
This opens the Import Image dialog box.
Select the data medium and the directory where the relevant image is contained.
Select the image file by clicking on it and then click on <Open>.
The image is displayed in a new window
All the usual image formats (e.g. .tif, .jpg, .bmp, .pcx etc.) are supported.
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OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
4.9.5
Export of images
The <Export> function allows the export of both newly scanned images and images from the database.
For this, the relevant image must be created or loaded.
Click on the <File> button of the main menu toolbar.
This opens another, subordinate toolbar in the main menu.
Fig. 4-161
Subordinate toolbar for the
File menu item
Load the image to be exported.
Click on the <Export> button.
This opens the Export Images and Data
dialog box.
Under Save in, select the data medium and the
directory to which the image is to be exported.
Enter a name for the image under File name.
Select the image format into which the image is
to be exported under Save as type.
Click on the <Save> button.
The image is stored on the relevant data
medium / directory.
Fig. 4-162
All the usual image formats (e.g. .tif, .jpg, .bmp,
.pcx etc.) are supported.
☞
When stacks are exported, each frame is stored as an individual image.
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4-149
OPERATION
Database / Loading and Storing of Images
LSM 510
Notes:
System backup
A complete backup is contained on the enclosed optical disk.
User files backup
The following user-generated files need to be included in a backup procedure (keep directory structure):
Image database files
*.mdb (but not system_configuration_*.mdb
LSM Image files
*.lsm
Exported images
*.* (*.Tiff, *.LSM-Tiff, *.BMP, ...)
Palette files
lsm510 \ Palette \ *.lut
Filter files
lsm510 \ Filter \ *.krn
Pinhole setting files
lsm510 \ PH*.pos
Log files
lsm510 \ *.log
The following files generated during the system integration should also be included in a backup
procedure:
Parameter file for
lsm510 \ *.set
pinhole adjustment
Parameter file after
lsm510 \ *.adj
pinhole adjustment
Scanner files
lsm510 \ bin \ *.bin
Microscope stand
lsm510 \ database \ system_configuration_*.mdb
database
4-150
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OPERATION
Macro
LSM 510
4.10
Macro
The macro function permits the recording, running and editing of command sequences and their
allocation to buttons in the Macro main menu.
4.10.1
Macro language
"Visual Basic for Applications", called VBA in the following, is used as the Macro language. This
language is well known through its widespread use as Macro language in the "Microsoft Word for
Windows" and "Microsoft Excel for Windows" products. Experience with "Microsoft Visual Basic"
would also be beneficial for macroprogramming of the LSM 510.
An Integrated Development Environment, called IDE in the following, is available for the editing and
debugging of macros. IDE includes an "online help program" where the VBA language is described in
detail.
Macros are stored in project files. One project file can include several macros.
4.10.2
Macro Control
Fig. 4-163
The <Macro / Macro> buttons in the main menu open the "Macro Control" window.
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4-151
OPERATION
Macro
LSM 510
Fig. 4-164
This window allows you to manage project data and to allocate macros to the buttons in the main
window. Before you can record or edit a macro, you have to create a project as follows:
Press the <New> button to create a project name.
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OPERATION
Macro
LSM 510
4.10.3
Recording and running of macros
Before recording a command sequence, you can enter the name for the macro to be created in the
Rec Name editing box of the "Recording" dialog box.
The following buttons are used for recording and running:
"Recording" dialog box
<Start> - starts recording.
<Stop> - stops recording.
"Macro" dialog box
<Run> - runs a macro.
Recorded macros are stored in main memory first. Before the macros can be assigned to the buttons in
the Macro submenu, the project must be stored on the hard disk.
Press the <Save> button under the project name in the "Macro Control" window and determine the
file name in the file selection box.
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4-153
OPERATION
Macro
4.10.4
LSM 510
Assignment of macros to the macro buttons in the main window
Press the <Assign Macro to Button> button to switch to the "Define Buttons" dialog box.
Fig. 4-165
Select the button number from the "Button" box
Select the button labelling in the "Text" editing box
Select the name of the project file from the "Project" box using the < ... > button
Select the macro name from the "Macros" box.
Press the <Apply> button to assign the relevant macro to the specified button in the Macro toolbar.
4-154
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OPERATION
Macro
LSM 510
4.10.5
Editing and debugging of macros
The <Edit> button activates IDE which allows macros to be edited and debugged. Under the "Help Contents and Index" menu item, IDE contains detailed "online" help on its operation and on the VBA
macro language. Therefore, only a few hints are provided in the following:
You should activate the required toolbars. We would recommend you to activate the "Debug" toolbar
via the "View - Toolbars -Debug" menu item.
The following buttons in the toolbar can help you when debugging macros:
Starts running the command lines
Stops running the command lines
Interrupts processing of the command lines (pause)
Sets a breakpoint in the line with the text cursor.
Processes a command line and steps into subprocedures
Processes a command line and steps over subprocedures.
Exits the subprocedure (step out).
Displays the value of the marked expression (Watch). If nothing is marked, the value of the
variable above the text cursor is displayed.
Activates the "Watch" window in which values of variables and expressions can be displayed.
For this, text is marked in the code window and dragged into the "Watch" window. Variables
can be modified in the "Watch" window.
In the left-hand edge of the code window you will find an arrow beside the current command line. A
new current command line can be determined by moving the arrow via the mouse. This makes it
possible to skip command lines or to process command lines several times.
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4-155
OPERATION
Shut-Down Procedure
4.11
LSM 510
Shut-Down Procedure
Never shut down the computer by its main switch while your LSM program is still active, or else
you will lose the currently set operating parameters and the images just scanned.
☞
4.11.1
In the "Settings for user" dialog window, which can be activated with the <Options/Settings>
buttons, activate "Laser off on Exit" in the "Shutdown" register. The lasers will then
automatically be switched off when you exit the LSM program.
Exiting the LSM program
Close all open windows of the LSM program by clicking on the closing icon
in the top right corner
of each window.
This closes the respective window and removes the respective icons from the taskbar.
After all dialog windows have been closed, the "LSM 510 Switchboard" window appears.
Fig. 4-166
Click on the <Exit> button.
This terminates the LSM program.
The monitor screen shows the desktop of the Windows NT operating system.
4-156
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OPERATION
Shut-Down Procedure
LSM 510
4.11.2
Running down the operating system
Move the cursor to the bottom margin of the screen.
This opens the taskbar containing the <Start> button.
Click on the <Start> button of the taskbar.
This opens a pop-up menu.
Click on the "Shut Down" item.
Fig. 4-167
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Taskbar
4-157
OPERATION
Shut-Down Procedure
LSM 510
This opens the "Shut Down Windows" window, in which you can select between Shut down,
Restart and Login.
Fig. 4-168
Unless already set by default, click on "Shut down the computer?".
Click on the <Yes> button.
4-158
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LSM 510
OPERATION
Shut-Down Procedure
The screen now displays the message
"Shutdown in Progress - Please wait while the system writes unsaved data to the disk."
About 20 seconds after WINDOWS NT has been run down, the "Shutdown Computer" window
appears which tells you that you can now turn off your computer.
Fig. 4-169
(3) Turning power off
Throw the REMOTE CONTROL main switch to position "OFF".
This puts your LSM 510 microscope system, including the computer, off power.
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4-159
OPERATION
Annex
4.12
Annex
4.12.1
Application-specific configurations
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-1 (458/488, 543), 2 PMTs
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3, TexRed)
Laser
458
488
543
HFT
458
488
543
NFT 1
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
FITC (narrow band)
Rhodamine (narrow band)
FITC/Rhod
Laser
488
543
488, 543
HFT
488
543
488/543
NFT 1
none
none
NT 545
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
mirror
NFT 2
NFT 3
none
none
plate
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 560-615
LP 560
EM 2
BP 505-530
EM 3
EM 4
4-160
B 40-051 e 07/98
OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-2 (488/568), 2 PMTs
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3, TexRed)
FITC/Rhod
Laser
488
568
488, 543
HFT
488
568
488/568
NFT 1
none
none
NT 570
mirror
NFT 2
NFT 3
none
none
plate
EM 1
LP 505
LP 585
LP 585
BP 505-550
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
FITC (narrow band)
Rhodamine (narrow band)
Laser
488
568
HFT
488
568
NFT 1
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 585-615
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
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4-161
OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-3 (458/488, 543, 633), 3 PMTs
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3, TexRed)
Cy5
Laser
458
488
543
633
HFT
458
488
543
633
NFT 1
none
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
LP 650
FITC/Rhod
Rhod/Cy5
FITC/Cy5
FITC/Rhod/Cy5
Laser
488, 543
543, 633
488, 633
488, 543, 633
HFT
488/543
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/543/633
NFT 1
NT 545
NT 635
NT 570
NT 635
NFT 2
mirror
plate
mirror
NT 545
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 560
LP 650
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 505-530
BP 505-550
BP 505-530
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
BP 560-615
EM 3
BP 560-615
EM 4
FITC (narrow band)
Rhodamine (nb)
Laser
488
543
HFT
488
543
NFT 1
none
mirror
plate
NFT 2
NFT 3
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
EM 2
EM 3
BP 560-615
EM 4
4-162
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OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-4 (488/568, 633), 3 PMTs
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3, TexRed)
Cy5
Laser
488
568
633
HFT
488
568
633
NFT 1
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 505
LP 585
LP 650
FITC/Rhod
FITC/Cy5
Rhod/Cy5
FITC/Rhod/Cy5
Laser
488, 568
488, 633
568, 633
488, 568, 633
HFT
488/568
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
NFT 1
NT 570
NT 570
NT 635
NT 635
NFT 2
mirror
mirror
plate
NT 570
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 585
LP 650
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 505-550
BP 505-550
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
BP 505-550
BP 585-615
EM 3
BP 585-615
EM 4
FITC (narrow band)
Rhodamine (nb)
Laser
488
568
HFT
488
568
NFT 1
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 585-615
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
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4-163
OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-5 (351/364, 458/488, 543), 3 PMTs
DAPI
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3, TexRed)
364
458
488
543
UV (375)
458
488
543
none
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 385
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
DAPI/FITC
DAPI/Rhod
FITC/Rhod
DAPI/FITC/Rhod
364, 488
364, 543
488, 543
364, 488, 543
HFT
UV/488
UV/543
488/543
UV/488/543/633
NFT 1
NT 490
NT 490
NT 545
NT 545
NFT 2
mirror
mirror
plate
NT 490
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 505
LP 560
LP 560
LP 560
EM 2
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
Laser
HFT
NFT 1
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
Laser
BP 385-470
BP 505-530
EM 3
BP 505-530
EM 4
DAPI (nb)
FITC (nb)
Rhodamine (nb)
364
488
543
UV (375)
488
543
NFT 1
mirror
mirror
none
NFT 2
mirror
plate
Laser
HFT
NFT 3
none
EM 1
BP 560-615
EM 2
EM 3
BP 385-470
BP 505-550
EM 4
4-164
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OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-6 (351/364, 458/488, 543, 633), 4 PMTs
DAPI
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod
(Cy3, TexRed)
Cy5
364
458
488
543
633
UV (375)
458
488
543
UV/488/543/633
none
none
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 385
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
LP 650
DAPI/FITC
DAPI/Rhod
DAPI/Cy5
FITC/Rhod
FITC/Cy5
364, 488
364, 543
364, 633
488, 543
488, 633
UV/488
UV/543
UV/488/543/633
488/543
UV/488/543/633
NFT 1
mirror
