Installation/Operator`s Manual

Installation/Operator`s Manual
Installation/Operator’s Manual
Portland
Oregon USA
Tested & Listed
By:
Report #
215-S-13b-2
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Certified to comply with 2015 particulate emissions standards.
Model: 1600EF
Wood or Coal External Furnace
SAFETY NOTICE:
If this furnace is not properly installed, a house fire may result! For your safety, follow these installation instructions. Contact
local building or fire officials about restrictions and installation requirements in your area. This furnace must be installed by a
qualified technician. Keep these instructions for future reference.
Safety Tested to UL 391
United States Stove Company • 227 Industrial Park Road, P.O. Box 151 • South Pittsburg, TN 37380 • www.usstove.com
851846D-1908E
INTRODUCTION
Thank You for your purchase of a U.S. Stove Wood/Coal Burning
External Furnace. Your decision to buy our Clayton Furnace was
undoubtedly reached after much careful thought and consideration. We are very proud you chose this furnace and trust you
will receive the comfort and economy that others realize when
heating with a U.S. Stove product.
Your dealer is important in your experience with the furnace
not only with the purchase, but for recommendations for professional installation for your home. The qualified professional
installer has been expertly trained in solid-fuel furnace installation to assure the safety and comfort for your family while saving
you money. Trust your experienced installer. They are specialist
in this field.
IMPORTANT
Before installing and using your furnace, please read the following pages thoroughly and carefully. If you follow the instructions,
your furnace will give you safe and more dependable service for
years to come.
• Check your local codes. This installation must comply with
their rulings.
• This is an outdoor hot air furnace and must NOT be installed
inside the home or a building.
• This furnace must be connected to a 110 volt Ground Fault
Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) outlet suitable for outdoor use.
• A back-up generator, 2,000 watts minimum, is recommended in case of a power failure.
• Always have a properly functioning smoke or ionization detector and a CO detector installed in your home.
• To prevent injury or damage, do not allow anyone who is
unfamiliar with the furnace to operate it.
• Spend adequate time with your furnace to become well acquainted with the different settings and how each will affect
its burning patterns. It is impossible to state just how each
setting will affect your furnace because of the variations in
each installation.
DISCLAIMER NOTICE
The BTU ranges and heating capacity specifications are provided
as a guide and in no way guarantee the output or capacity of
this unit. The actual BTU output depends on the type of fuel being burned and its conditions, the thermostat setting, the draft
adjustment and the chimney to which the unit is attached. The
actual area that this unit will heat depends on factors such as
the conditions of the building, heat loss, type of construction,
amount of insulation, type of air movement, the location of the
unit and more importantly the duct work and return air facility.
Warning:
Do not alter this appliance in any way other than specified in
these instructions. Doing so may void your warranty.
GENERAL INFORMATION
Your 1600EF furnace comes ready for installation. No assembly required. Unpack your furnace and insure that there is no
2
shipping damage. If damage exist, please contact your dealer immediately. Review the items included with your furnace located
inside the firebox.
1 - 10” Starter Collar
1 - 12” Starter Collar for Cold Air Return
8 - #10 x 3/4 Screws w/ Sealing Washer
1 - Literature Package
This furnace may be installed as a Stand-Alone Central Furnace
or as a Supplementary Furnace in the US only. For Canadian installations, it may be installed as a Stand-Alone Central Furnace
Only.
If installed as a Central Furnace, this unit will have it’s own central ducting system and will essentially be your primary heat
source. If installed as a Supplementary Furnace, the 1600EF will
assist an Electric, Gas or Oil Fired Furnace in heating your home
by utilizing the existing furnace’s duct work system. The 1600EF
must not be wired in conjunction with the existing furnace. The
outdoor furnace may be operated with the supplied wall thermostat or a 24 volt thermostat that you supply yourself.
The furnace should be placed outdoors on a level noncombustible base, preferably a 4’ x 8’ concrete pad, as close to the home
as clearances to combustibles will allow. If locating the furnace
more than 10 feet away from the home, a minimum of 6 feet of
Class “A” HT 2100 All Fuel 6 inch chimney pipe is required - Do
not place the furnace more than 40 feet away from the home.
Maintain all clearances stated in this manual.
Class “A” HT 2100 All Fuel 6” Chimney Pipe is recommended
for optimum performance and can be purchased from your local
dealer. A Chimney Base Plate should be installed over the flue
outlet and sealed to maintain weather resistance. A 2” clearance
to combustibles must be maintained from the pipe. We suggest
using either Simpson Dura-Vent or Metal Fab chimney products
for your installation.
If you choose to use single wall stainless, the flue temperatures
will be reduced which promotes the formation of creosote, possibly creating a fire hazard. If you use single wall stainless pipe,
the minimum clearance to combustibles is 20”.
Attach the appropriate chimney pipe lengths to the chosen chimney base plate and finish with a rain cap. Secure the chimney
with guy wires to each of the four anchors point on the furnace.
Your furnace requires it’s own chimney system and can not share
a flue with another appliance.
Once you have selected a location for the furnace and connected your furnace to a chimney and a 110 volt GFCI outlet, you
will need to commence an initial firing. DO NOT connect the
furnace to your duct work at this time. Your new furnace has a
protective coating of oil and paint on the surface which could
produce smoke or odors during the initial firing and will burn
off. Build a small fire - DO NOT fill the firebox to it’s full capacity for the initial burn. This initial firing allows the metals and
castings to cure.
After completing the firing and allowing it to cool, you are ready
to finish the installation. Refer to the remainder of this manual
for detailed instructions.
CUT HERE
WARRANTY INFORMATION CARD
Name__________________________________________ Telephone #: (_____)_____________
City____________________________________________ State_______ Zip_________________
Email Address __________________________________________________________________
Model # of Unit________________________________ Serial #___________________________
Fuel Type: Wood
Coal
Pellet
Gas
Other _________________________
Place of Purchase (Retailer)______________________________________________________
City____________________________________________ State_______ Zip_________________
If internet purchase, please list website address___________________________________
Date of Purchase _______________________________________________________________
Reason for Purchase:
Decoration
Alternative Heat
Cost
Main Heat Source
Other _________________________
What was the determining factor for purchasing your new USSC appliance?_______
I have read the owner’s manual that accompanies this unit and fully understand the:
Installation  Operation 
and Maintenance 
of my new USSC appliance.
Print Name
Signature
Date
Please attach a copy of your purchase receipt.
Warranty not valid without a Proof of Purchase.
CUT HERE
Warranty information must be received within 30 days of original purchase.
Detach this page from this manual, fold in half with this page to the inside and tape together. Apply a
stamp and mail to the address provided. You may use an envelope if you choose.
You may register online by going to www.usstove.com
All information submitted will be kept strictly confidential. Information provided will not be sold for advertising purposes.
Contact information will be used solely for the purpose of product notifications.
