ARC+ Render Pro 9
3D Rendering and Animation Software
Version 9
User's Guide
Copyright @ 2003 Graffiti Software Industries Ltd.
All rights reserved.
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Part No. ARP9-EN-0310
Welcome to ARC+ Render Pro
Welcome to ARC+ Render Pro
The ARC+ Render Pro application provides a complete rendering environment
for architects, interior and exterior designers, landscape architects and
furnishings designers. Using ARC+ Render Pro, you can produce photo-realistic
images containing the colors, textures and transparencies of the planned
materials that fit seamlessly into a photograph of the construction site. ARC+
Render Pro offers animation modules: the walk-through animation and the
lighting animation. These modules enhance your 3D scenes with walk-through
tours of rooms, down corridors and have special lighting effects to highlight
buildings, interior design and much more.
Design by Mor Architects, rendering by Magoz Point Imaging
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
i
Overview of this Manual
Overview of this Manual
ii
1
Getting Started
Installing the ARC+ Render Pro software
Working in the ARC+ Render Pro screens and commands
2
Attributes
Setting the colors, materials, and textures of objects
Smoothing the surfaces of objects
Using billboards to automatically rotate objects towards camera
3
Cameras
Setting the projection of the rendered image
4
Lighting
Creating colored and multisource lighting schemes
Using point, spot, and distant light sources
Using ambient light, background, and fog
5
Rendering
Producing photo-realistic rendered and ray-traced images
Controlling the image type and quality
Viewing rendered images
6
Walk-through
Animation
Producing walk-through animated view of rendered scenes
7
Lighting Animation
Producing animated lighting view of rendered scenes
8
Panorama
Producing panoramic view of rendered scenes
9
Objects Animation
Producing objects animation
10
Photo-realistic Objects
Inserting photo-realistic objects
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Contents
Contents
Getting Started
1
Installing ARC+ Render Pro ........................................................................................................1-1
Preparing an ARC+ Model for Rendering...................................................................................1-5
Starting ARC+ Render Pro...........................................................................................................1-7
Entering ARC+ Render Pro Commands............................................................................1-8
The ARC+ Render Pro Screen..........................................................................................1-8
The Menu Bar....................................................................................................................1-9
The Standard Toolbar......................................................................................................1-10
The Viewing Toolbar........................................................................................................1-10
The Draw Toolbar............................................................................................................1-14
The Library bar ................................................................................................................1-15
File and Library Operations .............................................................................................1-18
Customizing the Model Display .......................................................................................1-25
Customizing the Scene Tree ...........................................................................................1-27
Editing the Scene Tree and Adding Elements.................................................................1-28
Customizing the Workspace............................................................................................1-29
Modeling and Rendering Modes......................................................................................1-31
Customizing ARC+ Render Pro Screen ..........................................................................1-32
Customizing the ARC+ Render Pro Window...................................................................1-34
Rendered Images............................................................................................................1-35
Typical Working Process .................................................................................................1-35
Attributes
2
Defining Attributes .......................................................................................................................2-2
Colors ................................................................................................................................2-2
Materials ............................................................................................................................2-4
Textures.............................................................................................................................2-8
Smoothing .......................................................................................................................2-19
Billboards.........................................................................................................................2-20
Assigning Attributes to Entities................................................................................................2-22
Polygons, Solids, and Walls ............................................................................................2-22
The Modeling and Rendering Modes ..............................................................................2-22
Assigning Attributes in the Rendering Mode....................................................................2-23
Previewing the Rendered Image .....................................................................................2-26
Changing, Querying, and Editing an Attribute Value .......................................................2-28
Setting the Background ...................................................................................................2-29
Color Mapping Table .......................................................................................................2-29
Layer Mapping Tool.........................................................................................................2-30
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
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Contents
Viewing Attributes............................................................................................................ 2-30
Combining Attributes....................................................................................................... 2-31
Creating and Previewing a Lighting Scheme .................................................................. 2-32
Commands in the Modeling Mode............................................................................................ 2-33
Assigning and Editing Color, Material, or Texture ........................................................... 2-33
Smoothing a Solid ........................................................................................................... 2-35
Modifying a Look ............................................................................................................. 2-35
Editing the Libraries .................................................................................................................. 2-36
Editing Rendering Attributes............................................................................................ 2-36
Custom Procedural Textures........................................................................................... 2-37
Importing New Textures to ARC+ Render Pro ........................................................................ 2-38
Creating a Texture .......................................................................................................... 2-38
Importing Textures .......................................................................................................... 2-38
Cameras
3
Working With Cameras................................................................................................................ 3-1
The Camera Wizard ...................................................................................................................... 3-2
Setting the Cameras in the Rendering Mode ............................................................................ 3-3
Setting Camera View Option ............................................................................................. 3-7
Lighting
4
Working with Lighting ................................................................................................................. 4-1
Defining the Location and Type of Lights .......................................................................... 4-2
The Lighting Wizard..................................................................................................................... 4-3
Point, Spot, and Distant Light Sources ..................................................................................... 4-4
Turning Lights On and Off ............................................................................................... 4-11
Ambient Light ............................................................................................................................. 4-11
Setting Ambient Light ...................................................................................................... 4-12
Background ................................................................................................................................ 4-12
Setting the Background ................................................................................................... 4-12
Fog............................................................................................................................................... 4-13
Setting the Fog Value and Color ..................................................................................... 4-14
Setting Light View Option ................................................................................................ 4-14
Rendering
5
Image File Types .......................................................................................................................... 5-2
Setting the Image File Type .............................................................................................. 5-4
Rendering Quality ........................................................................................................................ 5-6
Shading Options................................................................................................................ 5-6
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Contents
Antialiasing ........................................................................................................................5-8
Shadows, Reflections, and Transparency .........................................................................5-9
Acceleration Option .........................................................................................................5-10
Setting the Rendering Quality..........................................................................................5-10
Producing the Rendered Image ................................................................................................5-12
Rendering the Model .......................................................................................................5-12
Perform Ray-Tracing .......................................................................................................5-15
Recording Rendering Data in a Logfile............................................................................5-16
Displaying an Image...................................................................................................................5-17
Displaying an Image File .................................................................................................5-17
Walk-Through Animation
6
Animation File Types ...................................................................................................................6-2
Setting Animation Parameters...........................................................................................6-2
Modifying Animation Path..................................................................................................6-7
View Options — Animation ...............................................................................................6-9
Camera Tree View...........................................................................................................6-11
Path Frames....................................................................................................................6-11
Rendering a Walk-through Animation......................................................................................6-12
Animated Textures ..........................................................................................................6-20
Lighting Animation
7
Animation File Types ...................................................................................................................7-2
Setting Animation Parameters...........................................................................................7-2
Working with Lighting Animation - How to Overview .........................................................7-4
Panorama
8
Producing a Panorama ................................................................................................................8-1
Displaying a Panorama ................................................................................................................8-5
Panoramas’ viewing options..............................................................................................8-5
Objects Animation
9
Creating Objects Animation ........................................................................................................9-1
Animation layout ................................................................................................................9-1
Working with Objects Animation ........................................................................................9-3
Combining objects animation and video textures ..............................................................9-5
Working with objects ...................................................................................................................9-7
Selecting and manipulating objects ...................................................................................9-7
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
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Contents
Object properties dialog box.............................................................................................. 9-8
Photo-realistic Objects
10
What is Photo-realistic Object .................................................................................................. 10-1
Working with Photo-realistic Objects ...................................................................................... 10-2
vi
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
About this Book
About this Book
The ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide describes the optional ARC+ Render Pro
module of ARC+. The book contains complete instructions for installing and
using ARC+ Render Pro.
Before you read this book, you should have a basic familiarity with ARC+. If you
are a new ARC+ user, you should read the chapters Getting Started and Basic
Tools in the ARC+ User's Guide.
Using ARC+ Commands
You can access the ARC+ Render Pro commands from the ARC+ Render Pro
menu or by typing the command name. To display the ARC+ Render Pro menu,
choose the ARC+ Render Pro option on the Tools menu of ARC+. To return to
the regular ARC+ menu, choose ARC+ from the Tools menu.
This book presents the commands in the same format as other ARC+
documentation. For a complete explanation, see the Preface of the ARC+ User's
Guide.
For example, to start the command for Defining the Location and Type of Lights.
You can start the command in either of two ways:
Using the ARC+ Render Pro menu: choose LIGHTS and then GRAPHIC EDITING.
Using the keyboard: type \grlight on the ARC+ command line.
These possibilities are illustrated in the following standard format throughout
this book:
Keyboard command
\grlight
ARC+ Render menu
Lights
Graphic Editing
Many of the ARC+ Render Pro commands operate in a special rendering mode,
where the ARC+ command line is not displayed. While you are in the rendering
mode, start each command from the menu alone.
In the rendering mode, there are many operations that you can perform using
icons, toolbars, or popup menus. These options are explained in the relevant
sections throughout this book.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
vii
About this Book
Terminology
Throughout this manual the terms 'model' and 'scene' are used interchangeably.
Both terms refer to the visual environment created with 3D objects, textures,
materials and colors.
Cross References
Commands that are referenced are italicized, with the chapter number and name
first, and the keyboard command name in parentheses. For example:
See Chapter 4, Lighting, Defining the Location and Type of Lights (\grlight).
Color Images
Some versions of this book contains grayscale images explaining how to use
various features of the software. The images are displayed in color on the ARC+
Render Pro screen.
The illustrations of the screen and dialog boxes are not intended to be exact
representations of any one computer. Depending on your computer system and
the software release, the appearance may vary slightly from the illustrations in
the book.
Additional Resources
The following resources help you get information on Graffiti products:
ARC+ Render Pro Web site: http://www.arcrender.com
ARC+ Render Pro documentation suggestions, errors, or questions: send
email to docs@arcrender.com
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Getting Started
1
Getting Started
This chapter provides a thorough overview of the ARC+ Render Pro application
and operating instructions.
With ARC+ Render Pro, you can add to your model:
Lighting and shadows, including multi-source and colored lighting schemes
Realistic colors and textures for materials and background
Transparent, reflective, shiny or dull surfaces
Smoothing of curved surfaces
Atmospheric conditions such as sky and fog
Photo-realistic objects
You can select the ARC+ Render Pro commands from the pull-down menus at
the top of your ARC+ screen, without leaving the ARC+ system.
Version Information
This book describes ARC+ Render Pro version 9, compatible with ARC+ version
13, 14, Progress or above.
Version information can be found under HELP > ABOUT.
IMPORTANT If you edit a model using ARC+ Render Pro 9, do not attempt to open
it in earlier version of ARC+ Render Pro. If you attempt to do so, the rendering files
(*.GRB and *.GRT) may be damaged.
Installing ARC+ Render Pro
In order to install and run ARC+ Render Pro:
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Getting Started
You must have a hardware (Hasp or NetHasp) lock with ARC+ Render Pro
permission attached to your parallel port.
Your display monitor must be set to at least 800 x 600 resolution and 256 or
more colors.
If you don’t have the stand-alone version of ARC+ Render Pro, you must have
ARC+ installed on your system.
Other system requirements are the same as for ARC+. For details, see the Getting
started chapter in the ARC+ User's Guide.
NOTE If your hardware lock is not currently valid for ARC+ Render Pro, you can still
install ARC+ Render Pro but you can't run the program. You are prompted to enter key
codes when you enter ARC+ Render Pro following the installation. See Updating HASP
Key Codes.
Upgrading from a Previous Version of ARC+ Render
Before you upgrade, make a backup copy of any new textures that you added to
ARC+ Render and any models or rendered images that you saved in the ARC+
Render directory. Save the backup in another directory location.
If you want to keep files in the old ARC+ Render directory, you can install the
new version in a different directory. However, you cannot run the old version of
the ARC+ Render program after you install the new version.
Installing ARC+ Render Pro from CD-ROM
1. Insert the ARC+ Render Pro CD-ROM in your computer. The setup program
starts automatically.
NOTE Alternatively, you can start the SETUP.EXE program by double-clicking in the
Windows Explorer. The program is located in the RENDER\DISK1 directory for your
language on the CD-ROM (for example, D:\ENGLISH\RENDER\DISK1\SETUP.EXE).
Consult the redame file on the CD-ROM for latest information.
2. Select the language you want to install (English, French, Spanish, etc.).
3. Click the button to install ARC+ Render Pro.
4. Confirm the destination directory where ARC+ Render Pro is installed (by
default C:\PROGRAM FILES\ARC RENDER), or click BROWSE to specify a
different directory.
5. Confirm the folder name for ARC+ Render Pro on your Start menu (by
default ARC+ RENDER PRO V9.0), or specify another name.
6. When the installation is complete, reboot your computer for the changes to
take effect.
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Installing ARC+ Render Pro from a Network Location
1. Connect to the network location where the administrator's version of ARC+
Render Pro is located.
2. In the Windows Explorer, double click the RENDER\DISK1\SETUP.EXE
program.
3. Confirm the destination directory where ARC+ Render Pro is installed (by
default C:\PROGRAM FILES\ARC RENDER), or click Browse to specify a different
directory.
4. Confirm the folder name for ARC+ Render Pro on your Start menu (by
default ARC+ RENDER PRO V9.0), or specify another name.
5. When the installation is complete, reboot your computer for the changes to
take effect.
Updating HASP Key Codes and User Information
Make sure your hasp is connected, then start ARC+ Render Pro. Select HELP >
USER INFORMATION to open the USER INFORMATION dialog box.
Key in the three key codes provided by your dealer (or four key codes for
NetHasp).
Key in your HASP S/N code printed on a sticker on your HASP.
Click Update and then OK.
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Getting Started
Click View to display the HASP information in Notepad.
Contact your dealer should you view any error messages. Current users should
contact their dealer for update and key code information.
If no version of ARC+ Render Pro is installed on your computer and the HASP
plug isn’t key coded, the program will automatically launch the window for
updating the key codes, similar to the above window.
Click SUPPORT to submit HASP information on the web.
Read the ARC+ Render Pro Readme File
Complementary or updated information about ARC+ Render Pro that was not
available when this book was printed may be included in a README file on the
CD-ROM. Read this file before you start working.
Setting the Windows Display Properties
ARC+ Render Pro can produce rendered images with many different file formats
and color qualities. The highest quality uses 24 computer bits (0's and 1's) to
represent each color, and is known by the names 24-bit color, true color, and RGB
color. An image produced with 24-bit color can contain up to 16.7 million shades
of color.
You can use ARC+ Render Pro to produce a 24-bit image file, even if your
computer is not set for a 24-bit display. If your computer is set to the Windows
default of 256 colors (8-bit color), you may notice dots, lines, or patches in the
color when you display the image on the screen. The faults are purely a display
phenomenon. The file actually contains a smooth gradient of colors, and if you
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reset your computer to 24-bit color, the same file displays as an accurate color
image.
To set your computer to a 24-bit color display:
1. Click the right mouse button on an empty area of the Windows desktop.
2. From the popup menu, select PROPERTIES.
3. Select the SETTINGS tab.
4. Select one of the True Color options, for example TRUE COLOR (24 bit).
5. Click OK and if prompted, reboot your computer.
NOTE The exact instructions may vary depending on your hardware type. If your
hardware and resolution settings do not support true color, high color (16 bit) is also a
good choice.
Preparing an ARC+ Model for Rendering
Before you can render a model, you must create it or display it on the ARC+
screen. You may create it with any of the standard ARC+ three-dimensional
building blocks:
Polygons
Simple solids (prisms)
Complex solids
Walls
Placed objects containing any of the above entity types
ARC+ Render Pro displays these entities with true colors, textures, lighting, etc.
in the final rendered image.
You may also include other types of entities in your model-lines, text,
dimensions, help lines, hatching, and patterns. These entities are ignored by
ARC+ Render Pro commands, however, and they are omitted from the final
rendered image.
NOTE You cannot render a two-dimensional projection of an ARC+ model created, for
example, with the Saving a 2D projection of a model (\save2d) command (see Files
in the ARC+ User's Guide). You can render a model that you imported from another
program, e.g., as a DXF file, provided the model contains polygon and/or solid entities.
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Getting Started
Placed Objects
You may include placed objects in your model file. The component entities of a
placed object are rendered in exactly the same way as other entities in your
model.
ARC+ Render Pro modifies the source (library) file of the placed object slightly.
It does this by storing the rendering attributes that you assign to entities in the
placed object in the source file (see Model and rendering files). This may have
undesirable consequences if you render another model containing the same
placed object.
For example, create a model using a library coffee table as a placed object. If you
give the tabletop a mirror material attribute, this information is stored in the
library file. Unless you afterwards cancel the attribute, the table will have the
same mirror finish when you render any other model that uses the same library
file.
To prevent this, copy the library file to your working directory and place the
copy in your model. Then, only the copy file is modified; the original library file
remains unchanged.
NOTE Optionally, you can tell ARC+ Render Pro to copy the library files when you
apply the attributes. See Model and rendering files for more information.
Openings (Negative Solids)
ARC+ uses negative solids to represent openings or voids in other entities, for
example doorways or windows in walls (see Polygons and solids and Openings in
the ARC+ User's Guide). You may include negative solids in your model: they are
rendered as transparent areas, as you would expect.
If you wish to display a surface within an opening, for example a wooden door
or reflections off a glass windowpane, then draw an ordinary, positive solid
within the opening.
ARC+ Colors and Rendering Attributes
You can render a model using the following color options:
You can use the standard ARC+ palette of fifteen colors and the internal
ARC+ rendering attributes (color, texture, and transparency, see Rendering in
the ARC+ User's Guide). To do this, prepare the model with the desired colors
and attributes for each entity.
You can obtain much better results by assigning colors and other attributes
such as materials and textures in ARC+ Render. ARC+ Render allows you to
assign over 16 million different rendering colors to your entities. The colors
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
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and attributes that you assign in ARC+ Render override the standard ARC+
colors and the internal ARC+ rendering attributes.
You can color-code the entities in your model with the standard ARC+ colors
1-15. For example, use color 1 for concrete, color 2 for wood, color 3 for glass,
etc. During the rendering process you can construct a color mapping table that
translates the standard ARC+ colors into combinations of ARC+ Render Pro
colors, materials, and/or textures.
You can combine these methods in a single rendering. For example, you can:
Render some entities in your model with their standard ARC+ colors and
attributes
Assign special rendering colors and attributes to other entities
Color-code still other entities and render them with the color mapping
table
See Chapter 2, Attributes, for full information on the treatment of colors and other
attributes in rendering.
Displaying the Model
Before you render the model, display it on the ARC+ screen in the modeling
mode. You may display the model in any convenient view-plan, elevation,
axonometric, parallel, or perspective.
Starting ARC+ Render Pro
To start ARC+ Render Pro (if you don’t have the stand-alone version), enter
ARC+. On the Tools menu, select the ARC+ Render Pro option.
Tools
ARC+ Render Pro
To return to the ARC+ menu, select ARC+ on the Tools menu.
Tools
ARC+
NOTE There is also a stand-alone version of ARC+ Render Pro, which you can enter
without going through ARC+. For further information about upgrade, please contact
your ARC+ Render dealer or ARC+ Render web site (www.arcrender.com).
To start ARC+ Render Pro stand-alone version, you can use Windows Start
menu, or start through ARC+.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
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Getting Started
Entering ARC+ Render Pro Commands
The ARC+ Render Pro menu replaces the ARC+ menu in the display. You may
select ARC+ Render Pro commands from the menu, or type the command names
beginning with a backslash (like any other ARC+ commands) on the input line.
Upon starting ARC+ Render Pro, the menu bar is displayed.
NOTE Open and save file operations are available in the FILE menu of ARC+ Render
Pro when running as stand-alone. When working under ARC+, Use FILE from the
regular ARC+ menu to open and save files.
The ARC+ Render Pro Screen
The ARC+ Render Pro main screen.
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This screen contains a menu bar, Windows-standard tool bar, a viewing toolbar
and a draw toolbar. The central part of the screen contains three work windows,
showing different views of the model, and the scene tree view window (shown
above - lower left). On the right side are the materials and textures toolbars. The
bottom part of the screen contains the colors toolbar and the status bar. Like any
Windows-standard screen, all components can be customized.