NT 545
NT 545
NT 545
NT 570
NFT 2
NT 490
mirror
mirror
plate
plate
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 560
LP 505
LP 560
LP 650
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 505-530
BP 505-550
Laser
HFT
NFT 1
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
Laser
HFT
EM 2
BP 385-470
EM 3
LP 505
EM 4
Rhod/Cy5
DAPI//FITC/Rhor
DAPI/FITC/Cy5
DAPI/Rhod/Cy5
FITC/Rhod/Cy5
543, 633
364, 488, 543
364, 488, 633
364, 543, 633
488, 543, 633
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/543/633
plate
NT 545
NT 570
NT 545
NT 545
NT 490
NT 490
mirror
plate
Laser
HFT
NFT 1
NFT 2
NFT 3
NT 635 Vis
plate
plate
NT 635 Vis
NT 635 Vis
EM 1
LP 650
LP 560
LP 650
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
EM 3
BP 505-530
BP 505-550
EM 4
BP 560-615
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BP 505-530
BP 560-615
BP 560-615
4-165
OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
DAPI/FITC/Rhod/
Cy5
DAPI (nb)
FITC (nb)
Rhodamine (nb)
364, 488, 543,
633
364
488
543
UV/488/543/633
UV (375)
488
543
NFT 1
NT 545
mirror
mirror
mirror
NFT 2
NT 490
mirror
plate
plate
NFT 3
NT 635 Vis
EM 1
LP 650
EM 2
BP 385-470
EM 3
BP 505-530
BP 505-550
BP 560-615
EM 4
BP 560-615
Laser
HFT
4-166
BP 385-470
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OPERATION
Annex
LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-7 (351/364, 488/568, 633), 4 PMTs
Laser
HFT
NFT 1
DAPI
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod
(Cy3, TexRed)
CY5
DAPI/FITC
364
488
568
633
364, 488
UV (375)
488
568
UV/488/568/633
UV/488
none
none
none
none
NT 490
mirror
NFT 2
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
plate
EM 1
LP 385
LP 505
LP 585
LP 650
LP 505
BP 385-470
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
DAPI/Rhod
DAPI/Cy5
FITC/Rhod
FITC/CY5
Rhod/Cy5
364, 568
364, 633
488, 568
488, 633
568, 633
HFT
UV/568
UV/488/568/633
488/568
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
NFT 1
NT 490
NFT 570
NT 570
NT 570
plate
NFT 2
mirror
mirror
plate
plate
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
plate
NT 635 Vis
EM 1
LP 585
LP 650
LP 585
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 505-550
BP 505-550
Laser
EM 3
EM 4
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BP 585-615
4-167
OPERATION
Annex
DAPI/FITC/Rhod DAPI/FITC/Rhod/
Cy5
LSM 510
DAPI/FITC/Cy5
DAPI/Rhod/Cy5
FITC/Rhod/Cy5
364, 488, 568
364, 488, 568, 633
364, 488, 633
364, 568, 633
488, 568, 633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
UV/488/568/633
NFT 1
NT 570
NT 570
NT 570
NT 570
NT 570
NFT 2
NT 490
NT 490
NT 490
mirror
plate
NFT 3
plate
NT 635 Vis
plate
NT 635 Vis
NT 635 Vis
EM 1
LP 585
LP 650
LP 650
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
EM 3
BP 505-550
BP 505-550
BP 505-550
Laser
HFT
BP 585-615
EM 4
BP 585-615
DAPI (nb)
FITC (nb)
Rhodamine (nb)
364
488
568
UV (375)
488
568
NFT 1
mirror
none
none
NFT 2
mirror
NFT 3
none
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 585-615
Laser
HFT
EM 2
BP 505-550
BP 585-615
BP 385-470
EM 3
EM 4
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LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-8 (458/488, 543, 633), 2 PMTs
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3)
Cy5
Laser
458
488
543
633
HFT
458
488
543
633
NFT 1
none
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
LP 650
FITC/Rhod
FITC/Cy5
Rhod/Cy5
Laser
488, 543
488, 633
543, 633
HFT
488/543
UV/488/543/633
UV/488/543/633
NFT 1
NT 545
NT 570
NT 635 Vis
NFT 2
mirror
mirror
mirror
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 560
LP 650
LP 650
EM 2
BP 505-530
BP 505-550
BP 560-615
FITC (nb)
Rhod (nb)
Laser
488
543
HFT
488
543
NFT 1
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 560-615
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
EM 3
EM 4
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
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LSM 510
Application-specific configurations for module 510-9 (351/364, 458/488, 543), 2 PMTs
DAPI
Lucifer Yellow
FITC (Cy2)
Rhod (Cy3)
Laser
351/364
458
488
543
HFT
UV (375)
458
488
543
none
none
none
none
NFT 3
none
none
none
none
EM 1
LP 385
LP 475
LP 505
LP 560
DAPI/FITC
DAPI/Rhod
FITC/Rhod
364, 488
364, 543
488, 543
HFT
UV/488
UV/543
488/543
NFT 1
NT 490
NT 545
NT 545
NFT 2
mirror
mirror
mirror
NFT 3
plate
plate
plate
EM 1
LP 505
LP 560
LP 560
EM 2
BP 385-470
BP 385-470
BP 505-530
DAPI (nb)
FITC (nb)
Rhod (nb)
Laser
351/364
488
543
HFT
UV (375)
488
543
NFT 1
mirror
none
none
NFT 2
mirror
NFT 3
none
none
EM 1
BP 505-550
BP 560-615
NFT 1
NFT 2
EM 2
EM 3
EM 4
Laser
EM 3
EM 4
EM 2
BP 385-470
EM 3
EM 4
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LSM 510
4.12.2
Filter change in the detection beam path of channels 1 and 2
For optimum investigation of specimens it is useful to employ filter wheels permitting motor-controlled
change between different filters for narrow-band or broad-band detection depending on the wavelength. The number of filters is limited by the capacity of the filter wheel. The change of the filter wheel
as a whole involves complete readjustment.
The filter wheels of channels 1 and 2 of the Scanning Module have a change position in which a filter,
including its mount, can be changed in a reproducible position without requiring readjustment. The
filters can be rotated in their cells, and with the light path being eccentric relative to the filter center, the
best transmission area of the filter for the respective wavelength or pass range can be found by rotating
the filter. This is very important for the investigation of specimens of low emission.
Filter change
By software control, move filter wheel (4-1/5)
to the change position.
Pull cover cap (4-1/1) off the Scanning Module.
1
Use the wire stirrup (4-1/2) to pull the filter
mount (4-1/4) with the filter (4-1/3) out of the
guide well.
2
Change filter to suit the application.
☞
The filter is rotatable in its mount,
allowing adjustment for finding the
best transmission area of the filter for
the wavelength used.
5
4
3
Enter the designation of this particular filter into
the System Software database.
Fig. 4-170
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4.12.3
LSM 510
Detaching / Attaching the Scanning Module from / to Microscope Stands
Tool needed: 3 mm Allen key
☞
The user can remove the Scanning Module from one microscope and attach it to another
within a few minutes. No adjustment is required after the change-over. Described below is
the change-over from an Axioplan to an Axiovert 100 M in baseport configuration.
Before the change-over, shut down the system as described in section 4.12 in order to avoid
damage to the system and loss of data.
Turn out both knurled-head screws (4-1/1) at the Scanning Module (4-1/2) fitted to the Axioplan.
Turn out M3 hexagon socket screw (4-1/3) with the Allen key.
Cautiously pull Scanning Module off the Axioplan stand.
Attach
Scanning Module to the baseport of the Axiovert,
(4-1/6), and secure it with the M3 hexagon socket screw (4-1/3).
minding
the
guide
pins
Fasten Scanning Module to the baseport with two hexagon socket screws (4-1/5), using an offset
Allen key.
☞
As the Scanning Module is heavy, weighing about 14 kg, it is easier if the changeover is carried
out by two persons.
Pull off covering caps (4-1/4) from the CAN-BUS and RS232 interface ports at the rear of the Axiovert,
remove the two cables 457411-9011 (CAN-BUS) and 457411-9012 (RS 232) from the Axioplan, plug
them into the Axiovert and secure them there.
Switch the LSM 510 on with the REMOTE switch.
Click on the "Axiovert.ico" icon to update the system database with the new database of the
Axiovert 100 M microscope.
Restart the LSM program
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LSM 510
Fig. 4-171
Change-over of the Scanning Module
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4.12.4
Hints on the use of the HRZ 200 fine focusing stage
4.12.4.1
General description
LSM 510
The HRZ 200 fine focusing stage is a compact attachment for the Axioplan 2 MOT and Axiovert 100 M
microscope stages, which allows the particularly fast and high-precision fine focusing of the object. The
HRZ 200 permits fine focusing over a range of 200 µm, with the smallest step width being less than
10 nm, reproducibility better than 40 nm, and the maximum speed amountig to 10 Hz. The stage allows
the use of specimens with a weight of less than 100 g.
The HRZ 200 is not used if manual coarse focusing is performed. To position the objective in relation to
the optical z-axis, the standard xy-microscope stage is used.
The HRZ 200 features a mount for standard object carriers of 76 mm x 26 mm x 1 mm and a milled-out
receptacle for 36 mm x 1 mm Petri dishes.
4.12.4.2
Application fields
High-precision fine focusing and translation of the object along the optical axis.
Fast and high-precision mounting of one-dimensional z-line sections.
Fast and high-precision mounting of two-dimensional r-z-longitudinal sections.
Fast and high-precision mounting of xy-z-stacks for the three-dimensional reconstruction of
the object.
Exact measurement of Point-Spread-Functions for deconvolution.
The HRZ 200 can only be used in the Expert Mode.
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LSM 510
4.12.4.3
Operation
Fine focusing
Select the <Acquire> button from the LSM 510 main menu.
Select the <Stage> button. The following menu appears:
Fig. 4-172
The <Hrz Step> slider is used to set the step width of the fine focusing stage.
Use the arrows of the <HRZ> slider to move the fine focusing stage upwards or downwards in steps.
Press the <O> button to reset the display to the value 0 and to move the fine-focusing stage to the
zero position.
The motor focus of the stand is operated in the same way via the relevant buttons. Moving into the
<Work> or <Load> position is always performed via the motor focus and not via the HRZ.
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LSM 510
Z Mode via the HRZ 200
This mode is used to acquire two- or three-dimensional stacks of images in different z-positions,
depending on whether <Line> or <Frame> scan has been activated. The benefit of this mode over <Z
Sectioning> via the motor focus is that the z-resolution can be increased by up to 20 times using the HRZ
200 and that the image information can be obtained up to 100 times faster with the HRZ 200.
Select the <Z Mode> button in the "Scan Control" dialog. The <Z Settings> window will open.
Select the <Hyperfine Z Sectioning> button. The following menu appears:
Fig. 4-173
Optimization of system settings and the acquisition of the image stack is now performed in the same
way as described in section 4.5.4.2 for the Z Mode with motor focus. The function of all controls is
identical. The setting of <Current Slice> is made automatically.
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LSM 510
Clicking on the additional <Leveling> button moves the HRZ 200 to the zero position, while the
motor focus moves into the opposite direction at the same time, i.e. the position of the object in
relation to the objective remains unchanged. This function is used to set defined initial conditions.
The <Calibration> slider must normally be left in the default position 0. Calibration is required only if
the examined image field is located clearly outside the center of the specimen carrier on the HRZ 200.
Calibration is described in the next section.
4.12.4.4
Additional information on the operation
The HRZ 200 fine-focusing stage is a high-precision, sensitive accessory for the LSM 510 from Carl Zeiss
and must therefore be treated carefully. High mechanical stress, such as the use of specimens weighing
more than 100 g or the application of pressure or knocks on the movable stage tongue, can result in
damage and therefore in failure of the stage function.
To be able to fully utilize the outstanding precision attainable with the fine focusing stage, anything
which could interfere with its operation, especially mechanical knocks and impact of the LSM
components, should be avoided. We would recommend you to always use the actively vibration-damped
Kinetics stage (available as accessory under the order number 1007 508 or 1007 512) as the base for the
setup of LSM systems containing the HRZ 200 stage.
The specifications of the stage are obtained only after a heating phase of approx. 30 minutes.
Furthermore, the installation conditions for the LSM system must be observed.
The maximum reproducibility (better than 40 nm) for moving to an absolute position in z is achieved by
always moving to the required position from below.
Fine focusing is performed mechanically via an inclined position of the stage tongue. Therefore, the
lifting range z at the location of the image field depends on the position of the HRZ in relation to the
optical axis. This means: if the user shifts the object on the microscope stage to the right via the HRZ
200, the lift will be different from the one in the zero position of the stage (max. 200 µm) and also from
the one after a shift of the stage to the left.
If the LSM system is equipped with a motorized scanning stage, this shift is read back to x and the lift is
calibrated automatically if the zero position of the HRZ has been matched to the zero position of the
scanning stage via an initialization run. For this, activate the <Stage> dialog in the <Acquire> menu.
