Airbus A319/320/321 Notes

Airbus A319/320/321 Notes
Airbus Notes
Training Notes for A319/320/321 by Eric Parks
Copyright  1999 - 2016 Eric Parks
Disclaimer: NOT approved by American Airbus A320 Flight Training Dept.
For study only, use at own risk, last update – 03/11/16
These notes are intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Manual
and Flight Manual. As always, the OM, FM and American Airbus A320 Training
Dept are your final authorities.
For corrections, suggestions or comments email: [email protected]
Welcome to the Airbus!
Resistance is futile, you will be assimilated.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Table of Contents
Table of Contents _______________________________________________________ 2
Limits ________________________________________________________________ 5
Systems _______________________________________________________________ 8
Ice & Rain Protection ( OM II 13)_______________________________________ 8
Electrical (OM II 7) __________________________________________________ 9
Fire Protection (OM II 8) _____________________________________________ 13
Fuel (OM II 11) _____________________________________________________ 15
Air Conditioning, Pneumatics & Pressurization (OM II 3) _________________ 19
Pressurization _______________________________________________________ 21
Hydraulics, Brakes & Landing Gear (OM II 12 & 14) _____________________ 24
Flight Controls (OM II 9) _____________________________________________ 29
Instrument / Nav / Comm (OM II 10) ___________________________________ 37
ECAM _____________________________________________________________ 37
ECAM Procedures: __________________________________________________ 38
Tune, Talk, Listen – RMP and ACP _____________________________________ 49
Auto Flight System __________________________________________________ 50
FMA – Flight Mode Annunciator _______________________________________ 59
Oxygen (TM 16) ____________________________________________________ 60
Powerplant (TM 17) _________________________________________________ 61
APU (TM 4) ________________________________________________________ 63
FMS (Controls and Indicators OM II 5)_________________________________ 64
Pseudo Waypoints (C & I 7-90.1.4) ________________________________________ 69
Initializing the FMGC __________________________________________________ 70
Phase Triggers (C & I 7-90.1.3) __________________________________________ 76
Reroutes _____________________________________________________________ 77
Takeoff ______________________________________________________________ 83
V1 Cuts ______________________________________________________________ 85
Approaches ___________________________________________________________ 87
ILS Approaches _______________________________________________________ 92
CAT II/III Approaches _________________________________________________ 93
PRM Approaches ______________________________________________________ 95
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
RNAV (LNAV- VNAV) Approaches (Managed Non-ILS) ______________________ 97
RNAV LNAV Approaches _______________________________________________ 98
VOR approaches ______________________________________________________ 99
LDA Approaches _____________________________________________________ 100
Non-managed Non-ILS Approaches (LOC and LDA w/o G/S) _________________ 100
Engine-Out Approaches _______________________________________________ 100
Visual Approaches ____________________________________________________ 101
Go Around __________________________________________________________ 102
Landing ____________________________________________________________ 103
Windshear (OM 2i.3, QRH OD-17, FOM 7.6.3) ____________________________ 104
EGPWS (OM 2i.4) ____________________________________________________ 105
TCAS RA Maneuver (OM 2i.5) __________________________________________ 105
Low Energy Warning (OM 2i.12) ________________________________________ 105
A to Z - Abbreviations & Acronyms ______________________________________ 106
FM Stuff ____________________________________________________________ 111
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Authors notes:
These notes are not intended to be a comprehensive look at every aspect of the
A319/320/321. I only intend them to cover the basics. They assume an already high
level of experience with advanced aircraft systems. I hope they help in studying for initial
or recurrent or as a quick reference during line operations. They are written from the
viewpoint of an American Airlines line pilot because that is who I am. I have included
what I find helpful. If you find something that you feel should be included or corrected
please let me know as I am always seeking to “improve the product”.
Eric Parks
[email protected]
The information given here is specifically tailored to American A319/320/321 operations.
If you fly for another airline or operator your procedures, numbers and/or limits may be
different. Always check with your airline’s or operator’s documentation before using
anything here. Be sure you are always compliant with your company’s procedures and
Permission is given to distribute or copy these notes under the following conditions:
Nothing may be charged for the notes
No changes may be made without express consent of the author
Authors copyright must be included
Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine
own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he
shall direct thy paths. Proverbs 3:5,6
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
(memory items in bold italics, A stands for American imposed limit)
Weight Limits (OM 1.2.3)
(in lbs.)
Max Ramp:
Max Takeoff:
Max Landing:
Max Zero Fuel:
w/o Sharklets
w/ Sharklets
102(T), 181(H)
Operational Limits (OM 1.3.1, 1.10.2)
Max wind for takeoff and landing
Max 90° crosswind for Takeoff and Landing:
Max crosswind (including gusts) for Autoland >4000, 3/4:
Max crosswind for landing vis <4000, 3/4:
Max tailwind component for takeoff (ex. A320, 321 IAE):
Max tailwind for takeoff, A320, 321 IAE engines:
Max tailwind for landing (Sharklet):
Max tailwind component for landing (non-Sharklet):
Max operating altitude:
Max landing gear extension altitude:
Max operating altitude w/ slats and/or flaps extended:
50 kts. (A)
29 kts., gust 35 (A)
20 kts.
15 kts. (A)
15 kts.
10 kts.
15 kts.
10 kts.
39,000 ft. (A)
25,000 ft.
20,000 ft.
Speed Limits (OM 1.4.1)
Max operating speed (VMO):
Max operating speed (MMO):
350 KIAS
.82 M (MMO)
Max gear extended (VLE):
Max gear extension (VLO):
Max gear retraction (VLO):
Max windshield wiper operations speed (VWW):
Max window open speed (who is going to open it?):
Max tire speed:
Max taxi speed:
Max taxi speed for 90° turn:
280 KIAS / .67M
250 KIAS
220 KIAS
230 KIAS
200 KIAS
195 kts.
30 kts. (A)
10 kts. (A)
Turbulence Penetration –
(OM 3.1.3)
at or above 20,000 ft.:
below 20,000 ft.:
275 KIAS / .76M
300 KIAS / .76M
250 KIAS
270 KIAS
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Max Flaps / Slats (VFE) (OM 1.4.2):
230 KIAS 215 KIAS
235 KIAS 225 KIAS
200 KIAS
215 KIAS
185 KIAS
195 KIAS
177 KIAS
190 KIAS
Ice & Rain Protection (OM 1.5.2)
Engine anti-ice must be on during all ground and flight operations when icing
conditions exist (and prior to descent into icing conditions) except during climb
and cruise when the temperature is:
below -40° C SAT
Icing conditions exist on ground:
Icing conditions exist in flight:
OAT 10° C (50° F) or below
TAT 10° C (50° F) or below
Fuel (OM 1.6.1)
(6.676 lbs. per gal.)
Wing tanks:
Center tank:
Additional Center tanks:
Total useable fuel:
27,500 lbs
14,500 lbs.
42,000 lbs.
27,500 lbs.
14,500 lbs.
10,500 lbs.
52,500 lbs.
Fuel Management
Center tank fuel must be emptied before wing tanks are emptied (unless center
tank fuel is being used as ballast). (A)
Takeoff on center tank fuel is prohibited
If center tank is not full, dispatch with more than 200 lbs. fuel in both ACTs is
prohibited, unless directed by MEL. (A)
Autopilot / Autoland (OM 1.10.1, 1.10.2) Autopilot Minimum Height in ft.:
Min altitude after takeoff (if SRS is indicated)
100 ft. AGL
(Note: internal logic prevents autopilot engagement for 5 seconds after lifoff.)
Enroute (A319, A320):
500 ft. AGL
Enroute (A321):
900 ft. AGL
160 / 80 ft. AGL
Non-precision approach
After Manual Go-Around in SRS
100 ft. AGL
Engine Out Autoland: CATIII Single
Engine Out Autoland: A320 config FULL ONLY, A319 &A321 config 3 and FULL
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Max Winds for Autoland (including gusts) (OM 1.10.2)
Headwind (ex. A319 Sharklet)
Headwind A319 Sharklet
Tailwind (ex. A319 Sharklet)
Tailwind A319 Sharklet
Crosswind vis > 4000, ¾ (ex. A319 Sharklet)
Crosswind vis > 4000, ¾ A319 Sharklet
30 knots
20 knots, 15 single eng.
10 knots
5 knots
20 knots
20 knots, 10 single eng.
RVSM Altimeter tolerances (OM 1.16.1)
Ground Check: PFD 1 and 2 within plus/minus 75 ft. of known airport altitude
Max difference between PFD 1 and 2 within 20 ft.
In Flight: Max difference between Capt’s. and F/O’s PFD is 200 ft.
Max brake temp for takeoff (OM 1.8.2)
300° C
Min engine oil for dispatch (OM 1.12.14)
13 qts. (A)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Note: pb stands for pushbutton (NOT peanut butter!) and there are lots of ‘em!
Operating Manual Volume I will be abbreviated OM I
Operating Manual Volume II will be abbreviated OM II
Flight Manual Part I will be abbreviated FM I
Flight Manual Part II will be abbreviated FM II
Ice & Rain Protection ( OM II 13)
Wing Anti-ice Wing anti-ice heats the three outer wing slat panels on each wing.
Wing A-I is available for single-engine (if Engine Fire pb not pushed) by using
pack off and crossbleed open as per OM 21 After ENG 1(2) SHUT DOWN.
Wing A-I valves close automatically:
 On touchdown
 Leak detected
 Electrical power lost
Wing A-I is not permitted on ground or above TAT 10° C (OM 2.6.2)
APU bleed is NOT permitted for Wing anti-ice. (OM 1.13.3)
Note: Wing A-I test opens valves for 30 sec. on ground.
In normal use select Wing Anti-Ice (OM 3a.2):
 On after thrust reduction on take-off
 Off at FAF during approach
Engine Anti-ice (TM 13-1.3) – Engine A-I ducting is independent of wing A-I.
Engine A-I valves will open automatically on loss of electrical power. They close
with air pressure available. Engine limits are automatically reset when Engine A-I
selected. Engine Ignition will come on automatically when Engine Anti-Ice is
selected ON on IAE engine aircraft and CFM non-upgraded FADEC aircraft. On
CFM aircraft with new upgraded FADEC’s the ignition will only come on when
FADEC detects certain parameters being exceeded.
Probe and Mast Heat / Window Heat / Rain Removal
All heat is turned on at low power on ground after the first engine start. In flight
all heat automatically goes to High. Can turn on manually on ground before
engine start by pressing pb to ON. Deselect to Auto after second engine start.
Note: when on ground a windshield (or window) heat fault may be given due to
heating by the sun. Cool the cockpit (or stow shades) and reset the WHC circuit
Rain repellant is inhibited on the ground with engines shut down.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Electrical (OM II 7)
All normal electrical power shifts automatically except the External Power which
must have the EXT PWR pushbutton selected to supply power to the AC bus tie.
The External Power (EXT PWR) pb will show green AVAIL when power is
connected and OK. The pilot must press the pb to manually select external.
Once pressed the EXT PWR pb will show blue ON indicating that external is now
powering the aircraft. When you wish to switch to ships power first ensure that a
power source is available, normally the APU. Then press the EXT PWR pb. It will
change from blue ON to green AVAIL as the APU (or engines) begin to supply
power. Once the external power has been deselected and the green AVAIL is
showing in the pb you may disconnect the external power.
New Airbus pilots will sometimes find it hard to remember that the green AVAIL
does NOT mean that it is powering the aircraft. Blue ON indicates that external is
powering the aircraft.
 Airbus Gotcha: Just to make things interesting Airbus has used the same pb’s
for the APU Start pb as the External Power pb. However the APU blue ON is the
“Master Switch” and just indicates the APU is prepared to start. The blue ON for
the Start pb means the APU is starting. The green AVAIL in the Start pb shows
that the APU is available for use and power is OK and the APU will automatically
pick up the electrical load unless you are on external (remember, EXT PWR
requires a manual power shift). So for the APU green AVAIL can be showing in
the pb when powering the aircraft, the opposite of the EXT PWR pb. This is just
a reminder as the APU panel is not part of the Electrical panel.
Normal priority for AC power is: (work across ELEC panel from GEN 2)
On side engine generator
External Power
Off side engine generator
Emergency Generator (RAT)
OM doesn’t use the On / Off side terms, below is
the official OM version of the Electrical priorities:
Engine Generators
External Power
Emergency Generator (RAT)
The only way to power both AC busses from a single power source is through
the AC BUS TIE. The APU and EXT PWR both feed the AC BUS TIE. Both AC
busses connect to the AC BUS TIE as needed. APU will automatically power AC
unless the EXT PWR or ENG GEN is on. If both IDG’s are available then the AC
busses will not be connected to the AC BUS TIE. If only one ENG GEN (no APU
or EXT PWR) is available the opposite AC bus will connect to it through the AC
The Electrical system is divided into two main branches. Both AC and DC are
normally separated into two branches with Engine 1 driving IDG (integrated drive
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
generator) 1 and IDG 1 feeding AC BUS 1. AC BUS 1 then feeds DC BUS 1
through TR 1 (transformer rectifier). The same happens on side 2.
As long as each engine IDG is available then the two sides remain electrically
isolated. If there is a loss of power on an AC bus then the remaining powered
bus will automatically power the unpowered AC bus through the AC BUS TIE. If
the APU is then started it will automatically power the bus tie and the failed AC
bus. The AC BUS TIE will then be isolated from the normal powered bus. IDG
should not be disconnected when engine not turning (operating or windmilling)
and the IDG disconnect should not be pressed more than 3 seconds. IDG can
only be reconnected on the ground.
In case of TR failure the DC busses can be automatically connected through the
Two batteries are installed. Battery charging is automatic and is controlled by the
BCL (Battery Charge Limiter). The BCL connects the battery to its respective DC
BAT BUS during battery charging and during APU start. The batteries have an
automatic cut-off logic to prevent complete battery run-down when the aircraft is
unpowered and on the ground. This will shut off the batteries at about 22.5v
capacity to ensure APU start after overnight.
Min Battery voltage is 25.5v. Check battery voltage with the BAT switch OFF. To
charge batteries turn them on by pressing their respective pb’s and connecting
external power. A 20 min. charge is required if BAT voltage is not enough.
Part of the normal procedures for the Originating Checklist call for the check of
both batteries to make sure that they are charging properly. Turn off both
batteries and then turn them back on. Watch on the ECAM ELEC page to see
that both batteries have initial current charge rates after 10 seconds of less than
60 amps and decreasing (OM 2a.7.3).
If all AC (no RAT) is lost a static inverter is connected from HOT BAT 1 bus to
AC ESS bus (not SHED bus). BAT 2 will supply DC ESS (not SHED) in the event
of loss of all AC (no RAT emerg. gen.) regardless. Below 50 kts. AC ESS will no
longer be supplied by the inverter and will be unpowered. DC BAT will connect
below 100 kts., it is not supplied above 100 kts. in loss of all AC.
If both Main AC busses lose power and the airspeed is 100 kts. or more the RAT
will automatically deploy. The emergency generator will then power AC ESS
BUS and DC ESS BUS. During the 8 seconds it takes the RAT to deploy and
supply power the batteries will supply the ESS busses (not their shed busses)
and the red FAULT light on the EMER ELEC PWR panel will be on during those
8 seconds. The RAT emergency generator is lost at landing gear down
(unmodified A320) or less than 125 kts (A319, modified A320, A321) and ND1
and MCDU1 will go out at that time due to loss of AC shed bus. On landing the
DC BAT bus is automatically connected to the batteries when airspeed drops
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
below 100 kts. When all AC is lost including the RAT emergency generator BAT
1 will supply AC ESS through the static inverter and BAT 2 will supply DC ESS.
When the speed drops below 50 kts. the AC ESS bus is shed and power is lost
to remaining CRT’s (PFD1, ECAM upper). Note: min. RAT speed is 140 kts, RAT
will stall out at less than 125 kts on A319, A321 and modified A320. However,
the RAT will continue to supply hydraulic pressure even after it is unable to
power the emergency generator. The RAT is normally deployed automatically for
electrical problems, however pressing the MAN ON red guarded pb on the
EMER ELEC PWR panel will deploy the RAT and hydraulically power the
Emergency Generator. If you need to reset the Emergency Generator after the
RAT has been deployed (such as go-around after gear has been deployed)
press the RAT MAN ON pb again and this will allow the Emergency Gen to reset
and come back online.
AC BUS 1 normally supplies power to AC ESS and DC BUS 1 which eventually
feeds DC ESS. If AC BUS 1 fails the pilot may press the AC ESS FEED pb to
ALTN. This will put the AC ESS BUS on it’s alternate source, GEN 2 through AC
BUS 2. AC Essential Feed will not automatically switch. This is to prevent a bus
short on the AC ESS BUS from then also damaging the GEN 2 bus complex if it
has already caused damage to the GEN 1 bus complex. ECAM will direct
whether to actually repower AC ESS or to leave it unpowered. AC BUS 2 will
also supply power to DC ESS BUS from DC BUS 2 and DC BAT BUS when the
AC ESS FEED pb is selected to ALTN.
If TR1 fails the DC BAT BUS and DC BUS 1 will become automatically powered
by DC BUS 2 which will automatically connect to the DC BAT BUS.
APU will carry all busses on ground but will not supply main galley shed busses
in-flight. In-flight if only one generator is supplying entire system then part (321:
all galley power) of the galley load and passenger in-seat power supply is shed.
GEN 1 Line (7.1.9) – If there is smoke in the avionics compartment the amber
SMOKE light will come on in the GEN 1 LINE pushbutton. The procedure will call
for the pilot to press the pb. This will open the GEN 1 line contactor and depower
AC bus 1. GEN 2 will then automatically pick up AC BUS1 through the AC BUS
tie. However, GEN 1 will still be powering two wing fuel pumps, one in each wing
inner tank. Note: this is not the complete smoke procedure, just the beginning
that deals with the GEN 1 LINE pb.
In loss of all AC (RAT only) emergency the APU is allowed 3 min. for start after
EMERG GEN connects. The APU will not start in-flight when on BAT only (this is
due to the DC BAT BUS being disconnected during Electrical Emergency
configuration above 100 kts.). Lights available in loss of all AC emergency are
Capt. instrument lights, F/O dome light (if on DIM or BRT) and compass/ice light.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
If any generator is operating at more than 100% rated load the GALY & CAB (or
GALLEY) pb will illuminate amber FAULT. You will be directed to select OFF
which will then load shed by offloading the main galley, secondary galley and the
in-seat power supply. In AUTO (normal blank) pb position the main galley (A319
& A320) or all galleys (A321) and inseat power supplies will automatically load
shed if in-flight with one generator operating or on the ground with only one
engine generator operating. If APU gen or EXT PWR is supplying power then all
galleys are powered.
Commercial pb (A321 only) when pushed will depower all commercial electrical
systems (Cabin & Cargo lights, Water & Toilet system, Drain mast ice protection,
Galley, Passenger entertainment).
Circuit breakers are color coded. Green are monitored by ECAM. All other colors
are not monitored. The ECAM will display C/B TRIPPED ON OVHD PNL (or
REAR PNL) if a green monitored breaker is tripped for more than a minute.
Yellow breakers are pulled during the procedure for flight on battery power only.
Red capped breakers are NEVER pulled in flight. Red caps are installed on the
wing tip brakes circuit breakers to prevent loss of flap asymmetry protection. All
circuit breakers have a letter (horizontal) and number (vertical) code.
When on the gate with normal APU or EXT PWR (AC established) the GEN 1 &
2 amber FAULT lights will normally be the only amber FAULT lights on in the
overhead panel (with packs ON). With packs OFF the GEN 1 & 2 amber FAULT
and the PACK 1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will be on.
When shutting down the APU and turning off BATTs allow 2 min. after APU
Green AVAIL light goes out to allow time for APU flap to close (OM 3.16).
Batteries must always be on when APU is running for fire protection.
Ain’t no magic when the electrons stop! Bottom line here, ya gotta have electrical
somehow! Make sure you have a GEN, EMER GEN or at least a BAT or your
sidestick just became a worthless piece of plastic!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Fire Protection (OM II 8)
Both engines and the APU each have two identical loops, A & B and a computerFDU (Fire Detection Unit). A fire warning is given when both loops reach the
proper overheat condition. If one loop fails the other loop is able to generate the
warning by itself. A fire warning is given if both loops fail within 5 seconds of
each other. There is a red disc on the aft fuselage to show thermal discharge for
the APU fire bottle. The engines each have two extinguishers, the APU one.
Engines have sensing elements in three sections; pylon nacelle, engine core and
fan section. APU has sensing element in APU compartment.
APU fire on ground will auto shutdown, blow extinguisher bottle, sound nose
wheel well horn and APU FIRE light will illuminate on external interphone panel.
APU fire in-flight must be manually shutdown (will not auto shutdown) and
extinguished. Note: APU will auto shutdown in air for other than fire (go figure).
The forward cargo compartment has two smoke detectors and the aft has four
(319,320). The 321 has four forward detectors and six detectors in the aft cargo.
In either case two loops. Agreement of two smoke detectors on a loop will give
warning. If one smoke detector fails the system remains operational on the
remaining detector. There is one extinguisher bottle for fore and aft
compartments with one nozzle forward and two nozzles aft. If cargo SMOKE is
warning is given an isolation valve will close and the extraction fan will stop.
Cargo smoke gives: CRC, Master Warn light and Cargo SMOKE light.
ENG fire test: (7 items – 4 reds) (TM 7g.2.1)
ENG 1 Test – press and hold
 ENG FIRE pb illuminated (red)
 SQUIB and DISCH lights illuminated (2)
 MASTER WARN illuminated (2) (red)
 CRC aural chime
 ENG 1 FIRE warning on E/WD (red)
 ENGINE page on SD
 FIRE light ENG 1 (on ENG panel) illuminated (red)
Repeat for ENG 2
APU fire test: (BAT only 2 items – 1 red, AC 6 items – 3 red) (TM 7g.2.2)
APU FIRE Test – press and hold (APU will not shutdown during test if running)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
 APU FIRE pb illuminated (red) *
 SQUIB and DISCH light illuminated *
 MASTER WARN lights illuminated (2) (red)
 CRC aural chime
 APU FIRE warning on E/WD (red)
 APU page on SD
* BAT only (when doing Safety and Power On checklist on Battery only, no
External power)
ENG FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 2,1,2,1,2 sequence –
two on FIRE, one on HYD, two on FUEL, one on ELEC, two on AIR COND)
Silences CRC, Arms squibs
Closes hydraulic fire valve
Closes low pressure fuel valve and turns off FADEC
Deactivates the IDG
Closes engine bleed & pack flow valves
APU FIRE pb pressed performs: (work down panel with 3, 0, 2,1,2 sequence)FIRE HYD FUEL ELEC AIR COND-
Silences CRC, Shuts down APU, Arms squib
Closes low pressure fuel valve & APU fuel pump off
Deactivates APU GEN
Closes APU bleed & Crossbleed valves
Cargo Smoke Detector test - press & release button for test. You should get (TM
DISCH amber lights illuminate.
SMOKE red lights illuminate (2X)
MASTER WARN light illuminate
CRC aural
This test will run twice after you select it once to test both channels. Note: DISCH
amber lights only on first test.
If the CARGO SMOKE bottle is fired the indications you can expect are:
Red SMOKE light remains on (smoke & bottle discharge are trapped)
Both amber DISCH lights will come on and remain on (only one bottle)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Fuel (OM II 11)
wing tank
1560 lbs.
(N/A 321)
Inner wing
Inner wing
A321 only:
2 Additional
Center Tanks
10,500 lbs
wing tank
1560 lbs.
(N/A 321)
Total Left Wing Fuel
Total Center Fuel
14,500 lbs.
Total Right Wing Fuel
Total Left Wing Fuel
Total Center Fuel
25,000 lbs.
Total Right Wing Fuel
Total Fuel – A319/320: 42,000 lbs., A321: 52,500 lbs.
Fuel Philosophy: Fuel in center last, Center fuel emptied first
Takeoff on center tank prohibited (OM 1.6.4)
Fuel may not be added to ACT unless center tank is full (A321) except by MEL.
The center tank pumps run at a higher override pressure (A319, A320) so the
center tank fuel will be burned before the wing tank fuel will be even though
center and wing pumps are both providing fuel pressure to the manifold at the
same time.
If both pumps in same tank fail, only the inner wing tanks can suction feed.
Center tank fuel would be unusable.
APU fuel is drawn from the left fuel manifold. The APU normally uses the tank
pump pressure but has its own fuel pump that it will use if no other fuel pump
pressure is available.
Losing one center pump requires opening crossfeed valve (one ECAM chime)
Losing one inner tank pump just requires turning off the pump switch (no chime)
Losing two center tank pumps will make any remaining center fuel unusable (no
suction feed).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Losing two inner tank pumps will put that wing on gravity (suction) feed. There is
a chart to determine safe altitudes for gravity feeding in the QRH pg. 35.
Normally fuel is run in Auto mode. This will run the wing tanks continuously and
the center tank on a schedule. The Auto mode schedule for the center tank is to
run the center tank pumps any time there is fuel in the center tank except when
the slats are extended. Exceptions to the Auto schedule:
 After engine start the center tanks will run for at least two minutes for a
“test run” even if the slats have already been extended. If slats are not
extended pumps will continue to run as normal until they are extended.
The pumps will restart again after takeoff when the slats are retracted.
 After the center tanks run dry the pumps will continue to run for 5 more
 If IDG return fuel fills the outer wing tank the extra fuel will spill over into
the inner wing tank. If the inner wing tank fills completely up then the
center tank pump on that side will be automatically turned off to allow wing
tank fuel to be burned until 1,100 lbs. has been used. Then the center
tank pump will turn on again. This prevents surge tank spillage.
