SAS 9.4 Intelligence Platform: Overview, Second Edition

SAS 9.4 Intelligence Platform: Overview, Second Edition
SAS 9.4 Intelligence
Platform
®
Overview
Second Edition
SAS® Documentation
The correct bibliographic citation for this manual is as follows: SAS Institute Inc. 2016. SAS® 9.4 Intelligence Platform:
Overview, Second Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
SAS® 9.4 Intelligence Platform: Overview, Second Edition
Copyright © 2016, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA
All rights reserved. Produced in the United States of America.
For a hard-copy book: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
publisher, SAS Institute Inc.
For a web download or e-book: Your use of this publication shall be governed by the terms established by the vendor at
the time you acquire this publication.
The scanning, uploading, and distribution of this book via the Internet or any other means without the permission of the
publisher is illegal and punishable by law. Please purchase only authorized electronic editions and do not participate in or
encourage electronic piracy of copyrighted materials. Your support of others' rights is appreciated.
U.S. Government License Rights; Restricted Rights: The Software and its documentation is commercial computer
software developed at private expense and is provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS to the United States Government. Use,
duplication or disclosure of the Software by the United States Government is subject to the license terms of this Agreement
pursuant to, as applicable, FAR 12.212, DFAR 227.7202-1(a), DFAR 227.7202-3(a) and DFAR 227.7202-4 and, to the extent
required under U.S. federal law, the minimum restricted rights as set out in FAR 52.227-19 (DEC 2007). If FAR 52.227-19 is
applicable, this provision serves as notice under clause (c) thereof and no other notice is required to be affixed to the
Software or documentation. The Government's rights in Software and documentation shall be only those set forth in this
Agreement.
SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513-2414.
January 2016
SAS® and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute
Inc. in the USA and other countries. ® indicates USA registration.
Other brand and product names are trademarks of their respective companies.
Contents
Accessibility Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Chapter 1 • Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
About the SAS Business Analytics Framework and
the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Strategic Benefits of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
About SAS Visual Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Chapter 2 • Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Architecture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAS Server Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Middle Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
17
18
21
21
Chapter 3 • Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Overview of Data Storage Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default SAS Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Third-Party Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hadoop Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multidimensional Databases (Cubes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Data Sources Are Managed in the Metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
26
27
28
29
31
32
Chapter 4 • Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Overview of SAS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAS Metadata Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Server Objects, Application Servers, and Logical Servers . . . . . . . .
Load Balancing for SAS Workspace Servers, SAS
Stored Process Servers, and SAS OLAP Servers . . . . . . . . . . . .
Workspace Pooling for SAS Workspace Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
40
44
47
47
iv Contents
Logging and Monitoring for SAS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
SAS Grid Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
SAS LASR Analytic Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Chapter 5 • Middle-Tier Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Overview of Middle-Tier Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAS Middle Tier Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAS Content Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
54
55
58
Chapter 6 • Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Overview of Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SAS BI Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
SAS BI Portlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SAS Data Integration Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SAS Enterprise Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
SAS Enterprise Miner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
SAS Environment Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
SAS Forecast Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
SAS Information Delivery Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
SAS Information Map Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
JMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
SAS Management Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
SAS Mobile BI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
SAS Model Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
SAS OLAP Cube Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
SAS Visual Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
SAS Visual Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SAS Web Report Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SAS Workflow Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
SAS Help Viewer for the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Chapter 7 • Security Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Overview of SAS Intelligence Platform Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Contents
Authorization and Permissions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roles and Capabilities Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Authentication and Identity Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Sign-On in the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview of Initial Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Encryption Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security Reporting and Logging Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v
78
81
82
83
84
85
86
Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
vi Contents
vii
Accessibility
Accessibility Notice
For information about the accessibility of any of the products mentioned in this
document, see the usage documentation for that product.
viii Accessibility / Accessibility Notice
1
1
Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
About the SAS Business Analytics Framework
and the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Components Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Business Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Supporting Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Strategic Benefits of the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Multiple Capabilities Integrated into One Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Consistency of Data and Business Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Fast and Easy Reporting and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Analytics Available to All Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
About SAS Visual Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
About the SAS Business Analytics
Framework and the SAS Intelligence
Platform
The SAS Business Analytics Framework encompasses a comprehensive set of
business solutions, technologies, and services from SAS. Through this framework,
2
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
organizations can address their most critical business issues and then add new
functionality over time to enable continuous performance improvement. All of the
functionality is available from one vendor and through one framework, thus reducing the
total cost of ownership.
The technologies that provide the foundation for the SAS Business Analytics
Framework, as well as for industry and line-of-business solutions offered by SAS, are
delivered through the SAS Intelligence Platform. The SAS Intelligence Platform is a
comprehensive, end-to-end infrastructure for creating, managing, and distributing
enterprise intelligence. It includes tools and interfaces that enable you to do the
following:
n
extract data from a variety of operational data sources on multiple platforms, and
build a data warehouse and data marts that integrate the extracted data
n
store large volumes of data efficiently and in a variety of formats
n
give business users at all levels the ability to explore data from the warehouse in a
web browser, perform simple query and reporting functions, and view up-to-date
results of complex analyses
n
use high-end analytic techniques to provide capabilities such as predictive and
descriptive modeling, forecasting, optimization, simulation, and experimental design
n
centrally control the accuracy and consistency of enterprise data
With the SAS Intelligence Platform, you can implement an end-to-end intelligence
infrastructure using software that is delivered, tested, and integrated by SAS. Using the
tools provided in the SAS Intelligence Platform, you can create applications that reflect
your unique business requirements and domain knowledge.
Building on the technologies in the SAS Intelligence Platform, SAS offers solutions for
industries such as financial services, life sciences, health care, retail, and
manufacturing, as well as line-of-business solutions in areas such as customer
management, enterprise risk management, and financial management. The solutions
incorporate predictive analytics, industry and domain expertise, and specialized data
structures.
A complete set of documentation for deploying and administering the SAS Intelligence
Platform is available at http://support.sas.com/94administration. The site provides the
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
3
primary administrative documentation for several software offerings, including the
following:
n
SAS BI Server
n
SAS Enterprise BI Server
n
SAS Data Management (Standard or Advanced) and other related offerings for data
management, data quality, and data governance
The SAS Data Integration Server offering has been revised, and the SAS Enterprise
Data Integration Server offering is available only through renewals.
Administrators who manage SAS products that use the metadata server should use the
documentation at this site. Supplemental guides provide additional details for other
products and domains.
Components of the SAS Intelligence
Platform
Components Overview
The SAS Intelligence Platform includes components in the following categories:
Data Management
The data management components enable you to consolidate and manage
enterprise data from a variety of source systems, applications, and technologies.
Components are provided to help you cleanse, migrate, synchronize, replicate, and
promote your data. In addition, SAS offers data storage options that are optimized
for analytical processing, enabling you to quickly analyze and report on large
volumes of data. Metadata for all of your intelligence resources is stored centrally
and controlled through a single management interface.
Business Intelligence
The business intelligence components enable users with various needs and skill
levels to create, produce, and share their own reports and analyses. Through easyto-use interfaces, users can obtain their own answers to business questions.
4
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
Meanwhile, the information technology staff retains control over the quality and
consistency of the data.
Analytics
SAS offers the richest and widest portfolio of analytic products in the software
industry. The portfolio includes products for predictive and descriptive modeling, data
mining, text analytics, forecasting, optimization, simulation, data visualization, model
management, and experimental design. You can use any combination of these tools
with the SAS Intelligence Platform to add extraordinary precision and insight to your
reports and analyses.
The following sections describe in more detail the data management, business
intelligence, and analytics components, as well as key supporting components.
Data Management Overview
Data Management
The software tools in the data management category enable you to consolidate and
manage enterprise data from a variety of source systems, applications, and
technologies. SAS provides access engines and interfaces to a wide variety of data
sources, including the following:
n
delimited files, SAS data sets, and relational database management system (RDMS)
tables
n
Hadoop file systems for handling big data
n
application data from enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship
management (CRM) systems
n
message queuing platforms
n
web services
n
unstructured and semi-structured data
Data storage options include simple relational databases, a threaded multidimensional
database that supports online analytical processing (OLAP), and relational storage with
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
5
a threaded multiple input/output (I/O) subsystem for intensive use by focused
applications.
Each of the data management solutions is described briefly in the following sections.
SAS Data Integration Studio
SAS Data Integration Studio is a visual design tool that enables you to consolidate and
manage enterprise data from a variety of source systems, applications, and
technologies. The software enables you to create jobs and process flows that extract,
transform, and load data for use in data warehouses and data marts. You can also
create processes that cleanse, migrate, synchronize, replicate, and promote data for
applications and business services.
SAS Data Integration Studio is part of the following offerings: SAS Enterprise Data
Integration Server (renewals only), SAS Data Integration Server, SAS Data
Management Standard, and SAS Data Management Advanced.
For more information, see Chapter 6, “Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform,” on page
59.
SAS Data Loader for Hadoop
SAS Data Loader for Hadoop is a software offering that makes it easier to move,
cleanse, and analyze data in Hadoop. It enables business users and data scientists to
do self-service data preparation on a Hadoop cluster. Hadoop is highly efficient at
storing and processing large amounts of data. However, moving, cleansing, and
analyzing data in Hadoop can be labor intensive, and these tasks usually require
specialized coding skills. As a result, business users and data scientists usually depend
on IT personnel to prepare large Hadoop data sets for analysis. This technical overhead
makes it harder to turn Hadoop data into useful knowledge.
SAS Data Loader for Hadoop provides a set of wizards, called directives, that help
business users and data scientists perform the following tasks:
n
copy data to and from Hadoop using parallel, bulk data transfer
n
perform data integration, data quality, and data preparation tasks within Hadoop
without writing complex MapReduce code
n
minimize data movement for increased scalability, governance, and performance
6
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
load data in memory to prepare it for high-performance reporting, visualization, or
analytics
DataFlux Data Management Platform
Software in the DataFlux Data Management Platform enables you to discover, design,
deploy, and maintain data across your enterprise in a centralized way. Data quality, data
integration, and master data management are all provided under a unified user interface
called DataFlux Data Management Studio. DataFlux Web Studio provides a web
interface for managing a list of business data terms, for managing reference data, or for
viewing exceptions to monitored business rules.
These DataFlux products work with SAS Data Integration Studio and are part of the
SAS Data Management Standard and SAS Data Management Advanced offerings.
SAS Data Quality Server
SAS Data Quality Server works with SAS Data Integration Studio and the DataFlux
Data Management Platform to analyze, cleanse, transform, and standardize your data.
The language elements that make up the SAS Data Quality Server software form the
basis of the data quality transformations in SAS Data Integration Studio.
SAS Data Quality Accelerator for Teradata
SAS Data Quality Accelerator for Teradata allows data quality functions to be invoked
within the database, eliminating the need to move data off and back onto the database
server as part of data quality processing.
SAS Data Surveyor for SAP
SAS Data Surveyor for SAP enables you to build SAS Data Integration Studio jobs that
read data directly from SAP R/3 and SAP Business Warehouse systems.
Data Storage Options
The data storage options that can be used with the SAS Intelligence Platform include
SAS data tables, parallel storage, multidimensional databases, Hadoop file systems,
and third-party databases. These storage options can be used alone or in any
combination. Metadata for your intelligence resources is stored centrally in the SAS
Metadata Repository for use by all components of the intelligence platform.
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
7
Relational Storage: SAS Data Sets
You can use SAS data sets, the default SAS storage format, to store data of any
granularity. The data values in a SAS data set are organized as a table of
observations (rows) and variables (columns). A SAS data set also contains
descriptor information such as the data types and lengths of the columns, as well as
which SAS engine was used to create the data.
Access to Third-Party Databases: SAS/ACCESS
SAS/ACCESS provides interfaces to a wide range of relational, hierarchical, and
network model databases. Examples include DB2, Oracle, SQL Server, Teradata,
Hadoop, IBM Information Management System (IMS), and Computer Associates
Integrated Database Management System (CA-IDMS). With SAS/ACCESS, SAS
Data Integration Studio and other SAS applications can read, write, and update data
regardless of which database and platform the data is stored on. SAS/ACCESS
interfaces provide fast, efficient data loading and enable SAS applications to work
directly from your data sources without making a copy.
High-Performance Computing: SAS In-Database
To support high-performance computing for complex, high-volume analytics, SAS InDatabase enables certain data management, analytic, and reporting tasks to be
performed inside the database. In-database technology minimizes the movement of
data across the network, while enabling more sophisticated queries and producing
results more quickly. This technology is available for several types of databases.
Multidimensional Storage: SAS OLAP Server
The SAS OLAP Server provides dedicated storage for data that has been
summarized along multiple business dimensions. The server uses a threaded,
scalable, and open technology and is especially designed for fast-turnaround
processing and reporting.
A simplified ETL process enables you to build consistent OLAP cubes from
disparate systems. A threaded query engine and parallel storage enable data to be
spread across multiple-disk systems. Support is provided for multidimensional
(MOLAP) and hybrid (HOLAP) data stores, as well as for open industry standards.
8
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
Parallel Storage: SAS Scalable Performance Data Engine and SAS Scalable
Performance Data Server
The SAS SPD Engine and SAS SPD Server provide a high-speed data storage
alternative for processing very large SAS data sets. They read and write tables that
contain millions of observations, including tables that exceed the 2-GB size limit
imposed by some operating systems. In addition, they provide the rapid data access
that is needed to support intensive processing by SAS analytic software and
procedures.
These facilities work by organizing data into a streamlined file format and then using
threads to read blocks of data very rapidly and in parallel. The software tasks are
performed in conjunction with an operating system that enables threads to execute
on any of the CPUs that are available on a machine.
The SAS SPD Engine, which is included with Base SAS software, is a single-user
data storage solution. The SAS SPD Server, which is available as a separate
product, is a multi-user solution that includes a comprehensive security
infrastructure, backup and restore utilities, and sophisticated administrative and
tuning options.
Business Intelligence
The software tools in the business intelligence category address two main functional
areas: information design, and self-service reporting and analysis.
The information design tools enable business analysts and information architects to
organize data in ways that are meaningful to business users, while shielding the end
users from the complexities of underlying data structures. These tools include the
following products:
n
SAS Information Map Studio enables analysts and information architects to create
and manage information maps that contain business metadata about your data.
n
SAS OLAP Cube Studio enables information architects to create cube definitions
that organize summary data along multiple business dimensions.
The self-service reporting and analysis tools enable business users to query, view, and
explore centrally stored information. Users can create their own reports, graphs, and
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
9
analyses in the desired format and level of detail. In addition, they can find, view, and
share previously created reports and analyses. The tools feature intuitive interfaces that
enable business users to perform these tasks with minimal training and without the
involvement of information technology staff.
The self-service reporting and analysis tools include the following products:
n
SAS Web Report Studio is a web-based query and reporting tool that enables users
at any skill level to create, view, and organize reports.
n
SAS Information Delivery Portal provides a web-based, personalized workplace to
help decision makers easily find the information that they need.
n
SAS BI Portlets includes portlets, such as the SAS Stored Process Portlet and the
SAS Report Portlet, that add value to the SAS Information Delivery Portal.
n
SAS BI Dashboard enables SAS Information Delivery Portal users to create,
maintain, and view dashboards to monitor key performance indicators that convey
how well an organization is performing.
n
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office enables users to access SAS functionality from
within Microsoft Office products.
n
SAS Enterprise Guide is a project-oriented Windows application that enables users
to create processes that include complex computations, business logic, and
algorithms.
n
SAS Mobile BI enables users to use mobile devices (iPad and Android) to view
certain relational reports that have been created with SAS Web Report Studio.
As users create information maps, cubes, report definitions, portal content definitions,
and stored processes, information about them is stored in the SAS Metadata
Repository. Client applications and users can access these information assets on a
need-to-know basis. Access is controlled through multilayered security that is enforced
through the metadata.
For a description of each of the business intelligence tools, see Chapter 6, “Clients in
the SAS Intelligence Platform,” on page 59.
10
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
Analytics
SAS offers the richest and widest portfolio of analytic products in the software industry.