CUT HERE
Fold Here
Fold Here

PLACE
STAMP
HERE
United States Stove Company
P.O. Box 151
South Pittsburg, TN 37380
CUT HERE

UNIT DIMENSIONS
D-RINGS FOR GUY WIRE
ATTACHMENT
17-5/16"
B
55-5/8"
BLOWER SPEED
SELECTOR SWITCH
5-3/16"
24-1/4"
6" FLUE GAS OUTLET
LIMIT SWITCH
ACCESS
65-1/2"
10" HOT AIR OUTLET
45-3/4"
HOT WATER COIL ACCESS
(OPTIONAL)
A
6.00
29-3/16"
12" COLD AIR
RETURN
43-7/16"
31-5/8"
29-1/2"
2-9/16"
14-1/4"
5
WOOD SUPPLY
Some important rules for preparing good firewood are: Cut, split
and stack the wood in the early spring and let it stand in the sun
and wind all summer.Whether you purchase your wood or cut it
yourself, spring is the best time to buy or cut your wood to insure
it is good and dry come winter. If you live in a damper climate, it
will take longer for the wood to season. By far the most important
characteristic of any firewood is its moisture content. Firewood
with a moisture content higher than twenty percent will burn,
but it will be hard to light and keep burning, will make a lot of
smoke and will produce less efficient fires with lower sustained
BTU output. Plus much of its energy content will be wasted right
up the chimney. Firewood should be between 15 and 25 percent
moisture to burn properly and to get that dry it must be split and
stacked in the open for at least a full summer.All wood burns, but
wood that’s cut green (between 50 and more than 100 percent
moisture content) burns with more difficulty, because the water
in the wood must be boiled off before the actual wood fiber can
burn. Air-dried (“seasoned”) wood is generally between 20-30
percent. Kiln-dried firewood generally contains less than 20 percent
moisture.Green wood can produce more creosote--a black sooty
liquid which deposits and hardens on the inside of your chimney
and can ignite, causing a chimney fire.When you stack your wood,
you should stack it in an open location where the summer sun can
warm it and breezes can help remove moisture. Be sure to cover
the top of the wood pile to keep the rain out. It is important that
you do not stack unseasoned wood in an unventilated area for it
will not dry properly. You shouldn’t allow your firewood to lay on
the ground for more than a couple days before stacking , or it will
start to mold and rot quickly.Once your wood is seasoned, store
it in a dry location before burning.
24 Gauge or Heavier ................................20”
Single Wall Stainless Steel or Black Pipe
The above clearances to combustibles must be maintained.
CHIMNEY REQUIREMENTS
A Class “A” HT 2100 All Fuel 6” Chimney Pipe and Base Plate
should be used for the installation. See Illustration. Place the Base
Plate over the flue outlet of the furnace and drill eight(8) pilot
holes into the Cabinet Top. Apply a generous amount of high
temperature sealant to the bottom of the base plate, and around
the flue outlet. Position the base plate over the flue and secure with
the eight(8) screws provided. Then attach the flue pipe sections.
A minimum chimney height of 6 feet is required not including the
rain cap. In order to determine proper chimney height above the
roof, measure from the side of the chimney horizontally. As you
move up the chimney, the length increases. Once this measurement reaches 10 feet, this is the base height of the chimney. The
chimney must be 2 feet taller than the base height. If the chimney
is closer than 10 feet from the peak of the roof, the chimney must
be 2 feet taller than the peak of the roof. The 2 feet measurement
does not include the rain cap.
Once correct chimney height is achieved, check the chimney draft.
It should not exceed 0.06 inches of water column. Then secure
with three screws at each joint and attach guy wires down to the
rings located around the top of the furnace cabinet.
See illustration.
CLEARANCES
COMBUSTIBLE WALL
COMBUSTIBLE WALL
20”
15”
(TOP VIEW)
22”
FLUE
MINIMUM CLEARANCES
TO A COMBUSTIBLE
WALL
CAUTION:
12”
DO NOT store
combustible or
flammable materials or
liquids near the
furnace.
Sides of furnace, 12”; Rear of furnace, 15” (allow approximately
20” for the return box); Front of furnace, 36”; Heat Duct, 2” for
the first 9 feet then 1” thereafter.
FLUE PIPE INSTALLATION
Clearances to combustible materials will vary with the type of flue
connection used. Be sure to maintain the specified clearances for
your type of installation.
TYPE OF FLUE
REQUIRED
CONNECTION
CLEARANCE
Class A 103HT All-Fuel or Equivalent .2”
Double Wall, Stainless Steel or................6”
Double Wall, Black Pipe w/
Stainless Steel Inner wall
6
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER DRAFT
Draft is the force which moves air from the appliance up through
the chimney. The amount of draft in your chimney depends on the
length of the chimney, local geography, nearby obstructions and
other factors. Too much draft may cause excessive temperatures
in the appliance. Inadequate draft may cause backpuffing into the
room and ‘plugging’ of the chimney.
“Inadequate draft will cause the appliance to leak smoke into the
room through appliance and chimney connector joints.”
“An uncontrollable burn or excessive temperature indicates excessive draft.”
Take into account the chimney’s location to insure it is not too
close to neighbors or in a valley which may cause unhealthy or
nuisance conditions.
CONNECTING HOT AIR DUCT
TO FURNACE
We strongly recommend that the hot air duct work be installed by
a home heating specialist. If doing the installation yourself, before
you decide which installation will best suit your needs, consult a
qualified heating technician and follow his recommendations as
to the safest and most efficient method of installation.
The warm-air supply-duct system shall be constructed of metal
in accordance with NFPA 90B, 2-1.1. The plenums installed to
the furnace be constructed of metal in accordance with NFPA
90B, 2-1.3.
Outside the house you must use 10 inch galvanized pipe, wrapped
with weather proof, UV resistant insulation. The 12 inch return
may be galvanized pipe and attached to the home so as to not
pressurize the home.
NEVER reduce the 10” hot air or the 12” return air as this will result
in restricted air flow and cause the furnace to not operate properly.
NEVER draw cold outside air into the blower housing. By doing
so, the furnace’s heat chamber will not reach the necessary temperature to heat the home.
The duct work should be designed so the external static pressure
does not exceed 0.2 inches water column while developing air velocities of 600 to 1,000 feet per minute in the main trunk duct and
400 to 600 feet per minute at the registers. The heat outlet should
never be less than ten inches (10”) round or 79 square inches.
This furnace must be installed with a cold air return system. The
system must be a minimum of twelve inches (12”) to readily
transfer the cold air from the home back to the furnace. If desired,
a cold air filter box may be constructed with a minimum opening
of 225 square inches.
The warm-air supply outlet of the outdoor furnace must not be
connected to the cold-air-return inlet of an existing central furnace because the possibility exist of components of the existing
furnace overheating and may cause the central furnace to operate
other than intended.
TYPES OF INSTALLATION
NO DUCT WORK INSTALLATION
Cold air return must be installed in all installations, even those without an air duct system. If you do not, the furnace will not be able
to heat the home. A filter should be installed in the cold air return. Furnace filters should be checked and cleaned/replaced regularly.
When there is no duct system to connect the furnace to, keep the following in mind:
1. You must separate the hot air duct from the cold air return.
Ideally, locate each at opposite ends of the home. This method
will work well in homes that are built on concrete slabs and
should create a good air flow. If you do not, air will not flow
evenly through the home.
2. In homes with a basement, you may run the hot air duct to
the basement and pull the cold air return from the main floor.
This will create the perfect air flow since hot air rises.
