How to Help Children with Speech Problems

How to Help Children with Speech Problems
How to Help
Children
with
Speech Problems
This manual is written by a
Speech-Language Pathologist
who calls herself a Speech Fairy
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Introduction
Being a parent/caregiver to children is a monumental job. It becomes more
challenging when the child has speech, language, and hearing issues or is
difficult to understand. The goal of this manual is to provide ideas and
inspiration for helping children who have challenges with speech skills. As
guides, we must remember to focus on the things well done, which sparks
the child’s creativity and excitement.
What is Language?
While speech involves the physical motor ability to talk, language is a symbolic,
rule governed system used to convey a message. In English, the symbols can
be words, either spoken or written. We also have gestural symbols waving as
a sign for greeting “hello” or someone’s attention or shrugging ones shoulders
to indicate “I don’t know.”
What is Speech?
When speech-language pathologists refer to the term speech we are referring
to three things:
Articulation Skills
Ability to make individual sounds and patterns of language which is articulation.
Speech Fluency
Ability to produce speech with appropriate rhythm, and without stuttering.
Voice
Ability to speak with appropriate vocal quality.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Types of Articulation Errors
There are four different articulation errors that can be made when producing
speech sounds called:
SODA
Substitutions - Omissions - Distortions - Additions
SUBSTITUTION
Speech sound error of the substitution type means that one sound is
replicated for another sound.
For example, 'w' is substituted for 'r,' so that “rabbit” sounds like “wabbit.”
OMISSION
A speech sound error of the omission type means that a sound in the word
is omitted.
For example, “ipmonk” for “chipmunk.”
DISTORTION
A speech sound error of the distortion type means that a sound is produced
in an unfamiliar way.
Lisp sounds are an example of this error.
ADDITION
A speech sound error of the addition type means that an extra sound is
inserted within the word.
For example, “doguh” for “dog.”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association language
is made up of socially shared rules that include the following:
What words mean
e.g. “star” can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity.
How to make new words
e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly.
How to put words together
e.g. “Peg walked to the new store” rather than “Peg walk store new.”
What word combinations are best in what situations
e.g.“Would you mind moving your foot?” could quickly change to “Get off
my foot, please!” if the first request did not produce results.
Following Rules for Conversations and Storytelling
taking turns in conversation
introducing topics of conversation
staying on topic
rephrasing when misunderstood
how to use verbal and nonverbal signals
how close to stand to someone when speaking
how to use facial expressions and eye contact
Delay vs. Disorder
A speech disorder refers to a problem with making the sounds. A language
disorder is having difficulty putting words together to express thoughts or
trouble understanding. A delay can occur in speech and/or language. A
delay denotes that the development is slower than that of other children.
A disorder refers to speech or language that is developing in an unusual or
abnormal manner.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Typical Speech Development
0-2 year old
p, b, m, h, d
3-4 year old
w, y, k, t, n
7-8 year old
r, s, z, ch, sh, th
5-6 year old
g, ng, f, v, l, j
www.harnessinghappiness.org
It can be overwhelming to know where to start. Begin where your child is functioning. One
toddler had about three words “mama, dada, and Emo (for Elmo). So the parents practiced
“mommy, daddy, and Elmo.” They then expanded to “bye bye” and “kitty.”
Sillyness
Children love silliness! It is always good to remember to delight in children. We are children’s
greatest fans. Gretchen Rubin said it well “The days are long but the years are short.”
Honesty
It is best to be straightforward in a very kind manner. For example saying “I really want to
understand you. Can you show me?” or “That sure is a tough word isn’t it?”
Kindness
Focus on what is going well and encourage. Do not criticize. We do not imitate or make
fun of children but rather take delight and show them unconditional positive regard. It’s
not about perfection with young children but rather trying and letting them heard good,
correct productions.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
KISS
Keep it Short and Simple
Teachable Moments
Communication happens in every day moments. There are many teachable
moments throughout the day and time for hugs and tenderness. As a parent
or caregiver, we need to buy products and programs to help the children. Use
what is available. You will be pleasantly surprised to see how language is all
around. In reality, spending time together and using every day experiences
is more valuable.
Caveats
Parents usually have a “gut feeling” or know when something is not quite
right. If you are concerned, seek advice from a speech-language pathologist.
Signs to look for include: you or other family members have a difficult time
understanding your child, and/or your child demonstrates frustration at not
being understood.
The H’s
Remember To Be...
Happy
Harmonious
Honest
Humble
Humorous
and last but not least...Have fun!
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Specific Activities and Strategies
Speech Container
Use a purse, briefcase, messenger bag lunch box or a fun container to put
objects/toys, photos or pictures of frequently used words to practice. For
example names of family members including pets, favorite activities, toys,
characters the child enjoys, and so on. A great time to practice speech is
around meal time.
Mystery Box
Make a mystery box filled with common objects or toys from around your
home. You can cut a slot in the top to make sure that your child’s hand and
the object fit through.
Speech Look Book
There are very inexpensive soft cover photo books. Use photos of family
members including pets and things the child loves and review the book
using their best speech.
Read, Read, Read
Reading books is a wonderful way to learn while spending quality time with
your child.
Music
Soft, lovely music creates ambiance. Classical music has been shown to help
brain development. It primes the brain with pathways needed for cognitive tasks.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Art
Create “masterpieces” together. Children love art projects. Doing a project
together creates opportunities for communication, can increase attention/
focus, and confidence. Children love to show their handiwork and have it
displayed.