The Menu Bar
The menu bar is displayed on the top of the screen, under the program name
and displayed file name.
Menu Options
The function of each command is described below:
FILE
General file level operations. When working under
ARC+, you can: save bitmap, pack/unpack model,
import textures, print files. When working in standalone mode, you can also: open and close an existing
file, save files.
EDIT
File editing utilities: undo/redo, cut, copy, paste,
delete, attach options, view log file, view properties
of the selected object.
VIEW
Configure the appearance of the selected work
window: WireFrame, Hidden Lines, Shaded, No
Shading, Dynamic Rendering, Ray Tracing. It also
enables refreshing the display and controlling the
view options. Note that some of the view options can
also be controlled from the draw toolbar.
ATTRIBUTES
Control the display in the scene tree window: all
objects are displayed (dynamic editing), or only
specific objects (color mapping, layer mapping, lights,
cameras, clipboard).
CAMERAS
Control the viewpoints (cameras) of the rendered
model. See Chapter 3, Cameras.
LIGHTS
Control the lighting of the rendered model. See
Chapter 4, Lighting.
PATHS
Control the animation feature. See Chapter 6,
Animation.
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Getting Started
RENDER
Control the rendering of images, animation and
panoramas. See Chapter 5, Rendering, Chapter 6, Walkthrough Animation..
TOOLS
Control ARC+ Render Pro tools: show/hide scene
tree view and status bar; customize toolbars, texture
libraries, icon list; control ARC+ Render Pro options.
WINDOW
Control the arrangement of windows on the screen:
new window, cascade, tile, arrange icons; see a list of
the open windows; control configuration of the
windows displayed on the screen.
HELP
Access help utilities; view information about the user,
the software and the system resources.
The Standard Toolbar
You can use Windows standard toolbar to perform standard operations without
having to select commands through the menu: generate a new file, open an
existing file, save a file, cut, copy, paste, undo, redo, print, print preview and get
information about ARC+ Render Pro.
The Viewing Toolbar
Windows Display Control
In the rendering mode, the model is graphically displayed in three different
work windows. A specific angle of view for each of these windows can be
selected from the pull-down view menu in the tool bar.
A view is added by adding a camera. See Chapter 3, Cameras
for full information. The active window is named
accordingly, and its name is added to the list.
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View Control
You can adjust the view of the model within the active window by clicking the
icons in the Viewing toolbar displayed below.
These icons are entirely independent of the view settings in the modeling mode.
When you return to the modeling mode, your original view is restored.
The function of each viewing icon is described below:
ZOOM OPTIONS
From left to right: Zoom full - zoom the view to fill
the window (including model and all objects). Zoom
work area - only model view fills the window. Zoom
object - zoom on selected object. Zoom all windows toggles between zooming all windows and only
active window.
TOGGLE
Toggles the view between the perspective and the
parallel angles.
PERSPECTIVE/PARALLEL
ZOOM BY RECTANGLE
Drag the mouse to define a rectangle around part of
the model. The rectangle area fills the window.
PAN BY LINE
Drag the mouse to move the model in the window
along the drawn line.
ZOOM DYNAMIC
Move the cursor upwards to zoom up, downwards to
zoom down.
PAN DYNAMIC
Grab the model with the hand, and pan it in any
direction.
WALK DYNAMIC
Move the cursor in any direction to advance in the
model.
STUDY DYNAMIC
Move the cursor in any direction to rotate the model
STICKY MODE
Use sticky note in order to keep any of the above
buttons pressed when you release the mouse button.
ANIMATION OPTIONS
From left to right: Number of key frames created.
Play. Stop. Go to first frame. Go to previous key
frame. Go to previous frame. Go to next frame. Go to
next key frame. Go to last frame. Add key frame.
Delete key frame. Make key frame.
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LOOK EDITOR OPTIONS
Moves textures to create variations. From left to
right: Move texture left. Move texture right. Move
texture up. Move texture down. Rotate texture left.
Rotate texture right. Decrease texture scale X.
Increase texture scale X. Decrease texture scale Y.
Increase texture scale Y. Increase blending. Decrease
blending.
ATTACH OPTIONS
From left to right: Attach to entity. Attach to solid.
Attach to layer. Attach to color.
VIEWING DISCRETE
OPTIONS
Viewing of a certain area. From left to right: Zoom
in. Zoom out. Pan left. Pan right. Pan up. Pan
down. Forward. Backward. Move observers eye
position toward or away from the target location by a
fixed distance: Rotate left. Rotate right. Rotate up.
Rotate down.
Customizing the Viewing Icons
Customize the operation of the viewing icons using the following command:
Tools
Options
Viewing
From the command toolbar select TOOLS > OPTIONS and click the viewing discrete
tab. The Options dialog box is opened. Options can be changed at any time.
Your latest choices become the defaults for your next ARC+ session.
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ZOOM BY RECTANGLE
Controls the way in which the rectangle is drawn
when using Zoom by Rectangle. (See above, View
control).
BY TWO CORNERS
The rectangle is drawn when dragging the mouse
indicates the center of the rectangle and one corner.
BY CENTER AND CORNER
The rectangle is drawn when dragging the mouse
indicates two corners of the rectangle.
INDICATION (PICK)
Controls the way an object is picked, indicated, when
pointing to it with the mouse. This is most
conspicuous in Wire Frame mode.
BY SENDING A RAY
TO OBJECT
A light ray is sent to indicate the object positioned
where the mouse cursor stands.
BY SENDING A LINE
BELONGING TO OBJECT
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The object is picked by tracing the line on which the
mouse cursor stands.
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SENSITIVITY PIXELS
Set the sensitivity levels corresponding to the object
picked.
The Draw Toolbar
Control the display in the active window using the draw toolbar. This function
can also be performed from the VIEW menu.
WIRE FRAME
View only the polygons forming the model (the
default display).
NO SHADING
View the rendered model without shading effects.
DYNAMIC RENDERING
View rendered model with lighting and shadow
effects, defined during dynamic rendering.
RAY TRACE WHOLE
WINDOW
View model in highest quality rendering, including
transparencies and reflections.
RAY TRACE BY
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RECTANGLE
Define a rectangle part of the model to view in the
ray tracing mode.
RAY TRACE PUZZLE
View model in ray tracing mode, when the ray
tracing process starts with an initial, low resolution
display and evolves to the final result. (As opposed to
default manner, displaying ray traced model “line by
line”).
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Getting Started
The Library bar
The library stores rendering attributes such as
textures, materials and colors, which can be easily
applied to selected surfaces in a model. Rendering
attributes can be dragged-and-dropped directly from
the library bar onto an object, or into an object’s
properties dialog-box. The attributes are discussed in
Chapter 2, Attributes.
The library bar is arranged according to the
rendering attributes types e.g. textures, materials, or
colors.
Each library contains categories (folders and
subfolders). The folders contain the rendering
attributes i.e. textures, colors etc., arranged
according to subjects. Double-clicking on a folder
opens it and displays its content.
Customizing the Library bar
The Library bar can be customized in a number of ways: you can customize the
library bar appearance and add or remove libraries.
Customizing the library-bar appearance
Right-click inside the library bar and select Options.
In the dialog box that opens you can adjust various library’s bar appearance
settings.
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Getting Started
Under the Options tab in the options dialog-box, you can turn the appearance of
all available folders on and off.
Click Apply to see the changes you made to the library appearance.
When you are done, click ok.
Customizing the list of libraries
To add or remove a library (Library is a collection of rendering attributes of the
same type, i.e. textures, materials, colors - stored under folder on your disk or
CD-ROM), Select Tools > Customize from the menu bar. In the dialog box that
opens, click the Libraries tab.
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Select a library type from the drop-down menu.
Use the icons on the right to add or remove a library.
To add a new library, click on the icon. In the dialog
box that opens, enter a name for the new library, and
enter a path to the folder containing the new textures.
Delete a library from list. (select the required folder
first)
NOTE: Standard library cannot be deleted from list
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Getting Started
Move a library up the list (select the required folder
first)
Move a library down the list (select the required
folder first)
To specify a library as read-only, check the Read-only check box. Read-only
libraries cannot be edited (see Chapter 2, Attributes, Editing the library).
File and Library Operations
When you render a model, the rendering attributes of model entities are stored
together with the model in the model file. These attributes include:
Rendering colors
Materials
Textures
Smoothing
View, lighting and rendering options are stored in a special pair of rendering files
(not stored in the regular model files). These have the same filename as your
model and the .GRB and .GRT file extensions. When you open or save a model, the
rendering files are opened or saved as well.
Using the same Rendering Files for all Models in a Directory
When you edit or create new material and texture definitions (see Chapter 2,
Attributes, Defining attributes), the definitions are saved in the rendering files
(*.GRB and *.GRT). In addition, the rendering files contain all your view, lighting,
and rendering option settings.
You can transfer the material and texture definitions and other settings from one
ARC+ model to another, by using the same rendering files for the models.
Tools
Options
Model
The OPTIONS dialog box is opened.
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Select the USE COMMON RENDERING FILE option, and specify a filename (1-8
characters with no extension). When you open another model in the same
directory, the definitions and settings are automatically available for use.
Saving Blanking of Placed Elements
If you blank or unblank placed elements within ARC+ Render Pro, you can
select whether to preserve the blanking status when you leave the rendering
mode (see Modeling and rendering modes later on in this chapter.). To save
blanking status of placed elements select:
Tools
Options
File Types
Options
The FILE TYPE dialog box is opened.
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Getting Started
You may select:
DON'T SAVE
All your blanking settings are lost when you leave
the rendering mode.
PROMPT BEFORE SAVING
You are prompted whether to save or cancel the
blanking status of each element when you leave the
rendering mode.
ALWAYS SAVE
The blanked or unblanked status of all placed
elements is saved in the model files. The objects
remain blanked or unblanked in both the modeling
and rendering modes.
LOAD 2D ENTITIES
Although 2D entities (lines and arcs) can be displayed
on the ARC+ Render Pro editing screens, they cannot
be rendered because they do not contain surfaces that
reflect light. The 2D entities are not included in any
rendered image. Check this option if you want to add
them to the saved file.
NOTE Like all other ARC+ editing, the blanked or unblanked status is saved in the
permanent disk copy of your model only when you use the ARC+ \save command.
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File Properties
The Properties dialog-box stores and displays various file details, such as the
file’s title, author’s name, comments, summery, various statistical details, etc.
Use file properties to store and display information about a file that will help
identify and organize it. To open the file-properties dialog box, select File >
Properties from the menu bar.
Packing
ARC+ Render Pro project contains the following files:
Model files
Placed files
Library files
Rendering files
Custom texture and material files that don't exist on the destination system
ARC+ Render Pro automates the transfer of a project by allowing you to pack
and unpack the complete set of project files. To prepare a project for transfer,
select the pack command in the rendering mode:
File
Pack Model
ARC+ Render Pro identifies the required files and compresses them into a single
file for easy transfer. You are prompted for a filename (with the extension .ZIP)
and directory location to save the file.
On the destination computer, select the unpack command to decompress the
files:
File
Unpack Model
ARC+ Render Pro opens the .ZIP file and installs all the component files in the
required locations. You are prompted for a directory to store the unpacked
model.
Selecting the Files to Send
If you know that some of the required files already exist on the destination
system, you can reduce the size of the pack file for a large project. To do this,
select the following command:
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Getting Started
Tools
Options
From the OPTIONS dialog box, select the ADVANCED tab.
In the dialog box, select the files that you need to send:
ATTRIBUTES FILES
Include custom texture and material definitions in the
pack file.
PACK SYSTEM LIBRARY
Include files from the ARC+ system library.
PACK RENDER
FILES
Copying Library Objects
It is important to keep in mind that as you work in ARC+ Render Pro, you can
assign rendering attributes to library objects that are placed in your model.
When you save the model, ARC+ Render Pro saves the attributes as the new
defaults in the original library model. If you later render another model
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containing the same library object, it already contains these rendering attribute
defaults.
This can be undesirable if you want to render different models with different
attributes for library objects.
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Getting Started
To change this, select:
Tools
Options
From the OPTIONS dialog box, select the ADVANCED tab.
SAVE IN ORIGINAL
Save all attributes in the original library object.
OBJECT
COPY OBJECT TO MODEL
DIRECTORY
COPY ONLY IF ORIGINAL
IS READ ONLY
1-24
Assign an attribute to a library object, ARC+ Render
Pro prompts you to copy the object to the model
directory. The attributes are saved with the copy and
do not affect the original library version.
If the original object is a read only file or in a read
only directory, ARC+ Render Pro prompts you to
copy the object to the model directory. For read/write
objects, ARC+ Render Pro saves the attributes in the
original file.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Getting Started
Customizing the Model Display
In the rendering mode, you can control the mode of view of the selected work
window and customize the model display:
From the menu, select VIEW and select one of the following pull-down menu
options:
WIRE FRAME
View only the polygons forming the model (the
default display).
HIDDEN LINES
View polygons forming the model, with hidden line
removal.
SHADED
View flat textures, with shading effects. This option
might result in faster display than flat rendering. It
requires OpenGL or DirectX software (distributed
with latest versions of Microsoft Windows operating
systems).
NO SHADING
View the rendered model without shading effects.
View the textures and colors applied to entities in the
model, without the effect of the light sources; The
model has uniform, white light.
DYNAMIC RENDERING
View rendered model with lighting and shadow
effects, defined during dynamic rendering.
RAY TRACING
View highest rendering quality (including
transparencies and reflections). Whole window, by
rectangle, puzzle.
REFRESH
Re-draws the current work window.
OPTIONS
Control additional options.
NOTE that some of these functions can also be performed from the draw toolbar.
Control the view of the model in the selected work window by controlling the
view options:
Show cameras and lights
Display the model in gray instead of color
Simplify and speed up the model display
Remove hidden lines from the display
View
Options
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Getting Started
Use the dialog box to specify the default method of display. You can override
your default settings at any time using the pop-up view menu (see Windows and
viewing icons earlier in this chapter).
Select the element you want to display.
In the WIRE FRAME mode, you can define more options:
View
Options
Draw
GRAY DRAWING
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Use this option to simplify the display when you set
the locations of objects such as light sources.
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Getting Started
QUICK DRAWING
Simplify and speed up the display of a complex
model by means of partial display: e.g., every third
polygon, and every second line (see Defining ARC+
Render Pro Options).
BACK FACE CULLING
Obtain a more realistic wireframe display. To speed
up the display, hidden lines are only partially
removed.
SMOOTH
By default, ARC+ Render Pro starts to display a
model while computations are in progress. If you
select the USE DOUBLE BUFFER option, the changed
model is displayed only when the computations are
complete.
(DOUBLE BUFFER)
UCS
(COORDINATE SYSTEM)
WINDW SIZE
Adds a set of coordinates to the selected window.
Set the window size (width and height of the
window). To keep aspect ratio, check the KEEP ASPECT
RATIO check box.
To automatically fit preview window size to image
aspect ratio, click IMAGE ASPECT RATIO.
Customizing the Scene Tree
The scene tree presents the elements involved in the rendering process: Lights,
cameras, layers, colors, solids and placed elements. Each element display can be
expanded or collapsed, using Windows conventions (+ and -).
The types of the displayed elements are defined from the ATTRIBUTES menu, as
follows:
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Getting Started
DYNAMIC EDITING
Display all element types.
COLOR MAPPING
Display only colors.
LAYER MAPPING
Display only layers.
LIGHTS
Display only lights.
CAMERAS
Display only cameras.
Select VIEW > OPTIONS to customize the way the scene tree is displayed: the order
and content of the elements. The SCENE TREE OPTIONS dialog box is opened.
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Check the types of elements you wish to be visible on the scene tree. To
determine the properties of the selected element, select the PROPERTIES tab.
The selected element properties dialog box is opened. Note that the dialog box
differs according to the type of element (see Chapters 3 through 5).
Editing the Scene Tree and Adding Elements
Elements (such as camera and lights) in the scene tree can be edited like any
Windows application, using cut, copy, paste, delete and rename. Elements
added to the scene tree are immediately displayed in all the other work
windows. Right-click any scene tree element to display a pop-up menu. The
pop-up menus vary according to element type (see Chapters 3 through 5 for each
element type).
Customizing the Workspace
The commands found under the layout View menu, move you among the
various layouts available in Arc+ render Pro. When you choose one of the
layouts, the appropriate set of elements is displayed. Their location in the scene
is displayed in the top and front views on the right side of the perspective
screen.
You can customize layouts by saving altered layouts or saving new ones.
In the example below, the lights layout is selected. Note that the location of the
lights is marked in the top and front views on the right. If you select one of the
lights in the list on the left, this light-element will be highlighted in the top and
front views.
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Getting Started
In this working mode you can edit each element as follows:
Clicking on an element, either in the list on the left or in one of the sceneviews on the right, will highlight this element and adjust the scene in the
perspective screen accordingly
Right-clicking on an element in the list, on the left-bottom side of the
screen, will present you with a complete list of all the editing options
available for this element
Double-clicking on an element, either in the list on the left-bottom side or
in one of the scene-view on the right, will display its properties dialog box
Clicking on the element in either the top or front view on the right and
holding down the mouse, you can drag an element to change its location
View
Layouts
The available options in the layout popup menu under Views are:
Dynamic editing
1-30
Displays a list of all available elements in an
hierarchic tree which can be collapsed and expanded.
These include cameras, lights, layers and colors. It
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Getting Started
does not show elements in the top or front views on
the right
All other layouts
Display a layout of the corresponding elements
(Color Mapping, Layer Mapping, Cameras, Lights,
Camera Path, Light Path) and show corresponding
elements in the top and front views on the right
Start
This layout is displayed when you open a model
Save Layout
Allows you to save the layout in its current
configuration. You can save the layout under its
present name, or create a new layout by typing a new
name in the dialog box that opens when you choose
‘Save Layout’
Define Layout
Allows you to copy, rename, delete, reset and set a
layout as the current layout
Alternatively, you can also use the layouts toolbar to display the main layouts.
To display the layouts toolbar:
Select Tools > Customize from the menu bar, click on the Toolbars tab and check
the Layouts box.
Modeling and Rendering Modes
Keep in mind that you can perform many of the rendering operations within the
modeling mode of ARC+. You can execute both ARC+ editing and ARC+
Render Pro commands, and you can mix the commands in any order that you
prefer.
Alternatively, you can enter the rendering mode (ARC+ Render Pro), where you
can combine many rendering commands in a single integrated operation. When
you enter the rendering mode, the screen changes to a different layout, where
the results of most rendering commands are immediately displayed.
The rendering commands are executed more rapidly and more conveniently in
the rendering mode. Unless you want to mix ARC+ editing and rendering
commands, it is recommended that you use the rendering mode for most
rendering operations.
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Getting Started
To Enter the Rendering Mode
To enter the rendering mode, select one of the following pull-down menu
options:
\grdyned
Attributes
Dynamic Editing
\grlight
Lights
Graphic Editing
\greview
Cameras
Graphic Editing
\
Paths
Camera Path
In the rendering mode, select ARC+ Render Pro commands from the toolbar.
IMPORTANT You cannot perform the following operations in the rendering mode:
Entering ARC+ editing (nonrendering) commands
Typing command names or parameters on the input line (there is no input line in the
rendering mode)
To perform any of the above operations, return to the modeling mode.
Returning to the Modeling Mode
To leave the rendering mode and return to the normal ARC+ screen, select the
following command from the pull-down menu:
File
Exit
Blanking Layers of ARC+ in the Rendering Mode
You can blank or unblank ARC+ layers without exiting the rendering mode.
Select the required layer from the SCENE TREE
window and right-click the mouse. The following
menu is opened.
Un-check VISIBLE.
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NOTE Your settings temporarily override any settings that you may have made using
the Blanking layers (\lblnk) command before entering the rendering mode. Your
previous layer settings are restored when you return to the modeling mode.
NOTE To preserve the blank or unblanked status when you leave the rendering mode,
see Model and Rendering Files.