The fuel in the outer wing tanks will gravity feed through two transfer valve
openings when inner wing tank fuel level reaches 1,650 lbs. When either wing
inner tank reaches the 1,650 lbs. level a signal is sent to latch open all the
transfer valves in both outer wing tanks. This is a total of 4 valves, 2 in each
outer wing tank. The transfer valves will remain open for the rest of the flight and
will close on the next refuel operation. If fuel is “sloshed” during climb or descent
it is possible for the transfer valves to be opened early due to a LO LEVEL alert.
An ECAM caution is given if during Auto mode the center tank has more than
550 lbs. of fuel while the left or right wing tank has less than 11,000 lbs. of fuel
per wing. This would indicate that the normal Auto schedule was not being
The Crossfeed pb is normally extinguished when the valve is closed. It will show
white ON when selected on and green OPEN when fully open. The Crossfeed
valve itself is powered by two electric motors. Opening the Crossfeed valve
enables one engine to be fed by both sides and/or the center or both engines to
be fed by one side and/or the center.
There are two full levels for the inner wing tanks, a fueling full and an operational
full. The fueling full is less than the operational full and that allows the extra IDG
fuel room to collect in normal circumstances without triggering the center tank
pump turn-off for IDG return fuel.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Note: In Auto the center tank pumps run all the time if center tank fuel is present
so with all fuel pumps on if you are on the gate with APU running (slats up) you
will be using center tank fuel. If operating in Manual mode the crew must ensure
that the center tank pumps are off when the wing tanks are completely full or
when the center tank is empty.
Note: Unusable fuel is shown with a half amber box around the fuel quantity on
ECAM. If the fuel quantity is in a degraded mode the ECAM fuel quantity will
have amber dashes through the last two digits. Refuel is shown on upper ECAM
memo when refueling door is open.
A321 differences:
The A321 Center Tank does not have the same electric pumps as the A319/320
but uses jet pumps instead. Further, the jet pumps are “powered” by fuel
pressure from the fuel pumps in the main wing tanks and the jet pumps transfer
fuel from the Center tank to the respective wing tank. The A321 wing tanks do
not have an outer and inner tank and there are no transfer valves to latch open.
All the wing fuel is in one wing tank and total wing fuel remains the same as the
A319/320. Please understand that the pumps in the wing must be running in
order to power the center tank jet pumps and transfer fuel.
The center tanks pump pb’s have been replaced on the A321 with transfer valve
pb’s. Essentially these CTR TK L (R) XFR pb’s handle the same function as the
center tank pb’s on the A319 and A320. In Auto mode they will control the valves
that allow the jet pumps to operate once the wing fuel has been burned down
550 lbs. Once the wing fuel tank is again full the transfer will stop until the tank is
burned down 550 lbs. again. This will continue until all center fuel has been
used. If the FUEL MODE SEL pb is in MAN then the center tank transfer valves
will open and must be turned off to avoid overfilling the wing tanks. If in MAN
they should also be turned OFF once all center tank fuel is gone.
Note: IDG return fuel is added to the wing tank as there is no outer tank on the
Note: There is no ECAM OUTR TK FUEL XFRD memo on the A321 as there is
no outer or inner wing tank (all fuel in one wing tank). However, there is a memo
“FOB below 3T” and while rather cryptic I have been able to translate this as
Fuel On Board below three Tons (possibly Tonnes?). So you still have a sort of
low fuel message at around 6,000 lbs.
The A321 has two Additional Center Tanks that will automatically feed to the
Center tank when the Center tank burns down to a certain level defined as when
the high tank level sensor is dry for 10 mins. The Additional Center Tanks do not
have pumps but use cabin air pressure to feed the center tank through transfer
valves. The ACT 2 (aft tank) will transfer fuel first followed by the ACT1. All fuel
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
transfer is done automatically in the normal mode of operation. The automatic
fuel transfer from ACT to Center Tank is noted on the ECAM as a green triangle
between the ACT fuel indicators.
An additional pb has been added to the FUEL panel to control the ACT fuel
transfer. Yes, you guessed it, the normal mode is AUTO (are we seeing a pattern
here?). In AUTO mode the ACT pb allows automatic control of the fuel transfer
after slat retraction when in-flight. Fuel transfer will begin from the ACT 2 when
the center tank is no longer full. Transfer will continue until either the center tank
is full or both ACT’s are empty. After ACT transfer starts if the center tank
becomes full transfer will stop until the center tank burns down sufficiently and
the transfer process will automatically restart.
An amber FAULT light will illuminate in the ACT pb if the center tank has less
than 6,614 lbs. of fuel and one ACT has more than 550 lbs. of fuel which would
indicate that the AUTO schedule was not being followed. If the ACT pb is
selected to FWD then all ACT fuel will be manually transferred forward to the
center tank using the ACT transfer pump, which is a backup pump that can
pump from either ACT. This backup ACT XFR pump runs at a low volume and
may not be able to transfer all fuel at higher altitudes (FL270 and above) or
supply as fast as the engines are burning. The ECAM Non-Normal Supplemental
Manual will specify best procedures for complete transfer of fuel in case of ACT
transfer FAULT.
It is normal to have fuel being transferred from the ACT’s to the Center tank and
from the Center tank to the Wing tanks at the same time. On the A321 there’s a
whole lotta transferring goin’ on. Please note that in order to feed an engine from
the opposite wing you must still open the fuel crossfeed valve. In normal AUTO
operation the fuel procedures are the same and fuel transfer operation is
transparent to the pilot.
Note: For the A321 all fuel is burned from the Wing tanks. Fuel must be
transferred to a Wing tank for it to be available for use by the engines. There is
no ECAM CTR TANK FEEDG memo as the A321 never feeds from the Center
Note: For A321: if center tank is not full then do not takeoff with fuel in an ACT
unless MEL directs otherwise (OM 1.6.4)
Note: on the SD FUEL display the left ACT is #1 (forward) and the right ACT is
#2 (aft). Gee, why not just display them as fore and aft?
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Air Conditioning, Pneumatics & Pressurization (OM II 3)
The pneumatic system supplies high pressure air for:
Air conditioning
Engine starting
Wing anti-icing
Hydraulic reservoir pressurization
Aft cargo heat
Water tank pressurization
High pressure air can be supplied by:
 Engine bleed
 APU load compressor
 High pressure ground connection
Controlled by BMC (Bleed Monitoring Computer)
Engine Bleeds close automatically when BMC's detect:
APU bleed valve open
Engine Start
Over temperature
Over pressure
The valve will also automatically close pneumatically when:
 Low pressure
 Reverse flow
And is electrically closed when:
 ENG BLEED selected off
 ENG FIRE pb selected
The APU bleed will close for leaks
The APU is ready for bleed when reaching 95% for two seconds or 99.5%. The
AVAIL light will show in the APU start pb and green APU AVAIL will show on
EWD display when APU is available for use.
The crossbleed valve can be operated in automatic or manual mode. There are
two electric motors for the valve, one for each mode. In automatic mode the
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
crossbleed valve opens automatically when using APU bleed air. During normal
operation the crossbleed is closed to isolate the two engine bleeds.
The crossbleed is manually set OPEN during the engine crossbleed start
The leak detection system uses a single loop for the pylons and APU to detect
hot air temps associated with duct leaks. Dual loops are used for the wings. If
both of the dual loops detect a leak a warning is given, unless there is a fault on
one, then only one loop is required to give a warning.
If a leak is detected:
The engine bleed air valve (APU bleed air valve) on that side is closed
Associated ENG (APU) BLEED FAULT light comes on
Crossbleed valve closes (except during engine start)
Left wing leak only – APU bleed air valve closes (except during ENG start)
 Airbus Gotcha: Do not use external conditioned air when using packs (OM
1.7.2). Unfortunately, there is no cockpit indication of external air connected! You
can turn off the cabin fans pb and if air continues to blow from the vents then
external air is connected.
Pay attention here, many new Airbus pilots fail to understand the way the Zone
Temp system works. If you are familiar with the 737-400 this is very similar. Both
packs are feeding all three zones. Whichever zone is commanding the coldest
temperature will drive BOTH packs to that temp. Hot air is then added to any
other zone that is commanding a higher temp. This hot air is called trim air and is
how the zone temp system controls temperatures in three zones with only two
There are three air conditioning zones: Cockpit, FWD Cabin and AFT Cabin.
The zones are controlled by having the packs deliver all air at the lowest temp
requested by any of the three zones. Then hot air is added through the trim air
valves to the other two zones as needed to meet temp requirements. A/C zone
temp selectors have a range of: Cold 18°C/64°F, 12 o’clock 24°C/76°F, Hot
The AC pack can bypass bleed air around the air cycle machine (ACM) if the
ACM fails and run the bleed air through the primary heat exchanger directly. This
allows the pack to operate as a simple heat exchanger with reduced pack flow.
Pack flow will revert to HI during single pack operation or APU bleed source
regardless of selector position.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The Zone controller can override pilot selected pack flow (HI, NORM and LOW)
as needed to meet demands. It can also command higher APU speed or engine
idle as needed.
One Zone controller with two channels. Failure of the primary channel will result
in fixed temperature at 76° F with no optimization. Failure of the secondary as
well will result in a fixed temp of 68° F pack 1 and 50° F pack 2.
One Pack controller per pack. Two channels per controller. If primary fails the
secondary pack air flow will be fixed at the pre-failure setting. No further
optimization is available. Further failure of the secondary will result in a fixed
pack outlet temp of 59° F.
Pack controllers also regulate the cooling air flow through the ACM. During
takeoff and touchdown the controllers close the ram air inlet flaps to prevent
ingesting debris.
Note: The Airbus 319/320/321 can be dispatched with one pack INOP. The MEL
may require a limit on max altitude depending on the MEL applied.
When sitting on the gate with AC established (APU or EXT PWR ON) the PACK
1 & 2 amber FAULT lights will be on when the packs are not supplied (no APU
bleed or external high pressure air).
RAM air
RAM air is available for cabin ventilation in the event of loss of pressurization or
smoke removal. When the RAM AIR pb is selected the RAM air inlet opens.
When pressurization differential is less than 1 psi. the outflow valve will open to
50% to allow exhaust. If above 1 psi. then the outflow will remain normal.
There are two identical independent pressurization systems. Control is normally
fully automatic. The system has one control panel, two controllers, one outflow
valve and two safety valves. The outflow valve has three DC motors: Primary,
Backup and Manual. Controllers can operate in automatic, semi-automatic and
manual modes.
Automatic: Controller automatically takes the destination field elevation from the
aircraft database. The entire pressurization schedule is optimized by the system.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Semi-automatic: If the database is not available for some reason the pilot can
select the landing elevation from the LDG ELEV knob by pulling the selector out
of the AUTO detent and turning to the needed value.
Manual: Normally, the controllers take turns controlling by swapping after each
leg. If the active controller fails the backup automatically takes over. If both
automatic systems fail the pilot may control manually by pressing the CABIN
PRESS MODE SEL to MAN. The primary and backup outflow valve motors are
depowered and the manual motor is activated. Now the pilot can select vertical
speed on the cabin using the MAN V/S CTL switch.
Abort mode: If the aircraft returns after takeoff the system will reset to departure
field elevation.
Ditching pb: The Ditching pb will close all exterior openings below the flotation
line. This pb is also used during deicing to prevent deicing fluid from entering the
 Airbus Gotcha: on ground with Ditching pb ON and all doors closed & external
low pressure connected a pressurization differential will build.
Note: If the pilot suspects that pressurization is not performing normally but has
not yet failed press the MODE SEL pb to MAN for 10 secs. then return to AUTO.
This will cause the systems to swap.
Depressurization: When cabin exceeds about 11,000’ the cabin may illuminate
and Exit and all cabin signs illuminate automatically. Masks will automatically
drop at 14,000’ cabin altitude.
The avionics are cooled through a system that uses two openings and two
electric fans. Conditioned air is also available for backup if needed. Yes, a
computer controls the whole thing (sigh).The intake is on the lower left side
below the cockpit. A blower fan draws air in and the extract fan on the right side
exhausts the air out from a port below the cockpit on the lower right side.
Open configuration: Only for ground operations, both the inlet and outlet vents
are open and both fans operate. Note: during heavy rain operations on ground
select EXTRACT pb to OVRD with both packs operating. This will prevent rain
from entering the avionics bay. Return to normal auto operation once airborne
(see OM 3.2.5 for parameters).
Closed configuration: In-flight mode and very cold ground operations. Both vents
are closed, however both fans run to circulate air past skin heat exchangers that
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
are cooled by low outside skin temperatures. Some air exhausted through cargo
underfloor. Also known as the infamous Skin Cooling Config.
Intermediate configuration: Only for use in-flight when warm, same as closed
except reduced opening to allow some additional exhaust of cooling air.
Abnormal configuration: Fault is detected in either the BLOWER or EXTRACT
fan. Blower fan is off but Extract remains ON. Similar to closed except air
conditioned air is added to the circulated air. ECAM will direct configuration.
Smoke configuration: If smoke is detected in avionics both the BLOWER and
EXTRACT fan will have amber FAULT lights on and the GEN 1 LINE pb (on
EMER ELEC PWR panel) has amber SMOKE illuminated. Selecting BOTH fans
to OVRD will cause the blower to stop but the extract to continue operating.
Conditioned air is added to attempt to cool and clear the smoke, then exhausted
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Hydraulics, Brakes & Landing Gear (OM II 12 & 14)
There are three hydraulic systems: green, blue and yellow. All three systems are
independent of each other and do not transfer fluid at any time. Each system has
its own accumulator. Priority valves ensure proper pressure to critical users when
system pressure is low.
Green system – 1 pump: engine driven. Two power sources: engine 1 pump &
Blue system – 2 pumps: 1 electric and the emergency RAT. Two sources of
power: electric pump & RAT pump.
Yellow system – 3 pumps: 1 engine, 1 electric & 1 hand pump. 4 sources of
power: engine 2 pump, electric pump, hand pump and PTU.
Green is the “heavy” system with landing gear, flaps/slats, nosewheel steering
and Normal Brakes. (nosewheel steering is on Yellow for enhanced aircraft)
Blue is basically for redundancy with the only unique items on it being L & R
spoiler 3 and the Emergency Generator which are “backup” items themselves.
Yellow provides the ground service items of parking brake and cargo door and
also helps power the flaps. Also, nosewheel steering for enhanced aircraft.
The RAT and Yellow electric pumps do not normally run during flight. The Yellow
electric pump will automatically come on when a cargo door is operated. Other
Yellow system functions are inhibited when automatically activated by a cargo
door. A hand pump is provided on the Yellow system to provide the ability to
open cargo doors with no electric power on the aircraft. Blue electric operates all
the time in-flight and on the ground when at least one engine is operating.
The RAT hydraulic pump is for emergency use only and will only deploy
manually for hydraulic problems. For electrical problems it will deploy
automatically above 100 kts. with loss of all AC. Note: Min RAT speed is 140 kts.
with A319/321 and modified A320 RATs stalling at less than 125 kts. This speed
limit is for electrical power and the RAT will continue to supply hydraulic power to
much slower speeds.
The PTU (Power Transfer Unit) is able to transfer power but not fluid. It transfers
power between the Green and Yellow systems (the two with the engine pumps
and heavy consumers). The PTU can transfer power in either direction and is
activated when a 500 psi differential is sensed between Green and Yellow. The
PTU can also be powered on the ground by the Yellow electric pump to power
Green hydraulic. Allows Yellow electric pump to power Green on ground (for
example to retract slats on ground).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The PTU is inhibited when:
 First engine is being started. This is identified as when the nosewheel
steering disconnect pin is in and only one ENG MASTER switch is ON. (PTU
operation is tested on second engine start)
 Cargo doors are operated (Yellow electric normally powers cargo doors, this
prevents draining low output of electric pump or accidentally powering Green
 Parking brake is ON and only one ENG MASTER switch is ON
 PTU pb is off
Note: If a cargo door is operated and then the 2 nd engine is started within 40
seconds a PTU fault message may be given (due to inhibition during test period).
The engine pumps (Green and Yellow) each have Fire Shut Off Valves that close
when the Engine Fire Pushbuttons are selected open.
The brakes are carbon, multidiscs actuated by two independent systems, Normal
and Alternate. The normal brakes are powered by the Green hydraulic system.
Normal brakes are available when:
 The A/SKID & N/W STRG switch is ON
 Green hydraulic pressure is available
 The parking brake is OFF
A BSCU (Brake and Steering Control Unit) controls all normal braking functions
(anti-skid, autobrakes and brake temps.).
Normal brake pressure is 2000 - 2700 psi. w/ full pedal deflection
Anti-skid is deactivated below 20 kts. Anti-skid may or may not be available when
on alternate brakes. If antiskid is inop. then alternate brakes use 1000 psi max to
prevent blowing tires.
The alternate brakes are powered by the Yellow hydraulic system and will
automatically become selected if Green hydraulic is insufficient for normal
brakes. Yellow brakes have the same capabilities as normal brakes except for
autobrake capability. The alternate brakes are essentially a mechanical system.
Think - BSCU on: Normal GREEN - BSCU off: Alternate, YELLOW.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Alternate brakes can be used with or without anti-skid. Anti-skid during alternate
brakes is inoperative when:
Electrical power failure
BSCU failure
A/SKID & N/W STRG switch turned off
Brake pressure supplied by Yellow accumulator only
Parking brake disables all other brake modes (319, 320 only). Parking brake is
on Yellow system.
A pressure indicator on the instrument panel indicates Yellow accumulator
pressure and Yellow left and right brake (parking brake) pressure on three
Accumulators maintain good parking brake pressure for at least 12 hrs. The
cargo door operation will restore parking brake (Yellow system) pressure.
Autobrakes are available on Normal Brakes (Green system) only. Hold pb for at
least one second. LO mode delays for 4 seconds after touchdown. MED mode
delays for 2 seconds. MAX has no delay. Do not use MAX for landing, MAX is
takeoff only (OM 3.12).
The Green DECEL light in the auto brake pb’s indicates actual deceleration is
within 80% of the selected rate (does not indicate that the autobrake is
Autobrakes activate when ground spoilers are extended. On takeoff they are not
armed until 72 kts. 2 SEC’s are required for Autobrakes.
Brake Fans are installed in the main gear hubs. They will indicate an amber HOT
when the brakes are 300° C or more. Brake temps are shown on the ECAM
WHEELS page. An arc will appear above the hottest brake temp. If brake temp
is above 300° C then the temp will turn amber. The brakes must be cooled below
300° C before takeoff. Pilot must manually select brake fans on.
Note: Delay selecting Brake Fans on taxi in for at least 5 mins. or until at gate.
Carbon brakes actually wear better when heated, however if turn time is short or
if brakes will exceed 500° then cool immediately. Fans should only be used to
cool to about 250° C (OM 3.15)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Hot Brakes (OM 2d.6.4) Maintenance action is required if there is:
 150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or
greater or 60° or less
 a mean 200° C difference between different trucks
 fuse plug melted
 brake temp exceeds 900° C (800° C, A321)
Avoid use of the parking brake when brakes are 500° C or above if able.
Do not set Parking Brake ON in flight.
Landing Gear
The Airbus Landing Gear:
Has enclosed gear bays
Is held by mechanical uplocks
Uses manual extension by gravity
Has no mechanical or visual check for gear position
Uses autobraking on the mains during retraction
Has a brake band in the nose gear well
Is hydraulically locked out from operation above 260 kts.
The LGCIU controls the Airbus landing gear operation. The SD will show 2 green
down triangles on the WHEELS page for each gear down and locked. There are
also gear indicators next to gear handle. Any green triangle (at least one out of
three possible) for a gear confirms the gear down and locked. One green and
two red triangles for a gear still indicates down and locked. Red shows gear in
transit and no triangle indicates gear uplocked.
The gear doors will remain down after manual gravity extension.
The gear lights by the gear handle are powered through (hard wired) LGCIU 1,
if LGCIU 1 is not powered the lights will not operate.
The gear handle has a red down arrow that will illuminate if gear is up with flaps
3 or FULL below about 700’ (landing configuration). ECAM will alert.
Nose Wheel Steering
Nose Wheel Steering gets inputs from: Capt. & F/O steering hand wheels
(max deflection is 75°, starts reducing above 20 kts to 0° at 70 kts.), Rudder
pedals (max deflection is 6°, starts reducing above 40 knots to 0° at 130 kts.),
and Autopilot. A rudder disconnect is on the hand steering wheel for use during
Flight Control Check. A lever on the nose gear deactivates steering to enable
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
towing. A green NW STRG DISC message will show on ECAM and will turn
amber on second engine start when lever is activated.
Nose wheel steering is enabled with hydraulic pressure when:
Nose gear doors closed
A/SKID & N/W STRG switch on
Towing control lever in normal position
At least one engine operating
Aircraft on ground
Nose wheel steering is disabled after manual gear extension.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Flight Controls (OM II 9)
Flight Control Laws:
Multiple failures are required to revert from normal law. “Multiple failures of
redundant systems”
Normal Flighton ground
Ground Mode
Flight Mode
blend from
Direct to
Flight Mode
Flare Mode
Normal with
slight pitch
down added
at 50’ for flare
on ground
Ground Mode
Normal Law: for a given amount of sidestick deflection a given amount of G
loading (pitch, elevators) or roll rate (roll, ailerons, spoilers) regardless of
airspeed. Pitch is always kept in trim automatically. Flare mode gives slight pitch
down after 50’ for flare. Bank past 33° requires constant input or will
automatically return to 33°. “Hard” protections. Green equals signs “=”
Normal Law Protections (think of as “A320 mode”):
Low Speed
Roll rate
to side stick
67° Max
(at 45°
& Yaw
Load Factor
to stick
Max 30°
nose up
Max 15°
nose down
α Prot
Low energy
α Floor
α Max
High Speed
nose up
overspeed at
Clean/Flaps 1
Alternate Law: Flight control will revert to alternate law after multiple failures of
redundant systems. Autotrim still available. “Soft” protections. No protection in
roll, roll goes to direct. Pitch goes to direct for landing when landing gear
extended (no “flare mode”). It is possible to be in Alternate law without speed
Stability and/or Yaw Dampening. Aircraft can stall. Amber “X’s”. No Alpha Floor.
Alternate Law Protections (think of as “737-300 mode”):
Low Speed High Speed
Roll Direct
Load Factor
to stick
No flare
mode, goes
to direct for
Low speed
nose down
command to
prevent stall
Stall Warning
High Speed
nose up
command to
Clean/Flaps 1
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Direct Law: Lowest level of flight control law. Proportional movement between
sidestick deflection and flight control deflection. No autotrimming. No protections.
Overspeed and Stall warnings available. The default mode on the ground in all
cases (think about it, if you are on the ground you cannot have a G load or roll
rate). This mode is most like a regular airplane (“DC-9 mode”). Amber “USE
Abnormal Law: This is entered by the aircraft being in an extreme unusual
attitude (about double normal limits). When back to normal attitude aircraft is in
Alternate Law except does not go to direct law on landing and no pitch
protections. Computer reverts to Abnormal when it sees the aircraft in unusual
attitude because computer logic says aircraft should not have been allowed by
normal law protections into this attitude in the first place, therefore computer
sees something is wrong.
Mechanical Backup: Pitch through horizontal stab trim, Lateral through rudders,
Differential power. Both stab and rudder use cables going to controller and
require hydraulic power. Bottom line here, very little “manual reversion” and if no
hydraulic power you are a lawn dart. Red “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY”
Fly-by-wire, no feedback except for rudder and horizontal stab trim
Two ELAC’s – Elevator, aileron and stabilizer control
Three SEC’s – Spoiler and standby elevator and stabilizer control
Two FAC’s – Electrical rudder control (other warning functions also provided)
FCDC’s (Flight Control Data Concentrators) process information from ELAC’s
and SEC’s and send data to the EIS and CFDS.
Pitch – Controlled by elevators and horizontal stab. Electrically controlled by
ELAC or SEC and hydraulically actuated.
Elevator – Each elevator has two hydraulic power sources and two actuators
(one active and one in damping mode).
Elevator priorities: (Note: unless required by Ground School instructor I would not memorize
which hydraulic system supplies which flight control, I add it for reference only)
ELAC 2  ELAC 1  SEC 2  SEC 1
Left Elevator – Blue and Green hyd.
Right Elevator – Yellow and Blue hyd.
Horizontal Stabilizer – Electrically controlled by one of three motors or
mechanically controlled by the pitch trim wheels (through cable) and hydraulically
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
powered by green or yellow hydraulic. After touchdown the stab trim is reset
automatically to zero.
Horizontal Stab. Priorities:
ELAC 2  ELAC 1  SEC 2  SEC 1 (same as elevators)
Green and Yellow hyd., 3 electric motors
Roll Control – provided by ailerons and spoilers. Electrically controlled by ELAC
(ailerons) or SEC (spoilers) and hydraulically actuated.
Ailerons – Each aileron is powered by Green and Blue hyd. and has two
actuators (one active and the other damping). The ailerons droop 5° when the
flaps are extended. If both ELAC’s fail then droop is deactivated and the ailerons
streamline and only spoilers are used for roll control.
Aileron priorities:
Green and Blue hyd.
Spoilers – Five spoilers are installed on each wing. From the wing root to wing tip
they are numbered 1 through 5. All are used as ground spoilers. Numbers 2
through 5 (the 4 outboard spoilers) provide roll control. The middle three (2 – 4)
provide in-flight speed brakes. If a SEC fails the spoiler(s) it controls is
automatically retracted (if extended) and that spoiler(s) deactivated. There is no
reversion to other computers.
Spoiler priorities:
Spoilers 1 & 2 - SEC 3, Yellow and Green
Spoilers 3 & 4 - SEC 1, Yellow and Blue
Spoiler 5 - SEC 2, Green
Speedbrakes and Ground Spoilers
Green SPD BRK memo on ECAM when speedbrakes extended. Flashes amber
when thrust is applied with speedbrake extended. Half speedbrake extension is
available on autopilot, full speedbrake extension is available with autopilot off.
