SB III 30 SR+ - Grease Monkey Road Squad llc

SB III 30 SR+ - Grease Monkey Road Squad llc
TK 41035-2-MM (Rev. 1, 7/00)
Copyright© 1996 Thermo King Corp., Minneapolis, MN, USA
Printed in USA
The maintenance information in this manual covers unit models:
SB-III 30 SR+ TK 486 (048550)
SB-III 30 SR+ TK 482 (048553)
For further information, refer to…
Thermoguard µP-IV+ Microprocessor Controller
Revision 04xx Operation and Diagnosis Manual
TK 40893
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Operation Manual
TK 40997
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Parts Manual
TK 40991
X214, X418, X426 and X430 Compressor Overhaul Manual
TK 6875
Diagnosing TK Refrigeration System
TK 5984
Tool Catalog
TK 5955
Evacuation Station Operation and Field Application
TK 40612
ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) Training Guide
TK 40282
The information in this manual is provided to assist owners, operators and service people in the proper
upkeep and maintenance of Thermo King units
This manual is published for informational purposes only and the information so provided should not be considered
as all-inclusive or covering all contingencies. If further information is required, Thermo King Corporation should be
consulted.
Sale of product shown in this manual is subject to Thermo King’s terms and conditions including, but not limited to,
the Thermo King Limited Express Warranty. Such terms and conditions are available upon request.
Thermo King’s warranty will not apply to any equipment which has been “so repaired or altered outside the manufacturer’s plants as, in the manufacturer's judgment, to effect its stability.”
No warranties, express or implied, including warranties of fitness for a particular purpose or merchantability, or warranties arising from course of dealing or usage of trade, are made regarding the information, recommendations, and descriptions contained herein. Manufacturer is not responsible and will not be held
liable in contract or in tort (including negligence) for any special, indirect or consequential damages,
including injury or damage caused to vehicles, contents or persons, by reason of the installation of any
Thermo King product or its mechanical failure.
Recover Refrigerant
At Thermo King, we recognize the need to preserve the environment and limit the potential harm to the ozone layer that can
result from allowing refrigerant to escape into the atmosphere.
We strictly adhere to a policy that promotes the recovery and
limits the loss of refrigerant into the atmosphere.
In addition, service personnel must be aware of Federal regulations concerning the use of refrigerants and the certification of
technicians. For additional information on regulations and technician certification programs, contact your local THERMO KING
dealer.
Table of Contents
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Maintenance Inspection Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Unit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Sequence of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Serial Number Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Operating Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Unit Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Switch Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Microprocessor Control Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Microprocessor On-Off Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Unit Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
unit Protection Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Unit Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Manual Pre-Trip Inspection (Before Starting Unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Starting Unit With Electronic Full Pre-Trip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Selection of Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Restarting Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
After Start Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Loading Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Post Load Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Post Trip Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Electrical Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Alternator (Australian Bosch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Charging System Diagnostic Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Alternator Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Alternator Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Alternator Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Inspecting and Diagnosing Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Alternator Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Unit Wiring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Charging System (12 Vdc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Fuses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Fuse Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Air Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Starter Temperature Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
THERMOGUARD µp IV+ Microprocessor Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Air Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Air Switch Testing and Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Table of Contents (continued)
Engine Maintenance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Lubrication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Filter Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bleeding Air from the Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Thermostat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bleeding the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water in the System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Separator/Fuel Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Separator/Fuel Filter Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Solenoid System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankcase Breather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Air Cleaner (Filter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan Belt Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
41
42
42
42
43
45
45
45
45
46
47
48
48
50
51
51
53
58
60
61
61
63
Refrigeration Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refrigerant Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Refrigerant Leaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Compressor Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Pressure Cutout Switch (HPCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulation Valve Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Gas Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
65
66
67
67
68
69
70
Refrigeration Service Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condenser Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discharge Vibrasorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In-line Condenser Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Condenser Check Valve Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bypass Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filter Drier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expansion Valve Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaporator Coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three-way Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
71
71
71
72
72
72
73
73
73
74
75
75
76
76
Table of Contents (continued)
Refrigeration Service Operations (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Three-way Valve Condenser Pressure Bypass Check Valve Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Pilot Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Suction Vibrasorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
High Pressure Cutout Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
High Pressure Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Throttling Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Modulation Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Hot Gas Solenoid Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Structural Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Unit And Engine Mounting Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Unit Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Condenser, Evaporator, and Radiator Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Defrost Drains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Unit Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Defrost Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Condenser and Evaporator Fan Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Idler Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Idler Assembly Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Condenser Shutters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Power Element Installation and Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Shutter Travel Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Mechanical Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Refrigeration Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Refrigeration Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Defrost and Heating Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Refrigeration Cycle With Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Wiring Schematics and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105-109
Safety Precautions
GENERAL PRACTICES
REFRIGERANT
1.
ALWAYS WEAR GOGGLES OR SAFETY
GLASSES. Refrigerant liquid and battery acid can permanently damage the eyes (see First Aid under Refrigeration Oil).
2.
Never operate the unit with the compressor discharge
valve closed.
Although fluorocarbon refrigerants are classified as safe
refrigerants, certain precautions must be observed when
handling them or servicing a unit in which they are used.
When exposed to the atmosphere in the liquid state, fluorocarbon refrigerants evaporate rapidly, freezing anything
they contact.
3.
Keep your hands clear of the fans and belts when the
unit is running. This should also be considered when
opening and closing the compressor service valves.
4.
5.
First Aid
In the event of frost bite, the objectives of First Aid are to
protect the frozen area from further injury, to warm the
affected area rapidly, and to maintain respiration.
Make sure the gauge manifold hoses are in good condition. Never let them come in contact with a belt, fan
motor pulley, or any hot surface.
Never apply heat to a sealed refrigeration system or
container.
6.
Fluorocarbon refrigerants, in the presence of an open
flame or electrical short, produce toxic gases that are
severe respiratory irritants capable of causing death.
7.
Make sure all mounting bolts are tight and are the correct length for their particular application.
8.
Use extreme caution when drilling holes in the unit.
The holes may weaken structural components. Holes
drilled into electrical wiring can cause fire or explosion.
9.
Use caution when working around exposed coil fins.
The fins can cause painful lacerations.
•
EYES: For contact with liquid, immediately flush eyes
with large amounts of water and get prompt medical
attention.
•
SKIN: Flush area with large amounts of lukewarm
water. Do not apply heat. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wrap burns with dry, sterile, bulky
dressing to protect from infection/injury. Get medical
attention. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
•
INHALATION: Move victim to fresh air and use CPR
or mouth-to-mouth ventilation, if necessary. Stay with
victim until arrival of emergency medical personnel.
REFRIGERANT OIL
Avoid refrigeration oil contact with the eyes. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact of refrigeration oil with skin or
clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling refrigeration oil to
prevent irritation.
10. Use caution when working with a refrigerant or refrigeration system in any enclosed or confined area with a
limited air supply (for example, a bus or garage).
Refrigerant tends to displace air and can cause oxygen
depletion, resulting in suffocation.
First Aid
In case of eye contact, immediately flush with plenty of
water for at least 15 minutes. CALL A PHYSICIAN. Wash
skin with soap and water.
11. EPA Section 608 Certification is needed to work on
refrigeration systems.
i
Safety Precautions (Rev. 4/00)
ii
Specifications
ENGINE
Model
Number of Cylinders
Cylinder Arrangement
Firing Order
Direction of Rotation
Fuel Type
TK 482 and TK 486
4
In-line vertical, number 1 on flywheel end
1-3-4-2
Counterclockwise viewed from flywheel end
No. 2 diesel fuel under normal conditions
No. 1 diesel fuel is acceptable cold weather fuel
Oil Capacity: Crankcase
13 quarts (12.3 liters) crankcase
Fill to full mark on dipstick
Oil Type*:
API Petroleum Type CD
API Synthetic Type CD After first 500 hours
Oil Viscosity**
Above 80 F (27 C): SAE 40
50 to 90 F (10 to 32 C): SAE 30
20 to 70 F (-7 to 21 C): SAE 20-20W
-15 to 40 F (-26 to 4 C): SAE 10W
Below 0 F (-18 C) continuously: SAE 5W
Engine rpm:Low Speed Operation
1425 to 1475 rpm
High Speed Operation
2175 to 2225 rpm
Engine Oil Pressure
18 psi (127 kPa) minimum in low speed
45 to 57 (310 to 390 kPa) in high speed
Intake Valve Clearance
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
Exhaust Valve Clearance
0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm)
Valve Setting Temperature
70 F (21 C)
Fuel Injection Timing
11° to 13° BTDC (timed on No. 1 cylinder)
Low Oil Pressure Switch (Normally Closed)
17 ± 3 psi (117 ± 21 kPa)
Engine Coolant Thermostat
180 F (82 C)
Coolant System Capacity
10 quarts (9.5 liters)
Radiator Cap Pressure
7 psi (48 kPa)
Drive
Direct to compressor; belts to fans, alternator and
water pump
* Thermo King synthetic oil is compatible with petroleum lubricants so there is no danger if accidental
mixing occurs or if an emergency requires addition of petroleum oil. Mixing is not recommended, however, since it will dilute the superior performance properties of the synthetic oil.
** Multi-viscosity weight oil with the recommended API classification may be used based on the ambient
temperature and straight weight viscosity recommendations above. The above recommendations are
written for mineral oil based lubricants.
Tension No. on TK Gauge P/N 204-427
BELT TENSION
Alternator Belt
Lower Fan Belt (Engine to Idler)
Upper Fan Belt (Fanto Idler)
35
67
74
1
Specifications (Rev. 7/00)
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Compressor
Refrigerant Charge—Type
Compressor Oil Charge
Compressor Oil Filter Oil Charge
Compressor Oil Type
Throttling Valve Setting
Heat/Defrost Method
High Pressure Cutout
Thermo King X430
13 lb (5.9 kg)—R-404A
4.1 qt (3.9 liters)*
0.2 qts (0.2 liters)
Polyol Ester type P/N 203-413
23 to 25 psi (159 to 172 kPa)
Hot gas
450 ± 10 psi (3103 ± 69 kPa)
Automatic reset @ 375 ± 38 psi (2586 ± 262 kPa)
* When the compressor is removed from the unit, oil level should be noted or the oil removed from the
compressor should be measured so that the same amount of oil can be added before placing the
replacement compressor in the unit.
AIR SWITCH SETTING
Single Switch
1.00 ± 0.05 in. (25.4 ± 1.3 mm) H2O
ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
Voltage
12.5 Vdc
Battery
One, group C31, 12 volt battery
Fuse Link Rating
110 amps @ 72 F (22 C)
#2 Circuit Fuse (F9—2AA Circuit)
40 amp
Damper Fuse (F3—29F Circuit)
15 amp
High Speed Solenoid Fuse (F18—7D Circuit)
15 amp
#8 Circuit (F21—8F Circuit)
15 amp
Other Fuses
3 amp
Battery Charging
12 volt, 37 Amp, brush type alternator
Voltage Regulator Setting
13.8 to 14.2 volts @ 77 F (25 C)
NOTE: The Alternator Field Fuse (F15) must be removed for the Bosch Alternator.
2
Specifications (Rev. 7/00)
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
NOTE: Disconnect components from unit circuit to check resistance.
Current Draw (Amps)
at 12.5 Vdc
Fuel Solenoid:
Pull-in Coil
Hold-in Coil
Resistance—Cold
(Ohms)
35 to 45
0.5
0.2 to 0.3
24 to 29
Damper Solenoid
5.7
2.2
High Speed (Throttle) Solenoid
2.9
4.3
Air Heater
89
0.14
Pilot Solenoid
0.7
17.0
Starter Motor—Gear Reduction Type
250-375*
Modulation Valve (Optional)
1.7**
7.6
Hot Gas Bypass Valve (Optional)
1.1
11.1
* On-the-engine cranking check. Bench test is approximately 80 amps on the gear reduction starter.