Birthday Cake
An effective technique in assisting with correct speech is to “re-say” or “recast.” When the child says something in error, the adult models it correctly
slightly emphasizing the correct manner without asking the child to repeat
the word or sentence that is in error.
When your child says, “I want birfday tate!” you would respond by saying,
“Oh you want birthday cake? I want birthday cake too!”
Practice
Once you have success with your child it takes time for them to solidify the
skill. Spontaneously saying the sounds correctly in conversational speech
takes practice. They need to practice the sound alone, then in syllables/
short words, longer words, phrases, sentences sentence level and finally at
the conversation level.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
0-2 Year Old
p, b, m, h, d
Sound Description - Words - Ideas
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter B
Bouncing
The /b/ sound is one of the very first sounds your child will begin to make
starting with infant babbling and progressing to simple words like “baby”
and “ball” (“ba”).
The /b/ sound is a bilabial sound, which means the lips are together when
making the sound. It is also a voiced sound, which means that the vocal
cords vibrate when the /b/ is pronounced.
The /b/ sound is the “bouncy” sound. You can bounce a ball and say “bounce,
bounce, bounce.” You can show a picture of a lamb and say “The lamb says
baa, baa, baa.” Playing “Peek a Boo” is another great activity.
Draw attention to your closed lips as you make the sound. Put your finger on
your lips just before you make the sound and withdrawing it slightly away as
you create the /b/ sound.
You can use flavored lip balm on your child and have them rub their lips
together and have the air burst from behind the lips.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with The Letter B
Starting with the letter B
Baa
Baby
Bed
Bunny
Bee
Banana
Bug
Bow
Bus
Bat
Ending in the letter B
Crib
Tub
Cub
Web
Crab
Bib
Knob
Tube
Bob
Cob
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter B
Buzzing Bouncy Bee
Buzzy, busy bumble bee
Pretend you are a bee, fly around the room arms stretched out and say...
We’re bees/bumble bees
We’re buzzing
We’re busy
Bowl full of B’s
Copy and cut out pictures of /b/ words or place objects in a bowl or basket
and take them out to play.
Play Ball
Shoot baskets, toss a ball or bean bag. Repeat the words ball, bounce, or
bean bag.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter P
Popping Sound
The sound or pronunciation of the letter “p” is very close to the letter “b”
sound, except that the letter “p” sound is voiceless. This means that you do
not have voice (or vibration) in your voice box (larynx) when you make the
letter “p” sound. There is no vibration in your throat area when making the
letter “p” sound.
Just like the letter “b” sound, the letter “p” is pronounced with an explosive
action. You keep your lips together as you try to exhale, or blow air through
your mouth. You will feel a build up of pressure inside your mouth. With
this pressure, you suddenly or explosively exhale by parting your lips and
making the “p” sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with The Letter P
Starting with the letter P
Pink
Pet
Purr
Purse
Pup
Pie
Pop
Pat
Pig
Ending in the letter P
Cup
Ape
Cape
Pop
Sheep
Lip
Cap
Nap
Up
Soup
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter P
Popping Sounds
Popcorn - pop, pop, pop.
Put pieces of popcorn or puff cereal on pictures of /p/ words.
Pop Bubbles
Pop bubbles and watch them pop.
You can say, “The bubbles are pop, pop, popping.”
Play Prince/Princess at the palace
Have a party and pretend you are a princess or a prince. You can serve or
pretend to serve pancakes, peaches, peanut butter, popcorn, pasta, and so on.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter M
Yummy Sound
The “M” sound is nasal. This means that air travels through the nose, rather
than the mouth. It is also a bilabial sound, like the “P sound” which means
that it is formed by closing the lips.
To create the /m/ sound is a nasal sound. The lips are pressed together,
causing the air to be blocked from leaving the mouth. The sound is voiced,
so the vocal cords vibrate while vocalizing it.
Often a baby’s first words are “mama” and “dada.” Languages in many cultures
have words for mothers and fathers that feature repeating sounds.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter M
Starting with the letter M
Man
Mop
Mouse
Moose
Mittens
Mom
Money
Monkey
Muffin
Milk
Ending in the letter M
Lamb
Ice cream
Comb
Gum
Home
Ram
Dime
Drum
Game
Clam
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter M
Yummy in my tummy
During snacks and meals a suggestion is to comment “yummy in my tummy”
and encourage the child to say “mmmm” and “yummy in my tummy.” There
are lots of beverages and foods with the “m sound.” Examples include milk,
lemonade, muffins, macaroni and cheese, gummy bears, and marshmallows.
Climb a mountain
Pretend you are climbing up a mountain as you go up and down stairs.
Humming
Hum a tune together using the mmmmm sound and use your hand to pretend
it is a microphone. Get up and move about. Sing familiar tunes like “Old
McDonald” (with a moo moo here and a moo moo there) and “Five Little
Monkeys Jumping on the Bed.”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter H
Laughing Sound
The /h/ is made in the space between the vocal cords at the upper part of
the larynx (voice box). A small puff of air is released from the mouth to
correctly pronounce /h/.
Hold your child’s hand in front of your mouth so he or she can feel this as
you make the sound. Then let her or him feel the air from her or his own
mouth as she or he makes the sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with The Letter H
Starting with the letter H
Hair
Hat
Hay
Hen
Hill
Home
Hi
Hand
Happy
Honey
Medial H
Playhouse
Beehive
Forehead
Hula-hoop
Hedgehog
Hobby horse
Top hat
Pot holder
Grasshopper
High heel
Ahoy
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter H
Laughing
Practicing the /h/ sound can be a fun and happy time. Create funny and
distinctive laughs for several different /h/+vowel combinations and encourage
your child to copy the laughs. Try a high-pitched “hee hee hee” or a deep
“ha-ha-ha-ha.”