The portfolio includes products for predictive and descriptive modeling, data mining, text
analytics, forecasting, optimization, simulation, and experimental design. You can use
any combination of these tools with the SAS Intelligence Platform to add precision and
insight to your reports and analyses.
SAS software provides the following types of analytical capabilities:
n
predictive analytics and data mining, to build descriptive and predictive models and
deploy the results throughout the enterprise
n
text analytics, to maximize the value of unstructured data assets
n
dynamic data visualization, to enhance the effectiveness of analytics
n
forecasting, to analyze and predict outcomes based on historical patterns
n
model management, to streamline the process of creating, managing, and deploying
analytic models
n
operations research, to apply techniques such as optimization, scheduling, and
simulation to achieve the best result
n
quality improvement, to identify, monitor, and measure quality processes over time
n
statistical data analysis, to drive fact-based decisions
The following are examples of analytic products:
n
SAS Enterprise Miner enables analysts to create and manage data mining process
flows. These flows include steps to examine, transform, and process data to create
models that predict complex behaviors of economic interest. The SAS Intelligence
Platform enables SAS Enterprise Miner users to centrally store and share the
metadata for models and projects. In addition, SAS Data Integration Studio provides
the ability to schedule data mining jobs.
n
SAS Forecast Server enables organizations to plan more effectively for the future by
generating large quantities of high-quality forecasts quickly and automatically. This
Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
11
solution includes the SAS High-Performance Forecasting engine, which selects the
time series models, business drivers, and events that best explain your historical
data, optimizes all model parameters, and generates high-quality forecasts. SAS
Forecast Studio provides a graphical interface to these high-performance forecasting
procedures.
n
SAS Model Manager supports the deployment of analytical models into your
operational environments. It enables registration, modification, tracking, scoring, and
reporting on analytical models that have been developed for BI and operational
applications.
n
JMP is interactive, exploratory data analysis and modeling software for the desktop.
JMP makes data analysis—and the resulting discoveries—visual and helps to
communicate those discoveries to others. JMP presents results both graphically and
numerically. By linking graphs to each other and to the data, JMP makes it easier to
see the trends, outliers, and other patterns that are hidden in your data.
Supporting Components
SAS Metadata Repository
Your information assets are managed in a common metadata layer called the SAS
Metadata Repository.
This repository stores logical data representations of items such as libraries, tables,
information maps, and cubes, thus ensuring central control over the quality and
consistency of data definitions and business rules. The repository also stores
information about system resources such as servers, the users who access data and
metadata, and the rules that govern who can access what.
All of the data management and business intelligence tools read and use metadata from
the repository and create new metadata as needed.
Administrative Interfaces
SAS Management Console provides a single interface through which system
administrators can manage and monitor SAS servers, explore and manage metadata
repositories, manage user and group accounts, and administer security.
12
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
With SAS 9.4, SAS introduces SAS Environment Manager as the next-generation webbased interface for SAS administration. Based on the VMware Hyperic product, SAS
Environment Manager incorporates the monitoring and managing of IT and SAS
resources into an overall service-management strategy. It also enables you to perform
SAS administration functions including authorization, user management, server
management, library management, and backup. For more information, see “SAS
Environment Manager” on page 65.
Scheduling in SAS
Platform Suite for SAS is an optional product that provides enterprise-level scheduling
capabilities in a single-server environment. Platform Suite for SAS is also included as
part of the SAS Grid Manager product to enable distributed enterprise scheduling,
workload balancing, and parallelized workload balancing. The components of Platform
Suite for SAS include Process Manager, Load Sharing Facility (LSF), and Grid
Management Services.
As an alternative, operating system services can be used to provide a basic level of
scheduling for SAS jobs, and SAS in-process scheduling enables you to schedule jobs
from certain web-based SAS applications.
Strategic Benefits of the SAS
Intelligence Platform
Multiple Capabilities Integrated into One
Platform
The SAS Intelligence Platform combines advanced SAS analytics, high-speed
processing of large amounts of data, and easy-to-use query and reporting tools. The
result is accurate, reliable, and fast information with which to make decisions.
You can build data warehouses, perform data mining, enable users to query data and
produce reports from a web browser, and give users easy access to SAS processes
that perform robust analytics.
Strategic Benefits of the SAS Intelligence Platform 13
The SAS Intelligence Platform provides all of this functionality in one centrally managed
suite of products that are designed to work together seamlessly. This integration
reduces the administration, management, and deployment costs that would be
associated with providing multiple technologies to meet the needs of different users.
Consistency of Data and Business Rules
The SAS Intelligence Platform makes use of your organization's existing data assets,
enabling you to integrate data from multiple database platforms and ERPs. Tools are
provided to help ensure the reliability, consistency, and standardization of this data.
Users can choose from multiple tools with which to perform queries and produce
reports. Since all of the tools access data through the same metadata representations,
users throughout your enterprise receive consistent data. As a result, they can make
decisions based on a common version of the truth.
Similarly, business logic, complex computations, and analytic algorithms can be
developed once and stored centrally in SAS processes for all users to access. These
processes, as well as the information in the SAS Metadata Repository, are controlled
through multi-level security.
Fast and Easy Reporting and Analysis
The SAS Intelligence Platform's self-service reporting and analysis tools enable users
across the enterprise to access and query data from virtually any data source. Any
number of users can use wizards to create reports in the needed time frames, without
waiting for support from information technology professionals. Through web-based
interfaces, users can explore large volumes of multidimensional data quickly and
interactively, from multiple perspectives and at multiple levels of detail.
The reporting and analysis tools hide complex data structures, so that average business
users can perform queries without having to learn new skills. The intelligence storage
options are optimized for analytical processing, enabling the reporting tools to quickly
retrieve large volumes of data.
As a result of these reporting and analysis capabilities, everyone spends less time
looking for answers and more time driving strategic decisions.
14
Chapter 1 / Value of the SAS Intelligence Platform
Analytics Available to All Users
SAS is the market leader in analytics. With the SAS Intelligence Platform, you can make
the full breadth of SAS analytics available to users throughout the enterprise.
SAS analytics include algorithms for functions such as predictive and descriptive
modeling, forecasting, optimization, simulation, and experimental design. You can now
incorporate these capabilities into self-service reports and analyses, so that decision
makers throughout your enterprise can benefit from the accuracy and precision of highend analytics.
About SAS Visual Analytics
SAS Visual Analytics complements the capabilities of the SAS Intelligence Platform.
SAS Visual Analytics is a high-performance, in-memory solution for exploring massive
amounts of data very quickly. The offering includes a highly visual drag-and-drop
interface that enables users to quickly identify patterns and trends in huge volumes of
data and identify opportunities for further analysis. An easy-to-use visual design
interface enables users to create reports or dashboards that can be viewed on a mobile
device or on the web.
Using these tools, business users can explore data on their own to develop new
insights, and analysts can speed up the modeling cycle by quickly identifying statistically
relevant variables. A key component of SAS Visual Analytics is the SAS LASR Analytic
Server, which quickly reads data into memory for fast processing and data visualization.
The SAS Visual Analytics infrastructure includes some of the same software
components that are included in the SAS Intelligence Platform. However, SAS Visual
Analytics is installed in a dedicated environment that includes specialized hardware and
its own instances of SAS software and servers.
For more information, see http://www.sas.com/software/visual-analytics/overview.html.
15
2
Architecture of the SAS Intelligence
Platform
Architecture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
SAS Server Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SAS Server Tier Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SAS Metadata Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SAS OLAP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SAS Workspace Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SAS Pooled Workspace Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SAS Stored Process Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SAS Object Spawner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SAS LASR Analytic Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Middle Tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Architecture Overview
The SAS Intelligence Platform architecture is designed to efficiently access large
amounts of data, while simultaneously providing timely intelligence to a large number of
users. The platform uses an n-tier architecture that enables you to distribute
16 Chapter 2 / Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
functionality across computer resources, so that each type of work is performed by the
resources that are most suitable for the job.
You can easily scale the architecture to meet the demands of your workload. For a large
company, the tiers can be installed across a multitude of machines with different
operating systems. For prototyping, demonstrations, or very small enterprises, all of the
tiers can be installed on a single machine.
The architecture consists of the following four tiers:
Data sources
Data sources store your enterprise data. All of your existing data assets can be
used, whether your data is stored in third-party database management systems,
SAS tables, or enterprise resource planning (ERP) system tables.
SAS servers
SAS servers perform SAS processing on your enterprise data. Several types of SAS
servers are available to handle different workload types and processing intensities.
The software distributes processing loads among server resources so that multiple
client requests for information can be met without delay.
Middle tier
The middle tier enables users to access intelligence data and functionality via a web
browser. This tier provides web-based interfaces for report creation and information
distribution, while passing analysis and processing requests to the SAS servers.
Clients
The client tier provides users with desktop access to intelligence data and
functionality through easy-to-use interfaces. For most information consumers,
reporting and analysis tasks can be performed with just a web browser. For more
advanced design and analysis tasks, SAS client software is installed on users'
desktops. Some support for mobile devices is also provided.
Note: The four tiers represent categories of software that perform similar types of
computing tasks and require similar types of resources. The tiers do not necessarily
represent separate computers or groups of computers.
Data Sources 17
The following diagram shows how the tiers interact, and the sections that follow
describe each tier in more detail.
Figure 2.1 Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
Data Sources
SAS Servers
SAS Data Sets
SAS Metadata Server
SAS OLAP Cubes
SAS Workspace
Server
Middle Tier
Clients
SAS Web Server
Desktop clients:
SAS Scalable
Perf ormance Data
(SPD) Engine Tables
SAS Poo led
Workspace Server
SAS Scalable
Performance
Data (SPD) Server
SAS OLAP Server
SAS Web
Infrastructure Platform
Data Server
• SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office
SAS Web App lication
Server
• SAS Data Integration Studio
• SAS Enterprise Guide
• SAS Enterprise Miner
SAS Web Inf rastructure
Platf orm
SAS
Content
Server
Other
infrastructure
appli cations
and services
• SAS Forecast Studio
HTTP
• SAS Information Map Studio
• SAS Manage ment Console
• SAS Model Manager
• SAS OLAP Cube Studio
• SAS Workflow Studio
• JMP
• Other SAS anal ytics and
solutions
• SAS Web Report Studio
SAS Stored
Process Server
• SAS Information
Deli very Portal
• SAS BI Portlets
SAS LASR Analytic Server
Third-party
Data Stores
Running SAS processes f or
distributed clients
• SAS BI Dashboa rd
• SAS Help Viewe r for
the Web
HTTP
Web browser (to
surface web
applications)
• SAS Visual Analytics
• SAS Studio
Enterprise Resource
Planning (ERP) Systems
• Other SAS web
applications and solutions
Hadoop Data Sources
(HDFS)
SAS Environment Manager
HTTP
Mobile devices (to
view some types
of reports)
Data Sources
The SAS Intelligence Platform includes the following options for data storage:
n
SAS data sets, which are analogous to relational database tables.
n
SAS SPD Engine tables, which can be read or written by multiple threads.
n
SAS SPD Server, which is available as a separate product.
n
SAS OLAP cubes.
18 Chapter 2 / Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
The SAS Web Infrastructure Platform Data Server, which is the default location for
middle-tier data such as alerts, comments, and workflows, as well as data for the
SAS Content Server. The server is provided as an alternative to using a third-party
DBMS. (The server cannot be used as a general-purpose data store.)
In addition, SAS provides products that enable you to access data in your existing thirdparty data stores and ERP systems, including:
n
the SAS/ACCESS interfaces, which provide direct access to a variety of data stores.
For a complete list, go to http://support.sas.com/software/products/access/.
n
SAS Data Surveyor for SAP, which enables you to build SAS Data Integration Studio
jobs that read data directly from SAP R/3 and SAP Business Warehouse systems.
For more information about data sources, see Chapter 3, “Data in the SAS Intelligence
Platform,” on page 25.
SAS Server Tier
SAS Server Tier Overview
The SAS server tier includes the SAS Metadata Server and several compute servers
that execute SAS analytical and reporting processes for distributed clients. These
servers are typically accessed either by desktop clients or by web applications that are
running in the middle tier.
Note: In the SAS Intelligence Platform, the term server refers to a process or
processes that wait for and fulfill requests from client programs for data or services. The
term server does not necessarily refer to a specific computer, since a single computer
can host one or more servers of various types.
SAS Metadata Server
The SAS Metadata Server controls access to a central repository of metadata that is
shared by all of the SAS applications in the deployment. The SAS Metadata Server
SAS Server Tier 19
enables centralized control so that all users access consistent and accurate data. The
metadata repository stores information about the following:
n
the enterprise data sources and data structures that are accessed by SAS
intelligence applications.
n
the content that is created and used by SAS applications. This content includes
information maps, OLAP cubes, report definitions, stored process definitions, and
portal content definitions.
n
the SAS and third-party servers that participate in the system.
n
users and groups of users who are allowed to use the system. Users can be
authenticated by the metadata server or by external systems such as the host
environment, the web realm, and third-party databases.
n
the levels of access that users and groups have to resources. This metadata-based
authorization layer supplements protections from the host environment and other
systems.
The SAS Intelligence Platform provides a central management tool—SAS Management
Console—that you use to manage the metadata server and the metadata repository.
SAS OLAP Server
The SAS OLAP Server is a multidimensional data server that delivers pre-summarized
cubes of data to business intelligence applications. The data is queried using the MDX
(multidimensional expression) language.
This server is designed to reduce the load on traditional back-end storage systems by
quickly delivering summarized views, irrespective of the amount of data that underlies
the summaries.
SAS Workspace Server
The SAS Workspace Server enables client applications to submit SAS code to a SAS
session using an application programming interface (API). For example, when you use
SAS Data Integration Studio to submit an ETL job for processing, the application
generates the SAS code necessary to perform the processing and submits it to a
20 Chapter 2 / Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
workspace server. You can run as many instances of workspace servers as are needed
to support your workload.
SAS Pooled Workspace Server
The SAS Pooled Workspace Server is a workspace server that uses server-side
pooling. This configuration maintains a collection of reusable workspace server
processes for clients, thus avoiding the overhead associated with creating a new
process for each connection. Clients such as SAS Information Map Studio, SAS Web
Report Studio, and the SAS Information Delivery Portal can use pooled workspace
servers to query relational data.
SAS Stored Process Server
The SAS Stored Process Server executes and delivers results from SAS Stored
Processes in a multi-client environment. A SAS Stored Process is a SAS program that
is stored centrally and that can be executed by users and client programs on demand.
You can run as many instances of stored process servers as are needed to support your
workload.
SAS Object Spawner
The SAS object spawner is a process that runs on workspace server, pooled workspace
server, and stored process server host machines. It listens for requests for these
servers, authenticates the requesting clients, and launches server processes as
needed. In a pooled workspace server configuration, the object spawner maintains a
collection of re-usable workspace server processes that are available for clients. If
server load balancing is configured, the object spawner balances workloads between
server processes. The object spawner connects to the metadata server to obtain
information about the servers that it manages.
SAS LASR Analytic Server
The SAS LASR Analytic Server is an analytic platform that is provided with SAS Visual
Analytics, SAS Visual Statistics, and other high-performance products. This secure,
Clients
21
multi-user server provides concurrent access to data that is loaded into memory. The
server can take advantage of a distributed computing environment by distributing data
and the workload among multiple machines and performing massively parallel
processing. The server processes client requests at extraordinarily high speeds due to
the combination of hardware and software that is designed for rapid access to tables in
memory.
Middle Tier
The middle tier of the SAS Intelligence Platform provides an environment in which the
business intelligence web applications, such as SAS Web Report Studio and the SAS
Information Delivery Portal, can execute. These products run in a web application
server and communicate with the user by sending data to and receiving data from the
user's web browser. The middle tier applications rely on servers on the SAS server tier
to perform SAS processing, including data query and analysis.