Customizing ARC+ Render Pro Screen
To customize your desktop and work environment to reflect your preferences:
Tools
Customize
Toolbars
The CUSTOMIZE dialog box is displayed.
Check the toolbars you want displayed on the screen.
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Getting Started
The Libraries tab enables you to customize the
Texture and/or Model libraries you want
displayed and specify their directory (path).
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The Icons List tab enables you to select the size assigned to the displayed icons
(specified in pixels), to display the icon's name and to specify whether or not to
preserve the original aspect ratio.
Customizing the ARC+ Render Pro Window
You can configure the appearance of the rendering-mode screen by configuring
the display of the view windows.
Windows
Select the following options:
NEW WINDOW
A new, large view window is displayed in the middle
of the screen, on top of all other windows.
CASCADE
Four windows are arranged like a card pack. Click on
a window in order to bring it forwards.
TILE
Four windows are sharing the display area, side by
side.
ARRANGE ICONS
Arrange icons on screen.
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Getting Started
Rendered Images
ARC+ Render Pro provides numerous options that control how rendering is
performed. For an initial impression of the design, select a flat-shaded option
that computes a clear image in just a few seconds. For the highest quality
rendering, select a ray-traced image that displays high-quality effects.
The rendered image of a model is stored in an image file in the current directory
of your hard disk. A variety of different image file formats are available, for
example .TIF, .PCX, or .BMP. This enables you to transfer the image to other
software systems, for example graphics or desktop publishing systems.
Typical Working Process
ARC+ in conjunction with ARC+ Render Pro, provides many options for
creating and rendering your model. Each ARC+ user develops his or her own
style of design, and it would be difficult to define a "normal" procedure for
work.
What follows is an example of one possible procedure for rendering a model.
The example does not include all of the possible ARC+ Render Pro commands
and options. The order of commands can be altered, and you can mix rendering
commands with ARC+ editing commands.
Menu Commands
Description
See Chapter and Section
Any ARC+ editing commands
(on the main ARC+ menu)
Create or open an ARC+ model
Getting started, Preparing the model
Display the ARC+ Render Pro menu
Getting started, Entering ARC+
Render Pro commands
Attributes
Dynamic Editing
Enter the rendering mode and assign
rendering colors, materials, and
textures to the entities and background
of your model
Attributes, Assigning attributes to
entities
Attributes
Lights
Lights
Ambient Light
Set the lighting scheme, for example 23 light sources plus ambient light
Lighting
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Menu Commands
Description
See Chapter and Section
Cameras
Graphic Editing
Set the rendering view
Cameras, Setting the view in the
rendering mode
Render
Image setting
Set the image file name, type, and size
Rendering, Image file types
Render
Quality setting
Set the rendering quality options
Rendering, Rendering Quality
File
Exit Rendering Mode
Return to the modeling mode
Getting started, Modeling and
rendering modes
File Save
Save the model and rendering files
In the ARC+ User's Guide: Files,
Saving a file
Render
Render/Ray Tracing
Produce and display the rendered
image
Rendering, Producing the rendered
image
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Attributes
2
Attributes
This chapter defines rendering attributes and explains how to assign attribute
values to entities using ARC+ Render Pro commands.
An ARC+ design model consists of three-dimensional components called entities.
The surfaces of these entities are displayed in a rendering of the model. By
assigning attributes to an entity, you instruct ARC+ Render Pro how to treat the
surfaces of the entity in the rendering.
The attributes that you can assign are:
COLOR
Any of 16,777,216 distinct combinations of the red,
green, and blue primary colors.
MATERIAL
A specified combination of properties representing
how the entity interacts with light: transparency,
diffuse (dull) or specular (shiny) reflection.
TEXTURE
Any of a large variety of realistic textures, such as
wood, brick, paving, etc.
SMOOTHING
The degree to which sharp edges of a solid entity are
smoothed in the rendered image.
BILLBOARD
The behavior that the element is automatically
rotated towards the camera.
You can assign attributes in either the modeling or the rendering mode. If you
work in the rendering mode, you can define a lighting scheme and background
for your model while you assign the attributes, and you can immediately
preview the effect of your assignments on the rendered image.
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Attributes
Defining Attributes
This section explains the meaning of rendering attributes and how to define
attribute values using ARC+ Render Pro commands.
Colors
Specify colors using one of the methods described below.
RGB Colors
You specify colors using RGB definitions. RGB defines colors using the three
primary color components (red, green and blue) which are the basis for a video
image. A number from 0 to 255 defines how much of each component color is
present in the RGB color. Some useful definitions appear in the table below.
Color
Black
Red
Green
Blue
Cyan
Magenta
Yellow
White
R (Red)
0
255
0
0
0
255
255
255
G (Green)
0
0
255
0
255
0
255
255
B (Blue)
0
0
0
255
255
255
0
255
The RGB concept includes both the shade and the brightness of color. White,
gray, and black, for example, can all be produced by adjusting the RGB
component values. There is no need for a separate color brightness setting in the
RGB system.
Using the Color Dialog Boxes
There are several ways to define a color in ARC+ Render Pro dialog boxes:
Slide the RGB slide bars.
If a color palette is displayed, click one of the palette entries. You may then
modify the color by moving the slide bars.
Make the RGB text areas active and type the desired amount of each primary
color (0-255).
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Attributes
Anywhere in ARC+ Render Pro where a color sample is displayed, you can
double-click the sample to display the COLOR ATTRIBUTE dialog box. Select
from the palette or use the slide bars to change the color as desired.
Other Color Systems
You can use several methods to specify
colors in ARC+ Render Pro:
Color system
Explanation
RGB
Red Green Blue
The HSL colors are specified by
HSL
Hue Saturation Luminance
numerical color coordinates, similar to
Name
Name of color
RGB. In the Name system, colors are
specified by names such as gray, forest green, or goldenrod.
To display a palette of colors in any of the dialog boxes, double-click in the
sample colored area.
To name a color, right-click a color area or a color element in the scene tree and
open the PROPERTIES dialog box.
NOTE You may use the systems interchangeably and switch back and forth while
working on the same model. The RGB and HSL alternatives produce an identical gamut
of colors. The Name system is more limited, as you can produce many RGB or HSL
colors that have no defined name.
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Attributes
Naming a Color
In the attributes record of an entity, rendering colors are specified by name. The
name is an ampersand symbol (&) followed by the RGB component values of the
color. For example, the name &255:255:255 refers to white and the name &0:255:0
refers to green.
If you assign a rendering color in the modeling mode and you know the name of
the color, you can type the name on the input line without using a dialog box.
NOTE Use this naming system only in ARC+ Render Pro commands. In other
(nonrendering) ARC+ commands, use the standard palette of fifteen colors which you
specify by number (1-15).
Default Color and Conflicts with Texture
If you assign no rendering color to an entity, then the entity is rendered with its
ARC+ color from the standard 15-color ARC+ palette.
If you assign both a color attribute and a texture attribute to an entity, then the
texture is used to form the rendered image and the color is ignored. To change
the color of a texture, use the Edit texture command.
See Combining attributes later in this chapter for further information on these
rules.
Editing a Color
Using the Edit Color dialog box, you can adjust or change the RGB color
assigned to any entity.
Materials
In ARC+ Render Pro, a material attribute determines how light is treated when
it strikes an entity's surface, which is important for determining shading
characteristics, highlights, reflections, and transparency of the rendered image.
The material definition includes only optical properties, that is, those properties
that affect the way you see the image. Other material properties such as
mechanical strength, etc., are omitted from the material definition as they have
no effect on the rendered image.
The optical properties of materials are fully exploited if you use the ray tracing
method to form the rendered image (see Chapter 5, Rendering).
Characteristics of a few typical materials are given in the following table.
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Attributes
Material
Aluminum
In both rendering
and ray tracing
Medium shiny
Chalk
Dull
Glass
Shiny
Mirror
Shiny
Plastic
Medium dull
Optical Properties
Additional properties
in ray tracing
No reflectance
No transparency
No reflectance
No transparency
Low reflectance
High transparency
High reflectance
No transparency
No reflectance
No transparency
You can edit the properties of a material to define new materials with properties
that you desire.
Chalk table top
Glass table top
Mirror table top
Using the Material Dialog Boxes
Select a predefined material from a palette. If you edit and save a material
definition, choose the icon of the original (unedited) material from the palette.
Either double-click the icon or right-click the mouse and select PROPERTIES. A
MATERIAL dialog box opens, consisting of two tabs: GENERAL, for naming the new
material and SETTING, for editing its optical properties.
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Naming a Material
In the attributes record of an entity, materials are specified by name selected
from drop down menu. The predefined materials have simple names, such as
glass. If you create a new material definition by editing a predefined material,
you give it a subname, e.g., glass:stained, by typing in the DESCRIPTION text area.
If you know the name, you can specify a material in the modeling mode by
typing on the input line without using a dialog box.
NOTE Type the name using capital and small letters exactly as it appears in a dialog
box or attributes record.
Default Material
If you do not assign a material attribute to an entity, it is rendered using the
default, a dull opaque material with no other special properties.
See Combining Attributes later in this chapter for further information on this
subject.
Editing a Material
You can edit the optical properties defining the material of an entity (in effect
defining a new material), using the SETTING tab in the MATERIAL dialog box.
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The following parameters appear in the dialog box and are used in both the
rendering and the ray-tracing methods:
DIFFUSE
Light reflected from a surface of the material and
scattered in all directions; dull reflection (range 0-1,
default 1).
SPECULAR
Light reflected from the material near the mirror
direction; shiny reflection (0-1, default 0).
SHINY
Angular distribution of specular reflection about the
mirror direction; higher values give a narrower
distribution and sharper highlights on the material.
TRANSPARENCY
Fraction of light transmitted by a surface of this
material onto other surfaces in the model (0-1, default
0). (Effective only in the Phong and Ray-tracing
methods).
REFRACTIVE
Ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of
light in the material. This determines how a ray of
light is bent when it passes through a transparent
material such as glass, plastic, or water. The value is
near 1.5 for most materials. (Effective only in the
Phong and Ray-tracing methods).
FADE
Decay of reflected or transmitted light intensity with
distance from a surface of the material. A fade value
of 0 means that the light intensity does not decrease
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Attributes
with distance. Larger values mean that the intensity
decays more rapidly with distance (0-2, default 0).
(Effective only in the Phong and Ray-tracing
methods).
REFLECTANCE
Fraction of light reflected by a surface of the material
onto other surfaces in the model (0-1, default 0).
(Effective only in the Phong and Ray-tracing
methods).
AMBIENT
Uniform, non-directional light of any RGB color
illuminating the material. Use this parameter to
ensure that surfaces of this material are not
completely black in the rendered image (default 0).
SHADOWS
The material casts shadows on surfaces behind it. For
unusual lighting effects, you can turn off shadows for
a material.
HINT Materials with low diffuse reflection (e.g., mirror or glass) tend to look dark in
renderings produced with the flat or Gouraud shading options. If this is a problem, use
the Phong or ray tracing shading option instead (see Chapter 5, Rendering, Shading
options).
Geometrical Characteristics
There are several differences in the behavior of materials when you apply them
to a solid entity with different geometrical characteristics. To view the effect of
applying a material to a three-dimensional solid, you can define the geometrical
character of the solid.
From the pull-down menu in the properties dialog box select: CYLINDER,
RECTANGLE, SPHERE or MATERIAL (two-dimensional). You can remove the
GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS option from the dialog box by clicking the <<
button.
Textures
There are two types of textures in ARC+ Render Pro:
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TWO-DIMENSIONAL
A predefined pattern that is applied repeatedly to
cover the surface of a polygon or solid entity.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL
A computed pattern that is applied to the surface of a
polygon entity or throughout the body of a solid
entity.
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There are several differences in the behavior of these textures when you apply
them to a solid entity.
Thus, with two-dimensional textures, lines of the pattern (e.g., wood grain) may
not be continuous or consistent at the edges of a solid entity. Three-dimensional
textures fill the entire body of the solid, so lines are continuous and consistent at
all edges.
You can apply a two-dimensional texture nonglobally onto each surface of a solid.
Alternatively, you may apply it globally around all sides of a simple solid
(prism). If you do this, the pattern is rescaled and wrapped around the sides of
the solid. In the GLOBAL option, the texture is not applied to the top and bottom
base polygons of the solid; you can apply the texture separately to the base
polygons if you wish.
You may also apply a texture globally to a rotational solid (see Polygons and
solids, Creating a solid by rotating a polygon, \rosol command, in the ARC+ User's
Guide), provided the solid meets the following criteria:
The upper and lower bases of the solid are perpendicular to the rotation axis.
No other surfaces of the solid are perpendicular to the axis.
The solid has a diameter that is greater than zero in all directions
perpendicular to the axis.
The solid was created by a rotation of 360°.
NOTE If you try to apply a texture globally to a complex solid that does not meet these
criteria, then it is applied nonglobally.
The GLOBAL and NONGLOBAL options are not relevant to three-dimensional
textures.
Some of the available texture categories are listed below.
Texture Category
Art
Brick
Carpet
Cloth
Cork
Drinks
Granite
Marble
Paint
Parquet
PVC
Rug
Stone
Wood
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Typical Textures in Category
Paintings and works of art
Brick and tile patterns
Carpets and upholstery
Fabrics and upholstery
Cork
Soft-drink labels
Granite and stone
Marble
Rough painted surfaces
Wood patterns
PVC flooring
Coarse rugs
Patterned stone and concrete
Wood materials
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You can edit the properties of a texture to define new textures with patterns that
you desire.
Art
Brick
Carpet
Cloth
Cork
Drinks
Granite
Marble
Paint
Parquet
PVC
Rug
Stone
Wood
2D texture applied nonglobally
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2D texture applied globally
3D texture
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Using the Texture Dialog Boxes
Select a texture from a palette.
Two-dimensional textures are displayed as patterned squares in the palette. The
size of the square is one repeat unit of the texture pattern.
Three-dimensional textures are displayed as columns of marble, logs of wood, or
other three-dimensional objects within a solid-color square. The size of the
square is 1 x 1 meter, providing a visual guide for the scale of the texture.
If you edit and save a texture definition, choose the icon of the original
(unedited) texture from the palette. The dialog boxes then provide either an
additional scroll box or an EDIT icon by which you can choose your edited
version.
To open the TEXTURE dialog box, select a texture from the palette. Either doubleclick it or right-click and select PROPERTIES. A dialog box with 4 tabs is opened.
Naming a Texture
In the attributes record of an entity, textures are specified by category and name,
selected from drop down menu, for example WOOD:budinga. If you create a new
texture definition by editing a predefined texture, you give the texture a
subname, for example WOOD:budinga:dark.
If you know the category and name, you can specify a texture in the modeling
mode by typing on the input line without using a dialog box.
NOTE Type the category and name in capital and small letters exactly as it appears in
a dialog box or attributes record.
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Default Texture and Conflicts with Color
If you assign no texture to an entity, then the entity is rendered without texture.
If you assign both a color attribute and a texture attribute to an entity, then the
texture is used to form the rendered image and the color is ignored.
See Combining attributes later in this chapter for further information on this subject.
Editing Texture Size and Orientation
You can edit the properties of a texture using the TEXTURE dialog box SIZE tab.
The fields and options in this box vary depending on the type of texture you are
editing.
For two-dimensional textures, you can change the scale or rotate the texture on
the surface to which it is applied:
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ABSOLUTE/RELATIVE
Select ABSOLUTE if you want to specify the other
texture options (SIZE, GAP, and OFFSET) in your ARC+
working units (e.g., meters). Select RELATIVE if you
prefer to specify the other options as a fraction or
percentage of the polygon to which the texture is
applied.
SIZE
Horizontal and vertical dimensions of the texture
pattern unit (the unit that appears in a dialog box
icon).
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In the ABSOLUTE option, increasing the SIZE enlarges the texture. In the RELATIVE
option, SIZE is the number of times that the texture pattern unit is repeated on
the surface, i.e., increasing SIZE makes the texture unit smaller.
GAP
Leaves a horizontal or vertical space between
repetitions of the texture within the polygon.
OFFSET
Displaces the starting point of the texture repeat
pattern in a horizontal or vertical direction within the
polygon.
If you select ABSOLUTE, specify OFFSET and GAP in your working unit (e.g.,
meters). If you select RELATIVE, specify OFFSET and GAP in percent of the texture
unit dimensions.
REPEAT
Portion of the polygon surface that the texture covers
in the horizontal and vertical directions. The default
value of 0 means that the entire surface is covered.
Specify nonzero values if you want to cover only part
of the surface.
Specify repeat as the ABSOLUTE dimensions that you want to cover, e.g., 1 m
horizontally x 2 m vertically, or as the RELATIVE number of times that the unit
should be repeated, e.g., twice horizontally and three times vertically.
The REPEAT value is the maximum coverage of the surface. If you specify a REPEAT
value that is larger than the entire surface (e.g., REPEAT = 10 m on a 2 m surface),
then the entire surface is covered.
ROTATE
Orientation angle of the texture on the surface
(0-360). With an angle of 0, the first corner point of
the pattern (bottom left of the dialog box icon)
coincides with the first point that you defined when
you created the polygon. The second corner point
(top left of the icon) lies on the line between the first
and second points of the polygon. With a rotation
angle not equal to 0, the pattern is rotated from this
orientation.
To edit additional orientation properties of a texture use the TEXTURE dialog box
tab.
TILE
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TILING MODE
Determines how alternate texture units are oriented
relative to one another throughout the polygon.
Options are normal (all units oriented in the same
direction), mirror xy (alternate units are flipped in
both the horizontal and vertical directions), mirror x
(flipped in the horizontal direction only), and mirror y
(vertical direction only).
FLIP
Reflects the texture pattern unit in the horizontal or
vertical direction.
To edit the alignment property of a texture use the TEXTURE dialog box MISC tab.
ALIGNMENT
The direction in which the vertical dimension of the
texture unit is placed. Options are polygon (i.e., the
texture is placed parallel to the first side of the
polygon), x axis, y axis, and zaxis. Choose z axis, for
example, to ensure that a brick texture is placed
parallel to the true vertical direction of your model.
NOTE The GAP, OFFSET, REPEAT, TILING MODE, FLIP, and ALIGNMENT options are
effective for textures applied to polygons or applied nonglobally to solids.
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Editing Texture Colors
For two-dimensional textures that contain only two colors, you can edit:
COLORS
Click either of the color squares to make it active and
edit the color using the RGB slide bars.
For three-dimensional textures, you can edit both size and colors:
You can edit the properties of the texture using the TEXTURE dialog box SIZE tab,
see Editing Texture and Size Orientation, earlier in this chapter.
You can edit color using the TEXTURE dialog box 3D tab.
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SCALE
Density of the pattern in the xyz directions (lower
values give denser patterns).
CONTOUR VALUES
Numerical steps at which colors are defined. You
may type any number between 0 and 1 on each line,
using up to five successive lines. The numbers must
be in ascending sequence. Changing the contour
values changes the spacing of colors in the texture.
Adding additional contour values introduces a larger
variety of colors in the texture.
COLORS
Five color values defined for each contour value.
These colors, including a continuous range of colors
between them, are displayed in the texture. To
change the colors in the texture, click any of the color
squares and adjust the RGB slide bars.
NOTE For the mathematically inclined: A three-dimensional texture is computed as
contour surfaces of a function f (x,y,z), whose values range from 0 to 1. For specific
contour values, you define colors in the dialog box. ARC+ Render Pro interpolates colors
between the contour values that you define.
Editing texture colors depends on the type of texture, and might vary for
different types.
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Bump Map Option-Roughening the Surface Appearance
You can apply a texture as a bump map, which is a roughness (embossed
appearance, variation of surface orientation) that is applied to a surface. Select
the MISC tab in the TEXTURE dialog box.
BUMP MAP DROP DOWN MENU
NO BUMP
Apply the texture smoothly. The texture hides any
color that is applied to the same surface.
JUST BUMP
Apply the roughness effect to a surface, but not the
colored texture from which it is derived. The
roughness does not hide an underlying color, if you
apply both the texture and a color to the surface, both
show through.
TEXTURE + BUMP
Apply both the colored texture and the roughness
effect. The texture hides any underlying color.