Looking in a mirror
Kids love to look at themselves in the mirror and we all enjoy praise. Practice
the sound in front of a mirror. Get really close to the glass to allow for the
breath to fog up the mirror. You can encourage them by saying something
like “Who is the handsome guy in the mirror?” or “I love looking at this
happy, huggable person in the mirror!”
Children take delight in seeing their breath on the glass and have to make
/h/ sound to make this happen.
Singing
Using songs and movement can assist in speech practice. Reciting or listening
to songs that have the /h/ can help the child hear and produce the sound.
Examples of songs with the /h/ include:
“Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes”
“Hickory Dickory Dock”
“Humpty Dumpty”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter D
Drum Sound
The /d/ sound is made by placing the tongue tip on the little ridge on the roof
of your mouth just behind your front teeth, then release the tongue allowing
air to move through the mouth.
The air is temporarily stopped by your tongue in this position, which means
both /d/ and /t/ are considered stop sounds. The difference between them is
that /d/ is a voiced sound and /t/ is a voiceless sound. That means that when
the /d/ is produce the vocal cords vibrate. A common substitution is the /g/
sound for the /d/ sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter D
Starting with the letter D
Dance
Dot
Down
Dog
Den
Daisy
Doll
Day
Dove
Dish
Ending with the letter D
Head
Mud
Lid
Hand
Kid
Food
Toad
Dad
Sand
Bed
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter D
Drum
Pretend to play the drum with drumsticks and vocalize the /d/ with different
vowels sounds. One of our favorite songs (especially the chorus) is by the
Police “De Do Do Do De Da Da Da.” What a delightful way to practice the
/d/ sound.
Since the /d/ can also be described as the dinging sound we like to say “ding”
when we complete a to-do item like buckling a seat belt or making a bed.
Even if the child can not say “ding” correctly by repeating the word it will
help solidify the /d/ sound. Cellular phones and doorbells can ding and this
is an opportunity to practice “d.”
Dance
Put on some fun music and dance! You can say “dance, dance, dance” as
you dart around the room. To add more /d/ practice, you can dance with a
stuffed animal dog, a doll, toy dinosaur, or another item with the /d/ sound.
It is practical and helpful to incorporate movements with words to enhance
speech skills. For example as you go down the stairs or down a slide say
“down, down, down”. As you open the door or dust you can comment about
what you are doing.
Design
• Make cookies out of dough and decorate for dessert. Gingerbread is
especially delicious!
• Make play dough or play with commercially made play-doh.
• Create and decorate your own play dollars.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
3-4 Year Old
w, y, k, t, n
Sound Description - Words - Ideas
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter W
Windy Sound
The /w/ sound is similar to a vowel and sometimes even acts like one, even
though it is technically a consonant.
To make a /w/ sound form, a tight circle with puckered lips brought out and
away from your face. With your lips in this position, generate a sound with
your vocal cords while holding the back of the tongue towards the roof of
the mouth.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter W
Starting with the letter or sound W
Walk
Whale
Wall
One
Wolf
Water
Wave
Wheel
Wings
Web
Medial W
Sandwich
Driveway
Sidewalk
Bow-wow
Chihuahua
Flower
Wishing well
Mouthwash
Kiwi
Shower
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter W
Signing and Saying
Encourage using the /w/ sound by saying and signing and word “water.” Support a
good /w/ sound by providing a speech model. The child may have difficulty with the
/r/ at the end of the word.
Stimulate your child to say “water” by sampling water flavored with different
ingredients. Include slices of cucumber, lemon, lime, orange and various berries
(raspberry, strawberry, blueberry) and see which one she or he likes best.
During the course of the day, as the child washes hands, bathes/showers, and drinks
he or she can be prompted to say and sign “water.”
Play “Whoa Nelly”
The word “whoa” is the word that Americans use to stop their horses when you
pull on the reins. “Nelly” was an old standard mare’s name. When you wanted to
stop a (female) horse, you’d say, of course, “Whoa Nelly”. Today, “Whoa Nelly” is
used to refer to anything like a car, a bike, a situation, or person who has become
out of control and done something unexpected.
You can pretend to have animal that starts with a /w/ like: wallaby, whale, wombat,
walrus, warthog, weasel, wolf, wasp, whippet, or wolverine. “Whoa __________.”
For added practice, you can add /w/ names like: Wally, Willa, Willard, Wilma,
Willow, Winnifred, Wyatt, Walid, Walt, or Wanda. “Whoa __________.”
I wonder what is in my wallet?
Print off the page with the “w” pictures. Cut out the pictures and put them in a
wallet and have the child discover what is in it.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter Y
Yelling Sound
To make the Y consonant sound, the mid and front part of the tongue lifts
and presses against the roof of the mouth. The tip of the tongue comes down
and lightly touches behind the bottom front teeth while the throat closes.