The middle tier includes the following SAS software elements:
n
the SAS Web Application Server and SAS Web Server
n
SAS web applications, which can include SAS Web Report Studio, the SAS
Information Delivery Portal, SAS BI Portlets, the SAS BI Dashboard, SAS
Environment Manager, and other SAS products and solutions
n
the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform, which includes the SAS Content Server and
other infrastructure applications and services
For more information about the middle tier, see Chapter 5, “Middle-Tier Components of
the SAS Intelligence Platform,” on page 53.
Clients
The clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform provide web-based and desktop user
interfaces to content and applications. SAS clients provide access to content,
appropriate query and reporting interfaces, and business intelligence functionality for all
22 Chapter 2 / Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
of the information consumers in your enterprise, from the CEO to business analysts to
customer service agents.
The following clients run on Windows desktops. Some of these clients are native
Windows applications and others are Java applications.
n
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office
n
SAS Data Integration Studio
n
SAS Enterprise Guide
n
SAS Enterprise Miner
n
SAS Forecast Studio
n
SAS Information Map Studio
n
JMP (also available on Macintosh and Linux)
n
SAS Management Console
n
SAS Model Manager
n
SAS OLAP Cube Studio
n
SAS Workflow Studio
SAS Management Console is supported on all platforms except z/OS.
The following products require only a web browser to be installed on each client
machine, with the addition of Adobe Flash Player for SAS BI Dashboard:
n
SAS Information Delivery Portal
n
SAS BI Dashboard
n
SAS Environment Manager
n
SAS Web Report Studio
n
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
In addition, SAS Mobile BI enables users to use mobile devices (iPad and Android) to
view certain relational reports that have been created with SAS Web Report Studio.
Clients
23
For more information about the clients, see Chapter 6, “Clients in the SAS Intelligence
Platform,” on page 59.
24 Chapter 2 / Architecture of the SAS Intelligence Platform
25
3
Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
Overview of Data Storage Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Default SAS Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Third-Party Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Hadoop Data Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Parallel Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Parallel Storage Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Options for Implementing Parallel Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
How Parallel Storage Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Multidimensional Databases (Cubes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
How Data Sources Are Managed in the Metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Creation of Metadata Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Information Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
SAS Business Data Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
SAS Lineage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Overview of Data Storage Options
In a SAS Intelligence Platform deployment, you can use one or more of these data
storage options:
26 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
default SAS storage in the form of SAS tables
n
third-party relational, hierarchical, and network model database tables
n
parallel storage from the SAS Scalable Performance Data Engine (SPD Engine) and
the SAS Scalable Performance Data Server (SPD Server)
n
multidimensional databases (cubes)
All four data sources provide input to reporting applications. The first three sources are
also used as input for these data structures:
n
cubes, which are created with either SAS Data Integration Studio or SAS OLAP
Cube Studio
n
data marts and data warehouses, which are created with SAS Data Integration
Studio
You can use these storage options in any combination to meet your unique business
requirements.
SAS applications can also access data that is stored in Hadoop file systems. In addition,
SAS In-Database enables high-performance computing by running aggregations and
analytics inside the database.
The following sections describe each storage option in more detail. Central
management of data sources through the SAS metadata repository is also discussed.
Default SAS Storage
You can use SAS data sets (tables), the default SAS storage format, to store data of
any granularity.
A SAS table is a file that SAS software creates and processes. Each SAS table is a
member of a SAS library. A SAS library is a collection of one or more SAS files that are
recognized by SAS software and that are referenced and stored as a unit.
Each SAS table contains the following:
Third-Party Data Storage
27
n
data values that are organized as a table of observations (rows) and variables
(columns) that can be processed by SAS software
n
descriptor information such as data types, column lengths, and the SAS engine that
was used to create the data
For shared access to SAS tables, you can use SAS/SHARE software, which provides
concurrent Update access to SAS files for multiple users.
Third-Party Data Storage
Data can be stored in a wide range of third-party databases, including the following:
n
relational databases such as Oracle, Sybase, DB2, SQL Server, and Teradata
n
Hadoop data, which is divided into blocks and stored across multiple connected
nodes that work together
n
hierarchical databases such as IBM Information Management System (IMS)
n
Computer Associates Integrated Database Management System (CA-IDMS), which
is a network model database system
SAS/ACCESS interfaces provide fast, efficient loading of data to and from these
facilities. With these interfaces, SAS software can work directly from the data sources
without making a copy. Several of the SAS/ACCESS engines use an input/output (I/O)
subsystem that enables applications to read entire blocks of data instead of reading just
one record at a time. This feature reduces I/O bottlenecks and enables procedures to
read data as fast as they can process it. The SAS/ACCESS engines for Oracle, Sybase,
DB2 (on UNIX and PC), ODBC, SQL Server, and Teradata support this functionality.
These engines, as well as the DB2 engine on z/OS, can also access database
management system (DBMS) data in parallel by using multiple threads to the parallel
DBMS server. Coupling the threaded SAS procedures with these SAS/ACCESS
engines provides even greater gains in performance.
SAS In-Database enables high-performance computing for complex, high-volume
analytics. This technology enables certain Base SAS and SAS/STAT procedures to run
aggregations and analytics inside the database. In-database technology minimizes the
28 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
movement of data across the network, while enabling more sophisticated queries and
producing results more quickly. This technology is available through the use of the
SAS/ACCESS, SAS Scoring Accelerator, and SAS Analytics Accelerator products. The
supported databases include the following:
n
Aster
n
DB2 (UNIX only)
n
Greenplum
n
Hadoop
n
Netezza
n
Oracle
n
Teradata
Hadoop Data Storage
Data can be stored as Hadoop data, which is divided into blocks and stored across
multiple connected nodes that work together. The benefits of storing data in Hadoop
include the following:
n
Hadoop accomplishes two tasks: massive data storage and distributed processing.
n
Hadoop is a low-cost alternative for data storage over traditional data storage
options. Hadoop uses commodity hardware to reliably store large quantities of data.
n
Data and application processing are protected against hardware failure. If a node
goes down, data is not lost because a minimum of three instances of the data exist
in the Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, jobs are automatically redirected to working
machines in the cluster.
n
The distributed Hadoop model is designed to easily and economically scale up from
single servers to thousands of nodes, each offering local computation and storage.
Parallel Storage
n
29
Unlike traditional relational databases, Hadoop does not require preprocessing of
data before storing it. You can easily store unstructured data.
You can use Hadoop to stage large amounts of raw data for subsequent loading into an
enterprise data warehouse or to create an analytical store for high-value activities such
as advanced analytics, querying, and reporting. SAS enables you to use data stored in
Hadoop to do the following:
n
explore data and develop and execute models using the following software: SAS
Visual Analytics, SAS Visual Statistics, SAS High-Performance Analytics products,
SAS In-Database Technology, SAS In-Memory Statistics, and SAS Scoring
Accelerator for Hadoop
n
access and manage data using the following software: SAS Data Loader for
Hadoop, SAS Data Quality Accelerator for Hadoop, SAS In-Database Code
Accelerator for Hadoop, SAS/ACCESS interfaces, the Base SAS FILENAME
statement and HADOOP procedure, the SAS Scalable Performance Data (SPD)
Engine, and SAS Data Integration Studio
n
use the features of SAS Event Stream Processing, SAS Federation Server, SAS
Grid Manager for Hadoop, SAS High-Performance Marketing Optimization, and SAS
Visual Scenario Designer
For more information, see http://support.sas.com/resources/thirdpartysupport/v94/
hadoop/.
Parallel Storage
Parallel Storage Overview
The SAS Scalable Performance Data Engine (SPD Engine) and the SAS Scalable
Performance Data Server (SPD Server) are designed for high-performance data
delivery. They enable rapid access to SAS data for intensive processing by the
application.
Although the Base SAS engine is sufficient for most tables that do not span volumes,
the SAS SPD Engine and SAS SPD Server are high-speed alternatives for processing
30 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
very large tables. They read and write tables that contain millions of observations,
including tables that expand beyond the 2-GB size limit imposed by some operating
systems. In addition, they support SAS analytic software and procedures that require
fast processing of tables.
Options for Implementing Parallel Storage
Two options are available for implementing parallel storage:
n
The SAS SPD Engine is included with Base SAS software. It is a single-user data
storage solution that shares the high-performance parallel processing and parallel
I/O capabilities of SAS SPD Server, but lacks the additional complexity of a multiuser server.
The SPD Engine runs in UNIX and Windows operating environments as well as
some z/OS operating environments.
n
The SAS SPD Server is available as a separate product. It is a multi-user parallelprocessing data server with a comprehensive security infrastructure, backup and
restore utilities, and sophisticated administrative and tuning options.
The SAS SPD Server runs in Windows and UNIX operating environments.
How Parallel Storage Works
The SAS SPD Engine and SAS SPD Server deliver data to applications rapidly by
organizing large SAS data sets into a streamlined file format. The file format enables
multiple CPUs and I/O channels to perform parallel input/output (I/O) functions on the
data. Parallel I/O takes advantage of multiple CPUs and multiple controllers, with
multiple disks per controller, to read or write data in independent threads.
One way to take advantage of the features of the SAS SPD Engine is through a
hardware and software architecture known as symmetric multiprocessing (SMP). An
SMP machine has multiple CPUs and an operating system that supports threads. These
machines are usually configured with multiple controllers and multiple disk drives per
controller.
Multidimensional Databases (Cubes)
31
When the SAS SPD Engine reads a data file, it launches one or more threads for each
of the CPUs in the SMP machine. These threads then read data in parallel from multiple
disk drives, driven by one or more controllers per CPU. The SAS SPD Engine running
on an SMP machine provides the capability to read and deliver much more data to an
application in a given elapsed time.
For more information, see the SAS SPD Server documentation, which is available at
http://support.sas.com/documentation/onlinedoc/spds/.
Multidimensional Databases (Cubes)
Multidimensional databases (cubes) are another storage option provided by the SAS
Intelligence Platform. Cubes provide business users with multiple views of their data
through drill-down capabilities.
Cubes are derived from source data such as SAS tables, SAS SPD Engine tables, and
SAS/ACCESS database tables. To create cube definitions, and to build cubes based on
these definitions, you can use the Cube Designer wizard, which is available from SAS
Data Integration Studio and SAS OLAP Cube Studio.
Cubes are managed by the SAS OLAP Server, which is a multi-user, scalable server
designed to store and access large volumes of data while maintaining system
performance.
The SAS OLAP Server uses a SAS engine that organizes data into a streamlined file
format. This file format enables the engine to rapidly deliver data to client applications.
The engine also reads and writes partitioned tables, which enables it to use multiple
CPUs to perform parallel I/O functions. The threaded model enables the SAS OLAP
Server to create and query aggregations in parallel for fastest performance.
SAS business intelligence applications perform queries against the cubes by using the
multidimensional expression (MDX) query language. Cubes can be accessed by client
applications that are connected to the SAS OLAP Server with the following tools:
n
the SQL pass-through facility for OLAP, which is designed to process MDX queries
within the PROC SQL environment
32 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
open access technologies such as OLE DB for OLAP and ADO MD
How Data Sources Are Managed in the
Metadata
Creation of Metadata Objects
All of the data sources that are used in your deployment of the SAS Intelligence
Platform are centrally controlled through metadata that is stored in the SAS Metadata
Repository. In the metadata repository, you can create the following types of metadata
objects to control and manage your data:
n
database servers, which provide relational database services to clients
n
SAS Application Servers, which perform SAS processes on data
n
cubes
n
OLAP schemas, which specify which groups of cubes a given SAS OLAP Server
can access
n
dimensions and measures in a cube
n
libraries, which are collections of one or more files that are recognized by SAS
software and that are referenced and stored as a unit
n
the data sources (for example, SAS tables) that are contained in a library
n
the columns that are contained in a data source
A variety of methods are available to populate the metadata repository with these
objects, including the following:
n
The data source design applications, SAS Data Integration Studio and SAS OLAP
Cube Studio, automate the creation of all of the necessary metadata about your data
sources. As you use these products to define warehouses, data marts, and cubes,
the appropriate metadata objects are automatically created and stored in the
metadata repository.
How Data Sources Are Managed in the Metadata
n
n
33
You can use the following features of SAS Management Console to define data
source objects:
o
The New Server Wizard enables you to easily define the metadata for your
database servers and SAS Application Servers.
o
The Data Library Manager enables you to define database schemas for a wide
variety of schema types. You can also use this feature to define libraries if you
are not using SAS Data Integration Studio to define them.
o
The Register Tables feature enables you to import table definitions from external
sources if you are not using SAS Data Integration Studio to create them.
o
On the SAS Folders tab, you can set permissions that secure access to
metadata folders and objects. Because all SAS Intelligence Platform applications
use the metadata server when accessing resources, permissions that are
enforced by the metadata server provide an effective level of protection. These
permissions supplement protections from the host environment and other
systems. Therefore, a user's ability to perform a particular action is determined
not only by metadata-based access controls but also by external authorization
mechanisms such as operating system permissions and database controls.
You can use the metadata LIBNAME engine to enforce data-related Read, Write,
Create, and Delete access controls that have been defined in metadata.
For detailed information about administering data sources, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: Data Administration Guide.
Information Maps
After your data sources have been defined in metadata, you can use SAS Information
Map Studio to create SAS Information Maps, which are business metadata about your
data. Information maps enable you to surface your data in business terms that typical
business users understand, while storing key information that is needed to build
appropriate queries.
34 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS Business Data Network
You can use SAS Business Data Network to manage business terms. It supports a
collaborative approach to managing the following information:
n
descriptions of business terms, including their requirements and attributes
n
related source data and reference data
n
contacts (such as technical owners, business owners, and interested parties)
n
relationships between terms and processes (such as SAS Data Management Studio
jobs, services, and business rules)
By linking terms to business rules and data monitoring processes, SAS Business Data
Network provides a single entry point for all data consumers to better understand their
data. Data stewards, IT staff, and enterprise architects can use the terms to promote a
common vocabulary across projects and business units. Collaborative creation, editing,
and deletion of terms is enabled through integration with SAS Workflow Studio.
SAS Lineage
SAS Lineage is a web-based diagram component for visualizing relationships between
objects. It is used as a stand-alone lineage and relationship viewer that can be
accessed by SAS data management and business intelligence applications. The
component has two modes:
n
A network diagram displays all relationships.
n
Two left-to-right dependency diagrams are available: one that displays data
governance information (governance) and another that displays parent and child
relationships only (impact analysis).
The relationship information displayed in these diagrams is drawn from the Relationship
database that is a part of the Web Infrastructure Platform Data Server.
SAS Lineage can display most types of SAS metadata. This includes data objects such
as columns, tables, external files, information maps, reports, stored processes, SAS
Enterprise Guide projects and associated objects, and the levels and measures in
How Data Sources Are Managed in the Metadata
35
OLAP cubes. You can also display objects created in SAS Business Data Network, such
as terms, tags, and associated items. In addition, lineage information from third-party
applications can be imported to the relationship database using SAS Metadata Bridges.
36 Chapter 3 / Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform
37
4
Servers in the SAS Intelligence
Platform
Overview of SAS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
SAS Metadata Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
About the SAS Metadata Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
About the Metadata in the SAS Metadata Repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
How the Metadata Server Controls System Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
How Metadata Is Created and Administered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
How Business Metadata Is Organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Server Objects, Application Servers, and Logical Servers . . . . . . 44
About Server Objects and Server Groupings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Purpose of the SAS Application Server Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Purpose of the Logical Server Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Load Balancing for SAS Workspace Servers,
SAS Stored Process Servers, and SAS OLAP Servers . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Workspace Pooling for SAS Workspace Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Logging and Monitoring for SAS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
SAS Grid Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
SAS LASR Analytic Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
38 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
Overview of SAS Servers
The SAS Intelligence Platform provides access to SAS functionality through the
following specialized servers:
Note: In the SAS Intelligence Platform, the term “server” refers to a program or
programs that wait for and fulfill requests from client programs for data or services. The
term server does not necessarily refer to a specific computer, since a single computer
can host one or more servers of various types.
n
the SAS Metadata Server, which writes metadata objects to, and reads metadata
objects from, SAS Metadata Repositories. These metadata objects contain
information about all of the components of your system, such as users, groups, data
libraries, servers, and user-created products such as reports, cubes, and information
maps.
n
SAS Workspace Servers, which provide access to SAS software features such as
the SAS language, SAS libraries, the server file system, results content, and
formatting services.