Transparency Map Option-Textures with Transparent Holes
You can apply a texture with transparency map that allow the background to
show through. Common transparency map is invisible black pixels. A black pixel is
defined as any point in the texture pattern unit that contains pure black color
(RGB = 0 0 0). In effect, the black pixels are transparent holes or windows in the
texture.
Check TRANSPARENCYMAP in the TEXTURE dialog box.
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Transparency map options:
TRANSPARENCY CHANNEL
Use transparency channel for transparency map. This
option is effective when texture file have alpha
channel. If alpha channel is not available in the
current texture file, the comment “no alpha channel”
is displayed next to this option.
COLOR RANGE
Use the parts of the texture image with color range as
transparent areas. Default color range is black. When
color range is black (invisible black pixels), use the
black (RGB 0 0 0) parts of the texture image as
transparent areas.
FILE
Transparency map is available in external mask file.
To create a texture where INVISIBLE BLACK PIXELS is selected by default, see Adding
textures and texture categories, later in this chapter. You can override the default
by deselecting INVISIBLE BLACK PIXELS in the TEXTURE dialog box.
If the effect of the invisible black pixel doesn’t show in the rendered image,
choose the ray tracing viewing method.
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Effect on Computation Time
Some three-dimensional textures take longer to draw on the screen than twodimensional textures. The time for a rendering computation may be increased
when a three-dimensional texture is employed.
Smoothing
You can assign the smoothing attribute to solid entities. Smoothing is performed
by averaging the light characteristics on the surfaces adjoining at an edge.
Smoothing is effective, for example, to round the edges of a curved body that
was approximated in ARC+ as a series of flat surfaces.
You cannot smooth a polygon entity or a single polygon on the surface of a solid.
IMPORTANT Smoothing is effective only if you choose the Phong or ray tracing
option when you form the rendered image (see Chapter 5, Rendering, Shading options).
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Defining a Smoothing Angle
To assign a smoothing attribute, double-click on the solid entity, or right-click
the mouse and select PROPERTIES.
Specify the smoothing as an
angle, greater than 0° and
less than 180°. Smoothing is
applied to any edge where
the dihedral angle is greater
than the value you specify.
Thus a larger number of
edges are smoothed if you
specify a smaller smoothing
angle. If you specify a
smoothing angle of 0°, no
smoothing performed.
Default Smoothing
If you do not assign a smoothing attribute to an entity, then smoothing is not
performed.
Billboards
Billboards are objects that always face the camera. For example, a flat object
consisting of a simple polygon and a transparent texture (e.g. texture of a tree)
can be defined as a billboard. Once an object is defined as a billboard, it will be
automatically rotated towards the camera each time the camera is moved.
This feature is especially useful when placing objects such as trees and people in
an architectural scene. When the cameras on the scene are moved around,
Billboards automatically rotate towards each rendered camera – a time
consuming task when done manually.
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Defining Billboards
To define an object as a Billboard, right-click on an object and select Properties
from the contextual menu. In the dialog box that opens, select the Billboard tab
and check the Set Billboard box.
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Side
Defines the object-side facing the camera (front, left,
right, top, etc.).
Center
Defines the orientation of the selected object-side
towards the camera (center, top-right, top-left,
bottom-right, bottom-left etc.).
Angle
Defines the angle with which the object will be facing
the camera.
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Assigning Attributes to Entities
Polygons, Solids, and Walls
You can assign attributes to polygon and solid entities in your model. If you
assign an attribute to a polygon and later expand that polygon to a solid (see
Polygons and solids, Expanding a polygon into a solid, \p3d command, in the ARC+
User's Guide), the solid is automatically assigned the same attributes as the
polygon.
When you assign an attribute to a polygon, the entire surface of the polygon is
rendered with that attribute.
When you assign an attribute to a solid, all surfaces of the solid are rendered
with that attribute. You can override this and render one or more polygon
surfaces of the solid with different attributes, by assigning different attribute
values to those polygons.
Remember that the two bases of a simple solid are polygons and you can assign
attributes to the entire solid or to the bases alone.
The sides connecting the bases of a simple solid are not polygons. You cannot
assign attributes to one of these sides alone unless you draw a polygon over it.
There are two exceptions to these rules:
The smoothing attribute can be assigned to solids only. You cannot smooth a
single polygon surface.
If you apply a two-dimensional texture globally to a simple or rotational
solid, it covers the sides but not the bases of the solid. To cover the bases as
well, assign the texture separately to the base polygons or apply the texture
nonglobally (see Textures earlier in this chapter).
Be sure to assign attributes to all entities that will be displayed in the rendered
image. For example, assign attributes to three-dimensional wall solids. There is
little purpose in assigning attributes to two-dimensional wall bases, however,
since these are not usually visible in the image.
The Modeling and Rendering Modes
You can assign attributes in either the modeling mode or the rendering mode.
The differences between these modes are summarized in the following table:
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Attributes
Enter:
You can assign:
Assign attributes to:
Indicate entities by:
The attribute is
assigned:
At the same time, you
can set:
In the Modeling Mode
In the Rendering Mode
Individual commands for each attribute
One command
Color, material, texture, or smoothing (one at a Color, material, and texture (all at once if
time)
desired)
Individual entities or a selection group of
Individual entities
entities
Pointing to an edge (e.g., a vertical edge of a
Pointing to any point on a visible surface of
wall)
the entity or right-clicking its name in the
scene tree and selecting PROPERTIES.
Immediately
Immediately
You see the result:
When you form the rendered image
You may mix attribute
assignments with:
Any other ARC+ command
Lights
Ambient light
Background
Immediately (preview with no shading or
Phong shading)
ARC+ Render Pro commands only
Assigning Attributes in the Rendering Mode
To enter the rendering mode, choose the following command:
\grdyned
Attributes
Dynamic Editing
The model is displayed in the work windows. Use the VIEW menu and the draw
toolbar to adjust the view as desired (see Chapter 1.Getting Started, Windows and
viewing icons).
Assigning the Attributes
To assign an attribute: click on the solid entity, right-click the mouse and select
PROPERTIES. Double-click the blank rectangle you want to edit.
To attach attributes, use the attach icons reviewed in Chapter 1, Getting Started, or
Select Edit > Attach Mode from the menu bar and then select from the same
menu choices as available in the icons below.
From left to right: Attach to entity. Attach to solid.
Layers. Colors.
Click Attach to entity or Attach to solid icon and double-click the entity to open
the Entity Properties dialog box and assign attribute. To attach to a layer or
color click the appropriate icon to open a layers or color properties dialog box. If
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you choose ATTACH TO SOLID, also specify how to wrap two-dimensional textures
around simple solids (see Textures, earlier in this chapter):
Attaching an attribute (texture, materials or color) is referred to as a 'look'.
IMPORTANT The indicated point on the surface must be visible, not hidden behind
any other entity. If no point on the desired surface is visible, rotate the model using the
viewing icons until the surface comes into view.
To assign an attribute, click
on the solid entity, right-click
the mouse and select
PROPERTIES.
You can either assign an
existing attribute or generate
a new one, for each one of
the displayed rectangles. To
assign an existing attribute
(color, material or texture),
select it from the relevant toolbar, drag and drop it on the rectangle. To generate
a new attribute, double-click the rectangle you want to edit. An attribute setting
dialog box is opened.
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Use all the editing options as explained in Editing a Material earlier in this
chapter (or other attributes).
Saving an Edited Attribute
Click APPLY, AUTO APPLY or OK. A SAVE AS dialog box opens. Specify a name and
click OK to add the modified texture to the rendering files.
NOTE If you create a new attribute definition by editing a predetermined attribute,
you will be asked to give it a subname.
When you check AUTO APPLY, all changes are dynamically applied to the
displayed model, along with the editing. When you click APPLY, the changes are
applied when you click, and the dialog box remains open. When you click OK,
the changes are applied and the dialog box is closed.
Placed Objects
You can assign attributes to the component entities of placed objects within your
model.
When you do this, the attributes are stored in the source (library) file of the
placed object. Thereafter, the placed object has the same rendering attributes in
every model in which it is placed (unless you cancel or change the attribute
values).
To avoid this, copy the source file to your working directory and place the copy
in your model. When you save the model, the copy file is modified but the
source file remains unchanged. For information on copying library files
automatically, see Chapter 1, Getting Started, Model and Rendering Files.
Positive and Negative Solids
You can assign attributes to both positive (ordinary) solids and to negative solids
(openings and voids). When you do this:
A positive solid is rendered as you would expect-the attributes you assign
are displayed on all surfaces.
A negative solid is rendered as an open area in your model-for example a
doorway or window.
The attributes you assign to a negative solid are displayed at the boundary of
the negative solid with a surrounding positive solid-for example a doorframe
or windowsill.
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Previewing the Rendered Image
You can view the effect of your attribute assignments on the rendered image at
any time. Select one of the VIEW menu options or one of the icons at the draw
toolbar:
WIRE FRAME
View only the polygons forming the model (the
default display). Your model is displayed as in the
modeling mode of ARC+.
NO SHADING
View the rendered model without shading effects
also known as FLAT RENDERING. The true colors and
textures of your model are displayed, exactly as they
would appear in white ambient (uniform and nondirectional) light. Your lighting scheme is ignored in
this option, and the effects of material attributes are
not displayed.
DYNAMIC RENDERING
View rendered model with lighting and shadow
effects, defined during dynamic rendering. Display
the rendered image with the Phong shading option.
You can observe the effects of your lighting scheme
and of your color, material, and texture assignments.
In order to save computation time, however, the
quality of the image is lower than that of a DYNAMIC
EDITING produced in the Rendering the model
(\grender) command (see Chapter 5, Rendering).
RAY TRACE
View the rendered image with the ray-tracing option
You can also preview a portion of the model using
the RAY TRACING method. Use this option, for
example, to preview a region of the model to which
you have assigned a transparent or reflective material
attribute.
WHOLE WINDOW
RAY TRACE BY RECTANGLE
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
In the VIEW menu, select ray tracing by rectangle.
Then drag the mouse to define a fence (rectangle) in
the model. The area within the fence is displayed
using the ray tracing method. The display returns to
the normal preview method if you assign a new
attribute value to an entity within the fence or if you
click a different preview icon.
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RAY TRACE PUZZLE
Depending on the complexity of your image and
other factors, it may take a little time for a preview to
be drawn on the screen. You can halt the screen
redraw at any time by pressing Alt+Shift. This has no
effect on your attribute, lighting, or background
assignments. You can choose a different preview
icon, or you can continue making attribute
assignments.
Customizing the Previewing Method
You can customize certain aspects of the preview display using the following
command:
\grstde
Tools
Options
Dynamic
Using the dialog box, you may specify:
SHADING QUALITY
A parameter influencing the quality of the DYNAMIC
image. Choose higher values for a higher
quality image, or lower values to save computation
time (range 1-10, default 8).
RENDERING
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SHADOWS
You can save time by turning SHADOWS EFFECT off. If
you do this, ARC+ Render Pro does not check whether
a surface of your model is shaded from a light source
by other surfaces in your model. Therefore all
shadows are eliminated from the preview image
(default on).
HIGH QUALITY
Produces the highest quality preview rendering, or
turn it off to save time.
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Click the default button
to return to default
settings.
Your image size setting
takes effect only when
you re-enter the
Assigning attributes in the
rendering mode (\grdyned)
command. The other
settings take effect
immediately.
You can change your
settings at any time.
ARC+ Render Pro
remembers your latest
choices, so they remain
in effect even in your
next ARC+ session.
NOTE These settings affect only the preview display. To set the size and quality of the
final rendered image, see Chapter 5, Rendering.
Changing, Querying, and Editing an Attribute Value
To change an attribute previously assigned to an entity, then simply reassign it.
To cancel an attribute, enter the value none at the appropriate command prompt.
You may also query an entity to determine assigned attributes. You may edit an
attribute that you have already assigned, by:
Changing the RGB color combination
Changing the optical properties of a material
Changing the scale, orientation, colors, etc., of textures
When you edit a material or texture attribute, you give the modified attribute a
new subname and save it in the rendering files. This allows you to create new
materials and textures and apply them to entities in your model.
In the Modeling Mode
Use the INQUIRE and EDIT commands that appear in the ATTRIBUTES pull-down
menus (see Commands in the modeling mode, later in this chapter).
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In the Rendering Mode
Enter the rendering mode, select an attribute, right-click the mouse and select
PROPERTIES. See above Assigning attributes in the rendering mode.
If you wish to query or edit an attribute, point to any visible surface of the entity,
right-click the mouse and select PROPERTIES.
Setting the Background
In the rendering mode, you can assign a background to your rendering in the
same way as you assign attributes to entities. The background may be any color
or most two-dimensional textures (see Chapter 4, Lighting, Background).
To assign the background, select a color or a texture from the relevant tool bar,
drag and drop it on the background.
If you wish to change the background, simply assign another color or texture to
it. You cannot clear the background completely, since every rendering must have
a background.
NOTE You may also assign the background using the SETTING THE BACKGROUND
(\grbckgrd) command, in either the modeling or rendering mode (see Chapter 4,
Lighting).
Color Mapping Table
You can color-code the entities of your ARC+ model using the fifteen standard
ARC+ colors. For example, you could use color 1 for brick walls, color 2 for glass
window panes, color 3 for metallic surfaces, etc.
Then, you can construct a color-mapping table to translate the standard ARC+
colors into color, material, and texture rendering attributes. In this way you map
color 1 to a brick texture with chalk-like optical properties, color 2 to a transparent
glass material with white color, color 3 to a coppery color with aluminum-like
reflectance, etc.
If you wish to override the color mapping for one or more entities in your
model, then simply assign different attribute values to those particular entities.
To override, double-click a color in the scene tree. Drag and drop attributes from
the color, texture and material bars into the attributes dialog box. You can edit
and save these attributes by double-clicking the selected rectangle.
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Layer Mapping Tool
You can automatically map the layers of ARC+ onto color, material, and/or
texture attributes of your choice. For example, you can assign a red color and
glass material attribute to all entities in layer 1, or a chalk material and carpet
texture to all entities in layer 2.
To map the layers, double-click on a layer in the scene tree. Drag and drop
attributes from the color, texture and material bars into the attributes dialog box.
You can edit and save these attributes by double-clicking the selected rectangle.
Viewing Attributes
To view a complete list of entity attributes, select Show extended entity attribute
page in the Options dialog box, Attribute tab. Then double-click the entity to
open the entity properties dialog box. Here you can view the solid, layer and
color fields of an entity. This extended viewing is valuable in working with
Attaching attributes
discussed earlier
and Combining
Attributes discussed
below.
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Attributes
SHOW EXTENDED ENTITY
ATTRIBUTE PAGE
(VERIFY)
Enable view of extended entity attribute page or
reduce icon size.
SUB ATTRIBUTES
Enable selection of attribute by subname.
SCENE TREE VIEW
Enable exploring attributes in scene tree view.
DEFAULT
Click to return to default settings.
Combining Attributes
You can combine attributes to represent a great variety of construction materials
and finishes.
For example, a "colorless" glass window pane can be represented with a white
color attribute and a material with high transparency and low reflectance. The
window can be converted to colored glass by giving it a nonwhite color while
leaving the material attribute unchanged.
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In the event of conflicts between attribute values assigned in different ways to
the same entity, the following order of precedence (from highest to lowest) is
employed:
Polygon entity
Solid entity
Layer mapping tool
Color mapping table
Default attribute value
For example, suppose you have created several solid entities in your model, each
with the standard ARC+ color 1. Assign a marble texture to one face of a single
solid, a wood texture to the rest of the solid, map a brick texture onto the other
solids using the color mapping table.
NOTE Remember that textures override colors. If you assign both a texture and a color
to an entity, the texture is rendered and the color is ignored (see Textures, earlier in this
chapter).
Creating and Previewing a Lighting Scheme
You can create or edit a lighting scheme while you assign attributes in the
rendering mode. If you choose the DYNAMIC EDITING option from the attributes
menu, you see the effect of your lighting scheme immediately on the rendered
image.
Create or Edit Light Sources
Lights
Graphic Editing
Light-editing windows and a dialog area are displayed. Select and drag the light
and target symbols with the mouse or enter options and numerical parameters
in the dialog area. Click SAVE or SAVE AS to save the light in the rendering files.
For further information on light definitions, see Chapter 3, Lighting, Defining the
location and type of lights (\grlight) command.
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Attributes
Commands in the Modeling Mode
In the modeling mode, you must enter a separate command to assign or edit
each attribute. In the rendering mode, the attributes are assigned interactively in
a single operation, and the following commands are not needed (see Assigning
attributes in the rendering mode, earlier in this chapter, \grdyned command).
Assigning and Editing Color, Material, or Texture
To assign and edit entities use the identical operating method described below.
Assigning: Polygon Entities
\catrib
\matrib,
\tatrib
Attributes
Dynamic Editing
Set Color/Material/Texture
Assigning: Solid Entities
\scatrib,
\smatrib,
\statrib
Attributes
Dynamic Editing
Set Color/Material/Texture
Editing: Polygon Entities
\greclr,
\gremat,
\gretxt
Attributes
Polygon Attributes
Edit Color/Material/Texture
Editing: Solid Entities
\gresclr,
\gresmat,
\grestxt
Attributes
Solid Attributes
Set Color/Material/Texture
Operating Method
Double-click the entity to open the Entity Properties dialog box and open the
Attribute tab to view current attributes. Select textures or basic elements (such
as glass, mirrors, etc.) from the selection window located to the right of your
work window.
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Attributes
Selection
Windows
Select attribute (texture, material and color) and drag it to the appropriate field
in the dialog box.
To delete an existing attribute value, select it in the dialog box and click the
delete button on your keyboard.
If you are assigning a texture attribute, choose solid mapping (global wrapping
around sides) or single mapping (applied individually to each surface).
NOTE This option is effective only if you are assigning a two-dimensional texture to a
simple solid or to certain rotational solids (see Textures, earlier in this chapter). With
three-dimensional textures or other types of solids, this option is ignored.
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Attributes
Smoothing a Solid
Assign a smoothing attribute value to a solid entity.
\grsmth
Select the Solid tab in the Entity Properties dialog box, click Smooth.
Specify the smoothing as an angle, greater than 0 and less than 180. Smoothing
is applied to any edge where the dihedral angle is greater than value specified. A
larger number of edges are smoothed if you specify a smaller smoothing angle. If
you specify a smoothing angle of 0, however, then smoothing is not performed.
Indicate the solid entity to be smoothed.
IMPORTANT Smoothing is effective only if you choose the Phong or ray tracing
option when you form the rendered image (see Chapter 5, Rendering, Shading options).
Modifying a Look
To modify the look of colors, materials and textures, select the attribute in the
Attribute tab of the Entity Properties dialog box, as discussed above. The Look
editor toolbar is now activated. This toolbar is reviewed in Chapter 1, Getting
Started.
From left to right: Move texture left. Move texture right. Move texture up.
Move texture down. Rotate texture left. Rotate texture right. Decrease texture
scale X. Increase texture scale X. Decrease texture scale Y. Increase texture scale
Y. Increase blending. Decrease blending.
Click icon as desired to move, rotate, increase and decrease textures and blend
colors.
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Attributes
Editing the Libraries
The Libraries can be customized in a number of ways: folders and subfolders can
be added, and rendering attributes can be added up and edited (Library is a
collection of rendering attributes such as textures, materials and colors).
Editing Rendering Attributes
The powerful library tools allow editing, adding, or deleting rendering attributes
such as textures, materials and colors.
To delete a texture
Right click on the
texture in the library
bar and select Delete.
To edit a texture
Double click on a
texture, or right-click
on it and select
Properties. A dialog
opens in which you
can edit various
attribute parameters.
To add a new texture
Right click on the
library bar and select
New, or select File >
Import-Texture from
the menu bar. In the
import dialog box you
can specify the library
and category in which
you want the new
texture to be stored
(see Importing New
Textures).
To copy a texture
Copy the texture from
the scene, and paste it into the library bar.
To duplicate a texture
copy the texture from the library bar and then paste it
again.