Then position the scanning stage in such a way that the optical axis of the microscope corresponds to
the zero position of the HRZ, i.e. to the center of the specimen holder in the stage tongue. Then perform
initialization by pressing the <HRZ Null> button. This step must be repeated after every new start of the
system. Also see the notes on the operation of the motorized scanning stages.
If the system is equipped with a manual microscope stage, the user has the option of performing the
calibration by entering the x shift in mm via the <Calibration> slider.
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LSM 510
The shift is read off from the microscope stages. In the case of the manual Axioplan 2 stage, x can be
read directly from the scale adhered to the front of the stage. In the case of the manual Axiovert 100
stage, a scale is located on the right of the knob, where the 45 mm x shift relative to the zero position
of the microscope stage can be read off. The x value is positive for both stages if shift from the zero
position is made to the right and negative if the shift is made to the left.
On account of the inclined position of the stage tongue, the object is also shifted laterally during the fine
focusing motion. This lateral shift is negligibly small if, as recommended by us, specimen carriers with
thickness 1.0 mm are used exclusively. Otherwise, the marked lateral shift of the object during fine
focusing can result in image distortion. For the same reason, Petri dishes without fixation ring must be
used exclusively.
The nosepiece of the Axiovert stand is moved to the load position prior to switching off the LSM system
and the HRZ 200 is then moved to the lowest position to avoid damage of the objective or object by a
possible collision. The user must refocus after start-up of the system. Before an objective change in the
Axiovert or the Axioplan, the nosepiece and the microscope stage must be moved to the Load Position
by the user, and then back to the Work Position to prevent the objectives from hitting the HRZ
components. This is performed automatically if the objectives are changed menu-controlled via the
relevant buttons of the LSM program.
The HRZ 200 for the Axiovert 100 M (1013 186) or for the Axioplan 2 MOT (1013 187) can be attached
to the following standard microscope stages:
mechanical stage 85 x 130 for Axiovert (45 13 39)
scanning stage DC 100 x 90 for Axiovert (45 17 40)
mechanical stages 75 x 50 for Axioplan (45 35 05, 45 35 02-99 04, 45 35 07)
scanning stage DC 4“ x 4“ for Axioplan (45 35 85-99 01)
In the case of the last configuration, the object plane is shifted upwards so that Köhler illumination and
classical transmitted-light microscopy will no longer be possible because the condenser cannot be moved
sufficiently close to the object.
The user will not have to deal with any other restrictions.
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LSM 510
4.12.5
Scanning stages
The following software description applies to systems which are equipped with a scanning stage.
4.12.5.1
Routine Mode
In the Routine Mode, the Standard Examination Methods panel enables you to reach the "Routine
Mode - Microscope Setup" window
Clicking on the <Stage> button opens the following window.
Fig. 4-174
This menu enables you to activate both the scanning stage and the motor focus.
The Stage - Focus Position panel includes the function keys for the performance of defined moves and
the display of the current X, Y and Z positions.
The lower Parameter panel allows setting of the step width for X/Y and Z.
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LSM 510
XY Step Size
The required step size for the scanning stage can be set in three ways:
1.) by shifting the slider
2.) by clicking on the arrow keys;
clicking on the right arrow key increases the step width,
clicking on the left arrow key decreases the step width.
One click increases/decreases the step width by 1 m.
Pressing the CTRL key changes the step width by 0.1 m.
Pressing the SHIFT key changes the step width by 10 m.
3.) by overwriting the displayed value
Values between 1 m and 1000 m can be entered for <XY Step Size>.
Z Step Size
The size of the focus step is set in the same way as the stage steps.
0.1 m is the smallest value which can be set and 100 m the highest.
Clicking on the arrow keys changes the step size by 1 m.
Pressing the CTRL key and clicking changes the step size by 0.05 m.
Pressing the Shift key and clicking changes the step size by 10 m.
Stage - Focus Position
<X> Moves and <Y> Moves
Clicking on the <and> arrow keys triggers individual X or Y moves of the size set before in the
parameter window.
Pressing on O moves the stage to the zero position and resets the display to 0.
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<Z> Moves
Clicking on the Up arrow key moves the specimen stage/nosepiece upwards (the distance between
objective and specimen is reduced).
Clicking on the Down arrow keys moves the specimen stage/nosepiece downwards (the distance
between objective and specimen is increased).
<Load>
Clicking on the <Load> button lowers the specimen stage/nosepiece to make it easier for you to
change the specimen (or objective).
<Work>
Pressing the <Work> button moves the specimen stage/nosepiece back to the Work position. This is
the position last set before the <Load> button was pressed.
The Routine Mode does not feature a Mark & Find function.
Of course, you can also use the joystick control panel to control the scanning stage.
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4.12.5.2
LSM 510
Expert Mode
The following window opens in the Expert Mode after clicking on the Stage button in <Acquire>:
Fig. 4-175
This menu enables control of the scanning stage; a session-related MARK & FIND function is available to
you.
The < Stage Position > window shows a symbolic specimen carrier in the left upper corner, with sliders
for x and y.
The keys for moving to a position and mark it are on its right.
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The Current Position and Selected Position display for X and Y is below.
Below that, you will find the table of marked positions and the possibility to activate and delete them.
Moving the scanning stage
The scanning stage can be moved using the joystick, or software-controlled using the sliders.
<Manual>
This button activates/deactivates the motor control of the stage and the joystick, if available.
If <Manual> is active, the scanning stage can be moved manually via the knurled screws. The <Move to>
and <Center> function keys in <Stage Position> are without a function. The Current position is updated.
You can zero the display via <ZERO> and mark manually set positions (<Mark>).
The scanning stage cannot be moved via the software or the joystick.
If <Manual> is deactivated, the scanning stage can be moved via the software or the joystick. All the
functions of the "Stage Position" window are available.
<Move to>
Clicking on the <Move to> button moves the stage to the position marked in the symbolic specimen
carrier. An area in the object slider is marked by clicking on the specimen carrier in the required area. The
currently marked area is displayed by red crosslines in the specimen carrier. Their X/Y coordinates are
displayed under Selected Position.
Already marked positions are shown in the specimen carrier as white circles with ordinal number and can
be easily activated again by clicking and by triggering the Move command.
<Mark>
<Mark> allows the Current Position to be marked. This marked position is then stored in the Marks
table in sequence. The marked position is shown on the specimen carrier with a circle and its ordinal
number.
<Center>
Moves the stage to the current zero position.
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LSM 510
<Zero>
Zeros the Current Position display and thus sets the currently set stage position to 0 in relation to X and
Y. The already marked object areas thus receive new X and Y-coordinates.
<Current Position>
Current Position displays the currently set stage position in relation to the zero position.
<Selected Position>
Selected Position displays the coordinates of the position marked on the specimen carrier using the
mouse.
<Marks> table
Clicking on the arrow keys displays the table of the session-related marked specimen areas. The table
includes the ordinal number, the X-position and the Y-position.
<Move to>
Clicking on the <Move to> button activates the position selected before from the table.
<Remove>
The <Remove> command enables a selected position to be deleted from the table. The position then
also disappears from the specimen carrier display.
CAUTION:
The selected position is deleted, the position with the next number in sequence moves up
one number.
<Remove all>
The < Remove all > command deletes all the entries marked in the current session.
Note:
The smallest step width displayed is:
0.1 µm
The smallest step width which can be set is:
0.25 µm
The smallest recommended step width is :
1.0 µm
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LSM 510
4.12.6
Specification of Trigger-Interface LSM510
Application:
With the LSM510 Release 2.01 you can control various actions externally using Trigger-In or force
external devices to work at a defined time depending on an action using Trigger-Out during time series.
These actions are: Scan-Start/Stop, Bleach, Change of Scan-Interval, end of a countdown or even a
mouse-click on a button.
Interface:
Front plate Scanner-Interface (Scan-IF) inside
Elektronic-Box (Scan-Control-Module) of LSM510:
Connector ‘User I/O’, 26-pin shrinked SUB-D
Number:
4x Trigger-In, 4x Trigger-Out
Type/Voltage Range:
TTL (HCMOS), 0.0 - 5.0 V
Load:
In: 22 kOhm input impedance
Out:± 4 mA
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LSM 510
Trigger pulse description:
Level detection:
Low level:
0.0 - 1.0 V
High level:
3.0 - 5.0 V
Slew rate:
rising edge:
1 µs
falling edge:
1 µs
Pulse width (always positive pulses/high level):
Trigger-In:
Trigger-Out:
20 ms
(Speed 10 - 5)
31 ms
(Speed 4)
62 ms
(Speed 3)
123 ms
(Speed 2)
246 ms
(Speed 1)
ca. 100 ms
Pulse frequency:
Trigger-In:
2x pulse width
Trigger-Out:
> pulse width
Valid edge:
Trigger-In:
Rising edge
Trigger-Out:
Falling edge
Caution:
Never apply more than 5 V or negative voltages to avoid any damage.
In and outputs are not galvanically decoupled.
Therefore proper measures for galvanic decoupling external devices have to be taken (opto-coupler etc.).
Do not connect no pins declared with ‘reserved’ (see table below). Otherwise at least the interface
can be damaged.
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LSM 510
Pin assignment:
No.
Name
Direction
Description
1
Trig1O
Out
Trigger Output #1
2
Trig2O
Out
Trigger Output #2
3
Trig3O
Out
Trigger Output #3
4
Trig4O
Out
Trigger Output #4
5...8
-
-
reserved
9
GND
-
Ground (0V)
10
Trig1I
In
Trigger Input #1
11
Trig2I
In
Trigger Input #2
12
Trig3I
In
Trigger Input #3
13
Trig4I
In
Trigger Input #4
14...17
-
-
reserved
18
GND
-
Ground (0V)
19...25
-
-
reserved
26
GND
-
Ground (0V)
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4.12.7
LSM 510
Monitordiode
The monitordiode is placed in the excitation ray path of the LSM 510 behind the beam splitter combining
the visible and the uv ray path and in front of the main beam splitter. Therefore it allows for checking
the laser input in terms of power and noise. With the attenuation filter wheel in front of the diode it is
possible to attenuate the laser power reaching the diode. It is not possible to select one line out of a few
excitation wavelength to be detected by the diode.
To activate the diode as a detector do the following:
Click on the corresponding button in the "Configuration Control" window of the LSM 510 software.
Fig. 4-176
Choose either <Frame> or <Line> scan
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LSM 510
Change to the "Scan Control" window and press <Cont.>; the system will scan with the diode as a
channel.
Choose the right amplification of the signal obtained by using the special neutral density filters in
front of the diode or / and by using the setting of the Amplifier Gain and Offset value. ("Scan
Control" - <Channels> <ChM-1>).
Fig. 4-177
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LSM 510
Examples of application:
a) Checking the laser power
This function is not automized so far. To qualitatively measure the laser power the diode can be used in
such a way, that the graylevel obtained in the Line Scan mode at a certain setting of the whole system
is stored as a text overlay together with the image (manually done by user). As the diode setting (Ampl.
Gain, Ampl. Offset, ND filter) is stored together with the image, the setting is automatically reloaded
when using the <REUSE> button. If deviations can be observed it is easy to set the laser power to the old
value by means of the AOTF transmission.
b) Noise Reduction by Ratio
In contrary to the PMT signal, the signal of the monitor diode <is not modulated by any specimen
information. Thus it can be used to ratio the PMT signal to get rid of the laser noise (due to any laser as a
physical fact) and thereby improve the signal to noise ratio of the fluorescence or reflectance image. The
major condition which has to be fullfilled to use the monitor diode for this purpose, is, that the
dominating source of noise is laser noise. The signal of the monitor diode will always be dominated by
laser noise (independent of the power set at the laser, or the transmission set at the AOTF), whereas the
dominating source of noise in the PMT signal can also be the shot noise of light (shot noise especially
occurs in low light fluorescence application; as rule of thumb it can be noted, that the shot noise is
limiting the signal to noise ratio, if the PMT voltage has to be set to a value > 400V).
Note: Any kind of noise which can not be observed in both channels at a time will be amplified and not
reduced by the ratio process. Low or high frequency laser noise is the only source of noise which is
correlated in the PMT signal and the signal of the monitor diode.
Using the HeNe lasers, noise is extremly low, so that in all applications, if, the shot noise of light will
reduce the signal to noise will reduce the signal to noise ratio of the image. Low or high frequency laser
noise is mainly introduced, if the Ar, ArKr lasers are used at a tube current lower than 8A (Ar-Vis, ArKr)
or 20 A (Ar-UV) respectively.
