Appendix D to OTAR 91

Appendix D to OTAR 91
General Operating Instructions
Part 91
Page 1
Appendix D Rules of the Air
(a)
This Appendix contains the Rules of the Air, as specified in the
AN(OT)O.
(b)
The Rules of the Air are reproduced in this Appendix using the same
format and numbering as they appear within the AN(OT)O and so the
style differs from that elsewhere in this Part.
SCHEDULE 4
RULES OF THE AIR
SECTION I
INTERPRETATION
Interpretation
1. In these Rules—
“ACAS” means an aircraft system based on secondary surveillance radar (“SSR”) transponder
signals which operates independently of ground based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on
potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders;
“air-taxiing” means flight by a helicopter, or other type of aircraft capable of vertical take-off
and landing, above the surface of an aerodrome at a ground speed of less than 20 knots for the
purpose of taxiing in accordance with normal aviation practice;
“air traffic control clearance” means an authorisation by an air traffic control unit for an
aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by that unit;
“anti-collision light” means—
(a) in relation to rotorcraft, a flashing red light;
(b) in relation to any other aircraft, a flashing red or flashing white light; in
either case showing in all directions;
“Class C ATS route” means a route notified as such;
“day” means the time from half an hour before sunrise until half an hour after sunset (both
times exclusive), sunset and sunrise being determined at surface level;
“flight plan” means a plan containing such information as may be notified in respect of an air
traffic control service unit, being information provided or to be provided to that unit which
relates to an intended flight, or part of a flight, of an aircraft;
“ground visibility” means the horizontal visibility at ground level;
“IFR flight” means a flight conducted in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules in
Section 6 of these Rules;
“runway” means an area, whether or not paved, which is provided for the take-off or landing of
aircraft;
“simulated instrument flight conditions” means a flight during which mechanical or optical
devices are used in order to reduce the field of vision or the range of visibility from the
cockpit of the aircraft;
“special VFR flight” means a flight—
(a) made at any time in a control zone which is Class A airspace; or
(b) made in any other control zone in either Instrument Meteorological Conditions or at
night;
(c) in respect of which the appropriate air traffic control unit has given permission for the
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flight to be made in accordance with special instructions given by that unit instead of in
accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules; and
(d) in the course of which the aircraft complies with any instructions given by that unit and the
aircraft remains clear of cloud and with the surface in sight;
“VFR flight” means a flight conducted in accordance with the Visual Flight Rules in Section 5 of
these Rules;
SECTION 2
GENERAL
Application of Rules to aircraft
2. These Rules, insofar as they apply to aircraft, apply—
(a) to all aircraft within the Territory; and
(b) for the purposes of Rule 5, to all aircraft in the neighbourhood of an offshore installation;
and
(c) to all aircraft registered in the Territory, wherever they may be.
Misuse of signals and markings
3.—(1) A signal or marking which is given a meaning by Section 8 of these Rules or which is
required by Section 8 to be used in specified circumstances or for a specified purpose must not be
used except with that meaning, in those circumstances or for that purpose.
(2) A person in an aircraft or on an aerodrome or at any place at which an aircraft is taking off or
landing must not—
(a) make any signal which may be confused with a signal specified in Section 9; or
(b) except with lawful authority, make any signal which he knows or ought reasonably to
know to be a signal in use for signalling to or from any of Her Majesty’s naval, military or
air force aircraft.
(3) Signals prescribed in accordance with general international aeronautical practice for the
purposes of search and rescue must not be used for any purpose other than that intended.
Reporting hazardous conditions
4.—(1) If any aircraft encounters hazardous conditions in the course of a flight, the pilot-incommand of the aircraft must send to the appropriate air traffic control unit, by the quickest means
available, information containing such particulars of the hazardous conditions as may be pertinent to
the safety of other aircraft.
(2) The information must be sent immediately the aircraft encounters the hazardous conditions or
as soon as it is possible to do so afterwards.
SECTION 3
LOW FLYING RULE
Low flying prohibitions
5.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an aircraft must comply with the low flying prohibitions in
paragraph (3) unless exempted by rule 6.
(2) If an aircraft is flying in circumstances such that more than one of the low flying prohibitions
applies, it must fly at the greatest height required by any of the applicable prohibitions.
(3) The low flying prohibitions are as follows—
(a) Engine failure
An aircraft must not be flown below such height as would enable it to make an emergency
landing without causing danger to persons or property on the surface in the event of an
engine failure.
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(b) The 500 feet rule
Except with the written permission of the Governor, an aircraft must not be flown closer
than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.
(c) The 1,000 feet rule
Except with the written permission of the Governor, an aircraft flying over a congested
area of a city, town or settlement must not fly below a height of 1,000 feet above the
highest fixed obstacle within a horizontal radius of 600 metres of the aircraft.
(d) The land clear rule
An aircraft flying over a congested area of a city, town or settlement must not fly below
such height as would permit the aircraft to land clear of the congested area in the event of an
engine failure.
(e) Flying over open air assemblies
Except with the written permission of the Governor, an aircraft must not fly over an
organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons below whichever is the higher of the
following heights—
(i) 1,000 feet; or
(ii) such height as would permit the aircraft to land clear of the assembly in the event of an
engine failure.
(f) Landing and taking off near open air assemblies
An aircraft must not land or take-off within 1,000 metres of an organised, open-air
assembly of more than 1,000 persons except—
(i) at an aerodrome, in accordance with procedures notified by the Governor; or
(ii) at a landing site which is not an aerodrome, in accordance with procedures notified by
the Governor and with the written permission of the organiser of the assembly.
Exemptions from the low flying prohibitions
6. The exemptions from the low flying prohibitions are as follows—
(a) Landing and taking off
(i) An aircraft is exempt from the low flying prohibitions when it is flying in accordance
with normal aviation practice for the purpose of—
(aa)
taking off from, landing at or practising approaches to landing at; or
(bb)
checking navigational aids or procedures at,
a certificated or notified aerodrome.
(ii) An aircraft is exempt from the 500 feet rule when landing and taking-off in accordance
with normal aviation practice or air-taxiing.
(b) Captive balloons and kites
None of the low flying prohibitions apply to any captive balloon or kite.
(c) Special VFR flight and notified routes
(i) Subject to paragraph (ii), an aircraft is exempt from the 1,000 feet rule when—
(aa)
it is flying on a special VFR flight; or
(bb)
it is operating in accordance with the procedures notified for the route being
flown.
(ii) Unless the written permission of the Governor has been obtained, landings may only be
made by an aircraft flying under this exemption at a certificated or notified
aerodrome.
(d) Balloons and helicopters over congested areas
(i) A balloon is exempt from the 1,000 feet rule if it is landing because it is becalmed.
(ii) Subject to rule 5(3)(a) a helicopter flying over a congested area is exempt from the
land clear rule.
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(e) Police air operator’s certificate
An aircraft flying in accordance with the terms of a police air operator’s certificate is
exempt from the 500 feet rule, the 1,000 feet rule and the prohibitions on flying over open air
assemblies and on landing and taking off near open air assemblies.
(f) Flying displays etc
An aircraft taking part in a flying display is exempt from the 500 feet rule when it is
within a horizontal distance of 1,000 metres of the gathering of persons assembled to
witness the event.
(g) Glider hill-soaring
A glider is exempt from the 500 feet rule if it is hill-soaring.
(h) Picking up and dropping at an aerodrome
An aircraft picking up or dropping tow ropes, banners or similar articles at an aerodrome is
exempt from the 500 feet rule.
(i) Manoeuvring helicopters
(i) Subject to paragraph (ii), a helicopter is exempt from the 500 feet rule if it is
conducting manoeuvres, in accordance with normal aviation practice, within the
boundaries of a certificated or military aerodrome or, with the written permission of the
Governor at other sites.
