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Grammatical feature Definition Example 3 4 5 6 GfW 10 GfW 26 GfW

Grammatical feature

Adjectives

Adverbs

Apostrophes

Definition Example

Adjectives are describing words; they pick out certain characteristics such as size or colour. They can be used to modify a noun or complement a verb.

An adjective has three forms:

Adjective

Comparative (-er or more)

Superlative (-est or most).

big, bigger, biggest stupid, more stupid, most stupid

An adverb is a word which modifies or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Adverbs may be divided according to their use, into the following classes:

TIME

PLACE

MANNER

DEGREE

FREQUENCY

QUESTIONING

TIME – before, now, then, already, soon, seldom.

Example: We have met

Example: They came

before.

PLACE – here, there, everywhere and nowhere.

here yesterday.

MANNER – badly, easily, slowly, well

Example: The tall boy won

easily.

DEGREE – almost, much, only, quite, very, rather

Example: The old lady walked very slowly.

The majority adverbs are formed from corresponding adjectives by adding –ly, e.g. brave - bravely

FREQUENCY - once, twice, sometimes

Example: Once, twice, three times a lady.

QUESTIONING- where, when, how

Example: When did you see him?

OMISSION – Come over ‘ere. (colloquial speech) An apostrophe shows:

Either a place of omitted letters or contracted words, or possession – belonging to.

CONTRACTION – It’s my party and I’ll cry if I want to.

POSSESSION – John’s ball.

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Grammatical feature

Article

Definition

Articles can be found in two forms. They differentiate the importance attributed to a noun. ‘The’ bag instead of ‘a’ bag.

Definite: the

Indefinite: a / an

Definite: the

Indefinite: the indefinite article occur before a consonant (a bag) and a vowel

(an apple)

Audience

Capitalisation

Example

Adapt writing for different readers and purposes by changing vocabulary, tone and sentence structures to suit, e.g. simplifying for younger readers;

Principles and explanation

Writing can be adapted for different readers and purposes by varying:

sentence length (including variations);

sentence complexity;

use of subordinate clauses and conjunctions;

use of reported speech;

use of first and second person pronouns;

use of tenses;

use of questions and other alternatives to ordinary statements

(eg suffice it to say …;…, don’t you? …thought Wolfie …);

use of names (eg Mr Wolf, The Big Bad Wolf,Wolfie);

use of vocabulary (eg childish – scampered, prettiest; racey –

chill out; etc.).

Capital letters are used:

TO BEGIN SENTENCES

TO BEGIN PROPER NOUNS

TO BEGIN WORDS IN TITLES

TO BEGIN WORDS OF EXCLAMATION

TO BEGIN WORDS HE, HIM, HIS WHEN

REFERRING TO GOD

TO WRITE THE PRONOUN ‘I’

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Grammatical feature

Clauses

Definition Example

A clause is either a complete sentence, or part of a sentence that could be used, with small changes, as a complete sentence.

Main clause: My sister is older than me.

Subordinate: My sister is older than me and she is very annoying.

Cohesive device

For further details on Subordinate Clauses see below.

Embedded clause: My sister, who is very annoying, is older than me.

Some clauses embed additional information, but will not stand alone as a full sentence. These are called ‘embedded clauses’.

Cohesive devices are words that make clear how a text’s parts are related to one another. Some words such as determiners and pronouns are especially important for building cohesion because they refer back to earlier words. Other words such as prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs (connectives) make relations clear.

A visit has been arranged for the Year 6 class, to Mountain Peaks

Field Study Centre, on July 18th, leaving school at 9.30am. This is an overnight visit. ... The centre has extensive grounds in which a nature trail has been designed. During the afternoon, the children will follow the nature trail.

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Grammatical feature

Colon

Definition Example

Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for

example, or that is do not appear.

Examples:

You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.

I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.

I want an assistant who can do the following: (1) input data, (2) write reports, and (3) complete tax forms.

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Commas

Complex sentences

Compound sentences

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Use a colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences when the second sentence explains or illustrates the first sentence and no coordinating conjunction is being used to connect the sentences. If only one sentence follows the colon, do not capitalize the first word of the new sentence. If two or more sentences follow the colon, capitalize the first word of each sentence following.

Examples:

I enjoy reading: novels by Philip K Dick are among my favorites.

Garlic is used in Italian cooking: It greatly enhances the flavor of pasta dishes. It also enhances the flavor of an aubergine.

Commas are used in lists (nouns, verbs, adjectives), to mark off embedded clauses; after a subordinate clause; with many connecting adverbs.