** Test at 12.5 Vdc.
THERMOGUARD® µP-IV MICROPROCESSOR TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER
Temperature Controller:
Type
Electronic THERMOGUARD TG-IV Microprocessor
with digital thermostat, thermometer and fault
indicator monitor
Setpoint Range
-20 to 80 F (-29 to 27 C)
Programmable setpoint range to 90 F (32 C)
Digital Temperature Display
Internal Defrost Timer:
-40 to 99.9 F (-40 to 40 C)
Temperature Pulldown
2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 4)
Temperature In-range
4, 6, 8 or 12 hours (selectable, standard setting 6)
Defrost Initiation:
Coil Sensor
Coil must be below 45 F (7.2 C)
Defrost Termination:
Coil Sensor
Terminates defrost with coil temperature above
57 F (13.9 C)
Interval Timer
Terminates defrost 30 to 45 minutes (programmable)
after initiation if coil sensor has not terminated
defrost
3
4
Maintenance Inspection Schedule
Pre-trip
Every
1,500
Hours
Annual/
4,500
Hours Inspect/Service These Items
MICROPROCESSOR
•
Run Pretrip Test (refer to Pretrip Test in the Operating Manual).
ENGINE
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check fuel supply.
Check engine oil level.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspect belts for condition and proper tension (belt tension tool No. 204-427).
Check engine oil pressure hot, on high speed. Minimum 45 psi (310 kPa).
Listen for unusual noises, vibrations, etc.
Check air cleaner indicator.*
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Change engine oil** (hot) and oil filter.
Drain water from fuel tank and check vent.
Inspect/clean fuel transfer pump inlet strainer.
Check and adjust engine speeds (high and low speed).
Check condition of engine mounts.
Change engine coolant.
Replace fuel filter (replace water separator every 3,000 hours).
Test fuel injection nozzles at least every 10,000 hours per Service Bulletin T&T
052.
ELECTRICAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspect battery terminals and electrolyte level.
•
Inspect alternator.
Inspect wire harness for damaged wires or connections.
Check operation of damper door (closes on defrost initiation and opens on
defrost termination).
5
Maintenance Inspection Schedule (Rev. 7/00)
Pre-trip
Every
1,500
Hours
Annual/
4,500
Hours Inspect/Service These Items
REFRIGERATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Check refrigerant level.
Check for proper suction pressure.
Check compressor oil level and condition.
Check throttling valve regulating pressure.
Check compressor efficiency and pump down refrigeration system.
Replace dehydrator and check discharge and suction pressure every two (2)
years.
STRUCTURAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Visually inspect unit for fluid leaks.
Visually inspect unit for damaged, loose or broken parts (includes air ducts and
bulkheads).
Inspect tapered roller bearing fanshaft and idlers for leakage and bearing wear
(noise).
Clean entire unit including condenser and evaporator coils and defrost drains.
Check all unit and fuel tank mounting bolts, brackets, lines, hoses, etc.
Check evaporator damper door adjustment and operation.
* Change air cleaner when indicator reaches 22 in.
** NOTE: Use only “CD” rated petroleum oil in the engine. Doing so will allow 1,500 hour extended maintenance intervals.
6
Unit Description
CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop Controls
The SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Series engine is a one-piece, selfcontained, diesel powered refrigeration-heating unit. The
unit mounts on the front of the trailer with the evaporator
portion extending into the trailer. The unit uses hot gas to
heat and defrost.
A CYCLE-SENTRY Start-Stop fuel saving system provides
optimum operating economy.
WARNING: With the selector switch in the CYCLESENTRY position and the unit On-Off switch in the
ON position, the unit may start at anytime without
prior warning.
Power is provided by either the TK 482 or the TK 486,
which are four-cylinder, water cooled, direct injection diesel
engines. The TK 482 displaces 1.90 liters and is rated at
30.3 horsepower (22.6 kilowatts) at 2200 rpm. The TK 486
displaces 2.09 liters and is rated at 33.9 horsepower (25.3
kilowatts) at 2200 rpm. An in-line power pack provides
direct drive power transfer from the engine to the compressor. A belt drive system transfers energy to the fans, the
alternator, and the water pump.
NOTE: A buzzer sounds when the unit is automatically
preheating.
NOTE: The microprocessor has a CYCLE-SENTRY
Fresh (CSFR) feature that can lockout CYCLE-SENTRY
operation and force Continuous Run within a programmable range of setpoints. If this feature is active and the
setpoint is within the programmed lockout range, the
CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will flash while the unit is
automatically starting. After the unit starts, the CYCLESENTRY symbol will disappear and the unit will operate
in Continuous Run as long as the setpoint is within the
programmed lockout range. The CYCLE-SENTRY light
on the optional remote indicator light assembly will
remain on, indicating that the CYCLE-SENTRY switch is
in the CYCLE-SENTRY position. Refer to the appropriate THERMOGUARD µP IV+ Microprocessor Controller
Operation & Diagnostic Manual for specific information
about the CYCLE-SENTRY Fresh feature.
The engine uses a spin-on, dual element, full flow/bypass
oil filter and “CD” rated petroleum engine oil for extended
1,500 hour maintenance intervals.
THERMOGUARD µP IV Microprocessor
The THERMOGUARD µP IV is a microprocessor control
system designed for a transport refrigeration system. The µP
IV integrates the following functions: thermostat, digital
thermometer, hourmeters, oil pressure gauge, water temperature gauge, ammeter, voltmeter, tachometer, mode indicator, refrigeration system controller, and diagnostic system.
The CYCLE-SENTRY system, an integral defrost timer,
and data recording are standard features. The refrigeration
modulation system, Tracker (a satellite communication system interface), and remote indicator lights are optional features.
The CYCLE-SENTRY system automatically starts the unit
on microprocessor demand, and shuts down the unit when
all demands are satisfied. As well as maintaining the box
temperature, engine block temperature and battery charge
levels are monitored and maintained. If the block temperature falls below 30 F (-1.1 C), the engine will start and run
until the block temperature is above 90 F (32 C). If the battery voltage falls to the programmed limit selected by
CYCLE-SENTRY Battery Voltage (typically 12.2 volts)
and Diesel CYCLE-SENTRY mode is selected, the engine
will start and run until the charge rate falls below that programmed by CYCLE-SENTRY Amps (typically 5
amperes).
The microprocessor mounts inside a weather tight control
box. The LCD display is clearly visible through a transparent cover. Opening the keypad door provides quick access
to the microprocessor keypad. The keypad is used to control
the operation of the microprocessor.
7
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
SCS to a central location for processing. The Tracker transmits data at preset intervals or on demand depending on the
type of SCS. Data can also be transmitted through a Tracker
to the microprocessor with some systems.
Features of the CYCLE-SENTRY system are:
•
Offers either CYCLE-SENTRY or Continuous Run
operation.
•
Microprocessor controlled all season temperature
control.
Thermo King X430 Compressor
Maintains minimum engine temperature in low ambient
conditions.
The unit is equipped with a Thermo King X430, four-
•
Battery Sentry keeps batteries fully charged during unit
operation.
Refrigeration Modulation System (Optional)
•
Fixed preheat time.
•
Preheat indicator buzzer.
•
cylinder compressor with 30 cu. in. (492 cm3) displacement.
The refrigeration modulation system provides precise control of the refrigeration system and the temperature of the
cargo area. As the temperature of the return air begins to
approach the setpoint, the microprocessor begins to close
the modulation valve in the suction line between the evaporator and the heat exchanger. The microprocessor closes the
modulation valve more as the return air temperature gets
closer to the setpoint. When the temperature is near setpoint, the modulation valve is closed to its limit and the hot
gas bypass valve is opened. When the temperature begins to
move away from the setpoint, the modulation valve begins
to open. The hot gas bypass valve remains open until the
modulation valve is completely open, then the hot gas
bypass valve closes. This provides very smooth and steady
temperature control and the temperature does not oscillate
above and below setpoint as much as it does in a unit that
does not have modulation.
Data Logging
The Data Logging feature is standard equipment on the
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Series Engine. The microprocessor
records operational events and alarm codes as they occur
and at preset intervals. This trip data can be retrieved (but
not erased) from the microprocessor memory using an
IBM® PC compatible laptop or desktop computer or a
Hewlett Packard HP 100LX® (or higher) shirt pocket computer and THERMO KING TRAC PAC® software. The
computer is connected to the Data Interface on the bottom
of the control box. A brief graphical or tabular report can
then be printed on the Data Pac microprinter. More detailed
reports may be printed in either a graphical or tabular format on a high speed printer external to the portable microcomputer.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
When the unit is turned ON the LCD display, which normally shows the setpoint, the return air temperature, and the
operating mode, is illuminated. The microprocessor relays
and unit loads energize, and the unit can now be started
manually, or it may start automatically if the selector switch
is in the CYCLE-SENTRY position.
Tracker (Optional)
The Tracker is an optional system that can be included in
the microprocessor. The Tracker interfaces a satellite communication system (SCS) located in the tractor. The Tracker
and the SCS are connected with a data cable. The Tracker
transmits data (recorded in the microprocessor) through the
8
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
Operating Modes
CYCLE-SENTRY Mode, Setpoint at or Above
Fresh-Frozen Range
The microprocessor uses a complex program to determine
which operating mode the unit should be in. Therefore, it is
difficult to predict which operating mode the unit should be
in by comparing the setpoint to the box temperature. Also,
the different versions of software that are used have some
operational differences.
Operating mode is controlled by the microprocessor. When
the temperature is within a few degrees of setpoint, the temperature is considered to be in range and the in-range icon
(and the optional in-range light, if so equipped) will turn on.
The microprocessor will select the operating mode from the
list of possible modes below:
The diesel engine operates at either low speed or high speed
as determined by the microprocessor. The unit will cool or
heat in either high or low speed. The unit will defrost in low
speed only. Heat and defrost consists of hot gas delivered to
the evaporator coil distributor.
The unit will operate in either the Fresh or Frozen range
(formerly referred to as “Heat Lockout”). The Fresh-Frozen
range transition point is programmable to either 24 F (-4 C)
or 15 F (-9 C). The operation modes shown below utilize
this range as programmed.
•
High Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Null (if engine temperature and battery are satisfied)
•
Low Speed Heat
•
High Speed Heat
•
Defrost
Continuous Mode, Setpoint Below Fresh-Frozen
Range
Continuous Mode, Setpoint at or Above FreshFrozen Range
Operating mode is controlled by the microprocessor. When
the temperature is within a few degrees of setpoint, the temperature is considered to be in range and the in-range icon
(and the optional in-range light, if so equipped) will turn on.
The microprocessor will select the operating mode from the
list of possible modes below:
Operating mode is controlled by the microprocessor. When
the temperature is within a few degrees of setpoint, the temperature is considered to be in range and the in-range icon
(and the optional in-range light, if so equipped) will turn on.
The microprocessor will select the operating mode from the
list of possible modes below:
•
High Speed Cool
•
High Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Heat
•
Low Speed Modulated Cool (if equipped with modulation)
•
Defrost
•
Low Speed Modulated Heat (if equipped with modulation)
•
Low Speed Heat
•
High Speed Heat
•
Defrost
9
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
CYCLE-SENTRY Mode, Setpoint Below FreshFrozen Range
A demand defrost cycle will occur if the difference between
the return air temperature, discharge air temperature and
coil temperature becomes excessive.
Operating mode is controlled by the microprocessor. When
the temperature is within a few degrees of setpoint, the temperature is considered to be in range and the in-range icon
(and the optional in-range light, if so equipped) will turn on.
The microprocessor will select the operating mode from the
list of possible modes below:
•
High Speed Cool
•
Low Speed Cool
•
Null (if engine temperature and battery are satisfied)
•
Low Speed Heat (if engine temperature or battery are
not satisfied)
•
Two defrost timers are used. When the unit is In-Range
(within a few degrees of setpoint), defrost intervals are controlled by the Defrost Interval In-range timer (DEFI). This
timer can be set for 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. When the unit is not
in range, defrost intervals are determined by the Defrost
Interval Not In-Range timer (DEFN). This timer can be set
for 2, 4, 6, 8 or 12 hours. This feature allows a shorter
defrost timer to be used when the unit is out of range during
a pulldown and more frequent defrost cycles may be beneficial.