When on autopilot moving speedbrake handle past the ½ mark will not extend
them further. When off autopilot they will continue to extend past ½ mark to Full.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Speedbrake extension inhibited when (SAFE-T):
S - SEC 1 & 3 fail
A - Angle of Attack protection active (α prot) or ALPHA FLOOR active
F - Flaps at FULL setting (also config 3: A321)
E - Elevator (L or R) fails (spoilers 3 and 4 only)
T-TOGA on thrust levers (OK, really above MCT but you better be in the TOGA
detent if you are above MCT!)
If speedbrakes out when inhibited they will automatically retract. Must restow
speedbrake handle for 10 seconds to regain. Do not use speedbrakes below
1000’ AFE.
If one speedbrake on one wing fails the corresponding one on the other wing will
be inhibited for symmetry.
Ground Spoilers are armed by raising the Speed Brake Lever. The speed brake
lever does not move with auto extension.
Ground Spoilers extend automatically:
Partial Extension – On landing –
Reverse selected on at least one engine with other at or near idle –and– one
main landing gear strut compressed
Full Extension – On landing or on takeoff above 72 kts. (rejected takeoff) –
Both thrust levers at idle (spoilers armed) –or–
Reverse thrust selected on at least one engine with other at idle (spoilers not
armed) and both mains compressed.
Rudder – Rudder controls yaw. FAC 1 & 2 provide electric control through trim
motors and hydraulically actuated. Mechanically controlled by rudder pedals if
FAC’s fail. Rudder deflection is normally limited according to airspeed but during
dual FAC failure full rudder deflection is available when the slats extend. Rudder
trim is automatic but can be done manually using electric RUD TRIM switch. A
rudder trim RESET pb will reset the rudder to 0 trim (not available during
autopilot operation).
ELACs sends signals to FACs and FACs compute yaw damper and turn
coordinations. No feedback (rudder pedal movement) during yaw damper
corrections or turn coordination. The rudder is not computer controlled to the
extent of the rest of the flight controls. It is assisted by the ELAC but does not
have the level of “fly-by-wire” that the roll and pitch axis do.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
FAC – think of a southern Dragnet, “just the FACs y’all”
Y – Yaw functions, normal and alternate yaw
A – Angle of Attack (flight envelope protection - AoA, High and Low speed limits)
W – Windshear
L – Low Energy warning (speed, speed)
α Prot – Alpaa Protection, Angle of attack protection speed, top of amber tiger
A – Angle of Attack instead of Load Factor (g’s)
S – Speedbrakes retract
A – Autopilot disconnects
P – Pitch trim inhibited
The flap handle has a “trigger” that must be squeezed to allow the flaps to move
out of detent with balks at 1 and 3 to prevent “overshoot”. The flaps will only
provide the configurations that are allowed for each detent, there is no “in
between the detents” positioning. The flap handle controls both flaps and slats.
Controlled by two Slat Flap Control Computers (SFCCs).
Both flaps and slats are powered by two hydraulic systems, flaps by green and
yellow and slats by green and blue. If any hydraulic system fails leaving only one
hydraulic system powering either slats or flaps the single powered control will
extend and retract at half speed. If only one SFCC is functional the flaps and
slats will operate at half speed.
The flaps have 5 selected positions: 0, 1, 2, 3 and FULL.
Takeoff is allowed with 1, 2 or 3
Landing is allowed with 3 or FULL
Note: when landing with Flaps 3 the LDG FLAP 3 pb on the GPWS overhead
panel should be selected ON for proper ECAM indication when landing and also
CONFIG 3 selected in PERF APPR for proper approach numbers.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The flap position numbers are just that, position numbers, they do not
correspond to degrees of flaps (or slats) and in fact each model (the A319, A320
and A321) has slightly different flap deflection schedules for certain flap lever
positions. For example, Flaps FULL for the A319 is 40°, A320 is 35° and the
A321 is 25°. The A321 also has additional slots built into the flaps to provide
additional lift at slower speeds. Procedures remain the same for all models
except for higher flap speeds on the A321. The flap “indicator” is in the E/WD
and shows the amount of extension for both slats and flaps, with three positions
for the slats and four positions for the flaps.
Note: On the A321 for Flaps FULL the slats actually extend more than the flaps
so that the FULL position actually provides LESS tail strike protection than Flaps
3. In conditions where Flaps 3 is usable it is preferable to use Flaps 3 for
additional tail strike protection.
Flaps 0 (zero) is flaps “UP” with all trailing and leading edge flap devices fully
Flaps 1 is a “hybrid” with two separate configurations for the same Flaps 1
handle position. However, from a pilot standpoint the difference is transparent as
the flap handle is treated the same. Flaps 1 position will provide flaps 1+F for
takeoff and anytime you are retracting flaps from a higher setting (2, 3 or FULL).
Any other time Flaps 1 will provide Flaps 1 (how about that?). OK, so what is the
difference between Flaps 1 and Flaps 1+F? Glad you asked, simply this, the
trailing edge flaps. The trailing edge flaps make up the +F as Flaps 1 is slats only
in the initial position. During Flaps 1+F the slats and flaps will extend to initial
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Now that I have you completely confused, here is the short story:
 Flaps 1 on ground extending for takeoff – Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps)
 Flaps 1 after takeoff during initial flap retraction from Flaps 2 or 3 – Flaps
1+F (slats and flaps)
 Flaps 1 for landing extending from Flaps 0 – Flaps 1 (slats only)
 Flaps 1 for Go Around retracting from 2 or 3– Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps)
As you can see the only time Flaps 1 gives you Flaps 1 (slats only) is on
extension for landing, the rest of the time Flaps 1 is Flaps 1+F (slats and flaps).
The E/WD will show either Flaps 1 or Flaps 1+F depending on configuration.
Flaps 2, 3 and FULL all have both slats and flaps extended to some degree.
Flaps have overspeed protection at flap setting 1+F so that at 210 KIAS the flaps
will automatically retract to Flaps 1 (slats only). Please note on the A321 it is
possible at high gross takeoff weights that F speed will exceed the flap speed for
1+F. In this case the flaps will automatically retract and the pilot will select flaps 0
at S speed which will retract the remaining slats.
Slats have an alpha lock function that inhibits them from retracting from position
1 to 0 when at a high angle of attack or low airspeed.
There are 4 Wingtip Brakes (WTB) that will lock the flaps or slats in case of
asymmetry, overspeed, runaway or uncommanded movement. WTB’s cannot be
released in-flight. If flaps are locked out, slats can operate and visa versa.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Perhaps one of the most distinctive and noticeable differences in the Airbus 320
series from other airliners is the sidestick. Most folks get comfortable with the
sidestick within minutes. However, the computerized flight controls that the
sidestick activate require some new features:
No feedback (feel) is given. Sidestick is spring loaded to neutral.
System algebraically sums the signals from both sticks if both are operated at
the same time (dual input). However, the total input is no more than the max
input from a single stick.
A red Takeover pb in the sidestick (also serving as autopilot disconnect) allows
one pilot to override the other or to disable a damaged sidestick. If priority is
taken an audio “PRIORITY LEFT (or RIGHT)” is sounded.
A red arrow light will illuminate in front of the pilot who has been deactivated
when one pilot has taken priority over the other. A green CAPT or F/O light will
illuminate in front of the pilot with priority if the other sidestick is out of neutral.
Last pilot to press Takeover pb has priority.
Pressing Takeover pb for 40 secs. will latch the priority condition (pilot does not
have to continue to press Takeover pb). However, a deactivated sidestick can be
reactivated by momentarily pressing the Takeover pb on either sidestick.
Green CAPT and F/O sidestick priority lights will flash during dual input and an
audio “DUAL INPUT” will be sounded.
The Takeover pb and dual input warning system are commonly misunderstood.
A green light in front of you means dual input or you have just taken priority in a
dual input situation and a red arrow means your sidestick has been deactivated.
These are two different things. Dual input is almost always unintentional and
unwanted. The takeover priority may be something that needs to be done if a
sidestick has gone bad or some other problem has occurred. However, if YOUR
sidestick is bad the OTHER pilot must latch it out with their Takeover pb.
Sidestick “locks” in place when on autopilot. Pilot action on sidestick (or trim
wheel) at any time will disconnect the autopilot.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Instrument / Nav / Comm (OM II 10)
The ECAM (Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring) system is made up of two
primary components, two SDAC’s (System Data Acquisition Concentrators) and
two FWC’s (Flight Warning Computers). A loss of only one SDAC or only one
FWC will not result in any loss of function. The second computer can handle all
functions alone. The SDAC’s receive data from sensors and will send signals to
3 DMC’s (Display Management Computer) which generate the screen image.
The SDAC’s also send signals to the FWC. The FWC will generate various
warning/caution messages.
The E/WD (Engine/Warning Display) is the display that shows normal engine
readings and ECAM messages. The SD (System Display) is directly below the
E/WD and normally shows system pages or status. For information on switching
screens in case of failures see EFIS later in this section.
ECAM uses color to indicate the importance of the indication–
Immediate action required
Awareness but no action required
Normal operation
Titles and remarks
Actions to be carried out or limitations
Special messages (i.e. inhibition messages)
Note: pulsing green or amber indications are approaching limits
If a FWC fails the Master Caution and Master Warning lights will indicate the
failure (along with a warning from ECAM) by the upper or lower light in both the
Master Caution and Warning light being out. If the #1 FWC fails then the
captains upper lights would be out and the F/O’s lower lights would be out. If #2
FWC fails the reverse lights will go out.
Loss of both FWC’s will result in a loss of most warning capability. The dual
failure of the FWC’s will result in an amber caution with no aural.
ECAM system pages are controlled through the ECAM control panel. Use the
mnemonic FHPED to check systems prior to departure. Work right to left across
ECAM control panel. Note: Press FUEL, HYD, PRESS, ENG and then press
ENG again to return to default DOOR/OXY page
FUEL, balance, configuration, quantity
HYD, Hydraulics quantity (pointers in boxes)
ENG, Engine oil quantity (min. 13 qts.)
DOOR/OXY, Doors armed, O2 pressure (note: overwing slides always armed)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
ECAM Procedures:
Upper ECAM (E/WD)
Primary Failures
Secondary Failures
“ECAM Actions”
Affected Systems
Lower ECAM (SD)
Inop Systems
Work in a “Z” fashion from upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right.
When an ECAM warning occurs the first pilot noting it should read the title.
Appropriate systems page will be shown on lower ECAM (SD) to help identify
problem area(s). Please note that the top displayed underlined system will
control the lower SD display.
Then the PF should call “ECAM Action”. The PM should read the full line of
action items. Confirm all major actions before continuing to next (including thrust
lever movement, engine master switch, engine fire pb selection, IDG disconnect,
IRU mode selection, cargo smoke discharge pb selection) and have the PF
guard good control. Repeat response as you complete action. As you complete
the items listed in cyan (blue) (think “Blue to Do”) they will be automatically
cleared from the screen. Continue until you reach the next underlined item. Read
through any boxed item. DO NOT CLEAR a boxed item!
Note: boxed items indicate failure of a primary system that will cause the loss of
another system or systems on the aircraft which will be listed as secondary or
*starred systems). When reaching the next underlined title or the end of the
procedure then proceed with clearing ECAM. Be sure to do ALL applicable blue
action items between underlined titles before proceeding.
If there are too many steps to all be on the screen ECAM will put a green down
arrow to indicate that there is screen “overflow”. As you complete the items and
they are cleared the overflow items will automatically scroll up onto the screen. If
there are too many items that can’t be cleared then press the CLEAR pb for the
next page.
Note: you may not be able to clear all blue items. In some cases ECAM will not
have a way to know that you have done an item, such as “contact ATC”. Some
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
may not apply such as during Engine Failure ECAM will give a choice of damage
or no damage procedures.
When all action items are finished for an underlined item and you are at the end
or the next underlined item the PM asks, “Clear ECAM”? PF will reply, “Clear
ECAM” if ready to continue. Be sure that no further cyan messages remain for
any underlined item that can be eliminated before clearing. Some blue action
items the computer cannot get feedback from, and these will remain on the
screen. ALWAYS CONFIRM AN ECAM CLEAR. The SD will automatically
display the affected underlined system if there are additional failures.
If the problem stops while doing action items some action items may clear or
change automatically. For example, if an engine fire goes out while running
ECAM you will see the ECAM ENGINE FIRE go away, the red FIRE pb on the
FIRE panel and the red FIRE light on the engine panel will go out and the LAND
ASAP will change from red to orange. If the ECAM changes you have to start
with the QRH and do the Immediate Action Items and ECAM Exceptions first
before doing the new ECAM.
When ECAM is cleared the next procedure will appear (additional primary
failures are listed in the “stack” on the right) or if all procedures are done then
ECAM will automatically present the first page of the affected systems on the
SD. Affected systems (secondary failures) are listed in amber on the top right of
the screen with an *asterisk in front of them (*F/CTL). After reviewing the screen
you will clear it and the next system screen will be shown. After each screen you
should ask and confirm ready to clear the screen. Continue until all amber is
cleared and only green memo messages are left.
Example: PM will then review all affected equipment shown in amber on Flight
Control side. When done PM will ask, “Clear Flight Control”?
PF will reply, “Clear Flight Control” if ready to continue.
When all the affected system screens have been cleared the status page will
come up automatically. If Status or Inop Systems takes up more than one page
on ECAM there will be a green down arrow to indicate to “scroll” to the next
page. In this case you will clear ECAM to scroll to the rest of the procedure. After
using clear to see additional Status or INOP Systems pages you can press the
STS key to see the first Status or INOP Systems page again.
Status page will contain items such as procedures, limits, etc.
PM will then read all status items line by line. When done the PM will ask “Clear
The PF will reply, “Clear Status” if ready to finish.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
If PF needs to stop ECAM say “Hold ECAM”, when ready to continue say
“Continue ECAM”.
Pilot verbiage during ECAM is Challenge, Response, Response. (OM 9.1.3)
For example:
PM: Green Engine 1 Pump, OFF, (push off Green Engine 1 pb) OFF
When operating critical controls that must be confirmed the PM must allow the
PF to confirm the action and guard the good controls. Here are the critical
Thrust Lever movement
Engine Master switch
Engine Fire pb selection
Cargo Smoke DISCH pb
IR pb
IDG disconnect
Verbiage in this case will be like this:
PM: Thrust Lever 1, Idle, (PF will guard thrust lever 2 with hand)
PF: Confirmed (PM will bring thrust lever 1 to idle),
PM: Idle
Additional information on ECAM warnings may be obtained from the ECAM NonNormal Supplemental Manual if time permits.
A red LAND ASAP suggests landing at nearest suitable airport (more severe).
An amber LAND ASAP suggests the pilot should consider the seriousness of the
situation and suitability of the airport before landing (less severe).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Landing Distance Procedure – If the procedure directs you to do the landing
distance procedure (LDG DIST PROC) then you will use the A320 Landing App
on your iPad. Put it into Non-Normal mode before running the app.
Put the resulting VAPP in the MCDU PERF APPR page under the LSK 5L.
When using speed increments ALWAYS USE SPEED SELECT on approach. Do
not use managed speed when speed increments have been applied. Use the
VAPP set in the PERF APPR to remind you what speed to select when on
Please note that this is a reference distance only, if you have autobrake available
you should use it!
Note: If ECAM directs to recycle Flaps/Slats – speed select below 200 kts. and
select flaps 2
Note: If the Landing Distance Procedure is listed on ECAM after it warns of flying
in icing conditions you only have to do the procedure if you have ice accretion.
Don’t waste your time doing this procedure unless you have to!
ECAM action should not be taken (except to cancel audio warning through the
MASTER WARN light) until:
 The flight path is stabilized and
 The aircraft is higher than 1,000 AFE
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Immediate Action Items
Any actions the pilot should take without hesitation are listed in the back cover of
the QRH. The actual procedures are at the front of the QRH. The only QRH
Memory Items listed in RED are for CAPT PFD, ND Blank….AC ESS
FEED…ALTN and putting on your oxygen mask for smoke/fumes. You are
expected to know when to accomplish this memory items.
ECAM Exceptions
There are times that ECAM may or may not direct the pilot to do a procedure
that is the best procedure to do.
The back page of the QRH lists the ECAM exceptions and the pilot consult these
before running any procedures for ECAMS. Of course there are other possible
situations and combinations of events that can be thought of. Currently there are
twelve items listed that you should do according to the QRH before attempting to
follow the ECAM.
Examples are if an ECAM directs to turn off the last available source of hydraulic
power (no power to any flight controls is a bad thing in any circumstance) or
opening the fuel X-feed for fuel imbalance when in fact you have a major fuel
leak. As always Captain, it is your aircraft and you have the final decision.
Exercise your emergency authority as needed (but always with discretion!).
ECAM Methodolgy
1. PF - Maintain Aircraft Control
2. Identify the Non-normal, PM - Cancels the Warning or Caution, if applicable
3. PM - Determine if Immediate Action or ECAM Exception
4. PM - Accomplish Immediate Action Items, if applicable
5. Captain - Assigns PF
6. PM - Accomplish Non-normal procedure
7. PM - Accomplish ECAM Follow-Up procedures, if applicable
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
EFIS (OM II 10.x)
A white diagonal line across the display means that the DMC (Display
Management Computer) has failed. The CRT itself is still working. Just switch to
the standby DMC on the switching panel to restore the displays as normal.
A failure of the DU Display Unit (display blank) means that you will have to swap
screens to view all information. The PFD has priority over the ND and the EW/D
has priority over the SD. This means that if the PFD display fails then the PFD
will automatically display on the ND display screen. However, if the ND fails the
PFD will remain on its normal screen. If you wish to view the ND you can press
the PFD/ND XFR switch. In the same way the EW/D has priority over the SD. If
the SD needs to be displayed use the ECAM/ND XFR switch on the switching
panel to bring that screen up on the CAPT or F/O ND as selected. A failure of
both the ECAM screens (EW/D and SD) will require use of the ECAM/ND XFR
switch on the switching panel to view the EW/D screen on the ND display and by
pressing the required system pb on the ECAM Control Panel you can view the
SD info on the ND as needed.
The ND has two brightness controls, outer and inner bezel control knobs. The
outer ND bezel controls brightness of the radar and terrain on the ND. The inner
knob controls the brightness of all the other normal ND display symbols. Note
that if the PFD/ND XFR button is used the outer bezel is disabled and only the
inner knob is available for brightness control.
STS in a white box will show on the bottom of the EW/D if there are any systems
downgraded to remind the crew of any status information. If there is a system
advisory message when the SD has failed the EW/D will flash a white ADV at the
bottom of the screen to notify the crew to select the SD for viewing.
The current airspeed is indicated by a fixed yellow reference line. A yellow speed
trend arrow will appear from the speed reference line to indicate the anticipated
airspeed in 10 seconds.
Green Dot is a (gasp!) green dot on the speed scale and is available only when
aircraft is clean (flaps 0). It shows best lift over drag speed (L/D) and is also
called VFTO (Final Takeoff speed). Green dot is used during normal takeoff and
the engine-out maneuver and gives best angle of climb speed.
On the altitude scale the Landing Elevation is a blue line and is based on
barometric information. The Landing Elevation is available only in QNH (below
18,000’) and on approach.
Ground Reference display on the altitude scale is a red ribbon and is based on
radar altimeter information. Radar altimeter readout comes on screen in green
below 2500’ AGL and goes amber (if DH is entered) when 100’ above DH (CAT
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
II/III). If an MDA has been entered the altitude (note: this is the normal altitude
readout, not the radar altimeter readout) will turn amber below the MDA (CAT I /
Magenta means managed and Blue means selected. For example if the
commanded speed is by pilot action (speed select) the speed target index
(speed pointer) will be blue. If the commanded speed is controlled by the FMGC
(speed engage) the speed pointer will be magenta.
When a new altitude is selected the new target altitude will appear above (during
climb) or below (during descent) the altitude scale. The new target altitude will
move onto the scale once it is within the altitude scale range (about 600’).
Takeoff Warning (OM 13.1.1)
 Slats/Flaps
 Pitch Trim
 Speed Brakes
 Sidestick Fault
 Hot Brakes
 Door Not Closed
-the following are only triggered when takeoff power is set
 Parking Brake On
 Flex Temp Not Set (not displayed if thrust levers set in TOGA detent)
Altitude Alert
Altitude alert (tone and pulsing yellow altitude windows) is inhibited when:
 Slats are out and landing gear selected down
 Landing gear locked down
 Captured on glide slope
The tone is also inhibited when on autopilot and capturing a normal set target
altitude, but pulsing yellow window is still effective.
Windshear prediction and detection
Windshear prediction is radar based and is available below 1500’ AGL. It looks
out to 5 nm ahead of aircraft. A warning message reading WINDSHEAR AHEAD
will appear on PFD and ND. Color of the warning will be red or amber depending
on level of warning. Levels include Advisory (display only) and the Warning and
Caution messages have an aural warning alert as well. Predictive warnings are
inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts. until 50’ AGL and then again inhibited on
landing once below 50’ AGL. Windshear prediction uses the normal weather
radar and there is only one radar installed. If the normal radar is turned off the
windshear prediction will still operate normally if set to Auto. Prediction means
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
that a possible windshear is ahead of you. Predictive windshear will not warn for
CAT (Clear Air Turbulence), system must have precipitation to work.
Note: Predictive windshear is inhibited during takeoff after 100 kts up to 50’!
Reactive Windshear detection is controlled by the FAC’s and is based on
GNADIRS information. Windshear detection means that you are IN a windshear.
Windshear detection (when slats/flaps selected) is available 5 seconds after
takeoff until 1300’ AGL and is again available on landing from 1300’ AGL until
50’ AGL.
A red WINDSHEAR warning is shown on the PFD and an aural WINDSHEAR
alert is given three times during windshear detection.
Note: Windshear detection is NOT available until 5 secs. after takeoff!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System (say that five times
fast!) provides the FMGS with the data input it needs to navigate the aircraft. The
FMGC decides which signals are most accurate and provide a “synthetic” (best
guess) aircraft position after weighing all available data. The FMGC can also
estimate the accuracy of its synthetic position due to available sensors and data.
This information will be used during RNAV approaches. The IRU’s have laser
ring gyros that provide a stable reference signal as well as provide attitude
information. Be very careful NOT to just turn off the IRU because it gives a bad
nav signal. It may still be giving good attitude information and can be selected to
attitude information only (ATT). The FMGC can track IR drift and predict aircraft
position even when GPS or ground based (VOR/DME) signals are lost.
GNADIRS also provides the aircraft with needed air data information such as
altitude, mach, temperatures, airspeed, etc. Failure of an associated air data
reference DOES NOT fail the IR! The failed ADR can be turned off by
deselecting its pb and still maintain all IR and GPS functions.
There are two independent GPS receivers called MMR’s (Multi Mode Receiver).
The MMR’s process position data and send it to the GNADIRU’s. MMR1 sends
data to ADIRU1 and MMR2 sends data to ADIRU2. Both MMR’s can send data
to ADIRU 3 as needed for backup purposes if ADIRU 1 or 2 fail.
The system is very accurate and reliable with a high degree of redundancy using
three ADIRU units and multiple navigation signal inputs from GPS and IR. The
FMGC also takes VOR/DME signals (OM 13.3.1, 17.3.1) into account along with
the GNADIRS data to compute aircraft position. The third GNADIR is basically a
standby that can be selected if #1 or #2 fail.
Amber FAULT light:
 Steady, IR lost
 Flashing, may be available in ATT only, NAV lost
White ALIGN light:
 Steady, in align mode (normal)
 Flashing
 align fault
 No entry in 10 mins.
 1° difference in lat. & long. from shutdown position
 Extinguished, alignment is complete (normal)
Note: DO NOT move aircraft during alignment. Wait 3 minutes after aircraft
stop to re-align or turn off
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Enhanced GPWS provides all normal aural GPWS functions as well as the
enhanced terrain avoidance features. The enhanced function is database
(computer) driven but it is shown in a radar format. Please note that the radar is
NOT being used for terrain detection but the DISPLAY will override the weather
radar image display when the terrain on ND pb (TERR ON ND) is selected. If the
TERR ON ND pb is not selected and a warning is generated the terrain display
will come on automatically and override weather radar display. The Terrain
“sweep” is a distinctive middle to the sides to make it obviously different from the
normal radar. The enhanced terrain feature can be shut off using the TERR pb
on the overhead without losing any of the normal GPWS functions.
Standby Nav, remote tuning
When normal radio navigation is not available you can use the backup nav
mode, Standby Nav (STBY NAV), also known as remote tuning. Select Rose
VOR for the ND. Press the guarded NAV button on the RMP and the green light
will come on indicating that you are now using Standby Nav. To use VOR nav
press the VOR button. Then tune the VOR frequency with the normal selector
knob in the STBY/CRS window. Press to transfer the freq to active and now you
can select the course on the STBY/CRS window using the inner knob of the
selector. All autotuning is disabled during Standby Nav. Number 1 VOR will be
displayed on Capts. ND in Rose VOR. Number 2 VOR will be displayed on F/O’s
ND in Rose VOR.
To tune an ILS first select Rose LS on the ND. Then press the LS button on the
FCU. Then press the guarded NAV button on the RMP. Then press the LS
button in the STBY NAV area of the RMP. Now tune the ILS frequency by using
the normal RMP selector to tune the freq. in the STBY/CRS window. Then press
the transfer button to make the frequency active. Now you can select the ILS
course using the inner knob of the selector. Number 1 ILS will be displayed on
Capt”s. PFD when in LS and F/O’s ND when on Rose LS. Number 2 ILS will be
displayed on F/O’s PFD when on LS and Capt’s. PFD when on Rose LS
Note: the ILS STBY NAV will display onside tuning on the PFD and offside tuning
on the ND. This allows comparison of the signals during approach.