List: It was an itsty, bitsy, teenie weenie, yellow, polka dot bikini.

Embedded clauses e.g. Jill, my boss, is 28 years old.

After a subordinate clause, e.g. Although it was cold, we didn’t

wear coats.

With many connecting adverbs, e.g. Anyway, in the end I decided

not to go.

Complex sentence - contains a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

Although it was late, I wasn’t tired. My Gran (who is as wrinkled as a walnut) is one hundred years old.

For further examples refer to

clauses.

Compound sentence – two or more clauses joined by a conjuction: and, but or so. The main clauses are both/all main clauses – there is equal weighting to both clauses.

It was late but I wasn’t tired.

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Grammatical feature

Definition Example

Conditional

Conjunction

Connectives

A conditional sentence is one in which one thing depends upon another.

Conditional sentences often contain the conjunction if, e.g. If you

leave me now, you’ll take away the biggest part of me. Other conjunctions are unless, providing,

provided and so long as.

A conditional sentence can refer to an imaginary situation, e.g. I

would help you if I could.

(but in fact I can’t) What would you do if I sang out of key?

The term ‘conditional’ is sometimes used to refer to the form

would + verb, e.g. would go,

would help.

A conjunction joins words, phrases or sentences together.

Example 1: and, but, for, whereas, either, neither, nor, or, both

Example 2: refer to clauses

There are two main types:

1) Conjunctions which join similar parts of speech and clauses of equal value.

2) Conjunctions which join main clauses to subordinate clauses.

‘Connective’ is an informal name for words whose main function is to connect the ideas expressed in different clauses ; such words may be prepositions , conjunctions or adverbs .

Cause and effect:

It rained on sports day so we had to compete without worrying

about getting wet, but it was great fun because we got really muddy.

because, as a result of, then, therefore, accordingly, for

Connectives, types of:

Choices: or, on the other hand, either or, another, otherwise, alternatively

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Compare and contrast:

Conclusions

Linking

Order but, or, however, likewise, otherwise, similarly, yet, on the other hand, not withstanding, the opposing view the findings are, in summary, hence, thus, on the whole, in the main, in conclusion moreover, besides, in the same way, likewise, what is more, additionally, as well as finally, after this, next, then, firstly, secondly, presently, subsequently, eventually, then

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Grammatical feature

Co-ordinating connectives

Subordinating connectives

Determiner

Ellipses

Homophones

Homonyms

Hyphen

Definition Example

Phrases which are connected with equal weighting, are linked as equals by means of a conjunction such as ‘and’ or ‘or’.

Subordinating connectives introduce subordinate clauses. Examples include:

although, because if, since, when, while, etc.

E.g. the, a, this, any, my

A determiner stands before a noun and any other words that modify the noun. A singular noun such as boy requires a determiner, so we can say with the boy but not: with boy. (See also: possessive .)

Punctuation mark used to show the omission of a word or phrase from a sentence that is understand from contextual cues.

Susan and Anna met in a café.

Susan got on the bus but Anna walked.

I can’t tell you whether I’m able to attend until I hear back from

Libby.

I’ll serve dinner when your brother gets home.

This is an overnight visit. Your child will be travelling by coach and will be accompanied by Mrs Talib, the class teacher, and her teaching assistant, Mrs Medway.

Stop, in the name of …

It can also be used to show the passage of time.

Two words are homophones if they have the same pronunciation but different spelling.

Two words that have the same spelling

You’re just too good to be true …

Flash!

and pronunciation but different meaning.

The meaning is contextual.

Hyphens are used to link words and parts of words. They are not as common today as they used to be, but there are three main cases where you should use them:

• in compound words to join prefixes to other words to show word breaks

Hyphens are used in many compound words to show that the component words have a combined meaning (e.g. a pick-me-up,

mother-in-law, good-hearted) or that there is a relationship between the words that make up the compound: for example,

rock-forming minerals are minerals that form rocks. But you don’t need to use them in every type of compound word.

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Grammatical feature

Infinitive

Modify

Noun

Definition Example 3

To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurp—all of these are infinitives.

T o + v e r b = infinitive

Important Note: Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, es, ed, or ing

An infinitive will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this: to the end. Ever!

If one word modifies another, the modifying word stands as near as possible to the modified word and makes the latter’s meaning more specific.

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Whatever exists, can be named, and that name is a noun..

In class teacher, teacher is modified by class so it means ‘class teacher’ (a kind of teacher).