If the unit is in CYCLE-SENTRY Null mode, the engine
will start when defrost is initiated. The In-Range Icon will
remain on if it was on when defrost was initiated.
Defrost
The unit will stay in defrost until the evaporator coil temperature rises to 57 F (13 C). If the evaporator coil temperature does not rise above 57 F (13 C) within the Defrost
Duration (DDUR) time limit, the microprocessor will terminate defrost. The Defrost Duration can be set for either 30 or
45 minutes.
Defrost
Defrost is initiated manually by pressing the Manual
Defrost switch. Defrost is initiated automatically on
demand, by the defrost timer, or by the air switch.
The evaporator coil temperature must be below 45 F (7 C)
to allow defrost. When the Defrost Icon appears, the damper
door is closed by the damper solenoid.
10
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
Unit Model
Unit Model
SB-III 30 SR+ TK SB-III 30 SR+ TK
486 (048550)
482 (048553)
DESIGN FEATURES
TK 486 Diesel Engine
TK 482 Diesel Engine
X430 Compressor
Compressor Oil Filter
Top Mount Muffler
Thermo King Radiator
Stainless Steel Grille
Stainless Steel Exterior Condenser Hardware
Stainless Steel Evaporator Hardware
Tapered Roller Bearing Fanshaft and Idler
Premium Drive Belts
Heavy Duty Dry Element Air leaner Inside Unit Frame
THERMOGUARD Microprocessor Controller
Fuel Filter with Water Separator
Spin-On Full Flow Bypass (Dual Element) Oil Filter
Dealer Installed Synthetic Engine Oil
Side Mount Coolant Expansion Tank
Defrost Timer
CYCLE-SENTRY System
37 Amp Alternator
Refrigerant R-404A
Silicone Coolant Hoses
Fuel Heater
Fresh Air Exchange
Condenser Shutters
Top Screen
Refrigeration Modulation System
Remote Indicator Lights
Tracker
•
—
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Opt
•
•
•
•
•
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt
Opt
11
—
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Opt
•
•
•
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Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
Unit Model
Unit Model
SB-III 30 SR+ TK SB-III 30 SR+ TK
486 (048550)
482 (048553)
PROTECTION DEVICES
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
Engine Low Oil Pressure Sensor
Engine Low Oil Pressure Switch
Engine Low Oil Level Switch
Evaporator Temperature Sensor
Refrigerant High Pressure Cutout Switch
High Refrigerant Pressure Relief Valve
12 Volt Fuse Link
Fuse in Main Power Circuit
Fuse in Control Circuit
Fuse in Modulation Valve Circuit
Fuse in Microprocessor Power Circuit
Relay Fuses
Remote Indicator Light Fuses
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12
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Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
SERIAL NUMBER LOCATIONS
Unit: Nameplate on the curbside of the unit inside the top
service access grille and on the roadside of the unit frame
below control panel.
Engine: Nameplate on rocker arm cover.
Compressor: Stamped on the end above the oil pump.
1
1
ANA139
1
1
SP2001
1.
Serial Number Location
AEA686
13
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
ANA139
Front View
14
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
6
7
5
8
4
9
10
3
11
2
12
13
1
AEA1608
1.
Compressor Sight Glass
8.
Fuel Bleed Screw
2.
Compressor Oil Filter
9.
Fuel Solenoid
3.
Throttle Solenoid
10.
Starter
4.
Throttling Valve
11.
Hand Primer Pump
5.
Suction Service Valve
12.
Dipstick
6.
Alternator
13.
Oil Filter
7.
Air Restriction Indicator
Engine Compartment
15
Unit Description (Rev. 7/00)
ANA235
Control Panel
16
Operating Instructions
UNIT CONTROLS
2.
PREHEAT-START Switch. This switch is used to manually start the diesel engine. When held in the PREHEAT position, it energizes only the air heater to help
start the engine. See the Ambient Temperature—Preheat Time chart on page 22 for correct preheat times.
When held in the START position, it energizes the
starter and the air heater. Hold the switch in the START
position until the engine starts to fire and pick up
speed. DO NOT release the switch too soon when the
engine is extremely cold.
3.
MANUAL DEFROST Switch. Pressing this switch
causes the unit to initiate a defrost cycle, if the evaporator coil temperature is below 45 (7.2 C). If the evaporator coil temperature is above 45 (7.2 C), pressing this
switch will not affect the operation of the unit.
Two sets of controls are used to operate a unit that has a
THERMOGUARD™ Microprocessor Temperature Controller. The switch panel contains the switches that control
the basic operation of the unit. The microprocessor control
panel contains the LCD display and the keypad that controls
the operation of thnk;lnh;nlmj;mg;ln;’.gn;’.nh;’.hnkiikkiioioioioiooe microprocessor.
Switch Panel
1.
ON-OFF Switch. This switch energizes the unit’s electric control system.
a.
ON Position. The unit will operate under the control of the microprocessor.
b.
OFF Position. The electric control system is deenergized and the unit will not operate.
1
4
3
2
ANA112
1.
On/Off Switch
3.
Manual Defrost Switch
2.
Preheat/Start Switch
4.
CYCLE SENTRY/Continuous Run Switch
Main Switch Panel
17
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
4.
Microprocessor Control Panel
CYCLE-SENTRY/CONTINUOUS
Switch.
This
switch selects continuous run operation or CYCLESENTRY operation.
THERMOGUARD MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER. The THERMOGUARD Microprocessor Temperature
Controller controls all unit functions to maintain the cargo
at the proper temperature. The microprocessor also continuously monitors discharge and return air sensor temperatures
and unit operational information.
CONTINUOUS Position. The unit must be started
manually with the On-Off and Preheat-Start switches.
After it is started, the unit will operate continuously
until the On-Off switch is turned OFF.
CYCLE-SENTRY Position. All unit starting operations
are performed automatically on microprocessor
demand. Starting functions such as air heater preheat,
fuel and throttle solenoid control, and cranking are performed automatically.
The Microprocessor Control Panel contains the LCD and
the keypad. The LCD shows various information. The keypad controls the operation of the microprocessor. Refer to
the appropriate Operation Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information about operating the
microprocessor.
NOTE: If the CYCLE-SENTRY Fresh (CSFR) feature is active and the setpoint is within the programmed lockout range, the CYCLE-SENTRY
symbol will flash while the unit is automatically starting. After the unit starts, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will disappear and the unit will operate in
Continuous Run as long as the setpoint is within the
programmed lockout range.
Microprocessor On-Off Switch
This switch is located in the side of the control box in the
engine compartment. It should be placed in the OFF position to connect or disconnect the battery, or to service the
microprocessor system. The clock/calendar must be reset if
this switch has been placed in the OFF position.
Unit operation is controlled automatically by the microprocessor. The engine starts automatically whenever
the microprocessor calls for cooling or heating, manual
defrost is initiated, the engine coolant temperature
drops to 30 F (-1.1 C), or the battery voltage drops
below the CYCLE-SENTRY Battery Voltage setting.
The engine runs until the unit reaches setpoint, the battery is charged enough to drop the charging current
below the CYCLE-SENTRY Amps setting and the
coolant temperature reaches 90 F (32 C). The engine is
automatically stopped by the CYCLE-SENTRY system.
UNIT INSTRUMENTS
1.
CAUTION: With the selector switch in
CYCLE-SENTRY position and the unit On-Off
switch in the ON position, the unit may start at
any time without prior warning.
18
AMMETER (Built into microprocessor). The ammeter
indicates the battery charge and discharge amperage
during unit operation. The charging amperage varies
according to the needs of the battery.
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
2.
MICROPROCESSOR LCD DISPLAY. The LCD display normally shows the setpoint, the return air temperature, and any active icons, which are:
•
CYCLE-SENTRY
•
High Speed
•
In-range
•
Heat
•
Defrost
•
Cool
•
Electric
•
Setpoint
•
Return Air
•
Discharge Air
•
Alarm
4.
REMOTE INDICATOR LIGHTS (Optional). The
remote indicator lights, if used, show the operating
modes and the alarm light. The remote indicator is
normally mounted on the front roadside corner of the
trailer so it is visible through the driver’s roadside
mirror.
1.
FUSIBLE LINK (Current Limiter). The fusible link is
located electrically between the 2 wire and the battery.
At a current draw of approximately 110 amps, the
fusible link will melt, cutting all power to the unit.
2.
FUSES. A number of fuses, located on the relay board,
protect various circuits and components.
A 15 amp fuse (F3—Damper) protects the 29F circuit,
which supplies power to the damper solenoid.
DATA INTERFACE. The Data Interface is a serial port
that can be used to connect the microprocessor to a
A 15 amp fuse (F18—High Speed Solenoid) protects
the 7D circuit, which supplies power to the high speed
solenoid.
Packard HP 100LX® (or higher) shirt pocket computer.
6.
8.
A 40 amp fuse (F9—#2 Circuit) protects the 2AA circuit, which is the main power circuit.
ALARM SYMBOL. The alarm symbol comes on
whenever there is an alarm code stored in the microprocessor memory.
Mini IBM® PC compatible computer or a Hewlett
5.
AIR RESTRICTION INDICATOR. An air restriction
indicator is attached to the intake manifold. Visually
inspect the restriction indicator periodically to assure
the air filter is not restricted. Service the air filter when
the yellow diaphragm indicates 22 in. of water column.
Press the button on the top of the restriction indicator
after servicing the air filter.
UNIT PROTECTION DEVICES
Pressing the SELECT key causes the display to show
the other sensor readings. Pressing the CODE key
causes the display to show the fault codes.
3.
7.
A 15 amp fuse (F21—#8 Circuit) protects the 8F circuit, which supplies power to various control relays and
components.
RECEIVER TANK SIGHT GLASS. The receiver
tank sight glass is used to check the amount of refrigerant in the system, and the moisture content of the
refrigerant.
A number of three amp fuses protect microprocessor
circuits, control relay circuits, remote light circuits
(optional) and various components.
COMPRESSOR OIL SIGHT GLASS. The compressor
oil sight glass is used to check the relative level of compressor oil in the compressor sump.
19
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
3.
4.
UNIT OPERATION
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT. The high pressure cutout is a pressure sensitive switch that is located in the
compressor discharge manifold. If the discharge pressure rises above 450 psi (3103 kPa), the switch opens
the 8D circuit to the fuel solenoid, which stops the
engine.
Manual Pre-Trip Inspection (Before
Starting Unit)
The following Pre-trip Inspection should be completed
before starting the unit and loading the trailer. While the
Pre-trip Inspection is not a substitute for regularly scheduled maintenance inspections, it is an important part of the
preventive maintenance program designed to head off operating problems and breakdowns before they happen.
HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE. The high pressure relief valve is designed to relieve excess pressure
within the refrigeration system. The valve is a springloaded piston that lifts off its seat when refrigerant
pressure exceeds 500 psi (3447 kPa). The valve will
reseat when the pressure drops to 400 psi (2758 kPa).
The valve could possibly leak refrigerant after it has
relieved excess pressure. Tapping the valve lightly may
help the valve reseat and SEAL PROPERLY. The
valve is non-repairable and requires no adjustment. If
the valve fails to reseat properly, remove the refrigerant
charge and unscrew and replace the valve.
1.
FUEL. The diesel fuel supply must be adequate to
guarantee engine operation to the next check point.
2.
ENGINE OIL. The engine oil level should be at the
FULL mark with the dipstick turned (threaded) into oil
pan. Never overfill.
3.
COOLANT. The engine coolant must have antifreeze
protection to -30 F (-34 C). Check and add coolant in
the expansion tank.
