close quarter combat

close quarter combat
B-GL-318-018/PT-001
CLOSE QUARTER COMBAT
(BILINGUAL)
WARNING
Although not classified this publication, or any part of it, may be
exempt from disclosure to the public under the Access to
Information Act. All elements of information contained herein
must be closely scrutinized to ascertain whether or not the
publication, or any part of it may be released.
Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff
OPI: SSO INF/FMC HQ
1988-09-28
Ch 2 - 1992-08-24
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Page ....................... 0 ..................... 1988-09-28
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Contact Officer: SSO INF/FMC HQ
© 1988 DND/MDN Canada
WARNING
USE OF THIS MANUAL
1.
The techniques in this manual are the basic techniques from which most hand to hand
fighting was developed. Instructors shall teach the techniques in this manual rather than
their individual styles.
2.
All close quarter combat training shall be supervised closely by a qualified instructor. An
adequate ratio is one instructor/assistant instructor for every 10 student pairs (20 students).
3.
Intentional striking of an individual by another, and horseplay, is prohibited.
4.
Student partners shall be made aware of the specific technique to be practised before it is
executed.
5.
When practising knife and bayonet techniques ensure that scabbards are firmly attached
and taped on. For rifle and pistol techniques, ensure fingers are not placed in trigger guards.
Approved safety equipment, when available, shall be used.
6.
A first aid kit and stretcher shall be available and at least one person qualified Standard
First Aid shall be present during all training sessions and demonstration.
FOREWORD
GENERAL
1.
B-GL-318-018/PT-001, CF Close Quarter Combat Manual, is issued on the authority of
the Deputy Minister and Chief of the Defence Staff.
2.
This publication, dated 28 September 1988, is effective on receipt.
3.
Any loss or suspected compromise of this publication, or portions thereof, must be
reported in accordance with A-SJ-100-001/AS-000, Chapter 34.
SCOPE
4.
This manual covers basic close quarter fighting techniques including unarmed hand-tohand fighting, bayonet fighting, and knife fighting.
5.
This publication is the basic reference for close quarter battle training in the Army. As
such it is intended for the use of qualified unarmed combat instructors.
CHANGES
6.
Comments and suggestions for changes should be forwarded through the usual channels
to FMC HQ Attention: SSO Infantry.
RECORD OF CHANGES
Identification of Change
Date Entered
Change No.
Date
Signature
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 -
BASIC PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING UNARMED COMBAT
TECHNIQUES
Introduction
Form, Balance, and Center of Gravity
Power and Speed
Concentration of Force
Muscular Power
Lower Abdomen and Hips
CHAPTER 2 -
STRIKING SURFACES
General
Use of the Hands
Use of the Feet
Use of the Elbow
Use of the Knee
CHAPTER 3 -
STANCES AND POSTURE
Correct Form
Good Stance
Attention Stance
Natural Stance
Straddle Stance
Striking Stance/Front Stance
Fighting Stance
CHAPTER 4 -
PUNCHING
Fundamentals of a Straight Punch
Concentration of Power
Training Method for Basic Straight Punch
The Reverse Punch
Training Method for Reverse Punch
Effect of Stance on Attacking Range in Reverse Punch
Lunge Punch - General
Important Considerations in Lunge Punch
Training Method for Lunge Punch
CHAPTER 5 -
KICKS
Kicking Theory and Practice
Factors in Kicking
Important Points in Raising and Bending the Knee
Snap Kick
Thrust Kick
Rear Leg Kick Training Method
Front Kick Body Position
Back Kick
Stamping Kick
Foot Sweep
CHAPTER 6 -
BLOCKS
General
Factor 1 - Direction of Power in the Block
Factor 2 - Forearm Rotation and Timing
Factor 3 - Hip Rotation
Upper Block Against Head Attack
Training Method for Upper Block
Outside Middle Block
Training Method Outside Middle Block
Factor 4 - Position of Elbow of
Blocking Arm
Inside Middle Block
Training Method for Middle
Inside Block
Downward Block
Training Method for Downward Block
Conclusion on Blocking
CHAPTER 7 -
ELBOW AND KNEE STRIKES
Elbow Strikes - General
Important Considerations
Elbow Strike Training Method
Training Method for Upward Elbow Strike
Striking Techniques with the Knee
CHAPTER 8 -
BASIC MOVEMENT
Stance Training in Continuous
Movement
Moving from the Left-Front Stance to the Right-Front Stance
Things to Avoid
Training Method - Thrusting Hips
Forward
Things to Avoid
CHAPTER 9 -
HOLDS AND COUNTERS
General
Rear Strangle Hold
Rear Strangle Hold (American)
Claw
Bent Wrist Lock
Arm Bow
Summary on Holds
Hold Counter-Moves - General
Counters to a Choke Hold
Counter to Rear Strangle Hold
Counter to a Head Lock
Counter to a Bear Hug
Conclusion on Counters
CHAPTER 10 -
KNIFE FIGHTING/DEFENSE
General
Grip
Stance
Stab Moving Forward
Stab Lunging Forward
Slash
Front Attack
Attack from the Rear
Defence Against Knife Attack
CHAPTER 11 -
DEFENCE AND COUNTERS
Steps in Combining Blocking Techniques with Decisive Counter Attacks
Important Considerations
Defence and Counters from Upper Attacks
Double Inside Block to Front Kick
CHAPTER 12 -
BASIC TRAINING DRILLS
General
Lunge Punch
Upper Block
Forearm Block to Elbow Strike
CHAPTER 13 Strangulation
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Helmet Neck Break
Helmet Smash
Crotch Take Down
Available Weapons
Rear Take-Down
Rifle at Your Back
Rifle in Front
Pistol in Back
Pistol in Front
Points about Rifles and Pistols
CHAPTER 14 -
HAND-HELD WEAPONS
General
CHAPTER 15 -
BAYONET/PUGIL STICK FIGHTING
General
Principles
Basic Bayonet Movements
Movements Following a Failed Attack
Combination Movements
Pugil Stick Drill
Conduct of Training
Combat
Annex A - Lesson Guide
Annex B - Pugil Stick Drill Equipment
Annex C - Bayonet Fighting Training Apparatus
CHAPTER 16 -
VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY
General
Vulnerable Points in the Head and Neck Region
Vulnerable Points of the Trunk
Vulnerable Points of the Limbs
ANNEX
A - NOTES TO INSTRUCTORS
B - CALISTHENICS EXERCISES
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
TITLE
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-17
2-18
Making a Fist
Forefist
Forefist (Side View)
Forefist Strike
Backfist
Backfist Strike
Hammer Fist
Hammer Fist Strike
Ball of the Foot
Ball of Foot Strike
Instep
Instep Strike
Heel
Heel Strike
Elbow
Elbow Strike
Knee
Knee Strike
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
Attention Stance
Natural Stance
Straddle Stance (Front View)
Straddle Stance (Side View)
Striking Stance/Front Stance
Striking Stance/Front Stance (Side View)
Fighting Stance (Side View)
Fighting Stance
Leg Position Fighting Stance (Front View)
Leg Position Fighting Stance (Side View)
Front Knee Bent Too Far and Heel of Rear Foot Raised
Front Knee Faces Outside and Front Foot Not Firm
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
The Fists
Body Movement
Concentration of Power
Sequence of Delivering a Thrust Punch
Straight Punch
Straight Punch - Shoulder Raised Too High
Straight Punch - Follow-Through
Start Position for Reverse Punch
Reverse Punch
Knee of Rear Leg is Depressed and Heel Raised
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
Right Hip is Left Behind and Upper Body Leans Forward
Upper Body Leans to Right
Stance
Lunge Punch (Side View)
Lunge Punch (Front View)
Lunch Punch - Training Method
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
The Kick
Leg Position in Preparation for the Kick (Front View)
Leg Position in Preparation for the Kick (Side View)
Snap Kick
Thrust Kick
Thrust Kick to Head
Rear Leg Kick
Rear Leg Kick - Leaning Too Far Forward
Front Kick Body Position
Front Kick Body Position - Leaning Forward
Back Kick Sequence
Stamping Kick
Foot Sweep (Front View)
Foot Sweep (Rear View)
Foot Sweep Sequence
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-14
6-15
6-16
6-17
Blocking
Block Against a Head Attack
Upper Block Against Head Attack
Preparing to Block
Blocking from Inside Outward
Block Outside Inward
Blocking a Thrust to the Head
Blocking: - Arm to High
Blocking: - Arm Too Far From Head
Outside Middle Block Sequence
Training Method Outside Middle Block
Elbow Position
Inside Middle Block
Inside Middle Block Sequence (Side View)
Inside Middle Block Sequence (Front View)
Inside Middle Block - Arm Cross
Inside Outward Block Sequence
6-18
6-19
Downward Block Sequence
Downward Block Application
7-1
7-2
Elbow Strike
Elbow Strike Training Method (Front View)
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
7-9
Elbow Strike Training Method (Side View)
Upward Elbow Strike Sequence
Upward Elbow Strike
Knee to Head, Start Position
Knee to Head
Knee to Groin, Start Position
Knee to Groin
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
Front Stance - Advancing and Retreating
Front Stance - Advancing and Retreating (Foot Movement)
Thrusting Hips Forward
Training Method for Thrusting Hips Forward
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
9-8
9-9
9-10
9-11
9-12
9-13
9-14
Strangle Hold
Rear Strangle Hold (American)
Claw
Bent Wrist Lock
Arm Bow Sequence
Choke Hold Counters
Strangle Hold Counter
Twist
Bite
Grab
Gouge
Bear Hug Counter - Stomp
Bear Hug Counter - Smash
Bear Hug Counter - Grab
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8
10-9
10-10
10-11
10-12
10-13
10-14
10-15
10-16
10-17
10-18
Knives
Knife Grip
Stance
Stab Moving Forward
Stab
Slash
The Throat
Stomach
Heart
Wrist
Upper Arm
The Leg
The Kidney
Side of the Neck
Throat
Subclavian Artery
Defend Yourself with any Available Object such as a Stick
Use of Jacket to Aid Countering Knife-Attack
10-19
10-20
10-21
10-22
10-23
Use of Webbing to Counter Knife-Attack
Disarming Attacker with Knife
Counter to Knife Attack
Downward Counter to Knife Thrust
Relieving Opponent of Knife
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
12-1
12-2
12-3
Counter to Upper Attack
Deception Move
Elbow Smash Counter Sequence
Upper Block Front Snap Kick (Relatively Close Range)
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Reverse Punch (Ordinary
Distance)
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Elbow Strike (Closer than
Normal Distance)
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Elbow Strike (Closer than
Normal Distance)
Basic Training Movements
Lunge Punch Training Movements
Upper Block Training Movements
13-1
13-2
13-3
13-4
13-5
13-6
13-7
13-8
13-9
13-10
13-11
13-12
13-13
Garrot
Strangulation Using a Garrot
Rearward Approach with Garrot
Two Hand Loop Strangulation
Helmet Neck Break
Helmet Smash
Crotch Take Down
Homemade Blackjack
Rear Take-Down
Rifle at Back
Rifle in Front
Pistol in Back
Pistol in Front
14-1
Various Hand-Held Weapons
15-1
15-2
15-3
15-4
15-5
15-6
15-7
15-8
15-9
15-10
On Guard
Rest
Point, Enemy Standing
Point, Enemy on the Ground
Extraction of the Weapon
Left Parry
Right Parry
Horizontal Butt Stroke
Vertical Butt Stroke
Smash
11-6
11-7
15-11
15-12
15-13
15-14
15-15
Slash
High Port
Point, Horizontal Butt Stroke, Smash, Slash, Point (3 Pages)
Left Parry, Horizontal Butt Stroke, Slash, Point (2 Pages)
Point, Vertical Butt Stroke, Smash, Point (2 Pages)
15B-1
15B-2
15B-3
15B-4
15B-5
Pugil Stick Drill Equipment
Characteristics of Protective Mask
Protective Helmet and Mask
Materials Required to Make a Pugil Stick
Steps in Making a Pugil Stick
15C-1
15C-2
15C-3
The Mannequin
The Ground Sack
The Scaffold
16-1
16-2
Vulnerable Points of the Body
Vulnerable Points
CHAPTER 1
BASIC PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING UNARMED COMBAT TECHNIQUES
INTRODUCTION
1.
Punching, Striking, Kicking and Blocking are the fundamentals of unarmed combat. They
are at once the beginning and the final goal. The soldier can easily learn to perform these basic
movements in two or three months, but perfection in their performance may be impossible.
Therefore, a soldier must practice regularly and employ maximum concentration and effort in the
performance of each movement.
FORM, BALANCE, AND CENTER OF GRAVITY
2.
It has been recognized for many years that there is a requirement for correct form for the
effectiveness of techniques. It is essential in unarmed combat that all parts of the body harmonize
to provide the stability and power necessary to sustain the shock of delivering an effective kick or
punch. This can only be achieved through proper form.
3.
Balance is of prime importance because often in the offence the soldier is on one foot to
kick or strike. He must generate power if his kick is to be effective, and that cannot be achieved
without balance.
4.
If the feet are placed far apart, then the centre of gravity is lowered, resulting in stronger
techniques. However, it is easier to move if the centre of gravity is somewhat higher. If you don't
move, your opponent will attack. Therefore, the soldier must constantly shift his centre of gravity
to effectively move and strike.
POWER AND SPEED
5.
Effective use of strength is important, but muscle strength alone will accomplish very
little. POWER IS ACHIEVED BY THE CONCENTRATION OF MAXIMUM FORCE AT THE
MOMENT OF IMPACT. The concentration of force depends greatly upon the speed with which
movements are executed. However, speed cannot achieve its greatest effect without good control.
Greater speed can be generated if power travels a longer route ot its target.
CONCENTRATION OF FORCE
6.
A punch or kick will be weak if applied with the arm or leg alone. TO ACHIEVE
MAXIMUM POWER, IT IS NECESSARY TO USE THE STRENGTH OF ALL PARTS OF
THE BODY SIMULTANEOUSLY. Power concentrated at the time of focus must be instantly
released to prepare for the succeeding action. It is important that various muscles and tendons be
kept loose and relaxed to permit instant response to changing circumstances.
MUSCULAR POWER
7.
Well trained, powerful and elastic muscles are mandatory in unarmed combat.
8.
Rhythm is the smooth transition of the body from one movement to the next. Timing is
the application of the technique. If timing is faulty, the technique will fail. A kick or punch which
is directed at a target either too early or too late is often fruitless. The attack must be launched
with the hands and feet in the usual position of readiness or defence. The hands and feet must be
in a position where they lend to the defence and can be applied to the attack. The body must
remain relaxed but alert, with the muscles full of energy and ready for any eventuality.
LOWER ABDOMEN AND HIPS
9.
The centre of the body, ie, the lower abdominal area and the hips, play a great part in all
techniques. IT PROVIDES BASIC POWER AND BALANCE. Therefore, punch with the hips,
kick with the hips and block with the hips.
CHAPTER 2
STRIKING SURFACES
GENERAL
1.
In unarmed combat many parts of the body can serve as weapons. The hands, elbows, feet
and knees are most utilized and they become effective and powerful weapons when strengthened
through proper training.
2.
Merely hardening the fist is useless. The fist can only serve as a strong weapon when
supported by the power of the wrist, elbow, arm and other parts of the body.
USE OF THE HANDS
3.
The Hand. The hand can be used both opened and closed. For the beginner a fist is most
effective. To form a fist, fold the fingers inward at the middle joints. The tips should reach the
base of the fingers. Continue bending the fingers inward until they are tightly pressed into the
palm. Fold the thumb over the fingers and firmly press the index and middle fingers with the
thumb. In forming a fist in this way, the little finger tends to become weak and relaxed. Take care
to prevent this form occurring.
Figure 2-1
Making a Fist
Figure 2-2
Forefist
Figure 2-3
Forefist (Side View)
Figure 2-4
Forefist Strike
4.
Forefist. This is usually employed to deliver a thrust punch. The part of the fist which
hits the target is that area from slightly above the middle joint to the knuckle of the index and
middle fingers. At the moment of impact all the power in the body must flow through the arm in
a straight line and terminate in the fist. Tense the wrist and ensure that the wrist and the top of
the fist form a straight line. If the wrist is bent, power will not be transmitted to the fist, and the
wrist may be injured. Because the Forefist is employed more often than any other kind of fist in
karate, training in its use must be thorough and complete.
5.
Backfist. In the Backfist the fist is formed as in the Forefist. The part of the fist used to
strike, however, is the back of the hand and the tops of the knuckles of the index and middle
fingers. Backfist is used chiefly to attack the opponent's face and the side of his body. Deliver
this strike with a snapping motion of the forearm.
Figure 2-5
Backfist
Figure 2-6
Backfist Strike
6.
Hammer Fist. After forming the fist, use the bottom of the fist to strike the target. As
with the Backfist, make use of the snap of the forearm to deliver the attack.
Figure 2-7
Hammer Fist
Figure 2-8
Hammer Fist Strike
USE OF THE FEET
7.
The foot can deliver a blow equal in power to that of the hand.
Figure 2-9
Ball of the Foot
Figure 2-10
Ball of Foot Strike
8.
