Lessons 1 and 9 - Logic of English

Lessons 1 and 9 - Logic of English
93
Lesson 1
Phonograms
to
z
Exploring Sounds
Consonants, Vowels, & Multi-Letter Consonants
Spelling Rules
Spelling Rules 11 & 21
Grammar
1 Nouns, 1.1 Singular Nouns, 1.2 Plural Nouns
Vocabulary
Level C
Day 1
1.1
a
con-
pact
sist
ab-
tract
flict
tent
Essential Concepts
Phonograms
All
Introducing the Logic of English
Introduce the Logic of English using the following script.
Every word is made up of sounds. These sounds are rearranged to
form words. An individual sound is called a phoneme.
Do you hear the word phone in phoneme? yes
What other words do you know that have phone in them? telephone, megaphone, phonograph, cell phone
What do you think phone means? Phone means sound.
What are some of the phonemes in English? /m/, /n/, /s/
Do you know how many sounds are in English?
There are 45.
Write on the board: 45
plex
sounds
Written words are a visual code for spoken words. Since each word is
made up of phonemes (which are sounds), the most basic symbols
on the page represent phonemes. These written symbols of sounds
are called phonograms.
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Materials
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards
a to z
1 set of A-Z Phonogram Game
Cards per student
Spelling Rule Card 11
Challenge
45 Sounds
Challenge the students to
identify all 45 sounds. Many
students will not realize that
some sounds like /zh/ and the
voiced /TH/ are even part of
the language.
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Do you hear the word phone in phonogram? yes
What does phone mean? sound
Do you hear the word gram in phonogram? yes
What other words do you know that have gram in them? telegram,
pictogram, tangram
What do you think gram means? Gram means picture.
Phonograms are pictures of sounds. All written words in English
are made up of phonograms which provide us with clues as to how
the word will be pronounced.
Many people have been taught the sounds of the letters. How many
letters are in the alphabet? twenty-six
Write 26
letters on the board:
Do you see a problem? There are more sounds than letters.
Lesson 1
Teacher Tip
The units of meaning are called morphemes. While the phonograms will provide us with clues about how a word sounds, morphemes provide us with clues to the meaning of the word.
Together, phonograms and morphemes provide powerful clues
that help us read and spell.
All
The sounds are listed on the
"Sound to Spelling" section of
the Phonogram and Spelling
Rule Quick Reference. The
sounds ăf, ĕd, gw, ŏf, sē, ŭf, and
wer are technically considered
two phonemes combined
together. The schwa (ә ), or
unstressed vowel sound, is also
not a separate phoneme, since
it makes the same sound as
short /ŭ/ or /ĭ/.
Some of the new sounds were probably taught to you as exceptions. That means every word that uses that sound would have been
taught as a sight word.
Teach all the sounds of A-Z using the Basic Phonogram Flash Cards.
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Only twenty-five of the phonograms are written with one letter.
The phonograms written with one letter are called single-letter phonograms. There are forty-nine multi-letter phonograms.
Are there more single-letter or more multi-letter phonograms in
English? more multi-letter phonograms
All
Phonogram Flash Cards
Practice reading the sounds of A-Z with flash cards.
1.2
All
Exploring Sounds
Optional Practice
Multi-Sensory Learning
Provide the student with a set
of Phonogram Game Cards.
Ask the student to sort them
into single-letter and multiletter phonograms. Count how
many of each there are.
Teacher Tip
Phonogram Sounds
Sample words for each sound
are provided as a teacher
reference on the back of the
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards.
Consonants & Vowels
What is a vowel? answers vary
Teacher Tip
Phonograms
For success in reading and
spelling, it is the sounds of the
phonograms that the students
must learn to the point of
automaticity.
New Phonograms A-Z
Today we will learn the phonograms A to Z. Some of these phonograms will say more than one sound.
I will show you a phonogram and say the sound or sounds. Repeat
the sound. Raise your hand if one or more of the sounds is new to
you.
What does this say? /kw/
How many letters are used to write /kw/? two
/kw/ is a multi-letter phonogram. A multi-letter phonogram is a
phonogram that uses two or more letters to represent a sound.
45 Phonemes
To solve this problem, some phonograms (sound pictures) will be
written with more than one letter. In English there are two types
of phonograms: single-letter phonograms and multi-letter phonograms. In Essentials, you will learn the 74 Basic Phonograms that explain 98% of English words.
In addition to phonemes, words are also made up of units of meaning. What are the two units of meaning we discussed in the word
phonogram? Phone means sound and gram means picture.
When you get to qu, show qu and use the following dialog.
Commonly people are taught that a vowel is A, E, I, O U, and sometimes Y. However, in English there are 15 vowel sounds and 25 ways
to write those sounds! Rather than memorize every vowel, it is much
better to learn the definition of a vowel.
Vowels are sounds that are made when our mouths are open. Vowels can be sustained, such as in singing. Vowels can be made louder
and softer.
What is a vowel? A vowel is a sound that is made with the mouth
open and that can be sustained (or sung). It can be made louder and
softer.
Consonants are sounds that are blocked by the lips, teeth, or tongue.
Most consonants cannot be sustained or sung. Most consonants
cannot be made louder and softer.
Teacher Tip
Phonograms
Always refer to phonograms by
their sounds. Do NOT refer to
the letter names.
What is a consonant? A consonant is a sound that is blocked and
cannot be sustained (or sung). It cannot be made louder or softer.
Model how to determine whether a phonogram is a vowel or a consonant using 5-10 of the A-Z phonograms. Be sure to test every sound
of the phonogram. Be sure to model Y and possibly I, since they have
both vowel and consonant sounds. For example:
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Teacher Tip
Vowels & Consonants
For more information, see
Uncovering the Logic of English,
Chapter 4: “Consonants,
Vowels, and Syllables.”
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
a
Lesson 1
Can you sing the second sound /ĭ/? yes
Can you make /ĭ/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
/ă-ā-ä/
Can you sing the first sound /ă/? yes
Can you make /ă/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is /ă/ a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
Can you sing the third sound /ī/? yes
Can you make /ī/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
Can you sing the second sound /ā/? yes
Can you make /ā/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
Can you sing the third sound /ä/? yes
Can you make /ä/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
b
/b/
/r/
When you pronounce /r/ be careful to say it as a quick, clipped sound.
You may even opt to cut off the sound by pretending your fingers are
scissors.
Can you sing /r/? Answers will vary.
/r/ is a consonant and it stops. We can think of it as being clipped or
cut off. /r/. It is not sustained. /r/. Say /r/. /r/
What is blocking the sound? my tongue
Try to say /r/ fast. /r/
In Lesson 3 we will learn a phonogram that is related but that can
be sustained.
Is /r/ a vowel or a consonant? consonant
y
How many consonant sounds does /y-ĭ-ī-ē/ make? one
How many vowel sounds does /y-ĭ-ī-ē/ say? three
Teacher Tip
Provide each student with the 26 A-Z cards from a set of Phonogram
Game Cards to sort into two stacks: consonants and vowels.
Isolating Sounds
Can you sing /b/? no
Can you make /b/ louder and softer? no
What is blocking the sound? my lips
Is it a consonant or a vowel sound? consonant
r
Can you sing the fourth sound /ē/? yes
Can you make /ē/ louder and softer? yes
Is your mouth open? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
/y-ĭ-ī-ē/
Can you sing the first sound /y/? no
Can you make /y/ louder and softer? no
What is blocking the sound? my tongue
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
Be sure to isolate the sound /b/.
It is not /bŭ/. Some students
will try to sing the /ŭ/ sound
and then argue it is a vowel.
Teacher Tip
R and ER
R is a consonant. It is sound
that is abrupt and clipped. ER is
a vowel. It can be sustained. ER
will be introduced in Lesson 3.
Which phonograms make a vowel sound? A, E, I, O, U, Y
Which phonograms are both a consonant and a vowel? I and Y
1.3
Rule 11: The Phonogram QU
Teacher Tip
Other Vowels
The multi-letter vowels and
multi-letter consonants will be
introduced in later lessons.
Spelling Rule 11
Q always needs a U; therefore,
U is not a vowel here.
Why isn't U a vowel in the phonogram /kw/? U is not a vowel because it is part of the multi-letter consonant /kw/. /kw/ is a sound
that is blocked; it cannot be sustained or made louder.
Teacher Tip
quit
quest
The phonogram I also has
three vowel sounds, /ĭ-ī-ē/, and
one consonant sound, /y/.
A few consonant sounds can
be sustained, such as /m/ and
/n/. These sounds, however,
are clearly blocked and are
therefore consonants. They
cannot be sustained with the
mouth open.
Which multi-letter phonogram did we find in the alphabet? /kw/
/kw/ is a multi-letter consonant. This also brings us to our first spelling rule: Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
Read each of the words as I write them on the board.
I and Y
/m/ and /n/
Spelling Rule
All
Let’s say the rule together three times.
Teacher Tip
Teacher Tip
quilt
quiz
From now on, when we find two letters that work together as one
phonogram, we will underline them. This is to help us remember
the letters are working together. Q and U work together to say /kw/.
quit
quest
quilt
quiz
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Letter Names
We do use letter names when
we talk about specific letters in
the spelling rules.
Optional Practice
Spelling Rule 11
• Create a poster to illustrate
Spelling Rule 11.
• Ask the students to teach
the rule to someone else.
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Day 2
1.4
All
•
1.5
All
use your knowledge of segmenting words, the phonograms, and
eventually the spelling rules in order to spell each word.
Building Words
Review
Phonogram Game: Phonogram Dragon
Set Up: Shuffle together the 26 A-Z phonograms from two sets of
Phonogram Game Cards plus 1 Dragon card (53 cards). Deal out all
the cards to the players (2-4 players per game). Some players may
have one more or one less card than others. Players should hold
their cards in a fan in their hand.
How to Play: Players look through their hand and lay down any
matches. As they lay down a match, they must read the sounds. To
begin play, the first player draws one card from the player of his
choice. If the card he draws matches one in his hand, he reads the
sound(s), lays the match down, and takes another turn. If a match is
not found, the player adds the new card to his hand. Play then moves
to the next player on his left. Play ends when someone lays down all
his cards. The player left holding the Dragon card loses.
•
Lesson 1
Exploring Sounds: 1.4 Consonants and Vowels – page 1
Open your workbook to page 1. Sort the phonograms into
consonants and vowels.
Introduction to Spelling Analysis
Single-Letter and Multi-Letter Phonograms
Provide the student with a set of A-Z Phonogram Game Cards.
Sort the phonograms into two piles. In the first pile, place all the single-letter phonograms. In the second pile, place all the multi-letter
phonograms.
The students should place qu in one pile and the rest of the phonograms in a second pile.
Today we will learn a process called Spelling Analysis. During Spelling Analysis we will discover how phonograms work together to
spell words. This is not a typical spelling list or spelling test where
you try to memorize how to spell a word by how it looks or by memorizing the letter names. Rather, it is a chance to discover why words
are spelled and read the way they are. This will help you to develop
the skills to spell any word.
During this process, I will teach you how to spell each word. But I will
not tell you how to spell it using letter names. You will also need to
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Materials
2 Phonogram Game Card sets
Dragon Card
Spelling Analysis Card
Finger Spelling
As you segment a word, I will give you hints about the spelling. One
hint that I will give you is that I will hold up one finger for each single-letter phonogram, and if a sound is spelled with a multi-letter
phonogram I will hold up the same number of fingers as there are
letters to spell that phonogram.
If you are sounding out a word with the phonogram /kw/ how many
fingers will I hold up? two
If you are sounding out a word with the phonogram /m/, how many
fingers will I hold up? one
Teacher Tip
Workbook Icon
The green book in the margin
signifies an exercise in the
Essentials Student Workbook.
See "Symbols" on page 17 for
a key to the symbols used in
this book.
Teacher Tip
Spelling Analysis
A more detailed guide to
teaching Spelling Analysis is
provided in the Introduction,
pages 17-34.
Let's try two words. Sound out the word mat. /m-ă-t/
Hold up one finger for each sound as the student sounds out mat.
Now sound out the word quit. /kw-ĭ-t/
Hold up two fingers for /kw/ and one finger for each of the other sounds
as the student sounds out quit.
Find the phonograms /k/ and /k-s/ and show them to me. The student shows k and c .
What do you notice about these phonograms? They both say /k/.
Spelling Hints
If you are spelling a word that uses one of these phonograms, I will
need to give you a hint about which one to use. I will do this by
pointing to my finger and repeating the phonogram sound(s) and
hints for the phonogram you should use.
For example, let's try the word kid.
Hold up one finger for each sound in kid. After the student says /k/,
point to that finger and say, "Use tall /k/."
Sound it out. /k-ĭ-d/ Use tall /k/.
Why do you think I called it tall /k/? It is taller than /k-s/.
Hold up one finger for each sound in cat. After the student says /k/,
point to that finger and say, "Use /k-s/."
Now sound out cat. /k-ă-t/ Use /k-s/.
Using your Phonogram Game Cards, find other pairs of phonograms
that I will need to provide a hint about how to spell, because they
share a sound.
i and y both say /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
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i
o
g
s
s
, y
and
and
and
, x
Lesson 1
, and e all say /ē/.
u both say /ö/.
j both say /j/.
c both say /s/.