7
TYPES OF INSTALLATION
CENTRAL DUCT CONNECTION
When connecting to a central duct system, avoid 90 degree elbows as this will reduce air flow delivery. A duct run in excess
of 40 feet is NOT RECOMMENDED. The air flow and heat
output will be greatly decreased.
Run 10” insulated hot air duct from the outdoor furnace
through a wall or window of the structure. Then attach a flexible hot air duct to the existing duct work. Connect the duct
with a 45 degree elbow or at an angle so the hot air from the
outdoor furnace is delivered downstream. This will insure
proper air flow into the system.
Avoid delivering hot air through an air conditioning coil as this
will cause an obstruction reducing heat output.
The following illustrations may be used as examples for your
installation.
INSTALLATION #2
The baffle on this system should be made the full width of the
furnace plenum in order to properly direct the air into the distribution ducts.
INSTALLATION EXAMPLES
INSTALLATION #1
With this installation, a back draft damper (optional) is inserted
into the heat run before the plenum of the existing furnace to prevent air from the existing furnace to blow back into the furnace
when it is not in use. When a back damper is employed, it should
be located as close to the existing furnace plenum as practical.
8
INSTALLATION #3
Extending the hot air duct from the furnace into the existing
plenum will help direct the flow of air from the furnace as well
as the flow in the existing furnace. Ducting entering the existing plenum at an angle (approximately 45 degrees) will facilitate
air flow from the furnace while diverting air from the existing
furnace.
FURNACE ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS
Read and follow these instructions in the event you have to reSHAKER GRATE HANDLE
place or re-assemble components of your furnace.
DOOR HANDLES
Insert door handle into door. From rear side of door, place a
1/2” washer over the threaded part of the handle, then attach
the lock nut. Tighten the nut, then back off 1/4 turn to allow
free operation of the handle.
Follow these same directions for the ash door handle assembly.
(2) Door Handle
(2) 1/2” Washer
(2) 1/2” Lock Nut
Insert the Shaker Rod into the hole on the ash door frame as
shown. Then attach the Shaker Bracket to the front of the furnace using two 1/4-20 x 3/4” Hex Bolts and two 1/4-20 Lock
Nuts. Next, insert the shaker Rod into the bracket and attach
to the shaker grate bar using the 1/4-20 x 1” Hex Bolt and a
1/4-20 Lock Nut. The bolt and nut retaining the shaker bar and
rod should be left loose to allow free movement of the grates.
(1) Shaker Rod
(1) Shaker Bracket
(1) 1/4-20 x 1” Hex Bolt
(2) 1/4-20 x 3/4” Hex Bolt
(3) 1/4-20 Lock Nut
BRACKET
ASH DOOR SPIN DRAFT
Screw the spin draft onto the 3/8” x 2-1/2” carriage bolt. Then
screw the spin draft and bolt into the ash door allowing approximately 1/2” of the bolt to stick through the back side of
the ash door. Secure the bolt in place with the 3/8”-16 lock nut.
(1) Spin Draft
(1) 3/8-16 Carriage Bolt
(1) 3/8-16 Lock Nut
FUEL & ASH DOOR LATCH
SMOKE CURTAIN
With two 1/4-20 x 3/4 hex bolts each, attach the door latches
to the door latch mounting brackets on the left side of the door
frames as illustrated. The slots in the brackets and latches are
for door seal adjustment. Make the proper adjustments, then
tighten the nuts. The door’s gasket should be snug against the
door frame on the furnace.
Using two 1/4-20 x 1-1/4” Carriage bolts, the smoke curtain
clips and two nuts, attach the smoke curtain in place above the
Fuel Feed Door as shown below. After installation, the smoke
curtain should swing freely back into the furnace.
(1) Smoke Curtain
(2) Smoke Curtain Clips
(2) 1/4-20 x 1-1/4 Carriage Bolt
(2) 1/4-20 Kep Nut
(1) Feed Door Latch
(1) Ash Door Latch
(4) 1/4-20 x 3/4 Hex Bolt
(4) 1/4-20 Kep Nut
Feed Door
Illustration
Ash Door
Illustration
1/4-20 NUT
SMOKE CURTAIN
CLIP
1/4-20 x 1-1/4
CARRIAGE BOLT
SMOKE CURTAIN
NUT
BOLT
SMOKE CURTAIN
CLIP
SMOKE CURTAIN
FRONT
9
DISTRIBUTION BLOWER & ACC.
All electrical connections should be done by a qualified electrician.
To replace the Honeywell Limit Control (A): Unplug from
power supply
The control may be removable thru the access panel on item
“B”. However it may be easier to remove item “B” entirely for
better access. Remove item “B” by means of the eight(8) screws.
If siliconed, use a utility knife to score the silicone along the
edges of the part. Take off the cover of the control (A), remove
the three wires, and continue to remove the control by means of
the two screws retaining it. Use the wiring diagram in the rear
of this manual to re-connect the new control. Reattach item
“B” and re-silicone all the seams with weather resistant silicone.
2. To remove the return air box (D): Unplug from power supply.
If siliconed, use a utility knife to score the silicone along the
edges of the part. Remove item “B” as described above. Then
remove the four(4) screws down each side and the four(4)
across the top of the return air box. Pull the box back away
from the unit enough that you can reach in to remove the snapin plug (C) from the top of the box. The power supply cord
will need to be feed back thru the plug in the bottom of the air
box for complete removal. When re-attaching, make sure that
the three plugs in the top of the Fan Center (G) are properly
plugged in. Do not forget to put the snap-in plug (C) back in
place. Re-silicone all the seams with weather resistant silicone.
3. To remove the Distribution Blower (E): Unplug from power supply.
Remove items”B” and “D” as described above. Unplug the
blower from the top of the Fan Center (G). Remove the four(4)
screws retaining the blower.
4. To remove the Blower Motor: Unplug from power supply.
Perform number 3 above. Before removing the motor from the
housing, measure two things:
1.) The distance from the edge of the motor to the edge of the
motor bracket. Record (d1) _________________
2.) The distance of the shaft remaining outside the coupling on
the blower wheel. Record (d2) __________________
These two measurements dictate the position of the blower inside the housing and is critical in determining motor longevity. Repositioning of the blower motor, bracket, and wheel in
respect to one another should keep as close to the factory position as possible.
Remove the three(3) screws (I) from the blower housing. Then
loosen the bolt (J) on the motor shaft. Next, loosen or remove
the bolt (K) in the motor bracket to remove the motor.
5. To remove the Blower Capacitor (F): Unplug from power supply.
This may be accomplished by working thru the 12 inch diameter return duct hole in the Return Box. Otherwise, you must
remove items”B” and “D” as described above. Unplug the blower from the top of the Fan Center (G). Using pliers with rubber
coated handles, unplug the two connections on the capacitor.
Remove the two screws and cap bracket.
A
1.
10
B
C
C
E
D
F
H
G
d1
K
I
d2
J
MOTORIZED NATURAL DRAFT REPLACEMENT
1. Make certain the unit has been unplugged from the power
source. Remove the cover from the motor and remove the
two wire nuts and grounding screw. With a pair of pliers,
remove the strain relief and cord assembly from the motor.
If motor comes with the cord, the above step is not required.
However, you will have to remove the panel on the inner
cabinet side to rewire the motor. Do so by removing the rivets with a 3/16” drill bit. Screws may be used to replace the
rivets.