(ii) When flying in accordance with this exemption the helicopter must not be operated
closer than 60 metres to any persons, vessels, vehicles or structures located outside the
aerodrome or site.
(j) Dropping articles with the permission of the Governor
An aircraft is exempt from the 500 feet rule if it is flying in accordance with—
(i) article 130(3)(f) of this Order; or
(ii) an aerial application permission granted by the Governor under article 128 of this
Order.
SECTION 4
GENERAL FLIGHT RULES
Weather reports and forecasts
7.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), immediately before an aircraft flies the pilot-in-command of the
aircraft must examine the current reports and forecasts of the weather conditions on the
proposed flight path, in order to determine whether Instrument Meteorological Conditions prevail, or
are likely to prevail, during any part of the flight.
(2) Paragraph (1) only applies if it is reasonably practicable for the pilot-in-command to obtain
current reports and forecasts of the weather conditions on the proposed flight path.
(3) Subject to paragraph (4), an aircraft which is unable to communicate by radio with an air
traffic control unit at the aerodrome of destination must not begin a flight to the aerodrome if—
(a) the aerodrome is within a control zone; and
(b) the weather reports and forecasts which it is reasonably practicable for the pilot-incommand of the aircraft to obtain indicate that it will arrive at that aerodrome when the
ground visibility is less than 10 km or the cloud ceiling is less than 1,500 feet.
(4) Paragraph (3) does not apply if, before take-off, the pilot-in-command of the aircraft has
obtained permission from the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome of destination to enter the
aerodrome traffic zone.
Avoiding aerial collisions
8.—(1) Notwithstanding that a flight is being made with air traffic control clearance it remains the
duty of the pilot-in-command of an aircraft to take all possible measures to ensure that the aircraft
does not collide with any other aircraft.
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(2) An aircraft must not be flown in such proximity to other aircraft as to create a danger of
collision.
(3) Subject to paragraph (7), aircraft must not fly in formation unless the pilots-in-command of the
aircraft have agreed to do so.
(4) An aircraft which is obliged by this Section to give way to another aircraft must avoid
passing over or under the other aircraft, or crossing ahead of it, unless passing well clear of it.
(5) Subject to paragraph (7), an aircraft which has the right-of-way under this rule must maintain its
heading and speed.
(6) For the purposes of this rule a glider and a flying machine which is towing it are considered to
be a single aircraft under the command of the pilot-in-command of the flying machine.
(7) Paragraphs (3) and (5) do not apply to an aircraft flying under and in accordance with the
terms of a police air operator’s certificate.
(8) Nothing in these Rules relieves the pilot-in-command of an aircraft from the responsibility of
taking such action, including collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided
by ACAS equipment, as will best avert a collision.
Converging
9.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) and to rules 10 and 11, aircraft in the air must give way to
other, converging aircraft as follows—
(a) flying machines must give way to airships, gliders and balloons;
(b) airships must give way to gliders and balloons;
(c) gliders must give way to balloons.
(2) Mechanically driven aircraft must give way to aircraft which are towing other aircraft or
objects.
(3) Subject to paragraph (2), when two aircraft are converging in the air at approximately the
same altitude, the aircraft which has the other on its right must give way.
Approaching head-on
10. When two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so, in the air and there is a
danger of collision, each must alter its heading to the right.
Overtaking
11.—(1) Subject to paragraph (3), an aircraft which is being overtaken in the air has the right-ofway and the overtaking aircraft, whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, must keep out
of the way of the other aircraft by altering course to the right.
(2) An aircraft which is overtaking another aircraft must keep out of the way of the other aircraft
until that other aircraft has been passed and is clear, notwithstanding any change in the relative
positions of the two aircraft.
(3) A glider overtaking another glider in the Territory may alter its course to the right or to the
left.
Flight in the vicinity of an aerodrome
12.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), a flying machine, glider or airship flying in the vicinity of
what the pilot-in-command of the aircraft knows, or ought reasonably to know, to be an aerodrome
must—
(a) conform to the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft intending to land at that
aerodrome or keep clear of the airspace in which the pattern is formed; and
(b) make all turns to the left unless ground signals otherwise indicate.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply if the air traffic control unit at that aerodrome authorises
otherwise.
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Order of landing
13.—(1) An aircraft landing or on its final approach to land has the right-of-way over other
aircraft in flight or on the ground or water.
(2) An aircraft must not cut in front of another aircraft on its final approach to land or overtake
that aircraft.
(3) If an air traffic control unit has communicated to any aircraft an order of priority for landing, the
aircraft must approach to land in that order.
(4) If the pilot-in-command of an aircraft is aware that another aircraft is making an emergency
landing, that pilot must give way to that aircraft.
(5) If the pilot-in-command gives way in the circumstances referred to in paragraph (4) at night
then, even if permission to land has previously been given, that pilot must not attempt to land until
given further permission to do so.
(6) Subject to paragraphs (2), (3) and (4), if two or more flying machines, gliders or airships are
approaching any place for the purpose of landing, the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-ofway.
Landing and take-off
14.—(1) A flying machine, glider or airship must take off and land in the direction indicated by the
ground signals or, if no such signals are displayed, into the wind, unless good aviation practice
demands otherwise.
(2) Subject to paragraph (5), a flying machine or glider must not land on a runway at an
aerodrome if there are other aircraft on the runway.
(3) If take-offs and landings are not confined to a runway—
(a) when landing a flying machine or glider must leave clear on its left any aircraft which has
landed, is already landing or is about to take off;
(b) a flying machine or glider which is about to turn must turn to the left after the pilot-incommand of the aircraft has satisfied himself that such action will not interfere with other
traffic movements; and
(c) a flying machine which is about to take off must take up position and manoeuvre in such a
way as to leave clear on its left any aircraft which has already taken off or is about to take
off.
(4) Subject to paragraph (5) a flying machine must move clear of the landing area as soon as it is
possible to do so after landing.
(5) Paragraphs (2) and (4) do not apply if the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome authorises the
flying machine or glider otherwise.
Aerobatic manoeuvres
15. An aircraft must not carry out any aerobatic manoeuvre—
(a) over the congested area of any city, town or settlement; or
(b) within controlled airspace except with the consent of the appropriate air traffic control
unit.
Right-hand traffic rule
16.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an aircraft which is flying within the Territory with the
surface in sight and following a road, railway, canal or coastline, or any other line of landmarks,
must keep them on its left.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to an aircraft flying within controlled airspace in accordance
with instructions given by the appropriate air traffic control unit.
Notification of arrival and departure
17.—(1) If the pilot-in-command of an aircraft has caused notice of the intended arrival of the
aircraft at an aerodrome to be given to the air traffic control unit or other authority at that
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aerodrome, that pilot must ensure that the unit or authority is informed as quickly as possible of—
(a) any change of intended destination; and
(b) any estimated delay in arrival of 45 minutes or more.
(2) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft arriving at or departing from an aerodrome in the
Territory must take all reasonable steps to ensure, upon landing or prior to departure, as the case
may be, that the person in charge of the aerodrome or the air traffic control unit or flight
information service unit at the aerodrome is given notice of the landing or departure.
(3) A flight plan must be submitted prior to operating—
(a) any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes, when so required by the
appropriate aeronautical authorities; or
(b) any flight across international borders.
Flight in Class A airspace
18.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the pilot-in-command of an aircraft flying in Visual
Meteorological Conditions in Class A airspace must comply with rules 35, 36 and 37 as if the
flight were an IFR flight.
(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) rule 36(2) does not apply.
(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to the pilot-in-command of a glider which is flying in Class A
airspace which is notified for the purpose of this paragraph if the glider is flown in accordance
with such conditions as may also be notified for that purpose.