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LSM 510
To use the monitordiode for ratio application the following steps have to be done:
Activate the ratio channel R1 or R2 in <Ratio Settings> of the menu <Configuration Control> in
addition to the monitor diode channel (ChM-1) and one PMT channel.
Choose the appropriate PMT channel as source 1 in <Ratio settings> and ChM-1 as source 2. If this
numbering is changed (inverted) the ratio image will show a invertation of gray levels if compared to
the PMT image.
Fig. 4-178
☞
It is not possible to do the ratio between an on-line ratio image generated with two PMT
channels (as in ion-concentration sensitive ratio imaging) and the signal of the monitor diode.
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LSM 510
The following image is an example of the reduction of correlated noise. The low frequency noise has
been generated artificially.
Fig. 4-179
The image in the upper left corner shows the PMT image plus noise, the image beneath this (upper right
corner) shows the signal of the diode expanded to 512x512 pixels (noise without object information).
The two images below show the ratio of the PMT and diode signal (left) and the sum of all signals
(right). The sum-image does not contain any information and can therefore be neglected.
To get a ratio image like the one shown here the setting of: Detector Gain, Amplifier Gain , Amplifier
Offset of the PMT channel, Gain and Offset of the diode channel, Gain and Offset of the ratio channel
has to be set in the correct way.
Each of the parameters summarized effects either the amplification of the ratio image, or the contrast of
the ratio image, or the quality of the noise reduction.
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The single steps to find the right setting of all the parameters to be set are listed in the following:
Activate the <Range Indicator>
Adjustment of Amplifier Offset: the Offset of the PMT channel and diode channel have to fit to
each other to guarantee the best noise reduction.
The best way to do the adjustment is the following:
Choose different colors in <Configuration Scan> for PMT and diode channel
Activate <Line Scan>
Switch off all laser lines in the <Excitation> window
Activate <Cont>
Set values for Ampl. Gain to 1 in each channel
set the lines visible to the same level as close to the ground level as possible; the values you find for
the Offset in each channel should be negative.
A final adjustment of the offset adjustment is done by visually evaluating the noise reduction in the ratio
image. As the Offset value of the PMT channel influences the range setting of the ratio image much less,
than the Offset value of the diode channel the fine tuning should be done with the PMT offset if
necessary.
☞
As told before, the calculation of the ratio image is very sensitive to different signal offsets in
the two channels used. As the offset is influenced by the scan speed as well as by the Amplifier
Gain used, the offset calibration is not valid any more, if the scan speed is changed, or the
Ampl. Gain is set to a new value respectively. In most cases a new fine tuning is necessary. If
this doesn’t work the complete calibration process has to be repeated.
Another possibility to calibrate the offset values is to set the values to -0.1 as default for both channels,
then do steps 3 and 4 and finally do the adjustment of the noise reduction by varying the PMT offset
value.
If the ratio application is used and the offset has been set to the best reduction of noise in the ratio
image it is not allowed to change the offset of the PMT channel to change the reduction of background
fluorescence for example. This can be done only if the diode offset is corrected afterwards.
Adjustment of Detector Gain
The Gain of the PMT should be set with the help of the range indicator function. No ‘red ’ and no ‘blue’
pixels should occur in the image of the PMT.
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Amplifier Gain
The diode signal is set to the right range (graylevel between 50 and 200 - 8bit image / 750 and
3500 - 12 bit image) with the help of gray filters and amplifier gain. The use of a lower filter density
should be priorized against the use of a high gain value. The value of the amplifier gain of both channels
(PMT and diode) should be set to one if possible. Because of a, parallel to the gain factor, increasing
amplifier noise, a gain value of more than 2 should be avoided. The most important thing is, that no
pixels are below the zero level and beyond the maximum range respectively.
Fig. 4-180
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Gain and offset in Ratio channel
If the setting of the PMT channel is finished, the range of the ratio channel is adjusted by the parameters
in the corresponding formalism. There are three types of formulas offered, when the button <R1-1> is
pushed. The only formula needed for a ratio image with the monitor-diode is type 1:
S1+n
S2+m * x + y
The values for n and m have to be zero, as well as the value for y. Any deviation from zero will decrease
the contrast of the ratio image.
Only the value of x shall be influenced by the user. Dependent on the choice of data depth (8 or 12 bit),
x is between 0 and 256 (8bit) or between 0 and 4096 (12bit).
Fig. 4-181
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Default settings are 150 and 3000 respectively. With the help of the range indicator the default value is
changed until there is no pixel overflow anymore (‘red pixels’)
☞
Any new value can be set by hand typing and pressing the <ENTER> key while the scan is
running.
Any change in the setting parameters of PMT and diode signal will make a new Gain x in the
ratio formula necessary.
If the adjustment of all parameters is finished only the ratio image can be scanned respectively displayed
by switching off the PMT channel and the diode channel in the "Configuration Control" window and
leaving only the Ratio Channel be turned on. As a result only the ratio image is displayed; which can still
be influenced by the settings in PMT and diode channel.
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Contents
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CHAPTER 5
3D FOR LSM 510
CONTENTS
Page
5
3D FOR LSM 510 .......................................................................................................5-3
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
Overview and Explanations..........................................................................................5-3
The Image Sequence ...................................................................................................5-3
The Image Properties...................................................................................................5-4
Memory Usage............................................................................................................5-4
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
User Interface ............................................................................................................. 5-5
Introduction ................................................................................................................5-5
Main Window .............................................................................................................5-7
Display Window ........................................................................................................ 5-10
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
Functions ..................................................................................................................5-14
Functions in the File Menu......................................................................................... 5-14
Functions in the Edit Menu........................................................................................ 5-19
Functions in the Process Menu .................................................................................. 5-22
Functions in the View Menu ...................................................................................... 5-56
Functions in the Measurement Menu......................................................................... 5-64
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Contents
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Overview and Explanations
LSM 510
5
3D FOR LSM 510
5.1
Overview and Explanations
5.1.1
The Image Sequence
(0, 0, 0)
Voxel
The "3D for LSM" handles image sequences
generated by the Zeiss LSM software. This can be
three-dimensional image data or a time sequence
of two-dimensional images (slices). Each slice (as
well as the sequence) can consist of up to eight
channels. An image sequence consists of a series
of individual (2D) images and has a name that
designates the entire sequence. In general an
image sequence is handled as a single object in the
system. Individual channels or slices can be
addressed.
Single slice with
single channel
Single slice with
multiple channels
Image sequence
Multichannel
Positive rotation directions
of the axes
The following terms and definitions apply for the
"3D for LSM" software.
An image sequence is a number of individual
sequential images (usually called slices in the
dialog boxes), the spacing between which is
equal.
Image sequences can contain up to 12 bit of
image data (per channel).
A sequence (slice) can consist of up to eight
channels.
The maximum size of an image sequence is
Fig. 5-1
limited by the provided memory of the operating system.
A voxel is the smallest element of an image sequence (the equivalent of a pixel in a 2D image). All
voxels in a given image sequence are the same size.
The coordinate system originates in the left upper front corner of the image sequence. This point has
the coordinates 0, 0, 0.
All angles are positive for rotations to the right in the direction of the positive coordinate axis (righthanded coordinate system).
A slice is an individual image in a sequence of images. The numbering of the slices starts with "1".
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Overview and Explanations
LSM 510
Image sequences can consist of several channels. Most functions and the Display window are providing
buttons to select all or a subset of channels stored in the selected image sequence. The Output image
sequence will only get those channels which are selected on the input side. The button selects all
channels in the image sequence to be used clicking with the left mouse button on it.
Clicking with the left mouse button on any of the number buttons toggles the state of this single
channel.
Clicking with the right mouse button on any of the number buttons selects this single channel
exclusively. All other channels are deselected.
5.1.2
The Image Properties
Every image sequence has its own set of properties. They contain the scaling and the scaling units. The
scaling and its units are required for 3D reconstruction and measurement. If a sequence of LSM-TIFF
images is read in, the image properties are loaded automatically from the file header and allocated to the
image properties of the new image sequence.
5.1.3
Memory Usage
All images shown in the Gallery are currently loaded in the system memory of the operating system.
Some functions need additional temporarily used memory during their execution.
If the memory is running low delete some images from the Gallery. If the images are needed afterwards
they must be saved to disk first. Normally all functions produce a new result (output) image sequence. In
order to save some memory, other image sequences currently presented in the Gallery can be selected
as result position. The output image is overwritten by entry execution of a function.
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User Interface
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5.2
User Interface
5.2.1
Introduction
This section describes the following main components of the system:
Main window
Main window with the Menu, the Tool bar and Gallery. All general system
functions are located here.
Gallery
Normally several images are required in order to accomplish a particular task.
These images are displayed in reduced size to provide an overview and facilitate
selection. This area is located just below the Tool bar.
Fig. 5-2
Tool bar
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This menu shows all image processing functions.
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User Interface
Display window
LSM 510
This window is used to display image sequences.
Display window
Fig. 5-3 Display window
Dialog boxes
5-6
All dialog boxes provide three buttons. Pressing the OK button executes the
function with the defined parameters and closes the dialog window. Selecting the
Cancel button does not execute the function, restores the parameters, and closes
the dialog window. Pressing the Apply button executes the function with the
defined parameters; the dialog window will stay opened.
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5.2.2
Main Window
The Main window includes:
the Menu
the Tool bar
and the Gallery
File Menu
Open Image
Opens a file selector dialog to load an image sequence.
Save Image As
Opens a file selector to save an image or image sequence.
Save Display As
Saves the currently shown contents of the Display window as a single
colour image.
Print
The printer parameters can be set with this tool. The standard Windows
printer dialog is opened.
Exit
Terminates the application.
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User Interface
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Edit Menu
Copy
Copies the contents of the Display window to the clipboard.
Edit Channels
Allows to add or to remove channels to a single or multichannel image.
Delete All Images
Deletes all images and image sequences from the memory.
Process Menu
5-8
Arithmetics
Adds or subtracts the grey values of two image sequences
(Add, Subtract).
Contrast
Enhances the contrast and brightness of an image sequence
(Interactive, Automatic, Linearize).
Smooth
Smoothes an image sequence.
Morphology
Performs morphological operations on image sequences
(Erode, Dilate, Open, Close).
Segment
Segmentates an image sequence to propose measurement
(Interactive, Automatic).
Boolean
Combines two image sequences by Boolean operations
(And, Or, Not, Xor, Mask).
Scrap
Selects or deletes objects of a defined size.
Fill Holes
Fills holes in objects.
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User Interface
View Menu
Set Channel Colour The colour and the weight of the single channels can be defined.
Properties
The properties of the image (e.g. scaling, use laser etc.) are displayed.
Render
Calculates 3D reconstructions of an image sequence (Surface, Alpha).
Measurement Menu
Automatic Object
Measures geometrical and densitometrical features (General, Object
Features, Volume Features, Condition).
Windows Menu
Arrange All
Arranges the windows automatically.
Display
The current image is displayed in this window.
Help Menu
Content
Opens the help for the software.
About 3D for LSM
Displays status and release message of the software.
Tool Bar
This bar provides buttons with iconized images of nearly all functions. Clicking on one of the buttons will
open a dialog window to define the function parameters. Selecting an entry from the menu alternatively
can activate the same functions. Placing the cursor on a tool bar button will show a short description, if
the window is activated.
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User Interface
LSM 510
Gallery
The Gallery is used as an overview of the images available in memory and their contents. It is located
just below the Tool bar. Each small image represents a sequence. The middle slice of each image
sequence is shown. The status bar of each image shows the name. The name might be a number or a
string.
Every image sequence has its own channel colour assignment (see Display window). When an image is
copied the channel colour assignment is copied too. Drag and drop techniques can be applied to copy
images or define the function parameters Input and Output using the Gallery thumbnails.
Position the cursor on an image in the Gallery.
Press the left mouse button.
Hold the mouse button down and move the mouse to the destination position.
At the destination release the left mouse button, the destination image will be overwritten.
To delete an image, drag it, move it to the wastebasket, and drop it.
5.2.3
Display Window
This window is used to display an image sequence, regardless of size or type. To show multiple channel
sequences each channel could have its own base colour. The user can set these colours and the
at the bottom of the window. To
weighting for each channel by pressing the corresponding button
display a different image or image sequence, it can be dragged from the Gallery and dropped to the
Display window.