A proper noun, which names a specific person, place, or thing

(Carlos, Queen Marguerite, Middle East, Jerusalem, Malaysia,

Presbyterianism, God, Spanish, Buddhism, the Republican Party), is almost always capitalised. A proper noun used as an addressed person's name is called a

noun of address

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A common noun is the name attributed to generic things.

Abstract nouns are the kind of words that are intangible, such as

warmth, justice, grief, and peace. Abstract nouns are sometimes troublesome for non-native writers because they can appear with determiners or without: "Peace settled over the countryside." "The skirmish disrupted the peace that had settled over the countryside."

Collective nouns are composed of more than one individual person or items (jury, team, class, committee, herd).

Object

(see sentence)

A verb ’s object is normally a noun or pronoun which is found immediately after the verb, and which we expect to find there. Objects can be turned into the subject of a passive verb, and cannot be adjectives.

They designed a nature trail.

(Compare: A nature trail was designed)

Not: They designed pretty.

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Grammatical feature

Paragraphing

Definition Example

Paragraphs clarify the organisation of a piece of writing, making it easier to read and understand. The basis of paragraph organisation is semantic. In constructing paragraphs a writer assists the reader by

‘chunking’ related thoughts or ideas.

In starting another paragraph the writer often signals a shift to something ‘new’ – for example, a different stage of the narrative, a different time or a different location.

Many people have strong feelings about fox hunting. Although many foxes are killed every year, people say it’s a sport. Some people are in favour and some are not. Here are some of the viewpoints.

Farmers say that fox hunting is helping them. This is because less chickens and sheep are killed because there are less foxes. It also costs them a lot of money to buy new chickens or sheep. They have to pay for repairs of any damage the foxes have done.

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Grammatical feature

Parenthesis

Definition Example

A word or phrase inserted as an explanation or afterthought into a passage which is grammatically complete without it, in writing usually marked off by brackets, dashes, or commas: in a challenging

parenthesis, Wordsworth comments on the evil effects of contemporary developments

When something is put ‘in parenthesis’ it is separated off from the main part of the sentence by a pair of brackets, commas, or dashes. This is usually because it contains information or ideas that are not essential to an understanding of the sentence:

With the homeless now crowding the streets of cities that once hardly knew them (like Portland, Oregon), Clinton has effectively criminalized the poor.

or because they form a comment by the author on the rest of the sentence:

A pair of round brackets ( ) used to mark off a parenthetical word or phrase: the

stage number is added in parentheses to the name or formula

The poor, says Clinton (he means blacks and Hispanics), have been ‘demotivated’ by welfare and forced into a ‘welfare’ culture.

Brackets are the most formal (and most obvious) way of showing parenthesis:

With the homeless now crowding the streets of cities that once hardly knew them (like Portland, Oregon), Clinton has effectively criminalized the poor.

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Commas are less forceful:

With the homeless now crowding the streets of cities that once hardly knew them, like Portland, Oregon, Clinton has effectively criminalized the poor.

Dashes are the least formal:

With the homeless now crowding the streets of cities that once hardly knew them — like Portland, Oregon — Clinton has effectively criminalized the poor.

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Grammatical feature

Passive voice

Definition Example

A passive verb (a verb ‘in the passive voice’ – contrast ‘ active voice ’) normally has a suffix ed, follows the verb be, and has its normal (‘active’) object and subject reversed so that the active object is used as the passive subject, and the active subject appears as an optional by phrase.

A visit was arranged.

The school(s) arranged a visit (o). Is written in the active.

A visit(s) was arranged by the school (o). Is written in the passive.

A phrase is a small group of words that adds meaning to a word. A phrase is not a

sentence

because it is not a complete idea with a

subject

and a

predicate

.

Adjective phrase

Adverbial phrase

Noun phrase

In an adjective phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about an

adjective

.

• so very sweet

earnest in her desire very happy with his work

In an adverb phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about an

adverb

.

especially softly

formerly of the city of Perth much too quickly to see clearly

In a noun phrase, one or more words work together to give more information about a noun.

all my dear children the information age seventeen hungry lions in the rocks

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Grammatical feature

Pluralisation regular

Definition Example

Verb phrase In a verb phrase, one or more words work together to give more meaning to a

verb

. In English, the verb phrase is very

complex

, but a good description of its many forms can be found

here

.

The plural form of most nouns is created simply by adding the letter 's' to the end of the word .

Nouns that end in -ch, -x, -s, -sh add '-es' to the end of the word.