Flight in Class C Airspace
19.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) the pilot-in-command of an aircraft flying in Visual
Meteorological Conditions in Class C airspace above flight level 195, or along a Class C ATS
route at any level, must comply with rules 35, 36 and 37 as if the flight were an IFR flight.
(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) rule 36(2) does not apply.
(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to the pilot-in-command of an aircraft which is flying in
accordance with an authorisation issued by the Governor.
Choice of VFR or IFR
20.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an aircraft must always be flown in accordance with the
Visual Flight Rules or the Instrument Flight Rules.
(2) In the Territory an aircraft flying at night must—
(a) be flown in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules outside a control zone;
(b) be flown in accordance with the Instrument Flight Rules in a control zone unless it is
flying on a special VFR flight.
Speed limitations
21.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), an aircraft must not fly below flight level 100 at a speed
which, according to its air speed indicator, is more than 250 knots.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to—
(a) flights in Class A airspace;
(b) VFR flights or IFR flights in Class B airspace;
(c) IFR flights in Class C airspace;
(d) VFR flights in Class C airspace or VFR flights or IFR flights in Class D airspace when
authorised by the appropriate air traffic control unit;
(e) an aircraft taking part in a flying display for which a permission is required by article
69(1) of this Order, if the flight is made in accordance with the terms of the permission
granted to the organiser of the flying display and in accordance with the conditions of the
display authorisation granted to the pilot under article 69(8) of this Order;
(f) an aircraft flying in accordance with a written permission granted by the Governor
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authorising the aircraft to exceed the speed limit in paragraph (1).
(3) The Governor may grant a permission for the purpose of paragraph (2)(f) either generally or in
respect of any aircraft or class of aircraft.
Use of radio navigation aids
22.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the pilot-in-command of an aircraft must not make use of any
radio navigation aid without complying with such restrictions and procedures as may be notified in
relation to that aid.
(2) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft is not required to comply with this rule if the pilot—
(a) is required to comply with rules 35 and 36; or
(b) is otherwise authorised by an air traffic control unit.
Simulated instrument flight
23.—(1) An aircraft must not be flown in simulated instrument flight conditions unless the
conditions in paragraph (2) are met.
(2) The conditions referred to in paragraph (1) are as follows—
(a) fully functioning dual controls are installed in the aircraft;
(b) a qualified pilot occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is flying
under simulated instrument conditions; and
(c) if the safety pilot’s field of vision is not adequate, a competent observer in
communication with the safety pilot must occupy a position in the aircraft from which
that person’s field of vision adequately supplements that of the safety pilot.
Practice instrument approaches
24.—(1) An aircraft must not carry out an instrument approach practice within the Territory if it is
flying in Visual Meteorological Conditions unless the conditions in paragraph (2) are met.
(2) The conditions referred to in paragraph (1) are as follows—
(a) the appropriate air traffic control unit has previously been informed that the flight is to be
made for the purpose of instrument approach practice; and
(b) if the flight is not being carried out in simulated instrument flight conditions, a competent
observer is carried in such a position in the aircraft that the observer has an adequate field of
vision and can readily communicate with the pilot flying the aircraft.
SECTION 5
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES
Applicability of the Visual Flight Rules
25.—(1) Rules 27, 29 and 30 are the Visual Flight Rules which apply within controlled airspace.
(2) Rule 28 is the Visual Flight Rule which applies outside controlled airspace.
Reported visibility
26. For the purposes of an aircraft taking off from or approaching to land at an aerodrome within
Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace, the visibility, if any, communicated to the pilot-in- command
of the aircraft by the appropriate air traffic control unit is deemed to be the flight visibility for
the time being.
Flight within controlled airspace
27.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), an aircraft flying within Class B, Class C, Class D or
Class E airspace—
(a) at or above flight level 100 must remain at least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet
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vertically away from cloud and in a flight visibility of at least 8 km;
(b) below flight level 100 must remain at least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet
vertically away from cloud and in a flight visibility of at least 5 km.
(2) An aircraft is deemed to have complied with paragraph (1)(b) if—
(a) the aircraft is not a helicopter and it—
(i) flies at or below 3,000 feet above mean sea level;
(ii) flies at a speed which, according to its airspeed indicator, is 140 knots or less; and
(iii) remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and in a flight visibility of at least 5
km; or
(b) the aircraft is a helicopter and it—
(i) flies at or below 3,000 feet above mean sea level; and
(ii) remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and in a flight visibility of at least
1,500 metres.
(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a helicopter that is air-taxiing or conducting manoeuvres in
accordance with rule 6(i).
Flight outside controlled airspace
28.—(1) An aircraft flying outside controlled airspace at or above flight level 100 must remain at
least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet vertically away from cloud and in a flight
visibility of at least 8 km.
(2) Subject to paragraphs (3), (4) and (5), an aircraft flying outside controlled airspace below
flight level 100 must remain at least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet vertically away from
cloud and in a flight visibility of at least 5 km.
(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply to an aircraft which—
(a) flies at or below 3,000 feet above mean sea level;
(b) remains clear of cloud with the surface in sight; and
(c) is in a flight visibility of at least 5 km.
(4) Paragraph (2) does not apply to an aircraft which—
(a) flies at or below 3,000 feet above mean sea level;
(b) flies at a speed which, according to its air speed indicator, is 140 knots or less;
(c) remains clear of cloud with the surface in sight; and
(d) is in a flight visibility of at least 1,500 metres.
(5) Paragraphs (1) and (2) do not apply to a helicopter which is air-taxiing or conducting
manoeuvres in accordance with rule 6(i).
VFR flight plan and air traffic control clearance in Class B, Class C or Class D airspace 29.—(1)
Subject to rule 31, before an aircraft flies within Class B, Class C or Class D airspace
during the notified hours of watch of the appropriate air traffic control unit, the pilot-in-command of
the aircraft must—
(a) cause to be communicated to the appropriate air traffic control unit a flight plan which
complies with paragraphs (2) and (3) (as appropriate); and
(b) obtain an air traffic control clearance to fly within that airspace.
(2) The flight plan must contain such particulars of the flight as may be necessary to enable the air
traffic control unit to issue a clearance and for search and rescue purposes.
(3) The flight plan required for a flight within Territory with reduced vertical separation minimum
airspace must also state whether or not the aircraft is equipped with height keeping systems, as
required by articles 89, 90 or 91 of this Order.
(4) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft must not cause a flight plan to be communicated to the
appropriate air traffic control unit for VFR flight in Class C airspace above FL195 or along a Class C
ATS route at any level unless authorised to do so by the Governor.
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Maintaining continuous watch and complying with air traffic control instructions
30.—(1) Subject to rule 31, whilst flying within Class B, Class C or Class D airspace during the
notified hours of watch of the appropriate air traffic control unit, the pilot-in-command of an
aircraft must—
(a) cause a continuous watch to be maintained on the notified radio frequency appropriate to the
circumstances; and
(b) comply with any instructions which the appropriate air traffic control unit may give.
Exceptions to rules 29 and 30
31.—(1) Rule 29 does not apply if the aircraft has been authorised otherwise by the appropriate air
traffic control unit.
(2) Rules 29(1) and 30 do not apply to any glider flying or intending to fly in Class B airspace
notified for the purpose of this paragraph.
(3) Rules 29(1) and 30 do not apply to any glider which—
(a) flies during the day;
(b) is in controlled airspace notified for the purpose of this paragraph; and
(c) remains at least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet vertically away from cloud and in
a flight visibility of at least 8 km.