Note: If the STBY NAV is being used during the electrical emergency
configuration only RMP 1 has power.
RADNAV Nav, manual tuning: Select the RADNAV key on the MCDU. Enter the
VOR ident on LSK 1R or 1L and the course on LSK 2R or 2L. Select VOR Rose
for the ND. To manually tune an ILS use the same technique by putting the ILS
ident on LSK 3L and ILS course on 4L then select ILS Rose for the ND. Press
the LS pb to see DME on PFD.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Note: when ROSE VOR is selected with a VOR manually tuned the CAPT ND
will show VOR1 and F/O ND will show VOR2. However, when ROSE LS is
selected with an ILS manually selected the CAPT ND will show ILS2 and the F/O
ND will show ILS1.
Communications: Comms are monitored by ECAM for “stuck mike”.
All RMP’s will tune any radio. ACP’s may be switched in case of failure using
Audio Switching panel on overhead.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Tune, Talk, Listen – RMP and ACP
When you come to a railroad crossing you should Stop, Look, Listen but when
using the Airbus RMP and ACP you should Tune, Talk, Listen. The Airbus has a
very flexible setup for tuning radios but it takes a little getting used to. First of all
any RMP (Radio Management Panel) can tune any radio in the aircraft. This
means that if you lose two RMP’s you can still tune any radio with the third RMP.
While this redundancy is great you have to be able to keep track of it all!
Further the ACP (Audio Control Panel) allows the pilot to transmit or listen on
any radio or interphone. Again there are three installed.
The pilots will have their own RMP and ACP on the center pedestal on their side
with the third “standby” on the overhead. For the pilots the RMP is mounted
above the ACP. Fortunately Airbus helped us out a little bit by lining up all the
functions for each radio in a “stack”. The table below is greatly simplified to show
you the “stack” for each radio and includes controls on both the RMP and ACP.
When using the RMP or ACP you must realize that every control is independent.
For example you can tune on VHF 2 while listening on VHF 1 while transmitting
on VHF 3. On the RMP a green triangle light will indicate which radio is being
tuned and on the ACP a triple bar green light will indicate which radio is set to
transmit. On the RMP only one radio may be tuned at a time, selecting VHF 1 for
tuning will deselect the prior selection. The ACP transmit is the same way, only
one radio may be selected for transmit from that ACP at one time.
On the ACP the pilot will select “up” or “out” the radios or interphones to listen to.
You may select as many as you wish and set independent volume control on
each. Please note that you must select out a radio to listen to even if you have
pressed to tune or talk on it, the audio is NOT automatically selected when you
use the RMP.
Note: ACARS is set on RMP 3 (standby on overhead) and VHF 3 and ACARS
cannot be set to use any other radio.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Auto Flight System
First, a little general autoflight theory! The Airbus has four “layers” or levels
control if you wish to call it that. The first or lowest level is manual control. This
would be the pilot controlling through the sidestick and the thrust levers.
Level 1 - “Manual”
Flight Controls
In this case the pilot is controlling any flight control movement by use of the
sidestick, which sends its signals through the appropriate computers to the
hydraulic actuators and finally the flight control itself. The pilot can command any
flight control movement that stays within Flight Control Normal Law. The same
holds true for thrust. The pilot can manually control the thrust levers to command
any thrust level that stays within the normal engine operating parameters. This is
hand flying as you have always done. Do not confuse the flight control
computers (i.e. ELAC, SEC and FAC) with the flight management guidance
computers (FMGC).
Level 2 – “Manual with or without Flight Director or Autothrust”
Flight Director
Flight Controls
In this example the pilot maintains manual control of the flight control but is being
guided by the flight director. The flight director (F/D) may be getting its cues from
the FMGC or from the settings on the FCU.
The next level of control is autoflight. This is when the autopilot and autothrust
are engaged. In this case the pilot is controlling the aircraft through the settings
on the FCU for the autopilot and the thrust levers. The pilot is telling the autopilot
and autothrust directly what is wanted. For example, if a heading of 90 is
required the pilot just sets a heading of 90 in the FCU and the autopilot holds
that heading. If the pilot wants a climb of 1000 fpm then the pilot sets 1000 fpm
in the FCU.
Level 3 - “Autoflight”
Flight Director
Flight Controls
This level is basically the same as any other aircraft you have flown with autopilot
and autothrust. The autopilot and autothrust are controlling through the same
flight control system that the pilot uses when hand flying.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The final and most sophisticated level is computer guided. In this case the pilot
enters the desired settings in the FMGC and the computer calculates the proper
flight path and track. The FMGC then commands the autopilot and autothrust to
properly maintain the computed track and path. If the pilot wishes to make
changes or revisions to the flight plan then it is done to the FMGC which then
recalculates the needed information. For example, if the pilot wishes to change
the flight plan route to go direct to a new fix, the new fix is typed into the MCDU
and entered into the DIR page. The FMGC now computes the new course and
commands the autopilot to turn to the new heading.
Level 4 - “Computer Guided”
Flight Director
Flight Controls
Each higher level uses all the previous levels. In other words computer guided
flight is also using the autoflight and manual levels. The pilot can always “drop
down” from one level to a lower level by disengaging the appropriate equipment.
For example, the pilot may be climbing under computer control in Managed
Climb. By selecting a vertical speed of 1500 fpm on the FCU the pilot has now
put the vertical path in autopilot control. The FMGC is not controlling the climb
rate. If the pilot then disengages the autopilot the aircraft is now under manual
control and the pilot is now manually controlling the climb rate.
Two things that should be pointed out. You can have various levels of control at
one time. For example, the track may be computer guided by the FMGC while
the vertical path is under autopilot control. Another example is when the pilot is
hand flying but using autothrust (which is very common). In this case the flight
controls are in manual but the thrust is in autoflight. The other thing to point out
is that when hand flying the pilot may use the Flight Director so that while the
aircraft is under manual control the pilot is still getting autoflight or computer
guided assistance.
There are two autopilots installed. Normally you will only use one autopilot at a
time (Capt. using A/P 1 and F/O using A/P 2). However, for every ILS approach
you will engage both autopilots (except, of course, when the second is inop.).
The autopilot can be controlled either directly from the FCU (Flight Control Unit)
or through the MCDU and the FMGC. In both cases you must monitor
engagement status on the FMA. The FCU has four places to make inputs,
Speed, Heading/NAV, Altitude and Altitude Hold/Vertical Speed. In each case
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
the knob for the selection can be pressed or pulled. Pressing the knob will tell the
autopilot to use the FMGC for guidance. Pulling the knob will tell the autopilot to
use a pilot selected value.
When the autopilot control is engaged (push) on the FMGC for a setting a white
dot will appear on the LCD readout for that setting. If the autopilot control is
selected (pull) to a pilot set value the pilot value will appear in the LCD readout.
Always confirm settings on the FMA at the top of the PFD.
Speed: Pull to select to KIAS or Mach by pilot, dial to needed speed. Press to
engage in Managed speed mode in FMGC
Heading: Pilot can dial to set desired heading then pull to select HDG mode.
Pressing HDG knob will engage Managed NAV and allow autopilot to track
FMGC route.
Altitude: Value set by pilot, pulling will allow open climb/descent (full power climb,
idle descent), pressing will engage to allow Managed climb/descent on FMGC
Altitude Hold/Vertical Speed: Pulling knob will select vertical speed mode. Dial
knob to select amount of climb or descent in hundreds of feet per minute.
Pressing knob will engage an immediate level off in altitude hold.
For Example (OM 2.9.11):
“Speed 170” – pilot selects new speed of 170
“Managed Speed” – speed controlled by FMGC, known as managed speed.
“Heading 280” – pilot selects new heading of 280.
“Nav” – track controlled by FMGC route
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Flight Directors
Climb (Descent)
Vertical Speed
“Autopilot Off”
“Autopilot 1 (2)”
“Flight Directors Off”
“Flight Directors On”
“Speed _____”
“Managed Speed”
“Heading _____”
“Open Climb (Descent)”
“Managed Climb (Descent)”
“Vertical Speed Plus (Minus)_____”
“Vertical Speed Zero”
 Select is always knob pulled to you (pilot is “taking” the control of the
autopilot). When using select if you are changing the amount from what is
in the window then say amount after naming control.
 Managed (Hold) is always knob pushed away from you (pilot is “giving”
control of autopilot to FMGC).
Memory and Non-memory autopilot limits (OM 1.10.1)
After Takeoff (if SRS indicated)
100’ AGL
500’ AGL (321: 900’)
Non-precision approach
CAT 1 ILS Approach (no autoland, CAT I in FMA) 160’ AGL
CAT 1 ILS (with CAT II or III in FMA)
80 ‘ AGL
After a manual go-around in SRS mode
100’ AGL
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
The big picture on Airbus autothrust; During ground operations handle the thrust
levers as on a “normal” aircraft. At takeoff push the thrust levers up to 50% on
N1 until both engines stabilize, then push the thrust levers up to FLX/MCT (two
clicks) or TOGA (three clicks). When LVR CLB flashes (normally about 1000’) on
the FMA reduce the thrust lever back to CL (one or two clicks). The thrust will
now be controlled through the FMGC or the FCU. The thrust levers in normal
operation will not move again until landing when at about 30 to 50’ the PF will
reduce the thrust lever to idle and the autothrust will automatically disconnect at
that point. There is no physical connection between the thrust levers and the
powerplant. It is all done electronically which is called FADEC (Full Authority
Digital Engine Control).
Thrust is now set by selecting Open Climb (OP CLB) or Open Descent (OP DES)
or Managed climb or descent. Managed climb or descent means that the FMGC
is controlling in either. Open mode simply means using either full climb thrust for
climb or idle thrust for descent. Autothrust controls to a limit in Open, either the
climb limit or the idle limit.
The other “FCU” method to control thrust is to set vertical speed (V/S) which
allows the thrust to maintain speed and climb rate is controlled through pitch. In
this case autothrust is maintaining speed and is in Speed mode. Of course,
during cruise and approach the altitude or glide slope is held through pitch with
the autothrust maintaining the required speed. Managed thrust is controlled by
the FMGC.
If you don’t get anything else out of this little discussion please understand that
the autothrust works in one of two modes, Open (controlling thrust) and Speed
(controlling speed). Further, Open mode can be either climb or idle thrust.
Most of the time if you are going to have a problem it is in the Open mode
(controlling to thrust). If you are having problems with thrust doing something
other than what you think it should you can possibly try:
 Turn off flight directors (if hand flying), this will cause autothrust to go to
Speed mode
 Select vertical speed (if in Open climb or descent), this will cause
autothrust to go to Speed mode
 Select Speed Select (if in Managed speed), this will force the commanded
speed to what you desire.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Arm A/THR (autothrust):
Arm on ground (with at least one FD on):
 Set thrust lever in FLX/MCT if FLX temp is set
 Set thrust lever to TOGA
Arm in flight:
 Press on the A/THR pb on FCU when thrust levers not in active range or
setting thrust levers out of active range. Blue A/THR in FMA.
Activate A/THR:
Note: on ground you will set takeoff thrust to either FLX/MCT or TOGA which are
manual thrust settings. When coming back to the CL detent after takeoff you are
putting the thrust levers to the A/THR active range, thus activating autothrust.
 A/THR pb pressed on when autothrust in active range
 Set thrust levers to active range when A/THR pb armed
 ALPHA FLOOR protection activated (not a great way to activate!)
Disconnect A/THR:
 Press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust levers
 Place both levers to idle detent
 Press off the A/THR pb on FCU when system active (green light goes out)
 Set one thrust lever beyond MCT or both beyond CL detent when RA is
below 100’
Make your flight instructor happy!: The following is in bold print because it will
make your life easier. Always match the TLA to the thrust before
disconnecting (using instinctive disconnect pb), no matter what kind of
thrust situation you are in. This works in normal autothrust, THRUST LOCK
and TOGA LOCK. Although not always technically necessary, by matching
TLA to thrust you always avoid any unintentional thrust “excursions” and
use good practice. Think “Match and Mash”.
Note: Pulling back the thrust levers from the CL detent during autothrust
operation will allow the pilot to limit autothrust upper limit but autothrust is still
active until levers are at idle. Chime and ECAM warning will sound every 5
seconds to remind pilot to either disconnect autothrust or reset thrust levers to
CL detent. The proper way to disconnect autothrust and begin manual thrust
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
operation is to bring thrust levers back until the TLA “donuts” are matched to
thrust indicators and then press instinctive disconnect pb on thrust lever.
 Airbus Gotcha: Warning: If autothrust is disconnected and then thrust levers
are pulled back from CL detent the thrust will immediately go the power selection
commanded by the thrust levers and indicated on the TLA donuts. Be sure
power is at the intended setting when A/THR is disconnected to avoid power
 Airbus Gotcha: Warning: If autothrust is disconnected by pressing the A/THR
pb on the FCU the aircraft won’t know if the pb was pressed off or signal was lost
and will give an ECAM warning to move thrust lever. It will think you are in a
Thrust Lock situation. Bottom line here, just use the instinctive disconnects (or
idle when at flare) to disconnect the auto thrust.
Alpha Floor – Angle of attack between α Prot and α Max at which the autothrust
will command TOGA regardless of thrust lever position.
Alpha Floor will give:
 A FLOOR in green with flashing amber box on FMA and in amber on E/WD
 TOGA LK in green with a flashing amber box around it on the FMA when the
A FLOOR condition is left. TOGA thrust is frozen regardless of Thrust Lever
To cancel ALPHA FLOOR or TOGA LK disconnect the autothrust. To disconnect
TOGA LK you MUST put the Thrust Levers in TOGA, then push the instinctive
disconnects. This is the one time “Match and Mash” is required.
ALPHA FLOOR is available in NORMAL law only.
ALPHA FLOOR is enabled at liftoff and active during flight, disabled at 100’ RA
on approach to let you land the aircraft.
ALPHA FLOOR is disabled if you press the instinctive disconnects for 15 secs.
Please note that Alpha Floor has to do with autothrust while Alpha (α) Prot and
Alpha (α) Max are actually to do with flight controls.
THR LK – Thrust Lock occurs if the autothrust system fails. THR LK flashes on
the FMA and ECAM memo displays AUTO FLT A/THR OFF. The thrust will be
frozen at the last commanded setting until the pilot moves the thrust levers, then
thrust will follow the movement of the thrust levers and be controlled manually.
During every approach you will need to confirm autothrust is in SPEED mode on
FMA or off by 1000’
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Missing Link or AP/FD & A/THR interaction
Well, OK, it isn’t that missing link but there is a link between the autopilot and/or
flight director and the autothrust. The A/THR and the AP/FD work together to
maintain speed and trajectory (altitude, glide slope, vertical speed). If one is
maintaining speed the other will maintain trajectory and visa versa. If you think
about it you are used to doing this yourself when flying manually. On climb you
set climb power and maintain speed with pitch but when leveling for cruise at
altitude you use pitch to maintain altitude and power to hold speed. The Flight
Guidance acts in the exact same way. There are two basic ways the autoflight
maintains control.
AP or FD in trajectory mode
(example: altitude hold, V/S, G/S)
A/THR in SPEED mode
maintain speed or MACH in cruise
and approach
AP or FD adjust pitch to hold speed
A/THR in THR mode
Steady thrust set to either
There are times that the autoflight cannot hold what has been set and will have
to change modes. This is called mode reversion when the modes change
automatically without the pilot calling for it. This is both a part of normal flying
and also part of the system to prevent flight outside the envelope.
An everyday example is during a climb the autopilot normally will control pitch to
keep speed in OPEN CLB and the autothrust will maintain climb thrust (THR
CLB). On approaching level off at the target altitude pitch will now revert from
speed to vertical speed and thrust will revert from climb thrust to speed. This will
be true even if the pilot reselects a new altitude before the level off is complete.
The vertical speed mode will remain until the pilot reselects something else.
Basically, be aware that if the autopilot is controlling pitch then the autothrust is
controlling speed and visa versa. Only one controls pitch or speed at a time,
never both controlling the same thing together.
A common reversion mode is if the aircraft is climbing in Open Climb or
Managed Climb and the pilot is suddenly given a new altitude. The new altitude
is below the current altitude. The mode will revert to V/S set to the current
vertical speed upon reversion. The pilot can then change the vertical speed to a
descent or select Open Descent.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Reversions can also happen when hand flying if you don’t follow the flight
director. If in Open climb or descent and you allow the speed to hit max or min
the autothrust will go to SPEED mode and attempt to regain the selected speed
while the flight director bars will be removed! Turn OFF FD when hand flying!
 Airbus Gotcha: or How to be an Airshow Pilot: You are hand flying with the
flight director on (bad thing!). You are getting ready to level off just prior to the
Final Approach Fix on an approach. However, you are not quite level at the set
altitude and the FMA does not yet show ALT* for capture. You are slowly leveling
off just a little high without realizing it and as you have been in Open descent the
thrust remains in the commanded idle. Speed decays to below V LS. Suddenly
climb thrust is commanded even though you are now wanting to continue
descent. Sounds like a flyby to me!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
FMA – Flight Mode Annunciator
The FMA allows the pilot to know what modes the autoflight systems are in and
what can be expected. There are times when changes will occur in the modes
without pilot action. This mode reversion cannot be tracked on the FCU, you
must look at the FMA to know what is actually happening. The FMA is broken
into columns as shown below:
Each column has rows for messages and memos. There are up to three rows
available for each column to use. The first three columns, Thrust, Vertical and
Lateral have the following rules:
Top row, Green – Active or Engaged, White - Armed
Middle row, Blue or Magenta – Armed (Magenta shows ALT CSTR from FMGC)
Bottom row, Messages about flight control first priority
Bottom row, Messages about FMGS have second priority
AP 1+2
DH 100
This is what the FMA looks like at the top of the PFD:
AP 1+2
DH 100
The FMA is at the top of the PFD and allows the pilots to see exactly what the
various modes of the auto flight system are. The above examples are just given
to allow you to see what type of messages would be in the FMA, not an actual
flight situation. A starred message (ALT*) means that portion is in the process of
capturing. A white box message means mode change or automatic switching
has just taken place in past 10 seconds. The OM has a complete list of all
messages and meanings (OM 14.2.1).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Oxygen (TM 16)
Crew oxygen is supplied from one cylinder. A green over pressure disk is located
on the outside of the aircraft skin below the Captains windows. Blowout of this
green disk indicates thermal discharge. Crew oxygen is turned on using a pb in
the overhead panel. Crew oxygen pressure is indicated on the SD and if low the
pressure indication will have a half amber box around it. However, the Airbus low
pressure is not the same as the American limit, therefore the half amber box
should be ignored and crew action to check pressure is not required until
pressure is less than 1000 psi. A chart is available in OM 1 Limitations 1.15.3 to
indicate amount needed for number of crewmembers. Masks are full-face and
have clear “tear-off” strips. If face mask has surface contamination, the tear-off
strip can be removed to clear an area to see through.
Passenger oxygen is chemically generated. Passenger oxygen is located at
passenger seats, lavs, galleys and at each F/A station with 2, 3 or 4 masks to a
group. All EXIT and cabin signs will automatically illuminate when cabin altitude
exceeds about 11,000 ft. Masks will automatically deploy when cabin altitude
exceeds 14,000’. May be manually deployed by pilot using red guarded MASK
MAN ON pb. Oxygen generators last approximately 13 minutes after first mask in
group is used. Passenger oxygen SYS ON light only means that the signal was
sent, some masks may not deploy and F/A’s may have to manually open some
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Powerplant (TM 17)
CFM 56-5B6/P rated at 23,500 lbs. thrust or IAE V2500-A5
CFM 56-5B4/P rated at 27,000 lbs. thrust or IAE V2500-A1/A5
CFM 56-5B3/P rated at 32,000 lbs. thrust or IAE V2500-A5
Max Starting Temp:
Max Continuous Temp:
TOGA Temp:
725° C
915° C
950° C (5 mins.)
13 qts. Min for dispatch (U) (OM 1.12.14)
FADEC controlled (Full Authority Digital Engine Control)
Each FADEC is a two channel computer with one channel active and the other
used as backup. Each FADEC has its own alternator that powers it once N2 is
above a certain value. If the alternator fails normal ships power will take over.
Three idle modes:
 Modulated:
Varies with demand, in flight with flaps at 0
 Approach:
Depends only on altitude, activated when flaps not at 0
 Reverse:
Selected when on ground and thrust levers at idle, slightly
higher than forward idle.
Five Thrust Lever Detents:
Takeoff go-around
Flex takeoff, Max continuous
Climb thrust
Idle thrust for forward and reverse
Maximum reverse thrust
Continuous ignition provided automatically (with Mode selector in NORM) when:
 Engine Anti-ice selected ON on IAE and non-updated CFM engines
 Engine flameout in-flight detected
 EIU fails
Continuous ignition may be selected manually by positioning the ENG MODE
selector to IGN/START
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Normal Start Sequence:
Note: start ENG 1 first to pressurize Green Hydraulics
 ENG Mode selector to IGN/START
 ENG Master switch to ON (after amber X’s go away)
At 16 % ignition ON
At 22% starts fuel flow
At 50% start valve closes, ignition off
Engine idle should stabilize at about 58%
 ENG mode selector to NORM
Normal Idle – 2,4,6,6 – Approx. 20% N1, 400° C EGT, 60% N2, 600 lbs/hr FF
Manual Start Sequence:
 ENG Mode selector to IGN/START
 At Max Motoring (min. 20% N2) select ENG Master switch ON
Fuel and ignition will begin when ENG Master selected ON
At 50% start valve closes, ignition off
 At idle, about 58%, ENG MAN START pb OFF
 ENG mode selector to NORM
N2 background “grays out” during start, returns to normal when stabilized at idle
Ignition A or B will show on SD during normal start, A & B during manual start
Note: (OM 2b.11.6/2h.4.3) For first flight of day run engines for at least 5 mins.
before applying takeoff thrust, for subsequent flights (with 1 ½ hrs shut down or
less) warm up engines at least 3 mins. Run 3 mins. at idle after landing, but that
may be reduced to 1 min. for operational considerations.
The CFM will reference N1 speed and the IAE EPR. The IAE will default to N1 in
the case of EPR failure. If sensed EPR is lost the engine will be in N1 mode. If
computed EPR is lost the engine will be in degraded N1 mode. Overboost at
TOGA is possible in degraded N1 mode.
The IAE gets fan blade flutter at fan speeds of 60% to 74 % N1. A computer
called the EEC that will prevent the engine from stabilizing at those critical fan
speeds. The pilot will sense this as a “gap” in power setting while taxiing the
aircraft. The EEC will only let the engine speed up or down through this N1
speed range, not keep it at that selected speed.
Thrust bump is installed on IAE aircraft. This allows extra thrust for takeoff when
at TOGA thrust. The controls are on the forward part of the thrust levers under a
cover. Lift the cover and push the red button on either lever. The system should
be armed while taxiing out and both engines are running. The engine must be in
EPR mode. This should only be used when performance dictates it.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
APU (TM 4)
APU can supply can electrical up to 39,000’ and supply full electrical load up to
25,000’ and bleed air up to 20,000’. Electrical takes precedence over bleed air.
APU bleed is NOT permitted for Wing anti-ice. The APU is fed fuel from left fuel
manifold. If no other fuel boost is available the APU will activate a separate
dedicated APU fuel pump. In flight (above 100 kts.) on bat only the APU will not
start (RAT failed). With RAT (loss of GEN 1 & 2) the APU is allowed 3 minutes
for a start attempt.
The APU can supply the entire electrical system on the ground. In the air the
APU will not supply the main galley shed busses.
The APU will auto shutdown and fire the extinguisher bottle on the ground but
not in-flight. In-flight the APU must be manually shut down and extinguished for
fire. If the APU SHUT OFF pushbutton on the external panel or the APU FIRE pb
on the overhead FIRE panel is pressed the APU will shutdown but the
extinguisher will not automatically fire. Note: APU will auto shutdown in-flight for
reasons other than fire.
The APU generator will automatically come online if engine gens. or external is
not already online. The APU is ready for bleed and electrics when reaching 95%
for two seconds or 99.5%. The AVAIL light will show in the APU start pb and
green APU AVAIL will show on EWD display when APU gen is available for use.
APU bleed may be selected on whenever needed and APU will allow bleed to
come online after allowing time for EGT to stabilize. On shutdown the APU
Master is pushed off. The APU will continue to run for cooling period before
shutting down. If the APU Master is pressed back on before the APU shuts down
the APU will continue to run. When shutting the APU down for the Parking &
Securing checklist wait 2 mins. after APU Avail light goes out or until APU flap
shows fully closed on ECAM APU page before switching batteries off. If APU is
left running, leave batteries on for fire protection.
APU “Bleed” is actually supplied by APU load compressor not a real bleed.
To start the APU: Press APU Master Switch pb ON, Wait about 5 seconds then
press APU Start pb ON. When needed press APU Bleed pb ON.
That’s it! If EXT PWR is not already established online the APU GEN will
automatically come online followed by APU bleed air after the proper interval
which will automatically turn on the packs assuming their pb’s are in the normal
on (switch blank) position. Isn’t technology wonderful! You can start the APU
before your walk around and the APU will be heating the cabin and have air
pressure available for the coffee maker by the time you get back!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
FMS (Controls and Indicators OM II 5)
A little general theory: All FMS systems that I have used function or think in a
“Mode” pattern. This is to say that the FMS must always be in a mode or phase
and be aware of what the aircraft is doing to “know” what mode it should be in.
The FMS will have many different ways to identify a mode change but it will need
to change modes during every flight. The pilot should be aware of the modes
and their changes (this is starting to sound like marriage counseling…). The
Airbus is no different. For vertical planning the FMGC has modes called Flight
Phases that are named Preflight, Takeoff, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Approach, Go
Around and Done. In addition the FMS needs to know when the aircraft is in taxi,
engine-out and landing modes. With the pilot entering the proper needed data
during initialization the FMS is able to properly plan and control a flight through
all the necessary phases or modes.
