null  User manual
A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX OF
NOUN IN MANUAL PROCEDURE GUIDE SAMSUNG
ARTICLE PUBLICATION
Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education
in English Department
by:
ROSITA FERAWATI
A 320 100 110
SCHOOL OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA
2015
ARTI
CLEPUBLI
CATI
ON
A Morphological Analysis of Derivational Suffix of Noun in Manual
Procedure Guide Samsung
By
English Department, A320100110
Email: [email protected]
ABSTRACT
The objectives of this study are to describe the types of derivational suffix
noun and the meanings words after being added by derivational suffix noun in
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung.
It is descriptive qualitative study. The data of this study are taken from
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The technique of analyzing data are as
follows: Describe the types of derivational suffix, determining the meaning
words after being added by of derivational suffix, the writer uses the reference
from dictionary.
That are derivational suffix of noun appears in such as: suffix –er, -ation, cation -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment, The total are 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –
or, and 13 suffix –ment. The derivational suffix of noun appears because, by
changing the word class of the bases belongs to. In a procedure guide the data
found 107 data. While the meaning after added by suffix. From the entire 107
data are : 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix -ation, 6
suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix –ment.. The meaning
of derivational suffix noun also appears where suffix –er, -ation, and –ing,
though does not change the word class but changes into meaning. While suffix
–ion, -ice, and -ment, change the word class and also change the meaning. The
meaning of derivational suffix er is forming noun word which indicated
subject, for example worker, user. The meaning of derivational suffix cation is
forming noun word which indicates the name of certain thing that represents
object or activity, for example application, notification. The meaning of
derivational suffix ation, ion, ice, and ment is similar with derivational suffix
cation that is forming noun word which indicates the name of certain things
that represents object or activity, for example duplication, service,
arrangement. The meaning of derivational suffix or is forming noun word
which indicates the name thing or object, for example connector, detector.
Keywords: Morphology, derivational suffix, suffix of noun.
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A. Introduction
1. Background of the Study
Morphology is very important to learn English language because
with morphology they can learn about grammar and structure of
English.To understand how the shape changes in a word, the writer should
understand about the process of change from the word. The
term morphology is Greek and made of morph- meaning
„ shape, form',
and - ology which means ' the study of something'. The term is used not
only in linguistics but also in biology as the scientific study of forms and
structure of animals and plants, and in geology as the study of formation
and evolution of rocks and land forms. Generated new words through
derivation will have a different meaning of the word is essentially. A
derivational suffix usually applies to words of one syntactic category and
changes them into words of another syntactic category. For example, the
english derivational suffix-ly changes adjectives into adverbs (slow →
slowly). Derivation is a process resulting in meaning and/ or category
changes through the addition of derivational affixes. It is commonly
applied for forming various new words which are likely to be straight
forward. The process is taken as the object of investigation in the study
since the writer was curious about the phenomena resulted from it. To get
the answer of the phenomena, the writer decided to take from manual
procedure guide samsung.
The objective of the study is, to describe the types of derivational
suffix noun on Manual Procedure Guide Samsung and describe the
meanings of word after being added by derivational suffix noun in Manual
Procedure Guide Samsung.
The previous study related with the difference and the similarity
with this research is; NAOMI (Kristen Petra, 2008) with the title A
Morphological Study Derivation Suffix in Time Magazine’s Articles. Her
finding is that many derivational suffixes in time magazine to find that
word using derivational she had to reads that magazine very carefully to
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make her research she wanted everybody accept her research very clearly
and succesfull to make everyone understand with derivational suffix in
time magazine, and she tried to analyze that word with documentation
method.
AMIYAH (Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, 2000) with the title
Morphological Analysis of the Derivational in the Jakarta Post. The
finding is that actually she wanted to tell how the important to know the
meaning of word if that word using derivational. Newspaper is good
source to collecting data using derivational.
Yusuf Aditya (Universitas Kristen Petra, 2007) with his research
entitled The Using of Derivational Suffix in Canon Camera Guideline. His
finding is that there are found 86 derivational suffixes and it consists of 18
suffixes (-ing), 33 suffixes (-er), 6 suffix (-cation), 9 suffix (-ation), 9
suffix (-ion), 4 suffix, (-ice), and 7 suffix (-or).
Three previous researches are different from the researcher analysis.
The difference is on object of research and the data source. From Naomi
research the data used as object are from Magazine‟s articles, but the
writer used Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. From Amiyah research she
used Jakarta Pos as object source. While the Yusuf, he uses Canon camera
guideline. Amiyah made a research about derivational but the writer
focused only on derivational suffix. The similarity of two previous
research with the writers research is they all focuses on derivational.
