vacuum regulator - check unit

vacuum regulator - check unit
VACUUM REGULATOR - CHECK UNIT
3,000 LB/24 HR CAPACITY
BOOK NO. WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR CHECK UNIT
3,000 LB/24 HR CAPACITY
BOOK NO. WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
EQUIPMENT SERIAL NO. _____________________________
DATE OF START-UP ________________________________
START-UP BY ____________________________________
Prompt service available from nationwide authorized service contractors.
ORDERING INFORMATION
In order for us to fill your order immediately and correctly, please order material by description and part number, as shown
in this book. Also, please specify the serial number of the equipment on which the parts will be installed.
WARRANTY
Seller warrants for a period of one year after shipment that the equipment or material of its manufacture is free from defects
in workmanship and materials. Corrosion or other decomposition by chemical action is specifically excluded as a defect
covered hereunder, except this exclusion shall not apply to chlorination equipment. Seller does not warrant (a) damage
caused by use of the items for purposes other than those for which they were designed, (b) damage caused by unauthorized
attachments or modifications, (c) products subject to any abuse, misuse, negligence or accident, (d) products where parts
not made, supplied, or approved by Seller are used and in the sole judgment of the Seller such use affects the products’
performance, stability or reliability, and (e) products that have been altered or repaired in a manner in which, in the sole
judgment of Seller, affects the products’ performance, stability or reliability. SELLER MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, AND THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR OF FITNESS OF THE MATERIAL OR EQUIPMENT FOR
ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE EVEN IF THAT PURPOSE IS KNOWN TO SELLER. If Buyer discovers a defect in material or workmanship, it must promptly notify Seller in writing; Seller reserves the right to require the return of such defective
parts to Seller, transportation charges prepaid, to verify such defect before this warranty is applicable. In no event shall
such notification be received by Seller later than 13 months after the date of shipment. No action for breach of warranty
shall be brought more than 15 months after the date of shipment of the equipment or material.
LIMITATION OF BUYER’S REMEDIES. The EXCLUSIVE REMEDY for any breach of warranty is the replacement f.o.b.
shipping point of the defective part or parts of the material or equipment. Any equipment or material repaired or replaced
under warranty shall carry the balance of the original warranty period, or a minimum of three months. Seller shall not be
liable for any liquidated, special, incidental or consequential damages, including without limitation, loss of profits, loss of
savings or revenue, loss of use of the material or equipment or any associated material or equipment, the cost of substitute
material or equipment, claims of third parties, damage to property, or goodwill, whether based upon breach of warranty,
breach of contract, negligence, strict tort, or any other legal theory; provided, however, that such limitation shall not apply
to claims for personal injury.
Statements and instructions set forth herein are based upon the best information and practices known to Evoqua Water
Technologies, but it should not be assumed that every acceptable safety procedure is contained herein. Of necessity this
company cannot guarantee that actions in accordance with such statements and instructions will result in the complete
elimination of hazards and it assumes no liability for accidents that may occur.
725 Wooten Road
Colorado Springs, Co 80915
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
1.010-42
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
INTRODUCTION
This instruction book provides installation, operation, and maintenance instructions for the Evoqua Water Technologies 3,000 lb/24 hr Capacity Vacuum
Regulator-Check Unit. The unit consists of a gas pressure reducing valve (two
gas pressure reducing valves for the automatic switchover arrangement), pressure check valve, and a pressure relief valve assembled together.
This instruction book covers two arrangements of this vacuum regulator-check
unit. One arrangement for chlorine, sulfur dioxide, or carbon dioxide and another arrangement for ammonia only.
The evaporator arrangement also includes a low temperature alarm switch
to provide an indication of any liquid carry-over from the evaporator and an
electric operator for automatic shut-off of the supply in the event of liquid
carry-over or power failure.
!
WARNING: WHEN THE EQUIPMENT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK IS USED
WITH CARBON DIOXIDE, REGULATORS, REDUCING VALVES, PRESSURE
RELIEF VALVES, AND ALL RELATED LINES AND FITTINGS BETWEEN THE GAS
SUPPLY AND THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT MUST BE OBTAINED
FROM THE GAS SUPPLIER AND INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THOSE
RECOMMENDATIONS (DRAWINGS AND TEXT IN THIS BOOK RELATING TO
CHLORINE SUPPLY ARE NOT APPLICABLE). GAS SUPPLY PRESSURE MUST
BE REDUCED TO 15 TO 120 PSI TO PREVENT OVER-PRESSURIZATION OF
THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT; A PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE SET
AT 200 PSI MAXIMUM MUST BE INSTALLED BETWEEN THE PRESSURE
REDUCING VALVE AND THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT.
!
WARNING: HAZARDOUS GAS IS PRESENT IN THIS EQUIPMENT DURING
NORMAL OPERATION. TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY
OR DAMAGE TO THE EQUIPMENT, READ THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK AND
THE APPROPRIATE GAS MANUAL BEFORE CONNECTING THIS EQUIPMENT
TO A SUPPLY OF GAS. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THIS EQUIPMENT MUST BE RESTRICTED TO TRAINED QUALIFIED PERSONNEL WHO
ARE COMPLETELY FAMILIAR WITH THESE INSTRUCTIONS. INCLUDED
IN THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK IS THE CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL. IF
THIS VALUE IS BEING USED WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE,
OR AMMONIA THE APPROPRIATE GAS MANUAL SHOULD BE OBTAINED
FROM YOUR CHEMICAL SUPPLIER OR YOUR LOCAL Evoqua Water Technologies REPRESENTATIVE.
NOTE: When ordering material, always specify model and serial number of
apparatus.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
Introd.
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
Table Of Contents
DWG./TEXT PAGE
Very Important Safety Precautions............................SP-1
Preventive Maintenance General Information..........1.010-5
Maintenance Record................................................. 1.010-13
Flexible Connection Replacement.............................1.010-4
Regional Offices......................................................... 1.010-1
Technical Data............................................................ 1
Installation................................................................. 2 through 5
Operation.................................................................. 6
Service....................................................................... 7 through 15
Warning and Caution Labels......................................16, 17
Preventive Maintenance Kits and Spare Parts...........18
Typical Installation..................................................... 25.052.110.010
Typical Installation..................................................... 25.052.110.015
Typical Installation..................................................... 25.052.110.020
Installation Piping...................................................... 25.052.120.010
Installation Piping...................................................... 25.052.120.020
Typical Installation..................................................... 60.221.110.085
Installation Piping...................................................... 60.210.010.040
Installation Wiring .................................................... 50.177.130.010
Parts
Vacuum Regulator (Standard)................................25.052.001.026A&B
Vacuum Regulator (Auto. Switchover)...................25.052.001.032A&B
Vacuum Regulator (Evaporator).............................50.177.001.012A&B
Pressure Check-Pressure Relief Valve.....................50.177.000.075A&B
Vacuum Regulator-Check Unit (Standard)..............50.177.000.011
Vacuum Regulator-Check Unit (Evaporator)...........50.177.000.026
Vacuum Regulator-Check Unit (Auto.
Switchover)......................................................... 50.177.000.021
Strainer................................................................... 50.150.005.033
U28110 Auxiliary Cylinder Valve............................50.150.001.012
Auxiliary Cylinder Valves........................................910.200.003.010
Flexible Connections & Accessories.......................50.150.007.021
Hydramotor Manual.................................................. SDI H11-1
Chlorine Handling Manual......................................... WT.025.000.001.UA.IM
Ammonia Handling Manual.......................................WT.060.200.001.UA.IM
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
Introd. (Cont'd)
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
VERY IMPORTANT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
This page provides very important safety information related to safety in installation, operation, and maintenance of this equipment.
WARNING
TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, OBSERVE THE FOLLOWING:
THIS EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE INSTALLED, OPERATED, AND SERVICED ONLY BY TRAINED, QUALIFIED PERSONNEL
WHO ARE THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR WITH THE ENTIRE CONTENTS OF THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK.
USE ONLY Evoqua Water Technologies LISTED PARTS EXCEPT FOR COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PARTS IDENTIFIED BY COMPLETE DESCRIPTION ON PARTS LIST. THE USE OF UNLISTED PARTS CAN RESULT IN EQUIPMENT
MALFUNCTIONS HAVING HAZARDOUS CONSEQUENCES.
DO NOT DISCARD THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK UPON COMPLETION OF INSTALLATION. INFORMATION PROVIDED
IS ESSENTIAL TO PROPER AND SAFE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
ADDITIONAL OR REPLACEMENT COPIES OF THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK ARE AVAILABLE FROM:
Evoqua Water Technologies
725 Wooten Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80915
Phone: (800) 524-6324
NOTE
Minor part number changes may be incorporated into Evoqua Water Technologies products from time to time
that are not immediately reflected in the instruction book. If such a change apparently has been made in your
equipment and does not appear to be reflected in your instruction book, contact your local Evoqua Water
Technologies sales office for information.
Please include the equipment serial number in all correspondence. It is essential for effective communication
and proper equipment identification.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
SP-1
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
PROTECT YOUR EQUIPMENT INVESTMENT
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
ORDER A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE KIT NOW ...
KEEP ONE ON HAND
Quality
Equipment
+
Preventive
Maintenance
=
Dependable Operation
Minimum Downtime
There’s no question about it.
Equipment that is properly maintained is dependable equipment.
It will give optimum performance with minimum unscheduled downtime.
Evoqua Water Technologies manufactures quality equipment designed for performance and
reliability. Each product is carefully tested and inspected before shipment to ensure that it meets
our high standards.
Our equipment is engineered for easy maintenance. To ensure maximum service life and minimize
unscheduled repairs, we recommend a program of regular preventive maintenance, as described in
the Service section of this book. To support this program, we developed. standard parts kits. These
kits can also be used for minor emergency repairs to minimize downtime.
We recommend that these kits be available in your stock at all times. When the complete kit or any
of its parts are used, the kit should be replaced immediately.
Preventive maintenance kits may be ordered directly from the company that supplied your equipment, or they may be ordered directly from Evoqua Water Technologies. For ordering numbers, refer
to the parts list at the rear of this book.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
1.010-5E
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
AND RECORD OF PERFORMANCE
This equipment should receive preventive maintenance on a one (1) year cycle.* It is recommended that the
following table be used to plan, schedule, and record this important work.
Date of Installation
Preventive Maintenance Log
Schedule Date
Date Performed
*NOTE: This is the recommended cycle. Your local operating conditions may call for more frequent preventive maintenance.
PROTECT YOUR EQUIPMENT INVESTMENT
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
ORDER A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE KIT NOW ...
KEEP ONE ON HAND
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
1.010-13B
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION REPLACEMENT
VERY IMPORTANT MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY INFORMATION
YOUR ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE’S
RECOMMENDA­TION* THAT --FLEXIBLE METAL TUBING CONNECTIONS USED TO CONNECT CHLORINE SUPPLY CYLINDERS TO
PIPING SYSTEMS “SHOULD BE REPLACED WHENEVER THERE IS SIGN OF DETERIORATION BUT,
IN ANY EVENT, AT INTERVALS NO LESS THAN ANNUALLY.”
SIMILAR RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY FOR OTHER GASES.
This recommendation recognizes the potential for mechanical damage to these connections in normal use, as
well as the possibility of reduced mechanical strength resulting from the corrosive effects of damp air entering
the tubing during the process of changing cylinders. Either of these conditions can be difficult to detect and
carries the potential for breakage and resultant chlorine (or other gas) leakage. A timely replacement program
can minimize this potential.
Deterioration exists if a salmon-pink color develops on the end fittings (de-zincification due to a minute leak),
if dents or kinks are present (which weaken the tubing), or if the tubing “squeaks” when it is handled (a sure
sign of internal stress corrosion).
FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE, Evoqua Water Technologies MAINTAINS A COMPLETE STOCK OF STANDARD
FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS (TYPICAL UNITS ARE ILLUSTRATED ON DRAWING 50.150.007.021) AND IS PREPARED
TO RESPOND TO YOUR PURCHASE OR­DER WITH PROMPT SHIPMENT.
*Refer to paragraph titled CONNECTIONS in the Chlorine Handling Manual attached to the rear of this instruction book — “Connections should be replaced whenever there is sign of deterioration but, in any event, at
intervals no less than annually.”
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
1.010-4
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
REGIONAL OFFICES
INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND SERVICE INFORMATION
Direct any questions concerning this equipment that are not answered in the instruction book to the Reseller
from whom the equipment was purchased. If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Colorado Springs, CO contact the office indicated below.
UNITED STATES
725 Wooten Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80915
TEL: (800) 524-6324
CANADA
If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Canada, contact the nearest office
indicated below.
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
Evoqua Water Technologies Ltd.
2045 Drew Road
Mississauga, Ontario
L5S 1S4
(905) 944-2800
Evoqua Technologies des Eaux Itee
505 Levy Street
St. Laurent, Quebec
H4R 2N9
(450) 582-4266
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
1.010-1
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
1
TECHNICAL DATA
!
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
Capacity
Chlorine
Ammonia
Sulfur Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide
3000 lb/24 hr
1450 lb/24 hr
2800 lb/24 hr
2250 lb/24 hr
Electrical Requirements
115 Vac, 60 Hz, single phase
Gas Supply Pressure
18 to 120 psi
Operating Vacuum
13 to 35 inches of water
WARNING: THIS EQUIPMENT IS SUITABLE FOR USE ONLY WITH THE GASES
SPECIFIED. DO NOT USE WITH OTHER GASES. SUCH USE CAN RESULT IN
MALFUNCTION OR FAILURE OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS RESULTING IN
POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY.
1
EVOQUA
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
2
INSTALLATION
To prevent damage in transit, the vacuum regulator and upper body of the
check unit are shipped as two separate units. To assemble, proceed as follows:
a. Remove vacuum regulator-check unit from boxes.
b. Remove bolts, washers, and lead gasket from bag.
c. Inspect gasket groove in lower block to ensure surface is not damaged.
Install a new lead gasket into groove in lower block (see Figure 1).
Figure 1
d. Place upper body onto lower block. Insert bolts and washers and tighten
securely.
e. Remove plug and apply 60 psi air pressure at this point and at vacuum
regulator inlet. Check for leaks around gasket joints. If joint leaks, tighten
bolts and retest.
The general physical requirements of the installation are shown on the TYPICAL INSTALLATION and INSTALLATION PIPING drawings. Locate the equipment
so that the vent is run as described below and the necessary gas supply can
be properly connected. Ready access to the equipment for operation, routine
maintenance, and service is required.
Use litharge and glycerin cement on all threaded joints. Piping for chlorine (or
sulfur dioxide) supply, where the chlorine (or sulfur dioxide) is under pressure,
should conform to Chlorine Institute recommendations. Piping for ammonia or
carbon dioxide supply, where the ammonia or carbon dioxide is under pressure,
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
should conform to the recommendations of the Compressed Gas Association.
Plastic tubing and pipe are not recommended and should not be used.
Before connecting the unit to the piping, check the piping for scale or trash left
after threading and assembling pipe. Clean out as necessary. Wire the electric
operator to the low temperature alarm switch and an alarm unit as shown on
Dwg. 50.177.130.010.
!
caution: The low temperature alarm switch (supplied with the evaporator
arrangement) must be wired to actuate the electric operator and an appropriate alarm device as shown in the INSTALLATION WIRING drawing(s). The
vacuum regulator-check unit is installed with the shut-off knob uppermost
(electric operator uppermost on evaporator arrangement). The connecting
line from the unit to the gas supply must be on a continuous down gradient
to permit drainage back to the container in the event of reliquefaction between the container and the unit. When a unit is connected to a manifold,
ensure that the manifold does not run above the unit and allow reliquefied
gas to settle in the unit. Gas residue, if allowed to accumulate, may gum up
and obstruct proper operation of the unit. If necessary (manifold is above
unit), install a trap or drip leg at the lowest point to collect liquid and residue.
Gas at the pressure of the supply container will reliquefy at a temperature
slightly lower than the temperature of the supply container, whereas at the
regulated vacuum (slightly less than atmospheric pressure), reliquefaction
will not occur until the temperature drops below -29°F. Locate the vacuum
regulator-check unit close to the gas supply to afford maximum protection
of the gas feed equipment. Select a location at an elevation higher than the
outlet of the container. If a low temperature alarm switch is supplied, set the
low temperature alarm switch to actuate at a temperature as close as possible
to (but lower than) the minimum expected ambient temperature. Use litharge
and glycerin cement on all threaded joints.
!
2.1
caution: For installation using ton containers without an evaporator, the
unit must be connected to the upper (gas discharge) container connection
not to the lower (liquid discharge) container connection.
Gas Supply from a Cylinder
NOTE: The maximum rate of withdrawal from one 150-pound gas cylinder
is about one pound per day per °F. If the rate to be fed exceeds the room
temperature in °F, it will be necessary to have more than one cylinder connected. See the INSTALLATION PIPING drawing for manifolding of cylinders
for this condition.
Supply cylinders are heavy. Arrange storage so that they are handled as little
as possible. Refer to CHLORINE MANUAL (or equivalent for other gases) for
further discussion of handling and storage.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
EQUIPMENT, SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SUPPORTED IN SUCH A MANNER (e.g., with CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING KNOCKED OVER.
Make provisions for the installation of a Evoqua Water Technologies Two-Cylinder
Scale for weighing the supply cylinders. If periodic readings are recorded, the
amount of gas used in any given period may be determined. Using a Evoqua
Water Technologies Loss-Of-Weight Recorder on the scale, a graphical record
of gas use may be obtained.
2.2
Gas Supply from a Ton Container
If the source of gas supply is to be a ton container, install a trap or drip leg
at the lowest point in piping between vacuum regulator-check unit and ton
container to collect liquid and residue.
!
2.3
warning: THIS UNIT MAY CONTAIN LIQUID OR GAS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE. TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, CLOSE CONTAINER VALVE AND EVACUATE COMPLETE SYSTEM
BEFORE DISCONNECTING GAS CONTAINER SUPPLY OR DISASSEMBLING
UNIT. ON TON CONTAINERS WITHOUT AN EVAPORATOR, THE UNIT MUST
BE CONNECTED TO THE UPPER VALVE THAt DISCHARGES GAS, NOT TO
THE LOWER VALVE THAT DISCHARGES LIQUID. TON CONTAINERS MUST
BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (e.g., with chocks) TO PREVENT THEIR
ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
Vent
The pressure check-pressure relief valve is shipped with a red diaphragm support in place of the vent elbow and reducing bushing on top of unit. Remove
the shipping support and install reducing bushing and vent elbow. Save this
diaphragm support to center the diaphragm during reassembly after preventive maintenance.
As shown on the TYPICAL INSTALLATION drawings, a vent line is required from
the pressure relief port on the unit to a point outside the building where a
leakage of gas will not be objectionable. The proper installation of this line is
extremely important. For gases other than ammonia, the gradient of the line
must be continuous (down, if possible) without traps and the atmospheric end
should point down and be screened against the entrance of foreign materials.