2. Remove the draft assembly from the furnace by loosening
the two bolts retaining draw band.
3. To remove the motor from the tubing assembly, simply loosen the set screw in the collar on the motor and slide it off the
tube.
4. If replacing the Flipper, remove the two #8 screws retaining
the plate to the tube.
Reverse the above steps for re-assembly
(1) Draft Actuator
(1) Spin Draft
(1) 3/8-16 Carriage Bolt
(1) 3/8-16 Lock Nut
(1) Flipper Tube
(1) Flipper
(2) #8 Screw
FIREBRICK AND BAFFLE REPLACEMENT
FIREBOX BRICK REPLACEMENT
BAFFLE/BRICK REPLACEMENT
This furnace comes from the factory with the firebrick installed. However, if brick replacement is necessary, follow these
instructions. Before furnace operation, remove the brick retaining strip. This piece is used during shipping to reduce brick
damage.
There are 6 full brick and 1 half brick per side. Install the half
brick first by putting the bottom of the brick in first and let it
rest against the firebox side and fire grates. Then slide it to the
rear. After that, install the #2, #3, #4, #5 & #6 brick, sliding the
6th brick forward to allow for the 7th brick. Repeat for opposite
side.
NOTE: Prior to operation, be sure to remove the brick retaining strips.
If baffle replacement is necessary, slide the baffle out until you
can access the nuts thru the flue outlet. Once the nuts have
been removed, slide the baffle off the rod and thru the opening
in the firebrick. You may have to remove one of the firebrick to
make baffle removal easier.
There are 4 full brick and 1 half brick in the top of the furnace.
Install the brick by inserting one end of the brick angled upward and then allowing the opposite end to rest on the firebox
lip. Lay the brick between the spacer and firebox back. Slide the
baffle to the rear and let it rest on that half brick. After installing brick #2 in the front, install #3 and slide it under the baffle.
Finally install bricks #4 and #5.
11
TESTING AND OPERATING PROCEDURES
5. Waste petroleum products, paints or paint thinners, or asGENERAL FURNACE OPERATION
After installation of the furnace is complete, it is ready for operation. The Honeywell Limit Control, in conjunction with a wall
thermostat, operates the distribution blowers and the motorized
draft on the front of the furnace. The limit control is located on
the rear of the furnace in the upper left corner and is accessible
by removing the two screws in the cover plate. DO NOT operate
your furnace with this plate removed! The control can be adjusted to your desired blower On/Off times. The factory settings
are 100/150/200.
The wall thermostat setting operates the ON time of the motorized draft. If the temperature is below the setting on the wall
thermostat, the motorized draft will come open. (Recommended
setting at 5 to 10 degrees higher than other heating thermostats.)
The first two set points on the limit control operates the distribution blower. When the furnace plenum reaches the second
set point on the limit control, the distribution blower will come
on. If the temperature falls to the first set point, the distribution blower will shut-off. The distribution blower is a three speed
blower and can be manually adjusted by means of the three position switch located behind the sliding access panel on the cold
air return box.
When the furnace reaches the third set point on the limit control,
the draft blower will shut-off. The draft blower will come back on
if the temperature falls below the setting on the wall thermostat.
TESTING
1. Check the motorized draft by turning the room thermostat up
high enough so that the motorized draft opens. Then lower the
thermostat setting to ensure it closes off.
2. Use a sheet of newspaper to test your draft by placing it inside
the furnace and lighting it.
With completion of the tests above, you are ready to light the
furnace. Follow the operating steps.
STARTING A WOOD FIRE USING MOTORIZED
NATURAL DRAFT
The top down method of fire building is recommended for this
appliance. After making sure that the stove air intake controls
are fully open (completely pull-out towards you), Place the largest pieces of wood on the bottom, laid in parallel and close together. Smaller pieces are placed in a second layer, crossways to
the first. A third layer of still smaller pieces is laid crossways to
the second, this time with some spaces between. Then a fourth
layer of loose, small kindling and twisted newspaper sheets tops
off the pile.
Higher efficiencies and lower emissions generally result when
burning air dried seasoned hardwoods, as compared to softwoods or to green or freshly cut hardwoods.
DO NOT BURN:
1. Garbage;
2. Lawn clippings or yard waste;
3. Materials containing rubber, including tires;
4. Materials containing plastic;
12
phalt products;
Materials containing asbestos;
Construction or demolition debris;
Railroad ties or pressure-treated wood;
Manure or animal remains;
Salt water driftwood or other previously salt water saturated
materials;
11. Unseasoned wood; or
12. Paper products, cardboard, plywood, or particleboard. The
prohibition against burning these materials does not prohibit the use of fire starters made from paper, cardboard,
saw dust, wax and similar substances for the purpose of
starting a fire in an affected wood heater.
Burning these materials may result in release of toxic fumes or
render the heater ineffective and cause smoke.
Dead wood lying on the forest floor should be considered wet,
and requires full seasoning time. Standing dead wood can usually be considered to be about 2/3 seasoned. Splitting and stacking
wood before it is stored accelerates drying time. Storing wood on
an elevated surface from the ground and under a cover or covered area from rain or snow also accelerates drying time. A good
indicator if wood is ready to burn is to check the piece ends. If
there are cracks radiating in all directions from the center then
the wood should be dry enough to burn. If your wood sizzles in
the fire, even though the surface is dry, it may not be fully cured,
and should be seasoned longer
CAUTION: Never use gasoline, gasoline-type lantern fuel, kerosene, charcoal lighter fluid, or similar liquids to start or “freshen
up” a fire in the furnace. Keep all such liquids well away from the
furnace while it is in use.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
1. Open spin draft cap on ash door.
2. Pull the slide baffle rod to the front position.
3. Open the fuel load door and light fire using kindling and several
sheets of newspaper, then close the furnace door. The furnace
door should remain closed for 5 to 10 minutes in order to
establish the fire. If the fire has established, you are ready to
load the furnace.
CAUTION: To prevent flame and smoke spillage, the slide baffle
must be pulled out and the fuel door must be cracked for ten
seconds before being fully opened.
Do not over fire your furnace! After you have become familiar with
its operating, you should know how much wood to use.
4. Load the furnace, close the load door and push the slide Baffle
rod to rear.
5. Close the spin draft cap on ash door, leaving it cracked about
the diameter of a dime.
6. The motorized draft cycles (opened & closed) on demand from
the wall thermostat. Setting the U.S. Stove thermostat four degrees higher than your existing thermostat is recommended.
In operation, the power draft will remain open until the U.S.
Stove thermostat temperature setting is reached. Then it will
close to reduce combustion air. If the furnace looses power, the
draft will automatically close.
•
CAUTION: To avoid excessive temperatures, do not operate
with fuel door or ash pan open.
STARTING A COAL FIRE
•
Shut off FAD when fuel door is open
Open all draft controls on your furnace. Pull the slide baffle
forward.
• Place about 10-15 lb. of coal in on the shaker grates. It should
come up to about half of the first firebrick level.
• Place crumpled paper over the coal and crisscross a couple
handfuls of dry kindling wood 3/4” in thickness on top of paper.
• Ignite the paper and close loading door. Wait about 30 minutes
until coal fire is established before adding more coal. NOTE:
NEVER load coal over the level of firebrick.