Ball of the Foot. The ball of the foot can also be considered the toe of a combat boot. In
unarmed combat kicks are usually delivered with the toe of a boot as the striking surface. By
curling the toes upward and using the ball of the foot, it is possible to deliver kicks to the
opponent's face, chest, abdomen, and groin. To kick effectively, raise the toes as much as
possible, and tense the area around the toes and the ankle.
9.
Instep. The area used in the instep is the top of the foot from the toes to the ankle. The
foot is stretched downward and the toes point downward. Use Instep in kicks aimed at the groin.
Figure 2-11
Instep
Figure 2-12
Instep Strike
10.
Heel. This area is also called round heel. This part of the foot is used in kicks directed
backwards. A back kick is highly effective against an opponent attempting to grasp your body
from the rear, or one who has secured an arm hold from the side or rear.
Figure 2-13
Heel
Figure 2-14
Heel Strike
USE OF THE ELBOW
11.
This part of the arm can be used to deliver a powerful blow to any part of the opponent's
body. For example, the face, chest, or abdomen can be attack-ed with the elbow. This strike is
especially effective when the opponent is standing very close. Elbow strikes are possible against
an opponent standing at the front, the rear, or the side. The strike may travel upward, downward,
and in a half circle, as well as in a straight line parallel to the ground. In performing these strikes,
the section all around the tip of the elbow can be used, but the area actually selected will depend
on the direction of the strike.
Figure 2-15
Elbow
Figure 2-16
Elbow Strike
USE OF THE KNEE
12.
As in the case of the elbow, use the knee in close-in fighting to attack the groin, the side
of the body, and the thighs. Other areas useful for striking, such as the head, the forehead, and the
shoulder have not been mentioned here. Remember that many areas of the body can serve to
deliver offensive and defensive techniques. Study the construction of the body to discover
additional possibilities.
Figure 2-17
Knee
Figure 2-18
Knee Strike
CHAPTER 3
STANCES AND POSTURE
CORRECT FORM
1.
If the body lacks balance and stability, offensive and defensive techniques will be
ineffective. The ability to defend against an attack under any circumstances depends
largely upon the maintenance of correct form.
2.
Stance in unarmed combat is mainly concerned with the position of the lower part
of the body. Powerful, fast, accurate, and smoothly executed techniques can be performed
only from a strong and stable base. The upper body must be firmly settled on this strong
base, and the back kept straight, on perpendicular to the ground. Although an effective
attack is impossible without a strong stance, it is only necessary to assume this position
just before delivering an attack. If the soldier concentrates too much on remaining in a
firm and stable position, he will lose mobility.
GOOD STANCE
3.
In addition to the above, the following points are closely related to the
development of a good stance. The soldier must:
a.
be well balanced when applying offensive or defensive techniques;
b.
rotate his hips smoothly when executing techniques;
c.
apply his techniques with the greatest possible speed; and
d.
ensure that the muscles used in attack or defence work together
harmoniously.
4.
Therefore, the first consideration is the establishment of a strong and stable base.
From this base all parts of the body must work together harmoniously as a single unit. In
other words, the feet, legs, trunk, arms, and hands must be well controlled individually,
but at the same time work together as a unit.
5.
It is detrimental to the development of beginners if, instead of concentrating on
basic training, they attempt to imitate the stance used by advanced students. The
advanced may stand very lightly with their hips in a relatively high position. However,
they can change this stance in an instant to a very strong and firm one with the hips low.
It is difficult for beginners to duplicate this change, for the obvious reason that advanced
students have spent a much longer time practicing. If beginners stand like the advanced,
they will lose their balance at the moment of focusing on the technique.
6.
It is important to remember that in addition to stability while in a ready or
defensive position, the stance must provide enough strength and firmness to withstand the
shock caused by the application of techniques.
Figure 3-1
Attention Stance
Figure 3-2
Natural Stance
ATTENTION STANCE
7.
Keep the feet at 45 degree angles to one another. Knees are straight, but relaxed.
NATURAL STANCE
8.
This stance is perhaps the most natural and comfortable of all the stances. Place
the feet so that the heels are separated by a distance roughly equal to the width of the
hips, and point the toes outward at 45 degree angles. One foot should not be ahead of the
other. A straight line should bisect both heels.
Figure 3-3
Straddle Stance (Front View)
Figure 3-4
Straddle Stance (Side View)
STRADDLE STANCE
9.
General Considerations. To perform the straddle stance properly, bend the
knees, keep the upper body perpendicular to the ground, and face straight ahead. This
position roughly resembles that taken by a man astride a horse. The straddle-leg stance is
strong to the side and used when applying techniques to the side. For example, elbow
strike and back-fist strike are delivered from this position.
10.
11.
Specific Points a.
Maintain the upper body in a position perpendicular to the ground, and do
not lean either to the front or to the rear, otherwise stability will be
impaired.
b.
Force the feet inward to overcome the tendency for them to turn outward.
c.
Be sure that the position of the knees corresponds to that marked in the
diagram, and that the soles of the feet are placed firmly on the ground.
d.
Flex the ankles and knees so that the knees remain in the correct position.
e.
Keep the hips low. If the knees are straightened, the hips will rise.
f.
Keep the buttocks flexed, but prevent their extension to the rear. If this
occurs, the upper part of the body will lean forward.
Common Faults a.
The distance between the feet is appreciably greater or smaller than 32
inches. However, remember that this width varies according to body
structure.
b.
Not all of the sole of the foot is in firm contact with the ground.
c.
The feet point outward. Keep the feet pointing forward and slightly
inwards.
d.
The knees point inward. Direct the knees forward and outward so that a
plumb line dropped from the centre of the knee falls just inside of the big
toe.
e.
The centre of gravity shifs from the point marked in the diagram.
f.
One leg bears more weight than the other. Support the body weight
equally on both legs.
g.
The knees are permitted to relax. Flex the knees and direct power
outward to the side. Simultaneously, flex the buttocks.
Figure 3-5
Striking Stance/Front Stance
Figure 3-6
Striking Stance/Front Stance (Side View)
STRIKING STANCE/FRONT STANCE
12.
General Considerations. Be sure there is enough space between the front and
rear foot. Lower the hips. Bend the front knee so it is over the front foot as in the
diagram. Keep the back leg straight. Maintain a straight back with the upper body
perpendicular to the ground. It is possible to face either directly forward or at fighting
stance (half-front-facing position). In the latter position, maintain the hips and shoulders
at a 45 degree angle to the front, but face directly forward.
13.
The front stance is a strong stance to the front and is especially effective when
power must be directed forward. It is used to block an attack coming from the front, but
is it also a strong position from which to attack a target directly ahead.
Figure 3-7
Fighting Stance (Side View)
Figure 3-8
Fighting Stance
FIGHTING STANCE
14.
The fighting stance is a variation to the front stance. Feet remain in the same
position, the hips however rotate 30 degrees to the rear. In doing so vulnerable points
such as groin and solar plex are protected from a frontal attack. The fighting stance is
effective for blocking a strong attack and delivering an immediate counter attack. In this
stance exert force outward on the forward knee, bend the rear knee and distribute 60% of
the body weight forward.
15.
Specific Points to Remember a.
Keep a distance of about 32 inches between the front and back feet.
Maintain a width between the feet equivalent to the width of the hips.
b.
Tighten the ankles and knees of both legs and keep the soles of the feet
firmly in contact with the ground.
Figure 3-9
Leg Position Fighting Stance (Front View)
Figure 3-10
Leg Position Fighting Stance (Side View)
Figure 3-11
Front Knee Bent Too Far and Heel of Rear Foot Raised
Figure 3-12
16.
Front Knee Faces Outside and Front Foot Not Firm
c.
Point the front foot slightly inward. Turn the back foot to the front as
much as possible so that both feet point in about the same direction.
d.
Place the knee of the front leg in such a position that a plumb line dropped
from its centre will fall just to the inside of the ball of the foot.
e.
Distribute the body weight so that the front leg supports about 60 and the
rear leg 40 percent. The centre of gravity is thus closer to the front foot.
Common Faults a.
Too much weight is placed on the front foot, and the heel of the rear foot
is not firmly on the ground. This undermines stability.
b.
One foot is placed directly behind the other, reducing the distance between
the feet to less than the width of the hips. This lessens stability and
balance to the side. Moreover, balance to the front and to the rear will be
weakened if the feet are placed wider apart than the distance between the
hips.
c.
The front foot points outward instead of slightly inward or the rear foot
points to the side instead of forward. These faults impair stability.
d.
The front knee is straightened instead of being bent. This raises the level
of the hips and reduces stability.
e.
The knee of the leading leg moves too much to one side or the other of the
point marked in the diagram. This weakens the knee in the direction of the
error.
f.
The front ankle is not fully flexed. This causes a corresponding looseness
in the knee and results in an unstable position.
CHAPTER 4
PUNCHING
FUNDAMENTALS OF A STRAIGHT PUNCH
1.
The Straight Punch is really a thrust punch delivered at a target directly ahead.
Turn the forearm inward 180 degrees and extend the arm as if it were a knife thrust
forward from the side. This action will impart a powerful shock to the target.
2.
With continuous daily practice, this punch can be a lethal weapon, but this
practice must be properly done if it is to be effective. Therefore, the soldier must
concentrate on the following points of training.
3.
Speed. The formidable shocking power of karate techniques results from the
momentum generated by the movement of various parts of the body, climaxed by a focus
of these components at the instant of contact with the target. Speed is a major
requirement in this operation. In fact, speed is of first importance from start to finish in
the training in fundamental techniques.
Figure 4-1
The Fists
Figure 4-2
Body Movement
4.
As illustrated in Figure 4-2 the movement of the body is, in general, operated by
three components. The faster the muscles are tensed, the more speed and, ultimately, the
more power will be in the punch or kick.
5.
To increase the speed of a punch, make use of the reaction of the opposite arm.
The faster you retract the opposite arm, the more speed and power will be evident in your
punch.
6.
When the arm is stretched during the course of a punch, one group of arm muscles
stretches while another contracts. Proper balance must prevail between these two muscle
groups for a speedy and effective punch. If, for example, the muscles which must stretch
are tensed, the arm movement will lack smoothness and the punch will be ineffective.
Figure 4-3
Concentration of Power
CONCENTRATION OF POWER
7.
Deliver a thrust punch by stretching the arm smoothly and rapidly toward the
target. Release all unnecessary tension from the arm and hand at the start, but be sure to
concentrate all the power of the body in the punching fist at the moment of impact. Make
use of the reservoir of power stored in the hips as you begin your punch. This power
flows through, and is increased by, the muscles of the chest, shoulder, upper arm and
forearm. This principle also holds true in the case of a strike or a kick. Remember that an
effective technique in karate is produced by a concentrated blast of power at the moment
of impact.
8.
The figures illustrate the method of power concentration. Notice that the muscles
at the front and side of the abdomen are strongly tensed, linking the chest and hipbones
firmly together. When the hips are properly set and the body is correctly supported by the
thigh muscles, the standing position is firm and stable. This stable foundation enables the
power of the hips to flow to the chest, shoulder and arm. In the photos the arm muscles
used in raising the arm and those which straighten the arm are strongly tensed, as are the
forearm muscles. Note also that the muscles around the armpit are flexed to prevent a
rebounding or flying backward of the arm and shoulder when the fist hits the target.
9.
Power can be concentrated only when the hips, chest, shoulders, arms, wrists, and
fists are firmly linked, and all necessary muscles function fully. If, during a thrust punch,
the shoulder is raised or moved forward in advance of the movement of the body, you
will be enabled to tighten the muscles at the side of the chest fully. Even if the arm
muscles are tensed, the reaction of the impact will cause your punch to rebound off the
target.
Figure 4-4
Sequence of Delivering a Thrust Punch
TRAINING METHOD FOR BASIC STRAIGHT PUNCH
10.
Assume open leg stance of natural position, facing forward. Relax the shoulders
and arms, and keep the hands at the sides.
11.
Raise the left hand to the height of the solar plexus, palm open and down, and
formed as if about to grasp something. Bring the right hand to the side above the hip and
form a fist, drawing the elbow to the rear. It is very important in this position to draw the
right hand back fully.
12.
Withdraw the left hand to the side, closing the hand and forming a fist. It must
take the same position above the left hip which the right hand had above the right hip.
Simultaneously, drive the right hand forward at top speed along the most direct line to the
target. Rotate the forearm so that the back of the fist faces up, and strike the target with a
straight punch.
Figure 4-5
Straight Punch
13.
Open the right hand and relax. Assume the same position as before, but with the
hands reversed. Repeat the movement shown on the next page, punching with the left and
withdrawing the right hand to Its place above the hip. After practicing this movement, the
soldier should be able to relax the body without opening the hand after each punch.
14.
Points to Remember a.
Keep the upper body perpendicular to the ground. Do not lean forward.
b.
Form straight punch correctly and firmly.
c.
Be sure the punch travels to the target along the most direct route.
d.
When withdrawing the hand to the side, pull it back as if to hit the hip.
Withdraw the hand with maximum speed.
e.
Keep the shoulders relaxed and in a natural position. There is a tendency
for the shoulders to rise or for one shoulder to move ahead of the other. If
shoulder is raised, hand will travel an incorrect course to target (see Figure
4-6).
f.
Tense the abdominal muscles properly.
Figure 4-6
Straight Punch - Shoulder Raised Too High
Figure 4-7
Straight Punch - Follow-Through
THE REVERSE PUNCH
15.
The Reverse Punch is delivered from a strong, stable stance, and can give a
powerful shock to the target. Rotate the hips, keeping them at the same level during the
turn. Straighten the rear leg and shift the centre of gravity slightly forward. Imagine that
you are pushing the hipbones forward as you turn. The blow will be ineffective if the
centre of gravity is too far to the rear at the finish of the movement.
16.
This punch begins with the rotation of the hips. The power of this hip movement
is transmitted to the chest, shoulder, arm and fist, and culminates in a strong shock on the
target. However, to prevent any loss of power, be sure the bodily reaction results from the
impact of the fist and hips. If the body is not tensed at the moment of impact, the
consequent reaction will reduce impact power. Therefore, the hips, chest, shoulder, arms,
and hands must form one solid mass at the moment of contact. To achieve this effect, all
the muscles necessary for reverse punch must work together harmoniously and tense
powerfully at the same instant.
17.
In conclusion, remember that the hips play a leading role in the performance of
the reverse punch. Practice this punch and learn how the hip movement forms the basis
for the movement of the upper body.
Figure 4-8
Start Position for Reverse Punch
TRAINING METHOD FOR REVERSE PUNCH
18.
Assume the left front fighting stance. Relax the upper body. Keep the knee of the
rear leg slightly bent and flexible. Extend the left arm with the hand at the height of the
solar plexus, palm downward and open as I if to grasp something. Place the right fist at
the side with the elbow drawn back. Face forward.
19.
Withdraw the left hand and simultaneously rotate the hips on a plane parallel with
the ground. At the same time, straighten the knee of the rear leg, thrust the foot hard
against the ground, and drive the right fist forward to the target.
20.
Return the right fist to its initial place above the hip, turning the hips clockwise,
and resume the original position.
Figure 4-9
Reverse Punch
21.
Points to Remember a.
During the movement the hips tend to rise. Keep the hips down and the
soles of the feet firmly on the ground.
b.
When punching, the elbow of the striking arm is liable to leave the side,
causing the hand to travel to the target over an incorrect route. Ensure that
your elbow brushes lightly against your side as you punch.
c.
The shoulder is liable to move in advance of the hip, reducing the amount
of power transmitted to the punching arm by the hip rotation. Relax the
shoulder and deliver the punch with the power generated by the turn of the
hips alone.
d.
Move the arms and the body in the following order. Remember that both
hands move simultaneously.
Withdrawing Hand
Hand - Arm - Shoulder - Chest - HIPS
Punching Hand
HIPS - Chest - Shoulder - Arm - Hand
e.
At the moment of impact the shoulder on the punching side may have
advanced too far ahead of the hip. Because of this excessive shoulder
movement, the muscles of the side and back cannot be tensed, resulting in
an ineffective technique.
f.
The turn of the hips must be quick and sharp. The faster this can be
performed, the better.
g.
There is a tendency for the upper body to lean forward at the moment of
impact. Avoid this incorrect position.
Figure 4-10
Knee of Rear Leg is Depressed and Heel Raised
Figure 4-11
Right Hip is Left Behind and Upper Body Leans Forward
Figure 4-12
Upper Body Leans to Right
EFFECT OF STANCE ON ATTACKING RANGE IN REVERSE PUNCH
22.
To extend the range of an attack, widen the distance between the feet and lower
the hips. For example, an attack from the front stance with the hips relatively high and the
feet only narrowly separated would achieve only a short range. An attempt to increase
this range by leaning forward would result in loss of stability and an ineffective attack.
Instead, widen the distance between the feet by stepping farther in the direction of the
target with the front foot and lowering the hips.
Figure 4-13
Stance
23.
Figure 4-13 illustrates the effect on attacking range of changes in foot position
and height of hips. Note that greater range is achieved by moving the front foot in the
direction of the target while keeping the rear foot stationary.