(4) Rules 29(1) and 30 do not apply to any mechanically driven aircraft without radio equipment
if—
(a) it flies during the day;
(b) it is in controlled airspace notified for the purpose of this paragraph;
(c) it remains at least 1,500 metres horizontally and 1,000 feet vertically away from cloud
and in a flight visibility of at least 5 km; and
(d) its pilot-in-command has previously obtained the permission of the appropriate air traffic
control unit to fly within the controlled airspace.
SECTION 6
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES
Instrument Flight Rules
32.—(1) Rules 33 and 34 are the Instrument Flight Rules which apply both within and outside
controlled airspace.
(2) Rules 35, 36 and 37 are the Instrument Flight Rules which apply outside controlled airspace.
Minimum height
33.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), an aircraft must not fly at a height of less than 1,000
feet above the highest obstacle within a distance of 5 nautical miles of the aircraft unless—
(a) it is necessary for the aircraft to do so in order to take off or land;
(b) the aircraft flies on a route notified for the purposes of this rule;
(c) the aircraft has been otherwise authorised by the competent authority in relation to the
area over which the aircraft is flying; or
(d) the aircraft flies at an altitude not exceeding 3,000 feet above mean sea level and remains
clear of cloud and with the surface in sight and in a flight visibility of at least 800 metres.
(2) The aircraft must comply with rule 5.
(3) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a helicopter that is air-taxiing or conducting manoeuvres in
accordance with rule 6(i).
Quadrantal rule and semi-circular rule
34.—(1) Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), an aircraft in level flight above 3,000 feet above
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mean sea level or above the appropriate transition altitude, whichever is the higher, must be flown at
a level appropriate to its magnetic track, in accordance with Table 1 or Table 2, as appropriate.
(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1), the level of flight must be measured by an altimeter set—
(a) in the case of a flight over the Territory, to a pressure setting of 1013.2 hectopascals; or
(b) in the case of any other flight, according to the system published by the competent
authority in relation to the area over which the aircraft is flying.
(3) An aircraft may be flown at a level other than the level required by paragraph (1) if it flies—
(a) in conformity with instructions given by an air traffic control unit;
(b) in accordance with notified en-route holding patterns; or
(c) in accordance with holding procedures notified in relation to an aerodrome.
(4) For the purposes of this rule “transition altitude” means the altitude which is notified in
relation to flights over notified areas.
Table 1
Flights at Levels below 19,500 Feet
Magnetic Track
Less than 90°
90° but less than 180°
180° but less than 270°
270° but less than 360°
Cruising Level
Odd thousands of feet
Odd thousands of feet + 500 feet
Even thousands of feet
Even thousands of feet + 500 feet
Table 2
Flights at Levels above 19,500 Feet
Magnetic Track
Less than 180°
180° but less than 360°
Cruising Level
21,000 feet
23,000 feet
25,000 feet
27,000 feet
29,000 feet
31,000 feet
33,000 feet
35,000 feet
37,000 feet
39,000 feet
41,000 feet or higher levels at intervals of 4,000
feet
20,000 feet
22,000 feet
24,000 feet
26,000 feet
28,000 feet
30,000 feet
32,000 feet
34,000 feet
36,000 feet
38,000 feet
40,000 feet
43,000 feet or higher levels at intervals of 4,000
feet
Flight plan and air traffic control clearance
35.—(1) Before an aircraft either takes off from a point within any controlled airspace or
otherwise flies within any controlled airspace the pilot-in-command of the aircraft must—
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(a) send or transmit a flight plan complying with paragraph (2) to the appropriate air traffic
control unit; and
(b) obtain an air traffic control clearance based on that flight plan.
(2) The flight plan must—
(a) contain such particulars of the intended flight as may be necessary to enable the air traffic
control unit to issue an air traffic control clearance and for search and rescue purposes;
and
(b) for a flight within Territory reduced vertical separation minimum airspace, also state
whether or not the aircraft is equipped with height keeping systems as required by articles 92
or 93 of this Order.
(3) Unless the pilot in command of the aircraft has requested the appropriate air traffic control
unit to cancel the flight plan, that pilot must inform that unit immediately the aircraft lands within or
leaves the controlled airspace.
Compliance with air traffic control clearance and notified procedures
36.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the pilot-in-command of the aircraft must fly in conformity
with—
(a) the air traffic control clearance issued for the flight, as amended by any further
instructions given by an air traffic control unit; and, unless he is authorised otherwise by
the appropriate air traffic control unit;
(b) the instrument departure procedures notified in relation to the aerodrome of departure;
and
(c) the holding and instrument approach procedures notified in relation to the aerodrome of
destination.
(2) The pilot-in-command of the aircraft is not required to comply with paragraph (1) if—
(a) the flight can be conducted in uninterrupted Visual Meteorological Conditions while in
controlled airspace; and
(b) the pilot has informed the appropriate air traffic control unit of the intention to continue
the flight in compliance with Visual Flight Rules and has requested that unit to cancel the
flight plan.
(3) If any deviation is made from the provisions of paragraph (2) for the purpose of avoiding
immediate danger the pilot-in-command of the aircraft must inform the appropriate air traffic
control unit of the deviation as soon as possible.
Position reports
37. The pilot-in-command of an aircraft in IFR flight who flies in or is intending to enter
controlled airspace must report to the appropriate air traffic control unit the time, position and
level of the aircraft at such reporting points or at such intervals of time as may be notified for this
purpose or as may be directed by the air traffic control unit.
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SECTION 7
AERODROME TRAFFIC RULES
Application of aerodrome traffic rules
38.—(1) The rules in this Section which expressly apply to flying machines must also be
observed, so far as is practicable, by all other aircraft.
Visual signals
39.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the pilot-in-command of a flying machine on, or in the pattern of
traffic flying at, an aerodrome must—
(a) observe such visual signals as may be displayed at or directed to that pilot from the
aerodrome by the authority of the person in charge of the aerodrome; and
(b) obey any instructions which may be given by means of such signals.
(2) The pilot-in-command of a flying machine is not required to obey such signals if it is
inadvisable to do so in the interests of safety.
Movement of aircraft on aerodromes
40. An aircraft must not taxi or air-taxi on the apron or the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome
without the permission of either—
(a) the person in charge of the aerodrome; or
(b) the air traffic control unit or aerodrome flight information service unit notified as being on
watch at the aerodrome.
Access to and movement of persons and vehicles on aerodromes
41.—(1) Unless there is a public right of way over it, a person or vehicle must—
(a) not go onto any part of an aerodrome without the permission of the person in charge of
that part of the aerodrome; and
(b) comply with any conditions subject to which that permission may be granted.
(2) A person or vehicle must—
(a) not go onto or move on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome which has an air traffic
control unit or an aerodrome flight information service unit without the permission of that
unit; and
(b) comply with any conditions subject to which that permission may be granted.
(3) Any permission granted for the purposes of this rule may be granted whether in respect of
persons or vehicles generally, or in respect of any particular person or vehicle or any class of
person or vehicle.
Right of way on the ground
42.—(1) This rule applies to flying machines and vehicles on any part of a land aerodrome
provided for the use of aircraft.
(2) Notwithstanding any air traffic control clearance it remains the duty of the pilot-in-command of
a flying machine to take all possible measures to ensure that the flying machine does not collide with
any other aircraft or vehicle.
(3) Flying machines and vehicles must give way to aircraft which are taking off or landing.
(4) Vehicles and flying machines which are not taking off or landing must give way to vehicles
towing aircraft.
(5) Vehicles which are not towing aircraft must give way to aircraft.
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Action to be taken in case of danger of collision on the ground
43.—(1) Subject to rules 42 and 14(3), this rule applies if there is any danger of collision
between two flying machines on the ground.
(2) If the two flying machines are approaching head-on, or approximately so, each must alter its
course to the right.
(3) If the two flying machines are on converging courses, the flying machine which has the other
flying machine on its right must give way to that other flying machine and must avoid crossing
ahead of it unless passing well clear of it.