The high pressure relief valve is located on a high pressure line near the condenser. Its location is such that
when the pressure is expelled from the valve, it would
be directed away from anyone servicing the unit.
5.
6.
CAUTION: Do not remove expansion tank cap
while coolant is hot.
LOW OIL LEVEL SWITCH. The low oil level switch
closes if the oil drops below a certain level. If it stays
closed for a specified time, the microprocessor will
shut the unit down and record alarm code 66.
PREHEAT BUZZER. The preheat buzzer sounds when
the CYCLE-SENTRY system energizes the air heater.
This should warn anyone near the unit that the CYCLESENTRY system is about to start the diesel engine.
20
4.
BATTERY. The terminals must be clean and tight.
5.
BELTS. The belts must be in good condition and
adjusted to the proper tensions.
6.
ELECTRICAL. The electrical connections should be
securely fastened. The wires and terminals should be
free of corrosion, cracks or moisture.
7.
STRUCTURAL. Visually inspect the unit for leaks,
loose or broken parts and other damage. The condenser
and evaporator coils should be clean and free of debris.
Check the defrost drain hoses and fittings to make sure
they are open. Make sure all the doors are latched
securely.
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
Starting Unit With Electronic Full Pre-Trip
This procedure is used for a complete checkout of the
trailer, unit, and unit control circuits. It should be used when
first starting the unit for a trip before the cargo is loaded. A
full Pre-trip procedure may take up to 30 minutes and the
unit will run unattended.
4.
1.
Perform a Pre-trip Inspection.
2.
Adjust the setpoint to the desired load temperature
(refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information
about adjusting the setpoint).
Change the setpoint display with the arrow keys.
b.
Enter the new setpoint by pressing the ENTER key
within 5 seconds.
PRE AMPS will appear on the display indicating that the amps check is running and the
PRE TRIP has started.
•
The amps check will continue for several minutes, then the unit will start automatically and
the operational tests will be performed.
When the PRE TRIP test is complete, PASS, CHECK,
or FAIL will appear on the display until a function key
(e.g., SELECT or ENTER) is pressed. Continue as follows:
PASS (Unit running, no alarms)
•
a.
•
Unit has passed the PRE TRIP, go to step 5.
CHECK (Unit running but Check Alarms have
been recorded)
or
3.
Initiate a Pre-trip test (refer to the appropriate Operating Manual or Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about the Pre-trip). This procedure is automatic and can be performed on the way to
the loading area or while waiting to load.
a.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY/Continuous switch in
the CYCLE-SENTRY position.
b.
Place the On-Off switch in the ON position.
c.
Clear any alarms.
d.
Press and hold the TK key for at least 3 seconds.
•
e.
FAIL (Unit has shut down and recorded Shutdown Alarms)
PRE TRIP will appear on the display.
Press the ENTER key while PRE TRIP is displayed.
•
PRE LOAD will appear on the display and the
PRE TRIP test will start.
21
a.
View the Alarms with the CODE key (refer to the
appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
b.
Correct the alarm conditions.
c.
Clear the alarms with the CLEAR key (refer to the
appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for
detailed information about alarms).
d.
Repeat the PRE TRIP test until PASS appears (the
unit passes the PRE-TRIP).
5.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY/Continuous switch in the
desired position (see Selection of Operating Modes).
6.
Recheck the setpoint.
7.
Complete the After Start Inspection.
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
Selection of Operating Modes
•
The Thermo King CYCLE-SENTRY system is designed to
save refrigeration fuel costs. The savings vary with the
commodity, ambient temperatures and trailer insulation.
However, not all temperature controlled products can be
properly transported using CYCLE-SENTRY operation.
Certain highly sensitive products normally require continuous air circulation.
Examples of Products Normally Requiring
Continuous Run Operation for Air Flow
•
•
The unit is equipped with a selector switch for CYCLESENTRY or Continuous Run operation.
The microprocessor has a CYCLE-SENTRY Fresh
(CSFR) feature that can lockout CYCLE-SENTRY
operation and force Continuous Run operation within a
programmable range of setpoints. This feature can be
used to provide continuous air circulation (within the
programmed setpoint range) during CYCLE-SENTRY
operation. Refer to the appropriate THERMOGUARD
µP IV+ Microprocessor Controller Operation and
Diagnosis Manual for specific information about the
CYCLE-SENTRY Fresh feature.
All non-edible products
•
Fresh fruits and vegetables, especially asparagus,
bananas, broccoli, carrots, citrus, green peas, lettuce,
peaches, spinach, strawberries, sweet corn, etc.
•
Non-processed meat products (unless pre-cooled to recommended temperature)
•
Fresh flowers and foliage
The above listings are not all inclusive. Consult your
grower or shipper if you have any questions about the operating mode selection of your type of load.
Restarting Unit
These procedures are used when starting units that have
been shut off for short periods of time. When a unit that has
been shut off for a long period of time is first started, it
should be started and put through a full pre-trip.
Your selection of the operating mode for the proper protection of a particular commodity should use the following
guidelines:
Manual Start (Continuous Run Operation)
Examples of Products Normally Acceptable for
CYCLE-SENTRY Operation
1.
With the selector switch in the CONTINUOUS position, the
unit will operate in its regular cooling and heating modes.
Hold the Preheat-Start switch in the PREHEAT position for the required time.
•
Frozen foods (in adequately insulated trailers)
•
Boxed or processed meats
•
Poultry
•
Fish
2.
Place the On-Off switch in the ON position.
•
Dairy products
3.
•
Candy
•
Chemicals
Hold the Preheat-Start switch in the START position to
crank the engine. Release when the engine starts. DO
NOT release prematurely when the engine is extremely
cold.
•
Film
Ambient Temperature
32 to 60 F (0 to 16 C)
0 to 32 F (-18 to 0 C)
Below 0 F (-18 C)
22
Preheat Time
15 seconds
30 seconds
60 seconds
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
drop the charging current below the CYCLE-SENTRY
Amps setting. The unit runs in whichever operating mode
the microprocessor calls for to properly maintain the compartment temperature. When the battery is sufficiently
recharged, the unit will shut down on microprocessor
demand.
CAUTION: Never use starting fluid.
If the engine fails to start within 15 seconds:
•
Turn the On-Off switch to OFF.
•
Check for and correct any alarm conditions and clear
the alarm codes. View the alarms with the CODE key,
clear the alarms with the CLEAR key, and then repeat
the manual start procedure. Refer to the appropriate
Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information about alarms.
•
CAUTION: With the selector switch in CYCLESENTRY position and the On-Off switch in the ON
position, the unit may start at any time without prior
warning.
NOTE: A buzzer sounds when the unit is automatically
preheating.
If the engine will still not start, turn the On-Off switch
OFF, determine and correct the cause of the failure and
repeat the manual start procedure.
NOTE: A unit that is equipped with CYCLE-SENTRY
should be manually started if it has been turned off long
enough for the engine to become cold soaked at temperatures below 30 F (-1.1 C). Place the selector switch in the
CONTINUOUS position and refer to Manual Start. After
this initial cold start, the selector switch can be switched to
the CYCLE-SENTRY position. CYCLE-SENTRY sensors
will then automatically maintain temperatures and provide
reliable unit restarts on demand.
Automatic Start (CYCLE-SENTRY Operation)
With the selector switch placed in the CYCLE-SENTRY
position, the CYCLE-SENTRY system shuts down the unit
when the trailer temperature reaches the setpoint, and
restarts the unit on microprocessor demand. Start-ups may
also be initiated by defrost cycle initiation, low battery voltage, or engine coolant temperature demand.
Fully charged batteries in good condition are essential for
reliable unit operation. This is especially true on CYCLESENTRY units in cold weather.
If defrost is initiated manually, the unit will start and run on
low speed. When the defrost cycle is complete, the unit will
run in the operating mode called for by the microprocessor.
NOTE: There will be a delay of approximately 10 seconds
before the unit preheats and cranks when it is first
switched from Continuous Run to CYCLE-SENTRY.
In cold ambients, the CYCLE-SENTRY system automatically maintains engine temperature by restarting the unit if
the engine coolant temperature drops to 30 F (-1.1 C). When
the unit starts up because of low engine coolant temperature, the unit will run in whichever operating mode the unit
microprocessor calls for until the battery is fully charged
and the engine block temperature rises to 90 F (32 C).
After the unit starts from microprocessor demand, defrost
initiation, battery voltage dropping below the CYCLESENTRY Battery Voltage setting, or engine coolant temperature demand; the CYCLE-SENTRY Amps feature will
keep the unit running until the battery is charged enough to
23
1.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY selector switch in the
CYCLE-SENTRY position.
2.
Place the On-Off switch in the ON position.
CYCLE-SENTRY symbol should appear.
3.
If the microprocessor calls for cooling or heating, the
cool or heat icon will appear and the air heater will
automatically preheat.
The
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
4.
1.
At the end of the preheat period, the engine will begin
cranking and should start and run. The air heater
remains energized during the cranking period.
When first starting a cold engine, the oil pressure may
be higher.
NOTE: If the CYCLE-SENTRY Fresh feature is
active and the setpoint is within the programmed lockout range, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will flash
while the unit is automatically starting. After the unit
starts, the CYCLE-SENTRY symbol will disappear
and the unit will operate in Continuous Run as long
as the setpoint is within the programmed lockout
range. The CYCLE-SENTRY light on the optional
remote indicator light assembly will remain on, indicating that the CYCLE-SENTRY switch is in the
CYCLE-SENTRY position.
If the engine rpm does not exceed 50 rpm during the
first four seconds of cranking, or if the engine does not
start after 30 seconds of cranking the cranking cycle
terminates.
2.
AMMETER. Check the ammeter reading by pressing
the AMPS key. The ammeter should indicate normal
battery charging current. It may be fairly high right
after starting the unit, but should taper off as the battery
is recharged.
3.
COMPRESSOR OIL. The compressor oil level should
be visible in the sight glass.
4.
REFRIGERANT. Check the refrigerant charge. See
Refrigerant Charge in the Refrigeration Maintenance
section.
5.
PRE-COOLING. Make sure that the setpoint is at the
desired temperature and allow the unit to run for a minimum of 1/2 hour (longer if possible) before loading the
trailer.
If cooling or heating is required and the engine temperature
is below approximately 90 F (32 C), but the engine fails to
start automatically:
•
Turn the On-Off switch to the OFF position.
•
Check for and correct any alarm conditions and clear
the alarm codes. View the alarms with the CODE key,
clear the alarms with the CLEAR key, and then repeat
the auto start procedure. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis Manual for detailed information
about alarms.
•
OIL PRESSURE. Check the engine oil pressure in
high speed by pressing the OIL PRESS key. The oil
pressure should be 45 to 57 psi (310 to 390 kPa).
This provides a good test of the refrigeration system
while removing residual heat and the moisture from the
trailer interior to prepare it for a refrigerated load.
6.
DEFROST. When the unit has finished pre-cooling the
trailer interior, initiate a defrost cycle by pushing the
Manual Defrost switch. This will remove the frost that
builds up while running the unit to pre-cool the trailer.
The defrost cycle should end automatically.
If the engine will still not start, turn the On-Off switch
to the OFF position, determine and correct the cause of
the failure. Use the manual start procedure when trying
to start the engine a second time.
NOTE: The unit will not defrost unless the evaporator coil temperature is below 45 F (7.2 C).
After Start Inspection
After the unit is running, the following items can be quickly
checked to confirm that the unit is running properly.
24
Operating Instructions (Rev. 7/00)
Loading Procedure
Post Trip Checks
1.
Make sure the unit is OFF before opening the doors to
minimize frost accumulation on the evaporator coil and
heat gain in the trailer. (Unit may be running when
loading the trailer from a warehouse with door seals.)
1.
Wash the unit.
2.
Check for leaks.
3.
Check for loose or missing hardware.
2.
Spot check and record load temperature while loading.
Especially note any off-temperature product.
4.
Check for physical damage to the unit.