A program called the SAS object spawner runs on a workspace server's host
machine. The spawner listens for incoming client requests and launches server
instances as needed.
n
SAS Pooled Workspace Servers, which are configured to use server-side pooling. In
this configuration, the SAS object spawner maintains a collection of workspace
server processes that are available for clients. This server configuration is intended
for use by query and reporting tools such as SAS Information Map Studio, SAS Web
Report Studio, and the SAS Information Delivery Portal.
n
SAS Stored Process Servers, which fulfill client requests to execute SAS Stored
Processes. Stored processes are SAS programs that are stored on a server and can
be executed as required by requesting applications. By default, three load balanced
SAS Stored Process Servers are configured.
Overview of SAS Servers 39
The SAS object spawner runs on a stored process server's host machine, listens for
incoming client requests, and launches server instances as needed.
n
SAS OLAP Servers, which provide access to cubes. Cubes are logical sets of data
that are organized and structured in a hierarchical multidimensional arrangement.
Cubes are queried by using the multidimensional expression (MDX) language.
n
the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform Data Server, which is the default location for
middle-tier data such as alerts, comments, and workflows, as well as data for the
SAS Content Server. The server, which is backed by PostgreSQL, is provided as an
alternative to using a third-party DBMS. (The server cannot be used as a generalpurpose data store.)
n
SAS/CONNECT servers, which provide computing resources on remote machines
where SAS Integration Technologies is not installed.
n
batch servers, which enable you to execute code in batch mode. There are three
types of batch servers: DATA step batch servers, Java batch servers, and generic
batch servers. The DATA step server enables you to run SAS DATA steps and
procedures in batch mode. The Java server enables you to schedule the execution
of Java code, such as the code that creates a SAS Marketing Automation marketing
campaign. The generic server supports the execution of any other type of code.
n
the SAS Content Server, which is part of the middle tier architecture. This server
stores digital content (such as documents, reports, and images) that is created and
used by SAS web applications. For more information, see “SAS Content Server ” on
page 58.
n
the SAS LASR Analytic Server, which is the in-memory analytics platform for SAS
Visual Analytics, SAS Visual Statistics, and other high-performance products.
Note: For accessing specialized data sources, the SAS Intelligence Platform can also
include one or more data servers. These might include the SAS Scalable Performance
Data (SPD) Server and third-party database management system (DBMS) products.
The SAS OLAP Server also provides some data server functionality. For information
about data servers, see Chapter 3, “Data in the SAS Intelligence Platform,” on page 25.
40 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS Metadata Server
About the SAS Metadata Server
The SAS Metadata Server is a multi-user server that enables users to read metadata
from and write metadata to one or more SAS Metadata Repositories. This server is a
centralized resource for storing, managing, and delivering metadata for all SAS
applications across the enterprise.
The SAS Metadata Server can be set up in a clustered configuration to provide
redundancy and high availability.
About the Metadata in the SAS Metadata
Repository
Here are examples of the types of metadata objects that can be stored in the SAS
Metadata Repository:
n
users
n
groups of users
n
data libraries
n
tables
n
jobs
n
cubes
n
documents
n
information maps
n
reports
n
stored processes
n
dashboards
SAS Metadata Server 41
n
analytical models
n
SAS Workspace Servers
n
SAS Pooled Workspace Servers
n
SAS Stored Process Servers
n
SAS OLAP Servers
A metadata object is a set of attributes that describe a resource. Here are some
examples:
n
When a user creates a report in SAS Web Report Studio, a metadata object is
created to describe the new report.
n
When a user creates a data warehouse in SAS Data Integration Studio, a metadata
object is created to describe each table included in the warehouse.
n
When a system administrator defines a new instance of a SAS server, a metadata
object is created to describe the server.
The specific attributes that a metadata object includes vary depending on the resource
that is being described. For example, a table object can include attributes for the table's
name and description, path specification, host type, and associated SAS Application
Server.
The SAS Metadata Server uses the SAS Open Metadata Architecture, which provide
common metadata services to SAS and other applications. Third parties can access
metadata in the SAS Metadata Server by using an application programming interface
(API) that is supplied by SAS. SAS Metadata Bridges are available to support metadata
exchange with a variety of sources, including the Common Warehouse Metadata Model
(CWM).
How the Metadata Server Controls System
Access
The SAS Metadata Server plays an important role in the security of the SAS Intelligence
Platform. It controls system access in the following ways:
42 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS identities
For accountability, we recommend that you create an individual SAS identity for
each person who uses the SAS environment. These identities enable you to make
access distinctions and audit individual actions in the metadata layer. The identities
also provide personal folders for each user. The metadata server maintains its own
copy of each user ID for the purpose of establishing a SAS identity.
access controls
You can define metadata-based access controls that supplement protections
provided by the host environment and other systems. The metadata-based controls
enable you to manage access to OLAP data, to relational data (depending on the
method by which the data is accessed), and to almost any metadata object (for
example, reports, data definitions, information maps, jobs, stored processes, and
server definitions).
roles
You can assign users and groups to roles that determine whether they can use
application features such as menu items, plug-ins, and buttons. Roles are designed
to make application functionality available to the appropriate types of users. For
example, role memberships determine whether a user can see the Server Manager
plug-in (in SAS Management Console), compare data (in SAS Enterprise Guide), or
directly open an information map (in SAS Web Report Studio). Applications that
support roles include the SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office, SAS Enterprise Guide,
SAS Forecast Studio, SAS Management Console, and SAS Web Report Studio.
For more information about security in the SAS Intelligence Platform, see Chapter 7,
“Security Overview,” on page 77.
How Metadata Is Created and Administered
Metadata can be loaded to the SAS Metadata Server in several ways:
n
The configuration process for the SAS Intelligence Platform automatically creates
and stores metadata objects for the resources, such as servers, that are part of your
initial installation.
SAS Metadata Server 43
n
SAS Metadata Bridges enable you to import metadata from a variety of sources,
including market-leading design tool and repository vendors and the Common
Warehouse Metamodel (CWM).
n
When users create content such as reports, information maps, and data warehouses
with the SAS Intelligence Platform applications, these applications create and store
metadata objects describing the content.
n
System administrators use the SAS Management Console client application to
directly create metadata for system resources such as servers, users, and user
groups.
System administrators also use SAS Management Console for general metadata
administration tasks, including backing up the metadata server, creating new
repositories, promoting metadata objects, and maintaining authorization information and
access rules for all types of resources.
How Business Metadata Is Organized
A hierarchical folder structure is used to organize metadata for business intelligence
content such as libraries, tables, jobs, cubes, information maps, and reports. The folder
structure includes personal folders for individual users and a folder for shared data.
Within this overall structure, you can create a customized folder structure that meets the
information management, data sharing, and security requirements of your organization.
SAS Management Console and SAS Environment Manager display all SAS folders that
the user has permission to view. Most other client applications display SAS folders only
if they contain content that is relevant to the application, subject to the user's
permissions. Import and export wizards in SAS Management Console, SAS Data
Integration Studio, and SAS OLAP Cube Studio enable you to easily move or promote
content from one part of the SAS Folders tree to another, or from a test environment to
a production environment.
For more information about the SAS Metadata Server, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: System Administration Guide.
44 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
Server Objects, Application Servers,
and Logical Servers
About Server Objects and Server Groupings
In the SAS Metadata Repository, each server process that executes SAS code is
represented by a server object. In the metadata, the attributes for each server object
contain information such as the following:
n
the name of the machine that is hosting the server
n
the TCP/IP port or ports on which the server listens for requests
n
the SAS command that is used to start the server
The intermediate level of organization is called a logical server object. SAS servers of a
particular type, running either on the same machine or on different machines, can be
grouped into a logical server of the corresponding type. For example:
n
A logical workspace server is a group of one or more workspace servers.
n
A logical pooled workspace server is a group of one or more workspace servers that
are configured to use server-side pooling.
n
A logical stored process server is a group of one or more stored process servers.
Server Objects, Application Servers, and Logical Servers
45
The logical servers are then grouped into a SAS Application Server. The following figure
shows a sample configuration:
Figure 4.1
SAS Application Server Components: Sample Configuration
Logical OLAP
server
Logical pooled
workspace
server
Application
server
OLAP server 1
OLAP server 2
Pooled workspace server 1
Pooled workspace server 2
Stored process server 1
Logical stored
process server
Stored process server 2
Stored process server 3
Logical
workspace
server
Logical
SAS/CONNECT
server
Workspace server 1
Workspace server 2
SAS/CONNECT server
Application servers and logical servers are logical constructs that exist only in metadata.
In contrast, the server objects within a logical server correspond to actual server
processes that execute SAS code.
Purpose of the SAS Application Server
Grouping
SAS application servers, which are groupings of logical servers, provide the following
functionality in the SAS Intelligence Platform:
46 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
SAS applications can request the services of a group of logical servers by specifying
a single application server name.
For example, a user can set up SAS Data Integration Studio to send all jobs to a
specific SAS Application Server. Each time the user runs a SAS Data Integration
Studio job, the SAS code that is generated is executed by a workspace server that is
contained in the specified application server.
n
System resources, such as SAS libraries or data schemas, can be assigned to a
specific application server. This assignment ensures that all of the logical servers
contained in the application server will be able to access these resources as
needed, subject to security restrictions.
For example, if a SAS library is assigned to a specific application server, then any
application that runs jobs on that server will automatically have access to the library,
subject to security restrictions.
Purpose of the Logical Server Grouping
Logical servers, which are groupings of individual servers of a specific type, provide the
following functionality in the SAS Intelligence Platform:
n
Users or groups of users can be granted rights to a logical server, thereby providing
access to each physical server that the logical server contains. You can also use
permissions to direct specific users or groups of users to specific physical servers
within a logical server grouping.
n
If one physical server in a logical server grouping fails, the other servers are still
available to provide continuous processing.
n
Load balancing can be implemented among the servers in a logical workspace
server, logical stored process server, or logical OLAP server. Load balancing is
configured by default for the SAS Pooled Workspace Server and SAS Stored
Process Servers.
n
Workspace pooling can be implemented among the servers in a logical workspace
server.
Workspace Pooling for SAS Workspace Servers
47
For more information about SAS Application Servers, see the SAS Intelligence Platform:
Application Server Administration Guide.
Load Balancing for SAS Workspace
Servers, SAS Stored Process Servers,
and SAS OLAP Servers
Load balancing is a feature that distributes work among the server processes in a
logical workspace server, logical stored process server, or logical OLAP server. The
load balancer runs in the object spawner, which is a program that runs on server
machines, listens for incoming client requests, and launches server instances as
needed. When a logical server is set up for load balancing, and the object spawner
receives a client request for a server in the logical server group, the spawner directs the
request to the server in the group that has the least load.
SAS Pooled Workspace Servers and SAS Stored Process Servers are load-balanced
by default. For more information about load balancing, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: Application Server Administration Guide.
Workspace Pooling for SAS Workspace
Servers
Workspace pooling creates a set of server connections that are reused. This reuse
avoids the wait times that an application incurs when it creates a new server connection
for each user. You can also use pooling to distribute server connections across
machines.
Pooling is most useful for applications that require frequent, but brief, connections to a
SAS Workspace Server. Two types of pooling are supported:
server-side pooling
a configuration in which the SAS object spawner maintains a collection of re-usable
workspace server processes that are available for clients. The usage of servers in
48 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
the pool is governed by authorization rules that are set on the servers in the SAS
metadata. Load balancing is automatically configured for these servers.
By default, applications such as SAS Information Map Studio, the SAS Information
Delivery Portal, and SAS Web Report Studio use SAS Pooled Workspace Servers to
query relational data. SAS Pooled Workspace Servers are configured to use serverside pooling and load balancing.
client-side pooling
a configuration in which the client application maintains a collection of reusable
workspace server processes. In releases prior to 9.2, client-side pooling was the
only method of configuring pooling for workspace servers.
For more information about pooling, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Application
Server Administration Guide.
Logging and Monitoring for SAS Servers
The SAS Intelligence Platform uses a standard logging facility to perform logging for
SAS servers. The logging facility supports problem diagnosis and resolution,
performance and capacity management, and auditing and regulatory compliance. The
logging facility provides the following capabilities for servers:
n
Log events can be directed to multiple destinations, including files, operating system
facilities, and client applications.
n
For each log destination, you can configure the message layout, including the
contents, the format, the order of information, and literal text.
n
For each log destination, you can configure a filter to include or exclude events
based on levels and message contents.
n
For the metadata server, security-related events are captured, including
authentication events, client connections, changes to user and group information,
and permission changes.
n
You can generate performance-related log events in a format that can be processed
by an Application Response Measurement (ARM) 4.0 server.
SAS Grid Computing 49
SAS Environment Manager provides web-based management, operation, and proactive
monitoring of servers on both the middle tier and the SAS server tier. Backed by Hyperic
technology from VMware, this application provides automatic resource discovery,
monitoring of remote systems, role-based dashboards, alerting, and visualization
features.
In addition, you can use the server management features of SAS Management Console
to do the following:
n
view server and spawner logs
n
change logging levels dynamically without stopping the server
n
quiesce, stop, pause, and resume servers and spawners
n
validate servers and spawners and test server connections
n
view information about current connections and processes
n
view performance counters that provide statistics about activity that has occurred
since a server or spawner was last started
Server monitoring can also be performed using third-party products for enterprise
systems management.
For more information about server logging and monitoring, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: System Administration Guide, the SAS Logging: Configuration and
Programming Reference, and the SAS Environment Manager Help.
SAS Grid Computing
You can use SAS grid computing tools to manage a distributed grid environment for
your SAS deployment. SAS Grid Manager, working together with Platform Suite for
SAS, enables you to distribute server workloads across multiple computers on a
network to obtain the following benefits:
n
the ability to accelerate SAS analytical results by adding additional computers to the
grid and by dividing jobs into separate processes that run in parallel across multiple
servers
50 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
the flexibility to upgrade and maintain the computing resources on which your SAS
servers are deployed without disrupting operations, and to add computing resources
quickly to handle increased workloads and peak demands
n
continuity of service through the high availability of critical components running in the
grid
Implementation of a grid environment involves planning and design efforts to determine
the topology and configuration that best meets the needs of your organization. In some
cases, third-party data sharing facilities or hardware load balancers might be required.
For more information, see Grid Computing in SAS and “Introduction to Grid Computing”
at http://support.sas.com/rnd/scalability/grid/index.html.
SAS LASR Analytic Server
The SAS LASR Analytic Server is an analytic platform that is provided with SAS Visual
Analytics, SAS Visual Statistics, and other high-performance products. This secure,
multi-user server provides concurrent access to data that is loaded into memory. The
server can take advantage of a distributed computing environment by distributing data
and the workload among multiple machines and performing massively parallel
processing. The server can also be deployed on a single machine where the workload
and data volumes do not demand a distributed computing environment but can still
benefit from the speed of in-memory processing.
The server handles both big data and smaller sets of data, and it is designed with highperformance, multi-threaded, analytic code. The server processes client requests at
extraordinarily high speeds due to the combination of hardware and software that is
designed for rapid access to tables in memory. By loading tables into memory for
analytic processing, the server enables business analysts to explore data and discover
relationships in data at the speed of the RAM that is installed on the system.
The server can also perform text analysis on unstructured data. The unstructured data
is loaded to memory in the form of a table, with one document in each row.