In teaching the child to say the /y/ sound, see if they can say the sound by
itself. If not, have the say “ee” as in “bee” or “knee.” Then say the “uh” as in
“luck.” Saying “ee-uh” repeatedly should engender the /y/ sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter Y
Starting with the letter Y or Y sound
Yard
Ewe
Young
Yellow
Yolk
Yo-yo
Yummy
Yam
Yarn
Yogurt
Medial Y
Onion
Coyote
Crayon
Lawyer
Mayonnaise
Royal
Vacuum
Papaya
Tortilla
New York
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter Y
‘Yisssiree’ or “no try again”
While putting together a puzzle, when the child gets a piece that fits say “Yes,”
or if it doesn’t fit “Try again.” The child can be encouraged to say “Yes” or “try
again” to just about any activity.
Yippee for Yellow
Find things that are yellow around the house or while you are out (e.g. butter,
banana, canary, cheese, chick, corn, duck, flower, lemon, school bus, pencil, rain
coat, sun, taxi cab) and say “Yippee for the yellow school bus.”
Yummy in my tummy!
At meal and snack times, encourage your child to say the name of the food. For
example, “Yogurt is yummy in my tummy.”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter K
Kicking Sound
The /k/ sound is a close relative to the /g/ sound because they both use the
same mouth position and are stop consonants (airflow while producing the
sound is first stopped and then released). The /k/ sound is different because
it is an unvoiced sound.
To pronounce the /k/ sound, put the back of your tongue against the top of
your mouth towards the back then direct air through your mouth and release
it by lowering your tongue. This unvoiced release of air is the /k/ sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter K or K Sound
Starting with the letter K or K sound
Cat
Car
Comb
Cave
Key
Kite
Kiss
Cub
Cup
Candy
Ending with the letter K or K sound
Back
Book
Look
Walk
Cake
Lipstick
Music
Milk
Pink
Magic
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter K
We’re Cool Cats
To make practicing the /k/ words fun, pretend you are “cool cats” by putting on
sunglasses while practicing the /k/ words provided.
K Action Activities
• Kiss your little one on the cheek and say kiss, kiss, kiss. As they kiss you on
the cheek say “thank you”.
• Pretend you are a coughing kangaroo. Cough every time you hop. Don’t forget
to cover your cough with a handkerchief or Kleenex.
• As you tuck your little one in for the night, make sure they are “comfy and
cozy” with their blanket.
• As adults, we are always searching for our keys. Enlist the help of kids to help
us find our keys.
• One of the best ways we can help our children is by teaching them manners.
The most polite phrase is “Thank you.” Even if the child is not able to say some
of the sounds, it’s okay. The listener will most likely understand the sentiment.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter T
Tapping Sound
The /t/ sound and /d/ sound are similar because the sounds are made in the
same position of the mouth. Both are consonants that are “stops”. They are
produced when the tongue pushes air through the mouth, stops and then is
released.
The difference between the /t/ sound and the /d/ sound is the /t/ is an unvoiced
sound and the /d/ is voiced. This means the vocal cords vibrate to make the
sound as well.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter T
Starting with the letter T
Tent
Two
Toes
Toast
Towel
Tie
Toy
Turtle
Tape
Tulip
Ending with the letter T
Feet
Seat
Eat
Gate
Bat
Boat
Cat
Hat
Robot
Doughnut
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter T
Treasure hunt on your tip toes
As you quietly tip toe through the house and say “We are on our tippy toes
tracking down “t” items.” For example, table, trash can, potty/toilet, toilet
paper, towel, tub, tooth paste, teddy bear, television/tv, toys, etc.
This is a great activity for practicing other sounds as well. Even if the item
doesn’t have the “t” in it, every one is having fun tip toeing and tracking
household objects.
Tap Dancing
Dance and say “tap, tap, tap” as you tap your feet.
Do the two step, tango, or the twist. It’s about fun and saying the “t” word.
“We’re two stepping!” “We’re doing the tango!” “We’re doing the twist.”
Talk Time
What time is it? “It’s talking time.” Practice “It’s time for _____________.”
For example, “night night,” “eating,” “using the potty” and so on. The /t/ can
be described to your child as the tick tock sound, tongue tapper or quiet tip
tapper sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter N
Nose Sound
The N consonant sound. This sound is made by the front/top part of the
tongue raising and touching the roof of the mouth; nn, nn. The teeth part,
the lips are open, and the vocal cords make sound.
This is one of the few sounds in American English where the soft palate
remains down. It is a nasal consonant along with M and NG.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter N or N Sound
Starting with the letter N or N sound
Nose
Knee
Necklace
Nickel
Nut
Nest
Knit
Night
Knob
Net
Ending with the letter N or N sound
Bean
Queen
Pin
Fan
Plane
Bun
Fawn
Moon
Man
Balloon
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter N
Nose Sound
Sit with your child and say “Point to your nose” and “Now point to my nose.”
Praise him or her by saying “Nice!”
Then say “Now, watch where my tongue goes when I say the ‘n’ sound.” “Did you
see where my tongue went? That’s right, it disappeared behind my front teeth!”
Stick out your tongue a little way, wiggle it a few times, place it behind your front
teeth and say “n” crisply and clearly.
A parent can draw a face with eyes and a mouth on a piece of paper and have the
child draw a nose. Encourage by saying “Nifty.”
Sniffing for good smells expedition
We sniff, sneeze, and smell with our nose. You can smell lovely fragrances
around the home like soap, perfume/cologne, essential oils, and spices.
If something smells unpleasant, you can encourage the use of a good “N”
sound by saying “Stinky” or “Not nice.”