The image can be displayed in full size (one pixel on the screen represents one pixel of the image) or in a
zoomed size. To zoom the display view click and hold down the right mouse button on the window
border and resize the window. The aspect ratio of the image will not be changed. Clicking on the button
resets the Display window to a full size view of the image (see above).
The title bar shows the currently displayed sequence name. The status bar displays the size of the current
sequence and the selected slice on the left. On the right the cursor position within the window and the
corresponding intensity (grey) value of each channel is shown.
The Display window can be closed without any effect to the image processing functions. If no Display
window is opened select the entry Display in the Window menu.
The scroll bar at the lower right of the window enables to show the images in a sequence. The range
reaches from one to the maximum slice provided by the current sequence.
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User Interface
To start the automatic animation of an image sequence start the Player tool by clicking on the button
. The colour selection for the channels can be activated by clicking on the button
image can be displayed as a grey value image by clicking on the button
. A colour
.
Player
This function plays back the sequential images of an image sequence.
Fig. 5-4
The image sequence is displayed in the Display window. The display process is working as a
background task; other functions can be executed while the player is running. There are several ways to
stop the player:
by closing the player window
by pushing the red Stop button of the player window (the window remains open)
by closing the image window.
The Increment parameter specifies whether each sequential image (1) should be displayed or whether
some sequential images should be skipped during display. The value 2 skips one image for every
sequential image displayed, in other words, it displays only every second image.
The parameter Wait Time states the delay in milliseconds between two successive sequential images.
The maximum display speed depends mainly on the hardware. The sequential images are always
displayed in their entirety, regardless of the set delay.
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User Interface
LSM 510
Control Element of the Player
The three arrow shaped controls on the scale show the start slice and the currently displayed sequential
image. The values (positions) can be changed using the mouse. Press and hold the left mouse button and
move the pointer to the desired position. The set values are shown in the numerical windows at right.
Start slice
Currently displayed sequential image
End slice
The buttons in the left group start and stop playback of an image sequence.
Reverse playback
Forward playback
Play forward and then backward again (jojo)
Stop playback
Pause playback
The buttons in the middle group control the settings of the current sequential image.
Reset to start slice.
Single step backward (1 sequential image each regardless of
Increment).
Single step forward (1 sequential image each regardless of
Increment).
Set to end slice.
Increment
Image increment.
Wait Time
Displays delay between two images (in milliseconds).
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User Interface
Set Channel Colour
This function sets the colour and weight for the channels.
Fig. 5-5
Each image sequence can get its own colour definitions. All functions will inherit the colour definition
from the Input sequence to the Output sequence. By default the colours are set to 100 % weighting
and the pure base colours (red, green, blue) are defined.
The weight can be any value between 0 % and 200 %. The colour can be redefined by clicking on the coloured
button on the right of the dialog. The standard Windows colour selection dialog is opened. The solution is done by
clicking on one of the colours or by entering appropriate numbers in the corresponding edit boxes.
Pressing the OK button will close the colour selection dialog and update the Display window
immediately.
Only those channels, which are available in the image sequence, can be defined.
Parameters:
Image
Image sequence to edit
Weight
Colour weighting for each channel
Colour
Base colour for each channel
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Functions
5.3
Functions
5.3.1
Functions in the File Menu
LSM 510
Open Image
This function reads a Zeiss LSM 510 (*.lsm), Zeiss LSM TIFF (*000.tif) or Carl Zeiss Vision (*0.img) image
sequence from a disk or network drive.
Fig. 5-6
The individual files of a Zeiss TIFF image sequence are read and saved as an image sequence in image
memory. In addition, the image properties are read out of the TIFF files and allocated to the image
sequence Input.
The directories of the current drive are listed in the Directories list box. Use the Drives list box to
choose a different drive.
In case of choosing the TIFF-format in the Files of Type box, three number characters are always
expected before the dot in the filename extension. The first number must be 000 at the end of the
filename. From a complete sequence only this file is listed in the dialog, if "LSM TIF Images (*000.tif)" is
selected in the Files of Type box. To view all TIFF files "All TIF Images (*.tif)" in the Files of Type box
must be selected. This selection enables to start with a different file than with the very first (named
*000.tif) at the end of the filenames three number digits.
Currently the Carl Zeiss Vision file format "KE Images (*0.img)" is supported. Two files per channel are
saved.
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Functions
Carl Zeiss Vision image sequences must have a number digit at the end of the base filename. They are
used to indicate the different channels in a multichannel sequence. The numbering starts with zero (0). If
a sequence is saved in the Carl Zeiss Vision format the numbers are generated automatically. To load
such an image sequence "KE Images (*0.img)" in the Files of Type box must be selected.
The window incorporates the usual file selection controls. The bottom half displays a selection of the
image properties that are stored in the image sequence.
Parameters:
BaseName
Base name of the TIFF files (image sequence) to be loaded. Only the letters before
the first number are stated.
Input
Name of the resulting image in which the image sequence will be saved.
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Functions
LSM 510
Save Image As
This function saves an image or image sequence to disk or network drive.
Fig. 5-7
All the files in the current directory that have the selected image format are listed in the File Name list
box.
The directories of the current drive are listed in the Directories list box. Use the Drives list box to
choose a different drive.
Use the list box Files of Type to select the image format. Currently the LSM 510 image format (*.lsm)
and the Carl Zeiss Vision file format "KE Images (*0.img)" is supported.
By choosing the Carl Zeiss Vision file format "KE Images (*0.img)", two files per channel are saved. On
one hand the Carl Zeiss Vision type image sequence file, on the other hand the file with the image
properties. One pair of files is written per channel. They are numbered automatically, starting with zero.
A one number digit is added to the end of the filenames. The two files share the same filename but have
different filename extensions (*.img and *.3d).
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Functions
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The content of the Gallery is shown in the Input section. The selection of the sequence to save is done
by highlighting one of the provided names or by drag and drop from the Gallery.
Parameters:
Input
Name of the image sequence to be saved
Filename
Name of the file to be used on disk
Save Display As
This function saves the current Display window contents to a disk or network drive.
Fig. 5-8
Before the execution of this function any image or image sequence can be selected to be displayed.
From a multichannel sequence any channel status (on or off) combination can be defined. The colours of
the shown channels can be set with the function Set Channel Colour.
The current zoom factor of the Display window is not taken into account, the image is saved without
any zoom.
The image is saved as a true colour image with 24-bit resolution. From the Save as Type list box one of
the provided formats can be selected.
Parameters:
None
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Functions
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Print
This function prints the current Display window contents.
The standard Windows print dialog is opened.
Before the execution of this function any image or image sequence can be selected to be displayed.
From a multichannel sequence any channel status (on or off) combination can be defined. The colours of
the shown channels can be set with the function Set Channel Colour.
Parameters:
None
Exit
This function terminates the application completely.
All images and image sequences shown in the Gallery will be deleted from the memory. Save those
images which might be used for any further processing.
Parameters:
None
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5.3.2
Functions in the Edit Menu
Copy
This function copies the current Display window contents to the clipboard. No dialog is shown.
Before the execution of this function any image or image sequence can be selected to be displayed.
From a multichannel sequence any channel status (on or off) combination can be defined. The colours of
the shown channels can be set with the function Set Channel Colour.
The current zoom factor of the Display window is not taken into account; the image is copied without
any zoom.
The image is copied as a true colour image with 24-bit resolution. Afterwards the contents can be pasted
to any other Windows application.
Parameters:
None
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Functions
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Edit Channels
This function allows to add or to remove channels to a single or multichannel image.
On the Add Channel tab sheet the channels of (different) Input sequences can be defined to add
(combine) channels to an Output sequence.
Fig. 5-9
This operation is useful to add a segmented channel (or any other result of a function) to the original
image sequence. The selected channels of Input 1 and Input 2 are copied to Output. The maximum
number of channels in an image sequence is eight.
If the image sequences do not have the same extents Output Size defines which input is taken as a
reference. This selection also defines the properties for scaling and units in the output image sequences.
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Output size Defines source image sequence for size, scaling, and units
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Functions
On the Delete Channel tab sheet channels of the Input 1 image sequence can be selected to delete
channels.
Fig. 5-10
This operation might save time and memory for further processing if not all channels are needed.
Only the selected channels of Input 1 are copied to Output.
Parameters:
Input 1
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Delete All Images
This function deletes all images and image sequences from the memory (Gallery).
The function is used whenever a completely new image sequence should be processed. In order to drop
the images item by item to the wastebasket all of them can be deleted by a single function.
If any image or image sequence is needed for further use save them first.
Parameters:
None
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Functions
5.3.3
LSM 510
Functions in the Process Menu
Arithmetics - Add
This function adds two image sequences.
Fig. 5-11
The Add tab sheet of the Arithmetics dialog window must be selected.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequence, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 1 and Input 2 must be the same. They will be combined
from left to right.
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Functions
This function adds the two image sequences Input 1 and Input 2 voxel by voxel and generates the
image sequence Output. Note that a resulting grey value may be greater than 255 (4095). The
parameter Mode determines how a range overflow is handled:
1 - Wrap
No normalization - the grey values are displayed modulo 256 (4096). If the result
is greater than 255 (4095), the value 256 (4096) is subtracted from it.
2 - Clip
Grey values which exceed 255 (4095) are replaced with 255 (4095).
3 - Normalize
The resulting grey value range is scaled to the range 0...255 (0...4095).
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Mode
1 - Wrap
2 - Clip
3 - Normalize
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Functions
LSM 510
Arithmetics - Subtract
This function subtracts two image sequences.
Fig. 5-12
The Subtract tab sheet of the Arithmetics dialog window must be selected.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequence, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 1 and Input 2 must be the same. They will be combined
from left to right.
This function subtracts the two image sequences Input 1 and Input 2 voxel by voxel and generates the
image sequence Output. Note that a resulting grey value may be less than 0. The parameter Mode
determines how a range overflow (negative values) is handled.
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Functions
1 - Wrap
No normalization - the grey values are displayed modulo 256 (4096). If the result
is less than 0, the value 256 (4096) is added to it.
2 - Clip
Negative values are set to 0.
3 - Normalize
The resulting grey value range is scaled to the range 0...255 (0...4095).
4 - Shift/Clip
128 (2048) is added to the difference, then negative values are set to 0. Values
greater than 255 (4095) are set to 255 (4095).
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Mode
1 - Wrap
2 - Clip
3 - Normalize
4 - Shift/Clip
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Functions
LSM 510
Contrast - Interactive
This function allows interactive changes of the contrast of an image sequence.
Fig. 5-13
The Interactive tab sheet of the Contrast dialog window must be selected.
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Functions
A grey value range of the Input image sequence is scaled to another range in the Output image
sequence. Both ranges can be edited interactively. This function is used to achieve a better view of an
image sequence, or to scale a range of grey values to single value for a special coding in an image
sequence. The function does not improve the result of the linear segmentation function Segment.
Input indicates the sequence to enhance. If it is a multichannel sequence, a single channel, all channels,
or any number can be selected. The Input histogram shows the grey value distribution of the selected
channels of the Input image sequence.
Output defines the name of the result sequence. It will get only those channels which are chosen by the
Input parameter. The buttons labeled with 8 and 12 define the grey value (intensity) resolution in bit.
Normally the result will get the same resolution as the Input sequence. A change will be needed if image
sequences with different resolutions should be combined. Rising the grey value range to 12 bit will not
enhance the display quality or measurement accuracy. The smooth and morphology functions will
produce results with finer gradations.
If Clip Grey Values is selected, the output grey values are clipped to the Low (L) and High (H) values. If
Clip Grey Values is not selected, output grey values beyond the Low and High value range are
possible.
The Output histogram shows the resulting histogram. The horizontal axis represents the grey values
from 0 to the maximum, which is either 255 or 4095, depending whether the input is 8 bit or 12 bit.
The vertical axis represents the pixel count. The selected range is marked by the borderlines in the
histogram. The blue line or L indicates the lower boundary, the red line or H the upper one, C indicates
the center of the range.
There are three ways to change the range: clicking and dragging the borderlines with the mouse.