• Close by-pass damper and set all draft controls to your own
needs. It may take 3 to 4 coal fires to determine how your
local coal and the Clayton Furnace reacts together. Adjusts
drafts accordingly.
• When loading with a good bed of coals in the morning - Open
by-pass damper.
1. In normal shaking, only rock the grates a small amount to
sift ash through. Do not agitate the fire bed too often. This
practice will waste coal. If glowing coal is visible in the ash
pan, you have shaken to much.
2. Remove all ashes every day from ash pit.
CAUTION: Ashes should be placed in a metal container with a
tight fitting lid. The closed container of ashes should be placed
on a non-combustible floor or on the ground well away from
all combustible materials pending final disposal. If the ashes are
disposed of by burial in soil or otherwise locally dispersed, they
should be retained in the closed container until all coals have
thoroughly cooled.
3. With your poker, push hot burning embers to the rear of the
unit and add green coal in front. NEVER load over height
of firebrick. This can result in damage to your furnace and
home.
4. Close by-pass damper.
• Too much draft air will cause clinkering of coal and will waste
heat up the chimney. Shut draft down to as low a point as you
can and still heat your home.
1. NOTE: Never stand in front of loading door when opening
it. Stand to the side.
2. NEVER completely cover the live fire with fresh coal. Always
leave a generous area of glowing coal at the top of the fire
and at the rear.
3. Always keep the ash pit clean.
• If the fire goes out or does not hold overnight, look for:
1. Poor draft.
2. Incorrect damper settings.
3. Improper firing methods for coal being used.
4. More combustion air needed.
5. Coal not sized to the furnace. We recommend 1” to 3”
diameter pieces of coal.
6. Ashes, if allowed to accumulate in the ash pit, will not allow
the passage of required air for combustion. Keep ash pit
clean.
7. This furnace is not to be used with an automatic stoker unless so certified.
•
•
•
There are ONLY two types of coal allowed for use in this
furnace: Bituminous Coal (soft coal) and Anthracite Coal
(hard coal). NEVER USE Cannel (or Channel) coal or Brown
(Lignite) Coal.
See our Bulletin RC454 at the rear of this manual for the best
information available on burning coal.
DANGER: Risk of Fire or Explosion - Do not burn garbage,
plastics, gasoline, drain oil or other flammable liquids. Plastics,
when burned, form hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids which
will damage and destroy your furnace pipe and chimney. The
burning of trash or oil can result in an extremely hot fire and is
sometimes a cause of chimney fires. NEVER BURN GREEN
WOOD OR TIRES.
WARNING: Risk of Fire - Do not operate with flue draft
exceeding .06 inches of water column and must be set with a
draft gauge to maintain a steady draft. (Barometric Damper
recommended.)
OPERATING NOTES
This wood heater has a manufacturer-set minimum low burn
rate that must not be altered. It is against federal regulations to
alter this setting or otherwise operate this wood heater in a manner inconsistent with operating instructions in this manual.
VISIBLE SMOKE
The amount of visible smoke being produced can be an effective
method of determining how efficiently the combustion process
is taking place at the given settings. Visible smoke consist of unburned fuel and moisture leaving your stove. Learn to adjust the
air settings of your specific unit to produce the smallest amount
of visible smoke. Wood that has not been seasoned properly and
has a high wood moisture content will produce excess visible
smoke and burn poorly.
EFFICIENCY
Efficiencies can be based on either the lower heating value (LHV)
or the higher heating value (HHV) of the fuel. The lower heating
value is when water leaves the combustion process as a vapor, in
the case of woodstoves the moisture in the wood being burned
leaves the stove as a vapor. The higher heating value is when
water leaves the combustion process completely condensed. In
the case of woodstoves this would assume the exhaust gases are
room temperature when leaving the system, and therefore calculations using this heating value consider the heat going up the
chimney as lost energy. Therefore, efficiency calculated using
the lower heating value of wood will be higher than efficiency
calculated using the higher heating value. In the United States
all woodstove efficiencies should be calculated using the higher
heating value.
The best way to achieve optimum efficiencies is to learn the burn
characteristic of you appliance and burn well-seasoned wood.
Higher burn rates are not always the best heating burn rates; after a good fire is established a lower burn rate may be a better
option for efficient heating. A lower burn rate slows the flow of
usable heat out of the home through the chimney, and it also
consumes less wood.
• Do not operate with the fuel loading or ash removal doors open.
•
Do not store fuel or other combustible material within
marked installation clearances.
• Inspect and clean your flues and chimney regularly.
13
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CAUTION: Hot Surfaces - Keep children away. Do not touch
during operation. Maximum draft marked on nameplate.
Equip your home with fire extinguishers and smoke detectors
appropriately located.
Wood should be placed directly onto the cast iron shaker
grate of the Clayton furnace. Do not use additional grates
and/or irons.
Do not allow ashes to build up higher than 2” above grates.
Never allow the ashes in the ash pan to touch the grate section. REMOVE ASHES FREQUENTLY!
Be extremely careful when removing furnace ash pan; it can
get very hot.
With new steel, there is a small amount of oil or dirt on the
metal. You may smell an odor. This is normal during the first
operation. You may want to build a small fire in the furnace
to “burn off ” this dirt and oil before installing the duct work.
The furnace is designed to burn air dried wood and coal at a
predetermined firing rate. Over firing could result in damage
to the heat exchanger and cause dangerous operation. Over
firing occurs when the ash door is left open during operation
or a highly volatile fuel, i.e. large amounts of small kindling,
is used. If any portion of the connector pipe glows orange or
red, you are in an over-firing situation. Close all dampers.
When tending the firebox always pull the baffle slide rod out
prior to opening load door. Open load door slowly to avoid
a “flash back”. After closing load door, push the baffle slide
rod to the rear.
In event of chimney fire, shut all draft controls and call your
fire department immediately. Alert everyone in the house.
If the fire is still burning vigorously, throw baking soda into
firebox or discharge a fire extinguisher into the firebox. After
chimney fire is over, completely inspect system for damage
before further use.
NEVER throw water on the fire or at the furnace, as rapidly
expanding steam could result in a severe scalding.
Slow fires: It is not recommended burning the Clayton furnace
any more than necessary early in the fall and late spring, as
you cannot keep the firebox hot enough (without overheating your home) to burn gases. Slow fires can cause excessive
creosote build-up in smoke pipe, chimney and firebox.
Inspect air filters regularly. The air filter should be changed
at least every 30 days.
Oil motors every 90 days with a few drops of 30 wt. oil.
Check the fit on the load door. It must fit tightly. If it does
not, check for deterioration or wear of the ceramic rope seal.
Replace defective seals.
In the event of a power failure, the furnace will not distribute
heat to the home. We recommend the use of a back-up generator, 2,000 watts minimum, for continued use until regular
power is restored
INSPECT FLUE PIPES, FLUE PIPE JOINTS AND FLUE
PIPE SEALS REGULARLY TO ENSURE THAT SMOKE
AND FLUE GASES ARE NOT DRAWN INTO, AND CIRCULATED BY, THE AIR-CIRCULATION SYSTEM.