, and z all say /z/.
Show me the phonogram /g-j/. g
This phonogram also has a rule that explains when it says each of its
sounds. The rule is: G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or
Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
Once again we will learn more about this rule in Lesson 15.
However, which sound of /g-j/ will be the most common? /g/
Why? It is the first sound.
Which two phonograms are left? /s-z/ and /ks-z/
Some phonograms, like s and x , do not have a rule that explains when each of the sounds is made. Whether or not we have a
rule to say which, knowing the different sounds a phonogram makes
enables us to explain the spelling and pronunciation of each word.
When you hear one of these sounds that have multiple options for
spelling, I will tell you which phonogram to use. I will say the sound
and then the hints for a phonogram. Show me the correct phonogram.
If a word includes the sound /ē/ and I say, "Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/," which
phonogram would you use? i
If a word includes the sound /ö/ and I say, "Use /ŏ-ō-ö/," which
phonogram should you use? o
If a word includes the sound /j/ and I say, "Use /g-j/," which
phonogram should you use? g
If a word includes the sound /y/ and I say, "Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/," which
phonogram should you use? y
If a word includes the sound /k/ and I say, "Use tall /k/," which
phonogram should you use? k
Spelling Analysis Tips for the Teacher:
One-Syllable Words
When teaching Spelling List 1.A you will use the steps listed on the
"One-Syllable Words" side of the Spelling Analysis Quick Reference. The
steps are also show below:
One-Syllable Words
Phonograms with Multiple Sounds
Find all the phonograms that say more than one sound. Set aside
the phonograms that make only one sound.
The students find: a
c
e
g
i
o
s
u
x
y .
Read the first sound of each of these phonograms.
The first sound is the most common sound.
What is a vowel sound? A vowel sound is produced with the mouth
open, it can be sung, and it can be made louder and softer.
How many of these phonograms make a vowel sound? six
In future lessons we will learn rules that explain when the vowels say
each of their sounds.
Set aside the phonograms that make a vowel sound.
Which phonograms that make more than one sound say only consonant sounds? c
g
s
x
Show me the phonogram /k-s/. c
This phonogram has a rule that explains when it says each of its
sounds. The rule is: C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or
Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
We will learn more about this rule in Lesson 15. What is most important to know now is that /k/ is the most common sound and there is
a rule that will tell us when C says /s/.
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Quick Reference
1
Say the word.
Key: Teacher Student
2
Read the sentence. Repeat the word.
33 Steps 3 and 4 are used only for multi-syllable words and
44 one-syllable words that include say-to-spell tips.
5
Spelling Rule 1
C always softens to /s/
when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, C says /k/.
cue which phonogram to use if there are multiple options.
7
The students write the word, sounding it out as they
write.
88 Help me write it. Write the word as the students
segment it aloud.
99 How do we mark it? While the students analyze the
spelling, mark the word on the board. The students also
mark the word in their books.
q
Spelling Rule 2
G may soften to /j/ only
when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, G says /g/.
Teacher Tip
Spelling Rules 1 & 2
Spelling Rules 1 and 2 are
included in the Analyze hints
each time a spelling word uses
a C or a G. Repeating the rules
will help prepare students for
Lesson 15.
Teacher Tip
Spelling Analysis
The steps for Spelling Analysis
are recorded on the Spelling
Analysis Quick Reference card
– a very useful Logic of English
tool! Keep it in your Teacher's
Guide as a bookmark!
For a detailed example see:
"Spelling Analysis" on page 20
in this Teacher's Guide.
The students say the word.
66 While the students segment the word, finger spell and
The students sound out the word and read it.
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101
Teacher Tip
Spelling List
A B or C ?
For guidance on which level
will be the best fit for your
student, see "Placement Test"
on page 44.
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Lesson 1
Spelling Analysis
2.
Spelling List 1 – page 2 Open your workbook to page 2.
A
The dog loves to play
fetch.
dog
All first sounds. 2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
1
dŏg
First, affirm the students' thinking and tell them that it makes sense to you. Then explain that when the
/n/ and /k/ sounds blend together they make a bit of the nasal sound like the phonogram NG, which they
will learn in Lesson 2. However, there are not any words in English spelled NGK or NGC. Rather, whenever they hear /n/ or /ng/ followed by the sound /k/ it will be spelled with an N followed by a K.
Model sounding out the words, pronouncing each of the sounds carefully. /p-ĭ-n-k/
Then practice spelling other words that end in the sounds /n-k/. bank, drank, sank, ink, blink, link, rink,
sink, stink, think, bonk, honk, hunk, plunk, skunk, spunk, trunk.
Next, say /ĕ/ and /ĭ/ and feel the position of your mouth. /ĕ/ is more forward and relaxed. /ĭ/ is further
back and more tense. Some dialects merge these sounds, saying tĕn as tĭn.
1
2
Sentence
map
Point to Los Angeles
on the map.
88
Write Segment
99
Analyze
map
All first sounds.
Vocabulary
hat
Dad forgot his hat on
the beach.
hat
All first sounds.
1
hăt
4.
fast
Jackson ran fast.
fast
All first sounds.
1
făst
33 44
Say to Spell
1
măp
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
/măp/
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
7
q
Read
Plural / Past Tense
N, V
maps, mapped
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/h-a-t/
/făst/
hats
/f-a-s-t/
bed
The hotel has a queen
size bed.
bed
All first sounds.
1
bĕd
/bĕd/
hand
Jules raised her hand.
hand
All first sounds.
1
hănd
/hănd/
beds, bedded
/h-a-n-d/
N, V
hands, handed
bag
The bag is red.
bag
All first sounds. 2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
1
băg
/băg/
/b-a-g/
N, V
8.
fasts, fasted
/b-e-d/
N, V
6.
Use /s-z/.
pink
The pink flower is
beautiful!
pink
All first sounds.
1
pĭnk
/pĭnk/
bags, bagged
/p-i-n-k/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use tall /k/.
/c-a-t/
Use /k-s/.
Adj
9.
cat
That is a funny cat!
cat
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
1
kăt
/kăt/
Write
/m-a-p/
Part of Speech
/hăt/
dogs
Adj, Adv, N, V
List 1.A
# Syllables
/d-o-g/
N
7.
If your student's dialect merges sounds, direct the student to "say-to-spell" the word by clearly articulating the vowel. Feeling the position of his/her own mouth can help the student produce the sound clearly.
The goal of Say to Spell is not to change the students' everyday pronunciation but to help them develop a
more accurate auditory “picture” of the word.
Spelling Analysis
3.
5.
/ĭ/ /ĕ/ /ē/
Some students mix up the spelling of these sounds and struggle to hear them clearly in words. The sounds
/ĭ/ and /ē/ are closely related. Say each sound and feel the position of your mouth. Notice that /ĭ/ is more relaxed and /ē/ is more tense. There is a range of sounds between these two. Because they are closely related,
some dialects shift the pronunciation of /ĭ/ or /ē/ closer to the other sound in some words. For example
some dialects say pĭnk as pēnk.
Word
/dŏg/
N
Tips for List 1.A
Words Ending in NK
Some students substitute the NG phonogram for words ending in the sounds /n-k/. For example, these
students will spell pink p-i-ng-k. If you say the words aloud, it is easy to understand their confusion.
1.
dog
N
10. leg
leg
His leg is broken.
1
lĕg
/lĕg/
cats
/l-e-g/
All first sounds. 2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
N
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legs
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
11. bad
bad
That is a bad apple.
1
băd
Lesson 1
/băd/
Spelling Analysis Tips Levels
/b-a-d/
Adj
12. soft
soft
1
sŏft
/sŏft/
/s-o-f-t/
Multi-Syllable Words
Adj
13. bat
bat
1
băt
/băt/
Quick Reference
/b-a-t/
qu ilt
I folded the quilt.
1
kwĭlt
/kwĭlt/
/qu-i-l-t/
last
Say the word.
bats, batted
2
Read the sentence. Repeat the word.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
33 How many syllables? The students count the syllables.
Underline /qu/. 11 Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
N, V
15. last
1
All first sounds.
N, V
14. quilt
The last piece is
missing.
C
Use /s-z/.
All first sounds.
The bat is next to the
ball.
&
When teaching Spelling List 1.B or 1.C you will use the steps listed on
the "Multi-Syllable Words" side of the Spelling Analysis Quick Reference.
The steps are also show below:
All first sounds.
The cat likes the soft
blanket.
B
1
lăst
/lăst/
quilts, quilted
/l-a-s-t/
44 Say to spell. Pause for syllable breaks and carefully
enunciate each syllable as written in the Say to Spell
column. The students repeat the say to spell.
5
All first sounds.
Adj, Adv, V, N
lasted
Key: Teacher Student
Hum the word or feel under the chin.
Use /s-z/.
The students say the first syllable.
66 While the students segment the first syllable, finger
spell and cue which phonogram to use if there are
multiple options.
Repeat steps 5 and 6 with any additional syllables.
7
The students write the word, leaving a space between
the syllables, and sounding it out as they write.
88 Help me write it. Write the word as the students
segment it aloud.
99 How do we mark it? While the students analyze the
spelling, mark the word on the board. The students also
mark the word in their books.
q
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105
The students sound out the word and read it.
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Teacher Tip
Spelling Analysis
The steps for Spelling Analysis
are recorded on the Spelling
Analysis Quick Reference card
– a very useful Logic of English
tool! Keep it in your Teacher's
Guide as a bookmark!
For a detailed example see:
"Spelling Analysis with MultiSyllable Words" on page 29.
106
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
B
Lesson 1
Tips for List 1.B
4.
Words Ending in NK
See Tips for List 1.A – page 102 in the Teacher's Guide.
Say to Spell
During spelling analysis, it is important to say to spell sounds that are omitted, pronounced as schwa, or
distorted in certain dialects. Articulate these sounds clearly in steps 4 and 5 to aid students in creating
an auditory picture of the word for the purpose of spelling. The sounds requiring say to spell are highlighted in red in the spelling chart and should be pronounced as written, not as the word is commonly
pronounced. For more information, see Uncovering the Logic of English p. 124-125.
Double Consonants
When a word includes a double consonant, articulate both consonants during spelling analysis.
Spelling Analysis
1.
2
Sentence
skunk
There is a skunk near
the log.
88
Write Segment
99
Analyze
skunk
All first sounds.
piglet
pig let
33 44
# Syllables Say to Spell
1
skŭnk
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
kitten
kit ten
5.
6.
7.
All first sounds.
răb bĭt
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
7
Write
pĭg lĕt
Part of Speech
Plural / Past Tense
N, V
skunks, skunked
/pĭg/
/lĕt/
/p-i-g/
/l-e-t/
8.
The kitten climbed into
2
the tree.
kĭt tĕn
/kĭt/
/tĕn/
pumpkin
Mom made pumpkin
soup.
pump kin
All first sounds.
canyon
The Grand Canyon is
beautiful.
2
2
mĭt tĕn
pŭmp kĭn
kăn yŏn
Use tall /k/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
or unstressed word.
N
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mittens
/pŭmp/ /p-u-m-p/
/kĭn/
/k-i-n/
Use tall /k/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
N
pumpkins
/kăn/
/yŏn/
/c-a-n/
/y-o-n/
Use /k-s/.
Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/.
vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
/băn/
/kwĕt/
canyons
/b-a-n/
/qu-e-t/
banquet
The tables are set for
the banquet.
ban qu et
Underline /kw/. 11 Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
2
băn kwĕt
N, V
splendid
The fireworks display
was splendid.
splen did
All first sounds.
2
splĕn dĭd
/splĕn/
/dĭd/
banquets, banqueted
/s-p-l-e-n/ Use /s-z/.
/d-i-d/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Adj
grand
What a grand room!
1
grănd
/grănd/ /g-r-a-n-d/
2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/.
Adj
11. drab
drab
Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
N
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ŏ/. 31.1 Any
piglets
/k-i-t/
/t-e-n/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word.
10. grand
vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
/m-i-t/
/t-e-n/
mit ten
2
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/. Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any
/mĭt/
/tĕn/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
rabbits
N
9.
2
/r-a-b/
/b-i-t/
The mitten is hanging
on the line.
q
Read
The piglet has big ears.
/răb/
/bĭt/
mitten
can yon
/skŭnk/ /s-k-u-n-k/ Use /s-z/. Use tall /k/. Use
tall /k/.
N
3.
rab bit
2
List 1.B
Vocabulary
2.
The rabbit hopped
across the field.
N
Schwa
Level B includes some schwa sounds. Teachers have the option of introducing students to schwa using
Exploring Sounds: Schwa – page 190 (Lesson 4) before teaching this section. However, you may also
teach these words before teaching schwa, using Say to Spell to help students create an auditory picture of
the word.
1
Word
rabbit
107
The landscape is drab.
1
drăb
/drăb/
All first sounds.
Adj
kittens
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/d-r-a-b/
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
12. timid
tim id
The timid turtle poked
its head out of its shell.
2
tĭm ĭd
Lesson 1
/tĭm/
/ĭd/
/t-i-m/
/i-d/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
All first sounds.
C
vast
The Pacific Ocean is
vast.
1
văst
/văst/
Spelling Analysis
/v-a-s-t/
Use /s-z/.
