Speedliter`s Handbook: Learning to Craft Light with
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
SECOND EDITION
New Edition
Covers all current Canon Speedlites, including
600EX-RT radio-enabled Speedlite
LEARNING TO CRAFT LIGHT
WITH CANON SPEEDLITES
SYL ARENA
SPEEDLITER’S
HANDBOOK
LEARNING TO CRAFT LIGHT WITH CANON SPEEDLITES
SECOND EDITION
SYL ARENA
Speedliter’s Handbook
Learning to Craft Light with Canon Speedlites
Second Edition
Syl Arena
Peachpit Press
www.peachpit.com
To report errors, please send a note to [email protected]
Peachpit Press is a division of Pearson Education.
Copyright © 2016 by Syl Arena
All photography © Syl Arena except where noted
Editors: Ted Waitt, Nancy Peterson, and Valerie Witte
Senior Production Editor: Lisa Brazieal
Copyeditor: Darren Meiss
Indexer: James Minkin
Cover Design: Mimi Heft
Interior Design: Syl Arena
Cover Image: Syl Arena
Back Cover Images: Syl Arena
Notice of Rights
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the
prior written permission of the publisher. For information on getting permission reprints and
excerpts, contact pe[email protected]
Notice of Liability
The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every
precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor Peachpit
shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused
or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or
by the computer software and hardware products described in it.
Trademarks
All Canon products are trademarks or registered trademarks of Canon Inc.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products
are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and Peachpit
was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of
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used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of
infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to
convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.
ISBN-13 978-0-134-00791-5
ISBN-10 0-134-00791-3
987654321
Printed and bound in the United States of America
Dedicated to my dad, John Arena.
Thanks for supporting my addiction to photography
for so many years during my youth.
Insights on this second edition.
We’ve made five laps around the sun since I
wrote the original Speedliter’s Handbook. In
those five years, much has changed about
the way I use Speedlites. Of course, Canon’s
introduction of the 600EX-RT system—with its
built-in, two-way communication—was reason
enough to update the book. Yet, this new
edition is so much more. Virtually every word,
photo, and diagram in the first edition has
been evaluated and either polished or cut.
The biggest change between the first and
second editions is my shift away from automated camera and flash modes. Much of the
first edition was based on using Aperturepriority (Av) on my camera and E-TTL on my
Speedlite, which required acrobatic moves of
exposure compensation and flash exposure
compensation. By teaching hundreds of students face-to-face over these five years, I’ve
come to again believe that Manual mode, on
both the camera and flash, is the best way
to learn. I now share very clear guidelines on
when to shoot in E-TTL and when to shoot in
Manual mode.
Other additions/expansions in the second
edition include:
JJ Buttons-and-dials coverage of every current Canon Speedlite from the 600EX-RT
down to the 90EX along with tips on using
older Canon Speedlites and models from
other manufacturers
JJ A new chapter on maximizing the benefits
of on-camera flash
JJ Expanded portfolios of portraits made with
a single Speedlite and multiple Speedlites
JJ Complete updates to the chapters on light
modifiers and gels
JJ Greater emphasis on step-by-step
workflows
JJ Expanded discussions of how to use
Canon’s camera-based LCD menu system
for Speedlite control
JJ And, of course, complete coverage of how
to use the radio-enabled 600EX-RT system
by itself and with earlier generations of
Canon Speedlites.
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
Thanks are owed to so many. This book would
not be going to press without the support of
the following and so many others:
JJ Amy and our three lads: Tom, Vin and
Tony—Thank you for serving as my models, assistants, and cheerleaders (even
when you wanted to be somewhere else).
JJ Rudy Winston—My technical guru at Canon
USA. Your detailed answers to my multiyear stream of questions make me look
much smarter than I am.
JJ Ted Waitt—My long-suffering editor. Your
admonition to “tell the reader what you do,
not everything you know” still resonates
every time I step up as a teacher.
JJ Gabe Biderman and my extended family
at B&H Photo—By sharing the word about
my events and online videos, you have
brought Speedliting to literally hundreds of
thousands of shooters around the globe.
JJ Joe McNally—You are still my sensei. I
remain your humble and grateful student.
JJ Bobbi Lane—For sharing your joie de vie
and letting me fib that you are my sister
JJ Zack Arias—For your evangelism that
more-expensive gear does not necessarily
make one a better photographer
JJ Peter Read Miller—For your friendship,
calm inspiration, and encouragement
JJ JP Caponigro—For continuing to inspire
the artist within
JJ Frederick Van Johnson—For making me
laugh whenever we talk
JJ M.D. Welch—For introducing me to highspeed sync so many years ago
JJ Maine Media Workshops, Santa Fe
Photographic Workshops, Gulf Photo Plus,
and Rocky Mountain School of Photography—For providing the opportunities to
teach in so many amazing places.
My light shines bright because of you!
San Luis Obispo, California
August, 2015
Welcome Speedliter!............................................... 1.
CHAPTER ZERO
Quick Start Guide To Speedliting.......................... 2
Essential Concepts For Speedliters.............................................................................................................3
Control Your Canon Speedlite Via The LCD On Your Camera...........................................................4
The Two Kinds Of Light In A Flash Photograph.....................................................................................6
Manage The Ambient Light First.................................................................................................................7
Controlling The Brightness Of The Flash..................................................................................................9
A Simple Four-Step Workflow................................................................................................................... 11
The Limitations Of On-Camera Flash...................................................................................................... 12
E-TTL Fill Flash: A Great Use For An On-Camera Speedlite............................................................. 13
PART 1
Before Speedlites, There Was Light
CHAPTER ONE
Learn To See Light................................................ 16
The Poetry Of Light....................................................................................................................................... 17
Character Of Light......................................................................................................................................... 18
How You See Vs. How Your Camera Sees.............................................................................................. 20
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
v
CHAPTER TWO
Exposure Exposed . . .............................................. 24
Connecting Exposure Settings: Aperture, Shutter Speed, And ISO ........................................... 25
Aperture: Controlling Depth Of Field..................................................................................................... 26
Shutter Speed: Managing Motion Or Ambient Light....................................................................... 30
ISO: Connecting The Aperture And Shutter Speed........................................................................... 31
Equivalent Exposures................................................................................................................................... 32
Exposure Modes ............................................................................................................................................ 34
Metering, Metering Zones, And Metering Modes............................................................................. 36
Exposure Evaluation For Flash Photography....................................................................................... 38
Your Vision Determines The Proper Exposure..................................................................................... 41
CHAPTER THREE
Mechanics Of Light. . ............................................ 42
Taking Color’s Temperature........................................................................................................................ 43
White Balance.................................................................................................................................................. 44
Incidence Incidentally.................................................................................................................................. 46
Soft Light Proves That Size Is Relative.................................................................................................... 48
Falling Off, Or How To Love The Inverse Square Law........................................................................ 50
Thinking About Flash-To-Subject Distance As Stops........................................................................ 52
CHAPTER FOUR
Manage The Ambient Light.. ................................ 54
The Role Of Ambient Light......................................................................................................................... 55
Shutter Speed: The Key To Controlling Ambient Light In Flash Exposures.............................. 56
The Effect Of Aperture And ISO On Ambient Light In Flash Photography.............................. 61
Blending Ambient And Flash.................................................................................................................... 62
CHAPTER FIVE
Position Is Relative.............................................. 64
The Lighting Compass................................................................................................................................. 65
On-Axis And Off-Axis Light........................................................................................................................ 68
Light From Above...And Below................................................................................................................. 70
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
PART 2
Speedlites Fundamentally
CHAPTER SIX
Meet The Speedlites.............................................74
Which Canon Speedlite Is Right For You?............................................................................................. 75
Speedlite 600EX-RT....................................................................................................................................... 76
Speedlite 600EX-RT Function Buttons In Non-Wireless Modes.................................................... 78
Speedlite 580EX II.......................................................................................................................................... 80
Speedlite 430EX II.......................................................................................................................................... 82
Speedlite 320EX.............................................................................................................................................. 84
Speedlite 270EX II.......................................................................................................................................... 86
Speedlite 90EX................................................................................................................................................ 87
Legacy Canon EX Speedlites..................................................................................................................... 88
Speedlite Transmitter ST-E3-RT................................................................................................................. 90
Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2....................................................................................................................... 92
Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX II........................................................................................................................ 94
Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX............................................................................................................................ 94
Third-Party Speedlites And Transmitters............................................................................................... 95
CHAPTER SEVEN
Control Your Speedlite.. ....................................... 96
Control Issues: How, When, And Where................................................................................................ 97
How—Setting The Flash Power Via Mode............................................................................................ 97
When—Using Sync To Specify When The Speedlite Fires.............................................................. 99
Where, Part 1—Using Zoom As A Flash Modifier............................................................................104
Where, Part 2—Using Pan And Tilt To Aim The Speedlite............................................................108
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CHAPTER EIGHT
Flashing Manually.. ............................................. 110
Manual Flash—Getting Started With The Most Versatile Flash Mode.....................................111
When To Use Manual Flash......................................................................................................................112
The Numbers Of Manual Mode..............................................................................................................114
Setting Power Manually On The 600EX-RT.........................................................................................115
Setting Power Manually On The 580EX/EX II.....................................................................................116
Setting Power Manually On The 430EX/EX II.....................................................................................117
Setting Power Manually On The 320EX, 270EX II, And 90EX.......................................................118
Setting Manual Power On The LCD Of 2012–Newer Camera Models......................................118
Setting Manual Power On The LCD Of 2007–2011 Camera Models.........................................120
My Workflow: Using One Speedlite In Manual Mode....................................................................122
CHAPTER NINE
E Is For Evaluative.............................................. 124
Deciding When To Set Your Speedlite To E-TTL................................................................................125
The Mechanics Of E-TTL............................................................................................................................126
Limitations Of E-TTL....................................................................................................................................130
E-TTL And Camera Modes.........................................................................................................................131
FEC–Flash Exposure Compensation......................................................................................................132
FEL–Flash Exposure Lock...........................................................................................................................138
Troubleshooting E-TTL...............................................................................................................................141
CHAPTER TEN
Specialty Flash Modes........................................ 142
Beyond Manual And E-TTL.......................................................................................................................143
Multi Mode: Flashing Again And Again...............................................................................................144
Single Speedlite Stroboscopic................................................................................................................146
Multi Speedlite Stroboscopic..................................................................................................................147
Other Considerations For Stroboscopic..............................................................................................148
External Flash Metering: Think “ETTL Without The Preflash”........................................................151
External Auto (Ext.A)—Talks With The Camera.................................................................................152
External Manual (Ext.M)—Works Independently Of The Camera..............................................154
Other Tips For External Flash Metering...............................................................................................155
The Basics Of Group (Gr) Mode..............................................................................................................157
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
PART 3
Off-Camera Speedliting
CHAPTER ELEVEN
Triggers For Off-Camera Flash........................... 160
Choosing An Off-Camera Trigger Is Always A Matter Of Control...............................................161
E-TTL Cords: Affordable And Versatile Control Of An Off-Camera Speedlite.........................162
Optical Slaves Eyes: Enable Canon Speedlites To Be Used With Other Brands.....................164
Canon’s Built-In Optical Wireless System............................................................................................165
Fire Now! Manual Radio Triggers...........................................................................................................166
Power-Adjusting Manual Radio Triggers.............................................................................................167
E-TTL Radio Triggers: Compared To The 600EX-RT Radio-Enabled Speedlite.......................168
Comparison Of Trigger Systems.............................................................................................................171
CHAPTER TWELVE
Optical Wireless, The Canon Way....................... 172
Canon’s Optical And Radio Wireless Systems...................................................................................173
The Optical Master: Someone Has To Be In Command.................................................................174
The Optical Slave: Worker Bee Of Wireless Flash..............................................................................175
Master And Slave Settings For Optical Wireless...............................................................................176
Using A Pop-Up Flash As An Optical Master......................................................................................178
Activating A Speedlite As An Optical Master....................................................................................180
Moving Your Master Speedlite Off-Camera.......................................................................................182
To Fire Or Not To Fire: The Optical Master Wants To Know...........................................................184
Activating A Speedlite As An Optical Slave........................................................................................186
Channels: Master and Slave Must Be The Same...............................................................................188
Groups: Assigning Jobs To Specific Speedlites.................................................................................190
Adjusting E-TTL Flash Power In Optical Wireless..............................................................................192
A:B Ratios: Two-Group E-TTL....................................................................................................................194
A:B C Ratios: Three-Group E-TTL.............................................................................................................198
Adjusting Manual Flash Power In Optical Wireless.........................................................................200
Adjusting Multi Flash Power In Optical Wireless..............................................................................202
Activating A Speedlite As An Independent Slave............................................................................202
