A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX OF NOUN IN MANUAL PROCEDURE GUIDE SAMSUNG ARTICLE PUBLICATION Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department by: ROSITA FERAWATI A 320 100 110 SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2015 ARTI CLEPUBLI CATI ON A Morphological Analysis of Derivational Suffix of Noun in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung By English Department, A320100110 Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT The objectives of this study are to describe the types of derivational suffix noun and the meanings words after being added by derivational suffix noun in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. It is descriptive qualitative study. The data of this study are taken from Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The technique of analyzing data are as follows: Describe the types of derivational suffix, determining the meaning words after being added by of derivational suffix, the writer uses the reference from dictionary. That are derivational suffix of noun appears in such as: suffix –er, -ation, cation -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment, The total are 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix – or, and 13 suffix –ment. The derivational suffix of noun appears because, by changing the word class of the bases belongs to. In a procedure guide the data found 107 data. While the meaning after added by suffix. From the entire 107 data are : 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix –ment.. The meaning of derivational suffix noun also appears where suffix –er, -ation, and –ing, though does not change the word class but changes into meaning. While suffix –ion, -ice, and -ment, change the word class and also change the meaning. The meaning of derivational suffix er is forming noun word which indicated subject, for example worker, user. The meaning of derivational suffix cation is forming noun word which indicates the name of certain thing that represents object or activity, for example application, notification. The meaning of derivational suffix ation, ion, ice, and ment is similar with derivational suffix cation that is forming noun word which indicates the name of certain things that represents object or activity, for example duplication, service, arrangement. The meaning of derivational suffix or is forming noun word which indicates the name thing or object, for example connector, detector. Keywords: Morphology, derivational suffix, suffix of noun. 1 2 A. Introduction 1. Background of the Study Morphology is very important to learn English language because with morphology they can learn about grammar and structure of English.To understand how the shape changes in a word, the writer should understand about the process of change from the word. The term morphology is Greek and made of morph- meaning „ shape, form', and - ology which means ' the study of something'. The term is used not only in linguistics but also in biology as the scientific study of forms and structure of animals and plants, and in geology as the study of formation and evolution of rocks and land forms. Generated new words through derivation will have a different meaning of the word is essentially. A derivational suffix usually applies to words of one syntactic category and changes them into words of another syntactic category. For example, the english derivational suffix-ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow → slowly). Derivation is a process resulting in meaning and/ or category changes through the addition of derivational affixes. It is commonly applied for forming various new words which are likely to be straight forward. The process is taken as the object of investigation in the study since the writer was curious about the phenomena resulted from it. To get the answer of the phenomena, the writer decided to take from manual procedure guide samsung. The objective of the study is, to describe the types of derivational suffix noun on Manual Procedure Guide Samsung and describe the meanings of word after being added by derivational suffix noun in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The previous study related with the difference and the similarity with this research is; NAOMI (Kristen Petra, 2008) with the title A Morphological Study Derivation Suffix in Time Magazine’s Articles. Her finding is that many derivational suffixes in time magazine to find that word using derivational she had to reads that magazine very carefully to 3 make her research she wanted everybody accept her research very clearly and succesfull to make everyone understand with derivational suffix in time magazine, and she tried to analyze that word with documentation method. AMIYAH (Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, 2000) with the title Morphological Analysis of the Derivational in the Jakarta Post. The finding is that actually she wanted to tell how the important to know the meaning of word if that word using derivational. Newspaper is good source to collecting data using derivational. Yusuf Aditya (Universitas Kristen Petra, 2007) with his research entitled The Using of Derivational Suffix in Canon Camera Guideline. His finding is that there are