For example:-

• bag - bags dog - dogs horse - horses minute - minutes

or example:-

• box - boxes boss - bosses bush - bushes church - churches gas - gases

Most nouns ending in -o preceded by a consonant also form their plurals by adding '-es' .

Nouns that end in a single 'z', add '-zes' to the end of the word.

For example:-

• potato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes volcano - volcanoes

For example:

Nouns ending in a consonant + y, drop

the y and add '-ies'.

• quiz - quizzes

For example:-

• party - parties | lady - ladies

Most nouns ending in 'is', drop the 'is' and add '-Esc'.

For example:

Crisis - crises | hypothesis - hypotheses | oasis - oases.

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Grammatical feature

Pluralisation - irregular

Definition Example

Most nouns ending in -f or -fe, drop the f and add 'ves'.

For example:-

• Calf - calves | half - halves | wolf - wolves

But this isn't a hard and fast rule:-

There are also a lot of common nouns that have irregular plurals.

Belief - beliefs (believes is a verb form)

Brief - briefs

Chef - chefs

Proof - proofs

Roof - roofs

Cafe - cafes

• Safe - safes (saves is a verb form)

For example:-

child - children | person - people | man - men | woman - women

Most common nouns connected with human beings seem to be irregular.

Other irregular common nouns are:foot - feet | goose - geese | mouse - mice | tooth - teeth

Predicate

Some nouns have identical plural and singular forms.

For example:-

• aircraft - aircraft | fish - fish | headquarters - headquarters | sheep - sheep | species - species

There is an aircraft in the hangar.

In the plural form they still take a plural verb (are / were):-

There are some aircraft in the hangar.

There was a fish in the tank.

The predicate usually follows the subject , tells what the subject does, has, or is, what

There were some fish in the tank.

is done to it, or where it is.It is the action or description that occurs in the sentence.

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Grammatical feature

Predicate - continued

Definition

Simple predicate - a complete verb (a verb and any helping verbs) stand was dancing could have sung is sleeping

Preposition

Pronoun

Example 3

Complete predicate - a simple predicate plus all modifiers

Compound predicate – two or more predicates with the same subject s it on the couch was singing sweetly could have danced across the floor was reading loudly was singing quietly and sweetly could have danced across the floor and stayed awake all night sit on the couch or sit on the floor play cards or watch television

Prepositions are words such as ‘in’ and

‘on’. They show you the relationship between two things. They often tell you where one thing is in relation to another.

• About, above, across, after, against, along, amid, amidst, among, amongst, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, betwixt, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, over, round, since, though,

The preposition is placed before a noun or pronoun.

A pronoun is any word that replaces a noun in a sentence. till, to, towards, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, with, within, without.

For example:

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Personal pronouns are the means of identifying speakers:

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Reflexive pronouns always end in self or selves, reflect the meaning of a noun or pronoun elsewhere in the clause, e.g. myself, yourself

Possessive pronouns express ownership and appear in two forms.

For example:

John shaved himself.

For example:

My, your, his etc can be used as determiners in a noun phrase: my bike, her car.

They can also be used on their own: This is mine.

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Grammatical feature

Pronouns: personal

Definition Example

Reciprocal pronouns are used to express a

‘two way’ relationship: each other, one another.

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions about personal nouns: who, whom, whose, which, what

The first person includes the speaker of the message: me, myself, I, my, mine, we, us our (s), ourselves

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Question

Reported Speech

The second person includes the addressee but excludes the speaker or writer: You, your(s), yourself, yourselves

The third person refers to ‘third parties’: excluding the speaker, writer or addressee

‘It’ is part of the personal pronoun system, even though it refers to non-personal

He, him, his, himself, she, her(s), herself, it, its, itself, they, them, their(s), themselves entities.

Questions are sentences which seek information. They fall into three main types, depending on the kind or reply they expect, and on how they are constructed.

Sentences formed in these ways are said to have an interrogative structure.

Yes - no questions: allow an affirmative and negative reply, often just yes or no.

Wh - questions: allow a reply from a wide range of possibilities.

They begin with a question word, such as what, why, where or how.

When you are writing what someone said, you can use reported speech rather than direct speech.

Alternative questions require a reply which relates to the options given in the sentence. They always contain the connecting word or. Will you travel by train or boat?

“I feel sick” said Ben to Bill.

would change to this:

This means you just report what was said: Ben told Bill that he felt sick.

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Grammatical feature

Semi colon

Sentence

Definition Example

A punctuation mark used to form a bond between two statements, typically when they are related to or contrast each other.