3.
Load the product so that there is adequate space for air
circulation completely around the load. DO NOT
block the evaporator inlet or outlet.
4.
Products should be pre-cooled before loading. Thermo
King transport refrigeration units are designed to maintain loads at the temperature at which they were loaded.
Transport refrigeration units are not designed to pull
hot loads down to temperature.
Post Load Procedure
1.
Make sure all the doors are closed and locked.
2.
Start the unit if it was shut off to load (see Restarting
Unit).
3.
Make sure the setpoint is at the desired setting.
4.
One-half hour after loading, defrost the unit by momentarily pressing the manual defrost switch. If the evaporator coil sensor temperature is below 45 F (7.2 C), the
unit will defrost. The microprocessor will terminate
defrost automatically when the evaporator coil temperature reaches 57 F (13.9 C) or the unit has been in the
defrost mode for 30 or 45 minutes (depending on setting).
25
26
Electrical Maintenance
ALTERNATOR (AUSTRALIAN BOSCH)
CAUTION: The F15 fuse must be removed from the
relay board on units equipped with the Australian
Bosch alternator. The voltage regulator will be damaged if the unit is turned ON with the F15 fuse in
place on the relay board.
Charging System Diagnostic Procedures
NOTE: Units manufactured with CYCLE-SENTRY and
alternators with integral regulators MUST use replacement alternators with integral regulators.
Complete the following checkout procedure before replacing the voltage regulator or the alternator.
CAUTION: Full-fielding alternators with the
integral regulator is accomplished by installing a
jumper from terminal F2 to ground. Attempting to
full-field the alternator by applying battery voltage
to terminal F2 will cause voltage regulator failure.
•
When testing alternators use accurate equipment such
as a Thermo King P/N 204-615 (FLUKE 23) digital
multimeter and a Thermo King P/N 204-613 amp
clamp or an equivalent.
AEA692
1.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
3.
2.
Check Point for B+ Voltage
4.
Check Point for Sense Circuit and
Excitation Circuit Voltages
Position for Full Fielding Jumper
Check Points for Alternator Test
27
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
•
Make sure the drive belts and pulleys of the charging
system are in good condition and are adjusted properly
before testing the alternator. Worn belts and pulleys or
loose belts will lower the output of the alternator.
•
The battery must be well charged, the battery cable
connections must be clean and tight, and the 2A and
excitation circuits must be connected properly.
b.
12. If battery voltage is present on the sense and excitation
circuits, connect the alternator harness to the voltage
regulator and check the voltage on the B pin in the two
pin connector on alternator harness. The voltage
should be 1 to 3 volts.
NOTE: All voltage readings should be taken between the
negative battery terminal, or a good chassis ground, and
the terminals indicated, unless stated otherwise.
5.
Check to make sure that the F15 fuse has been removed
from the relay board. If not, it must be removed, however, the voltage regulator has probably already been
damaged.
6.
Set the unit for continuous run operation and place the
On-Off switch in the OFF position.
7.
Check the battery voltage. If the battery voltage is less
than 12 volts, the battery must be charged or tested to
determine if it should be replaced.
8.
9.
a.
No voltage or a voltage reading below 1 volt indicates that the rotor or the voltage regulator may be
shorted. Perform the field current test to further
isolate the problem.
b.
A voltage reading above 3 volts indicates that the
field circuit may be open or have high resistance.
The brushes or the rotor are probably defective.
13. Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire connected
to the B+ terminal on the alternator.
14. Connect a voltmeter between the B+ terminal and a
chassis ground.
Check the voltage at the B+ terminal on the alternator.
Battery voltage must be present. If not, check the 2A
circuit.
15. Start the unit and run it in high speed.
16. Connect a jumper wire between the F2 terminal and a
chassis ground. This will full field the alternator.
Disconnect the alternator harness from the voltage regulator by carefully pushing on the spring clip to release
the plug lock.
CAUTION: DO NOT full field the alternator
for more than seven seconds while checking the
meter readings, or the electrical system may be
damaged.
10. Set the unit for continuous run operation and place the
main On-Off switch in the ON position.
11. Check the voltage at the A pin and at the B pin in the
two pin connector on the alternator harness.
a.
The B pin is the excitation circuit and should be at
10 volts or higher. If not, check the excitation circuit (7K or equivalent) in the alternator harness
and in the main wire harness.
17. Check the amperage in the 2A wire and record the reading. Check the voltage at the B+ terminal and continue
to observe this voltage for a few seconds to see if it
increases, decreases, or stays the same. Note the
change in voltage and record the voltage reading.
The A pin is the battery sense circuit and should be
at battery voltage. If not, check the sense circuit (2
or equivalent) in the alternator harness and in the
main wire harness.
Amperage in the 2A wire =____amps.
Voltage at the B+ terminals =___volts.
28
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
The voltage at the B+ terminal should be 13 to 18 volts
and the amperage in the 2A wire should be at least as
high as the rated output of the alternator.
NOTE: An alternator can easily exceed its rated output. An alternator MUST at least reach its rated output when full fielded. An alternator that has a
defective rectifier diode may reach 75% of its rated
output with a full field.
18. Stop the unit.
19. Use the readings obtained previously to determine the
problem by referring to the Diagnosis Chart.
NOTE: This assumes that the alternator did not
charge properly prior to the full field test.
Diagnosis Chart
Amperage in 2A
Voltage at B+
Problem/Solution
At or above rated output
At or above battery voltage and
increasing
Voltage regulator defective / Replace voltage regulator and brush assembly
Approximately 60% of
rated output
Approximately equal to battery voltage
and does not change, or rises slightly
Receiver diode defective / Repair or
replace alternator
Low or no output
Less than or equal to battery voltage
and decreasing
Stator windings, field windings, brush or
diode defective / Perform Field Current Test
to check brushes and field coil, or replace
alternator
29
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Field Current Test (Checks the field windings,
brushes and slip rings)
3. The ammeter reading indicates field current. The following chart shows the field current for each alternator
with 12 volts applied to the field:
Perform this test with the On-Off switch in the OFF position.
1.
2.
Alternator Rating
Attach a clamp-on ammeter to the 2A wire near the B+
terminal on the alternator.
Connect a jumper wire between the F2 terminal on the
alternator and a chassis ground, and note the ammeter
reading.
Field Current
@ 12 Volts
23 Amp
1.0 to 3.0 Amps
37 Amp
3.5 to 4.5 Amps
65 Amp
4.0 to 5.0 Amps
AEA694
1.
Check Point for 2A Amperage
3.
Place Full Fielding Jumper Here
Full Field Test
30
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
a.
b.
No field current or a low field current indicates an
open circuit or excessive resistance in the field circuit. Replace the voltage regulator and brush
assembly, inspect the slip rings and repeat the test.
If the brushes are not the problem, replace the rotor
or the alternator.
Remove the wires from the alternator terminals. Note
the location of each wire so they will be installed correctly.
3.
Remove the mounting bolts and remove the alternator.
Alternator Installation
High field current indicates a short in the field circuit. Repair or replace the alternator.
Alternator Removal
1.
2.
1.
Mount the alternator on the bracket. Do not tighten the
bolts.
2.
Install the alternator drive belt, tension it properly, and
tighten the mounting bolts.
Disconnect the battery power from the unit.
3
2
4
1
5
6
7
10
ANA222
8
9
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
+ Terminal
B + Positive Output Terminal
Regulator/Brush Assembly Mounting Screws
Voltage Regulator & Brush Assembly (13.8 to 14.2 Volts)
S Terminal
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
L Terminal
Field (Green) Wire
F2 Terminal
Capacitator Mounting Screw
Capacitator
Australian Bosch Alternator Identification
31
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
3.
Install the wires on the alternator terminals and secure
them with the nuts.
4.
Connect the battery power to the unit.
f.
5.
Alternator Disassembly
1.
Remove the pulley and the fan.
b.
6.
Unplug the wire from the capacitor to the + terminal. This is a spade connector.
Loosen the capacitor mounting screw and remove
the capacitor.
Remove the brush-regulator assembly.
a.
b.
4.
NOTE: The nut can be screwed on the rotor shaft to
aid in pulling on the rotor shaft.
Remove the capacitor.
a.
3.
Remove the rotor.
Support the rear housing and stator. Slide the rotor
shaft assembly toward the front of the alternator. This
can be done by hand, but considerable force is needed.
Remove the nut, lockwasher, pulley, fan and the spacer
from the rotor shaft.
2.
Remove the front housing. (Front housing should
slide off the front rotor shaft bearing with minimal
force.)
Remove the field (green) wire from the terminal on
the alternator.
b.
c.
a.
Remove the three screws that secure the diode
plate to the rear housing.
b.
Applying finger pressure on the B+ terminal at the
rear of the alternator, slide the stator-diode plate
assembly toward the front of the alternator and
remove.
CAUTION: Note the position of the isolation
washer and the isolation spacer on the B+ terminal.
Remove the brush-regulator assembly by removing
the two mounting screws.
7.
Remove the front housing.
a.
Remove the diode plate-stator assembly.
Remove the nut, lockwasher, flatwasher, and isolation washer from the B+ terminal on the alternator.
Unsolder the three leads of the stator winding from the
diode plate.
Remove the four screws on the front of the alternator that surround the rotor shaft.
Inspecting and Diagnosing Components
Remove the nut, lockwasher, and flatwasher from
the longest of the four through bolts on the alternator.
d.
Mark the rear housing, front housing, stator, and
the longest through bolt to aid in assembly later.
e.
Remove the four through bolts from the alternator.
Separate stator windings from the diode plate (only if
necessary).
Brushes
32
1.
Inspect the brush assembly. The original brush set may
be reused if the brushes are 0.2 in. (4.8 mm) or longer
and if the brushes are not oil soaked, cracked, or show
evidence of grooves on the sides of the brushes caused
by vibration.
2.
Check the brushes with a continuity tester.
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Rear Housing and Bearing O-ring
1.
Remove and replace the O-ring in the bearing bore of
the rear housing if needed.
2.
Inspect the rear housing for a cracked or broken casting, stripped threads, or evidence of severe wear in the
bearing bore due to a worn rear bearing.
5.
Check for grounded slip ring or windings by placing an
ohmmeter across the rotor body and the slip rings.
Should be no continuity.
6.
Check condition of slip rings.
Front Housing
1.
2.
Inspect the front housing for cracks. Check the condition of the threads of the adjusting boss.
7.
Check the bore in the mounting boss. Discard housing
if bore shows signs of elongation (oval or out of roundness).
Rotor
1.
Place 15 volts dc across the slip rings on the rotor.
If surfaces are worn beyond this restoration,
replace the entire rotor assembly.
Replace entire rotor assembly if any of the following
conditions exist:
a.
Stripped threads on shaft.
b.
Worn bearing surfaces.
c.
Scuffed pole fingers.
Current Draw
23 amp
2.5 amps @ 68 F (20 C)
37 amp
5.18 amps @ 77 F (25 C)
65 amp
5.77 amps @ 77 F (25 C)
3.
Remove the power source from the rotor.
4.
Check resistance. Resistance of winding should be near
specified resistance.
Alternator
b.
The stator assembly consists of three individual windings
terminated in the delta-type connections. Using an ohmmeter or test lamp, check for winding continuity between leads
A, B, and C. There should be no continuity from any lead to
point D (laminations). Also, stators showing signs of winding discoloration should be discarded.
Check the current draw. The draw should be near the
appropriate value shown in the following chart.
Alternator
Clean the brush contacting surfaces with a fine crocus cloth, wipe dust and residue away.
Stator
CAUTION: Turn off the dc power source
before installing or removing test leads on slip
rings to prevent arcing and damage to the slip
ring surface.
2.
a.