found 86 derivational suffixes and it consists of 18 suffixes (-ing), 33 suffixes (-er), 6 suffix (-cation), 9 suffix (-ation), 9 suffix (-ion), 4 suffix, (-ice), and 7 suffix (-or). Three previous researches are different from the researcher analysis. The difference is on object of research and the data source. From Naomi research the data used as object are from Magazine‟s articles, but the writer used Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. From Amiyah research she used Jakarta Pos as object source. While the Yusuf, he uses Canon camera guideline. Amiyah made a research about derivational but the writer focused only on derivational suffix. The similarity of two previous research with the writers research is they all focuses on derivational. In this research, the writer only focuses on derivational suffix noun in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The researcher only limits on type of derivational suffix noun and meaning of derivational suffix noun because in Procedure Guide Samsung, the research finds many types of derivational suffix. The data will be analyzed using morphologycal analysis written by Carstairs and Carthy (2002). The benefits of this study is that this research paper can give contribution in morphological analysis especially the derivational suffix theory and this research paper can enrich the theories on the compound 4 word especially the type and the meaning of derivational suffix. That can be discuss in morphology. Morphology is study of structure and word form. Morphology is derived from a Greek word morph that mean shape of form and logos means knowledge. Morphology implies knowledge of morph or what so called the building element of word. Word formation is all processes connected with changing the form of the word. It is process ofcreation of new word and meaning. Wisniewski stated that “word formation denotes the processes of creation of new of lexical unit” There are some word formation processes: blending, clipping, coinage, borrowing, and compounding. a. Blending is the fusion of two words and the non morphemic of the two words still already axis with their related meaning. According to Yule (2006: 55) stated that “blending is the process combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term“. b. Clipping is shortening or reducing long words. As Srijono stated (2001:55) that “clipping is a process of new words by shortening the polysyllabic word or by deleting one or more syllables”. According to Yule (2006:55) that “clipping occurs when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form, usually beginning in casual speech”. For example, the term gasoline is still used,but most people talk about gas. c. Coinnage is creation of totally new words. This word formation process is not frequent: however large corporations attempt to outdo one anotherto inventshort eye-cathing names for their products. Yule (2006: 53) stated that “The most typical sources are invited trade names for commercial products that become general terms (usually without capital letters) for any version of that products”. For examples are aspirin, nylon, vaseline, and zipper. d. Borrowing is taking a word from one language and incorporating it into another. Yule (2006:55) argued that “ borrowing is the taking over 5 of words from other laguage “. For example, the word ozone is come from German. e. Compounding is the combination of two words to form a new word. As Katamba stated (1994:72) that “a compound is a formed by combining two bases, which may be words in their own right, to form a new lexical item”. For example, compounding of noun. In analyzing morpheme there are two components that should be analyzed; there are definition of morpheme and classification of morpheme. a. Definition of Morpheme Morpheme is the minimum units of lexicon ( Elson and Velma, 1962:7). The other definition comes from Hocckett (1958) in Elson and Velma (1962:7) states that,“ Morphemes are the smallest individually meaningful elements in the utterences of a language “. A morpheme may be a part of word. Linguist has suggested another definition of the morpheme.” A morpheme is the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function “(O‟Grady, et.al.,1997:119 in Srijono, 2006: 50).While Katamba (1993: 24) states that,“ The morpheme is the smallest difference in the shape of a word that correlates with the smallest different in word or sentence meaning or in grammatical structure“. The combination of morphemes can create the new words that are different from the base forms. b. Classification of Morphemes According to Srijono (2006:50), “ Morphemes can be classified into bound , free, and zero morphemes”. 1) A free morpheme, free morpheme is one that may constitute a word. 2) A bound morpheme, bound morpheme is one that must appear with at test one other morpheme,bound or free,in a word. 3) A zero morpheme, zero morpheme is a zero allomorph without 6 phonemiccontent, for example the zero plural in”deer and “ sheep “ c. Types of Morpheme 1) Root According to Katamba (1993: 41),“ A root is the irreducible core of a word, with absolutely nothing else attached to it“. Root is called single morphemes that carries the bassic meaning of the word. Root and morpheme cannot be separated because it has close relation. 