CAUTION: CLEANOUT OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER,
FLUE PIPE, CHIMNEY, AND DRAGT INDUCER IF USED,
IS ESPECIALY IMPORTANT AT THE END OF THE HEATING SEASON TO MINIMIZE CORROSION DURING
THE SUMMER MONTHS, CAUSED BY ACCUMULATED
ASH.
NOTE: For further information on using your furnace safely,
obtain a copy of the National Fire Protection Association publication “Using Coal and Wood Stoves Safely.” NFPA NO. NW8-1974. The address of the NFPA is 470 Atlantic Ave., Boston,
Massachusetts 02210.
THIS IS A WOOD AND COAL BURNING
FURNACE AND SHOULD NOT BE ALTERED IN ANY WAY! DOING SO WILL
VOID YOUR WARRANTY!
THIS IS A WOOD AND COAL BURNING
FURNACE AND SHOULD NOT BE ALTERED IN ANY WAY! DOING SO WILL
VOID YOUR WARRANTY!
When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar and other organic
vapors, which combine with expelled moisture to form creosote.
The creosote vapors condense in the relatively cool chimney flue
of a slow-burning fire. As a result, creosote residue accumulates
on the flue lining. When ignited, this creosote makes an extremely
hot fire. The chimney should be inspected at least twice monthly
during the heating season to determine if a creosote build-up has
occurred. If creosote has accumulated, it should be removed to
reduce the risk of a chimney fire.
OVER FIRING
Attempts to achieve heat output rates that exceed heater design
specifications can result in permanent damage to the heater.
Whenever ashes get 3 to 4 inches deep in your firebox or ash pan,
and when the fire has burned down and cooled, remove excess
ashes. Leave an ash bed approximately 1 inch deep on the firebox
bottom to help maintain a hot charcoal bed.
ASH REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL
Ashes should be placed in a metal container with a tight-fitting lid.
The closed container of ashes should be placed on a noncombustible floor or on the ground, away from all combustible materials,
pending final disposal. The ashes should be retained in the closed
container until all cinders have thoroughly cooled.
SMOKE AND CO MONITORS
Burning wood naturally produces smoke and carbon monoxide(CO)
emissions. CO is a poisonous gas when exposed to elevated concentrations for extended periods of time. While the modern
combustion systems in heaters drastically reduce the amount of
CO emitted out the chimney, exposure to the gases in closed or
confined areas can be dangerous. Make sure your stove gaskets
and chimney joints are in good working order and sealing properly to ensure unintended exposure. It is recommended that you
use both smoke and CO monitors in areas having the potential
to generate CO.
GASKETS
It is recommended that you change the door gasket (which makes
your stove door air tight) once a year, in order to insure good control over the combustion, maximum effi ciency and security. To
change the door gasket, simply remove the damaged one. Carefully
clean the available gasket groove, apply a high temperature silicone
sold for this purpose, and install the new gasket. You may light up
your stove again approximately 24 hours after having completed
ATTENTION:
This wood heater needs periodic inspection and repair for proper operation. It is against federal regulations to operate this
wood heater in a manner inconsistent with operating instructions in this manual.
14
this operation. This unit’s doors use a 3/8” diameter rope gasket.
OPERATIONAL TIPS
•
•
•
Operational Tips for Good, Efficient, and Clean Combustion
• Get the appliance hot and establish a good coal bed before
adjusting to a low burn rate (this may take 30 minutes or
more depending on your wood)
• Use smaller pieces of wood during start-up and a high burn
rate to increase the stove temperature
•
•
•
•
• Be considerate of the environment and only burn dry wood
• Burn small, intense fires instead of large, slow burning fires
when possible
• Learn your appliance’s operating characteristics to obtain
optimum performance
• Burning unseasoned wet wood only hurts your stoves efficiency and leads to accelerated creosote buildup in your
chimney.
TROUBLE SHOOTING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
B. Check for bad fan bearings.
1. Problem:
5. Problem:
Smoke puffs from furnace
Distribution blower continues to run or will not run
Solution:
Solution:
A. Check chimney draft. Check for blocked chimney or flue pipe.
Use mirror to check chimney clearance.
A. Check fan limit or heat sensor and cable.
B. Check ash pit — if it is too full, empty.
B. Check to see that blower is properly wired.
(See Wiring and Assembly Instructions).
C. Make sure all of chimney mortar connections are airtight.
C. Check fuse box or power source.
D. Check ash drawer. Make sure it’s airtight.
E. Check chimney for possible down-draft caused by taller surrounding trees or objects. Correct with proper chimney vent cap.
F.
D. Check power supply.
6. Problem:
Motorized draft stays open or will not close
Check the possibility of a cold chimney forcing cool gases
backward. Remedied by properly insulating chimney with noncombustible liner — non-combustible insulation.
Solution:
A. Check wiring.
B. Check thermostat or thermostat wire for short.
G. Fuel may be too green.
H. Make sure no other fuel burning devices are connected to the
chimney impairing the draft.
I.
C. Make sure temperature is calling for heat.
7. Problem:
Odor from first fire
Check chimney draft, it should be .06 inches of water column.
This service is provided by a certified chimney sweep.
Solution:
2. Problem:
A. The odor from new steel should disappear in a few hours.
Inadequate heat being delivered to your home
B. If the odor remains, call you dealer immediately. A bad weld can
cause a fume leak.
Solution:
A. Check home insulation — is it adequate?
8.
Problem:
B. Check hook-up to furnace — is it installed correctly?
Excessive Creosote
C. Cool air inlet may be inadequate.
Solution:
D. Your wood fuel may be too low grade. Hardwoods are recommended.
A. Check the grade of wood you are burning.
E. Make sure your hot air duct (and other duct work) is airtight.
C. Check length of flue pipe and its connections.
F.
D. Make sure you are burning the smallest, hottest fire to adequately
heat your home.
B. Make sure your unit is serviced by its own proper chimney.
Is air to the blower available?
3. Problem:
E. Also see Solutions to Problem number 1.
Excess smoke or flames coming out door when refueling
Solution:
9.
Problem:
A. Wait 15 seconds and open door SLOWLY — then refuel.
If the fire goes out or does not hold over night
B. Check length of flue pipe to chimney.
Solution:
C. Make sure chimney cap is not too close to the top of the chimney.
A. Poor Draft.
D. Check chimney draft — make sure chimney flue pipe is clean
and chimney is of adequate height.
B. Incorrect damper settings.
E. Make sure you’re not suffocating the fire with excessive amounts
of unburned wood.
D. More combustion air needed.
F.
Slide baffle should be pulled out prior to load door opening.
4. Problem:
Distribution blower vibrating
Solution:
A. Tighten blower wheel to motor shaft.
C. Improper firing methods if burning coal.
E. Coal not sized to the furnace. We recommend 1” to 3” diameter
pieces of coal.
F. Ashes, if allowed to accumulate in the ash pit, will not allow
passage of the required air for combustion. Keep ash pit clean.
G. This furnace is not to be used with an automatic stoker unless so
certified.