(4) A flying machine which is being overtaken by another flying machine has the right-of-way
over the flying machine overtaking it.
(5) A flying machine which is overtaking another flying machine must keep out of the way of
the other flying machine by altering its course to the left until that other flying machine has been
passed and is clear, notwithstanding any change in the relative positions of the two flying
machines.
(6) A vehicle must—
(a) overtake another vehicle on the right hand side of that vehicle ; and
(b) keep to the left when passing another vehicle which is approaching head-on or
approximately so.
Launching, picking up and dropping of tow ropes, etc.
44.—(1) Tow ropes, banners or similar articles towed by aircraft must not be launched at an
aerodrome except in accordance with arrangements made with—
(a) the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome; or
(b) if there is no such unit, the person in charge of the aerodrome.
(2) Tow ropes, banners or similar articles towed by aircraft must not be picked up by or dropped
from aircraft at an aerodrome except—
(a) in accordance with arrangements made with the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome
or, if there is no such unit, with the person in charge of the aerodrome; or
(b) in the area designated by the marking described in rule 59(9), but only when the aircraft is
flying in the direction appropriate for landing.
Flights within aerodrome traffic zones
45.—(1) Paragraphs (2) and (3) apply only in relation to those aerodromes described in Column
1 of Table 3 as are notified for the purposes of this rule and at such times as are specified in
Column 2 of the Table.
Table 3
Column 1
(a) A military aerodrome
(b) An aerodrome having an air traffic control
unit or flight information service unit
(c) A certificated aerodrome having a means of
two-way radio communication with aircraft
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At such times as are notified
During the notified hours of watch of the air
traffic control unit or the flight information
service unit
During the notified hours of watch of the
air/ground station
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(2) An aircraft must not fly, take off or land within the aerodrome traffic zone of an
aerodrome unless the pilot-in-command of the aircraft has complied with paragraphs (3),
(4) or (5), as appropriate.
(3) If the aerodrome has an air traffic control unit, the pilot-in-command must obtain the
permission of the air traffic control unit to enable the flight to be conducted safely within the
zone.
(4) If the aerodrome has a flight information service unit, the pilot-in-command must
obtain information from the flight information service unit to enable the flight to be
conducted safely within the zone.
(5) If there is no flight information service unit at the aerodrome, the pilot-in-command
must obtain information from the air/ground communication service to enable the flight to be
conducted safely within the zone.
(6) The pilot-in-command of an aircraft flying within the aerodrome traffic zone of an
aerodrome must—
(a) cause a continuous watch to be maintained on the appropriate radio frequency notified for
communications at the aerodrome; or
(b) if this is not possible, cause a watch to be kept for such instructions as may be issued by
visual means; and
(c) if the aircraft is fitted with means of communication by radio with the ground,
communicate his position and height to the air traffic control unit, the flight information
service unit or the air/ground communication service at the aerodrome (as the case may
be) on entering the zone and immediately prior to leaving it.
SECTION 8
LIGHTS AND OTHER SIGNALS TO BE SHOWN OR MADE BY
AIRCRAFT
General
46.—(1) For the purposes of this Section of the Rules the horizontal plane of a light shown by
an aircraft means the plane which would be the horizontal plane passing through the source of that
light if the aircraft were in level flight.
(2) If it is necessary to fit more than one lamp in order to show a light required by this Section
because of the physical construction of an aircraft, the lamps must be so fitted and constructed
that, so far as is reasonably practicable, not more than one such lamp is visible from any one point
outside the aircraft.
(3) If a light is required by this Section to show through specified angles in the horizontal plane,
the lamps giving such light must be so constructed and fitted that the light is visible—
(a) from any point in any vertical plane within those angles throughout angles of 90° above
and below the horizontal plane; but
(b) so far as is reasonably practicable, through no greater angle, either in the horizontal plane
or the vertical plane.
(4) If a light is required by this Section to show in all directions, the lamps giving such light
must be so constructed and fitted that, so far as is reasonably practicable, the light is visible from
any point in the horizontal plane and on any vertical plane passing through the source of that light.
(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section the pilot-in-command of an aircraft may
switch off or reduce the intensity of any flashing light fitted to the aircraft if such a light does or is
likely to—
(a) adversely affect the performance of the duties of any member of the flight crew; or
(b) subject an outside observer to unreasonable dazzle.
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Display of lights by aircraft
47.—(1) During the night an aircraft must—
(a) display such of the lights specified in this Section as it is required by this Section; and
(b) subject to rule 49(6), not display any other lights which might obscure or otherwise
impair the visibility of, or be mistaken for, such lights.
(2) Subject to rule 48(4) an aircraft fitted with an anti-collision light must display that light in
flight during the day.
(3) A flying machine on a Territory aerodrome must—
(a) during the night display either the lights which it would be required to display when
flying or the lights specified in rule 49(5)(c), unless it is stationary on the apron or on that
part of the aerodrome provided for the maintenance of aircraft; and
(b) during the day and night and subject to paragraph (4), display a red anti-collision light, if
it is fitted with one, when it is stationary on the apron with engines running.
(4) A helicopter to which article 96 applies may, when stationary on an offshore installation,
switch off the anti-collision light required to be shown by paragraph (3)(b) as long as that is done
in accordance with a procedure contained in the operations manual of the helicopter as a signal to
ground personnel that it is safe to approach the helicopter for the purpose of embarkation or
disembarkation of passengers or the loading or unloading of cargo.
Failure of navigation and anti-collision lights
48.—(1) Paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) apply to aircraft in the Territory.
(2) An aircraft must not depart from an aerodrome if there is a failure of any light which these
Rules require to be displayed at night and the light cannot be immediately repaired or replaced.
(3) Subject to paragraph (4), if the aircraft is in flight and any such light as is referred to in
paragraph (2) fails and cannot be immediately repaired or replaced, the aircraft must land as soon
as it can safely do so, unless authorised by the appropriate air traffic control unit to continue its
flight.
(4) An aircraft may continue to fly during the day in the event of a failure of an anti-collision
light on the flight as long as the light is repaired at the earliest practicable opportunity.
Flying machines at night
49.—(1) Subject to paragraph (6), a flying machine flying at night must display lights in
accordance with paragraphs (2), (3) or (4), as appropriate.
(2) In the case of—
(a) a flying machine registered in the Territory which has a maximum total weight authorised
of more than 5,700 kg; or
(b) any other flying machine registered in the Territory which conforms to a type first issued
with a type certificate on or after 1st April 1988,
the flying machine must display the system of lights specified in paragraph 5(b).
(3) A flying machine registered in the Territory which—
(a) conforms to a type first issued with a type certificate before 1st April 1988; and
(b) has a maximum total weight authorised of 5,700 kg or less,
must display the system of lights specified in—
(i) paragraph (5)(a); or
(ii) paragraph (5)(b); or
(iii) paragraph (5)(d), but excluding sub-paragraph (ii) of that paragraph.
(4) In the case of any other flying machine, one of the systems of lights specified in paragraph
(5) must be displayed.
(5) The systems of lights referred to in paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) are as follows—
(a) A steady green light of at least five candela showing to the starboard side through an
angle of 110° from dead ahead in the horizontal plane; a steady red light of at least five
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candela showing to the port side through an angle of 110° from dead ahead in the
horizontal plane; and a steady white light of at least three candela showing through angles
of 70° from dead astern to each side in the horizontal plane;
(b) the lights specified in sub-paragraph (a) and an anti-collision light;
(c) the lights specified in sub-paragraph (a), but all being flashing lights (rather than steady
lights) flashing together;
(d) the lights specified in sub-paragraph (a), but all being flashing lights (rather than steady
lights) flashing together in alternation with one or both of the following—
(i) a flashing white light of at least 20 candela showing in all directions;
(ii) a flashing red light of at least 20 candela showing through angles of 70° from dead
astern to each side in the horizontal plane.