2) Base “Base is any unit what so ever to which affixes of any kind can be added. The affixes attached to a base may be inflectional affixes selected for syntatic reasons or derivational affixes which alter the meaning or grammatical category of the base“ (Katamba, 1993: 45). 3) Affixes According to Katamba (1993: 44),“ An affix is a morpheme which only occurs when attached to some other morphemeor morpheme such as root or stem or base“. It means that,these morphemes have to join with other morpheme in order to have meaning. Then, a root can be added by affixes directly Bauer (1988: 12), states that,“ Affixes are bound morphemes whichattached to roots to produce words- forms. Based on the definition above, it is imposibble that only affixes like –s,-ed‟or‟-al can stand on its own which contain in a word. By adding an affixes into another morpheme (toa root, base, or stem) they will change the meaning/ grammatical function of the word in some ways. This is the ways where the derivational process occur. a) Prefixes A prefix is an affix attached before a root or stem or base, like re- un – and in-. For example: re-make, un-kind, in-accurate, etc. 7 b) Suffixes A suffix is an affix attached after a root ( or stem, or base) Like - ly,- er,-ist,-s,-ing, and –ed, For example:kind-ly, wait-er, book-s, walke- ed, etc. c) Infixes An infix is an affix inserted in to the root it self. Neverthales, there is no infix in English because the closets we have is the use or expretives in the middle of words like absobloominglutely and kangabloodyroo (Bauer,1988: 12). 1. Word Formation a. Derivation In morphology, they can find the process of word formation and how the smallest meaningful units of language called morpheme form a word the study of morphology, the process of creating a new language from can be found in the process of what we call derivational.According to Bauer (1988:73), derivational is a part of lexish which provides new lexeme and thought of as being in the Lexico. Based on the definition above, Katamba (1993:47) gives some explanation about the process of derivation. 1) By changing the meaning of the base which they are attached. For example: Kind vs un-kind ( both are adjective but with the apposite meaning), obey vs dis- obey ( both are verb with the apposite meaning). 2) By changing the word class of the bases belongs to. For example: the addition of the suffix - ly adjective kind and simple produce adverb kindly and simply. A derivational suffix generally applied to words of one syntatic category and changes them into words another syntatic category. In order that derivational affixes do not necessarily change the syntatic category, they do change the meaning of the base. However in many 8 cases the derivational affixes also can change both the syntactic category and the meaning. b. Inflection Another process of words formation in morphological processes is called inflection. Inflection is has a different form and meaning from derivation. This process gives new interpretation that the combination of morpheme is not always create new word classes. The examples of inflection are the words boy-s and walk-ed. Here the adding siffix -s in a word boy means that the word is plural. It does not changes the meaning or the category of the word. Then, the adding suffix-ed in a word walk means that last tense, it also does not change both meaning and category. c. The different between derivational and Inflection. Distinguish between derivation and inflection very crucial to know more, because both of them are have their characteristic which are different in the form and meaning. An inflectional affix is one which produces a new word form of a lexeme from a base, while derivational suffix is one which produces a new lexeme from a base “(Bauer, 1988:12). The example is in theprefix re-which can change the morpheme make into re-make. The derived process makes the opposite meaning of the base to which it attached. In this case, the inflectional morphemes are only able to change to form of word so it can fit into a particular syntactic. 2. Lexical Category There are some parts of category : Noun, Verb, Adjective, and Verb. a. Noun According to Frank (1972:6), noun is a word that has a function as the chief or head word in many structureof modification which begin with a capital letter in writing and for phsycal object that can be perceived by the sense. Noun usually is made plural by the addition 9 of-s and a word for a group of people, animals or objects considered as a single. b. Verb Verb is a word belonging to the part of speech which the msot complex. It is ussualy denote action(write, sleep), an occurence (decompose, glitter) or state of being (exist, stand). Verb also has a aseveral grammatical properties that are shared with no other part of speech. These properties are tense, voice, mood, and aspect (Frank, 1972: 47 ). c. Adjective “ Adjective as a modifier that has the grammatical property of comparison” (Frank, 1972: 109). Adjective ussualy added to give characters of noun and has function to describe people, place or things. Then, it occurs most frequently before the nouns they refer to or after linking verb. d. adverb Adverb is a form a words that having a strong lexical content to describe the action of a verb and indicate the meaning as time and place. It has function to loose modifier of the verb,from close modifiers of single words, prepositional pharases or clauses, and to loose modifiers of the entire sentence. ( Frank, 1972: 141). 