I gnaw on old tyres. It strengthens my jaw so I’ll be better conditioned for bear combat.

BECOMES

A complete sentence has at least a

subject

and a main

verb

to state (declare) a complete thought.

A sentence may convey a statement, question, command or exclamation.

I gnaw on old tyres; it strengthens my jaw so I’ll be better conditioned for bear combat.

Short example: Walker walks. A subject is the noun that is doing the main verb. The main verb is the verb that the subject is doing.

In English and many other languages, the first word of a written sentence has a capital letter. At the end of the sentence there is a full stop or full point (American: 'period').

Simple sentence

A one clause sentence is called a simple sentence.

Is this the way to Amarillo?

Speech marks

(inverted commas)

You use inverted commas to show the exact words someone has spoken. If the speech comes at the start of a sentence it is followed by a comma, which goes inside the inverted commas:

“I love you,” purred Leia.

Han replied, “I know.”

Standard English

If the spoken words are at the end, put a comma before the speech begins:

The variety of English that is generally acknowledged as the model for the speech and writing of educated speakers.

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Grammatical feature

Subordinate clause

Definition

The subordinate clause—also called a

dependent clause—will begin with a

subordinate conjunction

or a

relative pronoun

and will contain both a

subject

and a

verb

.

Example

When you attach a subordinate clause in front of  a

main clause

, use a comma, like this:

s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e + , + m a i n c l a u s e .

This combination of words will not form a

complete sentence

. It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.

Even though the broccoli was covered in cheddar cheese

,

Emily refused to eat it.

Unless Christine finishes her calculus homework

, she will have to suffer Mr. Nguyen's wrath in class tomorrow.

Subordinate clause (cont.)

While Bailey slept on the sofa in front of the television

,

Samson, the family dog, gnawed on the leg of the coffee table.

When you attach a subordinate clause at the end of a main clause, you will generally use no punctuation, like this:

m a i n c l a u s e + Ø + s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e .

Tanya did poorly on her history exam Ø

because her best friend Giselle insisted on gossiping during their study session the night before

.

Jonathan spent his class time reading comic books Ø

since his average was a 45 one week before final exams

.

Diane decided to plant tomatoes in the back of the yard Ø

where the sun blazed the longest during the day

.

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Grammatical feature

Subject verb agreement

Verbs

Definition Example 3 4

Verbs change depending on their ‘person’

– the speaker (first), the person spoken to

(second), or the person spoken about

(third). Different types of text are written in a particular person (see above).

Verbs are a necessary component of all

sentences

.

To ensure grammatical agreement in speech and writing of pronouns and verbs, e.g. I am, we, are, in standard English.

My grumpy old English teacher

smiled

at the plate of cold meatloaf.

Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways.

My grumpy old English teacher

= subject;

smiled

= verb.

The daredevil cockroach

splashed

into Sara's soup.

The daredevil cockroach

= subject;

splashed

= verb.

The important thing to remember is that every

subject

in a sentence must have a verb. Otherwise, you will have written a

fragment

, a major writing error.

Theo's overworked computer sparks.

exploded

in a spray of

Theo's overworked computer

= subject;

exploded

= verb.

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The curious toddler

popped

a grasshopper into her mouth.

The curious toddler

= subject;

popped

= verb.

Francisco's comic book collection

is

worth £20,000.00.

Francisco's comic book collection

= subject;

is

= verb.

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Grammatical feature

Verbs -continued

Definition Example 3 4

Consider word function when you are looking for a verb.

Potato chips crunch too loudly to eat during an exam.

Many words in English have more than one function. Sometimes a word is a noun , sometimes a verb, sometimes a modifier .

As a result, you must often analyze the job a word is doing in the sentence. Look at these two examples:

The crunch of the potato chips drew the angry glance of

Professor Orsini to our corner of the room.

Crunch crunch

is something that we can do. We can under our shoes. We can crunch crunch is what the potato chips do, so we can call it a verb.

cockroaches

popcorn during a movie. We can

numbers for a math class. In the first sentence, then, crunch

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Even though crunch is often a verb, it can also be a noun. The crunch of the potato chips, for example, is a thing, a sound that we can hear. You therefore need to analyze the function that a word provides in a sentence before you determine what grammatical name to give that word.

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Grammatical feature

Verbs - continued

Definition Example

Know an

action

verb when you see one.

Clyde sneezes with the force of a tornado.

Sneezing is something that Clyde can do.