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CHAPTER THIRTEEN
Radio Speedliting: Canon’s New Frontier.......... 204
Why The 600EX-RT Is A Revolutionary Speedlite.............................................................................205
Canon Options For Radio Master And Slave......................................................................................206
The 600EX-RT Interactive Menu System..............................................................................................207
Pre-2012 Cameras And Radio Wireless................................................................................................208
Master And Slave Settings For Radio Wireless..................................................................................210
Activating The 600EX-RT As A Radio Master......................................................................................211
Activating The 600EX-RT As A Radio Slave.........................................................................................212
Channel: Master And Slaves Must Be The Same..............................................................................213
Wireless ID: Master And Slaves Must Be The Same.........................................................................214
Flash Groups: Assigning Jobs To Speedlites......................................................................................215
The Link Light Confirms Master/Slave Communications..............................................................216
To Fire Or Not To Fire: The Master Wants To Know..........................................................................217
Fine-Tuning E-TTL Flash Power In Radio Wireless............................................................................218
Setting Manual Flash Power In Radio Wireless.................................................................................220
Multi Mode In Radio Wireless..................................................................................................................221
Group Mode: An Exciting And New Way To Speedlite...................................................................223
Remote Release And Linked Shot..........................................................................................................225
Non-Canon Speedlites With Radio Built-In........................................................................................227
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
PART 4
Gear For Speedliting
CHAPTER FOURTEEN
Go Ahead, Mod Your Speedlite.......................... 232
Why Mod?.......................................................................................................................................................233
Built-In Modifiers..........................................................................................................................................234
Options For Mounting Mods...................................................................................................................235
Globe And Dome Diffusers......................................................................................................................236
Bounce Reflectors........................................................................................................................................238
Softboxes That Attach To Speedlites....................................................................................................240
Ring Light Adapters ...................................................................................................................................242
Grids..................................................................................................................................................................244
Snoots..............................................................................................................................................................246
Projectors........................................................................................................................................................247
Flags..................................................................................................................................................................248
Random Essentials.......................................................................................................................................250
Deciding Which Mods Are Right For You............................................................................................251
CHAPTER FIFTEEN
Those Big Modifiers Always Get In The Way..... 252
Why Mod In A Big Way ..............................................................................................................................253
Umbrellas........................................................................................................................................................254
Softboxes Made For Speedlites .............................................................................................................262
Using Speedlites With Studio Softboxes ............................................................................................268
Beauty Dishes ...............................................................................................................................................270
Scrims And Diffuser Panels.......................................................................................................................272
Reflectors........................................................................................................................................................274
Flags And Solids...........................................................................................................................................275
S PEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
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CHAPTER SIXTEEN
Get A Grip. . ........................................................ 276
Mounting A Speedlite Anywhere..........................................................................................................277
Sometimes You Have To Take A Stand.................................................................................................282
Reaching Out: Poles, Booms, And Boom Stands..............................................................................284
Rails And Other Multi-Lite Mounts .......................................................................................................286
Staying Flexible: Bungies, Straps, And Gaff........................................................................................287
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
Keeping The Energy Up..................................... 288
Batteries Basically........................................................................................................................................289
Single-Use Batteries....................................................................................................................................290
Rechargeable Batteries..............................................................................................................................291
Best AA Batteries..........................................................................................................................................292
Battery Strategies.........................................................................................................................................293
External Battery Packs ...............................................................................................................................294
Charging Batteries.......................................................................................................................................296
Carrying Batteries........................................................................................................................................297
PART 5
Speedliting In Action
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
Getting The Most From On-Camera Flash......... 300
Pop-Up Flash Vs. Speedlite.......................................................................................................................301
Fill Shadows With On-Camera Flash.....................................................................................................302
Create Soft Light By Bouncing On-Camera Flash............................................................................304
Are Diffusers For On-Camera Flash Helpful?......................................................................................306
Other Tips For On-Camera Flash............................................................................................................308
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
CHAPTER NINETEEN
Portraits With One Speedlite.............................. 310
Back To Basics, Quickly...............................................................................................................................311
Shoot: Position Your Modifier With Intention....................................................................................312
Shoot: One Speedlite With Fill Reflector.............................................................................................314
Shoot: Creating Soft Fill Light With A Big Umbrella........................................................................316
Shoot: Broad And Short Lighting...........................................................................................................318
Shoot: Think Of The Shutter As A Light Modifier.............................................................................320
Shoot: Just A Slash Of Light.................................................................................................................... 322
Shoot: Ring The Lens With Light............................................................................................................324
Shoot: Nose To The Gridded Light ........................................................................................................326
Shoot: One-Light White Seamless ........................................................................................................328
Shoot: Speedliting A Silhouette.............................................................................................................330
Shoot: Does Softbox Size Matter?.........................................................................................................332
CHAPTER TWENTY
Portraits With Multiple Speedlites . . ................... 334
Opening Horizons With Multiple Speedlites.....................................................................................335
Shoot: Clamshell Lighting, Top To Bottom.........................................................................................336
Shoot: Classic Three-Light Portrait........................................................................................................338
Shoot: Multiple Softboxes For Fill Flash..............................................................................................340
Shoot: Three-Light Sports Portrait.........................................................................................................342
Shoot: Crossfire Lighting...........................................................................................................................344
Shoot: Hard and Soft Light Outdoors...................................................................................................346
Shoot: Paired Speedlites In A Beauty Dish.........................................................................................348
Shoot: Creating A Big Patch Of Soft Light..........................................................................................350
Shoot: Multiple Speedlites In A Softbox.............................................................................................352
Shoot: Multi-Light, Second-Curtain Sync............................................................................................354
S PEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
xiii
CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE
Gelling For Effect.. ............................................. 356
Gels Quickly...................................................................................................................................................357
If Color Correction Is Needed, Did Something Go Wrong?..........................................................358
The Daylight Cycle Affects The Color Of Sunlight...........................................................................360
Think About White Balance As A Creative Tool.................................................................................361
Gel Systems....................................................................................................................................................362
How I Mount Gels........................................................................................................................................363
Getting Dramatic With Color...................................................................................................................364
My Favorite Gels...........................................................................................................................................365
Shoot: Gelled Fill Flash At Sunset..........................................................................................................366
Shoot: Golden Hour At Any Time...........................................................................................................368
Shoot: Bluer Than Blue Skies...................................................................................................................370
Shoot: Coloring The Night........................................................................................................................372
CHAPTER TWENTY-TWO
Slicing Time With High-Speed Sync . . ..................374
High-Speed Sync Is A Game Changer For Flash Photographers................................................375
Activating High-Speed Sync....................................................................................................................376
Syncing Flash Normally ............................................................................................................................378
High-Speed Sync Changes The Way Your Speedlite Fires.............................................................380
Workflow For Creating Dramatic Light With HSS.............................................................................382
Alternatives To High-Speed Sync ..........................................................................................................383
Shoot: Flashing Wide Open In Full Sun................................................................................................384
Shoot: Dimming The Sun..........................................................................................................................386
Shoot: Fill Flash With High-Speed Action...........................................................................................388
Shoot: When High-Speed Sync Is Not The Best Choice.................................................................390
CHAPTER TWENTY-THREE
Gang Lighting.................................................... 392
Gang Lighting—A New Way To Light...................................................................................................393
Shoot: Smashing Pumpkins.....................................................................................................................397
Shoot: Hiding A Cluttered Background ..............................................................................................400
Shoot: Pushing Back Against The Desert Sun...................................................................................402
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
PART 6
Appendixes
APPENDIX ONE
Menus—600EX-RT / ST-E3-RT Radio Wireless.. .. 406
APPENDIX TWO
Menus—600EX-RT Optical Wireless. . .................. 411
APPENDIX THREE
Menus—600EX-RT Non-Wireless. . ....................... 414
APPENDIX FOUR
Custom And Personal Functions.. ....................... 416
Index. . ........................................................................................... 422
ONLINE SUPPLEMENT­430EX III-RT Speedlite
Canon announced their newest Speedlite, the 430EX III-RT, as this book was heading to press. Following the 600EX-RT, this new mid-level Speedlite provides another option for radio Speedliting, both as a
radio master and as a slave. Further, the 430EX III-RT is fully compatible with Canon's previous generations of Speedlites that work in optical wireless. The news about the new flash came too late to include
operational details in this edition of the Handbook. So, I compiled a brief online supplement that details
how to use the 430EX III-RT as a solo flash and as a master or slave in both radio or optical wireless.
To access this bonus content, head to www.peachpit.com/store/register.aspx and just log in or join
peachpit.com (it’s free). Then enter 978-0-134-00791-5 as the book's ISBN. After you register the book, a
link to the supplement will be listed on your Account page under Registered Products.
Beyond the specific buttons and dials operations, every other aspect of creating great light with the
430EX III-RT is covered throroughly thoughout the Handbook.
S PEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
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7/9/15 9:16 AM
ONLINE RESOURCES
Look for more information about Speedliting from Syl Arena on these sites:
Syl’s Blog—PixSylated.com
Canon Digital Learning Center (Canon USA)
Canon Pro Network (Canon Europe)
B&H YouTube Channel
KelbyOne Online Training
xvi
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
WELCOME SPEEDLITER!
If you shoot with a Canon camera and want to
learn how to use Speedlites, then welcome to
the Speedliter’s Handbook. Since we’re going
to be spending a lot of time together, I want to
share my perspective on the book.
This is a book about how I shoot.
Pay attention to the sidebars.
Throughout the Handbook, you will find bits
of information tucked into sidebars. There are
three main types of sidebars, which you can
tell apart by their colors.
SPEEDLITER’S TIP
—Insights I Share With Friends—
The Handbook presents my approach to lighting with Canon Speedlites and the techniques
I use in my photography. If you’ve been shooting for any length of time, don’t be surprised if
occasionally you think, “I’d do this differently.”
Ask any three experienced photographers
how they would approach a situation and you’ll
likely get five answers. We’re just this way.
I hope that you will read every Speedliter’s Tip. My goal is
to provide direct insights into how I shoot. When you are
just flipping through the book, feel free to just stop at the
red boxes.
The how and why of the Handbook.
Learning photography is like learning a foreign language. If
you stick with it long enough, you will become fluent. Along
the way, there are many words you need to know. I’ve placed
the big concepts in the green boxes.
The Handbook is a book you should have if
you want to thoroughly explore the vast potential of Canon’s Speedlite system. If you are
looking for a quick read, I’m not your guy.
That said, it’s best if you do not try to read the
Handbook cover-to-cover. Rather, I encourage
you to pick it up and put it down many times.
If you are a novice with Speedlites, then start
with Chapter 0, Quick Start Guide To Speedliting, so that you can start shooting as you work
your way through the book. If you know the
basics and want to jump into a single topic,
then dive right in to that specific chapter.
SPEEDLITER’S JARGON
—The Lingo Every Speedliter Needs To Know—
GEEK SPEAK
—Random Technical Bits—
A Geek Speak provides technical insights that you’ll want to
explore if you need to know every last detail. If you prefer to
avoid technical jargon, then feel free to skip them.
I am a photographer, not a retoucher.
The Handbook is a book about flash photography and not a book about lighting via
Photoshop. Unless an image specifically states
that it has been retouched in post-production,
you can assume that it is as it came from my
camera.
My view is that I am a photographer who happens to use Lightroom and Photoshop. I’m not
really great at either—nor do I feel that I need
to be great at driving software. I am a photographer. I hope you decide that you are, too.
S PEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
1
CHAPTER 19
PORTRAITS WITH ONE SPEEDLITE
BACK TO BASICS, QUICKLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
SHOOT: POSITION YOUR MODIFIER
WITH INTENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
SHOOT: ONE SPEEDLITE WITH
FILL REFLECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
SHOOT: CREATING SOFT FILL LIGHT
WITH A BIG UMBRELLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
SHOOT: BROAD AND SHORT LIGHTING . . . . . . . . 318
SHOOT: THINK OF THE SHUTTER
AS A LIGHT MODIFIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
SHOOT: JUST A SLASH OF LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
SHOOT: RING THE LENS WITH LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . 324
SHOOT: NOSE TO THE GRIDDED LIGHT . . . . . . . . 326
SHOOT: ONE-LIGHT WHITE SEAMLESS . . . . . . . . . 328
SHOOT: SPEEDLITING A SILHOUETTE . . . . . . . . . . 330
SHOOT: DOES SOFTBOX SIZE MATTER? . . . . . . . . 332
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
The Short Version
When it comes to photographs, there is nothing in the
world that we like to look at more than pictures of other
people. So if you jumped straight here without reading
the previous 300 pages, I understand completely. The
quick answer is, “Yes, you can make great photographs
of people with a single Speedlite.”
This chapter will take you through many of—but certainly
not all—the types of light you can create with a single
Speedlite. Ultimately, it is your imagination and willingness to experiment that will be your guide.
Figure 19.1
A single Speedlite and some basic modifiers are all you need to get started creating
great light for portraits. Left: My dear friend
Gabe gets theatric with the globe diffuser
used to light the shot at right. Right: This
handsome shot was made with Gabe standing below and slightly behind the globe
diffuser.
BACK TO BASICS, QUICKLY
To begin, think about whether you want hard
or soft shadows and how you want to use
those shadows to reveal depth and texture in
your portraits. Then settle on the job that you
want your Speedlite to perform.
One Speedlite, So Many Jobs
A single Speedlite can serve one of four main
purposes:
JJ Key light—Provides the main light on your
subject
JJ Fill light—Adds light to the shadows so
that the viewer can see details that would
otherwise be hidden
JJ Separation light—Lights your subject from
behind so that the hair and shoulders will
stand out from the background
JJ Background light—Lights the background
either to reveal details about the environment or, when very bright, to put your
subject into silhouette
Location, Location, Location
The quality of light you get from your Speedlite
is largely determined by its location. As I’ve
said many times in the Handbook, “If you want
to create interesting light, you have to create
interesting shadows.” If you don’t know what
this means, take a close look at the information
in Part 1: Before Speedlites, There Was Light.
For the greatest range of lighting options,
get your Speedlite off the top of the camera.
Seriously, pretend as if your Speedlite cannot
connect to the hotshoe on top of your camera.
Check out Chapter 11: Triggers For Off-Camera
Flash, if you need ideas on how to do this.
Figure 19.2 The difference between these two photos is the position of the flash and the setting of the
zoom. This shot was made with the Speedlite bolted
into the camera’s hotshoe. The zoom was set to
Auto—resulting in a zoom of 35mm.
Figure 19.3 For this shot the Speedlite was manually
zoomed to 105mm and held about 14″ straight above
the camera. I had my assistant aim it directly at
Kaitlin’s face. The vignette is created by the zoom of
the Speedlite.
311
SHOOT: POSITION YOUR MODIFIER WITH INTENTION
One of the biggest questions that novice
Speedliters struggle with is where to put a
large modifier, such as an umbrella or softbox,
in relation to the subject.
To Start, Raise The Modifier
Slightly Above Your Subject’s Head
In our world, light comes from above and shadows fall. (For a complete review, head to Chapter 5: Position Is Relative.) So, as a starting
point, position your Speedlite slightly above
your subject’s head and angle it down 30º to
45º. Depending upon the modifier that you are
using, you may have to step away from your
shooting position and look at the modifier from
the side to truly judge the angle.
In Figure 19.5, you can see the silhouette of my
Speedlite and RoundFlash Dish in the upperleft corner. Imagine that a line bisects the
Speedlite and softbox. Can you see that it extends directly towards Kailee’s face? I choose
this position so that the flash would light her
face and fall off gently as it descended down
her torso. Again, this is a starting point.
Lighting Details
Environment: Vintage bar
Time of Day: Not a factor
Ambient: Dim tungsten
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 20mm
Modifier: RoundFlash Dish
Distance: About 3′
Height: About 6.5′
Trigger: ST-E3-RT Transmitter
Push Your Mod In For Softer Light,
Pull It Out For Crisper Shadows
The first part of the question “How near/far
should the light stand be from the subject?” is
answered by the view of your camera. If you
want the softest light possible, then you push
the modifier right to the edge of the camera’s
vision. For crisper shadow edges (aka harder
light), you pull the modifier away from your
subject until your test shots show that you
have the desired shadow edges. Remember
that, as you move your light stand in and out,
you will have to adjust the height of the modifier to keep it centered on the subject’s face.
Figure 19.6 (next page) The RoundFlash Dish
unfolds from a compact pouch into an 18″ softbox
that straps onto the head of a Speedlite. As you
can see, it creates beautiful light and shadow.
4′
RoundFlash
Dish softbox
strapped onto
Speedlite
6′
Figure 19.4 Lighting diagram
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 100mm f/2.8L Macro
Distance to Subject: 8′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/200″, f/8, ISO 800
White Balance: Daylight
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
Figure 19.5 The RoundFlash Dish was angled down from the left.
SHOOT: ONE SPEEDLITE WITH FILL REFLECTOR
I’ve said it before: The range of bright and dark
tones that can be recorded by our cameras
is much narrower than the range of light we
can see. With a single Speedlite, there is the
great possibility that when you balance your
exposure for the light on the bright side of your
subject’s face, the other side will fall into dark
shadow. An easy fix, when using one Speedlite, is to fill the shadows with a reflector.
Get Your Fill Reflector In Close
I push my fill reflector in as tight to my subject
as possible—meaning that the reflector comes
in until I see it in the frame and then I back it
out just enough so that I don’t have to head
into Photoshop later.
Figure 19.8 (next page) My friend Zack Arias (zarias.com, DedPxl.com), lit with a single Speedlite
at camera right. The two keys to making this shot
were to flag the flash from hitting the steel door
directly behind Zack and to fill the shadowy side
of his face. To flag the background, I strapped a
large Rogue FlashBender to the side of the Speedlite and aimed it right behind Zack’s shoulder. To
fill the shadows, I angled a 42″ gold/silver reflector
disk so that the flash flying past Zack’s nose would
bounce back into the shadows.
Fly A Bit Of Light Past Your Subject For Fill
The idea in using a reflector to fill shadows is
that you capture the light that flies past your
subject and bounce it back. It helps if you
angle your Speedlite so that a bit of its light
flies in front of your subject. This is the light
that you will catch in the reflector and bounce
back. When you angle a light away from your
subject, you are feathering the light.
Figure 19.9 (inset) The shot without the reflector.
Lighting Details
Environment: Indoors
Time of Day: Late night
Ambient: Very dim tungsten
Speedlite: One 580EX II
42″ gold/silver
reflector
Steel door
Bounced
fill flash
Rogue FlashBender
as flag
Mode: Manual
Power Level: 1/4
Zoom: 70mm
Modifier: Large Rogue FlashBender
strapped to off-camera side of head
Distance to Subject: 3′
Height: Level with Zack’s head
Trigger: Extra-long E-TTL cord
Camera Details
Direct
flash
8′
Camera: 5D Mark II
Lens: 24–70mm f/2.8L
Distance to Subject: 8′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/60″, f/8, ISO 400
White Balance: Flash
Figure 19.7 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
E-TTL cord
SHOOT: CREATING SOFT FILL LIGHT WITH A BIG UMBRELLA
An umbrella is an easy and relatively affordable way to significantly increase the apparent
size of your Speedlite—which means that the
edges of the shadows will soften as the light
reaches around your subject.
Windowlight May Be Soft,
But It Is Still Directional
For this shoot, a series of large (4′ x 6′) windows on the left side of the lens provided a
huge swath of ambient light. An overcast sky
softened the ambient light even further. Still, as
you can see in the inset photo (Figure 19.12),
there is a directional quality to the light. That is
to say that since the windowlight crosses the
model from the side, the soft light still casts
shadows that the lens can see. Notice how
her cheeks, nose, and jaw are sculpted by the
shadows.
Environment: Indoors, adjacent to
large window
Time of Day: Late morning
Ambient: Overcast daylight
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 20mm
Height: Center at 6′ and angled down
Trigger: Extra-long E-TTL cord
Distance to Subject: 12′
Exposure Mode: Manual
A key factor in making this fill light blend with
the ambient windowlight is that I bounced my
Speedlite into a 60″ white umbrella that was
positioned in as close as I could get it—literally
just outside the frame on the right. The size
of the umbrella and the softening effect of its
white fabric created a large source of soft light
that blends in naturally with the windowlight.
Essentially, I mirrored the look of the windowlight with my fill flash.
Figure 19.12 (inset) While beautiful, the shadows
in this windowlight-only shot sculpt the facial structure and define the skin more sharply than the
shot with fill flash.
Large
window
60″ white
reflective
umbrella
12′
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 24-105mm f/4L IS at 80mm
While I think that the windowlight-only shot is
beautiful, I prefer the shot with the fill light for
two reasons: the softening effect on the skin
and the increased illumination on the hair. The
softening of the skin happened because the
flash fills the shadows and reduces the surface
detail.
Figure 19.11 (next page) A single Speedlite firing
into large white umbrella just to the right of the
camera’s view blends naturally with the windowlight. Notice how the light fills the shadows and
softens the appearance of the skin.
Lighting Details
Modifier: 6″ white umbrella
Distance to Subject: Just out of frame
Blending Fill Flash Into Windowlight
With A Large, White Umbrella
Large
window
E-TTL
cord
Exposure: 1/30″, f/8, ISO 400
White Balance: Daylight
Figure 19.10 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
SHOOT: BROAD AND SHORT LIGHTING
Broad and short lighting describes two styles
of lighting that can be very useful when shooting headshots. Essentially, the difference is
which side of the face is lit by the key (main)
light.
Think About The Direction Of The Nose
When a subject is not facing the lens directly,
the nose points to one side of the frame or the
other. The direction of the nose­—relative to the
position of the key light—is what determines
whether a shot is broad lit or short lit. In Figure
19.14, Max’s nose is on the same side of the
lens as the key light (a Speedlite in a Westcott
Apollo Medium softbox). From the camera’s
viewpoint, the short side of Max’s face (or the
narrow side of his face) is lit­—hence the term
“short lighting.”
In the inset shot (Figure 19.15), Max rotated so
that his nose is on the opposite side of the
lens from the key light. Now the broad side of
his face is lit by the key light.
Lighting Details
Environment: Indoor studio
Time of Day: Not a factor
Ambient: None
Speedlite: One 580EX II
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 20mm
Modifier: Westcott Apollo Medium
Distance to Subject: Just out of frame
Rotate The Subject Or Move The Light
The difference between Figures 19.14 and 19.15
is that Max started the shoot with his body
facing the light (Figure 19.14) and then rotated
away from the light (Figure 19.15). In both shots,
the key light stayed in the same position­, specifically to the right of the lens.
If you need to keep your subject in the same
position (for instance), facing to the right as in
Figure 19.14, and you want to switch lighting
styles (say from short to broad lighting), then
you just need to move the key light to the
other side of the subject’s nose.
Figure 19.14 (next page) Short lighting is created
when the position of the key light illuminates the
narrow side of the face­as seen by the camera.
Figure 19.15 (inset) Broad lighting is created when
the position of the key light illuminates the wide
side of the face. For this shot, Max rotated so that
he was facing away from the softbox and then
turned his nose towards the lens.
Lastolite 24″
Ezybox
Height: Center at 6′ and angled down
Trigger: Extra-long E-TTL cord
Camera Details
Camera: 5D
Lens: 70-200mm f/2.8L IS at 70mm
6′
Distance to Subject: 6′
Exposure Mode: Manual
E-TTL
cord
Exposure: 1/60″, f/11, ISO 100
White Balance: Daylight
Figure 19.13 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
SHOOT: THINK OF THE SHUTTER AS A LIGHT MODIFIER
One advantage of flash over other sources of
light is that you can use the shutter speed to
dim the ambient light. This can be a valuable
tool to guide your viewer’s eye.
Directing Your Viewer’s Focus
When we first encounter a new photo, the first
spot that we look at is the brightest portion of
the image. In portraits, an easy way to direct
your viewer’s eye to your subject is to dim the
brightness of the background in your shots.