Figure 4-14
Lunge Punch (Side View)
24.
If moving the foot forward does not bring the target within range of the fist, do
not lean forward to make up the remaining space. Instead, attack with the foot.
LUNGE PUNCH - GENERAL
25.
Lunge Punch is a punch delivered at the end of a long forward step. In this
movement the centre of gravity undergoes a big shift. The forward momentum of the
body gives additional force to the lunge punch, resulting in a more powerful blow than is
possible by a reverse punch.
26.
To perform the lunge punch, step forward with the rear foot from left-front stance
to right-frontstance. At the same time, attack the face area or chest area with the front
stance of the same side of the body as the advancing foot. For example, if you step
forward with the right foot, attack with the right hand.
27.
If you fail to step forward quickly, the opponent may anticipate your attack and
apply a counter, or sweep your advancing foot and upset your balance. To prevent this,
push the hips forward strongly by driving the supporting foot hard against the ground as
you move ahead. Do not raise the heal of the advancing foot, but slide the foot over the
floor. Attempt to move forward as smoothly and rapidly as possible.
Figure 4-15
Lunge Punch (Front View)
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN LUNGE PUNCH
28. When advancing the rear foot, first draw it close to the supporting foot and then step
outward and slightly to the side, describing a kind of semicircle. Slide the foot lightly
over the floor as it moves forward.
29.
As you begin your advance, move the hips forward until they are over the
supporting leg. At this point the entire weight will be supported by one leg. As you
continue to move forward, drive your supporting leg toward the ground and use the
resulting reaction to propel your hips forward.
30.
Keep your body turned off until the moment your entire weight rests on the
supporting leg.
31.
Drive your arm forward at the same instant as you begin to rotate your hips to
their terminal position. End the movement of the feet, hips and arms simultaneously.
32.
Attempt to convey to the punching arm every possible ounce of power generated
by the reaction of the supporting leg against the floor.
33.
In theory, loss of power is minimized when the upper body leans forward at an
angle such that the supporting leg and the punching arm are permitted to thrust in
opposite directions along the same place. Considerations such as stability and the nature
of the technique to follow prevent assuming this forward lean. However, lowering the
hips as much as possible also keeps power loss to a minimum because at the moment of
impact this action serves to reduce the size of the angle between the rear supporting leg
and the floor, and produces greater power along the horizontal plane. Therefore, lower
your hips to produce maximum power.
34.
Be sure to thrust you hips in the same direction taken by your punch. In other
words, move your centre of gravity toward the target.
35.
Make full use of the power created by the rotation and forward thrust of your hips.
36.
During the course of the movement, prevent your body from bobbing up and
down by moving your hips forward along a straight line parallel to the ground.
TRAINING METHOD FOR LUNGE PUNCH
37.
Assume the natural position, open-leg stance.Raise the left hand palm open, in
front of the body at about the solar plexus. Form a fist with the right hand and place it
above the right hip with the back of the fist toward the ground.
38. Slide the right foot one step forward and assume the right-front stance.
39.
As you slide forward, withdraw the left hand above the left hip, forming a fist
with the back of the hand facing downward. Simultaneously, thrust the right fist forward,
turning the forearm 180 degrees until the back of the fist faces up.
40.
Withdraw the right foot and return to the original position.
41.
Practice the foregoing movements on the opposite side, sliding the left foot one
step forward to the left-front stance and punching with the left hand.
42.
Return to the original position.
43.
Practice these movements, alternating from side to side.
44.
Important considerations in the Lunge Punch a.
The forward movement of your foot must be smooth. Make it light and
fast. Also, move forward quickly and smoothly to correspond with your
step.
b.
Do not lean forward or allow the shoulder to precede the body. Keep the
upper body perpendicular to the ground and the hips and shoulders
directed forward. Deliver the punch with the hips instead of with the
shoulder or arm alone.
c.
Straighten the knee of the rear leg, and flex the muscles of the leg, body,
and arm at the moment of impact.
Figure 4-16
Lunge Punch - Training Method
CHAPTER 5
KICKS
KICKING THEORY AND PRACTICE
1.
Kicking includes some of the most powerful techniques in unarmed combat. If
sufficiently mastered, kicking techniques can have a more powerful effect than attacks
with the hands. However, mastering kicking techniques requires much time and effort.
2.
Good Balance. When kicking, good balance is of primary importance because the
body weight is supported by only one leg. This situation is aggravated at the instant the
foot hits the target by the strong counter shock of the kick. To counteract this shock,
place the supporting foot firmly on the ground and fully tighten the ankle of the
supporting leg. Attempt to absorb the shock with the ankle, knee and hip of the
supporting leg, and keep the upper body well balanced and perpendicular to the ground.
3.
Whole Body. To achieve maximum effect, kick with the whole body instead of
with the leg alone. Pushing the hips forward during the kick helps achieve this goal.
4.
Be sure to withdraw your kicking foot quickly after completing the kick. This
prevents the opponent from catching it or from sweeping your supporting leg. As soon as
the foot is withdraw it must de ready for the next attack.
5.
There are two ways of kicking. The first is done with a snapping and upward
movement of the foot. The second by straightening the knee and thrusting the foot
outward and downward while stepping toward the target.
FACTORS IN KICKING
6.
Bend the knee of the kicking leg to its maximum extent. Begin by raising the knee
of the kicking leg as high as possible and bending the knee fully. This action is an
important preliminary to kicking, comparable to the run before the take-off in broad or
high jumping. Practice in lifting the knee also helps accustom the body to balancing on
one leg, and aids in learning the first part of the correct course of a kicking foot.
7.
Part of the reason for bending the knee fully is to keep the weight of the kicking
leg as close as possible to the trunk. The kick has greater power if the leg is initially close
to the body. By bending the knee fully, better leverage is obtained to make a quick and
powerful kick.
8.
During the kick, keep the supporting leg steady, with the knee slightly bent. If the
knee is bent too much is an effort to keep the hips low, the muscles of the leg will support
the body with difficulty. The knee and ankle will be loose, and it will be difficult to kick
effectively. Be sure to bend the knee only slightly, lean the leg slightly forward, tense the
muscles of the leg, and keep the sole of the foot firmly in contact with the ground.
Figure 5-1
The Kick
Figure 5-2
Leg Position in Preparation for the Kick (Front View)
Figure 5-3
Leg Position in Preparation for the Kick (Side View)
IMPORTANT POINTS IN RAISING AND BENDING THE KNEE
9.
Raise the knee, keeping the sole of the foot parallel to the ground, but with the
ball of the foot slightly higher than the heel.
10.
Keep the shin almost perpendicular to the ground.
11.
Pull back the heel as much as possible. A plum line dropped from the knee should
hit a point at the tips of the toes.
12.
Point the knee and toes in the same direction.
13.
Turn the toes up and tighten the ankle.
14.
Relax the knee joint and keep it flexible, ready for the next movement.
SNAP KICK
15.
Deliver the snap kick with a strong snapping motion, beginning from the raised
and bent knee position of the leg described above. The foot describes almost a half circle
during the kick.
16.
In the snap kick, balance is often poor because of the restricted base provided by
the supporting foot, and because the power of the kick is usually directed upward. Return
as quickly as possible to a somewhat wider stance, with both feet on the ground.
Maximum speed is essential in the execution of the snap kick, or, for that matter, any
kick. A slow snap kick not only fails to create a powerful attack on the target, but results
in an unbalanced position.
17.
To deliver the snap kick, raise and fully bend the knee and then quickly and
powerfully tense the muscles at the front of the thigh. This tension drives the foot
outward. When the leg is fully extended, relax the muscles at the front of the thigh and
tense those at the back. This action withdraws the foot.
18.
The kick from beginning to end is very smooth, and there is no noticeable pause
at the moment of impact. This is because the muscles at the back of the thigh are
stretched as the leg is extended outward. A sudden release of tension in the front thigh
muscles will immediately cause those at the back to contract, automatically withdrawing
the foot.
Figure 5-4
19.
Snap Kick
Important Points a.
If you are too intent on kicking, the knee joint of the kicking leg will
tense, preventing a smooth movement. Relax the knee, raise the toes, and
tense the foot.
b.
After kicking the target, withdraw the foot fully to a position beside the
knee of the supporting leg.
c.
Concentrate all your power at the ball of the foot at the moment of impact.
At the same time, push the hips in the direction of the kick.
THRUST KICK
20.
From the raised and bent knee position described above, a thrust kick can be
aimed directly ahead or directly to the side. It can hit a target located at knee height, at
waist height, or higher.
21.
As in the case of a straight punch with the hand, be sure the foot travels the most
direct course to the target. Keep the movement light and fast at the start of the kick, but
concentrate maximum power in that foot at the moment of impact. The thrust kick is
more difficult than it appears to be. You must correctly judge the distance separating you
from your opponent, or your kick will fail.
22.
Thus, a successful thrust kick depends upon correct distancing and split second
timing. The foot must hit the target at the moment the leg is fully extended and exerting
maximum power. If the foot hits the target too soon or too late, the resulting reaction will
push the foot back toward the kicker instead of striking the target. This negative reaction
is greatest when the foot hits the target with the leg already fully estended but improperly
focused.
This adverse reaction is more likely to destroy your balance when you kick waist high
than when you kick at a downward angle. Remember the importance of distancing and
timing in thrust kicks.
23.
Important Points a.
Flex the ankle and knee of the supporting leg.
b.
Lean the upper body as much as possible in the direction of the kick. If
you lean away from the kick, you will lose your balance. At worst, you
will be propelled away from the target at the moment of impact.
c.
Utilize the hips. Push them in the direction of the kick.
Figure 5-5
Thrust Kick
24.
Points to Remember a.
Your hips tend to rise when you snap kick with the rear leg. Therefore, do
not straighten the knee of the supporting leg, and keep the hips on the
same horizontal plane throughout the kick.
b.
If your hips remain behind and your upper body leans forward during the
kick, the range of the kick will be reduced and its effectiveness
correspondingly lowered. Therefore, move the hips forward as quickly as
possible at the start, and maintain good balance with the supporting leg.
c.
If the upper body is unbalanced, it is impossible to kick effectively.
Therefore, tighten the muscles of the lower abdomen to maintain a tight
connection between the upper and lower parts of the body.
d.
After kicking, the next position of the kicking foot on the ground varies.
However, in almost all cases, this foot must first return to a position close
to the knee of the supporting leg to expedite its movement onto the
ground. An exception occurs when the kicking foot is not withdrawn, but
slides down the opponent's body to the ground as either hand continues the
attack. In general, the next position of the kicking foot depends on
distance from the opponent, posture, and on the nature of the following
techniques.
e.
Keep the heel of the supporting foot firmly on the ground. If the heel rises,
balance will be momentarily weakened, increasing the time necessary to
shift to the next movement.
f.
Ensure that the foot takes the shortest and straightest course in its route to
the target. The rear-leg kick is most effective when the target is directly
ahead.
Figure 5-6
Thrust Kick to Head
REAR LEG KICK TRAINING METHOD
25.
Assume the left-front stance with the fists at the sides. In the case of beginners, it
is better to place the hands on the hips.
26.
Without moving the supporting foot, and keeping the knee bent, move the hips
forward until the weight is entirely supported by the left leg. Simultaneously, raise and
bend the knee of the kicking leg so that the foot moves past the knee of the supporting
leg.
27.
Continue the movement by snapping the right foot back to the target.
28.
Immediately, or reflexively, snap the foot back to a position next to the knee of
the supporting leg.
29.
Continue the movement and return to the start position. Repeat the above practice
alternately on both sides of the body.
30.
Note difference when hips are thrust forward (see Figure 5-7) and when body
leans forward (see Figure 5-8).
Figure 5-7
Rear Leg Kick
Figure 5-8
31.
Rear Leg Kick - Leaning Too Far Forward
Important Considerations a.
Push the hips forward when kicking. If the hips are permitted to remain
behind, the upper body will lean too far forward and bring the face within
range of the opponent's attack (see figures).
b.
Keep the hips low to increase stability. However, if they are too low, the
knee of the supporting leg will sink during the kick, reducing stability and
shortening the kicking range. Bend the knee of the supporting leg enough
to allow a plumb line from the knee to fall at a point just at the tips of the
toes.
c.
When kicking, point the knee of the supporting leg in the direction of the
target. Failure to do this causes the kicking foot to stray from the target,
and prevents the concentration of maximum power at the moment of
impact. Ensure that the knee of the supporting leg is flexed and that it and
the toes of the supporting foot point directly at the target.
FRONT KICK BODY POSITION
32.
In Figure 5-9 the centre of gravity falls within the base area of the supporting foot.
This condition contributes to good balance. There is little chance here to add the forward
momentum of the body to the strength of the kick.
33.
A large upward snapping kick is possible from this position, and it enables you to
meet the opponent's counter-attack, or to deal adequately with any other change in the
situation.
34.
Although, in Figure 5-10, the centre of gravity falls outside the base area of the
supporting foot, good balance is still possible. Forward body momentum can strengthen
your kick. The foot can easily snap outward and upward toward the target. Moreover, the
kicking range is extended.
Figure 5-9
Front Kick Body Position
Figure 5-10
Front Kick Body Position - Leaning Forward
35.
After kicking the target, you can place the kicking foot on the ground in front of
the supporting foot, thereby easily maintaining your balance. If necessary, it is also
possible to return the kicking foot to its initial position on the ground without upsetting
your balance.
36.
As in Figure 5-9, you can easily cope with the opponent's counter-attack, or adjust
to any change in the situation. In Figure 5-11, the centre of gravity falls rather far outside
the supporting base area. This situation makes for poor balance. The driving power of the
body can be utilized here, but because the hips are behind the shoulders, it will be
difficult to impart a powerful snap to the kick.
37.
After kicking, you must set your foot down in front of the supporting foot. There
is no chance to withdraw the foot and to resume your initial position.
38.
Because the body leans forward, it will prove difficult to deal with the opponent's
attack. A kick from this position generally gives the opponent an opportunity to attack
your face with a punch.
BACK KICK
39.
Back kick is a kind of side thrust kick. It can be aimed directly behind or directly
to one side. It can hit a target located at knee height, waist height or higher. The heal is
used as the striking surface.
40.
To perform a back kick bring the heel of the striking leg up to the knee of the
supported leg. Look over the shoulder of the leg in which you are striking. Keeping the
knee as high as possible, kick out to the rear in a straight line.
Figure 5-11
Back Kick Sequence
STAMPING KICK
41.
Stamping Kick is very effective when directed against the opponent's knee, instep
or face. To increase kicking power, shift your weight onto the kicking leg as you stamp
downward.
42.
Use the stamping kick to escape from an opponent who has thrown his arms
around you from the rear. These kicks also serve as preliminary feints to some decisive
attack. They are also most effective once your opponent is on the ground.
Figure 5-12
Stamping Kick
FOOT SWEEP
43.
The foot sweep is a round house or hooking kick delivered at the opponent's
ankle. This technique is used to upset your opponent's balance for further attacks (see
Figures 5-13 through 5-15).
Figure 5-13
Foot Sweep (Front View)
Figure 5-14
Foot Sweep (Rear View)
Figure 5-15
Foot Sweep Sequence
CHAPTER 6
BLOCKS
GENERAL
1.
Defence against an attack is a more complicated process than it appears at first
glance. To begin with, you must anticipate the nature and direction of your opponent's
attack before blocking it. Also, while blocking, you must attempt to seize the initiative
and turn the opponent's attack to your advantage.
Figure 6-1
2.
Blocking
The following methods illustrate the various possibilities in blocking:
a.
Block the opponent's arm or leg with sufficient force to discourage further
attack. In a sense, this kind of block can be called an attack.
b.
Block the opponent's attack with only enough force to parry or deflect it.
This would be termed a light block.
c.
Block and attack. Block the opponent's attack and immediately counterattack. Block it also possible to block and counter-attack at the same
instant.
d.
Unbalance the opponent with your block.
e.
Block the opponent's attack as it is about to begin. To do this you must
anticipate his attack.
f.
Block and then retreat to a safe position until a chance to counter presents
itself.
FACTOR 1 - DIRECTION OF POWER IN THE BLOCK
3.
First, correctly judge the path of the opponent's attack. Then, change the direction
of his attack by blocking. Basically, blocks should be directed along these general routes:
a.
Against an attack to the face, block from the underneath upward.
b.
Against an attack to the midsection, block from the outside inward or vice
versa.
c.
Against an attack against the groin area or lower, block downward and
sweep to the side.
4.
A block that lacks definite direction will usually fail. The principles set down
above are evident in the following commonly used blocks.
5.
Upper Block (against a head attack). Move the blocking arm from its starting
position upward and forward until it contacts the opponent's arm. At the moment of
contact, bring your forearm back toward your head, ending in a position directly in front
of your forehead. In its complete course the blocking arm describes a curve. Note that its
route lies outside the withdrawing arm. If you are greatly superior to your opponent in
strength and skill, it is unnecessary to bring your forearm toward your head after
blocking. Its path need not curve, but can continue upward and forward. However, under
ordinary circumstances it is safer to follow the curve.
6.