Dance ! Sing ! Paint ! Giggle ! Chew ! What are these words doing? They are expressing action, something that a person, animal, force of nature, or thing can do. As a result, words like these are called action verbs . Look at the examples below:

Because of the spoiled mayonnaise, Ricky salad all day.

Vomiting enjoy it.

vomited potato

is something that Ricky can do—although he might not

Sylvia always winks at cute guys driving hot cars.

If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence and ask yourself, "Is this something that a person or thing can do?" Take this sentence, for example:

Winking is something that Sylvia can do.

The telephone rang with shrill, annoying cries.

Ringing is something that the telephone can do.

During the summer, my poodle constantly pants and drools.

Can you during ? Is during something you can do? Can you the ? Is there someone theing outside the window right now? Can you summer ? Do your obnoxious neighbors keep you up until 2 a.m. because they are summering ? Can you my ? What does a person do when she's mying ? Can you poodle ? Show me what poodling is. Can you pant ? Bingo! Sure you can! Run five miles and you'll be panting. Can you and ? Of course not! But can you drool ? You bet—although we don't need a demonstration of this ability. In the sentence above, therefore, there are two action verbs: pant and drool .

Thunder boomed in the distance, sending my poor dog scrambling under the bed.

Booming is something that thunder can do.

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22, 30

5

GfW

37

6

Grammatical feature

Definition Example 3 4

Verbs - continued

Know a

linking

verb when you see one.

Linking verbs , on the other hand, do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of a verb to additional information about the subject.

Mario is a computer hacker.

Ising isn't something that Mario can do. Is connects the subject,

Mario , to additional information about him, that he will soon have the FBI on his trail.

During bad storms, trailer parks are often magnets for tornadoes.

GfW

1,2, 7,

14

GfW

22, 30

Areing isn't something that trailer parks can do. Are is simply connecting the subject, trailer parks , to something said about them, that they tend to attract tornadoes.

5

GfW

37

After receiving another failing grade in algebra, Jose became depressed.

Became connects the subject, Jose , to something said about him, that he wasn't happy.

A three-mile run seems like a marathon during a hot, humid

July afternoon.

Seems connects the subject, a three-mile run , with additional information, that it's more arduous depending on the day and time.

At restaurants, Rami always feels angry after waiting an hour for a poor meal.

Feels connects the subject, Rami , to his state of being, anger.

6

Grammatical feature

Definition

any form of the verb be [ am , were , has been , are being , might have been , etc.], become , and seem . These true linking verbs are always linking verbs.

Then you have a list of verbs with multiple personalities: appear , feel , grow , look , prove , remain , smell , sound , taste , and turn . Sometimes these verbs are linking verbs; sometimes they are action verbs.

Their function in a sentence decides what you should call them.

Example 3 4 5

GfW

1,2, 7,

14

GfW

22, 30

GfW

37

6

Grammatical feature

Verbs - continued

Definition Example

How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs?

Chris tasted the crunchy, honey-roasted grasshopper.

Chris is the grasshopper? I don't think so! In this sentence then, tasted is an action verb.

If you can substitute am , is , or are for the verb and the sentence still sounds logical, you have a linking verb on your hands. But if, after the substitution, the sentence

The crunchy, honey-roasted grasshopper tasted

The grasshopper is good? You bet. Roast your own!

good.

makes no sense, you are dealing with an action verb. Here are some examples:

I smell the delicious aroma of the grilled octopus.

I am the delicious aroma? Not the last time I checked. Smell , in this sentence, is an action verb.

3 4 5

GfW

1,2, 7,

14

GfW

22, 30

GfW

37

The aroma of the grilled octopus smells appetizing.

The aroma is appetizing? Definitely! Come take a whiff!

The students looked at the equation until their brains hurt.

The students are the equation? Of course not! Here, looked is an action verb.

The equation looked hopelessly confusing.

The equation is confusing? Without a doubt! You try it.

This substitution will not work for appear . With appear , you have to analyze the function of the verb.

6

Grammatical feature

Definition Example 3 4

Verbs - continued

Verbs - auxiliary

Realize that a verb can have more than one part.

Check out the examples below:

Harvey spilled chocolate milkshake on Leslie's new dress.

You must remember that verbs can have more than one part. In fact, a verb can have as many as four parts. A multi-part verb has a base or main part as well as additional helping or auxiliary verbs with it.

Because Harvey is a klutz, he is always spilling something.

Harvey might have spilled the chocolate milkshake because the short dress distracted him.

Auxiliary verbs always precede the main verb. verbs because they tell you what to do.

We put imperative verbs at the beginning of a sentence, which automatically changes them into commands or actions that must be done. We can leave out much of the normal language of a sentence so we get to the point a lot quicker.

Harvey should have been spilling the chocolate milkshake down his throat.

Forms of the verbs be, do and have which are used to create the different tenses in English: am/is/are/was/were eating/ being eaten; do/does/did eat; has/have/had eaten/ been eaten.

SATNAV equipment is one example where we need the instruction to be quick, direct and 'bossy.' We also see imperatives in recipes,

'how to...' guides and sometimes even manuals for building flatpack furniture.

GfW

1,2, 7,

14

GfW

22, 30

Verb tenses

The commands are usually very short sentences and are acted upon immediately. When we read or hear instructions, we want them to be quick and snappy so we can act upon them straight away.

Past tense

A past tense verb (a verb in the past tense)

She waved to her mother and watched her as she

disappeared into the fog. normally has a suffix -ed, names an event or state in the past and is a finite verb.

Some verbs have irregular morphology.

I knew that today was Sunday.

5

GfW

37

GfW

37

6

Grammatical feature

Definition Example

Present tense

A present-tense verb (a verb in the present tense) normally names a situation that is true now. It normally has either no suffix or -s (depending on the subject), and is a finite verb.

The centre has extensive grounds.

He can swim.

Future tense

There is no future tense ending in English

(unlike Latin and some other languages).

English expresses future time by a variety of other means.

When he arrives, he will unpack his bag.

One of these - the use if will or shall - is often loosely referred to as the ‘future tense’. But this usage changes the meaning of the word ‘tense’ so that it no longer refers only to the use of verbs.

Verbs - finite

The finite forms of the verb are those which signal contrasts of number, tense, person and mood+.

+ Moods show whether a clause is expressing a factual, nonfactual or directive meaning.

If there is a series of verbs in the verb phrase, the finite verb is always the first.

I was being kicked. They have been kicked.

Show a contrast in tense:

She works in London. She worked in London.

Show a contrast in number and person:

He works. They work. I am. You are.

Allow the expression of facts, possibilities wishes, and other contrasts of mood:

He asked that the car be moved. It was moved.

3 4 5 6

Grammatical feature

Verbs - nonfinite

Definition Example

Nonfinite forms do not express contrasts of tense, number, person, or mood. These

There are three nonfinite forms of the verb: forms therefore stay myth same in a clause, regardless of any grammatical variation which may be taking place alongside it.

The -ing participle:

I’m going. They’re going. He was going. Going home, I/ we/they felt concerned.

Voice -

The -ed participle:

I’ve asked. He was asked. They were asked. Asked to come home early, I/you/we arrived at 3.

The base from used as an infinitive:

When it comes to writing in English, there are two main styles of writing – formal and informal. Consider these two examples:

They might see. I’ll see. He wants to see.

Example 1: This is to inform you that your book has been rejected by our publishing company as it was not up to the required standard. In case you would like us to reconsider it, we would suggest that you go over it and make some necessary changes.

The difference between the two is obvious.

The first one is formal, and the second is informal. But what is it that makes them formal and informal?

Example 2: You know that book I wrote? Well, the publishing company rejected it. They thought it was awful. But hey, I did the best I could, and I think it was great. I’m not gonna redo it the way they said I should.

The way we write in academic and scientific settings differs greatly from the way we write to a friend or close one. The tone, vocabulary, and syntax, all change as the occasion changes. This difference in the styles of writing is the difference between formality and informality, or the difference between formal and informal writing. 

3 4 5 6

Grammatical feature

Voice - informal

Definition Example

Informal: May use colloquial words/expressions (kids, guy,

awesome, a lot, etc.).

Informal: May use contractions (can’t, won’t, shouldn’t, etc.).

Informal: May use first, second, or third person.

Informal: May use clichés (loads of, conspicuous by absence, etc.)

Informal: May address readers using second person pronouns

(you, your, etc)

Informal: May use abbreviated words (photo, TV, etc)

Informal: May use imperative voice (e.g. Remember….)

Informal: May use active voice (e.g. We have noticed that…..)

Informal: May use short and simple sentences.

Informal: Difficulty of subject may be acknowledged and empathy shown to the reader.

3 4 5 6

Grammatical feature

Definition Example 3 4 5 6

Voice - formal

Formal: Avoid using colloquial words/expressions (substitute with

children, man/boy, wonderful, many, etc.)

Formal: Avoid contractions (write out full words – cannot, will not,

should not, etc.).

Formal: Write in third person (except in business letters where first person may be used).

Formal: Avoid clichés (use many, was absent, etc.)

Formal: Avoid addressing readers using second person pronouns

(use one, one’s, the reader, the reader’s, etc.)

Formal: Avoid using abbreviated words (use full versions – like

photograph, television, etc.)

Formal: Avoid imperative voice (use Please refer to.….).

Formal: Use passive voice (e.g. It has been noticed that….).

Formal: Longer and more complex sentences are preferred (short simple sentences reflects poorly on the writer).

Formal: State your points confidently and offer your argument firm support.

These are just some of the differences between formal and informal writing. The main thing to remember is that both are correct, it is just a matter of tone and setting. Formal

English is used mainly in academic writing and business communications, whereas Informal English is casual and is appropriate when communicating with friends and other close ones. Choose the style of writing keeping in mind what you are writing and to whom. Whichever style you write in – formal or informal – be sure to keep it consistent, do not mix the two.

Key: Year group

1

2

5

6

3

4

Word structure

Grammar and punctuation Years 1 to Year 6: Draft.

Sentence structure Text structure Punctuation

Regular plural noun suffixes - s or -Esc

How words can combine to make sentences

Suffixes that can be added to verbs (helping, helped, helper)

How the prefix un - changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives

Formation of nouns using suffixes such as -ness, -er

Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as, -flu, -less

Use of the suffixes -re and -set to form comparisons of adjectives and adverbs

How and can join words and sentences

Sequencing sentences to form short narratives.

The consistent use of present tense throughout texts

Subordination (using when, if, that or because) and coordination (using or, and, or but)

Expanded noun phrases for description and specification

(e.g. The blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon)

Use of the continuous form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress (e.g. She is drumming, he was shouting).

Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group related materials

Sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command.

Heading and sub-headings to aid presentation

Expressing time and cause using conjunctions (e.g. When, before, after, while, because), adverbs (e.g. Then, next, soon, so), or prepositions (e.g.

Before, after, during, in, because of)

Use of the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

Terminology for Pupils

Separation of words with spaces

Introduction to the use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences.

Capital letters for names and the personal pronoun I

Word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark

Verb tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma

Word family, conjunction, adverb, preposition, direct speech, inverted commas, prefix, consonant, vowel, clause, subordinate clause

Pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial

Capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

Commas to separate items in a list

Relative cause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity

Apostrophes to mark contracted forms in spelling

Active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi-colon, bullet points

Word structure Sentence structure

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes - super -, anti

-, auto -

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within a sentence to avoid ambiguity and repetition

Use of the determiners a or an according to whether the word begins with a consonant or a vowel

Fronted adverbials, e.g. On the table stood a vase of flowers.

Word families based on common words

Relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, why or whose

Text structure Punctuation

Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme

Introduction to speech marks to punctuate direct speech.

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun across sentences

Use of speech marks to punctuate direct speech

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph (e.g.

Firstly, then, after that, this)

The grammatical difference between plural and possessive

-s

Indicating degrees of possibility using modal verbs

(e.g. Might, should, will, must) or adverbs (e.g. Perhaps, surely)

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time (e.g. Later,), place

(e.g. Nearby) and number

(e.g. Secondly)

Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms (e.g. We were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done)

Use of the passive voice to affect the presentation of information in a sentence (e.g.

I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken)

Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: semantic cohesion (e.g.

Repetition of a word or phrase), grammatical connections (e.g. The use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence), and elision.

Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes (e.g. ate, -ise, -ify)

Expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely (e.g. The

boy that jumped over the

fence is over there, or The fact

that it was raining meant the end of sports day)

Layout devices such as headings, columns, bullets, or tables to structure text.

Apostrophes to mark singular and plural possession (e.g.

The girl’s name, the boys’ boots)

Use of commas after fronted adverbials (e.g. Later that day, I heard the bad news.)

Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

Use of commas to clarify meaning and avoid ambiguity

Terminology for Pupils

Word structure

Verb prefixes (e.g. Dis, de, mis, over, and, re)

The difference between vocabulary typical or informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing (e.g. Said versus reported, alleged or claimed in formal speech or writing)

Sentence structure

The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (such as the use of question tags, e.g. He is your friend, isn’t he? Or the use of the subjunctive in some very formal writing and speech)

Text structure Punctuation

Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to indicate a stronger diversion of a sentence than a comma.

Terminology for Pupils

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity (e.g. Man eating shark versus man-eating shark or recover versus recover.

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