Yes and No
During the course of a day, “No” is a common word for us to say to children
in order to keep them safe. We can have a little levity and say “That’s a nono.” If it is something that can be done, we can embolden by stating, “This
is a can do.”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
5-6 Year Old
g, ng, f, v, l, j
Sound Description - Words - Ideas
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter G
Gulping Sound
The /g/ sound is a similar sound as water pouring out of a bottle “g-g-g.” To
pronounce the /g/ sound put the back of your tongue against the top of your
mouth towards the back then direct air through your mouth and release it
by lowering your tongue. Air is released with the vocal cords vibrating.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter G
Starting with the letter G
Gate
Game
Gum
Goose
Goat
Gift
Good-bye
Garden
Guy
Girl
Ending with the letter G
Dog
Pig
Ladybug
Hug
Bag
Egg
Bug
Log
Frog
Zig Zag
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter G
Growling
Great ways to get a /g/ sound include pretending to gargle or growl like a hungry
grizzly bear. The child can put his or her head back or lay down so gravity helps
pull the tongue back while you establish a good /g/.
Let’s Go Places
As you go out the door comment about where you are going! Examples include:
“We’re going to the grocery store and we’re going to get granola bars” or “We’re
going to grab some lunch.”
Grab, Go, and Give
Use a container of your choosing and pretend it there a guppy inside. Let’s give
the guppy a gift. Print and cut out the page with the /g/ pictures and let the child
run to the guppy and give the guppy a gift. Good job!
Ooey gooey goodness! Oh this tastes so good!
During meals comment about how good something tastes. “Oh that tastes good.”
You can make s’mores (graham crackers, chocolate, and marshmallows) for ooey
gooey goodness.
Flubber Fun
There are many recipes online for “goo” otherwise known as “flubber.” This has
been a hit around our abode. It provides opportunities for using the word “goo”
and it’s great fun!
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letters NG
Ringing Sound
The /ng/ sound one distinct consonant sound even though it is spelled with
two letters and close to the /n/. Like the /m/ and /n/, the /ng/ is a nasal
sound. Air passes through the nose instead of through the mouth when
making the sound.
The back of the tongue is scrunched up against the soft area at the very back
of the roof of the mouth forming a seal. Sound is made with the vocal cords
as air travels through the nose.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letters NG
Medial NG
Donkey
Monkey
Bangle
Hanger
Jungle
Mongoose
Ping Pong
Singer
Jingle Bells
Finger
Ending with the letters NG
Sing
Ring
Wing
Strong
Lung
Tongue
King
Spring
Swing
String
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letters NG
Bring It!
Copy the pictures from the previous page and have your child bring you the
pictures.
“I’m looking for something. Please bring me a _______________” or
“Let’s bring this _______________(specific item) with us.”
Let’s Do Something
Opportunities to use the “ng” abound. Verbs in the present tense have the “ng”
(cleaning, eating, playing).
Ring the door bell and say “ding dong.”
Hang up clothes on a hanger. “Great going hanging things up!”
Swinging on a swing.
Eating with family.
Playing with friends at the park.
Loving Life Singing Songs
There are many great tunes to sing together. Songs to consider singing are “Sing
a Song,” “Five Little Monkeys,” and “B-I-N-G-O.”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter F
Fan Sound
The /f/ sound is made by touching upper teeth to the lower lip and passing
air through the mouth. The /f/ and /v/ sounds are made in exactly the same
way except the /v/ sound is a voiced sound so the vocal cords vibrate.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter F
Starting with the letter F
Fawn
Fish
Fan
Farm
Feet
Food
Face
Fox
Family
Fairy
Ending with the letter F or F sound
Elf
Woof
Wolf
Giraffe
Powder Puff
Laugh
Leaf
Chef
Hoof
Calf
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter F
Fantastic Favorites
Create a list of favorites. Every one in the family can be included. Date it and
keep the list for the future. It is fun to see how the list changes over time.
This activity emphasizes using the fan sound /f/ in favorite...
Favorite animal:
Favorite book:
Favorite color:
Favorite food(s):
Favorite drink:
Favorite song:
Favorite activity:
Favorite toy:
Favorite movie/show:
Favorite outfit/shirt:
Favorite activity:
Favorite restaurant:
“Little Foot”
Trace footprints of the child on paper and cut them out. Glue pictures of words
with the /f/ sound on them. Say the words every time you step on the foot print.
Fishing for Fabulous /f/’s
This activity can be simple or elaborate. Kids of all ages enjoy fishing games and
it can be made easier or more difficult depending on the child’s skill level. There
are commercially produced fishing games or making one may be an option. There
are many online resources for patterns and ideas for creating a fishing game. “I’m
going fishing and I found a __________ “(picture/word on the fish). Fantastic!
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter V
Vacuum Sound
The /v/ sound is created by touching the top teeth and the bottom lip so they
are touching. The /v/ sound is made with the same mouth position as the /f/
sound. The only difference is that the /f/sound is unvoiced and the /v/ sound
is voiced (vocal cords vibrate).
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter V
Starting with the letter F
Vase
Vine
Van
Violin
Violet
Vanilla
Valentine
Vitamins
Vacuum
Vern
Ending with the V sound
Love
Wave
Beehive
Olive
Dove
Cave
Drive
Stove
Five
Give
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter V
Revving Up The Engine & Get Moving Vacuuming
Vocalize a very good /v/ by “revving the engine.” Pretend to rev an engine while
vocalizing “vvvv vvvv VVVV.” The engine can get louder. A toy car, van, or
other vehicle adds extra enjoyment. Another way to verbalize “vvvv” is to make
a vacuuming sound. Once the sound is established then the goal can be to use a
very good /v/ in words, phrases, sentences, and in conversational speech.