Further, the pilot must enter a route of flight to allow for lateral planning. This will
also involve modes, in this case, takeoff runway, SID (if applicable), enroute,
STAR (if applicable) and approach/go around and landing runway. The pilot will
enter the needed route data before flight and modify it in-flight as necessary.
Some changes the pilot will make are considered Strategic (entire flight) and
some are Tactical (current flight phase or mode). As you learn the different
functions of the FMGC and the Autoflight system be aware of whether a function
is Strategic or Tactical. For example the Cost Index is strategic but the descent
speed is tactical.
If a page is longer than one screen can show you will use the scroll or slew keys
(up/down arrow keys,) to show additional information. If there is more than
one page to a key you can press the NEXT PAGE arrow key to see the
succeeding pages. Sometimes additional information can be accessed from a
page and you will see an on screen prompt ( <, >, or * ) to present that new
page. See OM 17.6.1 for full information.
FMGC Stuff: Now for some general info on the FMGC!
DIR key: This key is one of the most used and will allow the pilot to go direct to
any fix that the FMGC will recognize. If the FMGC doesn’t recognize the fix then
the pilot can build a temporary waypoint and insert the new waypoint into the
direct command to be able to navigate to the fix. This will be gone over more
later in waypoints and reroutes.
F-Plan Key: When you select the F-Plan key the default (normal) Flight Plan
view will have the FROM waypoint at the top of the MCDU screen (first line). The
next (second) line will be the TO waypoint and all succeeding waypoints will
continue down the screen. The FROM waypoint is usually the last VOR or
intersection you crossed but it can also be PPOS (Present Position) or T-P
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
(Turning Point). PPOS simply means that you are not on any nav segment and
the FMGC is just tracking where you are with no nav guidance available. This will
occur after takeoff when the runway is automatically cleared and you don’t have
a nav segment to join yet. T-P will show when you use the Direct function, which
we will go over later. The second line is the TO waypoint and is in white while
most of the rest of the lines are in green. However, it is possible that a pseudo
waypoint may be on line two and therefore it may be white but not the TO
waypoint. We will go over pseudo waypoints later as well.
You can always scroll up or down on the F-Plan page but the FROM will always
be at the top when you select the F-Plan key. Think of the FROM as being what
is behind you. Think of the TO as being what is just ahead of you. The FROM is
important because to use lateral navigation you must define a nav segment for
the FMGC to follow and this means that you must have two points for any given
nav situation to define a segment. This will become more clear when we go over
DISCONTINUITY is a line that shows two points are not joined and they do not
form a segment. If DISCONTINUITY is showing then the FMGC will NOT
continue to the next waypoint. Think of it as a gap in your navigation. In fact that
is exactly what it is, a gap between two NAV points. This is something that you
want if you will be given radar vectors at a certain point. You will most commonly
see DISCONTINUITY after the runway when initializing when you will expect
radar vectors to your first fix and after the last fix on your route prior to beginning
your approach. There are times when you will need to clear a DISCONTINUITY
and we will look at that in a moment. If you are in NAV mode and reach a
discontinuity in the flight plan the autopilot will just drop to heading mode on the
current heading or entered heading if one is entered in the FCU. Note that the
Heading “window” will only hold a heading for 45 seconds (who knows why!)
The scratchpad is the bottom line of the MCDU and is where you will enter data.
After you type info into the scratchpad you will then select it up into the FMGC by
using the LSK (Line Select Keys) on either side of the MCDU. Note that you
cannot select data from the FMGC into the scratchpad. You will also get various
warnings in the scratchpad and they can be cleared by pressing the CLR key in
the bottom right hand corner of the keys.
AIRPORT Key: The AIRPORT key simply allows the pilot quick access to any
airport that is entered into the flight plan. This would include the departure
airport, arrival airport and the alternate airport. Press this key and the display will
place the next available airport in the FMGC flight plan on the first (top) line in
the MCDU. This just gives the pilot a fast way to “scroll” the flight plan display to
the next airport.
→ ← NEXT PAGE Arrow Keys: The NEXT PAGE right and left Arrow keys
(→,←) give access to additional information for some screens when there is
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
more than can be shown on one screen. Think of NEXT PAGE as scrolling
horizontally. The F-PLAN and INIT screens use the NEXT PAGE function. When
there is more than one page the pages are referred to as PAGE A and PAGE B
as in INIT PAGE B. This would require you to select INIT and then press arrow
left or right to NEXT PAGE to access INIT PAGE B.
 Keys: The  keys (up/down arrows, slew keys) allow the pilot to scroll a
page vertically. You will also use them for changing values. This is most
commonly used when selecting Runways and Arrivals. You will also very
commonly use them for scrolling the F-Plan screen to see waypoints that
continue in the flight plan beyond the MCDU screen display.
DIR Key: The DIR key allows the pilot to go direct to any waypoint entered. The
TO waypoint will become whatever is entered as the direct and the FROM
waypoint will become a T-P (position the aircraft is at when the DIR is entered).
You may either press the LSK next to the direct fix or type the fix in the
scratchpad and press the DIR TO LSK.
PROG Key: The PROG key will actually access a number of different pages
depending on the phase of flight you are in. In every case you will see a PROG
page but the name will change depending on the phase. For example, when in
cruise flight the page will be name PROG CRZ and in climb PROG CLB and so
forth. This PROG page along with F-PLAN will be used most of the time when
you are not accessing some other page. The PM should have PROG on their
side unless they need something else.
The PROG page will show the planned cruise altitude (as loaded during INIT or
as modified) as well as the optimum cruise altitude and the recommended
maximum altitude. Optimum (OPT) is based on cost using the COST INDEX you
entered. Recommend Maximum (REC MAX) is based on 1.3 G protection and
should only be used in smooth air.
You may change the planned cruise altitude anytime by coming to any PROG
Another handy feature is the Bearing / Distance to feature. Just put in any airport
or fix and you can immediately see how far you are from it and what heading to
take to it. Even better, this is one of the few features that does not “crosstalk”
with the other FMGC so each pilot can load a different fix to use. This is a great
place to come when planning a crossing restriction before you get it loaded into
the Flight Plan to be sure you won’t miss the fix.
Finally, PROG is also where you will change the required accuracy for RNAV
GPS approaches.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
PERF Key: The PERF key allows the pilot to see and enter data for the various
phases of flight. You will use this key when initializing to enter takeoff
information, changing climb, cruise and descent speeds and entering approach
data. Only the preflight and done phases do not have pages. Press the PERF
key and then press the LSK at the bottom of the screen to move to the next or
previous phase page. If you aren’t sure what phase the FMGC is in just look at
the top of this page as each phase is named here. For example in takeoff phase
the PERF page is named PERF TO page and in cruise it is named PERF CRZ
RADNAV Key: The RADNAV key stands for Radio Navigation and is the page to
check when you wish to determine which navaids are being tuned. Normally the
Airbus will autotune the radios and you will not be aware of what navaids are
being utilized. However, there are times that you will need to “lock” a frequency
for tuning, such as when a DME is used for departure on a SID. Just press the
RADNAV key and then type the navaid identifier (you may also use the
frequency by using a leading slash, for example /115.0) in the scratchpad. Then
select the identifier to the VOR1 or 2 LSK at the top of the MCDU. This will keep
that side tuned to that frequency. The “locked” identifier will be in LARGE letters.
You can then use the NAV or ROSE VOR so ee the raw data. If you wish to
enter a VOR course you type it in (020 for the 020 radial) and select ROSE VOR.
You can also manually enter an ILS here by putting the ILS identifier (such as
IIAS) in the LS on LSK 3L. This will load the ILS just like it would be from the
FMS Flight Plan.
FUEL PRED Key: The FUEL PRED key allows the pilot to view fuel prediction
info on destination, alternate and fuel management data. This is the page to use
to enter Weight and Balance data. If the INIT page B is showing on the MCDU
on engine start the FMGC will automatically “rollover” to FUEL PRED for weight
data to be entered. Gross weight and CG data are entered on LSK 3L. For
example, 144,190 lbs. with a MAC of 23.2 would be entered as: 144.2/23.2
INIT Key: The INIT key is used when getting ready during preflight. You initialize
the FMGC from this page. This page will be gone over in more detail later.
SEC F-PLN Key: The SEC F-PLN key allows the pilot to have a second flight
plan to use for what-if scenarios or to load anticipated changes that might occur
in the primary flight plan. You are able to copy the primary flight plan in order to
make changes to it or you can program a new flight plan.
 Airbus Gotcha: If the initial fix in the Secondary flight plan is different from
Active flight plan you must be on Heading to activate. You cannot change an
active NAV segment while NAV is engaged.
DATA Key: The DATA key will allow the pilot to view the various sources of data
for the FMGC and determine whether it is valid or not.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
MCDU MENU Key: The MCDU MENU key allows selection whether to work in
FMGC or ACARS or another area such as AIDS. Only one MCDU can be set to
ACARS at one time. If the opposite side is selected to ACARS then you will
“locked” out of ACARS until it is selected back out of ACARS.
CLR Key: The CLR (clear) key is a delete key. You can use it to delete
characters or phrases in the scratch pad or to delete data from the FMGC. To
clear the scratch pad just press the CLR key and the last entered character will
be deleted. If you continue pressing the entire phrase in the scratchpad will be
cleared. The CLR key can also get rid of warning messages. To delete data
entered into the FMGC press the CLR key while there is nothing in the
scratchpad. CLR will be entered into the scratchpad. Now select CLR to the LSK
that corresponds to the data you wish to delete. This is how to delete a
discontinuity. Press the CLR key and then press the LSK that corresponds to the
discontinuity and it will be deleted with the waypoints on either side of the
discontinuity now joined as a segment.
OVFY Δ Key: One of the more obscure keys on the MCDU, the Overfly key has
basically only one function. When you are coming up to a waypoint the FMGC
will normally compute the turn at the waypoint and due to the radius of the turn
the aircraft may begin its turn early to be able to turn smoothly onto the airway
centerline. There may be times that you need to actually fly exactly over the fix
before turning. In those cases press the OVFY Δ key and then line select it up to
the appropriate fix as a lateral revision. The FMGC will now make sure to fly
directly over the fix even if it will cause overshoot on the far side of the turn.
Well, OK, there is one other function for the Overfly key. When using freetext in
ACARS you will use the overfly key to put a space in the text as you would use
the space bar on a word processor.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Pseudo Waypoints (C & I 7-90.1.4)
OK, besides just sounding weird what are pseudo waypoints anyway? Basically
they are lines of information on the Flight Plan page that are not something that
you can navigate to. They are mostly to do with vertical profile information and
are therefore not for lateral navigation. Pseudo waypoints on the MCDU will
consist of the following:
T/C – Top of Climb (hockey stick)
T/D – Top of Descent (hockey stick)
S/C or S/D – Start of Climb or Descent for Step Climb/Descent (hockey stick)
SPD LIM – Speed Limit (M&M)
DECEL – Deceleration to approach phase (circle D brand)
I/P – Intercept Point (lightening bolt)
Please note that while you cannot navigate laterally using the pseudo waypoints
they will show on your ND using various symbols. If a pseudo waypoint is on the
second line of the flight plan it will be white even though it cannot be the TO
waypoint. The MCDU logic simply makes the second line white whether it is
actually the TO waypoint or not.
Also you will have some pseudo waypoints that show on the ND that are not on
the MCDU such as the Energy Circle and Crosstrack Error.
The Energy Circle (green dashed arc) is available only in Descent and Approach
Phases. It shows how far the aircraft will go until reaching landing elevation in the
current configuration until 1500’ AGL then configure for landing and descend to
landing elevation. It is interesting to note that Flaps 1 provides longer range than
Flaps 0 (clean), this is due to the higher engine idle speed with Flaps 1.
Crosstrack Error will show how far the aircraft is from the active nav segment or
leg. This is very useful when cleared for approach or when cleared to join the
departure or arrival.
The Intercept Point will show as INTCPT on the course when on heading to join
the active nav leg.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Initializing the FMGC
When initializing the FMGC during pre-flight use these pages to enter data:
Note: Allow at least 3 minutes after initial power up on a cold airplane for all
internal tests to be completed before pressing buttons.
Press DATA key, then A/C Status. Check database validity and dates. Enter
BIAS from flight plan on PERF for performance factor on LSK 6R. New database
is effective at 0900Z on the date of change.
INIT Page A:
Press INIT key. Enter the city pair codes in FROM/TO. For example, for
Charlotte to Phoenix use KCLT/KOMX or use company route number such as
Enter the alternate city code. Example: for Greensboro use KGSO.
Enter flight number. Type in AAL followed by the flight number. For example for
flight 121 type AAL121. Note: AAL is just to help identify the flight number
Check lat/long coordinates. It is safer to use the airport coordinates from the
database as this avoids the pilot typing in gross errors that are not caught.
Cost Index. Enter 35.
Cruise flight level. Enter intended cruise altitude on the CRZ FL (350 for 35,000’)
and modify the anticipated cruise temperature with /TEMP (/–49 for minus 49).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Press the ALIGN IRS key (LSK 3R). ALIGN IRS should be pressed within 15
minutes of turning GNADIRS to NAV to avoid excessive drift. DO NOT move
aircraft during align process.
INIT Page B:
Press the INIT key. Press the NEXT PAGE key. This will take you to the second
INIT page. Check that the reserve time is 45 min. on FINAL/TIME line.
F-PLAN Page A:
Press F-PLAN key to program the filed route. Do a lateral revision from the
departure airport. To do this press the LSK 1L on the left side of the MCDU next
to the departure airport code. Then select DEPARTURE. Now select RWY for
anticipated departure runway, then SID if needed and TRANS if needed.
Insert first fix or waypoint in flight plan route. If there is victor or jet airway routing
from the fix then use a lateral revision to enter the needed airway. For example
for a route from BOS VOR on Jet 75 that ends at CMK press the left LSK next to
BOS in the flight plan. Now enter J75/CMK in the VIA/ GO TO. Then INSERT if
OK. Any fix that is a direct with no published route you can simply press on the
next line of the flight plan. For example to go direct from BOS to CMK simply
press CMK on the line below BOS LSK. This will place CMK after BOS in the
flight plan as the next fix.
Note: pressing a fix on top of a fix places the new fix ahead of the previous one
and a discontinuity is in between the two fixes now. You will need to clear the
discontinuity if you want to join the fixes to make a segment. To clear a
discontinuity press the CLR (clear) key and then press the LSK next to the
discontinuity. This will join the two waypoint on either side of the discontinuity.
Enter any vertical restrictions (cross LAX VOR at or above 10,000’) by typing the
altitude in the scratch pad and pressing it on the right LSK for that fix. You can
also enter a vertical revision by pressing the right LSK for that fix and putting it
into the proper field. If you have an at or above clearance put a + in front of the
altitude before entering it (use – for at or below)
Example: at or above 10,000’ use +10000, at or below FL240 use –240.
Enter any anticipated arrival and approach by pressing the left LSK (lateral
revision) for the destination airport. Enter appropriate Arrival, Transition and
Runway Approach and Insert if OK.
Check distance at bottom of F-Plan page against the total distance showing on
Release. This is a gross check and should be close but does not need to be
exact as arrival and approach routings may add mileage not on release.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Flight Plan page B:
Access this page by using the F-Plan key followed by the Next Page key.
Forecast winds may be entered here for each waypoint as desired to improve
FMGC accuracy in planning. Take the winds from the flight plan on the release
and type them into the scratch page in the following format: DIR/SPD so that DIR
is wind direction and SPD is wind speed. In this example the wind is 265 at 83
kts. and you would type 265/83. Now press the LSK on the right hand side that
corresponds to the waypoint you are adding winds to. The left hand side of this
screen will be similar to the Flight Plan page A. The center of the screen will
show the estimated fuel on board (EFOB) at each entered waypoint.
Press the RAD NAV key and be sure that if a DME mileage is needed during a
departure that you enter the ID for the station here. For example, when doing the
HORNET departure off of 18R you need the CLT DME 1.6 nm fix. Press CLT
into the 1L or 1R LSK (Capt. or F/O) to “lock” CLT into the autotuning. In order to
read VOR DME use the ADF/VOR selector switch on the EFIS control panel.
Just select the appropriate switch (VOR 1 or VOR 2) to the VOR setting. The
DME readout will be on the bottom of the ND page (bottom left for VOR 1 and
bottom right for VOR 2). After completing the departure return the switch to the
OFF position. If you enter a VOR on RADNAV the tuning letters will be bold, if
the system is autotuning the letters will be little normal.
Note: if the DME is from an ILS then press the ID for the ILS into the ILS/FREQ
on LSK 3L and press the LS pb to display the ILS DME on the PFD. If nothing is
showing in the RADNAV page then check to make sure that STBY NAV is not
selected on the RMP.
Press the Sec F-Plan key. Press the LSK for Copy Active. This will give you a
“practice copy” of the flight plan with which you can later play “what if” scenarios
with if you should so choose or to enter possible route changes (such as
different than filed arrivals) to quickly activate as an active flight plan if needed.
Note: If the initial fix in the Secondary is different from Active flight plan you must
be on Heading to activate. If Secondary has been copied then PERF will be
available as a prompt on SEC page. This PERF will allow you to enter the
performance data for the secondary flight plan
After engine start:
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
After engine start you will use the FUEL PRED key to enter W&B. Enter the
actual gross weight (RAMP weight) and CG from the W&B printout on GW / CG
on LSK 3L. You will not have to enter the fuel as the FMGC reads it on it’s own.
Before engine start leave the FMGC on the FUEL PRED page and you will have
the proper page ready for use. If you receive the Weight and Balance message
before engine start you may type the weight and CG in the scratchpad for entry
after engine start if you wish.
Press the PERF key and you will now be on the PERF TAKEOFF page. Enter
V1, V2 and VR speeds on their LSK’s. Enter FLEX temp if needed. Enter THR
RED/ACC (thrust reduction/accelerate) and ENG OUT ACC altitudes from W&B
printouts. Enter the flaps setting and stab trim settings in units of UP or DN on
the FLAPS/THS LSK (example: 1/0.5DN or 2/1.0UP). If using an intersection
departure enter the distance from the end of the runway to the intersection on
the TO SHIFT LSK. Now type the “0” (or clean) speed in the scratchpad. Select
NEXT OMASE and put the clean speed in the CLIMB *SPD LSK. This allows the
aircraft to accelerate to “green dot” after takeoff instead of 250.
When taking off from an intersection you should enter the amount of distance the
intersection is from the end of the runway. For example, in PIT it is common to
use runway 28L intersection P. From the TPS pages you can determine the
distance available for takeoff (or just ask Ground Control!). Subtract that from the
full runway length and you have the intersection 1500’ from the end of the
runway. Enter 1500 on the TO SHIFT LSK.
If approach data (PERF APPR) is not entered within about 180 nm of destination
then MCDU will give error message saying so. So go ahead and get approach
data loaded, the electrons are free!
 Airbus Gotcha: If not within 200 nm of destination then aircraft will not initiate
descent in PERF DESCENT mode. Descent will be made in PERF CRUISE
mode as a “cruise descent”. During descent in cruise mode the FMGC will not
“see” crossing restrictions in the flight plan.
 Airbus Gotcha: The aircraft will not initiate descent automatically from cruise
altitude when reaching a descent point (known as T/D or Top of Descent). The
pilot must set in new altitude and then push the ALT knob to enter Managed
 Airbus Gotcha: When the aircraft is in HDG mode and the pilot enters direct to
a waypoint the autopilot will automatically engage NAV with no other action on
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
the pilot’s part. In other words, the autopilot will change modes automatically
from HDG to NAV when a DIR is entered in the FMGC. The point here is to be
sure of where the waypoint is when you enter DIR as the airplane will
automatically turn to the new waypoint as soon as it computes the new course.
DIR will always turn the shortest distance to the point. If the aircraft begins to go
the wrong place or turn the wrong direction (for example turn left instead of an
assigned right turn) use HDG mode until you can correct the problem.
 Airbus Gotcha: Changing the arrival or runway after putting in crossing
restrictions will delete pilot entered crossing restrictions and you will have to reenter them.
To enter a new waypoint you have several options. Of course, you can always
just type in the name if you know it, in this case BURLS intersection on the
SHINE arrival into CLT. If you do not remember the format for creating a new
waypoint just type HELP and press a LSK just as you would enter a waypoint.
You will then be shown the four formats for new waypoints to be entered.
LAT/LONG (latitude / longitude)
Example: 3551.5N/08158.3W
(dot, slash, dot)
P/B/D (Place / Bearing / Distance)
Example: CLT/314/64
(slash, slash)
P-B/P-B (Place – Bearing / Place – Bearing)
Example: CLT–314/HMV–171
(dash, slash, dash)
PD (Along Track Waypoint, FMS2 only)
Example: Shine/10 or Shine/–10
(waypoint slash plus, minus)
Note: Along Track waypoints or waypoint “slewing” or uptrack/downtrack on the
course using a + or – is NOT available for the original FMS. Use a P/B/D on the
course if possible.
Note: In the flight plan on the MCDU a P/B/D is shown as a PBD. The pilot
created waypoints will be numbered so the first PBD is shown as PBD01 and the
second as PBD02 and so on. The P-B/P-B waypoints are shown as PBX so they
appear as PBX01, PBX02 and so forth. Along Track waypoints are PD01, PD02,
etc. LAT/LONG waypoints are shown as LL01, LL02 and so forth. FIX INFO
down track waypoints are DXXXEL where XXX is the radius you use. So 120 NM
radius from ELP will be D120EL.
To make a lateral revision to flight plan (F-PLAN button selected on FMGC)
press a LSK on the left side of the MCDU (LSK 1L through 6L). To make a
vertical revision press a LSK on the right hand side of the MCDU (LSK 1R
through 6R).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
To enter a new destination (diversion not to alternate) use a lateral revision on
any waypoint in flight plan (NOT current destination) and then enter NEW DEST
on LSK 4R.
To enter holding into flight plan use a lateral revision on intended hold point then
press the HOLD LSK on 3L.
 Airbus Gotcha: Autopilot must be in Heading Select to delete a TO or FROM
waypoint. You can’t delete the current NAV leg.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Phase Triggers (C & I 7-90.1.3)
I think Phaser triggers belong in Star Trek but these are phase triggers. Phases
are very important and you can look at the top of the PROG and PERF pages to
see what Phase you are currently in. You will better understand how the Airbus
FMGC “thinks” if you understand what triggers the Phase change.
 Taxi to Takeoff – Set TOGA or FLEX, SRS Mode and N1 above 85% (or
EPR above 1.25) or ground speed above 90 kts.
 Takeoff to Climb – Reaching the acceleration altitude loaded in the FMGC
during initialization on PERF page.
 Climb to Cruise – Reaching planned cruise altitude listed on PERF page.
 Cruise to Descent – Start of descent from current cruise altitude (within
200 nm of destination).
 Descent to Approach – Passing DECEL fix on ND or Activate and Confirm
Approach on PERF DES page. This will drive managed speed to
approach speed.
Note: If the ECAM takeoff memo hasn’t yet come up on the screen during taxi
just press the T.O. CONFIG test button on the ECAM control panel. This will
force the taxi phase and the ECAM takeoff memo screen to come up.
Note: If descent is initiated before 200 nm from destination then descent will be
made in CRUISE DESCENT at 1000 fpm and will not honor any descent
crossing restrictions. The FMGC will prompt for a new cruise altitude as a
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
One area that gives many new Airbus pilots problems is making changes to the
FMGC flight plan once under way. There are several very common ways to enter
reroutes into the FMGC, depending on the nature of the reroute.
Note: You will be doing a lot of lateral and vertical revisions when doing reroutes.
Be aware that you are given different screens for either lateral or vertical
revisions depending on where you select them from. For example: You can take
a lateral revision from Departure, From, Enroute and Destination and they will all
have a different screen with different options. So lateral and vertical revisions are
“context sensitive” which means you have to choose the corect LSK (line select
key, the buttons on the side of the MCDU) for the proper lateral or vertical
revsion. Be aware which one you want so you don’t get “lost in space”.
Direct: Press the DIR key and type in the fix (VOR or intersection). Press the
LSK 1L key to enter the fix. The FMGC will automatically enter a T-P (turning
point) to create a FROM waypoint and the fix that is entered will become the TO
Direct then as filed: Use the above method or press the DIR key and then find
the cleared fix in the flight plan. Press the LSK next to the desired waypoint and
it will become the TO waypoint. Using either method all waypoints before the fix
are now cleared and the remainder of the flight plan will be available as filed.
Note: if you are on heading when DIR is used the mode will change to Managed
NAV automatically (in other words, when you go direct in heading mode the
aircraft will automatically engage NAV and go to the direct fix).
Heading to intercept then as filed: Select the cleared intercept heading on the
HDG selector on the FCU. Then you must determine if the segment you have
been cleared to join exists in your flight plan. If it does you only have to clear any
waypoints that are ahead of the segment until you have the proper fix as the TO
waypoint. Use the CLR key to clear any unwanted waypoints then engage NAV.
If the needed segment is not available you must build it. Use the Direct function
by pressing the DIR key. Then put in the navaid or fix you will be referencing.