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Attributes
Note: Read-only libraries cannot be edited. System
libraries are read-only by default.
Custom Procedural Textures
Custom procedural textures can be added to ARC+ Render Pro. Sample
procedural textures (shaders) such as Gradients, Checkers, and Strips are
available in the User textures library. These procedural textures can be created
using the Plug-ins development kit. The ARC+ Render Pro Plug-in Development
Kit (PDK) allows third party developers to extend ARC+ Render Pro and create
custom textures.
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Attributes
Importing New Textures to ARC+ Render Pro
Use the ARC+ Render Pro import texture command to add an unlimited number
of new two-dimensional textures to the rendering library.
Creating a Texture
Each two-dimensional texture is defined by a bitmap file, which contains the
repeating unit (pattern motif) of the texture. You can create the bitmap in any
number of ways, for example:
By drawing a motif with a graphics program
By scanning a photograph or hand drawing
By producing an image file using ARC+ Render Pro
By editing a bitmap produced by any other method using image processing
software
The bitmap size is only limited to the memory available in your computer. Many
of the predefined two-dimensional textures supplied with ARC+ Render Pro, for
example, have a bitmap size of about 200 x 200 pixels. You can create the bitmap
in either a 256 color format (8-bit color) or an RGB format (24-bit color).
Optionally, you can create a texture that contains transparent areas, where the
background shows through. To do this, color the desired transparent areas black
(RGB = 0 0 0). This allows you to apply the texture with the TRANSPARENT PIXELS
option (see Textures, earlier in this chapter), which produces the transparent
effect.
Store the bitmap in one of the following file types: BMP, TIFF, TGA, PCX, GIF, or
JPEG. For further information on the supported file types, see Forming the image,
Image file types.
Save your bitmap files as you wish to display them. For example, if you name a
file REDBRICK.TIF, the texture will be displayed under the name redbrick in the
ARC+ Render Pro dialog boxes.
Importing Textures
In ARC+ Render Pro, textures have both a category and a name. You can add new
textures to existing or new categories.
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Attributes
NOTE To avoid potential conflicts between your textures and textures provided with
ARC+ Render Pro, it is recommended to add textures only to categories that you define
yourself, not to the predefined categories supplied with ARC+ Render Pro.
To Import Textures
To import bitmap textures (see Creating a texture) into the library, run the
following command:
File
Import Texture
The IMPORT
dialog box
is opened.
TEXTURE
Select the file (or
files) you want to
import.
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Attributes
In the dialog box, specify the following options:
FILE NAME
Defines the new file name.
TYPE
Defines the new file type.
LIBRARY
The library name.
CATEGORY
The library folder where the textures bitmaps are
stored. You can use an existing category or create a
new one.
TRANSPARENT PIXEL
Allows you to apply transparency to a specified color.
Check the box and double-click on the color box next
top it to select a color.
Defines areas with specified color (default black RGB
= 0 0 0) of the texture bitmaps as transparent areas,
where the background can show through.
This option sets TRANSPARENT PIXELS as the default for
the texture. You can override the default when you
apply the texture (see Textures, earlier in this chapter).
KEEP BITMAP ASPECT
The icon is created with Bitmap aspect ratio.
RATIO
The new textures are displayed in the ARC+ Render Pro library bar, ready for
your use.
If You Install a New Version of ARC+ Render Pro
If you imported textures into the standard textures library, back up your texture
bitmap files to another folder (not a subfolder of ARC+ Render Pro), before you
install a new version of ARC+ Render Pro. Then install the new version of ARC+
Render Pro, and (if necessary) import again your textures in the new version.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
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Cameras
3
Cameras
Before rendering the model, define the camera or cameras of the rendered
image. These cameras are the viewing points, the direction and perspective from
which the model is observed. Each model contains five default cameras:
perspective, north, south, east and west. You can modify the default cameras or
create new cameras using the Camera Wizard.
It is important to keep in mind that the term camera has replaced the term view,
used in earlier versions of ARC+ Render Pro.
Working With Cameras
Select Cameras > Graphic Editing.
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Cameras
The current or default view of your model, seen from the angle of the default
camera, is displayed in the axonometric window at the upper left of this screen.
This is the active camera.
The remaining two work windows are camera control windows and work exactly
like the view control windows in the modeling mode. Here you can change the
view (from the camera's angle) by dragging the eye and target symbols or the
line between them (see Viewing, Using the control windows in the ARC+ User's
Guide).
The Camera Wizard
\greview
Select Edit > New from the menu bar, or right-click on any of the work windows
and select New from the menu to open the NEW dialog box.
This dialog box is used to
create cameras (this chapter),
light (see Chapter 4, Lighting),
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Cameras
paths (see Chapter 6, Animation).
The camera wizard contains a list of camera choices, as well as exterior or
interior settings. Select camera and setting and click OK.
The new camera is displayed graphically in both camera control windows. The
camera setting is displayed in the active axonometric window.
NOTE The active camera is represented with an additional box in its target line.
Setting the Cameras in the Rendering
Mode
You have two options in setting the cameras:
Set the camera in the modeling mode using ARC+ control windows and
commands (see Viewing, Setting the projection in the ARC+ User's Guide).
Set the camera using ARC+ Render Pro menu, camera icons, and dialog
boxes provided in the rendering mode. (This is the option discussed in this
chapter.)
In either option, you must adjust the camera on the screen and then set the
camera using an ARC+ Render Pro command. You can set the camera at any
time. Once set, the camera is stored in the rendering files and used when you
produce the rendered image.
NOTE An additional factor affecting the rendering camera setting is the ratio of height
to width of the image file (see Chapter 5, Rendering, Image file types).
If you work in the rendering mode, you can set several different cameras and
choose which one to use for each rendering. Use this feature, for example, to
create a series of renderings that show your design from different perspectives.
Each camera is saved under a name that you specify. Keep in mind that the
current camera is called the active camera.
Set one or more cameras for rendering using the dynamic editing mode.
\greview
Cameras
Graphic Editing
\greview
Attributes
Cameras
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
3-3
Cameras
The ARC+ RENDER PRO screen is displayed (see Chapter 1, Getting Started for a
detailed explanation of all the screen components).
Camera Control Windows
Select one of the camera icons (by clicking its icon in one of the CAMERA CONTROL
WINDOWS) and drag the eye and target symbols with the mouse.
If you wish to change the direction or perspective of the camera, drag the eye
or target symbol alone.
If you wish to pan the camera, drag the line between the eye and target.
In either case, the changes you have made are reflected in the axonometric
window, as well as in the parameter values of the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box
(if displayed).
Changing Camera Settings
To control the properties of a camera, choose one of the following three options
to open the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box:
Double-click its name in the scene tree, or right-click its name in the scene tree
and select PROPERTIES, or right-click the camera icon in one of the camera control
windows and select PROPERTIES.
Select the GEOMETRY tab.
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
3-5
Cameras
Camera Properties Dialog Box
In the dialog box you can set the following options:
EYE
The coordinates of the observer's eye in threedimensional space. This can be at any point in the
exterior or interior of the model.
TARGET
The center of the observer's cone of view.
PARALLEL/PERSPECTIVE
Set a parallel or perspective camera.
PCONE
The angle (breadth) of the perspective cone from the
observer's eye. Set a narrower angle to restrict the
camera to a limited area of the model.
PAN
Move the center of the rendered image by a specified
distance in the x or y direction.
ZOOM
Expand a section of the cone viewed by the camera
(centered about the pan coordinates) to fill the
rendered image. Set equal values of the x and y zoom
factors to enlarge a square area of the target area, or
unequal values to enlarge a rectangular area.
NOTE For a detailed explanation of these parameters, see Viewing, Setting the
projection in the ARC+ User's Guide.
The effect of the changed parameters is immediately displayed in the
axonometric window. If you change the EYE, TARGET, or PCONE parameters, the
changes are reflected in the camera control windows as well.
Saving a Camera Setting
Every change in the setting of the selected camera (like any other object) is
automatically saved, as part of the rendering files. If you do not want to apply
the change, use EDIT >
UNDO from the menu.
To add a camera, in the
scene tree, copy an
existing camera and
paste it in the tree.
To customize the name of
a camera, from the same
menu, select RENAME.
A RENAME dialog box is
opened.
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Cameras
You can either select the default name ($CURVIEW) or the names already attached
to your model, or type a new name of your choice.
You may save any number of camera settings under different names.
Selecting an Active Camera for Production
In the production mode, used to preview your
work, you can select one of the camera settings
that you saved as the active camera. When you
render an image / animation of the model, the
camera used will be that of the selected active
camera.
Select the name of the required camera in the
SCENE TREE and right-click the mouse.
A pop-up menu is opened:
Select SET ACTIVE. Keep in mind that during
rendering or animation you can change the
camera desired.
Setting Camera View Option
Right-click in any
camera control
window to open the
VIEW OPTIONS dialog
box, camera tab.
Selected Camera
Show the selected (current) camera in the camera
control windows.
All Cameras
Show all cameras in the camera control windows.
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Lighting
4
Lighting
Working with Lighting
Lighting enhances the 3D appearance of your images with highlights and
shadows. In addition, ARC+ Render Pro offers the opportunity to create lighting
animation. Lighting animation enables you to move and change lighting types
within a static scene, as well as illuminate a walk-through animated scene.
Lighting animation is fully discussed in Chapter 7.
In ARC+ Render Pro, you can define several types of illumination:
POINT
A light source, such as an interior lamp, that radiates
with uniform intensity in all directions from a
specified point.
SPOT
A light source that radiates in a cone-shape, from a
specified point. You can define the angle of the cone
and the variation of light intensity within the cone
angle.
DISTANT
A distant source of light that casts parallel rays on all
parts of the model. The location of the light source is
specified and used to determine the direction of the
light rays.
SUN
A distant source of light that simulate sunlight for
shadow studies based on global position, date and
time.
AMBIENT LIGHT
Uniform, non-directional light that illuminates all
parts of the model, without regard to direction or
shading.
You can define as many point, spot, or distant lights as you want, as well as
ambient light. You can store the light definitions in the rendering files and turn
individual lights on or off. This enables you to activate lights selectively to
produce renderings at different times of day or night.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
4-1
Lighting
In addition, you can simulate atmospheric conditions and the surroundings of
your model by defining:
FOG
Haze that blurs parts of the model that are more
distant from the observer's eye.
BACKGROUND
Color or texture behind your model.
To set the lighting parameters, use commands on the LIGHTS menu or the LIGHT
PROPERTIES dialog box. Alternatively, you can activate the light setting mode
from the ATTRIBUTES menu (see Chapter 2, Attributes).
Defining the Location and Type of Lights
Define the location and direction of point, spot, and distant light sources.
\grlight
Lights
Lights layout
The ARC+ RENDER PRO screen is displayed.
The current or default view of your model is displayed in the axonometric
window. The two light control windows contain the symbols for the light sources
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Lighting
and targets. You can change the views in each window using the VIEW menu (see
Chapter 1, Getting started, Windows and viewing icons).
Working with Work Light
A light source called Work Light, located at the observer's eye position, is
automatically defined for every ARC+ model. By default, work light is a point
source with a white color.
Defined as a cone or distant source, work light is always aimed at the target
(center of focus) of the rendering view. If you move the eye or target, work light
moves as well. You can freeze the position of the light source before moving the
eye or target, save a copy of work light under another name. You cannot delete
work light, but you can turn it off and alter its properties.
NOTE By default, WORK LIGHT is turned on for models that you are rendering for the
first time.
The Lighting Wizard
\
Lights
Lights Layout
Select Lights > Lights Layout, then Select Edit > New from the menu bar or
right-click on any of the work windows and select New from the menu to open
the NEW dialog box.
This dialog box is used to create lights (this chapter), cameras (see Chapter 3,
Cameras), paths (see Chapter 6, Animation).
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
4-3
Lighting
The light wizard contains a list of light choices, such as point, spot and distant,
as well as exterior or interior settings. Select light and setting and click ok.
Point light The light rays emanate from a
single point. See below for full information
Spotlight The light rays emanate from a single
point. See below for full information.
Distant light The light emanates from a point
removed from the image. See below for full
information.
Point, Spot, and Distant Light Sources
For each light source define the location of the light. For spot and distant light
sources, define the location of the light and a target point for the light.
SOURCE
4-4
The xyz coordinates from which the light shines.
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Lighting
TARGET
A point along a line from the light source,
determining the direction of the parallel rays from a
distant source, or the center of the cone from a
spotlight.
Define these points either by typing the coordinates in the LIGHT PROPERTIES
dialog box or graphically by dragging the location and target on the screen with
the mouse.
You must also set the color of each light source:
RGB
The RGB color of the light (see Chapter 2, Attributes,
Color Mapping). The color of an entity in the rendered
image is a combination of the color attribute that you
have assigned to the entity and the color of the light.
For example, a light with a yellow color will impart a
yellowish tinge to the model.
NOTE The RGB concept of color includes intensity of the light. To weaken the
intensity of a light, simply reduce the RGB component contributions. There is no need
for a separate intensity parameter.
You can determine:
LIGHT ON
The light source is on. If you turn the light off, the
light source remains defined but is ignored in the
rendering computation. You can turn the light back
on at any time.
SHADOWS EFFECT
ARC+ Render Pro checks whether each surface in the
model is shaded by any other surface from each light
source. If you turn shadows off for a light source,
then the source is considered to shine on all entities of
the model, and ARC+ Render Pro does not check for
shadows from that source.
FADE
By default, the light intensity is uniform at all
distances from the light source. If you set a fade value
that is larger than 0, the light decreases in intensity
with distance from the source. The light fades more
rapidly with larger values of this parameter (range
0-2).
Softening the Illumination
For point and spot sources, the light rays are considered to emanate from a
single point. This may produce relatively harsh illumination with sharp shadows.
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4-5
Lighting
If you choose the ray tracing option to produce your rendered image (see Chapter
5, Rendering, Shading options), you can soften the illumination and produce
fuzzier shadows by defining the following parameters:
RADIUS
The radius of a point or spot light source, considered
as a sphere.
RAY SAMPLE
The number of points within the sphere from which
light rays are considered to emanate. With a value of
0, this feature is turned off and all the light emanates
from a single point. With a value of 2 or more, the
light intensity is divided between more than one
point and the illumination is softened.
These parameters are not applicable if you choose a shading option other than
ray tracing.
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Spotlights
For a spotlight, define the size of the light cone:
CONE ANGLE
The angle of the light cone, for example, an angle of
5 means that only a narrow cone illuminates the
model. A larger angle causes the cone to widen and
illuminate a larger area in the target direction. The
maximum angle is 180, illuminating a hemisphere of
space.
Optionally, you can alter the distribution of light within the cone by defining
two additional parameters:
BEAM DISTRIBUTION
By default, the light intensity is uniform everywhere
within the cone angle. If you set a value other than 0
for beam distribution, the light has full intensity only
at the center of the cone and fades to a lower intensity
at the edges (range 0-50).
CONE DELTA
The cone delta angle defines the sharpness of the cone
edge. With an angle of 0, no light falls outside the
cone. With a larger angle, the light fades away
beyond the cone edge. For example, a delta angle of
10 means that there is absolutely no light from the
spot source at 10 away from the cone (range 0-180).
Effect on Computation Time
The time required for the rendering computation increases when a larger number
of light sources are employed. Usually, you can produce an excellent rendering
with about 2-3 light sources plus ambient light. The ambient light ensures that
shaded areas do not appear completely black in the image. The fade, cone angle,
beam distribution, and cone delta angle parameters have only an insignificant
effect on computation time.
The ray tracing option increases computation time, as a larger number of ray
samples is defined for each light source. Usually, about 4 ray samples from each
light source are sufficient for a good image. The radius value has no effect on
computation time.
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Lighting
3 point light sources
3 spot light sources
2 distant light sources
2 distant light sources + ambient light
2 distant lights sources + fog
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Lighting
Setting Light Properties
To control the properties of a light:
Double-click its name in the SCENE TREE, or, right-click its name in the SCENE TREE
and select PROPERTIES, or right-click the light icon in one of the light control
windows.
The LIGHT PROPERTIES GENERAL dialog box is opened.
LIGHT TYPE
Choose point, spot, or distant from the scroll box.
LIGHT ON
Check this box to turn the light source on. Remove
the checkmark if you want to turn the light off.
When selecting the Geometry tab, the LIGHT PROPERTIES GEOMETRY dialog box is
opened.
LIGHT SOURCE
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Enter the coordinates of the light source, or drag the
source symbol in a model window with the mouse.
4-9
Lighting
LIGHT TARGET
(For spot and distant sources) Enter the coordinates of
a point along a line from the light source, or drag the
target symbol in a model window with the mouse.
CONE ANGLE
For spotlights, enter the desired breadth, sharpness,
and uniformity of the light cone.
When selecting the Attributes tab, the LIGHT PROPERTIES ATTRIBUTES dialog box is
opened:
RGB
Adjust the RGB slide bars to the desired color of the
light source.
SHADOWS EFFECT
Check this box if you want ARC+ Render Pro to
check for shadows from the light source.
When selecting the Advanced tab, the LIGHT PROPERTIES ADVANCED dialog box is
opened:
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Lighting
FADE
Adjust the slide bar or enter a numerical value to
define the desired fading pattern of the light source.
RADIUS
(For spot and point sources and for ray tracing) Enter
a numerical value for the radius of the light source.
RAY SAMPLE
(For spot and point sources and for ray tracing) Enter
a numerical value for the number of points within the
sphere of the light source.
IRIS
(For spot light). Adjust the slide bar or enter a
numerical value (between 0-1) to define the size of
the circle illuminated by the spot light.
Naming Lights
To customize the name of a light, select a light in
the SCENE TREE and right-click the mouse. A popup menu is opened:
Select RENAME.
A RENAME dialog box is opened:
You can either select one of the default names or
type a new name of your choice.
Saving a Light Definition
Every change in the setting of the selected light (like any other object) is
automatically saved, as part of the rendering files. If you do not want to apply
the change, use EDIT > UNDO from the menu.
NOTE You can also define light sources from the ATTRIBUTES LIGHTS menu (see
Chapter 2, Attributes, Creating and previewing a lighting scheme, \grdyned command).
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Lighting
Soft Shadows
To create light with soft shadows:
Right click on the light and then click Properties. In the Light Properties dialog,
click Advanced.
ENABLE SOFT SHADOWS
Check to enable soft shadows.
RADIUS
(For spot and point sources and for ray tracing) Enter
a numerical value for the radius of the light source.
RAY SAMPLE
(For spot and point sources and for ray tracing) Enter
a numerical value for the number of points within the
sphere of the light source.
NOTE Use ray tracing to produce picture with soft shadows effect. Note that soft
shadows may considerably affect calculation time.
Turning Lights On and Off
To turn light sources on or off, use one of the following ways:
In the SCENE TREE window, select a light and right-click the mouse. In the menu
that is opened click TURN LIGHT ON, or in the LIGHT PROPERTIES dialog box GENERAL tab, click LIGHT ON.
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Lighting
Sun Light
Sun light is a distant source of light that simulates sunlight for shadow studies
based on global position, date and time.
Insert Sun Light
Select Edit > New from the menu bar or right-click on any of the work windows
and select New from the menu to open the NEW dialog box.
Click the + sign on the side of the LIGHT branch to open light options. Select SUN
LIGHT and setting and click NEW.
The NEW SUN LIGHT dialog is displayed.
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Lighting
LATITUDE, LONGITUDE
Global position on earth. Type latitude and longitude,
button to select geographic location
or click the
from list of cities around the world.
TIME ZONE
Select time zone from list of available time zones.
DAYLIGHT SAVING
Check if daylight saving is effective.
DATE, TIME
Specify the required date and time.
Setting Geographic Location
To select geographic location from list of cities around the world, click
button in the NEW SUN LIGHT dialog or SUN LIGHT PROPERTIES dialog. Select
geographic location, and click OK.
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Setting Sun Light Properties
To control the properties of sun light:
Double-click its name in the SCENE TREE, or, right-click its name in the SCENE TREE
and select PROPERTIES, or right-click the light icon in one of the light control
windows.