Valentines
Love is always in season. Cut out paper hearts and glue the /v/ photos from the
list on the previous page. Make two copies of the /v/ pictures, glue them onto
the hearts, turn over and take turns finding matches. The person with the most
matches is victorious.
Love, Love, Love
“I love you” is one of the loveliest sentiments in the world. We can tell our family
members including our animals how much we love them. It is heartwarming
and a good way for children to hear the /v/ sound. A way to practice the /v/
sound is to list what we love and using the carrier phrase “I love…..” with each
verbalization.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter L
Lala Sound
The /l/ sound is produced by placing the tongue tip to the alveolar ridge
(small bump behind the front teeth). Air flows out of the side of the tongue
and the vocal cords vibrate to make the /l/.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter L
Starting with the letter L
Lamb
Lace
Lemon
Log
Lawn
Lamp
Lips
Lipstick
Llama
Lion
Ending with the letter L
Doll
Pool
Eel
Ball
Shell
Bell
Seal
Pencil
Bowl
Wall
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter L
Lollipops
Small lollipops are great incentives for the /l/ sound. A lollipop can be used to
gently touch behind the child’s upper teeth. Have the child elevate the tongue tip
and say /l/.
The songs “Lollipop,” London Bridge,” and “Loopty Loo” are options to sing,
dance, and practice the /l/ sound in a light hearted and lively way. The /l/ is after
all the “lala” sound.
Let’s Lunch with a Pal
Pick a stuffed animal or doll and “lunch” together. If you have a stuffed animal or
doll at home you can name the animal/doll with an /l/. Using an animal with an
/l/ sound in it and naming it with an /l/ name for added practice. Examples of /l/
animals and names include: Luigi the Lion, Lulu the Lamb, and Ollie the Owl.
Make Lucky Ladybugs & Gentleman Bugs
Ladybugs are considered to bring luck in many cultures. Make or purchase plastic
ladybugs/gentleman bugs. It can be a simple drawing or a more elaborate craft.
Place them around the home for reminder to lift the tongue and make a lovely
/l/. Say “Lucky ladybug” when you spot one. You may be even lucky enough to
experience ladybugs outdoors! Watching this tiny beetle is a delight.
/L/ Bowl
Cut the pictures provided with the /l/ sounds on the previous page, fold them
and place them in a bowl. “Let’s see, I selected a __________.” If there is a toy
bowling kit available, the child and helper can tape /l/ pictures to toy bowling
pins. When the pins fall, have the child say the /l/ word that is taped on that pin.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter J
Jumping Sound
The /j/ as in “jump” is generated by putting the teeth together and lips pursed
to form a pucker. The air stream is blocked by the tongue and then released.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter J
Starting with the letter J or J sound
Giraffe
Juice
Gem
Jelly
Jump
Jeep
Jar
Jet
Jeans
Joy
Ending with the J sound
Fudge
Stage
Bridge
Luggage
Carriage
Cage
Orange
Package
Page
Large
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter J
Jumping
The /j/ is the jumping sound. Jump up and down saying “jump, jump, jump.”
You can put blankets down and jump from magic carpet to magic carpet or from
bridge to bridge. Enjoy!
Jungle Adventure
Pretend to go on a jungle adventure in a jeep or a jet plane. Discuss what items
to take on the adventure and the items to go into the luggage. Who will you take
on the adventure? Put the /j/ words in luggage and unpack after you arrive at
your “destination.”
Joking Around
Children of all ages enjoy joking around. Look for age appropriate jokes and
memorize to share with friends and family. Here are a few jokes kindergarten
students enjoyed during speech fairy lessons for the “J” sound....
Why don’t you see giraffes in elementary school? Because they’re all in High School.
Where do snowmen keep their money? In snow banks.
What do you call an alligator in a vest? An Investigator
What did the pencil say to the other pencil? You’re looking sharp.
Why did the banana go to the doctor? Because he was not peeling well.
Why did the cookie go to the hospital? He felt crummy!
What did the magician do when he got mad? He pulled his hare out.
Where do sheep get a haircut? Baa Baa Shop
What do you call a pile of cats? A meowtain
What is a cat’s favorite color? Puurple
www.harnessinghappiness.org
7-8 Year Old
r, s, z, ch, sh, th
Sound Description - Words - Ideas
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter R
Pirate Sound
The /r/ is one of the most commonly used sounds in English. The /r/sound
is made by bringing the tongue up and to the back of the mouth. The /r/ can
be produced successfully using different tongue movements. A bunched
up /r/ is where the tongue is up and gathered in the back of the mouth. A
retroflex /r/ is where the tip of the tongue is lifted and curled towards the
back of the mouth.
The /r/ sound can be particularly challenging for some children because the
tongue is not easily viewed and changes depending on surrounding sounds.
If the /r/ s in a word before a vowel it is called a prevocalic /r/ as in “rain,”
“ring” and “rose.” The /r/ can be found in consonant blends as in “crown,”
“dream,” “children.” A vocalic /r/ can be found in all positions of words and
is impacted by a vowel sound.