All first sounds.
1.
Adj
14. velvet
vel vet
The pillow is made of
velvet.
2
vĕl vĕt
/vĕl/
/vĕt/
/v-e-l/
/v-e-t/
damp
The floor around the
mop bucket is damp.
1
2
Sentence
contest
The kids are having a
running contest.
88
Write Segment
99
Analyze
con test
All first sounds. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
1
dămp
/dămp/ /d-a-m-p/
All first sounds.
4.
5.
kŏn tĕst
/kŏn/
/tĕst/
/c-o-n/
/t-e-s-t/
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
7
Write
Use /k-s/.
Use /s-z/.
q
Read
Plural / Past Tense
con- with, together, completely
test witness, testify
N, V
contests, contested
conflict
The two men are having a conflict.
/kŏn/
/flĭkt/
con flict
All first sounds. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
2
kŏn flĭkt
/c-o-n/
/f-l-i-c-t/
Use /k-s/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
con- with, together, completely
flict strike
N, V
content
Julie and Mark will
decide which content
2
is most important to
include on the website.
/kŏn/
/tĕnt/
con tent
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
kŏn tĕnt
conflicts, conflicted
/c-o-n/
/t-e-n-t/
Use /k-s/.
con- with, together, completely
tent hold
N
contract
The woman is signing
a contract.
/kŏn/
/trăkt/
con tract
All first sounds. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
2
kŏn trăkt
contents
/c-o-n/
/t-r-a-c-t/
Use /k-s/.
Use /k-s/.
con- with, together, completely
tract pull
N, V
abstract
This is an example of
an abstract painting.
/ăb/
/străkt/
ab stract
All first sounds. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
abs- from
tract pull
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2
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
Part of Speech
Adj
3.
33 44
Say to Spell
# Syllables
Vocabulary
velvets
2.
List 1.C
Word
Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word.
N, Adj
15. damp
Tips for List 1.C
See the Tips for List 1.B – page 106.
Adj
13. vast
109
2
ăb străkt
Adj, N, V
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contracts, contracted
/a-b/
/s-t-r-a-c-t/ Use /s-z/. Use /k-s/.
abstracts, abstracted
110
6.
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
consistent
con sis tent
Haley is a consistent
player in every game.
3
kŏn sĭs tĕnt
insistent
in sis tent
8.
9.
/kŏn/
/sĭs/
/c-o-n/
/s-i-s/
/tĕnt/
/t-e-n-t/
Use /k-s/.
Use /s-z/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use
/s-z/.
word.
Her parents are
insistent.
3
ĭn sĭs tĕnt
/ĭn/
/sĭs/
/i-n/
/s-i-s/
/tĕnt/
/t-e-n-t/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Use /s-z/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use
/s-z/.
Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word.
compact
The roller will compact
the ground.
/kŏm/
/păkt/
com pact
All first sounds. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
2
kŏm păkt
com- with, together, completely
pact to press
Adj, V, N
complex
Cars have complex
engines.
/kŏm/
/plĕks/
com plex
All first sounds.
11. tranquil
tran qu il
2
kŏm plĕks
com- with, together, completely
plex parts, entwine
Adj, N
The barn is rustic.
/rŭs/
/tĭk/
2
rŭs tĭk
Use /k-s/.
Use /k-s/.
2
kăb ĭn
/kăb/
/ĭn/
Dr. Jones is my favorite
dentist.
2
dĕn tĭst
14. district
dis trict
/dĕn/
/tĭst/
The financial district
has tall buildings.
2
dĭs trĭkt
/dĭs/
/trĭkt/
Adj
The mountains
overlook a tranquil
lake.
/trăn/
/kwĭl/
2
trăn kwĭl
/t-r-a-n/
/qu-i-l/
We will ride public
transportation to the
store.
2
pŭb lĭk
/pŭb/
/lĭk/
dentists
/d-i-s/
/t-r-i-c-t/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /s-z/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
districts
/p-u-b/
/l-i-c/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
publ people
-ic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
Adj, N
Use /k-s/.
Use /s-z/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Underline /kw/. 11 Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
Adj
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Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /s-z/.
All first sounds.
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
-ic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
/d-e-n/
/t-i-s-t/
N
complexes
/r-u-s/
/t-i-c/
cabins
N
pub lic
Use /k-s/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
All first sounds.
compacts, compacted
/c-o-m/
/p-l-e-x/
/c-a-b/
/i-n/
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. All first sounds.
dent tooth
-ist noun suffix
15. public
/c-o-m/
/p-a-c-t/
The cabin is in the
woods.
N
den tist
Adj
Adj
rus tic
cab in
13. dentist
in- in
sist stand
-ent noun & adjective suffix, characterized by
10. rustic
12. cabin
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ŏ/. Say to spell
/ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed
con- with, together, completely
sist stand
-ent noun & adjective suffix, characterized by
7.
Lesson 1
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public
111
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The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Day 3
1.6
All
•
Review
Phonograms: Dictate the phonogram sounds while students write
the phonograms in a notebook.
1. y /y-ĭ-ī-ē/
14. f /f/
2. a /ă-ā-ä/
15. v /v/
3. h /h/
16. p /p/
4. t /t/
17. g /g-j/
5. z /z/
18. e /ĕ-ē/
6. c /k-s/
19. s /s-z/
7. m /m/
20. n /n/
8. o /ŏ-ō-ö/
21. b /b/
9. u /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/
22. j /j/
10. i /ĭ-ī-ē-y/
23. d /d/
11. w /w/
24. k /k/
12. x /ks-z/
25. l /l/
13. r /r/
26. qu /kw/
•
Spelling Rules: Review Spelling Rule Card 11.
•
Spelling Game: Spelling Snap
Set Up: Write each of the spelling words on index cards for each
student. Write the word Snap on two index cards per student. Each
student needs a notebook and pencil.
All
What are some words for people? teacher, student, firefighter…
These are all nouns.
What are some words for places? park, store, school, museum…
These are also all nouns.
What are some words for things? desk, chair, paper, books…
Ideas are abstract. Examples of idea nouns are love, peace, and time.
Words in Context
How to Play: Place the spelling word cards in a pile face down in
front of each student. Set a timer for an agreed amount of time from
1-3 minutes. When the teacher says “go,” the students flip a spelling
word card, read it, write it, and flip another, until the timer runs out.
When a Snap card is drawn, all the cards go back on the bottom of
the pile and the student begins again. Stop when the timer rings.
Students receive 2 points for each word spelled correctly and 1 point
for each card face up. The student with the most points wins.
1.7
Lesson 1
Grammar
Nouns
Today we will learn about nouns.
What is a noun?
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.
Let's say the definition together. A noun is the name of a person,
place, thing, or idea.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
Materials
Student notebook
Spelling Rule Cards 11, 21
Timer
Index cards
Grammar Flash Cards 1, 1.1, 1.2
Red pencil
Optional Practice
Phonograms
While correcting the
phonogram practice, ask the
students to read back the
phonogram sounds as you
write the correct answers on
the board.
Optional Practice
Spelling Cards
• Dictate the words in Spelling List 1 as the students
write them on index cards.
Provide spelling cues as
needed. Save the cards for
future activities.
Teacher Tip
Grammar Cards
Read the Grammar Flash Cards
aloud for the students; they
should not be required to read
them independently.
Grammar Flash Card
1 Noun
A noun is the name of a
person, place, thing, or idea.
Spelling List 1 – page 2 In the Part of Speech column, write a
red N next to each word that is a noun.
A
map, dog, hat, bed, hand, bag, cat, leg, bat, quilt
B
skunk, piglet, kitten, rabbit, mitten, pumpkin, canyon, banquet,
velvet
C
contest, conflict, content, contract, abstract, compact, complex,
cabin, dentist, district
Plurals
All
What is a singular noun?
What word do you know that sounds like singular? single
What does single mean? one
A singular noun refers to only one person, place, thing, or idea.
What is a plural noun?
A plural noun refers to more than one person, place, thing or idea.
One way to identify if a word is a noun is to ask: “Can I count it?”
For example: Can you count hats? Yes, one hat, two hats, three
hats…
Can you count teachers? Yes, one teacher, two teachers…
Can you count ideas? Yes, one idea, two ideas, three ideas…
Optional Practice
Nouns
• Set a timer for 30 sec. How
many nouns that are people
can the students name?
Places? Things? Ideas?
• Read each spelling word.
Find all the nouns. Decide if
each noun is a person, place,
thing, or idea.
• Draw a picture of each
noun in Spelling List 1.
• Ask one student to name
a noun in the room. Ask a
second student to find the
noun.
Grammar Flash Card
1.1 Singular Noun
A singular noun refers to only
one person, place, thing, or
idea.
Grammar Flash Card
1.2 Plural Noun
A plural noun refers to more
than one person, place, thing
or idea.
How does a singular noun change when it becomes plural?
hat
map
hats
maps
dog
bed
dogs
beds
We add a /s/ or /z/ sound.
Which phonogram says /s/ and /z/? S
Teacher Tip
s
Place your hand on your throat as you say /s/ and /z/. Feel the shape
of you mouth. How are these sounds the same? The position of my
mouth is the same for /s/ and /z/.
Can you feel your throat vibrate for one of the sounds?
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113
Voiced and Unvoiced
To learn more about voiced
and unvoiced sounds, see PreLesson A – page 49.
114
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Lesson 1
Why do they sound different? With /s/ my voicebox is off. With /z/
my voicebox is on.
These are a voiced and unvoiced pair.
fans voiced /z/. /n/ is voiced.
bats unvoiced /s/. /t/ is unvoiced.
Read Spelling Rule Card 21 to the students. Ask the students to recite it
three times.
To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or
changes; then add -ES. Some nouns have no change or an irregular
spelling.
hat
What is the last sound in hat? /t/
Place your hand on your throat and say /t/. Is /t/ voiced or unvoiced? unvoiced
Read your spelling words and then repeat each noun as a plural.
hats
Say hats. Is the S voiced or unvoiced? unvoiced
Try to say hatz. Is it difficult to say? yes
Why do we use the unvoiced /s/ to make the plural form of hat,
hats? Because the /s/ is after an unvoiced /t/.
dog
Compare this to dog.
What is the last sound in dog? /g/
Is /g/ voiced or unvoiced? voiced
dogs
Say dogs. Is the S voiced or unvoiced? voiced
Why? The /g/ is voiced; therefore, it is easier to say the voiced /z/.
As the students say the words, write the plurals on the board with the S
in a different color.
A
Challenge
B
Ask the students to think
of other words with the
morpheme plural: pluralistic,
pluralism, plurality. Discuss how
the morpheme plural refers to
more than one.
C
Point to dog.
How many morphemes in dog? one
Point to dogs.
How many morphemes in dogs? two
What are the morphemes? dog and S to make it plural
I will write a word on the board. Tell me if the S is saying its voiced or
unvoiced sound and why.
bugs voiced /z/. /g/ is voiced.
mops unvoiced /s/. /p/ is unvoiced.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
Spelling Rule 21
To make a noun plural, add
the ending -S, unless the word
hisses or changes; then add
-ES. Some nouns have no
change or an irregular spelling.
Teacher Tip
map maps
dog dogs
Ö
skunk skunks
piglet piglets
Ö
contest contests
conflict conflicts
Ö
Plurals
Practice the plurals using the
spelling list level that your
students are using.
Plural
The S is a morpheme that means more than one. But how the S
sounds depends upon the sound that is before it. This is an example
of why phonograms in English may have more than one sound.
Point to hats.
How many phonograms, or units of sound, are in the word hats? four
How many morphemes, or units of meaning? two
What are the morphemes? hat and S to make it plural
115
Spelling List 1 – page 2 Write the plural form of each noun
next to the spelling word in List 1.
A
1.7A Plurals Practice – page 3 Look at each picture. Write
each noun as a singular or plural, matching the picture.
Dictation
1.8
Read the phrase. Ask the students to repeat it aloud, then write it in a
notebook.
A
B
C
1. bad leg
2. last map
1. vast canyons
2. timid skunk
1. tranquil cabin
2. insistent dentist
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Teacher Tip
Dictation
Dictation closely mirrors
writing, allowing students to
practice holding an idea in
their minds and transferring it
to paper without needing to
generate a unique thought.
If students struggle with a
word, simply support them by
finger spelling, and providing a
verbal cue if needed, as you did
during Spelling Analysis.
116
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Day 4
1.9
Words in Action
Review
All
•
•
Phonograms: 1.9 Phonogram Blitz – page 4
Choose sixteen of the A-Z Phonogram Flash Cards to practice. Read
the phonograms in a random order. The students choose a square
and write the phonogram on the Phonogram Blitz board. Once all
the squares are filled, mix up the Phonogram Flash Cards. Read the
phonograms a second time as quickly as possible while students
search their boards and cover the phonogram that was called. Students shout out "Blitz!" when they have four in a row covered.
Grammar: Identify each of the nouns in the spelling list. Write the
plural form using Phonogram Game Tiles.