15
WIRING DIAGRAM
SERVO MOTOR
16
PARTS DIAGRAM
17
PARTS DIAGRAM AND LIST
Key
Description
Part #
Qty
Key
Description
Part #
1
Grate Retainer
40312
2
42
Insulation, Top-Front
88150
Qty
1
2
Shaker Bar
891341
1
43
Insulation, Top-Middle
88151
1
3
Shaker Grate Section
40314
5
44
Insulation, Top-Rear
88152
1
4
Front Liner
40344
1
45
Mount, Flue Outlet (25727)
891916
1
5
Back Liner
40313
1
46
Weldment, Cabinet Top (69648)
891910
1
6
Full Firebrick (4-1/2 wide x 9 tall x 1-1/4 thick)
89066
16
47
D-Ring Clip
83912
4
7
Half Firebrick (2-1/4 wide x 9 tall x 1-1/4 thick)
891414
3
48
Bottom Intake, Painted
25722B
1
8
Slide Baffle
24231
1
49
Assembly, Cabinet Door
69649
1
9
Baffle Rod
86662
1
50
Latch, Cabinet Door
891865
1
10
Inside Cover Plate
24220
1
51
1800 CFM Blower Assembly
80590
1
11
Gasket, Water Coil Cover
C97999
1
N/S
1/4-20 x 3/4 Self Tapping Screw
83236
4
12
#12 x 3/4: Tek Screw
C23799
3
N/S
Washer
83045
4
13
Carriage Bolt, 1/4-20 x 1-1/4 Long
83445
2
52
Blower Motor
80588
1
14
Smoke Door Clip
23787
2
53
Fan Center Assembly
69651
1
15
Kep Nut, 1/4-20
83250
2
54
Honeywell Limit Control
80145
1
16
Smoke Curtain
23800
1
55
Harness, 3 Circuit Plug
80586
1
17a
Door Handle (Feed Door with Roll Pin)
69655
1
56
7/8” Snap Bushing-Heyco (BLK)
83909
3
17b
Door Handle (Ash Door)
24179
1
57
Cable Chase (25732)
891897
1
N/S
Lock Nut, 1/2-13
83444
2
58
Gasket, Access Panel
88155
1
N/S
Washer
83835
2
59
Probe Access Panel (25733)
891898
1
18
Feed Door Latch
23786
1
60
Cover, Water Coil (25725)
891894
1
19
Feed Door Assy. (w/Rope Gasket)
69653
1
61
Bottom, Blower Box (25734)
891899
1
20
Shaker Handle
69005
1
62
1-1/4” Bushing, Heyco
83910
1
21
Bracket, Shaker Handle
24204
1
63
Right Side, Blower Box (25737)
891902
1
22
Ash Door Latch
23823
1
64
Left Side Assy., Blower Box
69650
1
23
Ash Pan
68882
1
65
Back, Blower Box (25736)
891901
1
24
Carry Handle
24233
1
66
Top, Blower Box (25735)
891900
1
25
Ash Door Assy. (w/Rope Gasket)
68880
1
67
MTG. Bracket, Blower Box (25741)
891906
2
26
Draft Cap
23859
2
68
Motorized Natural Draft (MND) Assembly
69654
1
27
Outer Side Wall, Left (25715)
891889
1
N/S
MND Motor
80592
1
28
Panel-L, Inner Cabinet, Painted
25746B
1
69
3” Draw Band
23888
1
29
Clip, Outer Wall (25718)
891912
2
70
1/4-20 x 1” Hex Bolt
83379
2
30
Bracket, Alignment (25719)
891913
2
71
1/4-20 Lock Nut
83261
2
31
Cabinet Door Stop (25720)
891891
1
72
Plate, Electrical Connection, Painted
25745B
1
32
Insulation, Cabinet Side
88149
4
73
Strain Relief Bushing
80154
1
33
Outer Side Wall, Right (25716)
891890
1
74
Hook, Handle (25748)
891919
1
34
Panel-R, Inner Cabinet, Painted
25717B
1
75
Handle, Separable
891884
1
35
Harness, 2 Circuit Plug
80587
1
N/S
Spring Handle
891135
1
36
Filler, Top (25721)
891892
1
76
12” Stub Collar
89799
1
37
Hood, Front (25744)
891907
1
77
10” Stub Collar
891868
1
38
Assembly, Cabinet Back
69647
1
N/S
#10 x 3/4 Tek Screw w/ Bonded Neoprene Washer
83572
96
39
Insulation, Back
88153
1
N/S = Not Shown
40
Insulation Holder
83884
16
41
Inner Top, Painted
25726B
1
IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN WARRANTY, COMPONENTS MUST BE REPLACED USING ORIGINAL
MANUFACTURERS PARTS PURCHASED THROUGH YOUR DEALER OR DIRECTLY FROM THE
APPLIANCE MANUFACTURER.
USE OF THIRD PARTY COMPONENTS WILL VOID THE WARRANTY.
18
PARTS DIAGRAMS AND LISTS - MOTORIZED DRAFT KIT
4
Key
Description
Part #
Qty
1
Weldment, Draft Tube
68872
1
2
Spin Draft
40379
1
3
3/8-16 x 2-1/2 Carriage Bolt
83503
1
4
Lock Nut, 3/8-16
83274
1
5
Actuator, Motorized Draft
80592
1
6
Tube, Flipper
23899
1
7
Flipper
23898
1
8
#8 x 1/2 Tek Screw, Hex Head
83455
2
9
Strain Relief
80154
1
10
Power Supply Cord
80593
17 in.
11
Male, Tyco Terminal
80382
2
19
PARTS DIAGRAMS AND LISTS - FAN CENTER CONTROL
Key
20
Description
Part #
Qty
1
Electrical Box Cover
25742
1
2
Electrical Box Body
25743
1
3
Switch, 3-Position
80692
1
4
Harness, 6 Circuit Receptacle
80583
1
5
Harness, 3 Circuit Receptacle
80584
1
6
Harness, 2 Circuit Receptacle
80585
1
7
Transformer, Fan Center
80130
1
8
Strain Relief
80154
1
9
Power Supply Cord
80232
1
10
#10 x 1/2 Sheet Metal Screw
83172Z
13
11
Washer, Internal tooth, #10
83240
1
DOMESTIC HOT WATER COIL KIT - OPTIONAL
This Furnace will accept the installation of a Domestic Hot Water Coil Kit. The U.S. Stove kit is a 1124 Water Coil and it may
be purchased from your local dealer.
1. Remove the access panel on the rear of the furnace enclosure.
2. With a utility knife, cut away a section of the insulation directly behind the access panel.
3. Remove the cover plate from the rear of the furnace firebox.
4. Place one nut on each end of the water coil and thread each
nut up to the end of the threads on the coil.
5. Insert the coil through the holes from the inside of the firebox. Install a gasket, washer and nut onto each end of the
water coil. Tighten the nuts down securely to insure an air
tight seal.
The installation is now ready to be plumbed to your existing
hot water system. Choose one of the three methods described
in the Hot Water Coil instructions.
6. Remove knockouts from the access panel and re-attach to the
furnace enclosure.
Have a qualified plumber connect your domestic hot water pipe
to the coil with the appropriate fittings.
2
1
ACCESS
PANEL
3
REAR WALL OF
FIREBOX
5
4
DOMESTIC HOT WATER
COIL
6
1. NUT
2. WASHER
3. GASKET
TURN INSIDE NUTS UP
TO END OF THREADS
BULLETIN RC454
A GUIDE TO BURNING COAL IN YOUR FURNACE
Furnaces that are capable of burning coal usually will burn both
Bituminous and Anthracite coal. Anthracite is perhaps the best
coal fuel because of its long even burn time, high heat output,
and cleanliness which make it a good choice for the home. However, keep in mind it is a much more difficult fuel to use, requires
more care and patience, is not so widely available, and is usually
much more expensive than Bituminous.