(6) If the lamp showing either the red or the green light specified in paragraph (5)(a) is fitted
more than 2 metres from the wing tip, another lamp may be fitted at the wing tip to indicate its
position showing a steady light of the same colour through the same angle.
Gliders at night
50. A glider flying at night must display either a steady red light of at least five candela,
showing in all directions, or lights in accordance with rule 49(5) and (6).
Free balloons at night
51. A free balloon flying at night must display a steady red light of at least five candela showing
in all directions, suspended not less than 5 metres and not more than 10 metres below the basket,
or if there is no basket, below the lowest part of the balloon.
Captive balloons and kites at night
52.—(1) A captive balloon or kite flying at night at a height exceeding 60 metres above the
surface must display lights in accordance with paragraphs (2), (3) and (4).
(2) A group of two steady lights must be displayed consisting of a white light placed 4 metres
above a red light, both being of at least five candela and showing in all directions, the white light
being placed not less than 5 metres nor more than 10 metres below the basket or, if there is no
basket, below the lowest part of the balloon or kite.
(3) On the mooring cable of the balloon or kite, at intervals of not more than 300 metres
measured from the group of lights specified in paragraph (2), there must be displayed—
(a) groups of two lights of the colour and power and in the relative positions specified in
paragraph (2); and
(b) if the lowest group of lights is obscured by cloud, an additional group of such lights
below the cloud base.
(4) On the surface of the ground there must be displayed a group of three flashing lights
arranged—
(a) in a horizontal plane at the apexes of a triangle, approximately equilateral, each side of
which measures at least 25 metres;
(b) so that one side of the triangle must be approximately at right angles to the horizontal
projection of the cable and must be delimited by two red lights; and
(c) so that the third light must be a green light, placed so that the triangle encloses the object
on the surface to which the balloon or kite is moored.
Captive balloons and kites by day
53.—(1) A captive balloon flying by day at a height exceeding 60 metres above the surface must
have attached to its mooring cable tubular streamers which are—
(a) not less than 40 centimetres in diameter and 2 metres in length; and
(b) marked with alternate bands of red and white 50 centimetres wide at intervals of not more
than 200 metres measured from the basket or, if there is no basket, from the lowest part of
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the balloon.
(2) A kite flying by day at a height exceeding 60 metres above the surface must have attached to
its mooring cable either—
(a) tubular streamers as specified in paragraph (1); or
(b) at intervals of not more than 100 metres measured from the lowest part of the kite,
streamers not less than 80 centimetres long and 30 centimetres wide at their widest point,
marked with alternate bands of red and white 10 centimetres wide.
Airships at night
54.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an airship flying at night must display the
following lights—
(a) a steady white light of at least five candela showing through angles of 110° from dead
ahead to each side in the horizontal plane;
(b) a steady green light of at least five candela showing to the starboard side through an angle
of 110° from dead ahead in the horizontal plane;
(c) a steady red light of at least five candela showing to the port side through an angle of
110° from dead ahead in the horizontal plane;
(d) a steady white light of at least five candela showing through angles of 70° from dead
astern to each side in the horizontal plane; and
(e) an anti-collision light.
(2) Subject to paragraph (5), an airship flying at night in any of the circumstances referred to in
paragraph (3) must display the lights specified in paragraph (4).
(3) The circumstances are as follows—
(a) if the airship is not under command; or
(b) has voluntarily stopped its engines, or
(c) is being towed.
(4) The lights specified are the following lights—
(a) the white lights specified in paragraph (1)(a) and (d);
(b) two steady, red lights, each of at least five candela, showing in all directions, suspended
below the control car so that one is at least 4 metres above the other and at least 8 metres
below the control car; and
(c) if the airship is making way but not otherwise, the green and red lights specified in
paragraph (1)(b) and (c).
(5) An airship picking up its moorings at night must display the lights specified in paragraph (1).
(6) An airship moored to a mooring mast within the Territory at night must display, at or near
the rear of the airship, a steady, white light of at least five candela showing in all directions.
(7) An airship moored otherwise than to a mooring mast within the Territory at night must
display—
(a) a white light of at least five candela showing through angles of 110° from dead ahead to
each side in the horizontal plane; and
(b) a white light of at least five candela showing through angles of 70° from dead astern to
each side in the horizontal plane.
Airships by day
55.—(1) An airship flying during the day in any of the circumstances referred to in paragraph
(2) must display two black balls suspended below the control car so that one is at least 4 metres
above the other and at least 8 metres below the control car.
(2) The circumstances are as follows—
(a) if the airship is not under command;
(b) if it has voluntarily stopped its engines; or
(c) if it is being towed.
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(3) For the purposes of this rule and rule 54—
(a) an airship is deemed not to be under command when it is unable to execute a manoeuvre
which it may be required to execute by these Rules; and
(b) an airship is deemed to be making way when it is not moored and is in motion.
Signals in the Signals Area
56.—(1) Whenever any signal specified in this rule is displayed it shall be placed in a signals
area, which shall be a square visible from all directions bordered by a white strip 30 centimetres
wide and with the internal sides measuring 12 metres.
(2) A white landing T, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that aeroplanes and gliders taking off or landing shall do so in a direction parallel with
the shaft of the T and towards the cross arm, unless otherwise authorised by the appropriate air
traffic control unit.
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(3) A white disc 60 centimetres in diameter displayed alongside the cross arm of the T and in
line with the shaft of the T, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that the direction of landing and take off do not necessarily coincide.
(4) A white dumb-bell, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that movements of aeroplanes and gliders on the ground shall be confined to paved,
metalled or similar hard surfaces.
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A white dumb-bell, as described in paragraph (4), but with a black strip 60 centimetres wide
across each disc at right angles to the shaft of the dumb-bell, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that aeroplanes and gliders taking off or landing shall do so on a runway
but that movement on the ground is not confined to paved, metalled or similar hard
surfaces.
(5) A red and yellow striped arrow, as illustrated in this paragraph,
the shaft of which is one metre wide and which is placed along the whole or a total of 11
metres of two adjacent sides of the signals area, and pointing in a clockwise direction,
signifies that a right- hand circuit is in force.
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(6) A red panel 3 metres square with a yellow strip along one diagonal 50 centimetres wide, as
illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that the state of the manoeuvring area is poor and pilots must exercise special care when
landing.
(7) A red panel 3 metres square with a yellow strip 50 centimetres wide along each diagonal, as
illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that the aerodrome is unsafe for the movement of aircraft and that landing on the
aerodrome is prohibited.
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(8) A white letter H, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that helicopters shall take off and land only within the area designated by the marking
specified in rule 59(7).
(9) A red letter L displayed on the dumb-bell specified in paragraphs (4) and (5), as illustrated in
this paragraph,
signifies that light aircraft are permitted to take off and land either on a runway or on the area
designated by the marking specified in rule 59(8).
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(10) A white double cross, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies that glider flying is in progress.
Markings for paved runways and taxiways
57.—(1) Two or more white crosses, as illustrated in this paragraph,
displayed on a runway or taxiway, with each arm of each cross at an angle of 45° to the centre line
of the runway, at intervals of not more than 300 metres signify that the section of the runway or
taxiway marked by them is unfit for the movement of aircraft.
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(2) Subject to paragraph (3), two yellow broken lines and two continuous lines, as illustrated
in this paragraph, signify the designated visual holding position associated with a runway beyond
which no part of a flying machine or vehicle shall project in the direction of the runway without
permission from the air traffic control unit at the aerodrome during the notified hours of watch of
that unit.