Vocabulary
1.10
C
Lesson 1
Materials
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards
Pennies to cover the Blitz
squares
Phonogram Game Tiles
Orange and yellow highlighters
Scissors
Wastepaper basket
Student notebook
Essentials Reader
Morpheme Cards:
con-
pact
tract
flict
tent
plex
sist
ab-
prefix root suffix
Circle the word root. What is the root of a plant? What do the roots
do? The roots provide water and nutrition to the rest of the plant.
In the same way, the root is the part of the word that provides the
core meaning to a word. The root of a word is the main morpheme
without anything else attached to it.
We will use the words prefix and suffix as an example.
What does fix mean? to repair something
Fix has more than one meaning. I will use fix in two sentences. Tell
me what it means in the context of the sentences. He will fix a hook
to the shelf. She fixed a stamp to the envelope. Fix means to attach.
Do you see the root fix in the words prefix and suffix? yes
Highlight the root fix with yellow.
In these words, the root fix means to attach.
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Suf- means below or after.
Highlight the prefix suf- with orange.
What is the literal meaning of suffix? to attach after
Write the definitions of prefix and suffix on the lines.
Prefixes, roots, and suffixes provide clues to the meaning of a word.
Prefixes are added to the beginning before the roots. Roots are the
main part of the word. Suffixes are added to the end.
prefix, root, suffix
1.10C-1 Prefix, Root, and Suffix – page 5
A prefix is a morpheme that is attached before a root. It is made up
of one or more phonograms. Prefixes change the meaning of the
word.
A suffix is a morpheme that is attached after a root. It is made up of
one or more phonograms.
Level C
Vocabulary Level C
What is a morpheme? A morpheme is a unit of meaning.
The three types of morphemes are written in your workbook. Read
them to me.
In the word prefix, what is attached before the root fix? preWhat are some words that begin with pre-? precook, preheat, preview, prepare, prehistoric…
Pre- means before. What does pre- mean? before
Highlight the prefix pre- with orange.
What is the literal meaning of prefix? to attach before
Teacher Tip
Vocabulary
Level C
The words in Lesson 1 are rich
in additional morphemes.
Though these are not
formally introduced, students
who are looking for greater
challenge will enjoy finding
the relationship between
consistent and insistent and
between contract and abstract,
and learning the meaning
of the suffix -ic and the root
dent. More information on
the morphemes can be found
in the Vocabulary boxes in
Spelling List 1.C.
Spelling List 1 – page 2
Teacher Tip
Vocabulary
Levels A B
Levels A and B will start
vocabulary in Lesson 2.
Look at Spelling List 1. Do you notice any patterns at the beginning
of the words that might suggest the words begin with the same
prefix? Five words begin with the prefix con-. Two words begin with
the prefix com-.
con- comCon- and com- are Latin prefixes. They are also related. Do you know
what con- and com- mean? Con- and com- are Latin prefixes which
mean with, together, or completely.
Show the morpheme card con- .
Many of the Latin prefixes have more than one spelling. That is because in Latin they thought carefully about how words would really
be pronounced. For example: try to say conpact with an /n/ sound.
Feel how your mouth forms each sound. /konpakt/
Now say conpakt over and over and more and more quickly. What
happens? The /n/ changes to /m/.
Which part of your mouth do you use to say /p/? The lips press together.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
117
com-
concor-
with, together,
completely
Latin
pact
press
Latin
118
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
How is the sound /n/ produced? The tongue presses against the
roof of the mouth behind the teeth.
How is the sound /m/ pronounced? The lips press together.
Why do you think compact is spelled with an /m/ rather than an
/n/? /m/ and /p/ are both said with the lips pressing together, so it is
easier to pronounce.
Lesson 1
Compare this to contest. Why is contest spelled with a /n/? /n/ and
/t/ are formed in the same part of the mouth.
Prefixes that change spelling to become more like the first sound of
the root are called assimilating prefixes.
Teacher Tip
Does this relate to what a contest is? Yes, a contest is a group of
people in a type of test.
1.10C-2 Con- and Com- – page 5
In your workbook you have the meaning of six Latin roots. Read each
one. Then add con- or com- to form a new word. In the blank, write
the definition of each word based on its morphemes.
Discuss the literal meaning of each word and relate it to the way the
word is used today. Use a dictionary to look up unfamiliar vocabulary.
How many forms does the prefix ab- take? two, ab- and absWhy do you think ab- changed to abs- in abstract? abtract is difficult to say. The /b/ and /t/ are not formed in the same place. By adding /s/ it is easier to transition between the sounds /b/ and /t/.
What does abstract literally mean? to pull from
tract
pull
Match the morpheme to the definition.
Dictation
1.11
A
Latin
abfrom
Latin
1. fast cat
3. soft bed
2. pink bag
4. last hat
Optional Practice
Vocabulary
flict
tent
B
1. splendid rabbit
3. velvet mittens
2. damp kitten
4. grand banquet
1. abstract contract
3. rustic cabins
2. complex conflict
4. consistent district
hold
Latin
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Show students a picture of
an abstract painting. Show
students an abstract of a
book. Discuss the relationship
of these uses to the literal
meaning of the roots: "to pull
from."
Read the phrase. Ask the students to repeat it aloud, then write it in a
notebook.
C
afflict - to strike toward
impact - to press in
duplex - two parts
triplex - three parts
perplex - thoroughly entwined
insistent - characterized by standing in
Level C
abs-
Latin
Think of other words that use the same roots. How does the definition of the morphemes compare to the definition of the word today? If needed, look up the word in a dictionary and find the origins
section to discover the meaning of unknown morphemes.
Abstract
1.10C-3 Matching – page 6
strike
contract ≠ pu ll together
conflict ≠ strike together
content ≠ hold together
compact ≠ pr ess together
complex ≠ entwine together
consist ≠ s tand together
tractor - something that pulls
traction - the act of pulling
retract - to pull back
detract - to pull down
inflict - to strike in
infliction - the act of striking in
Show the morpheme card ab- .
SufLevel C
Suf- as in suffix is also an
assimilating prefix. It is from the
prefix sub-, which means under.
Teacher Tip
Which two words use the root tract? contract and abstract
What does abstract mean?
Assimilate
Level C
as + simil + ate = assimiliate
as- is an assimilating prefix
from ad- which means toward.
Simil is a Latin root that means
similar. -ate is a verb suffix.
Whenever you see the prefix con- or com-, it means with, together, or
completely. Let’s consider the word contest. What does contest literally mean? “with a test” or “test together”
ab-, abs-
Teacher Tip
plex
parts, entwine
Latin
sist
stand
Latin
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• Use each of the vocabulary
words in a sentence.
• Create a word wall of the
roots. Ask students to add
to the word wall as they
find related derivatives.
119
120
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Reading
1.12
A
1.12A Reading Basketball – page 7 Cut out the words. Place
them face down. Place a box or a wastebasket at an appropriate distance to make a basket. Ask the student to choose a word, read it, then
crumple it and try to make a basket.
The Essentials Reader – Lesson 1 (optional)
Composition
1.13
A
Read the phrases from your dictation aloud.
Notice that each phrase is composed of two words. Write six phrases
in a notebook, using your spelling words. Make up phrases by combining the nouns with other words in the list.
Lesson 1
Teacher Tip
Day 5
Struggling Readers
The Reading section in
each lesson will help new or
struggling readers develop
fluency and comprehension
skills through more practice.
1.14
Review
Grammar: Review Grammar Flash Cards 1, 1.1, and 1.2.
C Vocabulary:
• Provide the students with eight index cards.
Say the meaning of a morpheme. The students should write the
morpheme on an index card.
Teacher Tip
Essentials Reader
Texts in the Essentials Reader
are controlled for phonograms
and spelling rules that have
been introduced in the lessons.
The texts were written with
older students who struggle
with reading in mind. Older
students who are reading at
a kindergarten or first grade
level when beginning Essentials
would benefit from doing
Spelling Analysis List A and List
B before reading each lesson's
reading passage.
The Essentials Reader is
meant to supplement the
Essentials lesson. Do not skip
the phonics, grammar, or
spelling analysis sections. These
components all work together
to develop reading success.
Check Your Understanding
All
•
with, together — con-
press — pact
pull — tract
stand — sist
hold — tent
parts, entwine — plex
strike — flict
from — ab-
Say the literal meaning of words and ask the students to choose the
correct index cards to form the word.
entwine together — complex
strike together — conflict
press together — compact
hold together — content
stand together — consist
pull together — contract
1.15
All
Check Your Understanding
Before giving the assessment, ask students the following questions:
•
When will you use reading in your life?
•
When will you use spelling?
•
How do you feel when you misspell or misread a word? Why?
Then discuss the following points:
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
121
•
Reading and spelling are an important part of everyday life. Without knowing how to read and spell, you will waste a lot of time and
become frustrated.
•
People need to practice a new word an average of forty times before
it is mastered. Needing more practice for some concepts is expected.
You do not need to feel badly about needing more practice.
•
The assessment will help us know which words and rules you need
to practice.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
Materials
Grammar Flash Cards 1, 1.1, 1.2
Yellow and orange highlighters
Colored pens
Level C
Index cards
Teacher Tip
Morpheme Cards
Save the index cards with
morphemes to be used in later
lessons.
Teacher Tip
Assessments
Create an atmosphere where
it is acceptable to make errors.
Model the attitude and
strategies to move forward in
practice.
These assessments are meant
to help the teacher and the
student know what needs
more practice. There is no
shame in needing to practice
material again. Learning is a
process of remembering and
forgetting. In order to master
material for lifelong retention, it
must be practiced daily over a
long period of time - years. As
the teacher, consider subjects
you studied in school but have
not used for years. You will not
know this material as well as
you did when you were taking
the course. For more guidance
on Essentials assessments, see
"Assessments" on page 42.
122
The Logic of English Essentials - Teacher’s Manual
Check Your Understanding 1 – page 9-11
Phonograms
All
Dictate the phonograms for students to write in their workbooks.
Rembember to say the sounds only, not the letter names.
1. i /ĭ-ī-ē-y/
14. g /g-j/
2. a /ă-ā-ä/
15. r /r/
3. x /ks-z/
16. f /f/
4. s /s-z/
17. v /v/
5. j /j/
18. p /p/
6. t /t/
19. n /n/
7. z /z/
20. b /b/
8. c /k-s/
21. h /h/
9. w /w/
22. d /d/
10. o /ŏ-ō-ö/
23. k /k/
11. e /ĕ-ē/
24. m /m/
12. l /l/
25. qu /kw/
13. y /y-ĭ-ī-ē/
26. u /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/
Consonants and Vowels
All
In your workbook, circle the phonograms that have both consonant
and vowel sounds. Highlight the vowels with yellow. Highlight the
consonants with orange. Underline the multi-letter phonogram.
Spelling Rule
All
Read the words. Underline the multi-letter phonogram.
Dictation
Read the phrase. Ask the students to repeat it aloud, then write it in
their workbooks. Underline words that you want to practice further.
A
1. pink quilt
6. bat
2. fast dog
7. hand
3. bad map
8. hat
4. last leg
9. bag
5. soft cat
10. bed
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning Inc.
Lesson 1
Teacher Tip
B
Phonogram Sounds
The Basic Phonogram Flash
Cards and the Phonogram
and Spelling Rule Quick
Reference have sample words
for each sound as a teacher
reference. These are helpful for
remembering which sound is
represented by each dictionary
symbol.
Correcting the
Assessment
Ask the student to correct
their own assessment. Ask
the student to read the
phonograms and dictation
phrases back as you write them
on the board. The student may
then write corrections with a
colored pen.
6. grand pumpkin
2. splendid banquet
7. damp
Grading
3. vast canyon
8. piglets
4. velvet rabbit
9. skunk
The purpose of this assessment
is to determine the level of
mastery. Teachers should
plan to review concepts that
have not been mastered. In
a tutoring or homeschooling
setting this is easily done by
reteaching concepts, reviewing
activities, or playing games. In a
classroom setting, the teacher
should determine which
concepts a majority of the class
needs to review and provide
activities for the whole class.
When individual students or
small groups of students need
additional practice, this should
be provided in small groups.
Students should NEVER be left
to fall behind in reading skills.
1. rustic cabin
6. consistent dentist
2. complex contract
7. abstract conflict
3. public contest
8. compact
4. insistent
9. content
5. tranquil district
Teacher Tip
All
Teacher Tip
1. timid kitten
5. drab mittens
C
123
Grammar
Ask students to label each noun in the dictation phrases with an N.
Teacher Tip
Struggling Students
Many students, especially
those who have struggled with
reading, become discouraged
when they are assessed. These
students see assessments as a
judgement upon themselves.
When they do poorly, these
students often believe they are
stupid and incapable, and then
struggle emotionally to remain
engaged with the lessons. For
these reasons, it is vital that
teachers help students develop
a new perspective toward
learning to read and toward
assessments.
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347
Lesson 9
Phonograms
Level C
aw
augh
au
Exploring Sounds
I and Y
Spelling Rule
Spelling Rule 5
Spelling Journal
/ä/
Grammar
2.4-2.6 Possessive Noun Adjectives
Vocabulary
Level A
Hyphenated Compounds; Homophones
Level B
-or
-ress
Level C
aster
naut
-oid
saur
tyran
male
Day 1
9.1
au
-al
-ic
Essential Concepts
Phonograms
All
med
New Phonograms
au, aw, augh
Show au
/ä/ /ä/
This is a broad /ä/. Like other broad vowels, it is forward and round.