In this research, the writer only focuses on derivational suffix noun in
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The researcher only limits on type of
derivational suffix noun and meaning of derivational suffix noun because
in Procedure Guide Samsung, the research finds many types of
derivational suffix. The data will be analyzed using morphologycal
analysis written by Carstairs and Carthy (2002).
The benefits of this study is that this research paper can give
contribution in morphological analysis especially the derivational suffix
theory and this research paper can enrich the theories on the compound
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word especially the type and the meaning of derivational suffix. That can
be discuss in morphology. Morphology is study of structure and word
form. Morphology is derived from a Greek word morph that mean shape
of form and logos means knowledge. Morphology implies knowledge of
morph or what so called the building element of word. Word formation
is all processes connected with changing the form of the word. It is process
ofcreation of new word and meaning. Wisniewski stated that “word
formation denotes the processes of creation of new of lexical unit” There
are some word formation processes: blending, clipping, coinage,
borrowing, and compounding.
a. Blending is the fusion of two words and the non morphemic of the two
words still already axis with their related meaning. According to Yule
(2006: 55) stated that “blending is the process combination of two
separate forms to produce a single new term“.
b. Clipping is shortening or reducing long words. As Srijono stated
(2001:55) that “clipping is a process of new words by shortening the
polysyllabic word or by deleting one or more syllables”. According to
Yule (2006:55) that “clipping occurs when a word of more than one
syllable is reduced to a shorter form, usually beginning in casual
speech”. For example, the term gasoline is still used,but most people
talk about gas.
c. Coinnage is creation of totally new words. This word formation
process is not frequent: however large corporations attempt to outdo
one anotherto inventshort eye-cathing names for their products. Yule
(2006: 53) stated that “The most typical sources are invited trade
names for commercial products that become general terms (usually
without capital letters) for any version of that products”. For examples
are aspirin, nylon, vaseline, and zipper.
d. Borrowing is taking a word from one language and incorporating it
into another. Yule (2006:55) argued that “ borrowing is the taking over
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of words from other laguage “. For
example, the word ozone is
come from German.
e. Compounding is the combination of two words to form a new word.
As Katamba stated (1994:72) that “a compound is a formed by
combining two bases, which may be words in their own right, to form
a new lexical item”. For example, compounding of noun.
In analyzing morpheme there are two components that should be
analyzed; there are definition of morpheme and classification of
morpheme.
a. Definition of Morpheme
Morpheme is the minimum units of lexicon ( Elson and Velma,
1962:7). The other definition comes from Hocckett (1958) in Elson
and Velma (1962:7) states that,“ Morphemes are the smallest
individually meaningful elements in the utterences of a language “. A
morpheme may be a part of word. Linguist has suggested another
definition of the morpheme.” A morpheme is the smallest unit of
language that carries information about meaning or function
“(O‟Grady, et.al.,1997:119 in Srijono, 2006: 50).While Katamba
(1993: 24) states that,“ The morpheme is the smallest difference in the
shape of a word that correlates with the smallest different in word or
sentence meaning or in grammatical structure“. The combination of
morphemes can create the new words that are different from the base
forms.
b. Classification of Morphemes
According to Srijono (2006:50), “ Morphemes can be classified
into bound , free, and zero morphemes”.
1) A free morpheme, free morpheme is one that may constitute a
word.
2) A bound morpheme, bound morpheme is one that must appear with
at test one other morpheme,bound or free,in a word.
3) A zero morpheme, zero morpheme is a zero allomorph without
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phonemiccontent, for example the zero plural in”deer and “ sheep “
c. Types of Morpheme
1) Root
According to Katamba (1993: 41),“ A root is the irreducible
core of a word, with absolutely nothing else attached to it“. Root is
called single morphemes that carries the bassic meaning of the
word. Root and morpheme cannot be separated because it has close
relation.
2) Base
“Base is any unit
what so ever to which affixes of any
kind can be added. The affixes attached to a base may be
inflectional affixes selected for syntatic reasons or derivational
affixes which alter the meaning or grammatical category of the
base“ (Katamba, 1993: 45).
3) Affixes
According to Katamba (1993: 44),“ An affix is a morpheme
which only occurs when attached to some other morphemeor
morpheme such as root or stem or base“. It means that,these
morphemes have to join with other morpheme in order to have
meaning. Then, a root can be added by affixes directly Bauer
(1988:
12),
states
that,“
Affixes
are
bound
morphemes
whichattached to roots to produce words- forms.