Alternator
6.0 Ohms @ 68 F (20 C)
37 amp
2.9 Ohms @ 77 F (25 C)
65 amp
2.6 Ohms @ 77 F (25 C)
A to C
B to C
23 amp
0.21ohm 0.21 ohm 0.21 ohm None
@ 68 F
@ 68 F
@ 68 F
(20 C)
(20 C)
(20 C)
37 amp
0.32 ohm 0.32 ohm 0.32 ohm None
@ 77 F
@ 77 F
@ 77 F
(25 C)
(25 C)
(25 C)
65 amp
0.11 ohm 0.11 ohm 0.11 ohm None
@ 77 F
@ 77 F
@ 77 F
(25 C)
(25 C)
(25 C)
Rotor Resistance
23 amp
A to B
Stator Resistance Values
33
A, B,
C to
D
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Diode Plate Assembly
3
The diode plate assembly consists of two plates, each containing three diodes. Both plates are mounted on a plastic
insulator thus making a diode plate assembly. The plate
with the B+ terminal contains the positive diodes and the
other plate contains the negative diodes. When testing the
diodes, the positive and negative diodes are tested separately.
2
Using an ohmmeter or diode tester, check for continuity as
follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Place the negative lead of the meter on G. Place the positive lead of the meter on A, B, and C. There should be
continuity from G to A, B, and C.
1
Place the positive lead of the meter on G. Place the negative lead of the meter on A, B, and C. There should be
no continuity from G to A, B, or C.
Place the positive lead of the meter on H. Place the negative lead of the meter on D, E, E, and F. There should
be continuity from H to D, E, and F.
ANA223
1.
H
2.
G
3.
Plate Containing B+ Terminal
Diode Plate Assembly
Alternator Assembly
Place the negative lead of the meter on H. Place the
positive lead of the meter on D, E, and F. There should
be no continuity from H to D, E, or F.
34
1.
Connect the stator windings to the diode plate. Solder
the three leads of the stator windings to the diode plate
if either is to be replaced.
2.
Install the diode plate-stator assembly into the rear
housing.
a.
Install the insulating washer on the B+ terminal of
the diode plate.
b.
Install the insulating spacer on the B+ terminal of
the diode plate.
c.
Align the B+ terminal of the diode plate with the
hole on the rear housing labeled B+, and slide the
diode plate-stator assembly into the rear housing.
d.
Insert the three screws into the diode plate and
secure it to the rear housing.
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
3.
4.
Install the rotor.
b.
Slide the small bearing end of the rotor into the rear
housing. Apply hand pressure to the rotor so the rear
bearing seats in the O-ring.
Slide the fan onto the rotor shaft. (Bent fins pointing toward the rear housing.)
c.
Slide the pulley onto the rotor shaft.
d.
Install the lockwasher and nut. Tighten.
Install the front housing.
a.
b.
Install the four through bolts and tighten.
c.
Install the flatwasher, lockwasher, and the nut on
the longest of the through bolts and tighten.
d.
5.
BATTERY
Align the marks of the rear housing and the front
housing. (Marks refer to the marks made during
disassembly.) Slide the front housing over the
rotor shaft and onto the bearing.
NOTE: The PROCESSOR On-Off switch must be placed
in the OFF position before connecting or disconnecting
the battery terminals. The PROCESSOR On-Off switch is
located on the side of the control box inside the engine
compartment.
Inspect/clean the battery terminals and check the electrolyte
level during scheduled maintenance inspections. A dead
or low battery can be the cause of an ammeter indicating
discharge due to lack of initial excitation of the alternator
even after the unit has been boosted for starting. The minimum specific gravity should be 1.235. Add distilled water
as necessary to maintain the proper water level.
Install the four screws that surround the rotor shaft
on the front of the alternator and tighten.
Install Brush-regulator Assembly.
a.
Install the brush-regulator assembly and secure
using the two mounting screws.
UNIT WIRING
CAUTION: Care must be used during installation of brushes to prevent damage to slip rings
or brushes.
b.
6.
7.
8.
Inspect the unit wiring and the wire harnesses during scheduled maintenance inspections for loose, chaffed or broken
wires to protect against unit malfunctions due to open or
short circuits.
Attach the field (green) wire to field terminal on
alternator.
Install the insulator on the B+ terminal.
CHARGING SYSTEM (12 Vdc)
Install the insulating washer, flatwasher, lockwasher,
and nut on the B+ terminal.
Immediately after start-up, the ammeter may show a discharge condition on systems with brush type alternators.
This is due to light film build-up on the alternator slip rings.
The film build-up occurs primarily on units that have been
sitting unused for long periods of time. The film should disappear after a minute or two, and the ammeter should show
a high charge rate that will continue until the battery voltage
is brought back up to normal. Under normal running conditions, the ammeter will show a slight charge condition. If
the ammeter shows a discharge after start-up, check the
alternator belt tension and all charging circuit connections
including the battery.
Install the capacitor.
a.
Mount the capacitor with the mounting screw.
b.
Plug the wire from the capacitor onto the + terminal.
Install the fan and pulley onto the rotor shaft.
a.
Slide the large spacer onto the rotor shaft.
35
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
FUSES
Check the resistance of the air intake heater with an ohmmeter between the M6 terminal on the front of the heater
and the screw on the back of the heater (or the heater case).
The resistance should be 0.1 to 0.2 ohms.
A number of fuses, located on the relay board, protect various circuits and components.
•
A 40 amp fuse (F9—#2 Circuit) protects the 2AA circuit, which is the main power circuit.
•
A 15 amp fuse (F3—Damper) protects the 29F circuit,
which supplies power to the damper solenoid.
•
A 15 amp fuse (F18—High Speed Solenoid) protects
the 7D circuit, which supplies power to the high speed
solenoid.
•
A 15 amp fuse (F21—#8F Circuit) protects the 8F circuit, which supplies power to various control relays and
components.
•
A number of three amp fuses protect Microprocessor
circuits, control relay circuits, remote light circuits
(optional) and various components.
Check the current draw of the heater with a clamp-on
ammeter at the H1 wire near the M6 terminal on the front of
the heater. Hold the Preheat-Start switch in the PREHEAT
position. The current draw should be approximately 89
amps at 12.5 volts and approximately 77 amps at 11 volts.
1
AEA693
FUSE LINK
The fuse link is located in the engine compartment near the
battery. The fuse link protects the electric system from a
short in the 2 circuit. If the fuse link burns out, check for a
grounded 2 wire before replacing the fuse link.
1.
M6 Terminal
Air Heater
STARTER TEMPERATURE SWITCH
AIR HEATER
The starter is equipped with a thermal overheat switch,
called the starter temperature switch (STS). The STS closes
if the starter overheats. This provides a ground for the coil
on the starter temperature relay (STR), which is energized
by the 8S circuit. When the STR is energized, it opens a set
of contacts between the 8S and 8SS circuits. This prevents
the starter solenoid from being energized if the STS is
closed. Once closed, it takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes for the starter to cool down enough for the STS to open.
The air heater is mounted on the open end of the intake
manifold. It heats the intake air to help the engine start in
cold weather. The air heater is energized when the PreheatStart switch is held in the PREHEAT or START position, or
when the Microprocessor initiates a unit start-up (CYCLESENTRY switch in the CYCLE position).
The heater is probably defective if the resistance is more
than 0.2 ohms and the current draw is less than 60 amps, or
if the current draw is more than 100 amps.
36
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
THERMOGUARD µP IV+
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER
AIR SWITCH
The air switch automatically places the unit on defrost when
ice accumulation on the evaporator coil builds up to a point
where the air flow across the coil is restricted.
Refer to the appropriate THERMOGUARD µP IV+ Microprocessor Controller Operation & Diagnosis Manual for
complete service information about the Microprocessor
Controller and the related components.
7
8
1
9
6
2
3
10
8
4
9
11
7
12
5
13
aea861
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fan
Evaporator Coil
Low Pressure Air Probe
High Pressure Air Probe
Air Flow
Air Switch
Adjustment Screw
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
26P Wire
DEF Wire
Moveable Diaphragm
Spring
Clear Hose - Low Pressure
Black Hose - High Pressure
Air Switch Operation
37
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Air Switch Testing and Adjustment
Restricted air flow results in a pressure difference between
the evaporator coil inlet and outlet. The air switch senses
the pressure differential across the coil and initiates the
defrost cycle.
Before testing or adjusting the air switch, check the clear
plastic tubing and black plastic tubing to the evaporator coil.
Make sure they are not obstructed or crushed. Check the
probes in the evaporator housing to be sure they are in
proper position and make sure they are not obstructed.
The air switch is preset at the factory to 1.0 ±.05 in. (25.4 ±
1.3 mm) H2O. Normally readjustment is not necessary
unless the switch has been tampered with or does not function properly due to factors affecting air circulation, such as
bulkhead construction and duct work.
1.
Remove plastic sensing tubing from both sides of the
air switch.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Air Switch Test
38
Continuity Tester
Adjustment Screw
Squeeze Bulb (P/N 204-494)
Pressure in Inches of Water
(P/N 204-442)
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
2.
3.
4.
Measuring Evaporator Coil Pressure Differential
Disconnect one wire at the switch terminal. Connect a
test light or continuity tester to the two terminals used
on the switch.
If the air switch is initiating defrost too often even though
the air switch is adjusted properly, the tubing is routed correctly, and the probes are positioned correctly, the air flow
through the evaporator may be restricted.
Connect the test equipment (P/N 204-442 and P/N
204-494) to the hose fitting on the side of the air switch
stamped BLACK.
Pressurize the hose until the continuity tester indicates
a completed circuit. Now read the dial of the test gauge.
This is the setpoint of the air switch (correct reading is
1.0 ± 0.05 in. [25.4 ± 1.3 mm] H2O). Release the pres-
1.
Run the unit through a defrost cycle to clear the evaporator coil of frost.
2.
Remove the plastic sensing tubes from the air switch.
3.
Connect a Magnehelic pressure gauge (P/N 204-442)
to the plastic sensing tubes.
4.
Run the unit in high speed cool and measure the evaporator coil pressure differential. If the pressure differential of the clear coil is more than one half of the air
switch setpoint, the evaporator coil is restricted and
must be cleaned.
5.
Remove the test equipment. Connect the air sensing
tubes to the switch. The BLACK hose from the high
pressure or air inlet side of the evaporator coil goes on
the hose fitting on the side of the air switch stamped
BLACK. The CLEAR hose from the low pressure or
air outlet side of the evaporator coil goes on the hose
fitting on the side of the air switch stamped CLEAR.
sure.
5.
If the switch is out of calibration, pressurize the hose
again until the tester indicates 1.0 in. (25.4 mm) H2O.
Turn the adjustment screw until the switch closes and
the continuity tester indicates a completed circuit with
the gauge reading of 1.0 in. (25.4 mm) H2O. Release
the pressure.
Repeat the test procedure several times to be sure the setting
is correct.
Remove the test equipment. Connect the wire and air sensing tubes to the switch. The BLACK hose from the high
pressure or air inlet side of the evaporator coil goes on the
hose fitting on the side of the air switch stamped BLACK.
The CLEAR hose from the low pressure or air outlet side of
the evaporator coil goes on the hose fitting on the side of the
air switch stamped CLEAR.
NOTE: Route hoses for continuous slope to avoid condensate traps.
If too much frost continues to accumulate before defrost is
initiated, decrease the pressure setting. Turn the adjustment
screw counterclockwise.
If defrost occurs with too little frost accumulation, increase
the pressure setting. Turn the adjustment screw clockwise.
39
Electrical Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
ANA239
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Evaporator Coil
Low Pressure Air Probe
High Pressure Air Probe
Air Flow
Fan
6.
7.
8.
9.
Air Switch
Gauge Pressure in In. of H2O
Low Pressure Clear Hose
High Pressure Black Hose
Measuring Evaporator Coil Pressure Differential
40
Engine Maintenance
ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The oil pump forces the oil through an oil gallery to the dual
element (full flow/bypass) oil filter. Dirt and other particles
are trapped in the filter element as the oil passes through the
oil filter. If the filter element becomes clogged, a bypass
valve built into the oil filter allows the oil to bypass the
filter element. This keeps the engine components from
being starved for oil if the filter element is clogged.