Is /ä/ a vowel or a consonant? vowel
Why? I can sing it. It is not blocked.
What type of vowel is it? It is a multi-letter vowel.
Show aw
/ä/ /ä/
This is a broad /ä/. Like other broad vowels, it is forward and round.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
Materials
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards &
au
aw
augh
i
y
Spelling Rule Cards 4 and 5
Scissors
Highlighter
Level C
Advanced Phonogram au
Teacher Tip
Broad Vowels
For more about broad vowels
see Exploring Sounds – page
220 in the Teacher’s Guide
(Lesson 5).
348
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
Is /ä/ a vowel or a consonant? vowel
Why? I can sing it. It is not blocked.
What type of vowel is it? It is a multi-letter vowel.
9.2
Show i .
What sounds does this phonogram make? /ĭ-ī-ē-y/
Which sound is a consonant sound? /y/
Why is this a consonant sound? The teeth and tongue are blocking
the sound. It cannot be sung.
Which sounds are vowel sounds? /ĭ-ī-ē/
Which sound is the short vowel sound? /ĭ/
How do we mark /ĭ/? with a breve
How are these related? They both begin with the letter A. They both
say /ä/. They are both broad vowels.
How are they different? One ends with the letter U and one ends
with the letter W.
Which one may I use at the end of English words? AW
Which one may not be used at the end of English words? AU
Why? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
ĭ
Show the phonogram augh .
/ä-ăf/ /ä-ăf/
Is the first sound /ä/ a vowel or a consonant? vowel
Is /ăf/ a vowel or a consonant? /ăf/ has two sounds. /ă/ is a vowel
sound. /f/ is a consonant sound.
Which letters are saying /f/? GH
What other phonogram ends with GH? Three letter /ī/.
What is the rule about phonograms ending in GH? Phonograms
ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the
letter T. The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
Show augh and au .
Teacher Tip
AUGH
Because the second sound
of AUGH, /ăf/, represents
two sounds, it is technically
two phonograms: AU and
GH. When it is divided in
this manner the GH is either
silent or says /f/. Logic of
English combines them into
one phonogram for ease of
learning.
How are these related? They both say /ä/. They both start with the
letters AU.
How are they different? One has a GH and it also says /ăf/.
Write each new phonogram five times while saying the sounds
aloud.
Advanced Phonogram
Show au .
This phonogram has two advanced sounds, /ō-ow/. In French loan
words au says /ō/ as in chauvinism. In German loan words au
says /ow/ as in sauerkraut.
Phonogram Flashcards
Drill the phonograms with flash cards.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
What sound is the long vowel sound? /ī/
How do we mark /ī/? with a line (macron)
ī
What is the third sound? /ē/
Say /ē/. Is it forward and round like the broad vowels? no
This is not a broad vowel sound. Rather this sound is due to a change
in the way English is spoken that is called the Great Vowel Shift.
Around the time of Shakespeare the pronunciation of the long vowels in English changed. Before the great vowel shift this phonogram
said /ē/.
Challenge
Great Vowel Shift
Research the Great Vowel Shift.
i
In many languages today, this phonogram still says /ē/. Its pronunciation in many English words, however, shifted to /ī/. What the Great
Vowel Shift means for us today is that I has four sounds!
We will mark the /ē/ sound by putting a 3 over it. It is the third sound.
3
i
Advanced Phonogram
au
/ō-ow/
chauvinism
sauerkraut
French and German
All
Exploring Sounds
All
I and Y
Show aw and au
C
349
What is the fourth sound? /y/
We will mark this sound by putting a 4 over it. /y/ is the fourth sound.
4
i
Show y .
What sounds does this phonogram make? /y-ĭ-ī-ē/
Which sound is a consonant sound? /y/
Why is this a consonant sound? The teeth and tongue are blocking
the sound. It cannot be sung.
Which sounds are vowel sounds? /ĭ-ī-ē/
Which sound is a short vowel sound? /ĭ/
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
Teacher Tip
Marking I
Though there are standard
dictionary markings for the
short, long, and broad vowels,
there is not a standard marking
for the long /ē/ sound of I or its
consonant sound /y/. For this
reason, we will ask students to
mark these sounds with the
numbers 3 and 4.
350
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
How do you think we will mark the short vowel sound? Put a breve
over it.
˘y
What sound is the third sound of /y-ĭ-ī-ē/? /ī/
Is / ī / a long or a short sound? long
How do we mark it? with a line (macron)
Øy
What is the fourth sound of /y-ĭ-ī-ē/? /ē/
We will mark this by putting a 4 over it. It is the fourth sound.
4
y
Show i and y .
Find the heading card with an Y marked with a line (macron). What
does this say? long /ī/
Line these across the top of your desk.
Teacher Tip
Emerging Readers
I and Y
With this lesson students are
prepared to read any word with
an I or Y. However, Essentials
will explore the relationship
between these sounds further,
and especially their usage, at
the end of words in Lesson 21.
Select a word card. In each of these words, I or Y is acting as a vowel.
Highlight the I or Y that is at the end of the syllable. Read the word
aloud. First try the short sound /ĭ/. If that does not make sense, try
the long sound /ī/. What did the I or Y say? Mark it as short or long.
Then place it under the correct heading.
What do I and Y say at the end of the syllable? They say /ĭ/ or /ī/.
The spelling rule says: I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.
Let’s say the rule together three times. I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the
end of a syllable.
How are these related? They both say the vowel sounds /ĭ-ī-ē/. They
both say the consonant sound /y/.
If I heard long /ī/ at the end of the word, which one would I use? Y
Why? English words do not end in I.
If I knew that one of these was spelling the /ē/ sound at the end of
the word, which one would it be? Y
Why? English words do not end in I.
9.3
All
Spelling Rule
Rule 5: I and Y
First, show the back of Spelling Card 4.
Let’s read each of the words on the back of this card. Which spelling
rule does this illustrate? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the
end of the syllable.
Spelling Rule 4
A E O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of a syllable.
Does this rule seem to be missing anything?
Does it tell us what the single-letter vowels I and Y say at the end of
the syllable? no
9.3 Words with I and Y – page 139 Cut out the words. Find the
heading card that is gray and has an I marked with a breve. What
does this say? short /ĭ/
Find the heading card with an I marked with a line (macron). What
does this say? long /ī/
Find the heading card with an Y marked with a breve. What does this
say? short /ĭ/
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351
Spelling Rule 5
I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the
end of a syllable.
Teacher Tip
Repetition
Repetition of rules is often
more engaging when repeating
the rule using different voices
such as sad, happy, loud, soft,
silly…
352
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Day 2
9.4
•
Phonograms: 9.4 Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe – page 141 The
first player chooses a square, reads the phonogram sound(s) and
spelling hints then places an X on the square. The next player
chooses a square, reads the phonogram sound(s) and spelling hints,
then places an O on the board. Continue until one player has three
in a row or all the squares have been filled.
Spelling Rule: Write the word with Phonogram Game Tiles. Ask
the student to count the number of syllables and then discover what
sound the I says at the end of the syllable.
v i o l e t
One of the spellings of broad /ä/ is not very common. Which one do
you think is NOT common?
Building Words
Review
All
•
Lesson 9
Materials
Phonogram Game Tiles
Morpheme Cards from
previous lessons
Spelling Journal
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards
a
au
aw
augh
Spelling Rule Card 10
three vowels, three syllables, I said /ĭ/ at the
aunt
end of the syllable.
What is the rule about I and Y at the end of the syllable? I and Y may
say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.
C Morphemes:
• Review the morpheme cards from previous lessons.
All
Teacher Tip
Aunt
Some dialects pronounce aunt
/ănt/. If this is the case in your
region, discuss the differences
in pronunciation and Say to
Spell /änt/.
Teacher Tip
haul
AU
Additional words include:
automatic, restaurant,
somersault, haunt, launch, vault
three vowels, three syllables, I said /ĭ/ at the end
of the syllable.
9.5
taught
Write the words under /ä/ that you may NOT use at the end of English words as I say them and write them on the board.
syllable.
a n i m a l
daughter
Create a sentence to remember
the AUGH words.
Can AU be used at the end of the word? no
Why? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
two vowels, two syllables, I said /ī/ at the end of the
d i f f i c u l t
All of the phonograms ending in GH are rare. English has over a million words. Guess how many base words use AUGH?
AUGH says /ä/ in only nine base words. Where can we use AUGH?
Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word,
or before the letter T.
Write the words under AUGH in your Spelling Journal as I say them
and write them on the board.
Show au .
the syllable.
qu i e t
Optional Practice
AUGH
Show augh .
caught
three vowels, three syllables, I said /ī/ at the end of
353
Spelling Journal
/ä/
Spelling Journal /ä/ What spellings of /ä/ have you learned?
/ă-ā-ä/, /ä/ that you may use at the end of English words, /ä/ that
you may NOT use at the end of English words, /ä-ăf/
Look at the contents page of the Spelling Journal. Which page does
broad /ä/ start on? It starts on page 12.
Turn to the broad /ä/ page in your Spelling Journal.
Why is /ä/ a broad sound? A broad vowel is a sound pronounced
with a forward, round mouth.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
a
au
aw
augh
Most commonly heard at
the end of the word, after
a W and before an L
Used in the middle
of the syllable.
Most commonly used at
the end of the word.
9 words
Used at the end of the
word and before a T.
ma
aunt
saw
caught
wash
haul
draw
daughter
taught
Teacher Tip
fall
lawn
AUGH
pa
crawl
call
hawk
tall
awful
The nine base words that use
augh are caught, daughter,
distraught, haughty, taught,
fraught, onslaught, slaughter,
naughty.
AUGH says its other sound
/ăf/ in two words: laugh and
draught.
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354
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
Show a .
When will this phonogram spell /ä/? When a word ends with the
phonogram A, it says /ä/. A may also say /ä/ after a W or before an L.
Write the words under /ă-ā-ä/ as I write them on the board. If you
see the reason for A to say /ä/ in these words, shout out the reason.
ma When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/.
wash A may say /ä/ after a W.
fall A may say /ä/ before an L.
pa When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/.
call A may say /ä/ before an L.
tall A may say /ä/ before an L.
Show aw .
Can AW be used at the end of the word? yes
Do you think it is ONLY used at the end of words?
Write the words under AW as I say them and write them on the
board.
saw
draw
lawn
crawl
hawk
awful
Is AW used ONLY at the end of English words? No, it is also used in
the middle of the syllable, and at the end of the syllable in the middle
of the word.
When you hear the sound /ä/ in a word, it is important to think carefully about the spelling options. Many of these words will need to
be memorized. The Spelling Journal is a great place to collect words
with the broad /ä/ sound. You may use this tool as a reference when
you are writing.
Spelling Rule 10
When a word ends with the
phonogram A, it says /ä/.
A may also say /ä/ after a W
or before an L.
Spelling Analysis
9.6
Spelling List 9 – page 142
A
Tips for List 9.A
Spelling Analysis
Teacher Tip
1.
1
2
Sentence
mother
My mother is helping
my sister with
homework.
88
Write Segment
99
Analyze
2
moth er
Teacher Tip
List 9.A
Word
AW
Additional words include:
awkward, pawn, claw, shawl,
awning, gawk
33 44
Say to Spell
# Syllables
2
mŏTH er
brother
2
broth er
/mŏTH/ /m-o-th/
/er/
/er/
My brother helped me
with my homework.
2
brŏTH er
Plural / Past Tense
N, V
mothers, mothered
/brŏTH/ /b-r-o-th/
/er/
/er/
Use the /er/ of her.
Say to spell /ŏ/. 31.2 O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V. Underline /TH/ and
put a 2 over it. /th-TH/ said its second sound. Underline /er/.
The father taught
his son how to play
baseball.
son
Say to spell /ŏ/. 31.2 O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.
father
2
1
sŏn
/sŏn/
/s-o-n/
I love to play with my
father.
2
fä THer
/fä/
/THer/
sister
Use /s-z/.
sons
/f-a/
/th-er/
Use the /er/ of her.
Put two dots over the /ä/. /ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound. Underline /TH/ and put a 2 over it. /th-TH/
said its second sound. Underline /er/.
N, V
sis ter
Joe chased his sister.
2
fathers, fathered
/sĭs/
/s-i-s/
/ter/
/t-er/
sĭs ter
Use /s-z/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use
/s-z/.
Use the /er/ of her.
Underline /er/.
N
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brothers
son
f‰ th er
5.
Use the /er/ of her.
Part of Speech
N
4.
7
Write
Say to spell /ŏ/. 31.2 O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V. Underline /TH/ and
put a 2 over it. /th-TH/ said its second sound. Underline /er/.
N
3.
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
q
Vocabulary
2.
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
Read
Know Your Options
Knowing these options helps
students to use Spell Check
more effectively. If a word
with the sound /ä/ is flagged
by spell check, knowing that
these are the four options will
provide students with a means
to correct the word without
looking it up.
Knowing this information is
also vital to being able to look
up words in the dictionary!
Contrary to the common
notion that you should look up
a word to discover how to spell
it, it is virtually impossible to
look up a word that you have
no idea how to spell! Once you
know the options, however,
you have the tools to find the
right one.