(3) Outside the notified hours of watch of that unit or where there is no air traffic control unit at
the aerodrome the markings referred to in paragraph (2) signify the position closest to the runway
beyond which no part of a flying machine or vehicle shall project in the direction of the runway
when the flying machine or vehicle is required by virtue of rule 42(3) to give way to aircraft which
are taking off from or landing on that runway.
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(4) Subject to paragraph (5), a yellow marking, as illustrated in this paragraph,
signifies a holding position other than that closest to the runway beyond which no part of a flying
machine or vehicle shall project in the direction of the runway without permission from the air
traffic control unit at the aerodrome during the notified hours of watch of that unit.
(5) Outside the notified hours of watch of that unit or where there is no air traffic control unit at
the aerodrome the marking referred to in paragraph (4) may be disregarded.
(6) Orange and white markers, as illustrated in this paragraph,
spaced no more than 15 metres apart, signify the boundary of that part of a paved runway, taxiway
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or apron which is unfit for the movement of aircraft.
Markings on unpaved manoeuvring areas
58.—(1) Markers with orange and white stripes of an equal width of 50 centimetres, with an
orange stripe at each end, alternating with flags 60 centimetres square showing equal orange and
white triangular areas, spaced not more than 90 metres apart as illustrated in this paragraph,
indicate the boundary of an area unfit for the movement of aircraft.
(2) One or more white crosses, as specified in rule 58(1), also indicate such an area as is referred
to in paragraph (1).
(3) Striped markers, as specified in paragraph (1), spaced not more than 45 metres apart,
indicate the boundary of an aerodrome.
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(4) On structures markers with orange and white vertical stripes, of an equal width of 50
centimetres, with an orange stripe at each end, spaced not more than 45 metres apart, as illustrated
in this paragraph.
indicate the boundary of an aerodrome.
(5) The pattern of the marker referred to in paragraph (4) shall be visible from inside and outside
the aerodrome and the marker shall be affixed not more than 15 centimetres from the top of the
structure.
(6) White, flat, rectangular markers 3 metres long and 1 metre wide, at intervals not exceeding
90 metres, flush with the surface of an unpaved runway or stopway, indicate the boundary of the
unpaved runway or stopway.
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(7) A white letter H, as illustrated in this paragraph,
indicates an area which shall be used only for the taking off and landing of helicopters.
(8) A white letter L, as illustrated in this paragraph,
indicates a part of the manoeuvring area which shall be used only for the taking off and landing of
light aircraft.
(9) A yellow cross with two arms each 6 metres long by 1 metre wide at right angles, indicates
that tow ropes, banners and similar articles towed by aircraft shall only be picked up and dropped
in the area in which the cross is placed.
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(10) A white double cross, as illustrated in this paragraph,
indicates an area which shall be used only for the taking off and landing of gliders.
(11) Subject to paragraph (12) a white landing T, as specified in rule 57(2), placed at the lefthand side of the runway (when viewed from the direction of landing) indicates the runway to be
used for take-off and landing.
(12) The white landing T referred to in paragraph (11), when placed at an aerodrome with no
runway, indicates the direction for take-off and landing.
Signals visible from the ground
59.—(1) A black ball, 60 centimetres in diameter, suspended from a mast signifies that the
directions of take-off and landing are not necessarily the same.
(2) A chequered flag or board, 1.2 metres by 90 centimetres, containing 12 equal squares, 4
horizontally and 3 vertically, coloured red and yellow alternately, signifies that aircraft may move
on the manoeuvring area and apron only in accordance with the permission of the air traffic
control unit at the aerodrome.
(3) Two red balls, 60 centimetres in diameter, positioned vertically one above the other, 60
centimetres apart and suspended from a mast, signify that glider flying is in progress at the
aerodrome.
(4) Black, Arabic numerals in two-figure groups and, where parallel runways are provided, the
letter or letters L (left), LC (left centre), C (centre), RC (right centre) and R (right), placed against
a yellow background, indicate the direction for take-off or the runway in use.
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(5) A black letter C against a yellow background, as illustrated in this paragraph,
indicates the position at which a pilot can report to the air traffic control unit or to the person in
charge of the aerodrome.
(6) A rectangular green flag of not less than 60 centimetres square and not more than
66 centimetres square, flown from a mast, indicates that a right-hand circuit is in force.
Lights and pyrotechnic signals for control of aerodrome traffic
60. Each signal described in column 1 of Table 4 shall have the meanings respectively appearing
in columns 2, 3 and 4 of the Table in the circumstances specified in the second row of the Table.
Table 4—Meaning Of Lights And Pyrotechnic Signals
Column 1
Characteristic
and colour of
light beam or
pyrotechnic
Column 2
Directed from an
aerodrome to an
aircraft in flight
(a) Continuous red
light.
Give way to other
aircraft and continue
circling.
Do not land; wait
for permission.
(b) Red pyrotechnic
light, or red flare.
(c) Red flashes.
(d) Green
flashes.
Do not land;
aerodrome not
available for
landing.
Return to
aerodrome; wait
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Column 3
Directed from an
aerodrome to an
aircraft
or
vehicle on the
aerodrome
Stop.
Column 4
Directed from an
aircraft in flight
to an aerodrome
—
Immediate
assistance is
required.
—
Move clear of
landing area.
To an aircraft: you
may move
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for permission to
land.
on the manoeuvring
area and apron. To a
vehicle: you may
move on the
manoeuvring area.
(e) Continuous
green light.
You may land.
You may take off (not
applicable
to
a
vehicle).
—
(f) Continuous green
light, or green flashes,
or green pyrotechnic
light.
—
—
(g) White
flashes.
Land at the
aerodrome after
receiving
continuous green
light, and then, after
receiving green
flashes, proceed to
the apron.
Return to starting
point on the
aerodrome.
By night: May I
land?
By day: May I
land from
direction different
from that
indicated by
landing T?
I am compelled
to land.
(h) White
pyrotechnic
lights.
Switching on and off
the navigation lights.
Switching on and off
the landing lights.
—
—
I am compelled
to land.
Marshalling signals (from a marshaller to an aircraft)
61.—(1) Each of the signals for the guidance of aircraft manoeuvring on or off the
ground, described in column 1 of Table 5 and as illustrated in column 3, when given by a
marshaller to an aircraft, shall have the meanings specified in column 2 of the Table.
(2) By day any such signals shall be given by hand or by circular bats and by night shall
be given by torches or by illuminated wands.
Table 5—Meaning of Marshalling Signals (from a marshaller to an aircraft)
Column 1
Description of Signal
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Column 2
Meaning of signal
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Column 3
Illustration of signal
Overseas Territories Aviation Requirements
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Part 91
1. Raise right
hand above head
level with wand
pointing up; move
left-hand wand
pointing down
toward body.
Wingwalker/guide —
This signal provides an
indication by a person
positioned at the
aircraft wing tip, to the
pilot/marshaller/ pushback operator, that the
aircraft movement
on/off a parking
position would be
unobstructed.
2. Raise fully
extended arms
straight above head
with wands pointing
up
Identify gate
3. Point both arms
upward, move and
extend arms
outward to sides of
body and point with
wands to direction
of next signalman
or taxi area.
Proceed to next
signalman or as
directed by
tower/ground control
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4. Bend extended
arms at elbows and
move wands up and
down from chest
height to head.
Straight ahead
5(a) With right
arm and wand
extended at a 90degree angle to
body, make “come
ahead” signal with
left hand. The rate
of signal motion
indicates to pilot the
rate of aircraft turn.
Turn left (from pilot’s
point of view)
5(b) With left arm
and wand extended
at a 90-degree angle
to body, make
“come ahead”
signal with right
hand. The rate of
signal motion
indicates to pilot the
rate of aircraft turn.