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Entering a new value in the appropriate text boxes, clicking on the buttons
or using the arrow keys
from the keyboard. To alter the values within the histogram move the mouse pointer over one of the
three coloured lines until the shape changes. Press and hold the left mouse button to move the line to a
new position. To change the values with the arrow keys click once into the histogram. Using the left or
right arrow key by its own will move the whole range. Pressing the Shift key additionally moves the
lower boundary, the Control key the upper boundary.
The vertical scale of the histogram is set using the scroll bar. The units are percents of the maximum grey
value distribution. This setting has no influence on the function.
Parameters:
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Input
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Channel
Selection of the channel numbers for the Output image after contrast
enhancement
Clip Grey Values
Clipping of grey values to the Low (L) and High (H) output grey values
boundaries
Input L
Lower boundary of grey value range Input
Input C
Center of grey value range Input
Input H
Upper boundary of grey value range Input
Output L
Lower boundary of grey value range Output
Output C
Center of grey value range Output
Output H
Upper boundary of grey value range Output
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Contrast - Automatic
This function scales the grey values of an image sequence to the maximum possible range.
Fig. 5-14
The Automatic tab sheet of the Contrast dialog window must be selected.
This function enhances the contrast of an image sequence by spreading the grey value distribution over
the maximum possible range. This function is used to achieve a better view of an image.
The light and dark grey value ranges with a low share of pixels are excluded from the operation by the
parameter Threshold. The Threshold units are in thousandths of the total number of voxels. Using a
value of 10 means that the scale interval is set so that 5/1000 of the total number of voxels on the light
side, and 5/1000 of the total number of voxels on the dark side of the grey value distribution are
excluded.
Input indicates the sequence to enhance. If it is a multichannel sequence, a single channel, all channels,
or any number can be selected. The Input histogram shows the grey value distribution of the selected
channels of the Input image sequence.
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Output defines the name of the result sequence. It will get only those channels which are chosen by the
Input parameter. The buttons labeled with 8 and 12 define the grey value (intensity) resolution in bit.
Normally the result will get the same resolution as the Input sequence. A change will be needed if image
sequences with different resolutions should be combined. Rising the grey value range to 12 bit will not
enhance the display quality or measurement accuracy. The smooth and morphology functions will
produce results with finer gradations.
The Output histogram shows the resulting histogram. They are not editable. The horizontal axis
represents the grey values from 0 to the maximum, which is either 255 or 4095, depending whether the
input is 8 bit or 12 bit. The vertical axis represents the pixel count. The vertical scale of the histogram is
set using the scroll bar. The units are percentages of the grey value distribution maximum. This setting
has no influence on the function.
Parameters:
5-30
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Threshold
Exclusion value - 0...1000
Input L
Lower boundary of grey value range Input
Input C
Center of grey value range Input
Input H
Upper boundary of grey value range Input
Output L
Lower boundary of grey value range Output
Output C
Center of grey value range Output
Output H
Upper boundary of grey value range Output
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Contrast – Linearize
This function scales a range of grey values of an image sequence to equal area fractions in the
histogram.
Fig. 5-15
The Linearize tab sheet of the Contrast dialog window must be selected.
This function enhances the contrast by linearizing the histogram of the image sequence to equal area
fractions in the histogram. The areas (voxel count multiplied by grey value range) of all grey values in the
Output histogram are the same. This function is used to achieve a better view of an image sequence.
When Skip Black is checked the grey value 0 will not be taken into account for linearization.
Input indicates the sequence to enhance. If it is a multichannel sequence, a single channel, all channels,
or any number can be selected. The Input histogram shows the grey value distribution of the selected
channels of the Input image sequence.
Output defines the range of the result sequence. It will get only these channels which are chosen by the
Input parameter. The grey value (intensity) resolution will be the same as the one from Input.
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The Output histogram shows the resulting histogram. The horizontal axis represents the grey values
from 0 to 255. The vertical axis represents the pixel count. The vertical scale of the histogram is set using
the scroll bar. The units are percentages of the grey value distribution maximum. This setting has no
influence to the function.
Parameters:
5-32
Image
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
SkipBlack
0 - Grey value black is ignored
1 - Grey value black is taken into account
Input L
Lower boundary of grey value range Input
Input C
Center of grey value range Input
Input H
Upper boundary of grey value range Input
Output L
Lower boundary of grey value range Output
Output C
Center of grey value range Output
Output H
Upper boundary of grey value range Output
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Smooth (Gauss)
This function performs a Gauss filter.
Fig. 5-16
The noise in the image sequence is reduced, the edge shape is nearly unchanged, local maxima are
leveled, the dynamic range is reduced.
Image sequences should be smoothed before they are reconstructed or segmented. For most sequences
a Size value of 3 is sufficient enough. If Input is a multichannel sequence, any number and combination
of channels can be selected. Output will only get the selected channels as results.
The grey value of every pixel is substituted by a weighted average of its surrounding neighbors. The
neighbors are defined by a cube. The affected pixel is the central pixel of the filter cube. The weighted
filter cube is approximated by a binomial distribution. The size of the filter cube is set using the Size
scroll bar. Even numbers are set to the next odd value. The Size defines the strength of the smoothing.
Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
Size
Filter size (3...31, only odd numbers)
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Morphology
The following four functions perform basic operations of mathematical morphology on image
sequences.
Fig. 5-17
As generalization of the morphology of two-dimensional images to three dimensions the structural
elements are small volumina.
Literature
Bomans, M.; Höhne, K.-H.; Tiede, U.; Riemer, M.:
3D-Segmentation of MR Images of the Head for 3-D Display
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 9, 1990, 177-183
Schiemann, T.; Bomans, M.; Tiede, U.; Höhne, K.-H.:
Interactive 3D-Segmentation of Tomographic Image Volumes
14. DAGM-Symposium Mustererkennung, Springer-Verlag 1992, 73-80
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The input image sequence is analyzed voxel by voxel with a selected shape (Shape). The voxel to be
analyzed is always the central voxel of the shape. The shape type determines which neighboring voxels
are used to compute the resulting voxel.
The following structural elements are available for all morphological operations. They represent
approximated spheres with an increasing radius.
Sequential image:
Volume view:
Cross shape
Volume view:
Cross shape
Z-1
Z
Z+1
Sequential image:
Z-1
Z
Z+1
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Sequential image:
Volume view:
LSM 510
Cube cross shape: created
through application of "cube"
and "cross" one after the other.
Z-2
Z-1
Z
Z+1
Z+2
For regions (voxels) that are at the edge of the image sequence, it assumed for erosion that there are
white voxels with a grey value of 255 (4095) outside the edge. For dilation, it is assumed that there are
black voxels with the grey value 0 outside the image sequence.
If the Grey Morphology tickbox is activated, erosion sets the grey value of the central voxel to the
minimum of all neighboring voxels affected by the structural element; dilation sets the grey value of the
central voxel to the maximum.
If the Grey Morphology tickbox is not activated, the neighboring voxels are only distinguished by grey
value 0 and non-0. For erosion the central voxel is set to 0 if any of the neighbors is 0. It is set to 255
(4095) if any neighbor is not 0. For dilation the central voxel is set to 255 (4095) if any of the neighbors
is not 0. It is set to 0 if all neighbors are 0.
Erosion reduces the size of bright regions, separates thin connections between them, and makes small
regions disappear. Dilation, on the other hand, makes bright regions of the image grow in size, fills gaps,
and smoothes small contour details.
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The result of erosion and dilation is called opening. On the one hand, this maintains to some extent the
original size of the regions while not losing the smoothing effect of erosion on the image. This name
stands for the operation of reducing convex bulges in the contour of the region. Thin connections
between regions are eliminated, broken borders between regions are connected, and small regions
disappear.
The opposite operation (first dilation, then erosion) is called closing. Concave bulges in the contours of
regions are filled in; connections are formed between adjacent regions.
The following example illustrates the operations "Open" and "Close" in two dimensions:
Open = Erosion + Dilation
Fig. 5-18
Close = Dilation + Erosion
Fig. 5-19
The "cube cross" shape was used for the operations shown.
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Morphology - Erode
This function erodes structures in an image sequence.
Fig. 5-20
In the Morphology dialog window, the tab sheet Erode must be selected.
Erosion makes bright regions smaller on a dark background. It also results in separation of thin
connections between regions. Small regions disappear entirely.
If Input is a multichannel sequence any number and combination of channels can be selected. Output
will only get the selected channels as results. The Input image sequence is eroded Count times with the
shape Shape. The Count scroll bar determines the number of recursive operations.
The following shapes (numbered 1 to 3 from left to right) are available:
If Grey Morphology is selected the function will respect all grey value shades of the sequence Input. If
Grey Morphology is not selected the function will distinguish between 0 and non-0 only. The result
Output will be a binary sequence.
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Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Shape
Shape used
1 - cross
2 - cube
3 - cube cross
Count
Number of recursive operations
Grey Morphology 0 - Distinguish between 0 and non 0 only
1 - All grey value shades are taken into account
Morphology - Dilate
This function dilates structures in an image sequence.
Fig. 5-21
In the Morphology dialog window, the tab sheet Dilate must be selected.
Dilation makes bright regions larger on a dark background. It also results in the filling of gaps and
smoothing of small contour details.
If Input is a multichannel sequence any number and combination of channels can be selected. Output
will only get the selected channels as results.
The Input sequential image is dilated Count times with the shape Shape. The Count scroll bar
determines the number of recursive operations.
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The following shapes (numbered 1 to 3 from left to right) are available:
If Grey Morphology is selected the function will respect all grey value shades of the sequence Input. If
Grey Morphology is not selected the function will distinguish between 0 and non-0 only. The result
Output will be a binary sequence.
Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Shape
Shape used
1 - cross
2 - cube
3 - cube cross
Count
Number of recursive operations
Grey Morphology 0 - Distinguish between 0 and non 0 only
1 - All grey value shades are taken into account
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Morphology - Open
This function carries out an opening.
Fig. 5-22
In the Morphology dialog window, the tab sheet Open must be selected.
This function carries out an erosion followed by a dilation. For the most part, the opening maintains the
original size of the regions. Thin connections between regions and small regions themselves disappear.
Convex bulges in the contours of the regions are reduced. The opening is applied to the grey value
image sequence Input Count times with the shape Shape. If Input is a multichannel sequence any
number and combination of channels can be selected. Output will only get the selected channels as
results.
The Count scroll bar determines the number of recursive operations.
The following shapes (numbered 1 to 3 from left to right) are available:
If Grey Morphology is selected the function will respect all grey value shades of the sequence Input. If
Grey Morphology is not selected the function will distinguish between 0 and non-0 only. The result
Output will be a binary sequence.
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Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Shape
Shape used
1 - cross
2 - cube
3 - cube cross
Count
Number of recursive operations
Grey Morphology 0 - Distinguish between 0 and non 0 only
1 - All grey value shades are taken into account
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Morphology - Close
This function carries out a closing.
Fig. 5-23
In the Morphology dialog window, the tab sheet Close must be selected.
This function carries out a dilation followed by an erosion. For the most part, the closing maintains the
original size of the regions. Connections are formed between adjacent regions; gaps and bright concave
bulges in the contours of regions are filled in. The closing is applied Count times to the grey value image
sequence Input with the shape Shape. If Input is a multichannel sequence any number and combination
of channels can be selected. Output will only get the selected channels as results.
The Count scroll bar determines the number of recursive operations.
The following shapes (numbered 1 to 3 from left to right) are available:
If Grey Morphology is selected the function will respect all grey value shades of the sequence Input. If
Grey Morphology is not selected the function will distinguish between 0 and non-0 only. The result
Output will be a binary sequence.
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Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Shape
Shape used
1 - cross
2 - cube
3 - cube cross
Count
Number of recursive operations
Grey Morphology 0 - Distinguish between 0 and non 0 only
1 - All grey value shades are taken into account
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Segment - Interactive
This function carries out a grey value segmentation by means of thresholding.
Fig. 5-24
The Interactive tab sheet of Segment dialog window must be selected.
Segmentation is especially used to generate binary regions. These are required for the measurement.
Two threshold values determine which grey value range of the Input image sequence is preserved
and/or deleted in the Output image sequence. Only one channel of a multichannel sequence can be
selected as Input. Output will always be a single channel sequence.
The vertical scaling of the histogram can be adjusted with the scroll bar at the right edge of the
histogram. This setting has no influence on the function.