Data can be loaded into a distributed server in the following ways:
SAS LASR Analytic Server
51
n
You can load tables into the server by using the SAS LASR Analytic Server engine
or the LASR procedure from a SAS session that has a network connection to the
cluster. Any data source that can be accessed with a SAS engine can be loaded into
memory. The data is transferred to the root node of the server, and the root node
distributes the data to the worker nodes. You can also append rows to an in-memory
table with the SAS LASR Analytic Server engine.
n
Tables can be read from the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) or an NFSmounted distributed file system. You can use the SASHDAT engine to add tables to
HDFS. When a table is added to HDFS, it is divided into blocks that are distributed
across the machines in the cluster. The server software is designed to read data in
parallel from HDFS. When used to read data from HDFS, the LASR procedure
causes the worker nodes to read the blocks of data that are local to the machine.
n
Tables can be read from a third-party vendor database. For distributed databases
like Teradata and Greenplum, the SAS LASR Analytic Server can access the data in
the appliance.
n
Tables can be loaded using SAS Visual Analytics Administrator.
For more information, see SAS LASR Analytic Server: Reference Guide.
52 Chapter 4 / Servers in the SAS Intelligence Platform
53
5
Middle-Tier Components of the SAS
Intelligence Platform
Overview of Middle-Tier Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
SAS Middle Tier Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
SAS Content Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Overview of Middle-Tier Components
The middle tier of the SAS Intelligence Platform provides an environment in which the
business intelligence web applications, such as SAS Web Report Studio and the SAS
Information Delivery Portal, can execute. These products run in a web application
server and communicate with the user by sending data to and receiving data from the
user's web browser. The middle tier applications rely on servers on the SAS server tier
to perform SAS processing, including data query and analysis.
54 Chapter 5 / Middle-Tier Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
The following figure illustrates the middle-tier components:
Figure 5.1 Middle Tier Components
SAS Web Application Server
SAS Web
Report Studio
SAS
Information
Delivery Portal
SAS BI
Portlets
SAS BI
Dashboard
SAS Help
Viewer for
the Web
Other SAS
web applications
and solutions
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform
SAS BI
Web Services
SAS Shared
Web Assets
SAS Web
Infrastructure
Services
SAS Logon
Manager
SAS Preferences
Manager
SAS Workflow
Services
SAS Comment
Manager
SAS Stored
Process Web
Application
SAS Web
Administration
Console
SAS Content
Server
SAS
Authorization
Services
SAS Deployment
Backup and
Recovery Tool
SAS Identity
Services
SAS Principal
Services
SAS Notification
Template
Manager
SAS Web
Infrastructure Platform
Permission Manager
SAS Web Server
SAS Environment
Manager
SAS Middle Tier Servers
The SAS Web Server and SAS Web Application Server, which are included with the
SAS Intelligence Platform, provide a highly scalable, easy-to-manage environment that
is dedicated to running SAS web applications. The SAS Web Server provides static
HTTP content to users. It forwards requests for dynamic content to the SAS Web
Application Server, which provides an execution environment for the following
applications and services:
n
web applications including SAS Web Report Studio, SAS Information Delivery
Portal, SAS BI Portlets, and SAS BI Dashboard. For descriptions, see Chapter 6,
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform
55
“Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform,” on page 59. (Depending on which
products and solutions you have licensed, your site might have additional web
applications.)
n
applications and services that are part of the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform.
To meet the processing demands of your organization, multiple SAS Web Application
Server instances can be deployed in a clustered configuration. Based on your
specifications, server configuration is performed automatically during the deployment
process. The servers use the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) software, which is
provided as part of the SAS installation. No middle tier software needs to be obtained
from third parties.
SAS Environment Manager provides a comprehensive interface for ongoing
management, operation, and proactive monitoring of servers on both the middle tier and
the SAS server tier.
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform
The SAS Web Infrastructure Platform is a collection of services and applications that
provide common infrastructure and integration features to be used by SAS web
applications. These services and applications provide the following benefits:
n
consistency in installation, configuration, and administration tasks for web
applications
n
greater consistency in users' interactions with web applications
n
integration among web applications as a result of the ability to share common
resources
The following services and applications are included in the SAS Web Infrastructure
Platform:
SAS Authorization Service
is used by some SAS web applications that manage authorization through web
services.
56 Chapter 5 / Middle-Tier Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS BI Web Services for Java
can be used to enable your custom applications to invoke and obtain metadata
about SAS Stored Processes. Web services enable distributed applications that are
written in different programming languages and that run on different operating
systems to communicate using standard web-based methods, including REST and
SOAP.
SAS Content Server
stores digital content (such as documents, reports, and images) that is created and
used by SAS web applications. For more information, see “SAS Content Server ” on
page 58.
SAS Deployment Backup and Recovery Tool
enables deployment-wide backup and recovery services.
SAS Identity Services
provides SAS web applications with access to user identity information.
SAS Logon Manager
provides a common user authentication mechanism for SAS web applications. It
displays a dialog box for user ID and password entry, authenticates the user, and
launches the requested application. SAS Logon Manager supports a single sign-on
authentication model. When this model is enabled, it provides access to a variety of
computing resources (including servers and web pages) during the application
session without repeatedly prompting the user for credentials.
You can configure SAS Logon Manager to display custom messages and to specify
whether a logon dialog box is displayed when users log off. In addition, you can use
third-party products in conjunction with SAS Logon Manager to enable users to
access multiple web applications with a single sign-on action.
SAS Notification Template Editor
enables administrators to create and edit messages that are sent as notifications to
end users of SAS applications.
SAS Preferences Manager
provides a common mechanism for managing preferences for SAS web applications.
The feature enables administrators to set default preferences for locale, theme, alert
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform
57
notification, and time, date, and currency display. Within each web application, users
can view the default settings and update their individual preferences.
SAS Principal Services
enables access to core platform web services for SAS applications.
SAS Shared Web Assets
contains graph applet JAR files that are shared across SAS web applications. They
display graphs in stored processes and in the SAS Stored Process Web application.
SAS Stored Process Web Application
executes stored processes on behalf of a web client and return results to a web
browser. The SAS Stored Process Web application is similar to the SAS/IntrNet
Application Broker, and has the same general syntax and debug options. Web
applications can be implemented using the SAS Stored Process Web Application,
the Stored Process Service API, or a combination of both.
SAS Web Administration Console
provides features for monitoring and administering middle-tier components. This
browser-based interface enables administrators to do the following:
n
monitor information about users who are currently logged on to SAS web
applications
n
view audit reports of logon and logoff activity
n
manage notification templates and letterheads
n
manage authorization, including Web Infrastructure Platform roles and privileges
and web-layer permissions
n
view configuration information for each middle-tier component
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform Permission Manager
enables administrators to set web-layer permissions on folders and documents for
SAS applications that use SAS Content Services for access to digital content. You
can access the permissions manager with the SAS Web Administration Console.
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform Services
provides a common infrastructure for SAS web applications. The infrastructure
supports activities such as auditing, authentication, configuration, status and
58 Chapter 5 / Middle-Tier Components of the SAS Intelligence Platform
monitoring, e-mail, theme management, alert registration and notification,
collaboration, and data sharing across SAS web applications.
SAS Workflow Services
enables the deployment and execution of workflows that are integrated with certain
SAS applications and solutions. The SAS Workflow Studio client application enables
business users to quickly create or modify workflow templates for execution by
workflow services.
By default, the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform uses a relational database on the SAS
Web Infrastructure Platform Data Server to store alerts, comments, workflows, and SAS
Content Server data. During installation, you can choose to use a third-party vendor
database instead of the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform Data Server.
For more information about the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform, see the SAS
Intelligence Platform: Middle-Tier Administration Guide.
SAS Content Server
The SAS Content Server is part of the SAS Web Infrastructure Platform. This server
stores digital content (such as documents, reports, and images) that is created and
used by SAS web applications. For example, the SAS Content Server stores report
definitions that are created by users of SAS Web Report Studio, as well as images and
other elements that are used in reports. A process called content mapping ensures that
report content is stored using the same folder names, folder hierarchy, and permissions
that the SAS Metadata Server uses to store corresponding report metadata.
In addition, the SAS Content Server stores documents and other files that are to be
displayed in the SAS Information Delivery Portal or in SAS solutions.
To interact with the SAS Content Server, client applications use WebDAV-based
protocols for access, versioning, collaboration, security, and searching. Administrative
users can use the browser-based SAS Web Management Console to create, delete,
and manage permissions for folders on the SAS Content Server.
For more information about the SAS Content Server, see the SAS Intelligence Platform:
Middle-Tier Administration Guide.
59
6
Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
Overview of Clients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SAS BI Dashboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
SAS BI Portlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SAS Data Integration Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
SAS Enterprise Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
SAS Enterprise Miner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
SAS Environment Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
SAS Forecast Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
SAS Information Delivery Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
SAS Information Map Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
JMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
SAS Management Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
SAS Mobile BI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
SAS Model Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
SAS OLAP Cube Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
60 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS Visual Analytics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
SAS Visual Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SAS Web Report Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
SAS Workflow Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
SAS Help Viewer for the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Overview of Clients
SAS Intelligence Platform clients include desktop applications and web-based
applications. The following table lists the clients by type:
Table 6.1
SAS Intelligence Platform Clients
Desktop Applications
Web Applications
Java Applications:
n SAS BI Portlets
n SAS Data Integration Studio
n SAS BI Dashboard
n SAS Enterprise Miner
n SAS Environment Manager
n SAS Forecast Studio
n SAS Help Viewer for the Web
n SAS Information Map Studio
n SAS Information Delivery Portal
n SAS Management Console
n SAS Visual Analytics
n SAS Model Manager
n SAS Visual Statistics
n SAS OLAP Cube Studio
n SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint
n SAS Workflow Studio
n SAS Web Report Studio
Windows applications:*
n SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office
n SAS Enterprise Guide
n JMP
*
JMP is also available on Macintosh and Linux.
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office 61
The desktop applications are supported only on Microsoft Windows systems. The
exception is SAS Management Console, which runs on all platforms except z/OS. All of
the Java desktop applications use the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), provided with
SAS, which executes the application and a set of standard Java class libraries.
The web-based applications reside and execute on the middle tier. They require only a
web browser to be installed on each client machine, with the addition of Adobe Flash
Player for SAS BI Dashboard. The applications run on the SAS Web Application Server
and communicate with the user by sending data to and receiving data from the user's
browser. For example, an application of this type displays its user interface by sending
an HTML document to the user's browser. The user can submit input to the application
by sending it an HTTP response—usually by clicking a link or submitting an HTML form.
To supplement these clients, mobile devices (including iPad and Android devices) can
be used to view certain types of reports. This capability is enabled through SAS Mobile
BI.
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office
The SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office enables you to harness the power of SAS analytics
from Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, and Microsoft Outlook. You
can use the SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office for the following tasks:
n
generate basic statistics and charts for a data source using the Quick Start tools.
n
analyze SAS or Excel data using SAS tasks.
n
embed SAS content in your documents, spreadsheets, and presentations.
n
access and view SAS data sources or any data source that is available from your
SAS server. There is no size limit on the SAS data sources that you can open.
n
edit a SAS data source in Microsoft Excel and save your changes to the server.
n
refresh the SAS content to display the most updated results. The results could
change because of changes to the underlying data or changes to the SAS task or
stored process that generates the results.
62 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
view and monitor SAS reports in Microsoft Outlook. You can share these reports by
sending e-mail, scheduling meetings, or assigning tasks in Microsoft Outlook. You
can also share a report using an instant messaging tool or by sending the report to
another Microsoft Office application, such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, or
Microsoft PowerPoint.
For more information, see the Help for the SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office. For
information about administrative tasks associated with SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office,
see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guide.
SAS BI Dashboard
The SAS BI Dashboard enables users to create, maintain, and view dashboards to
monitor key performance indicators that convey how well an organization is performing.
The application is web-based, leveraging the capabilities of Adobe Flash Player, and
can be accessed from within the SAS Information Delivery Portal.
The SAS BI Dashboard includes an easy-to-use interface for creating dashboards that
include graphics, text, colors, and hyperlinks. Dashboards can link to SAS reports and
analytical results, SAS Strategic Performance Management scorecards and objects,
externally generated data, and virtually anything that is addressable by a Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI).
All content is displayed in a role-based, secure, customizable, and extensible
environment. End users can customize how information appears on their personal
dashboards.
For more information, see the SAS BI Dashboard Help, which is available from within
the product, and the SAS BI Dashboard: User's Guide, available at http://
support.sas.com. For information about administrative tasks associated with the SAS
BI Dashboard, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Web Application Administration
Guide.
SAS Data Integration Studio
63
SAS BI Portlets
SAS BI Portlets enable users to access, view, and work with business intelligence
content that is stored on the SAS Metadata Server and the SAS Content Server. The
portlets are seamlessly integrated into the SAS Information Delivery Portal and provide
added value to portal users. The portlets include the SAS Collection Portlet, the SAS
Diagnostics Portlet, the SAS Navigator Portlet, the SAS Report Portlet, and the SAS
Stored Process Portlet. For information about configuring, deploying, and administering
SAS BI Portlets, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Web Application Administration
Guide.
SAS Data Integration Studio
SAS Data Integration Studio is a visual design tool that enables you to consolidate and
manage enterprise data from a variety of source systems, applications, and
technologies. This software enables you to create process flows that accomplish the
following tasks:
n
extract, transform, and load data for use in data warehouses and data marts
n
cleanse, migrate, synchronize, replicate, and promote data for applications and
business services
SAS Data Integration Studio enables you to create metadata that defines sources,
targets, and the processes that connect them. This metadata is stored in one or more
shareable repositories. SAS Data Integration Studio uses the metadata to generate or
retrieve SAS code that reads sources and creates targets in physical storage. Other
applications that share the same repositories can use the metadata to access the
targets and use them as the basis for reports, queries, or analyses.
Through its metadata, SAS Data Integration Studio provides a single point of control for
managing the following resources:
64 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
data sources (from any platform that is accessible to SAS and from any format that
is accessible to SAS)
n
data targets (to any platform that is accessible to SAS, and to any format that is
supported by SAS)
n
processes that specify how data is extracted, transformed, and loaded from a source
to a target
n
jobs that organize a set of sources, targets, and processes (transformations)
n
source code generated by SAS Data Integration Studio
n
user-written source code, including legacy SAS programs
For more information, see the SAS Data Integration Studio Help, which is available from
within the product, and the SAS Data Integration Studio: User's Guide, which is
available at http://support.sas.com. For information about administrative tasks
associated with SAS Data Integration Studio, see the SAS Intelligence Platform:
Desktop Application Administration Guide.
SAS Enterprise Guide
SAS Enterprise Guide is a project-oriented application that is designed to enable quick
access to much of the analytic power of SAS software for statisticians, business
analysts, and SAS programmers. SAS Enterprise Guide provides the following
functionality:
n
a point-and-click user interface to SAS servers
n
transparent data access to both SAS data and other types of data
n
interactive task windows that lead you through dozens of analytical and reporting
tasks
n
a program editor with autocomplete and integrated syntax help
n
the ability to use the highest quality SAS graphics
n
the ability to export results to other Windows applications and the web
SAS Environment Manager
n
the ability to schedule your project to run at a later time
n
OLAP data access, visualization, and manipulation
65
SAS Enterprise Guide also enables you to create SAS Stored Processes and to store
that code in a repository that is available to a SAS Stored Process Server. (Stored
processes are SAS programs that are stored on a server and are executed by client
applications.) Stored processes are used for web reporting and analytics, among other
things.
For more information, see the SAS Enterprise Guide Help, which is available from within
the product. For information about administrative tasks associated with SAS Enterprise
Guide, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guide.
SAS Enterprise Miner
SAS Enterprise Miner is an example of the SAS analytics products that use the SAS
Intelligence Platform. This application streamlines the data mining process to create
highly accurate predictive and descriptive models based on the analysis of vast
amounts of data from across an enterprise. SAS Enterprise Miner enables you to
develop data mining flows that consist of data exploration, data transformations, and
modeling tools to predict or classify business outcomes.
For more information, see the SAS Enterprise Miner Help, which is available from within
the product. For information about administrative tasks associated with SAS Enterprise
Miner, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guide.