For ammonia, the gradient of the line must be continuous (up, if possible)
without traps and the atmospheric end should point up and be provided with
a suitable raincap to prevent the entrance of water and foreign materials. Allow for free discharge of vapor. Where traps are unavoidable, provisions for
condensate removal must be installed at all low points. Suitable support for
the vent is required throughout its entire length. The vent lines from two or
more vacuum regulator-check units may be manifolded together.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
2.4
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE
TO EQUIPMENT, DO NOT CONNECT THE VENT LINE FROM A VACUUM
REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT TO A VENT LINE FROM ANY EQUIPMENT OTHER
THAN ANOTHER VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT. THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT MUST BE VENTED TO OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE. THE
VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT
CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE. DO NOT TERMINATE THE
VENT LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL, SUCH AS
WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS, NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION
SYSTEM INTAKES.
!
caution: If any individual vent line is disconnected from a manifolded system, plug the resultant opening in the manifold immediately.
Leak Check
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY, WHEN MAKING
LEAK CHECKS IT IS RECOMMENDED PRACTICE TO HAVE AN APPROVED
GAS MASK AVAILABLE THAT YOU HAVE BEEN TRAINED TO USE.
After the unit is in place and before the gas piping to the control module is
connected to the unit, check for gas leaks as follows:
a. Turn the knob(s) to the OFF position (de-energize the electric operator on
evaporator arrangement) (counterclockwise as seen from the top as far
as it will go).
b. Open the gas supply valve.
c. For chlorine or sulfur dioxide, wet a dauber with aqueous ammonia. Pass
the dauber close to all gasketed joints, all pipe threaded joints (including
any plugs), and the opening of the plastic discharge fitting (of the pressure
check-pressure relief valve). A gas leak will be indicated by a white cloud.
Refer to SERVICE for gases other than chlorine and sulfur dioxide.
!
warning: DO NOT TOLERATE GAS LEAKS OF ANY KIND. THEY DO NOT
SELF-SEAL AND ALWAYS GET WORSE WITH TIME. EVEN SMALL AMOUNTS
OF GAS, WHEN MIXED WITH DAMP AIR, ARE VERY CORROSIVE TO ADJACENT METAL PARTS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT.
d. If leaks are detected, close the gas supply valve and take corrective steps
immediately. Correct leaks as indicated by the nature of the leak (tightening of gasketed joints or screws, new gaskets, pipe thread sealant, etc.).
e. Repeat the leak check procedure until there are no gas leaks.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
5
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
3
OPERATION
Refer to the gas feeder instruction book for operating instructions, which may
vary depending upon the installation configuration.
!
3.1
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, FOR LONG TERM SHUT-DOWN, ENSURE COMPLETE SHUT-OFF
OF THE GAS SUPPLY AT THE GAS CONTAINER VALVES IN ADDITION TO
THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT.
Theory of Operation
Gas under pressure enters the vacuum regulator-check unit. The gas pressure
is reduced to less than atmospheric pressure as the gas passes through two
valves, which will not open unless a vacuum is produced. If the first valve passes
gas when a vacuum is not present, the second valve will remain closed and
contain the gas pressure in the unit, which is designed to contain full container
pressure. In the extremely unlikely event that the second valve also passes gas,
the built-in pressure relief valve will permit this gas to pass out the vent. For
this reason, the vent line must be run to outside atmosphere.
!
warning: THE VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT MUST BE VENTED TO
OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE. THE VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA
WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE. DO NOT TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY
USED BY PERSONNEL SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS NOR NEAR
WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
Automatic switchover capability is provided (when ordered) by having two
vacuum regulators fitted with mechanical detents. One regulator feeds gas
until the container to which it is connected is nearly exhausted. The resulting
rise of vacuum to higher than normal provides sufficient force to unlatch the
detents in the second regulator, which then takes over the gas supply function.
The original supply continues to feed with the new supply, ensuring exhaustion of gas from the original supply container. In the evaporator arrangement,
the low temperature alarm switch in the base of the pressure check valve will
indicate liquid carry-over from the evaporator. This switch is actuated only if
liquid is present in the unit. Actuation is caused by the intense chilling that
occurs as the liquid vaporizes (due to the pressure reduction in the regulator).
The low temperature switch will de-energize the electric operator, closing the
regulator unit, stopping the flow of the liquid.
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
4
SERVICE
!
4.1
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, SHUT OFF THE GAS AT THE SUPPLY CONTAINER AND
EXHAUST ALL GAS IN THE SYSTEM BEFORE SERVICING THE EQUIPMENT.
Maintenance
Maintenance of vacuum regulator-check unit consists of two periodically
performed operations:
• Periodic Cleaning to remove contaminants and deposits brought to the
units by the gas flow.
• Periodic Preventive Maintenance to disassemble, inspect, clean, and accomplish recommended parts replacement. Kits of replacement parts required
for this periodic maintenance are available and are listed in PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE KITS.
PROTECT YOUR EQUIPMENT INVESTMENT
MINIMIZE DOWNTIME
REORDER A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE KIT NOW
KEEP ONE ON HAND
4.2
Cleaning Vacuum Regulator (See Dwg. 25.052.001.026 or 25.052.001.032)
The standard regulator or the automatic switchover regulator are both cleaned
in the same manner. Where two key numbers are given, the first refers to Dwg.
25.052.001.026, the second to Dwg. 25.052.001.032. To clean the regulator,
proceed as follows:
a. Shut off the gas container valve. Operate the gas feeder a few minutes to
exhaust remaining gas from the regulator.
!
warning: THE HEATER MAY BE HOT ENOUGH TO CAUSE BURNS. DISCONNECT AND ALLOW TO COOL BEFORE SERVICING.
!
caution: When any connection is broken even for a short time, immediately
plug the resultant opening with a rubber stopper or equivalent to prevent
the entrance of moisture. Moisture must be excluded from any part of the
equipment that is normally exposed to dry gas only. Non-corrosive when dry,
moist chlorine or sulfur dioxide is extremely corrosive to common metals
such as brass or steel.
b. Loosen and remove four bolts (24, 21) and washers (4, 10).
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c. Remove cap (25, 22), lead gasket (22, 20), main spring (27, 18), stem unit
(20, 17), seat and retainer unit (23, 32), O-ring (19, 16), and strainer (21,
31).
d. Discard the lead gasket (22, 20).
e. Inspect the O-ring (19, 16). Replace if necessary.
f. Rinse remaining part thoroughly with warm water.
g. Reassemble the parts in reverse order using a new lead gasket (22, 20).
4.3
Cleaning Vacuum Regulator (See Dwg. 50.177.001.012) (Evaporator Arrangement)
To clean the regulator, proceed as follows:
a. Shut off the gas container valve. Operate the gas feeder a few minutes to
exhaust remaining gas from the regulator.
!
warning: THE HEATER MAY BE HOT ENOUGH TO CAUSE BURNS. DISCONNECT AND ALLOW TO COOL BEFORE SERVICING.
!
caution: When any connection is broken even for a short time, immediately
plug the resultant opening with a rubber stopper or equivalent to prevent
the entrance of moisture. Moisture must be excluded from any part of the
equipment that is normally exposed to dry gas only. Non-corrosive when dry,
moist chlorine or sulfur dioxide is extremely corrosive to common metals
such as brass or steel.
b. Loosen and remove four bolts (30) and washers (16).
c. Remove cap (31), lead gasket (32), main spring (26), stem unit (25), seat
and retainer unit (28), O-ring (24), and strainer (27).
d. Discard the lead gasket (32).
e. Inspect the O-ring (24). Replace if necessary.
f. Rinse remaining parts thoroughly with warm water.
g. Reassemble the parts in reverse order using a new lead gasket.
4.4
Cleaning Gas Line Strainer (See Dwg. 50.150.005.033)
To clean filter screen in the gas line strainer, remove bolts (4) and cover (3).
Screen is welded to cover and will come out for cleaning when cover is removed.
After cleaning, replace screen and cover using new gasket (2). If screen cannot
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be adequately cleaned, replace with new screen and cover unit. To replace the
screen portion only, order kit U27148 (3/4-inch) or U27149 (1.0-inch).
4.5
Adjusting Vacuum Regulator (See Dwg. 25.052.001.026 or 25.052.001.032)
The operating vacuum level for the standard regulator or automatic switchover
regulator is adjusted in the same manner. Where two key numbers are given,
the first refer to Dwg. 25.052.001.026, the second Dwg. 25.052.001.032. To
adjust operating vacuum level, proceed as follows:
a. With the regulator inlet open to room air, connect a water manometer or
vacuum gauge at the 1/4-inch pipe tap in the bottom section of the pressure check valve.
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, DO NOT CONNECT THE UNIT TO A GAS SUPPLY FOR
THIS ADJUSTMENT.
b. Set the control module to draw air through the unit at an approximate
10-lb/24 hr feed rate or the lowest feed rate detectable on the rotameter.
The black knob should be rotated to ON and air should be free to enter
the unit through the inlet. For automatic switchover units, turn off the
regulator not being adjusted.
!
caution: If a water manometer is used, be careful to avoid drawing water
into the unit. A pinch clamp on the tube permits the tester to open slowly
and reclose quickly if the water column rises too high. If water does enter
the unit, it must be disassembled and thoroughly dried before reconnecting
to the gas supply.
c. For automatic switchover units, remove two set screws (36) from the holes
in black knob (2).
d. Insert adjusting tool U24218 through the clearance holes in knob (13, 2)
and engage the spanner holes in adjuster (10, 4). Rotate the adjuster with
the tool as required to obtain an operating vacuum of 8 to 12 inches of
water.
NOTE: Clockwise rotation will lower the vacuum while counterclockwise
rotation increases the vacuum.
!
caution: Do not continue to draw air through the unit once the adjustment
is made.
e. For automatic switchover units, replace two set screws (36).
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4.6
Adjusting Vacuum Regulator (See Dwg. 50.177.001.012) (Evaporator Arrangement)
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY, DO NOT USE
FINGERS TO MAKE ADJUSTMENTS.
a. Use an 1-1/8-inch open-end wrench and loosen locknut (6) on adjuster (8)
and position adjuster 1/2-inch from adapter (4).
b. Energize electric operator (hydramotor, 2) and wait until return spring is
fully compressed.
c. Drain air through the unit at a slow rate (approximately equivalent to a
10-lb/24 hr feed rate or lowest feed rate detectable on the rotameter). Air
should be free to enter the unit through the inlet.
d. Check the vacuum level. The operating limits for the 3000 lbs/24 hr vacuum
regulator are 8 to 12 inches of water.
e. De-energize the electric operator.
f. Turn adjuster with an 1-1/8-inch open end wrench. Lowering the adjuster
will have the effect of INCREASING the vacuum. Raising the adjuster will
have the effect of DECREASING the vacuum.
g. Energize the electric operator and re-check vacuum level. If the level is within
limits, tighten adjuster lock nut. Use 1-1/8-inch open end wrench. If level is
out of limits, repeat adjustment procedures above.
NOTE: Do not continue to draw air through the unit once the adjustment is
made.
4.7
Adjusting Switchover Detent Level (See Dwg. 25.052.001.032)
To adjust the detent vacuum level, proceed as follows:
a. Turn black knob (2) on the regulator not being adjusted to the OFF position.
b. With the inlet of the regulator being adjusted open to room air, connect a
water manometer or vacuum gauge at the 1/4-inch pipe tap in the bottom
section of the pressure check valve. A vacuum gauge, rather than a water
manometer, is preferred.
!
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THIS ADJUSTMENT.
10
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!
caution: If a water manometer is used, be careful to avoid drawing water
into the unit. A pinch clamp on the tube permits the tester to open slowly
and reclose quickly if the water column rises too high. If water does enter
the unit, it must be disassembled and thoroughly dried before reconnecting
to the gas supply.
c. Set the control module to draw air through the unit at an approximate 10-lb/24
hr feed rate or lowest feed rate detectable on the rotameter.
d. Latch the regulator into STANDBY by rotating black knob (2) to the OFF
position, and then to the ON position.
e. Observe the vacuum at which the regulator switches over. This level should
be between 32 and 42 inches of water.
f. To adjust the level, loosen two locking screws (24) that hold detent plate
(8), turn adjusting screw (26) 1/8 turn (clockwise if level was too high,
counterclockwise if level was too low) and retighten the two locking screws.
g. Recheck the detent level.
h. Continue this procedure to reach the proper detent level.
!
4.8
caution: Do not continue to draw air through the unit once the adjustment
is made.
Adjustment of Pressure Check-Pressure Relief Valve (See Dwg. 50.177.000.075)
a. Connect one end of a piece of tubing to elbow (6) in the top of the unit.
Submerge the free end approximately 1/4-inch under water.
b. Apply pressure gradually to discharge adapter (26). Observe the point at
which bubbles begin to flow rapidly from the end of the tubing. This level
must be 13 to 17 inches of water (0.47-0.61 psi). If necessary, remove
reducing bushing (14) from the top of the valve and adjust hex nut (17) to
obtain the proper relief level.
NOTE: Remove the tubing from the water before turning off pressure to the
valve. No water is allowed inside the valve.
4.9
Replacement of Low Temperature Alarm Switch (Evaporator Arrangement Only)
The cavity in the pressure check body is filled with silicone oil at the factory
before the low temperature alarm switch is installed. If any oil is spilled during replacement of the switch, it is recommended that the amount of oil be
maintained at three mL total.
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!
caution: Do not add more than this, to prevent possible damage to the
switch upon installation.
4.10 Chlorine or Sulfur Dioxide Leaks
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, DO NOT TOLERATE ANY LEAKS. THEY ALWAYS GET PROGRESSIVELY WORSE AND MUST BE CORRECTED PROMPTLY.
NOTE: For leak testing, use Evoqua Water Technologies U409 or Commercial
26° Baume’ aqueous ammonia. Household ammonia is not strong enough.
A bottle of aqueous ammonia U409 is furnished for checking leakage of chlorine (or sulfur dioxide) gas at joints, valves, etc. Hold the moistened dauber
close to the joint or suspected leakage area. If leakage exists, a white cloud
will form. When a leak is found, immediately shut off gas supply and remove
the escaped gas by ventilation. Continue injector operation for a few minutes
to remove all gas from the system.
!
warning: ESCAPED GAS MUST BE EXHAUSTED TO OUTSIDE ATMOSPHERE. THE EXHAUST SYSTEM MUST TERMINATE TO AN AREA WHERE
GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE TO
EQUIPMENT. DO NOT TERMINATE THE EXHAUST SYSTEM AT A LOCATION
ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL, SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS,
NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
Eliminate the leak before proceeding.
As a routine practice, check gas connections for leaks once a day. Green or
reddish deposits on metal parts indicate possible leaks.
!
caution: When any connection is broken even for a short time, the openings must be plugged to prevent the entrance of moisture, which, when mixed with gas, corrodes metal parts.
No odor should be in evidence around equipment except when a joint is temporarily opened.
4.11 Ammonia Leaks
The existence of an ammonia leak is readily detectable by odor. The location
may be determined with moist phenolphthalein or red litmus paper, which
changes color in ammonia vapor.
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4.12 Carbon Dioxide Leaks
Carbon dioxide is colorless and odorless. Leaks may be detected by the application of soapy water to suspected areas or by means of commercially available
detectors. Consult your gas supplier for additional information.
4.13 Auxiliary Cylinder Valve (Chlorine/Sulfur Dioxide)
This valve operates under full cylinder pressure and its construction must be
understood. See Dwg. 50.150.001.012 for the physical details of the valve.
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, DO NOT REMOVE THE PACKING NUT WHILE THE VALVE
IS UNDER PRESSURE.
If a new packing is required, proceed as follows:
a. Close the main cylinder valve and relieve gas pressure in the line connected
to the auxiliary cylinder valve by operating injector until the gas pressure
gauge reads zero.
b. Remove valve handle (9) from valve stem (5) and valve body (4) by rotating
counterclockwise.
c. Turn packing nut clockwise to remove.
NOTE: The packing nut has a left-hand thread. Turning clockwise loosens
while turning counterclockwise tightens the packing nut.
d. Remove plastic washer (7) and packing (6).
e. Reassemble in reverse order. Check to ensure that valve handle is engaged
on both valve stem (5) and valve body (4) as follows:
(1) Seat valve stem (5) before the handle covers all the threads on valve
body (4).
(2) If the handle travels too far, remove it. Push the valve stem in slightly,
re-engage the handle and close the valve.
(3) Readjust the valve stem as required so that about one thread on the
valve body is exposed when the valve closes.
f. Check for leaks
To tighten the packing while the valve is pressurized, remove valve handle (9)
from valve stem (5) and valve body (4) by rotating counterclockwise. Using a
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small wrench (to avoid damaging threads by over tightening), tighten packing
nut (8) by turning counterclockwise. Replace valve handle.
4.14 Auxiliary Cylinder Valve (Ammonia)
The ammonia version is serviced in the same manner as the chlorine/sulfur
dioxide valve. See Dwg. 910.200.003.010 for comparable part and key numbers.
4.15 Changing Cylinders
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, PRIOR TO PERFORMING THIS OPERATION YOU MUST
BE COMPLETELY FAMILIAR WITH THE APPROPRIATE GAS MANUAL RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES AND YOUR LOCAL PLANT OPERATING AND
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.
When changing a gas cylinder, air must not be allowed to enter gas lines due
to the corrosion problem when ambient air is mixed with dry gas.
!
caution: When any connection is broken for even a short time, immediately
plug the resultant opening with a rubber stopper or equivalent to prevent
the entrance of moisture. Moisture must be excluded from any part of the
equipment that is normally exposed to dry gas only. Non-corrosive when dry,
moist chlorine and sulfur dioxide is extremely corrosive to common metals
such as brass or steel.
!
warning: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, GAS CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER
(e.g., with CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING KNOCKED OVER.
When a gas cylinder is exhausted, as shown by a scale showing depletion of
contents or by venting from the vacuum relief valve, place a full cylinder ready
for service. If the gas feeder is operating, the injector need not be shut off. If
the system has two vacuum regulator-check units for automatic switchover,
the in-use unit need not be shut off. Proceed as follows:
a. Bring a full cylinder to the point of use.
b. Close the cylinder valve on the exhausted cylinder.
c. Turn the vacuum regulator-check unit knob all the way to OFF. (On evaporator arrangement, de-energize electric operator.)
d. Disconnect the empty cylinder.
e. Release the chain and move the empty cylinder aside.
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f. Move the full cylinder into place and secure the restraining chain. Check
that the cylinder valve packing nut has not worked loose. Tighten if necessary.
g. Using a new lead gasket, connect the full cylinder.
h. Turn on the gas cylinder valve approximately one-half turn.
i. Check the gasket joint and packing nut for leaks. Correct as indicated.
j. After correcting any leaks, turn the vacuum regulator-check unit knob fully on.
(On evaporator arrangement, energize the electric operator.)
k. Replace the empty gas cylinder valve cap and hood, tear tag indicating
empty cylinder, and move to storage area for empty cylinders.
4.16 Periodic Preventive Maintenance
Because of aging of elastomeric components and the desirability of checking
internal zones for possible accumulations of deposits not seen in routine maintenance, it is recommended that at one-year intervals, each of the principal
components be completely disassembled. Before starting the work, ensure
that the appropriate preventive maintenance kits are on hand.
Refer to the tabulated listing below and at the end of this book for appropriate kit numbers.
Disassembly and reassembly instructions necessary to install the maintenance
kit parts are included in the kit.
Servicing of Evoqua Water Technologies gas feed equipment, including installation of parts from maintenance kits, should be restricted to trained, authorized personnel who are completely familiar with the entire contents of the
equipment instruction book. The Evoqua Water Technologies sales office or the
dealer from whom you purchased the equipment can provide the preventive
maintenance kits or overhaul service.
MAINTENANCE ITEM
Vacuum RegulatorCheck Unit
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WHEN TO
PERFORM
At one-year intervals.
MAINTENANCE KIT
NO.
U27807 (Auto. Switchover); U27808 (Standard
or Evap.)
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VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
WARNING LABELS
The following warning labels and tags are attached to the equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L1965:
HAZARDOUS GAS IS PRESENT IN THIS EQUIPMENT DURING NORMAL OPERATION. TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY
OR DAMAGE TO THE EQUIPMENT, READ THE Evoqua Water
Technologies INSTRUCTION BOOK AND THE APPROPRIATE GAS
MANUAL BEFORE CONNECTING THIS EQUIPMENT TO A SUPPLY
OF GAS. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THIS EQUIPMENT
MUST BE RESTRICTED TO TRAINED, QUALIFIED PERSONNEL WHO
ARE COMPLETELY FAMILIAR WITH THESE INSTRUCTIONS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2104:
THIS HEATER MAY BE HOT ENOUGH TO CAUSE BURNS. DISCONNECT TO COOL.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2494:
AT FIRST INDICATION OF A GAS LEAK SHUT OFF GAS SUPPLY.
DO NOT REMOVE PACKING NUT B OR USE WRENCH ON HANDLE
A.
FOR USE ONLY WITH AMMONIA GAS.
DO NOT REMOVE PACKING NUT B UNLESS GAS SUPPLY IS SHUT
OFF.
SEE SKETCH ABOVE FOR INFORMATION ON CORRECT GASKETS.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2016:
TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY FROM ELECTRICAL SHOCK, TURN POWER OFF BEFORE SERVICING.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L3076:
CHECK FOR LEAKS DAILY. AT THE FIRST INDICATION OF A GAS LEAK,
SHUT OFF GAS SUPPLY. IF BROWNISH OR GREENISH DEPOSIT IS
NOTED, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO USE THIS VALVE, TAKE IT OUT OF
SERVICE.
DO NOT USE A WRENCH ON HANDLE A. DO NOT TIGHTEN OR
REMOVE PACKING NUT B UNLESS GAS SUPPLY HAS BEEN SHUT
OFF AND ALL GAS PRESSURE RELIEVED.
FOR USE WITH CHLORINE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE ONLY.
USE ONLY CORRECT GASKETS. DO NOT SUBSTITUTE.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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WARNING LABELS (cont’d)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2493:
AT FIRST INDICATION OF A GAS LEAK SHUT OFF GAS SUPPLY.
DO NOT REMOVE PACKING NUT B OR USE WRENCH ON HANDLE A.
FOR USE ONLY WITH AMMONIA GAS.
DO NOT REMOVE PACKING NUT B UNLESS GAS SUPPLY IS SHUT
OFF.
SEE SKETCH ABOVE FOR INFORMATION ON CORRECT GASKETS.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CAUTION LABELS
The following caution labels have been attached to the equipment.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2556:
FOR CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE OR CARBON DIOXIDE USE ONLY.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L2499:
FOR AMMONIA USE ONLY.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE KITS AND SPARE PARTS LIST
3000 LB/24 HR VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
DESCRIPTION
PART NO.
Preventive Maintenance Kit (Automatic Switchover)
U27807
Preventive Maintenance Kit (Standard or Evaporator)
U27808
ADDITIONAL SPARE PARTS
QTY.
DESCRIPTION
1
Diaphragm (Pressure Check Valve)
P51392
1
Lead Gasket (Pressure Check Valve)
P51386
*1
Diaphragm (Vacuum Regulator) (Chlorine SO2, CO2)
P51349
PART NO.
OR
*1
Diaphragm (Vacuum Regulator) (Ammonia)
P55203
*1
Diaphragm (Vacuum Regulator) (All Gases)
P51348
*1
O-Ring (Vacuum Regulator)
*1
Lead Gasket (Vacuum Regulator)
P41869
**1 tube
Lubricant
U10242
1 bottle
Ammonia Solution (4 oz.)@
1
Screen Kit (3/4" Strainer)
U27148
1
Screen Kit (1" Strainer)
U27149
1 pkg
Phenolphthalein Test Paper# (100 strips)
U2076
2
Stem (All Gases)
AAC7985
2
Seat and Retainer (All Gases)
U19788
PXB42310
U409
* Quantity two if automatic switchover.
** Commercially available as Dow Corning Silicone Grease DC33.
# For ammonia only.
@ Not For Ammonia.
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WARNINGS:  THE VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR
DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. DO NOT TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL,
SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PARTHWAYS, NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
 TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJEURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, TON CONTAINERS MUST BE SECURED
IN SUCH A MANNER (E.G., CHOCKS) TO PREVENT THEIR ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
NOTES:
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
A ACCESSORY ITEM FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
3000 LB/24 HR VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT - TYPICAL INSTALLATION
With Standard Regulator
25.052.110.010
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WARNINGS:  THE VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR
DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. DO NOT TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL,
SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PARTHWAYS, NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
 TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJEURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, TON CONTAINERS MUST BE SECURED
IN SUCH A MANNER (E.G., CHOCKS) TO PREVENT THEIR ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
NOTES:
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
A ACCESSORY ITEM FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
3000 LB/24 HR VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT - TYPICAL INSTALLATION
With Automatic Switchover Regulator
25.052.110.015
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WARNINGS:  THE VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO
PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE TO EQUIPMENT. DO NOT TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AT A LOCATION
ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL, SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PARTHWAYS, NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
 TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJEURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, TON CONTAINERS
MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (E.G., CHOCKS) TO PREVENT THEIR ROLLING OUT OF
PLACE.
NOTES:
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
A ACCESSORY ITEM FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
3000 LB/24 HR VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT - TYPICAL INSTALLATION
With Evaporator
25.052.110.020
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KEY NO.
1l
2l
3
4
5
PART NO.
UX_493
UX_1098
U 28834
U 28837
P 7737
DESCRIPTION
FLEXIBLE CONN. - 4 FT. LENGTH
FLEXIBLE CONN. - 4 FT. LENGTH
5 TANK MANIFOLD
10 TANK MANIFOLD
3/4" ADAPTER (3/4" NPT x 3/4"
N.G.O.ST.PIPE THD.)
KEY NO.
6
8
9
10
PART NO.
PC 50282
P 2519
P 2476
P 16191
DESCRIPTION
REDUCING BUSHING (3/4" x 1")
GASKET 35/64" OD
GASKET 15/16" OD
GASKET 15/16" OD
WARNING:  TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (E.G., CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING
KNOCKED OVER.
CAUTION:  USE TWO WRENCHES ON ALL UNION CONNECTIONS. WRENCH ON TUBING MUST BE HELD
STATIONARY WHILE VALVE NUT IS TURNED (TUBING END IS BRAZED TO TUBING).
NOTES:
 ALTERNATE LENGTHS AVAILABLE 3, 6, 10, OR 15 FT. SPECIFY LENGTHS WHEN ORDERING.
THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE RECOMMENDS THAT FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS BE REPLACED ANNUALLY OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION. SEE CHLORINE HANDLING
MANUAL. SIMILAR RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY TO OTHER GASES.
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
GAS CONNECTIONS - CYLINDER TO VACUUM REGULATOR - INSTALLATION PIPING
25.052.120.010
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CAUTION:  USE TWO WRENCHES ON ALL UNION CONNECTIONS. WRENCH ON TUBING END MUST BE
HELD STATIONARY WHILE NUT IS TURNED (TUBING END IS BRAZED TO TUBING.)
NOTES:
A ACCESSORY ITEMS FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE RECOMMENDS THAT FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS BE REPLACED
ANNUALLY OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION. SEE THE CHLORINE
HANDLING MANUAL. SIMILAR RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY TO OTHER GASES.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
TON CONTAINER TO HEADER CONNECTIONS - INSTALLATION PIPING
25.052.120.020
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WARNINGS: TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, AMMONIA GAS SHOULD NOT BE STORED IN OR FED FROM THE SAME
ROOM WITH CHLORINE. CONTACT OF THE GASES MAY RESULT IN AN EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE.
THE VENT LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE. DO NOT TERMINATE THE
VENT LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM
INTAKES.
 TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, TON CONTAINERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (e.g. CHOCKS)
TO PREVENT THEIR ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
NOTES:
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
A ACCESSORY ITEM FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
GAS WITHDRAWAL CONNECTION MUST BE MADE TO UPPER VALVE AS ILLUSTRATED.
 SCHEDULE 80 SEAMLESS STEEL PIPE WITH FORGED STEEL FITTINGS. USE LITHARGE AND GLYCERINE CEMENT OR WHITE LEAD ON ALL THREADED
JOINTS.
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
1450 LB/24 HR AMMONIA VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
- TYPICAL INSTALLATION
60.221.110.085
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
24
EVOQUA
ISSUE 8 7-14
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY
NO.
1
PART NO.
UX_2066
2
UX_24208
3
4
5
U 28401
U 28402
PXA7737
6
7
8
9
10
PC 50282
U 11785
P 2519
P 2476
P 16191
DESCRIPTION
FLEXIBLE CONN. - 6 FT. OR 10 FT.
LGTHS.
FLEXIBLE CONN. - 4 FT. OR 10 FT.
LGTHS.
5-TANK MANIFOLD
10-TANK MANIFOLD
3/4" ADAPTER (3/4" THRD. x 3/4" ST.
PIPE THRD.)
REDUCING BUSHING (3/4" x 1")
YOKE
GASKET 35/64"OD
GASKET 15/16"OD
GASKET 15/16"OD
11
P 26142
ADAPTER
KEY
NO.
12
PART NO.
P 6729
CAP
DESCRIPTION
13
P 6730
PACKING NUT
14
15
16
U 21412
P 6731
P 18433
PACKING
STEM
BODY
17
18
19
20
21
P 6735
P 13900
PS 6714
PS 6749
U 2065
22
L 2494
UNION NUT
ADAPTER
UNION NIPPLE
UNION NUT
AUXILIARY CYLINDER VALVE (SEE
DETAIL B")
INSTRUCTION CARD
WARNING:  TO AVOID POSSIBLE SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE, SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (E.G., CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING
KNOCKED OVER.
CAUTION:  USE TWO WRENCHES ON ALL UNION CONNECTIONS. WRENCH ON TUBING MUST BE HELD
STATIONARY WHILE VALVE NUT IS TURNED (TUBING END IS BRAZED TO TUBING).
NOTES:
X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
USE LITHARGE AND GLYCERINE CEMENT ON ALL PIPE THREADED JOINTS.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
AMMONIA CONNECTIONS CYLINDERS TO VACUUM REGULATOR
- INSTALLATION PIPING
1450 Lb/24 Hr Ammonia Vacuum Regulator - Check Unit
60.210.010.040
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
25
EVOQUA
ISSUE 11 7-14
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
FROM EVAPORATOR
NOTES: X NOT FURNISHED BY Evoqua Water Technologies.
A ACCESSORY ITEM FURNISHED ONLY IF SPECIFICALLY LISTED IN QUOTATION.
FIELD WIRING (NOT BY Evoqua Water Technologies) MUST CONFORM TO LOCAL
ELECTRICAL CODES.
EVAPORATOR ARRANGEMENT - INSTALLATION WIRING
50.177.130.010
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
26
EVOQUA
ISSUE 4 7-14
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
U28166 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U28167 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (STANDARD) - PARTS
NOTE: FOR PARTS LIST, SEE DWG. 25.052.001.026B.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
25.052.001.026A
27
EVOQUA
ISSUE 2 1-95
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
PART NO.
P 58514
P 8449
P 889
P 7358
P 51348
P 51349
OR
P 55203
P 50599
P 49588
P 51344
P 50230
P 51150
P 51342
P 51343
P 48587
PE 21184
P 51346
P 51347
OR
P 51763
AAB 4529
PXB 42310
AAC7985
P 41866
P 41869
U 19788
P 6582
P 58486
P 41870
P 51352
P 51351
P 51358
P 58487
L 1965
P 51359
L 2556
OR
L 2499
P 59385
QTY.
1
8
8
12
1
1
DESCRIPTION
BONNET
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2"-13 x 2-1/4" LG.
HEX. NUT (STL.) 1/2"-13
1/2" WASHER (STL.)
DIAPHRAGM (HYPALON) (TOP)
DIAPHRAGM (BOTTOM) (FOR CHLORINE)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
DIAPHRAGM (BOTTOM) (FOR AMMONIA)
PLATE
MACH. SCREW (FLT. HD., MONEL) #6-32 x 5/16" LG.
BIAS SPRING
ADJUSTER
WASHER
MACH. SCREW (PAN HD.,SS) #10-24 x 1-1/2" LG.
KNOB
SPOOL
MACH. SCREW (BIND.HD.,BRASS) #4-40 x 1/4" LG.
SPACER
BACKING PLATE (FOR CHLORINE)
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
BACKING PLATE (FOR AMMONIA)
GASKET
O-RING (122) TFE, 1-1/8" ID x 1-5/8"OD
STEM UNIT (ALL GASES)
STRAINER
LEAD GASKET
SEAT & RETAINER UNIT
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2" - 13 x 1-1/2" LG.
CAP
BUSHING GUIDE
MAIN SPRING
SCREW
O-RING (010) HYPALON, 1/4" ID x 3/8" OD (BETWEEN DIAPHRAGMS)
BODY
WARNING LABEL
ARROW DECAL
CAUTION LABEL (FOR CHLORINE)
1
1
CAUTION LABEL (FOR AMMONIA)
DAMPENER BUSHING
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U28166 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U28167 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (STANDARD) - PARTS LIST
25.052.001.026B
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
28
EVOQUA
ISSUE 4 12-08
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
U28172 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U28173 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (AUTOMATIC SWITCHOVER) - PARTS
NOTE: FOR PARTS LIST, SEE DWG. 25.052.001.032B.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
25.052.001.032A
29
EVOQUA
ISSUE 2 1-95
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
PART NO.
P 51638
P 51343
P 51150
P 50230
P 51344
P 52306
PN 706
P 53690
P 8449
P 7358
P 58519
AAB 4529
P 51358
P 58487
P 889
PXB 42310
AAC7985
P 51352
P 41870
P 41869
P 6582
P 58486
U 25221
PE 18687
P 53691
P 52295
P 51639
P 51347
OR
P 51763
P 51348
P 51349
OR
P 55203
P 41866
U 19788
P 52479
P 51359
L 1965
PE 6132
L 2556
OR
L 2499
P 59386
QTY.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
12
1
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
DESCRIPTION
DOG POINT SCREW
KNOB
ANTI FRICTION WASHER (TFE)
SPRING ADJUSTER
BIAS SPRING
GROOVE PIN (SS) 3/32" DIA. x 1/2" LG.
MACH. SCREW (FLT.HD.,MONEL) #6-32 x 5/16" LG.
DETENT PLATE
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2" - 13 x 2-1/4" LG.
1/2" WASHER (STL.)
BONNET
GASKET
O-RING (010) HYPALON, 1/4" ID x 3/8" OD
BODY
HEX. NUT (STL.) 1/2"-13
O-RING (122) TFE, 1-1/8" ID x 1-5/16" OD
STEM UNIT (ALL GASES)
MAIN SPRING
BUSHING GUIDE
LEAD GASKET
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2"-13 x 1-1/2" LG.
CAP
SPOOL DETENT UNIT
MACH. SCREW (BIND.HD.,BRASS) #4-40 x 1/4" LG.
ROD DETENT
SCREW ADJUST
SPACER
BACKING PLATE (FOR CHLORINE)
2
1
1
BACKING PLATE (FOR AMMONIA)
DIAPHRAGM (HYPALON) (TOP)
DIAPHRAGM (BOTTOM) (FOR CHLORINE)
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
DIAPHRAGM (BOTTOM) (FOR AMMONIA)
STRAINER
SEAT & RETAINER UNIT
HEX. HEAD SCREW
ARROW DECAL
WARNING LABEL
SET SCREW (SLOTTED HEADLESS CUP PT.BRASS) #10-32 x 1/4" LG.
CAUTION LABEL (FOR CHLORINE)
1
1
CAUTION LABEL (FOR AMMONIA)
DAMPENER BUSHING
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U28172 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U28173 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (AUTOMATIC SWITCHOVER) - PARTS LIST
25.052.001.032B
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
30
EVOQUA
ISSUE 4 12-08
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
NOTE:  NOT PART OF U29296 OR U29297.
FOR PARTS LIST, SEE DWG. 50.177.001.012B.
U29296 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U29297 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (EVAPORATOR ARRANGEMENT) - PARTS
50.177.001.012A
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
31
EVOQUA
ISSUE 1 2-01
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
ln 1
l 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
PART NO.
L 2016
U 20068
P 51344
P 57106
P 6239
P 57108
P 57109
P 57110
P 57111
P 57112
P 875
P 4763
P 57107
P 8449
P 889
P 7358
P 51348
P 58488
AAB4529
P 51349
OR
P 55203
P 51347
OR
P 51763
P 51358
P 51351
PXB 42310
AAC7985
P 51352
P 41866
U 19788
P 41870
P 6582
P 58486
P 41869
P 58487
L 2556
OR
L 2499
L 1965
P 51359
P 59385
QTY.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
1
8
8
12
1
1
1
1
DESCRIPTION
WARNING LABEL (PART OF KEY NO. 2)
HYDRAMOTOR
BIAS SPRING
ADAPTER
NUT (JAM. STL.) 1/4-20
LOCKNUT
BIAS SPRING SEAT
ADJUSTER
SPRING CAP
RETURN SPRING
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 5/16"-18 x 1-1/4" LG.
LOCKWASHER (C.STL.) 5/16"
ADJUSTER STUD
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2-13 x 2-1/4" LG.
NUT (HEX.STL.) 1/2-13
WASHER (STL.) 1/2
DIAPHRAGM HYPALON
BONNET
GASKET
DIAPHRAGM (FOR CHLORINE)
1
2
DIAPHRAGM (FOR AMMONIA)
BACKING PLATE
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
BACKING PLATE
O-RING (010) HYPALON, 1/4" ID x 3/8" OD
SCREW
O-RING (122) TFE, 1-1/8" ID x 1-5/16" OD
STEM UNIT (ALL GASES)
MAIN SPRING
STRAINER
SEAT & RETAINER
GUIDE BUSHING
BOLT (HEX. HD.,STL.) 1/2-13 x 1-1/2" LG.
CAP
LEAD GASKET
BODY
CAUTION LABEL (FOR CHLORINE)
1
1
2
1
CAUTION LABEL (FOR AMMONIA)
WARNING LABEL
ARROW DECAL
BUSHING
NOTE: l NOT PART OF U29296 OR U29297.
n PART OF U20068.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U29296 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U29297 - AMMONIA
VACUUM REGULATOR (EVAPORATOR ARRANGEMENT) - PARTS LIST
50.177.001.012B
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
32
EVOQUA
ISSUE 2 12-08
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
U27549 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U27551 - AMMONIA
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE - PARTS
NOTE: FOR PARTS LIST, SEE DWG. 50.177.000.075B.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
50.177.000.075A
33
EVOQUA
ISSUE 3 12-08
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
p 1
p 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
q 31
32
33
p 34
35
p 39
p 40
PART NO.
P 36387
P 19803
U 25259
P 37823
P 57183
OR
P 41703
P 39235
U 26560
P 16556
P 32413
P 35110
P 57181
OR
P 57195
P 35113
P 54516
P 23664
PXB 39334
U 26559
P 51366
P 3194
P 51387
P 51444
U 27488
OR
U 27489
P 54860
P 36802
P 37015
P 28509
P 51378
P 51373
P 51392
P 54859
P 51370
PXA 38437
OR
P 38437
P 54050
P 51394
P 51386
U 27935
OR
P 57044
AAA2562
P 58742
QTY.
4
4
1
1
1
DESCRIPTION
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2"-13 x 2-3/4" LG.
1/2" WASHER (STL.)
PRESSURE CHECK SEAT
CAPNUT
O-RING (232) VITON, 2-3/4" ID x 3" OD (FOR Cl2, CO2, SO2)
1
2
1
4
4
16
1
O-RING (232) BUNA-N, 2-3/4" ID x 3" OD (FOR NH3)
90° ELBOW - HALF UNION (PVC) 3/8" TUBING x 1/4" NPT
BODY UNIT
1/4" WASHER (MONEL)
BOLT (HEX.HD.,MONEL) 1/4"-20 x 1-1/2" LG.
HEX. NUT (SS) #10-24
O-RING (170) VITON, 7-3/4" ID x 7-15/16" OD FOR Cl2, CO2, SO2)
1
16
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
O-RING (170) BUNA-N, 7-3/4" ID x 7-15/16" OD (NH3 ONLY)
MACH.SCREW (RD.HD.,MONEL) #10-24 x 1-1/4" LG.
LABEL
REDUCING BUSHING (PVC) 3/4" NPT x 1/4"
UNION NUT (1/2"-20) 3/8" TUBING
BONNET UNIT
HEX. NUT (SILVER) #10-24
WASHER (SILVER)
SPRING RETAINER
RELIEF SPRING
PRESSURE CHECK UNIT - (FOR Cl2, CO2, SO2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
PRESSURE CHECK UNIT - (FOR NH3)
TOP BACKING PLATE
UNION NUT - (PVC) 1-1/2" PIPE
NUT WASHER
RING GASKET
ADAPTER
GASKET
DIAPHRAGM
BOTTOM BACKING PLATE
SCREW
O-RING (013) VITON, 7/16" ID x 9/16" OD (FOR Cl2, CO2, SO2)
1
1
1
1
1
O-RING (013) BUNA-N, 7/16" ID x 9/16" OD (FOR NH3)
STEM
SPRING
GASKET (LEAD)
CHECK (FOR Cl2, CO2, SO2)
1
1
1
CHECK (NH3)
PIPE PLUG 1/4" NPT
BODY
NOTE: q PART OF KEY NO. 21.
p NOT PART OF U27551 OR U27549.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U27549 - CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE & CARBON DIOXIDE; U27551 - AMMONIA
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE - PARTS LIST
50.177.000.075B
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
34
EVOQUA
ISSUE 4 5-04
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO. PART NO. QTY. DESCRIPTION
1
P 58752
1
BRACKET
U 28166
1
VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG. 25.052.001.026)
p 2
OR
U 28167
1
VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG.25.052.001.026)
l
U 27549
1
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
p 3
(SEE DWG. 50.177.000.075)
OR
U 27551
1
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
l
(SEE DWG. 50.177.000.075)
4
U 1999
1
HEATER
5
P 13573
1
NIPPLE
6
L 2104
1
WARNING LABEL
7
P 8045
1
1" PIPE PLUG (SQ.HD.,STL.)
L 2104
2
WARNING LABEL
 8
9
U 27182
1
OUTDOOR HEATERS
2
WARNING LABEL
 10 L 2016
11 P 51386
1
GASKET (LEAD) PART OF KEY NO. 3
12 P 36387
4
BOLT (HEX.HD.,.STEEL) 1/2"-13 x 2-3/4" LG.
13 P 19803
4
1/2" WASHER (S.S.)
14 P 58742
1
INLET BODY
15 AAA2562
1
1/4" PIPE PLUG
NOTE:  PART OF KEY NO. 9.
 USED FOR AMMONIA.
 USED FOR CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE, OR CARBON DIOXIDE.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND
SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
35
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
3000 LB/24 HR CAPACITY - PARTS
Standard Arrangement
50.177.000.011
EVOQUA
ISSUE 2 10-04
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO. PART NO. QTY.
DESCRIPTION
U 27549
1 PRESSURE CHECK-RELIEF VALVE (SEE DWG. 50.177.000.075)
p 1
OR
U 27551
1 PRESSURE CHECK-RELIEF VALVE (SEE DWG. 50.177.000.075)
l
2
P 58752
1 BRACKET
U 29297
1 VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG. 50.177.001.012)
l 3
OR
U 29296
1 VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG. 50.177.001.012)
p
4
P 13573
1 NIPPLE
5
L 2104
1 WARNING LABEL
6
U 27182
1 OUTDOOR HEATER
OR
U 1999
1 HEATER (NOT SHOWN)
7
L 2016
1 WARNING LABEL
8
U 24572
1 LOW TEMPERATURE ALARM SWITCH
9
P 51386
1 GASKET (LEAD)
10 PC 633
1 PIPE PLUG (HEX.HD.,BRASS) 1/4" NPT
11 P 58741
1 BODY
12 P 19803
4 1/2" WASHER (STL.)
13 PC 36387
4 BOLT (HEX.HD.,STL.) 1/2"-13 x 3-1/4" LG.
1 HYDRAMOTOR
n 14 U20068
NOTE:  USED FOR AMMONIA.
 USED FOR CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE, OR CARBON DIOXIDE.
 NOT PART OF U29297 OR U29296.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT - 3000 LB/24 HR CAPACITY - PARTS
Evaporator Arrangement
50.177.000.026
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
36
EVOQUA
ISSUE 5 5-04
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
1
p 2
PART NO.
QTY.
DESCRIPTION
P 58752
2
BRACKET
U 28172
2
VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG.25.052.001.032)
OR
U 28173
2
VACUUM REGULATOR (SEE DWG.25.052.001.032)
l
U 27549
1
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE (SEE DWG.50.177.000.075)
p 3
OR
U 27551
1
PRESSURE CHECK-PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE (SEE DWG.50.177.000.075)
l
4
U 1999
2
HEATER
OR
U 27182
2
OUTDOOR HEATER (NOT SHOWN)
5
P 13573
2
NIPPLE
6
L 2104
2
WARNING LABEL
7
P 51386
1
GASKET (LEAD)
8
P 36387
4
BOLT (HEX.HD.,STEEL) 1/2"-13 x 2-3/4" LG.
9
P 19803
4
1/2" WASHER (S.S.)
10
P 58742
1
INLET BODY
11
AAA2562
1
1/4" PIPE PLUG
NOTE:  USED FOR AMMONIA.
 USED FOR CHLORINE, SULFUR DIOXIDE, OR CARBON DIOXIDE.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT - 3000 LB/24 HR CAPACITY - PARTS
Automatic Switchover Arrangement
50.177.000.021
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
37
EVOQUA
ISSUE 3 5-04
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO. PART NO.
1
P 58543
OR
P 58544
P 40754
2p
OR
P 37621
3
U 28197
OR
U 28198
4
PC 6582
OR
PC 2253
NOTE: 
QTY.
DESCRIPTION
1
HOUSING (3/4")
1
1
HOUSING (1")
GASKET (3/4")
1
1
GASKET (1")
SCREEN AND COVER UNIT (3/4")
1
4
SCREEN AND COVER UNIT (1")
BOLT (HEX HD.,STL.) 1/2-13 x 1-1/2" LG.(3/4")
4
BOLT (HEX HD.,STL.) 5/8-11 x 1/2" LG. (1")
CAP.
LB/24 HR
SIZE
A
B
C
D
E
DIMENSIONS
3000
10,000
3/4"
4-1/2"
2-1/4"
5-31/32"
4"
3-1/2"
1"
7"
3-1/2"
7-9/32"
4-5/8"
4-1/2"
PART OF SCREEN REPLACEMENT KIT.
U27148 - 3/4" PIPE SIZE SCREEN REPLACEMENT KIT.
U27149 - 1" PIPE SIZE SCREEN REPLACEMENT KIT.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U28199 - 3/4" PIPE SIZE; U28200 - 1" PIPE SIZE
STRAINER - PARTS
Used in Series V-2000 Gas Feeders
50.150.005.033
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
38
EVOQUA
ISSUE 3 12-08
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
PART NO.
QTY.
DESCRIPTION
1
P19386
1
Yoke Screw
2
P58460
1
Yoke
3
P39774
1
Groove-Pin (Stl.) 1/8” Dia. x 7/8” Lg.
4
U28109
1
Valve body
5
P2949
1
Stem
6
P45544
1
Packing
7
P45547
1
Plastic Washer
8
P58540
1
Packing nut
9
P2947
1
Handle
10
P45546
2
Collar
11
L3076
1
Instruction Card
12
P16191
1
Lead gasket
13
P41796
1
Cable Strap
14
P25121
1
Yoke Clamp
15
P59369
1
Tag
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U28110 AUXILIARY CYLINDER VALVES - PARTS
50.150.001.012
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
39
EVOQUA
ISSUE 3 9-07
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
KEY NO.
3
4
5
6
7
9
p 10
11
12
14
15
p 16
17
18
19
20
21
PART NO.
P45544
P6731
P45547
P6730
P6729
P45545
P2519
PS6749
PS6714
P44783
P26155
P55050
L2493
P16191
P26144
P39774
P59369
QTY.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DESCRIPTION
PACKING
VALVE STEM
PLASTIC WASHER
PACKING NUT
HANDLE
COLLAR
LEAD GASKET
UNION NUT
UNION NIPPLE
YOKE
YOKE SCREW
VALVE BODY
INSTRUCTION CARD
LEAD GASKET
YOKE SLIDE
GROOVE-PIN (STL.) 1/8" DIA. x 7/8" LG.
TAG
NOTE:  NOT PART OF U2065 OR U26595.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
U26595 AMMONIA AUXILIARY CYLINDER VALVE-YOKE TYPE
- PARTS
910.200.003.010
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
40
EVOQUA
ISSUE 4 1-09
W3T109627
VACUUM REGULATOR-CHECK UNIT
NOTE:
THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE RECOMMENDS THAT FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS BE REPLACED ANNUALLY OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE
OF DETERIORATION. SEE CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL. SIMILAR RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE AND CARBON
DIOXIDE.
WHEN ORDERING MATERIAL, ALWAYS SPECIFY MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER OF APPARATUS.
FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS & ACCESSORIES - PARTS
50.150.007.021
WT.050.177.002.UA.IM.0714
41
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ISSUE 15 5-07
W3T109627
CHLORINE HANDLING
MANUAL
(Cl2)
BOOK NO. WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
W3T98244
CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
REGIONAL OFFICES
INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND SERVICE INFORMATION
Direct any questions concerning this equipment that are not answered in the instruction book to the Reseller
from whom the equipment was purchased. If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Colorado Springs, CO contact the office indicated below.
UNITED STATES
725 Wooten Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80915
TEL: (800) 524-6324
CANADA
If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Canada, contact the nearest office
indicated below.
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
Evoqua Water Technologies Ltd.
2045 Drew Road
Mississauga, Ontario
L5S 1S4
(905) 944-2800
Evoqua Technologies des Eaux Itee
505 Levy Street
St. Laurent, Quebec
H4R 2N9
(450) 582-4266
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
1.010-1
EVOQUA
W3T98244
CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
WARNING:
CHLORINE IS A HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL THAT CAN CAUSE INJURY AND DEATH IF
NOT HANDLED PROPERLY. THIS MANUAL CONTAINS ONLY GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, STORAGE, AND HANDLING OF CHLORINE. IT
IS NOT INTENDED TO REPLACE OR LIMIT SAFETY PROCEDURES IN YOUR FACILITY.
SAFETY PROCEDURES IN AN INDUSTRIAL SETTING MUST BE DESIGNED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ALL GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS AND NATIONAL SAFETY
CODES, AFTER GIVING FULL CONSIDERATION TO THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE
INDUSTRIAL FACILITY INVOLVED.
Evoqua Water Technologies CANNOT ANTICIPATE THE SPECIFIC SAFETY
PROCEDURES REQUIRED AT EVERY INDUSTRIAL FACILITY. ACCORDINGLY, Evoqua Water Technologies DOES NOT GUARANTEE THAT SAFETY PROCEDURES
DESIGNED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS MANUAL WILL COMPLETELY ELIMINATE
HAZARDS AND THUS ASSUMES NO LIABILITY FOR ACCIDENTS THAT MAY OCCUR
IN YOUR FACILITY.
READ THIS ENTIRE MANUAL AND BE FULLY FAMILIAR WITH YOUR EQUIPMENT
AND YOUR ENTIRE INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM SO THAT THE SAFETY PROCEDURES YOU
ESTABLISH WILL MEET THE NEEDS OF THE EMPLOYEES IN YOUR FACILITY. READING ONLY PART OF THE MANUAL WILL NOT HELP YOU ANALYZE THE NEEDS OF
YOUR FACILITY. CONTACT YOUR CHLORINE SUPPLIER, THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE,
INC., OR SIMILAR ORGANIZATION TO OBTAIN A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
(MSDS) AND MORE DETAILED INFORMATION ON CHLORINE. INFORMATION IS
AVAILABLE FROM: THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE, INC., 1300 wilson boulevard,
arlington, va 22209.
PLEASE NOTE THE PUBLICATION DATE AND POSSIBLE OBSOLESCENCE OF THIS
MATERIAL AS A RESULT OF SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS AFTER
THE DATE OF PUBLICATION. THIS APPLIES TO ALL MATERIALS YOU REVIEW IN
THE COURSE OF DEVELOPING SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR USE AT YOUR FACILITY.
Table Of Contents
PARA. NO.
Introduction............................................................................... 1
Technical Data and Characteristics of Chlorine.......................... 2
Supply Containers....................................................................... 3
Maximum Gas Withdrawal Rates............................................. 3.1
Manifolding for Gas Withdrawal............................................. 3.1.1
Maximum Liquid Withdrawal Rate........................................... 3.2
Manifolding for Liquid Withdrawal......................................... 3.2.1
Container Valves....................................................................... 3.3
Pressure Relief Devices............................................................. 3.4
Storage of Containers............................................................... 3.5
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
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CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
Table Of Contents (Cont’d)
Handling Containers................................................................. 3.6
Using Containers....................................................................... 3.7
Piping.......................................................................................... 4
Piping Materials and Joints....................................................... 4.1
Gas Piping Installation Requirements....................................... 4.2
Liquid Piping Installation Requirements................................... 4.3
Pressure Relief and Vent Piping Requirements......................... 4.4
Valves........................................................................................ 4.5
Pressure Gauges and Switches................................................. 4.6
Pressure Relief Devices............................................................. 4.7
Preparation for Use.................................................................. 4.8
Personnel Safety......................................................................... 5
General..................................................................................... 5.1
Health Hazards......................................................................... 5.2
Safety Precautions.................................................................... 5.3
Emergency Action Plans........................................................... 5.4
Chemical Disposal Facilities...................................................... 5.5
1
INTRODUCTION
This manual discusses the characteristics, storage and
handling of chlorine used with Evoqua Water Technologies
equipment. Chlorine is used with Evoqua Water Technologies
equipment primarily as a disinfectant in water or wastewater
treatment.
IN CASES OF ACCIDENT:
USE SAFETY EQUIPMENT TO PROTECT THE RESCUER
AND MOVE VICTIM TO FRESH AIR. IF BREATHING HAS
STOPPED, START ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION IMMEDIATELY.
IF HEART HAS STOPPED, START CPR (CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION) IMMEDIATELY. IN ALL CASES,
OBTAIN MEDICAL ATTENTION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.
WARNING:
CHLORINE IS HAZARDOUS. TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL
INJURY OR DEATH BY SUFFOCATION, READ THIS MANUAL
AND THE CHLORINE SUPPLIER’S PRECAUTIONS BEFORE
HANDLING OR CONNECTING CHLORINE TO Evoqua
Water Technologies EQUIPMENT.
WHEN WORKING WITH CHLORINE:
ENSURE THAT APPROVED, SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING
APPARATUS IS ALWAYS AVAILABLE AND PERSONNEL
ARE PROPERLY TRAINED IN ITS USE.
ENSURE THAT SAFETY EQUIPMENT, SUCH AS VENTILATION FANS AND BREATHING APPARATUS, IS INSPECTED
AND MAINTAINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER’S INSTRUCTIONS.
ENSURE THAT APPROPRIATE PLACARDS AND WARNING
SIGNS ARE IN PLACE AND PROMINENTLY DISPLAYED IN
THE AREAS WHERE THE GAS IS STORED.
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
TO AVOID ACCIDENTAL GAS RELEASE:
KNOWLEDGEABLE DESIGN PERSONNEL SHOULD OVERSEE AND APPROVE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION AND
SUITABILITY OF THE SYSTEM FOR WHICH IT IS INTENDED.
QUALIFIED PERSONNEL SHOULD PERFORM PERIODIC
INSPECTION TO ENSURE PROPER MAINTENANCE OF
THE EQUIPMENT.
MONITOR SAFETY PROGRAMS AND CONDUCT PERIODIC
TRAINING PROGRAMS, ESPECIALLY ON EMERGENCY
SITUATIONS. SAFETY PROGRAMS ARE AVAILABLE FROM
YOUR GAS SUPPLIER.
LOCAL LAWS:
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE INFORMATION IN THIS BOOK BE CONSTRUED AS SUBSTITUTING
FOR OR SUPERSEDING ANY LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL
LAWS AND REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE STORAGE,
HANDLING, OR USE OF CHLORINE.
PAGE 2
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W3T98244
CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
2
TECHNICAL DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLORINE
Specific Gravity, Dry Gas
2.48 at 32° F and 1 atm referred to air.
The following general information on chlorine may be useful
in planning a chlorinator installation; however, a specific application may require more information than that included
here. For further information, consult your chlorine supplier,
the Chlorine Institute, Inc., or similar organization.
Specific Gravity, Liquid
1.47 at 32° F and 53 . 5 psia.
Chlorine in commerce is a liquefied gas under pressure. It is
a clear, amber-colored liquid. The gas has a greenish-yellow
color and a strong, pungent odor. It is an irritant to the skin
and respiratory system. In the moisture-free state at ordinary
temperatures, it is relatively non-corrosive. In the presence
of moisture, however, it is highly corrosive. Accordingly, every precaution should be taken to avoid leaks, to stop them
promptly if they occur, and to keep moisture out of valves,
tubing, etc., not specifically designed to handle moist chlorine.
Among the important physical properties of chlorine are:
Latent heat of Vaporization
123.9 Btu per lb at boiling point, -29.2° F.
Liquid to Gas volume Ratio
1:456.5 at 32° F and 1 atm.
Specific Volume, Dry Gas
1 lb = 4.99 of at 32° F and 1 atm.
Specific Volume, Liquid
1 lb = 0.0109 cf at 32° F and 53.5 psia.
SOURCE: THE CHLORINE MANUAL, FIFTH EDITION, PUBLISHED BY THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE, INC.
Weight, Dry Gas
1 cf = 0.2006 lb at 32° F and 1 atm.
Figure 1 – Chlorine Pressure vs Temperature
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CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
Weight, Liquid
1 cf = 91.56 lb at 32° F.
3.1 RATES
Solubility in Water*
6.93 lbs./100 gals at 60° F and 1 atm.
Pressure vs Temperature
See Figure 1
*NOTE: Theoretical values shown. Actual solubility in water
based on chlorinator performance has proven to be 3500
ppm or 2.92 lbs/100 gals maximum.
Chlorine is an oxidizing agent and will support combustion
but is not explosive or flammable. Many organic chemicals
will react with chlorine, some violently. Steel will ignite
spontaneously in the presence of chlorine at 483° F.
3
In general, using a remote vacuum type chlorinator, the
maximum sustained gas withdrawal rate at which chlorine
may be taken from a 100 or 150 pound cylinder is one pound
per day per degree Fahrenheit (1.0 lb/24 hrs/°F). The corresponding rate for ton containers is about 8.0 lbs/24 hrs/°F. At
an assumed liquid temperature of 70° F (and using a remote
vacuum type chlorinator) the above figures translate into 70
lbs/24 hrs for cylinders and 560 lbs/24 hrs for ton containers.
For a direct feed cylinder pressure operated chlorinator these
rates become 42 and 336 lbs/24 hrs respectively. These rates
can be increased substantially for brief periods. Do not place
containers in a water bath or apply direct heat in order to
permit higher withdrawal rates.
It is not practical to withdraw chlorine as a gas from tank
cars (or tank trailers).
SUPPLY CONTAINERS
3.1.1
Table 1 gives details on the supply containers most commonly
used with Evoqua Water Technologies equipment.
Some large installations that would normally use single unit
tank cars but are not serviced by railroad facilities use tank
motor vehicles (tank trailers) which usually range in capacity
from 15 to 22 tons.
All supply containers must conform to appropriate Department of Transportation (DOT) and Canadian Transport
Commission (CTC) regulations. It is the responsibility of the
supply container manufacturer and the chlorine supplier to
meet these requirements.
TYPE OF
CONTAINER
MANIFOLDING FOR GAS WITHDRAWAL
When higher gas withdrawal rates are required, cylinders or
the gas valves (upper) of ton containers may be manifolded.
A typical arrangement for manifolding cylinders is shown
in Figure 2.
If cylinders or ton containers are manifolded, it is essential
that all supply containers be at the same temperature to
prevent the transfer of liquid chlorine from a warmer container to a cooler container, possibly resulting in a container
becoming overfilled through reliquefaction of chlorine in
the cooler container.
TABLE 1 - CHLOR IN E CONTAINER INFORM ATION
GR OSS
OUTSID E
N ET WEIGHT TAR E WEIGHT
WEIGHT
DIAM ETER
100 lb
63 - 115 lb
163 - 215 lb
8- 1/4" - 10- 3/4"
150 lb
85 - 140 lb
235 - 290 lb
10- 1/4" - 10- 3/4"
LENGTH
3'3- 1/2" - 4'11"
4'5" - 4'8"
TON
6'7- 3/4" 2000 lb
1300 - 1650 lb
330 - 3650 lb
2'6"
CONTAINER
6'10- 1/2"
32'2" - 33'3"
10'5" - 12'0"
16 tons
12'4- 1/2" - 13'7" 33'10" - 35' 11- 1/2"
30 tons
SIN GLE UNIT
29'9" - 43'0"
55 tons
14'3" - 15'1"
TAN K CARS
43'7" - 50'0"
14'11" - 15'1"
85 tons
45'8" - 47'2"
14'11" - 15'1"
90 tons
Dimensional data from Chlorine Manual, Fifth Edition, published by the Chlorine Institute, Inc.
CYLIN DER S
(1) The 150 lb cylinder is generally most readily available. Either the 100 lb or 150 lb size may be shipped full or empty via
truck or rail in small lots or in full truck or carloads.
(2) Chlorine from Single Unit Tank Cars is generally unloaded directly from the car as needed in order to eliminate the
necessity of storage tanks. Cars are leased to the consumer during this period and are consig ned to private sidings only. Two
parallel tracks are recommended to facilitate the handling of cars and to permit continuous operation without shut- down
periods while cars are being switched.
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CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
Figure 3 – Standard Cylinder Valve
Figure 2 – Manifolding Cylinders
3.2 MAXIMUM LIQUID WITHDRAWAL RATE
The generally accepted alternate to manifolding ton containers is to withdraw liquid chlorine from the lower valve
and use an evaporator. By this means, a ton container can
be emptied in approximately five hours, which is equivalent
to 9600 lbs/24 hrs.
Liquid can be withdrawn from tank cars at up to nearly 8,000
pounds per hour, or 192,000 pounds per 24 hours.
3.2.1
Figure 4 – Standard Ton Container Valve
MANIFOLDING FOR LIQUID WITHDRAWAL
WARNING: IN ACCORDANCE WITH CHLORINE INSTITUTE RECOMMENDATIONS, DO NOT MANIFOLD TON
CONTAINERS FOR SIMULTANEOUS LIQUID CHLORINE
WITHDRAWAL. THIS MANIFOLDING CAN CAUSE OVERPRESSURIZATION AND RUPTURE.
3.3 CONTAINER VALVES
Standard cylinder and ton container valves are identical in
design, except that the cylinder valve includes a pressure
relief device. Cylinder valves are shown in Figure 3 and ton
container valves in Figure 4.
See Figure 5 for captive yoke type auxiliary container valves
(valve connection style #820, recognized by the Compressed
Gas Association as the only acceptable means of connecting
to container valves). The external threads on the container
valve are used only for securing the protective cap.
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
PAGE 5
Figure 5 – Auxiliary Ton Container Valve
EVOQUA
W3T98244
CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
Cylinders are equipped with one valve that is normally used
for gas withdrawal. Ton containers are equipped with two
valves, as shown in Figure 6.
increases to 158-165° F to relieve pressure and prevent
rupture of the cylinder.
Ton containers are equipped with six fusible metal plugs
(see Figure 8), three of which are in each end, spaced 120
degrees apart.
Figure 6 – Ton Container Valves
The upper valve is used for gas withdrawal and the lower
valve for liquid withdrawal. Tank cars are equipped with four
standard angle valves, as shown in Figure 7.
Figure 8 – Standard Fusible Plug for Ton Containers
Tank cars have an excess-flow valve (see Figure 9) located
under each liquid valve. While this valve may close during
a catastrophic pipe line failure, its main function is to close
automatically if the angle valve is broken off in transit. Tank
cars also have a pressure relief device (see Figure 10) located
in the center of the manway. The relief level varies with the
type of car or tank.
Figure 7 – Standard Angle Valve
Outlet is one-inch female ANSI Standard taper pipe thread.
The liquid withdrawal valves are located on the longitudinal
center line of the tank car. The valves on the transverse
center line are connected to the vapor space and are used
to obtain chlorine gas under pressure for testing the piping
or for air padding the tank car.
3.4 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES
All chlorine supply containers are equipped with some type
of device for relief of pressure. Cylinder valves have a fusible
metal plug screwed into the body of the valve, as shown in
Figure 3. The fusible metal melts when the temperature
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
Figure 9 – Excess-Flow Valve
3.5 STORAGE OF CONTAINERS
Store chlorine containers of any type under cover and in cool,
well ventilated locations protected from fire hazards and adequately protected from extreme weather conditions. During
the summer months, full containers should be shielded from
the direct rays of the sun, otherwise a dangerous build-up
of pressure might result (see Figure 1 and Paragraph 3.3).
If stored out of doors, keep containers in fenced-off areas
for protection. Avoid storage in subsurface areas because
chlorine is heavier than air and will not readily rise from
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CHLORINE HANDLING MANUAL
The chlorine inventory depends to a large extent on local
availability. Consult with chlorine suppliers in the area; review
appropriate fire code requirements concerning storage of
oxidizing materials and other applicable laws and regulations.
When planning space for stored containers, sufficient space
must be allowed for empty containers. The best way to
determine the amount of chlorine remaining in a container
is to weigh the container continuously on a scale. This also
makes it possible to record the amount of chlorine used.
Portable or dormant scales in beam, dial, or digital types
and with varying platform sizes are available.
WARNING: ALWAYS REMOVE WHEELS AND AXLES OF
PORTABLE SCALES SO THAT THE SCALE CANNOT MOVE
WHEN CYLINDERS ARE ON THE PLATFORM.
Preferably, scales for cylinders should be installed with
their platform flush with the floor to eliminate the necessity of lifting the cylinders. Some low profile scales such as
the Wallace & Tiernan® Cylinder Scale are low enough that
cylinders can be placed on the scale without lifting. Others
are installed with ramps. If scales are pit mounted, a trapped
drain should be provided.
Figure 10 – Standard Safety Relief Device
subsurface locations should leaks occur. Do not store or use
chlorine containers near other chemicals or gases.
WARNING: STORE CYLINDERS IN AN UPRIGHT POSITION.
TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN
SUCH A MANNER (e.g., CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR
BEING KNOCKED OVER. TON CONTAINERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A MANNER (e.g., CROCKS) TO PREVENT
THEIR ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
Do not remove the protective cap or hood from cylinders or
ton containers until they are ready to be put in actual use.
Do not store containers in a heavily traveled area where
physical contact damage could occur.
It is essential that areas used to house chlorine containers or
equipment be continuously monitored for the presence of
chlorine in the air. This may be a requirement of applicable
laws and/or regulations.
When containers are moved from a storage area to an area
where they will be used, allow sufficient time to stabilize the
temperature, and therefore the pressure, of the container
and the chlorine before it is used.
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
Scales for ton containers are usually installed above the floor,
since ton containers are usually handled by overhead conveyor. Many of these scales do not have platforms since the
ton containers are usually supported by cradles or trunnions.
Special high-capacity scales are provided at some installations using tank cars. These scales are usually pit mounted
below the railroad siding with the dial or digital unit housed
above ground beside the track.
Some of the dial or digital scales are equipped with loss-ofweight recording systems providing a permanent record of
chlorine usage.
3.6 HANDLING CONTAINERS
Always handle chlorine containers with utmost care. To
prevent injury or damage, do not drop chlorine containers
and do not permit containers to strike each other or other
objects. To prevent damage to the valve, valve protecting
caps or hoods must always be in place when containers are
moved.
Handle cylinders with a simple two-wheel hand truck of the
barrel pattern. Hand trucks should be well balanced and
equipped with chains or clamps to prevent the cylinders
from falling off the truck.
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WARNING: NEVER LIFT CYLINDERS BY THE VALVE PROTECTING HOOD. THE HOOD MAY SEPARATE FROM THE
CYLINDER, CAUSING THE CYLINDER TO FALL.
When withdrawing gas from a ton container, connection is
made to the upper valve (see Figure 6). Liquid withdrawal is
accomplished by connecting to the lower valve.
Never lift cylinders by sling or magnetic devices. If lifting
is necessary, use a specially designed cradle. Contact your
chlorine supplier for recommendations or information.
It is recommended that special 3/8-inch square box wrenches,
rather than adjustable wrenches, be used for opening cylinder
and ton container valves. Length of the wrench should not
exceed eight inches. It is good practice to leave the wrench
in place so the valve can be closed quickly in case of an
emergency. Maximum discharge can be accomplished with
one full turn of the valve. Excessive force must not be used
in opening valves. Never strike the wrench with anything
other than the heel of the hand. Loosening the packing nut
a maximum of 1/2 turn is acceptable, provided the packing
nut is tightened after the valve is operated. Contact your
chlorine supplier if these procedures do not permit operation of the valve.
When moving ton containers, due consideration must be
given to the fact that the liquid in the container represents
a live load in addition to the dead load of the container and
the liquid. The most accepted way of moving ton containers
is by overhead conveyor and lifting beam (see Figure 11).
Angle valves on tank cars must be opened fully to aid the
operation of the excess flow valve.
Always test for leaks before putting new containers in service.
The system can be pressurized by opening the container valve
and then closing it. The valve can be opened again after it is
determined that there are no leaks.
WARNING: ALWAYS WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
WHEN CHECKING FOR LEAKS. REFER TO “PERSONNEL
SAFETY” FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH HAZARDS AND
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS.
Figure 11 – Ton Container Handling
Rails or roller conveyors have also been used. Fork lift trucks,
in addition to having adequate capacity, must have the containers restrained and be sufficiently stable to prevent tipping.
3.7 USING CONTAINERS
If containers have been stored in an area other than that in
which they will be used, they should be allowed to stabilize at
the new temperature before being used. Containers should
always be used in the order in which they are received to avoid
unnecessarily long storage and possible difficulty with valves
that have not been opened or closed for too long a period.
WARNING: CYLINDERS ARE NORMALLY USED IN AN
UPRIGHT POSITION FOR GAS WITHDRAWAL. TO AVOID
SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE,
SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A
MANNER (e.g., CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING
KNOCKED OVER. TON CONTAINERS MUST BE USED IN
A HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH THE TWO VALVES IN A
VERTICAL LINE. TON CONTAINERS MUST BE SECURED
IN SUCH A MANNER (e.g., CHOCKS) TO PREVENT THEIR
ROLLING OUT OF PLACE.
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
It is not unusual during humid conditions for condensation
to collect on the outside of the container. A buildup of frost
on the container indicates that withdrawal rates are too high
to permit the surrounding air to supply the heat necessary
to evaporate the liquid chlorine. Increasing the circulation
of room temperature air past the container may correct the
condition. Do not apply direct heat to the container in any
way. It may be necessary to shut off the container valve and
permit it to warm up again before putting it back in service.
After emptying the container, the valve must be closed before disconnecting to prevent the entry of moisture. After
disconnecting, the valve cap and the valve protecting cap
or hood must be replaced before the container is moved.
Empty containers should be segregated from full containers
and should be tagged.
Tank cars are unloaded by means of one of the liquid valves.
One of the gas valves can be connected to the system to
permit pressure testing with gaseous chlorine rather than
liquid. The flexible connection used for tank car unloading
must be designed for and installed in such a manner to allow
for the significant increase in height as the car unloads. Since
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tank car pressure is the only force causing the chlorine to
discharge, many cars are padded with dry air by the producer
or the user. Reference to Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 66,
Chlorine Tank Car Loading, Unloading, Air Padding, Hydrostatic Testing, should be made for information on user air
padding. It is essential that air padding pressure be kept as
low as possible for satisfactory operation of the chlorination
equipment since excessive air padding pressures can have a
negative impact on evaporator performance. The depletion
of the liquid chlorine supply in the car is accompanied by a
sharp drop in tank car pressure.
After the angle valve is closed and the discharge line emptied,
the piping may be disconnected. The valve outlet plugs should
be replaced and the discharge piping capped immediately.
More complete details, along with ASTM and ANSI specifications, can be obtained by referring to Chlorine Institute
Pamphlet 6, Piping Systems For Dry Chlorine.
WARNING: TWO COMMON CAUSES OF CHLORINE PIPING LEAKS ARE:
1. RE-USE OF GASKETS. THIS SHOULD NEVER BE DONE.
ALWAYS HAVE AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY ON HAND AND
ALWAYS USE NEW GASKETS OF THE CORRECT MATERIAL AND SIZE AS IDENTIFIED ON THE EQUIPMENT
PARTS DRAWING.
2. IMPROPERLY MADE-UP THREADED PIPE JOINTS. SEE
CHLORINE INSTITUTE MANUAL OR PAMPHLET 6 FOR
RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE.
4.2 GAS PIPING INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
4
PIPING
4.1 PIPING MATERIALS AND JOINTS
If the chlorinator capacity is low enough, the vacuum regulator or the complete chlorinator may be mounted directly on
a cylinder or ton container valve, totally eliminating pressure
piping. In this case, reference to the equipment instruction
book provides all necessary details.
Pressure connections from all chlorine containers are normally made by means of flexible connections made of copper
tubing. Use yoke type connections at container valves. The
chlorinator or vacuum regulator instruction book should be
referred to for details for use of flexible connections along
with the required auxiliary cylinder or ton container valves,
header valves, and auxiliary header valves (if required).
WARNING: ALWAYS REPLACE FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS
ANNUALLY (OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION).
The usual practice for chlorine liquid or gas pressure lines, at
the commonly encountered pressures and temperatures at
chlorinator installations, is the use of 3/4 or 1.0 inch schedule
80 carbon steel seamless pipe with Class 3000 forged steel
fittings; two-bolt flanges (commonly referred to as oval ammonia unions) are also often used. Both screwed and socket
welded construction are common. Threaded joints should be
made up using litharge and glycerine for permanent joints,
white lead or TFE tape for others.
To facilitate maintenance, the number of line valves should
be kept to a minimum. Insulation is required only in those
cases where it is necessary to prevent chlorine gas lines from
becoming chilled, or liquid lines from becoming overheated.
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Reliquefaction of a gas should be avoided. If liquid chlorine
is carried downstream to the chlorinator or vacuum piping, it may soften the plastic components and affect their
structural strength. Liquid can wash any collected contaminants into the vacuum regulator and can also cause erratic
surging, freezing, and pressure release, which can damage
the diaphragm and control valves. Cold conditions in a gas
pipe line (cold to the touch, dripping of water condensed
from the atmosphere, frost, ice) are an indication that liquid
chlorine is present in the line and is flashing to gas. Refer to
the proper guidelines that follow.
It is important to observe the correct temperature conditions in conducting chlorine gas under pressure from the
location of the containers to the point of use. To avoid difficulty with reliquefaction of chlorine, pressure piping and
control equipment receiving gas under pressure should be
at a higher temperature than that of the chlorine containers. In general, a difference of 5° to 10° F is recommended.
Pitch pressure lines uphill from the gas source toward the
chlorinators if possible.
Install a pressure reducing valve or the chlorinator vacuum
regulator close to, but higher than, the source of gas. The use
of a chlorine pressure reducing valve is also recommended
in those localities where severe temperature changes are
likely to be encountered during a 24-hour period.
It is preferable to run chlorine pressure gas lines overhead
through relatively warm areas rather than along the floor
or through basement areas where lower temperatures may
be encountered. Do not run these gas lines along exterior
walls that may be cold in winter months. Do not run pressure gas lines under windows from which cold air descends
in winter months.
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If the source of gas is one or more ton containers connected
to a manifold, install a drip leg of 1.0-inch schedule 80 seamless steel pipe approximately 18 inches long in a tee in the
manifold with the lower end capped. Locate the drip leg
immediately downstream of the last container connection
to intercept the liquid that comes from the ton containers’
gas eduction tubes when initially opened.
The expansion chamber provides an area for expansion in the
event that valves at both ends of the line are closed. Relief
system placement must be based not only on length of line
but also placement of valves.
Gas may be withdrawn from two or more containers simultaneously provided all containers are at the same temperature.
Refer to Paragraph 3.1.
The installation of chlorine gas strainers in pipe lines upstream from pressure reducing valves or vacuum regulators
is a common practice. These strainers can also serve as traps
for a small amount of liquid chlorine. Figure 12 illustrates
a typical strainer.
4.3 LIQUID PIPING INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
It is important to avoid conditions that will encourage
LENGTH OF LIQUID
LINE PROTECTED PER
EXPANSION CHAMBER
SYSTEM
PIPE
SIZE
CHLORINE
1"
375'
3/4"
625'
Figure 13 – Liquid Line Pressure Relief System
Figure 12 – Chlorine Gas Strainer
vaporization. Thus it is important to keep liquid chlorine
lines as cool as, or cooler than, the containers themselves
by eliminating restrictive fittings and always operating with
fully opened line valves. Avoid running liquid chlorine lines
through overheated areas where gasification is likely.
Valves in liquid chlorine lines should be kept to a minimum.
It is particularly important to avoid situations where it is
easy to close two valves in a line thus trapping liquid that,
upon an increase in temperature, will expand and develop
higher than acceptable pressures.
A liquid line pressure relief system (which includes a rupture
disc and an expansion chamber) is required where liquid
may be trapped in the line or where it is necessary to run
lines a considerable distance. The relief system is detailed
in Figure 13.
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4.4 PRESSURE RELIEF AND VENT PIPING REQUIREMENTS
All pressure relief vent line systems must be treated as though
they contain chlorine. Use the same materials for pressure
relief vent lines as used for chlorine gas piping, unless the
vent line is a combination pressure relief/vacuum relief line
in which case the material must be suitable for moist chlorine
gas (PVC or polyethylene tubing).
Vent lines must be run in such a way that moisture collecting
traps are avoided. A continuous gradient is preferred. The
end of all vent lines must be turned down and screened.
Manifolding of vent lines is an acceptable practice provided
only like vents are manifolded (i.e., evaporator water vapor
vents must be separate from gas pressure reducing valve
pressure vents, etc.). The interior cross sectioned area of
a common vent or pressure relief line should be approximately equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the
individual vent lines.
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WARNING: THE VENT LINE AND RELIEF LINE MUST
TERMINATE IN AN AREA GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE
INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE. DO NOT TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AND RELIEF LINE AT A LOCATION
ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL, SUCH AS WORK
AREAS OR PATHWAYS NOR NEAR ANY WINDOWS OR
VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES. IF AN AREA MEETING
THESE REQUIREMENTS IS NOT AVAILABLE, REFER TO
THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE’S CHLORINE MANUAL AND
PAMPHLET NO. 9 FOR ALTERNATE METHOD OF RELIEF
DISPOSAL.
Figure 15 – Gas and Liquid Ball Valve
4.5 VALVES
Yoke type auxiliary cylinder, yoke type auxiliary ton container,
and header valves are described adequately in the chlorinator or vacuum regulator instruction book.
Line valves are used to isolate alternate sources of supply
(manifolded banks of ton containers or tank cars), individual
evaporators or pressure type chlorinators. Sufficient line
valves should be provided for flexibility of system operation
consistent with the recommended practice of eliminating
redundant or unnecessary valves.
Valves are usually of approximately globe pattern as shown
in Figure 14 or ball type as shown in Figure 15.
Care should be taken that only valves designed by the manufacturer specifically for chlorine service are used. Ball valves
must include a provision for venting the cavity in the closed
position to the upstream side.
switch mechanism. The fill material must be suitable for
chlorine service. The connection between the seal and
the gauge or switch must not be broken. If the connection
is inadvertently broken, the complete assembly must be
discarded and replaced, unless it can be returned to the
manufacturer for repair.
Frequently, valves are installed between chlorine lines and
the gauge or switch diaphragm seal to permit removal without taking the line out of service. A means of relieving the
pressure in the isolated piping, gauge, or switch is strongly
recommended.
WARNING: RELEASING EVEN A SMALL AMOUNT OF
LIQUID CHLORINE IS DANGEROUS AND REQUIRES EXTREME CAUTION TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY.
ALWAYS USE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT WHEN RELIEVING
PRESSURE, EVEN IN ISOLATED CHLORINE GAS PIPING.
Since small size line valves for chlorine are not readily available, many times a header valve is used as shown in Figure 16.
4.6 PRESSURE GAUGES AND SWITCHES
Whenever pressure gauges and switches are used in chlorine
liquid or gas lines, they must be of the type protected by a
flanged diaphragm seal specifically designed for chlorine
service to prevent the entry of chlorine into the gauge or
Figure 16 – Chlorine Pressure Gauge or
Switch Mounted on Header Valve
Figure 14 – 3/4- and 1-Inch Line Valves
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4.7 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES
There are two types of pressure relief devices in use in chlorine
piping systems. The first, as shown in Figure 13, is usually
employed in liquid chlorine piping to protect the piping from
rupture due to high pressure from thermal expansion of the
liquid chlorine. It consists of a rupture disc that ruptures before the pipe line itself can rupture, an expansion chamber
that allows for relief of the over-pressure condition without
releasing chlorine to the atmosphere, and a pressure switch
to warn of the disc rupture.
The second type, as shown in Figure 17, is usually used in
gas piping at the evaporator discharge. This system consists
of a rupture disc that keeps chlorine out of the valve during
normal operation, a pressure relief valve, and a pressure
switch to warn of disc rupture.
Figure 17 – Evaporator Pressure Relief System
WARNING: THE RELIEF LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN
AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE DAMAGE OR
INJURY TO PERSONNEL. DO NOT TERMINATE THE RELIEF
LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL, SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS, NOR NEAR
WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES. IF AN
AREA MEETING THESE REQUIREMENTS IS NOT AVAILABLE, REFER TO THE CHLORINE INSTITUTE’S CHLORINE
MANUAL AND PAMPHLET NO. 9 FOR AN ALTERNATE
METHOD OF RELIEF DISPOSAL.
WARNING: INCOMPLETE CLEANING CAN RESULT IN
VIOLENT REACTIONS BETWEEN CHLORINE AND THESE
MATERIALS.
Steam cleaning is an acceptable method for removal of the
above materials. Provision must be made for removal of
condensate and foreign materials. For alternate methods if
steam is not available, refer to Chlorine Institute Pamphlet
6, Piping Systems for Dry Chlorine.
After proper cleaning, all chlorine piping should be hydrostatically tested to one and one half times the expected
maximum operating pressure. Prior to testing, all gauges,
switches, rupture discs, etc., that could be damaged during
testing must be removed and connections plugged. Any
moisture absorbing packing or gaskets left in the system
during hydrostatic testing must be removed and replaced
with new packing or gaskets. After hydrostatic testing, it is
essential that all piping be thoroughly dried with inert gas
(e.g., nitrogen) or dry air having a dew point of -40° F or
below. The dew point of the air or gas leaving the piping
must be checked and drying continued until the dew point
is at or below -40° F, which may require quite some time.
WARNING: MOISTURE MUST BE REMOVED FROM ANY
PART OF THE EQUIPMENT THAT IS NORMALLY EXPOSED
TO DRY CHLORINE ONLY. WHILE DRY CHLORINE IS NONCORROSIVE, MOIST CHLORINE IS EXTREMELY CORROSIVE TO COMMON METALS, SUCH AS BRASS OR STEEL,
POSSIBLY RESULTING IN A LEAK AND SEVERE PERSONAL
INJURY. ALSO, IF WATER IS TRAPPED IN A SECTION OF
PIPING OR EQUIPMENT, SUBSEQUENT HEATING OR
FREEZING OF THE WATER MAY RESULT IN HIGH ENOUGH
PRESSURE TO RUPTURE THE PIPING OR EQUIPMENT,
POSSIBLY CAUSING SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY.
A very acceptable alternate to hydrostatic testing, if proper
facilities do not exist for drying, is to test with nitrogen or
dry air having a dew point of -40° F or below. The same
provision of removing equipment that could be damaged
by test pressure applies.
Normal plumbing practices will result in the entry of cutting
oils, greases, and other foreign materials into the piping.
WARNING: TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY, BEFORE
PLACING THE PIPING SYSTEM INTO SERVICE, PRESSURE
TEST WITH CHLORINE GAS, NOT LIQUID. EACH VOLUME
OF CHLORINE LIQUID THAT LEAKS AND THEN EVAPORATES RESULTS IN APPROXIMATELY 460 VOLUMES OF
CHLORINE GAS.
In addition, the line will have been open to the atmosphere
during construction, allowing moisture to enter. It is therefore
essential that all piping be thoroughly cleaned and dried
prior to exposure to chlorine.
The chlorine container valve should be opened only slightly
during this phase of testing or preferably closed again after
pressurizing the system. The piping should be tested in the
smallest sections permitted by the existing valves to minimize
4.8 PREPARATION FOR USE
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the discharge of chlorine through any leaks.
5.2 HEALTH HAZARDS
WARNING: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT PROPER BREATHING APPARATUS BE AVAILABLE BEFORE CHLORINE IS
ADMITTED TO ANY PIPING SYSTEM OR EQUIPMENT.
THIS APPARATUS WILL BE DISCUSSED FURTHER UNDER
“PERSONNEL SAFETY”.
Exposure to a sufficiently high concentration of chlorine
can result in difficulty in breathing and, if prolonged, finally
death through suffocation. Chlorine’s strong pungent odor
may result in detection at levels as low as 1.0 ppm and most
people will detect it by the time the concentration reaches
3.5 ppm. Concentrations of 5 ppm or more are so objectionable that only those who are unconscious or trapped will
normally remain in the area. Increasing concentrations will
produce eye irritation, coughing, throat irritation, vomiting,
and labored breathing.
Chlorine leaks are best located using a dauber moistened
with commercial 26° Baume’ aqueous ammonia (household ammonia is not strong enough) . A white cloud will be
formed at the site of any leak. A plastic squeeze bottle that
directs ammonia vapor, not liquid, at the joint being tested
may also be used.
When a leak is detected, the system must be depressurized
before corrective action is taken. The best method of depressurizing the system is through one of the chlorinators.
At least one chlorinator must be readily available for this
purpose before testing with chlorine begins.
5
PERSONNEL SAFETY
5.1 GENERAL
Proper consideration of personnel safety begins with the
provision of properly sized and arranged housing so that
operating personnel have adequate room to perform their
duties. It is preferable that any room used for chlorine storage or equipment have two doors that open outward and
that are equipped with panic bars.
Rooms housing chlorination equipment, and chlorine containers that are “in service” or “in reserve”, should be heated
when the room temperature falls below 50° F. Comfortable
working temperatures of 65° to 75° F are recommended
for the chlorine equipment room. The temperature of the
chlorine container room (if separate) should normally be 5°
to 10° F lower. All common methods of heating are acceptable, provided that care is taken to prevent overheating of
chlorine containers. Radiators should not be located adjacent
to containers. If space heaters are used, the warm air should
be deflected away from the containers. Outside windows
should be located or screened so that the rays of the sun
do not fall directly on chlorine containers.
Natural ventilation may be adequate for a small chlorinator
installation in a separate building when windows and doors
can provide cross circulation; however, ventilation by means
of a proper type electric fan is always recommended.
In all cases, installations must comply with appropriate
regulations.
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Even concentrations below the threshold of smell can result in
minor eye and throat irritation if the exposure is long enough.
Liquid chlorine can cause burns and/or irritation when it is
in contact with the skin or eyes.
Medical attention should be obtained immediately for personnel who have sufficient exposure to result in any symptoms
beyond minor irritation. Properly trained and equipped first
aid personnel are usually the first line of defense. While
waiting for their arrival, the exposed individual must be
removed to a safe area and be placed in a comfortable position. If breathing has stopped, artificial respiration must be
started immediately. CPR administered by properly trained
personnel is required if the heart has stopped.
If the exposed individual has difficulty breathing, oxygen
should be administered only by those adequately trained
in the procedure and the equipment used.
The proper procedure for emergency treatment of clothing or skin contaminated by chlorine is to flush the area
with large quantities of water under a shower for at least
15 minutes. While still under the shower, affected clothing
should be removed. No medical treatment or neutralization
of the chlorine should be attempted except as directed by
a physician.
Immediate flushing with tepid water should be administered
if even small quantities of chlorine enter the eye or if the
eye has been exposed to strong concentrations of chlorine.
The eyelids must be parted and thorough flushing continued
for at least 15 minutes. As mentioned previously for skin
exposure, no medical treatment or neutralization should be
attempted except as directed by a physician.
The attending physician may wish to refer to a Material Safety
Data Sheet on chlorine as well as to the Chlorine Institute’s
Chlorine Manual and/or Pamphlet 63, First Aid and Medical
Management of Chlorine Exposures.
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5.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
The first steps to be taken in providing proper safety precautions at any facility are the selection of safety equipment to
be on hand, the proper location of the equipment, and the
training of all personnel in proper procedures to avoid unnecessary chlorine releases and to deal with releases that occur.
Proper respiratory equipment is essential for all facilities
regardless of size. For maximum safety, it is preferable to
use air tank type pressure demand masks that have a selfcontained air supply and, therefore, are suitable regardless
of chlorine concentration.
All respiratory equipment must meet the requirements of
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Following the respiratory equipment manufacturer’s recommendation regarding maintenance and periodic testing
is essential. This equipment should be stored outside the
area containing chlorine or chlorine equipment in a manner protecting it from damage of any kind and so as to be
readily available.
WARNING: DO NOT LOCK CABINETS OR CLOSETS IN
WHICH RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT IS STORED, AS THE
EQUIPMENT MUST BE READILY AVAILABLE.
All personnel with no assigned responsibility for dealing with
a chlorine release should be instructed to leave the area.
Those responsible for correcting the situation should don
respiratory equipment before doing so.
Protective clothing is recommended for handling even routine
operations involving chlorine. In the event of a substantial
release, protective clothing is required. Anyone desiring
further information on protective clothing should refer to
the Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 65, Protective Clothing for
Chlorine.
Safety shoes, hard hats, and safety glasses should be used
in accordance with standard plant practice.
Most leaks will occur in piping, valves, connections, and the
pressurized portions of chlorine equipment. These leaks
will usually be eliminated by tightening packing, replacing
gaskets, or repairing the equipment.
WARNING: REPLACE FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS ANNUALLY, OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION.
Emergency kits (meeting Chlorine Institute requirements)
are available that can seal off most leaking areas of chlorine
WT.025.000.001.UA.IM.0614
containers (i.e., valves, fusible plugs, or container wall). If
these are on hand they must be used only by personnel
thoroughly familiar with their use. The chlorine supplier
should be contacted immediately for information, assistance,
and advice on the disposition of the leaking container. The
container should always be repositioned, if possible, so the
leak is gas rather than liquid.
WARNING: NEVER UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE SPRAY
WATER ON A CHLORINE LEAK. THIS WILL ONLY MAKE
IT WORSE.
Wall charts are available from most chlorine suppliers that
provide much of the information contained in this manual.
5.4 EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
The best emergency plan includes routine practices that are
designed to minimize emergencies. Proper maintenance of
all equipment associated with the storage, handling, and use
of chlorine in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions is essential.
All equipment and piping containing chlorine under pressure
must be tested periodically for leaks following procedures
covered in Paragraph 4.8. Since it is not unusual for areas
used for chlorine storage and chlorine equipment to be relatively unattended, it is important for the air in these areas to
be monitored continuously with chlorine detectors, so that
warning of leaks is given as early as possible. As with most
emergencies, the earliest detection helps to minimize the
damage to equipment and personnel. In addition to warning
of leaks when the areas are unattended, chlorine detectors
should warn of the presence of minor amounts of chlorine
that may not be detected by personnel in the area.
Some chlorine leaks are minor but all require immediate
attention.
In the event of a major release of chlorine, there should be
no delay in contacting the agency in the community that
is responsible for handling hazardous material releases.
Appropriate names and telephone numbers must be prominently posted.
The chlorine supplier is probably the best source of assistance for most chlorine users. In addition, the Chlorine
Institute’s Chlorine Emergency Plan (CHLOREP) can provide
vital assistance. In the United States this plan is activated
through CHEMTREC (toll free 800-4249300). In Canada,
contact CANUTEC (call collect 613-996-6666). These names
and numbers must also be posted prominently.
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The person responsible for making any of the calls listed
above must be sure to give the agency contacted complete
details including facility name, address, telephone number,
and the names(s) of personnel to contact for further information. The description of the emergency should include size
of container, corrective action already taken, local weather
conditions, injuries, proximity to populated areas, and directions for easiest access to the site.
Absorption systems have been provided at some facilities
to permit a leaking container to be emptied quickly if this is
deemed essential. One pound of chlorine can be absorbed by
1. 4 pounds of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), 3.7 pounds
of sodium carbonate (soda ash), or 1.3 pounds of calcium
hydroxide (hydrated lime).
WARNING: TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY WHEN
USING CORROSIVE CHEMICALS, OBSERVE ALL SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS RECOMMENDED BY THE CHEMICAL
MANUFACTURER/ SUPPLIER.
It is vital that the emergency plan include use of the “buddy
system”, i.e., no personnel should be allowed to work alone
in an area with a chlorine leak even if the second person
is only standing by. As indicated earlier, all personnel not
involved in locating and correcting the leak should leave
the area travelling in a crosswind direction to an area that
is upwind and above the leak. Since it may not be possible
for all personnel to be equipped with respiratory equipment,
they should be instructed to use a wet cloth or handkerchief
over the nose and mouth while leaving the area.
In each case, one pound of the material should be dissolved
in one gallon of water. Lime will actually be suspended in,
rather than dissolved in, the water and requires constant
agitation.
Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 64, Emergency Control Planning
Checklist for Chlorine Facilities, may be of assistance in preparing the emergency plan. A Material Safety Data Sheet for
Chlorine, available from the Institute or the supplier, should
also be consulted.
Provision must be made for dissolving the chlorine in the
alkaline solution in such a way that the solution cannot be
sucked back into the container.
No emergency plan should be implemented until it is reviewed
by the chlorine supplier and the agency in the community
having responsibility for hazardous material handling and
disposal.
If it is apparent that fire will threaten or is present in a chlorine storage area, it is preferable to remove the containers.
If this is not possible, the containers must be protected
from the heat of the fire by spraying them with water. Do
not spray water on any leaking container, however, since
water will react with the chlorine, forming acids that will
make the leak worse.
The tank and other equipment provided for an absorption
system must be fabricated of materials suitable for the
chemicals involved.
Actually the safest way of disposing of the chlorine in the
leaking container might be through the chlorination process,
particularly if the process can absorb the chlorine at higher
than normal rates without creating damage.
It is not generally permissible to ship a container damaged
by leak or fire if it contains chlorine. If for some reason this
seems necessary, the chlorine supplier must be contacted.
5.5 CHEMICAL DISPOSAL FACILITIES
Part of the planning for emergencies entails provision for
disposal of any released chlorine. In most cases little can be
done about the chlorine already released to the atmosphere
except to try to prevent its dissipation into areas where damage to equipment and personnel will result.
At some large installations, scrubbers have been installed
so that areas containing chlorine or chlorine equipment
can be sealed off and the air removed to a process that will
absorb the chlorine. The design of such a system is complex
and should only be attempted by those thoroughly familiar
with the process.
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AMMONIA HANDLING
MANUAL
(NH3)
BOOK NO. WT.060.200.001.UA.IM.0614
W3T98247
AMMONIA HANDLING MANUAL
REGIONAL OFFICES
INSTALLATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND SERVICE INFORMATION
Direct any questions concerning this equipment that are not answered in the instruction book to the Reseller
from whom the equipment was purchased. If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Colorado Springs, CO contact the office indicated below.
UNITED STATES
725 Wooten Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80915
TEL: (800) 524-6324
CANADA
If the equipment was purchased directly from Evoqua Water Technologies, Canada, contact the nearest office
indicated below.
ONTARIO
QUEBEC
Evoqua Water Technologies Ltd.
2045 Drew Road
Mississauga, Ontario
L5S 1S4
(905) 944-2800
Evoqua Technologies des Eaux Itee
505 Levy Street
St. Laurent, Quebec
H4R 2N9
(450) 582-4266
WT.060.200.001.UA.IM.0908
1.010-1
EVOQUA
W3T98247
AMMONIA HANDLING MANUAL
AMMONIA HANDLING MANUAL
WARNING:
AMMONIA IS A HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL THAT CAN CAUSE INJURY AND DEATH IF NOT
HANDLED PROPERLY. THIS MANUAL CONTAINS ONLY GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, STORAGE, AND HANDLING OF AMMONIA (ANHYDROUS AMMONIA). IT IS NOT INTENDED TO REPLACE OR LIMIT SAFETY PROCEDURES IN YOUR
FACILITY.
SAFETY PROCEDURES IN AN INDUSTRIAL SETTING MUST BE DESIGNED IN ACCORDANCE
WITH ALL GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS AND NATIONAL SAFETY CODES, AFTER GIVING
FULL CONSIDERATION TO THE SPECIFIC NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRIAL FACILITY INVOLVED.
Evoqua Water Technologies CANNOT ANTICIPATE THE SPECIFIC SAFETY PROCEDURES REQUIRED IN EVERY INDUSTRIAL FACILITY. ACCORDINGLY, Evoqua Water
Technologies DOES NOT GUARANTEE THAT SAFETY PROCEDURES DESIGNED IN
ACCORDANCE WITH THIS MANUAL WILL COMPLETELY ELIMINATE HAZARD AND THUS
ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENTS WHICH MAY OCCUR IN YOUR FACILITY.
READ THIS ENTIRE MANUAL AND BE FULLY FAMILIAR WITH YOUR EQUIPMENT AND
YOUR ENTIRE INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM SO THAT THE SAFETY PROCEDURES YOU ESTABLISH WILL MEET THE NEEDS OF THE EMPLOYEES IN YOUR FACILITY. READING ONLY
PART OF THE MANUAL WILL NOT HELP YOU ANALYZE THE NEEDS OF YOUR FACILITY.
CONTACT YOUR AMMONIA SUPPLIER, THE COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION OR
SIMILAR ORGANIZATION TO OBTAIN A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) AND
MORE INFORMATION ON ANHYDROUS AMMONIA. INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE
FROM: THE COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION, INC., 4221 WALNEY ROAD, 5TH FLOOR,
CHANTILLY, VA 20151-2923.
PLEASE NOTE THE PUBLICATION DATE AND POSSIBLE OBSOLESCENCE OF THIS MATERIAL AS A RESULT OF SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS AFTER THE DATE
OF PUBLICATION. THIS APPLIES TO ALL MATERIALS YOU REVIEW IN THE COURSE OF
DEVELOPING SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR USE AT YOUR FACILITY.
Table Of Contents
PARA. NO.
Introduction............................................................................... 1
Technical Data and Characteristics of Ammonia........................ 2
Supply Containers....................................................................... 3
Maximum Withdrawal Rates.................................................. 3.1
Container Valves..................................................................... 3.2
Pressure Relief Devices........................................................... 3.3
Storage of Containers............................................................. 3.4
Handling Containers............................................................... 3.5
Using Containers..................................................................... 3.6
Piping.......................................................................................... 4
Piping Materials and Joints..................................................... 4.1
Gas Piping Installation Requirements..................................... 4.2
Liquid Piping Installation Requirements................................. 4.3
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Table Of Contents (Cont’d)
PARA. NO.
Pressure Relief and Vent Piping Requirements....................... 4.4
Valves...................................................................................... 4.5
Pressure Gauges and Switches............................................... 4.6
Pressure Relief Devices........................................................... 4.7
Preparation for Use................................................................ 4.8
Personnel Safety......................................................................... 5
General................................................................................... 5.1
Health Hazards....................................................................... 5.2
Safety Precautions.................................................................. 5.3
Emergency Action Plans......................................................... 5.4
Chemical Disposal Facilities.................................................... 5.5
1
INTRODUCTION
This manual discusses the characteristics, storage, and handling of ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) used with Evoqua
Water Technologies equipment. Ammonia is used with
Evoqua Water Technologies equipment in conjunction with
chlorine in water treatment.
Contact your gas supplier, the Compressed Gas Association, Inc., or similar organization to obtain more detailed
information on ammonia. Information is available from:
Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 1235 Jefferson Davis
Highway, Arlington, VA 22202.
WARNING:
AMMONIA IS HAZARDOUS. TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL
INJURY OR DEATH BY SUFFOCATION, READ THIS ENTIRE
MANUAL AND THE GAS SUPPLIER’S PRECAUTIONS BEFORE
HANDLING OR CONNECTING AMMONIA TO Evoqua Water Technologies EQUIPMENT.
WHEN WORKING WITH AMMONIA:
ENSURE THAT APPROVED, SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING
APPARATUS IS ALWAYS AVAILABLE AND PERSONNEL ARE
PROPERLY TRAINED IN ITS USE.
ENSURE THAT SAFETY EQUIPMENT, SUCH AS VENTILATION
FANS AND BREATHING APPARATUS, IS INSPECTED AND
MAINTAINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER’S
INSTRUCTIONS.
ENSURE THAT APPROPRIATE PLACARDS AND WARNING
SIGNS ARE IN PLACE AND PROMINENTLY DISPLAYED IN THE
AREAS WHERE THE GAS IS STORED.
IN CASES OF ACCIDENT:
USE SAFETY EQUIPMENT TO PROTECT THE RESCUER, AND
MOVE VICTIM TO FRESH AIR. IF BREATHING HAS STOPPED,
START ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION IMMEDIATELY.
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IF HEART HAS STOPPED, START CPR (CARDIOPULMONARY
RESUSCITATION) IMMEDIATELY. IN ALL CASES, OBTAIN MEDICAL ATTENTION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.
TO AVOID ACCIDENTAL GAS RELEASE:
KNOWLEDGEABLE DESIGN PERSONNEL SHOULD OVERSEE
AND APPROVE EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION AND SUITABILITY OF THE SYSTEM FOR WHICH IT IS INTENDED.
QUALIFIED PERSONNEL SHOULD PERFORM PERIODIC
INSPECTION TO ENSURE PROPER MAINTENANCE OF THE
EQUIPMENT.
MONITOR SAFETY PROGRAMS AND CONDUCT PERIODIC
TRAINING PROGRAMS ESPECIALLY ON EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. SAFETY PROGRAMS ARE AVAILABLE FROM YOUR
GAS SUPPLIER.
LOCAL LAWS:
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE INFORMATION
IN THIS BOOK BE CONSTRUED AS SUBSTITUTING FOR OR
SUPERSEDING ANY LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS AND
REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE STORAGE, HANDLING, OR
USE OF AMMONIA.
2
TECHNICAL DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF AMMONIA
The following general information on ammonia will be useful
in planning an ammoniator installation. For more specific
information on physical properties consult the MSDS on
anhydrous ammonia.
Ammonia in commerce is a liquefied gas under pressure. It is
a clear, colorless liquid. The gas is colorless and has a strong,
pungent odor. It is an irritant to the skin and respiratory
system. In the moisture-free state at ordinary temperatures
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it is relatively non-corrosive. In the presence of moisture,
however, it is highly corrosive.
Accordingly, every precaution should be taken to avoid leaks,
to stop them promptly if they occur and to keep moisture
out of valves, tubing, etc. not specifically designed to handle
moist ammonia. Many grades of anhydrous ammonia are
available, with varying amounts of moisture content. Consult your ammonia supplier for recommendations for your
application. Among the important physical properties of
ammonia are:
Specific Gravity, Dry Gas
0.5970 at 32° F and 1 atm referred to air.
Specific Gravity, Liquid
0.641 at 30° F and 59.7 psia.
Latent heat of Vaporization
588.2 Btu per lb at -27.7° F.
Specific Volume, Dry Gas
1 lb = 20.78 cf at 32° F and 1 atm.
Weight, Dry Gas
1 cf = 0.0562 lb at -27.7° F and 1 atm.
Weight, Liquid
1 cf = 42.54 lb at -27.7° F
Solubility in Water
37.0 lbs./100 gals at 60° F and 1 atm.
Pressure vs Temperature
See Figure 1
SOURCE: MATHESON GAS DATA BOOK (FIFTH EDITION)
Figure 1 - Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature
Ammonia does not generally create a fire hazard; however,
at temperatures above 1562°F (850°C) ammonia gas is flammable in air in the range of 16%-25% by volume. Contact
with chemicals such as bromine, chlorine, iodine, mercury,
silver oxide or hypochlorites can result in the formation of
explosive compounds.
3
SUPPLY CONTAINERS
The supply containers most commonly used with Evoqua
Water Technologies equipment are cylinders, tank cars,
and, on occasion, cargo tanks. Consultation with suppliers
is recommended.
The 100-lb cylinders have an average tare weight of 88 to
134 lbs (depending on design) without protective hood, an
average gross weight of 191-237 lbs with protective hood,
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an outside diameter of 12.25 to 12.50 inches and a length
of 56 to 59 inches.
The 150-lb cylinders have an average tare weight of 135 to
195 lbs (depending on design) without protective hood, an
average gross weight of 288 to 348 lbs with protective hood,
an outside diameter of 14.75 to 15.00 inches and a length
of 58 to 60 inches.
Tank cars and cargo tanks vary substantially in capacity and
dimensions. Details can best be obtained by consulting with
suppliers in any given area.
All supply containers must conform to appropriate Department of Transportation (DOT) and Canadian Transport
Commission (CTC) regulations. It is the responsibility of the
supply container manufacturer and the ammonia supplier
to meet these requirements.
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3.1 MAXIMUM WITHDRAWAL RATES
In general, using a remote vacuum type ammoniator,
maximum sustained gas withdrawal rate at which ammonia may be taken from a 100 or 150-pound cylinder
is 0.4 lb/day/°F depending somewhat on cylinder design.
At an assumed liquid temperature of 70°F (and using
a remote vacuum type ammoniator) the above figures
translate into 28 lbs/24 hrs for cylinders. These rates can
be increased for brief periods. Supply containers should
never be placed in a water bath or have direct heat applied
in order to permit higher withdrawal rates.
It is usually not practical to withdraw ammonia as a gas
from tank cars (or cargo tanks). Liquid can be withdrawn
from tank cars by various methods. If it is necessary contact
your gas supplier or the Compressed Gas Association for
recommendations.
3.2 CONTAINER VALVES
The standard cylinder valve is shown in Figure 3.
Valve outlet threads are 3/8-18 NGT-RH-INT as shown in
Figure 3. Auxiliary cylinder valves are connected as indicated
in Figure 4 using either a threaded or yoke type adapter.
Using a direct feed ammoniator, the maximum sustained
gas withdrawal rate from a 100 or 150-pound ammonia
cylinder is approximately 0.4 x (°F-40) lbs/24 hrs. For example, at 70°F the maximum sustained gas withdrawal rate
is approximately 12 lbs/24 hrs.
When higher gas withdrawal rates are required cylinders
may be manifolded. A typical arrangement for manifolding
cylinders is shown in Figure 2.
If cylinders are manifolded it is essential that all supply containers be at the same temperature to prevent the transfer
of liquid ammonia from a warmer container to a cooler container possibly resulting in a container becoming overfilled
through reliquefaction of ammonia in the cooler container.
NOTE: Valve stem packing nut has left-hand thread, which is indicated
by the V-notch on each corner of the hexagonal nut.
Figure 3 - Ammonia Cylinder Valve
(CGA Outlet Connection No. 240)
Cylinders are equipped with one valve, which is normally
used for gas withdrawal.
Tank cars are usually equipped with three standard angle
valves, however, some will have four valves.
Outlet is 1.0 inch female ANSI Standard taper pipe thread.
The liquid withdrawal valves are located on the longitudinal
center line of the tank car. The valve(s) on the transverse
center line are connected to the vapor space are used to
obtain ammonia gas under pressure for testing the piping
or for air padding the tank car. (Valve stem packing nut has
Figure 2 - Manifolding Cylinders
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for protection. Do not store or use ammonia cylinders near
other chemicals or gases.
WARNING: STORE CYLINDERS IN AN UPRIGHT POSITION.
TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT
DAMAGE, CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A
MANNER (e.g., CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING
KNOCKED OVER.
Do not remove the protective cap or hood from cylinders
until they are ready to be put into actual use. Do not store
cylinders in a heavily traveled area where physical contact
damage could occur.
It is essential that areas used to house ammonia cylinders or
equipment be continuously monitored for the presence of
ammonia in the air. This may be a requirement of pertinent
laws and/or regulations.
When containers are moved from a storage area to an area
in which they will be used sufficient time must be allowed
to stabilize the temperature, and therefore pressure, of the
container and the ammonia before it is used.
The ammonia inventory depends on local availability to a
large extent. Consult with ammonia suppliers in the area.
Figure 4 - Ammonia Auxiliary Cylinder Valves
left-hand thread, which is indicated by the V-notch on each
corner of the hexagonal nut)
3.3 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES
Ammonia cylinders do not normally have a pressure relief
device since this is not required unless the cylinder contains
more than 165 pounds.
Most tank cars have an excess-flow valve located under each
liquid valve. While this valve may close during a catastrophic
pipe line failure its main function is to close automatically if
the angle valve is broken off in transit. Tank cars also have a
pressure relief device located in the center of the manway.
The relief level varies with the type of car or tank.
3.4 STORAGE OF CONTAINERS
Ammonia cylinders are best stored under cover and in cool,
well-ventilated locations protected from fire hazards and
adequately protected from extreme weather conditions.
During the summer months, full containers should be
shielded from the direct rays of the sun, which otherwise
might result in building up dangerous pressures (see Figure
1). If stored out of doors, keep cylinders in fenced off areas
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When planning space for stored cylinders sufficient space
must be allowed for empty cylinders.
The best way to determine the amount of ammonia remaining in a cylinder is to weigh the cylinder continuously on a
scale. This also makes it possible to record the amount of
ammonia used. Portable or dormant scales in beam, dial, or
digital types and with varying platform sizes are available.
WARNING: ALWAYS REMOVE WHEELS AND AXLES OF
PORTABLE SCALES SO THAT THE SCALE CANNOT MOVE
WHEN CYLINDERS ARE ON THE PLATFORM.
Preferably, scales for cylinders should be installed with their
platform flush with the floor to eliminate the necessity of
lifting the cylinders. Some low profile scales are low enough
that cylinders can be placed on the scale without lifting.
Others are installed with ramps. If scales are pit mounted
a trapped drain should be provided.
Special high capacity scales are provided at some installations
using tank cars. These scales are usually pit mounted below
the railroad siding with the dial or digital unit housed above
ground beside the track.
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Some of the dial or digital scales are equipped with loss-ofweight recording systems providing a permanent record of
ammonia usage.
Always test for leaks before putting new cylinders in service.
The system can be pressurized by opening the valve and
then closing it. The valve can be opened again after it is
determined that there are no leaks.
3.5 HANDLING CONTAINERS
Care must always be exercised when handling ammonia
cylinders. They should not be dropped and should not
be permitted to strike each other or other objects. Valve
protecting caps or hoods must always be in place when
cylinders are moved.
Cylinders should be handled with a simple two-wheel hand
truck of the barrel pattern. Hand trucks should be well balanced and equipped with chains or clamps preventing the
cylinders from falling off the truck.
WARNING: NEVER LIFT CYLINDERS BY THE VALVE PROTECTING CAP. IT IS NOT DESIGNED FOR THIS SERVICE
(IT MAY SEPARATE FROM THE CYLINDER, CAUSING THE
CYLINDER TO FALL).
Cylinders must never be lifted by sling or magnetic device. If
lifting is necessary a specially designed cradle must be used.
3.6 USING CONTAINERS
If cylinders have been stored in an area other than that in
which they will be used they should be allowed to stabilize
at the new temperature before being used. Cylinders should
always be used in the order in which they are received to avoid
unnecessarily long storage and possible difficulty with valves
that have not been opened or closed for too long a period.
WARNING: CYLINDERS ARE NORMALLY USED IN AN
UPRIGHT POSITION FOR GAS WITHDRAWAL. TO AVOID
SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE,
SUPPLY CYLINDERS MUST BE SECURED IN SUCH A
MANNER (e.g. CHAIN) AS TO PREVENT THEIR BEING
KNOCKED OVER.
It is not unusual during humid conditions for condensation
to collect on the outside of the cylinder. A build-up of frost
on the cylinder indicates that withdrawal rates are too high
to permit the surrounding air to supply the heat necessary
to evaporate the liquid ammonia. Increasing the circulation
of room temperature air past the cylinder may correct the
condition. Do not apply direct heat to the cylinder in any
way. It may be necessary to shut off the cylinder valve and
permit it to warm up again before putting it back in service.
After emptying the cylinder the valve must be closed before
disconnecting to prevent the entry of moisture. After disconnecting, the valve cap and the valve protecting cap must be
replaced before the cylinder is moved. Empty cylinders should
be segregated from full cylinders and should be tagged.
Tank cars are unloaded by means of one of the liquid valves.
One of the gas valves can be connected to the system to
permit pressure testing with gaseous ammonia rather than
liquid. The flexible connection used for tank car unloading
must be designed for and installed in such a manner to allow for the significant increase in height as the car unloads.
Tank car pressure may be inadequate as a motivating force
for unloading many cars.
Contact your gas supplier or the Compressed Gas Association
for recommendations on compressors or air padding. It is
essential that air padding pressure be kept as low as possible
for satisfactory operation of the ammoniation equipment
since excessive air padding pressures can have a negative
impact on evaporator performance.
After the angle valve is closed and the discharge line emptied
the piping may be disconnected. The valve outlet plugs should
be replaced and the discharge piping capped immediately.
4
It is recommended that special 3/8-inch square box wrenches
rather than adjustable wrenches be used for opening cylinder
valves. Length of the wrench should not exceed eight inches.
It is good practice to leave the wrench in place so the valve
can be closed quickly in case of an emergency. Maximum
discharge can be accomplished with one full turn of the valve.
Excessive force must not be used in opening valves. Never
strike the wrench with anything other than the heel of the
hand. Loosening the packing nut a maximum of 1/2 turn is
acceptable provided the packing nut is tightened after the
valve is operated. Contact your ammonia supplier if these
procedures do not permit operation of the valve.
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PIPING
4.1 PIPING MATERIALS AND JOINTS
If the ammoniator capacity is low enough the vacuum regulator may be mounted directly on a cylinder valve totally
eliminating pressure piping. In this case reference to the
equipment instruction book provides all necessary details.
Pressure connections from all ammonia cylinders are normally made by means of flexible connections made of steel
tubing. The ammoniator or vacuum regulator instruction
book should be referred to for details for use of flexible con-
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nections along with the required auxiliary cylinder valves,
header valves, and auxiliary header valves (if required).
WARNING: REPLACE FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS ANNUALLY, OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION.
The usual practice for ammonia liquid or gas pressure lines
at the commonly encountered pressures and temperatures
at ammoniator installations, is the use of 3/4 or 1.0-inch
schedule 80 carbon steel seamless pipe with Class 3000
forged steel fittings; two-bolt flanges (commonly referred
to as oval ammonia unions) are often used. Both screwed
and socket welded construction are common. Threaded
joints should be made up using litharge and glycerine for
permanent joints, white lead for others.
To facilitate maintenance, the number of line valves should
be kept to a minimum. Insulation is required only in those
cases where it is necessary to prevent ammonia gas lines from
becoming chilled, or liquid lines from becoming overheated.
More complete details can be obtained by referring to Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet No. CGA G-2 American
National Standard Safety Requirements for the Storage and
Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, ANSI K61.1.
with reliquefaction of ammonia, pressure piping and control
equipment receiving gas under pressure should be at a higher
temperature than that of the ammonia cylinders. In general,
a difference of 5° to 10°F is recommended.
Pitch pressure lines uphill from the gas source toward the
ammoniators if possible.
Install a pressure reducing valve or the ammoniator vacuum
regulator close to, but higher than, the source of gas. The use
of an ammonia pressure reducing valve is also recommended
in those localities where severe temperature changes are
likely to be encountered during a 24-hour period.
It is preferable to run ammonia pressure gas lines overhead
through relatively warm areas rather than along the floor or
through basement areas where lower temperatures may be
encountered. Do not run these gas lines along exterior walls,
which may be cold in winter months. Do not run pressure
gas lines under windows from which cold air descends in
winter months.
The installation of ammonia gas strainers in pipe lines upstream from pressure reducing valves or vacuum regulators
is a common practice. These strainers can also serve as a trap
for a small amount of liquid ammonia. Figure 5 illustrates
a typical strainer.
WARNING: TWO COMMON CAUSES OF AMMONIA PIPING LEAKS ARE:
1. RE-USE OF GASKETS. THIS SHOULD NEVER BE DONE.
ALWAYS HAVE AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY ON HAND AND
ALWAYS USE NEW GASKETS OF THE CORRECT MATERIAL AND SIZE AS IDENTIFIED ON THE EQUIPMENT
PARTS DRAWING.
2. IMPROPERLY MADE-UP THREADED PIPE JOINTS.
4.2 GAS PIPING INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
Reliquefaction of a gas should be avoided. If liquid ammonia
is carried downstream to the ammoniator or vacuum piping it may soften the plastic components and affect their
structural strength. Liquid can wash any collected contaminants into the vacuum regulator and can also cause erratic
surging, freezing, and pressure release that can damage the
diaphragm and control valves. Cold conditions in a gas pipe
line (cold to the touch; dripping of water condensed from
the atmosphere; frost; ice) are an indication that liquid ammonia is present in the line and is flashing to gas. Refer to
the proper guidelines that follow.
It is important to observe the correct temperature conditions
in conducting ammonia gas under pressure from the location of the cylinders to the point of use. To avoid difficulty
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Figure 5 - Gas Strainer
4.3 LIQUID PIPING INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
It is important to avoid conditions that will encourage vaporization. Thus it is important to keep liquid ammonia lines as
cool as, or cooler than the cylinders by eliminating restrictive
fittings and always operating with fully opened line valves.
Avoid running liquid ammonia lines through overheated
areas where gasification is likely.
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Valves in liquid ammonia lines should be kept to a minimum.
It is particularly important to avoid situations where it is easy
to close two valves in a line thus trapping liquid that, upon
an increase in temperature, will expand and develop higher
than acceptable pressures.
A liquid line pressure relief system (which includes a rupture
disc and an expansion chamber) is required where liquid may
be trapped in the line or where it is necessary to run lines a
considerable distance. The relief system is detailed in Figure
6. The expansion chamber provides an area for expansion
in the event that valves at both ends of the line are closed.
Relief system placement must be based not only on length
of line but also placement of valves.
4.4 PRESSURE RELIEF AND VENT PIPING REQUIREMENTS
All pressure relief vent line systems must be treated as though
they contain ammonia. Use the same materials for pressure
relief vent lines as used for ammonia gas piping unless the
vent line is a combination pressure relief/vacuum relief line
in which case the material must be suitable for moist ammonia gas (PVC or polyethylene tubing).
Vent lines must be run in such a way that moisture collecting
traps are avoided. A continuous up gradient is preferred.
The end of all vent lines must be turned up with a rain cap
and screened.
Manifolding of vent lines is an acceptable practice provided
only like vents are manifolded (i.e., evaporator water vapor
vents must be separate from gas pressure reducing valve
pressure vents, etc.). The interior cross sectioned area of
a common vent or pressure relief line should be approximately equal to the sum of the cross sectional areas of the
individual vent lines.
WARNING: THE VENT LINE AND RELIEF LINE MUST
TERMINATE IN AN AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT
CAUSE INJURY TO PERSONNEL OR DAMAGE. DO NOT
TERMINATE THE VENT LINE AND RELIEF LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL SUCH AS WORK
AREA OR PATHWAYS NOR NEAR ANY WINDOWS OR
VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
4.5 VALVES
Auxiliary cylinder and header valves are described adequately
in the ammoniator or vacuum regulator instruction book.
Line valves are used to isolate alternate sources of supply
(manifolded banks of cylinders or tank cars), individual
evaporators or pressure type ammoniators. Sufficient line
valves should be provided for flexibility of system operation
consistent with the recommended practice of eliminating
redundant or unnecessary valves.
Valves are usually of approximately globe pattern as shown
in Figure 7 or ball type as shown in Figure 8.
Care should be taken that only valves designed by the
manufacturer for ammonia service are used. Ball valves
must include a provision for venting the cavity in the closed
position to the upstream side.
4.6 PRESSURE GAUGES AND SWITCHES
NOTE: All piping to be seamless carbon stell sched. 80 and fittings to be
forged steel. Expansion chamber meets ASME Sec.VIII, Div. 1 code for
unfired pressure vessels.
Whenever pressure gauges and switches are used in ammonia
liquid or gas lines they must be of the type protected by a
flanged diaphragm seal specifically designed for ammonia
service to prevent the entry of ammonia into the gauge or
switch mechanism. The fill material must be suitable for
ammonia service. The connection between the seal and
the gauge or switch must not be broken. if the connection
Figure 6 - Liquid Line Pressure Relief System
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4.7 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES
There are two types of pressure relief devices in use in
ammonia piping systems. The first, as shown in Figure 6,
is usually employed in liquid ammonia piping to protect
the piping from rupture due to high pressure from thermal
expansion of the liquid ammonia. It consists of a rupture
disc that ruptures before the pipe line itself can rupture, an
expansion chamber that allows for relief of the overpressure
condition without releasing ammonia to the atmosphere,
and a pressure switch to warn of disc failure.
The second type, as shown in Figure 9, is usually used in gas
piping at the evaporator discharge. This system consists of a
rupture disc, which keeps ammonia out of the valve during
normal operation, a pressure relief valve, and a pressure
switch to warn of disc rupture.
Figure 7 - 3/4- and 1-inch Line Valves
Figure 8 - Gas and Liquid Ball Valve
Figure 9 - Evaporator Pressure Relief System
is inadvertently broken the complete assembly must be
discarded and replaced unless it can be returned to the
manufacturer for repair.
WARNING: THE RELIEF LINE MUST TERMINATE IN AN
AREA WHERE GAS FUMES CANNOT CAUSE DAMAGE OR
INJURY TO PERSONNEL. DO NOT TERMINATE THE RELIEF
LINE AT A LOCATION ROUTINELY USED BY PERSONNEL
SUCH AS WORK AREAS OR PATHWAYS NOR NEAR WINDOWS OR VENTILATION SYSTEM INTAKES.
Frequently valves are installed between ammonia lines and
the gauge or switch diaphragm seal to permit removal without taking the line out of service. A means of relieving the
pressure in the isolated piping, gauge or switch is strongly
recommended.
4.8 PREPARATION FOR USE
WARNING: WHEN PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IS USED,
THE SMALL AMOUNT OF AMMONIA GAS RELEASED
WHEN RELIEVING PRESSURE IN ISOLATED AMMONIA
GAS PIPING IS USUALLY INCONSEQUENTIAL; HOWEVER,
RELEASING EVEN A SMALL AMOUNT OF LIQUID AMMONIA REQUIRES EXTREME CAUTION TO AVOID SEVERE
PERSONAL INJURY.
Normal plumbing practices will result in the entry of cutting
oils, greases and other foreign materials into the piping. In
addition the line will have been open to the atmosphere
during construction allowing moisture to enter. it is therefore
essential that all piping be thoroughly cleaned and dried prior
to the exposure to ammonia. Incomplete cleaning can result
in violent reactions between ammonia and these materials.
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Steam cleaning is an acceptable method for removal of the
above materials. Provision must be made for removal of
condensate and foreign materials.
5
After proper cleaning, all ammonia piping should be hydrostatically tested to one and one-half times the expected
maximum operating pressure. Prior to testing, all gauges,
switches, rupture discs, etc. that could be damaged during
testing must be removed and connections plugged. Any
moisture absorbing packing or gaskets left in the system
during hydrostatic testing must be replaced. After hydrostatic
testing all piping must be thoroughly dried with inert gas (e.g.
nitrogen) or dry air having a dew point of -40°F or below.
The dew point of the air or gas leaving the piping must be
checked and drying continued until the dew point is at or
below -40°F, which may require some time.
Proper consideration of personnel safety begins with the
provision of properly sized and arranged housing so that
operating personnel have adequate room to perform their
duties. It is preferable that any room used for ammonia
storage or equipment have two doors which open outward
and which are equipped with panic bars.
A very acceptable alternate to hydrostatic testing, if proper
facilities do not exist for drying, is to test with nitrogen or
dry air having a dew point of -40°F or below. The same
provision of removing equipment that could be damaged
by test pressure applies.
WARNING: TO AVOID SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY, BEFORE
PLACING THE PIPING SYSTEM INTO SERVICE PRESSURE
TEST WITH AMMONIA GAS NOT LIQUID.
The ammonia container valve should only be opened slightly
during this phase of testing or preferably closed again after
pressurizing the system. The piping should be tested in the
smallest sections permitted by the existing valves to minimize
the discharge of ammonia through any leaks.
Ammonia leaks are best located using moist phenolphthalein
or red litmus paper, which changes color in ammonia vapor.
When a leak is detected the system must be depressurized
before corrective action is taken. The best method of depressurizing the system is through one of the ammoniators.
At least one ammoniator must be readily available for this
purpose before testing with ammonia begins.
WARNING: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT PROPER BREATHING
APPARATUS BE AVAIIABLE BEFORE AMMONIA IS ADMITTED TO ANY PIPING SYSTEM OR EQUIPMENT. THIS
APPARATUS WILL BE DISCUSSED FURTHER UNDER
“PERSONNEL SAFETY”.
PERSONNEL SAFETY
5.1 GENERAL
Rooms housing ammoniation equipment, and ammonia cylinders that are “in service” or “in reserve”, should be heated
when the room temperature falls below 50°F. Comfortable
working temperatures of 65° to 75°F are recommended for
the ammonia equipment room. The temperature of the ammonia cylinder room (if separate) should normally be 5° to
10°F lower. All common methods of heating are acceptable,
provided that care is taken to prevent overheating of ammonia cylinders. Radiators should not be located adjacent to
cylinders. If space heaters are used, the warm air should be
deflected away from the cylinders. Outside windows should
be located or screened so that the rays of the sun do not fall
directly on ammonia cylinders.
Natural ventilation may be adequate for a small ammoniator
installation in a separate building where windows and doors
provide cross circulation. However, ventilation by means of
a proper type electric fan is always recommended.
In all cases, installation must comply with appropriate
regulations.
5.2 HEALTH HAZARDS
Exposure to a sufficiently high concentration of ammonia
can result in difficulty in breathing and if prolonged, finally
death through suffocation. Ammonia’s strong pungent odor
may result in detection at levels as low as 5 ppm and most
people will detect it by the time the concentration reaches
20 ppm. Concentrations of 20 to 50 ppm or more are so objectionable that only those who are unconscious or trapped
will normally remain in the area. Increasing concentrations
will produce eye irritation, coughing, throat irritation, and
labored breathing.
Even concentrations below the threshold of smell can result
in minor eye and throat irritation if the exposure is long
enough. Liquid ammonia can cause burns and/or irritation
when it is in contact with the skin or eyes.
Medical attention should be obtained as quickly as possible
for personnel who had sufficient exposure to result in any
symptoms beyond minor irritation. Properly trained and
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equipped first aid personnel are usually the first line of defense. While waiting for their arrival the exposed individual
must be removed to a safe area and be placed in a comfortable position. If breathing has stopped artificial respiration
must be started immediately. CPR administrated by properly
trained personnel is required if the heart has stopped.
protecting it from damage of any kind and to be readily
available.
If the exposed individual has difficulty breathing, oxygen
should be administered only by those adequately trained
in the procedure and the equipment used.
All personnel with no assigned responsibility for dealing
with an ammonia release should be instructed to leave the
area. Those responsible for correcting the situation should
don respiratory equipment before doing so.
The proper procedure for emergency treatment of clothing or skin contaminated by ammonia is to flush the area
with large quantities of water under a shower for at least
15 minutes. While still under the shower affected clothing
should be removed. No medical treatment or neutralization
of the ammonia should be attempted except as directed by
a physician.
Immediate flushing with tepid water should be administered
if even small quantities of ammonia enter the eye or if the
eye has been exposed to strong concentrations of ammonia.
The eyelids must be parted and thorough flushing continued
for at least 15 minutes. As mentioned previously for skin
exposure no medical treatment or neutralization should be
attempted except as directed by a physician.
The attending physician may wish to refer to a Material Safety
Data Sheet on ammonia.
5.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
The first steps to be taken in providing proper safety precautions at any facility are the selection of safety equipment
to be on hand, the proper location of the equipment and
the training of all personnel in proper procedures to avoid
unnecessary ammonia releases and to deal with releases
that occur.
Proper respiratory equipment is essential for all facilities
regardless of size. In most cases the accidental releases of
ammonia will be small. There will also be minor releases of
ammonia when ammonia containers of any size are connected
to or disconnected from the system piping. However, for
maximum safety it is preferable to use air tank type pressure
demand masks that have a self-contained air supply, and
therefore, are suitable regardless of ammonia concentration.
All respiratory equipment must meet the requirements of
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Following the respiratory equipment manufacturer’s recommendation regarding maintenance and periodic testing is
essential. This equipment should be stored outside the area
containing ammonia or ammonia equipment in a manner
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WARNING: DO NOT LOCK CABINETS OR CLOSETS IN
WHICH RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT IS STORED, AS THE
EQUIPMENT MUST BE READILY AVAILABLE.
Protective clothing is recommended for handling even routine
operations involving ammonia. In the event of a substantial
release, protective clothing is required. Anyone desiring
further information on protective clothing should contact
reputable manufacturers or suppliers of such equipment.
Safety shoes, hard hats and safety glasses should be used in
accordance with standard plant practice.
Most leaks will occur in piping, valves, connections and the
pressurized portions of ammonia equipment. These leaks
will usually be eliminated by tightening packing, replacing
gaskets, or repairing the equipment.
WARNING: REPLACE FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS ANNUALLY, OR SOONER IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF DETERIORATION.
The ammonia supplier should be contacted immediately
for information, assistance and advice on the disposition
of the leaking cylinder. The cylinder should always be repositioned, if possible, so the leak is gas rather than liquid.
5.4 EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS
The best emergency plan includes routine practices that are
designed to minimize emergencies. Proper maintenance of
all equipment associated with the storage, handling and use
of ammonia in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions is essential.
All equipment and piping containing ammonia under pressure
must be tested periodically for leaks following procedures
covered in Paragraph 4.8. Since it is not unusual for areas
used for ammonia storage and ammonia equipment to be
relatively unattended it is important f or the air in these areas
to be monitored continuously with ammonia detectors so
that warning of leaks is given as early as possible. As with
most emergencies the earliest detection helps to minimize
the damage to equipment and personnel. In addition to
warning of leaks when the areas are unattended, ammonia
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detectors will warn of the presence of minor amounts of
ammonia that may not be detected by personnel in the area.
If this is not possible the cylinders must be protected from
the heat of the f ire by spraying them with water.
The most common leaks are relatively minor and require no
action other than locating the leak and correcting it.
Do not spray water on a leaking cylinder. The possibility exists
that the water is warmer than the cylinder and the liquid
ammonia, which would heat the ammonia and increase the
rate of discharge.
In the event of a major release of ammonia, there should
be no delay in contacting the agency in the community that
is responsible for handling hazardous material releases.
Appropriate names and telephone numbers must be prominently posted.
The ammonia supplier is probably the best source of assistance for most ammonia users. If the release is equal to or
exceeds the limit indicated in the Code of Federal Regulations
49 CFR Part 172 (100 pounds) the release must be reported
to the National Response Center (toll free 800-424-8802).
This name and number must also be posted prominently.
Additional information can be found in U.S. Department of
Transportation DOT P5800.3 Emergency Response Guidebook
available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Printing
office, Washington, D.C. 20402.
The person responsible for making any of the calls listed
above must be sure to give the agency contacted complete
details including facility name, address, telephone number
and the name(s) of personnel to contact for further information. The description of the emergency should include size
of cylinder, corrective action already taken, local weather
conditions, injuries, proximity to populated areas and directions for easiest access to the site.
It is vital that the emergency plan include use of the “buddy
system”, i.e., no personnel should be allowed to work alone
in an area with an ammonia leak even if the second person
is only standing by. As indicated earlier, all personnel not
involved in locating and correcting the leak should leave
the area, traveling in a crosswind direction to an area that
is upwind. Since it may not be possible for all personnel to
be equipped with respiratory equipment they should be
instructed to use a wet cloth or handkerchief over the nose
and mouth while leaving the area.
A Material Safety Data Sheet for Ammonia available from the
producer or the supplier should also be consulted.
No emergency plan should be implemented until it is reviewed
by the ammonia supplier and the agency in the community
having responsibility for hazardous material handling and
disposal.
Water in sufficient quantity (100 parts of water per part of
ammonia) can be applied to an area containing ammonia
vapor using spray or fog nozzles in an attempt to dissolve
the ammonia in the water.
5.5 CHEMICAL DISPOSAL FACILITIES
Part of the planning for emergencies entails provision for
disposal of any released ammonia. In most cases little can
be done about the ammonia already released to the atmosphere except to try to prevent its dissipation into areas
where damage to equipment and personnel will result.
At some large installations scrubbers have been installed
so that areas containing ammonia or ammonia equipment
can be sealed off and the air removed to a process that will
absorb the ammonia.
The design of such a system is complex and should only be
attempted by those thoroughly familiar with the process.
Absorption systems have been provided at some facilities
to permit a leaking cylinder to be emptied quickly if this is
deemed essential. One pound of ammonia can be absorbed
by 10 pounds of water.
The tank and other equipment provided for an absorption
system must be fabricated of materials suitable for the
chemicals involved.
Provision must be made for dissolving the ammonia in the
water in such a way that the solution cannot be sucked back
into the container.
Actually the safest way of disposing of the ammonia in the
leaking cylinder might be through the ammoniation process
particularly if the process can absorb the ammonia at higher
than normal rates without creating damage.
It is not generally permissible to ship a cylinder damaged by
leak or fire if it contains ammonia. If for some reason this
seems necessary the ammonia supplier must be contacted.
If it is apparent that fire will threaten or is present in an ammonia storage area it is preferable to remove the cylinders.
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