The thresholds Low and High are determined either by moving the borderlines in the grey value
histogram or by the scroll bars underneath. Furthermore, the values for Low, Center and High can be set
through entry in the corresponding fields.
To move the lower (L) and upper (H) thresholds at the same time, move the vertical line in the grey value
histogram or set the scroll bar (C).
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The Green and Blue/Red option buttons of the parameter Colour determine whether the voxels within
(Green) or outside (Blue/Red) of the grey value interval [L, H] are displayed with the corresponding
colour.
If Green is selected, the voxels within the selected interval are highlighted in green. The rest of the
image retains its original grey values. The voxels with the grey values Low and Low+1 are displayed in
blue. The voxels with the grey values High and High-1 are displayed in red.
If Blue/Red is selected, the voxels with grey values within the interval Low, High remain unchanged.
Voxels with grey values less than Low are highlighted in blue; those with grey values higher than High
are highlighted in red.
If the Invert option is selected, the grey values outside the defined interval will be segmented.
If the option Binary is selected, then all grey values in the range from Low to High will be set to white
(grey value 255) in the Output image sequence, while all others will be set to black (grey value 0). If the
option is not selected, the grey values within the selected interval remain unchanged, while those
outside the range will be set to black. The measurement function accepts both results without any
difference in the results.
Parameters:
5-46
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Colour
Green - Selected interval is displayed in green
Blue/Red
Grey values below the selected interval are displayed in blue, grey values
above in red
Binary
0 - Selected voxels retain the original grey value
1 - Selected voxels are set to grey value 255, the rest to grey value 0
Invert
0 - Grey values inside the selected interval are segmented
1 - Grey values outside the selected interval are segmented
L
Low grey value threshold
C
Center of threshold interval
H
High grey value threshold
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Segment - Automatic
The function carries out an automatic grey value segmentation by means of thresholding.
Fig. 5-25
The Automatic tab sheet of the Segment dialog window must be selected. Segmentation is especially
used to generate binary regions. These are required for the measurement.
The function calculates the two strongest local minimums in the histogram of the Input image
sequence. These values are used for the discrimination. Only one channel of a multichannel sequence
can be selected as Input. Output will always be a single channel sequence. The vertical scaling of the
histogram can be adjusted with the scroll bar at the right edge of the histogram. This setting has no
influence on the function.
The Green and Blue/Red option buttons of the parameter Colour determine whether the voxels within
(Green) or outside (Blue/Red) of the grey value interval [L, H] are displayed with the corresponding
colour.
If Green is selected, the voxels within the selected interval are highlighted in green. The rest of the
image retains its original grey values. The voxels with the grey values Low and Low+1 are displayed in
blue. The voxels with the grey values High and High-1 are displayed in red.
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If Blue/Red is selected, the voxels with grey values within the interval Low, High remain unchanged.
Voxels with grey values less than Low are highlighted in blue; those with grey values higher than High
are highlighted in red.
If the Invert option is selected, the grey values outside the defined interval will be segmented.
If the option Binary is selected, then all grey values in the range from Low to High will be set to white
(grey value 255 (4095)) in the Output image sequence, while all others will be set to black (grey value
0). If the option is not selected, the grey values within the selected interval remain unchanged, while
those outside the range will be set to black.
Parameters:
5-48
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Colour
Green - Selected interval is displayed in green
Blue/Red - Grey values below the selected interval are displayed in blue, grey
values above in red
Binary
0 - Selected voxels retain the original grey value
1 - Selected voxels are set to grey value 255 (4095), the rest to grey value 0
Invert
0 - Grey values inside the selected interval are segmented
1 - Grey values outside the selected interval are segmented
L
Low grey value threshold
C
Center of threshold interval
H
High grey value threshold
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Boolean - And
This function carries out a bit-by-bit And calculation for the image sequences Input 1 and Input 2.
Fig. 5-26
The And tab sheet of the Boolean dialog window must be selected.
This function is especially well suited for masking images.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequences, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 1 and Input 2 must be the same. They will be combined
from left to right.
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
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Boolean - Or
This function carries out a bit-by-bit Or calculation for the images Input 1 and Input 2.
Fig. 5-27
The Or tab sheet of the Boolean dialog window must be selected.
This function can be used to combine binary masks or regions.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequences, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 1 and Input 2 must be the same. They will be combined
from left to right.
Parameters:
5-50
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
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Boolean - Xor
This function carries out a bit-by-bit Xor calculation for the images Input 1 and Input 2.
Fig. 5-28
The Xor option button of the Function option group in the Boolean dialog window must be selected.
This function can be used to combine binary masks or regions.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequences, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 1 and Input 2 must be the same. They will be combined
from left to right.
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
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Boolean - Not
This function carries out a bit-by-bit negation of an image.
Fig. 5-29
The Not tab sheet of the Boolean dialog window must be selected.
If Input is a multichannel sequence any number or combination can be selected.
Parameters:
5-52
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
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Boolean - Mask
This function masks a grey value image sequence.
Fig. 5-30
The Mask tab sheet of the Boolean dialog window must be selected.
This function modifies the Output image sequence depending on the mask image sequence used.
If the grey value in Input 2 is higher than 0, then the voxel values are copied from Input 1 to the image
sequence Output. If the grey value of the voxel is 0, then the voxel value of the Output image sequence
is taken over.
If one or both input sequences are multichannel sequences, any number or combination can be selected.
The number of selected channels for Input 2 must be 1 or the same as for Input 2. They will be
combined from left to right.
Parameters:
Input 1
First input image sequence
Input 2
Second input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
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Scrap
This function deletes or selects objects in a specified size range.
Fig. 5-31
The operation deletes or selects objects on the basis of their total volume in voxels. Objects with a
volume within the range MinVolume to MaxVolume are effected.
To delete objects outside the range, the parameter Select must be active. If the parameter is not
activated objects outside the defined volume range are deleted.
Parameters:
5-54
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
MinVolume
Minimum object size
MaxVolume
Maximum object size
Select
0 - Select the objects outside the size range
1 - Select the regions within the size range
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Fill Holes
This function fills holes in all objects.
Fig. 5-32
All holes in objects are filled by this operation. Holes are structures, which have a grey value of 0 and are
surrounded completely by voxels with a grey value not equal to 0. It is assumed that regions outside the
image are black. Holes, which touch the image border, are retained.
Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Output image sequence
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5.3.4
LSM 510
Functions in the View Menu
Render - Surface
This function displays an image sequence according to the gradient shading method.
Fig. 5-33
The Surface tab sheet of the Render dialog window must be selected.
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Method
The Input sequence defines the data to be reconstructed. If it is a multichannel sequence one or all
channels can be selected for the reconstruction.
Output sets the name of the result image (sequence). If the sequence exists it is overwritten. Pressing
the button New will generate a new name (number). The size of the sequential images in Output is
determined by the size of the sequential images in Input.
Number of Views determines the number of reconstructions which should be computed. The radio
buttons Start and End define which angle settings are currently shown. A definition for the angle End is
only necessary if Number of Views is higher than 1. If this is true the result sequence will get views
from the Start to the End angle definition. The other reconstructions are determined through the
linearly interpolated intermediate angles. The direction of view is determined from the angles as follows:
The angle Angle Z determines the rotation of the direction of view on the Z-axis. The angle Angle Y
determines the rotation of the direction of view on the Y-axis that has been rotated by the angle
Angle Z. The angle Angle X determines the rotation of the direction of view on an X-axis that is rotated
by Angle Z and Angle Y.
Channel defines if the following parameters are valid for All or just for one. Defining the thresholds for
the channels independently is useful if the grey value boundaries of the objects differ too much in the
different channels. The thresholds Grey Low and Grey High define the grey value range of the objects.
The parameter Aperture is a measure of the size of the highlights. Small values generate large
highlights. Large values generate small highlights (similar to a spot).
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Use the parameter Reflection to control the ratio of diffuse and reflective brightness components, i.e.,
the overall basic brightness compared with the highlights. When the value of Reflection is low, the
highlights predominate; when the values are high, the region appears to be uniformly illuminated and
the highlights are not so pronounced. When Auto Update is selected, the reconstruction is updated
automatically whenever a parameter is modified (except Input, Output, or Number of Views). Show
Cube defines whether a wire frame cube is shown in the Display window or not.
Application
This method can be applied, if the structures in the Input sequence can be segmented by grey value
thresholding. Because the gradient is calculated for every pixel, the Output appears in very fine detail.
Noisy Input sequences must be smoothed (function Smooth) before rendering, otherwise the surface
appears rough.
Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Number of Views Number of reconstructions to be calculated
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Angle X
Angle of rotation on the X-axis, start position
Angle Y
Angle of rotation on the Y-axis, start position
Angle Z
Angle of rotation on the Z-axis, start position
Channel
All - The following parameters are valid for all channels
X - The following parameters are valid for the selected channel only
Grey Low
Low grey value threshold of the region to be displayed
Grey High
High grey value threshold of the region to be displayed
Aperture
Measure of the extent of the highlights
Reflection
Weight of the defuse brightness components in comparison to the
highlights
Auto Update
0 - Function execution is performed on OK or Apply
1 - Function execution for the current angle is performed on any parameter
change
Show Cube
0 - The wire frame cube is not shown
1 - The wire frame cube is shown in the Display window
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Render - Surface: Method Description
This method displays the surface of structures in the Input sequence shaded as if a light illuminated it.
The position of the light is behind the view point with parallel rays in the direction of the sequence.
The input sequence is segmented into object and background by grey value thresholding: object voxels
are within the grey value range Grey Low to Grey High.
Each Output pixel corresponds to a point at the surface at which the ray in view direction through the
Output pixels hits the surface. All rays are parallel.
The surface normal required for shading in this gradient renderer is the grey value gradient in the Input
volume at the surface voxel position. It is not the geometric surface normal. The grey value gradient is
determined from the grey values in a 3x3x3 cube around the surface voxel by averaging e.g. the xgradient in y- and z-direction [4].
There is no depth cueing (far objects would appear darker).
The illumination model is a Phong model [1] (surface normal is determined for each Output pixel) with
diffuse reflection and specular reflection. Diffuse reflection means that the surface reflects light with
equal intensity in all directions. The brightness of a given surface patch depends not on the viewdirection, but only on the angle between light and surface normal. Specular reflection is observed on
shiny surfaces as a highlight. The light is reflected as from a mirror. The maximum intensity is observed
when the view direction is the one of the mirrored light direction.
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Render - Alpha
This function displays an image sequence according to the alpha rendering method.
Fig. 5-34
The Alpha tab sheet of the Render dialog window must be selected.
One or more reconstructions of the input image sequence are computed according to the alpha rendering method.
This type of reconstruction should be used if there is no possibility to segment the structures in the image sequence
and also if the objective is to make deeply layered structures visible.
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Method
The Input sequence defines the data to be reconstructed. If it is a multichannel sequence one or all
channels can be selected for the reconstruction.
Output sets the name of the result image (sequence). If the sequence exists it is overwritten. Pressing
the button New will generate a new name (number). The size of the sequential images in Output is
determined by the size of the sequential images in Input.
Number of Views determines the number of reconstructions which should be computed. The radio
buttons Start and End define which angle settings are currently shown. A definition for the angle End is
only necessary if Number of Views is higher than 1. If this is true the result sequence will get views
from the Start to the End angle definition. The other reconstructions are determined through the
linearly interpolated intermediate angles.
The direction of view is determined from the angles as follows:
The angle Angle Z determines the rotation of the direction of view on the Z-axis. The angle Angle Y
determines the rotation of the direction of view on the Y-axis that has been rotated by the angle
Angle Z. The angle Angle X determines the rotation of the direction of view on an X-axis that is rotated
by Angle Z and Angle Y.
Channel defines if the following parameters are valid for All or just for one. Defining the opacity for the
channels independently is useful when the brightness and contrast of the channels differ too much.
Threshold defines the range with no opacity. It is completely transparent. The range starts at grey
value 0.
The length of slope is defined by Ramp. The maximum opacity value is set with the parameter Max.
Opacity. This range ends at the maximum grey value. The Opacity Table shows the grey value
histogram of Input with the opacity definition as a red line.
When Auto Update is selected, the reconstruction is updated automatically whenever a parameter is
modified (except Input, Output, or Number of Views). Show Cube defines whether a wire frame
cube is shown in the Display window or not.