This will make your subject’s face stand out
more prominently.
In Figures 19.17–19.20, I lit Kristen with a single
Speedlite firing through an Impact 24″ Quikbox. The difference through the series is that
I increased the shutter speed in one-stop
increments to show the effect of dimming the
background.
In Figure 19.17, the 1/200″ shutter creates a fill
light that balances naturally with the late afternoon sun. Yet Kristin does not stand out clearly
from the background. In the subsequent photos (shot at 1/400″, 1/800″, and 1/1600″), the backgrounds get progressively darker. The choice
of which frame is the best is a matter of personal taste. I favor Figure 19.19 (1/800″) because
it still maintains the rimmed edge of sunlight on
Kristen’s hair.
Keep in mind that as your shutter speed exceeds the sync speed of your camera, you
have to activate High-Speed Sync on your
Speedlite. See Chapter 7: Control Your Speedlite for the basics on HSS and Chapter 22: Slicing Time With High-Speed Sync for a detailed
discussion.
Figure 19.17 (next page, top left) 1/200″, f/5.6, ISO
400. Speedlite fired in E-TTL with 0 FEC.
Figure 19.18 (top right) 1/400″, f/5.6, ISO 400.
Speedlite fired in E-TTL with 0 FEC.
Lighting Details
Figure 19.19 (bottom left) 1/800″, f/5.6, ISO 400.
Speedlite fired in E-TTL with 0 FEC.
Environment: Outdoors
Time of Day: Late afternoon
Ambient: Golden hour sun behind Kristen
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: E-TTL
FEC: 0 FEC
Zoom: Zoomed to 24mm
Figure 19.20 (bottom right) 1/1600″, f/5.6, ISO 400.
Speedlite fired in E-TTL with 0 FEC.
Gel: 1/2 CTO
Modifier: Impact 24″ Quikbox
Impact 24″
Quikbox
Distance: About 4′ to subject
Height: Level with subject’s head
Trigger: ST-E3-RT Transmitter
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark II
Lens: 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS
Distance to Subject: 6′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure Comp: As listed
Exposure: Manual
White Balance: Daylight
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
6′
Figure 19.16 Lighting diagram
SHOOT: JUST A SLASH OF LIGHT
In addition to thinking about how you will light
your subject, you should consider what will
happen to the light that flies past your subject.
When you are outdoors, the excess flash is typically not a problem. When you are indoors, the
excess light may be undesirable—especially
when your subject is close to the background.
Use A Narrow Softbox To Light The
Subject, But Not The Background
For this shoot, we were shooting in an old
warehouse. The layers of dust that accumulated on the nearby windows (top-right corner of Figure 19.22) created beautiful golden
patches of light that angled down across the
wall.
I wanted to light Isaac without having the excess flash fly past him onto the background.
The go-to solution is a strip softbox. Strip boxes
are much narrower than standard softboxes.
In this case, the Westcott Rapid Box Strip, at
10″ x 24″, was the perfect solution. As you can
see in Figure 19.22, the softbox was pushed in
tight—right up to the edge of the camera’s field
of view.
This served two purposes:
JJ Being close enabled me to reduce the
power to the minimum, which reduced the
effect of the excess light flying past on the
background wall.
JJ Being close increased the apparent size of
the softbox (relative to Isaac), so the light
appeared softer.
Figure 19.23 (next page) The narrow softbox
enabled me to cast soft light onto Isaac without it
spilling onto the wall behind.
Lighting Details
Environment: Warehouse
Time of Day: Mid-afternoon
Ambient: Dusty glass windows,
sunlight outside
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 20mm
Modifier: Westcott Rapid Box Strip
(10″ x 24″ softbox)
Distance: About 4′
Height: About 4′
Trigger: ST-E3-RT Transmitter
6′
Figure 19.21 Lighting diagram
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 24–105mm f/4L IS at 55mm
Distance to Subject: 6′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/160″, f/8, ISO 400
White Balance: Daylight
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
Figure 19.22 Our location for the shoot
Westcott Rapid
Box Strip
(10″ x 24″)
SHOOT: RING THE LENS WITH LIGHT
As I covered in Chapter 14: Go Ahead, Mod
Your Speedlite, ring light adapters are specialty modifiers that capture the light from
your Speedlite and redirect it to a panel that
encircles the lens.
The Distinctive Look Of A Ring Flash
Ring lights are often used by fashion and glamour photographers to create snappy, yet soft,
light. When the subject is close to the background (as Brittany is in Figure 19.25), the geometry of the ring light around the lens casts
a distinctive outline shadow that surrounds the
subject. Circular catchlights in the center of the
pupils are another tell-tale sign of ring lights.
The RoundFlash Is My Favorite
Ring Light Adapter For Speedlites
Of the three ring light adapters that I reviewed
in Chapter 14, my favorite was the RoundFlash.
While it appears to be a cumbersome modifier
(turn back to Figure 14.27), it adds very little
weight to the camera. As importantly, it sets up
quickly and, when not in use, folds up into a
compact pouch that you can stuff into a corner
of your camera bag. The other adapters that
I featured are rigid plastic, which means that
they take up more room in the bag and potentially could be damaged more easily. Another
great advantage of the RoundFlash over the
other adapters is the size of its diffuser panel.
Measuring 20″ in diameter, it creates beautiful,
soft light, as you can see in Figure 19.25.
Lighting Details
Environment: Studio
Time of Day: Not a factor
Ambient: Not a factor
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: E-TTL
FEC: 0
Zoom: Zoomed to 35mm
Modifier: RoundFlash ring light softbox
Distance: About 4′
Height: About 5′ (camera-mounted)
Trigger: Sitting in camera hotshoe
Figure 19.25 (next page) Ring light has a distinctive look. The clues that I used a ring light adapter
are the circular catchlights in Brittany’s eyes and
the soft outline shadow on the wall.
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 24–105mm f/4L IS at 45mm
Distance to Subject: 4′
Exposure Mode: Manual
6′
RoundFlash
softbox
connected
to hotshoemounted
Speedlite
Exposure: 1/125″, f/8, ISO 400
White Balance: Daylight
Figure 19.24 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
SHOOT: NOSE TO THE GRIDDED LIGHT
A great tip to remember when shooting
portraits with hard light is that if you aim the
flash directly at the subject’s nose (or vice
versa), the harshness of the hard shadows is
minimized.
Grids Are A Favorite Modifier
As you can see in Figure 19.27, I placed a gridded Speedlite to the right side of my camera
and aimed it straight at Arlan’s nose. The purpose for the 1/16″ grid was to create a tight pool
of light on his face and hat. My visual strategy
was to reveal just enough of his environment
and wardrobe so that you would get a sense of
his persona and then encourage you to focus
on his handsome face.
A Window Creates Rim Light
Take a close look at the left edge of the jacket,
neck, and hat in Figure 19.28. See the edge
of light that provides the critical separation
between the subject and the background?
It is ambient light that came from a window
Lighting Details
Environment: Old warehouse
Time of Day: Early afternoon
Ambient: Diffuse windowlight
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 200mm
about 45º to the left of and 8′ behind the
model. Without that edge of rim light, his
jacket, neck, and hat would have merged into
the background.
So my ambient exposure was based on two
goals:
JJ Dim the background so that the viewer will
focus on my subject’s face.
JJ Maintain just enough of the ambient rim
light to provide a clear separation between
the subject and the background.
Figure 19.28 (next page) I dimmed the ambient light by two stops with my shutter speed and
aimed the gridded flash directly at Arlan’s nose.
You will note that the nose and chin shadows are
hard, but their placement accentuates his features.
Window
5′
Strobros
1/16″ Grid
Figure 19.26 Lighting diagram
Modifier: Strobros Grid 1/16″
Distance: About 5′
Height: 7′ (angled down)
Trigger: ST-E3-RT Transmitter
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 24–105mm f/4L IS at 60mm
Distance to Subject: 5′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/30″, f/8, ISO 800
White Balance: Daylight
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
Figure 19.27 Our location for the shoot
SHOOT: ONE-LIGHT WHITE SEAMLESS
While it is easier to create a white seamless
shot (one with a pure white background) using
multiple flashes, it is possible to do it with a
single Speedlite and a large diffuser.
Most Of The Flash Lights The Background
The key to getting a white background is to
overexpose a light-colored wall, meaning that
it must be flooded with flash. For this shoot,
the Speedlite was zoomed moderately tight
(105mm), positioned about 45º to the side, and
aimed at the wall behind the model.
Then, as you can see in Figure 19.30, a large
diffuser panel (in this case, a Lastolite TriGrip
Diffuser) was held between Katie and the
flash—just outside of the camera’s view. The
diffuser captures the outer rays of the flash and
creates soft light on the subject. As always,
the closer the diffuser is to the subject, the
greater its apparent size becomes (relative to
the size of the subject) and the softer the light
becomes.
Maximize The Separation Between
The Wall And The Subject
The distance between the wall and your subject is the key to creating a shot with sharp,
contrasty edges. You want a gap of 5′ or more.
If your subject is too close to the background,
then the bright wall will act like a giant reflector
panel and wrap your subject in edge-softening
light. If you find this to be an issue, then have
your subject step farther from the background.
Figure 19.31 (next page) The key to getting a
white background is to flood it with flash. The key
to having a sharp contrast between the subject
and the wall is to maximize the distance between
them.
6′
Lighting Details
Environment: Rustic exhibition hall
Time of Day: Not a factor
Ambient: Not a factor
Speedlite: One 600EX-RT
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 80mm
Modifier: Lastolite TriGrip Diffuser
Distance: About 12′
Height: 6′
Trigger: ST-E3-RT Transmitter
6′
Lastolite
TriGrip
Diffuser
Figure 19.29 Lighting diagram
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark III
Lens: 24–105mm f/4L IS at 60mm
Distance to Subject: 6′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/200″, f/5.6, ISO 800
White Balance: Daylight
Figure 19.30 Our location for the shoot
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
Speedlite
aimed at wall
behind model
SHOOT: SPEEDLITING A SILHOUETTE
Sometimes turning your Speedlite at the background can create more dramatic light than
when you aim it at your subject. For this shoot,
I actually underexposed Arian to such an
extent that he turned into a silhouette.
Use Zoom To Create The
Background Pattern
Hide The Flash
Pay attention to the details when shooting
silhouettes. I had to hide the Speedlite behind
Arian’s leg and instruct him on exactly where
to stand.
Sometimes Less Is More
Even before Arian stepped into the frame, I experimented with different zoom settings on my
Speedlite to see how they would illuminate the
background. If you want a broad, even field of
color, zoom your Speedlite out wide (to 24mm).
If you want a spot of light that dramatically
fades to black, zoom it in tight (to 105mm). The
hero shot at right was made with the Speedlite
zoomed to 70mm. The hotspot of color is the
result of the Rosco medium red gel firing onto
the deep yellow wall.
When it comes to the intensity of the color
from a gel, the more light you push through
it, the lighter the color appears. So if you are
looking for a deep, saturated color, remember
to turn the power of your flash down rather
than up. (I know this sounds backwards.)
Figure 19.33 (next page) My hero shot was made
with the Speedlite power dialed manually to 1/8.
Figure 19.34 (inset) The set was two sheets of tile
board pushed up to a yellow wall.
Lighting Details
Environment: Empty store
Time of Day: Not a factor
Ambient: Very dim, overhead
fluorescent turned off during shoot
Speedlites: One 580EX
Mode: Manual
Zoom: Zoomed to 70mm
Tilt: Straight up
Gel: Rosco Medium Red
Modifier: None
Distance: Pushed up to wall
Height: Sitting on floor
Trigger: Simple radio triggers
Wall
Red gel
Simple
radio
receiver
12′
Camera Details
Camera: 5D Mark II
Lens: EF 17–40mm f/4L
Distance to Subject: 12′
Exposure Mode: Manual
Exposure: 1/160″, f/8, ISO 400
White Balance: Flash
Simple
radio
trigger
Figure 19.32 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
SHOOT: DOES SOFTBOX SIZE MATTER?
The Difference Is The Reach Of The Light
Is there a difference between light created
by the various sizes of Lastolite’s Ezyboxes—
Speed-lite (about 10″), Hotshoe 24″, and
Hotshoe 30″? As these portraits of my friend
Annette show, the answer is “no and yes.”