Types of vocalic /r/’s include:
er
ar
air
ear
ire
or
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter R
Starting with the letter R
Radio
Ram
Rain
Rat
Raccoon
Rattle
Red
Read
Rice
Ring
Rhino
Rocket
Rose
Rug
Rope
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Vocalic R Words
Vocalic /r/ er
Purse
Earth
Girl
Pearl
Soccer
Mermaid
Turtle
Flower
Butterfly
Golfer
Vocalic /r/ ar
Garden
Jar
Car
Farm
Party
Sparkle
Charm
Art
Star
Heart
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Vocalic R Words
Vocalic /r/ air
Bear
Parrot
Pear
Hair
Fairy
Dairy cow
Chair
Fair
Square
Marigold
Vocalic /r/ ear
Earrings
Deer
Cheer
Hear
Cashier
Pier
Souvenir
Cereal
Chandelier
Pyramid
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Vocalic R Words
Vocalic /r/ ire
Ireland
Sapphire
Campfire
Dryer
Choir
Wire
Flyer
Tire
Iron
Empire
Vocalic /r/ or
Four
Horse
Morning
Popcorn
Forrest
Orchid
Ornament
Dinosaur
Store
Door
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter R
Pirate Talk
The /r/ can be thought of as the pirate sound. Pirates say “Arrrr.” Anchors Aweigh
and remember the tongue does the work and it is pulled up and back.
A few /r/ words and expressions:
All aboard
Anchor
Port
Starboard
Treasure
Grub - food
Buccanner – name for a pirate
Fair Winds – goodbye, good luck
Landlubber – a person who is not skilled at sea
Jolly Roger - The famous pirate flag
Shiver me timbers – expression to show surprise
Thar she blows - An expression used when a whale is spotted from the ship
Remembering Good Speech
• Say “I remember” when playing memory games.
• Recall fun times shared together, “I remember when. . . .”
• Put /r/ words on the ground and run a relay. If the child is not able to say the
word correctly, say it for them in an encouraging manner.
Teddy Bear Picnic
Share a picnic with a favorite teddy bear on the floor in the kitchen or outside.
Picnic possibilities may include carrots, cucumbers, celery, crackers, s’mores, and
more. Articulation pictures can be drawn out of the picnic basket for practice.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter S
Snake Sound
A great sounding /s/ sound can be made in one of two ways. The first way is
a tongue tipper made by placing the tip of the tongue just behind the front
teeth very close to the roof of the mouth but not touching it leaving a pathway
for air to stream down the middle of the tongue. The lips should be parted
slightly with the corners in a slight smile. The other /s/ option is a tongue
which involves the tongue tip down behind the bottom two front teeth.
The /s/ sound is unvoiced. The sound comes from the air travelling through
the passageway created in the mouth through the teeth. The /s/ and /z/
made in the way except the /s/ is voiceless and the /z/ is voiced.
A frontal lisp typically sounds similar to the voiceless /th/ for the /s/. You
may hear words that sound like this: “thing” for “sing,” and “mouth” for
“mouse.” A lateral lisp is when the air escapes over the sides of the tongue.
It has a slushy quality.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter S
Starting with the letter S
Sun
Sand
Socks
Sing
Sea
Soap
Salad
Sink
Sip
Seven
Ending with the letter S or S sound
Mouse
Rice
Dress
Bus
House
Necklace
Face
Moose
Kiss
Ice
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter S
Snake in an enclosure
It’s our job to keep the snake encased. The snake sound can be very sneaky and
likes to slither. The tongue needs to stay in the mouth just like a snake needs an
enclosure. “S snakes” crafted out of felt, fabric, or paper can be a stupendous
craft. The snake can be a visual reminder to keep smiling and place the tongue
in the mouth for a successful “sssssss.”
Sneaky, slithery “ S snakes” craft
If you are not a “snake person,” choose an alternative creature like a snail, skunk,
salmon, or any animal with the “s” sound.
I spy with my eyes and finally say with my mouth
There are many variations to the activity. The guidelines are up to the discretion
of the players. “The Spy” chooses an item that every one can see. The person
keeps their choice a secret. The spy can not change the object once it has been
chosen. The partners can agree how many chances there are to guess.
The spy says “I spy with my little eye something” beginning with _____ (certain
sound), color of an object or descriptive clues.
The player guessing the object takes turns asking questions in the form of a yes/
no question. An alternative is to say “hot” if the guess is close or “cold” if the
guess is far off. Once a guesser has correctly named the item, they become the
spy and the game starts again.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letter Z
Buzzing Sound
The /z/ sound uses the same mouth position as the /s/ sound, but the /z/ uses
the vibration of the vocal cords to produce the sound.
A frontal lisp on the /z/ sound sounds like a voiced /th/ sound. A person
with a frontal lisp pronounced “zoo” like “thoo” and “bees” becomes “beeth.”
Another type of lisp is a lateral lisp and it can impact both the /s/ and /z/
sounds when the air escapes over the sides of the tongue and sounds slushy
and distorted.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letter Z
Starting with the letter Z
Zebra
Zoo
Zoom
Zero
Zinnia
Zany
Xylophone
Zucchini
Zipper
Zone
Ending with the letter Z sound
Bees
Shoes
Paws
Babies
Cookies
Toys
Bells
Glasses
Bears
Sunrise
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letter Z
Busy Bees Zipping and Zooming
Bees swarm around the hive. Buzz around like honeybees saying “zzzzzzzz.”
Catch Your Zzzz’s
Story time is a good time to use /z/ sounds while labeling pictures, repeating
words, or commenting about the story before catching your zzzzzz’s (sleeping).
Sweet dreams little dozing honeybee.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letters CH
Train Sound (Choo Choo)
The /ch/ sound is the sound a train makes, “choo choo” or the sound of a sneeze
“ahh-choo.” The /ch/ sound is a combination of the /t/ and the /sh/ sound.