3. Noun Formation The components of English compound words are lexical categories, such as: nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions. Compound in English belong to word-class noun, verb and adjective and made up of at least two constituent bases which are members of the categories noun, verb, adjective, adverb, or preposition (Katamba, 1993: 304). Normally, compounds are classified using two criteria: a. Whether they have a head b. If they have a head, 1) The word-class of a head 10 2) Whether the head appears at the left or the right of the compound. Based on its components, English compound word belongs to compound noun, compound adjective, compound verb. A noun is a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal, or idea. It is word used as subject of a sentence, object of verbs or object of preposition. It has numerous suffixes such as - - tion/ -sion, -ity, ment, -ness, -er/or/ist, -hood, -ship, -nce, -dom, ance, ence, ication. These suffixes are used as noun formation. This noun formation can be derived from either verbs or adjectives, (Hoang, 2011: 8). Below are the samples of noun formation which is consists of forming nouns from verbs, forming nouns from adjectives, and forming nouns from nouns (Hoang, 2011: 8-9). a. Forming Nouns from Verbs Noun = Verb + Suffix b. Forming Nouns from Adjectives Noun = Adjective + Suffix c. Forming Nouns from Nouns Noun = Noun + Suffix B. Research Method The type of this research is descriptive qualitative, because the writer intended to describe the types and the meaning of derivational suffix noun on Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The data are derivational suffix used in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung taken from Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The technique of the data collection are reading, where the researcher reads the manual of Procedure Guide Samsung, identifying data, selecting and collecting, and the researcher selects the derivational suffix used in Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. After than the researcher collects the type of 11 derivational suffix and determine the meaning of derivational suffix from Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The technique of the data analysis is descriptive qualitative. The steps are, classifying the data according to the type of derivational suffix and determining the meaning and classifying the type of derivational suffix and determining the meaning of derivational suffix. C. Research Finding and Discussion In manual procedure guide Samsung the author never paid attention about the use of affixation consciously. So the researcher can not predict how they use affixation within the manual procedure guide. Based on the above analysis, there are found several affixation related with the use of derivational suffix such as suffix (-ing), (-er), (-cation), (-ion), (-ice), (-ation), and (-or). The analysis can be seen below. 1. Suffix (-ing) (01/SSUG/2010/102) Read the warning on the screen and if you wish to proceed, click Yes. warning verb + (ing) warn + (ing) The word warning comes from word „warn’ which is then added by suffix –ing and transforms into word warning (noun) in the sentence. Warning is a gerund phrasethat functions as nounand it is object that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 2. Suffix (-er) (05/SSUG/2010/9) If you are an individual user, when you set up your email address or instant messaging account, you are associating it with the Samsung® Internet Service user verb + (-er) 12 use + (-er) ‘User‟ comes from ‘use’ add additional suffix –er. The word ‘use’ as the root word has an addition suffix –er and transform into word ‘user’ (noun) in sentence, “ If you are an individual user, when you set up your email address or instant messaging account, you are associating it with rhe Samsung Internet Service” ( Samsung Series: User Guide, 2010:9). On the above sentence used and adjective an individual. On teh above sentence used and adjective before noun is to identify a person or thing, or describe them in more detail. 3. Suffix (-cation) (10/SSUG/2010/21) Click the application or item that you want to change. application verb + (-cation) apply + (-cation) The word applicationrooted from word „apply‟ which is then added by suffix –cation and transforms into word application (noun) in the sentence. Application is a noun phrase comprises a noun (obviously) and any associated modifiers such article the, and it is object that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 4. Suffix (-ation) (12/SSUG/2010/10) View the Declaration of Conformity made under … declaration verb + (ation) declare + (-ation) The word „declare’ is verb which is then added by suffix –ion and transforms into word declaration (noun) in the sentence. Declaration is prepositional phrase which consists of a noun and preposition such of, and it is object that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 