SAS Environment Manager
SAS Environment Manager, which is new with SAS 9.4, is a web-based administration
solution for a SAS environment. The application enables you to perform these tasks:
n
administer, monitor, and manage SAS resources, including administering the SAS
Web Application Server and monitoring SAS foundation servers
66 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
collect and chart data on metrics for monitored SAS resources, thus creating a
comprehensive view of resource health and operation
n
monitor system and log events
n
trigger alerts based on user-specific events and thresholds
n
incorporate the monitoring and managing of IT and SAS resources into a service
management strategy. This strategy enables you to use the detailed metric
information stored in the SAS Environment Manager Data Mart and the reports
provided in the Report Center.
n
perform SAS administration functions including authorization, user management,
server management, library management, and backup.
SAS Environment Manager is based on the VMware Hyperic product, with
customizations and plug-ins to optimize the product specifically for a SAS environment.
The basic architecture consists of an agent process (running on each middle-tier and
server-tier machine) that communicates with a central management server. Agents
monitor detected resources and periodically report resource metrics back to the server.
The server provides an interface for interacting with those agents. You can use it to
manage the data collected by the agents, distribute plug-ins, create alerts and
escalation procedures based on collected metrics, and graph the metrics provided
through the installed plug-ins.
SAS Environment Manager agents run on all SAS platforms except for z/OS. For more
information, see SAS Environment Manager: User's Guide, SAS Environment Manager
Administration: User's Guide, and the Help for SAS Environment Manager, which is
available from within the product.
SAS Forecast Studio
SAS Forecast Studio is the client component of SAS Forecast Server, which is an
example of the SAS analytics products that use the SAS Intelligence Platform. SAS
Forecast Server is a large-scale, automatic forecasting solution that enables
organizations to produce huge quantities of high-quality forecasts quickly and
SAS Information Delivery Portal
67
automatically. SAS Forecast Studio provides a graphical interface (based on Java) to
the forecasting and time series analysis procedures contained in SAS HighPerformance Forecasting and SAS/ETS software.
SAS High-Performance Forecasting automatically selects the appropriate model for
each item being forecast, based on user-defined criteria. Holdout samples can be
specified so that models are selected not only by how well they fit past data but by how
appropriate they are for predicting the future. If the best forecasting model for each item
is unknown or the models are outdated, a maximum level of automation can be chosen
in which all three forecasting steps (model selection, parameter estimation, and forecast
generation) are performed. If suitable models have been determined, you can keep the
current models and reestimate the model parameters and generate forecasts. For
maximum processing speed, you can keep previously selected models and parameters
and choose to simply generate the forecasts.
For more information, see the SAS High-Performance Forecasting: User's Guide and
the SAS/ETS User's Guide.
SAS Information Delivery Portal
The SAS Information Delivery Portal enables you to aggregate data from a variety of
sources and present the data in a web browser. The web browser content might include
the output of SAS Stored Processes, links to web addresses, documents, syndicated
content from information providers, SAS Information Maps, SAS reports, and web
applications.
Using the portal, you can distribute different types of content and applications as
appropriate to internal users, external customers, vendors, and partners. You can use
the portal along with the Publishing Framework to publish content to SAS publication
channels or WebDAV repositories, to subscribe to publication channels, and to view
packages published to channels. The portal's personalization features enable users to
organize information about their desktops in a way that makes sense to them.
For more information, see the SAS Information Delivery Portal Help, which is available
from within the product. For information about administrative and development tasks
associated with the SAS Information Delivery Portal, see the SAS Intelligence Platform:
68 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
Web Application Administration Guide and Developing Portlets for the SAS Information
Delivery Portal, which are available at http://support.sas.com.
SAS Information Map Studio
SAS Information Map Studio enables data modelers and data architects to create and
manage SAS Information Maps, which are business metadata about your data.
Information maps enable you to surface your data warehouse data in business terms
that typical business users understand. It simultaneously while stores key information
that is needed to build appropriate queries.
Information maps provide the following benefits:
n
Users are shielded from the complexities of the data.
n
Data storage is transparent to the consumers of information maps, regardless of
whether the underlying data is relational or multidimensional, in a SAS data set, or in
a third-party database system.
n
Business formulas and calculations are predefined, which makes them usable on a
consistent basis.
n
Users can easily query data for answers to business questions without having to
know query languages.
For more information, see the SAS Information Map Studio Help, which is available from
within the product, and SAS Information Map Studio: Getting Started with SAS
Information Maps, which is available at http://support.sas.com.
JMP
JMP is interactive, exploratory data analysis and modeling software for the desktop.
JMP makes data analysis—and the resulting discoveries—visual and helps
communicate those discoveries to others. JMP presents results both graphically and
SAS Management Console
69
numerically. By linking graphs to each other and to the data, JMP makes it easier to see
the trends, outliers, and other patterns that are hidden in your data.
Through interactive graphs that link statistics and data, JMP offers analyses from the
basic (univariate descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and regression) to the advanced
(generalized linear, mixed, and nonlinear models, data mining, and time series models).
A unified, visual approach makes these techniques available to all levels of users.
The JMP Scripting Language can be used to create interactive applications and to
communicate with SAS. JMP reads text files, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, SAS data
sets, and data from any ODBC data source.
JMP is included with SAS Visual BI, which can be ordered with SAS Enterprise BI
Server.
SAS Management Console
SAS Management Console provides a single point of control for administering your SAS
servers and for managing metadata objects that are used throughout the SAS
Intelligence Platform. You can use SAS Management Console to connect to the SAS
Metadata Server and view and manage the metadata objects that are stored in the
server's metadata repositories.
SAS Management Console uses an extensible plug-in architecture, enabling you to
customize the console to support a wide range of administrative capabilities. The plugins that are provided with the application enable you to manage the following resources:
n
server definitions
n
library definitions
n
user, group, and definitions
n
resource access controls
n
metadata repositories
n
job schedules
70 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
The plug-ins also enable you to monitor server activity, configure and run metadata
server backups, view metadata interdependencies, and stop, pause, and resume
servers. Only certain users can view and use plug-ins. A user's access to plug-ins
depends on the which roles the user is assigned to and which capabilities are assigned
to those roles.
In SAS Management Console, you can also view the folders that store metadata for
business intelligence content such as libraries, tables, jobs, cubes, information maps,
and reports. The folders include a personal folder for each individual user. For shared
data, you can create a customized folder structure and assign appropriate permissions
at each level in the folder hierarchy. Import and export wizards enable you to easily
move or promote content from one part of the folder tree to another, or from one
metadata server to another.
Note: Other client applications also display folders if they contain content that is
relevant to the application and that the user has permission to view.
For more information, see the SAS Management Console Help, which is available from
within the product. For detailed information about specific tasks that you can perform in
SAS Management Console, see the administration guides for the SAS Intelligence
Platform at http://support.sas.com/94administration.
SAS Mobile BI
SAS Mobile BI enables users to use mobile devices to view certain relational reports
that have been created with SAS Web Report Studio. Each of the supported devices
(iPad and Android) displays the reports in its native format.
A graphical user interface enables administrators to manage device eligibility by
exclusion or inclusion. SAS metadata security is enforced for all reports.
For more information, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Middle-Tier Administration
Guide.
SAS Model Manager
71
SAS Model Manager
SAS Model Manager provides a central model repository and model management
environment for predictive and analytical models. Users can organize modeling projects,
develop and validate candidate models, assess candidate models for champion model
and challenger model selection, publish and monitor champion models in a production
environment, and retrain models. All model development and model maintenance
personnel, including data modelers, validation testers, scoring officers, and analysts,
can use SAS Model Manager. SAS Model Manager in a business intelligence
environment can meet many model development and maintenance challenges.
Here are some of the services SAS Model Manager provides:
n
storage of models in a central secure repository.
n
creation of custom milestones and tasks to meet business requirements and to
match business processes. These milestones and tasks can be used to monitor the
development and deployment of models.
n
access to data tables that are registered in SAS Management Console or that are
located in other SAS libraries for use in SAS Model Manager.
n
importing of models into SAS Model Manager. These models can include SAS
Enterprise Miner models, SAS/STAT models, PMML models, or models that you
develop using SAS code.
n
scoring tasks and several reports that can be used to compare, assess and validate
models.
n
ability to publish and score models in a specific database using the SAS Scoring
Accelerator.
n
use of the SAS Integration Technologies Publishing Framework to publish models to
a channel.
n
use of model performance monitoring and dashboard reports for project champion
models and challenger models.
72 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
use of macro programs to run model registration and scoring in a batch environment.
n
retraining of models to respond to data or market changes.
SAS OLAP Cube Studio
SAS OLAP Cube Studio enables you to design and create online analytical processing
(OLAP) cubes, register cube metadata in a SAS Metadata Repository, and save
physical cube data in a specified location. Using the application’s Cube Designer
Wizard, you can specify the following:
n
the data source for a cube
n
the cube design and architecture
n
measures of the cube for future queries
n
initial aggregations for the cube
SAS OLAP Cube Studio also includes functions and wizards that enable you to create
additional cube aggregations, to add calculated members to a cube, and to modify
existing calculated members.
For more information, see the SAS OLAP Cube Studio Help, which is available from
within the product, and the SAS OLAP Server: User's Guide. For information about
administrative tasks associated with SAS OLAP Cube Studio, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guide.
SAS Visual Analytics
SAS Visual Analytics is an easy-to-use, web-based product that leverages SAS highperformance analytic technologies and complements the capabilities of the SAS
Intelligence Platform. It provides an integrated suite of applications that are accessed
from a home page. The central entry point enables users to perform a wide variety of
tasks such as preparing data sources, exploring data, designing reports, as well as
SAS Visual Statistics
73
analyzing and interpreting data. Most important, reports can be displayed on a mobile
device or on the web.
Business users can explore data on their own to develop new insights, and analysts can
speed up the modeling cycle by quickly identifying statistically relevant variables. A key
component of SAS Visual Analytics is the SAS LASR Analytic Server, which quickly
reads data into memory for fast processing and data visualization.
SAS Visual Analytics provides the following benefits:
n
enables users to apply the power of SAS analytics to massive amounts of data
n
empowers users to visually explore data, based on any variety of measures, at
amazingly fast speeds
n
enables users to quickly create powerful statistical models if SAS Visual Statistics is
licensed
n
enables users to quickly create reports or dashboards using standard tables, graphs,
and gauges
n
enables users to quickly create customized graphs
n
enables users to share insights with anyone, anywhere, via the web or a mobile
device
For more information, see http://www.sas.com/software/visual-analytics/overview.html.
SAS Visual Statistics
SAS Visual Statistics is an add-on to SAS Visual Analytics that enables you to develop
and test models using the in-memory capabilities of SAS software. SAS Visual Analytics
Explorer (the explorer) enables you to explore, investigate, and visualize data sources
to uncover relevant patterns. SAS Visual Statistics extends these capabilities by
creating, testing, and comparing models based on the patterns discovered in the
explorer. SAS Visual Statistics can export the score code, before or after performing
model comparison, for use with other SAS products and to put the model into
production.
74 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS Visual Statistics enables you to rapidly create powerful statistical models in an
easy-to-use, web-based interface. After you have created two or more competing
models for your data, SAS Visual Statistics provides a model comparison tool. You can
use the tool to create a linear regression model, a logistic regression model, an
advanced decision tree, and a clustering tool.
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint is an integrated set of controls that enable you
to provide customized, dynamic content on your website. By using Microsoft Windows
SharePoint Services, you can add SAS content directly to your website.
Documentation for SAS Web Parts for Microsoft SharePoint is available from http://
support.sas.com/documentation/onlinedoc/webparts.
SAS Web Report Studio
SAS Web Report Studio enables you to create, view, and organize reports. You can use
SAS Web Report Studio for the following tasks:
Creating reports
Beginning with a simple and intuitive view of your data provided by SAS Information
Maps (created in SAS Information Map Studio), you can create reports based on
either relational or multidimensional data sources. Advanced users can access
tables and cubes directly, without the need for information maps.
You can use the Report Wizard to quickly create simple reports, or you can use Edit
mode to create sophisticated reports that have multiple data sources, each of which
can be filtered. These reports can include various combinations of list tables,
crosstabulation tables, graphs, images, and text. Using Edit mode, you can adjust
the style to change colors and fonts. You can also insert stored processes, created
by business analysts who are proficient in SAS, that contain instructions for
SAS Web Report Studio
75
calculating analytical results. The stored process results can be rendered as part of
a report or as a complete report.
Additional layout and query capabilities are available for advanced users. These
users can incorporate custom calculations and complex filter combinations, multiple
queries, prompts, and SAS analytical results into a single document. In addition,
advanced users can use headers, footers, images, and text to incorporate corporate
standards, confidentiality messages, and hyperlinks into reports. Advanced users
can also access tables and cubes directly.
Viewing and working with reports
While viewing reports, you can filter, sort, and rank the data that is shown in list
tables, crosstabulation tables, and graphs. With multidimensional data, you can drill
down on data in crosstabulation tables and graphs, and drill through to the
underlying data.
Organizing reports
You can create folders and subfolders for organizing your reports. Information
consumers can use keywords to find the reports that they need. Reports can be
shared with others or kept private. You can schedule reports to run at specified times
and distribute them via e-mail, either as PDF attachments or as embedded HTML
files. You can also publish reports to one or more publication channels.
Printing and exporting reports
You can preview a report in PDF and print the report, or save and e-mail it later. You
have control over many printing options, including page orientation and page range.
You can also export data as a spreadsheet and export graphs as images. You can
also export data for list tables, crosstabulation tables, and graphs. The output can be
viewed in Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Word.
For more information, see the SAS Web Report Studio Help and the SAS Web Report
Studio: User's Guide, which are available from within the product. For information about
administrative tasks associated with SAS Web Report Studio, see the SAS Intelligence
Platform: Web Application Administration Guide.
76 Chapter 6 / Clients in the SAS Intelligence Platform
SAS Workflow Studio
SAS Workflow Studio enables you to modify and extend the default workflow templates
that are provided with certain SAS applications and solutions. SAS Workflow Studio is a
modeling tool for the rapid development of workflow templates that reflect an
application’s business logic. It enables business users to build, organize, and deploy
complex workflows, and to adjust business logic efficiently when business demands
change. The workflow service layer can be integrated with any number of existing
applications.
For more information, see the SAS Workflow Studio: User's Guide.
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
The SAS Help Viewer for the Web enables users to view and navigate SAS Online Help
in web applications such as the SAS Information Delivery Portal, the SAS BI
Dashboard, and SAS Web Report Studio. For information about administration tasks
associated with SAS Help Viewer for the Web, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Web
Application Administration Guide.
77
7
Security Overview
Overview of SAS Intelligence Platform Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Authorization and Permissions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Metadata-Based Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Metadata-Bound Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Locked-down Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
External Authorization Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Roles and Capabilities Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Authentication and Identity Management Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Single Sign-On in the SAS Intelligence Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Single Sign-On for SAS Desktop Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Single Sign-On for SAS Web Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Single Sign-On for Data Servers and Processing Servers . . . . . . . . 84
Overview of Initial Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Encryption Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Security Reporting and Logging Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
78 Chapter 7 / Security Overview
Overview of SAS Intelligence Platform
Security
The security features of the SAS Intelligence Platform offer the following benefits:
n
single sign-on from and across disparate systems
n
secure access to data and metadata
n
role-based access to application features
n
confidential transmission and storage of data
n
logging and auditing of security events
n
access control reporting
The SAS Intelligence Platform's security model cooperates with external systems such
as the host environment, the web realm, and third-party databases. To coordinate
identity information, SAS keeps a copy of one or more IDs (such as host, Active
Directory, LDAP, or web account IDs) for each user. This requirement does not apply to
any users for whom a generic PUBLIC identity is sufficient.
For a comprehensive discussion of security and detailed information about security
administration activities, see the SAS Intelligence Platform: Security Administration
Guide and the SAS Guide to Metadata-Bound Libraries, which are available at http://
support.sas.com/94administration.
Authorization and Permissions
Overview
Metadata-Based Authorization
Authorization is the process of determining which users have which permissions for
which resources. The SAS Intelligence Platform includes an authorization mechanism
Authorization and Permissions Overview
79
that consists of access controls that you define and store in a metadata repository.