STOVE OPERATION
SIZE OF COAL
Before starting the fire, open the stove pipe damper (if equipped),
turn the thermostat to high, open the ash pit door and feed door,
place newspaper and finely split kindling on the grate, light the
paper, add larger hard wood after the kindling is burning brightly. CAUTION: Never use gasoline, lantern fuel, kerosene, charcoal lighter fluid, or other flammable liquids to start or freshen
up a fire in any heater. Place the larger pieces of wood on the
fire so that they are slightly separated and form a level for the
addition of coal. It will take 10 to 20 minutes before this wood is
thoroughly ignited. Adding coal too soon will cut the air supply
and smother the fire.
Most sizes of Bituminous Coal will work in a coal furnace; for
best results we recommend large “nut” coal to small “egg” coal
(1-3/4” diameter to 4” diameter). When burning Anthracite, use
“egg” or “broken” with sizes between 2-5/16” thru 4-3/8”. Note
that it is important to the long life of your stove to buy coal which
has been sized and cleaned. Cleaning insures removal of rocks
and other minerals. Never use coal smaller than 1” or larger than
5” in diameter. Small sized coal will smother the fire. Too large a
size of coal will not burn well.
All coal fires should be started with wood which will allow the
fire to get hot enough to ignite the coal. The best ignition fires
utilize dry pine or other resinous soft woods as kindling, with
hard wood (oak, hickory, ash) added to increase the heat prior to
addition of the coal.
21
BULLETIN RC454
A GUIDE TO BURNING COAL IN YOUR FURNACE
BURNING BITUMINOUS
Once your kindling and wood fire has produced a bed of well
established coals, start adding coal in layers allowing each to ignite before adding more. Bituminous has a high volatile content
and, as a result, should be fired with the “conical method” - with
the highest portion of your fire bed in the center of the firebox.
The first flames will be long and generally orange or yellow and
produce quite a bit of smoke. As the gases burn off the flames
become shorter, change color and produce less smoke.
Once the fire is WELL ESTABLISHED add coal to the center of
the firebox forming the cone. Burning in this fashion allows heat
to drive off the volatile gases, and turbulence created increases
the burn efficiency. There will have to be some experimenting
with the individual setup as no two chimney’s or installations are
going to be the same. Just remember to allow enough air to enter
the firebox and keep the stove pipe damper open so that volatiles
are properly burned. Before refueling, take the time to break up
the cone a little with a poker, especially if it has caked over or
formed a crust. But, be careful not to mix the coal as this increases the chances of forming clinkers. When shaking the grate(s)
be gentle. Just a few short movements - a couple of “cranks” - is
better than a lot of agitation. The objective is to remove a small
amount of the ashes without disturbing the fire. Stop when you
see a glow in the ashes or the first red coals fall into the ash pan.
Excessive shaking wastes fuel and can expose the grate(s) to very
high temperatures which can cause warpage or burnout.
exhaust the smoke, but to pull combustion air into the heater as
well - and no two chimney’s perform the same. Under ideal draft
conditions, one should be able to turn the secondary air supply
below the feed door (some models) to a near closed position but leave the ash pit damper at least partially open to prevent the
fire from going out. Adjust the stove pipe damper to reduce the
draft on the fire. With anthracite there will be short blue flames
above the coal, except when the fire is started or a new charge is
added. If, however, there is no flame then the fire needs more air
from the bottom (unless it is near the end of its burn cycle and
needs to be recharged).
Only when the coal is burned down to half its original depth it
is time to add fresh coal. When doing so, open the stove pipe
damper and turn the thermostat damper to high, which will allow the fire to burn off any accumulated gases. Open the feed
door, and with a small rake, hoe, or hooked poker pull the glowing coals to the front of the firebox. Try not to disturb the fire too
much. Next, add a fresh charge to the back being careful not to
seal off the top. Close the feed door, but leave the spin damper
(or thermostat) open for a few minutes until the volatile gases
have burned off. It is not necessary to shake down the ashes each
time you refuel the furnace. Experience will be your best teacher.
BANKING THE FIRE
ANTHRACITE
For extended operation, such as overnight, the fire will need to
be banked. To do so heap coal up along the sides and back of the
firebox so that the fire gradually burns it over a longer period of
time. The intensity of the fire will also be reduced without letting
it go out. Follow the same procedure as for refueling. If possible,
avoid shaking, as a heavier layer of ash will help reduce the intensity of the fire during this time. After loading, let the fire establish
itself for about 30 minutes. Then close your damper and automatic control to the point where the house does not become too
cold. It is important that you begin banking early enough before
retiring or leaving that you can make necessary adjustments after
the fire is well established.
Add a thin layer of coal (preferably smaller chunks) to the wood
fire, being careful not to disturb it too much or cut off the draft.
Then, add a second heavier layer after the coal is ignited and
burning well. If necessary, add a third layer to bring the coal up
to the top of the front liner (not above!). Be sure to close the ash
door.
To revive a coal fire that is almost out, (1) open the ash door and
stove pipe damper and close the spin damper under the door to
get a good draft through the grate. (2) place a thin layer of dry
coal over the entire top of the fire. DO NOT POKE OR SHAKE
THE FIRE AT THIS TIME! (3) after the fresh coal has become
well ignited shake the grate (just a little), refuel.
Before adding further fuel, be sure to leave a red spot of glowing
coals in the center of the firebox to insure that the fire has not
been smothered and to help ignite the gases given off by the new
charge. A deep charge will give a more even heat and a longer
fire, but it may take one to two hours before the whole bed is
fully ignited.
DO NOT burn coke, charcoal, high volatile bituminous coal, sub
bituminous, lignite or cannel coal (sometimes called channel
coal or candle coal).
For overnight operation (long duration burn time) shake the fire
and add coal, retaining the center cone. Once the volatiles are
burned off, close the feed door and adjust the stove pipe damper,
if equipped. Then adjust the thermostat to the desired heat level.
More MAINTENANCE will be needed with bituminous coal
than with anthracite coal as more soot will collect on heating
surfaces and in pipes, requiring more frequent cleaning.
When the fire is well established and the room is becoming
warm, partially close the dampers. Some experimenting will
have to take place with each particular setting of all dampers and
controls as the chimney provides the draft necessary to not only
22
NEVER burn wax or chemically impregnated sawdust logs their intended use is for fireplaces only.
NEVER fill the stove or furnace above the firebrick or cast iron
liner.
NOTES
HOW TO ORDER REPAIR PARTS
This manual will help you obtain efficient, dependable service from the furnace, and enable
you to order repair parts correctly.
Keep this manual in a safe place for future reference.
When placing an order or for warranty claims, please provide the following information
found on the Certification Plate located inside the cabinet door.
PART NUMBER
PART DESCRIPTION
MODEL NUMBER______________
SERIAL NUMBER______________
United States Stove Company
227 Industrial Park Road
P.O. Box 151
South Pittsburg, TN 37380
(800)-750-2723
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