All Three Ezyboxes Create Soft Light
Figure 19.36 is the ambient light as the camera
wanted to record it in Av with 0 EC. Figure
19.37 is my manual exposure (ambient minus
three stops). In Figure 19.38, I fired a bare
Speedlite at Annette. You can tell it is bare
because the shadows are hard, and the light
does not reach around her face.
I also centered the height of each softbox on
Annette’s nose. As you can see in Figure 19.39
(the largest frame), the small Speed-lite Ezybox
did a fine job of creating soft light. The difference between the three—and you have to look
close to see it—is that the larger softboxes also
carried the soft light farther down on Annette’s
arms. If I had lowered the 30″ so that the top
was even with Annette’s hat, the soft light at
the bottom would be even more apparent.
Figure 19.36 (next page, top left) My 5D Mark II
metered the ambient at 1/30″, f/5.6, ISO 100.
Now look at Figures 19.39–19.41. All were created by the three sizes of Ezyboxes. You can
see in each that the light reaches around Annette’s face and that the shadows are soft. To
make a fair comparison, I moved the stand so
that the diffuser of each softbox was the same
distance from her face.
Figure 19.37 (center left) I dimmed the ambient
by manually dialing the exposure to 1/125″, f/8, ISO
100—a change of –3 stops.
Lighting Details
Figure 19.40 (bottom center) The Ezybox 24″ provides soft light with a slightly smaller vignette at
the bottom.
Environment: Outdoors under eave
Time of Day: Mid-afternoon
Ambient: indirect sunlight
Speedlite: One 580EX II
Mode: E-TTL
FEC: 0 FEC
Zoom: 24mm
Modifier: Lastolite Ezyboxes
Distance to Subject: About 2′
Height: Centered on subject’s nose
Trigger: Extra-long E-TTL cord
Camera Details
Figure 19.38 (bottom left) Without a softbox, the
bare flash creates hard shadows.
Figure 19.39 (upper right) Even the smallest of the
softboxes, the Lastolite Speed-lite, created beautiful light.
Figure 19.41 (bottom right) The Ezybox 30″ provides beautiful light from Annette’s hat down to her
hands.
Lastolite
30″ Ezybox
(also 24″ and
Speed-lite)
8′
Camera: 5D Mark II
Lens: 100mm f/2.8L Macro IS
Distance to Subject: 8′
Exposure Mode: Manual
E-TTL
cord
Exposure: 1/125″, f/8, ISO 100
White Balance: Daylight
Figure 19.35 Lighting diagram
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SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
INDEX
1st-curtain sync, 100
2nd-curtain sync, 100–101, 354–355
18% grey, 36
35-zone meter, 37
63-zone meter, 36
252-zone meter, 36
A
A:B ratios, 192, 194–197, 215, 218, 220
A:B C ratios, 192, 198–199, 215, 218
A:B:C ratios, 192, 200, 201, 202, 220
action photography
field of light for, 350–351
gang lighting for, 397–399
High-Speed Sync for, 388–389, 390–391
Manual flash mode and, 113
stroboscopic flash and, 144, 150
See also motion
adapters
softbox, 269
swivel, 258, 278
umbrella, 258, 278
AE Lock button, 139
AF-Assist beam emitter
on Speedlite flashes, 75, 76, 80, 82, 84, 86, 87
on Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2, 92
air-cushioned stand, 282
alkaline batteries, 290, 292
ambient light, 6, 54–63
blending flash and, 62–63
camera modes for managing, 58
clues provided by, 55
color of, 62, 361
determining the role of, 55
dimming, 57, 58
direction of, 63
dragging the shutter for, 60, 103
E-TTL flash mode and, 126
evaluating with your camera, 122
Exposure Compensation and, 8, 397
ISO setting and, 58, 61
managing for flash exposures, 7–8
Manual flash mode and, 122
methods of manipulating, 55
rim light created from, 326
shutter speed and, 7, 56–60, 320, 348, 372
sources of, 55
sports portraits and, 342
underexposing, 348
422
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
angle of light
crossfire lighting and, 344
horizontal, 65
vertical, 70
aperture
ambient light and, 61
choosing settings for, 32
depth of field and, 28, 32, 61
explanation of, 26
f/stops and, 26–27
flash exposures and, 61
increment settings for, 26–27
shutter speed and, 32
See also f/stops
Aperture Priority (Av) mode, 34
E-TTL flash mode and, 131
example of shooting in, 35
Exposure Compensation in, 8
flash sync speed in, 131
managing ambient light in, 58
situations for using, 122
Apollo softbox, 263, 352
Arias, Zack, 314
Auto Power Off feature, 187, 416
Auto white balance (AWB), 44, 45, 359, 372
Auto Zoom option, 104
Av mode. See Aperture Priority (Av) mode
Avenger products
C-Stand, 283
grip gear, 282
Scissor Clamp, 280
Sparrow Plate, 280
B
backgrounds
bouncing light to, 109
brightening ambient light in, 60
de-emphasizing with HSS, 382
dimming ambient light in, 57
gang lighting to hide, 400–401
single Speedlite for lighting, 311, 328
white seamless, 328–329
backlighting
fill flash used with, 129
shooting foliage with, 340
batteries, 288–297
best AA, 292
buying, 293
carrying, 297
charging, 296–297
criteria for choosing, 289
how to manage, 293
problem with mixing, 293
rechargeable, 291, 292
single-use, 290
torture test of, 289
battery caddies, 297
battery chargers, 296–297
battery packs, 144, 294–295
beauty dishes, 270–271
collapsible, 271
paired Speedlites in, 348–349
rigid, 270–271
behind-the-scenes shots, 3
big light modifiers, 253
black net, 272
blinking subjects, 130
blue hour, 360
blue-sky effect, 370–371
Bolt Battery Packs, 295
booms and boom stands, 285
bounce angle, 77, 81, 83, 84, 86
bounce diffusers, 237
bounce reflectors, 238–239
bouncing light, 108, 304–305
brackets. See flash brackets
brightness
controlling flash, 9–10
setting for LCD display, 38
zoom function and apparent, 106
broad lighting, 318–319
built-in modifiers, 234
Bulb (B) exposure mode, 34, 35, 58
bungies, 287
C
Cactus V5 transceiver, 166
Camera User Settings, 34
cameras. See digital cameras
camera-to-subject distance, 128–129
Canon CP-E4 Compact Battery Pack, 295
Canon EOS M camera, 128
Canon Speedlites. See Speedlites
Cardellini Clamp, 279
catchlight panel, 76, 80, 234, 309
ceiling-bounced flash, 305
Center-Weighted metering mode, 37
CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps), 43, 44, 365
channel scanner, 213
Channel select button, 93
channel setting
optical wireless, 176, 177, 188–189
radio wireless, 213
character of light, 18–19
charging batteries, 296–297
chiaroscuro, 19
Chimera products
Speed Ring, 269
Super Pro softboxes, 268
Cinch Strap, 235
Cinefoil, 250
clamps, 279, 280
clamshell lighting, 336–337
classic three-light portraits, 338–339
Cloudy white balance, 44, 45
coldshoe, 277
collapsible beauty dishes, 271
collapsible disk reflectors, 272
collapsible umbrellas, 257
color
daylight cycle of, 360
limits to capturing, 22
metering luminance and, 127
theatrical, 357, 364
color balance, 357, 358, 359
See also white balance settings
color cast, 44
color correction gels, 357, 358–359, 365
color effect gels, 357, 364, 365
color of light, 23
color temperature, 19, 43
gels for adjusting, 358–359
matching flash to ambient, 62
scale for measuring, 43
white balance and, 43, 44
Combi-Boom Stand, 285
composition
checking in LCD display, 38
FEL feature for alternate, 140
compression, 29
condition charge mode, 297
configurable umbrellas, 257
consistency of light, 19
contrast, 19, 39
convertible umbrellas, 256
CP-E4 Compact Battery Pack, 295
Creative Auto (CA) mode, 34
crisp shadows, 308, 312
crossfire lighting, 334, 344–345
C-stands, 283, 286, 402
CTB gels, 357, 358, 365
CTO gels, 357, 359, 365, 366, 368, 370, 372
Custom Functions (C.Fn), 78, 416–421
Auto Power Off, 187, 416
external battery pack setup, 295
FEC button creation, 135
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
423
setting on Speedlites, 416–417, 418, 419–421
See also Personal Functions
Custom white balance, 44, 45
CustWireless option, 179
D
daylight
color cycle of, 360
dimming to night, 58–59
See also sunlight
Daylight white balance, 44, 45, 359, 361, 372
depth of field (DOF), 28–29
aperture and, 28, 32, 61
lens focal length and, 29
tip for remembering, 28
diffuse reflections, 47
diffusers
dish, 309
fabrics used as, 272
globe and dome, 236–237
on-camera flash using, 306–307
diffusion panels, 272–273, 328
digital cameras
color range of, 22
dynamic range of, 21
E-TTL technology in, 128
evaluating ambient light with, 122
exposure modes on, 34–35
FEC adjustments via, 133–135
histogram in, 39–40
HSS activation on, 377
light seen by, 20–23
master setup on, 178–179
pop-up flash on, 301
radio wireless control by, 208–209, 348
Speedlite controls on, 4–5, 118–121
white balance of, 23
dimming the sun
High-Speed Sync for, 386–387
shutter speed for, 58–59
direct reflections, 47
direction of light, 18, 63
dish diffusers, 309
distance
background-to-subject, 328
camera-to-subject, 128–129
flash-to-subject, 52–53, 57, 112
distance scale, 156
dome diffusers, 237
double umbrella setup, 260, 261
dragging the shutter, 60, 103
drama of light, 19
424
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
dramatic color, 364
drop-ceiling scissor clamp, 280
dynamic range, 21
E
EasyWireless option, 179
Edison, Thomas, 292
Einstein monolight, 396
elastic bungies, 287
Elinchrom Ranger RX AS, 396
enabling/disabling
optical masters, 176, 184–185
radio masters, 217
Eneloop batteries, 292
equipment. See gear
equivalent exposures, 32–33
E-TTL cords, 13, 161, 162–163
extra-long, 148, 163, 335, 354
options for using, 162
triggering flash using, 335
E-TTL flash mode, 97, 124–141
digital cameras supporting, 128
Exposure Compensation and, 137
exposure modes and, 131
fill flash using, 13, 129, 303
Flash Exposure Compensation and, 10, 132–137
Flash Exposure Lock and, 138–140
High-Speed Sync and, 381
limitations of, 9, 125, 130
Manual flash mode vs., 9, 112, 141
mechanics of, 126–129
menus for controlling, 78, 406, 411, 414
metering zones and, 127
optical slave eyes and, 130
optical wireless settings in, 192–193, 411
preflash used in, 126
radio triggers used with, 161, 168–170, 335
radio wireless settings in, 218–219, 406
RGB-metering technology for, 127
situations for using, 9, 125
troubleshooting, 141
E-TTL radio triggers, 161, 168–170
ETTR (Expose To The Right), 40
Evaluative metering mode, 37
Evaluative Through-The-Lens mode. See E-TTL
flash mode
exposure, 24–41
aperture and, 26–29
camera modes for, 34–35
chart of settings for, 31
depth of field and, 28–29
determining proper, 41
equivalent values for, 32–33
evaluation for flash photography, 38–40
Exposure Compensation and, 36
flashmeters and, 41
ISO setting and, 31
LCD display and, 38
metering and, 36–37
shutter speed and, 30
stops related to, 25
white balance and, 44–45
Exposure Compensation (EC)
ambient light and, 8, 397
FEC used with, 137
metered exposure and, 36
See also Flash Exposure Compensation
exposure modes, 34–35
E-TTL flash mode and, 131
Manual flash mode and, 122
Exposure Settings Chart, 31
External Auto mode, 79, 98, 143, 152–154
external battery packs, 144, 294–295
External Flash Function Quick Menu, 5
external flash metering, 151–156
Canon’s re-introduction of, 151
distance scale used with, 156
External Auto mode, 152–154
External Manual mode, 154–156
High-Speed Sync and, 156
situations for using, 152
External Manual mode, 79, 98, 143, 154–156
external metering sensor, 76, 80, 151