These metadata-based controls supplement protections from the host environment and
other systems. You can use the metadata authorization layer to manage access to the
following resources:
n
almost any metadata object (for example, reports, data definitions, information
maps, jobs, stored processes, and server definitions)
n
OLAP data
n
relational data (depending on the method by which the data is accessed)
You can set permissions at several levels of granularity:
n
Repository-level controls provide default access controls for objects that have no
other access controls defined.
n
Resource-level controls manage access to a specific item such as a report, an
information map, a stored process, a table, a column, a cube, or a folder. The
controls can be defined individually (as explicit settings) or in patterns (by using
access control templates).
n
Fine-grained controls affect access to subsets of data within a resource. You can
use these controls to specify who can access particular rows within a table or
members within a cube dimension.
You can assign permissions to individual users or to user groups. Each SAS user has
an identity hierarchy that starts with the user's individual SAS identity and can include
multiple levels of nested group memberships.
The effect of a particular permission setting is influenced by any related settings that
have higher precedence. For example, if a report inherits a grant from its parent folder
but also has an explicit denial, the explicit setting determines the outcome.
The available metadata-based permissions are summarized in the following table.
80 Chapter 7 / Security Overview
Table 7.1
Metadata-Based Permissions
Permissions
Use
ReadMetadata, WriteMetadata,
WriteMemberMetadata, CheckInMetadata
Use to control user interactions with a
metadata object.
Read, Write, Create, or Delete
Use to control user interactions with the
underlying computing resource that is
represented by a metadata object; and to
control interactions with some metadata
objects, such as dashboard objects.
Administer
Use to control administrative interactions
(such as starting or stopping) with the SAS
server that is represented by a metadata
object.
Secured library objects and secured table objects are subject to additional metadatabased permissions.
Metadata-Bound Libraries
To enable you to further control access to physical data, Base SAS includes the ability
to define metadata-bound libraries. A metadata-bound library is a physical library that is
tied to a corresponding metadata object. Each physical table within a metadata-bound
library has information in its header that points to a specific metadata object (a secured
table object). The pointer creates a security binding between the physical table and the
metadata object.
The binding ensures that SAS universally enforces metadata-layer permission
requirements for the physical table—regardless of how a user requests access from
SAS. Users who attempt to reference the data directly (for example, through a
LIBNAME statement) are subject to the same metadata-based authorization as users
who request the data through a BI client (such as SAS Web Report Studio).
Roles and Capabilities Overview
81
Locked-down Servers
Another way to control access to physical data is to use locked-down servers. A lockeddown server is a SAS server that is allowed to access only specified host resources
(directory paths and files). Regardless of host-layer permissions, FILENAME and
LIBNAME statements that users submit through a locked-down server are rejected,
unless the target resource is included in the server’s lockdown paths list.
You can place the following types of servers in a locked-down state: standard and
pooled workspace servers, stored process servers, batch servers, grid servers, and
SAS/CONNECT servers.
External Authorization Mechanisms
A user's ability to perform a particular action is determined not only by metadata-based
and Base SAS mechanisms, but also by external authorization mechanisms such as
operating system permissions and database controls. To perform a particular action, the
user must have the necessary permissions in all of the applicable authorization layers.
For example, regardless of the access controls that have been defined for the user in
the metadata repository, the user cannot access a particular file if the operating system
permissions do not permit the action.
Roles and Capabilities Overview
The SAS implementation of roles enables administrators to manage the availability of
application features such as menu items, plug-ins, and buttons. Applications that have
roles include the SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office, SAS Enterprise Guide, SAS Forecast
Studio, SAS Management Console, and SAS Web Report Studio. For example, role
memberships determine whether a user can see the Server Manager plug-in (in SAS
Management Console), compare data (in SAS Enterprise Guide), or directly open an
information map (in SAS Web Report Studio). Administrators can assign roles to users
and to groups.
82 Chapter 7 / Security Overview
An application feature that is under role management is called a capability. Each
application that supports roles provides a fixed set of explicit and implicit capabilities.
Explicit capabilities can be incrementally added to or removed from any role (other than
the unrestricted role, which always provides all explicit capabilities). An implicit
capability is permanently bound to a certain role. A contributed capability is an implicit or
explicit capability that is assigned through role aggregation. If one role is designated as
a contributing role for another role, all of the first role's capabilities become contributed
capabilities for the second role.
In general, roles are separate from permissions and do not affect access to metadata or
data.
Authentication and Identity
Management Overview
Authentication is an identity verification process that attempts to determine whether
users (and other entities) are who they say they are. In the simplest case, users already
have accounts that are known to the metadata server's host. For example, if the
metadata server is on UNIX, then users might have accounts in an LDAP provider that
the UNIX host recognizes. If the metadata server is on Windows, then users might have
Active Directory accounts.
For accountability, we recommend creating an individual SAS identity for each person
who uses the SAS environment. These identities enable administrators to make access
distinctions and audit individual actions in the metadata layer. The identities also provide
personal folders for each user. The metadata server maintains its own copy of each
user ID for the purpose of establishing a SAS identity.
Identity management tasks can be performed manually using SAS Management
Console or by using the following batch processes:
n
To load user information into the metadata repository, you first extract user and
group information from one or more enterprise identity sources. Then you use SAS
bulk-load macros to create identity metadata from the extracted information. SAS
provides sample applications that extract user and group information and logins from
an Active Directory server and from UNIX /etc/passwd and /etc/group files.
Single Sign-On in the SAS Intelligence Platform
n
83
To periodically update user information in the metadata repository, you extract user
and group information from your enterprise identity sources and from the SAS
metadata. Then you use SAS macros to compare the two sets of data and identify
the needed updates. After validating the changes, you use SAS macros to load the
updates into the metadata repository.
Note: You cannot use these batch processes to manage passwords. Users can
manage their own passwords with the SAS Personal Login Manager.
The metadata identity information is used by the security model's credential
management and authorization features. For example, when a user logs on to SAS
Data Integration Studio, the metadata server wants to know who the user is so that it
can determine which libraries, stored processes, and jobs should be displayed in the
desktop client. If a user makes a request in SAS Data Integration Studio to run a job
against an Oracle table, the Oracle server wants to know who the user is so that it can
determine whether the user has access to the data in the table.
Single Sign-On in the SAS Intelligence
Platform
Single Sign-On for SAS Desktop Applications
For desktop applications such as SAS Information Map Studio, SAS Enterprise Guide,
SAS Data Integration Studio, SAS OLAP Cube Studio, and SAS Management Console,
you can use the following single sign-on features:
n
You can enable Integrated Windows authentication so that users will not receive a
logon prompt when they launch applications. Integrated Windows authentication is a
Microsoft technology that generates and validates Windows identity tokens. All
participating clients and servers must authenticate against the same Windows
domain (or against domains that trust one another).
n
Users can also avoid the initial logon prompt by selecting the option to save their
credentials in a connection profile. (This option can be disabled on a site-wide
basis.)
84 Chapter 7 / Security Overview
Single Sign-On for SAS Web Applications
You can enable Web authentication so that users will not receive a logon prompt when
they launch SAS Web applications such as SAS Web Report Studio and the SAS
Information Delivery Portal. In this configuration, SAS web applications use whatever
authentication scheme you have set up in your web environment. For example, if your
web environment is integrated with a third-party authentication provider, then the SAS
web applications participate in that scheme.
Single Sign-On for Data Servers and
Processing Servers
Seamless access to SAS Stored Process Servers, SAS OLAP Servers, SAS Content
Servers, and SAS Pooled Workspace Servers is provided through SAS token
authentication. This mechanism causes participating SAS servers to accept users who
are connected to the metadata server. No individual external accounts are required, no
user passwords are stored in the metadata, and no reusable credentials are
transmitted.
Seamless access to SAS Workspace Servers can be provided through SAS token
authentication, Integrated Windows authentication, or credential reuse. With credential
reuse, when a user provides credentials in the initial logon dialog box, the credentials
are added to the user's in-memory credential cache (user context) and then retrieved
when access to the workspace server is required.
You can also use Integrated Windows authentication to provide direct connections to
OLAP servers (for example, from a data provider) when there is no active connection to
the metadata server.
Overview of Initial Users
During installation, several initial user accounts are created. Some of these accounts
are created for all installations, some are optional, and some are created only if certain
software components are installed. The required users include the following:
Encryption Overview 85
n
The SAS Administrator account and the SAS Trusted User Account. These users
are generally set up as internal accounts, which exist in metadata but are not known
to the host machine. The SAS Administrator account has access to all metadata,
regardless of SAS permissions settings. The SAS Trusted User is a privileged
service account that can act on behalf of other users when connecting to the
metadata server.
n
The SAS Spawned Servers account and the SAS Installer account, which must be
defined in the operating system of certain server machines. The SAS Spawned
Servers account is the initially configured process owner for pooled workspace
servers and stored process servers. The SAS Installer Account is used to install and
configure SAS software. On UNIX and z/OS systems, this account is also the owner
of configuration directories and their contents and is the process owner for items
such as the metadata server, the OLAP server, and the object spawner.
Other initial users include the LSF Administrator and LSF User, which are required if
Platform Suite for SAS is installed. In addition, the SAS Anonymous Web Service User
is an optional account that is used to grant clients access to applicable SAS Web
Infrastructure Platform components. Most installations set up this user as an internal
account, which exists in metadata but is not known to the host machine.
Encryption Overview
SAS offers encryption features to help you protect information on disk and in transit.
When passwords must be stored, they are encrypted or otherwise encoded. Passwords
that are transmitted by SAS are also encrypted or encoded. You can choose to encrypt
all traffic instead of encrypting only credentials.
If you have installed SAS/SECURE, you can use an industry standard encryption
algorithm such as AES. SAS/SECURE offers maximum protection, including support of
the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 encryption specification. If
you have not installed SAS/SECURE, you can use the SASProprietary algorithm to help
protect information.
86 Chapter 7 / Security Overview
Security Reporting and Logging
Overview
Security reporting creates a snapshot of metadata layer access control settings. SAS
provides the %MDSECDS autocall macro to enable you to easily build data sets of
permissions information. You can use those data sets as the data source for security
reports. You can also identify changes in settings by comparing data sets that are
generated at different times.
Security logging records security-related events as part of the system-wide logging
facility. The events that are captured include authentication events, client connections,
changes to user and group information, and permission changes. For more information
about logging, see “Logging and Monitoring for SAS Servers” on page 48 and the SAS
Logging: Configuration and Programming Reference.
87
Recommended Reading
Here is the recommended reading list for this title:
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Installation and Configuration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Migration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: System Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Security Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Application Server Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Desktop Application Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Data Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Middle-Tier Administration Guide
n
SAS Intelligence Platform: Web Application Administration Guide
n
SAS Environment Manager User’s Guide
n
Grid Computing in SAS
n
SAS BI Dashboard: User's Guide
n
SAS Data Integration Studio: User's Guide
n
SAS and Hadoop Technology: Overview
n
SAS High-Performance Forecasting: User's Guide
n
SAS Information Map Studio: Getting Started with SAS Information Maps
n
SAS LASR Analytic Server: Reference Guide
88 Recommended Reading
n
SAS Logging: Configuration and Programming Reference
n
SAS OLAP Server: MDX Guide
n
SAS OLAP Server: User's Guide
n
SAS Providers for OLE DB: Cookbook
n
SAS Scalable Performance Data Engine: Reference
n
SAS Visual Analytics: User's Guide
n
SAS Web Report Studio: User's Guide
n
SAS/ACCESS for Relational Databases: Reference
n
Scheduling in SAS
For a complete list of SAS publications, go to sas.com/store/books. If you have
questions about which titles you need, please contact a SAS Representative:
SAS Books
SAS Campus Drive
Cary, NC 27513-2414
Phone: 1-800-727-0025
Fax: 1-919-677-4444
Email: [email protected]
Web address: sas.com/store/books
89
Glossary
access control template (ACT)
a reusable named authorization pattern that you can apply to multiple resources. An
access control template consists of a list of users and groups and indicates, for each
user or group, whether permissions are granted or denied.
ACT
See access control template.
Application Response Measurement (ARM)
the name of an application programming interface that was developed by an industry
partnership and which is used to monitor the availability and performance of
software applications. ARM monitors the application tasks that are important to a
particular business.
ARM
See Application Response Measurement.
authentication
See client authentication.
authentication provider
a software component that is used for identifying and authenticating users. For
example, an LDAP server or the host operating system can provide authentication.
authorization
the process of determining the permissions that particular users have for particular
resources. Authorization either permits or denies a specific action on a specific
resource, based on the user's identity and on group memberships.
90 Glossary
browser
See web browser.
capability
an application feature that is under role-based management. Typically, a capability
corresponds to a menu item or button. For example, a Report Creation capability
might correspond to a New Report menu item in a reporting application. Capabilities
are assigned to roles.
client authentication (authentication)
the process of verifying the identity of a person or process for security purposes.
client-side pooling
a configuration in which the client application maintains a collection of reusable
workspace server processes.
credentials
evidence that is submitted to support a claim of identity (for example, a user ID and
password) or privilege (for example, a passphrase or encryption key).
cube
See OLAP cube.
data mart
a subset of the data in a data warehouse. A data mart is optimized for a specific set
of users who need a particular set of queries and reports.
data set
See SAS data set.
data warehouse (warehouse)
a collection of pre-categorized data that is extracted from one or more sources for
the purpose of query, reporting, and analysis. Data warehouses are generally used
for storing large amounts of data that originates in other corporate applications or
that is extracted from external data sources.
Glossary 91
database management system (DBMS)
a software application that enables you to create and manipulate data that is stored
in the form of databases. See also relational database management system.
database server
a server that provides relational database services to a client. Oracle, DB/2, and
Teradata are examples of relational databases.
DBMS
See database management system.
encryption
the conversion of data by the use of algorithms or other means into an unintelligible
form in order to secure data (for example, passwords) in transmission and in
storage.
foundation services
See SAS Foundation Services.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer protocol)
a protocol for transferring data to the Internet. HTTP provides a way for servers and
web clients to communicate. It is based on the TCP/IP protocol.
HyperText Transfer protocol
See HTTP.
identity
See metadata identity.
information map
a collection of data items and filters that provides a user-friendly view of a data
source. When you use an information map to query data for business needs, you do
not have to understand the structure of the underlying data source or know how to
program in a query language.
92 Glossary
Integrated Object Model (IOM)
the set of distributed object interfaces that make SAS software features available to
client applications when SAS is executed as an object server.
Integrated Object Model server (IOM server)
a SAS object server that is launched in order to fulfill client requests for IOM
services.
Integrated Windows authentication (IWA)
a Microsoft technology that facilitates use of authentication protocols such as
Kerberos. In the SAS implementation, all participating components must be in the
same Windows domain or in domains that trust each other.
internal account
a SAS account that you can create as part of a user definition. Internal accounts are
intended for metadata administrators and some service identities; these accounts
are not intended for regular users.
IOM
See Integrated Object Model.
IOM server
See Integrated Object Model server.
IWA
See Integrated Windows authentication.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
a protocol that is used for accessing directories or folders. LDAP is based on the X.
500 standard, but it is simpler and, unlike X.500, it supports TCP/IP.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
See LDAP.
Glossary 93
load balancing
for IOM bridge connections, a program that runs in the object spawner and that uses
an algorithm to distribute work across object server processes on the same or
separate machines in a cluster.
logical server
the second-level object in the metadata for SAS servers. A logical server specifies
one or more of a particular type of server component, such as one or more SAS
Workspace Servers.
MDDB
See multidimensional database.
metadata
descriptive data about data that is stored and managed in a database, in order to
facilitate access to captured and archived data for further use.
metadata identity (identity)
a metadata object that represents an individual user or a group of users in a SAS
metadata environment. Each individual and group that accesses secured resources
on a SAS Metadata Server should have a unique metadata identity within that
server.
metadata LIBNAME engine
the SAS engine that processes and augments data that is identified by metadata.