Move the right forearm upward as the left hand withdraws. The blocking arm's
course is outside the left arm. If correctly done, the left hand and right forearm will form
a cross in front of the face as they pass one another. Remember to keep the right elbow
close to the body at the beginning of the block. The blocking surface in this defence
includes about three or four inches of the bony area at the bottom of the wrist.
Figure 6-2
Block Against a Head Attack
FACTOR 2 - FOREARM ROTATION AND TIMING
7.
Forearm Rotation. Blocks gain in power if you rotate the forearm during the
delivery. When you block, twist your forearm as though you intended to drive it into the
bone of the opponent's arm. This forearm rotation also serves to guide the opponent's
attack away from your body.
Figure 6-3
8.
Upper Block Against Head Attack
TIMING a.
Forearm rotation and timing are closely related. Obviously, the block must
not be applied too early or too late. Judge the opponent's intent and
assume the starting position of your block, but be sure to allow enough
time to parry of deflect the attack.
b.
Let us consider the upper block, under ideal conditions, in terms of
forearm rotation and timing. Raise and rotate your forearm from the side,
and block the opponent's arm upward from below. Contact the attacking
arm relatively far from your head before bringing your arm back toward
your head. After the initial contact, continue to rotate your forearm to
guide the opponent's attack up over your head.
c.
Sometimes the opponent is too close to enable you to block his arm in this
manner. In such a situation, quickly raise your forearm straight upward,
rotating it rapidly. Because the opportunity to guide the attacking arm
away from you is absent, the block must be strong and sharp enough to
deflect the attack. Correct timing and arm rotation are essential if the
block is to be effective.
d.
Unfortunately, ideal blocking conditions are seldom met. There is usually
insufficient time to assume the prescribed starting position, When the
attack comes suddenly, move immediately into the final phase of the block
from whatever position you may be in.
e.
In the case of an attack directed at your abdomen, you may be confronted
with a choice of blocks. Hesitation could prove disastrous, as could the
wrong choice. To illustrate, suppose you are in a low position and the
opponent attacks your solar plexus, or suppose a taller opponent attacks
this point. You are faced with a choice of blocks. If you block with the
downward block, first raising your fist to your shoulder, you will have
insufficient time for a successful block because your fist will be raised too
high. Far better would be the forearm block against a body attack from the
outside inward. Attain proficiency in the appropriate block through
constant practice.
f.
To have sufficient time and space to enable the blocking arm to achieve
somewhere near its full range of movement is not always possible.
However, because blocking conditions are usually less than ideal, correct
timing becomes extremely important. Gauge the speed of the opponent's
attack and his distance from you, and then time your block to deflect his
attack.
FACTOR 3 - HIP ROTATION
9.
The discussion of punching techniques clearly demonstrated the importance of hip
rotation to increase punching power. Hip rotation is also necessary to produce an
effective block. Whether your block is to be a strong one, delivered from a solidly based
position remember to rotate your hips. It is impossible to parry or deflect a strong attack
if you fail to use the power in the hips.
UPPER BLOCK AGAINST HEAD ATTACK
10.
End the block with your forearm the distance of one fist in front of your forehead.
In this position your forearm should be at an angle to the horizontal. If you block in this
way, the opponent's attack will pass over your head. Also, the time spent in blocking is
kept to a minimum, compared with a block which does not stop in front of the forehead,
but continues further upward. Figure 6-7 illustrates an incorrect position of the blocking
arm. The elbow is raised excessively, and balance is impaired. Shifting to the following
technique will prove difficult.
Figure 6-4
Preparing to Block
Figure 6-5
Blocking from Inside Outward
Figure 6-6
Block Outside Inward
Figure 6-7
Blocking a Thrust to the Head
TRAINING METHOD FOR UPPER BLOCK
11.
Assume the open-leg stance.
12.
Begin to slide your right foot to the rear and raise your right arm in front of your
face. As your foot continues to the rear, withdraw the right hand to your right side and
bring your left forearm upward to block. Raise the blocking arm to the outside of the
withdrawing arm.
13.
At the end of the blocking movement your body should be at fighting stance, your
right fist above your right hip, and your left forearm in front of your forehead (see
Figures 6-4 to 6-7).
14.
Return to your initial position.
15.
Practice the above movement alternately on both sides of the body.
16.
Important Considerations a.
If you raise the elbow of your blocking arm too high, the muscles around
your armpit cannot tense fully and your block will be weak. Avoid this
fault by blocking with your hand higher than your elbow.
b.
If your blocking forearm ends too far in advance of your forehead, the
opponent's attack may pass over your block and hit you (see Figures 6-8
and 6-9). Remember that the ideal distance above your forehead is four
inches.
c.
Sometimes fear of the impending attack causes students to throw their
heads backward to escape the blow. Avoid this reaction.
Figure 6-8
Blocking - Arm Too High
Figure 6-9
Blocking - Arm Too Far From Head
OUTSIDE MIDDLE BLOCK
17.
Direction of Block (against body attack). Block from outside inward with
bottom of wrist. Raise the left arm at the side with the fist near the left ear. At this point
the bottom of the fist points outward toward the left. With the elbow bent at 90 degrees,
drive the arm downward and forward and block the opponent's punch to your body. At
the instant your forearm meets the opponent's arm the back of your fist must face the
opponent at the height of your chain, with your forearm almost perpendicular to the
ground. Twist the forearm 180 degrees counterclockwise as it travels from outside
inward. To summarize, strike the opponent's attacking arm to the side with a circular
motion of your forearm from the outside inward. As the upper block technique, the
blocking surface of the forearm is the bony area at the bottom of the wrist.
Figure 6-10
Outside Middle Block Sequence
TRAINING METHOD OUTSIDE MIDDLE BLOCK
18.
Assume the open-leg stance of the natural position. Let your arms hang naturally
at the sides.
19.
Begin a backward step with your left foot and extend your left hand (or fist) to the
front. Simultaneously, raise your right fist above your right shoulder near the ear.
20.
Continue your backward step, withdraw the left hand to the left side, and rotate
the hips counterclockwise. At the same time, drive the right forearm forward from the
outside inward against the imaginary attacking arm.
21.
End the entire blocking movement with your body in the right-front stance at
fighting stance. At this moment your left fist should be over your left hip with the back of
the fist directed down, and your right fist should be in front of your body at chin height.
22.
Step forward with the left foot and return to the natural position.
23.
Practice this blocking technique on the other side of your body by blocking with
your left arm. Finally, repeat the movement alternately on both sides. Instead of stepping
to the rear when blocking, practice also while stepping forward. In addition, necessary
training includes applying the block after shifting from stance to stance.
Figure 6-11
24.
Training Method Outside Middle Block
Special Considerations a.
Rotate your hips strongly. The faster the hips rotate, the greater the
strength they impart to the block. Increase the speed of your hip rotation
by powerfully withdrawing your non-blocking arm. Avoid rotating only
your shoulders when it is necessary to rotate your hips.
b.
Blocking failure is more likely if you block the opponent's attack
diagonally from above downward. Block in such a way that the attack is
deflected to the side. In the terminal position of the block, avoid allowing
the elbow of your blocking arm to deviate in any direction from the
recommended position.
c.
Bend the blocking arm 90 degrees at the elbow. Avoid straightening or
bending your elbow excessively.
d.
Your block will be ineffective if the wrist of your blocking arm is bent.
Straighten and firmly tighten it.
FACTOR 4 - POSITION OF ELBOW OF BLOCKING ARM
25.
The instant the block is applied, all power must be concentrated in the forearm.
The amount of power you are able to exert depends on the relationship of your elbow to
the side of your body. If your elbow is too far removed from your body, it will be
difficult to tense the muscles at your side, and your block will be weak. Also, if your
elbow remains too close to your body when you block, the scale of your block will be
small, and the blocking power reduced. Keep your elbow neither too far away nor too
close to your body. Moreover, when blocking body attacks, ensure that your forearm ends
its movement in the centre of your body rather than to the left or right. If your elbow and
forearm are correctly positioned, the power of hips, body and arm will be concentrated in
the forearm. At the moment of impact, fully tense your side and arm muscles.
Figure 6-12
Elbow Position
INSIDE MIDDLE BLOCK
26.
Block from inside outward with top of wrist. Place the left fist in front of the right
hip with the back of the fist in front of the right hip with the back of the fist facing
forward. Bring the forearm up and forward, using the elbow as a pivot. Deflect the
opponent's body attack by striking his forearm to the side with the top of your wrist from
the inside outward. The left hand travels forward outside the right. At the moment of
contact be sure your elbow is bent at 90 degrees, your fist is at chin height, and your
forearm is almost perpendicular to the ground.
27.
Withdraw the right hand to a position above the right hip as your left forearm
moves forward to block. Rotate the hips clockwise as you withdraw your right hand.
Synchronize the hand and hip movements for additional power. The more power
generated by the hips movement, the stronger will be your block.
Figure 6-13
Inside Middle Block
Figure 6-14
Inside Middle Block Sequence (Side View)
Figure 6-15
Inside Middle Block Sequence (Front View)
TRAINING METHOD FOR MIDDLE INSIDE BLOCK
28.
Assume the striking stance of the natural position.
29.
Begin a step backward with your left foot. Simultaneously extend your left hand
forward, palm down, and place your right fist in front of your left hip with the back of the
fist facing up.
30.
As your foot continues backward, withdraw your left hand to your left side and
rotate your hips counterclockwise. At the same time, swing your right arm forward from
the inside outward. Use your elbow as a pivot and rotate your forearm clockwise as you
swing it forward.
31.
End your block with your body in the right-front stance at fighting stance. The
block might just as easily have ended in the straddle-leg stance. The block might just as
easily have ended in the straddle-leg stance or the back stance. Whatever the terminal
position, the left fist must end above the left hip with the back of the fist facing down.
32.
Step forward and return to the striking stance.
33.
Repeat the above practice alternately on both sides of the body. Instead of
stepping back to render this blocking technique, practice it by stepping forward into the
striking stance, or the straddle-leg stance.
Figure 6-16
34.
Inside Middle Block - Arm Cross
Special Considerations a.
The inside outward block will be weak if you block with the arm alone.
Use the power generated by hip rotation to strengthen your block.
b.
Avoid blocking with only one arm. Use both arms. In other words, this
technique will not exert maximum power unless the non-blocking arm is
swiftly and strongly withdrawn.
c.
The position of the elbow of the blocking arm should change very little
during the entire blocking movement. Drive the forearm outward as if it
were a fan opening. The elbow acts as the pivot of this circular forearm
motion.
d.
These blocks are usually practiced as blocks against body attacks, but they
are also effective against attacks to the head.
DOWNWARD BLOCK
35.
Direction of Block. Start the downward block with the left fist beside the right
ear. Aim the back of the fist outward to the side. Strike downward, straightening the
elbow, and deflect to the side the opponent's attack with the bottom of your wrist. End the
downward block with the left fist directly above the left knee.
Figure 6-17
Inside Outward Block Sequence
36.
Downward Block Sequence. Rotate the forearm inward, straighten the elbow,
and block with a big downward motion of the arm.
Figure 6-18
Downward Block Sequence
TRAINING METHOD FOR DOWNWARD BLOCK
37.
Assume the open-leg stance of the natural position.
38.
Begin a backward step with your right foot, your right arm in front of your lower
abdomen and place your left fist beside your right ear.
39.
Continue stepping backward, withdraw your right hand to your side, forming a
fist, and rotate your hips clockwise. Simultaneously, drive your left forearm downward,
rotating the forearm and straightening the elbow.
40.
End the downward block with your body in the left-front stance at fighting stance.
Your right fist should be above your right hip with its back facing down. Your left arm
should end above your forward leg with the back of the fist facing up.
41.
Special Considerations a.
If you are afraid of the opponent's attack, you are apt to withdraw your
hips to avoid being hit. This action weakens the downward block. It is
difficult to block a powerful kick if your body leans forward. Push your
hips forward during the block to maintain your body perpendicular to the
ground.
b.
If you attempt a downward block without fully rotating your hips, your
block may prove ineffective. Because the opponent's kick to your groin is
very powerful, place special emphasis on hip rotation to generate the
strength necessary.
c.
If your hips are too high as you block, the opponent's chances of
delivering a successful attack increase. Keep your hips low and block from
a position as close as possible to the opponent.
42.
If the fist of your blocking arm deviates from the recommended six inches above
the forward knee, your block may fail. If your block ends too far above your knee, the
opponent's kick will hit your abdomen. If it ends too close to your knee, your block will
miss the kick completely and your chin will suffer the consequences (see Figure 6-19).
Figure 6-19
Downward Block Application
CONCLUSION ON BLOCKING
43.
Concentrate on mastering the blocks designed to parry the various attacks.
Remember that your block will be stronger if it travels a longer route to its destination.
Although this longer route is desirable, it is usually not possible because there is only
limited time in which to block. Because they must respond to attacks of great speed and
suddenness, advanced students inevitably do not begin their blocks from the positions
outlined above. However, beginners must master the block in its full and correct course
before they can expect to use a shortened version of it. In every case, beginners must
concentrate on learning the basic techniques.
CHAPTER 7
ELBOW AND KNEE STRIKES
ELBOW STRIKES - GENERAL
1.
The elbow strike differs somewhat from strikes utilizing the hand. It belongs to
the category of smashing techniques rather than to striking techniques. The elbow strike
is performed by driving the elbow forward, sideward, backward, upward, or downward.
The elbow strike is most effective in situations where the free movement of the body is
lost. For example, it serves as an effective defensive technique when an opponent holds
your wrist or your arm.
Figure 7-1
Elbow Strike
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
2.
The elbow strike is effective when used to counterattack at short range, but tends
to lose its value as the distance from the opponent increases.
3.
When applying the elbow strike, keep the upper body perpendicular to the ground.
Move the hip in the direction of the strike. If the upper body is not kept perpendicular to
the ground, the technique will be weak.
4.
Keep the fist and forearm of the striking arm as close to the body as possible,
brushing the side of the body at the start of the technique.
5.
Rotate the forearm anywhere from 90 to 180 degrees to gain greater striking
power. Place the forearm initially in such a position that this rotation is possible.
6.
Relax the shoulders. To increase the impact, bend the elbow fully and tense the
arm muscles just before striking the target.
7.
Use a forward elbow strike to attack the opponent's chest or abdomen when he is
directly ahead. This strike is especially effective when standing face to face with an
opponent who has grasped your wrist or jacket.
ELBOW STRIKE TRAINING METHOD
8.
Assume the left-front fighting stance.
9.
Place the left hand in front of the body, and the rightfist above the right hip with
the back of the fist facing downward.
10.
In one coordinated action, withdraw the left fist to a position above the left hip,
thrust the right hip forward, and drive the right elbow in a half circle toward the target.
Rotate the right forearm 180 degrees counterclockwise as you drive the elbow forward.
11.
At the conclusion of this movement, the upper body faces forward and the top
surface of the forearm is up. Be sure to twist the forearm inward as much as possible.
12. Return to the position in # 1 in Figure 7-2, withdrawing the right hip. This movement
can be practiced from right, as well. as left-front stance. It is also necessary to practice
the forward elbow strike when shifting from natural position to front stance.
Figure 7-2
Elbow Strike Training Method (Front View)
13.
Important Considerations a.
Keep the right fist close to the body as you apply the forward elbow strike.
Its correct path is from the right hip to the left side of the chest. Brush the
right forearm along the side of the body as you bring the elbow forward.
b.
Use the upward elbow strike to attack the chin or solar plexus of an
opponent directly ahead. This elbow strike is extremely effective when
delivered from a low position attained by moving into and under the
opponent's attacking arm.
Figure 7-3
Elbow Strike Training Method (Side View)
TRAINING METHOD FOR UPWARD ELBOW STRIKE
14.
Assume the right-front striking stance with the body facing forward.
15.
Extend the open left hand in front of the body at about the height of the solar
plexus with the back of the hand facing up. Place the right fist above the right hip with
the back of the fist facing down.
16.
Withdraw the left hand to a position above the left hip, rotate the hips
counterclockwise, and bring the right elbow forward and upward in a half circle.
17.
Simultaneously, complete the withdrawal of the left fist, turn the upper body to
the left at a 45 degrees angle to the front, and finish the strong upward thrust of the right
elbow. End the movement of the right fist beside the right ear.
18.
Rotate the hips clockwise and return to the original position. Practice this
movement alternately on both sides. Also, practice the upward elbow strike by moving
from the natural position to the striking stance.
Figure 7-4
19.
Upward Elbow Strike Sequence
Important Considerations a.
Keep the forearm close to the side as it travels upward. Coordinate the
upward movement with the rotation of the hips.
b.
Rotate the hips along a plane parallel to the ground so that the upper body
remains perpendicular to the ground.
c.
Tighten the buttocks as if to push them upward. Do this in addition to
rotating the hips and the strike will be more powerful.
Figure 7-5
Upward Elbow Strike
STRIKING TECHNIQUES WITH THE KNEE
20.
The knee is another striking technique which falls in the category of smashes. The
knee techniques are performed upward and sideward. It is most effective in situations
where free movement of the body is lost. The object of the knee lift is to force the knee,
from the standing position, into the face or groin of the opponent.
21.
Important Considerations a.
The knee smash is effective only when used in very close quarters. It tends
to lose its value at a distance.
b.
This technique is relatively slow and its true effect is in smashing a
relatively immovable target. Therefore, this technique must be executed in
conjunction with a technique to immobilize the target or a technique
where the target is forced towards the knee.
Example 1 - Pull your opponent's head down while you drive the knee upward.
Example 2 - Force down on your opponent while you drive your knee up between his
legs (see Figures 7-6 to 7-9).
Figure 7-6
Knee to Head - Start Position
Figure 7-7
Knee to Head
Figure 7-8
Knee to Groin - Start Position
Figure 7-9
Knee to Groin
CHAPTER 8
BASIC MOVEMENT
STANCE TRAINING IN CONTINUOUS MOVEMENT
1.
In general, when moving, keep the hips at the same level and slide the feet lightly
across the floor. To practice moving, first take five steps forward and then turn and take
five steps in the opposite direction. Of course, it is also possible to retreat instead of
turning, affording practice in moving away from an attack.
Figure 8-1
Front Stance - Advancing and Retreating
Figure 8-2
Front Stance - Advancing and Retreating (Foot Movement)
MOVING FROM THE LEFT-FRONT STANCE TO THE RIGHT-FRONT
STANCE
2.
Begin by shifting the weight to the supporting leg and moving the centre of
gravity forward. Keep the knee of the supporting leg bent, but flexible. Tighten the
muscles of the supporting leg.
3.
Draw the rear leg to the supporting leg as the body moves forward. Relax the
muscles of the rear leg to facilitate a smooth forward movement.
4.
Keep the foot of the supporting leg in firm contact with the floor. Lift the opposite
foot slightly and draw it forward to a position next to the foot of the supporting leg. The
feet should touch slightly.
5.
Halfway through the forward movement thrust sharply backward and downward
with the supporting leg at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground. This will drive the hips
forward. At the same time, advance the opposite foot one step. Keep the upper body
perpendicular to the ground throughout this movement.
6.
Relax the moving leg during the forward movement, but at the instant of
termination tense all the muscles involved. After an instant's tension, the muscles relax
again and the moving leg becomes the supporting leg for the nex forward movement, or
plays its role in some other action.
7.
When stepping forward, the moving leg must swing in a half circle to the
supporting foot and then out again. Move the foot smoothly and maintain continuous
movement. Imagine that the thickness of a sheet of paper separates the foot from the
ground.
8.
Be sure that the hips move along a plane parallel to the ground, with no
fluctuation up or down. Also, prevent the hips from swaying from side to side during the
movement. Any deviation from the horizontal plane will reduce the force of the forward
thrust.
9.
Flex the muscles of the lower abdomen throughout the movement, and keep the
upper body perpendicular to the ground. The latter point is important to retain the ability
to adjust to changing circumstances.
THINGS TO AVOID
10.
The thrust of the rear leg is weak and the body is pulled forward with the
shoulders (see figures). This impairs stability and results in ineffective techniques.
Tighten the ankle of the rear leg and drive it strongly backward and downward.
11.
The heel of the rear foot is raised and the front foot bears too much weight during
the forward movement. It the opponent sweeps your front foot with the foot sweep, you
will fall. Keep the heel of the thrusting foot pressed firmly against the ground.
12.
The foot of the moving leg steps forward in advance of the movement of the
upper body. This prevents a coordinated movement of the body and con-tributes to an
ineffective technique. Advance the hips as quickly as possible and attempt to coordinate
the body's action. All parts of the body must come to a stop at the same instant. Note that
if the front steps out in advance of the rest of the body, the opponent can easuly apply a
foot sweep, as in point 2 above.
TRAINING METHOD - THRUSTING HIPS FORWARD
13.
Assume the left-front striking stance with the hands on the hips.
14.
With the left leg supporting the weight, draw the hips and the right foot forward,
keeping the upper body perpendicular to the ground.
15. At the halfway point of the forward movement, the left foot supports the weight, the
right foot is next to the left and parallel to it, lightly touching the ground. The right hip
and shoulders are still slightly to the rear (see figure).
16.
Pressing the hips forward, thrust sharply backward and downward with the left
leg and step forward with the right. Assume the right-front stance, facing forward.
17.
Return the right foot to its original position and assume the left-front stance.
18.
Repeat this action several times and then practice on the opposite side. After
additional training in these movements, go continuously forward from the left-front
stance to the right-front stance to the left-front stance, without returning to the original
position as before.
Figure 8-3
Thrusting Hips Forward
Figure 8-4
Training Method for Thrusting Hips Forward
THINGS TO AVOID
19.
The supporting leg is not stable and the body is unsteady as it moves forward. If
this occurs, the hips cannot be pushed forward strongly. Tighten the ankle and the knee of
the supporting leg. However, retain some flexibility in the knee of the supporting leg.
20.
The moving leg advances erratically. Relax the muscles of the moving leg to
permit a light smooth forwardmovement.
21.
When the hips advance, the upper body leans forward and does not remain
perpendicular to the ground. Press the hips strongly forward with the thumbs.
CHAPTER 9
HOLDS AND COUNTERS
GENERAL
1.
The three main purposes of a hold are:
a.
to subdue your opponent until you can secure him for safekeeping;
b.
to injure your opponent and place him in a position to receive your followup blows to the more vulnerable parts of his body in order to overcome his
resistance and eliminate him as a threat; and
c.
to kill your opponent immediately by applying enough pressure to certain
parts of his body.
2.
Properly executed, any strangle hold can cause unconsciousness in approximately
2 or 3 minutes. Continued pressure will kill a man in less than 4 minutes. Caution must
be used in training: holds are applied with some pressure to assure understanding of the
power involved, yet not enough pressure to cause injury.
Figure 9-1
Strangle Hold
REAR STRANGLE HOLD
3.
The object is to encircle your opponent's head and apply pressure to his throat
with your arm and strangle him. Then, by simply dropping to the ground, the neck can be
broken. This attack is particularly good because it can be applied quickly, and the victim
cannot yell out for help.
4.
Training Method. Stand directly behind your opponent. Place both arms over his
shoulders and grab your right bicep with your left hand, ensuring the bony part of the
wrist of the left hand is forced into the opponent's adam apple. Then simply pull the left
elbow to the rear.
5.
Important Considerations a.
If the opponent's neck is allowed to slip into the crux of your elbow, the
technique loses its immediate effect, although you can still strangle your
opponent.
b.
This technique must be applied vigorously while directing your opponent's
weight backwards to keep him off balance.
c.
Once the victim is off balance, he cannot defend against this technique. To
break his neck, simply drop straight to the ground while maintaining your
hold.
REAR STRANGLE HOLD (AMERICAN)
6.
Much like the Japanese rear strangle hold this technique encircles the opponents
neck for the purpose of strangling him.
7.
Training Method. Stand directly behind your opponent. Place one wrist at the
adam's apple and grasp the hands together tightly. Force the bony part of the wrist into
the opponent's throat. Ensure your head is very close to the opponent's head to ensure
control.
Figure 9-2
Rear Strangle Hold (American)
CLAW
8.
The object of this technique is to collapse the wind pipe. Fingers must circle the
wind pipe and squeeze as hard as possible.
Figure 9-3
Claw
BENT WRIST LOCK
9.
The object of this hold is to bend the opponent's wrist in such a manner as to
cause severe pain or if desired, to break his wrist. This technique is used when you are
required to persuade your opponent to come along.
10.
Training Method. Stand directly in front of your opponent and grasp his left
hand by placing your left hand palm down on top of his. Ensure your thumb applies
pressure to the middle of his thumb. Simply apply pressure and rotate anti-clockwise,
forcing your opponent to turn to his right.
Figure 9-4
Bent Wrist Lock
11.
Important Considerations a.
The entire technique relies on pressure to the opponent's thumb.
b.
You may wish to use both hands against a stronger opponent Once the
hold is in place, pressure can then be applied to the elbow to ensure the
arm remains locked.
ARM BOW
12.
Objective. The objective is to bring someone along or to break his arm. It is used
when handling prisoners.
13.
Training Method. Grasp one of the opponent's arms with your outside hand.
Force his head back with a hammer fist smash to ensure minimum resistance. Slide that
same arm under the elbow and apply pressure upward on the opponent's elbow joint.
Figure 9-5
Arm Bow Sequence
SUMMARY ON HOLDS
14.
There are numerous other holds and variations to the ones mentioned here. It is
important to remember that many holds taught today can be more of a hindrance than a
help. Ensure that the holds you master are relatively escape-proof, or at best, leave you in
an advantageous position to strike if a hold is broken.
HOLD COUNTER-MOVES - GENERAL
15.
If your opponent succeeds in getting a hold on you, you must break the hold
before or immediately after he completes it. Bite, kick, or hit him at vulnerable points to
help loosen or break the hold before he can apply pressure. By escaping from your
opponent's grasp immediately, you can take the offense and attack him.
COUNTERS TO A CHOKE HOLD
16.
Objective and Use. Your objective in countering a choke is to act quickly to
break the hold. Use of this counter works best if your opponent's arms are extended.
17.
Description a.
When your opponent attempts to choke you, use a roundhouse arm swing
or break his hold;
b.
As you swing your arm over his arms, pivot in the direction of your swing
to get as much as your body weight as possible behind your arm swing.
This causes your opponent to loosen his hold; and
c.
This escape also can be used against a choke hold from the rear. Swing
your arm and pivot around, facing your opponent as your swing.
Figure 9-6
Choke Hold Counters
COUNTER TO REAR STRANGLE HOLD
18.
Objective and Use. The objective of this counter is to break the strangle hold to
permit resumption of your attack. This counter is used when the enemy applies a strangle
hold from the rear, encircling his arm around your neck.
19.
Description. If your opponent attempts to apply a rear strangle hold, immediately
grasp his arm with your opposite hand and bend deeply at the knees, twisting your body
in the opposite direction of your free arm. Vigorously rotate your upper body and drive
your free elbow into his armpit. You always will deliver this blow towards the arm
encircling your neck.
20.
Follow-up or Recovery. The elbow smash to the ribs or armpit will cause your
opponent to lose his grip and provide the time needed to quickly turn and deliver an
effective kick or stomp.
Figure 9-7
Strangle Hold Counter
COUNTER TO A HEAD LOCK
21.
To counter a simple headlock do one or all of the following techniques. See
Figures 9-8 through 9-11.
Figure 9-8
Twist
Figure 9-9
Bite
Figure 9-10
Grab
Figure 9-11
Gouge
COUNTER TO A BEAR HUG
22.
To counter a bear hug, do one of the following techniques. See Figures 9-1 2
through 9-1 4.
CONCLUSION ON COUNTERS
23.
There are numerous other counters and variations to the ones mentioned here. It is
important to remember that you must be violent in your attempt to break free. Once free,
you must then attack before he regains his balance.
Figure 9-12
Bear Hug Counter - Stomp
Figure 9-13
Bear Hug Counter - Smash
Figure 9-14
Bear Hug Counter - Grab
CHAPTER 10
KNIFE FIGHTING/DEFENCE
GENERAL
1.
A knife (or bayonnet), properly employed, is a deadly weapon. You can use it on
patrols to silence an enemy sentry or you can use it for close-in fighting when you do not
have a rifle.
Figure 10-1
Knives
GRIP
2.
The proper knife grip is essential for maximum control. To form a proper grip,
begin by laying the knife diagonally across the outstretched palm of your hand.
3.
Grasp the small part of the handle next to the cross guard with your thumb and
forefinger. Your middle finger encircles the handle at its largest point. Do not hold the
knife too tightly.
Figure 10-2
Knife Grip
4.
When the knife is held in this manner, it can be manoeuvred in all directions. You
can control the direction of the blade by a combination movement of the forefinger and
middle finger and turning of the wrist. When the palm is turned up and you are holding
the knife in your right hand, you can slash to the right or left. When the palm is turned
down, you also can slash in either direction. You can thrust when the palm is held either
up or down. Just before the knife makes contact, you hold it tightly with all fingers.
STANCE
5.
When engaging in a knife attack, your stance should be high to ensure speed. The
knife can be hidden or in the open. It is suggested that the knife not be held by the
forward hand in the fighting unless your opponent also has a knife.
Figure 10-3
Stance
6.
Objective. The objective of using a knife is to kill your opponent. To do this stab
your opponent in the chest and abdomen area. In order to create an opening you may well
be required to slash.
STAB MOVING FORWARD
7.
See Figure 10-4.
STAB LUNGING FORWARD
8.
See Figure 10-5.
Figure 10-4
Stab Moving Forward
Figure 10-5
Stab
LASHING
9.
Lashing is a fast movement who intends to chop. One may take care of not
extending the arm to much.
Figure 10-6
Lashing
FRONT ATTACK
10.
When you attack an opponent from the front with a knife, he instinctively tries to
protect his stomach and throat. If he is wounded in one of the places his fear may be so
great that he forgets to defend himself and you can kill him.
11.
The Throat. You can attack the throat with either a thrust or a slash. The thrust is
most effective if the knife is driven into the base of the throat just below the adam's
apple. This type of blow cuts the jugular vein and results in almost instant death. A slash
to either side of the neck cuts the carotid artery which carries blood to the brain. Your
opponent will die within a few seconds from loss of blood.
12.
The Stomach. A thrust combined with a slash to the stomach produces great
shock. Your opponent will be stunned and unable to defend himself. You can then deliver
a killing blow. A deep wound in the stomach causes death if the wound is unattended.
Figure 10-7
The Throat
Figure 10-8
Stomach
13.
The Heart. A thrust into the heart causes almost instant death. The spot is
difficult to hit because of the protecting ribs. A hard thrust, however, usually will slip off
the rib and penetrate the heart.
14.
The Wrist. A slash to the wrist will sever the radial artery, causing death within 2
minutes. This type of attack is excellent if your opponent attempts to grab your clothing
or arm. The radial artery is one-quarter inch below the surface of the skin.
Unconsciousness results in about 30 seconds.
Figure 10-9
Heart
Figure 10-10 Wrist
15.
The Upper Arm. A slash to the upper arm just above the inside of the elbow cuts
the brachial artery and causes death within 2 minutes. This artery is about one-half inch
below the skin surface. Unconsciousness occurs in about 15 seconds.
16.
The Leg. A slash to the inside of the leg near the groin severs the arteries there
and makes the leg useless.
Figure 10-11 Upper Arm
Figure 10-12 The Leg
ATTACK FROM THE REAR
17.
When attacking an opponent from the rear, you should launch your attack
immediately upon reaching a position not less than five feet from him.
18.
The Kidney. Thrust the knife into your opponent's kidney and simultaneously
grab his mouth and nose with your other hand. After a short interval, withdraw the blade,
slashing as you do so, and then cut his throat. The thrust to the kidney produces great
shock and causes internal hemorrhage and death.
19.
Side of the Neck. A thrust into the side of the neck is effective when you want to
maintain silence.
Figure 10-13 The Kidney
Figure 10-14 Side of the Neck
20.
The Throat. A slash across the throat from the rear severs the windpipe and
jugular vein.
21.
The Subclavian Artery. The subclavian artery is approximately 2 1/2 inches
below the surface between the collarbone and the shoulder blade. Attack this spot with a
thrust by gripping the knife as depicted in picture. As you withdraw the knife, slash to
make the wound as large as possible. This artery is difficult to hit, but once it is cut, the
bleeding cannot be stopped and your opponent will loose conciousness within seconds.
Death will follow rapidly.
Figure 10-15 Throat
Figure 10-16 Subclavian Artery
DEFENCE AGAINST KNIFE ATTACK
22.
Avoid Close Contact. The first line of defence against an opponent armed with a
knife is to avoid close contact. It is dangerous to attempt to disarm your opponent by
hand, as such a technique is an advanced skill.
Figure 10-17 Defend Yourself with any Available Object such as a Stick
23.
Disarm Your Opponent. Any opponent, regardless of skill with a knife, is
dangerous. For this reason, you must disarm him with the safest and most effective
method. The following methods are recommended:
a.
Use an object to aid your attack such as a heavy stick or similar available
weapon. Attempt to knock or kick the weapon from your opponent's hand.
b.
Use a piece of your equipment as a weapon such as your helmet. Hold the
chin strap and swing it toward the knife to knock it out of your opponent's
hand. You can also use a web belt with canteen to swing as a weapon. A
combat coat or poncho can be used to cover or muffle the force of a knife
blow.
c.
You can scoop up sand or dirt from the ground and throw it into your
opponent's eyes. Use an underhand motion to scoop and throw in the same
motion. This action will temporarily blind him and enable you to
counterattack. Any of the above actions will gain time for you to seize the
initiative and attack with a weapon, kick, or other appropriate means of
attack.
Figure 10-18 Use of Jacket to Aid Countering Knife-Attack
Figure 10-19 Use of Webbing to Counter Knife-Attack
Figure 10-20 Disarming Attacker with Knife
24.
Advanced Techniques. If the above techniques are not possible and there is no
opportunity to attack with a knife, the following counters are to be used:
a.