external power socket, 76, 80
extra-long E-TTL cords, 148, 163, 335, 354
eye socket shadows, 70
EZ Speedlites, 89
Ezybox softbox, 240, 265, 332–333
F
f/stops
apertures and, 26–27
flash-to-subject distance and, 52–53
geometry of, 27
whole and partial, 26–27
See also aperture
fabric reflectors, 274
Fast Flags, 272, 273
faux-sync speed, 383
feathering the light, 109
FEC. See Flash Exposure Compensation
FEL. See Flash Exposure Lock
fill flash
E-TTL handling of, 13, 129, 303
gang lighting as, 402–403
gels used with, 366–367
hatchet lighting and, 342
High-Speed Sync and, 303, 340, 384–385
master function with, 342
multiple softboxes for, 340–341
off-camera masters as, 182
on-camera flash as, 13, 302–303
ratio of off-camera key light to, 196
reflector used for, 314
single Speedlite as, 311
three-light setup and, 338
windowlight blended with, 316–317
fill reflector, 314–315
filter sensors, 76
Fire-now radio triggers, 161, 166
first-curtain sync, 100
fixed-distance shots, 112
flags, 248–249, 275
flash
bouncing, 304–305
color of, 361
duration of, 390
fill, 13, 302–303
light created by, 6
managing brightness of, 9–10
off-camera, 65, 160–171
on- and off-axis, 68–69
on-camera, 300–309, 384
pop-up, 68, 301
ring, 242–243, 324–325
stroboscopic, 98, 143, 144–150
sync speed for, 99–103
flash brackets
centering Speedlites using, 309
for multiple Speedlites, 260
off-camera cord with, 162
for softboxes, 269
Flash Control Menu, 135
Flash Exposure Bracketing (FEB), 141
Flash Exposure Compensation (FEC)
camera setup for, 133–135
E-TTL flash mode and, 10, 132–137
Exposure Compensation used with, 137
External Auto mode and, 153, 154
group setup using, 192, 218, 224
increments for adjusting, 132
Manual flash mode and, 221
Speedlite setup for, 10, 136
See also Exposure Compensation
flash exposure confirmation lamp
on Speedlite Flashes, 77, 81, 83
on Speedlite transmitters, 90, 93
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
425
Flash Exposure Lock (FEL), 138–140
activating on cameras, 139
alternate compositions using, 140
situations for using, 138
flash exposures
aperture and, 61
controlling ambient light in, 7–8
ISO setting and, 61
matching ambient light with, 62–63
positioning lights for, 64–71
power level of, 9, 61, 75, 141
shutter speed and, 56
flash groups
explanation of, 157
FEC setup for, 192
optical wireless, 190–191
radio wireless, 202
ratios used for, 192, 193, 194–199
right/left setup for, 192, 218
three-group setup, 198–199
two-group setup, 194–197
flash menu button, 209
Flash Ready lamp/test button, 77
Flash white balance, 44, 45
FlashBender Large, 238, 239, 241, 246, 248, 342
flashhead, 76, 80, 82, 84, 86, 87
flashhead release button, 77, 81, 83
flashmeters, 41
flash-to-subject distance, 52–53
flashtube, 104, 174
Flex Arm, 281
flexible arms, 281
fluorescent lights, 44
Fluorescent white balance, 44, 45
foam core reflectors, 274
focal length. See lens focal length
focus-and-recompose technique, 138
four-step Speedlite workflow, 11
frame rates, 209
Frio coldshoe, 277
F-Stop Measuring Stick, 52–53
Fstoppers Flash Disc, 13, 241, 307
Full Auto mode, 34
E-TTL flash mode and, 131
Manual flash mode and, 111
G
gaffer’s tape, 250, 287, 363
gang lighting, 392–403
author’s discovery of, 393
building rails for, 395
426
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
comparing alternatives to, 396
fill flash using, 402–403
freezing action using, 397–399
how to create, 393–394
HSS power loss and, 393
math for setting up, 394
mixing Speedlites for, 394
modifying light using, 393
mounting options for, 395
sharing lights for, 395
strip of soft light using, 400–401
triggering options for, 396
gear
batteries, 288–297
grips, 276–287
modifiers, 232–275
gels, 250, 356–373
blue-sky effect with, 370–371
color correction, 357, 358–359, 365
color effect, 357, 364, 365
cutting your own, 361
fill light using, 366–367
flash power and color of, 330
golden-hour effect with, 368–369
major and minor groups of, 356
mounting on Speedlites, 363
neutral density, 357, 364
noir effect with, 372–373
polarizing, 357
primary uses for, 357
recommended by author, 365
stroboscopic flash and, 150
systems of, 362
tip on carrying, 365
white balance and, 359, 361
glare, 19
globe diffusers, 236
gold fabric reflectors, 274
gold reflective umbrellas, 255
golden hour
creating the look of, 368–369
daylight cycle and, 360
Gorillapod, 281
“Green Box” mode, 34
grids, 244–245
creative use of, 244
single Speedlite with, 326–327
snoots vs., 245
grip gear, 276–287
booms/boom stands, 285
clamps, 279, 280
elastic bungies, 287
flexible arms, 281
gaffer’s tape, 287
hot/cold shoes, 277
light stands, 282–283
multi-light mounts, 286
poles, 284–285
professional grade, 282
rails, 286, 395
swivel adapters, 278
Velcro straps, 287
Group ID setting, 176, 177
Group mode, 75, 143, 157, 202, 223–224
controlling flash groups in, 223, 224
global Flash Exposure Compensation in, 224
radio wireless menus in, 409
See also flash groups
group photos, 53
histograms, 39–40
HMI lights, 358–359
Hobby, David, 233
Honl, David, 235
Honl products
gels, 358
grids, 245
snoots, 238, 246
Speed Strap, 235, 363
Hoodman loupe, 39
horizontal lighting
Lighting Compass for, 65–67
on- and off-axis light, 68–69
hotshoe, 3, 277
HSS. See High-Speed Sync
human vs. camera vision, 20–23
hyper-fast blinkers, 130
H
I
hair light, 66, 338
half-stops, 26
handheld Speedlites, 162
hands, as reflectors, 239
hard light
modifier position for, 312
outdoor setup for soft light with, 346–347
ratios for portraits using, 194–195
shadows created by, 19, 20, 305, 308
hatchet lighting, 342, 386
Hertz (Hz) setting, 144, 145
hiding Speedlites, 346
high-capacity battery packs, 295
highlights, 19, 306
High-Speed Sync (HSS), 101–102, 374–391
action shots and, 388–389, 390–391
activation of, 376–377
alternatives to, 383
dimming the sun using, 386–387
dramatic light with, 382
explanation of, 374, 375, 380–381
external flash metering and, 156
fill flash using, 303, 340, 384–385
flash duration vs., 390
gang lighting and, 393, 402
normal sync mode vs., 378–379, 380
pop-up flash and, 301
power output in, 381, 393
radio wireless and, 209
situations for using, 375
sunlit portraits and, 384–385
weather changes with, 397
workflow for, 382
icon-based control menu, 181, 189
Imedion batteries, 292
Impact products
beauty dishes, 271
Quikboxes, 240, 265
incandescent lights, 23, 43
incidence, angle of, 46
incident light, 37
Independent Slave activation, 202–203
Industrial Vapor gel, 365
intensity of light, 18, 50
intent, lighting with, 16
Inverse Square Law, 50–51, 52, 261
ISO setting
ambient light and, 58, 61
ETTR guideline and, 40
explanation of, 31
flash exposures and, 61
noise related to, 209
when to change, 33
J
JPEG files, 45
Justin Clamp, 279
K
Kacey, Jerry, 270
Kacey Enterprises
Beauty Reflector, 270, 348
Pole Adapter, 284, 285
Speedlight Brackets, 269
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
427
Kelvin temperature scale, 43
key light
classic three-light setup and, 338
off-camera masters as, 182
on-camera fill light vs., 302
ratio of on-camera fill to, 196
single Speedlite as, 311
L
Lastolite products
Brolly Grip Handle, 257
Extension Pole, 284
Ezybox softbox, 240, 265
globe diffuser, 236
grids, 245
Skylight panels, 272, 273
snoots, 246
Strobo Beauty Box, 265
Strobo Gobo, 247
TriFlash bracket, 260
TriGrip diffuser, 328
umbrellas, 257
LCD display on cameras
brightness setting for, 38
controlling Speedlites from, 4–5, 75, 118–121
exposure evaluation using, 38
LCD panel on Speedlites
backlight color changes for, 212
overview of, 77, 81, 83
LD-NiMH batteries, 291
LED lamp, 84
legacy Speedlites, 88–89
lens focal length
aperture and, 26
depth of field and, 29
Zoom function and, 104
light
ambient, 6, 7–8, 54–63
angle of, 65, 70, 344
bouncing, 108, 304–305
character of, 18–19
color of, 23
diffusing, 273
dimming, 58–59, 386–387
distance to, 50–53
feathering, 109
flash-created, 6
hair, 66, 338
incident, 37
intensity of, 18, 50
428
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
learning to see, 16–23
mechanics of, 42–53
metering, 36–37
on- and off-axis, 68–69
poetry of, 17
position of, 64–71
reflected, 37, 46–47
rim, 66, 326, 338
separation, 311
shaping, 335
source size, 48–49, 233
temperature of, 19, 43
window, 183, 316–317
Light Blaster, 247
light rails, 286
light stands, 282–283
C-stands, 283
E-TTL cord connection, 163
lightweight, 282
lighting
background, 109, 311
broad, 318–319
clamshell, 336–337
crossfire, 334, 344–345
gang, 392–403
hatchet, 342, 386
horizontal, 65–69
with intent, 16
LCD for checking, 38
multiple-Speedlite, 334–355
short, 318–319
single-Speedlite, 310–333
vertical, 70–71
Lighting Compass, 65–67
Lighting Inclinometer, 70
Lightware FourSquare
bracket, 260
softboxes, 264
lightweight stands, 282
line-of-sight requirement, 174
Link Light options, 216
Linked Shooting button, 91
Linked Shot feature, 226–227
lithium batteries, 290
location of light. See position of light
loupe, Hoodman, 39
Lovegrove, Damien, 278
LumiQuest products
ProMax Bounce System, 239
Softbox III, 241
LumoPro Double Flash bracket, 269
M
Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX II, 94
Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX, 94
Magic Arm, 281
Maha chargers, 296, 297
Manfrotto products
Boom Assembly, 285
Combi-Boom Stand, 285
Flex Arm, 281
grip gear, 282
Magic Arm, 281
Nano Stand, 282
Suction Grip, 280
Super Clamp, 279
Swivel Adapter, 258, 278
Manual flash mode, 97, 110–123
ambient light and, 122
classic three-light setup and, 338
E-TTL flash mode vs., 9, 112, 141
exposure modes and, 122
fixed-distance shots and, 112
High-Speed Sync and, 381, 388
Manual exposure mode vs., 111
menus for controlling, 78, 407, 412
midpoint power setting in, 122
non-wireless menu in, 414
optical slave eyes and, 113
optical wireless groups and, 200–201
power level settings, 9, 114–118, 200–201
radio wireless groups and, 220–221
situations for using, 9, 112–113
starting with, 111
workflow for using, 122–123
Manual (M) exposure mode, 3, 34
E-TTL flash mode and, 131
example of shooting in, 35
managing ambient light in, 58
Manual flash mode vs., 9, 111
situations for using, 122
manual radio triggers, 166–168
Fire-now, 161, 166
multiple Speedlites and, 335
power-adjusting, 161, 167–168
Manual Zoom option, 104
master units. See optical masters; radio masters
McNally, Joe, 183, 233, 279, 368, 395
menus
600EX-RT non-wireless, 414–415
600EX-RT optical wireless, 411–414
600EX-RT radio wireless, 406–410
ST-E3-RT transmitter, 406–410
metal coldshoes, 277
metering light, 36–37
Flash Exposure Lock and, 138
flashmeters for, 41
histograms for, 39–40
patterns for, 37
zones for, 36–37, 127
modifiers for Speedlites, 232–275
beauty dishes, 270–271
big light, 253
bounce reflectors, 238–239
built-in, 234
Cinefoil, 250
do-it-yourself, 233
dome diffusers, 237
flags, 248–249, 275
gaffer’s tape, 250
gels, 250, 356–373
globe diffusers, 236
grids, 244–245
kits of essential, 251
options for mounting, 235
positioning, 312–313
projectors, 247
purposes of, 233, 253
reflectors, 274
ring lights, 242–243
scrims/diffusion panels, 272–273
snoots, 246
softboxes, 240–241, 262–269
solids, 275