The 486 engine has a pressure lubrication system. A trochoid type oil pump circulates the oil through the system to
lubricate the engine compartments. The oil pump contains a
pressure regulating valve that limits the oil pressure to
approximately 45 to 57 psi (310 to 390 kPa). The oil pump
is driven by the crankshaft gear, and is attached to the lower
part of the timing gear housing.
After passing through the oil filter, the oil enters the main
oil gallery. Oil passages connected to the main oil gallery
supply oil to the idler gear shaft, the camshaft bearings, the
main bearings, and the fuel injection pump.
The oil is picked up by a screened inlet near the bottom of
the oil pan. The inlet is positioned far enough from the bottom of the pan to avoid picking up any of the residue that
tends to settle on the bottom of the pan. The oil then passes
through the intake pipe to the oil pump.
ANA224
Lubrication System
41
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
stick level. Run the unit, and then recheck the oil level.
Add oil as necessary to reach the full mark. See Specifications chapter for correct type of oil.
Oil from the idler gear shaft lubricates the idler gear bushing, the idler gear, the other timing gears, and the fuel pump
before returning to the oil pan.
Some of the oil supplied to the main bearings flows through
passages in the crankshaft to the connecting rod bearings.
This oil is thrown around the bottom end of the engine as it
flows out of the bearings while the crankshaft rotates. Some
of this oil lubricates the cylinder walls. Some of this oil
lands in the holes on the top of the connecting rods and
lubricates the wrist pins and the connecting rod bushings.
The oil eventually returns to the oil pan.
Oil Filter Change
The oil filter should be changed along with the engine oil.
Use a genuine Thermo King oil filter.
Some of the oil supplied to the camshaft bearings flows
through passages in the cylinder block, the cylinder head,
and the rocker arm supports to the rocker arm shaft. The
rocker arm shaft supplies oil to the rocker arm bushings and
the rocker arms. Some oil squirts out of holes in the rocker
arms to lubricate the valve stem caps and the valve stems.
The oil that is pumped up to the rocker arm assembly flows
back down through the push rod openings and lubricates the
tappets and the cam lobes as it returns to the oil pan.
1.
Remove the filter.
2.
Apply oil to the rubber ring of the new filter and install
the filter.
3.
Tighten the filter until the rubber ring makes contact,
then tighten 1/2 turn more.
4.
Start the unit and check for leaks.
ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
The engine employs a closed, circulating type, pressurized
cooling system. Correct engine temperatures are controlled
and maintained by a radiator, fan and thermostat. The coolant is circulated through the system by a belt driven centrifugal pump. The pump draws the coolant from the side of
the radiator, circulates it through the cylinder block and
head and returns it to the radiator. A thermostat mounted in
the coolant outlet line from the cylinder head to the radiator
automatically maintains coolant temperature within the
specified temperature range.
The oil that flows to the fuel injection pump returns to the
oil pan after lubricating the injection pump components.
Oil pressure is affected by oil temperature, oil viscosity, and
engine speed. Low oil pressure can usually be traced to the
lack of oil, a faulty oil pressure regulating valve, loose connections in the lubrication system, or worn bearings. Low
oil pressure is not normally caused by a faulty oil pump.
All water cooled engines are shipped from the factory with
a 50% permanent type antifreeze concentrate and 50%
water mixture in the engine cooling system.
Engine Oil Change
The engine oil should be changed according to the Maintenance Inspection Schedule. Drain the oil only when the
engine is hot to ensure that all the oil drains out. When
changing oil, keep unit and trailer level so all the oil can
flow from the oil pan. It is important to get as much of the
oil out as possible because most of the dirt particles are contained in the last few quarts of oil that drain out of the pan.
Refill the pan with 13 quarts (12.3 liters) and check the dip-
This provides the following:
42
1.
Prevents freezing down to -30 F (-34 C).
2.
Retards rust and mineral scale that can cause engine
overheating.
3.
Retards corrosion (acid) that can attack accumulator
tanks, water tubes, radiators and core plugs.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
4.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot coolant.
Provides lubrication for the water pump seal.
Antifreeze Maintenance Procedure
As with all equipment containing antifreeze, periodic
inspection on a regular basis is required to verify the condition of the antifreeze. After one year of service, inhibitors
become worn out and must be replaced by changing the
antifreeze. Every year, drain, flush and replace the total antifreeze mixture to maintain total cooling system protection.
When the antifreeze is replaced, use ethylene glycol type
engine coolant concentrate meeting the GM 6038-M specification. The factory recommends the use of a 50/50 antifreeze mixture in all units even if they are not exposed to
freezing temperatures. This antifreeze mixture will provide
the required corrosion protection and lubrication for the
water pump.
Check the solution concentration by using a temperature
compensated antifreeze hydrometer or a refractometer P/N
204-754) designed for testing antifreeze. Maintain a minimum of 50% permanent type antifreeze concentrate and
50% water solution to provide protection to -30 F (-34 C).
Do not mix antifreeze stronger than 68% permanent type
coolant concentrate and 32% water for use in extreme temperatures.
2.
Open the engine block drain (located behind the starter)
and completely drain the coolant. Observe the coolant
color. If the coolant is dirty, proceed with a, b and c.
Otherwise go to 3.
b.
Close the block drain and install a commercially
available radiator and block flushing agent, and
operate the unit in accordance with instructions of
the flushing agent manufacturer.
c.
Open the engine block drain to drain the water and
flushing solution.
3.
Run clear water into the radiator, and allow it to drain
out of the block until it is clear.
4.
Inspect all hoses for deterioration and hose clamp tightness. Replace if necessary.
5.
Loosen the water pump belt. Check the water pump
bearing for looseness.
6.
Inspect the radiator cap. Replace the cap if the gasket
shows any signs of deterioration.
7.
Mix one gallon of permanent type antifreeze concentrate meeting GM 6038-M specification and one gallon
clean water in a container to make a 50/50 mixture.
(Do not add antifreeze and then add water to the unit.
This procedure may not give a true 50/50 mixture
because the exact cooling system capacity may not
always be known.)
8.
Refill the radiator with the 50/50 antifreeze mixture and
make sure to bleed the air from the cooling system as
needed.
Changing the Antifreeze
Run the engine until it is up to its normal operating
temperature. Stop the unit.
Run clear water into the radiator and allow it to
drain out of the block until it is clear.
CAUTION: Avoid direct contact with hot
coolant.
Checking the Antifreeze
1.
a.
43
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
1
2
3
4
5
6
AEA696
1.
Radiator Cap
2.
Expansion Tank
3.
Coolant Level Sensor
4.
Thermostat Cover
5.
Thermostat
6.
Engine Cooling System
44
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Bleeding Air from the Cooling System
Engine Thermostat
Jiggle pin thermostats are original equipment on units that
have 486 engines. Jiggle pin thermostats make it unnecessary to bleed the air out of the engine block because they
keep air from being trapped in the engine block. Normally,
when the cooling system is drained, approximately 8 quarts
(7.6 liters) of coolant drain out. If approximately 4 quarts
(3.8 liters) of coolant seem to fill the cooling system after it
has been drained, air has been trapped in the block. Bleed
the air out of the block using the following procedure:
For the best engine operation, use a 180 F (82 C) thermostat
year-round.
ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM
The TK 482 and TK 486 engines are direct injection diesels
that use an in-line injection pump.
The components of the fuel system are:
CAUTION: IF YOU SUSPECT THAT AIR IS
TRAPPED IN THE BLOCK, DO NOT START
THE ENGINE WITHOUT BLEEDING THE AIR
OUT OF THE BLOCK. REFER TO SERVICE
BULLETIN T&T 029.
NOTE: If an engine runs with air trapped in the block,
the engine may be damaged. The high water temperature
switch may not protect an engine that has air trapped in
the block, because the high water temperature switch is
designed to protect an engine from overheating due to failures in the cooling system and the loss of coolant.
1.
Tighten the plug.
3.
Pour coolant into the system until it appears to be full.
4.
Make sure that the amount of coolant that goes back
into the system is approximately equal to the amount of
coolant that came out of the system.
5.
Start the unit on low speed, let it run for a minute, and
then shut it off.
6.
Check the coolant level and add coolant if necessary.
7.
Repeat steps 5 and 6 until the coolant level stabilizes.
Fuel tank
2.
Prefilter
3.
Fuel filter
4.
Water separator
5.
Priming pump
6.
Fuel transfer pump
7.
Injection pump
8.
Injection nozzles
The priming pump is used to manually draw fuel from the
tank up to the fuel pump if the unit should run out of fuel.
Loosen the plug on the back of the water pump below
the thermostat cover until coolant comes out of the plug
fitting.
2.
1.
Operation
Fuel is drawn from the fuel tank and through the prefilter by
the fuel transfer pump. The fuel transfer pump delivers fuel
to the water separator and then to the fuel filter. The fittings
at the top and bottom of the filter base each contain an orifice. The orifices control the pressure in the fuel system by
allowing a certain amount of fuel to return to the tank. Filtered fuel passes through a line from the outlet fitting on the
filter base to the injection pump.
45
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
The injection pump plungers are activated by a gear driven
injection pump camshaft. The governor sleeve and weight
assembly is mounted on the end of the pump camshaft. The
governor’s speed requirements are relayed to the injection
pump through a linkage arrangement located in the rear
cover. The injection pump raises the pressure of the fuel and
meters the correct amount of fuel to the nozzle at the correct
time. The increased fuel pressure will lift the spring loaded
nozzle to admit fuel into the combustion chamber.
Injection pump leakage, injection nozzle overflow and
excess fuel from the fuel filter orifice are then all sent back
to the fuel tank in the return line.
Maintenance
The injection pump and fuel transfer pump are relatively
trouble-free and if properly maintained will usually not
require major service repairs between engine overhauls.
5
4
6
3
2
7
8
1
9
ANA240
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fuel Heater (optional)
Return Fuel Line
Fuel Filter
Water Separator
Injection Line
6.
7.
8.
9.
Injection Nozzle
Injection Pump
Fuel Transfer Pump
Priming Pump
Engine Fuel System
46
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Contamination is the most common cause of fuel system
problems. Therefore, to ensure best operating results, the
fuel must be clean and fuel tanks must be free of contaminants. Change the fuel filters regularly and clean the fuel
strainer on the inlet side of the fuel pump.
Whenever the fuel system is opened, take the following precautions to prevent dirt from entering the system:
NOTE: The injection nozzles should be tested and
repaired if necessary) at 10,000 hour intervals when used
in normal conditions. Normal conditions are considered to
be the use of clean high quality fuel, no used oil blending,
and regular maintenance of the fuel system according to
the Maintenance Inspection Schedule.
2.
Cap all fuel lines.
2.
Work in a relatively clean area whenever possible.
3.
Complete the work in the shortest possible time.
Any major injection pump or nozzle repairs should be done
by a quality diesel injection service shop. The necessary
service equipment and facilities are not found in most
engine rebuild shops because of the large investment
required.
Except for the spray pattern and the opening pressure, the
testing and repair procedures for the injection nozzles are
similar to that of the di 2.2 and se 2.2 injeciton nozzles.
Therefore, refer to Service Bulletin T&T 052, or the di
2.2 and se 2.2 Overhaul Manual TK 8009, for injection
nozzle testing and repair procedures, but make sure to
note the following differences:
1.
1.
The following procedures can be done under field conditions:
The spray pattern for the injection nozzles should
form a uniform cone with an angle of approximately
150 degrees.
The opening pressure for the injection nozzles should
be 2700 to 3000 psi (18,600 to 20,600 kPa).
1.
Bleeding air from the fuel system.
2.
Fuel tank and filter system maintenance.
3.
Priming pump (hand) replacement or repair.
4.
Fuel pump replacement or repair.