Based on the definition above, it is imposibble that only affixes
like –s,-ed‟or‟-al can stand on its own which contain in a word. By
adding an affixes into another morpheme (toa root, base, or stem) they
will change the meaning/ grammatical function of the word in some
ways. This is the ways where the derivational process occur.
a) Prefixes
A prefix is an affix attached before a root or stem or base,
like re- un – and in-. For example: re-make, un-kind, in-accurate,
etc.
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b) Suffixes
A suffix is an affix attached after a root ( or stem, or base)
Like - ly,- er,-ist,-s,-ing, and –ed, For example:kind-ly, wait-er,
book-s, walke- ed, etc.
c) Infixes
An infix is an affix inserted in to the root it self.
Neverthales, there is no infix in English because the closets we
have is the use or expretives in the middle of words like
absobloominglutely and kangabloodyroo (Bauer,1988: 12).
1. Word Formation
a. Derivation
In morphology, they can find the process of word formation and
how the smallest meaningful units of language called morpheme form
a word the study of morphology, the process of creating a new
language from can be found in the process of what we call
derivational.According to Bauer (1988:73), derivational is a part of
lexish which provides new lexeme and thought of as being in the
Lexico.
Based on the definition above, Katamba (1993:47) gives some
explanation about the process of derivation.
1) By changing the meaning of the base which they are attached. For
example: Kind vs un-kind ( both are adjective but with the apposite
meaning), obey vs dis- obey ( both are verb with the apposite
meaning).
2) By changing the word class of the bases belongs to. For example:
the addition of the suffix - ly adjective kind and simple produce
adverb kindly and simply.
A derivational suffix generally applied to words of one syntatic
category and changes them into words another syntatic category. In
order that derivational affixes do not necessarily change the syntatic
category, they do change the meaning of the base. However in many
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cases the derivational affixes also can change both the syntactic
category and the meaning.
b.
Inflection
Another process of words formation in morphological processes
is called inflection. Inflection is has a different form and meaning from
derivation. This process gives new interpretation that the combination
of morpheme is not always create new word classes.
The examples of inflection are the words boy-s and walk-ed.
Here the adding siffix -s in a word boy means that the word is plural. It
does not changes the meaning or the category of the word. Then, the
adding suffix-ed in a word walk means that last tense, it also does not
change both meaning and category.
c. The different between derivational and Inflection.
Distinguish between derivation and inflection very crucial to
know more, because both of them are have their characteristic which
are different in the form and meaning. An inflectional affix is one
which produces a new word form of a lexeme from a base, while
derivational suffix is one which produces a new lexeme from a base
“(Bauer, 1988:12). The example is in theprefix re-which can change
the morpheme make into re-make. The derived process makes the
opposite meaning of the base to which it attached. In this case, the
inflectional morphemes are only able to change to form of word so it
can fit into a particular syntactic.
2. Lexical Category
There are some parts of category : Noun, Verb, Adjective, and
Verb.
a. Noun
According to Frank (1972:6), noun is a word that has a function
as the chief or head word in many structureof modification which
begin with a capital letter in writing and for phsycal object that can
be perceived by the sense. Noun usually is made plural by the addition
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of-s and a word for a group of people, animals or objects considered as
a single.
b. Verb
Verb is
a word belonging to the part of speech which the
msot complex. It is ussualy denote action(write, sleep), an occurence
(decompose, glitter) or state of being (exist, stand). Verb also has a
aseveral grammatical properties that are shared with no other part of
speech. These properties are tense, voice, mood, and aspect (Frank,
1972: 47 ).
c. Adjective
“ Adjective as a modifier that has the grammatical property of
comparison” (Frank, 1972: 109). Adjective ussualy added to give
characters of noun and has function to describe people, place or things.
Then, it occurs most frequently before the nouns they refer to or after
linking verb.
d. adverb
Adverb is a form a words that having a strong lexical content to
describe the action of a verb and indicate the meaning as time and
place. It has function to loose modifier of the verb,from close
modifiers of single words, prepositional pharases or clauses, and to
loose modifiers of the entire sentence. ( Frank, 1972: 141).
3. Noun Formation
The components of English compound words are lexical
categories, such as: nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions.
Compound in English belong to word-class noun, verb and adjective and
made up of at least two constituent bases which are members of the
categories noun, verb, adjective, adverb, or preposition (Katamba, 1993:
304). Normally, compounds are classified using two criteria:
a. Whether they have a head
b. If they have a head,
1) The word-class of a head
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2) Whether the head appears at the left or the right of the
compound.