testing, 267
umbrellas, 254–261
monoball swivel, 278
Monroe, Matt, 281
mood creation, 364
motion
field of light for, 350–351, 388
shutter speed and, 32
stroboscopic flash and, 144, 150
sync speed and, 100–101
See also action photography
mounting Speedlites, 277–281
clamps for, 279, 280
flexible arms for, 281
gang lighting and, 395
hot/cold shoes for, 277
multi-light mounts for, 286
swivel adapters for, 278
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
429
Multi flash mode, 79, 98, 143, 144–150
non-wireless menu in, 415
optical wireless menus in, 413
power adjustments in, 202, 221–222
radio wireless menus in, 408
See also stroboscopic flash
multi-light mounts, 286
multiple-Speedlite setup, 334–355
advantages of using, 335
beauty dish used in, 348–349
choosing Speedlites for, 335
clamshell lighting with, 336–337
classic portraits with, 338–339
creating a field of soft light with, 350–351
crossfire lighting with, 344–345
fill flash from softboxes in, 340–341
hard and soft light outdoors with, 346–347
second-curtain sync with, 354–355
softboxes containing, 352–353
sports portraits with, 342–343
stroboscopic flash with, 149
See also single-Speedlite setup
My Menu screen, 5
N
Nano Stand, 282
Nasty Clamp, 281
negative fill, 275
neutral density gels, 357, 364
neutral density (ND) filters, 383
night effects
dimming the sun for, 58–59
noir portrait effect, 372–373
NiMH batteries, 291
NiZn batteries, 292
noir portrait effect, 372–373
noise, high ISO, 209
non-wireless menus, 414–415
nose of subjects
aligning shadows with, 308
broad vs. short lighting and, 318
number-of-flashes setting, 144, 145
O
OCF Gear E-TTL cords, 13, 163
OCF Gear Smart Eye, 113, 165
off-axis light, 68–69
off-camera flash, 65, 160–171
built-in wireless for, 161, 165, 168
comparison of trigger systems for, 171
E-TTL cords for, 161, 162–163
430
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
E-TTL radio triggers for, 161, 168–170
handholding at arm’s length, 162
manual radio triggers for, 161, 166–168
moving optical masters for, 182–183
optical slave eyes for, 161, 164–165
optical wireless triggers for, 161, 164–165
PC-Sync cords for, 161
radio wireless triggers for, 161, 166–170
reasons for using, 12, 160
ring light adapters and, 243
on-axis light, 68–69
on-camera flash, 300–309
bouncing, 304–305
diffusers for, 306–307
E-TTL mode and, 130
fill flash using, 13, 301, 302–303, 384
good uses for, 3, 68, 301
limitations of, 12, 160, 301
master function and, 342
tips for using, 308–309
See also pop-up flash
one-Speedlite setup. See single-Speedlite setup
open-sided frames, 273
optical masters
channel selection for, 188–189
enabling/disabling, 176, 184–185
equipment usable as, 173
explanatory overview of, 174
line-of-sight requirement for, 174
menus for setting up, 411–413
moving off-camera, 182–183
pop-up flash used as, 178–179
ready light for, 187
settings required for, 176
softbox setup for, 183
Speedlites used as, 180–181
third-party flashes as, 184
Zoom setting and, 175, 176
optical slave eyes, 164–165
advantages/disadvantages of, 164
Canon-compatible, 164–165
E-TTL preflash and, 130
Manual flash mode and, 113
second-curtain sync using, 354
third-party units and, 95
optical slaves
Auto Power Off timer on, 187
channel selection for, 188
equipment usable as, 173
explanatory overview of, 175
group settings for, 190–191, 199
Independent Slave activation, 202–203
line-of-sight requirement for, 174
menus for setting up, 414
pop-up flash for controlling, 301
ready light for, 187
settings required for, 177
softbox setup for, 183
stroboscopic flash configuration, 149
third-party flashes as, 95
Zoom setting and, 175, 177
optical transmitter, 76, 80, 87
optical wireless, 113, 172–203
Canon’s built-in, 161, 165, 168
channel selection for, 188–189
clamshell lighting with, 336
enabling/disabling masters in, 184–185
E-TTL power adjustments in, 192–193
full sunlight and, 388
gang lighting and, 397
group settings for, 190–199
line-of-sight requirement for, 174
Manual flash power in, 200–201, 338
master unit for, 174, 176, 178–185
Multi mode power adjustments, 202
overview of devices for, 173
panning/tilting for, 109
pop-up flash used in, 178–179
power level ratios in, 192–199
radio wireless advantages over, 205
slave units for, 175, 177, 186–187
Speedlites used in, 180–181
triggers used in, 161, 164–165, 335
umbrella with Speedlites using, 350
See also radio wireless
optical wireless sensor, 76, 80, 82
optical wireless triggers, 161, 164–165
Canon optical wireless system, 161, 165
optical slave eyes, 161, 164–165
Orbis ring light, 243
outdoor portraits
beauty dish for, 348–349
crossfire lighting in, 344–345
hard and soft light in, 346–347
softboxes for fill flash in, 340–341
sports portraits as, 342–343
overexposed images, 39, 141
overheating risk, 294–295
P
panning Speedlites, 108–109
modifying light by, 234
range available for, 108
parabolic umbrellas, 261
Partial metering mode, 37
path of light, 18
patterns, metering, 37
PC-Sync cords, 161
Personal Functions (P.Fn.), 78, 180, 416
600EX-RT settings for, 418
ST-E3-RT settings for, 419
See also Custom Functions
Photoshop retouching, 340, 402
Phottix Mitros+ flash, 169, 228–229
Phottix Odin II controller, 169
pilot lamp/button
on Speedlite flashes, 81, 83
on Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2, 93
pistol grip for umbrellas, 257
PixSylated.com blog, 31
Plusgreen gels, 365
PocketWizard radio triggers, 166, 168, 170
poetry of light, 17
polarizing gels, 357
poles, 284–285
pop-up flash
channel setting for, 189
fill flash using, 301
good uses for, 3, 68, 301
limitations of, 301
optical master setup, 178–179, 185
Speedlites vs., 301
See also on-camera flash
portraits
classical lighting for, 338–339
hard light setup for, 194–195
multiple-Speedlite setup for, 334–355
single-Speedlite setup for, 310–333
soft light setup for, 194–195
sports, 342–343
position of light, 64–71
crossfire lighting, 344
horizontal lighting, 65–69
Lighting Compass and, 65–67
Lighting Inclinometer and, 70
on- and off-axis light, 68–69
quality of light based on, 311
vertical lighting, 70–71
position of modifiers, 312–313
power level settings, 9
duration of flash and, 390
gel color intensity and, 330
increments used for, 114
Manual flash mode, 114–118
midpoint used for, 122
optical wireless groups and, 192–199
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
431
radio wireless groups and, 218–222
stroboscopic flash and, 144, 145
troubleshooting E-TTL, 141
power zoom features, 75
power-adjusting radio triggers, 167–168
Powerex batteries, 292
PowerGenix batteries, 292
preflash
E-TTL metering, 126
hyper-fast blinkers and, 130
optical slave eyes and, 130
steps for seeing, 126
preset zone shots, 112–113
Program (P) mode, 34, 131
projectors, 247
ProMax Bounce System, 239
pull-out diffuser, 104
Q
Quick Control Screen, 134
R
radio masters
activation of, 211
channel selection for, 213
enabling/disabling, 217
equipment usable as, 206
Link Light indications, 216
menus for setting up, 406–409
Multi mode settings on, 221–222
ratio settings for, 215, 219
settings table for, 210
shooting with multiple, 216
wireless ID setting, 214
radio slaves
activation of, 212
channel selection for, 213
equipment usable as, 206
group settings for, 215
Link Light indications, 216
menus for setting up, 410
settings table for, 210
wireless ID setting, 214
radio triggers, 161, 166–170
E-TTL mode, 168–170
manual, 166–168, 335
radio wireless, 173, 204–229
activation process, 211–212
advantages provided by, 205
beauty dish setup using, 348
432
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
channel selection for, 213
enabling/disabling masters in, 217
external flash metering and, 156
group assignments in, 215
Group mode feature, 223–224
interactive menu system, 206, 207
Link Light indications in, 216
Linked Shot feature, 226–227
Manual flash power in, 220–221, 338
master units for, 206, 210, 211
menus for setting up, 406–410
Multi mode power adjustments, 221–222
older cameras and, 348
power level ratios in, 218–222
pre-2012 cameras and, 208–209
ratio settings for, 215, 218–222
Remote Release feature, 225–226
slave unit for, 206, 210
Speedlite 600EX-RT flash, 76, 95, 173
Speedlite ST-E3-RT transmitter, 90–91, 173
third-party equipment for, 227–229
triggers used in, 161, 166–170, 335
wireless ID codes for, 214
See also optical wireless
RadioPopper products, 168, 170
rails, 286, 395
Rapid Boxes, 266, 271, 322
ratios
clamshell lighting, 336
converting to stops, 193, 218
hard light setups using, 194–195
on-camera fill to off-camera key, 196
opposing off-camera Speedlite, 197
optical wireless, 192–199
radio wireless, 215, 218–222
right/left settings for, 192, 218
soft light setup using, 194–195
RAW files, 45
Ray Flash 2 modifier, 243
Raya Reflector Adapter, 269
ready light, 86, 87, 91
Really Right Stuff flash bracket, 309
rechargeable batteries, 291, 292
recomposing images, 138, 140
recycle time, 75, 293, 335, 352
redundancy, 335
reflected light, 37
reflections
angle of, 46
direct vs. diffuse, 47
reflective umbrellas, 254–255, 316
reflectors, 274
beauty, 270
bounce, 238–239
collapsible disk, 272
fabric, 274
fill, 314–315
foam core, 274
remote control transmitter, 84, 86
Remote Release feature, 84, 86, 225–226
RGB-metering technology, 36, 127
ribbon shadows, 308
right/left setup, 192, 218
rigid beauty dishes, 270–271
rim light, 66, 326, 338
ring lights, 242–243
distinctive look of, 324
single Speedlight and, 324–325
Rogue products
3-in-1 honeycomb grid, 245
FlashBender Large, 238, 239, 241, 246, 342
lighting filter kits, 362
Rosco products
Cinefoil, 250
gels, 357, 362, 364, 365
Roscolux color gels, 365
RoundFlash products
beauty dish, 271, 312
magnetic ringflash, 242, 324
S
sandbags, 283
Sanyo 2700 battery, 291, 292
scissor clamp, 280
screwlock PC terminal, 76, 80
scrims, 272–273
second-curtain sync, 100–101
multiple Speedlites and, 354–355
portraying motion using, 100–101
wireless workarounds for, 354
Sekonic L-308S Flashmate, 41
separation light, 311
Shade white balance, 44, 45
shadows
edges of, 19, 48
fill flash and, 129
hard vs. soft light and, 19, 20
modifier position related to, 312
on-camera flash and, 304–305, 308
position of, 70, 308
ribbon, 308
tinting, 364
shaping light, 335
shoot-through umbrellas, 254
short lighting, 318–319
Shur-Line Easy Reach, 284
Shutter Priority (Tv) mode, 34
E-TTL flash mode and, 131
example of shooting in, 35
managing ambient light in, 58
Manual flash mode and, 122
shutter release, 144
shutter speed
ambient light and, 7, 56–60, 320, 348, 372
aperture and, 32
background light and, 57
choosing settings for, 32
dimming the sun using, 58–59
dragging the shutter, 60, 103
explanation of, 30
flash exposures and, 56
single-Speedlite setup and, 320–321
stroboscopic flash and, 98, 145
sync speed and, 56, 99, 100, 378–379
silhouettes, 330–331
silk scrims, 272
silver fabric reflectors, 274
silver reflective umbrellas, 255
silver softboxes, 262
Singh-Ray Vari-ND filter, 383
single-Speedlite setup, 310–333
broad lighting with, 318–319
clamshell lighting with, 336
crossfire lighting with, 344
fill reflector with, 314–315