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Application
1. This method can be applied, if the structures in the Input sequence are unsharp so that objects are
poorly defined by their grey value.
2. In this case, the Opacity Table is defined as a ramp. Low grey values have weight 0 to suppress the
background voxels. The opacity rises with increasing grey values, depending on the parameter Ramp.
The value of Max. Opacity defines the weight of the high grey values. High grey values above a
threshold have weight 255 to show the "object" voxels unsuppressed. Of course a smooth step can
be used.
3. The result is a display with inside structures shining through. A 3D impression can be obtained by
rendering with several view directions.
4. In contrast to this, a voxel renderer like the gradient renderer would display only the surface of objects
that are defined by grey value-thresholds. This surface would appear shaded as if illuminated by a
light.
5. The method can also be applied to visualize pronounced structures within other enclosing structures,
if the structures have different grey value ranges.
6. In this case, the Opacity Table is defined as a step. Low grey values (background) have weight 0. High
grey values (inside structures) have maximum weight.
Parameters:
Input
Input image sequence
Output
Resulting image sequence
Number of Views Number of reconstructions to be calculated
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Angle X
Angle of rotation on the X-axis, start position
Angle Y
Angle of rotation on the Y-axis, start position
Angle Z
Angle of rotation on the Z-axis, start position
Channel
All - The following parameters are valid for all channels
X - The following parameters are valid for the selected channel only
Threshold
Grey value where the opacity starts rising
Ramp
Length of the opacity slope
Max. Opacity
Maximum opacity value
Opacity Table
Maximum opacity value
Auto Update
0 - Function execution is performed on OK or Apply
1 - Function execution is performed on any parameter change
Show Cube
0 - The wire frame cube is not shown
1 - The wire frame cube is shown in the Display window
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Render - Alpha: Method Description
Each Output pixel is a weighted sum of the Input voxels along a ray in view direction through the Input
sequence. Each Input voxel has an opacity value, dependent only on its grey value. The opacity values
are defined by the parameters Threshold, Ramp, and Max. Opacity.
Accumulation of pixels proceeds along the ray from back to front, i.e. from far pixels to near pixels. If a
new pixel is added, it increases the result intensity by its grey value weighted by the opacity value, and
attenuates the previously accumulated intensity according to the opacity value. Full intensity stops
accumulation.
This calculation must be repeated for each pixel of the ray to generate one Output pixel. Then for each
Output pixel to produce a 2D Output image for the selected view-angle. Then for each view-angle to
produce an output sequence for Number of Views different view angles.
Render - References
[1] J.D. Foley,A.van Dam, S. K. Feiner, J.F.Hughes, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, Addison
Wesley, Reading, MA, 1990.
[2] M. Levoy, Display of Surfaces from Volume Data, IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, May 1988,
29-37.
[3] J. Ylä-Jääski, F.Klein, O. Kübler, Fast Direct Display of Volume Data for Medical Diagnosis,
VGIP:Graphical Models and Image Processing 53,1991,7-18.
[4] K.H. Höhne, R. Bernstein, Shading 3D-Images from CT Using Gray-Level Gradients, IEEE Transactions
on Medical Imaging, 5, 1986, 45-47.
[5] D.Gordon, R.A. Reynolds, Image Space Shading of 3-Dimensional Objects, CVGIP 29, 1985, 361-376.
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Functions in the Measurement Menu
Measurement Concept
Measurement is based on regions (objects) in three-dimensional space. Segmenting an image sequence generates
these. The image segmentation process produces a mask image that defines the region.
A region is a group of voxels that touch at the surfaces or at the edges, but not at the corners (18 voxel
neighborhood).
This is illustrated by the following example. The voxels marked black in sequential image Z-1, Z, Z+1 all belong to the
same region as the grey central voxel in sequential image Z. The volume view shows the neighborhood
interrelationships as a 3D projection.
Sequential image:
Volume view:
Z-1
Z
Z+1
Fig. 5-35
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Measurement Process
The measurement process consists of three steps: region definition, checking of the validity of the
regions, and feature calculation.
Region definition:
- Automatically from the mask image
Region validation check depends on:
- Minimum volume
- Measurement condition
Feature calculation depends on
- Shape of the region
- Densitometric value distribution of the region
- Feature parameters
Image
Region
generator
Region
Region
filter
Valid
region
Data
Measurement
Image sequence
Minimum volume
Feature name
Measurement condition Feature parameter
Fig. 5-36
All regions found are checked according to certain conditions. The voxel volume of each region must be
equal to or greater than MinVolume. The measurement condition must be fulfilled. Only those regions
that meet all the conditions are valid for the measurement. The region can be measured or labeled.
Measurement is a process that produces data. Labeling is a process that generates an image volume.
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Automatic Object Measurement – Object Features
A measurement feature describes a region characterized by a number (e.g. volume, area or a
densitometrical statistic). The features can be selected on the Object Features and Volume Features
tab sheets.
Fig. 5-37
The scalings and units are taken automatically from the assigned sequence.
The measurement features can be selected individually for each measurement. The object features
generate a result value for every single object.
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The dialog shows two lists. One shows the Available Features as groups (on the left). The other one
shows the Selected Features. Double-clicking on items of the left list will add the Selected Features to
the right list. Double-clicking on an item of the right list will remove this item from the list. Selected
Features can also be transferred by clicking on the button in the middle (<< / >>) of the dialog.
The combo box above the right list represents predefined feature lists. Selecting one of the entries will fill
the right list with these features; previously selected features will be overwritten.
The button Select All will copy all features to the list of selected features.
The button Remove All will clear the list of selected features.
Clicking on the Apply button will execute the measurement process and switch to the General tab
sheet of the dialog.
Parameters:
Available Features
List of available object features
Selected Features
List of selected object features
Select All
Select all available object features for measurement
Remove All
Remove all object features from the selected features list
The following sections describe all measurement features which are defined in the system.
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Object Features (geometric)
If Object Features are selected, one set of measurement data is calculated for each object.
Group Name
Name
Description
Volume
Volume
Volume of the object.
Volume Filled
VolumeF
Volume of the filled object.
Ellipsoid
EllipseA
Length of the main axis of the ellipsoid with the same
geometrical moment of inertia as the object.
EllipseB
Length of the middle axis of the ellipsoid with the same
geometrical moment of inertia as the object.
EllipseC
Length of the minor axis of the ellipsoid with the same
geometrical moment of inertia as the object.
EllipseAF
Length of the main axis of the ellipse with the same geometric
moment of inertia as the filled object.
EllipseBF
Length of the middle axis of the ellipse with the same geometric
moment of inertia as the filled object.
EllipseCF
Length of the minor axis of the ellipse with the same geometric
moment of inertia as the filled object.
Surface Area
SurfArea
Surface area of the object.
Surface Area Filled
SurfAreaF
Surface area of the filled object.
Sphere Diameter
Dsphere
Diameter of the sphere with the same volume.
Ellipsoid filled
6 * VOLUMEF / π
Sphere Form Factor
Fsphere
Form factor of the object.
6⋅ π ⋅
Number of Holes
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Nparts
VOLUMEF
SURFAREAF 3
Number of holes within an object.
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Object Features (densitometric)
Group Name
Name
Description
Mean Densitometric
MeanD
Densitometric mean value of an object.
Standard Deviation
Densitometric
StdD
Standard deviation of the densitometric values of an object.
Minimum
Densitometric
MinD
Minimum grey value of an object.
Maximum
Densitometric
MaxD
Maximum grey value of an object.
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Automatic Object Measurement - Volume Features
A measurement feature describes a region characterized by a number (e.g. volume, area, or a
densitometrical statistic). The features can be selected on the Object Features and Volume Features
tab sheets.
Fig. 5-38
The measurement features can be selected individually for each measurement. The object features
generate a result value for every single object.
The dialog shows two lists. One shows the Available Features as groups (on the left). The other one
shows the Selected Features. Double-clicking on items of the left list will add the Selected Features to
the right list. Double-clicking on an item of the right list will remove this item from the list. Selected
Features can also be transferred by clicking on the button in the middle (<< / >>) of the dialog.
The combo box above the right list represents predefined feature lists. Selecting one of the entries will fill
the right list with these features; previously selected features will be overwritten.
The button Select All will copy all features to the list of selected features.
The button Remove All will clear the list of selected features.
Clicking on the Apply button will execute the measurement process and switch to the General tab sheet of the
dialog.
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Parameters:
Available Features
List of available object features
Selected Features
List of selected object features
Select All
Select all available object features for measurement
Remove All
Remove all object features from the selected features list
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Volume Features (geometric)
The volume-related measurement generates one measured value per image sequence. The following
table contains the predefined volume characteristics.
Group Name
Name
Description
Count
VolCount
Number of regions measured.
Volume
VolVolume
Total volume of all regions.
Volume Percentage
VolVolumeP
Total volume of all regions, in relation to the volume of the
image sequence.
Volume Features (densitometric)
Group Name
Name
Description
Surface Area
VolSurfArea
Total surface area of all regions.
Mean Densitometric
VolMeanD
Mean grey value of all regions.
Standard
DeviationVolStdD
Densitometric
Grey value standard deviation of all regions.
Minimum
Densitometric
VolMinD
Minimum grey value in the image sequence.
Maximum
Densitometric
VolMaxD
Maximum grey value in the image sequence.
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Automatic Object Measurement - Condition
The measurement conditions are used to limit the objects to be evaluated (e.g. only objects with defined
minimum value). All objects are tested against the defined conditions. If the conditions are fulfilled the
feature values are written to the data table.
Fig. 5-39
To define the following parameter select the Condition tab sheet of the Automatic Object
Measurement dialog window.
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The list on the very left at the dialog shows all the measurement Features. The second list provides the
comparison Operators and the next Numbers to define a value. This gives the possibility to compose an
expression to test a feature value against a constant value. The fields above the lists will show the
composed (selected) string. Clicking on the desired list entry does the selection. The button with the
„>>„ characters adds this string to the List of Conditions. All lines of the List of conditions are
combined with the AND expression automatically. To remove a condition line double-click on it.
The parameter Minimum Volume defines the minimum voxel volume for the measurement. This is an
easy way to eliminate very small regions caused by noisy sequences and segmentation process.
The button Remove All will clear the list of defined conditions.
Clicking on the Apply button will execute the measurement process and switch to the General tab
sheet of the dialog.
Parameters:
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Feature
List of available object features
Operator
List of available condition operators
Number
List of numbers to compose the value
List of conditions
Defined condition list
Remove All
Remove all entries from the List of conditions
Minimum Volume
Minimum object volume in voxel
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Automatic Object Measurement - General
This function carries out an automatic measurement and labeling.
Measured
Object Features
Measured
Volume Features
Fig. 5-40
The regions must be defined by an image sequence Mask Image (the objects must be separated from
one another by black voxels with the grey value 0). This sequence is generated with the function
Segment. If it is a multichannel sequence a single channel has to be chosen.
The image Dens Image is needed for the measurement of the densitometric features. Image sequence
properties like scaling and unit are taken from Dens Image. A single channel of this sequence (if it is
multichannel) must be selected with the buttons to the right of the parameter.
The measurement results can be stored to database files. These files are tab delimited ASCII files which
can be easily imported to major Windows programs like text processing or spreat sheet application.
Writing database files are independently supported for object and volume features. Activating the
corresponding check boxes enables it. The name of the database is defined with the field Database. The
files will be located in the subdirectory DATA of the main installation directory. The filename extension
TXT will be added automatically.
If the check box Label is activated a single channel sequence will be generated. It contains all the
measured objects, each object is coloured homogeneous but in different colours. To copy all
measurement values to the clipboard activate the check box Clipboard.
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A single object of interest can be visualized. Clicking on a specific row in the data grid chooses the
object. By selecting a row in the data grid a new image is created with the object of interest visualized.
The visualization depends on the settings in the Object Visualisation field. If Render is chosen, the
object of interest is displayed with the Surface Rendering method. If Mask is chosen, the object is
labelled in a pseudo colour in a new image stack.
Parameters:
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Mask Image
Single channel mask image sequence that defines the objects
Dens Image
Image sequence for densitometric measurement and property source
Object
Stores measurement values of objects, including database filename
Volume
Stores volume measurement values of objects, including database filename
Label
Generates an image sequence with all objects labelled in different pseudo
colours
Clipboard
Measurement values are automatically written to the clipboard
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