Based on its components, English compound word belongs to
compound noun, compound adjective, compound verb.
A noun is a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing,
animal, or idea. It is word used as subject of a sentence, object of verbs or
object of preposition. It has numerous suffixes such as - - tion/ -sion, -ity, ment, -ness, -er/or/ist, -hood, -ship, -nce, -dom, ance, ence, ication. These
suffixes are used as noun formation. This noun formation can be derived
from either verbs or adjectives, (Hoang, 2011: 8).
Below are the samples of noun formation which is consists of
forming nouns from verbs, forming nouns from adjectives, and forming
nouns from nouns
(Hoang, 2011: 8-9).
a. Forming Nouns from Verbs
Noun = Verb + Suffix
b. Forming Nouns from Adjectives
Noun = Adjective + Suffix
c. Forming Nouns from Nouns
Noun = Noun + Suffix
B. Research Method
The type of this research is descriptive qualitative, because the writer
intended to describe the types and the meaning of derivational suffix noun on
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung. The data are derivational suffix used in
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung taken from Manual Procedure Guide
Samsung.
The technique of the data collection are reading, where the researcher
reads the manual of Procedure Guide Samsung, identifying data, selecting and
collecting, and the researcher selects the derivational suffix used in Manual
Procedure Guide Samsung. After than the researcher collects the type of
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derivational suffix and determine the meaning of derivational suffix from
Manual Procedure Guide Samsung.
The technique of the data analysis is descriptive qualitative. The steps
are, classifying the data according to the type of derivational suffix and
determining the meaning and classifying the type of derivational suffix and
determining the meaning of derivational suffix.
C. Research Finding and Discussion
In manual procedure guide Samsung the author never paid attention about
the use of affixation consciously. So the researcher can not predict how they
use affixation within the manual procedure guide. Based on the above
analysis, there are found several affixation related with the use of derivational
suffix such as suffix (-ing), (-er), (-cation), (-ion), (-ice), (-ation), and (-or).
The analysis can be seen below.
1. Suffix (-ing)
(01/SSUG/2010/102)
Read the warning on the screen and if you wish to proceed, click Yes.
warning
verb + (ing)
warn + (ing)
The word warning comes from word „warn’ which is then added by
suffix –ing and transforms into word warning (noun) in the sentence.
Warning is a gerund phrasethat functions as nounand it is object that
serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide.
2. Suffix (-er)
(05/SSUG/2010/9)
If you are an individual user, when you set up your email address or
instant messaging account, you are associating it with the Samsung®
Internet Service
user
verb + (-er)
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use + (-er)
‘User‟ comes from ‘use’ add additional suffix –er. The word ‘use’ as
the root word has an addition suffix –er and transform into word ‘user’
(noun) in sentence, “ If you are an individual user, when you set up your
email address or instant messaging account, you are associating it with rhe
Samsung Internet Service” ( Samsung Series: User Guide, 2010:9). On the
above sentence used and adjective an individual. On teh above sentence
used and adjective before noun is to identify a person or thing, or describe
them in more detail.
3. Suffix (-cation)
(10/SSUG/2010/21)
Click the application or item that you want to change.
application
verb + (-cation)
apply + (-cation)
The word applicationrooted from word „apply‟ which is then added by
suffix –cation and transforms into word application (noun) in the sentence.
Application is a noun phrase comprises a noun (obviously) and any
associated modifiers such article the, and it is object that serves as the
heading for an entry in a user guide.
4. Suffix (-ation)
(12/SSUG/2010/10)
View the Declaration of Conformity made under …
declaration
verb + (ation)
declare + (-ation)
The word „declare’ is verb which is then added by suffix –ion and
transforms into word declaration (noun) in the sentence. Declaration is
prepositional phrase which consists of a noun and preposition such of, and
it is object that serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide.
5. Suffix (-ion)
13
(13/SSUG/2010/114)
Complete the instructions on the screen
instruction
verb + (-ion)
instruct + (-ion)
The word instructioncome from word „instruct’ which is then added by
suffix –ion and transforms into word instruction (noun) in the sentence.
Instruction is prepositional phrase which consists of a noun and
preposition such on, and it is object that serves as the heading for an entry
in a user guide.
6. Suffix (-ice)
(17/SS/2010/212)
Depending on your wireless service provider, this ...
service
verb + (-ice)
serve + (-ice)
The word servicerooted from word „serve‟ which is then added by
suffix –ice and transforms into word service (noun) in the sentence.