gel color and, 330
grids used in, 326–327
location of light in, 311
positioning modifiers for, 312–313
purposes served by, 311
ring flash with, 324–325
short lighting with, 318–319
shutter speed and, 320–321
silhouettes created with, 330–331
softbox size and, 332–333
strip softbox with, 322–323
stroboscopic flash with, 148
umbrellas with, 316–317
white seamless and, 328–329
See also multiple-Speedlite setup
single-use batteries, 290
skies, dramatic, 397
slave ID Groups, 157, 190
See also flash groups
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
433
slave units. See optical slaves; radio slaves
Slow-Speed Sync, 103
smart chargers, 296
snoots, 246
grids vs., 245
used as reflectors, 238, 239
soft charge mode, 297
soft light
bouncing on-camera flash for, 304–305
creating a big field of, 350–351
modifier position for, 312
outdoor setup for hard light with, 346–347
ratios for portraits using, 194–195
shadows created by, 19, 20
softbox for creating, 240–241
umbrella for creating, 316–317
softboxes, 240–241, 262–269
adapters for, 269
anatomy of, 262
buying considerations, 264
Ezybox, 240, 265, 332
fill flash using, 340–341
FourSquare, 264
multiple Speedlites in, 352–353
narrow or strip, 322–323
optical wireless using, 183
placing close to subjects, 241
Quikbox, 240, 265
single Speedlite in, 322, 332
size effects using, 332–333
Speedlite-mounted, 240–241
studio, with Speedlites, 268–269
umbrellas vs., 352
Westcott, 263, 266
solids, 275
Sonia optical slaves, 164
Sparrow Plate, 280
specialty flash modes, 142–157
External Auto mode, 143, 152–154
External Manual mode, 143, 154–156
Group mode, 143, 157
multi mode, 143, 144–150
Specific white balance, 44, 45
specular highlights, 19
Speed Strap, 235, 363
Speedlite 90EX, 87, 118
Speedlite 220EX, 89
Speedlite 270EX, 89, 421
Speedlite 270EX II, 86
channel selection, 188
Custom Functions, 421
features overview, 86
434
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
group setup, 191
Manual mode options, 118
optical slave settings, 187, 191
triggering cameras using, 85
Speedlite 320EX, 84–85
channel selection, 188
Custom Functions, 421
features overview, 84–85
group setup, 191
Manual mode options, 118
optical slave settings, 187, 191
triggering cameras using, 85
Speedlite 380EX, 89
Speedlite 420EX, 89
Speedlite 430EX, 88
channel selection, 188
Custom Functions, 421
FEC settings, 10
group setup, 191
Independent Slave setup, 203
Manual power settings, 117
Multi mode option, 144
optical slave settings, 187, 191
Speedlite 430EX II, 82–83
channel selection, 188
comparison to 600EX-RT, 82
Custom Functions, 421
features overview, 82
FEC settings, 10, 136
group setup, 191
Independent Slave setup, 203
Manual power settings, 117
optical slave settings, 186, 191
Speedlite 550EX, 88
channel selection, 188
Custom Functions, 420
group setup, 191
Independent Slave setup, 203
Manual power settings, 201
optical master settings, 181, 185
optical slave settings, 186, 191
Speedlite 580EX, 88
Custom Functions, 420
FEC settings, 10
group setup, 191, 199
Independent Slave setup, 203
Manual power settings, 116, 201
Multi mode settings, 147
optical master settings, 185
optical slave settings, 186, 191
Speedlite 580EX II, 80–81
channel selection, 188
Custom Functions, 419
external metering modes, 151, 154, 155–156
features overview, 80–81
FEC settings, 10, 136
group setup, 190, 198–199
Independent Slave setup, 203
Manual power settings, 114, 116, 201
optical master settings, 180, 185
optical slave settings, 186, 190
Speedlite 600EX-RT, 76–79
channel selection, 188
comparison to 430EX II, 82
Custom Functions, 78, 417
external metering modes, 151, 153, 155, 165
features overview, 76–77
FEC settings, 10, 136
function buttons, 78–79
gel holder, 362
group setup, 190, 409
HSS activation, 376
Independent Slave setup, 203
interactive menu system, 207
Manual power settings, 114, 115, 200
menus for radio wireless, 406–410
Multi mode settings, 146
non-wireless mode menus, 414–415
optical master settings, 180, 184, 188
optical slave settings, 186, 188, 190
Personal Functions, 78, 180, 418
radio wireless system, 76, 168, 173, 204–229
ST-E3-RT Transmitter vs., 91
Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2, 91, 92–93
Speedlite Transmitter ST-E3-RT, 90–91
Custom Functions, 418
menus overview, 406–410
Personal Functions, 419
radio wireless system, 204–229
Speedlites
Auto Power Off feature, 187, 416
batteries for, 288–297
buying considerations for, 75, 93
camera-based control of, 4–5, 118–121
color balance of, 357
Custom Functions for, 416–417, 418, 419–421
essential ideas for using, 3
external power ports on, 294
EZ series of, 89
features overview for, 75, 76–87
FEC setup using, 136
gels used with, 356–373
grip gear for, 276–287
group setup on, 190–191
handholding, 162
hiding in scenes, 346
HSS activation on, 376
Independent Slave activation, 202–203
legacy, 88–89
modes for controlling, 97–98
modifiers for, 232–275
multiple-light setup using, 334–355
off-camera control of, 160–171
optical master setup on, 180–181, 185
optical slave setup on, 186–187
panning and tilting, 108–109
Personal Functions for, 78, 180, 416, 418, 419
pop-up flash vs., 301
positioning of, 64–71
power level settings on, 9, 114–118
recycle time of, 75, 293, 335, 352
role decisions for, 122
single-light setup using, 310–333
softboxes for, 240–241, 263–266
specialty modes on, 142–157
stroboscopic flash with, 98, 143, 144–150
sync settings for, 99–103
tasks for controlling, 97
third-party alternatives to, 95
zoom function on, 104–107, 234
Spiffy Gear Light Blaster, 247
spigots, 278, 285
sports photography
High Speed Sync and, 388–389
Manual flash mode and, 113
stroboscopic flash and, 144, 150
See also action photography
sports portraits, 342–343
Spot metering mode, 37
Stailey, Justin, 279
stands. See light stands
ST-E2 transmitter. See Speedlite transmitter ST-E2
ST-E3-RT transmitter. See Speedlite transmitter
ST-E3-RT
Sto-Fen Omni-Bounce, 237
stops
converting ratios to, 193, 218
stopping down/opening up, 26
use of term, 25
See also aperture; f/stops
StoraCell battery caddies, 297
strip softbox, 322–323
strobes. See studio strobes
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
435
stroboscopic flash, 143, 144–150
action photos and, 144, 150
considerations for using, 150
High-Speed Sync as, 374, 380
motion captured with, 144, 150
Multi flash mode for, 79, 98, 143, 144–150
multiple-Speedlite setup for, 149
requirements for using, 144
setting Speedlites for, 144–147
shutter speed and, 145
single-Speedlite setup for, 148
slave configuration for, 149
See also Multi flash mode
Strobros Globe Diffuser, 236
Strobros Snoot, 246
studio softboxes, 268–269
studio strobes, 41, 130, 220, 236, 268, 396
subject-to-light distance, 51, 52
Suction Grip, 280
sunlight
color cycle of, 360
dimming, 58–59, 386–387
fill flash and, 366
gang lighting and, 402–403
High-Speed Sync and, 384–385
shadows created by, 48, 70
See also ambient light
sunset portraits
gelled fill flash for, 366–367
golden-hour effect for, 368–369
Super Clamp, 279
swivel adapters, 258, 278
sync speed, 99–103
1st-curtain sync, 100
2nd-curtain sync, 100–101, 354–355
explanation of, 99–100, 378
High-Speed Sync, 101–102, 375, 380–381
how to change, 102
mechanics of, 56
normal, 378–379
radio wireless and, 209
shutter speed and, 56, 99, 100, 131, 378–379
Slow-Speed Sync, 103
X-sync speed, 378
T
telephoto lenses, 29
temperature of light, 19, 43, 44
See also color temperature
testing modifiers, 267
text-based control menu, 181, 189
436
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK
theatrical gels, 357, 364
thermal cut-out circuit, 294–295
third-party gear
for optical wireless, 95, 184
for radio wireless, 227–229
third-stops, 26
three-group setup, 198–199
three-Speedlite setup
classic portraits using, 338–339
sports portraits using, 342–343
See also multiple-Speedlite setup
tilting Speedlites, 108–109
modifying light by, 234
range available for, 108
timer-based chargers, 296
tinting shadows, 364
transceivers, 167
transmitters, 167, 301
TriFlash bracket, 260
trigger systems, 160–171
comparison of, 171
E-TTL cords, 161, 162–163
E-TTL radio triggers, 168–170
gang lighting, 396
manual radio, 166–168
optical wireless, 161, 164–165
PC-Sync cords, 161
radio wireless, 161
Triple Threat bracket, 260
tripods, 144
tungsten lights, 23, 43, 358
Tungsten white balance, 44, 45, 359, 361, 370
Tv mode. See Shutter Priority (Tv) mode
twin-Speedlite setup
clamshell lighting with, 336–337
crossfire lighting with, 344–345
See also multiple-Speedlite setup
two-group setup, 194–197
U
umbrellas, 254–261
adapters for, 258, 278
collapsible, 257
configurable, 257
convertible, 256
double setup for, 260, 261
fabrics used for, 254–255
large parabolic, 261
mounting Speedlites to, 260
multiple Speedlites in, 350–351
pistol grip for, 257
positioning on the set, 259
pros and cons of, 255
reflective, 254–255, 316
shoot-through, 254
single Speedlite with, 316
sizes available for, 256
soft fill light created with, 316–317
softboxes compared to, 352
underexposed images, 39
V
VAL Spigot, 285
van Niekirk, Neil, 249
Vari-ND filter, 383
Velcro straps, 235, 287, 363
Vello products
Cinch Strap, 235
Coldshoe Mount, 277
FreeWave Fusion Pro, 166
grids for Beauty Dish II, 244
snoot/reflector, 239
Universal Bounce Diffuser, 237
Universal Softbox, 241
vertical lighting, 70–71
vision, human vs. camera, 20–23
white softboxes, 262
wide-angle diffuser panel, 76, 80, 82, 104, 234
wide-angle lenses, 29
windowlight
blending fill flash into, 316–317
golden hour look through, 368–369
optical wireless setup for, 183
rim light created from, 326–327
wireless channel switch, 84
wireless flash. See optical wireless; radio wireless
wireless ID codes, 214
wireless master capability, 75
wireless mode menus, 79
wireless sensor, 84, 86
wireless slave capability, 75
Wizard Dual-Flash bracket, 286
workflows
High-Speed Sync mode, 382
Manual flash mode, 122–123
Speedlite four-step, 11
WPF-1 Flash Bracket, 162
X
X-Rite ColorChecker, 44
X-sync speed, 378
W
Y
wall-bounced flash, 304–305
weather sealing, 76, 81
wedding photography, 112
Welch, MD, 402
Westcott products
Apollo softbox, 263, 352
Fast Flags, 273
Pocket Box kit, 240
Rapid Boxes, 266, 271, 322
Scrim Jim panels, 272, 273
Triple Threat bracket, 260
umbrellas, 257, 261
WhiBal card, 45
white balance settings, 23, 44–45
color temperature and, 43, 359
creative use of, 361
gels used with, 359, 361
how to choose, 45
list of available, 44
white fabric reflectors, 274
White Fluorescent setting, 44
white reflective umbrellas, 255, 316
white seamless, 328–329
Yongnuo equipment
E-TTL radio triggers, 169
manual radio triggers, 166, 167
radio transmitters, 227, 228, 229
Speedlites, 95, 167, 227–228, 229
Z
Zacuto Z-finder, 402
zones, metering, 36–37
Zoom function on Speedlites, 104–107
apparent brightness and, 104, 106
automatic vs. manual zoom, 104
background patterns related to, 330
creating dramatic light with, 106–107
modifying light using, 234
optical slaves and, 175
views illustrating, 105
Zoom/wireless button, 81, 83
SPEEDLITER’S HANDBOOK : INDEX
437
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