355
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sisters
356
6.
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
daughter
Grace took a picture
with her daughter.
daugh ter
Underline /ä/. Underline /er/.
2
dä ter
/dä/
/ter/
/d-augh/
/t-er/
2
N
7.
aunt
au nt
/änt/
Julia enjoys playing
with her aunt.
1
daughters
/au-n-t/
änt
great
3
grea t
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
laugh ter
Anna is a great figure
skater.
1
grāt
/grāt/
aunts
/g-r-ea-t/
14. law
law
corner
Underline the /ā/ and put a 3 over it. /ē-ĕ-ā/ said its third sound.
cor ner
The plant is in the
corner.
2
kōr ner
/kōr/
/ner/
/c-or/
/n-er/
10. raw
raw
Use /k-s/.
Use the /er/ of her.
/er/.
The raw fruits and
vegetables are on the
counter.
/rä/
1
lăf ter
/lăf/
/ter/
au th or
/r-aw/
The law says that
everyone must wear a
seatbelt.
/lä/
1
yea r
yēr
/yēr/
/y-ea-r/
12. right
righ t
He got the answer
right.
1
rīt
/rīt/
The author signed
books for her fans.
2
/au/
/thōr/
/th-or/
ä thōr
auth original
-or noun suffix
N, V
Use two-letter /ä/ that
may be used at the end of
English words.
Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/. Use /ē-ĕ-ā/.
/r-igh-t/
Underline /ī/. 28 Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the
letter T. The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Underline /ä/. Underline /th/. Say to spell /ōr/. 31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an
unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
years
Adj, N, Adv, V
Use two-letter /ä/ that
may be used at the end of
English words.
laws
/ä/
Underline /ē/.
N
/l-aw/
Underline /ä/ that may be used at the end of English words. 3 English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Underline /ä/ that may be used at the end of English words. 3 English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
We celebrated the New
1
Year with fireworks.
laughter
lä
Adj
11. year
Use the /er/ of her.
Underline /ăf/ and put a 2 over it. /ä-ăf/ said its second sound. 28 Phonograms ending in GH are
used only at the end of a base word or before the letter T. The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
Underline /er/.
corners, cornered
rä
/l-augh/
/t-er/
N
15. author
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Underline /ōr/. Underline
N, V
2
Use /ē-ĕ-ā/.
Adj
9.
The girls’ laughter
made us all smile.
N
Underline /ä/.
N
8.
Use the /er/ of her.
13. laughter
357
rights, righted
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authors, authored
358
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
B
Tips for List 9.B
6.
Spelling Analysis
1
Word
1.
actor
88
Write Segment
ac tor
2.
actress
ac tress
2
Sentence
The actor made the
audience laugh.
List 9.B
33 44
Say to Spell
# Syllables
2
ăk tōr
waiter
wai t er
/ăk/
/tōr/
pilot
pī lot
N, V
Use /k-s/.
Vocabulary
Part of Speech
Plural / Past Tense
-or noun suffix
N
actors
Suzanne is an
incredible actress.
2
ăk trĕss
/ăk/
/trĕss/
/a-c/
/t-r-e-s-s/
7.
automatic
au tō mat ic
Use /k-s/.
Use /s-z/. Use /s-z/.
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. 30 We often double F, L, and
S after a single, short or broad vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are
doubled.
The waiter brought our
2
food.
N
actresses
/wāt/
/w-ai-t/
/er/
/er/
wāt er
Anika will be your
waitress.
2
A car with an
automatic transmission 4
is easier to drive.
ä tō măt ĭk
/w-ai-t/
wāt rĕss
/r-e-s-s/
N
pī lŏt
/pī/
/lŏt/
Use two-letter /ā/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Use /s-z/. Use /s-z/.
waitresses
/p-i/
/l-o-t/
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hawks, hawked
visitor
2
vis it or
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
/t-o/
/m-a-t/
/i-c/
A visitor brought Jamie
3
flowers.
/vĭz/
/ĭt/
/ōr/
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
vĭz ĭt ōr
automatics
/v-i-s/
/i-t/
/or/
Put a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/ said its second sound. Say to spell /ōr/.
sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
Maria is an artist.
ar tist
Underline /är/.
2
är tĭst
Who is the new
director?
/är/
/tĭst/
visitors
/ar/
/t-i-s-t/
N
3
dī rĕk tōr
/dī/
/rĕk/
/tōr/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /s-z/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa
N
-ist noun suffix
dī rec tor
/tō/
/măt/
/ĭk/
Adj, N
artist
10. director
/au/
auto- self, by oneself
mat animated, thinking
-ic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
-or noun suffix
9.
/ä/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /s-z/.
artists
/d-i/
/r-e-c/
/t-or/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Use /k-s/.
Say to spell /ī/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or
unstressed word. Put a line over the /ī/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. 1 C always
softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ōr/. 31.3 AR and OR may
say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
-or noun suffix
N
Put a line over the /ī/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. Say to spell /ŏ/. 31.1 Any vowel
may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
N, V
Use two-letter /ä/ that
may be used at the end of
English words. Use tall /k/.
Underline /ä/. Say to spell /ō/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an
unstressed syllable or unstressed word. Put a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds
at the end of a syllable. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
Latin roots and suffixes often end with a C.
waiters
Underline /ā/ that may NOT be used at the end of English words. 30 We often double F, L, and S after
a single, short or broad vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.
The pilot guided the
plane to the ground for 2
a perfect landing.
8.
Use two-letter /ā/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Use the /er/ of her.
Underline /ā/ that may NOT be used at the end of English words. Underline /er/.
N
/h-aw-k/
häk
OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
-ress feminine noun suffix
5.
1
7
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ōr/. 31.3 AR and
/rĕss/
wai t ress
Underline /ä/.
/häk/
Write
q
/wāt/
waitress
haw k
Read
-er noun suffix
4.
/a-c/
/t-or/
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
99
Analyze
-ress feminine noun suffix
3.
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
hawk
The hawk is sitting in
the tree.
359
pilots, piloted
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directors
360
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
11. fault
fau lt
Lesson 9
/fält/
Whose fault was the
accident?
1
/f-au-l-t/
fält
aw k war d
13. poem
pō em
2
pres i dent
15. doctor
doc tor
Tips for List 9.C
Spelling Analysis
The giraffe’s long legs
make it awkward for it
to drink.
/äk/
2
faults, faulted
/aw-k/
äk wärd
/wärd/
Use two-letter /ä/ that
may be used at the end of
English words. Use tall /k/.
1.
Underline /ä/. Say to spell /är/. 31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed
syllable. Underline /är/.
awk backhanded
-ward suffix denoting direction
Adj
Alisha read the poem
aloud.
/pō/
/ĕm/
2
pō ĕm
1
2
Word
Sentence
President George
Washington’s face is on 3
Mt. Rushmore.
prĕz ĭ dĕnt
/prĕz/
/ĭ/
/dĕnt/
/p-r-e-s/
/i/
/d-e-n-t/
Use /s-z/.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
as trō nau t
Say to spell /ō/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word. Put a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a
syllable. Underline /ä/.
Plural / Past Tense
astro star
naut sailor, pertaining to ships
N
astronauts
This rock is a piece of
an asteroid.
as ter oi d
Underline /er/. Underline /oi/.
N
William is a great
doctor!
/dŏk/
/tōr/
/d-o-c/
/t-or/
OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
doct teach
-or noun suffix
N, V
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3
ăs ter oid
doctors, doctored
nau ti cal
/ăs/
/ter/
/oid/
/a-s/
/t-er/
/oi-d/
N
3
Use /s-z/.
Use the /er/ of her.
Use /oi/ that may NOT be
used at the end of English
words.
asteroids
/nä/
/n-au/
/tĭ/
/kăl/
/t-i/
/c-a-l/
nä tĭ kăl
Use /k-s/.
1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ōr/. 31.3 AR and
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Part of Speech
asteroid
nautical
ăs trō nät
Vocabulary
Sailors once used
nautical maps like this
one.
dŏk tōr
Use /s-z/.
q
pre- before, first
side sit
-ent noun & adjective suffix, characterized by
2
/a-s/
/t-r-o/
/n-au-t/
7
Write
Read
aster star
-oid like, resembling
3.
/ăs/
/trō/
/nät/
6
… Finger Spell & Cue
99
Analyze
Put a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/ said its second sound. Say to spell /ĭ/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end
of a syllable. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or
unstressed word.
presidents
5
6
Say syllable
Segment…
88
Write Segment
Put a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a syllable. Say to spell /ĕ/.
31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed
word.
2.
33 44
Say to Spell
# Syllables
Neil Armstrong was the
first astronaut to land
3
on the moon.
/p-o/
/e-m/
poems
List 9.C
astronaut
/w-ar-d/
N
14. president
C
Underline /ä/.
N, Adj, V
12. awkward
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
361
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Use /k-s/.
Underline /ä/. Say to spell /ĭ/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. 31.1 Any vowel may say
one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word. 1 C always softens
to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ă/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of
the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
naut sailor, pertaining to ships
-ic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
-al characterized by, kind of
Adj
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362
4.
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
The ambulance is
speeding to a medical
emergency.
medical
3
mĕd ĭ kăl
/m-e-d/
/i/
/c-a-l/
med heal
-ic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
-al characterized by, kind of
lawyer
John is a lawyer.
law yer
2
/lä/
/l-aw/
/yer/
/y-er/
Use two-letter /ä/ that
may be used at the end of
English words.
Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/. Use the /er/ of
her.
Say to spell /ä/. Underline /ä/. Underline /er/. Note the root ‘law;’ morphology shapes the spelling.
/prŏm/
/ĭ/
/nĕnt/
/p-r-o-m/
/i/
/n-e-n-t/
The Tower of London is
a prominent building
3
in London.
prom i nent
Say to spell /ĭ/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. Say to spell /ĕ/. 31.1 Any vowel may
say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
sauerkraut
3
3
Raquel loves
sauerkraut.
3
sow er krowt
res tau r‰n t
Running a restaurant is
3
hard work.
/r-e-s/
/t-au/
/ränt/
/r-a-n-t/
rĕs tä ränt
9.
Use /s-z/.
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
Say to spell /ä/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word. Underline /ä/. Put two dots over the next /ä/. /ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound.
/dī/
/nō/
/sär/
restaurants
/d-i/
/n-o/
/s-au-r/
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
dinosaur
We went to see the
dinosaur skeleton at
the museum.
dī nō sau r
Put a line over the /ī/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. Say to spell /ō/. 31.1 Any vowel
may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word. Put a line
over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a syllable. Underline /ä/.
lawyers
prominent
prŏm ĭ nĕnt
restaurant
/rĕs/
/tä/
N
lä yer
pro- in front, in favor of, forward
min project, jut out
-ent noun & adjective suffix, characterized by
7.
8.
Adj
N
6.
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Use /k-s/.
Say to spell /ĭ/. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the
schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word. 1 C always softens to /s/ when
followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ă/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa
sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
med i cal
5.
/mĕd/
/ĭ/
/kăl/
363
3
dī nō sär
dino fearful, terrible
saur lizard
N
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
10. stegosaurus
Adj
Has anyone seen Jack’s
4
toy stegosaurus?
stĕg ō sär ŭs
Use /s-z/. Use two-letter /ä/
that may NOT be used at
the end of English words.
dinosaurs
/stĕg/
/ō/
/sär/
/s-t-e-g/
/o/
/s-au-r/
/ŭs/
/u-s/
Use /s-z/.
Use /s-z/. Use two-letter /ä/
that may NOT be used at
the end of English words.
Use /s-z/.
2 G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, G says /g/. Say to spell /ō/. 31.1 Any
steg ō sau r us vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word. Put
/sow/
/s-au/
/er/
/krowt/
/er/
/k-r-au-t/
a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a syllable. Underline /ä/.
Use /s-z/. Use the advanced
phonogram /ō-ow/.
Use the /er/ of her.
Use tall /k/. Use the advanced phonogram /ō-ow/.
stego covering
saurus lizard
Underline the advanced phonogram /ow/ and put a 3 over it. /ä-ō-ow/ is saying its third sound.
sau er krau t Underline /er/. Underline the advanced phonogram /ow/ and put a 3 over it. /ä-ō-ow/ is saying its
third sound.
N
11. tyrannosaurus
N
The class built a model
tyrannosaurus.
sauerkraut
5
tĭ răn nō sär ŭs
stegosauruses
/tĭ/
/răn/
/nō/
/sär/
/t-y/
/r-a-n/
/n-o/
/s-au-r/
/ŭs/
/u-s/
Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/.
Use /s-z/. Use two-letter /ä/
that may NOT be used at
the end of English words.
Use /s-z/.
Put a breve over the / y̆/. /y-ĭ-ī-ē/ said its short sound. 5 I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a
syllable.
Say to spell /ō/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed
t˘y ran nō sau r us syllable or unstressed word. Put a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end
of a syllable. Underline /ä/.
tyran tyrant
saurus lizard
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N
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tyrannosauruses
364
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
12. authentic
au th en tic
13. fossil
fos sil
Lesson 9
Is this an authentic
Chinese dish?