A counter to the downward stroke is an upper block. Immediately after the
momentum is stopped, you must grab the wrist in which the knife is being
held. You can then apply striking techniques until the opponent is beaten.
At not time should you release the wrist in which the knife is being held.
Your techniques must be fast, sure and violent.
b.
A counter to the upward stroke is shown in the picture following. Catch
your opponent's wrist or forearm in the palm of your hands. At the same
time, glide slightly to the rear to keep the knife from cutting your stomach.
Upon stopping his blow, grab your opponent's hand and place your thumb
on the back of his hand. Reinforce this hold by grabbing his wrist and
place your thumb on the back of his hand. Reinforce this hold by grabbing
his wrist and place your thumb on the back of his hand. Twist his wrist
and bend his hand toward his forearm, causing him to release the knife.
Finish the technique by stabbing your opponent in the kidney.
Figure 10-21 Counter to Knife Attack
Figure 10-22 Downward Counter to Knife Thrust
Figure 10-23 Relieving Opponent of Knife
CHAPTER 11
DEFENCE AND COUNTERS
STEPS IN COMBINING BLOCKING TECHNIQUES WITH DECISIVE
COUNTER ATTACKS
1.
Begin by pre-arranging the specific techniques you will use to block and counter
your partner's attack. This formal method of practicing is a necessary preliminary to more
advanced practice.
2.
Pre-arrange your response to your partner's attack, but concentrate on improving
your timing and speed in shifting from block to counterattack. Emphasize speed and
coordination.
3.
After attaining proficiency in the method, it is no longer necessary to choose your
counterattack in advance. Instead, at the instant you block, base your choice of counter on
your stance and on your position in relation to that of your opponent. For example, if
your block is late, select a counter technique which lends to a delivery of above average
speed. Learn to make split-second decisions of this kind.
IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
4.
Position of Eyes. Keep your eyes on the centre of the triangle formed by the
opponent's shoulders and eyes, If you concentrate on his hands or feet, you may become
confused or distracted.
5.
Movement of Feet. Move your feet lightly and quickly. Slide smoothly over the
ground. When stepping forward, be sure also to thrust your hips forward.
6.
State of Mind. Avoid showing fear when the opponent attacks. Apply your
techniques with confidence.
7.
Application of Power. Be prepared to focus all available power whenever
necessary. After it has served its purpose, instantly release the tension. Practice each
technique repeatedly, sometimes stepping forward and sometimes to the rear. Your body
will gradually grow accustomed to the required movements.
DEFENCE AND COUNTERS FROM UPPER ATTACKS
8.
See Figures 11-1 to 11-4.
DOUBLE INSIDE BLOCK TO FRONT KICK
9.
See Figures 11-5 to 11-7.
Figure 11-1
Counter to Upper Attack
Figure 11-2
Deception Move
Figure 11-3
Elbow Smash Counter Sequence
Figure 11-4
Upper Block Front Snap Kick (Relatively Close Range)
Figure 11-5
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Reverse Punch
Ordinary Distance)
Figure 11-6
than
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Elbow Strike (Closer
Figure 11-7
Block from Outside Inward with Bottom of Wrist to Elbow Strike (Closer
than Normal Distance)
CHAPTER 12
BASIC TRAINING DRILLS
GENERAL
1.
Training in individual techniques can take the form of consecutive forward or rearward
steps. For instance, lunge-punch practice is usually done by repeating the technique in five
separate forward steps, turning, and again punching and stepping five times in the opposite
direction. This practice can be repeated endlessly. Pause after each movement to be sure your
stance is strong and well balanced and that your attack is correctly aimed. Training in
consecutive rearward movements is especially important in the case of blocking techniques.
2.
After attaining some proficiency in the performance of individual techniques, begin
training for the application of combination techniques. For example, the upper block might be
followed by a reverse punch.
3.
When practicing combination techniques, move from one technique to the next with
maximum speed. However, your techniques will be ineffective, and your training of little value,
if you sacrifice power and correctness of form for quick execution. For example, it is obvious
that a stable, strong stance is required for the delivery of effective offensive or defensive
techniques. Yet, students appear to ignore this fact when they try to move too quickly form one
technique to the next. Work slowly at first. As your skill increases, gradually increase the speed
of your techniques and reduce the interval of time between them.
4.
Another important point in combination techniques concerns the use of the hips. If you
move from one technique to the next too quickly to allow proper hip rotation, your techniques
will be weak. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that when the hips are fully rotated in one
direction, they automatically tend to rotate in the reverse direction. Utilize this reaction to
increase the effect of the follow-up technique. For instance, use hip rotation when moving from
the round kick to the back-fist strike. Delivered in this way, the back-fist strike will be more
powerful than if individually applied.
LUNGE PUNCH
5.
Assume the downward block position with your body in fighting stance.
Figure 12-1
Basic Training Movements
6.
Step forward and deliver the lunge punch with your right arm.
7.
Advance a step and deliver another lunge punch with your left arm.
8.
Continue advancing until you have completed total of four steps and four alternate
punches.
9.
Upon completion of the fourth step, turn around by shifting your rear foot to the left and
pivoting on your front foot. Assume the downward block position in fighting stance.
10.
Advance in the opposite direction and practice the lunge punch in the same manner
described above. Continue this sequence as many times as desired.
11.
It is also necessary to practice the lunge punch while retreating.
12.
As the soldier becomes familiar with this exercise, include a reverse punch with each
lunge punch.
UPPER BLOCK
13.
Assume the downward block position in fighting stance.
14.
Step forward and deliver the upper block.
15.
Continue advancing until you have completed four consecutive steps and four blocks.
16.
Turn around and assume the upper block position in fighting stance.
17.
Resume your practice by advancing four steps in the opposite direction.
18.
As the soldier becomes familiar with this exercise, include a reverse punch with each
block.
FOREARM BLOCK TO ELBOW STRIKE
19.
Assume the downward block position at fighting stance.
20.
Step forward and deliver a forearm block.
21.
Shift to straddle-leg stance and apply the elbow strike.
Figure 12-2
Lunge Punch Training Movements
Figure 12-3
Upper Block Training Movements
22.
Continue alternate blocks and counters, stepping forward each time you apply a forearm
block and move to the straddle-leg stance when you apply the elbow strike. Whenever you
practice blocking techniques, be sure to perform the block while retreating as well as while
advancing.
23.
As the soldier becomes familiar with this exercise, include a reverse punch after each
elbow strike.
CHAPTER 13
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
STRANGULATION
1.
Any material which is strong, thin and relatively pliable can be used as a weapon for
strangulation. These weapons are commonly referred to as Garrots. Wire is preferred because it
can decapitate your opponent.
Figure 13-1
2.
Garrot
Strangulation with Cord or Wire, One-Hand Loop a.
For this method of strangulation you need a piece of flexible wire or a piece of
cord about three feet in length, such as a bootlace. Approach your opponent from
the rear, holding the wire or cord ends in each hand. Toss it over his head from his
left and place the heel of your right hand, still holding the end of the cord, on his
shoulder near the nape of his neck. See Figure 13-2.
b.
At the same time, place your knee (either one) in the small of your opponent's
back and yank the cord or wire with your left hand while pushing with your right
hand. If this is done quickly, your opponent cannot cry out (see Figure 13-2). You
can tie the ends of the cord or wire around two short sticks for better handholds.
c.
Hold your garrot in both hands. Throw both hands over opponent's head and
ensure the garrot is on his neck. Turn 180 degrees from the opponent ensuring you
cross the garrot. Flip the opponent to the ground violently and continue the
pressure. You may cause unconsciousness or death depending on the force used
and the length of time the hold is applied. See Figure 13-3.
Figure 13-2
Strangulation Using a Garrot
Figure 13-3
Rearward Approach with Garrot
3.
Strangulation with Cord or Wire, Two-Hand Loop a.
Hold the wire or cord ends in each hand. Place your left forearm across the back
of your opponent's neck. Swing your right arm over your opponent's head from his
right, looping the cord in front of his throat.
b.
Complete the loop and jerk your arms sharply in opposite directions, tightening
the loop and strangling your opponent. Quick application of this method prevents
your opponent from crying out. You can cause unconsciousness or death,
depending on the force used and the length of time the hold is applied.
Figure 13-4
Two Hand Loop Strangulation
HELMET NECK BREAK
4.
Grab the front rim of your opponent's helmet with your left hand. At the same time, place
your right forearm against the back of his neck and place your right hand on his left shoulder.
5.
Holding firmly to the front rim of your opponent's helmet, pull his helmet up, back, and
down, and drive your right forearm forward. Your right forearm, under the back edge of his
helmet, acts as a lever against which his neck is broken. This method is possible only when your
opponent's helmet strap is fastened underneath his chin. See Figure 13-5.
Figure 13-5
Helmet Neck Break
HELMET SMASH
6.
If you see that your opponent's helmet strap is not fastened, or discover this when
attempting the helmet break, silence him with a helmet smash. Snatch your opponent's helmet
from his head. While doing this, grab his collar or shirt with your other hand, jerking him off
balance to his rear.
7.
Now smash the helmet on the back of his head or his temple. Your opponent may have a
chance to yell when this method is used.
Figure 13-6
Helmet Smash
CROTCH TAKE DOWN
8.
See. Figure 13-7.
Figure 13-7
Crotch Take Down
AVAILABLE WEAPONS
9.
Striking an opponent on his spine with a blunt object to stun him and striking him with a
sharp object to kill him; and
10.
Use of the homemade blackjack.
REAR TAKE-DOWN
11.
To take down a sentry from behind, simply grap both ankles and pull backwards. The
opponent will fall forward with his face hitting the ground.
Figure 13-8
Homemade Blackjack
Figure 13-9
Rear Take-Down
RIFLE AT YOUR BACK
12.
Note which hand is at the trigger.
13.
Swing the opposite arm down to deflect the rifle and pivot to face your opponent.
14.
Close with your opponent immediately to ensure he cannot shoot or strike you with the
weapon.
15.
Apply strike to disable your opponent.
Figure 13-10 Rifle at Back
RIFLE IN FRONT
16.
Note which hand is at the trigger.
17.
Push the rifle to the side with the same hand and immediately close with your opponent.
18.
Execute strikes to disable your opponent.
Figure 13-11 Rifle in Front
PISTOL IN BACK
19.
Note which hand has pistol.
20.
Swing the opposite arm down to deflect the pistol outward while simultaneously pivoting
around in the same direction.
21.
Ensure you close with the opponent and control his gun hand.
22.
Execute strikes to disable your opponent.
Figure 13-12 Pistol in Back
PISTOL IN FRONT
23.
Note which hand has pistol.
24.
Push the gun aside with the opposite hand while simultaneously pivoting 90 degrees to
present a smaller target. Ensure you control the gun hand.
25.
Execute strikes to disable your opponent.
Figure 13-13 Pistol in Front
POINTS ABOUT RIFLES AND PISTOLS
26.
If you can't reach the pistol or rifle with a fast hand movement, don't try it. Hopefully,
you'll get the chance later.
27.
Always pivot away from your opponent, If you pivot into him, the pressure will probably
cause him to pull the trigger by reflex.
28.
Always deflect the front part of the rifle toward the trigger hand. If you deflect in the
other way, you probably will get a butt stroke.
CHAPTER 14
HAND-HELD WEAPONS
Figure 14-1
Various Hand-Held Weapons
GENERAL
1.
The good hand to hand fighter can find several objets to help him in this attack and is
limited in the use of available weapons only by his own imagination. There are several objets
which usually are available to the soldier on the battlefield. Examples are as follow:
a.
Steel Helmet. See Special Techniques;
b.
Web Equipment. Full web equipement is usually heavy and could be used to
ward off an armed opponent or possibly disarm him;
c.
Entrenching Tool. This tool can be used to deliver deadly or disabling blows to
the opponent's body;
d.
Sand or Dirt. Thrown at a charging opponent, could upset his attack. It could also
create an opening during your attack; and
e.
Pen/Pencils. Stab to the eyes, face and stomach.
2.
If an opportunity arose where the soldier had time to arm himself, ie, escape and evasion,
he could make the following weapons:
a.
Make-shift Knives. Tape a handle to a six or eight inch spike. The spike could be
molded into a sharp edge by placing the spike on a railway track. Once flat, the
edge could be honed on a sandstone. Use also long narrow pieces of steel such as
hacksaw blades;
b.
Wire Garrote. See Special Techniques;
c.
Sharpened Sticks/Clubs/Spears; and
d.
Two short sticks. If attached together by a short piece of rope, will make an
effective weapon.
3.
These are only a few suggestions. Students will be asked to produce various weapons and
practice their application.
CHAPTER 15
BAYONET/PUGIL STICK FIGHTING
GENERAL
1.
Bayonet fighting is a technique that an infantry soldier must master. Training to perfect
this technique develops skill, confidence and aggressiveness in executing the movements.
2.
Two main methods are used for the training:
a.
the rifle with bayonet, which will be used against dummies and/or practice targets
spaced on the terrain to simulate combat; and
b.
the pugil stick, which increases realism by introducing blocking, movements,
feinting and counter-attacking. It is the ideal way to sharpen reflexes and increase
aggressiveness in combat.
3.
This chapter deals mainly with bayonet training methods and combat techniques. It also
covers pugil stick training methods and combat techniques. These two disciplines must not be
separated. They form part of a logical process in bayonet fighting training.
NOTE
Bayonet targets must be made of soft material to avoid damage to
the rifle barrel and to the bayonet. A ground target can be
represented by an earth-filled sandbag. A standing target can be
made from hessian, or other suitable cloth, filled with straw, foam
rubber or horse hair packing. During field firing training, sandbags
should be provided beside each enemy trench, and soldiers
instructed to bayonet these, and not the wood and carboard figure
targets.
PRINCIPLES
4.
Aggressiveness. The bayonet is an offensive weapon that must be used aggressively. Any
hesitation, delay or useless movement may be fatal. Therefore, the infantry soldier will attack
violently until the enemy surrenders or has been overpowered.
5.
Quickness. The bayonet fighter must know how to detect an opponent's slightest
weakness and exploit it instantly. If the opponent protects too well, the fighter must parry the
weapon and strike the opponent with the bayonet. or the butt of the rifle as violently as possible.
6.
Vulnerability. Although all parts of the body can be a target, the face and throat are most
vulnerable because the adversary will react instinctively to try to protect them against the point of
the bayonet, often leaving other vulnerable parts such as the chest, abdomen and groin
unprotected.
BASIC BAYONET MOVEMENTS
7.
On guard and rest. The on guard and rest positions are used only in training. They are
not attack movements.
a.
On guard. At the command on guard, the soldier moves one foot about 16 inches
forward and raises the rifle in a natural fighting position. The soldier holds the
rifle firmly, with one hand on the stock and the other on the pistol grip or throat of
the butt. The soldier leans slightly forward, keeping good balance and watching
the adversary closely; and
b.
Rest. At the command rest, the soldier puts the butt of the rifle between the feet
and holds the weapon vertically, with both hands around the end of the stock.
8.
Point. The point is the main attacking movement. The soldier usually executes this
movement from the on guard position (Figure 15-1) at about 1.5 m from the adversary. The point
is directed against a vulnerable part of the body, ie, the throat, face, abdomen or chest. To
execute this movement, proceed as follows:
a.
Seize the weapon firmly and thrust the bayonet vigorously into the enemy. Put the
weight of the body behind the thrust and advance the rear foot when the point
strikes the enemy. The point is usually executed when in motion and either foot
may be forward; and
b.
To extract the bayonet, pull the rifle straight back until the blade is out. After
sticking the bayonet into an enemy on the ground, it may be necessary to place
one foot on the victim to extract the weapon.
Figure 15-1
On Guard
Figure 15-2
Rest
Figure 15-3
Point, Enemy Standing
Figure 15-4
Point, Enemy on the Ground
9.
Left and right parry. The parry is a defensive movement that is used to turn aside an
adversary's weapon and make the enemy vulnerable. From the on guard position, strike your
adversary's rifle to the left or right with sufficient force to ward off the weapon. A parry must be
followed immediately by an attacking movement.
10.
Horizontal Butt Stroke. The horizontal butt stroke usually follows a left parry. Swing
the rifle, directing the lower end of the butt at your adversary's head or upper body. Put the
weight of your body behind the blow and bring the rear foot forward as you deliver it. A butt
stroke may very likely only stun your adversary and therefore must be followed by a slash and/or
point.
11.
Vertical butt stroke. The vertical butt stroke may be executed in the on guard or
crouching position. To execute a vertical butt stroke, move the rear foot forward and, at the same
time, bring the butt up in a vertical arc towards the adversary's groin, solar plexus or chin. Place
the entire weight of the body behind the blow.
Figure 15-5
Extraction of Weapon
Figure 15-6
Left Parry
Figure 15-7
Right Parry
Figure 15-8
Horizontal Butt Stroke
12.
Smash. The smash may be employed effectively when the enemy is backing up to avoid a
vertical butt stroke. Hold the rifle higher than the shoulder with the butt forward and the pistol
grip upward. Push the body forward off the rear leg and direct the butt straight into your
opponent's face. This movement can also be used following a failed horizontal butt stroke; in this
case the rifle is kept in a horizontal position.
13.