5. Suffix (-ion) 13 (13/SSUG/2010/114) Complete the instructions on the screen instruction verb + (-ion) instruct + (-ion) The word instructioncome from word „instruct’ which is then added by suffix –ion and transforms into word instruction (noun) in the sentence. Instruction is prepositional phrase which consists of a noun and preposition such on, and it is object that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 6. Suffix (-ice) (17/SS/2010/212) Depending on your wireless service provider, this ... service verb + (-ice) serve + (-ice) The word servicerooted from word „serve‟ which is then added by suffix –ice and transforms into word service (noun) in the sentence. Service is noun phrase which is modified by wireless. It is an adverb that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 7. Suffix (-or) (18/SSUG/2010/287) The H-T telecoilindicator appears at … indicator verb + (-or) indicate + (-or) The word indicator come from word ‘indicate’ which is then added by suffix –or and transforms into word indicator (noun) in the sentence. Indicator is a noun phrase comprises a noun and any associated modifiers such telecoil. It is a subject that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide. 14 8. Suffix (-ment) (83/Nok 6600/2004/27) Please have your phone or enhancement with you when contacting either of the numbers below Enhancement Verb + (-ment) Enhance + (-ment) The word „Enhancement’ comes from word „enhance‟ and additional suffix -ment. Word „enhance‟ is a verb which is then added by suffix – ment and transforms into word ‘enhancement’ (noun) in sentence, “Please have your phone or enhancement with you when contacting either of the numbers below” There are found 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix -ment. The derivational suffix of -ing, -er, -ion, and -or do not change the word class but changes into meaning. While suffix -cation, -ation, and -ice change the word class and also change the meaning. D. Conclusion and Suggestion Based on the problem statement related with types of derivational suffix and meanings of derivational suffix on manual Procedure Guide Samsung, the researcher draws the following conclusion: There are found several affixation related with the use of derivational suffix such as suffix –er, -ation, -cation -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment, The total of use derivational suffix are 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix – ment. There are also found the meaning of derivational suffix related with the suffix –er, -ation, -cation, -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment. the meaning of derivational suffix noun also appears where suffix –er, -ation, and –ing, though does not change the word class but changes into meaning. While suffix –ion, -ice, and -ment, change the word class and also change the meaning. Based on the analysis and the conclusion, the researcher suggests to: 15 1. The Readers The readers knows types of derivational affix especially on derivational suffix and they can use the result of this study on their daily communicative. 2. The Other Researchers a. There are still many types of affixes beside suffix that can be analyzed. All of those affixes also can be used to analyze other written or spoken language. b. They can analyze the derivational suffix with a different object better. 3. The Students a. In learning linguistic written or oral the students should be wise in choosing the affixes especially suffix b. The student should pay attention about the different of derivational and inflection before the starts on learning affixes. 16 E. Bibliography Aditya, Yusuf. 2007. The Using of Derivational Suffix in Cannon Camera Guidline. Petra. Research Paper. Amiyah. 2000. Morphological Analysis of The Derivational in the Jakarta Post. Dian Nuswantoro. Research Paper. Baueur. 1998. Introducing Linguistics Morphology. Edinburg University Press:Edinburg. Grady, O.1997. Syntatic Development. University of Chicago press:Chicago. Haspelmath, Martin and Sims, Andrea. 2010. Understanding Morphology. New York: Routledge. Hirtle, Walter. 2009. Lesson on the English Verb, No Expresion Without Representation. London: McGill-Queens. University Press. Hoang, Thi. 2011. Noun Formation in English and Vietnamese. International Journal. Ho Chi Minh City University of Education Department of English. Katamba, Francis. 1993. Morphology. The Macmillan Press: London. Katamba, Francis. 1994. Morphology: English Words. London. Katamba, Francis. 1998. English Words. Rout Ledge: London and New York. Kroger, Paul. 2005. Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University. Matthews, P.H. 1974. Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of WordStructure. Cambridge University Press:London. Matthews, P.H. 1991. Morphology. Cambridge University Press: New York. Naomi. 2008. A morphological Study Derivational Suffix in Time Magazine’s. Petra. Research Paper. Robbins, Lara. 2007. Grammar and Style at Your Fingertips. New York: Penguin grup. 17 Srijono, Djoko. 2010. An Introductory Course of Linguistics. Surakarta Muhammadiyah University Pers: Surakarta. Yule. 2006. The Study of Language Cambridge. Cambrige University Press.
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