3
/ä/
/au/
/thĕn/
/tĭk/
/th-e-n/
/t-i-c/
ä thĕn tĭk
Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/. Use /k-s/.
auth original
-en adjective and noun suffix
-tic adjective, noun, and verb suffix
Adj
The students found a
fossil in sandstone.
/fŏs/
/sĭl/
2
Day 3
9.7
fŏs sĭl
/f-o-s/
/s-i-l/
Use /s-z/.
Use /s-z/. Use /ĭ-ī-ē-y/.
Say to spell /ĭ/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or
unstressed word.
The intruder looked
with malevolent eyes
at his victim.
4
mā lĕv ō lĕnt
/mā/
/lĕv/
/ō/
/lĕnt/
fossils
/m-a/
/l-e-v/
/o/
/l-e-n-t/
Say to spell /ā/. Put a line over the /ā/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a syllable.
Say to spell /ō/. Put a line over the /ō/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a syllable.
mā lev ō lent 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed
word.
15. malefactor
male evil
vol will
-ent noun & adjective suffix, characterized by
Adj
We need to stand
together with the
victims and send
a united message
of resistance to the
malefactor.
/măl/
/ē/
/făk/
/tōr/
4
măl ē făk tōr
/m-a-l/
/e/
/f-a-c/
/t-or/
male evil
fact to do
-or noun suffix
N
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malefactors
Review
Materials
Phonograms: Dictate the phonograms.
1. ai /ā/ that may NOT be used
12. augh /ä-ăf/
13. aw /ä/ two-letter /ä/ that may
at the end of English words.
2. ng /ng/
be used at the end of English
3. ea /ē-ĕ-ā/
words.
4. ch /ch-k-sh/
14. oo /ö-ü-ō/
5. oy /oi/ that may be used at
15. ee /ē/ double /ē/
16. or /ōr/
the end of English words.
6. wh /wh/
17. sh /sh/ used only at the
7. igh /ī/ three-letter /ī/
beginning of a word or at the
8. ay /ā/ that may be used at the
end of a syllable.
18. oi /oi/ that may NOT be used
end of English words.
9. er /er/ the /er/ of her
at the end of English words.
10. ar /är/
19. u /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/
11. au /ä/ two-letter /ä/ that may
20. g /g-j/
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
•
Spelling Rules: Review rules 3-5, 9-11, 18, 21, 26, 28-31 using the
Spelling Rule Cards.
•
Spelling: Write the words on the board. Direct the students to read
each word. Erase a word, and then challenge them to recall the rest
of the list. When all the words have been erased, ask the students to
write all the words that use AUGH on a piece of paper.
Use /k-s/.
Say to spell /ē/. 31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable
or unstressed word. Put a line over the /ē/. 4 A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of a
mal ē fac tor syllable. 1 C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/. Say to spell /ōr/.
31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable. Underline /ōr/.
Words in Context
All
•
Underline /ä/. Underline /th/.
N
14. malevolent
Use two-letter /ä/ that may
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
caught
daughter
•
365
slaughter
taught
fraught
distraught
Spelling: 9.7 Word Search – page 143 Using Spelling List 9,
ask students to choose ten words to write in the grid. Words may
be written from left to right, from top to bottom and diagonally.
Then write each word on the lines. Fill in the extra squares with random letters. Ask the students to exchange papers, or the teacher can
exchange with the student. Find and circle the words.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
Student notebook
Spelling Rule Cards
Piece of paper
Grammar Flash Cards 2.4, 2.5,
2.6
Red and blue pencils
Spelling Journal
Spelling Journal
/ä/ /ә/
Ask students to find words
with the following sounds in
their spelling list and add them
to their Spelling Journal.
/ä/ – a, au, aw, augh
/ә/ – unstressed vowel, lazy o
366
9.8
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
Grammar
All
noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
Review
Teacher Tip
What is a noun? A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.
Spelling List 9 – page 142 Read Spelling List 9. Identify the nouns.
Write a red N by each noun. Test words by deciding if you can make
them plural and if they make sense with the article the.
Idea Nouns
What is an adjective? Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Adjectives answer: What kind? How many? Which one? Whose?
Find the adjectives in the spelling list and write a blue Adj next to
them.
Review the plurals rule, Spelling Rule 21. Direct the students to write
the plural form of each of the nouns on their spelling list.
A
mothers, brothers, sons, fathers, sisters, daughters, aunts, corners,
years, rights, laws, authors
B
actors, actresses, waiters, waitresses, pilots, hawks, visitors, artists,
directors, faults, poems, presidents, doctors
C
astronauts, asteroids, lawyers, restaurants, dinosaurs, stegosauruses,
tyrannosauruses, fossils, malefactors
Possessive Noun Adjectives
All
What does it mean to possess something? Possess means to own.
What are some things you possess? answers vary
Write the following phrases on the board:
mother
What does this say? mother
Is mother a noun or an adjective? noun
Why? Mother is a person. A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
If Mother had a hat, what would I call the hat? Mother’s hat
How should I write mother’s hat?
Some students struggle to
identify nouns that are ideas.
Help the student by testing
the words with the article the.
If it makes sense with a noun
marker, it is a noun.
Optional Practice
Spelling Cards
Dictate the words in Lesson
9 for the students to write on
index cards. Ask the students
to color a red border around
the nouns. Direct them to
put a blue border around the
adjectives.
Teacher Tip
Level B
Automatic
Some students will recognize
that automatic may be used
as a noun as in Our car is an
automatic. The plural form is
automatics.
Teacher Tip
Level C
Sauerkraut
Sauerkraut is a non-count
noun.
motherí s hat
What morpheme did I add to mother to show that the hat belongs
to mother?
I added an apostrophe S. Apostrophe S is a morpheme that shows
possession.
Is hat a noun or an adjective? Hat is a thing, therefore it is a noun. A
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367
Is mother’s a noun or an adjective?
Mother’s answers the question whose? Whose hat? mother’s
What part of speech answers Whose? An adjective answers: What
kind? How many? Which one? Whose?
Whose hat? mother’s
Mother’s is an adjective. The apostrophe S turned the noun mother
into the possessive noun adjective, mother’s.
Show Grammar Flash Card 2.4.
A possessive noun adjective shows ownership and answer the question: Whose?
Grammar Flash Card
2.4 Possessive Noun Adjective
A possessive noun adjective
shows ownership and answers
the question: Whose?
Write father
What does this say? father
Is father a noun or an adjective? noun
Why? Father is a person. A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.
How can I change father to father’s coat? add an apostrophe S
fatherí s coat
Show Grammar Flash Card 2.5
Grammar Flash Card
2.5 Possessive Noun Adjective
To turn a noun into a singular
possessive noun adjective, add
an apostrophe followed by
an S.
To turn a noun into a singular possessive noun adjective, add an
apostrophe followed by an S.
Does father mean more than one father? No, father is singular.
What does father’s coat mean? a coat belonging to father
What does the apostrophe S mean? It shows possession (ownership).
the brother
What does this say? the brother
How do we write the plural form of brother? Add an S.
Grammar Flash Card
2.6 Possessive Noun Adjective
To turn a noun into a plural
possessive noun adjective, add
an S to make the noun plural
and then add an apostrophe.
If the noun has an irregular
plural, use an apostrophe
followed by an S.
the brothers
What if two brothers shared a toy? How would we show that the
possessive is plural?
To make the plural word brothers show possession, we add an apostrophe after the S.
the brothersí toy
When the apostrophe is placed after the S, it shows that the word is
plural and that more than one brother owns the toy. We do not say
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Teacher Tip
Grammar Cards
Some of the Grammar Cards
are being updated to make the
wording more clear. Add the
wording from this Teacher’s
Guide to your flash cards if that
is helpful.
368
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
two S’s /brother-s-s/ to show that brother is plural. Since we do not
say /s/ twice, we do not write it twice.
Show Grammar Flash Card 2.6
What kind of book? greatest, adjective
Whose book? the author’s
Author’s is a possessive noun adjective. It is an adjective that is
showing possession. Write PNA over it.
Which book? the, article adjective
Optional Practice
Grammar
To turn a noun into a plural possessive noun adjective, add an -S to
make the noun plural and then add an apostrophe. If the noun has
an irregular plural, use an apostrophe followed by an S.
the sistersí laughter
How many sisters are laughing? more than one
the authorsí books
How many authors? more than one
Using spelling lists 1-9, direct
the students to orally form
phrases using a possessive
noun adjective + noun. Write
them on the board as the
students say the phrases.
Emphasize the ‘s and s’ by
writing them in a different
color. For example:
A
the man’s yard
N
the roomí s darkest corner
Level B
A
Optional Practice
the kittení s toy
PNA
Adj
mení s socks
What happens if it is an irregular plural? Add an apostrophe followed by an S.
Show Grammar Flash Cards 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6 and repeat the rules.
9.8-1 Possessive Practice – page 144 Read the phrase. Write
the apostrophe in the correct place.
Editing
9.8-2 Editing – page 145 Find the mistake in each phrase. Rewrite the phrase correctly on the lines below.
Identifying Parts of Speech
9.8A Identifying Parts of Speech – page 146 Read the phrase
in your workbook. I will write it on the board. Then we will answer
questions to label the parts of speech. Label each part of speech in
your workbook.
the authorís greatest book
What is the noun in this phrase? book
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Use the Spelling Cards
from Lessons 1-9. Write an
apostrophe and an S on two
sticky notes. Direct students to
organize the cards into phrases
following the pattern: article
+ possessive noun adjective
+ noun. Make sure they add
the apostrophe in the correct
place.
Teacher Tip
A
PNA
PNA
Adj
N
A
Adj
PNA
A
PNA
Adj
the visitorí s extra laptop
N
the charming artistí s garden
N
N
the presidentí s odd poem
Level C
What is the noun in this phrase? laughter
Whose laughter? mother’s, possessive noun adjective
N
9.8C Identifying Parts of
Speech – page 148
A
PNA
A
Adj
Adj
N
the lawyerí s arrogant witness
motherí s laughter
PNA
the assistant professorí s
N
complaint
Dictation
9.9
Read the phrase. Ask the students to repeat it aloud, then write it in a
notebook.
A
Identifying
Parts of Speech
Write each sentence on the
board. Ask the students the
questions to aid them in
identifying the parts of speech.
As the students become more
proficient, have them ask the
questions. Mark the parts of
speech on the board while the
students mark them in their
workbooks.
9.8B Identifying Parts of
Speech – page 147
motherí s laughter
Spelling Cards
Now how many kittens? one
Identifying
Parts of Speech
Write the phrases on the board
and label the parts of speech as
modeled in Level A.
the roomí s darkest corner
Now how many authors? one
All
Adj
Teacher Tip
the authorí s greatest book
What is the noun in this phrase? corner
What kind of corner? darkest, adjective
Whose corner? room, possessive noun adjective
Which corner? the, article adjective
the sisters’ coats
the authorí s books
PNA
369
Adj
N
Teacher Tip
If the students also identify
the PNA as a second noun in
the phrase, ask, “Which noun
is being described by this
phrase?”
1. the president’s doctor
2. the visitor’s sandwich
C
PNA
Identifying Nouns
1. the author’s father
2. a sharp corner
B
A
the restaurantí s free sauerkraut
1. a tyrannosaurus fossil
2. the prominent lawyer’s manuscript
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370
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Day 4
9.10
Words in Action
Review
All
•
Lesson 9
Phonograms: Phonogram Speed
3-5 players.
Set Up: Choose up to 30 phonograms from Lessons 1-9 to practice. Choose one player to be the Reader. Place the Basic Phonogram
Flash Cards face down in front of the Reader.
Mix two sets of Phonogram Game Cards together. Deal all the Phonogram Game Cards you have chosen to the players.
How to Play: The reader selects a Phonogram Flash Card from the
stack in front of him and reads it. The players look at their cards and
if they have phonograms that match. The players race to be the first
one to place the phonogram on a pile in the center of the the table.
Only the first person to place the card in the center is allowed to
discard. The reader then places the card anywhere in the stack and
reads the next card. The first person to discard all his cards wins.
Variation for One Student and Teacher - Use only one set of Phonogram Game Cards. Choose fifteen phonograms to practice from
Lessons 1-9 and give them to the student. The teacher chooses a
phonogram and reads the sound(s) and spelling hints. The student
must discard the correct phonogram as quickly as possible. For
greater challenge, set a timer.
•
Grammar: 9.10 Possessives – page 149 Write an S if the possessive noun adjective is singular, or a P if it is plural.
•
Spelling: Write the spelling words using Phonogram Game Tiles.
Vocabulary
9.11
A
Level A Vocabulary
Compound Words
Which words in our list refer to family members? mother, brother,
son, father, sister, daughter, aunt
What do you call your mother’s mother? grandmother
What did we add to mother to form grandmother? grand
grandmother
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What do you call your mother’s father? grandfather
grandfather
Materials
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards
2 sets Phonogram Game Cards
Timer
Phonogram Game Tiles
Student notebook
Highlighters in 3 colors
Morpheme Cards
Level B
-ress
Level C
Morpheme Cards:
aster
naut
-oid
-al
-ic
med
saur
tyran
male
granddaughter, grandson
Why are there two d’s in granddaughter? We are joining the two
words grand and daughter to form a compound word.