The LIGHT PROPERTIES dialog box is opened.
When selecting the SUN tab, the LIGHT PROPERTIES SUN dialog box is opened.
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Lighting
The dialog is identical to the NEW SUN LIGHT dialog. You can change date and
time, to simulates sunlight for shadow studies in different hours of day, and
dates of the year.
Ambient Light
Ambient light is uniform, non-directional light of any RGB color. Ambient light
illuminates all surfaces of your model equally, without regard for shadows or
location of the surfaces.
Use ambient light in addition to point, spot, or distant light sources to decrease
the depth of shadows in your model. Ambient light ensures that all portions of
your model receive some illumination, so that shadowed areas are not
completely black.
It is recommended to use a fairly low intensity of ambient light (i.e., low RGB
component values). If the ambient light is too strong, the other light sources you
have defined are likely to be washed out.
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Setting Ambient Light
Set the color of ambient light illuminating all portions of your model.
\grlight
Lights
Ambient Light
The RENDER PROPERTIES dialog box is opened:
Adjust the RED, GREEN, BLUE slide
bars until the desired ambient
light color is displayed.
Background
Every rendering must have a background. The background includes everything
appearing behind the model in the rendered image.
The background may be a solid color or a two-dimensional texture. The
background is copied exactly into the rendered image. The colors or textures in
the background are not rendered or otherwise changed during the rendering
process.
Setting the Background
Set the background color or texture of the model.
\grbckgrd
Lights
Background
A dialog box (similar to the one
shown for ambient light) is
opened.
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Lighting
Double click on the square: A color palette is opened. Adjust to your desirable
color.
Fog
You can simulate atmospheric conditions by specifying fog in your rendering.
Fog decreases the intensity of colors and gives objects in your image a hazy
appearance. The effect increases with distance of the object from the observer's
eye.
To define fog, you must specify a fog distance and color:
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FACTOR
A value of 0 turns this option off and the model is
rendered without fog. A value other than 0 signifies
the approximate distance at which entities in your
model are obscured by the fog or the visibility
distance. Thus, larger values mean less fog
(default 0).
COLOR
The RGB color of the fog, which tints the colors in
your rendering slightly. The degree of tint increases
with distance from the observer's eye.
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Lighting
Setting the Fog Value and Color
Set the degree and color of fog in your rendering.
\grfog
Lights
Fog
A dialog box (similar to the one shown for ambient light) is opened.
Specify the fog FACTOR, and adjust the RED, GREEN, BLUE slide bars until the
desired fog color is displayed. Set the fog factor to 0 if you wish to turn this
option off and render the model without fog.
Setting Light View Option
Right-click in any light control window to open the VIEW OPTIONS dialog box,
light tab.
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Lighting
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SELECTED LIGHT
Show only the selected (current) light in the light
control windows.
TURNED ON LIGHTS
Show all the lights that are turned on, in the light
control windows.
ALL LIGHTS
Show all lights in the light control windows,
including the ones that are turned off.
DRAW COLOR BEAMS
Draw the light source and the light beams in their
specified color.
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5
Rendering
Images are the final products of rendering. ARC+ Render Pro provides several
options by which you control the quality and type of the rendered image:
IMAGE FILE TYPE
The format and size of the image file that is created
by ARC+ Render Pro. This determines image
resolution (fineness of detail), completeness of color
information stored in the file, and the suitability of
the file if you wish to edit or print the image using
other (non-ARC+) software.
RENDERING QUALITY
The level of sophistication at which ARC+ Render
Pro computes the image. This determines the
sharpness of shadows and highlights, smoothness of
lines and of color gradations, and effects of
transparency and reflections.
RENDERING OR RAY
In the rendering method, the effect of light falling
directly on each surface of your model is computed.
In the ray tracing method and in the Phong option of
the rendering method, the effect of indirect
illumination reflected from other surfaces or
transmitted through transparent surfaces is computed
as well.
TRACING METHOD
It is important to understand option results, as well as computation time
consideration in order to obtain lifelike images.
The rendering process can produce two types of scenes. The techniques utilized
in creating these scenes are described in detail in this guide and can be combined
in any number of ways to create a truly life-like 3D scene.
1.
A rendered image, containing all the attributes (colors, textures and
materials) included in your scene. See Attributes, Chapter 2 for a complete
explanation of working with scenes and attributes.
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2.
An animated scene. ARC+ render Pro offers several types of animation:
walk-through animation discussed in detail in Chapter 6, Walk-through
Animation, lighting animation discussed in detail in Chapter 7, Lighting
Animation, and objects animation discussed in detail in Chapter 9, Objects
Animation. These types of animation techniques can be combined in any
number of ways to energize your scene. The rendering process can further
be refined by defining the image quality and shading, as well as defining
when the scene is to be rendered, immediately or at a later time. All these
capabilities are discussed in this chapter.
3.
A panoramic rendering. Panoramas enable viewers to get a panoramic view
of 3D designs, discussed in detail in Chapter 8, Panorama.
Image File Types
Computer images are composed of tiny dots, called pixels. Your computer
display contains a fixed number of pixels, for example 800 x 600 or 1024 x 768
pixels in the horizontal and vertical dimensions, respectively.
ARC+ Render Pro images are rectangular, with the width and height specified in
pixels. A larger image size fills a larger area of your screen and provides finer
detail in your rendering.
Each pixel in an image is displayed with a certain color value. This information
is stored in the computer's memory and on your disk in an image file.
You can choose to create the image file in various industry-standard formats, for
example JPEG (JPEG File Interchange Format), TIFF (Tagged Image File Format),
BMP (Windows bitmaps), or PCX (PC Paintbrush). Using this feature, you can
create and view an image with ARC+ Render Pro and then transfer the image
file to other programs, for example:
To a graphics or desktop publishing program for arrangement with other
figures and with text
For output on a color or black-and-white printer
For color separation on automatic image setting equipment, prior to printing
a brochure or book
Some of the image file formats store true RGB color information (over 16 million
colors) using 24 computer bits (3 bytes) to store the color of each pixel. Other
formats store a maximum of 256 different colors using only 8 bits (1 byte) per
pixel.
The 24-bit formats give the most accurate color representation and the smoothest
color gradations. An 8-bit format represents colors less accurately, but it
produces smaller files that save space on your disk.
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If you choose an 8-bit format, you may notice sharp boundaries between shades
of colors, where no boundaries should exist. You can prevent this by producing
the image with dithering, a computation method that varies the colors of
individual pixels slightly and smoothes the color gradations.
Some file formats also offer an option of file compression. Choose a compression
option to make the image file smaller and save space on your disk. Compression
has no effect on color accuracy or other aspects of your image data.
NOTE The TGA file type offers two additional formats, using 16 or 32 bits to store each
color, with intermediate and high color accuracy respectively.
Choosing an Image Format
See the documentation that came with your computer system to determine the
number of pixels that your screen can display.
For viewing purposes, choose an image size that is no larger than your display
screen. You can display an image that contains more pixels than your screen, but
the image is cut at the edges.
Consider the width-to-height ratio of your screen and of the desired view. ARC+
Render Pro extends the view according to the image size that you define.
If you wish to transfer an ARC+ Render Pro image to another program see
program-specific information to determine which file formats it can read. If you
have difficulty reading a compressed file format with another program, try an
uncompressed format instead.
If you are transferring the file for printing, consider the resolution of the printer
when you choose an image size. Many laser printers, for example, offer a
resolution of 300 dots (pixels) per inch. To exploit this resolution fully, choose an
image size that contains 300 pixels for each inch (2.54 cm) of the planned printed
dimensions. You can use paper size wizard to automatically calculate image size
based on target page size and orientation, margins and DPI. See Paper Size
Wizard in this Chapter for further information.
Effect on Computation Time
A larger image (more pixels) takes longer to compute and occupies more space
on your disk.
HINT Preview your rendering using a small image size. When the results are
satisfactory, produce a final rendering in a larger size.
The choice of file format has no significant effect on computation time.
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Setting the Image File Type
Set the file type of the rendered image.
\grimgset
Render
Setting
From the menu select RENDER > SETTING
The RENDER IMAGE SETTING dialog box is opened.
5-4
IMAGE SIZE
Specify the image size in pixels (width x height). You
may choose between several predefined options
ranging from 200 x 200 to 1280 x 1024 pixels, or you
may type a custom size in the dialog box. Custom
sizes may be as large as you want (2000 x 2000 for
example), subject to the memory limitations of your
computer.
To use paper size wizard (automatically calculates
image size based on target page size and orientation,
margins and DPI) click PAPER SIZE. See Paper Size
Wizard in this Chapter for further information.
FILE NAME
Specify a filename for the image, using any filename,
but you should use the conventional file extension
(listed in the table) to identify the file type on your
disk.
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Format
File Extension
True RGB Colors (24 bits) or 256 Colors (8 bits)
ARC+ image
.IMG
8 bits
Windows bitmap
.BMP
8 or 24 bits
Tagged image file (TIFF)
.TIF
8 or 24 bits
Targa image
.TGA
8 or 24 bits (also 16-bit and 32-bit options)
PC Paintbrush
.PCX
8 bits
CompuServe bitmap
.GIF
8 BITS
JPEG
.JPG
24 BITS
NOTE In addition to the above formats, ARC+ Render Pro produces a temporary
image file with the file extension .GRI. You may delete .GRI files if you find them in your
disk directory.
DITHERING
Image dithering. Dithering is recommended to
smooth color gradations in 8-bit file formats.
Click the ... button to accept or reject your choices. A SAVE AS dialog box is
opened.
Use the DATA TYPE pull-down menu to choose the true-color (24 bit) or 256-color
(8 bit) option for the file type.
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Use the COMPRESSION pull-down menu to select a compression option, if one is
offered for the file format you have chosen. Compression is always
recommended, unless you are transferring the file to another program that
cannot read the compressed format.
Save the file.
Paper size wizard
The paper size wizard automatically calculates image size based on target page
size and orientation, margins and DPI.
Click PAPER SIZE in IMAGE SETTING dialog box.
The PAPER SIZE dialog box is opened.
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PAPER SIZE
Select the target paper size from PAPER SIZE combo
box, or type custom paper width and height.
DPI
Output resolution is defined in terms of the number
of dots per inch, or DPI. The ideal is to match the
resolution of an image to the resolution of the output
device, usually a computer screen or printed
document. The higher the dpi of the image (up to the
limit of the output device), the better the quality of
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the printed image. Typical ink-jet and laser printers
print from 150 dpi to 300 dpi. Typical monitor
resolution is 96 dpi. Select DPI from the DPI combo
box, or type value.
ORIENTATION
Select the page orientation: Portrait or Landscape.
MARGINS
Page margins are the space around the edges of the
page.
Rendering Quality
There are three main factors that influence the quality of the rendered image:
Shading option: the way the illumination on each surface of your model is
computed.
Antialiasing: the smoothing of rough edges in the image that results from the
digital nature of the rendering computation.
Shadows, reflections, and transparency: the presence of realistic optical
effects in your image.
Shading Options
You can choose several shading options, which determine how ARC+ Render Pro
computes the illumination falling on surfaces of your model. By choosing an
appropriate shading option, you can ensure a high degree of realism in your
image and also minimize the time required for the rendering computation.
The shading options differ in their treatment of two types of illumination:
DIRECT ILLUMINATION
Light falling directly from a light source (including
ambient light) onto any point of the model.
INDIRECT ILLUMINATION
Light that is reflected onto a surface from another
surface of the model, or transmitted onto the surface
through a transparent or partially transparent
material in the model.
NOTE Light passing through an opening (hole) in the model is direct illumination.
Light passing through a transparent solid in the model, such as a window pane, is
indirect illumination.
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In increasing degrees of realism and computation time, the following shading
options are provided.
NO SHADING
ARC+ Render Pro ignores both direct and indirect
illumination. The model is rendered as though it were
illuminated in uniform, non-directional, white light.
The image is produced very quickly but lacks a
feeling of three-dimensions.
FLAT SHADING
Each surface of the model has a different but uniform
shading, determined by its average angle to each
light source. There are no gradations of illumination
or shade on the surface. Indirect illumination is
ignored.
GOURAUD SHADING
The illumination is computed at the corners of each
surface and interpolated at interior points of the
surface. Gradations of illumination are continuous
across the surface. The effect is realistic, but sharp
highlights or shadow lines cannot be observed.
Indirect illumination is ignored.
PHONG SHADING
The illumination is computed at each point of each
surface. Accurate gradations of illumination are
computed. Sharp highlights and shadow lines are
displayed. Both direct and indirect illuminations are
realistically represented.
RAY TRACING
Individual rays of light are traced from each light
source to each point in the model, as they bounce
from surface to surface within the model, and back to
the observer's eye. Both direct and indirect
illuminations are realistically represented.
Choosing a Shading Option
5-8
RAY TRACING
ADVANTAGES: Produces the highest quality images.
Fully exploits the material attributes assigned to
entities in your model, such as reflectance and
transparency (see Chapter 2, ATTRIBUTES, Materials).
DISADVANTAGES: Ray tracing also takes much longer
to run than the other methods.
PHONG SHADING
ADVANTAGES: Provides results similar to ray tracing,
including the effects of reflective and transparent
materials. This options runs much faster than ray
tracing.
FLAT AND GOURAND
ADVANTAGES:
Used to preview model before final
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SHADING
rendering.
DISADVANTAGES:
NO SHADING
Options are of more limited use.
ADVANTAGES: Useful to preview the color and texture
attributes of entities in your model. Since this option
ignores your lighting scheme, it runs very fast and all
colors and textures are rendered without change of
tint, exactly as you assigned them.
Effect on Computation Time
Many factors influence the computation time required to produce the rendered
image. They include (in approximately decreasing order of importance):
Speed of your computer
Number of pixels in the image file
Number of lights
Acceleration (ray tracing only)
Number of ray samples per light and maximum ray depth (in ray tracing
only)
Checking for reflections and transparency
Antialiasing (mainly in ray tracing)
Checking for shadows
Number of polygons in your model (mainly in ray tracing)
Complexity of textures
The following table helps you choose the best recommended method for given
parameters:
Shading method
Preview method
Computation time
Ray tracing
Flat or Gouraud shading
several minutes to many hours
Long ray tracing
Phong shading
overnight or weekend run
Phong shading
Other shading methods
Seconds - minutes
IMPORTANT There is an important exception to these recommendations. If your
image size is very large (more than about 1000 x 1000 pixels), you may receive OUT OF
MEMORY messages during rendering. If this occurs, try ray tracing, which uses less
memory than the other methods.
Antialiasing
Because computer images consist of pixels, no true diagonal or curved lines can
be displayed in the image. Instead, the lines are approximated by short steps of
horizontal or vertical line segments. If you look closely, you can sometimes see
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the steps, which give the diagonals or curves a rough appearance. This
phenomenon is called aliasing in computer graphics jargon.
To prevent this, choose the antialiasing option. In the step region, antialiasing
divides each pixel into a few parts and computes the average color of the parts.
This produces a more realistic effect, smoothing over the discontinuities.
To choose the antialiasing option, you must specify:
SAMPLE PER PIXEL
The number of parts into which each pixel is divided.
The range of sampling values is 1 (no antialiasing)
to 25.
For ray tracing, you can also select:
ADAPTIVE SAMPLE PER
PIXEL
Decreases computation time by applying antialiasing
only where it is most needed.
Effect on Computation Time
With all shading options except ray tracing, antialiasing takes only a short time.
In ray tracing, the computation time increases when a higher sampling value is
employed.
Usually, a sampling value of about 4 produces good results in ray tracing. With
the other shading options, a value of 8-10 is recommended.
Shadows, Reflections, and Transparency
To save time, as in a preliminary rendering, turn the shadows option off. If you
do this, ARC+ Render Pro does not check whether a surface of your model is
SHADOWED from a light source by other surfaces in your model. Therefore all
shadows are eliminated from your image.
With all shading options except ray tracing, you can set the shadows level
parameter (range 1-10, default 2). This parameter controls how shadows are
computed in your image. Increase the parameter value if shadows appear
patchy or uneven. Decrease the value if you receive IGNORE LIGHT warnings
during the rendering computation.
If you choose the phong or ray tracing option, you can save time by turning off
reflections and transparency. If you do this, the effects of indirect illumination
are ignored. Alternatively, you may specify a threshold value of reflectance and
transparency at which indirect illumination is computed. Materials with
reflectance and transparency lower than the threshold are treated as nonreflective and/or opaque (see Chapter 2, ATTRIBUTES, Materials).
Another way to save time in ray tracing is to reduce the maximum ray depth
parameter (range 1-10, default 6). The maximum ray depth is the number of
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surfaces that a single light ray can hit as it bounces around your model. For
example, the maximum ray depth controls the number of reflections that are
computed between a pair of parallel mirrors.
Acceleration Option
You can reduce the computation time required for ray tracing by as much as
50%, by selecting an option called acceleration.
IMPORTANT Acceleration is effective only if the ray tracing includes indirect
illumination, i.e., transparent or reflective materials. The acceleration applies only to ray
tracing, not to the other shading options.
Choose an acceleration value from 1-6 (default 2). A value of 1 is equivalent to
the ray tracing method employed in previous releases of ARC+ Render Pro. A
value of 2 significantly speeds up the ray tracing with no effect on image quality.
Higher values produce a greater acceleration with only a minor negative effect
on quality.
To optimize ray tracing performance, try setting the maximum ray depth to the
default value of 6 and increasing the acceleration value to the highest value that
gives good image quality.
Setting the Rendering Quality
Quality Setting for All Shading Options Except for Ray Tracing
Set the antialiasing option and other options affecting image quality, for all
shading options except for ray tracing.
\grqlty
Render
Setting
Click the RENDER QUALITY tab in the RENDER dialog box.
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Specify the SAMPLE PER PIXEL value for antialiasing (set to 1 if antialiasing is not
desired).
Specify whether to compute shadows. Set the value of the shadows level by
entering a numerical value or adjusting the slide bar.
If you choose the PHONG option, specify whether the computation should
include indirect illumination-reflections and/or transparency. If you include
REFLECTIONS and TRANSPARENCY, you may also specify the THRESHOLD value of
material reflectance and transparency at which the system computes indirect
illumination.
Click OK and exit the dialog box.
Quality Setting for Ray Tracing
Set the antialiasing option and other options affecting image quality, for the ray
tracing option.
\grqlty
Render
Setting
Click the RAY TRACING QUALITY tab in the RENDER dialog box. This step was
discussed earlier in this chapter.
Follow the Render wizard windows as directed.
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Producing the Rendered Image
ARC+ Render Pro provides two commands that produce a rendered image.
The render wizard guides you through all the necessary steps. Render
(\grender): if you have chosen the no shading option or the flat, Gouraud, or
Phong shading options
Ray tracing (\rungrt): if you have chosen the ray tracing option.
Before you use either of these commands, assign rendering attributes to the
entities of your model, and set the view, lighting conditions, image file type, and
rendering quality options.
NOTE You cannot edit or further render an image file with ARC+ Render Pro. To
improve or alter the rendering of an image file, change the rendering attributes or
options and perform the rendering again.
Rendering the Model
As discussed at the beginning of this chapter, you can define all scene
parameters to define your final rendered scene.
Render your model with the no shading option or with the flat, Gouraud, or
Phong shading option.
\grender
Render
Image
The RENDER dialog box opens
Setting Shading Option
Set the shading option in the RENDER dialog box.
Select a RENDERING MODE. Make sure the selected camera is the desired view for
the rendered image. Press NEXT, and a wizard will guide you through the
procedure of defining the production settings.
IMPORTANT If you choose the ray tracing option, then you must perform the
rendering using the Perform ray tracing (\rungrt) command. If you choose any other
shading option, then you must perform the rendering using the Rendering the model
(\grender) command.
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Select type of animation and immediate or delayed rendering in this dialog box.
RENDER
IMAGE
Image created with attributes (see Chapter 2,
Attributes and earlier in this chapter for further
information).
ANIMATION
Available animations: walk-through (see Chapter 6,
Walk-through Animation for further information) and
lighting animation (See Chapter 7, Lighting Animation
for further information).