Now you can use the Radial IN or Radial OUT function on the right side of the
Direct page. For example if you wish to intercept the CLT 270 radial and then
track inbound you would type in CLT then put it in the DIR prompt. Then type
270 and put it on the RADIAL IN LSK. Then select the heading you are to
intercept on and finally press the HDG knob to engage NAV. If you need to track
away from the navaid or fix then use RADIAL OUT. In that case the aircraft
would intercept and track outbound from the CLT VOR on the 270 radial. Then
make sure the next fix is in flight plan and clear the discontinuity.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Offset: To parallel your current course use a lateral revision at the FROM
waypoint. Type in the amount of distance (up to 50 nm) to the side you wish to
parallel the current course and right or left of course. For example for 20 miles
left of course type 20L and for 35 miles right of course type 35R. Now select the
amount into the OFFSET prompt on LSK 2L. You can see the anticipated new
offset course on the ND. If you wish to adjust it press ERASE and type in the
new amount. Once satisfied with the new course press INSERT. Aircraft will take
a 45° cut to the new course. To resume the original course access the same
OFFSET prompt and clear or go DIRECT to a fix on the original flight plan.
New SID: Press the LSK 1L key for the Departure airport. Now select
DEPARTURE, then select the departure runway. If you are using a SID select
the appropriate SID (NOTE: you may have to scroll to see all available SIDS). If
there is a transition to the SID you can select it on the right side of the MCDU.
Once everything is selected press INSERT.
New STAR or Approach or Runway: Find the DEST (destination) airport at the
bottom of the Flight Plan page on LSK 6L. Press the left LSK for the airport for
the lateral revision page. Now select ARRIVAL on LSK 1R. Select the
appropriate approach and/or runway if needed. Scroll as needed to see
additional approaches if the needed one is not on screen. If you don’t need a
new approach or runway simply press Next Page arrow key to see the Arrivals.
Next select the appropriate STAR (NOTE: you may have to scroll to see all
available STARS). Now select any transition as needed on the right hand side of
the MCDU. When all has been selected press the INSERT prompt on the 6R
LSK. If a transition is used that is already in the flight plan then there will not be a
discontinuity to clear in the flight plan. However, if you do not have a transition
then please be aware that the arrival and the flight plan will not have a common
point and therefore will have a discontinuity.
 Airbus Gotcha: Changing the STAR, approach or runway will delete any pilot
entered crossing restrictions on an arrival. Make sure you confirm any crossing
restrictions after making any arrival changes. Also make sure you enter a new
MDA or DH for any newly inserted approach.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
New Route: To enter a new route you will program just like you did for the flight
plan initialization. Take a lateral revision (left LSK) from the last common fix.
Select AIRWAYS, then use the VIA/ GOTO in the following format J75/BOSOX.
If the new flight plan ends in a common fix then there will be no discontinuity and
no fixes to clear. However, if the routing results in no common fix then you will
need to go back and clear all the old fixes.
Holding: Press the left LSK for a lateral revision at the holding fix. If the fix does
not appear in your flight plan (you are really having a bad day!) then use DIR first
to enter the fix. Now press the HOLD selection on LSK 3L. If the hold is as
published then check all data on the DATABASE HOLD page and if it is all good
then press INSERT on LSK 6R. If you need to make changes or there is no
published hold (COMPUTED HOLD) then make the needed changes to the
Inbound Course, Turn Direction (L or R), and the time or distance needed for
legs. Once all data for the hold is good press the INSERT selection on LSK 6R.
For immediate hold, take lateral revision at FROM waypoint and select <HOLD.
New Destination: Make a lateral revision from any waypoint in the flight plan
(not an airport) by pressing the left LSK for that waypoint. Now select the NEW
DEST prompt by typing in the new airport identifier (example: KCLT for
Charlotte) and pressing the LSK 4R key. You may now go to the flight plan to
modify the arrival information as needed for the new destination.
New Alternate: The new method is to just go to INIT and put in the updated or
new ALTN. The older method is to press the left LSK for a lateral revision from
the Destination airport. The select the <ALTN prompt on LSK 3L. Enter the new
airport identifier on the blue line on LSK 3L over the old alternate or in the
brackets if there was no alternate. Now press LSK 3L again to select the new
alternate. Now press INSERT. Alternate should now be entered in the flight plan
and on the FUEL PRED page.
Sec F-Plan: For a planned reroute (or at least anticipated!) you may wish to use
the Secondary Flight Plan page. In most cases you will want to copy the active
flight plan and then make any needed changes in the secondary flight plan. This
will work well when descending into the terminal area and you anticipate a
change in your STAR assignment. A good idea to store a secondary flight plan in
case of “programming error” or the FMGC dumps on you.
Along Track Waypoints: To create a new fix along the current flight plan track
you may wish to simply use a current waypoint and add or subtract the distance
from that fix. For example Approach tells you to descend to cross 55 miles out
from CLT VOR at 13000’ and 250 kts. While you are on the MAJIC arrival you
look and see that MAJIC is 45 DME from CLT so you just want to add a waypoint
10 miles before MAJIC. You type MAJIC/–10 (MAJIC slash minus 10) and press
the LSK over MAJIC intersection. A new PD waypoint will be created 10 miles
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
before MAJIC (the first one will be PD01, second PD02 and so forth). You can
now add any speed or altitude info just like any other waypoint. If you wish the fix
to be after the “parent” fix then leave the minus sign off, for example MAJIC/10
for 10 miles after MAJIC. In either case, whether the new fix goes before or after
the parent fix press the LSK to put the fix over the parent fix and the FMGC will
place in the appropriate place.
NOTE: You cannot insert the new waypoint in a nav segment apart from the
parent waypoint. The new Along Track Waypoint must be sequential.
FIX INFO, Draw the Line and Draw the Circle:
FIX INFO is a great feature that has been added to the Airbus. There are several
nice features to FIX INFO that we will cover. It is not really a Reroute but it will
very much help in navigation at times.
Draw the Line: OK, not technically a reroute but the Airbus can “draw” a blue
dashed line on the ND for you for situational awareness. This uses the FIX INFO
feature. For example if you are on a departure and required to remain east of a
certain radial you can enter that radial in this fashion to allow you to see it on the
ND. Use a Lateral Revision (left LSK’s) on the Flight Plan page from any
waypoint and select FIX INFO> on LSK 1R. Then put in the required fix such as
VOR, intersection or airport. Then enter the radial needed. You can enter 2 fix
radials per page or you can put in an abeam line. There are up to 4 FIX INFO
pages you can choose by using the NEXT PAGE arrow key.
Draw the Circle: Using the Fix Info feature you can also create a dashed blue
circle with a set radius. Use a Lateral Revision (left click) on any waypoint (not
airport) and type in the fix IDENT (such as JEN or KDFW). You can then put in a
radius of up to 256 nm. You will now have a big blue dashed circle around the
selected fix.
If you double click when you put in the radius it will put the fix in the flight plan
where the circle arc crosses the flight plan. In other words you can use the FIX
INFO radius feature to put in an along track waypoint by double clicking the
radius when you enter it. This is a great feature for adding a random crossing
restriction waypoint that ATC throws at you.
If you need more than one “circle” such as when departing ORD on the O’Hare
Departure and you need a 5 and 8 mile radius from ORD you can enter the
same fix more than once. The FIX INFO feature has up to 4 pages! So just use
the NEXT PAGE arrow key and enter the same fix on the next page with the new
radius. You can now see both blue circles with the 5 and 8 mile radius off ORD.
Where is it?: Closest Airport is the feature you want if you need an immediate
divert. Press the DATA key, then LSK 5L <CLOSEST AIRPORT. The nearest 4
airports will be shown as with bearing to, distance and time to airport in UTC.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
You may enter a fifth airport at your discretion. LSK 6R allows you to select to
see EFOB (estimated fuel on board at arrival) and wind used to calculate data to
the airports.
Try to remember this feature as your PFD will only be displaying airports ahead
of you in the normal view. This allows you to see airports that are available in any
Note: the closest airport in distance may not be the closest in time due to winds.
This feature will help you quickly decide which is the best airport from both a time
and distance perspective.
RTA: Required Time of Arrival is a feature that allows the pilot to cross a
particular fix at a set time. Do a vertical revision (click LSK on right side) for the
fix in question and select RTA> (LSK 1R). Then enter time required using
hr.min.sec format.
Re-Cruise: Again, not technically a reroute but if you begin a descent and the
FMGC goes into Descent mode when you want it to still be in Cruise mode you
can force the FMGC back into Cruise mode by entering an altitude below the
current altitude in the PROG page. Just to to PROG and put in a lower altitude or
Flight Level. Just be aware that if you are still descending you will descend at
only 1000 fpm if you are in managed descent. If you need a different descent
rate while in Cruise Descent you will need to use OPEN Descent or Vertical
Speed, not managed. Also, the FMGC will not respect the crossing restrictions
you put in the FMGC while in Cruise mode.
Note: For any reroute if you change the current NAV segment in use (the current
FROM and TO waypoints) you will have to select HEADING first before you can
ENTER the change to the Flight Plan. You cannot make a change to the current
FROM/TO waypoints without being in HEADING.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
It is Captains discretion as to when visibility is good enough to taxi. (OM 2c.6.1)
No more than 40% N1 for breakaway thrust without clearance. (OM 2c.3.2)
Max taxi speed on straightaway – 30 kts. (OM 2c.3.3)
Max taxi speed on turns - 10 kts.
Minimum pavement width for 180° turn: 100’ (A321 105’) (OM 2c.3.8)
Ensure at least 5 minutes for engine warm up after engine start before applying
takeoff thrust for first flight of day. Plan for 5 minutes and allow at least 3 minutes
for subsequent flights for that day.
During taxi in icing conditions run-up engines to shed fan ice:
CFM: approx. 70% N1 for at least 30 secs. Every 30 minutes.
IAE: 50% N1 momentarily at intervals not greater than 10 minutes. (avoid 6174% range)
Note: Do not exceed 75% N1 for CFM A319, A320, 70% for CFM A321 and
1.18 EPR IAE on both engines with parking brake ON.
 Airbus Gotcha: If you do not get the Flight Control page on ECAM when you
do the Flight Control check you need to turn off the Engine Mode switch from
IGN/START to NORM. Next time try to remember your After Start flow!
Single Engine Taxi (OM 2c.3.9) – Single engine taxi is at Captain’s discretion
with factors such as weight, ramp condition, passenger comfort, etc. Allow 5
minute warm up for first flight of day, 3 minutes on subsequent flights within 1 ½
hrs of prior engine shutdown. Allow 3 minutes (may be reduced to 1 minute for
operational reasons) for engine cool down on taxi in (OM 2b.11.6, 2h.4.3).
For Single Engine Taxi:
 Yellow Electric Pump ON and Yellow Accumulator pressure in green.
 Engine 1 will normally be used during single engine taxi.
 Make no braking or steering inputs during engine starts or when engine
generator brought online. This will avoid BSCU computer problems during
electrical power shifts.
 Use APU if available on taxi out.
APU is normally used for starting second engine as it is more fuel efficient than a
crossbleed start. However, if APU or APU bleed is not available single engine
taxi may still be used and crossbleed procedures used for second engine start.
Therefore APU is to be used if available during single engine taxi out. If APU
bleed is being used during single engine taxi then select X-BLEED AUTO, if APU
bleed off then select X-BLEED OPEN. Normally APU is not used during taxi in.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Make your flight instructor happy!: When setting power for takeoff, the thrust
levers should be set to 50% N1 (CFM) or 1.05 EPR (IAE) on the TLA (doughnut)
and once both engines stabilize then position both levers to FLEX or TOGA.
Make an initial setting on the thrust levers and then adjust on the TLA to 50%
1.05 EPR. Set takeoff thrust by 40 kts. (OM 2d.1.2)
Note: Allow at least 5 minutes for engine warm up before applying takeoff thrust
for first flight of day. After first flight of day use a minimum of 3 mins. warm up if
engine is shut down 1 ½ hrs. or less. (OM 2b.11.6)
Do not use aileron into the wind during a crosswind (OM 2d.2.5). During a takeoff
with crosswind component exceeding 20 kts. or tailwind (OM 2d.2.5) apply full
forward sidestick to be taken out by 80 to 100 kts. During all normal takeoffs use
half forward sidestick pressure until 80 to 100 kts. (OM 2d.1.3) Ensure the
aileron is neutralized by looking at the “control pointer cross” on the PFD or relax
the sidestick to center during the takeoff roll. This will ensure that you do not
have any roll in the initial rotation and liftoff. During crosswind takeoff let engines
stabilize at 50% then increase to 70% N1 (CFM) or 1.05 EPR (IAE) and stabilize,
then increase to FLEX or TOGA by 40 kts. ground speed. Slowly release any
rudder being held during crosswind takeoff during the rotation.
 Airbus Gotcha: It is possible for the F/O to occasionally enter the wrong W&B
data. An easy way for both the Capt. and F/O to double-check their work is to
look at the Gross Weight shown in the bottom right hand corner of the SD after
engine start and W&B is entered. This number should be very close to the Ramp
weight shown on the W&B printout and similar to the TPS numbers. If you
manage to still takeoff with the wrong gross weight entered, you will eventually
get a gross weight mismatch error message once the aircraft has computed its
in-flight weight. To correct this just enter the proper weight in the PROG page
after subtracting the current fuel used from the original Ramp weight.
 Airbus Gotcha: If on taxi out you do not have the V speeds showing in your
PFD (after entry in MCDU), make sure that your Flight Director is turned on.
On takeoff, PF should have the F-PLN page, PM the PERF-TAKEOFF page
Use a radar tilt of 5-8° UP if radar required during takeoff.
Normally set a departure heading for selection at 400’. Note: set the heading you
will need at 400’. If you are using a SID departure where NAV is required NAV
mode will engage at 30’ automatically, do not set a heading for NAV departure.
Use ARC or ROSE NAV on takeoff on your EFIS ND settings. Do not fly around
in PLAN. Only use PLAN as a momentary reference in-flight.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
RTO – Rejected Takeoff (OM 2d.7)
ECAM will inhibit all warnings/cautions that are not paramount from 80 kts. to
1500’ AGL. All rejects done by captain.
 The captain calls “Reject, My Aircraft”. F/O calls “Your Aircraft”.
 Thrust Levers idle (when the thrust levers go to idle the ground spoilers
extend, which then trigger the autobrakes, ensure maximum braking)
 F/O monitor autobrakes, call No Autobrakes if needed and notify tower
 Select Full Reverse
 F/O call “80”
 Maintain slight forward pressure on sidestick
 Stop aircraft
 Capt. inform passengers and flight attendants “This is the captain, remain
seated”, etc.
Note: If necessary, maximum reverse may be used until aircraft comes to
complete stop.
Note: Autobrakes will not activate below 72 kts.
On takeoff the aircraft will “blend” from direct to normal law as it goes from
ground mode to flight mode. This means that the backpressure that you need to
hold the nose up will reduce to zero once normal law autotrim activates. You will
usually not really notice this change as the aircraft will be climbing quickly but
you will learn to release the backpressure around 100 to 200 ft. as the trim kicks
in or the nose will “balloon”. A good Airbus pilot quickly learns to minimize input
as many times the pilot is inducing a slight amount of sidestick pressure without
realizing it. Remember, the less input on the stick the better. You don’t want to
“confuse” the computers (or the pilot!).
New Airbus pilots tend to get into the habit of “slapping” the Thrust Levers back
from TOGA or FLX/MCT to the CL detent. While this will work it really isn’t the
best technique. The power reduction will be very noticeable in back to the
passengers and is harder on the engines when using TOGA or less aggressive
FLEX reductions. When the FLEX temp is around 60° there will be little or no
reduction when coming out of FLX/MCT to CL and this is why pilots get used to
just “slapping” the levers back. However, when the reduction is in the 30° range
or so (common on the 321) or at TOGA the immediate reduction is very
noticeable. Remember that when above CL you are manually controlling the
thrust but the FLEX has “capped” the thrust so that with large assumed temps
there is little or no change from FLX/MCT to CL. Just ease the thrust levers back
from FLX/MCT or TOGA to the CL detent slowly just as you would on any other
jet aircraft. Your passengers and engines will appreciate it!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Max Rate of Climb: (OM 2e.3.3)
A319: 260 KIAS / .76M
A320: 260 KIAS / .76M
A321: 280 KIAS / .76M
Max Climb Angle: Slow to Green Dot Speed. EXPED climb pb will give maximum
climb angle by applying maximum climb thrust and controlling speed to down to
green dot. Note: EXPED pb can produce a rapid change and is not intended for
routine use. Use above FL 250 should be avoided.
V1 Cuts
Pick a line and stick to it no matter what on every takeoff. You will find that you
will just naturally put in the correct rudder for V1 cuts if you practice this on every
takeoff. You don’t have to hit the centerline lights but stay right on the centerline.
You should have the aircraft already stabilized with rudder before rotation
(assuming the cut is before the Rotate call). Bring the nose up to 12.5° (park it
on the 12.5° “shelf”) and hold it. Then follow the flight director. The only real
Gotcha here is that the aircraft takes off in Direct mode. It will then blend to
Normal. This means that you will have autotrim kicking in just after takeoff.
Remember in direct you will be holding back pressure to keep the nose at 12.5°
until Normal law with autotrim comes in and then you will need to release the
back pressure on the sidestick. In fact this is what happens on every takeoff. Be
sure that you don’t try to trim off the rudder so quickly that you are diverted from
flying during the blend from direct to normal as the trim coming in will cause you
to pitch up if you aren’t watching for it. Since technically the autopilot can be put
on at 100’ some folks try to show how good they are and start trimming rudder
right away. Better to wait until the blend is complete around a few hundred feet
first and then trim the rudder and then get it on autopilot. You don’t get any
bonus points for a quick rudder trim while losing speed and pitch control!
Note: If taking off in FLEX the PF has the discretion to leave thrust levers in
FLEX or to increase to TOGA. If aircraft is heavy, runway is short, aircraft must
be maneuvered for obstacle clearance, aircraft is on fire or has other time critical
problem pilot should consider using TOGA if not already selected. Thrust should
be increased to TOGA in a slow, deliberate manner in order to not destabilize the
situation. You may do this while on the runway. You may do this once on
autopilot if so desired. If increasing to TOGA while airborne it is best to do it
while on autopilot and below 1000 ft.
Note: If thrust levers are left in FLEX then they must be positioned to TOGA and
reset back to MCT (same detent as FLEX) when engine out procedures call for
reduction to MCT. This is due to the fact that the same detent is used for FLEX
and MCT. By selecting from FLEX to TOGA and then back to the MCT detent
the logic is satisfied for the FMGC.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
First Pilot noting engine failure: “Engine Failure”
PF: “TOGA” (if desired)
Maintain centerline, minimize sidestick
At VR – “Rotate”
“Positive Rate”
“Gear UP”
“Gear UP” – position gear lever UP
and disarm spoilers
After blend from direct to normal law
(about 200’) trim off rudder as needed
Select autopilot as called for
“Autopilot 1” (or 2) as needed above
100’ RA
At 400’ select heading if needed,
Comply with engine out departure
procedures if specified for airport or
At 1000’ or engine out acceleration
Push V/S if called for
altitude push V/S or call “Vertical
Speed Zero”
At F speed call “Flaps 1”
“Flaps 1” – Select Flaps 1
Note: only if Flaps 2 or 3 used
At S speed call “Flaps UP”
“Flaps UP” – Select Flaps UP
Accelerate to Green Dot (VFTO)
Continue climb if needed
Select Open Climb if called for
Select OPEN CLIMB or
Select green dot speed or call
“Speed ___”
Select MCT on thrust levers (or if in
FLEX select TOGA and then MCT)
“ECAM actions”
Select green dot speed if called for
“MCT Set”
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Approved Approaches (FOM 5.10.4): ILS, ILS/DME, ILS/PRM, LDA w/
glideslope, LDA DME w/ glideslope, LDA PRM DME w/ glideslope, ASR/SRA,
RNAV, VOR (with VNAV), VOR/DME (with VNAV).
Before any approach you must enter the applicable approach data (OM 3.12 &
OM 18.x) and then activate the approach on the PERF APPR page of the
MCDU. Activating the approach will drive managed speed to approach speeds. I
suggest activating the approach when out of 10,000’ and on selected speed. If
you accidentally activate the approach you can simply use Speed Select for
remainder of flight or enter current cruise altitude on PROG page for CRZ
altitude. Entering the current altitude as the cruise altitude on the PROG page
will force the FMGC back to Cruise phase (re-cruise).
Once on vectors with approach control you can clear out any remaining flight
plan in the FMGC that is not needed to allow only the planned approach to be
shown. This is sometimes referred to as “clean up the box”.
When in the terminal area I suggest 180 kts. and Flaps 2. This is a very flexible
configuration that will allow you to quickly slow or descend using speedbrake,
gear or Flaps 3. This is a great configuration for turning base to final.
Both Flaps FULL and Flaps 3 are normally available for landing. So far I prefer
Flaps FULL better. Flaps 3 seems to work better when very light weight or in
gusty conditions.
Note: If flaps 3 is to be used then CONF3 should be selected on PERF APPR
page and the overhead GPWS LDG FLAP 3 pb ON (OM 2f.2.7).
When using approaches that utilize barometric settings (MDA, DA) such as ILS
CAT I, LDA and RNAV the minimums setting is on the MDA line (line select key
2R) on the PERF APPR page. Autocallouts are not available at 100 above and
minimums when using the MDA setting.
When using approaches that utilize radar altimeter (DH, AH) such as ILS CAT II
and CAT III the minimums setting is on the DH line (line select key 3R) on the
PERF APPR page. Autocallouts will be made at 100 above and minimums.
All approaches are to be stable by 1000’ AFL (OM 2f.1.1)
If unstable at 1000’ in VMC you may continue to 500’, call correction and be
stable by 500’ or go around.
No configuration changes (gear, flaps) below 1000’ AFL (OM2f.1.2)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Make your flight instructor happy!: When making any change in modes such
as arming an approach or turning off the flight director or autopilot make sure
you look at FMA (at the top of the PFD) to see what mode you actually are in.
 Airbus Gotcha: If you cannot get the proper ILS frequency and course
showing on the PFD when you select the ILS pb, then check your RAD/NAV
page and see if a navaid has been entered and is locking out autotuning. Also be
sure that an RMP NAV pb is not selected as this will turn on the NAV backup
mode and disable FMGC tuning. This can simply “glitch” and not display when it
should. We were able to fix it by reselecting the runway/approach.
On all instrument approaches (except CAT II, III) PM (or auto callout) calls “100
above” and PF replies “Continuing”. At minimums PM calls, “Minimums,
runway in sight” or “Minimums, no contact”. PF responds to minimums calls
with either “Landing” or “Go Around, TOGA”.
Remember: WAFPPC for working in the sim.
Weather (check destination weather, make plan)
Advise (ATC, F/A’s, company)
F–PLN (insert new destination if needed, then new approach)
PROG (if RNAV approach, insert .3 nm RNP)
PERF (ACTIVATE and CONFIRM, then insert approach data on PERF APPR)
Checklist (call for Descent - Approach checklist)
It may be helpful to notice a “backward Z” flow to the keys on the MCDU when
doing the F-Plan, RADNAV, PROG and PERF for the approach. You can use
this “backward Z” for any PRELIMINARY checklist flow.
VAPP (OM 18.6.5)
The approach speed is automatically computed by the FMGC (of course!). This
VAPP Target is shown on the PFD airspeed scale as a magenta triangle. VAPP
is shown on the PERF APPR page on the FMGC. It is computed by taking the
highest of two different figures. After you enter the steady state winds (no gusts)
and the approach runway the FMGC figures the headwind component. It then
takes 1/3 of the headwind and adds this to VLS. However, VAPP cannot be less
than 5 kts. above VLS or more than 15 kts.
VLS + 1/3 headwind component = VAPP
So for runway 18 a wind of 180 at 30 kts. would result in a VAPP of +10 kts. If
VLS is 120 then VAPP would be 130 (+10).
With runway 18 and wind 270 at 20 the VAPP would be +5 as a minimum of plus
5 must be added and a crosswind adds no additional speed.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Now comes the other way to figure VAPP Target, the infamous GS Mini. While it
sounds like either a new Mini car or a new mini-skirt style it will actually figure the
safest minimum ground speed for your approach. Remember, the GNADIR’s
know your ground speed and the wind the aircraft is experiencing at the moment.
You entered the runway so it can now know what the ground speed should be on
approach. GS Mini takes the VAPP that has been already figured (130 in our
example) and then subtracts the whole headwind component from it. This leaves
only the ground speed and the previously added 1/3 wind “cushion” of 10 kts, so
in this case 130 – 30 = 100 kts. ground speed. While this sounds slow remember
that VLS was 120. If we had a head wind of 30 kts. that would result in a ground
speed of 90 kts. So you can see that the “cushion” has actually added 10 kts. to
the minimum ground speed. If the FMGC sees the ground speed going below the
minimum of 100 kts. then it will increase the VAPP Target to maintain the
minimum ground speed. This will ensure that even if all headwind was lost at
once that the aircraft has sufficient energy to fly through the loss of speed. GS
Mini may increase the VAPP beyond the normal plus 15 limit to maintain the
minimum ground speed required.
VAPP – headwind component = GS Mini
The VAPP Target will be the higher of these two airspeeds, VAPP or GS Mini.
One point to remember when putting in the wind component. It won’t help you to
“cheat” and put in a greater wind than actually exists. Putting in a greater wind
speed will actually result in a lower GS Mini (remember the FULL wind speed is
subtracted from VAPP) which will result in less protection on approach. If you
wish to increase the VAPP Target it is better to simply enter the desired VAPP
speed on the PERF APPR page while using accurate wind numbers.
While the FMGC will add airspeed for headwind components it will not add
anything for crosswinds. It will be up to you to add anything to VAPP on the
PERF APPR page if you have heavy crosswinds and you wish to have additional
airspeed on the VAPP Target.
You will only have VAPP target shown when in APPR phase. You can force the
FMGC to approach phase by selecting PERF and then ←ACTIVATE APPR
PHASE and *CONFIRM APPR PHASE. This will drive the managed speed to
approach speed. Normally you will be on speed select when you do this but
when you command speed engage the speed will be VAPP. Note that VLS will
change depending on the flaps configuration selected and therefore the VAPP
will also change with landing flap configuration.
 Airbus Gotcha: The VAPP is calculated from the weight and balance data
you put in on taxi out. The VLS on the airspeed scale is computed from the
FACS based on current aircraft performance. Especially on the A321 you may
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
see the VAPP less than 5 knots from VLS as the two numbers may be coming
up different in the FMGC. You want to add enough onto the VAPP on the PERF
APP page to ensure a 5 knot difference.
All approaches must be briefed on the following outline (OM 2e.9.3, FOM
5.10.1, Checklist briefing aid). Use the following aids during your approach
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Approach chart: (Note: visual approach is defined as 2000 & 3 or better)
 Approach name and runway (not required for day visuals)
 Approach chart date (not required for day visuals)
 TDZE (not required for day visuals)
 Final approach verification altitude (not required for day visuals)
 Required visibility (not required for day visuals)
 Planned runway turnoff and taxi route
 Highest MSA (minimum safe altitude within 25 nm of depicted fix)
PFD (be sure LS pb is selected for ILS):
 ILS frequency (does not apply for RNAV approaches)
 Final approach course
 DA, DH or AH as applicable (not required for day visuals)
F-PLN page:
 Glide path angle (RNAV only)
 Missed approach procedure review (not required for day visuals)
 Brief aircraft model (i.e., A319, A320 or A321) and check landing weight,
autobrake setting, landing flap setting, max landing pitch & landing
Also include in brief any other considerations such as noise, windshear, antiicing, runway conditions, 10-7 page engine-out procedures, MEL’s, etc.
Note: for RNAV approaches enter 0.3 RNP on the PROG page to ensure FMGC
accuracy prior to the approach. Check that the 0.3 is showing on both MCDUs.
NOT that it has happened to me but if you forget what aircraft model you are in
here is the gouge. On the ECAM DOOR/OXY page on the SD check the number
of overwing exits and slides – if there are:
A319 –
A320 –
A321 –
One exit and one slide
Two exits and one slide
Two exits and two slides
(OK, the panel placard or DATA key, <A/C STATUS page will show aircraft type)
Minimum Safe Altitudes
MSA, within 25 nm of defined navaid: On approach chart
MEA, Airway centerline, number on airway: 10,000
MOCA, 4 nm of airway centerline, number with “T”: 4,000T
Route MORA, 10 nm of airway centerline, number with “a”: 3200a
Grid MORA, within defined grid sector, number near center of grid
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
ILS Approaches
LS pb should be selected before approach briefing so pilot can read ILS freq.,
and course off of PFD. This allows the pilot to double-check the actual ILS being
used as well as ensures that the LS pb is selected before the approach begins. If
wrong ILS freq. is showing make sure that RADNAV ILS is cleared.
Note: if LS pb is not selected when approach is armed then ILS will flash in
amber on the PFD
DA - If the approach uses a DA then the barometric altimeter is being used and
no autocallout will be made for 100 above or minimums. Enter DA information in
MDA position on approach page in MCDU (PERF APPR).
DH or AH - If DH or AH is being used then radio altimeter is being used and
autocallouts are available for 100 above and minimums. Use the DH line select
key for entry of minimums information in MCDU (PERF APPR).
When cleared for approach press the APPR pb on FCU. Then press to engage
the second autopilot on FCU. Both autopilots should be engaged for all ILS
approaches. Note blue GS and LOC on FMA indicating glideslope and localizer
are armed for capture. Must capture localizer first, then will capture Glide Slope.
Disconnect autopilot prior to descent below DA for CAT I ILS.
A nice trick to enter all the fixes in the approach is to wait until you are on vectors
then reselect the approach but select NO STAR. Obviously you must wait until
you no longer need the STAR but now you will have better situational awareness
as you will have all the waypoints and fixes on the approach instead of just the
final approach fix. Of course you could add the other fixes manually but where’s
the fun in that?
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
CAT II/III Approaches
Captains approach only. Captain is always PF for CAT II/III
Captain must brief the CAT II or III approach from the QRH:
 F/O will call out “Land Green” or “No Land Green” if LAND doesn’t show
before 350 ft.
 Mandatory Go-Arounds - No Land Green, AUTO LAND warning light, no
FLARE in FMA at about 40 ft.
 Considerations – if Captain fails to respond to minimum call
Note: any CAT II RA not AUTH approaches are based on inner marker. You
may use the inner marker GS crossing altitude in the MDA as a reminder.
AH stands for Alert Height and allows for continuing the approach only on
electronic indications (no visual confirmation of runway environment required).
The Airbus 319/320/321 requires that CAT 3 Dual be annunciated in the FMA
before AH is used. When entering Radar Altimeter information in the FMGC on
the Approach page use 100’ in the DH window for the AH. Autocallouts will be
made at 100 above and Minimums as DH is being selected on the Approach
page. This will allow the pilot to have a reminder at 100’ AGL but the approach
may be continued as long as all indications are normal and the reported RVR
remains at or above the minimum for the approach. This means it is possible that
the runway may not be seen by the pilots before minimums. When shooting a
CAT II or III approach the PF must make callout of CAT 3 dual (or single) or CAT
2 based on FMA information when armed for approach. NOTE: Above 8,200’
AGL (max valid radar altimeter range) FMA will show CAT 1, confirm FMA below
5,000’ AGL.
If CAT 3 Dual is not shown in the FMA (for example CAT 3 Single or CAT 2) then
DH must be used if doing a CAT II or III and runway must be seen. Dual will be
shown when both autopilots are in use, and Single when only one autopilot is in
use or loss of some other required redundant system. Engine-out approaches
limited to CAT IIIA (CAT 3 Single, requires 50’ DH). Captain retards throttles on
the 10’ “Retard” callout, disconnect autopilot by 60 kts. on runway.
The autoland fail light will flash red if the following conditions occur below 200’
while in LAND mode (OM 14.1.6):
 Both AP’s off below 200’ RA
 Excessive LOC (¼ dot – above 15’ RA) or GLIDE (1 dot – above 100’ RA)
deviation – LOC and GLIDE scales flash
 Loss of LOC (below 15’) or GLIDE (below 100’) signal
 Difference between radar Altimeters is greater than 15’ (FD bars flash)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
LAND green on FMA below 400 ft. indicates that the autopilot is “locked in” and
will “ignore” inputs on the FMU (autopilot panel). Basically at this point it is only
looking for a TOGA selection or to complete the landing.
CAT II/III Go-Around Mandatory if –
 No LAND GREEN below 350 ft.
 Autoland warning light comes on
 FMA does not show FLARE at about 40 ft.
Note: If autoland capability degrades above 1000’ the pilots have the option of
changing the minimums on the PERF APPROACH page if this is done before
500’ AGL and the captain understands the new minimums are a decision height
(not an electronic alert height AH). The existing visibility must also meet or
exceed the new approach minimums.
If auto callouts are not available the F/O (PM) will need to make the 100 Above
and Minimums callouts.
Autopilot should be disconnected on ground before 60 kts. Remember that the
autopilot will be steering the aircraft through nosewheel steering until
Autobrakes should be used for CAT II/III approaches.
Low visibility taxi systems (SMGCS) will be activated when RVR is below 1200.
Practice autoland approaches may be done on CAT I runways only if (OM
18.6.11) runway is listed as approved for autolands in Airport Advisory pages
and approach is done in CAT I or better weather conditions with CAT I mins.
Note: when doing autoland during CAT I or better weather the ILS hold line is not
being protected and signal may be poor. ATC has a long checklist to run before
CAT II/III is actually flown and this will not be done during CAT I weather.
Max elevation for Auto Land:
A320 Tails 663-680
A320 all others
9200 MSL
6500 MSL
2500 MSL
5750 MSL
Engine-out autoland authorized for CONFIG 3 or FULL (except A320 is CONFIG
FULL only) (OM 1.10.2).
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
PRM Approaches
Precision Radar Monitoring approaches allow closer than normal spacing
between parallel runways and simultaneous approaches. This allows higher
traffic flow during IFR periods for airports with closely spaced parallel runways.
Since there is obviously reduced margin for error procedures have been put in
place to ensure quick response to any loss of separation. PRM approaches will
be flown either with ILS or LDA facilities. All procedures for ILS and LDA are the
same except an offset LDA will be flown to a MAP followed by a visual segment.
 Captain is always the PF for PRM approaches
 Review procedure on Jepp chart. Every PRM has both generic and
approach specific information that must be reviewed every approach.
 Must use autopilot, flight directors and if available autothrust
 Put TCAS in TA/RA, if RA is received during approach follow the RA
 Dual VHF frequencies are used for the approach. When handed off to
Tower frequency the pilots will maintain listening watch on both
frequencies. DO NOT EXPECT to be told when to monitor the monitor
only frequency! When assigned Tower frequency dial in the normal tower
frequency and talk and listen as normal on this frequency. On the number
two radio put in the monitor only frequency and select to listen only, not to
transmit on this frequency. This means that you are listening to two
different frequencies while you are talking to tower. If the tower frequency
gets blocked by a stuck mike or whatever you can still hear commands
from the PRM controller.
 A breakout is similar to a go-around but must be followed immediately. A
breakout command will begin “Traffic Alert” followed by instructions. All
breakouts must be hand flown. Breakouts may be used for a climb or a
descent and will normally include an immediate turn.
 If an RA is received on TCAS during a PRM follow the RA as normal
(Autopilot off, Flight Directors off). However if during the RA the controller
gives a turn follow the controllers command since the TCAS cannot give
steering commands.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
PRM Climbing Breakout:
“Traffic Alert”
First Officer (PM)
Captain (PF)
On “Breakout” climb command from
“Breakout TOGA”
 Autopilot off
 Thrust to TOGA
 Turn to new heading
 Establish climb (if RA received
follow RA)
 Select Thrust Levers back to
Climb when able
 “Climb”
 “TOGA Set”
 Set and select heading on FCU
 Set altitude on FCU (don’t
 If RA received turn off Flight
 “Climb Set” Verify climb set
when called for
 Monitor flight path and speed
and call out deviations
PRM Descending Breakout:
“Traffic Alert”
First Officer (PM)
Captain (PF)
On “Breakout” descend command from
 Autopilot off
 Verify thrust in Climb Detent
 Turn to new heading
 Establish descent (not to exceed
1000 fpm)
 Set and select heading on FCU
 Set altitude on FCU (don’t
 If RA received turn off Flight
 Monitor flight path and speed
and call out deviations
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
RNAV (LNAV- VNAV) Approaches (Managed Non-ILS)
 All non-precision approaches must be flown with autopilot and flight
director unless no ILS is available and both autopilots have failed, then a
manual non-precision approach is permitted.
 Only use approach from database
 Do not manually build approach
RNAV approaches that are listed as LVAV-VNAV are designed to provide
vertical guidance and will utilize a DA(H).
When cleared for the RNAV approach press the APPR pb on FCU. Do NOT
select the LS pb! LS pb will disable the RNAV indications and flash amber
V/DEV on the PFD. CSTR pb should be ON as well.
Enter 0.3 for required accuracy on PROG page (make sure the new value shows
on both sides). This lowers the FMGC “tolerance” from an enroute value to an
approach value. RNAV approach must have a HIGH nav accuracy showing with
0.3 nm value on the PROG page before beginning the approach to ensure that
the FMGC accurate enough for an RNAV approach. Less than required accuracy
will create a NAV ACCURACY DOWNGRADE message on MCDU. You may
also get a GPS PRIMARY LOST message which indicates that the GPS signal
from an MMR has been lost. If you get either message you must select the
autopilot on the side of the operative FMGC. This will allow you to continue the
RNAV approach. If both FMGC’s display an error message or you get an
FM/GPS POS DISAGREE ECAM you must go around.
Ensure HIGH is showing on PROG for nav accuracy. Ensure the “hockey stick”
(descent arrow symbol) is visible on ND for start of descent. Ensure APP NAV
and FINAL are showing on FMA. Remember “High Hockey Finals”
Note: vertical guidance from F/D and “brick”, lateral guidance from F/D and ND.
3-2-1 – plan to extend landing gear at 3 miles from FAF, extend flaps 3 at 2
miles from FAF and extend flaps FULL at 1 mile from FAF. At start of descent
ensure that missed approach altitude is set. Ensure FINAL is now showing on
FMA. When visual on runway is acquired turn off autopilot (at least by MDA). The
autopilot will automatically disconnect at DA minus 40 ft. if not off sooner.
Note: PM makes 100 above and minimums calls. All other auto callouts
available. When the autocallout makes the 500 ft. call the PM should not make
the normal Ref + and sink calls as it is commonly very close to the minimums call
and can be too confusing.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
RNAV LNAV Approaches
This non-precision approach is flown using RNAV Managed Non-ILS
procedures. In both cases the “brick” will be available for vertical guidance.
Remember that these approaches were originally designed by the FAA as “drop
and drag” or “dive and drive” utilizing an MDA (minimum descent altitude). RNAV
approaches that are listed as LNAV only utilize an MDA but will still generate
vertical guidance. The Airbus is using it’s technology to create an artificial
glideslope that allows this normally unstabilized approach to be stabilized. The
50’ pad is added to allow descent to the MDA and then to recognize that the
runway is not in sight and begin go-around procedure without busting the hard
MDA limit. The new decision altitude is called the DDA for Derived Decision
Altitude as it is derived from the original MDA. In actual use the procedure is
exactly like the full RNAV LNAV-VNAV approach and the presentation is exactly
the same as well.
RNAV LVAV approaches will be flown just like RNAV LNAV-VNAV approaches
except with the following change:
 RNAV LNAV must add 50’ to the MDA
Note: do not add the 50’ if the runway has VASI or PAPI
Note: do not add the 50’ when noted on the approach. The verbiage will be
similar to the following:
“Only authorized operators may use VNAV DA(H) in lieu of MDA(H)”
Another way to say this is that the RNAV LNAV approach is flown exactly like the
RNAV LNAV/VNAV approach when the additional verbiage is added or a VASI
or PAPI is available.
American LUS is now training but not yet approved for flying RNP curved arc
segments on RNAV approaches. These are the infamous SAAAR (Special
Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required) procedures. Currently our manuals
do not cover these as they are for training only. There are two points to bear in
mind when flying these approaches. One, you cannot be vectored onto an arc
(curved) segment as you might overshoot. You must be vectored onto a normal
straight segment that then can lead into an arc. Second, speed control is very
important so be aware of any speed limits or notes on your approach.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
VOR approaches
VOR Approaches are also flown in a manner similar to the Managed Non-ILS
RNAV LNAV approaches. Just as the RNAV LNAV approach the VOR approach
is flown to an MDA but is using an artificial glideslope to create a stabilized
approach. For VOR approaches use the RNAV LNAV-VNAV procedures except:
 NAV must be utilized for approach VIAs (do not select APPR until cleared
for approach and intercepting the intermediate segment)
 A coded VNAV flight path angle (FPA) in the FMGC is required for the
final approach segment.
 Raw data must be monitored by the PM. Must remain within 5° of course.
 Do not change RNP on the PROG page
 NAV accuracy downgrade does not require a missed approach
 Add 50’ to the MDA(H) to create DDA (Derived Decision Altitude)
Note: do not add the 50’ if the runway has VASI or PAPI
Note: do not add the 50’ when noted on the approach. The verbiage will be
similar to the following:
“Only authorized operators may use VNAV DA(H) in lieu of MDA(H)”
Raw data will be monitored by manually tuning the PM’s RADNAV page to the
VOR. Select VOR identifier on PM’s side.
Position PM VOR selector to VOR.
Both pilots should continue to use the PF’s NAV display to monitor approach
progress and improve situational awareness. Maintain within + or - 5° needle
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
LDA Approaches
LDA approaches use same procedures as ILS approaches, LDA must have glide
slope, LDA in database as LOC. KDCA Roselyn LDA is NOT authorized.
Non-managed Non-ILS Approaches (LOC and LDA w/o G/S)
Use DDA (add 50 ft. to MDA)
LS pb ON, CSTR pb ON
Localizer only approaches use LOC pb for lateral tracking. LOC pb ON.
Use FPV Flight Director when established on inbound course.
At 0.4 nm from FAF or TOD select FPA
After FAF inbound, Set Missed Approach altitude in FCU
Disconnect Autopilot before DDA.
Engine-Out Approaches
All single-engine approaches follow the same procedures as normal two engine
approaches except that Flaps 3 will be used (exception: A320 must use Flaps
FULL for autoland engine out approach). The aircraft is certified for autolanding
with single engine operation down to CAT IIIA single which will allow autoland
approaches down to a DH of 50’.
 Airbus Gotcha: If an engine-out condition is detected by the FMGC the
appropriate performance page will be brought up on the MCDU with an amber
EO CLR* on LSK 1R (OM 17.6.39 & 18.3.7). This is asking if you wish to force
the FMGC back to normal two engine data. If you press the EO CLR you will
clear out the engine-out condition and the FMGC will revert back to the normal
two engine data. Of course if you get a spurious EO CLR* during normal
operations then you would want to clear the engine-out performance from the
FMGC, which is why the prompt is there. The point here is during engine-out
operations do not press the amber EO CLR* LSK!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Visual Approaches
 Airbus Gotcha: Both Flight Directors should be turned off when cleared for
visual approach and hand flying. This will ensure SPEED is showing for Thrust
on the FMA and will help avoid unwanted “thrust excursions”. Once established
on the final if you have instrument guidance (either ILS or RNAV) you may turn
the F/D’s back on and select APPR if you will follow the Flight Director.
Open descent prohibited below 1000’ AGL on a visual approach (U) (OM 2.13.1)
When using speed select (manual speed selection – blue bug) I suggest the
following speed ranges for a given flap setting. Note that this is based on my
observation of managed speed, not on a written profile, and is simply my
suggestion of comfortable speed ranges for a given flap setting. Of course you
are able to select from VMAX down to VLS whenever needed but the following are
suggested as flexible and comfortable speeds to use in line operations. As well,
by using these “ranges” you have a visual reference in front of you at all times:
Flaps 0 – down to green dot (suggest about 210)
Flaps 1 – below VFE NEXT down to S speed (green S) (suggest 190)
Flaps 2 – below VFE NEXT down to F speed (green F) (suggest 170)
Flaps 3 – below VFE NEXT down to F speed (green F) (suggest 160)
Flaps Full or 3 – Managed Speed – before 1000’
Note: recall that VFE NEXT is the amber equals sign on airspeed scale
Note: A321 may need slightly higher suggested speeds at heavy weights.
The alternate ILS technique (OM 18.6.6) works well for conservative Visual
approaches as well (assuming on glideslope) and is similar to RNAV technique.
If you plan on using this technique the FAA wants you to state “alternate ILS
technique” in your approach briefing. (in parentheses is full ILS equivalent):
Plan and configure to arrive prior to 3 nm from FAF with Flaps 2
3 nm from FAF – gear down (Dot and a half G/S)
2 nm from FAF – flaps 3 (Half dot G/S)
1 nm from FAF – flaps FULL (G/S intercept)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Go Around
Set thrust levers to TOGA, this will activate go around mode and (if turned off)
will turn on Flight Director. Go around flaps are to select one step up from the
approach flap setting (i.e. if flaps Full, then select flaps 3, if flaps 3 then select
flaps 2). During acceleration when at F speed go to flaps 1 whether you are at
flaps 2 or 3. Single engine go around follows same procedure. At acceleration
altitude begin engine out clean up procedure
Note: TOGA will only activate Go Around Mode when Flaps are selected. At
Flaps 0 TOGA will not activate Go Around Mode.
Once thrust is set to TOGA please note that autothrust is now manually set and
WILL NOT reduce until brought back to the Climb detent by the pilot (as during a
normal takeoff). This means that the autothrust will not reduce on level out while
in TOGA detent. When in TOGA the aircraft will continue to accelerate when
level until it hits the Vmax limit and Normal law takes over. If you TOGA on go
around above 1000 AGL be ready to reduce thrust faster than normal if leveling
at a low altitude. You may wish to simply put the thrust levers in the TOGA
detent and bring them back immediately to Climb. If LVR CLB flashes in the FMA
reduce to Climb Power (CL) detent.
Go Around Callouts
“Go Around” (Thrust Levers to TOGA)
“TOGA” engage/ensure Nav set
“TOGA Set” engage/ensure Nav set
“Go Around Flaps”
“Flaps___” set flaps one step up and
state new setting, “Flaps 3” (or 2)
“Positive Rate”
“Gear Up”
“Gear Up” position gear lever up
Advise ATC of missed approach or go
Select requested autopilot
“Autopilot 1” (or 2)
At or above 400 ft.
Select requested heading as requested
“Heading ___” if needed
When LVR CLB flashes on FMA
“Climb Set”
At F speed
“Flaps 1”
“Flaps 1” select Flaps 1
At S speed
“Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist”
“Flaps Up” select Flaps 0, disarm
spoilers and accomplish After Takeoff
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Note: these are my personal tips and not necessarily procedures.
Bring thrust levers back to idle at about 30’ to 20’ in normal conditions. Flaps 3
will not slow as quickly and you may wish to reduce to idle closer to 30’ more
often here. The aircraft has plenty of airspeed and energy with managed speed
being flown and you will not need to delay thrust reduction to ensure proper flare
in normal conditions. In gusty condition you may want to carry thrust longer.
Don’t let nose drop when normal nose down pitch is added at 50’ in flare mode. I
was used to flying smaller (and shorter geared!) jets and found it helpful to move
my aim point on the runway from the 1000’ marker to halfway between the 1000’
and 1500’. Try to have the flare started by the 10’ call. Do not carry thrust to the
flare as the autothrust will begin to command climb thrust as speed deteriorates
if you do not bring back idle. This will cause a “thrust bump” that will have you
floating down the runway with excess energy.
On touch down use positive nose down to lower the nose. Be careful not to let
the nose ride up when reverse is selected. Select Full Reverse as you lower
nose. As the aircraft slows through 80 knots slowly push the thrust levers back
toward idle reverse so as to be at or near idle reverse at 60 knots. Be sure you
push the thrust lever all the way back through the detent into forward idle. Then
retard the lever again against the stop to ensure minimum forward thrust in idle.
Flaps 3 landings will tend to float more than Flaps Full. Be very careful when
using Flaps 3 on shorter runways that you ensure touch down in a timely
manner. Aircraft seems to level out in flare with Flaps 3 more quickly than with
Flaps Full. Use a more “subtle” flare with Flaps 3 than with Flaps Full.
Crosswind Landings – Despite rumors, the Airbus uses conventional crosswind
landing technique. Two points however; first, as the Airbus uses roll rate for the
ailerons the pilot cannot HOLD the sidestick in the crossed control position. The
sidestick must be released once the bank angle is established. Think of
“bumping” in the needed bank. It is more intuitive than it sounds! Second, the
sidestick is as sensitive in the flare as in cruise. Care must be taken to use
measured inputs to the sidestick. The OM recommends aligning the aircraft with
the runway centerline during the flare with the rudder. I normally use about 50 ft.
to start aligning the nose. Be gentle with the rudder, it won’t take much! Maintain
the aircraft on the centerline with roll control. Release all roll input when the
aircraft is on the ground. Autobrakes are required for crosswind component of 10
kts. or more. Recommend autobrakes for “short, wet, cross, cat” - Short runway,
wet or contaminated, crosswind and CAT II/III
A persistent myth is that the Airbus will blend back to direct law during the flare
mode. This is not true. The aircraft remains in normal law but normal law has a
flare mode that adds a pitch down at 50’. The pitch mode will change to a direct
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
stick to elevator mode with some “damping” for load. Why do they add this pitch
down? It is actually due to the autotrimming in normal law. If you didn’t have a
pitch down to hold against then when you began your flare the autotrim would
just trim off your flare. Then you would balloon and pitch over, it would retrim and
you would start all over again. So the pitch over is to give you an artificial back
pressure to feel during the flare and give more direct control to pitch but it is not
a blend back to direct. You will go to direct once you are on the ground.
Another common problem is that some folks will reduce the power very slowly.
However, remember that autothrust is active until the thrust levers are all the way
to idle (assuming autothrust is already active). So once you bring the thrust
levers out of the Climb detent you aren’t actually reducing thrust until the levers
get all the way back to where autothrust has them commanded. You will only be
limiting the amount of thrust that can be commanded. If you bring the levers back
slowly you are only reducing the maximum amount that can be commanded but
not actually reducing the thrust until you get them very far back. If you wait too
long you get the thrust bump we just talked about as autothrust is still trying to
maintain the speed.
In gusty conditions don’t be afraid to use the full throw of the sidestick! In normal
smooth air the stick can be very sensitive to slight pressures and is easy to
overcontrol. However, in gusty conditions you may need to use full throw of the
sidestick. You can always take it back out if you don’t need all of it.
Windshear (OM 2i.3, QRH OD-17, FOM 7.6.3)
Takeoff – use TOGA, use longest suitable runway, use minimum allowable flap
setting, consider increasing rotation speed if possible
Landing – Use Flaps 3, consider increasing approach speed
During a windshear encounter (reactive warning: Windshear, Windshear,
Windshear!) the PF should call: “Windshear, TOGA”, apply TOGA thrust, roll
wings level.
The PM should call altitude from radio altimeter and climb/descent trend:
“300’ descending, 200’ descending, 400’ climbing”. Follow Flight Director.
Don’t change gear/flap configuration until safe (ensure Speedbrake stowed).
Reactive windshear warning is available from ground to 1300 ft. AGL. on takeoff
and 1300 ft. AGL to 50 ft. AGL on landing.
For a Predictive Windshear warning reject takeoff or go around on landing for
Caution (amber and aural “Monitor Radar Display”) or Warning (red and aural
“Windshear Ahead”). Do not reject takeoff/go around for Predictive Advisory.
Basically, only reject takeoff or landing for an aural alert as the Advisory has no
aural, use TOGA to continue for Advisory alert takeoff. On landing if Predictive
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Windshear warning or caution given execute a normal go-around (you may
reconfigure flaps and gear).
Predictive Windshear protection is only available below 1500 ft. AGL to 50 ft
AGL and up to 5 miles . On the ground it is available on takeoff until 100 kts.
Caution: Predictive Windshear is radar based and can only function with
precipitation, it will not work in dry conditions. The severity of the warning
(Advisory, Caution, Warning) is based on nearness of windshear, not strength of
EGPWS (OM 2i.4)
 TOGA thrust
 Autopilot off
 Roll wings level
 Sidestick FULL AFT until at safe altitude
The PM should call altitude from radio altimeter and climb/descent trend:
“300’ descending, 200’ descending, 400’ climbing”.
PM call out safe altitude “MSA is 6,500 ft.”
Don’t change gear/flap configuration until safe (ensure Speedbrake stowed).
TCAS RA Maneuver (OM 2i.5)
If a traffic resolution is given (CLIMB, DESCEND, MAINTAIN VERTICAL SPEED
 Autopilot – OFF
 Both Flight Directors – OFF “Flight Directors OFF”
Adjust vertical speed as required to remain in green area of vertical speed scale
(stay outside of red). Avoid excessive maneuvers, if needed use full speed range
from Vmax to αmax. Go Around must be performed if RA CLIMB or INCREASE
CLIMB is given on final approach. After clear of conflict autopilot and flight
directors may be put back on.
Low Energy Warning (OM 2i.12)
If during approach conditions additional thrust is needed to recover a positive
flight path you will get a synthetic voice: SPEED, SPEED, SPEED
Increase thrust until warning stops. Selecting MCT on thrust levers will work well.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
A to Z - Abbreviations & Acronyms
These are just my short list of favorites and there are many others but for the
most part these should get you by.
The really short list of Airbus acronyms and abbreviations (complete list found in
back of OM):
α – Stands for ALPHA as in α PROT. Refers to Angle of Attack.
ACM – Air Cycle Machine
ACP – Audio Control Panel, allows pilot to select which radios or interphones to
listen to.
ADIRS - Air Data Inertial Reference System, now replaced by GNADIRS
ADIRU - Air Data Inertial Reference Unit
AMU - Audio Management Unit
ASAP – as in LAND ASAP, As Soon As Possible (this really is listed, I'm not
making this up)
A/SKID - Anti-skid
BSCU - Brakes Steering Control Unit (computer)
BTC - Bus Tie Contactor
CFDS - Centralized Fault Display System
CRC – Continuous Repetitive Chime, used to be called the fire bell.
DDA – Derived Decision Altitude, during RNAV approaches and VOR
approaches the pilot will add 50’ to the original MDA to create a new DDA unless
a note specifying use of VNAV DA(H) is present. This adds a pad to allow room
to go-around from the now stabilized descent instead of the level-off of the MDA.
DDRMI – Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI with DME)
DMC - Display Management Computer
DU - Display Unit (CRT, or "TV screen")
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
ECAM - Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring
EIU - Engine Interface Unit
ELAC - Elevator Aileron Computer
EO - Engine Out
E/WD - Engine/Warning Display, upper display for aircraft systems.
FAC - Flight Augmentation Computer
FM – Flight Manual
FCU - Flight Control Unit (autoflight panel)
FMGC - Flight Management Guidance Envelope Computer, what actually
performs the computations when you type into the MCDU.
FMGS - Flight Management Guidance Envelope System
F-Plan - Flight Plan
FPA - Flight Path Angle
FWC - Flight Warning Computer
FWS - Flight Warning System
GCU - Generator Control Unit
GLC - Generator Line Contactor
GNADIRS – Global Navigation Air Data Inertial Reference System, GPS, Air
Data information and Inertial attitude/guidance all in one.
Green Dot – Best L/D (lift over drag) speed, normally used as the target speed at
end of takeoff or for single engine climb out. Technically called VFTO (Final
Takeoff Speed). On the Airbus a green dot on the airspeed scale.
IDG – Integrated Drive Generator (the old CSD and generator all in one unit)
INIT - Initialization
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
JFA – Just Flying Along, used a lot in ground school as in: “…there you are just
flying along when the demodulator quits causing the blah blah ECAM blah blah
amber FAULT blah blah second channel blah blah and that’s all there is to it.”
L/G - Landing Gear
LGCIU - Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (I think this one is extra credit, we
just called it the linguini)
LSK - Line Select Key (keys used on MCDU screen)
MCDU - Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (this is the actual box used to
enter data into the FMGC, you getting all this?)
MEA- Minimum Enroute Altitude, provides terrain clearance on airway and
normally assures nav signal coverage.
MOCA – Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude, provides terrain clearance on
airway, not signal coverage. Denoted by letter “T” after altitude.
MORA – Minimum Off Route Altitude, provides obstacle clearance within 10 nm
of airway centerline. Denoted by letter “a” after altitude.
MMR – Multi Mode Receiver, the GPS receiver for the GNADIRS, two are
MSA – Minimum Safe Altitude, on an approach chart the lowest you can safely
descend if not on a charted route. Normally based on 25 nm from depicted nav
aid, can be expanded to 30 if shown. MSA’s provide 1000 ft. of obstacle
clearance but do not ensure signal coverage. May be divided into sectors not
less than 90° each.
ND - Navigation Display (has all those nice little pictures on it to let you know
where you are)
N/W – Nose Wheel
OM – Pilots Handbook, Operating Manual
pb – pushbutton
PF – Pilot Flying, the person actually handling the control or autopilot input. Also
the person to blame for the bad landing.
PFD - Primary Flight Display, the display you will look at the most, has airspeed,
altitude, attitude, heading and more. Remember, Blue Up, Brown Down!
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
PM – Pilot Monitoring, the non-flying pilot, used to be called PNF (Pilot Not
Flying). A politically correct way to say this guy is just a professional critic, don’t
blame him for the landing.
PTU – Power Transfer Unit, pump that is able to transfer power (but not fluid)
between the green and yellow hydraulic systems
QRH – Quick Reference Handbook
RAT - Ram Air Turbine, an air driven backup pump for blue hydraulic
RMP - Radio Management Panel, allows pilot to select which radio to tune or
transmit on.
SD - System Display, lower display for aircraft systems.
SDAC - System Data Acquisition Concentrator
SEC - Spoiler Elevator Computer
SFCC - Slat/Flap Control Computer
SRS - Speed Reference System
THS - Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer
TLA - Thrust Lever Angle, the TLA indicator is a white “donut” on the N1/ EPR
TOGA – Takeoff Go Around. Highest selectable thrust level. Selected by putting
thrust levers in TOGA detent. Also a mode for the Flight Director.
TRU - Transformer Rectifier Unit, also known as TR, transformer rectifier
UTC - Universal Coordinated Time (a politically correct way to say Zulu or GMT)
VFTO – Final Takeoff Speed, normally called “Green Dot”, best lift / drag
WHC – Window Heat Computer
WTB – Wing Tip Brake
XFR - Transfer
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
ZFCG - Zero Fuel Center of Gravity
ZFW – Zero Fuel Weight
Z time – Zulu Time or UTC. The old Greenwich Mean Time said another way.
Bonus – what persons names are on the Airbus instrument panels?
Answer – Max, Norm, Rose, Agent 1 & Agent 2, Rat Man
Extra Bonus – How do Airbus pilots celebrate their first line trip? Answer – they
have a TOGA party. I know, bad one…
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
FM Stuff
Minimum F/A staffing (FM 1.4.7)
FAA Minimum for flight
(including boarding /
Through flights
at gate with
Loading Last Minute Baggage (FM 2b.10.5)
Right engine must be shut down. Left engine idle. Load forward and aft
The captain is NOT required to stop only because a passenger leaves seat
during taxi. Use judgment to determine if stopping will create a greater possible
hazard. When able stop and re-seat passenger. (FM 8.1.8)
The captain may decide when visibility is sufficient. During low visibility
operations only run checklists when aircraft stopped or on straight taxiway with
no “complex” intersections. If low visibility use SMGCS if published for below
RVR 1200. The lowest reporting RVR on the airport is the controlling RVR for
taxi out.
Landing Limits (FM 10.7):
 Braking action FAIR: 20 kt crosswind
 Visibility less than ¾ mile or RVR 4000: 15 kt crosswind
 Braking action POOR: 10 knot crosswind
Any approach conducted with RVR less than 4000 or ¾ mile visibility must use a
maximum landing weight based on wet runway requirements. (10.7.2)
Runway considered unfit for use except in emergency when (FM 10.7.3):
Pools of water more than ½ inch
Wet snow or slush more than ½ inch
Chunks of hardened snow or ice
Braking Action NIL
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Standard Takeoff Minimums (FM 8.2.10)
1 statute mile or RVR 5000
Note: If published Takeoff minimums are higher than standard you must use the
higher published minimums. Lower charted minimums listed may be used as
long as they do not exceed AA limits.
Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums (QRH table pg. OD-1)
This information is available on Jepp charts (back of airport taxi chart, usually 109A) for airport and in QRH OPS DATA. You must use the higher of the two for
given situation. For example, Jepp lists ¼ mile for KLAS but Ops Specs show
500 RVR, you are limited to ¼ mile. Also, note required lighting and runway
markings for specified RVR. Currently down to as low as 500 RVR for Airbus.
Note: Captain must make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi. visibility (due to
lack of reference if reject and change of control from Capt. to F/O) (FM 8.2.10)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Takeoff Alternate (FOM 10.5.7, QRH OPS DATA)
Declare a takeoff alternate anytime weather conditions at the departure airport
are below CAT I landing minimum. Airbus is allowed exception down to CAT II/III
Single minimums if available and useable at departure airport. Ensure landing
weight will be below Max Landing Weight if Autoland is planned. Takeoff
alternate must be within 1 hr. from departure airport with one-engine inoperative.
Overwater Operations (FM 6.1.6, 6.1.7)
Extended Overwater Operations are flight that are more than 50 NM from the
nearest shoreline.
Limited Extended Overwater Operations on the US East Coast are allowed up to
162 nm offshore south of 35o North latitude and 100 nm offshore north of 35o
North latitude. On the West Coast no more than 100 NM. This can be seen on
the North Atlantic planning chart. Flight Attendants should be notified to brief pax
for overwater. All US Airways aircraft are equipped with life vests. Dispatch is
responsible to file the appropriate route. Cruise altitude must be FL250 (25,000’)
or higher. The captain is responsible to remain within 162/100 nm. However,
deviations are allowed due to weather or emergencies.
Headsets / Boom Mikes (OM 2.6.1)
Headsets and Boom Mikes must be worn below 18,000 ft.
Oxygen (OM 2e.8.2)
When one pilot leaves their station the remaining pilot must wear an oxygen
mask when above FL250. Both pilots must wear oxygen anytime cabin altitude
exceeds 10,000’.
Max Holding Speeds and Leg Timing
Through 6000 ft.
Above 6,000 through 14,000 ft.
Above 14,000 ft.
200 KIAS, 1 min.
230 KIAS (210 KIAS where published), 1 min.
265 KIAS, 1 min. and 30 secs.
Standard pattern – right hand turns
Non-Standard pattern – left hand turns
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Minimum Safe Altitudes (FOM 1.7.7)
In terminal area: MSA, within 25 nm of defined nav aid: On approach chart
Enroute: MEA, Airway centerline, number on airway: 10,000
Enroute: MOCA, 4 nm of airway centerline, number with “T”: 4,000T
Off Route: Route MORA, 10 nm of airway centerline, number with “a”: 3200a
Off Route: Grid MORA, within defined grid sector, number near center of grid
Destination Weather (FOM 7.5.3)
Destination weather must be at or above the lowest authorized landing minima,
compatible with aircraft type, at ETA.
Weather Below Minimums
You may not begin an approach (pass the FAF or begin final approach segment
on approach without FAF) with out reported visibility (RVR) at or above the
minimum visibility for that approach. If you are already on the final approach
segment and visibility is reported less than required for that approach, you may
continue the approach but you may not go below landing minimums unless the
visibility is reported at or above the required minimum visibility.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Alternates (FM 6.3.x)
OK, unless you are lawyer or accountant material stand by for your eyes to glaze
over on this next little bit. But hang in there, I will try to break it down for you!
This part determines if you need an alternate for your destination:
Domestic destination alternate is required unless weather for destination at ETA
+ 1hr. is at least:
 Ceiling: 2000 ft. above airport elevation
 Visibility: 3 sm.
An alternate is also required if there are winds in excess of FM Chapter 10.7
Landing Limitations, Icy or slippery runways, snow or slush exceeding the
maximum allowed or Volcanic ash.
Exemption 8684 (FOM 7.5.4) allows domestic dispatch without an alternate if
weather at destination + 1 hour is at least:
 Ceiling: 1000 ft. above airport elevation
 Visibility: 2 sm.
Also required:
 CAT II is available for intended runway
 aircraft is CAT II capable
 thunderstorms are not forecast
 dispatcher will put EX8684 in remarks section of release
If an alternate is required then alternate weather must meet or exceed AWM for
the planned approach at the ETA. A second alternate will be filed if weather at
both the destination and first alternate is “marginal”.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Still with me? OK, this part is to help you decide if you need an alternate
for your departure airport.
Takeoff Alternate (FM 6.3.1)
Declare a takeoff alternate anytime weather conditions at the departure airport
are below CAT I landing minimum. Airbus is allowed exception down to CAT IIIA
minimums if available and useable at departure airport and aircraft must be at or
below max landing weight. Takeoff alternate must be within 1 hr. from departure
airport with one-engine inoperative. For planning purposes use:
Fuel Flow
Takeoff Alternate is required anytime weather at departure airport is below CAT I
minimums except Airbus when CAT II/III is available, then Takeoff Alternate not
required until weather minimums below CATIIIA (single). This assumes that the
aircraft will be at or below Max Landing weight for return and can use the CAT II
or CAT III approach. The idea here is that you need an alternate if you cannot
return immediately to your departure airport if you have a problem.
This part shows whether you have good enough weather to depart.
Standard Takeoff Minimums (FOM 10.5.3)
1 statute mile or RVR 5000
Note: If published Takeoff minimums are higher than standard you must use the
higher published minimums.
Lower Than Standard Takeoff Minimums (QRH table pg. OD-1)
This information is available on Jepp charts (back of airport taxi chart, usually 109) for airport and in QRH OPS DATA. You must use the higher of the two for
given situation. For example, Jepp lists ¼ mile for KLAS but Ops Specs show
500 RVR, you are limited to ¼ mile. Also, note required lighting and runway
markings for specified RVR. Currently down to as low as 500 RVR
Note: Captain must make takeoff if less than 1600 RVR or ¼ mi. visibility (due to
lack of reference if reject and change of control from Capt. to F/O) (FOM 5.7.1)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
You are still awake? All right then, this section tells you what the criteria is
to allow an airport to be an alternate for either takeoff or destination.
Alternate weather minima (AWM) apply for both destination and takeoff
alternates. Minima is based on straight in precision or non-precision approaches.
For airports with at least two appropriate approaches the approaches must be to
separate, suitable runways (can be opposite ends of same physical runway).
1 nav aid
+ 400 ft.
CAT I HAT of highest of
the two approaches +200
CAT II – 300 ft HAT
CAT III – 200 ft HAT
CAT I visibility min. + 1 sm or
1600 meters
CAT I vis. mins. to highest
app. mins. + 1/2 sm or 800
CAT II – RVR 4000 or ¾ sm
CAT III – RVR 1800 or ½ sm
2 or more nav aids
CAT II or III with 2 or more
nav aids
Note: IFR alternate weather minima are restrictive for dispatch (filing) purposes.
Once committed to an alternate airport, standard approach minima apply.
Exemption 3585 (FM 6.3.5) allows domestic flights to be released based on the
“main body” of the forecast for a destination. Conditional portions of the forecast
are minimized. Conditional means the parts of a forecast that are “probable,
temporary or becoming”. The standard minimums apply for the main body of the
forecast but for the conditional portion the following apply:
Destination: Visibility at or above half of landing minimum.
First Alternate: Visibility and ceiling at or above half of landing minimums.
Second Alternate: Visibility and ceiling at or above landing minimums.
Note: Two alternates must be used for exemption 3585.
Must be able to fly to destination, fly to alternate and then fly 45 minutes at
normal cruise consumption rate.
Exemption 10,000 (FM 6.3.6)
No alternate required if for at least 1 hour prior to 1 hour after ETA the weather
reports or forcasts indicate at least 1,000’ ceiling and at least 3 sm visibility at
airports with ILS CAT I, II or III approaches. No thunderstorms may be reported
or forcast for the time period.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Authorized Instrument Approaches (OM 2f.3.4)
without glideslope, LDA PRM, ASR, RNAV GPS, RNAV GPS PRM, RNAV
Approach Minima
See QRH OPS DATA for actual required visibility minimums.
CAT I, decision altitude (DA), uses barometric altimeter
CAT II, decision height (DH), uses radar altimeter or inner marker as published
CAT IIIA (Single, Fail-Passive), decision height (DH), uses radar altimeter
CAT IIIA (Dual, Fail-Operational), alert height (AH), uses radar altimeter
CAT IIIB (Dual, Fail-Operational), alert height (AH), uses radar altimeter
Use CAT C for straight in approaches (A321 CAT D), CAT C for circling unless
app. speed is greater than 140 KIAS, then use CAT D (FOM 5.10.3)
New/Amended Release (FM 6.4.6)
A new release is required when a flight:
Lands at point not planned.
Lands at point in wrong sequence.
Returns to departure airport after taking off (air interruption).
Domestically, Canada or Mexico flight has not departed by expiration time
or over one hour delay at intermediate airport
 Internationally, is delayed on ground at intermediate airport for over six
A release must be amended when a change occurs in the planned operation of a
flight. This would include change in weather, routing or MEL. Dispatch may send
amendment over ACARS.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
F/A Emergency Notification – TEST Questions (FM1 19.2.3) Signals (FM 1
11.3.8) (OM 9.3.3)
T – Type of emergency
E – Evacuation (planned evacuation or normal landing)
S – Evacuation Signal*
T – Time before landing (estimate of available time before landing
*(this is the Captain, evacuate, evacuate, evacuate, use EVAC COMMAND
signal if installed)
 Emergency – 4 chimes
 Brace Signal – Prearranged signal, usually given at about 500 ft. “Brace,
Brace, Brace”
Least Risk Bomb Location (OM 9.3.1): LRBL is center of RH aft cabin door
Medical Diversions (FOM 7.6.1, QRH): Captain must contact POC (Physician on
Call) and dispatch prior to diverting. Pilot can use phone patch or call to (888)
ATC Clearance (FOM 5.1.2)
Request clearance no earlier than 20 mins. prior to departure time. Departure
clearance is good for 2 hrs. past scheduled departure time. Call Clearance
Control to extend valid clearance time if necessary.
If ATC changes the routing from what is filed the changed routing is shown as:
on the PDC printout. The revised segment is what should be programmed into
the FMGC.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Logbook Stuff
Logbook is officially the Aircraft Maintenance Logbook (AML). (FM I 5.3.x)
Captain will sign logbook in the Journey Log section when taking new aircraft
with date, flight number and Captain’s initials. The initials show Captain is
accepting aircraft and logbook and finds both acceptable. Only one entry must
be made by Captain for each plane. Additional flights or legs do not need to be
recorded even if they have different flight numbers. New entry must be made
only when new Captain receives aircraft.
Full power takeoffs must be logged every 30 days or 150 takeoffs. The pilot will
be notified in the release paperwork if a maximum thrust takeoff is required by
the phrase “MAX THRUST DEMO REQUIRED” on the TPS departure plan. The
result (successful, unsuccessful or not attempted) must be noted in the logbook
(FOM 2.3.1).
Lower Minimums Program (LMP) (FM I 5.3.30 & 10.3.13) requires an entry
every 60 days for an autoland or the plane will be taken off CAT II/III status until
a successful autoland is completed. Green LMP sleeve in front of logbook will list
status. At 45 days from last recorded autoland a message will be on the flight
release requesting an FCC (Flight Confidence Check). When a successful
autoland is accomplished Captain will record in AML and in ACARS. If
unsuccessful then an entry will be made in logbook as a discrepancy.
INFO-ITEM is an entry to the logbook that is not a discrepancy and does not
require any action to be taken. This would include successful FCC autoland,
windshield needing cleaning, dirty cabin, missing catering supplies, etc. Just
preface the entry in the logbook with INFO-ITEM:
MEL refers to the Minimum Equipment List. This allows the aircraft to be
dispatched with the specified equipment inop. There may be procedures or
limitations attached to the MEL and the Captain is required to ensure all MEL
procedures and limitations are followed. Dispatch should be aware of any
limitations for existing MEL entries.
MEL’s already applied to aircraft will be in transparent sleeve in front of logbook.
Ensure all MEL’s that are in sleeve are on release paperwork. If there is any
discrepancy contact dispatch and maintenance control. If a new MEL is entered
but not showing on flight release have dispatch send amendment to release over
ACARS or print out new release before departure. Amendment to release can
also be done over phone if ACARS or printout are not available. Some MEL
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
items may be applied by Captain in stations where maintenance is not available.
This will be noted by a Y in the Flight Crew Placarding column of the MEL.
White MEL placard indicates no continuing maintenance action under that MEL.
Flight Crew actions may still be required.
Yellow MEL placard indicated there are continuing maintenance action items that
will require an AML entry.
Green placard indicates a “non-MEL” restriction. This would include CAT status,
Multiple MEL items may create a situation where the Captain does not consider
the aircraft safe for the current conditions and/or situation and the Captain may
need to refuse an aircraft on that basis.
CDL is Configuration Deviation List. Similar to MEL but denotes a change in
aircraft configuration instead of loss of systems. Listed after MEL’s, these may
require limitations even though the system is not lost. For example, if a fairing is
missing there may be a penalty on takeoff and cruise fuel burn.
NEFL is Nonessential Equipment and Furnishings List (many times jokingly
referred to as the Never Ever Fixed List). This is a separate list of items that are
not required for safe flight and may be missing or inop. Normally passenger
cabin items but may include things on the flight deck as well.
ADIRS accuracy – (OM 2h.7.3) this check is done by the F/O on every Shutdown
Flow, to be done within two minutes of aircraft stop (parking brake set). Use
chart on OM 2h.7.3 to determine acceptable limits. OK if within 5 miles or less in
all cases. Use Data Key, Position Monitor to determine NAV accuracy. Make
logbook entry if limits are exceeded.
Hot Brakes – (OM 2d.6.4) AML entry and maintenance action is required if there
 150° C difference in brake temps on the same strut and one brake 600° or
greater or 60° or less
 a mean 200° C difference between different trucks
 fuse plug melted
 brake temp exceeds 900° C (800° - A321)
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
Line Fixes
NOTE: on ground Flight Crew can reset any computer EXCEPT:
 ECU (engine control unit), EIU (engine interface unit) while engine running.
 BSCU (Brake Steering Control Unit) while taxiing, set parking brake first
To reset CB in air check chart listed in QRH, Miscellaneous, Computer
 Airbus Gotcha: Never pull the following CB’s in air:
 SFCC (Slat/Flap Control Computer)
 ECU and/or EIU
 Captains – on overhead panel – MCDU – CB# B1, FMGC – CB# B2
 F/O’s – behind F/O – MCDU – CB# N20, FMGC – CB# M17
Reverser unlocked message on engine start
1. Engine Master OFF
2. Reset Engine Mode selector to NORM for 10 secs., then IGN/START
If this doesn’t work then:
3. Turn on ENG FADEC GRND PWR on overhead maintenance panel, then off
GPS Primary Lost showing on both ND’s after IRU’s align
If the GPS signal is not available after the IRU’s align a possible fix is:
1. Data Key
2. Position Monitor
4. DESELECT *GPS showing (if SELECT *GPS is showing press LSK to
change it) this line shows what WILL BE selected.
Printer “spewing” maintenance codes after shutdown
 MCDU Menu
 Programming
 Programming Menus
 Report Inhibit
 Print NO (green)
Note: when changing printer paper roll make sure that the printer latch is
completely secured or printer will not function. Press SLEW to check.
Reset CIDS – Reset CB’s: G1, M5 and Q14 for more than 10 secs. Then wait at
least 3 mins. after reset.
American Airlines Airbus A319, A320, A321 Notes
No Water Pressure
If water has been serviced and there is no water pressure on ground (with APU
bleed on) then check the F/A CIDS panel. If red SYSTEM INOP light is on then
press the WTR SYSTEM DEPRE button.
No data showing on RADNAV page (after GNADIRS is aligned)
Make sure that the STBY NAV guarded NAV pb is not on (green light off).
ANTI ICE Windshield (or Window) amber FAULT when on ground may be
caused by heating of window by sun. Ensure all sun screens are stowed and
cool cockpit. Then reset the WHC (Window Heat Computer) using CB# X13 for
Capt. and CB# W13 for F/O. See Chap. 21 for details.
ACARS in standby – if ACARS is not available (showing ACARS STBY in
Press MCDU MENU key on FMGC
Select <ATSU
Select <TEST
You can also rest CB’s L15 & L16 (ATSU 1 SWTG & ATSU 1) on back panel if
If PED lights in passenger seats in cabin are red this shows that the powerport
plugs for laptops are not powered. On the F/A panel across from forward F/A
jumpseat above the video player there is a PED POWER p/b in the upper left
hand corner near ceiling. When on this p/b should light up ON. Sometimes this
p/b may have a burnt out bulb in it and not light properly. Press this p/b and see
if lights change to green.
Hey, turn the lights back on! When shutting down for an overnight you can
keep the lights on when turning off the APU and External Power by going into the
forward galley and finding the overhead panel. You will see one hole in the
plastic cover over the breakers. This is the MAINT BUS switch and you can
press it ON. This will keep the lights on in the cabin and cargo bins with External
Power plugged in but selected OFF.
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