Slash. The slash can be used at the same time, but it is particularly effective following a
smash that has missed or that your opponent has dodged. Bring the rifle down hard diagonally
striking your opponent between the shoulder and the head.
14.
High port. The high port position is first and foremost a defensive position used in pugil
stick drills at the beginning of the combat when your adversary approaches. Nevertheless, this
same position can also be used for crowd control before the first physical contact.
WARNING
The weapon must not be used as a stick to push back a crowd or
contain it in a perimeter. This manoeuvre would make it possible
for an assailant to seize partial or total control of the weapon.
MOVEMENTS FOLLOWING A FAILED ATTACK
15.
A single movement will almost never be sufficient to kill or put your adversary out of
action. In almost all cases, success will result only from a skillful combination of basic
movements. The infantry soldier must always keep balanced and be ready to combine
movements in order to keep the advantage of the attack.
16.
Right parry and point. The aim of the right parry is to ward off the adversary's weapon.
This movement will be followed immediately by a point to the throat or face.
Figure 15-9
Vertical Butt Stroke
Figure 15-10 Smash
15-11 Slash
Figure 15-12 High Port
17.
Left parry, butt stroke and point. The aim of the left parry is to ward off the adversary's
weapon and this movement will be followed by a horizontal butt stroke in a continuous
movement. The butt stroke is directed at the opponent's head and a point is immediately directed
towards a fallen or stunned enemy.
18.
Point following a failed attack. If the adversary retreats in order to parry a point, slightly
bend your left arm, move your rear foot forward and execute another point, stiffening the left arm
in order to increase the force of the blow. A series of points can be executed until the adversary is
struck. Execute a series of points in rapid succession in order to keep your opponent off balance.
19.
Point and vertical butt stroke. If a point is directed at the opponent's face and the
bayonet passes over the head after the enemy ducks, bend the left arm slightly, push forward off
the rear foot and bring the butt of the rifle upwards in a relatively short vertical arc. Aim the butt
at your opponent's groin or solar plexus.
20.
Point and horizontal butt stroke. If a point has been executed to either side of your
opponent or if it has been dodged, instead of returning on the defensive, push forward off your
rear foot and bring the butt of the rifle across in a wide horizontal arc.
21.
Butt stroke and smash. If a butt stroke misses your adversary, continue the movement
until the rifle is approximately in the position shown in Figure 15-10. Then push forward off your
rear foot and direct the butt of the rifle against your adversary's face or throat with as much force
as possible.
22.
Smash and slash. If your adversary backs up in order to avoid a smash, the rifle is in an
excellent position to execute a slash. Push forward off your rear foot and bring the bayonet down
diagonally between your opponent's neck and shoulder.
COMBINATION MOVEMENTS
23.
Figures 15-13, 15-14 and 15-15 illustrate various effective ways to combine consecutive
movements after a bayonet attack has failed. Several other combination movements are possible
depending on the effectiveness of your opponent's reactions.
PUGIL STICK DRILL
24.
Pugil stick drill is the most realistic way to teach the art of bayonet fighting. This method
places the infantry soldier in the presence of an adversary who thinks, moves, retreats, dodges,
reciprocates and corrects movements. The soldier must learn to remain vigilant and react
instantly. A timid soldier will very quickly become tired of being beaten and will counterattack.
As soon as the soldier becomes aware of the advantages of attack over defence, the soldier
becomes self-confident and moves aggressively.
25.
Pugil stick drill is also an excellent way to improve physical fitness. The soldier must
make a maximum effort during bouts that usually last 45 seconds to one minute and 30 seconds.
Several factors are required in order to obtain full benefit from the exercise involved in this
combat technique: training received, protective equipment, instruction, supervision and safety.
26.
Training received. It is very important for each soldier to be fully trained before
participating in pugil stick bouts. A lack of technique and knowledge will make a soldier
ineffective and increase the risk of sustaining injuries.
Figure 15-13 (Page 1 of 3) Point, Horizontal Butt Stroke, Smash, Slash, Point
Figure 15-13 (Page 2 of 3) Point Horizontal Butt Stroke Smash Slash Point
Figure 15-13 (Page 2 of 3) Point Horizontal Butt Stroke Smash Slash Point
Figure 15-13 (Page 3 of 3) Point Horizontal Butt Stroke, Smash, Slash, Point
Figure 15-13 (Page 3 of 3) Point Horizontal Butt Stroke, Smash, Slash, Point
Figure 15-14 (Page 1 of 2) Left Parry, Horizontal Butt Stroke, Slash, Point
Figure 15-14 (Page 1 of 2) Left Parry, Horizontal Butt Stroke, Slash, Point
Figure 15-14 (Page 2 of 2) Left Par Horizontal Butt Stroke Slash Point
Figure 15-14 (Page 2 of 2) Left Par Horizontal Butt Stroke Slash Point
Figure 15-15 (Page 1 of 2) Point, Vertical Butt Stroke, Smash, Point
Figure 15-15 (Page 1 of 2) Point, Vertical Butt Stroke, Smash, Point
Figure 15-15 (Page 1 of 2) Point, Vertical Butt Stroke, Smash, Point
27.
Protective equipment. All the equipment must be well adjusted and in good condition.
This equipment comprises the following:
a.
Helmet. The helmet must be adjustable so that it can fit the head. It must not rock
back and forth or obstruct the view of a soldier who has been struck on the top of
the head, nor must it pivot when the soldier is struck on the side of the head. If the
helmet is slightly too big, fill the empty space with foam rubber padding;
b.
Protective mask. The protective mask must be fastened firmly and the lower bar
must be padded where it rests on the chest or strikes it;
c.
Groin protector. The groin protector belt must be in good condition and must
hold the protector firmly agains the body;
d.
Gloves. The gloves must be padded and in good condition; and
e.
Pugil stick. The pugil stick must be in good condition and well padded. Do not
use broken or cracked sticks.
28.
Details concerning the equipment shown below as well as its specific characteristics and
the method of manufacturing the pugil stick are found at Annex B of this chapter.
29.
Instructions. The instructor's directives are the most important factor in preventing
accidents. The instructor must insist on the soldiers executing bayonet fighting movements.
Erratic windmill styles will not be tolerated. The soldiers must always keep both hands on the
pugil stick.
30.
Supervision and safety. The instructor must be attentive to the slightest risk of injury
and stop the bout by blowing a whistle. Persons who have suffered from hernia, frequent
headaches, concussions, or those who have recently had teeth extracted, or have stitches in place
must be excluded from the pugil stick drill as a precautionary measure until advised otherwise by
the doctor.
CONDUCT OF TRAINING
31.
The soldiers must begin by learning and then practising, with the service rifle, the basic
movements and movements to use when a blow has failed to land (Lessons 1 and 2 at Annex A).
Then they will be outfitted with the pugil stick equipment, and will practise the basic movements
and movements to use when a blow has failed to land against an adversary who is making only
defensive movements (Lesson 3 at Annex A). The next phase consists of competitive bouts with
the pugil stick. When the soldiers have mastered the technique and shown an agressive spirit,
they will be taught group attack tactics (Lessons 4, 5 and 6 at Annex A). The teaching program
should not comprise more than one bayonet or pugil stick drill per day, because of the resulting
fatigue.
COMBAT
32.
Organization. At the beginning of the pugil stick drill, it is advantageous to work with
groups not larger than a platoon. Trace a circle with a diameter of about 12 paces on the ground.
This becomes the arena. The soldiers stand around the outside of the circle and the instructor,
who acts as a referee, remains in the circle.
33.
Bout. The instructor announces the beginning of the bout by blowing a whistle and
designating two soldiers. They advance into the arena with their weapons held high and begin the
bout. In the first bout, the adversaries may exchange blows in order to realize that their protective
equipment will protect them sufficiently well against a hard blow. The instructor will then direct
the bouts in a closed area.
34.
Bout in a closed area. A bout in a closed area comprises three one-minute rounds. The
winner of the bout is the one who "kills" the opponent by putting the opponent out of action or
causing the opponent to leave the arena. A "kill" consists in striking the adversary with a blow
that would have killed or put an enemy soldiers out of action if a rifle was used. The bout can be
stopped with a whistle when one of the adversaries wins or the minute is up. The adversaries
withdraw to opposite sides of the arena and when the whistle is blown again, the combat
resumes. The soldier who wins two of three rounds wins the bout. Another method consists in
organizing bouts with a single round lasting three minutes.
35.
Instructor. It is recommended that the instructor also be dressed in protective gear. If
feelings begin to run high and the adversaries fail to stop at the sound of the whistle, the referee
will intervene immediately and stop the bout. The referee must be constantly vigilant to detect
any danger, including any equipment breakage and if necessary stop the bout immediately. The
instructor will insist on combatants shouting during the bout. This fosters aggressiveness and
enables them to keep their mouths open so that they will not break their teeth because of a blow
on the head. They must be encouraged to be aggressive and attack rather than waiting for their
adversary. If a soldier executes a movement poorly or completely loses balance, the instructor
will stop the bout, correct the problem and then allow the bout to continue.
ANNEX A, CHAPTER 15
LESSON GUIDE
LESSON 1 - BASIC BAYONET MOVEMENTS
1.
Aim of the lesson. To teach soldiers to perform basic bayonet movements.
a.
on guard, rest and high port;
b.
point and extraction of weapon;
c.
vertical and horizontal butt strokes;
d.
smash;
e.
slash; and
f.
right and left parry.
2.
Duration. Fifty minutes are required to complete Lesson 1.
3.
Training equipment and supplies. A rifle equipped with a bayonet for each soldier.
4.
Program and method.
a.
Safety measures.
b.
Introduction. Review very briefly the role of the rifle. Explain the aim and
principles of bayonet fighting. Insist on the fact that this weapon still belongs on
today's battlefield.
c.
Training.
d.
(1)
Demonstrate, explain and demonstrate again, having the soldiers imitate
the movements. The soldiers must then practise each basic movement in
the order in which they are given in para 1. The soldiers will stand in line,
leaving enough space between them to execute lateral movements.
(2)
During the drill, use the commands indicated in para 1. This training will
be fairly tiring for the soldiers and they must react instantly to the orders
given. Each soldier will be required to participate energetically.
Conclusion. Tell the soldiers that, in the following lesson, the basic attacking
movements will be combined in various manners.
LESSON 2 - MOVEMENTS FOLLOWING A FAILED ATTACK
1.
Aim of the lesson. The aim of the lesson is to teach the soldiers to execute basic
movements to be used to continue the attack when a blow has failed to land.
2.
Duration. Fifty minutes are required to complete Lesson 2.
3.
Training equipment and supplies. Obtain the following:
4.
a.
a rifle equipped with a bayonet for each soldier, and
b.
training dummies (preferably with parry arms).
Program and method.
a.
Safety precautions.
b.
Review. Repeat the basic movements taught in Lesson 1.
c.
Introduction. Explain that no one basic movement can kill or put an enemy out
of action. A combination of movements is required. Explain to the soldiers that
they must use common sense and modify the combination movements taught
during this lesson.
d.
Training.
(1)
Demonstrate, explain, demonstrate again and have the soldiers practise
each of the combinations outlined below. Use the terms for the movements
when giving orders during the drill.
(2)
Have the soldiers stand about two metres apart in a straight line.
(3)
Have them execute combination movements in the following order:
(a)
point, extraction;
(b)
point, point, extraction;
(c)
right parry, point, extraction;
(d)
left parry, butt stroke, point, extraction;
(e)
left parry butt stroke, slash, point, extraction;
(f)
point, vertical butt stroke, point, extraction; and
(g)
e.
f.
left parry, butt stroke, smash, slash, point, extraction.
Drill with Dummy.
(1)
Demonstrate, explain, demonstrate again and have the soldiers carry out
each of the combination movements indicated above, using dummies.
(2)
Insist on the vigour and aggressiveness of attacks, which will be
accompanied by grunts and shouts.
(3)
After the initial drills in which the soldiers will execute the orders, have
them attack the dummy, using complete combinations of movements.
Conclusion. Tell the soldiers that the basic and combined movements that they
have learned will be applied against their adversaries.
LESSON 3 - INTRODUCTION TO PUGIL STICK DRILL
1.
Aim of the lesson. The aim of the lesson is to teach the soldiers to execute the basic
movements and movements following a failed attack, using pugil stick drill equipment.
2.
Duration. Fifty minutes are required to complete Lesson 3.
3.
Training equipment and materials.
a.
b.
Each soldier must have:
(1)
a pugil stick,
(2)
a pair of lacrosse or hockey gloves,
(3)
a groin protector, and
(4)
a football helmet with a protective mask and chin guard strap.
Each instructor must have:
(1) a helmet, gloves and groin protector, and
(2)
a whistle.
4.
Distribution and adjustment of equipment. Pugil stick drill equipment will be handed
out to the soldiers and adjusted before the beginning of this lesson. An instructor will need about
30 minutes to adjust the equipment of 20 to 30 men. The following points should be noted:
5.
a.
Helmet. The helmet must be perfectly adjusted on the head to be effective. It
must remain in place despite a hard blow on the top or side. The chin guard strap
can be adjusted to a comfortable fit. Foam rubber padding can be added inside the
helmet, if necessary. Ensure that a hard blow to the protective helmet will not
move the helmet or push the mask into the soldier's face. When the adjustments
have been completed, the soldier's name can be fastened to the helmet with
adhesive tape to accelerate the distribution of the equipment during subsequent
lessons.
b.
Gloves. The gloves must be comfortable.
c.
Groin protector. The groin protector is worn over the clothing. Ensure that the
belt is in good condition and that the cup is adjusted comfortably.
d.
Pugil stick. The pugil sticks are not adjusted, but must always be examined
before they are distributed. Do not use broken or cracked sticks. If the seams on
the canvas covering are loose, the stick must NOT be used.
Program and Method.
a.
Introduction. Briefly summarize the reasons for the pugil stick drill. Warn the
soldiers that kicking or kneeing, etc, will not be used during the pugil stick drill
although they will be in combat.
b.
Organization. Form two-man teams and have them line up facing each other at
from four to five metres apart. Designate one of the members as the attacker and
the other as the defender. Have all the attackers on the same side.
c.
Procedure.
d.
(1)
The attackers will advance on the defenders with the defenders using only
defensive movements, parrying and blocking attacks with their sticks and
backing up. Have the attackers use the combination movements described
in para 4d(3) of Lesson 2 until they are thoroughly familiar with them and
then reverse the roles.
(2)
In the next stage, have the attackers execute all the combination
movements while trying to land hard blows. The defenders will protect
themselves with their sticks while backing up. Reverse roles.
Conclusion. Explain to the soldiers that, after mastering the combination
movements with pugil stick drill equipment, they will engage in actual bouts in
which they will not be limited to either attacking or defensive roles.
LESSONS 4, 5 AND 6 - PUGIL STICK DRILL
1.
Aim of the lessons. The aim of the lessons is to have the participants take part in pugil
stick drills, making correct use of bayonet handling movements.
2.
Duration. Fifty minutes are required to complete each lesson.
3.
Training equipment and materials. The following items are required:
4.
a.
a complete set of pugil stick drill equipment for each soldier,
b.
a complete set of protective equipment for each instructor; and
c.
a whistle.
Program and Method.
a.
Equipment. Distribute and inspect the equipment and check the adjustment.
b.
Review. Briefly review the combination movements in Lesson 3 (omit this phase
for Lessons 5 and 6).
c.
Introduction. Explain the organization and conduct of pugil stick bouts. Insist on
the soldiers' attacking when they hear the whistle and stopping when they hear it
again.
d.
Procedure. Direct the pugil stick bouts. One instructor must referee each of the
bouts. The instructor will remain vigilant to detect any hazardous situation and
will stop the bout when:
e.
(1)
equipment becomes loose or breaks,
(2)
a "lethal" blow has been landed,
(3)
a soldier executes a movement poorly (correct it and restart the bout), or
(4)
the time has expired.
Conclusion. Review the lessons and emphasize the importance of aggressiveness
and quickness.
5.
Additional drill. Once the six lessons have been completed, the soldiers must participate
regularly in pugil stick drills to retain their skills. Since pugil stick drills are an excellent way to
improve a soldier's physical fitness, the drills could be put to good use in the unit's physical
training program.
ANNEX B, CHAPTER 15
PUGIL STICK DRILL EQUIPMENT
GENERAL
1.
The protective equipment should enable a soldier to participate in the bouts without fear
of being injured. This will help the soldier to develop a personal bayonet fighting style and
improve skills. The parts of the body to protect are the head, face, groin and hands. The
equipment described below is designed to protect against injury (see Figure 15B-1).
2.
The equipment designed to protect the head is a football helmet with a stainless steel
mask.
a.
Football helmet. When purchasing football helmets, take various possible head
sizes into account. It is recommended that 10 percent of the helmets be size 6-1/2
to 6-3/4, 80 percent size 6-7/8 and 10 percent size 7-1/4 to 7-1/2. Helmets that are
too big can be adjusted by adding foam rubber padding inside them. A vinyl
plastic chin guard strap and foam rubber are used to attach the helmet.
b.
Characteristics of Protective Mask.