CAMERA
Camera views available and can changed as required.
RUN
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NOW
Render the scene now.
LATER
Render scene at a later time. See Make Later and
Make Batch in Chapter 6, Walk-through Animation for
further information.
JOB NAME
If you chose to render now, The job name given is
automatic. If you choose to render later you can
rename job as desired.
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RENDER MODE
SHADING CHOICES
Choose desired shading, see Chapter 1, Attributes for
further information.
ESTIMATED DISK SPACE
Lists drive, required space and actual space available.
You can select NEXT to set all the required rendering parameters in the IMAGE
and RENDER QUALITY dialog boxes. The dialog boxes are very similar to
the ones displayed during the quality setting session. The difference is that the
settings now apply to the production process, not the rendering mode. The
render wizard facilitates easy step-by-step navigation through this process,
using pre-determined dialog boxes.
SETTING
Click NEXT to advance from one dialog box to the next. Carefully examine all the
settings in all the dialog boxes, to avoid production errors.
When all the parameters are set, click FINISH. The production process begins
immediately without requesting further information.
IMPORTANT Do not use this command if you have chosen the ray tracing option in
the Setting rendering quality (\grqlty) command. The ray tracing option is ignored by
this command and phong shading is used instead.
NOTE You are warned if the image filename that you have specified (see Setting image
type, earlier in this chapter, \grimgset command) already exists in your disk directory. If
so, choose to overwrite the existing file or specify a different filename.
The screen displays the progress of the rendering computation plus any warning
messages regarding aspects of the computation. Click STOP, at any time to stop
the computation and exit the command.
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Rendering
When the computation is complete, the rendered image is displayed and the
image file is automatically saved on your disk under the filename that you have
specified.
The rendered picture is displayed in a small window. Click the WINDOW EXPAND
icon if you wish to display the image on the full screen. Click the WINDOW
CLOSING icon to clear the screen and exit the command.
Perform Ray-Tracing
Render your model by the ray-tracing method.
\rungrt
Render
Image
The RENDER dialog box opens (see SETTING SHADING Option, earlier in this
chapter). You can select NEXT to set all the required rendering parameters in the
IMAGE SETTING and RAY TRACING QUALITY dialog boxes. The render wizard
facilitates easy step-by-step navigation through this process, using predetermined dialog boxes.
When all the parameters are set, click FINISH.
The command begins immediately without requesting further information.
IMPORTANT Use this command only if you have chosen the ray tracing option in the
Setting rendering quality (\grqlty) command. Any other shading option is ignored by
this command and ray tracing is performed instead.
NOTE You are warned if the image filename that you have specified (see Setting image
type earlier in this chapter, \grimgset command) already exists in your disk directory. If
so, choose to overwrite the existing file or specify a different filename.
The screen displays the progress of the ray tracing computation plus any
warning messages regarding aspects of the computation.
Click STOP, at any time, to stop the computation and exit the command. A
prompt enables you to save the partial computation and resume it at a later time.
To continue, open the model in ARC+ (if it is not already open), enter ARC+
Render Pro, and choose the PERFORM RAY TRACING (\rungrt) command again.
Choose to RESUME from where the computation was interrupted or to RESTART
from the beginning.
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When the computation is complete, the ray-traced image is displayed and the
image file is automatically saved on your disk under the filename that you have
specified.
The rendered picture is displayed in a small window. Click THE WINDOW EXPAND
icon if you wish to display the image on the full screen. Click the WINDOW
CLOSING icon to clear the screen and exit the command.
Recording Rendering Data in a Logfile
You can output the messages from the rendering or ray tracing process to a file.
The messages are similar to those displayed on the rendering or ray tracing
screens.
Tools
Options
Logfile
The OPTIONS dialog box is opened. Select the LOGFILE tab.
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Rendering
In the dialog box, select the following options:
WRITE MODE
NO LOG
No log file is written.
REPLACE LOG
Replace messages from previous rendering sessions
in log file with current messages.
APPEND LOG
Append current rendering session messages to
previous messages in log file.
FILE NAME
BY MODEL NAME
Store the logfile under the same name and in the
same directory as the model. The file extension is
*.log.
OTHER NAME
Specify the name and directory to store the logfile.
You can read the log file using any ASCII editor or within ARC+ Render Pro.
Edit
View Log File
Displaying an Image
After you produce an image, it is saved as an image file on your hard disk. You
can recall an ARC+ Render Pro image file at any time and display it on the
ARC+ screen.
You can also display an image file created by another program if it conforms to
one of the standard file formats supported by ARC+ Render Pro. You can
display an image that contains more pixels than your screen, but the image is cut
off at the edges. The image is displayed immediately and the rendering
computation is not repeated.
Displaying an Image File
Display an image file on the ARC+ screen.
\grimgshw
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Render
Show Last / Show > Image
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Rendering
Choose to display either the last (most recent) image, or another image. If the
latter, specify the disk directory, file type (extension), and file using the dialog
box. From the command bar, select EDIT > PROPERTIES to display information
such as the file name, size (in bytes) and dimensions (in pixels) and the type of
compression.
The image is displayed in a window. Double-click the window header, or use
the window expand icon to display the image on the full screen.
NOTE If you specify a new filename in the Setting the image file type (\grimgset)
command, you can no longer use the SHOW LAST IMAGE option. Use the SHOW IMAGE
option instead.
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Walk-through Animation
6
WalkAnimation
ion
Walk-through Animat
The ARC+ Render Pro walk-through animation module provides a powerful
artistic and marketing tool to the static rendered images. Walk-through
animation enables you to view an image from any number of vantage points,
including panoramic, ceiling, as well as, walk around objects and through doors
and the like. ARC+ Render Pro also offers lighting animation discussed in detail
in Chapter 7, and objects animation discussed in detail in Chapter 9.
You can add animation before or after rendering the image, although it is
recommended to render the image before adding the animation.
Animation is created and measured in key frames and frames. A key frame in
walk-through animation is simply a camera angle. The animation is produced
by creating a series of camera angles moving along a given path. Frames are the
measurement of images between key frames, compared to the frames of a movie
or cartoon that are viewed at high speed to create the illusion of movement.
To obtain a lifelike walk-through of the image, it is important to understand the
steps involved in creating the path of camera angles and the timing from key
frame to key frame. For example, you can create a short walk-through around a
table in a few simple key frames. To produce a smooth animation walk-through
of a room or a tour of an apartment complex requires attention to sequence of
the tour and the time it takes to make or compile this animation, your computer
may need to run for a few hours or overnight.
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Walk-through Animation
Animation File Types
You can choose to create the image file in various industry-standard formats:
Format
File Extension
True RGB Colors (24 bits) or 256 colors ( 8 bits)
Windows AVI file
.AVI
8 or 24 bits
FLI Autodesk file
.FLI
8 bits
GIF Animation file
.GIF
8 bits
Image List File
.LST
8 or 24 bits
Image File List
.IFL
8 or 24 bits
Setting Animation Parameters
\
Paths
Camera Path
From the menu select PATHS > CAMERA PATH
The top and front work windows (default views) change to gray.
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Walk-through Animation
Once you begin to create the key frame path, the graphic display is shown in
these two work windows, according to their specified view (the top view
displays the key frames from an aerial view, while the front view displays a cutacross view). The view in the perspective work window moves along with the
path created.
The two methods used to create an animation walk-through or path, using the
Animation Wizard or creating paths manually are described below.
Animation Wizard
The Wizard simplifies path creation, especially for first time users. Select EDIT >
NEW from the menu bar or right click the mouse in any of the work windows.
Select New from the drop down menu. A NEW dialog box opens.
This wizard is designed to be utilized for cameras (see Chapter 3, Cameras, for
more information), lights (see Chapter 4, Lighting, for more information) and for
paths or animation walk-throughs.
Click the + sign on the side of the Path branch to open path options. The three
path options are path (default) enabling you to follow a straight or curved route;
circle enabling you to circle the entire scene and spiral enabling you to spiral up
or down through a scene. Selecting either circle or spiral activates the Settings
option, enabling you to choose exterior (view from around the outer perimeter
of the scene) or interior (view from within the scene).
When working with either a spiral or circular path in exterior mode, it is
recommended that you click the Zoom Full icon on your tool bar, to view the
entire scene. Click the Zoom Work Area icon to return to the normal scene view.
The wizard automatically creates the first key frame, represented as a red line
drawn from the selected direction toward the center of the screen.
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Walk-through Animation
Animation Toolbar
The animation toolbar contains the following icons:
CURRENT FRAME
Current frame.
PLAY
Play created animation.
STOP
Stop running animation.
GO TO FIRST FRAME
Click to return to first frame created.
GO TO PREVIOUS
KEY FRAME
To tour the created path, frame by frame, click this
icon or the GO TO NEXT KEY FRAME icon. A yellow line
appears that moves from frame to frame along path
in desired direction.
PREVIOUS FRAME
Jumps back to previous frame.
GO TO NEXT FRAME
Jumps to next frame.
GO TO NEXT KEY FRAME
To tour the created path, frame by frame, click this
icon or the GO TO PREVIOUS KEY FRAME icon. A yellow
line appears that moves from frame to frame along
path in desired direction.
GO TO LAST FRAME
Jump to last frame.
ADD KEY FRAME
Toggle on/off feature. Toggle On to create animation
path. Toggle Off to edit or stop animation path
creation.
DELETE KEY FRAME
Delete specific key frame.
MAKE KEY FRAME
To change a frame into a key frame, select the frame
and click the Make Key Frame icon.
Create Paths Manually
To create paths manually, select PATHS > CAMERA PATH as described above. Click
the Add Key Frame icon (toggle feature) on the animation toolbar. Once this
icon is toggled on the cursor symbol changes from an arrow to a + sign.
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Walk-through Animation
You can create and modify key frames in either of the two windows, as they
both display the exact same scene.
To create the first key frame, position the mouse on the first point and click. A
red line is automatically drawn in the camera direction, towards the center of the
image.
To continue the path of the walk-through, move the mouse in any direction or to
any point and continue to click to create as many key frames as desired. Keep in
mind that a smooth path of key frames, makes a smooth moving animation.
You can also drag and click to any position to get the same results. The number
of key frames created is displayed on the animation icon line.
As discussed earlier in this chapter, the key frames are actually camera views
and as such, with each new key frame the Perspective window displays the
corresponding view of the animation.
Camera Properties
As discussed, as long as the Add Key Frame icon is pressed, key frames can be
added. To further define and determine camera parameters and functions, rightclick the mouse on the camera view branch of the tree.
Click Properties in the menu to open the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box.
If this is a new image (without key frames), the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box
contains only three tabs
GENERAL
Describes the camera view.
GEOMETERY
Describes the XYZ coordinates of the camera view.
ANIMATION
This window is inactive as there are no key frames
available.
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Walk-through Animation
Adding a key frame activates the animation tab and adds an additional tab to
this dialog box.
ANIMATION
Displays number of frames and key frames created as
well as path used.
KEY FRAME
Describes the current key frame parameters.
Modifying Key Frames
The camera properties of each individual key frame can be modified. To modify
the current key frame, click to display the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box. If you
wish to modify an existing key frame, toggle off the Add Key Frame icon, then
click the desired key frame to display the dialog box. Click the Key Frame tab.
This tab displays the current key frame number, along with the following
features.
6-6
LINE TYPE
Enables you to choose the type of line or camera view
for this key frame. Line (default) is a straight path.
Curve displays a blue line and enables you to bend or
arch the path at this specific point. Break extrapolates
the path without a view, i.e., it goes through the
frames without moving until it reaches the next key
frame. In essence standing in one place (going the
curved, or a break between this key frame and the
next). You can use this kind of break to zoom in or
out of a certain specific area of the scene.
TARGET TYPE
The target is the direction the camera faces. This
feature enables you to determine how the target
behaves when changing the location of the camera.
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Walk-through Animation
Point (default) indicates that the camera is always
pointed in the same direction even if the camera itself
changes location. Delta changes the camera direction.
You can determine the direction for each camera
separately, while keeping the same parameters, and
therefore view a different path with each. Walk
enables the camera to follow in the direction you are
going.
CONTROL
This feature enables full control over the type of key
frame used, from either a geometric or eye view.
Line allows you to control only the key frame's eye;
direction and geometric parameters are determined
by the previous key frame. Data enables you to
determine only geometric parameters and not the
eye. Full enables you to control all key frame
parameters.
Modifying Animation Path
The animation path of an image can be determined at any time, either while the
animation is being created or once it has been completed. Click the path to open
the CAMERA PROPERTIES dialog box. Click the Animation tab.
This tab displays the total number of frames, as well as the key frame currently
chosen. To choose data type, click the desired radial button.
PATH TYPE
SINGLE
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One single walk-through course.
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Walk-through Animation
LOOP
A continuous walk-through sequence, beginning at
the start and then retracing its steps from end to
beginning and back again.
REPEAT
A sequence that begins at the start and goes through
to the end and then begins again at the beginning in a
continuous movement.
CLOSE
Closes the path from the last key frame created to the
first key frame.
SMOOTH
Animation effect described below.
Smoothing
When creating an animation of a scene it is important to keep the following in
mind. When creating a path, you position key frames according to a route you
wish to walk through.
Along your route you turn a corner or walk straight through a parking lot or
sweep through a certain part of a scene. Each of these movements is
represented by key frames. However, after making or compiling the
animation you may find that the movement through certain parts of the
route is quicker or slower than others due to the distance between key
frames.
The default frame rate, discussed below, is 10 frames per key frame. Since
these same 10 frames exist between two key frames positioned far apart, as
well as two key frames positioned very close together. The frame rate
translates into the amount of time it takes to travel between key frames.
The smoothing process evens out or smoothes the difference to create a new
division of the key frames, thus creating a smooth walk-through.
Click the Smooth button on the Animation tab to open the SMOOTH dialog box.
Click radial button to choose either all key frames or just a specific range of
frames, should you wish to follow the nature flow of the area. You can also add
on additional frames to create a better quality animation during viewing. Click
appropriate radial button. Click OK to automatically return to the previous
window.
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Walk-through Animation
Setting Frame Rate
As discussed, the frame rate is the number of frames between key frames. The
default is 10.
To modify this rate click TOOLS > OPTIONS. Click Animation tab. Click desired
rate and OK.
You can also set the temporary files swap folder location, used in rendering the
animation files. Click the ... button to browse for a different location. Click the
default button to return to all default settings. Click OK to return to previous
window.
View Options — Animation
The key frame lines, as well as the entire animation path line can be modified.
Right-click your mouse in either the Top or Front view windows. Select Options
in the menu to open the VIEW OPTIONS dialog box. This dialog box is discussed in
greater detail in Chapter 3, Cameras.
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Walk-through Animation
Click the Animation tab.
Select one or more of the following choices, and then click the Apply button to
view choices without leaving this dialog box. Click OK when you finished.
6-10
DRAW CURVE ARROWS
This is a curve control feature. When activated, a
small blue ribbon shape appears on the current key
frame, enabling you to curve the path.
DRAW TARGET ARROWS
This displays or hides the target line of each frame
created (red colored line).
DRAW FRAME MARKS
Displays all frames between each key frame (yellow
line).
DRAW PICKED FRAME ONLY
Displays only line picked. This view is recommended
when working with a complex path.
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Walk-through Animation
Camera Tree View
As in all ARC+ Render Pro features, you can view the key frames created in the
extended camera branch of the tree.
Path Frames
\
Paths
Frame Settings
From the menu select PATHS > FRAMES SETTINGS
This opens a graph window representing a timeline of key frames. The movable
buttons located on this line correspond to the key frames created. This window
enables you to manually change the position of a key frame from one point to
another.
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Walk-through Animation
Rendering a Walk-through Animation
Once you have created the path of key frames and modified the timing and
smoothness of the route sequence, it is time to make the animation. You have
several make options, including: making the animation immediately, making a
preview, making it later and creating a batch of animation files for scheduled
making.
Animation — Make
\
Render
Animation
From the menu select RENDER > ANIMATION
The RENDER dialog box opens.
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Walk-through Animation
RENDER
The animation radial button is activated (default).
The default camera view is selected in the drop down
menu.
RUN
Animation choices to schedule later (see Make Later,
discussed later in this chapter).
RENDERING MODE
See Chapter 5, Rendering for further information
regarding these settings.
NOTE If you change the settings in the Rendering Mode, they will become the default
settings the next time you make or change something in the Render feature setup.
ESTIMATED DISK SPACE
Displays drive, disk space required and available.
Click the Next button to open FRAMES SETTING dialog box.
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Walk-through Animation
SETTING
FRAME FROM
Set From and To frame parameters for animated
rendering.
EVERY
Set number of frames to jump within the animated
rendered scene. For example, if you set the
parameter to 5, then every fifth frame is animated.
REPEAT
Set number of times each frame in the scene is
repeated.
FRAME RATE
Set the number of frames to seconds ratio.
ESTIMATED DISK SPACE
Displays drive, disk space required and available.
Click the Next button to open IMAGE SETTING dialog box.
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Walk-through Animation
The IMAGE SETTING dialog box enables you to determine the following
parameters.
IMAGE SIZE
See Chapter 5, Rendering, for further information
regarding these settings.
FILE NAME
See beginning of this chapter for explanation on file
options.
DITHERING
See Chapter 5, Rendering, for further information
regarding these settings.
FIND OPTIONAL PALETTE
See Chapter 2, Attributes, for further information
regarding color palettes.
SAVE RECOVER
As the make animation process can take a long time
and there is a possibility of outside problems, such as
a power failure or a computer system failure, this
feature enables recovery of the make process from the
beginning until the process was stopped.
INFORMATION
ESTIMATED DISK SPACE
Displays estimated disk space required.
Click the Next button. The next dialog box opened depends on the Rendering
Mode option chosen in the RENDERING dialog box.
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Walk-through Animation
NOTE You can click the Finish button at any time, even in the first dialog box.
Click the Finish button to begin making or compiling the animation. A MAKE
dialog box opens.
If you are working in an AVI format, a VIDEO COMPRESSION dialog box opens
automatically in front of it.
The VIDEO COMPRESSION dialog box contains a drop down list of compression
choices. Select compression and click OK to view MAKE dialog box.
This dialog box contains general file information, current making or compiling
status.
Click the >> button to extend the window (the button changes to << when the
window is opened). This portion of the window displays all image compiling
information, including errors and the like.
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Walk-through Animation
Animation - Make Preview
\
Render
Animation
To create a preview of the animation before future rendering:
From the menu select RENDER > ANIMATION
The RENDER dialog box opens, as displayed in Make Animation. Select Preview
(wireframe) as the Rendering Mode.
Click the Next button to open IMAGE SETTING dialog box.
In the IMAGE SETTING dialog box, the default file format is FLI.
Animation - Make Later
\
Render
Animation
To schedule animation for a later time:
From the menu select RENDER > ANIMATION
The RENDER dialog box opens, as displayed in Make Animation. Select LATER in
the RENDER dialog box.
Once all dialog boxes have been executed, a message box displays the window:
"Job XXX was successfully added".
This job is then added to the batch option described below.
Animation - Make Batch
\
Render
Batch
To work with one or more jobs scheduled for animation at a later time:
From the menu select RENDER > BATCH
This opens the RUN BATCH FILE dialog box.
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Walk-through Animation
This dialog box contains a list of all the jobs created under the Run Later option.
This dialog box displays all jobs - images, animation and panoramas - including
the names, parameters (camera names, etc.), dates created and executed.
To run batch, click RUN.
To delete jobs from batch, click to select the desired jobs, and click DELETE.
Click CLOSE to return to previous screen.
Animation - Play
Render
Show
Animation
From the menu select RENDER > SHOW > ANIMATION. This opens a list of
available animation files. Select file and click OK to play created animation.
Render
Show Last
From the menu select RENDER > SHOW LAST to play last created animation:
The following 12-scene strip presents an example of a walk-through animation.
Note how the view changes and 'moves' through the scene, with each camera
view.