The metadata engine retrieves information about a target SAS library from metadata
objects in a specified metadata repository.
metadata object
a set of attributes that describe a table, a server, a user, or another resource on a
network. The specific attributes that a metadata object includes vary depending on
which metadata model is being used.
94 Glossary
metadata server
a server that provides metadata management services to one or more client
applications.
multidimensional database (MDDB)
a specialized data storage structure in which data is presummarized and crosstabulated and then stored as individual cells in a matrix format, rather than in the
row-and-column format of relational database tables. The source data can come
either from a data warehouse or from other data sources. MDDBs can give users
quick, unlimited views of multiple relationships in large quantities of summarized
data.
object spawner (spawner)
a program that instantiates object servers that are using an IOM bridge connection.
The object spawner listens for incoming client requests for IOM services.
OLAP (online analytical processing)
a software technology that enables users to dynamically analyze data that is stored
in multidimensional database tables (cubes).
OLAP cube (cube)
a logical set of data that is organized and structured in a hierarchical,
multidimensional arrangement to enable quick analysis of data. A cube includes
measures, and it can have numerous dimensions and levels of data.
OLAP schema
a container for OLAP cubes. A cube is assigned to an OLAP schema when it is
created, and an OLAP schema is assigned to a SAS OLAP Server when the server
is defined in the metadata. A SAS OLAP Server can access only the cubes that are
in its assigned OLAP schema.
online analytical processing
See OLAP.
Glossary 95
parallel execution
See parallel processing.
parallel I/O
a method of input and output that takes advantage of multiple CPUs and multiple
controllers, with multiple disks per controller to read or write data in independent
threads.
parallel processing (parallel execution)
a method of processing that divides a large job into multiple smaller jobs that can be
executed simultaneously on multiple CPUs.
permission
the type of access that a user or group has to a resource. The permission defines
what the user or group can do with the resource. Examples of permissions are
ReadMetadata and WriteMetadata.
plug-in
a file that modifies, enhances, or extends the capabilities of an application program.
The application program must be designed to accept plug-ins, and the plug-ins must
meet design criteria specified by the developers of the application program.
RDBMS
See relational database management system.
relational database management system (RDBMS)
a database management system that organizes and accesses data according to
relationships between data items. The main characteristic of a relational database
management system is the two-dimensional table. Examples of relational database
management systems are DB2, Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft SQL Server.
role (user role)
a set of capabilities within an application that are targeted to a particular group of
users.
96 Glossary
SAS Application Server
a logical entity that represents the SAS server tier, which in turn comprises servers
that execute code for particular tasks and metadata objects.
SAS Content Server
a server that stores digital content (such as documents, reports, and images) that is
created and used by SAS client applications. To interact with the server, clients use
WebDAV-based protocols for access, versioning, collaboration, security, and
searching.
SAS data set (data set)
a file whose contents are in one of the native SAS file formats. There are two types
of SAS data sets: SAS data files and SAS data views.
SAS Foundation Services (foundation services)
a set of core infrastructure services that programmers can use in developing
distributed applications that are integrated with the SAS platform. These services
provide basic underlying functions that are common to many applications. These
functions include making client connections to SAS application servers, dynamic
service discovery, user authentication, profile management, session context
management, metadata and content repository access, information publishing, and
stored process execution. See also service.
SAS Management Console
a Java application that provides a single user interface for performing SAS
administrative tasks.
SAS Metadata Repository
a container for metadata that is managed by the SAS Metadata Server. See also
SAS Metadata Server.
SAS Metadata Server
a multi-user server that enables users to read metadata from or write metadata to
one or more SAS Metadata Repositories.
Glossary 97
SAS OLAP Server
a SAS server that provides access to multidimensional data. The data is queried
using the multidimensional expressions (MDX) language.
SAS Open Metadata Architecture
a general-purpose metadata management facility that provides metadata services to
SAS applications. The SAS Open Metadata Architecture enables applications to
exchange metadata, which makes it easier for these applications to work together.
SAS Scalable Performance Data Server (SPD Server)
a server that restructures data in order to enable multiple threads, running in parallel,
to read and write massive amounts of data efficiently.
SAS Stored Process (stored process)
a SAS program that is stored on a server and defined in metadata, and which can be
executed by client applications.
SAS Stored Process Server
a SAS IOM server that is launched in order to fulfill client requests for SAS Stored
Processes.
SAS token authentication
a process in which the metadata server generates and verifies SAS identity tokens
to provide single sign-on to other SAS servers. Each token is a single-use,
proprietary software representation of an identity.
SAS Web Infrastructure Platform
a collection of middle-tier services and applications that provide infrastructure and
integration features that are shared by SAS web applications and other HTTP
clients.
SAS Workspace Server
a SAS server that provides access to SAS Foundation features such as the SAS
programming language and SAS libraries.
98 Glossary
SAS/SHARE server
the result of an execution of the SERVER procedure, which is part of SAS/SHARE
software. A server runs in a separate SAS session that services users' SAS
sessions by controlling and executing input and output requests to one or more SAS
libraries.
SASProprietary algorithm
a fixed encoding algorithm that is included with Base SAS software. The
SASProprietary algorithm requires no additional SAS product licenses. It provides a
medium level of security.
server-side pooling
a configuration in which a SAS object spawner maintains a collection of reusable
workspace server processes that are available for clients. The usage of servers in
this pool is governed by the authorization rules that are set on the servers in the
SAS metadata.
service
one or more application components that an authorized user or application can call
at any time to provide results that conform to a published specification. For example,
network services transmit data or provide conversion of data in a network, database
services provide for the storage and retrieval of data in a database, and web
services interact with each other on the World Wide Web. See also SAS Foundation
Services.
single sign-on (SSO)
an authentication model that enables users to access a variety of computing
resources without being repeatedly prompted for their user IDs and passwords. For
example, single sign-on can enable a user to access SAS servers that run on
different platforms without interactively providing the user's ID and password for
each platform. Single sign-on can also enable someone who is using one application
to launch other applications based on the authentication that was performed when
the user initially logged on.
Glossary 99
SMP (symmetric multiprocessing)
a type of hardware and software architecture that can improve the speed of I/O and
processing. An SMP machine has multiple CPUs and a thread-enabled operating
system. An SMP machine is usually configured with multiple controllers and with
multiple disk drives per controller.
spawner
See object spawner.
SPD Server
See SAS Scalable Performance Data Server.
SSO
See single sign-on.
stored process
See SAS Stored Process.
symmetric multiprocessing
See SMP.
theme
a collection of specifications (for example, colors, fonts, and font styles) and
graphics that control the appearance of an application.
thread
the smallest unit of processing that can be scheduled by an operating system.
transformation
in data integration, an operation that extracts data, transforms data, or loads data
into data stores.
user role
See role.
100 Glossary
warehouse
See data warehouse.
web application
an application that is accessed via a web browser over a network such as the
Internet or an intranet. SAS web applications are Java Enterprise Edition (JEE)
applications that are delivered via web application archive (WAR) files. The
applications can depend on Java and non-Java web technologies.
web authentication
a configuration in which users of web applications and web services are verified at
the web perimeter, and the metadata server trusts that verification.
web browser (browser)
a software application that is used to view web content, and also to download or
upload information. The browser submits URL (Uniform Resource Locator) requests
to a web server and then translates the HTML code into a visual display.
101
Index
A
access controls 42, 78
aggregating data 67
analytical models 11, 71
analytics 4, 10
application servers 45
functionality of 45
purpose of grouping 45
architecture 15
Aster databases 28
authentication 82
Integrated Windows 84
token 84
authorization 78, 83
metadata-based 78
multiple layers 81
B
batch servers 39
business intelligence 3, 8
C
CA-IDMS 27
capabilities 82
client-side pooling 48
clients 16, 21
by type 60
JMP 68
overview of 60
SAS Add-In for Microsoft
Office 61
SAS BI Dashboard 62
SAS BI Portlets 63
SAS Data Integration Studio
63
SAS Enterprise Guide 64
SAS Enterprise Miner 65
SAS Environment Manager
65
SAS Forecast Studio 66
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
76
SAS Information Delivery
Portal 67
SAS Information Map Studio
68
SAS Management Console
69
SAS Model Manager 71
SAS OLAP Cube Studio 72
SAS Visual Analytics 72
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft
SharePoint 74
102 Index
SAS Web Report Studio 74
SAS Workflow Studio 76
content mapping 58
credential reuse 84
cube metadata 72
cubes 8, 31, 39, 72
D
dashboards 9, 62
data management 3, 4
DataFlux Data Management
Studio 6
SAS Data Integration Studio 5
SAS Data Loader for Hadoop
5
SAS Data Quality Server 6
SAS Data Surveyor for SAP 6
SAS Metadata Repository 11
SAS/ACCESS 7
data mining 10, 65
data servers 39
single sign-on for 84
data sets 26
as default SAS storage 26
data storage 7
data source design applications
32
data sources 16, 17
metadata management for 32
DATA step batch servers 39
data storage 6, 25
cubes 31
data sets 26
default SAS storage 26
Hadoop 28
high-performance computing
7, 27
in-database 7, 27
multidimensional databases
31
multidimensional storage 7
parallel storage 8, 29
relational storage 7
third-party databases 7, 27
databases
Aster 28
DB2 28
Greenplum 28
Hadoop 28
hierarchical 27
multidimensional 31
Netezza 28
network model systems 27
Oracle 28
relational 27
Teradata 28
third-party 7, 18, 27
DB2 databases 28
default SAS storage 26
desktop applications 60
single sign-on for 83
digital content 58
documentation
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
76
Index
E
encryption 85
exporting reports 75
F
Federal Processing Standard
(FIPS) 140-2 encryption 85
fine-grained controls 79
FIPS 140-2 encryption 85
forecasting 10, 66
G
generic batch servers 39
Greenplum databases 28
grid computing 49
Grid Management Services 12
H
Hadoop data storage 28
Hadoop databases 28
Help
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
76
hierarchical databases 27
high-performance computing
27
I
identity management 82
automated support for 82
identity verification 82
in-database technology 7, 27
information maps 8, 68
initial users 84
Integrated Windows
authentication 84
J
Java batch servers 39
JMP 11, 68
JMP Scripting Language 69
L
lineage 34
load balancing 47
Load Sharing Facility (LSF) 12
logging
for SAS servers 48
for security 86
logical pooled workspace
servers 44
logical server objects 44
logical servers
purpose of grouping 46
logical stored process servers
44
logical workspace servers 44
103
104 Index
Logon Manager 56
LSF Administrator account 85
LSF User account 85
M
managing data
See data management
metadata
creating and administering 42
cube metadata 72
in SAS Metadata Repository
40
managing data sources in 32
organization of 43
metadata LIBNAME engine 33
metadata objects 40
managing 69
metadata repository
See SAS Metadata Repository
metadata-based authorization
78
metadata-based permissions
78
middle tier 16, 21
components 53
models, analytical 11, 71
monitoring SAS servers 49
multidimensional databases 31
multidimensional storage 7
multiple authorization layers 81
N
Netezza databases 28
network model database
systems 27
O
object spawner 38
load balancing and 47
monitoring 49
SAS Spawned Servers
account 85
OLAP cubes 8, 31, 39, 72
online Help
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
76
Oracle databases 28
P
parallel storage 8, 29
how it works 30
options for implementing 30
passwords 83, 85
permissions 78
metadata-based 78
Platform Suite for SAS 12
plug-ins 69
pooled workspace server 20, 38
logical 44
pooling
client-side 48
Index
server-side 20, 38, 47
workspace 47
portlets 9, 63
Preferences Manager 56
printing reports 75
process flows 63
Process Manager 12
processing servers
single sign-on for 84
R
relational databases 27
relational storage 7
reporting, security 86
reports 74
creating 74
organizing 75
printing and exporting 75
viewing and working with 75
repository-level controls 79
resource-level controls 79
roles 42, 81
S
SAS Add-In for Microsoft Office
9, 61
SAS Administrator account 85
SAS Anonymous Web Service
User account 85
SAS BI Dashboard 9, 62
SAS BI Portlets 9, 63
105
SAS BI Server 2
SAS BI Web Services for Java
56
SAS Business Analytics
Framework 1
SAS Business Data Network
34
SAS Content Server 39, 56, 58
SAS Data Integration Server 2
SAS Data Integration Studio 5,
63
SAS Data Loader for Hadoop 5
SAS Data Quality Server 6
SAS Data Surveyor for SAP 6
SAS Enterprise BI Server 2
SAS Enterprise Data Integration
Server 2
SAS Enterprise Guide 9, 64
SAS Enterprise Miner 10, 65
SAS Environment Manager 11,
65
SAS Forecast Server 10, 66
SAS Forecast Studio 66
SAS grid computing 49
SAS Grid Manager 12, 49
SAS Help Viewer for the Web
76
SAS identity 42, 82
SAS In-Database 7, 27
SAS Information Delivery Portal
9, 67
SAS Information Map Studio 8,
68
SAS Installer account 85
SAS Intelligence Platform 1
106 Index
architecture 15
components 3
roles in 81
security 78
servers 38
single sign-on 83
strategic benefits 12
SAS LASR Analytic Server 39,
50
SAS Logon Manager 56
SAS Management Console 11,
69
defining data source objects
33
SAS Metadata Repository 11
loading user information into
82
metadata in 40
updating user information in
83
SAS Metadata Server 18, 38,
40
controlling system access 41
creating and administering
metadata 42
metadata in SAS Metadata
Repository 40
SAS Model Manager 11, 71
SAS object spawner 20, 38
load balancing and 47
monitoring 49
SAS Spawned Servers
account 85
SAS OLAP Cube Studio 8, 72
SAS OLAP Server 19, 31, 39
data storage 7
SAS Pooled Workspace Server
20, 38
SAS Preferences Manager 56
SAS servers 16, 18, 38
logging and monitoring for 48
SAS Content Server 58
SAS Metadata Server 18
SAS OLAP Server 19
SAS Pooled Workspace
Server 20
SAS Stored Process Server
20
SAS Workspace Server 19
SAS Shared Web Assets 57
SAS Spawned Servers account
85
SAS SPD Engine
data storage 8
parallel storage 29
symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) 30
SAS SPD Server
data storage 8
parallel storage 29
SAS Stored Process Server 20,
38
load balancing 47
logical 44
SAS Stored Process Web
Application 57
SAS tables
See data sets
SAS token authentication 84
SAS Trusted User Account 85
Index
SAS Visual Analytics 14, 72
SAS Web Administration
Console 57
SAS Web Infrastructure
Platform 55
SAS Web Infrastructure
Platform Data Server 18, 39
SAS Web Infrastructure
Platform Services 57
SAS Web Parts for Microsoft
SharePoint 74
SAS Web Report Studio 9, 74
SAS Workflow Services 58
SAS Workflow Studio 76
SAS Workspace Server 19, 38
load balancing 47
logical 44
logical pooled 44
pooled 20, 38
workspace pooling 47
SAS/ACCESS 7
SAS/CONNECT servers 39
security 78
authentication and identity
management 82
authorization and permissions
78
encryption 85
initial users 84
reporting and logging 86
roles 81
single sign-on 83
server objects 44
server-side pooling 20, 38, 47
servers 16, 18, 38
single sign-on 83
for data servers and
processing servers 84
for desktop applications 83
for Web applications 84
SMP (symmetric
multiprocessing) 30
spawner 38
load balancing and 47
monitoring 49
SAS Spawned Servers
account 85
storage
See data storage
See parallel storage
stored process servers
See SAS Stored Process
Server
stored processes 20, 38, 44,
47, 65
symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) 30
system access
SAS Metadata Server control
of 41
T
tables
See data sets
Teradata databases 28
third-party databases 18, 27
data storage 7
threaded reads 7
107
108 Index
token authentication 84
U
updating
user information in metadata
repository 83
user information
loading into metadata
repository 82
updating in metadata
repository 83
users, initial 84
V
verifying identities 82
W
web applications 21
Web applications
single sign-on for 84
web-based applications 60
workspace pooling 47
workspace servers
See SAS Workspace Server
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement