SB-300 - Grease Monkey Road Squad llc

SB-300 - Grease Monkey Road Squad llc
SB-300
TK 51015-2-MM (Rev. 8/00)
Copyright© 2000 Thermo King Corp., Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A.
Printed in U.S.A.
The maintenance information in this manual covers unit models:
SB-300 30 (002003)
System SB-300 30 (918592)
For further information, refer to…
SB-300 Operator’s Manual
TK 50901
SB-300 Parts Manual
TK 51056
THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Control System Diagnosis
Manual
TK 50566
TK482 and TK486 Engine Overhaul Manual
TK 50136
X214, X418, X426 and X430 Compressor Overhaul Manual
TK 6875
Diagnosing TK Refrigeration System
TK 5984
Tool Catalog
TK 5955
Evacuation Station Operation and Field Application
TK 40612
ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) Training Guide
TK 40282
The information in this manual is provided to assist owners, operators and service people in the proper
upkeep and maintenance of Thermo King units.
This manual is published for informational purposes only and the information so provided should not be considered
as all-inclusive or covering all contingencies. If further information is required, Thermo King Corporation should be
consulted.
Sale of product shown in this manual is subject to Thermo King’s terms and conditions including, but not limited to,
the Thermo King Limited Express Warranty. Such terms and conditions are available upon request.
Thermo King’s warranty will not apply to any equipment which has been “so repaired or altered outside the manufacturer’s plants as, in the manufacturer's judgment, to effect its stability.”
No warranties, express or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular purpose or merchantability, or warranties arising from course of dealing or usage of trade, are made regarding the information, recommendations, and descriptions contained herein. Manufacturer is not responsible and will not be held
liable in contract or in tort (including negligence) for any special, indirect or consequential damages,
including injury or damage caused to vehicles, contents or persons, by reason of the installation of any
Thermo King product or its mechanical failure.
Recover Refrigerant
At Thermo King, we recognize the need to preserve the environment and limit the potential harm to the ozone layer that can
result from allowing refrigerant to escape into the atmosphere.
We strictly adhere to a policy that promotes the recovery and
limits the loss of refrigerant into the atmosphere.
In addition, service personnel must be aware of Federal regulations concerning the use of refrigerants and the certification of
technicians. For additional information on regulations and technician certification programs, contact your local THERMO KING
dealer.
Table of Contents
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Maintenance Inspection Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Unit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Sequence of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Serial Number Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Unit Photos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Operating Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Microprocessor On/Off Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Unit Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
unit Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Unit Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Manual Pretrip Inspection (Before Starting Unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Starting Unit With Electronic Full Pretrip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Selection of Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Restarting Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
After Start Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Loading Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Post Load Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Post Trip Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Electrical Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Alternator (Australian Bosch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Unit Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Fuse Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Air Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Thermoguard µP-VI Microprocessor Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Engine Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Engine Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Engine Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Oil Filter Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Bleeding Air from the Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Engine Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Engine Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Table of Contents (continued)
Engine Maintenance (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bleeding the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Filter/Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Filter/Water Separator Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Reinstallation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankcase Breather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Air Cleaner (Filter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan Belt Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35
40
41
41
42
43
45
46
46
48
50
51
52
52
Refrigeration Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refrigerant Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refrigerant Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Compressor Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Pressure Cutout Switch (HPCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-Way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic Throttling Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Gas Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
55
57
57
58
58
60
60
61
Refrigeration Service Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressor Coupling Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressor Coupling Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condenser Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discharge Vibrasorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-line Condenser Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condenser Check Valve Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expansion Valve Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaporator Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-Way Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-Way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pilot Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suction Vibrasorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Pressure Cutout Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Pressure Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discharge Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63
63
63
64
66
66
66
66
67
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
73
74
74
75
75
75
Table of Contents (continued)
Refrigeration Service Operations (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Suction Pressure Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Electronic Throttling Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Compressor Oil Filter Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Hot Gas Solenoid Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Structural Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Unit Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Condenser, Evaporator, and Radiator Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Defrost Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Unit installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Defrost Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Condenser and Evaporator Fan Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Idler Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Idler Assembly Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Mechanical Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Refrigeration Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Refrigeration Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-96
Schematic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97-98
Wiring Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-103
Safety Precautions
GENERAL PRACTICES
REFRIGERANT
1.
ALWAYS WEAR GOGGLES OR SAFETY
GLASSES. Refrigerant liquid and battery acid can permanently damage the eyes (see First Aid under Refrigeration Oil).
2.
Never operate the unit with the compressor discharge
valve closed.
Although fluorocarbon refrigerants are classified as safe
refrigerants, certain precautions must be observed when
handling them or servicing a unit in which they are used.
When exposed to the atmosphere in the liquid state, fluorocarbon refrigerants evaporate rapidly, freezing anything
they contact.
3.
Keep your hands clear of the fans and belts when the
unit is running. This should also be considered when
opening and closing the compressor service valves.
4.
5.
First Aid
In the event of frost bite, the objectives of First Aid are to
protect the frozen area from further injury, to warm the
affected area rapidly, and to maintain respiration.
Make sure the gauge manifold hoses are in good condition. Never let them come in contact with a belt, fan
motor pulley, or any hot surface.
Never apply heat to a sealed refrigeration system or
container.
6.
Fluorocarbon refrigerants, in the presence of an open
flame or electrical short, produce toxic gases that are
severe respiratory irritants capable of causing death.
7.
Make sure all mounting bolts are tight and are the correct length for their particular application.
8.
Use extreme caution when drilling holes in the unit.
The holes may weaken structural components. Holes
drilled into electrical wiring can cause fire or explosion.
9.
Use caution when working around exposed coil fins.
The fins can cause painful lacerations.
•
EYES: For contact with liquid, immediately flush eyes
with large amounts of water and get prompt medical
attention.
•
SKIN: Flush area with large amounts of lukewarm
water. Do not apply heat. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wrap burns with dry, sterile, bulky
dressing to protect from infection/injury. Get medical
attention. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
•
INHALATION: Move victim to fresh air and use CPR
or mouth-to-mouth ventilation, if necessary. Stay with
victim until arrival of emergency medical personnel.
REFRIGERANT OIL
Avoid refrigeration oil contact with the eyes. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact of refrigeration oil with skin or
clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling refrigeration oil to
prevent irritation.
10. Use caution when working with a refrigerant or refrigeration system in any enclosed or confined area with a
limited air supply (for example, a bus or garage).
Refrigerant tends to displace air and can cause oxygen
depletion, resulting in suffocation.
First Aid
In case of eye contact, immediately flush with plenty of
water for at least 15 minutes. CALL A PHYSICIAN. Wash
skin with soap and water.
11. EPA Section 608 Certification is needed to work on
refrigeration systems.
i
ii
Specifications
ENGINE
Model
Number of Cylinders
Cylinder Arrangement
Firing Order
Direction of Rotation
Fuel Type
Oil Capacity:
Oil Type:
TK 486EH
4
In-line vertical, number 1 on flywheel end
1-3-4-2
Counterclockwise viewed from flywheel end
No. 2 diesel fuel under normal conditions
No. 1 diesel fuel is acceptable cold weather fuel
13 qt. (12.3 liters) crankcase
Fill to full mark on dipstick
API Classification CF, CF-4, CG-4 or CH-4
ACEA Classification E1, E2 and E3
5 to 122 F (-150 to 50 C): SAE 15W-40
-13 to 104 F (-25 to 50 C): SAE 10W-40
-13 to 86 F (-25 to 30 C): SAE 10W-30
-22 to 32 F (-30 to 0 C): SAE 5W-30
1450 ± 25 rpm
(1730 ± 25 rpm with Super Fresh option)
2600 ± 25 rpm
18 psi (127 kPa) minimum in low speed
45 to 57 psi (310 to 390 kPa) in high speed
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
70 F (21 C)
11° BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder)
17 ± 3 psi (117 ± 21 kPa)
180 F (82 C)
7.5 qt (7.1 liters)
7 psi (48 kPa)
Direct to compressor; belts to fans, alternator and
water pump
Tension No. on TK Gauge P/N 204-427
Crankcase
Mineral Oil
Synthetic Oil (After First 500 Hours)
Oil Viscosity
Engine rpm:
Low Speed Operation
High Speed Operation
Engine Oil Pressure
Intake Valve Clearance
Exhaust Valve Clearance
Valve Setting Temperature
Fuel Injection Timing
Low Oil Pressure Switch (Normally Closed)
Engine Coolant Thermostat
Coolant System Capacity
Radiator Cap Pressure
Drive
BELT TENSION
Alternator Belt
Lower Fan Belt (Engine to Idler)
Upper Fan Belt (Fan to Idler)
35
67
74
1
Specifications (Rev. 8/00)
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Compressor
Refrigerant Charge—Type
Compressor Oil Charge
Compressor Oil Type
Heat/Defrost Method
High Pressure Cutout
Thermo King X430L
15.0 lb (6.8 kg)—R-404A
4.3 qt (4.1 liters)*
Polyol Ester type P/N 203-413
Hot gas
470 ± 7 psi (3241 ± 48 kPa)
Automatic reset @ 375 ± 38 psi (2586 ± 262 kPa)
* When the compressor is removed from the unit, oil level should be noted or the oil removed from the
compressor should be measured so that the same amount of oil can be added before placing the
replacement compressor in the unit.
ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
Voltage
Battery
Fuse Link Rating
Fuse F3—Power to Defrost Relay/Damper
Fuse F9—Main Control Power
Fuse F18—Power to High Speed Solenoid
Fuse F21—Power to On/Off Switch
Other Fuses
Battery Charging
Voltage Regulator Setting
12.5 Vdc
One, group C31, 12 volt battery
110 amps @ 72 F (22 C)
15 amp
40 amp
15 amp
25 amp
2 or 5 amp
12 volt, 37 amp, brush type alternator
13.8 to 14.2 volts @ 77 F (25 C)
NOTE: Fuse F15 (Bypass resistor for Prestolite Alternator) must be removed for the Bosch Alternator.
2
Specifications (Rev. 8/00)
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
NOTE: Disconnect components from unit circuit to check resistance.
Current Draw (Amps)
Resistance—Cold
at 12.5 Vdc
(Ohms)
Fuel Solenoid:
Pull-in Coil
25 to 36
0.3 to 0.5
Hold-in Coil
0.5
24
Damper Solenoid
5.7
2.2
High Speed (Throttle) Solenoid
2.9
4.3
Air Heater
89
0.14
Pilot Solenoid
0.7
17.0
Electronic Throttling Valve: Coil A (Red and Blue Wires)
—
20 to 35
Coil B (Black and White Wires)
—
20 to 35
Hot Gas Bypass Valve
1.1
11.1
Starter Motor—Gear Reduction Type
250-375*
* On-the-engine cranking check. Bench test is approximately 80 amps on the gear reduction starter.
SMART REEFER µP-VI MICROPROCESSOR TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER
Temperature Controller:
Type
Setpoint Range
Digital Temperature Display
Internal Defrost Timer:
Temperature Pulldown
Temperature In-range
Defrost Initiation: Coil Sensor
Defrost Termination:
Coil Sensor
Interval Timer
Electronic THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor with digital
thermostat, thermometer and fault indicator monitor
-20 to 80 F (-29 to 27 C)
Programmable setpoint range to -25 to 90 F (-32 to 32 C)
-40 to 99.9 F (-40 to 40 C)
2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 4)
4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 6)
Coil must be below 45 F (7 C)
Terminates defrost with coil temperature above 57 F (13 C)
Terminates defrost 30 to 45 minutes (programmable) after initiation
if coil sensor has not terminated defrost
3
4
Maintenance Inspection Schedule
Pre-trip
Every
1,500
Hours
Annual/
4,500
Hours Inspect/Service These Items
MICROPROCESSOR
•
Run Pre-trip Test (refer to Pre-trip Test in the Operator’s Manual).
ENGINE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check fuel supply.
Check engine oil level.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspect belts for condition and proper tension (belt tension tool No. 204-427).
Check engine oil pressure hot, on high speed. Minimum 45 psi (310 kPa).
Listen for unusual noises, vibrations, etc.
Check air cleaner indicator.*
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Change engine oil (hot) and oil filter.
Drain water from fuel tank and check vent.
Inspect/clean fuel transfer pump inlet strainer.
Check and adjust engine speeds (high and low speed).
Check condition of drive coupling bushings per Service Bulletin T&T 171.
Check condition of engine mounts.
Replace fuel filter/water separator every 2,500 hours.
Change engine coolant every 12,000 hours.
Test fuel injection nozzles at least every 10,000 hours per Service Bulletin
T&T 052.
ELECTRICAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspect battery terminals and electrolyte level.
•
Inspect alternator.
Inspect wire harness for damaged wires or connections.
Check operation of damper door (closes on defrost initiation and opens on
defrost termination).
* Change air cleaner when indicator reaches 22 in.
5
Maintenance Inspection Schedule (Rev. 8/00)
Pre-trip
Every
1,500
Hours
Annual/
4,500
Hours Inspect/Service These Items
REFRIGERATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check refrigerant level.
Check for proper suction pressure.
Check compressor oil level and condition.
Check compressor efficiency and pump down refrigeration system.
Replace dehydrator and check discharge and suction pressure every two (2)
years.
STRUCTURAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Visually inspect unit for fluid leaks.
Visually inspect unit for damaged, loose or broken parts (includes air ducts and
bulkheads).
Inspect tapered roller bearing fanshaft and idlers for leakage and bearing wear
(noise).
Clean entire unit including condenser and evaporator coils and defrost drains.
Check all unit and fuel tank mounting bolts, brackets, lines, hoses, etc.
Check evaporator damper door adjustment and operation.
6
Unit Description
CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop Controls
The unit is a one-piece, self-contained, diesel powered
refrigeration-heating unit. The unit mounts on the front of
the trailer with the evaporator portion extending into the
trailer. The unit uses hot gas to heat and defrost.
A CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop fuel saving system provides
optimum operating economy. Selecting Continuous or
CYCLE-SENTRY operation (on units equipped with
CYCLE-SENTRY) is accomplished using the microprocessor keypad.
Power is provided by the TK 486EH, a four-cylinder, water
cooled, direct injection diesel engine. The TK 486EH displaces 2.09 liters and is rated at 35.0 horsepower (26.1 kilowatts) at 2600 rpm. An in-line power pack provides direct
drive power transfer from the engine to the compressor. A
belt drive system transfers energy to the fans, the alternator,
and the water pump.
WARNING: With the unit On/Off switch in the ON
position, the unit may start at anytime without prior
warning.
NOTE: A buzzer sounds when the unit is automatically
preheating.
The engine uses a spin-on, dual element, full flow/bypass
oil filter and “CF-4” rated petroleum engine oil for extended
1,500 hour maintenance intervals.
NOTE: The microprocessor has an OptiSet™ feature that
can lockout CYCLE-SENTRY operation and force Continuous Run within a programmable range of setpoints. If
this feature is active and the setpoint is within the programmed lockout range, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will
flash while the unit is automatically starting. After the unit
starts, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will disappear and the
unit will operate in Continuous Run as long as the setpoint is within the programmed lockout range. Refer to the
appropriate THERMOGUARD Microprocessor Controller
Operation & Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the OptiSet™ feature.
SMART REEFER µP-VI Microprocessor
The SMART REEFER µP-VI is a microprocessor control
system designed for a transport refrigeration system. The
µP-VI integrates the following functions: thermostat, digital
thermometer, hourmeters, oil pressure condition, water temperature, ammeter, voltmeter, tachometer, mode indicator,
refrigeration system controller, discharge and suction pressure sensors, and diagnostic system.
The CYCLE-SENTRY system, an integral defrost timer,
data logging, and remote status lights are standard features.
Remote controls are an optional feature.
The CYCLE-SENTRY system automatically starts the unit
on microprocessor demand, and shuts down the unit when
all demands are satisfied. As well as maintaining the box
temperature, engine block temperature and battery charge
levels are monitored and maintained. If the block temperature falls below 30 F (-1 C), the engine will start and run
until the block temperature is above 90 F (32 C). If the battery voltage falls to the programmed limit selected by
CYCLE-SENTRY Battery Voltage (typically 12.2 volts)
and Diesel CYCLE-SENTRY mode is selected, the engine
will start and run until the charge rate falls below that programmed by CYCLE-SENTRY Amps (typically 5
amperes).
The microprocessor mounts inside a weather tight control
box. The LCD display is visible through a transparent cover.
Opening the keypad door provides quick access to the
microprocessor keypad. The keypad is used to control the
operation of the microprocessor.
7
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
Features of the CYCLE-SENTRY system are:
DAS
•
Offers either CYCLE-SENTRY or Continuous Run
operation.
•
Controller regulated all season temperature control.
•
Maintains minimum engine temperature in low ambient
conditions.
The DAS (Data Acquisition System) is an independent data
logger that logs information from dedicated external DAS
sensors and inputs. The DAS features up to six directly connected sensors. The DAS is also connected through a serial
port to the unit microprocessor. This allows unit operating
information to be logged as well. The data can be retrieved
•
Battery Sentry keeps batteries fully charged during unit
operation.
•
Variable preheat time.
•
Preheat indicator buzzer.
using an IBM® PC compatible laptop or desktop computer
or a Hewlett Packard HP 100LX® (or higher) and Thermo
King WinTrac 4.0 (or higher) software. The computer is
connected to the Computer Port on the front of the control
box. Detailed graph or table trip reports can then be created.
A brief graphical or tabular report can be printed on a compatible printer (P/N 204-844 or P/N 204-1020). The printer
is connected to the Printer Port on the front of the control
box. Refer to the DAS Data Acquisition System Manual
(TK 50565) for more information.
Economy Mode
The ECONOMY MODE can be turned ON or OFF for both
CYCLE-SENTRY and Continuous Run operation.
In CYCLE-SENTRY operation the ECONOMY MODE can
save fuel by extending the Null mode. The CYCLE-SENTRY Null Range changes from 5 F (2.8 C) to 10 F (5.6 C)
(default setting) when the ECONOMY MODE is ON. The
CYCLE-SENTRY Null Range can be adjusted from 5 F to
20 F (2.8 C to 11.2 C).
Thermo King X430L Compressor
The unit is equipped with a Thermo King X430L, fourcylinder compressor with 30 cu. in. (492 cm3) displacement.
Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV)
In Continuous Run operation the ECONOMY MODE saves
fuel by extending the Low Speed Cool mode. The Low
Speed Switch Point changes from 3.5 F (2 C) to 10 F (5.6 C)
(default setting) when the ECONOMY MODE is ON. The
Low Speed Switch Point can also be adjusted from 3 F to 15
F (1.7 C to 8.4 C).
The Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) is a variable position
valve operated by a stepper motor. The ETV is located in
the suction line between the evaporator and the heat
exchanger. Discharge and suction pressure transducers supply pressure information to the µP-VI microprocessor control system. The microprocessor controls the electronic
throttling valve directly. The ETV replaces both the throttling valve and the modulation valve used in other units.
The ETV system also uses a hot gas bypass valve like the
one used with the modulation valve in other units.
Additional features are available. Refer to the appropriate
Operation and Diagnosis Manual for specific information
about the ECONOMY MODE.
Data Logging
The ETV system provides enhanced control of the refrigeration system as follows:
The data logging system records operating events, alarm
codes and compartment temperatures as they occur and at
preset intervals. This trip data is retrieved through the
DAS.
8
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
•
Suction Pressure Control. The suction pressure control algorithm is the primary control used to obtain
maximum capacity. This allows the refrigeration system to fully utilize the power capabilities of the engine
under varying conditions.
The diesel engine operates at either low speed or high speed
as determined by the microprocessor. The unit will cool or
heat in either high or low speed. The unit will defrost in low
speed only. Heat and defrost consists of hot gas delivered to
the evaporator coil distributor.
•
Discharge Pressure Protection. This protection algorithm provides an additional measure of protection
against high discharge pressures and possible compressor damage. It will prevent shutdowns in high ambient
temperatures by allowing continued operation of the
unit at a temporarily reduced refrigeration capacity.
The microprocessor will select the operating mode from the
list of possible modes below:
Engine Coolant Temperature Protection. This protection algorithm protects the engine from high coolant
temperature shutdowns and possible engine damage. It
will reduce the load on the engine by temporarily
reducing refrigeration capacity. This lowers the engine
temperature while still allowing continued unit operation.
•
•
Modulation Control. The ETV system replaces the
modulation valve. The modulation control algorithm
operates much the same as modulation on other units.
•
High Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Modulated Cool
•
Null (CYCLE-SENTRY operation only)
•
Low Speed Modulated Heat
•
Low Speed Heat
•
High Speed Heat
•
Defrost
Defrost
Defrost is initiated manually through the defrost prompt
screen using the microprocessor Mode key and Enter key.
Defrost is initiated automatically on demand by the microprocessor or by a defrost timer.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
When the On/Off switch is turned on, the LCD display
(which normally shows the setpoint, the return air
temperature, and the operating icons) is illuminated. If the
CYCLE-SENTRY mode has been selected, the unit will
start and stop automatically. If the Continuous mode has
been selected, the unit will start and run automatically.
The evaporator coil temperature must be below 45 F (7 C)
to allow defrost. When the Defrost Icon appears, the damper
door is closed by the damper solenoid.
A demand defrost cycle will occur if the differences
between the return air temperature, discharge air temperature, and coil temperature are greater than predetermined
values.
Operating Modes
Two defrost timers are used. When the unit is In-Range
(within a few degrees of setpoint), defrost intervals are controlled by the Defrost Interval In-Range timer (DEFI). This
timer can be set for 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. The standard setting
is 6 hours. When the unit is not In-Range, defrost intervals
are determined by the Defrost Interval Not In-Range timer
The microprocessor uses a complex program to determine
which operating mode the unit should be in. Therefore, it is
difficult to predict which operating mode the unit should be
in by comparing the setpoint to the box temperature.
9
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
(DEFN). This timer can be set for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. The
standard setting is 4 hours. This feature allows a shorter
defrost interval to be used when the unit is out of range during a pulldown and more frequent defrost cycles may be
beneficial.
Normally, longer defrost timer intervals are used for colder
loads. The defrost interval may need to be changed if the
unit will not hold the compartment temperature at setpoint.
•
Use a longer defrost interval if defrost is not being initiated on demand.
•
Use a shorter defrost interval if defrost is frequently
being initiated on demand.
Data logger event codes starting with the letters DFF, DFI,
and DFT are logged when defrost occurs on units equipped
with data logging. DFF indicates defrost was forced. DFI
indicates defrost was initiated manually. DFT indicates
defrost was initiated by a timer.
If the unit is in CYCLE-SENTRY Null mode, the engine
will start when defrost is initiated. The In-Range Icon will
remain on if it was on when defrost was initiated.
The unit will stay in defrost until the evaporator coil temperature rises to 57 F (13 C). If the evaporator coil temperature does not rise above 57 F (13 C) within the Defrost
Duration (DDUR) time limit, the microprocessor will terminate defrost. The Defrost Duration can be set for either 30 or
45 minutes.
10
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
Unit Model
SB-300 30
(002003)
DESIGN FEATURES
TK 486EH Diesel Engine
X430L Compressor
Compressor Oil Filter
Top Mount Muffler
Thermo King Radiator
Rust-Free Composite Lower Doors and Panels
Injection Molded Grilles
Fiberglass Top Cap
Stainless Steel Exterior Condenser Hardware
Stainless Steel Evaporator Hardware
Tapered Roller Bearing Fanshaft and Idler
Premium Drive Belts
Heavy Duty Dry Element Air Cleaner Inside Unit Frame
SMART REEFER Microprocessor Controller
Fuel Filter with Water Separator
Spin-On Full Flow Bypass (Dual Element) Oil Filter
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dealer Installed Synthetic Engine Oil
Opt
Side Mount Coolant Expansion Tank
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Defrost Timer
CYCLE-SENTRY System
37 Amp Alternator
Refrigerant R-404A
Electronic Throttling Valve
Silicone Coolant Hoses
12,000 Hour Service Interval Coolant
DAS (Data Acquisition System)
Remote Status Lights
Super Fresh
Fuel Heater
Opt
Opt
11
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
Unit Model
SB-300 30
(002003)
PROTECTION DEVICES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
Engine Low Oil Pressure Switch
Engine Low Oil Level Switch
Evaporator Coil Temperature Sensor
Refrigerant High Pressure Cutout Switch
High Refrigerant Pressure Relief Valve
12 Volt Fuse Link
Fuse in Main Power Circuit
Fuse in Control Circuit
Fuse in Microprocessor Power Circuit
Relay Fuses
Remote Status Light Fuse
12
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
SERIAL NUMBER LOCATIONS
Unit: Nameplate on the roadside of the unit on the evaporator liner and on the roadside of the unit frame below the
control panel.
1
Engine: Nameplate on rocker arm cover.
Compressor: Stamped on the end above the oil pump.
1
ARA117
1
1
1.
Serial Number Location
13
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
ARA117
Front View
14
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
1
2
3
1.
2.
3.
Defrost Damper
X430L Compressor
TK 486EH Engine
Back View
15
ARA118
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
1
2
3
7
6
ARA120
5
1.
2.
3.
4.
Condenser Fan
Condenser Coil
Expansion Tank
TK 486EH Engine
4
5.
6.
7.
X430L Compressor
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Air Cleaner
Front View with Doors Open
16
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
3
2
1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ARA119
17
16
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
15
13
14
Discharge Service Valve
Suction Service Valve
Throttle Solenoid
Fuel Solenoid
Air Restriction Indicator
Fuel Bleed Screw
Alternator
Filter Drier
Three-way Valve
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
12
Receiver Tank Sight Glass
Battery Tray
Hand Primer Pump
Dipstick
Oil Filter
Starter
Compressor Sight Glass
Compressor Oil Filter
Engine Compartment
17
11
Unit Description (Rev. 8/00)
1
2
4
3
ARA158
1.
2.
3.
4.
DAS
Relay Board
Air Intake Heater Relay
Microprocessor
Control Box Components
18
Operating Instructions
CONTROL PANEL
On/Off Switch
Most of the controls used to operate the unit are located on
the control panel. Refer to the SB-300 Operator’s Manual or
the THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Controller
Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for more complete operating
information.
This switch turns the unit on and off. When the switch is in
the “Off” position, the display will show [OFF] and the display backlight will be off. The switch should always be
placed in the “Off” position before servicing the unit. When
the switch is in the “On” position, the display backlight will
turn on and the Standard Display will appear.
WARNING: The unit may start and run automatically any time the On/Off switch is in the “On” position.
TEMPERATURE
1
CYCLE
SENTRY
COOL
HEAT
!
DEFROST
ALARM
MODULATION
HIGH SPEED
IN-RANGE
SETPOINT
2
MODE
HOURS
GAUGES
PRETRIP
THERMOGUARD uP VI
SELECT
SETPOINT
ENTER
CODE
3
CLEAR
ALARM
5
4
ON
OFF
CAUTION: WHEN UNIT SWITCH IS ON.
UNIT MAY START ANYTIME
COMPUTER
PRINTER
ARA163
1.
2.
3,
Display
Keypad
Computer Port
4.
5.
Printer Port
On/Off Switch
Control Panel
19
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
Optional On/Off/Sleep Switch
Icons
This switch turns the unit on and off and also places the unit
directly into the Sleep Mode without an exit time. When the
switch is in the “Off” position, the display will show [OFF]
and the display backlight will be off. The switch should
always be placed in the “Off” position before servicing the
unit. When the switch is in the “On” position, the display
backlight will turn on and the Standard Display will appear.
When the switch is in the “Sleep” position, the unit will
enter the Sleep Mode, the display backlight will turn on and
the display will show [SLEEP] and [MODE].
An icon will appear next to the appropriate description
when the unit is operating in that mode or if an alarm condition exists.
Cool Icon Appears when the unit is operating in cool
mode.
Heat Icon Appears when the unit is operating in heat
mode.
Defrost Icon Appears when the unit is operating in
defrost mode.
WARNING: The unit may start and run automatically any time the On/Off/Sleep switch is in the
“On” or “Sleep” position.
High Speed Icon Appears when the diesel engine is
operating in high speed.
Cycle Sentry Icon Appears when the unit is operating in Cycle Sentry mode.
NOTE: The unit will not control the box temperature
when the switch is in the “Sleep” position.
Alarm Icon Appears when the microprocessor
detects an alarm condition.
UNIT SWITCH MUST BE ON TO
PROVIDE LOAD PROTECTION.
Modulation Icon Appears when the unit is operating
in modulation mode.
ON
OFF
SLEEP
In-Range Icon Appears when the box temperature is
within a few degrees of setpoint.
ZZZ
Discharge Air Icon (Arrow pointing from unit) Discharge air temperature is being shown.
CAUTION: WHEN SWITCH IS ON OR IN
SLEEP POSITION, UNIT MAY START ANYTIME.
ARA164
On/Off/Sleep Switch
Return Air Icon (Arrow pointing to unit) Return air
temperature is being shown.
Display
Setpoint Icon Appears when the setpoint is being
shown in the lower display.
The display normally shows the Standard Display of return
or discharge air temperature and setpoint. Other operating
and unit information can also be shown here. All possible
segments and operating icons are shown in the illustration
on page 19.
Electric Icon Appears when the unit is operating in
Electric Standby mode.
20
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
Keypad
Select Key Pressing this key displays temperature
sensor reading and Sleep Mode Wakeup Time (if programmed). See the following list.
These touch sensitive keys are used to change the setpoint,
view operating conditions and other unit information and to
control the unit.
[DIS.A]
Discharge Air Temp
Mode Key Allows selection of a Manual Defrost
Cycle, Cycle Sentry or Continuous Mode, Economy
Mode, Return or Discharge Air Control (on ETV
units), and Sleep Mode.
[TPDF]
Temp Differential
[COIL]
Coil Temp
[AMB.T]
Ambient Temp
Hourmeter Key Displays Total Hours, Engine
Hours, Electric Hours and the 3 programmable hour
meters.
[SPR.1]
Spare Sensor 1 Temp
[SPR.2]
Spare Sensor 2 Temp
[DAS.1]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 1
[DAS.2]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 2
[DAS.3]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 3
[DAS.4]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 4
[DAS.5]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 5
[DAS.6]
Optional DAS Temp Sensor 6
[SDAY]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Day*
[SHR]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Hour*
[SMN]
Sleep Mode Wakeup Minute*
Gauges Key Displays Water Temperature, Oil Pressure, Amps, Volts, Engine RPM, Compressor Temperature (CTMP on Screw Compressor units) and
Suction, Discharge Pressure and ETV Position (on
ETV units).
Pretrip Key Allows selection of Pretrip Test, Print or
Start of Trip Marker.
Thermo King Logo Key Allows selection of Pretrip
Test, Print and Start of Trip and displays software
revision and clock/calendar settings.
Clear Key This key is pressed to clear alarm codes
when they are shown on the display.
* Only if Sleep Mode Wakeup Time is Programmed
Code Key Pressing this key displays any alarm codes
that may be present. [00] means no codes are present.
Computer Port
Enter Key Pressing this key will execute a prompt or
load a new setpoint or other setting.
A serial cable from a computer is connected to the download port to access the Data Logging functions of the DAS.
Up and Down Arrow Keys Pressing these keys will
change a displayed prompt or increase/decrease the
setpoint or other setting.
Printer Port
A serial cable from a printer is connected to the printer port
to obtain a printout of the data log.
21
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
Microprocessor On/Off Switch
3.
AIR RESTRICTION INDICATOR. An air restriction
indicator is attached to the intake manifold. Visually
inspect the restriction indicator periodically to assure
the air filter is not restricted. Service the air filter when
the yellow diaphragm indicates 22 in. of water column.
Press the button on the top of the restriction indicator
after servicing the air filter.
4.
REMOTE STATUS LIGHT. The remote status light
indicates the operating status of the unit. The green “T”
indicates the unit is functioning properly. The amber
“K” indicates the unit has a check alarm but is still
functioning. The green “T” and amber “K” both flash
to indicate the unit has a shutdown alarm and is not
functioning.
This switch is located in the side of the control box in the
engine compartment. It should be placed in the OFF position to connect or disconnect the battery, or to service the
microprocessor system. The clock/calendar must be reset if
this switch has been placed in the OFF position.
UNIT PROTECTION DEVICES
ARA109
1.
FUSE LINK (Current Limiter). The fuse link is located
in the positive battery cable. The fuse link protects the
electric system from a short in the 2 circuit.
2.
FUSES. A number of fuses, located on the relay board,
protect various circuits and components.
1
1.
Microprocessor On/Off Switch
Microprocessor On/Off Switch Location
Fuse F3 (15 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to defrost relay and the damper.
UNIT INDICATORS
1.
2.
RECEIVER TANK SIGHT GLASS. The receiver
tank sight glass is used to check the amount of refrigerant in the system, and the moisture content of the
refrigerant.
Fuse F9 (40 amp) protects the main control power
circuit.
COMPRESSOR OIL SIGHT GLASS. The compressor
oil sight glass is used to check the relative level of compressor oil in the compressor sump.
Fuse F21 (25 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to the On/Off switch.
Fuse F18 (15 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to the throttle solenoid.
A number of 2 and 5 amp fuses protect microprocessor
circuits, control relay circuits, remote light circuits
(optional) and various components.
22
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
3.
4.
UNIT OPERATION
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT. The high pressure cutout
is a pressure sensitive switch that is located in the compressor discharge service valve. If the discharge pressure rises above 470 psi (3241 kPa), the switch opens
the 8D circuit to the fuel solenoid, which stops the
engine.
Manual Pretrip Inspection (Before Starting
Unit)
The following Manual Pretrip Inspection should be completed before starting the unit and loading the trailer. While
the Manual Pretrip Inspection is not a substitute for regularly scheduled maintenance inspections, it is an important
part of the preventive maintenance program designed to
head off operating problems and breakdowns before they
happen.
HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE. The high pressure relief valve is designed to relieve excess pressure
within the refrigeration system. The valve is a springloaded piston that lifts off its seat when refrigerant
pressure exceeds 500 psi (3447 kPa). The valve will
reseat when the pressure drops to 400 psi (2758 kPa).
The valve could possibly leak refrigerant after it has
relieved excess pressure. Tapping the valve lightly may
help the valve reseat and SEAL PROPERLY. The valve
is non-repairable and requires no adjustment. If the
valve fails to reseat properly, remove the refrigerant
charge and unscrew and replace the valve.
1.
FUEL. The diesel fuel supply must be adequate to
guarantee engine operation to the next check point.
2.
ENGINE OIL. The engine oil level should be at the
FULL mark with the dipstick turned (threaded) into oil
pan. Never overfill.
3.
COOLANT. The engine coolant must have antifreeze
protection to -30 F (-34 C). Code 37 indicates low coolant. Add coolant in the expansion tank.
The high pressure relief valve is located on the receiver
tank. Its location is such that when the pressure is
expelled from the valve, it would be directed away
from anyone servicing the unit.
5.
CAUTION: Do not remove expansion tank cap
while coolant is hot.
LOW OIL LEVEL SWITCH. The low oil level switch
closes if the oil drops below a certain level. If it stays
closed for a specified time, the microprocessor will shut
the unit down and record alarm code 66.
6.
PREHEAT BUZZER. The preheat buzzer sounds when
the CYCLE-SENTRY system energizes the air heater.
This should warn anyone near the unit that the CYCLESENTRY system is about to start the diesel engine.
7.
SETPOINT/MODE KEY BUZZER (Optional). This
buzzer sounds when the setpoint is changed until the
Enter Key is pressed. It also sounds when a Mode Key
selection is changed until the Enter Key is pressed.
23
4.
BATTERY. The terminals must be clean and tight.
5.
BELTS. The belts must be in good condition and
adjusted to the proper tensions.
6.
ELECTRICAL. The electrical connections should be
securely fastened. The wires and terminals should be
free of corrosion, cracks or moisture.
7.
STRUCTURAL. Visually inspect the unit for leaks,
loose or broken parts and other damage. The condenser
and evaporator coils should be clean and free of debris.
Check the defrost drain hoses and fittings to make sure
they are open. Make sure all the doors are latched
securely.
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
Starting Unit With Electronic Full Pretrip
•
This procedure is used for a complete checkout of the unit
and unit control circuits. It should be used when first starting the unit for a trip before the cargo is loaded. A full Pretrip procedure may take up to 30 minutes and the unit will
run unattended.
1.
Perform a Manual Pretrip Inspection.
2.
Adjust the setpoint to the desired load temperature
(refer to the appropriate Operator’s Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information
about adjusting the setpoint).
3.
a.
Change the setpoint display with the arrow keys.
b.
Enter the new setpoint by pressing the ENTER key
within 5 seconds.
4.
Initiate a Pretrip test (refer to the appropriate Operator’s Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about the Pretrip). This procedure
is automatic and can be performed on the way to the
loading area or while waiting to load.
a.
Place the On/Off switch in the ON position.
b.
Clear any alarms.
c.
Press the PRETRIP key.
•
d.
5.
PRE TRIP will appear on the display.
Press the ENTER key while PRE TRIP is displayed.
•
•
PRE LOAD will appear on the display and the
PRE TRIP test will start.
The amps check will continue for several minutes, then the unit will start automatically and
the operational tests will be performed.
When the PRE TRIP test is complete, PASS, CHECK,
or FAIL will appear on the display until a function key
(e.g., SELECT or ENTER) is pressed. Continue as follows:
•
PASS—The unit is running and no alarms have
been recorded. The unit has passed the PRE TRIP.
Go to step 6.
•
CHECK—The unit is running but Check Alarms
have been recorded. Go to step 5.
•
FAIL—The unit has shut down, recorded Alarm
Code 28, and possibly recorded other Shutdown
Alarms. Go to step 5.
View the Alarms with the CODE key (refer to the
appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
a.
Correct the alarm conditions.
b.
Clear the alarms with the CLEAR key (refer to the
appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
c.
Repeat the PRE TRIP test until PASS appears (the
unit passes the Pretrip).
6.
Recheck the setpoint.
7.
Complete the “After Start Inspection” on page 26.
Selection of Operating Modes
PRE AMPS will appear on the display indicating that the amps check is running and the
PRE TRIP has started.
The Thermo King CYCLE-SENTRY system is designed to
save refrigeration fuel costs. The savings vary with the commodity, ambient temperatures and trailer insulation. However, not all temperature controlled products can be properly
transported using CYCLE-SENTRY operation. Certain
24
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
highly sensitive products normally require continuous air
circulation.
Examples of Products Normally Requiring
Continuous Run Operation for Air Flow
•
•
Fresh fruits and vegetables, especially asparagus,
bananas, broccoli, carrots, citrus, green peas, lettuce,
peaches, spinach, strawberries, sweet corn, etc.
•
Non-processed meat products (unless pre-cooled to recommended temperature)
•
Fresh flowers and foliage
•
The microprocessor has a CYCLS screen, which is
used to select CYCLE-SENTRY (CYCLS YES) or
Continuous Run (CYCLS No) operation. Refer to the
appropriate Operator’s Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information about CYCLESENTRY selection.
The microprocessor has an OptiSet™ feature that can
lockout CYCLE-SENTRY operation and force Continuous Run operation within a programmable range of
setpoints. This feature can be used to provide continuous air circulation (within the programmed setpoint
range) during CYCLE-SENTRY operation. Refer to the
appropriate Operator’s Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for specific information about the
OptiSet™ feature.
The above listings are not all inclusive. Consult your grower
or shipper if you have any questions about the operating
mode selection of your type of load.
Restarting Unit
This procedure is used when starting units that have been
shut off for short periods of time. When a unit that has been
shut off for a long period of time is first started, it should be
started and put through a pretrip.
Your selection of the operating mode for the proper protection of a particular commodity should use the following
guidelines:
1.
Place the On/Off switch in the ON position.
2.
After a 10 second delay, the unit should preheat and
start automatically.
Examples of Products Normally Acceptable for
CYCLE-SENTRY Operation
NOTE: When the CYCLE-SENTRY Icon is active, the
unit may not start if: the compartment temperature is
near the setpoint, the engine is warm, and the battery
is fully charged.
•
Frozen foods (in adequately insulated trailers)
•
Boxed or processed meats
•
Poultry
•
Fish
•
Dairy products
If cooling or heating is required and the engine temperature
is below approximately 90 F (32 C), but the engine fails to
start automatically:
•
Candy
•
Turn the On/Off switch to the OFF position.
•
Chemicals
•
•
Film
•
All non-edible products
Check for and correct any alarm conditions and clear
the alarm codes. View the alarms with the CODE key,
clear the alarms with the CLEAR key, and then repeat
the auto start procedure. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information
about alarms.
25
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
•
6.
If the engine will still not start, turn the On/Off switch
to the OFF position, determine and correct the cause of
the failure.
After Start Inspection
DEFROST. When the unit has finished pre-cooling the
trailer interior, manually initiate a defrost cycle. This
will remove the frost that builds up while running the
unit to pre-cool the trailer.
To manually initiate a defrost cycle, press the MODES
key until the dEF (defrost) prompt screen appears, then
press the ENTER key.
After the unit is running, the following items can be quickly
checked to confirm that the unit is running properly.
1.
OIL PRESSURE. Check the engine oil pressure in high
speed by pressing the GAUGES key. The oil pressure
should read OK, not LOW.
Refer to the appropriate Operator’s Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information
about Manual Defrost.
2.
AMMETER. Check the ammeter reading by pressing
the GAUGES key. The ammeter should indicate normal
battery charging current. It may be fairly high right
after starting the unit, but should taper off as the battery
is recharged.
The defrost cycle should end automatically.
3.
COMPRESSOR OIL. The compressor oil level should
be visible in the sight glass.
4.
REFRIGERANT. Check the refrigerant charge. See
Refrigerant Charge in the Refrigeration Maintenance
chapter.
5.
PRE-COOLING. Make sure that the setpoint is at the
desired temperature and allow the unit to run for a minimum of 1/2 hour (longer if possible) before loading the
trailer.
NOTE: The unit will not defrost unless the evaporator
coil temperature is below 45 F (7 C).
Loading Procedure
This provides a good test of the refrigeration system
while removing residual heat and the moisture from the
trailer interior to prepare it for a refrigerated load.
26
1.
Make sure the unit is OFF before opening the doors to
minimize frost accumulation on the evaporator coil and
heat gain in the trailer. (Unit may be running when
loading the trailer from a warehouse with door seals.)
2.
Spot check and record load temperature while loading.
Especially note any off-temperature product.
3.
Load the product so that there is adequate space for air
circulation completely around the load. DO NOT block
the evaporator inlet or outlet.
4.
Products should be pre-cooled before loading. Thermo
King transport refrigeration units are designed to maintain loads at the temperature at which they were loaded.
Transport refrigeration units are not designed to pull
hot loads down to temperature.
Operating Instructions (Rev. 8/00)
Post Load Procedure
Post Trip Checks
1.
Make sure all the doors are closed and locked.
1.
Wash the unit.
2.
Start the unit if it was shut off to load (see Restarting
Unit).
2.
Check for leaks.
3.
Check for loose or missing hardware.
4.
Check for physical damage to the unit.
3.
Make sure the setpoint is at the desired setting.
4.
One-half hour after loading, manually initiate a defrost
cycle. If the evaporator coil sensor temperature is
below 45 F (7 C), the unit will defrost. The microprocessor will terminate defrost automatically when the
evaporator coil temperature reaches 57 F (13 C) or the
unit has been in the defrost mode for 30 or 45 minutes
(depending on setting).
27
28
Electrical Maintenance
ALTERNATOR (AUSTRALIAN BOSCH)
CAUTION: The F15 fuse must be removed from the
relay board on units equipped with the Australian
Bosch alternator. The voltage regulator will be damaged if
the unit is turned ON with the F15 fuse in place on the
relay board.
Charging System Diagnostic Procedures
NOTE: Units manufactured with CYCLE-SENTRY and
alternators with integral regulators MUST use replacement alternators with integral regulators.
Complete the following checkout procedure before replacing the voltage regulator or the alternator.
CAUTION: Full-fielding alternators with the
integral regulator is accomplished by installing a
jumper from terminal F2 to ground. Attempting to fullfield the alternator by applying battery voltage to terminal
F2 will cause voltage regulator failure.
•
1.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
3.
2.
Check Point for B+ Voltage
4.
When testing alternators use accurate equipment such
as a Thermo King P/N 204-615 (FLUKE 23) digital
multimeter and a Thermo King P/N 204-613 amp
clamp or an equivalent.
Check Point for Sense Circuit and
Excitation Circuit Voltages
Position for Full Fielding Jumper
Check Points for Alternator Test
29
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
•
Make sure the drive belts and pulleys of the charging
system are in good condition and are adjusted properly
before testing the alternator. Worn belts and pulleys or
loose belts will lower the output of the alternator.
•
The battery must be well charged, the battery cable
connections must be clean and tight, and the 2A and
excitation circuits must be connected properly.
b.
8.
NOTE: All voltage readings should be taken between the
negative battery terminal, or a good chassis ground, and
the terminals indicated, unless stated otherwise.
1.
Check to make sure that the F15 fuse has been removed
from the relay board. If not, it must be removed, however, the voltage regulator has probably already been
damaged.
2.
Set the unit for continuous run operation and place the
On/Off switch in the OFF position.
3.
Check the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is less
than 12 volts, the battery must be charged or tested to
determine if it should be replaced.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
If battery voltage is present on the sense and excitation
circuits, connect the alternator harness to the voltage
regulator and check the voltage on the B pin in the two
pin connector on alternator harness. The voltage should
be 1 to 3 volts.
a.
No voltage or a voltage reading below 1 volt indicates that the rotor or the voltage regulator may be
shorted. Perform the field current test to further
isolate the problem.
b.
A voltage reading above 3 volts indicates that the
field circuit may be open or have high resistance.
The brushes or the rotor are probably defective.
Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire connected
to the B+ terminal on the alternator.
10. Connect a voltmeter between the B+ terminal and a
chassis ground.
Check the voltage at the B+ terminal on the alternator.
Battery voltage must be present. If not, check the 2A
circuit.
11. Start the unit and run it in high speed.
12. Connect a jumper wire between the F2 terminal and a
chassis ground. This will full field the alternator.
Disconnect the alternator harness from the voltage regulator by carefully pushing on the spring clip to release
the plug lock.
CAUTION: DO NOT full field the alternator
for more than seven seconds while checking the
meter readings, or the electrical system may be damaged.
Place the On/Off switch in the ON position and enter
Service Test Mode (HSC) before the unit starts. Refer
to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
specific information about the Service Test Mode.
13. Check the amperage in the 2A wire and record the reading. Check the voltage at the B+ terminal and continue
to observe this voltage for a few seconds to see if it
increases, decreases, or stays the same. Note the change
in voltage and record the voltage reading.
Check the voltage at the A pin and at the B pin in the
two pin connector on the alternator harness.
a.
The B pin is the excitation circuit and should be at
10 volts or higher. If not, check the excitation circuit (7K or equivalent) in the alternator harness
and in the main wire harness.
The A pin is the battery sense circuit and should be
at battery voltage. If not, check the sense circuit (2
or equivalent) in the alternator harness and in the
main wire harness.
Amperage in the 2A wire =____amps.
Voltage at the B+ terminals =___volts.
30
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
The voltage at the B+ terminal should be 13 to 18 volts
and the amperage in the 2A wire should be at least as
high as the rated output of the alternator.
2.
Connect a jumper wire between the F2 terminal on the
alternator and a chassis ground, and note the ammeter
reading.
NOTE: An alternator can easily exceed its rated output. An alternator MUST at least reach its rated output when full fielded. An alternator that has a
defective rectifier diode may reach 75% of its rated
output with a full field.
3.
The ammeter reading indicates field current. The following chart shows the field current for each alternator
with 12 volts applied to the field:
Alternator Rating
14. Stop the unit.
15. Use the readings obtained previously to determine the
problem by referring to the Diagnosis Chart.
NOTE: This assumes that the alternator did not
charge properly prior to the full field test.
23 Amp
1.0 to 3.0 Amps
37 Amp
3.5 to 4.5 Amps
65 Amp
4.0 to 5.0 Amps
a.
No field current or a low field current indicates an
open circuit or excessive resistance in the field
circuit. Replace the voltage regulator and brush
assembly, inspect the slip rings and repeat the test.
If the brushes are not the problem, replace the rotor
or the alternator.
b.
High field current indicates a short in the field
circuit. Repair or replace the alternator.
Field Current Test (Checks the field windings,
brushes and slip rings)
Perform this test with the On/Off switch in the OFF
position.
1.
Field Current
@ 12 Volts
Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire near the B+
terminal on the alternator.
Diagnosis Chart
Amperage in 2A
Voltage at B+
Problem/Solution
At or above rated output
At or above battery voltage and
increasing
Voltage regulator defective / Replace voltage regulator and brush assembly
Approximately 60% of
rated output
Approximately equal to battery voltage
and does not change, or rises slightly
Rectifier diode defective / Repair or replace
alternator
Low or no output
Less than or equal to battery voltage
and decreasing
Stator windings, field windings, brush or
diode defective / Perform Field Current Test
to check brushes and field coil, or replace
alternator
31
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
1.
2.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
Position for Full Fielding Jumper
Full Field Test
32
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
BATTERY
FUSES
NOTE: The microprocessor On/Off switch must be placed
in the OFF position before connecting or disconnecting
the battery terminals. The microprocessor On/Off switch is
located on the side of the control box inside the engine
compartment.
A number of fuses, located on the relay board, protect various circuits and components. The relay board is located
inside the control box. Refer to the THERMOGUARD
µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Diagnosis Manual
TK 50566 for a complete list of the size and function of the
fuses.
•
Fuse F3 (15 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to defrost relay and the damper.
•
Fuse F9 (40 amp) protects the main control power circuit.
•
Fuse F18 (15 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to the throttle solenoid.
•
Fuse 21 (25 amp) protects the circuit that provides
power to the On/Off switch.
•
A number of 2 and 5 amp fuses protect microprocessor
circuits, control relay circuits, remote light circuits and
various components.
ARA109
1
1.
Microprocessor On/Off Switch
Microprocessor On/Off Switch Location
Inspect/clean the battery terminals and check the electrolyte
level during scheduled maintenance inspections. A dead
or low battery can be the cause of an ammeter indicating
discharge due to lack of initial excitation of the alternator
even after the unit has been boosted for starting. The minimum specific gravity should be 1.235. Add distilled water
as necessary to maintain the proper water level.
UNIT WIRING
Inspect the unit wiring and the wire harnesses during scheduled maintenance inspections for loose, chaffed or broken
wires to protect against unit malfunctions due to open or
short circuits.
ARA165
Relay Board
33
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
FUSE LINK
THERMOGUARD µP-VI
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER
The fuse link is located in the positive battery cable. The
fuse link protects the electric system from a short in the 2
circuit. If the fuse link burns out, check for a grounded 2
wire before replacing the fuse link. Replace the fuse link by
replacing the positive battery cable.
Refer to the THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor
Controller Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for complete service information about the Microprocessor Controller and
the related components.
AIR HEATER
The air heater is mounted on the open end of the intake
manifold. It heats the intake air to help the engine start in
cold weather. The air heater is energized by the microprocessor during preheat, just before the engine is started.
The heater is probably defective if the resistance is more
than 0.2 ohms and the current draw is less than 60 amps, or
if the current draw is more than 100 amps.
Check the resistance of the air intake heater with an ohmmeter between the M6 terminal on the front of the heater
and the screw on the back of the heater (or the heater case).
The resistance should be 0.1 to 0.2 ohms.
Check the current draw of the heater with a clamp-on
ammeter at the H1 wire near the M6 terminal on the front of
the heater. During preheat the current draw should be
approximately 89 amps at 12.5 volts and approximately 77
amps at 11 volts.
1
1.
M6 Terminal
Air Heater
34
Engine Maintenance
ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Some of the oil supplied to the camshaft bearings flows
through passages in the cylinder block, the cylinder head,
and the rocker arm supports to the rocker arm shaft. The
rocker arm shaft supplies oil to the rocker arm bushings and
the rocker arms. Some oil squirts out of holes in the rocker
arms to lubricate the valve stem caps and the valve stems.
The oil that is pumped up to the rocker arm assembly flows
back down through the push rod openings and lubricates the
tappets and the cam lobes as it returns to the oil pan.
The TK 486EH engine has a pressure lubrication system. A
trochoid type oil pump circulates the oil through the system
to lubricate the engine compartments. The oil pump contains a pressure regulating valve that limits the oil pressure
to approximately 45 to 57 psi (310 to 390 kPa). The oil
pump is driven by the crankshaft gear, and is attached to the
lower part of the timing gear housing.
The oil is picked up by a screened inlet near the bottom of
the oil pan. The inlet is positioned far enough from the bottom of the pan to avoid picking up any of the residue that
tends to settle on the bottom of the pan. The oil then passes
through the intake pipe to the oil pump.
The oil that flows to the fuel injection pump returns to the
oil pan after lubricating the injection pump components.
Oil pressure is affected by oil temperature, oil viscosity, and
engine speed. Low oil pressure can usually be traced to the
lack of oil, a faulty oil pressure regulating valve, loose connections in the lubrication system, or worn bearings. Low
oil pressure is not normally caused by a faulty oil pump.
The oil pump forces the oil through an oil gallery to the dual
element (full flow/bypass) oil filter. Dirt and other particles
are trapped in the filter element as the oil passes through the
oil filter. If the filter element becomes clogged, a bypass
valve built into the oil filter allows the oil to bypass the filter element. This keeps the engine components from being
starved for oil if the filter element is clogged.
Engine Oil Change
The engine oil should be changed according to the Maintenance Inspection Schedule. Drain the oil only when the
engine is hot to ensure that all the oil drains out. When
changing oil, keep unit and trailer level so all the oil can
flow from the oil pan. It is important to get as much of the
oil out as possible because most of the dirt particles are contained in the last few quarts of oil that drain out of the pan.
Refill the pan with 13 quarts (12.3 liters) and check the dipstick level. Run the unit, and then recheck the oil level. The
engine oil level should be at the FULL mark with the dipstick turned (threaded) into the oil pan. Never overfill. See
Specifications section for correct type of oil.
After passing through the oil filter, the oil enters the main
oil gallery. Oil passages connected to the main oil gallery
supply oil to the idler gear shaft, the camshaft bearings, the
main bearings, and the fuel injection pump.
Oil from the idler gear shaft lubricates the idler gear bushing, the idler gear, the other timing gears, and the fuel pump
before returning to the oil pan.
Some of the oil supplied to the main bearings flows through
passages in the crankshaft to the connecting rod bearings.
This oil is thrown around the bottom end of the engine as it
flows out of the bearings while the crankshaft rotates. Some
of this oil lubricates the cylinder walls. Some of this oil
lands in the holes on the top of the connecting rods and
lubricates the wrist pins and the connecting rod bushings.
The oil eventually returns to the oil pan.
Oil Filter Change
The oil filter should be changed along with the engine oil.
Use a genuine Thermo King oil filter.
1.
35
Remove the filter.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
2.
Apply oil to the rubber ring of the new filter and install
the filter.
3.
Tighten the filter until the rubber ring makes contact,
then tighten 1/2 turn more.
4.
Start the unit and check for leaks.
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure
As with all equipment containing antifreeze, periodic
inspection on a regular basis is required to verify the condition of the antifreeze. After 12,000 engine hours, inhibitors
become worn out and must be replaced by changing the
antifreeze. Drain, flush and replace the total antifreeze mixture to maintain total cooling system protection. When the
antifreeze is replaced, use ethylene glycol type Texaco
Extended Life Coolant (ELC) (Texaco # 7997, 7998, 16445,
16447, Shell # 94040, 94041, or equivalent). The factory
recommends the use of a 50/50 antifreeze mixture in all
units even if they are not exposed to freezing temperatures.
This antifreeze mixture will provide the required corrosion
protection and lubrication for the water pump.
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
The engine employs a closed, circulating type, pressurized
cooling system. Correct engine temperatures are controlled
and maintained by a radiator, fan and thermostat. The coolant is circulated through the system by a belt driven centrifugal pump. The pump draws the coolant from the side of the
radiator, circulates it through the cylinder block and head
and returns it to the radiator. A thermostat mounted in the
coolant outlet line from the cylinder head to the radiator
automatically maintains coolant temperature within the
specified temperature range.
Checking the Antifreeze
Check the solution concentration by using a temperature
compensated antifreeze hydrometer or a refractometer (P/N
204-754) designed for testing antifreeze. Maintain a minimum of 50% permanent type antifreeze concentrate and
50% water solution to provide protection to -30 F (-34 C).
Do not mix antifreeze stronger than 68% permanent type
coolant concentrate and 32% water for use in extreme temperatures.
All water cooled engines are shipped from the factory with
a 50% permanent type antifreeze concentrate and 50%
water mixture in the engine cooling system.
This provides the following:
1.
Prevents freezing down to -30 F (-34 C).
2.
Retards rust and mineral scale that can cause engine
overheating.
3.
4.
Changing the Antifreeze
Retards corrosion (acid) that can attack accumulator
tanks, water tubes, radiators and core plugs.
Provides lubrication for the water pump seal.
1.
Run the engine until it is up to its normal operating
temperature. Stop the unit.
2.
Open the engine block drain (located behind the starter)
and completely drain the coolant. Observe the coolant
color. If the coolant is dirty, proceed with a, b and c.
Otherwise go to 3.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot coolant.
36
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
a.
Run clear water into the radiator and allow it to
drain out of the block until it is clear.
4.
Inspect all hoses for deterioration and hose clamp tightness. Replace if necessary.
b.
Close the block drain and install a commercially
available radiator and block flushing agent, and
operate the unit in accordance with instructions of
the flushing agent manufacturer.
5.
Loosen the water pump belt. Check the water pump
bearing for looseness.
6.
Inspect the radiator cap. Replace the cap if the gasket
shows any signs of deterioration.
7.
Mix one gallon of Texaco Extended Life Coolant
(ELC) (Texaco # 7997, 16445 or equivalent) and one
gallon clean water in a container to make a 50/50 mixture. (Do not add antifreeze and then add water to the
unit. This procedure may not give a true 50/50 mixture
because the exact cooling system capacity may not
always be known.)
c.
Open the engine block drain to drain the water and
flushing solution.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot
coolant.
3.
Run clear water into the radiator, and allow it to drain
out of the block until it is clear.
2
3
1
4
7
6
5
ARA034
1.
2.
3.
4.
Expansion Tank
Radiator Cap
Coolant Level Sensor
Radiator
5.
6.
7.
8.
Water Pump
Thermostat
Thermostat Housing
Engine Cooling System
37
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
8.
7.
Refill the radiator with the 50/50 antifreeze mixture and
make sure to bleed the air from the cooling system as
needed.
Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the coolant level stabilizes.
Engine Thermostat
For the best engine operation, use a 180 F (82 C) thermostat
year-round.
Bleeding Air from the Cooling System
Jiggle pin thermostats are original equipment on units that
have TK 486EH engines. Jiggle pin thermostats make it
unnecessary to bleed the air out of the engine block because
they keep air from being trapped in the engine block. Normally, when the cooling system is drained, approximately 6
quarts (5.7 liters) of coolant drain out. If approximately 3
quarts (2.8 liters) of coolant seem to fill the cooling system
after it has been drained, air has been trapped in the block.
Bleed the air out of the block using the following procedure:
Engine Fuel System
The TK 486EH engine is a direct injection diesel that uses
an in-line injection pump.
The components of the fuel system are:
1.
Fuel tank
2.
Prefilter
CAUTION: IF YOU SUSPECT THAT AIR IS
TRAPPED IN THE BLOCK, DO NOT START
THE ENGINE WITHOUT BLEEDING THE AIR OUT
OF THE BLOCK.
3.
Fuel filter/water separator
4.
Priming pump
5.
Fuel transfer pump
NOTE: If an engine runs with air trapped in the block, the
engine may be damaged. The high water temperature
switch may not protect an engine that has air trapped in
the block, because the high water temperature switch is
designed to protect an engine from overheating due to failures in the cooling system.
6.
Injection pump
7.
Injection nozzles
1.
The priming pump is used to manually draw fuel from the
tank up to the fuel pump if the unit should run out of fuel.
Operation
Loosen the plug on the back of the water pump below
the thermostat cover until coolant comes out of the plug
fitting.
2.
Tighten the plug.
3.
Pour coolant into the system until it appears to be full.
4.
Make sure that the amount of coolant that goes back
into the system is approximately equal to the amount of
coolant that came out of the system.
5.
Start the unit on low speed heat, let it run for two minutes, and then shut it off.
6.
Check the coolant level and add coolant if necessary.
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank and through the prefilter by
the fuel transfer pump. The fuel transfer pump delivers fuel
to the fuel filter/water separator. Two orifices in the filter
head control the pressure in the fuel system by allowing a
certain amount of fuel to return to the tank. One orifice is
located in the center of the filter head. It bleeds off water.
The other orifice is located off-center on the filter head. It
bleeds off air. Filtered fuel passes through a line from the
outlet fitting on the filter base to the injection pump.
38
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
2
1
3
4
5
7
6
ARA014
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check Valve
Filter Head
Injection Pump
Bleed Screw
5.
6.
7.
Fuel Transfer Pump
Priming Pump
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Engine Fuel System
39
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Any major injection pump or nozzle repairs should be done
by a quality diesel injection service shop. The necessary service equipment and facilities are not found in most engine
rebuild shops because of the large investment required.
The injection pump plungers are activated by a gear driven
injection pump camshaft. The governor sleeve and weight
assembly is mounted on the end of the pump camshaft. The
governor’s speed requirements are relayed to the injection
pump through a linkage arrangement located in the rear
cover. The injection pump raises the pressure of the fuel and
meters the correct amount of fuel to the nozzle at the correct
time. The increased fuel pressure will lift the spring loaded
nozzle to admit fuel into the combustion chamber.
The following procedures can be done under field conditions:
Injection pump leakage, injection nozzle overflow and
excess fuel from the fuel filter orifice are then all sent back
to the fuel tank in the return line.
Maintenance
The injection pump and fuel transfer pump are relatively
trouble-free and if properly maintained will usually not
require major service repairs between engine overhauls.
Contamination is the most common cause of fuel system
problems. Therefore, to ensure best operating results, the
fuel must be clean and fuel tanks must be free of contaminants. Change the fuel filter/water separator regularly and
clean the prefilter on the inlet side of the fuel transfer pump.
1.
Bleeding air from the fuel system.
2.
Fuel tank and filter system maintenance.
3.
Priming pump (hand) replacement or repair.
4.
Fuel pump replacement or repair.
5.
Injection line replacement.
6.
Injection pump and governor adjustments.
7.
Injection pump timing.
8.
Nozzle spray pattern testing and adjustment.
9.
Minor rebuilding of nozzles.
Bleeding the Fuel System
If the engine runs out of fuel, repairs are made to the fuel
system, or if air gets into the system for any other reason,
the air must be bled out of the fuel system.
NOTE: The injection nozzles should be tested (and
repaired if necessary) at 10,000 hour intervals when used
in normal conditions. Normal conditions are considered to
be the use of clean high quality fuel, no used oil blending,
and regular maintenance of the fuel system according to
the Maintenance Inspection Schedule. Refer to the TK 482
and TK 486 Overhaul Manual TK 50136 for injection nozzle testing and repair procedures.
1
Whenever the fuel system is opened, take the following precautions to prevent dirt from entering the system:
2
1.
Cap all fuel lines.
2.
Work in a relatively clean area whenever possible.
1. Vent
3.
Complete the work in the shortest possible time.
2. Drain Plug
aea751
Fuel Tank
40
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Draining Water from Fuel Tank
NOTE: MAKE SURE the fuel tank vent is kept open. If
the vent becomes clogged, a partial vacuum develops in
the tank, and this increases the tendency for air to enter
the system.
Water run through the system may damage the injection
pump or nozzles. Damage to the fuel system will subsequently cause more expensive damage to the engine. A
large accumulation of water in the bottom of the fuel tank
will stop a diesel engine. Water should be drained off during
scheduled maintenance inspections to prevent breakdowns.
Drain the water off after the fuel tank and unit have
remained idle for an hour.
To bleed air from the fuel system:
1.
Loosen the bleed screw in the inlet fitting on the injection pump.
1
1.
Place a container under the fuel tank to catch the draining water and fuel.
2.
Remove the drain plug from the bottom of the fuel
tank.
NOTE: Some fuel tanks have a check valve in the
drain plug fitting. Push the check valve open with a
small screw driver to drain the tank.
3.
Let the water and fuel drain into the container until no
water is visible in the fuel draining from the tank. If the
water and fuel do not drain freely, the vent may be
plugged. If so, clean or replace the vent.
4.
Install the drain plug.
aea759
1.
Bleed Screw
Injection Pump
2.
Unscrew the priming pump handle and manually prime
the fuel system until air bubbles are no longer visible in
the fuel coming out of the bleed screw.
3.
Tighten the bleed screw and screw the priming pump
handle back in.
4.
Loosen the injection lines at the injection nozzles.
5.
Crank the engine until fuel appears at the nozzles.
6.
Tighten the injection lines.
7.
Start the engine and observe the engine run for a few
minutes. If the engine fails to start, or starts but stops in
a few minutes, repeat the procedure.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
The fuel filter/water separator removes water from the fuel
and returns it to the fuel tank.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator Replacement
Replace the fuel filter/water separator every 2,500 hours.
41
1.
Unscrew the fuel filter/water separator canister with a
strap wrench. Drain, and dispose of properly.
2.
Clean the filter head seal surface.
3.
Lubricate the canister seal with clean fuel.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Through one of the small openings in the top of the
canister, fill the new fuel filter/water separator canister
with clean fuel. This will purge the air from the canister. Do not fill canister through the center hole.
2
1
2.
Shut the unit off.
3.
Remove the ball joint from the eye bolt in the high
speed solenoid.
4.
Remove the boot from the high speed solenoid.
5.
Pull the plunger out of the solenoid enough to loosen
the jam nut. An Allen wrench placed in the hex opening
in the face of the plunger will keep the plunger from
turning. Turn the plunger eye bolt clockwise to increase
the speed and counterclockwise to decrease the speed.
6.
Replace the ball joint, start the unit and check the
speed. When the speed is correct, tighten the jam nut
and replace the solenoid boot.
ARA160
1.
2.
NOTE: If the correct speed cannot be set close
enough with half turns of the eye bolt, use the Allen
wrench to turn the plunger in smaller increments.
Fill Through Small Opening
Do Not Fill Through Center Hole
Filling Fuel Filter/Water Separator
5.
1
2
3
4
5
Screw the new canister on hand-tight. Using a strap
wrench, tighten another 1/4 turn.
Engine Speed Adjustments
When the diesel engine fails to maintain the correct engine
speed, check the following before adjusting the speed:
1.
Check the fuel inlet screen. Check the speed.
2.
Bleed the air out of the fuel system. Check the speed.
3.
Bleed the air out of the nozzles. Check the speed.
ARA121
Make the engine speed adjustments with the engine fully
warmed up.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
High Speed
1.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
and check the high speed rpm. It should be
2600 ± 25 rpm.
High Speed Solenoid
Boot
Ball Joint
Speed Control Rod
Low Speed Adjustment Screw
Engine Speed Adjustments
42
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Low Speed
1.
Loosen the jam nut on the low speed adjustment screw.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in low speed.
Adjust the screw to obtain the correct speed. It should
be 1450 ± 25 rpm.
3.
3.
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection lines at
the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility
of the engine firing while it is being rotated.
4.
Remove the injection line for the number one cylinder
from the delivery valve on the injection pump and from
the injection nozzle.
Tighten the jam nut and recheck the speed.
NOTE: The number one cylinder is the cylinder at the
flywheel end of the engine.
Injection Pump Timing
This timing procedure requires fuel pressure at the injection
pump inlet. This can be accomplished by pumping the
priming pump by hand, or by using an electric fuel pump to
supply fuel to the fuel pump inlet.
1.
Place the On/Off switch in the OFF position.
2.
Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark
access hole on the front of the bell housing. The index
marks on either side of this hole and the timing marks
on the flywheel are used to check the injection pump
timing.
5.
Remove the rocker arm cover.
6.
Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder. Refer to steps a.
through d.
a.
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
1
1
2
aea701
1.
2.
Index Mark
Top Dead Center Mark for 1 and 4
Top Dead Center One and Four
2
1.
2.
ARA121
b.
Number One Cylinder Injection Line
Timing Mark Access Hole
Component Location
43
Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder
to see if they are loose.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the
number one cylinder.
access hole. The injection timing mark is a horizontal
line stamped on the flywheel approximately 1.2 in.
(30 mm) before the top dead center mark.
d.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
one cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number one cylinder.
12. Pump the priming pump by hand a few times, or energize the electric fuel pump if an electric fuel is being
used.
7.
Disconnect the 8S wire from the starter solenoid to prevent the engine from cranking when the unit is turned
ON.
8.
Place the On/Off switch in the ON position.
9.
Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the Relay
Board Test Mode. Refer to the appropriate Microprocessor Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed
information about the Relay Board Test Mode.
13. Use a clean towel to remove the fuel from the top end
of the delivery valve holder.
14. Slowly turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation until you see the fuel rise in the end of the delivery
valve holder. Stop as soon as you see the fuel rise.
15. Check position of the timing marks. The injection timing mark on the flywheel should be aligned with the
index mark on the side of the timing mark access hole.
Repeat steps 11 and 15 to recheck the timing.
1
10. Energize the fuel solenoid by energizing the run relay
[RUNR] with the Relay Board Test Mode.
1
2
2
aea703
1.
2.
aea702
1.
2.
Index Mark
Injection Mark
Correct Injection Timing Mark Alignment
Index Mark
Injection Mark
NOTE: Some engines have two injection timing
marks approximately 0.2 in. (5 mm) apart. One is at
10 degrees BTDC, and the other is at 12 degrees
BTDC. In that case, the index mark should be aligned
with the midpoint between the two timing marks.
Timing Mark Alignment
11. Rotate the engine backwards (counterclockwise viewed
from the water pump end) until the injection timing
mark is positioned in the bottom of the timing mark
44
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
18. Install the cover in the timing mark access hole, install
the injection line for the number one cylinder, install
the rocker arm cover, tighten the other injection lines
and reconnect the 8S wire to the starter solenoid when
finished with the procedure.
16. If the timing is off by more than 1 degree (0.1 in.
[2.5 mm]), loosen the mounting nuts on the studs that
fasten the injection pump to the engine and rotate the
injection pump to change the timing.
a.
Pull the top of the injection pump away from the
engine to advance the timing.
b.
Push the top of the injection pump toward the
engine to retard the timing.
Injection Pump Removal
The injection pump drive gear will not fit through the gear
housing when removing the pump, the gear must be separated from the pump. Using tool P/N 204-1011, it will not
be necessary to remove the belts, fuel pump, crankshaft pulley, crankshaft seal or front plate.
17. Tighten the injection pump mounting nuts and recheck
the timing. Repeat steps 9 through 15 until the timing is
correct.
1
2
3
4
5
AGA1056
6
8
1.
2.
3.
4.
Injection Pump
Gear Case
Cover Plate
Cover Plate Bolt
5.
6.
7.
8.
Adapter
Tool Long Screw
Tool Short Screw
Tool Plate
Injection Pump Gear Tool
45
7
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
1.
Remove the starter for clearance, remove throttle linkage, fuel lines, harness and mounting hardware from
injection pump.
2.
Remove the cover plate from the gear case. Remove the
nut and lockwasher which secure the gear to the injection pump shaft. Use a shop rag to prevent the lockwasher or nut from falling into the gear case.
3.
Use the hardware from the cover plate to attach the tool
plate (with the marked side pointing up and out) to the
gear case.
4.
Align the threaded holes in the injection pump gear
with the two holes in the tool plate by rotating the
engine crankshaft. Attach the gear to the tool plate with
the screws provided with the tool plate.
5.
Thread the long screw supplied with the tool plate into
the small end of the adapter, also supplied with the tool
plate. Insert the adapter into the tool plate and rotate to
provide a solid position to force the injection pump
shaft from the gear. Caution should be made to align
the screw over the center of the injection pump shaft.
6.
5.
Fasten cover plate to gear case and reinstall all components removed previously to facilitate injection pump
removal.
Fuel Solenoid
The fuel solenoid is located on the end of the injection
pump. It contains two coils: the pull-in coil, and the hold-in
coil. The pull-in coil draws approximately 25 to 36 amps at
12 volts. The hold-in coil draws approximately 0.5 amps at
12 volts.
The pull-in coil must be energized to move the injection
pump governor linkage to the fuel on position. Once the
injection pump governor linkage has been moved to the fuel
on position, the hold-in coil will keep it in fuel on position
until the 8D circuit is de-energized. The pull-in coil must be
de-energized after a few seconds to keep it from being damaged. The pull-in coil is controlled by the microprocessor
through the fuel solenoid pull in relay (K1).
1
Remove the screw and adapter leaving the tool plate in
place. This holds the gear in proper tooth alignment
until the injection pump is re-installed.
Injection Pump Reinstallation
1.
Position injection pump shaft into gear, rotating shaft to
mate key with keyway in gear.
2.
Secure injection pump to gear case with previously
removed hardware.
3.
Remove hardware holding gear to tool plate, then
remove tool plate.
ARA122
4.
1.
Fuel Solenoid
Fuel Solenoid Location
Secure gear to injection pump shaft with lockwasher
and nut, use a shop rag, as before, to prevent the lockwasher or nut from falling into the gear case. Torque
the nut to 84 to 90 ft-lb (113 to 122 N•m)
46
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Testing the Fuel Solenoid
NOTE: The fuel solenoid pull-in coil will require 25 to
36 amps to turn on the fuel. The unit’s battery must be in
good condition. If the battery has enough power to crank
the engine over, it has enough power to energize the fuel
solenoid pull-in coil.
6.
Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector from the
main wire harness.
7.
Place a jumper wire between the black wire (CH—pin
C) in the fuel solenoid connector and a good chassis
ground.
If you suspect that the engine does not run because the fuel
solenoid is not operating correctly, use the following procedure:
1.
2.
Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the Relay
Board Test Mode. Refer to the appropriate Microprocessor Operation and Diagnosis Manual for specific
information about the Relay Board Test Mode.
AEA633
1.
2.
3.
Energize the run relay [RUNR] with the Relay Board
Test Mode. The fuel solenoid pull in relay is momentarily energized when the run relay is energized with
the Relay Board Test Mode. This energizes the fuel
solenoid, which makes a definite click when energized.
Fuel Solenoid
Connector Pin Identification
8.
3.
De-energize the run relay [RUNR] with the Relay
Board Test Mode. This de-energizes the fuel solenoid,
which makes a definite click when de-energized.
4.
Repeat steps 3. and 4. a few times to check the operation of the fuel solenoid.
Test the pull-in coil by momentarily placing a jumper
between the white wire (8DP—pin B) in the fuel solenoid connector and the positive battery terminal. The
fuel solenoid should make a definite click when the
pull-in coil is energized and should click again when
the pull-in coil is de-energized.
NOTE: The pull-in coil will draw 25 to 36 amps so do
not leave the jumper connected to the white wire
(8DP—pin B) for more than a few seconds.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid may be removed from the
injection pump to visually check its operation. The
fuel solenoid must be energized when it is installed in
the injection pump. If it is not, the plunger and the
linkage may not line up correctly and the fuel solenoid will not function properly.
5.
Red (8D)
White (8DP)
Black (CH)
If the fuel solenoid is not operating properly, check the
run relay, the fuel solenoid pull in relay, their fuses, and
the associated circuits. If the relays, fuses and circuits
are acceptable, use steps 6. through 9. to isolate and
check the fuel solenoid.
47
a.
If the pull-in coil does not energize, check the
resistance of the pull-in coil by placing an ohmmeter between the white wire (8DP—pin B) and the
black wire (CH—pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector. The resistance of the pull-in coil should be
0.3 to 0.5 ohms. If the resistance of the pull-in coil
is not in this range, replace the fuel solenoid.
b.
If the pull-in coil does energize, go to step 9.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
9.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid must be energized when it is
being installed. If it is not, the plunger and the linkage
may not line up correctly and the fuel solenoid will
not function properly.
Test the hold-in coil.
a.
Energize the hold-in coil by placing a jumper
between the red wire (8D—pin A) in the fuel solenoid connector and the positive battery terminal.
b.
Momentarily energize the pull-in coil by placing a
jumper between the white wire (8DP—pin B) in
the fuel solenoid connector and the positive battery
terminal. The fuel solenoid should make a definite
click when the pull-in coil is energized, but should
not click when the pull-in coil is de-energized.
c.
De-energize the hold-in coil by removing the
jumper from the red wire (8D—pin A) and the 2
terminal. The fuel solenoid should make a definite
click when the hold-in coil is de-energized.
d.
If the hold-in coil does not function properly,
check the resistance of the hold-in coil by placing
an ohmmeter between the red wire (8D—pin A)
and the black wire (CH—pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector. The resistance of the hold-in coil
should be 22 to 28 ohms. If the resistance of the
hold-in coil is not in this range, replace the fuel
solenoid.
6.
Place the O-ring in the groove in the end of the fuel
injection pump. Make sure that the O-ring is positioned
correctly during installation to avoid damage and leaks.
7.
Install the new fuel solenoid.
8.
Place the On/Off switch in the OFF position after
installing the fuel solenoid.
AEA635
1.
2.
3.
Fuel Solenoid Replacement
1.
Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector from the
main wire harness and remove the old fuel solenoid.
2.
Connect the new fuel solenoid wire connector to the
main wire harness.
3.
Place the On/Off switch in the ON position.
4.
Use the microprocessor keypad to enter the Relay
Board Test Mode. Refer to the appropriate Microprocessor Operation and Diagnosis Manual for specific
information about the Relay Board Test Mode.
5.
Fuel Solenoid
O-ring
Groove in Fuel Injection Pump
Fuel Solenoid Components
ENGINE VALVE CLEARANCE
ADJUSTMENT
Energize the fuel solenoid by energizing the run relay
[RUNR] with the Relay Board Test Mode.
48
1.
Remove the rocker arm cover.
2.
Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark
access hole on the front of the bell housing.
3.
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection lines at
the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility
of the engine firing while it is being rotated.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder. Refer to steps a.
through d.
a.
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
1
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder
to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number one cylinder.
d.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
one cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number one cylinder.
2
5.
Use a feeler gauge to check the valve clearance on both
valves for the number one cylinder, the intake valve for
the number two cylinder, and the exhaust valve for the
number three cylinder. The valve clearance for both the
intake valve and the exhaust valve should be 0.006 to
0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm).
NOTE: Check to make sure that the valve stem cap is
in good condition and is positioned squarely on the
top of the valve stem. Replace the valve stem cap if it
aea701
shows significant wear.
1
2
Index Mark
Top Dead Center Mark for 1 and 4
6.
Top Dead Center One and Four
Adjust the valves if necessary by loosening the locknut
and turning the adjustment screw until the valve clearance is correct.
Front
Cylinder No.
Rear
1
Valve arrangement
E
2
I
E
3
I
E
Piston in No. 1 cylinder is at
TDC on compression stroke
Piston in No. 4 cylinder is at
TDC on compression stroke
Valve Adjustments and Cylinder Configurations
49
4
I
E
I
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
7.
CRANKCASE BREATHER
Hold the adjustment screw in place and tighten the
locknut.
The crankcase breather is located on top of the rocker arm
cover. The crankcase breather system ducts crankcase gases
formed in the crankcase directly to the air intake. Harmful
vapors that would otherwise collect in the crankcase and
contaminate the oil, or escape to the outside, are drawn back
into the engine and burned.
Normal crankcase pressures with a new air cleaner are
approximately 0 to 1 in. (0 to 25 mm) H2O of vacuum in
low speed and 1 to 2 in. (25 to 51 mm) H2O of vacuum in
high speed. The vacuum will increase as the air cleaner gets
dirty and becomes more restrictive. The crankcase breather
and the breather hose should be inspected yearly to make
sure they are not plugged or damaged.
aea705
1
Adjusting the Valve Clearance
8.
Recheck the valve clearance.
9.
Rotate the engine one full turn (360°) in the normal
direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water
pump end), and align the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole. This is top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number four cylinder.
10. Check and adjust the exhaust valve for the number two
cylinder, the intake valve for the number three cylinder,
and both valves for the number four cylinder.
4
1.
2.
3.
4.
11. Replace the rocker arm cover, the cover for the timing
mark access hole, and tighten the fuel injection lines
when finished.
3
Restrictor
Crankcase Breather
Air Restriction Indicator
Intake Manifold
Crankcase Breather
50
2
ARA116
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
ENGINE AIR CLEANER (FILTER)
Excessive restriction of the air intake system reduces the
flow of air to the engine affecting horsepower output, fuel
consumption and engine life.
A heavy duty, dry air cleaner filters all of the air entering the
engine. The resonator and the side branch resonator eliminate much of the air intake noise.
An air restriction indicator is installed in the air intake manifold. Visually inspect the restriction indicator periodically
to assure the air filter is not restricted. Service the air filter
when the yellow diaphragm indicates 22 in. of vacuum.
Press the reset button on the bottom of the restriction indicator after servicing the air filter.
1
2
aea708
aea710
3
Air Restriction Indicator
1.
2.
3.
Side Branch Resonator
Air Cleaner
Resonator
Sound Reduction Air Cleaner System
51
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
BELTS
Upper and Lower Fan Belt Adjustment
Belts should be regularly inspected during unit pre-trip
inspections for wear, scuffing or cracking. Belt tension
should also be checked during scheduled maintenance
inspections. Belts that are too loose will whip and belts that
are too tight put too much strain on the belt fibers and bearings.
The upper fan belt should read 74 and the lower fan belt
should read 67 on the belt tension gauge.
NOTE: Both the upper and lower fan belts are adjusted at
the same time in one procedure.
NOTE: If a fan belt is loose or damaged, replace the belt
(see Fan Belt Removal and Installation procedure).
Using belt tension gauge, P/N 204-427, is the best method
of checking belts for tightness. Install the belt gauge in the
center of the longest belt span. Press the plunger so the hook
will engage the belt. Make sure the hook is on the face of
the belt, not in a notch. Release the plunger with a quick
motion and without pulling on the belt. Then read the dial.
Use an average of three readings.
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install belts without
loosening adjustments. Belts that are installed by prying
over pulleys will fail prematurely due to internal cord
damage.
1.
Loosen the idler assembly pivot bolts and the idler
adjusting arm bolts.
2.
Push in or pull out on the idler adjusting arm to
“center” the idler assembly between the belts and
balance the tension equally between the upper and
lower belts.
3.
Tighten both idler adjusting arm bolts and both idler
assembly pivot bolts.
NOTE: If the idler assembly binds when moving for
belt adjustment, loosen the upper idler support
bracket mounting bolts to free up the assembly. Check
the main idler retainer nut assembly for proper alignment between the nut and the support bracket slots.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to adjust belts with the
unit running.
CAUTION: With the unit On/Off switch in the ON
position, the unit may start operation at any time
without prior warning. Switch the unit On/Off switch to
the OFF position before performing maintenance or
repair procedures.
Fan Belt Removal and Installation
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install the belts without loosening the adjustments. Belts that are installed by
prying over pulleys will fail prematurely due to internal
cord damage.
Alternator Belt Adjustment
The alternator belt tension should read 35 on the belt gauge.
1.
Lower Fan Belt
Loosen the alternator pivot bolt and the adjusting arm
bolt.
Removal
2.
Move the alternator on the adjusting arm slots to adjust
the belt to 35 on the belt tension gauge.
1.
Loosen both idler adjusting arm bolts and both idler
pulley assembly bolts.
3.
Tighten the adjusting arm bolt and alternator pivot bolt.
2.
Push the idler adjusting arm IN. The lower fan belt will
come off the engine pulley. Move the arm OUT far
enough to clear the roadside idler mounting bracket.
52
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Installation
1.
Slip the belt into the groove of the idler pulley.
2.
Push the idler adjusting arm back in toward the unit.
3.
Slip the belt onto the pulley groove on the engine.
4.
Pull the idler adjusting arm back OUT and adjust the
belts to the proper tension.
5.
Tighten the idler assembly pivot bolts and the idler
adjusting arm bolts.
2
3
4
1
5
6
10
7
8
9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Upper Fan Belt
Condenser Fan Pulley
Condenser Fan
Condenser Inlet Ring
Idler Assembly
aea709
8
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Belt Guide
Lower Fan Belt
Engine Pulley
Idler Adjusting Arm
Alternator Belt
Belt Arrangement
53
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Upper Fan Belt
4.
Removal
1.
Loosen the idler adjusting arm bolts and remove the
lower fan belt (see Lower Fan Belt Removal).
2.
Push the idler adjusting arm in and the idler assembly
up. The upper belt should become slack and slip down
out of the idler pulley groove.
3.
Pull the idler adjusting arm OUT. The upper fan belt
should slip off the idler pulley as the idler pulley hub
clears the curbside idler mounting bracket.
4.
Loosen the two condenser fan hub to the shaft clamping
bolts.
5.
Structural Maintenance).
1
2
3
4
Tap the blower wheel with a soft hammer to drive
the blower wheel up the fan shaft to provide 1/2 in.
(13 mm) clearance between the blower wheel and the
inlet ring.
NOTE: If the condenser fan does not slide on the fan shaft
with light tapping, remove the small access panel located
on the condenser coil header above the radiator tank.
Thread a 1/4-20 x 1 in. diameter bolt into the end of the
fan shaft. Tighten the bolt and washer down on the condenser fan hub to loosen the blower wheel. Drive the
blower wheel back to provide 1/2 in. (13 mm) clearance
between the blower wheel and condenser fan inlet ring.
6.
Check the radial clearance between the blower wheel
and inlet ring with a gauge wire. Check around the
entire circumference to the inlet ring and blower wheel
(see Condenser and Evaporator Fan Location under
aea749
1.
2.
3.
4.
Blower Wheel
Inlet Ring
Alignment Mark
Edge of Inlet Ring
Condenser Blower Alignment
Lift the belt up over the condenser blower wheel and
remove it from the unit.
Installation
5.
Torque the blower hub clamping bolts to 18 ft-lb
(24 N•m).
6.
Seat the upper belt in the blower wheel pulley groove.
1.
Slip the belt over the condenser blower wheel and place
it in the condenser fan pulley.
7.
Push inward on the idler adjusting arm and slip the belt
into the idler pulley groove.
2.
Drive the condenser blower wheel out toward the condenser fan inlet ring using a soft hammer.
8.
Pull the idler adjusting arm forward and install the
lower fan belt.
3.
Position the blower wheel so the edge of the inlet ring
lines up with the alignment mark on the blower wheel.
54
Refrigeration Maintenance
NOTE: The following procedures involve servicing the refrigeration system. Some of these service procedures are regulated by Federal, and in some cases, by State and Local laws.
In the USA all regulated refrigeration service procedures must be performed by an EPA certified technician, using
approved equipment and complying with all Federal, State and Local laws.
REFRIGERANT CHARGE
If the pressure is below this, it can be raised by covering a portion of the condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to block condenser airflow.
Testing the Refrigerant Charge with an Empty
Trailer
8.
If the unit has an insufficient charge of refrigerant, the evaporator will be “starved” and the box temperatures will rise
even though the unit is operating. The suction pressure will
drop as the refrigerant charge decreases. If the unit has an
overcharge of refrigerant, the unit may not cool properly
and the suction and discharge pressure may be high. The
charge may be determined by inspection of the refrigerant
through the receiver tank sight glasses with the following
conditions established:
Under these conditions, refrigerant should be visible in
the receiver tank sight glass. If refrigerant is not visible
in the receiver tank sight glass, the unit is low on refrigerant.
Testing the Refrigerant Charge with a Loaded
Trailer
1.
Install a gauge manifold.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
1.
Place a test box over the evaporator.
2.
Install a gauge manifold.
3.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
3.
Build up and maintain 275 psi (1896 kPa) of head pressure. If the pressure is below this, it can be raised by
covering the roadside condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to block condenser air flow.
4.
Use the microprocessor thermometer to monitor the
return air temperature.
4.
Cool the compartment to the lowest temperature
required.
5.
Run the unit on high speed cool until the air in the box is
at 0 F (-18 C). By allowing the box to leak a small
amount, you will be able to maintain 0 F (-18 C).
5.
Check suction pressure. It should be 13 to 25 psi (90 to
165 kPa).
6.
Under these conditions, refrigerant should be visible in
the receiver tank sight glass. If refrigerant is not visible
in the receiver tank sight glass, the unit is low on refrigerant.
6.
The suction pressure should be 13 to 18 psi (90 to
124 kPa).
7.
The discharge pressure should be at least 275 psi
(1896 kPa).
55
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
Testing for an Overcharge
2.
Use the following procedure to identify a Thermo King unit
with an excessive refrigerant charge:
Perform a refrigerant level check and repeat the overcharge test.
3.
If the liquid level is low, add refrigerant as follows:
1.
Install a calibrated gauge manifold on the compressor.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
3.
4.
Operate the unit in high speed cool long enough to stabilize system pressures and reduce the box temperature
to approximately 60 F (16 C) or colder.
Connect a refrigerant tank to the gauge manifold
service line and purge the line.
b.
Mid seat the compressor suction service valve.
c.
Set the refrigerant tank for liquid removal and open
the hand valve.
d.
Operate the unit in high speed cool.
e.
Observe the suction pressure and slowly open the
gauge manifold low pressure hand valve to allow
liquid refrigerant to flow into the compressor suction service valve.
f.
Control the liquid flow so the suction pressure
increases approximately 20 psi (138 kPa).
g.
Maintain a discharge pressure of at least 275 psi
(1896 kPa) while adding refrigerant.
h.
Close the hand valve on the refrigerant tank when
the liquid level approaches the top of the receiver
sight glass.
Observe discharge pressure and cover the condenser to
increase the discharge pressure approximately 75 to
100 psi (500 to 690 kPa) above observed pressure.
NOTE: If the liquid level in the receiver sight glass
drops during step #4, the unit is not overcharged and
it is not necessary to complete the procedure.
5.
a.
Remove the condenser cover to rapidly reduce discharge pressure.
6.
Observe the receiver tank sight glass and the unit discharge pressure.
7.
By the time the discharge pressure drops approximately
50 psi (345 kPa), the liquid level in the receiver tank
should drop.
a.
When the discharge pressure stabilizes, the liquid
level will rise.
b.
If the liquid level will not drop, the unit most likely
has an overcharge of refrigerant. The refrigerant
level should be adjusted.
4.
Repeat the overcharge test.
Moisture Indicating Sight Glass
The receiver tank is equipped with a moisture indicating
sight glass. The outer edge of the sight glass has a colored
ring approximately 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) thick. The color of the
ring indicates the moisture content of the refrigerant, but it
is not completely reliable.
Green = Dry
To adjust the refrigerant level:
Chartreuse = Caution
1.
Yellow = Wet
Stop the unit and remove some refrigerant with an
approved refrigerant recovery device.
56
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
1
ARA035
1.
1
Colored Ring
Moisture Indicating Sight Glass
A system has to run for at least 15 minutes to change the
color of the indicator ring after the moisture content of the
system has been changed. For example, evacuating a system
to remove the moisture will not change the color of the indicator ring until the system has been recharged and then
operated for at least 15 minutes.
ARA115
1.
Sight Glass
Checking Compressor Oil
To check compressor oil level with an ambient air
temperature above 50 F (10 C):
REFRIGERANT LEAKS
Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Use a reliable leak detector (e.g., electronic detector or
Halide torch) to leak test the refrigeration system. Inspect
for signs of oil leakage which is the first sign of a leak in the
refrigeration system.
Operate the unit on Cool with a 20 psi (138 kPa) minimum
suction pressure and a 185 psi (1275 kPa) minimum discharge pressure for 15 minutes or more.
NOTE: It is normal for compressor shaft seals to have a
slightly oily film.
After the unit has maintained the above conditions for 15
minutes, observe the oil level. The oil should be 1/4 to 1/2
up in the sight glass.
CHECKING COMPRESSOR OIL
To check compressor oil level with an ambient air
temperature below 50 F (10 C):
The compressor oil should be checked when there is evidence of oil loss (oil leaks) or when components in the
refrigeration system have been removed for service or
replacement.
Run the unit through a complete defrost cycle. After completing the defrost cycle, run the unit on Cool for ten minutes. Observe the oil level. The oil should be 1/4 to 1/2 up in
the sight glass.
If the box is empty, you can run the unit on the heat cycle
instead of the defrost cycle.
NOTE: Use refrigeration compressor oil ONLY. Polyol
Ester P/N 203-413 is required for R-404A.
57
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
To add compressor oil pump down the compressor and
equalize the pressure to slightly positive. Disconnect the
compressor oil filter return line from the top of the compressor and add the oil. Reattach the oil filter return line to the
compressor. Evacuate the compressor before opening the
service valves.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT SWITCH
(HPCO)
The HPCO is located on the compressor discharge
manifold. If the discharge pressure rises above 470 psi
(3241 kPa), the HPCO opens the 8D circuit, de-energizing
the fuel solenoid. To test the HPCO, rework a gauge
manifold following the High Pressure Cutout Manifold
illustration.
1.
Connect the gauge manifold to the compressor discharge service valve with a heavy duty, black jacketed
thick wall #HCA 144 hose with a 900 psi (6204 kPa)
working pressure rating.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool.
3.
1.
2.
3.
Raise the discharge pressure of the compressor first by
blocking the condenser coil air flow by covering the
condenser grille with a piece of cardboard. If this does
not raise the discharge pressure to the cutout level of
the HPCO, increase the engine speed by overriding the
throttle solenoid. This should increase the discharge
pressure enough to cause the HPCO to cut out.
Relief Valve (66-6543)
O-Ring (33-1015)
Adapter Tee Weather Head No. 552X3
High Pressure Cutout Manifold
THREE-WAY VALVE CONDENSER
PRESSURE BYPASS CHECK VALVE
A three-way valve condenser pressure bypass check valve is
used in this unit. This check valve controls the bypass flow
of refrigerant gas between the condenser inlet line and the
compressor discharge line.
NOTE: The discharge pressure should never be allowed to
exceed a pressure of 470 psi (3241 kPa).
Failure of the HPCO system to stop compressor operation
should be investigated first by checking the control circuit
operation and secondly by HPCO switch replacement.
The check valve is closed when the unit is running on cool,
or whenever the discharge pressure is higher than the condenser pressure.
58
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
To check the operation of the valve:
When the unit is running on defrost or heat, if the condenser
pressure is higher than the discharge pressure, the check
valve opens and the condenser pressure is bled off until it
drops to the level of the discharge pressure. The purpose of
the valve is to improve heating/defrosting ability and threeway valve response.
1.
2.
3.
Check Valve
Heating/Defrost Position
Cooling Position
1.
Remove the condenser pressure bypass check valve cap
from the three-way valve.
2.
Using a screwdriver, gently turn the check valve stem
in until the valve is front seated.
3.
Install a gauge manifold set on the compressor.
4.
Close (front seat) the receiver tank outlet valve.
5.
Operate the unit on cool and pump down the low side to
20 in. Hg (-68 kPa) of vacuum.
6.
Stop the unit. The condenser and suction pressures
should remain stable, indicating no leaks.
7.
Shift the three-way valve to the heat position. Low side
gauge will raise slightly. High side gauge will drop to
approximately zero. Gauges will equalize.
8.
Gauges will remain in this position approximately zero
if the three-way valve seals properly toward the condenser and the condenser pressure bypass check valve
seals properly.
9.
Back seat condenser pressure bypass check valve stem
against snap ring. Both gauges should rise indicating
the condenser pressure bypass check valve is properly
releasing condenser pressure into the discharge tube
and evaporator.
10. Replace the cap on the condenser pressure bypass
check valve.
Three-way Valve Condenser Pressure
Bypass Check Valve
NOTE: Valve stem MUST be back seated during normal unit operation.
11. Open the receiver tank return outlet valve, remove the
gauges and return the unit to normal operation.
59
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
ELECTRONIC THROTTLING VALVE
Refer to “Electronic Throttling Valve” on page 76 of this
manual for removal and installation procedures.
The Electronic Throttling Valve (ETV) is a variable position
valve operated by a stepper motor. The ETV is located in
the suction line between the evaporator and the heat
exchanger. The ETV system also uses discharge and suction
pressure transducers, and a hot gas bypass valve.
2
1
The ETV has two internal coils. The microprocessor operates the valve by energizing the coils with a variable frequency ac signal. The valve position can be monitored with
the GAUGE key [ETV.P]. Zero (0) indicates the valve is
fully closed and 800 indicates the valve is fully open.
4
The microprocessor tests the ETV every time the unit is
started. Alarm Code 89 indicates the refrigeration system
pressures did not respond as expected during the test. This
may be caused by a malfunction of the ETV or by a refrigeration system problem such as low refrigerant level, a frozen
expansion valve, or a restriction in suction line. The microprocessor ignores the test results if the box temperature or
the ambient temperature is below 10 F (-12 C). The ETV
test can also be performed using the Service Test Mode
(Service Procedure A34A in TK 50566).
3
ARA168
1.
2.
3.
4.
Outlet
Stepper Motor
Valve Body
Inlet
Electronic Throttling Valve
Use the GAUGE key to check the operation of the ETV during the ETV test. The valve position [ETV.P] should be 0 at
the start of the test when the valve is fully closed, and
should go to a higher value when the valve is opened. The
suction pressure [SUC.P] should decrease while the valve is
fully closed, and should begin to increase when the valve is
opened.
PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS
The discharge pressure transducer and the suction pressure
transducer supply pressure information to the microprocessor. These pressures can be monitored with the GAUGE
key. [DIS.P] is the discharge pressure. [SUC.P] is the suction pressure. The readings can be checked by comparing
them to the readings on a gauge manifold set attached to the
compressor. Refer to Service Procedure D03A, the Pressure
Sensor Test, and Alarm Codes 87 and 109 in the THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for more information about the testing and
operation of the pressure transducers.
Refer to Service Procedure G03A, the Electronic Throttling
Valve (ETV) Test, and Alarm Code 89 in the THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for complete information about the testing
and operation of the ETV.
60
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
HOT GAS SOLENOID
The hot gas solenoid (or hot gas bypass valve) is used in
conjunction with the electronic throttling valve to reduce
the capacity of the unit during modulation. This normally
closed solenoid valve is located in the refrigeration line that
connects the discharge line to the hot gas line. The hot gas
solenoid is energized (opened) at full modulation. The hot
gas solenoid is de-energized (closed) when modulation is
discontinued.
Refer to THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for information about
testing the hot gas solenoid. See the Refrigeration Service
Operation chapter of this manual for removal and installation procedures.
61
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
62
Refrigeration Service Operations
NOTE: It is generally good practice to replace the filter drier whenever the high side is opened or when the low side is
opened for an extended period of time.
COMPRESSOR
NOTE: The compressor drive coupling will only slide
onto the coupling pins in either of two positions,
which are 180 degrees apart.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
3.
Recover the refrigerant remaining in the compressor.
4.
Unbolt the discharge and suction service valves from
the compressor.
5.
Disconnect the high pressure cutout switch, the pilot
solenoid line, and remove the compressor oil filter.
6.
Support the compressor and remove the compressor
mounting bolts from the flywheel housing.
7.
Lift the service valves out of the way.
8.
Slide the compressor to the left until the coupling pins
are clear.
9.
3.
Install the service valves using new gaskets soaked in
compressor oil. Connect the high pressure cutout
switch, the pilot solenoid valve line, and install the
compressor oil filter.
4.
Pressurize the compressor and test for refrigerant leaks.
5.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the compressor.
6.
Back seat the suction and discharge service valves.
7.
Operate the unit at least 30 minutes and then inspect the
oil level in the compressor. Add or remove oil if necessary.
8.
Check the refrigerant charge and add refrigerant if
needed.
Compressor Coupling Removal
Remove the compressor from the front of the unit.
Keep the compressor ports covered to prevent dust,
dirt, etc., from falling into the compressor.
NOTE: When the compressor is removed from the
unit, the oil level should be noted, or the oil removed
from the compressor should be measured so that the
same amount of oil can be added before placing the
replacement compressor in the unit.
1.
After the compressor has been removed from the unit,
use the appropriate Allen tool provided with removal
tool P/N 204-991 to loosen the center bolt which holds
the coupling to the compressor shaft.
2.
Attach the tool to the coupling with the provided socket
head screws and spacers. 2 sets of spacers are provided
with the tool, use the short spacers with shallow compressor mounting flanges and the longer set for deeper
flanges. The side with the countersunk holes should be
toward the coupling.
3.
To prevent the tool and crankshaft from rotating, use
one of the compressor to engine mounting screws to pin
the tool to the flange. If a nut is used to prevent the bolt
from falling out, the nut should not be tightened.
Installation
1.
Slide the compressor into the unit.
2.
Place the compressor in position and install the mounting bolts.
63
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Compressor Coupling Installation
Use torque wrench and the appropriate Allen tool to
unscrew the coupling mounting screw. Apply a maximum of 90 ft-lb of torque to the screw.
5.
In a tapered fit joint the entire twisting load should be handled by the friction fit between the two tapered parts. The
key is only a backup and is used to index the parts correctly.
When a taper fit is machined and assembled properly a key
is not needed. In fact, if the key is not installed correctly it
may be worse than no key at all! If the key does not fit easily into the keyway, it will push the tapered components
apart and the reduced friction could lead to slippage and
premature failure.
Once the center screw has been loosened, back the head
against the tool and it should push the coupling off the
crankshaft as you continuing turning the center screw
in a counter-clockwise direction. Using this tool will
prevent the coupling from popping off because the center bolt and flatwasher will hold it in place.
1
2
3
8
4
5
7
6
AGA1059
1.
2.
3.
4.
Coupling
Long Spacers (supplied with tool)
Short Spacers (supplied with tool)
Socket Head Bolts (supplied with Tool)
5.
6.
7.
8.
10 mm Allen Tool (for large shaft compressor)
5/16 Allen Tool (for small shaft compressors)
Coupling Removal Tool (P/N 204-991)
Engine Mounting Flange
Compressor Coupling Removal Tool
64
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
The following procedure requires the key to be fitted after
the tapers are pulled together with 20 ft-lb (27 N•m) torque.
This insures that the key cannot hold the tapers apart when
the final bolt torque is applied.
4.
Remove the Keyway Tool and check the fit of the key.
It should fit into the keyway with a light press fit
requiring only a minimum of light tapping. If the key
does not fit properly, remove the coupler and inspect
the keyways and key for burrs or other problems.
Recheck the fit as shown above.
5.
When the key fits properly, remove the coupling and
key from the shaft.
6.
Re-install the coupling and align the keyways with the
Keyway Tool.
7.
Do not install the key at this time. Install the flat
washer and bolt and pre-torque to 20 ft-lb (27 N•m).
Remove the bolt and washer.
8.
Install the key in the keyway. As above, it should fit with
a light press fit requiring only a minimum of light tapping. Do not install the key into the keyway beyond
the front face of the coupling. If tapped in farther it
may cause the coupling to move off center on the shaft.
Use the following procedure to install a compressor coupling on the compressor crankshaft.
1.
2.
3.
Clean the compressor shaft taper and coupling bore
taper with a solvent that leaves no oily residue (such as
naphtha, lacquer thinner, brake cleaner or the like).
Inspect both mating surfaces for burrs, oxidation and
other surface imperfections. Dress with crocus cloth if
necessary and re-clean as required.
Using no lubricants, set the coupling on the crankshaft
and align the keyways using the Keyway Tool (P/N
204-972). Insert the tapered end of the tool into the
keyway and gently move the coupling on the shaft
while pressing the tool into the keyway. This will align
the keyway in the crankshaft with the keyway in the
coupler.
1
2
3
AGA333
Keyway Tool P/N 204-972
CAUTION: If you are assembling a used
coupler or crankshaft and the tool does not fit
easily there is a problem with one of the keyways! Do
not remove the coupler and place the key in the crankshaft keyway and then drop the coupler on. If the tool
does not fit, the key will not fit, and it will hold the
taper in the coupler off the taper on the shaft. Check
both keyways for burrs or corrosion. A key can be
coated with fine lapping compound and used as a
lapping tool to clean the keyways.
5
AGA1254
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Compressor Coupling or Clutch
Key tapped flush with outside face of coupling.
Do not tap key any farther into keyway.
Torque bolt to 90 ft-lb (122 N•m)
Washer
Spray this area with corrosion inhibitor after
assembling.
Compressor Coupling Installation
65
4
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
9.
DISCHARGE VIBRASORBER
Re-install the bolt and heavy flat washer and snug the
bolt down by hand. Torque the bolt to 90 ft-lb
(122 N•m).
Removal
10. Spray a corrosion inhibitor (such as spray paint) on the
exposed part of the shaft and the joint between the shaft
and the coupling. This prevents moisture from wicking
into the joint and causing corrosion.
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Heat the connections on the vibrasorber until the vibrasorber can be removed.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584 or
wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent
damaging the vibrasorber.
CONDENSER COIL
Removal
Installation
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Open the roadside condenser fan grille.
3.
Drain engine coolant from the expansion tank. Unbolt
and remove the expansion tank from the condenser coil
frame.
4.
Remove the condenser coil mounting bolts. Remove
the mounting clamps from the condenser inlet line.
5.
Unsolder the inlet line and liquid line connections. Lift
the coil from the unit.
1.
Prepare the vibrasorber and tubing fittings by cleaning
thoroughly.
2.
Solder the vibrasorber connections.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584 or
wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent
damaging the vibrasorber.
3.
Pressurize the system and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the system.
4.
Charge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor oil level.
Installation
1.
Clean the fittings for soldering.
2.
Place the coil in the unit and install the mounting bolts.
3.
Solder the inlet line and liquid line connections.
4.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
5.
Install the clamps on the condenser inlet line.
6.
Install the engine coolant expansion tank and refill half
way with engine coolant.
CONDENSER CHECK VALVE
REPLACEMENT
7.
Close the roadside condenser fan grille.
Removal
8.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
1.
IN-LINE CONDENSER CHECK VALVE
This unit uses an in-line condenser check valve. The in-line
check valve is not repairable and must be replaced if it fails.
A heat sink must be used on the in-line check valve when it
is being soldered in place to prevent damage to the neoprene
seal.
66
Recover the refrigerant charge.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
BYPASS CHECK VALVE
2.
Place a heat sink on the check valve.
3.
Unsolder the lines and remove the check valve.
Removal
Installation
1.
NOTE: A heat sink must be used on the in-line check
valve when it is being soldered in place to prevent damage
to the neoprene seal.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Close the bypass service valve.
3.
Unscrew the flare nut from the check valve.
4.
Unscrew the check valve from the bypass valve.
1.
Clean the tubes for soldering.
2.
Place the check valve in position. The arrow on the
valve body indicates the direction of refrigerant flow
through the valve.
3.
Place a heat sink on the check valve.
4.
Solder the inlet and outlet connections.
5.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks.
6.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
7.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
CAUTION: The receiver tank outlet tube may
be bent if a back-up wrench is not used on the
fitting.
Installation
1.
Coat the fittings on the bypass check valve with compressor oil and install on the service valve fitting.
Tighten it securely, and use a back-up wrench.
2.
Install and tighten the bypass flare nut on the check
valve outlet. Hold the check valve with a back-up
wrench on the hex.
3.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the system.
4.
Open the bypass service valve and place the unit in
operation.
RECEIVER TANK
aea648
Removal
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
Valve
Neoprene Seal
Valve Seat
Spring
2.
Unsolder the inlet, outlet, and bypass check valve lines
from the receiver tank. Use a heat sink on the bypass
check valve.
Cross Section of In-line Condenser Check Valve
3.
Unsolder and remove the bypass check valve from the
receiver tank. Use a heat sink on the bypass check
valve.
1.
2.
3.
4.
67
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Remove the high pressure relief valve from the receiver
tank.
2.
Install the new drier and tighten the mounting hardware.
5.
Unbolt the mounting brackets and remove the receiver
tank from the unit.
3.
Install and tighten the inlet nut. Hold the drier with a
back-up wrench on the hex behind the inlet fitting.
4.
Release a small amount of refrigerant to purge the air
through the drier. Then tighten the outlet nut.
5.
Pressurize the system and inspect for leaks. If no leaks
are found, open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation.
Installation
1.
Install the high pressure relief valve in the receiver
tank.
2.
Solder the bypass check valve onto the receiver tank.
Use a heat sink on the bypass check valve.
3.
Place the receiver tank in the unit and install the mounting bolts and nuts loosely. Position the receiver tank so
that the sight glass is clearly visible through the viewing hole in the mounting bracket.
4.
EXPANSION VALVE ASSEMBLY
Removal
Solder the inlet, outlet, and bypass check valve lines to
the receiver tank. Use a heat sink on the bypass check
valve.
5.
Tighten the receiver tank mounting hardware securely.
6.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and check for leaks.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
7.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant.
FILTER DRIER
Removal
1.
Pump down the refrigeration system and equalize the
pressure to slightly positive.
2.
Disconnect the nuts at the ends of the drier.
3.
Loosen the mounting hardware and remove the drier.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the evaporator access panels.
3.
Remove the feeler bulb from the clamp. Note the position of the feeler bulb on the suction line.
4.
Disconnect the equalizer line from the suction line.
5.
Disconnect the inlet liquid line and unsolder the distributor from the expansion valve.
6.
Remove the expansion valve mounting bolt and remove
the expansion valve from the unit.
Installation
Installation
1.
1.
Place the new O-rings in the ORS fittings on the ends
of the drier.
68
1.
Install and bolt the expansion valve assembly in the
unit.
2.
Connect the inlet liquid line and solder the distributor
to the expansion valve.
3.
Connect the equalizer line to the suction line.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Clean the suction line to a bright polished condition.
Install the feeler bulb clamps and the feeler bulb on the
side of the suction line in its former position. The feeler
bulb must make good contact with the suction line or
operation will be faulty. Wrap with insulating tape.
3.
Remove the mounting bolts that hold the heat
exchanger on the bulkhead.
4.
Disconnect the equalizer line from the suction line.
5.
Disconnect the liquid outlet line from the expansion
valve.
6.
Note the position of the feeler bulb on the side of the
suction line. Remove the expansion valve feeler bulb
from the suction tube.
7.
Unsolder the suction line at the evaporator coil end.
8.
Unsolder the remaining outlet suction line and inlet liquid line connections from the condenser side of the
bulkhead. Remove any putty from around the lines
before unsoldering the connections.
9.
Slide the heat exchanger assembly out of the evaporator
housing.
AEA713
1.
2.
End View
Side View
Installation
Location of Expansion Valve Bulb
1.
Clean the tubes for soldering.
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the low side.
2.
Place the heat exchanger assembly in the evaporator
housing and install the mounting hardware loosely.
6.
Replace the access panels.
3.
7.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
Solder the liquid inlet and the suction outlet line connections on the condenser side of the bulkhead. Seal the
openings through the bulkhead with putty when the
refrigerant lines have cooled off.
8.
Test the unit to see that the expansion valve is properly
installed
4.
Solder the suction line connection to the evaporator
coil.
HEAT EXCHANGER
5.
Connect the equalizer line to the suction line and the
liquid outlet line to the expansion valve.
Removal
6.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the low side.
7.
Tighten the heat exchanger mounting hardware
securely.
1.
2.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
Remove the upper and lower evaporator access panels.
69
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the low side.
6.
10. Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
Clean the suction line to a bright polished condition.
Install the feeler bulb on the side of the suction line in
its former position. The feeler bulb must make good
contact with the suction line or operation will be faulty.
Wrap with insulating tape.
7.
Replace the roadside and curbside evaporator access
panel mounting channels.
EVAPORATOR COIL
8.
Replace the upper and lower rear access panels.
Removal
9.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation. Check the refrigerant charge and compressor oil.
Add as required.
8.
9.
Clean the suction tube to a brightly polished condition.
Install the feeler bulb clamps and the feeler bulb on the
side of the suction line in its former position. The feeler
bulb must make good contact with the suction line or
the operation will be faulty. Wrap with insulating tape.
Replace the upper and lower evaporator access panels.
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the upper and lower rear access panels.
ACCUMULATOR
3.
Remove the roadside and curbside evaporator access
panel mounting channels.
Removal
4.
Disconnect the sensors.
5.
Remove the feeler bulb from the suction line clamp.
Note the position of the feeler bulb on the suction line.
6.
Unsolder the distributor from the expansion valve.
7.
Unsolder the hot gas line and the suction line from the
evaporator coil.
8.
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
If applicable, disconnect the water lines from the accumulator.
3.
Unsolder the inlet and outlet suction lines from the
accumulator.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
Remove the mounting bolts, lift and slide the coil from
the housing.
Installation
4.
Disconnect the tee fitting from the accumulator tank.
1.
Place the evaporator coil in the evaporator housing and
install the mounting bolts.
5.
Unbolt and remove the accumulator from the unit.
2.
Solder the hot gas line and suction line connections to
the evaporator coil.
3.
Connect the distributor to the expansion valve.
4.
Replace and connect the sensors.
Installation
70
1.
Place the accumulator in the unit and tighten the
mounting bolts and nuts.
2.
Solder the inlet and outlet suction lines to the accumulator.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
3.
If applicable, connect the water lines to the accumulator
tank.
4.
Connect the tee fitting and lines to the accumulator.
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for refrigerant leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
6.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation. Check the refrigerant charge and the compressor
oil, and add as required.
Gasket Tool P/N 204-424
5.
Remove the four bolts from the valve.
6.
Remove the top cap and spring.
7.
Remove the spring clip which secures the stem to the
piston. Slide piston off the stem.
8.
Remove the seat and stem assembly.
9.
Inspect the following parts for wear or damage:
THREE-WAY VALVE REPAIR
NOTE: The three-way valve can be repaired in the unit if
leakage or damage to the Teflon seals should occur. There
is usually enough give in the copper tubing to separate the
three sections of the valve without unsoldering any tubes.
Removal/Disassembly
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
a.
Bottom cap, sealing and support area.
2.
Clean the exterior surface of the valve.
b.
Seat, sealing surface.
3.
Remove the line from the three-way valve to the pilot
solenoid.
c.
Top cap, sealing and support surface.
4.
Loosen the four 1/4 in. Allen head screws (DO NOT
REMOVE OR CAP MAY POP OFF); use tool
P/N 204-424 to break the gasket at each side of the center section.
The following parts will be discarded:
CAUTION: Do not force the tool into the brass
or against the bolts.
a.
Stem assembly.
b.
All gaskets.
c.
Piston seal.
10. Remove the screen. If any particles drop from the
screen into the discharge line, the discharge line must
be removed at the compressor.
71
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
NOTE: The valve body cannot be reconditioned. Seat
positions change and improper sealing will result.
1
5
2
4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3
Seal Groove in Piston
Connecting Notch in Piston
Internal Spring in Seal
Connecting Groove in Stem
Retaining Clip
Piston & Stem Parts
Assembly/Installation
AEA714
After cleaning and inspecting all parts, reassemble the
valve.
1.
Install the screen in the bottom cap.
2.
Install the new stem in the bottom cap.
3.
Install new gaskets on both sides of the seat. Oil the
gaskets in compressor oil before installing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cap
Top Cap
Check Valve
Spring
Piston
Seal
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Clip
Seat
Gaskets
Stem Assembly
Screen
Bottom Cap
Three-Way Valve
72
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Use the three-way valve seal installation tool
P/N 204-1008 to install a new seal on the piston. This
prevents the seal from being stretched and damaged.
7.
Line up the passageways in the cap and body. Failure to
line up the holes will result in improper operation of the
valve.
a.
Place the tapered tool over the piston.
8.
Install the bolts and tighten in rotating sequence.
b.
Lubricate the seal with refrigeration oil.
9.
c.
Slide the seal onto the tapered tool with the spring
side facing away from the piston.
Install the pilot line and pressurize the system with
refrigerant to check for leaks.
d.
10. If there are no leaks, evacuate the system and recharge
with the proper refrigerant.
Use the pipe to hand press the seal onto the piston.
11. Run the unit to check for proper three-way valve
operation.
1
THREE-WAY VALVE CONDENSER
PRESSURE BYPASS CHECK VALVE
REPAIR
2
3
Removal
4
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Unscrew the condenser pressure bypass check valve
cap from the three-way valve.
3.
Remove the snap ring.
5
ARA166
1.
2.
3.
Press by Hand
Pipe
Seal
4.
5.
Tapered Tool
Piston
Seal Installation with Tool P/N 204-1008
5.
6.
Place the piston slot on the stem and secure with spring
clip. The open part of the clip should be on the opposite
side of the piston slot.
AEA715
1.
2.
3.
Install the spring and top cap.
Teflon Check Valve
Snap Ring
Cap
4.
5.
6.
Stem
O-ring
Spring
Teflon Check Valve Assembly
73
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
4.
Unscrew the check valve stem by using a screwdriver
in the slot provided.
8.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
NOTE: The spring and valve are held in by the stem.
While removing the stem, use care so the spring and
valve are not lost.
9.
Recharge the unit.
5.
Remove the spring and Teflon check valve.
6.
Inspect the check valve seat in the three-way valve.
7.
If replacement parts are needed, a P/N 60-163 kit must
be used which includes the Teflon check valve, spring,
O-ring, valve stem and snap ring.
PILOT SOLENOID
Removal
Installation
1.
2.
3.
Coat the O-ring with compressor oil and install it on the
check valve stem.
Recover the refrigerant.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the coil from the
valve.
3.
Unsolder the refrigeration lines.
4.
Remove the mounting bolts and remove the valve.
Installation
Insert the spring into the hole in the check valve stem
and then install the Teflon check valve on the other end
of the spring with the hole in the valve towards the
spring.
Coat the entire assembly with compressor oil and
install the assembly into the Teflon check valve seat in
the three-way valve.
CAUTION: The Teflon check valve must be
inserted with the flat side against the valve seat
to ensure proper sealing.
4.
1.
Screw the check valve stem into the three-way valve
until the snap ring can be installed.
1.
Remove the coil from the valve.
2.
Place the valve in the unit and install the mounting
bolts.
3.
Solder the refrigeration lines to the valve.
4.
Install the coil and connect the wires.
5.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
6.
Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor oil.
SUCTION VIBRASORBER
5.
Install the snap ring.
Removal
6.
Unscrew (back seat) the check valve stem against the
snap ring.
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize pressure to
slightly positive.
NOTE: The valve stem must be back seated during
normal unit operation.
2.
Unsolder the suction hose from the suction service
valve. Unsolder the connection to the accumulator and
remove from the unit.
7.
Coat sealing area in the cap with compressor oil, install
and tighten the cap on the three-way valve.
74
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
Installation
1.
Prepare the suction hose and tube fittings for soldering
by cleaning thoroughly.
2.
Solder the vibrasorber to the suction service valve.
Removal
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
3.
Solder the suction hose connection to the accumulator.
4.
Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the system.
5.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Unscrew and remove the high pressure relief valve.
Installation
1.
Apply a refrigerant oil to the O-ring of the high pressure relief valve.
2.
Install and tighten the high pressure relief valve.
3.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
4.
Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor coil.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT SWITCH
Removal
DISCHARGE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
Removal
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
Recover the refrigerant remaining in the compressor.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the discharge pressure transducer.
Disconnect the wires and remove the high pressure cutout switch from the compressor discharge manifold.
Installation
3.
1.
Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of the discharge pressure transducer.
Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of the high
pressure cutout switch.
2.
Install and tighten the discharge pressure transducer
and reconnect the wires.
Install and tighten the high pressure cutout switch and
reconnect the wires.
3.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
4.
Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor coil.
Installation
1.
2.
3.
Pressurize the compressor and test for leaks.
4.
If no leaks are found, open the refrigeration service
valves and place the unit in operation.
75
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
SUCTION PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
WARNING: If the ETV is stuck in the closed position, much of the refrigerant charge may be trapped
in the evaporator. If you hear refrigerant begin to
flow through the valve when the stepper motor and
piston assembly are loosened, unscrew the stepper
motor and piston assembly no more than four turns
and check the suction (low side) pressure on the
gauge manifold. If the suction pressure has
increased from the pressure to which it was equalized after the low side pump down, refrigerant is
trapped and must be recovered. Screw the stepper
motor and piston assembly back into the valve body.
Attach a refrigerant recovery device to the service
port on the receiver tank outlet valve. Midseat the
receiver tank outlet valve, and recover the refrigerant charge. The stepper motor and piston assembly
may then be removed.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the suction pressure
transducer.
Installation
1.
Apply a refrigerant Loctite to the threads of the suction
pressure transducer.
2.
Install and tighten the suction pressure transducer and
reconnect the wires.
3.
Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the low side.
4.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
2
1
ELECTRONIC THROTTLING VALVE
Removal
3
1.
Attach a gauge manifold to the compressor.
2.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
3.
Remove the evaporator access panels.
4.
Remove the clip and disconnect the ETV harness connector from the stepper motor.
5.
4
5
ARA168
Unscrew the large nut that attaches the stepper motor
and piston assembly to the valve body. The torque on
the nut is approximately 100 ft-lb (136 N•m). Hold the
valve body with backup wrench to prevent damage to
the refrigeration tubing.
1.
2.
3.
Stepper Motor
4.
Harness Connector 5.
Clip
Large Nut
Valve Body
Electronic Throttling Valve
CAUTION: Unscrew the large nut. Do not
unscrew the small nut.
76
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
6.
If the complete ETV assembly is being replaced, unsolder and remove the valve body. It may be necessary to
unsolder the tubes above or below the valve body to
obtain enough clearance to remove the valve body.
Note the position of the valve body so the new one will
be placed in the same position. The new ETV could
interfere with the evaporator access panel if it is not
placed in the same position as the old one.
ARA167
Installation
1.
a.
2.
0.75 in
(19 mm)
If an ETV service kit (stepper motor and piston assembly) is being installed, go to step 2. If a complete ETV
assembly is being installed, proceed as follows:
1
Remove the stepper motor and piston assembly
from the valve body on the new ETV assembly.
b.
Clean the tubes for soldering.
c.
Place the new valve body (and any tubes that were
removed) in the same position from which the old
one was removed. The new ETV could interfere
with the evaporator access panel if it is not placed
in the same position as the old one. The arrow on
the valve body must point up, which is the direction of refrigerant flow from the evaporator to the
heat exchanger.
d.
Solder the tubing connections. Use a heat sink on
the valve body to prevent damage.
e.
Allow the valve body to cool before installing the
stepper motor and piston assembly.
2
1.
2.
Bottom Edge of Brass Nut
Bottom Edge of Piston
Stepper Motor and Piston Assembly
with Piston in Fully Open Position
CAUTION: The ETV may stick in the closed position if the stepper motor and piston assembly is
installed with the piston in the closed position. In
the closed position the bottom edge of the piston is
1.5 in. (38 mm) from the bottom edge of the brass
nut. If there is any doubt about the position of the
piston, connect the ETV harness to the stepper
motor and piston assembly and use the evacuation
[EVAC] mode in the Service Test Mode to place the
piston in the fully open position. Refer to Service
Procedure A34A, the Service Test Mode, in the
THERMOGUARD µP-VI Microprocessor Controller Diagnosis Manual TK 50566 for information
about placing the unit in the evacuation [EVAC]
mode. After placing the piston in the fully open
position, disconnect the ETV harness from the stepper motor and piston assembly.
Check the stepper motor and piston assembly to make
sure the piston is an open position. In an open position
the bottom edge of the piston is 0.75 to 1.25 in. (19 to
32 mm) from the bottom edge of the brass nut. The piston retracts to open and extends to close.
NOTE: The ETV cannot be opened manually. See the
following CAUTION.
77
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
3.
Lubricate the piston and threads on the new stepper
motor and piston assembly with refrigeration oil.
4.
Screw the new stepper motor and piston assembly into
the valve body.
5.
Torque the nut to approximately 100 ft-lb (136 N•m).
Hold the valve body with backup wrench to prevent
damage to the refrigeration tubing.
CAUTION: Tighten the large nut. Do not
tighten the small nut.
6.
Connect the ETV harness connector to the stepper
motor. Take care when making the connection. The
connector attaches to the ETV in only one position.
7.
Install the clip and secure it with a band wrap.
8.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks.
9.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
5.
Coat the new O-rings with clean compressor oil and
place them in the ORS fittings on the ends of the new
compressor oil filter.
6.
Fasten the new compressor oil filter in place with the
clamp.
7.
Attach and tighten the oil lines to the compressor oil filter. Hold the oil filter with a back-up wrench on the hex
behind the ORS fitting.
8.
Evacuate the compressor and filter to a maximum of
500 microns to remove trapped air.
9.
Open the service valves, operate the system, and check
the compressor oil filter for leaks.
10. Install the evaporator access panels.
11. Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation. Check the operation of the ETV.
COMPRESSOR OIL FILTER CHANGE
This unit is equipped with a compressor oil filter. The compressor oil filter should be changed when the drier is
replaced.
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
Remove the remaining refrigerant from the compressor.
3.
Disconnect the oil lines from the compressor oil filter.
Hold the oil filter with back-up wrench on the hex
behind the ORS fitting.
4.
Remove the clamp and the compressor oil filter.
AEA718
Compressor Oil Filter
78
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
HOT GAS SOLENOID VALVE
Removal
1.
Recover the refrigerant charge.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the coil for the valve.
3.
Unsolder the lines and remove the valve.
Installation
1.
Clean the tube for soldering.
2.
Remove the coil and place the valve in position.
3.
Solder the inlet and outlet connections. After the valve
cools, install the coil.
4.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks.
5.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
6.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
79
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 8/00)
80
Structural Maintenance
UNIT AND ENGINE MOUNTING BOLTS
Check and tighten all unit and engine mounting bolts during
scheduled maintenance inspections. Torque the unit mounting bolts to 60 ft-lb (81 N•m). Torque the engine mounting
bolts to 150 ft-lb (203 N•m).
UNIT INSPECTION
Inspect the unit during pre-trip inspection and scheduled
maintenance inspections for loose or broken wires or hardware, compressor oil leaks, or other physical damage which
might affect unit performance and require repair or replacement of parts.
CONDENSER, EVAPORATOR, AND
RADIATOR COILS
Clean the coils during scheduled maintenance inspections.
Remove any debris (e.g., leaves or plastic wrap) that
reduces the air flow. Clean dirty coils with compressed air
or a pressure washer. Be careful not to bend the fins when
cleaning a coil. If possible, blow the air or water through the
coil in the direction opposite the normal airflow. Repair bent
fins and any other noticeable damage.
ARA118
1
DEFROST DRAINS
Clean the defrost drains during scheduled maintenance
inspections to be sure the lines remain open.
UNIT INSTALLATION
All nuts that hold the unit to the trailer are accessible using
an impact wrench with a 10 in. extension, ball-type swivel
and a deep-well socket.
ARA119
NOTE: The nuts for mounting the unit should be elastic
stop nuts (Nylock type).
1.
Check Bolts for Tightness
Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts
81
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
DEFROST DAMPER
To adjust the damper:
Check the damper during scheduled maintenance inspections for shaft wear, end play, and the ability to stop the air
flow.
1.
Remove the damper assembly from the evaporator.
2.
Disconnect the damper link from the eye bolt.
Position the damper so that air flow is stopped on the top
and bottom edges with the solenoid plunger bottomed out.
2
1
3
6
5
4
7
9
AEA719
8
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Stop
Mounting Bolts
Closed Position
Open Position
Damper Link
6.
7.
8.
9.
Eye Bolt
Round Stop
Distance A 2.75 in. (69.85 mm)
Solenoid
Defrost Damper Adjustment
82
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
3.
4.
Condenser Fan Blower
Check Distance A, the distance from the shoulder on
the solenoid to the center of the hole in the eye bolt.
Distance A should be 2.75 in. (69.85 mm) with the
solenoid de-energized.
If necessary, adjust Distance A to the proper dimension
by loosening the locknut on the end of the solenoid
plunger and turning the eye bolt. Tighten the locknut
when Distance A is correct.
1.
Loosen the condenser inlet ring (spinning) on the condenser coil bulkhead.
2.
Slide the blower towards the inlet ring until it contacts
the inlet ring. This centers the inlet ring in the blower
orifice.
3.
Tighten the inlet ring securely.
5.
Connect the damper link to the eye bolt.
4.
Slide the blower away from the inlet ring.
6.
Energize the solenoid (apply 12 volts dc) and check the
damper blade to make sure that both edges contact the
damper housing. If necessary, adjust this by loosening
the solenoid mounting bolts and moving the solenoid.
Tighten the solenoid mounting bolts when both edges
of the damper blade contact the damper housing.
5.
Pass a gauge wire completely around the blower orifice
to check for uniform clearance.
6.
Spin the blower by hand to check for blower distortion.
7.
Position the blower so the edge of the inlet ring lines up
with the alignment mark on the blower.
Adjust the damper blade stops so they contact the edges
of the damper blade. This keeps the damper from sticking closed.
8.
Torque blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
7.
8.
9.
1
2
De-energize and energize the damper several times to
make sure that the damper operates correctly and seals
properly.
3
Make sure the damper blade rests on the round stops
when the damper is open. Adjust the round stops if necessary.
4
10. Install the damper assembly in the evaporator.
CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR FAN
LOCATION
When mounting the condenser or evaporator fan and hub
assembly on the fanshaft, the blowers and inlet orifices must
be properly aligned for proper air flow and to prevent damage to the blower.
AEA749
1.
Blower Wheel
3.
Alignment Mark
2.
Inlet Ring
4.
Edge of Inlet Ring
Condenser Blower Alignment
83
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
FAN SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Evaporator Fan Blower
1.
Loosen the inlet rings on the sides of the blower housing.
2.
Center the blower wheel in the blower housing with
equal overlap on both inlet rings. The overlap on each
ring should be approximately 0.15 in. (3.8 mm).
3.
Tighten the hub bolts that hold the blower wheel on the
fanshaft.
4.
Center the inlet rings in the blower orifices. Tighten the
inlet rings securely.
5.
Check the radial clearance by passing a wire completely around the circumference of the inlet rings and
the blower wheel.
6.
Torque the blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
The unit is equipped with a one-piece fan shaft assembly
that contains tapered roller bearings in a sealed oil reservoir.
This assembly does not require any maintenance. There is a
level plug and a fill plug, but they are not normally used
except after removal and repair of the fan shaft assembly.
The condenser and evaporator end oil seals should be
checked during the pre-trip inspection for oil leakage. If
there is any sign of leakage, the fan shaft assembly should
be removed and repaired.
NOTE: The fan shaft assembly requires a special lubricant, Thermo King P/N 203-278.
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul
Disassembly
AEA720
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check Clearance with a Wire
Blower Housing Sides
Inlet Rings
Evaporator Blower
Radial Clearance
Equalize Blower Inlet Overlap
1.
Remove the fan shaft assembly from the unit. Remove
both oil plugs and drain the oil from the housing.
2.
After draining the oil from the housing, remove the
four retaining bolts from the condenser end of the
assembly.
3.
To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the opposite
end of the shaft with a soft hammer. After the shaft has
been removed, clean all parts in clean solvent.
4.
Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the evaporator
end of the assembly. With the seal removed, clean the
housing in clean solvent.
5.
Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
6.
After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the bearings and
bearing races for wear or damage.
7.
If necessary, remove the bearings by tapping them off
the shaft with a hammer and a punch. Be careful not to
damage the shaft with the punch.
Evaporator Fan Location
84
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
8.
6.
The bearing races can now be driven out with a punch
and replaced in the same manner.
Reassembly
1.
Tap the new bearings on the shaft with a pipe.
2.
Install new oil seals after replacing the bearing races.
3.
Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new seal in
the retainer cap. Use the original shims and replace the
O-ring if needed.
4.
5.
Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial indicator
to read end-play. To measure the end-play, rotate the
shaft while pushing in one direction and set the dial
indicator to ‘0’. Now rotate the shaft and pull in the
opposite direction while reading the dial indicator. Endplay should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025 to 0.127 mm).
If end-play is incorrect, use different shims to obtain
correct end-play.
Shims available from the Service Parts Department:
Install the retainer cap assembly over the shaft, then
install the bolts.
Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in equal steps to
80 in-lb (9.04 N•m).
0.020 in. (0.500 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-4231
0.007 in. (0.177 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2901
AEA721
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cap and Shims
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
Breather Vent
Housing
Roller Bearing
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Oil Seal
Shaft
Sleeve
Pin
O-ring
Fan Shaft Assembly
85
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
7.
After correct end-play is obtained, add oil for the bearings.
8.
Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent facing up.
Pour the oil (P/N 203-278) through the top plug until it
runs out of the side hole. The assembly holds 2.2 oz
(65 ml). Check the condition of the O-ring used on the
plugs and replace if necessary. Install the top and side
plugs. Clean up any spillage.
9.
Place the assembly on the workbench with the vent up.
Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft should be free
enough to rotate without having to hold the housing.
CAUTION: When installing the fan shaft
assembly, make sure that the vent is mounted
facing up.
3.
To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the opposite
end of the shaft with a soft hammer. After the shaft has
been removed, clean all the parts in clean solvent.
4.
Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the curbside
end of the assembly. With the seal removed, clean the
housing in solvent.
5.
Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
6.
After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the bearings and
bearing races for wear or damage.
7.
To replace the bearings, first drive bearing off shaft
with a punch at notch in the base of the shaft.
Reassembly
IDLER ASSEMBLY
The unit is equipped with a one-piece idler assembly that
contains tapered roller bearings in a sealed oil reservoir.
This assembly does not require any maintenance. There is a
level plug and a fill plug, but they are not normally used
except after removal and repair of the idler assembly. The
roadside end oil seal and the curbside end oil seal should be
checked during the pre-trip inspection for oil leakage. If
there is any sign of leakage, the idler assembly should be
removed and repaired.
1.
Install the new bearings on the shaft with a pipe. Place
the pipe over the shaft and drive bearing down. Turn
the shaft upside down, and use the pipe to drive the
other bearing down.
2.
Install a new oil seal on the curbside end of the assembly after replacing the bearing race and splash guard.
3.
Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new seal in
the retainer cap. Use the original shims and replace the
O-ring if needed.
4.
Install the retainer cap assembly over the shaft, then
install the bolts.
5.
Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in equal steps to
80 in-lb (9.04 N•m).
6.
Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial indicator
to read end-play. To measure the end-play, rotate the
shaft while pushing in one direction, and set the dial
indicator to ‘0’. Now rotate the shaft and pull in the
opposite direction while reading the dial indicator. Endplay should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025 to 0.127 mm).
If end-play is incorrect, use different shims to obtain
correct end-play.
Idler Assembly Overhaul
Disassembly
1.
Remove the idler assembly from the unit. Remove both
oil plugs and drain the oil from the housing.
2.
After draining the oil from the housing, remove the
four retaining bolts from the curbside end of the assembly.
86
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 8/00)
8.
Shims available from the Service Parts Department:
0.020 in. (0.500 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-4231
0.007 in. (0.177 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2901
Place the assembly on the workbench with the vent up.
Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft should be free
enough to rotate without having to hold the housing.
CAUTION: Reinstall the assembly into the
unit, making sure the vent is mounted facing
up.
7.
After the correct end-play is obtained, add approximately 1.5 oz (44 ml) of oil for the bearings.
Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent facing up.
Pour the oil through the top plug until it runs out of the
side hole. Check the condition of the O-ring used on the
plugs and replace if necessary. Install the top and side
plugs. Clean up any spillage.
AEA722
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oil Seal
Cap and Shims
O-ring
Roller Bearing
Splash Guard Tube
6.
7.
8.
9.
Shaft
Housing
Breather Vent
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
Idler Assembly
87
88
Mechanical Diagnosis
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Engine will not crank
Electrical problem
Check and repair electrical system
Defective starter solenoid
Replace solenoid
Defective starter
Repair starter
Water in cylinders
Check for hydrostatic lock. Remove
injectors and turn engine slowly
Starter motor turns but engine
does not crank
Starter clutch defective
Replace
Engine cranks but fails to start
Fuel solenoid not energized
Check 8D and 8DP circuits and fuel
solenoid pull-in relay. Check that
YAN = YES in Super Guarded
Access. Refer to appropriate
Microprocessor Operation and
Diagnosis Manual.
Fuel solenoid defective or stuck
Replace
Fuel injection pump defective
Replace pump
Air heater defective
Replace
No fuel or wrong fuel
Fill with proper fuel
Fuel pump defective
Replace pump
Air in fuel system
Bleed air
Compression low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles defective
Replace nozzles
Incorrect timing
Adjust timing
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Exhaust plugged
Clean exhaust
Defective HPCO
Replace HPCO
Air in injection pump
Bleed fuel system
Fuel filter obstructed
Replace filter element
High head pressure
Eliminate cause of high head
pressure
Vent of fuel tank obstructed
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Engine stops after starting
89
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 8/00)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Engine does not develop full
power
Air intake system clogged
Clean air intake system
Fuel tank vent clogged
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Speed adjustment wrong
Adjust speed
Insufficient fuel volume leaving filter
Check for dirty filter or air in system
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Delivery of fuel pump insufficient
Repair pump
Injection pump timing off
Adjusting timing
Nozzles defective
Repair or replace nozzles
Compression low or unbalanced
Overhaul engine
Worn injection pump plungers,
delivery valve defective, injection
rate too low, gum formations
Repair or replace pump
Misadjusted high speed solenoid
Adjust high speed solenoid
Defective injection pump
Repair injection pump
Engine fails to stop when unit is
OFF
Fuel solenoid defective
Replace
Injection pump defective
Replace pump
Engine knocks heavily
Air in system
Bleed fuel system
Injection pump not timed
Retime injection pump
Wrong fuel
Change fuel
Compression too low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles fouled or opening
pressure too low
Clean, repair or replace injection
nozzles
Delivery valve spring broken
Replace spring or repair injection
pump
Valve out of adjustment
Adjust valves
Fuel return line plugged
Remove return line restriction
Rod or main bearing worn
Replace rod or main bearings
Engine speed too high
90
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 8/00)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Engine runs hot
Dirty radiator
Wash radiator
Coolant level is low
Add coolant
Cooling system heavily scaled
Cleaning cooling system
Cylinder head gasket leaks
Replace cylinder head gasket. Use
correct gasket
Faulty thermostat
Check or replace thermostat
Loose or worn water pump belt
Replace belt
Insufficient oil in pan
Add oil
Faulty oil pressure switch
Check oil pressure switch. Replace if
necessary
Oil control valve defective
Check oil pressure control valve
Worn oil pump, camshaft, main or
connecting rod bearings, loose oil
gallery plug
Repair engine
Oil leakage
Check and eliminate possible
causes at rocker arm cover, oil lines,
oil filter, front timing cover or
crankshaft seals
Damaged valve seals
Replace seals on valve stem
Worn valve stem
Replace valves
Broken piston rings or cylinder bore
worn or scored
Have engine repaired and rebored.
Replace broken piston rings
Clogged air cleaner system
Unclog air cleaner
Oil pressure low
High oil consumption
91
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 8/00)
ENGINE EMITS EXCESSIVE SMOKE
WHITE SMOKE
BLACK SMOKE
BLUE SMOKE
Fuel is not burning
Excessive Fuel to Air Ratio
Oil Consumption
•
Air or water in fuel
•
Type of fuel used
•
Poor compression
•
Incorrect timing
•
Cold engine
•
Defective valve seals
•
Poor compression
•
Excessive load
•
Faulty injectors
•
Clogged air intake system
•
Faulty nozzles
•
Poor compression
•
Restricted exhaust
•
Faulty injection pump
92
•
•
•
•
•
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
•
•
SYMPTOM
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
High suction pressure
Low suction pressure
No suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Suction line frosting back
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Unable to hold vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Unit not refrigerating
Unit not heating or defrosting
Refrigeration Diagnosis
POSSIBLE CAUSES
Overcharge of refrigerant
Shortage of refrigerant
No refrigerant
Air through condenser too hot (ambient)
Air flow through condenser restricted
•
•
•
Air through condenser too cold (ambient)
•
•
• •
Air in refrigerant system
Condenser fan blades bent or broken
•
Air short cycling around evaporator coil
•
•
Air through evaporator restricted
•
•
•
•
Evaporator needs defrosting
•
•
Compressor discharge valves leaking
•
Compressor suction valves leaking
•
•
•
•
• • • •
•
•
•
•
Faulty oil pump in compressor
Faulty compressor drive coupling
Compressor bearing loose or burned out
Broken valve plate in compressor
•
•
•
Too much compressor oil in system
Expansion valve power element lost its charge
Expansion valve feeler bulb improperly mounted
•
Expansion valve feeler bulb making poor contact
93
•
•
•
Expansion valve needle eroded or leaking
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve closed too much
•
•
Expansion valve partially closed by ice, dirt or wax
•
•
•
•
Liquid refrigerant entering compressor
Restricted line on the low side
•
•
Restricted line on the high side
Restricted drier
•
•
•
•
•
• •
Suction service valve back seated
•
•
• •
•
• • • •
•
• •
• •
•
•
Faulty three-way valve
Faulty pilot solenoid
Loose or broken electrical connections
Sensor out of calibration
Compound pressure gauge out of calibration
•
•
Leaky receiver tank outlet valve
Leaky bypass check valve
•
•
• • •
• •
Defrost damper stays open
Defrost damper stuck closed
•
• •
• •
•
POSSIBLE CAUSES
Expansion valve open too much
•
•
SYMPTOM
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
High suction pressure
Low suction pressure
No suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Suction line frosting back
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Unable to hold vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Unit not refrigerating
Unit not heating or defrosting
Refrigeration Diagnosis (Rev. 8/00)
•
• •
• •
Leaky condenser check valve
Faulty three-way condenser pressure bypass check
valve
Faulty ETV
Hot gas bypass valve stuck open or leaking
94
Cool Cycle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid Line
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Hot Gas Bypass Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
Electronic Throttling Valve
Suction Transducer
Discharge Transducer
ARA161
AEA724
95
Heat/Defrost
Cycle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid Line
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Hot Gas Bypass Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
Electronic Throttling Valve
Suction Transducer
Discharge Transducer
ARA162
aea725
96
Schematic Diagram—Page 1 of 2
97
Schematic Diagram—Page 2 of 2
98
Wiring Diagram—Page 1 of 5
99
Wiring Diagram—Page 2 of 5
100
Wiring Diagram—Page 3 of 5
101
Wiring Diagram—Page 4 of 5
102
Wiring Diagram—Page 5 of 5
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