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Walk-through Animation
Animated Textures
In addition to walk-through animation abilities discussed in this chapter,
lighting animation discussed in Chapter 7, and objects animation discussed in
Chapter 9, ARC+ Render Pro offers animated texture capabilities. Any 2D
animated GIF file, AVI video file or image files list (IFL) can be attached as a
texture, see Chapter 2, Attributes, for a full explanation of attaching textures.
For example, an animated GIF can be attached to a TV screen to further enhance
the real-life feeling of a scene.
To view and edit animated texture properties of a texture use the TEXTURE dialog
box ANIMATED tab. This tab is available for video texture file only.
NUMBER OF FRAMEWS
Number of frames in the animated texture.
RANGE
The range of frames used the animated texture. By
default the number of frames contained in the
original video file becomes the number of frames in
the animated texture.
TIME LINE
6-20
DURATION (SEC)
Duration in seconds of the animated texture.
DURATION (FRAMES)
Duration in frames of the animated texture.
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Walk-through Animation
START IN FRAME
The number of frame in the animated texture to start
from.
TYPE
SINGLE
One single animation course.
LOOP
A continuous animation sequence, beginning at the
start and then retracing its steps from end to
beginning and back again.
The following 6-scene strip presents an example of a texture animation. Look
carefully at the picture on the wall, the number and direction of the open end of
the circle 'moves' with each scene.
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Lighting Animation
7
Lighting Animation
Lighting animation is an add-on module, similar in basic technique to the walkthrough animation module discussed in Chapter 6. As in the walk-through
animation, lighting animation provides another creative enhancement to the
static rendered images. Lighting animation enables you to illuminate as well as
to change the type of illumination viewed while touring the scene.
A scene can be enhanced with lighting animation in two ways:
The scene remains static, that is, you only look at one view of the scene, and
the lighting itself moves and changes direction, color or shape throughout the
scene.
Both the scene and the light move and change. As you tour the scene the
lighting moves, changes color, shape and moves in its own pattern.
Before working with lighting animation, it is recommended that you review
Chapter 4, Lighting and Chapter 6, Walk-through Animation, in order to refamiliarize yourself with all the lighting and animation features.
NOTE It is important to keep in mind: Animation is created and measured in key
frames and frames. A key frame is simply a camera angle. The animation is produced by
creating a series of camera angles moving along a given path. Frames are the
measurement of images between key frames, compared to the frames of a movie or
cartoon that are viewed at high speed to create the illusion of movement.
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Lighting Animation
Animation File Types
You can choose to create the image file in various industry-standard formats:
Format
File Extension
True RGB Colors (24 bits) or 256 colors ( 8 bits)
Windows AVI file
.AVI
8 or 24 bits
FLI Autodesk file
.FLI
8 bits
GIF Animation file
.GIF
8 bits
Image List File
.LST
8 or 24 bits
Setting Animation Parameters
As discussed earlier in this chapter, it is recommended to review Chapter 6, Walkthrough Animation to re-familiarize yourself with all aspects of the animation
process. The following section incorporates the lighting animation feature into
the animation process.
\
Paths
Light Path
As with walk-through animation, lighting animation begins with setting the
animation parameters. From the menu, select PATHS > LIGHT PATH
The top and front work windows (default views) change to gray.
Once you begin to create the key frame path, the graphic display is shown in
these two work windows, according to their specified view (the top view
displays the key frames from an aerial view, while the front view displays a cutacross view). The view in the perspective work window moves along with the
path created.
The two methods used to create an animation walk-through or path, using the
Animation Wizard or creating paths manually, are described below.
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Lighting Animation
Animation Wizard
The Wizard simplifies path creation, especially for first time users. Select EDIT >
NEW from the menu bar or right-click the mouse in any of the work windows.
Select New from the drop-down menu. A New wizard dialog box opens.
Click the + sign on the side of the Light branch to expand this branch.
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Lighting Animation
As discussed in Chapter 4, Lighting, the lighting options available are:
Point Light
Spot Light
Distant Light
Each option has seven lighting positions: top, bottom, left, right, front, back and
axo. Selecting one of these positions activates the Settings option (to the right of
the tree), enabling you to choose exterior (view from around the outer perimeter
of the scene) or interior (view from within the scene)
Select desired lighting option and position (optional) and click New.
Click Add Key Frame icon and begin creating the path as discussed in the
previous chapter. Review the Animation toolbar discussed in Chapter 6, Walkthrough Animation.
As in walk-through animation, to create the first key frame, position the mouse
on the first point and click. A red line is automatically drawn in the camera
direction, towards the center of the image.
Lighting properties, such as lighting options, color, direction, cone angles can be
modified and tailored to fit a certain type of lighting or area of the scene. For a
full explanation of these features, see Chapter 4, Lighting.
Working with Lighting Animation - How to Overview
As discussed earlier in this chapter, lighting animation can be utilized in two
basic methods. These basic methods can, of course, be improved, modified and
transformed according to project requirements, technical skill and imagination.
It is important to keep in mind that modifying certain parameters change the
default settings for the next action. In this case, if you worked with a walkthrough animation, you need to open a new scene in order to work with a static
scene with animated lighting.
Method One:
The scene remains static, that is, you only look at one view of the scene, and the
lighting itself moves and changes direction, color or shape throughout the scene.
How to:
Click Paths > Light Paths on the menubar.
Click Edit > New on the menubar or right-click on work window to open
drop down menu and select New.
Expand Light branch and select light option and position.
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Click Add Key Frame icon to begin creating lighting animation and continue
moving through the scene.
To modify light options, toggle off the Add Key Frame icon, right-click
desired key frame to open Light Properties dialog box.
Render as explained in Chapter 5 Render and at the end of Chapter 6, Walkthrough Animation.
Method Two:
Both the scene and the light move and change. As you tour the scene the
lighting moves, changes color and shape and moves in its own pattern.
How to:
Reset walk-through default
Follow all the steps explained above.
Once you have created the types of light effects desired along the path, as well as
defined the path desired (using the modifying, smoothing, setting frame rate,
etc. features), you can render your scene as described in Chapter 6, Walk-through
Animation.
The following 8-scene strip presents an example of a lighting animation. Note
how the type and color of light, as well as its location, change and 'move' with
each scene.
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Lighting Animation
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Panorama
8
Panorama
Panoramic rendering enables viewers to get a panoramic view of 3D designs.
ARC+ Render Pro lets you create two types of interactive panoramas:
1.
2.
Panoramic view - a 3600 panoramic view of a scene, as seen from a fixed
point of view
Panoramic objects – a 3600 view of an object, as seen from a moving point of
view turning 3600 around a 3D model
By Viewings your 3D designs in one of the modes described above, your client
can get a full perspective of your design. The panoramas you create can be
viewed within Arc+ Render Pro, sent to clients by email to be viewed using a
stand-alone viewer, or published on the web.
Producing a Panorama
You can produce a panorama for any camera in the model.
\
Render
Panorama
From the menu select RENDER > PANORAMA
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Panorama
Alternatively, you can choose Panorama from the Render toolbar.
The render dialog box opens.
8-2
PANORAMA
The Panorama radio button is selected (default). The
default camera view is selected in the drop down
menu.
RUN
The Panorama file is produced directly at the end of
the creation process.
RUN LATER
To schedule the creation of a panorama for later,
select ‘Later’. Enter a name for the job. Complete the
panorama creation process. After you click Finish,
you’ll be presented with the message "Job XXX was
successfully added".
To run select Render > Batch. In the dialog box that
opens, select the job(s) you want to run and click Run.
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Panorama
RENDERING MODE
for more information concerning Rendering, See
Chapter 5, Rendering
NOTE: If you change the settings in the Rendering Mode,
they will become the default settings the next time you use
the Render setup.
ESTIMATED DISK SPACE
Displays the required and available disk space.
Click the Next button to open the image setting dialog box.
The image setting dialog box enables you to determine the following
parameters:
IMAGE SIZE
for information regarding Image size settings See
Chapter 5, Rendering, Setting the Image File Type page 54
FILE NAME
CLICK ON THE
button next to the Name box. In
the dialog that opens, enter a name and select the file
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Panorama
type. LivePicture .Ivr is the default. You can also
select VRML, which is a Panorama format requiring a
VRML plug-in.
Select the panorama type from the Mapping dropdown menu at the bottom of the box:
Cube mapping - Panoramic view
Object mapping - Panoramic objects. If object
mapping is selected, you may change the default
number of sides you want the mapping to include
Estimated disk space
Displays the required and available disk space.
Click the Next button. If ray tracing was selected the Ray-Tracing qualitysetting dialog box is opened. If another rendering mode was selected The Render
quality dialog box is opened
Specify the sample per pixel value for antialiasing (set to 1 if antialiasing is not
desired).
Check the required options (Shadow Effect, Reflections and Transparency) and
enter numerical values accordingly
Ray Depth
8-4
the number of surfaces that a single light-ray can hit
as it bounces around a model
ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Panorama
Acceleration
Ray Tracing computation-time. The maximum value
is recommended. It accelerates computation-time
with minor reduction in image quality.
When you are done, click Finish.
Displaying a Panorama
After you produce a panorama, it is saved as panorama files on your hard disk.
You can display panorama in ARC+ Render Pro by choosing the panorama file
in the dialog box.
\
Render
Show > Panorama
Panoramas’ viewing options
A panorama created in Arc+ Render Pro can be viewed within Arc+ Render Pro,
using a stand-alone viewer, or published on the web. IVR panoramas are
embedded in an html page and use a Java panorama viewer for viewing. The
location of panorama viewer files can be defined before you create a Panorama,
or changed later in the html file using an html or a text editor.
You define how the panorama file will be viewed by specifying the location of
the panorama’s Java viewer files (IVR CAB files).
Selecting a viewing option
\
Tools
Options
Panorama
From the menu select Tools > Options
In the dialog box that opens, select the Panorama tab and check the required
option:
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Panorama
Software Folder
To produce a panorama to be viewed within Arc+
Render Pro. The panorama viewer files are stored in
your software folder.
Target Folder
To produce a panorama to be viewed using a standalone viewer. The panorama viewer files are stored in
a target folder (where your panorama file will be
stored too). The panorama can be viewed
independently of the software that created it, by
sending the whole folder to other computers.
Web
To produce a panorama to be viewed on the web. The
panorama viewer files are stored on the web,
enabling easy publishing of your panorama on the
web. If you select Web, you can change the default
web address in which this panorama viewer will be
stored.
After you determine the location of the Panorama viewer, you can produce the
Panorama file.
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Objects Animation
9
Objects Animation
Objects animation is part of Animator plug-in, similar in basic technique to the
walk-through animation module discussed in Chapter 6. As in the walkthrough animation, objects animation provides another creative enhancement to
the static rendered images. Objects animation enables you to move objects in
your animation, and create impressive live animated scenes.
Before working with objects animation, it is recommended that you review
Chapter 6, Walk-through Animation, in order to re-familiarize yourself with all the
basic animation features.
Creating Objects Animation
Animating an object is based on changing properties of the object in each
keyframe along the animation time line. Objects in the scene can be manipulated
in each keyframe: you can translate (change the position), rotate (change the
orientation), and scale (resize) an object.
The main workflow steps of object animation are as follows:
Go to keyframe
Define the transform properties of the object in the current keyframe
Animation layout
As discussed earlier in this chapter, it is recommended to review Chapter 6, Walkthrough Animation to re-familiarize yourself with all aspects of the animation
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Objects Animation
process. The following section incorporates the objects animation feature into
the animation process.
\
Paths
Object Path
As with walk-through animation, objects animation begins with setting the
animation layout. From the menu, select PATHS > OBJECT PATH
The top and front work windows (default views) change to gray. Once you
begin to create the key frame path, the graphic display is shown in these two
work windows, according to their specified view (the top view displays the key
frames from an aerial view, while the front view displays a cut-across view). In
the perspective view, the object is moved along the motion path created.
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Objects Animation
Working with Objects Animation
As discussed earlier in this chapter, objects animation is based on keyframes.
You define the position, orientation and size of an object in each keyframe.
The following example presents the steps to create motion path composed of 3
keyframes.
Step 1:
Click Paths > Object Path on the menu bar.
Click on the placed element that you want to move
Step 2:
Go to next keyframe, for example: 11 (type the frame number in the
animation toolbar, or click on the frame number in the frames view)
Drag the object to desired location
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Objects Animation
Step 3:
Go to next keyframe, for example: 21
Drag the object to desired location
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Objects Animation
The object path is ready. Click RUN in the animation toolbar, to preview the
animation, Click STOP, to stop the animation preview. Produce the animation, as
explained in Chapter 5 Render and at the end of Chapter 6, Walk-through
Animation.
Combining objects animation and video textures
Video textures are also part of Animator plug-in. Object animation can be
combined with video textures to create impressive effects. For example, you can
animate placed element consist of single polygon with video texture of walking
man attached to it.
To edit the video texture properties, right click on the entity and select
Properties. In the Attributes tab, double click on the texture. The video texture
properties are shown in the ANIMATED tab.
NOTE To select an entity, make sure that Entity Mode in the Objects toolbar is on.
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Objects Animation
The following strip presents an example of objects animation. Note how the
video texture of walking man is combined with object animation, while the
video texture of standing woman is attached to static polygon.
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Objects Animation
Working with objects
Entities such as placed element and RPC element are referred as objects in this
chapter. Objects in the scene can be manipulated: you can translate (change the
position), rotate (change the orientation), and scale (resize) objects. You can
change the transform properties of an object in each keyframe.
Selecting and manipulating objects
You can select and manipulate objects in the scene using the Objects toolbar
displayed below.
The function of each icon is described below:
SELECT
Select an object. The object is visually indicated as
selected by changing its color.
TRANSLATE
Select and translate (move) an object.
ROTATE
Select and rotate an object
SCALE
Select and scale (resize) an object
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Objects Animation
ENTITY MODE
When entity mode is on, click picks an entity such as
polygon and solid (suitable for rendering working
mode). When entity mode is off, click picks an object
such as placed element and RPC element (suitable for
objects animation working mode).
NOTE To select an object, make sure that Entity Mode in the Objects toolbar is off.
Then click on the object you want to select. The object is visually indicated as selected by
changing its color.
The transform properties (position, orientation and size) of objects are shown in
the object properties dialog box, described in the next section.
Object properties dialog box
To view the properties of an object, either double-click the object, or right-click
the mouse and select PROPERTIES, to open the object properties dialog box.
To view and change the transform properties (position, orientation and size) of
objects, click TRANSFORM in the object properties dialog box. Here you can view
and change the translate, rotate and scale values of an object.
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Objects Animation
TRANSLATE
Position of the selected object
ROTATE
Orientation of the selected object
SCALE
Scale of the selected object
DIMENSIONS
Size of the selected object
UNIFORM SCALING
When uniform scaling is on, scale is done uniformly
for all axes. When uniform scaling is off, you can
scale independently each axis of the object.
When selecting the ANIMATION tab, the animation dialog box is opened. This
window is inactive when there are no key frames available.
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Objects Animation
This tab displays the total number of frames and keyframes in the object path. To
choose path type, click the desired radial button.
PATH TYPE
SINGLE
One single animation course.
LOOP
A continuous animation sequence, beginning at the
start and then retracing its steps from end to
beginning and back again.
REPEAT
A sequence that begins at the start and goes through
to the end and then begins again at the beginning in a
continuous movement.
CLOSE
Closes the path from the last key frame created to the
first key frame.
SMOOTH
Smooth the animation path to create motion with
constant velocity.
When selecting the KEY FRAME tab, the key frame dialog box is opened. This tab
is available only when object have animation path and key frame is selected.
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ARC+ Render Pro User's Guide
Objects Animation
This tab displays the current key frame number, along with the following
features.
LINE TYPE
Enables you to choose the line type of path for this
key frame. Line (default) is a straight path. Curve
displays a blue grip and enables you to bend or arch
the path at this specific point. Break stops the motion
until it reaches the next key frame.
TARGET TYPE
The target type is not relevant for object path. The
target is used to define the direction behavior in
camera and lighting animation.
CONTROL
This feature enables full control over the type of key
frame used, i.e. what is changed in the key frame: line
of path, object data or both. Line allows you to
control only the key frame's position in path; other
object properties are determined by the previous key
frame. Data enables you to determine only object
properties (e.g. size) but not the position in path. Full
enables you to control all key frame parameters.
When selecting the STATISTICS tab, the statistics dialog box is opened.
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Objects Animation
This tab displays statistics about the select objects, such as the total number of
solids, polygons and vertices.
Properties dialog box and current frame
The properties dialog box shows properties according to the current frame. To
see all parameters of entity without relationship to animation, view the model in
basic state (frame is 0 in the animation toolbar). To see parameters of entity in
specific key frame or frame, view the model in the specific key frame or frame
(type the frame number in the animation toolbar, or use the animation toolbar to
go to the specific key frame or frame, or click on the frame number in the frames
view). For a further explanation about frames, see Chapter 6, Walk-through
Animation.
The tabs and fields shown in properties dialog box is according to the current
frame:
Basic state
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Keyframe selected
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Objects Animation
NOTE The key frame tab is available only when object have animation path and
specific key frame or frame is selected. When viewing model in basic state (frame is 0 in
the animation toolbar) this tab is not available.
Properties dialog box and entity mode
The entity mode determined which entity is picked when you click on the 3D
view. When entity mode is on, click picks an entity such as polygon and solid
(suitable for rendering working mode). When entity mode is off, click picks an
object such as placed element and RPC element (suitable for objects animation
working mode).
The properties dialog box shown is according to the entity type e.g. placed
element or polygon:
Placed element
Polygon
NOTE To select an object (i.e. placed element), make sure that Entity Mode in the
Objects toolbar is off. Then click on the object you want to select. The object is visually
indicated as selected by changing its color.
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Photo-realistic Objects
10
PhotoPhoto-realistic Objects
This chapter explains how to insert photo-realistic objects into your scene using
ARC+ Render Pro commands.
Photo-realistic objects, such as people, trees and automobiles, are supported by
RPC plug-in. With RPC plug-in, you can place and edit RPC objects that are
dynamically replaced at render-time with the image that is appropriate for the
current viewing direction. RPC technology provides new level of photo-realism,
with significantly improved rendering time, in remarkably simple user interface
as easy as drag and drop.
What is Photo-realistic Object
Photo-realistic objects are rendered using image-based rendering technology.
RPC is the first major commercial project in the evolution of image-based
rendering technology. Rather than rely upon complex geometry to represent
objects in 3D, RPC technology utilizes image data, and is capable of reflecting an
incredible richness of detail. The use of continuously updated and synthesized
image data creates a stunningly effective 3D illusion.
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Photo-realistic Objects
A simple representation is used to orient your
RPC content within the geometry of your
scene. At render time the RPC Plug-in
calculates the viewing angle of the RPC object
relative to the virtual camera. The appropriate
corresponding images are then synthesized,
creating the illusion that a complete 3D object
exists in the scene.
Working with Photo-realistic Objects
Photo-realistic objects are available in the Models library bar. The Library stores
RPC photo-realistic objects, which can be easily inserted into your scene.
Commercial RPC plug-in is required to support commercial RPC content. Demo
RPC content can be used without RPC plug-in license.
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Photo-realistic Objects
To insert a photo-realistic object, select it from the relevant library bar, and drag
and drop it into your scene.
NOTE To render RPC element correctly, select drawing mode that support
transparency mapping, such as ray tracing.
To delete an existing photo-realistic object, select the object you want to delete,
and press the delete button on your keyboard, or click Delete on the Edit menu.
NOTE To select a photo-realistic object, make sure that Entity Mode in the Objects
toolbar is off. Then click on the object you want to select. The object is visually indicated
as selected by changing its color.
To view properties of RPC element, either double-click on it or right-click the
mouse and select PROPERTIES, then click RPC.
Some RPC objects provide additional editable parameters (for example: steering
of wheels of automobile RPC object). To edit RPC parameters, click EDIT.
To change the units of a RPC element, click UNITS, and select the appropriate
units. Default units for RCP objects are inches.
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Photo-realistic Objects
Photo-realistic objects can be manipulated and animated as other objects. For
further information about working with objects, see Working with objects in
chapter 9, Objects Animation.
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