The choo choo sound is made by bringing the teeth slightly together and the
tip of the tongue elevates to the alveolar ridge (small ridge just behind the
front teeth). The lips are gently puckered as air travels through the mouth.
The sound is stopped by the tongue touching the top of the mouth and then
released. The /ch/ is a voiceless sound as the vocal cords do not vibrate.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letters CH
Starting with the letter CH
Cheek
Cheese
Child
Charms
Chips
Chocolate
Chipmunk
Chihuahua
Cherries
Child
Ending with the letters CH
Watch
Peach
Beach
Lunch
Bench
Ranch
Beach
Pouch
Bunch
Punch
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letters CH
Chug a Chug a Choo Choo
If you have a toy train, play with the child and model “chug a chug a choo choo.”
There are charming songs and books about trains the child may enjoy. For older
children, checkers or a game of chess may be good options. Before each turn,
choose an /ch/ word for practice.
Chopstick Choice
Copy and cut out the pictures from CH word list on the previous page. Put them
on a plate and pick up the /ch/ words using chopsticks. Have the child say, “I’m
choosing __________ with my chopsticks.” As an added treat, the child can
pick up a small piece of chocolate using chopsticks. If you’re dining at a Chinese
restaurant, chicken chow mein and a fortune cookie may be options. Learning to
use chopsticks is great way to work on fine motor skills and practice /ch/.
Playing Kitchen
Cheese, chair/high chair, chew, chop, chips, chili, chill, china, chowder, chicken,
cheesecake, cherries, chopsticks, cheeseburger, chew, chocolate milk, ketchup,
kitchen, peaches, pitcher, munch, bunch of grapes, lunch, punch, spinach, fruit
bunch, sandwich, picnic lunch, chocolate chips and much more!
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letters SH
Quiet Sound
The /sh/ is the “quiet the baby is sleeping sound.” The teeth are pulled together
but do not touch and the lips pucker. The middle of the tongue elevates and
slightly touches the corners of the top teeth. The front of the tongue lowers
slightly. The /sh/ comes only from air going through the mouth and is an
unvoiced sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letters SH
Starting with the letters SH
Sheep
Shop
Shoes
Ship
Show
Shawl
Shell
Shine
Shampoo
Shamrock
Ending with the letters SH
Cash
Leash
Wash
Brush
Fish
Dish
Wish
Rosebush
Nail polish
Eyelash
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letters SH
Shhhhhh
A suburb way to introduce the /sh/ is to call it the “shhhh the baby is sleeping
sound.” As parents/caregivers we frequently tell children to “Shhhh, quiet down
please.” Practicing /sh/ words while speaking softly and tip toeing adds levity.
/SH/ Twisters
“She sells seashells by the seashore.
The shells she sells are surely seashells.
So if she sells shells on the seashore,
I’m sure she sells seashore shells.”
This famous tongue twister features the /sh/ sound. Practice the tongue twister
by starting with a few words like “seashell” and then a phrase “by the seashore,”
followed by full sentences, and so on.
Making up your own fun /sh/ phrases and sentences. e.g.
“The sheepdog shops for shampoo.”
“Shetland ponies wear shiny horseshoes”
“The ticklish shark washes his mustache.”
Additional /sh/ sound words:
Nouns: shortcake, sunshine, cash
Verbs: share, show, shine, wash
Adjectives: shy, sharp, plush, bashful
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Sound Descriptions with the Letters TH
Tongue Sandwich Sound
The /th/ involves two distinct versions. Both sounds are produced using the
same mouth positions, but one is voiceless and relies on air passing through
the mouth and the other is a voiced /th/and uses the vocal cords.
The tip of the tongue is placed between the teeth and airstream passes through
the mouth and out between the teeth for both sounds. The voiceless /th/ is
the quiet sound and the voiced /th/ is the loud sound.
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Words with the Letters TH
Voiceless /th/ words
Think
Thumb
Thank
Thin
Bathtub
Amethyst
Moth
Path
Booth
Tooth
Voiced/th/ words
Them
Feather
Slither
Mother
Brother
Father
Gather
Bathing suit
Weather
Bathe
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Ideas with the Letters TH
A /th/ Sleuth
Hide pictures (clues), feathers, or jewels (imitation amethysts) and have your
young sleuth put on a thinking cap and determine where the missing items are
located. Make up a detective name using the “th” sounds like Agatha, Theodora,
Edith, Arthur, Theodore, or Thor.
Togetherness Routines
Helping children with bathing and brushing teeth is an ideal time to emphasize
a good “tongue sandwich sound.” While in the bathroom and looking in the
mirror practice the /th/ sound alone or in words. Smile and look in the mirror
together as you ask “Who is that beautiful child in the mirror?” “Let me see your
great /th/ sound.”
Counting
There are many /th/ sounds in numbers. Start off easy; just one, two, three and
work up from there.
Thankfulness
Model gratitude and good speech skills by saying “thank you!”
www.harnessinghappiness.org
Spread your wings
and let your inner speech fairy fly!
(877) 915-0888
[email protected] www.harnessinghappiness.org
© 2015 Harnessing Happiness, all rights reserved.
“Harnessing Happiness” is a registered trademark of Harnessing Happiness, Inc.
All products are printed on tree free, or 100% recycled paper with non-toxic ink.
Harnessing Happiness Foundation offers materials for personal development
and does not claim to solve or cure any problems.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement