How to Help Children with Speech Problems This manual is written by a Speech-Language Pathologist who calls herself a Speech Fairy www.harnessinghappiness.org Introduction Being a parent/caregiver to children is a monumental job. It becomes more challenging when the child has speech, language, and hearing issues or is difficult to understand. The goal of this manual is to provide ideas and inspiration for helping children who have challenges with speech skills. As guides, we must remember to focus on the things well done, which sparks the child’s creativity and excitement. What is Language? While speech involves the physical motor ability to talk, language is a symbolic, rule governed system used to convey a message. In English, the symbols can be words, either spoken or written. We also have gestural symbols waving as a sign for greeting “hello” or someone’s attention or shrugging ones shoulders to indicate “I don’t know.” What is Speech? When speech-language pathologists refer to the term speech we are referring to three things: Articulation Skills Ability to make individual sounds and patterns of language which is articulation. Speech Fluency Ability to produce speech with appropriate rhythm, and without stuttering. Voice Ability to speak with appropriate vocal quality. www.harnessinghappiness.org Types of Articulation Errors There are four different articulation errors that can be made when producing speech sounds called: SODA Substitutions - Omissions - Distortions - Additions SUBSTITUTION Speech sound error of the substitution type means that one sound is replicated for another sound. For example, 'w' is substituted for 'r,' so that “rabbit” sounds like “wabbit.” OMISSION A speech sound error of the omission type means that a sound in the word is omitted. For example, “ipmonk” for “chipmunk.” DISTORTION A speech sound error of the distortion type means that a sound is produced in an unfamiliar way. Lisp sounds are an example of this error. ADDITION A speech sound error of the addition type means that an extra sound is inserted within the word. For example, “doguh” for “dog.” www.harnessinghappiness.org According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following: What words mean e.g. “star” can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity. How to make new words e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly. How to put words together e.g. “Peg walked to the new store” rather than “Peg walk store new.” What word combinations are best in what situations e.g.“Would you mind moving your foot?” could quickly change to “Get off my foot, please!” if the first request did not produce results. Following Rules for Conversations and Storytelling taking turns in conversation introducing topics of conversation staying on topic rephrasing when misunderstood how to use verbal and nonverbal signals how close to stand to someone when speaking how to use facial expressions and eye contact Delay vs. Disorder A speech disorder refers to a problem with making the sounds. A language disorder is having difficulty putting words together to express thoughts or trouble understanding. A delay can occur in speech and/or language. A delay denotes that the development is slower than that of other children. A disorder refers to speech or language that is developing in an unusual or abnormal manner. www.harnessinghappiness.org Typical Speech Development 0-2 year old p, b, m, h, d 3-4 year old w, y, k, t, n 7-8 year old r, s, z, ch, sh, th 5-6 year old g, ng, f, v, l, j www.harnessinghappiness.org It can be overwhelming to know where to start. Begin where your child is functioning. One toddler had about three words “mama, dada, and Emo (for Elmo). So the parents practiced “mommy, daddy, and Elmo.” They then expanded to “bye bye” and “kitty.” Sillyness Children love silliness! It is always good to remember to delight in children. We are children’s greatest fans. Gretchen Rubin said it well “The days are long but the years are short.” Honesty It is best to be straightforward in a very kind manner. For example saying “I really want to understand you. Can you show me?” or “That sure is a tough word isn’t it?” Kindness Focus on what is going well and encourage. Do not criticize. We do not imitate or make fun of children but rather take delight and show them unconditional positive regard. It’s not about perfection with young children but rather trying and letting them heard good, correct productions. www.harnessinghappiness.org KISS Keep it Short and Simple Teachable Moments Communication happens in every day moments. There are many teachable moments throughout the day and time for hugs and tenderness. As a parent or caregiver, we need to buy products and programs to help the children. Use what is available. You will be pleasantly surprised to see how language is all around. In reality, spending time together and using every day experiences is more valuable. Caveats Parents usually have a “gut feeling” or know when something is not quite right. If you are concerned, seek advice from a speech-language pathologist. Signs to look for include: you or other family members have a difficult time understanding your child, and/or your child demonstrates frustration at not being understood. The H’s Remember To Be... Happy Harmonious Honest Humble Humorous and last but not least...Have fun! www.harnessinghappiness.org Specific Activities and Strategies Speech Container Use a purse, briefcase, messenger bag lunch box or a fun container to put objects/toys, photos or pictures of frequently used words to practice. For example names of family members including pets, favorite activities, toys, characters the child enjoys, and so on. A great time to practice speech is around meal time. Mystery Box Make a mystery box filled with common objects or toys from around your home. You can cut a slot in the top to make sure that your child’s hand and the object fit through. Speech Look Book There are very inexpensive soft cover photo books. Use photos of family members including pets and things the child loves and review the book using their best speech. Read, Read, Read Reading books is a wonderful way to learn while spending quality time with your child. Music Soft, lovely music creates ambiance. Classical music has been shown to help brain development. It primes the brain with pathways needed for cognitive tasks. www.harnessinghappiness.org Art Create “masterpieces” together. Children love art projects. Doing a project together creates opportunities for communication, can increase attention/ focus, and confidence. Children love to show their handiwork and have it displayed. Birthday Cake An effective technique in assisting with correct speech is to “re-say” or “recast.” When the child says something in error, the adult models it correctly slightly emphasizing the correct manner without asking the child to repeat the word or sentence that is in error. When your child says, “I want birfday tate!” you would respond by saying, “Oh you want birthday cake? I want birthday cake too!” Practice Once you have success with your child it takes time for them to solidify the skill. Spontaneously saying the sounds correctly in conversational speech takes practice. They need to practice the sound alone, then in syllables/ short words, longer words, phrases, sentences sentence level and finally at the conversation level. www.harnessinghappiness.org 0-2 Year Old p, b, m, h, d Sound Description - Words - Ideas www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter B Bouncing The /b/ sound is one of the very first sounds your child will begin to make starting with infant babbling and progressing to simple words like “baby” and “ball” (“ba”). The /b/ sound is a bilabial sound, which means the lips are together when making the sound. It is also a voiced sound, which means that the vocal cords vibrate when the /b/ is pronounced. The /b/ sound is the “bouncy” sound. You can bounce a ball and say “bounce, bounce, bounce.” You can show a picture of a lamb and say “The lamb says baa, baa, baa.” Playing “Peek a Boo” is another great activity. Draw attention to your closed lips as you make the sound. Put your finger on your lips just before you make the sound and withdrawing it slightly away as you create the /b/ sound. You can use flavored lip balm on your child and have them rub their lips together and have the air burst from behind the lips. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with The Letter B Starting with the letter B Baa Baby Bed Bunny Bee Banana Bug Bow Bus Bat Ending in the letter B Crib Tub Cub Web Crab Bib Knob Tube Bob Cob www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter B Buzzing Bouncy Bee Buzzy, busy bumble bee Pretend you are a bee, fly around the room arms stretched out and say... We’re bees/bumble bees We’re buzzing We’re busy Bowl full of B’s Copy and cut out pictures of /b/ words or place objects in a bowl or basket and take them out to play. Play Ball Shoot baskets, toss a ball or bean bag. Repeat the words ball, bounce, or bean bag. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter P Popping Sound The sound or pronunciation of the letter “p” is very close to the letter “b” sound, except that the letter “p” sound is voiceless. This means that you do not have voice (or vibration) in your voice box (larynx) when you make the letter “p” sound. There is no vibration in your throat area when making the letter “p” sound. Just like the letter “b” sound, the letter “p” is pronounced with an explosive action. You keep your lips together as you try to exhale, or blow air through your mouth. You will feel a build up of pressure inside your mouth. With this pressure, you suddenly or explosively exhale by parting your lips and making the “p” sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with The Letter P Starting with the letter P Pink Pet Purr Purse Pup Pie Pop Pat Pig Ending in the letter P Cup Ape Cape Pop Sheep Lip Cap Nap Up Soup www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter P Popping Sounds Popcorn - pop, pop, pop. Put pieces of popcorn or puff cereal on pictures of /p/ words. Pop Bubbles Pop bubbles and watch them pop. You can say, “The bubbles are pop, pop, popping.” Play Prince/Princess at the palace Have a party and pretend you are a princess or a prince. You can serve or pretend to serve pancakes, peaches, peanut butter, popcorn, pasta, and so on. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter M Yummy Sound The “M” sound is nasal. This means that air travels through the nose, rather than the mouth. It is also a bilabial sound, like the “P sound” which means that it is formed by closing the lips. To create the /m/ sound is a nasal sound. The lips are pressed together, causing the air to be blocked from leaving the mouth. The sound is voiced, so the vocal cords vibrate while vocalizing it. Often a baby’s first words are “mama” and “dada.” Languages in many cultures have words for mothers and fathers that feature repeating sounds. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter M Starting with the letter M Man Mop Mouse Moose Mittens Mom Money Monkey Muffin Milk Ending in the letter M Lamb Ice cream Comb Gum Home Ram Dime Drum Game Clam www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter M Yummy in my tummy During snacks and meals a suggestion is to comment “yummy in my tummy” and encourage the child to say “mmmm” and “yummy in my tummy.” There are lots of beverages and foods with the “m sound.” Examples include milk, lemonade, muffins, macaroni and cheese, gummy bears, and marshmallows. Climb a mountain Pretend you are climbing up a mountain as you go up and down stairs. Humming Hum a tune together using the mmmmm sound and use your hand to pretend it is a microphone. Get up and move about. Sing familiar tunes like “Old McDonald” (with a moo moo here and a moo moo there) and “Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed.” www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter H Laughing Sound The /h/ is made in the space between the vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx (voice box). A small puff of air is released from the mouth to correctly pronounce /h/. Hold your child’s hand in front of your mouth so he or she can feel this as you make the sound. Then let her or him feel the air from her or his own mouth as she or he makes the sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with The Letter H Starting with the letter H Hair Hat Hay Hen Hill Home Hi Hand Happy Honey Medial H Playhouse Beehive Forehead Hula-hoop Hedgehog Hobby horse Top hat Pot holder Grasshopper High heel Ahoy www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter H Laughing Practicing the /h/ sound can be a fun and happy time. Create funny and distinctive laughs for several different /h/+vowel combinations and encourage your child to copy the laughs. Try a high-pitched “hee hee hee” or a deep “ha-ha-ha-ha.” Looking in a mirror Kids love to look at themselves in the mirror and we all enjoy praise. Practice the sound in front of a mirror. Get really close to the glass to allow for the breath to fog up the mirror. You can encourage them by saying something like “Who is the handsome guy in the mirror?” or “I love looking at this happy, huggable person in the mirror!” Children take delight in seeing their breath on the glass and have to make /h/ sound to make this happen. Singing Using songs and movement can assist in speech practice. Reciting or listening to songs that have the /h/ can help the child hear and produce the sound. Examples of songs with the /h/ include: “Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes” “Hickory Dickory Dock” “Humpty Dumpty” www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter D Drum Sound The /d/ sound is made by placing the tongue tip on the little ridge on the roof of your mouth just behind your front teeth, then release the tongue allowing air to move through the mouth. The air is temporarily stopped by your tongue in this position, which means both /d/ and /t/ are considered stop sounds. The difference between them is that /d/ is a voiced sound and /t/ is a voiceless sound. That means that when the /d/ is produce the vocal cords vibrate. A common substitution is the /g/ sound for the /d/ sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter D Starting with the letter D Dance Dot Down Dog Den Daisy Doll Day Dove Dish Ending with the letter D Head Mud Lid Hand Kid Food Toad Dad Sand Bed www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter D Drum Pretend to play the drum with drumsticks and vocalize the /d/ with different vowels sounds. One of our favorite songs (especially the chorus) is by the Police “De Do Do Do De Da Da Da.” What a delightful way to practice the /d/ sound. Since the /d/ can also be described as the dinging sound we like to say “ding” when we complete a to-do item like buckling a seat belt or making a bed. Even if the child can not say “ding” correctly by repeating the word it will help solidify the /d/ sound. Cellular phones and doorbells can ding and this is an opportunity to practice “d.” Dance Put on some fun music and dance! You can say “dance, dance, dance” as you dart around the room. To add more /d/ practice, you can dance with a stuffed animal dog, a doll, toy dinosaur, or another item with the /d/ sound. It is practical and helpful to incorporate movements with words to enhance speech skills. For example as you go down the stairs or down a slide say “down, down, down”. As you open the door or dust you can comment about what you are doing. Design • Make cookies out of dough and decorate for dessert. Gingerbread is especially delicious! • Make play dough or play with commercially made play-doh. • Create and decorate your own play dollars. www.harnessinghappiness.org 3-4 Year Old w, y, k, t, n Sound Description - Words - Ideas www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter W Windy Sound The /w/ sound is similar to a vowel and sometimes even acts like one, even though it is technically a consonant. To make a /w/ sound form, a tight circle with puckered lips brought out and away from your face. With your lips in this position, generate a sound with your vocal cords while holding the back of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter W Starting with the letter or sound W Walk Whale Wall One Wolf Water Wave Wheel Wings Web Medial W Sandwich Driveway Sidewalk Bow-wow Chihuahua Flower Wishing well Mouthwash Kiwi Shower www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter W Signing and Saying Encourage using the /w/ sound by saying and signing and word “water.” Support a good /w/ sound by providing a speech model. The child may have difficulty with the /r/ at the end of the word. Stimulate your child to say “water” by sampling water flavored with different ingredients. Include slices of cucumber, lemon, lime, orange and various berries (raspberry, strawberry, blueberry) and see which one she or he likes best. During the course of the day, as the child washes hands, bathes/showers, and drinks he or she can be prompted to say and sign “water.” Play “Whoa Nelly” The word “whoa” is the word that Americans use to stop their horses when you pull on the reins. “Nelly” was an old standard mare’s name. When you wanted to stop a (female) horse, you’d say, of course, “Whoa Nelly”. Today, “Whoa Nelly” is used to refer to anything like a car, a bike, a situation, or person who has become out of control and done something unexpected. You can pretend to have animal that starts with a /w/ like: wallaby, whale, wombat, walrus, warthog, weasel, wolf, wasp, whippet, or wolverine. “Whoa __________.” For added practice, you can add /w/ names like: Wally, Willa, Willard, Wilma, Willow, Winnifred, Wyatt, Walid, Walt, or Wanda. “Whoa __________.” I wonder what is in my wallet? Print off the page with the “w” pictures. Cut out the pictures and put them in a wallet and have the child discover what is in it. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter Y Yelling Sound To make the Y consonant sound, the mid and front part of the tongue lifts and presses against the roof of the mouth. The tip of the tongue comes down and lightly touches behind the bottom front teeth while the throat closes. In teaching the child to say the /y/ sound, see if they can say the sound by itself. If not, have the say “ee” as in “bee” or “knee.” Then say the “uh” as in “luck.” Saying “ee-uh” repeatedly should engender the /y/ sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter Y Starting with the letter Y or Y sound Yard Ewe Young Yellow Yolk Yo-yo Yummy Yam Yarn Yogurt Medial Y Onion Coyote Crayon Lawyer Mayonnaise Royal Vacuum Papaya Tortilla New York www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter Y ‘Yisssiree’ or “no try again” While putting together a puzzle, when the child gets a piece that fits say “Yes,” or if it doesn’t fit “Try again.” The child can be encouraged to say “Yes” or “try again” to just about any activity. Yippee for Yellow Find things that are yellow around the house or while you are out (e.g. butter, banana, canary, cheese, chick, corn, duck, flower, lemon, school bus, pencil, rain coat, sun, taxi cab) and say “Yippee for the yellow school bus.” Yummy in my tummy! At meal and snack times, encourage your child to say the name of the food. For example, “Yogurt is yummy in my tummy.” www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter K Kicking Sound The /k/ sound is a close relative to the /g/ sound because they both use the same mouth position and are stop consonants (airflow while producing the sound is first stopped and then released). The /k/ sound is different because it is an unvoiced sound. To pronounce the /k/ sound, put the back of your tongue against the top of your mouth towards the back then direct air through your mouth and release it by lowering your tongue. This unvoiced release of air is the /k/ sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter K or K Sound Starting with the letter K or K sound Cat Car Comb Cave Key Kite Kiss Cub Cup Candy Ending with the letter K or K sound Back Book Look Walk Cake Lipstick Music Milk Pink Magic www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter K We’re Cool Cats To make practicing the /k/ words fun, pretend you are “cool cats” by putting on sunglasses while practicing the /k/ words provided. K Action Activities • Kiss your little one on the cheek and say kiss, kiss, kiss. As they kiss you on the cheek say “thank you”. • Pretend you are a coughing kangaroo. Cough every time you hop. Don’t forget to cover your cough with a handkerchief or Kleenex. • As you tuck your little one in for the night, make sure they are “comfy and cozy” with their blanket. • As adults, we are always searching for our keys. Enlist the help of kids to help us find our keys. • One of the best ways we can help our children is by teaching them manners. The most polite phrase is “Thank you.” Even if the child is not able to say some of the sounds, it’s okay. The listener will most likely understand the sentiment. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter T Tapping Sound The /t/ sound and /d/ sound are similar because the sounds are made in the same position of the mouth. Both are consonants that are “stops”. They are produced when the tongue pushes air through the mouth, stops and then is released. The difference between the /t/ sound and the /d/ sound is the /t/ is an unvoiced sound and the /d/ is voiced. This means the vocal cords vibrate to make the sound as well. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter T Starting with the letter T Tent Two Toes Toast Towel Tie Toy Turtle Tape Tulip Ending with the letter T Feet Seat Eat Gate Bat Boat Cat Hat Robot Doughnut www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter T Treasure hunt on your tip toes As you quietly tip toe through the house and say “We are on our tippy toes tracking down “t” items.” For example, table, trash can, potty/toilet, toilet paper, towel, tub, tooth paste, teddy bear, television/tv, toys, etc. This is a great activity for practicing other sounds as well. Even if the item doesn’t have the “t” in it, every one is having fun tip toeing and tracking household objects. Tap Dancing Dance and say “tap, tap, tap” as you tap your feet. Do the two step, tango, or the twist. It’s about fun and saying the “t” word. “We’re two stepping!” “We’re doing the tango!” “We’re doing the twist.” Talk Time What time is it? “It’s talking time.” Practice “It’s time for _____________.” For example, “night night,” “eating,” “using the potty” and so on. The /t/ can be described to your child as the tick tock sound, tongue tapper or quiet tip tapper sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter N Nose Sound The N consonant sound. This sound is made by the front/top part of the tongue raising and touching the roof of the mouth; nn, nn. The teeth part, the lips are open, and the vocal cords make sound. This is one of the few sounds in American English where the soft palate remains down. It is a nasal consonant along with M and NG. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter N or N Sound Starting with the letter N or N sound Nose Knee Necklace Nickel Nut Nest Knit Night Knob Net Ending with the letter N or N sound Bean Queen Pin Fan Plane Bun Fawn Moon Man Balloon www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter N Nose Sound Sit with your child and say “Point to your nose” and “Now point to my nose.” Praise him or her by saying “Nice!” Then say “Now, watch where my tongue goes when I say the ‘n’ sound.” “Did you see where my tongue went? That’s right, it disappeared behind my front teeth!” Stick out your tongue a little way, wiggle it a few times, place it behind your front teeth and say “n” crisply and clearly. A parent can draw a face with eyes and a mouth on a piece of paper and have the child draw a nose. Encourage by saying “Nifty.” Sniffing for good smells expedition We sniff, sneeze, and smell with our nose. You can smell lovely fragrances around the home like soap, perfume/cologne, essential oils, and spices. If something smells unpleasant, you can encourage the use of a good “N” sound by saying “Stinky” or “Not nice.” Yes and No During the course of a day, “No” is a common word for us to say to children in order to keep them safe. We can have a little levity and say “That’s a nono.” If it is something that can be done, we can embolden by stating, “This is a can do.” www.harnessinghappiness.org 5-6 Year Old g, ng, f, v, l, j Sound Description - Words - Ideas www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter G Gulping Sound The /g/ sound is a similar sound as water pouring out of a bottle “g-g-g.” To pronounce the /g/ sound put the back of your tongue against the top of your mouth towards the back then direct air through your mouth and release it by lowering your tongue. Air is released with the vocal cords vibrating. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter G Starting with the letter G Gate Game Gum Goose Goat Gift Good-bye Garden Guy Girl Ending with the letter G Dog Pig Ladybug Hug Bag Egg Bug Log Frog Zig Zag www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter G Growling Great ways to get a /g/ sound include pretending to gargle or growl like a hungry grizzly bear. The child can put his or her head back or lay down so gravity helps pull the tongue back while you establish a good /g/. Let’s Go Places As you go out the door comment about where you are going! Examples include: “We’re going to the grocery store and we’re going to get granola bars” or “We’re going to grab some lunch.” Grab, Go, and Give Use a container of your choosing and pretend it there a guppy inside. Let’s give the guppy a gift. Print and cut out the page with the /g/ pictures and let the child run to the guppy and give the guppy a gift. Good job! Ooey gooey goodness! Oh this tastes so good! During meals comment about how good something tastes. “Oh that tastes good.” You can make s’mores (graham crackers, chocolate, and marshmallows) for ooey gooey goodness. Flubber Fun There are many recipes online for “goo” otherwise known as “flubber.” This has been a hit around our abode. It provides opportunities for using the word “goo” and it’s great fun! www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letters NG Ringing Sound The /ng/ sound one distinct consonant sound even though it is spelled with two letters and close to the /n/. Like the /m/ and /n/, the /ng/ is a nasal sound. Air passes through the nose instead of through the mouth when making the sound. The back of the tongue is scrunched up against the soft area at the very back of the roof of the mouth forming a seal. Sound is made with the vocal cords as air travels through the nose. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letters NG Medial NG Donkey Monkey Bangle Hanger Jungle Mongoose Ping Pong Singer Jingle Bells Finger Ending with the letters NG Sing Ring Wing Strong Lung Tongue King Spring Swing String www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letters NG Bring It! Copy the pictures from the previous page and have your child bring you the pictures. “I’m looking for something. Please bring me a _______________” or “Let’s bring this _______________(specific item) with us.” Let’s Do Something Opportunities to use the “ng” abound. Verbs in the present tense have the “ng” (cleaning, eating, playing). Ring the door bell and say “ding dong.” Hang up clothes on a hanger. “Great going hanging things up!” Swinging on a swing. Eating with family. Playing with friends at the park. Loving Life Singing Songs There are many great tunes to sing together. Songs to consider singing are “Sing a Song,” “Five Little Monkeys,” and “B-I-N-G-O.” www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter F Fan Sound The /f/ sound is made by touching upper teeth to the lower lip and passing air through the mouth. The /f/ and /v/ sounds are made in exactly the same way except the /v/ sound is a voiced sound so the vocal cords vibrate. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter F Starting with the letter F Fawn Fish Fan Farm Feet Food Face Fox Family Fairy Ending with the letter F or F sound Elf Woof Wolf Giraffe Powder Puff Laugh Leaf Chef Hoof Calf www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter F Fantastic Favorites Create a list of favorites. Every one in the family can be included. Date it and keep the list for the future. It is fun to see how the list changes over time. This activity emphasizes using the fan sound /f/ in favorite... Favorite animal: Favorite book: Favorite color: Favorite food(s): Favorite drink: Favorite song: Favorite activity: Favorite toy: Favorite movie/show: Favorite outfit/shirt: Favorite activity: Favorite restaurant: “Little Foot” Trace footprints of the child on paper and cut them out. Glue pictures of words with the /f/ sound on them. Say the words every time you step on the foot print. Fishing for Fabulous /f/’s This activity can be simple or elaborate. Kids of all ages enjoy fishing games and it can be made easier or more difficult depending on the child’s skill level. There are commercially produced fishing games or making one may be an option. There are many online resources for patterns and ideas for creating a fishing game. “I’m going fishing and I found a __________ “(picture/word on the fish). Fantastic! www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter V Vacuum Sound The /v/ sound is created by touching the top teeth and the bottom lip so they are touching. The /v/ sound is made with the same mouth position as the /f/ sound. The only difference is that the /f/sound is unvoiced and the /v/ sound is voiced (vocal cords vibrate). www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter V Starting with the letter F Vase Vine Van Violin Violet Vanilla Valentine Vitamins Vacuum Vern Ending with the V sound Love Wave Beehive Olive Dove Cave Drive Stove Five Give www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter V Revving Up The Engine & Get Moving Vacuuming Vocalize a very good /v/ by “revving the engine.” Pretend to rev an engine while vocalizing “vvvv vvvv VVVV.” The engine can get louder. A toy car, van, or other vehicle adds extra enjoyment. Another way to verbalize “vvvv” is to make a vacuuming sound. Once the sound is established then the goal can be to use a very good /v/ in words, phrases, sentences, and in conversational speech. Valentines Love is always in season. Cut out paper hearts and glue the /v/ photos from the list on the previous page. Make two copies of the /v/ pictures, glue them onto the hearts, turn over and take turns finding matches. The person with the most matches is victorious. Love, Love, Love “I love you” is one of the loveliest sentiments in the world. We can tell our family members including our animals how much we love them. It is heartwarming and a good way for children to hear the /v/ sound. A way to practice the /v/ sound is to list what we love and using the carrier phrase “I love…..” with each verbalization. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter L Lala Sound The /l/ sound is produced by placing the tongue tip to the alveolar ridge (small bump behind the front teeth). Air flows out of the side of the tongue and the vocal cords vibrate to make the /l/. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter L Starting with the letter L Lamb Lace Lemon Log Lawn Lamp Lips Lipstick Llama Lion Ending with the letter L Doll Pool Eel Ball Shell Bell Seal Pencil Bowl Wall www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter L Lollipops Small lollipops are great incentives for the /l/ sound. A lollipop can be used to gently touch behind the child’s upper teeth. Have the child elevate the tongue tip and say /l/. The songs “Lollipop,” London Bridge,” and “Loopty Loo” are options to sing, dance, and practice the /l/ sound in a light hearted and lively way. The /l/ is after all the “lala” sound. Let’s Lunch with a Pal Pick a stuffed animal or doll and “lunch” together. If you have a stuffed animal or doll at home you can name the animal/doll with an /l/. Using an animal with an /l/ sound in it and naming it with an /l/ name for added practice. Examples of /l/ animals and names include: Luigi the Lion, Lulu the Lamb, and Ollie the Owl. Make Lucky Ladybugs & Gentleman Bugs Ladybugs are considered to bring luck in many cultures. Make or purchase plastic ladybugs/gentleman bugs. It can be a simple drawing or a more elaborate craft. Place them around the home for reminder to lift the tongue and make a lovely /l/. Say “Lucky ladybug” when you spot one. You may be even lucky enough to experience ladybugs outdoors! Watching this tiny beetle is a delight. /L/ Bowl Cut the pictures provided with the /l/ sounds on the previous page, fold them and place them in a bowl. “Let’s see, I selected a __________.” If there is a toy bowling kit available, the child and helper can tape /l/ pictures to toy bowling pins. When the pins fall, have the child say the /l/ word that is taped on that pin. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter J Jumping Sound The /j/ as in “jump” is generated by putting the teeth together and lips pursed to form a pucker. The air stream is blocked by the tongue and then released. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter J Starting with the letter J or J sound Giraffe Juice Gem Jelly Jump Jeep Jar Jet Jeans Joy Ending with the J sound Fudge Stage Bridge Luggage Carriage Cage Orange Package Page Large www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter J Jumping The /j/ is the jumping sound. Jump up and down saying “jump, jump, jump.” You can put blankets down and jump from magic carpet to magic carpet or from bridge to bridge. Enjoy! Jungle Adventure Pretend to go on a jungle adventure in a jeep or a jet plane. Discuss what items to take on the adventure and the items to go into the luggage. Who will you take on the adventure? Put the /j/ words in luggage and unpack after you arrive at your “destination.” Joking Around Children of all ages enjoy joking around. Look for age appropriate jokes and memorize to share with friends and family. Here are a few jokes kindergarten students enjoyed during speech fairy lessons for the “J” sound.... Why don’t you see giraffes in elementary school? Because they’re all in High School. Where do snowmen keep their money? In snow banks. What do you call an alligator in a vest? An Investigator What did the pencil say to the other pencil? You’re looking sharp. Why did the banana go to the doctor? Because he was not peeling well. Why did the cookie go to the hospital? He felt crummy! What did the magician do when he got mad? He pulled his hare out. Where do sheep get a haircut? Baa Baa Shop What do you call a pile of cats? A meowtain What is a cat’s favorite color? Puurple www.harnessinghappiness.org 7-8 Year Old r, s, z, ch, sh, th Sound Description - Words - Ideas www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter R Pirate Sound The /r/ is one of the most commonly used sounds in English. The /r/sound is made by bringing the tongue up and to the back of the mouth. The /r/ can be produced successfully using different tongue movements. A bunched up /r/ is where the tongue is up and gathered in the back of the mouth. A retroflex /r/ is where the tip of the tongue is lifted and curled towards the back of the mouth. The /r/ sound can be particularly challenging for some children because the tongue is not easily viewed and changes depending on surrounding sounds. If the /r/ s in a word before a vowel it is called a prevocalic /r/ as in “rain,” “ring” and “rose.” The /r/ can be found in consonant blends as in “crown,” “dream,” “children.” A vocalic /r/ can be found in all positions of words and is impacted by a vowel sound. Types of vocalic /r/’s include: er ar air ear ire or www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter R Starting with the letter R Radio Ram Rain Rat Raccoon Rattle Red Read Rice Ring Rhino Rocket Rose Rug Rope www.harnessinghappiness.org Vocalic R Words Vocalic /r/ er Purse Earth Girl Pearl Soccer Mermaid Turtle Flower Butterfly Golfer Vocalic /r/ ar Garden Jar Car Farm Party Sparkle Charm Art Star Heart www.harnessinghappiness.org Vocalic R Words Vocalic /r/ air Bear Parrot Pear Hair Fairy Dairy cow Chair Fair Square Marigold Vocalic /r/ ear Earrings Deer Cheer Hear Cashier Pier Souvenir Cereal Chandelier Pyramid www.harnessinghappiness.org Vocalic R Words Vocalic /r/ ire Ireland Sapphire Campfire Dryer Choir Wire Flyer Tire Iron Empire Vocalic /r/ or Four Horse Morning Popcorn Forrest Orchid Ornament Dinosaur Store Door www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter R Pirate Talk The /r/ can be thought of as the pirate sound. Pirates say “Arrrr.” Anchors Aweigh and remember the tongue does the work and it is pulled up and back. A few /r/ words and expressions: All aboard Anchor Port Starboard Treasure Grub - food Buccanner – name for a pirate Fair Winds – goodbye, good luck Landlubber – a person who is not skilled at sea Jolly Roger - The famous pirate flag Shiver me timbers – expression to show surprise Thar she blows - An expression used when a whale is spotted from the ship Remembering Good Speech • Say “I remember” when playing memory games. • Recall fun times shared together, “I remember when. . . .” • Put /r/ words on the ground and run a relay. If the child is not able to say the word correctly, say it for them in an encouraging manner. Teddy Bear Picnic Share a picnic with a favorite teddy bear on the floor in the kitchen or outside. Picnic possibilities may include carrots, cucumbers, celery, crackers, s’mores, and more. Articulation pictures can be drawn out of the picnic basket for practice. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter S Snake Sound A great sounding /s/ sound can be made in one of two ways. The first way is a tongue tipper made by placing the tip of the tongue just behind the front teeth very close to the roof of the mouth but not touching it leaving a pathway for air to stream down the middle of the tongue. The lips should be parted slightly with the corners in a slight smile. The other /s/ option is a tongue which involves the tongue tip down behind the bottom two front teeth. The /s/ sound is unvoiced. The sound comes from the air travelling through the passageway created in the mouth through the teeth. The /s/ and /z/ made in the way except the /s/ is voiceless and the /z/ is voiced. A frontal lisp typically sounds similar to the voiceless /th/ for the /s/. You may hear words that sound like this: “thing” for “sing,” and “mouth” for “mouse.” A lateral lisp is when the air escapes over the sides of the tongue. It has a slushy quality. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter S Starting with the letter S Sun Sand Socks Sing Sea Soap Salad Sink Sip Seven Ending with the letter S or S sound Mouse Rice Dress Bus House Necklace Face Moose Kiss Ice www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter S Snake in an enclosure It’s our job to keep the snake encased. The snake sound can be very sneaky and likes to slither. The tongue needs to stay in the mouth just like a snake needs an enclosure. “S snakes” crafted out of felt, fabric, or paper can be a stupendous craft. The snake can be a visual reminder to keep smiling and place the tongue in the mouth for a successful “sssssss.” Sneaky, slithery “ S snakes” craft If you are not a “snake person,” choose an alternative creature like a snail, skunk, salmon, or any animal with the “s” sound. I spy with my eyes and finally say with my mouth There are many variations to the activity. The guidelines are up to the discretion of the players. “The Spy” chooses an item that every one can see. The person keeps their choice a secret. The spy can not change the object once it has been chosen. The partners can agree how many chances there are to guess. The spy says “I spy with my little eye something” beginning with _____ (certain sound), color of an object or descriptive clues. The player guessing the object takes turns asking questions in the form of a yes/ no question. An alternative is to say “hot” if the guess is close or “cold” if the guess is far off. Once a guesser has correctly named the item, they become the spy and the game starts again. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letter Z Buzzing Sound The /z/ sound uses the same mouth position as the /s/ sound, but the /z/ uses the vibration of the vocal cords to produce the sound. A frontal lisp on the /z/ sound sounds like a voiced /th/ sound. A person with a frontal lisp pronounced “zoo” like “thoo” and “bees” becomes “beeth.” Another type of lisp is a lateral lisp and it can impact both the /s/ and /z/ sounds when the air escapes over the sides of the tongue and sounds slushy and distorted. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letter Z Starting with the letter Z Zebra Zoo Zoom Zero Zinnia Zany Xylophone Zucchini Zipper Zone Ending with the letter Z sound Bees Shoes Paws Babies Cookies Toys Bells Glasses Bears Sunrise www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letter Z Busy Bees Zipping and Zooming Bees swarm around the hive. Buzz around like honeybees saying “zzzzzzzz.” Catch Your Zzzz’s Story time is a good time to use /z/ sounds while labeling pictures, repeating words, or commenting about the story before catching your zzzzzz’s (sleeping). Sweet dreams little dozing honeybee. www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letters CH Train Sound (Choo Choo) The /ch/ sound is the sound a train makes, “choo choo” or the sound of a sneeze “ahh-choo.” The /ch/ sound is a combination of the /t/ and the /sh/ sound. The choo choo sound is made by bringing the teeth slightly together and the tip of the tongue elevates to the alveolar ridge (small ridge just behind the front teeth). The lips are gently puckered as air travels through the mouth. The sound is stopped by the tongue touching the top of the mouth and then released. The /ch/ is a voiceless sound as the vocal cords do not vibrate. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letters CH Starting with the letter CH Cheek Cheese Child Charms Chips Chocolate Chipmunk Chihuahua Cherries Child Ending with the letters CH Watch Peach Beach Lunch Bench Ranch Beach Pouch Bunch Punch www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letters CH Chug a Chug a Choo Choo If you have a toy train, play with the child and model “chug a chug a choo choo.” There are charming songs and books about trains the child may enjoy. For older children, checkers or a game of chess may be good options. Before each turn, choose an /ch/ word for practice. Chopstick Choice Copy and cut out the pictures from CH word list on the previous page. Put them on a plate and pick up the /ch/ words using chopsticks. Have the child say, “I’m choosing __________ with my chopsticks.” As an added treat, the child can pick up a small piece of chocolate using chopsticks. If you’re dining at a Chinese restaurant, chicken chow mein and a fortune cookie may be options. Learning to use chopsticks is great way to work on fine motor skills and practice /ch/. Playing Kitchen Cheese, chair/high chair, chew, chop, chips, chili, chill, china, chowder, chicken, cheesecake, cherries, chopsticks, cheeseburger, chew, chocolate milk, ketchup, kitchen, peaches, pitcher, munch, bunch of grapes, lunch, punch, spinach, fruit bunch, sandwich, picnic lunch, chocolate chips and much more! www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letters SH Quiet Sound The /sh/ is the “quiet the baby is sleeping sound.” The teeth are pulled together but do not touch and the lips pucker. The middle of the tongue elevates and slightly touches the corners of the top teeth. The front of the tongue lowers slightly. The /sh/ comes only from air going through the mouth and is an unvoiced sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letters SH Starting with the letters SH Sheep Shop Shoes Ship Show Shawl Shell Shine Shampoo Shamrock Ending with the letters SH Cash Leash Wash Brush Fish Dish Wish Rosebush Nail polish Eyelash www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letters SH Shhhhhh A suburb way to introduce the /sh/ is to call it the “shhhh the baby is sleeping sound.” As parents/caregivers we frequently tell children to “Shhhh, quiet down please.” Practicing /sh/ words while speaking softly and tip toeing adds levity. /SH/ Twisters “She sells seashells by the seashore. The shells she sells are surely seashells. So if she sells shells on the seashore, I’m sure she sells seashore shells.” This famous tongue twister features the /sh/ sound. Practice the tongue twister by starting with a few words like “seashell” and then a phrase “by the seashore,” followed by full sentences, and so on. Making up your own fun /sh/ phrases and sentences. e.g. “The sheepdog shops for shampoo.” “Shetland ponies wear shiny horseshoes” “The ticklish shark washes his mustache.” Additional /sh/ sound words: Nouns: shortcake, sunshine, cash Verbs: share, show, shine, wash Adjectives: shy, sharp, plush, bashful www.harnessinghappiness.org Sound Descriptions with the Letters TH Tongue Sandwich Sound The /th/ involves two distinct versions. Both sounds are produced using the same mouth positions, but one is voiceless and relies on air passing through the mouth and the other is a voiced /th/and uses the vocal cords. The tip of the tongue is placed between the teeth and airstream passes through the mouth and out between the teeth for both sounds. The voiceless /th/ is the quiet sound and the voiced /th/ is the loud sound. www.harnessinghappiness.org Words with the Letters TH Voiceless /th/ words Think Thumb Thank Thin Bathtub Amethyst Moth Path Booth Tooth Voiced/th/ words Them Feather Slither Mother Brother Father Gather Bathing suit Weather Bathe www.harnessinghappiness.org Ideas with the Letters TH A /th/ Sleuth Hide pictures (clues), feathers, or jewels (imitation amethysts) and have your young sleuth put on a thinking cap and determine where the missing items are located. Make up a detective name using the “th” sounds like Agatha, Theodora, Edith, Arthur, Theodore, or Thor. Togetherness Routines Helping children with bathing and brushing teeth is an ideal time to emphasize a good “tongue sandwich sound.” While in the bathroom and looking in the mirror practice the /th/ sound alone or in words. Smile and look in the mirror together as you ask “Who is that beautiful child in the mirror?” “Let me see your great /th/ sound.” Counting There are many /th/ sounds in numbers. Start off easy; just one, two, three and work up from there. Thankfulness Model gratitude and good speech skills by saying “thank you!” www.harnessinghappiness.org Spread your wings and let your inner speech fairy fly! (877) 915-0888 [email protected] www.harnessinghappiness.org © 2015 Harnessing Happiness, all rights reserved. “Harnessing Happiness” is a registered trademark of Harnessing Happiness, Inc. All products are printed on tree free, or 100% recycled paper with non-toxic ink. Harnessing Happiness Foundation offers materials for personal development and does not claim to solve or cure any problems.