Turn right (from
pilot’s point of view)
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6(a) Fully extend
arms and wands at a
90-degree angle to
sides and slowly
move to above head
until wands cross.
Normal stop
6(b) Abruptly
extend arms and
wands to top of
head, crossing
wands.
Emergency stop
7(a) Raise hand
just above shoulder
height with open
palm. Ensuring eye
contact with flight
crew, close hand
into a fist. Do not
move until receipt
of “thumbs up”
acknowledgement
from flight crew.
Set brakes
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7(b) Raise hand
just above shoulder
height with hand
closed in a fist.
Ensuring eye
contact with flight
crew, open palm.
Do not move until
receipt of “thumbs
up”
acknowledgement
from crew.
Release brakes
8(a) With arms
and wands fully
extending above
head, move wands
inwards in a
“jabbing” motion
until wands touch.
Ensure
acknowledgement is
received from flight
crew.
Chocks inserted
8(b) With arms
and wands fully
extended above
head, move wands
outward in
“jabbing” motion.
Do not remove
chocks until
authorised by crew.
Chocks removed
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9. Raise right arm
to head level with
wand pointing up
and start a circular
motion with hand;
at the same time,
with left arm raised
above head level,
point to engine to be
started.
Start engine(s)
10. Extend arm
with wand forward
of body at shoulder
level; move hand
and want to top of
left shoulder and
draw wand to top of
right shoulder in a
slicing motion
across throat.
Cut engine(s)
11. Move
extended arms
downwards in a
“patting” gesture,
moving wands up
and down from
waist to knees.
Slow down
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12. With arms
down and wands
toward ground,
wave either right or
left wand up and
down indicating
engine(s) on left or
right side
respectively should
be slowed down.
Slow down engine(s)
on indicated side
13. With arms in
front of body at
waist height, rotate
arms in a forward
motion. To stop
rearward
movement, use
signal 6(a) or 6(b).
Move Back
14(a) Point left
arm with wand
down and bring
right arm from
overhead vertical
position to
horizontal forward
position, repeating
right-arm
movement.
Turns while backing
(for tail to starboard)
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14(b) Point right
arm with wand
down and bring left
arm from overhead
vertical position to
horizontal position,
repeating left-arm
movement.
Turns while backing
(for tail to port)
15. Raise right
arm to head level
with wand pointing
up or display hand
with “thumbs up”;
left arm remains at
side by knee.
Affirmative/all clear—
This signal is also used
as a technical/servicing
communication signal.
16. Fully extend
arms and wands at a
90-degree angle to
sides.
Hover
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17. Fully extend
arms and wands at a
90-degree angle to
sides and, with
palms turned up,
move hands
upwards. Speed of
movement indicates
rate of ascent.
Move upwards
18. Fully extend
arms and wands at a
90-degree angle to
sides and, with
palms turned down,
move hands
downwards. Speed
of movement
indicates rate of
descent.
Move downwards
19(a) Extend arm
horizontally at a 90degree angle to
right side of body.
Move other arm in
same direction in a
sweeping motion.
Move horizontally left
(from pilot’s point of
view)
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19(b) Extend arm
horizontally at a 90degree angle to left
side of body. Move
other arm in same
direction in a
sweeping motion.
Move horizontally
right (from pilot’s
point of view)
20. Cross arms
with wands
downwards and in
front of body.
Land
21. Move righthand wand in a
“fanning” motion
from shoulder to
knee, while at the
same time pointing
with left-hand wand
to area of fire.
Fire
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22. Fully extend
arms and wands
downwards at a 45degree angle to
sides. Hold position
until aircraft is clear
for next manoeuvre.
Hold position/stand by
23. Perform a
standard salute with
right hand and/or
wand to dispatch
the aircraft.
Maintain eye
contact with flight
crew until aircraft
has begun to taxi.
Dispatch aircraft
24. Extend right
arm fully above
head and close fist
or hold wand in
horizontal position;
left arm remains at
side by knee.
Do not touch controls
(technical/servicing
communication signal)
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25. Hold arms
fully extended
above head, open
left hand
horizontally and
move finger tips of
right hand into a
touch open palm of
left hand (forming a
“T”). At night,
illuminated wands
can also be used to
form the “T” above
head.
Connect ground power
(technical/servicing
communication signal)
26. Hold arms
fully extended
above head with
finger tips of right
hand touching open
horizontal palm of
left hand (forming a
“T”); then move
right hand away
from the left. Do
not disconnect
power until
authorised by flight
crew. At night
illuminated wands
can also be used to
form the “T” above
head.
27. Hold right arm
straight out at 90
degrees from
shoulder and point
wand down to
ground or display
hand with “thumbs
down”; left hand
remains at side by
knee.
Disconnect power
(technical/servicing
communication signal)
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Negative
(technical/servicing
communication signal)
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28. Extend both
arms at 90 degrees
from body and
move hands to cup
both ears.
Establish
communication via
interphone
(technical/servicing
communication signal)
29. With right arm
at side and left arm
raised above head at
a 45-degree angle,
move right arm in a
sweeping motion
towards top of left
shoulder.
Open/close stairs
(technical/servicing
communication
signal)—This signal is
intended mainly for
aircraft with the set of
integral stairs at the
front
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Marshalling signals (from a pilot of an aircraft to a marshaller)
62. Each of the signals described in column 1 of Table 6, when made by a pilot in an aircraft to a
marshaller on the ground, shall have the meanings specified in column 2 of the Table.
Table 6—Meaning of Marshalling Signals (from a pilot of an aircraft to a marshaller)
Column 1
Description of Signal
1. Raise arm and hand with fingers extended
horizontally in front of face, then clench fist.
2. Raise arm with fist clenched horizontally in
front of face, then extend fingers.
3. Arms extended palms facing outwards, move
hands inwards to cross in front of face.
4. Hands crossed in front of face, palms facing
outwards, move arms outwards.
5. Raise the number of fingers on one hand
indicating the number of the engine to be
started. For this purpose the aircraft engines
shall be numbered in relation to the marshaller
facing the aircraft, from his right to his left. For
example, No. 1 engine shall be the port outer
engine, No. 2 engine shall be the port inner
engine, No. 3 engine shall be the starboard
inner engine and No. 4 engine shall be the
starboard outer engine.
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Column 2
Meaning of Signal
Brakes engaged.
Brakes released.
Insert chocks.
Remove chocks.
Ready to start engines.
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Distress, urgency and safety signals
63.—(1) The following signals, given either together or separately before the sending of a
message, signify that an aircraft is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requests
immediate assistance—
(a) by radiotelephony—
the spoken word ‘MAYDAY’;
(b) by visual signalling—
(i) the signal SOS (… --- …);
(ii) a succession of pyrotechnic lights fired at short intervals each showing a single red
light;
(iii) a parachute flare showing a red light;
(c) by sound signalling other than radiotelephony—
(i) the signal SOS (… --- …);
(ii) a continuous sounding with any sound apparatus.
(2) The following signals, given either together or separately, before the sending of a message,
signify that the pilot-in-command of the aircraft wishes to give notice of difficulties which compel
it to land but that he does not require immediate assistance—
(a) a succession of white pyrotechnic lights;
(b) the repeated switching on and off of the aircraft landing lights;
(c) the repeated switching on and off of its navigation lights, in such a manner as to be
clearly distinguishable from the flashing navigation lights described in rule 49.
(3) The following signals, given either together or separately, indicate that the pilot-in-command
of the aircraft has an urgent message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft, vehicle or
other property or of a person on board or within sight of the aircraft from which the signal is
given—
(a) by radiotelephony—
the repeated spoken word, ‘PAN PAN’;
(b) by visual signalling—
the signal XXX (- .. -- .. -- .. -);
(c) by sound signalling other than radiotelephony—
the signal XXX (- .. -- .. -- .. -).
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