(1)
The protective mask is made of 0.635-cm (1/4-inch) stainless steel bars
that have been electric-arc-welded at all junction and intersection points.
The mask must consist of a rear shell and a lower shell which are attached
to three vertical bars and two horizontal ones.
(2)
The mask is manufactured in accordance with the specifications set out in
Figures 15B-2 and 15B-3. A vertical bar is attached at 5.72 cm (2-1/4
inches) on each side of the central bar.
(3)
Two horizontal bars are used to reinforce the vertical bars. The upper bar
is connected to each side of the rear shell at the points where this shell
curves as well as on the lower parts of the vertical bars. The lower
horizontal bar extends from one vertical lateral bar to the other, going
under the central vertical one. This bar is fastened 2.54 cm (1 inch) above
the base formed by the lower shell.
Figure 15B-1 Pugil Stick Drill Equipment
(4)
The convex part of the mask is formed as follows:
(a)
the contour of the rear shell that curves downwards towards the
ears. This curve has a radius of 9.53 cm (3-3/4 inches), measured
from a point located 5.4 cm (2-1/8 inches) above the base line
formed by the lower shell,
(b)
the form of the upper horizontal bar, whose 9.53 cm (3-3/4 inch)
radius is measured from a point located 3.2 cm (1-1/4 inches) in
front of the base line, and
(5)
The curve of the central vertical bar has a radius of 17.15 cm (6-3/4
inches) measured from a point located 4.4 cm (1-3/4 inches) in front of the
vertical base line and 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) below the horizontal line. The
curve of the two lateral vertical bars has a radius of 16.5 cm (6-1/2
inches), measured from a point located 3.2 cm (1-1/4 inches) in front of
the vertical base line and 3.2 cm (1-1/4 inches) below the horizontal base
line.
(6)
The drawings in Figures 15B-2 and 15B-3 give additional measurements.
c.
Fastening the Protective Mask to the Helmet.
(1)
The protective mask is fastened in front of the helmet at three points:
centre, right side and left side (Figure 15B-3).
(2)
It must be fastened with a strap of industrial leather 5 cm (2 inches) wide
and 0.49 cm (3/16 inches) thick, with the outside polished. The leather
strap must be wrapped around the bar and its two ends must be firmly
attached to the helmet.
(3)
The central leather strap must be 5 cm (2 inches) wide and 8.26 cm (3-1/4
inches) long. A hole 1.91 cm (3/4 inch) in diameter is made in the centre
of the leather strap. A 1.12 cm (7/16 inch) wide slit is cut from one end of
the strap to the central hole. Four additional holes 0.32 cm (1/8 inch) in
diameter are made, two on each end of the strap 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) from
the sides and 1.91 cm (3/4 inch) from the ends.
(4)
The lateral leather straps are identical and are 5 cm (2 inches) wide and
7.63 cm (3 inches) long. Two 0.32 cm (1/8 inch) holes are made on each
side of the strap 1.27 cm (11/2 inch) from the sides and 1. 12 cm (7/16
inch) from the ends.
(5)
The mask is connected to the centre of the helmet by drilling two holes to
attach the leather strap. The split end of this strap is placed on the central
bar of the mask and under the rear shell. The other end of the strap is then
folded so that the holes of the two ends coincide with the holes in the
helmet. It is then attached by two split, copper rivets, with a diameter of
10 and 1.6 cm (5/8 inch) long and by riveting burrs. Any other rustresistant, self-locking fastener may be used, provided that it has a smooth
surface on the inside and outside of the helmet, and that it has the same
dimensions and resistance as the recommended copper rivet. The rivet
passes through the helmet and the two ends of the strap.
Figure 15B-2 Characteristics of Protective Mask
Figure 15B-3 Protective Helmet and Mask
(6)
d.
The mask is attached on each side of the helmet to the section of the rear
shell that is parallel to the front edge of the part of the helmet that protects
the ears. The type of fastener makes it possible for the mask to move
somewhat when it is struck. The fastener covers a 6.35 cm (2-1/2 inches)
section of the rear shell, leaving a 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) portion of the bar
uncovered when it is in position. This fastener is attached in such a way
that the upper joint of this section or the bar (the junction of the rear shell
and the upper horizontal bar) rests on the upper edge of the fastener,
leaving a vertical play of 1.27 cm (1/2 inch). The lateral fasteners are
attached in the same manner as the central ones, using the straps described
in 2c(5).
Characteristics of the mask cushion. The lower part of the mask must have a
moulded foam rubber cushion 16.512 cm (6-1/2 inches) long, 4.45 cm (1-3/4
inches) wide and 1.91 cm (3/4 inch) thick. The cushion will have two heavy
canvas straps 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) wide, each of which has a metal snap fastener
making it possible to fasten it to the lower shell of the mask. This cushion protects
the upper part of the chest when the mask is driven in by a hard blow.
GROIN PROTECTION
3.
The groin is protected by a canvas apron fitted with a cup similar to those found in
athletic supporters. It is worn over the clothing so that it can be put and taken off quickly on the
training field. This apron should be made of drill. Recycled half-tents and platoon tents can be
used as long as the canvas is still in good shape.
HAND PROTECTION
4.
Lacross gloves are recommended for pugil stick drill. They provide maximum protection
for the fingers, knuckles and wrists and make it possible to move the stick effectively. Hockey
gloves can also be used but they slightly restrict movement.
PUGIL STICK
5.
Materials. The list of material required to make the pugil stick is found in Figure 15B-4.
To provide better protection, the stick handle can be covered with foam rubber, leaving enough
room for the hands. Light sticks can be made heavier by rolling rubber from automobile inner
tubes around the central part of the handle under the layer of foam rubber.
6.
Construction. The steps in making a pugil stick are mentioned below and Steps 1 to 6
are illustrated in Figure 15B-5:
a.
Step 1. Cut a stick with the required dimensions.
b.
Step 2. Spread a sheet of plastic foam 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) thick, 12.7 cm (5 inches)
wide and 1.22 m (4 feet) long on a flat surface and roll it as tightly as possible.
Roll two of these sheet and place them at each end of the stick. Apply rubber
cement on the contact surface as the sheet is rolled on.
c.
Step 3. To prepare the end of the stick representing the bayonet, spread a sheet of
plastic foam 1.27 cm (1/2 inch) thick, 29.21 cm (11-1/2 inches) wide and 3.66 m
(12 feet) long on a flat surface. Apply rubber cement on the contact surface and
roll it as tightly as possible around the pods formed by the small roll of plastic
foam covering the stick, which was made in Step 2. Attach the roll with elastic
bands. Let dry for at least 24 hours.
d.
Step 4. To make the part of the stick that represents the rifle butt, cut a sheet of
plastic foam of decreasing width in accordance with the dimensions indicated in
Figure 15B-5, and proceed as indicated in Step 3.
e.
Step 5. Make two canvas bags 15.2 cm (6 inches) in diameter and 35.6 cm (14
inches) long. Use the French stitching illustrated in Figure 15B-5 to reinforce the
seams.
f.
Step 6. Place the canvas bag on the end of an adjustable sleeve such as a piece of
sheet metal of No. 28 thickness. At the other end, insert the end of the stick
covered with plastic foam. Exert sufficient pressure on the body of the metal
sleeve; push the stick into the canvas bag and withdraw the metal sleeve.
g.
Step 7. Attach the canvas bag to the stick with No. 4 fencing staples and then cut
off the surplus canvas.
h.
Step 8. Cover the No. 4 fencing staples with strips of heavy cardboard.
j.
Step 9. Cover the cardboard strips with adhesive tape.
OBTAINING PUGIL STICK DRILL EQUIPMENT
7.
The training aids personnel can make pugil sticks and groin-protector aprons on the site.
The helmet and mask, gloves and the cup used to protect the groin are items found in commercial
stores and are not kept in stock. Out-of-sequence serial numbers are used to identify these items
and they are purchased locally. To obtain appropriate equipment that is consistent with safety
and protection standards, the supplier or contractor must know the specifications set out in this
document. It must be noted that the mask is attached to the helmet so that it will move slightly
under the effect of a blow. This automatically eliminates a part of the shock that would otherwise
be completely transferred to the head and neck, if the mask were solidly attached to the helmet.
Figure 15B-4 Materials Required to Make a Pugil Stick
Figure 15B-5 Steps in Making a Pugil Stick
ANNEX C, CHAPTER 15
BAYONET FIGHTING TRAINING APPARATUS
GENERAL
1.
To ensure that soldiers can properly execute the movements used in bayonet fighting,
they must have a suitable target on which to practise.
2.
The use of a properly constructed target will minimize the damage to either the weapon
or bayonet. However, the zeroing of the weapon will always be affected.
SACKS
3.
The sacks are constructed of tent canvas tightly packed with styrofoam chips, straw or
some similar material.
4.
The sacks may be patched with a tent repair kit and should be regularly restuffed.
THE MANNEQUIN
5.
The mannequin is used to practise the point and smash.
6.
The mannequin (see Figure 15C-1), may be designed so that it can be used on a drill hall
floor, parade square or any other temporary site. The installation of the mannequin on a
permanent area, where it is possible to place the legs of the stand into the ground, will result in a
large saving in lumber. However, any outdoor stand should be frequently treated with wood
preservative and the sacks should be stored indoors when not in use.
GROUND SACK
7.
The ground sack is used to practise the ground point and extraction (see Figure 15C-2).
8.
For indoor training, the ground sack should be backed by a 30 cm thick styrofoam block,
a 30 cm thick foam rubber block or any material that will protect the bayonet from being broken
on the floor.
THE SCAFFOLD
9.
The scaffold is used to practice the parry, butt stroke and slash.
10.
The scaffold (see Figure 15C-3) can be de-signed for use either indoors or outdoors.
Figure 15C-1 The Mannequin
Figure 15C-2 The Ground Sack
Figure 15C The Scaffold
CHAPTER 16
VULNERABLE POINTS OF BODY
GENERAL
1.
Vulnerable points are areas of the body which are particularly susceptible to blows or
pressure. Since your life is at stake, you should forget any concept of fair play, and attack these
vulnerable points. Striking your opponent in a vulnerable area may cause him to drop his defence
temporarily, thus leaving him open to receive your follow-up blows to other parts of his body.
The important vulnerable point of the body are discussed below.
VULNERABLE POINTS IN THE HEAD AND NECK REGION
2.
Eyes. Blows to the eyes will cause tempory or permanent blindness and intense pain.
3.
Nose. Blows to the nose cause intense pain and watering of the eyes.
4.
Ears. Sharp, heavy blows can cause brain concussion. Lesser blows can cause shock or
result in ruptured eardrums and internal bleeding.
5.
Nape of the Neck. A blow to the nape of the neck may cause temporary loss of
consciousness. If you strike with great force you can break his spine.
6.
Adam's Apple. A blow to the Adam's apple usually causes pain and breathlessness. If
such a blow is delivered forcefully, the Adam's apple may be crushed and the opponent will
strangle.
7.
Temple. Forceful hand blows to the temple may cause loss of consciousness and could
result in death.
VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE TRUNK
8.
arm.
Collarbone. A broken collarbone will cause intense pain and will disable the attached
9.
Solar Plexus. A sharp blow to the solar plexus will cause shock, breathlessness, and
possible internal injuries.
10.
Stomach. A sharp blow to the stomach also will cause breathlessness and possible
internal injuries.
11.
Kidneys. Forceful blows to the kidneys will cause intense pain, shock and internal
injuries.
12.
Spine. Vigourous blows can dislocate the vertebrae of the spine, pinching and severing
the spinal cord, and causing intense pain or paralysis.
13.
Groin. The groin is a very accessible target. Striking the groin will cause extreme pain
and disability.
Figure 16-1
Vulnerable Points of the Body
Figure 16-2
Vulnerable Points
VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE LIMBS
14.
Blows to the limbs will cause intense pain and disability.
15.
Arms. Using blows, it is difficult to disable the arms of a standing opponent. The bones
of his arms and hands can be broken by using certain procedures discussed earlier in this manual.
16.
Legs. A kick to the shin is very painful. The small bones of the ankle and foot can be
broken, crippling
our opponent. The knee bends in only one direction, and its tendons and
cartilage can be torn by kicks
to the side or front of the knee.
ANNEX A
NOTES TO INSTRUCTORS
1.
The instructor. The instructor must be in good physical shape, must be able to perform
all of the techniques in this manual, and must possess the leadership qualities necessary to inspire
his students.
CAUTION
Instructors must teach the techniques in this manual rather than
their own individual styles. The techniques in this manual form the
basic techniques from wich most hand to hand fighting had
developed, and once the student has mastered these, he can then
develop very sophisticated styles. Approximately one
instructor/assistant instructor for 10 student pairs (20 students) is
an adequate ratio.
2.
Levels of Training a.
b.
3.
Basic Level Unarmed Combat (1)
The Basic Level is designed to teach the soldier the fundamentals of
correct attacking and counter-attacking techniques. Instructors will include
hand strikes, feet strikes, blocks, stances, alignments, and moving
techniques.
(2)
This level of training is designed to be taught at the Battle school. In
addition these skills will be maintained throughout the year during unit run continuation training. It is recommended that 3 x 1 hour periods be
devoted weekly not to run successively, but altered every day with the
usual exercises of the PT programme. A unit can however, dedicate a
fixed period of time such as one week bi-yearly or two days monthly with
a limited loss in standard.
Instructors' Level. The Instructors' Level is a course of 10 training days where
the potential instructor reinforces his Basic Level, and learns additional
techniques. He develops the speed and confidence to become an effective fighter
and instructor.
Major Points of Unarmed Training a.
Always use the principles and techniques outlined in this manual. Most beginning
students want to advance more quickly to the more exciting sparring sessions.
However, instructors must build a firm foundation in the basic techniques first, or
progress will eventually be hampered and individual skill will never be developed
to full potential. The basic techniques are the most effective killing techniques.
b.
The more you practice, the better you will get. Try to practice on your own or
with a partner daily.
c.
When an opponent is in a vulnerable position, press the attack to the finish. You
are learning a killing skill, not a sport, and you don't give the other person the
chance to recover.
4.
Training Areas. Any area with sufficient space (approximately eight square feet per pair
of students) is suitable for use in training the techniques in this manual. A grassy open field is
preferable; however, training may be conducted or indoors or outdoors on any surface that is not
slippery.
5.
Commands. a.
Most of the techniques described in this manual can be divided into steps or
phases. To command execution of a specific technique, all that is required is
identification of the technique and intermediate commands to signal execution of
each phase or step. For example: The block and reverse punch combination is a
five-step technique in practice. To prepare the students, announce:
"FROM FIGHTING STANCE, RIGHT INSIDE LOCK AND REVERSE
PUNCH": Students hold natural stance.
"MOVE": Students assume from fighting stance.
"ONE": Students execute right inside block.
"TWO": Students execute left reverse punch.
"THREE": Students resume natural stance.
b.
Until students are completely familiar with the names of movements, it is
recommended that an assistant instructor, demonstrate the technique before
students execute it.
c.
After the students have learned the technique, this particular movement could be
executed in two phases. For example:
"FROM FIGHTING STANCE, EXECUTE RIGHT INSIDE BLOCK AND
REVERSE PUNCH": Students hold natural stance. "MOVE": Student step into
front forward stance simultaneously executing right inside block, then execute left
reverse punch, then resume natural stance.
d.
Similar commands can be used for the other techniques discussed in this manual.
6.
Safety a.
Supervise all training sessions closely.
b.
Do not allow horseplay. Remember, these men are learning to kill.
c.
Do not allow intentional striking of an individual by another. As speed, power and
techniques are developed, it won't be long before the student possesses the ability
to kill with one or two well placed blows.
d.
During the stages of learning and perfecting techniques, student partners must be
made aware of the particular technique to be practiced it is executed.
e.
When practicing counter knife, bayonet, pistol, or rifle techniques, ensure that
scabbards are firmly attached and taped on, and that fingers are not placed in
trigger guards.
f.
For safety guidelines on CF unarmed combat demonstrations see the respective
CFAO and FMCO.
ANNEX B
CALISTHENICS EXERCICES
1.
Calisthenics are an essential part of all athletics, and this is especially true for unarmed
combat. You must develop mobility, flexibility, and strength to maximize your fighting potential.
The better conditioned fighter has the edge.
2.
Unarmed combat calisthenics are divided into four (4) parts: Stretching and warm-up
exercises, strength building exercises, increasing reaction and speed exercises, and stamina
exercises. A suggested daily warm-up routine is as follows:
a.
b.
c.
Stretching (1)
Circle the head - loosen neck muscles.
(2)
Rotate extended arms - loosen shoulder muscles.
(3)
Arm flings - loosen arm and chest muscles.
(4)
Circles from the trunk - loosen stomach and back muscles.
(5)
Toe and floor touch - legs.
(6)
Leg stretches.
(7)
Back stretches with partner.
Strengthening Exercises (1)
Neck exercises - dynamic tentron.
(2)
Arms and fist exercise.
(3)
Stomach - sit-ups and leg raises.
(4)
Legs - squats.
(5)
Ankles and feet - heel raises.
Speed and Stamina Exercises. These are practiced during class in the form of
repetition of basic techniques.
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