What do you call your father’s grandmother? great-grandmother
great≠ grandmother
Morpheme Cards:
-or
Which other spelling words can you add grand to? granddaughter,
grandson
Notice the hyphen between great and grandmother. The hyphen
shows these words are connected. Some compound words are written without a space, like grandmother. When a compound is written
without a space, it is called a closed compound. Other compounds
are written with a hyphen like great-grandmother. Compounds written with a hyphen are called hyphenated compounds.
What do you call your father’s grandfather? great-grandfather
What do we need between great and grandfather? a hyphen
great≠ grandfather
What do we call your mother’s great-grandfather? great-greatgrandfather
How many hyphens did we use? two
great≠ great≠ grandfather
Which family words can be combined with step? stepmother, stepfather, stepdaughter, stepson
stepmother, stepfather, stepdaughter, stepson
What is a stepmother? If a father remarries, his new wife will be a
stepmother to his children.
Are the compounds formed with step closed or hyphenated compounds? closed compounds
The only way to know if a compound is hyphenated or closed is to
look it up in the dictionary.
What does a married woman call her husband’s mother? motherin-law
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371
372
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
What do you think the morpheme -or means? a person
What do you think the morpheme -ress means? a woman
Write the words actor and actress in a notebook. Highlight the morphemes in each word in a different color.
mother≠ in≠ law
What does a married woman call her husband’s father? father-inlaw
father≠ in≠ law
actor
act
Why do you think it is called that? Marriage is defined by law. They
are not related to each other by blood. Rather they are related by
marriage or by law.
What kind of compound is mother-in-law? It is a hyphenated compound.
Do you see any other words in the list that include the morpheme
-or? Actor, visitor, doctor, and director all end in -or.
Are they all people? yes
What pattern do you see with words 3 and 4 in List 9? Waiter and
waitress both have wait.
9.11A Vocabulary Development – page 150 Complete the activity in your workbook.
Answer Key: brother and sister, mother and father, greatgrandmother and great-grandfather, stepmother and stepfather,
stepbrother and stepsister, great-great-grandfather and great-greatgrandmother, stepdaughter and stepson, great-grandson and greatgranddaughter, daughter-in-law and son-in-law, father-in-law and
mother-in-law, sister-in-law and brother-in-law
What does this mean? to serve
What does a waiter or waitress do? They wait on (serve) people in a
restaurant.
What do you think the suffix -er in waiter means? It means a person
who does the action (of waiting on tables, in this example).
What does the suffix -ress in waitress mean? A woman who does the
action.
Homo means same and phone means sound. Homophones are two
words that sound the same but are spelled differently. Find a word
that is a homophone, or sounds the same, as a word from this week.
son – sun
9.11B-1 Morphemes – page 152 Highlight the morphemes in
each word. Write a definition for each morpheme on the lines below.
9.11B-2 Vocabulary Matrix – page 154 Combine the morphemes to make new words. Write them on the lines below.
Draw a picture of a sun and a son in your notebook and label them.
Level B Vocabulary
C
Look at the first two words in Spelling List 9. Do you see a pattern? Actor and actress both have act.
actor
act
actress
actress
act
What other morphemes do you see? -or and -ress
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Latin
wait on
Write homophone on the board.
What does an actor do? acts
What does an actress do? acts
Do you see the word act in actor and actress? yes
feminine noun suffix
What are some of the meanings of wait? to look foward to, to delay before acting, to expect
Sometimes words sound alike but are spelled differently. These are
called homophones.
actor
- ress
wait
Homophones
B
actress
act
- or
noun suffix
Latin
Level C Vocabulary
What patterns do you notice in Spelling List 9? astronaut and asteroid both start with ast and are both about space. Two words end
with ical. Astronaut and nautical both have the root naut. Dinosaur,
stegosaurus, and tyrannosaurus all have saur and are related in
meaning. Malevolent and malefactor both begin with male.
aster
astr
star
Greek
naut
astro, aster, naut, -oid
What do you notice about the words asteroid and astronaut? They
both have AST. They both have an R.
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sailor, pertaining to
ships
Latin
373
374
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
astronaut
Lesson 9
asteroid
In Latin medic means physician.
What is the suffix added to medic to make medical? -al
What does -al mean? characterized by, kind of
Medic is also made up of a suffix and a root.
Do you think they are related?
Astr is an alternative spelling for aster.
Can you think of other words that use the root aster or astr? astronomy, astrology, astrophysics, asterisk, aster
Show the morpheme card
Discuss the meaning of each word.
Do you have any guesses what aster means?
Aster means star.
How does the word star relate to the meaning of astronaut and asteroid? Stars are in space. Astronauts travel into space (toward the
stars). Asteroids are smaller chunks of rock traveling in space with
the stars.
What do you think the roots are in astronaut?
I will give you a hint. In Latin when two roots are joined together to
make a compound word, O is often used as a connector. It joins the
two roots together. The roots are astr and naut.
astronaut
What is an astronaut? A person who travels in space.
Can you think of other words that use the root naut? nautical, nautilus, argonaut…
What does naut mean?
Naut means sailor.
What does the word astronaut literally mean? star sailor
Is that an accurate description of what an astronaut does? yes
What morphemes make up the word asteroid? aster and oid
What do you think -oid means?
-oid means like or resembling
What does asteroid literally mean? resembling a star
Does that describe an asteroid? yes
-oid
like, resembling
Latin
Teacher Tip
Astronaut
Level C
Astronaut was first used in a
work of fiction called “Across
the Zodiac” by Percy Gregg in
1880.
Teacher Tip
Connector O
Level C
Other Latin roots joined by an
O include thermometer and
phonogram.
-al
-ic
What do you notice about words 3 and 4 in Spelling List 9? They
both end in -ical.
Write these words in a notebook while I write them on the board.
nautical
medical
Do you think- ical is a single morpheme? Why or why not?
Do you see another word in medical? medic
What is a medic? A person who offers medical help.
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characterized by,
kind of
Latin, Greek, English
-ic
adjective, noun, and
verb suffix
Latin, Greek
-ic
.
This suffix shows the word is an adjective, a noun, or a verb.
What is the root? med
Show the morpheme card med .
Med means heal.
What other words can you think of with the morpheme med? medicine, medicinal, medication, remedy
Highlight the morphemes in medical.
375
Teacher Tip
Med & Medic
Level C
The Latin root med meaning
“heal” is most commonly found
in English with the Latin suffix
-ic, as in medical and medicinal.
There is an additional Latin
root med which means
“middle” as in medium,
mediate, and intermediate.
med
heal
medical
medic
med
al
Latin
What are the definitions of the morphemes in medical? characterized by healing
Is that an accurate description? answers vary
What is the root for nautical? naut
What has been added to the root? -ic and -al
Highlight the morphemes. How many suffixes were added? two
nautical
nautic
naut
al
saur
saurus
lizard
Latin
tyran
tyrant
Is -ical a morpheme? no
Latin
saur
Which words include the root saur? dinosaur, stegosaurus, tyrannosaurus
What do you think saur means? answers vary
Show the morpheme card saur .
What is an alternative spelling of the morpheme saur? saurus
Saur
aur means lizard. Each of the dinosaurs was named with Latin roots.
9.11C Dinosaurs – page 155 Read the name of each dinosaur.
Highlight the roots. Leave the connector O without a highlight. Write
the literal definition of each morpheme below each word.
Using the internet, look up a picture of each dinosaur. How do the
roots relate to their shapes or behaviors? Why did someone choose
the name? Why is the name appropriate?
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Challenge
Vocabulary
Level C
• Using your knowledge of
roots, name a new type of
dinosaur. Draw a picture.
Explain the reason for the
name.
• Look up other types of
dinosaurs. How do the
roots in their names provide
further insight into their
behavior, anatomy, or environment? Create a poster.
376
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
Lesson 9
male
What words from a previous list do the words malevolent and malefactor remind you of? benevolent and benefactor
What does the root vol mean? willing
Do you have any guesses what male (mălĕ) means?
Show the morpheme card male .
Male is pronounced with two syllables: /măl-ĕ/. Male means evil.
What does malevolent mean? characterized by willing evil
Describe a malevolent character.
What is a malefactor? A malefactor is a person who does evil.
Day 5
male
evil
Latin
9.15
Teacher Tip
Male
A
1. grandmother’s perfect bread
3. the daughter’s laugh
4. grandfathers, fathers, and sons
Grammar: Review the concepts taught so far using Grammar Flash
Cards 1-1.3; 2-2.6; 7; 11.1.
Shuffle all the Morpheme Flash Cards learned in Lessons 1-9. Place
six cards with the morpheme facing up and the definition facing
down. Read the definition and ask the student to slap the correct
card. Replace it with a new morpheme. Continue until all the morphemes have been practiced.
1. the doctor’s fault
2. the artist’s address
3. a waiter, a waitress, and a visitor
C
1. a malevolent lawyer
9.16
2. the astronaut’s memoir
Check Your Understanding
All
3. the restaurant’s sauerkraut
4. an authentic fossil
9.13
Check Your Understanding 9 – page 157-159
Reading
The Essentials Reader – Lesson 9 (optional)
9.14
Materials
C Vocabulary:
• Provide the students with seven index cards. Say the meaning of
each morpheme. The students should write each morpheme on an
index card. Combine these with the index cards from previous lessons.
star — aster
sailor, pertaining to ships — naut
suffix: like, resembling — -oid
adjective, noun, and verb suffix — -ic
heal — med
lizard — saur, saurus
tyrant — tyran
evil — male
If students have seen the movie
Maleficent or Sleeping Beauty,
draw a connection to the
morpheme male.
2. raw eggs
B
Review
All
•
Dictation
9.12
Check Your Understanding
Composition
A
9.14A Composition – page 156 Direct the students to write six
phrases that show possession with the words found in their workbooks.
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Phonograms
All
Teacher Tip
Struggling Readers
If a student struggles to read a
word, underline the multi-letter
phonograms.
Dictate the phonograms.
1. oa /ō/ two-letter /ō/ that
5. au /ä/ two-letter /ä/ that may
may NOT be used at the end of
NOT be used at the end of
English words.
English words.
2. r
/r/
3. aw /ä/ two-letter /ä/ that may
6. a
/ă-ā-ä/
7. wh /wh/
be used at the end of English
8. u /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/
words.
9. b /b/
4. or /ōr/
10. d /d/
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Grammar Flash Cards
Level C
Morpheme Cards
Index cards
Teacher Tip
Vocabulary
Level C
See “List of Morphemes” on
page 611 for a chart of morphemes and their definitions.
In a classroom, have students
play in groups of 2-4 students.
377
378
Essentials Teacher’s Guide
11. ai /ā/ that may NOT be used
at the end of English words.
Lesson 9
Dictation
29. ch /ch-k-sh/
30. l
/l/
12. ea /ē-ĕ-ā/
31. ng /ng/
13. e
/ĕ-ē/
32. m /m/
14. y
/y-ĭ-ī-ē/
33. o /ŏ-ō-ö/
Read the phrase. Ask the students to repeat it aloud, then write it in
their workbooks.
A
15. qu /kw/
34. p /p/
16. w /w/
35. ee /ē/ double /ē/
2. father’s brother
17. f
36. h /h/
3. a great sister
37. oo /ö-ü-ō/
4. the author’s corner
38. x
5. sons and daughters
/f/
18. ay /ā/ that may be used at the
end of English words.
19. ar /är/
20. i
/ks-z/
39. sh /sh/ used only at the
/ĭ-ī-ē-y/
6. the right year
beginning of a word or at the
7. the best laughter
21. oi /oi/ that may NOT be used
end of a syllable.
8. raw eggs
at the end of English words.
40. er /er/ the /er/ of her
22. j
41. ck /k/ two-letter /k/
/j/ the /j/ of jump
23. oy /oi/ that may be used at
the end of English words.
24. z
/z/
25. oe /ō-ö/ that may be used at
the end of English words.
26. k
/k/ tall /k/
27. th /th-TH/
B
42. g /g-j/
43. t
/t/
44. v
/v/
3. actors and actresses
4. the waiter’s poem
45. n /n/
5. the visitor’s waitress
46. igh /ī/ three-letter /ī/
47. c
/k-s/
48. s
/s-z/
6. an automatic robot
7. the breathless artist
8. a selfish president
9. the kindergarten teacher’s computer
Exploring Sounds
C
Mark the I and Y with a breve or a line (macron) to show if it is saying
its short or long sound at the end of the syllable.
All
1. the hawk’s throat
2. the pilot’s fault
28. augh /ä-ăf/
All
1. mother’s aunt
2. a prominent astronaut
3. a stegosaurus and a tyrannosaurus
4. the lawyer’s memos
Spelling Rules
5. an authentic dinosaur fossil
6. the colossal asteroid
1. Circle the words that follows the rule “A E O U usually say their
7. a medical assistant
long sounds at the end of the syllable.”
8. a nautical map
9. a quaint restaurant
2. Circle the word with a short /ĭ/ at the end of the syllable.
3. Circle the word with a long /ī/ at the end of the syllable.
1. sauerkraut and biscuits
All
Grammar
Ask students to label the parts of speech in the dictation phrases.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
Copyright © 2015 Pedia Learning, Inc.
379
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