Service is noun phrase which is modified by wireless. It is an adverb that
serves as the heading for an entry in a user guide.
7. Suffix (-or)
(18/SSUG/2010/287)
The H-T telecoilindicator appears at …
indicator
verb + (-or)
indicate + (-or)
The word indicator come from word ‘indicate’ which is then added by
suffix –or and transforms into word indicator (noun) in the sentence.
Indicator is a noun phrase comprises a noun and any associated modifiers
such telecoil. It is a subject that serves as the heading for an entry in a user
guide.
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8. Suffix (-ment)
(83/Nok 6600/2004/27)
Please have your phone or enhancement with you when contacting either
of the numbers below
Enhancement
Verb + (-ment)
Enhance + (-ment)
The word „Enhancement’ comes from word „enhance‟ and additional
suffix -ment. Word „enhance‟ is a verb which is then added by suffix –
ment and transforms into word ‘enhancement’ (noun) in sentence, “Please
have your phone or enhancement with you when contacting either of the
numbers below”
There are found 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation, 5 suffix
-ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix -ment. The
derivational suffix of -ing, -er, -ion, and -or do not change the word class but
changes into meaning. While suffix -cation, -ation, and -ice change the word
class and also change the meaning.
D. Conclusion and Suggestion
Based on the problem statement related with types of derivational suffix
and meanings of derivational suffix on manual Procedure Guide Samsung, the
researcher draws the following conclusion:
There are found several affixation related with the use of derivational
suffix such as suffix –er, -ation, -cation -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment, The total
of use derivational suffix are 35 suffixes -ing, 39 suffixes -er, 4 suffix -cation,
5 suffix -ation, 6 suffix -ion, 1 suffix, -ice, and 5 suffix –or, and 13 suffix –
ment. There are also found the meaning of derivational suffix related with the
suffix –er, -ation, -cation, -ing, -ion, -ice, and -ment. the meaning of
derivational suffix noun also appears where suffix –er, -ation, and –ing,
though does not change the word class but changes into meaning. While suffix
–ion, -ice, and -ment, change the word class and also change the meaning.
Based on the analysis and the conclusion, the researcher suggests to:
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1. The Readers
The readers knows types of derivational affix especially on derivational
suffix and they can use the result of this study on their daily
communicative.
2. The Other Researchers
a. There are still many types of affixes beside suffix that can be analyzed.
All of those affixes also can be used to analyze other written or spoken
language.
b. They can analyze the derivational suffix with a different object better.
3. The Students
a. In learning linguistic written or oral the students should be wise in
choosing the affixes especially suffix
b. The student should pay attention about the different of derivational and
inflection before the starts on learning affixes.
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E. Bibliography
Aditya, Yusuf. 2007. The Using of Derivational Suffix in Cannon Camera
Guidline. Petra. Research Paper.
Amiyah. 2000. Morphological Analysis of The Derivational in the Jakarta
Post. Dian Nuswantoro. Research Paper.
Baueur. 1998. Introducing Linguistics Morphology. Edinburg University
Press:Edinburg.
Grady, O.1997. Syntatic Development. University of Chicago press:Chicago.
Haspelmath, Martin and Sims, Andrea. 2010. Understanding Morphology.
New York: Routledge.
Hirtle, Walter. 2009. Lesson on the English Verb, No Expresion Without
Representation. London: McGill-Queens. University Press.
Hoang, Thi. 2011. Noun Formation in English and Vietnamese. International
Journal. Ho Chi Minh City University of Education Department of English.
Katamba, Francis. 1993. Morphology. The Macmillan Press: London.
Katamba, Francis. 1994. Morphology: English Words. London.
Katamba, Francis. 1998. English Words. Rout Ledge: London and New York.
Kroger, Paul. 2005. Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction. New York:
Cambridge University.
Matthews, P.H. 1974. Morphology: An Introduction to the Theory of WordStructure. Cambridge University Press:London.
Matthews, P.H. 1991. Morphology. Cambridge University Press: New York.
Naomi. 2008. A morphological Study Derivational Suffix in Time Magazine’s.
Petra. Research Paper.
Robbins, Lara. 2007. Grammar and Style at Your Fingertips. New York:
Penguin grup.
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Srijono, Djoko. 2010. An Introductory Course of Linguistics. Surakarta
Muhammadiyah University Pers: Surakarta.
Yule. 2006. The Study of Language Cambridge. Cambrige University Press.
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