5.
Injection line replacement.
6.
Injection pump and governor adjustments.
7.
Injection pump timing.
8.
Nozzle spray pattern testing and adjustment.
9.
Minor rebuilding of nozzles.
Bleeding the Fuel System
If the engine runs out of fuel, repairs are made to the fuel
system, or if air gets into the system for any other reason,
the air must be bled out of the fuel system.
NOTE: MAKE SURE the fuel tank vent is kept open. If
the vent becomes clogged, a partial vacuum develops in
the tank, and this increases the tendency for air to enter
the system.
AEA698
Correct Spray Pattern for Injection Nozzle
47
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
To bleed air from the fuel system:
WATER SEPARATOR/FUEL FILTER
1.
Loosen the bleed screw in the inlet fitting on the injection pump.
2.
Unscrew the priming pump handle and manually prime
the fuel system until air bubbles are no longer visible in
the fuel coming out of the bleed screw.
The water separator removes water from the fuel and stores
it. When the stored water reaches the level of the bleed
port, it returns to the fuel tank through the fuel return hose.
3.
Tighten the bleed screw and screw the priming pump
handle back in.
4.
Loosen the injection lines at the injection nozzles.
5.
Crank the engine until fuel appears at the nozzles.
6.
Tighten the injection lines.
7.
Start the engine and observe the engine run for a few
minutes. If the engine fails to start, or starts but stops in
a few minutes, repeat the procedure.
Replace the water separator every 3,000 hours.
Replace the fuel filter every 1,500 hours.
If the engine does not come up to full speed or looses speed
under full load conditions, it may be caused by fuel
starvation. The fuel line that goes from the outlet fitting on
the filter base to the injection pump may be inserted too far
into the filter base, or the line may be crimped from
overtightening of the compression nut, resulting in reduced
fuel flow.
To prevent reduced fuel flow to the engine:
Water in the System
Water run through the system may damage the injection
pump or nozzles. Damage to the fuel system will subsequently cause more expensive damage to the engine. A
large accumulation of water in the bottom of the fuel tank
will stop a diesel engine. Water should be drained off during scheduled maintenance inspections to prevent breakdowns. Drain the water off after the fuel tank and unit have
remained idle for an hour.
48
1.
Trim the 1/4 in. fuel line at a 45° angle.
2.
Do not insert the line more than 19 mm into the filter
housing.
3.
Do not use an internal metal sleeve as it may drift forward, contact the filter housing wall and block fuel
flow.
4.
Do not overtighten the compression nut—one or two
turns after contacting the rubber sleeve is sufficient.
Do not tighten the compression nut until it bottoms, or
severe crimping of the line will result.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
3
2
Incorrect
4
5
1
Correct
8
6
ANA225
7
1.
2.
3.
4.
To Injection Pump
Do Not Use Metal Sleeve
Crimping Caused by Overtightening
Compression Nut
5.
6.
7.
8.
Washer
Rubber Sleeve
Insert 3/4 in. (19 mm) into Housing
Cut at 45 Degree Angle
Fuel Line Installation
49
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Water Separator/Fuel Filter Replacement
1.
Spread the retaining clips.
2.
Pull the separator or filter away from the base.
3.
Place the new separator or filter on the base, and secure
with the retaining clips.
3
3
2
4
1
5
1.
2.
3.
Filter Base
Fuel Filter
Retaining Clips
ANA241
5
4.
5.
Water Separator
Retaining Clips
Water Separator/Fuel Filter Installation
50
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Engine Speed Adjustments
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in low speed.
Adjust the screw to obtain the correct speed. It should
be 1425 to 1475 rpm.
3.
Tighten the jam nut and recheck the speed.
When the diesel engine fails to maintain the correct engine
speed, check the following before adjusting the speed:
1.
Check the fuel inlet screen. Check the speed.
2.
Bleed the air out of the fuel system. Check the speed.
Injection Pump Timing
3.
Bleed the air out of the nozzles. Check the speed.
This timing procedure requires fuel pressure at the injection
pump inlet. This can be accomplished by pumping the priming pump by hand, or by using an electric fuel pump to supply fuel to the fuel pump inlet.
Make the engine speed adjustments with the engine fully
warmed up.
High Speed
1.
Place the On-Off switch in the OFF position.
1.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
and check the high speed rpm. It should be 2175 to
2225 rpm.
2.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY/Continuous switch in the
CONTINUOUS position.
3.
2.
Shut the unit off.
3.
Remove the ball joint from the eye bolt in the high
speed solenoid.
Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark
access hole on the front of the bell housing. The index
marks on either side of this hole and the timing marks
on the flywheel are used to check the injection pump
timing.
4.
Remove the boot from the high speed solenoid.
5.
Pull the plunger out of the solenoid enough to loosen
the jam nut. An Allen wrench placed in the hex opening
in the face of the plunger will keep the plunger from
turning. Turn the plunger eye bolt clockwise to increase
the speed and counterclockwise to decrease the speed.
4.
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection lines at
the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility of
the engine firing while it is being rotated.
5.
Remove the injection line for the number one cylinder
from the delivery valve on the injection pump and from
the injection nozzle.
6.
Replace the ball joint, start the unit and check the
speed. When the speed is correct, tighten the jam nut
and replace the solenoid boot.
NOTE: The number one cylinder is the cylinder at the
flywheel end of the engine.
NOTE: If the correct speed cannot be set close
enough with half turns of the eye bolt, use the Allen
wrench to turn the plunger in smaller increments.
Low Speed
1.
6.
Remove the rocker arm cover.
7.
Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder.
a.
Loosen the jam nut on the low speed adjustment screw.
51
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
1
1
2
2
AEA702
AEA701
1.
2.
Index Mark
Top Dead Center Mark for 1 and 4
1.
2.
Top Dead Center One and Four
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder
to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number one cylinder.
d.
Timing Mark Alignment
10. Pump the priming pump by hand a few times, or energize the electric fuel pump if an electric fuel is being
used.
11. Use a clean towel to remove the fuel from the top end of
the delivery valve holder.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
one cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number one cylinder.
8.
Place the On-Off switch in the ON position.
9.
Rotate the engine backwards (counterclockwise viewed
from the water pump end) until the injection timing
mark is positioned in the bottom of the timing mark
access hole. The injection timing mark is a horizontal
line stamped on the flywheel approximately 1.2 in. (30
mm) before the top dead center mark.
Index Mark
Injection Mark
12. Slowly turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation until you see the fuel rise in the end of the delivery
valve holder. Stop as soon as you see the fuel rise.
13. Check position of the timing marks. The injection timing mark on the flywheel should be aligned with the
index mark on the side of the timing mark access hole.
Repeat steps 9 and 13 to recheck the timing.
52
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Fuel Solenoid System
1
2
The fuel solenoid is located on the end of the injection
pump. It contains two coils: the pull-in coil, and the hold-in
coil. The pull-in coil draws approximately 35 to 45 amps at
12 volts. The hold-in coil draws approximately 1 amp at 12
volts.
The pull-in coil must be energized to move the injection
pump governor linkage to the fuel on position. Once the
injection pump governor linkage has been moved to the fuel
on position, the hold-in coil will keep it in fuel on position
until the 8D circuit is de-energized. The pull-in coil must be
de-energized after a few seconds to keep it from being damaged.
AEA703
1.
2.
Index Mark
Injection Mark
A fuel solenoid timer is used to control the fuel solenoid
pull-in coil. The fuel solenoid timer consists of a small PC
board that contains a capacitor, two diodes, a four pin wire
connector, and one removable relay. The relay is called the
fuel solenoid relay. The fuel solenoid timer is mounted
inside the control box.
Correct Injection Timing Mark Alignment
1.
If the timing is off by more than 1 degree (0.1 in. [2.5
mm]), loosen the mounting nuts on the studs that fasten
the injection pump to the engine and rotate the injection
pump to change the timing.
a.
Pull the top of the injection pump away from the
engine to advance the timing.
b.
Push the top of the injection pump toward the
engine to retard the timing.
2.
Tighten the injection pump mounting nuts and recheck
the timing. Repeat steps 9 through 15 until the timing is
correct.
3.
Install the cover in the timing mark access hole, install
the injection line for the number one cylinder, install
the rocker arm cover, and tighten the other injection
lines when finished with the procedure.
53
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
2
1
1.
2.
3.
When the 8D circuit is energized, it supplies power to the
fuel solenoid hold-in coil and to the fuel solenoid relay coil.
The hold-in coil is energized and remains energized as long
as there is power on 8D. The fuel solenoid relay is energized
momentarily as current flows through the relay coil to
charge the capacitor. When the capacitor becomes fully
charged, current stops flowing through the relay coil and the
fuel solenoid relay is de-energized.
3
During the time the fuel solenoid relay is momentarily energized, the fuel solenoid pull-in coil is energized by the 2 circuit through the normally open contacts of the fuel solenoid
relay and the 8DP circuit.
ANA226
When power is removed from the 8D circuit the fuel solenoid hold-in coil is de-energized, and the capacitor in the
timer discharges through the hold-in coil.
Capacitator
Fuel Solenoid Relay (FSR)
Four Pin Connector
Fuel Solenoid Timer
Fuel Solenoid Timer Operation
The fuel solenoid hold-in coil is connected to the 8D circuit.
The fuel solenoid relay coil is also connected to the 8D circuit and it is grounded through the capacitor. The fuel solenoid pull-in coil is connected to the 2A circuit through the
normally open contacts of the fuel solenoid relay when the
fuel solenoid relay is energized.
54
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Troubleshooting the Fuel Solenoid System
If you suspect that the engine does not run because the fuel
solenoid is not operating correctly, use the following procedure:
NOTE: The fuel solenoid pull-in coil will require 35 to 45
amps to turn on the fuel. The unit’s battery must be in
good condition. If the battery has enough power to crank
the engine over, it has enough power to energize the fuel
solenoid pull-in coil.
1.
Disconnect the 8SS wire from the starter solenoid.
2.
Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector from the
main wire harness.
3.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY/Continuous switch in the
CONTINUOUS position, and place the On-Off switch
in the ON position.
2
3
4
1
5
1.
2.
3.
Fuel Solenoid Relay Contacts
Fuel Solenoid Relay Contacts
Fuel Solenoid Pull-In Coil
4.
5.
Fuel Solenoid Hold-In Coil
Capacitator
Simplified Schematic Diagram of Fuel Solenoid System
55
ANA227
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
4.
Check the voltage on the 8D circuit (pin A) in the main
wire harness connector for the fuel solenoid. Refer to
the following illustrations to identify the pins in the
wire connectors.
a.
If battery voltage is not present on the 8D circuit,
check the 8D circuit and the related circuits and
components for a fault.
b.
If battery voltage is present on the 8D circuit, go to
step 5.
a.
If there is no continuity between the CH circuit a
good chassis ground, check the CH wire for an
open circuit.
b.
If there is continuity between the CH circuit in the
main wire harness at the fuel solenoid wire connector and a good chassis ground, go to step 6.
6.
Place a jumper wire between the black wire (CH—pin
C) in the fuel solenoid connector and a good chassis
ground.
7.
Test the pull-in coil by momentarily placing a jumper
between the white wire (8DP—pin B) in the fuel solenoid connector and the 2 terminal at the fuse link. The
fuel solenoid should make a definite click when the
pull-in coil is energized and should click again when
the pull-in coil is de-energized.
AEA704
NOTE: The pull-in coil will draw 35 to 45 amps so do
not leave the jumper connected to the white wire
(8DP—pin B) for more than a few seconds.
Main Wire Harness
Connector Pin Identification
a.
AEA633
1.
2.
3.
NOTE: If the pull-in coil fails, make sure to
replace the fuel solenoid relay with a PotterBrumfield relay P/N 44-9111. This particular
relay is needed for the high current flow through
the hold-in coil.
Red (8D)
White (8DP)
Black (CH)
Fuel Solenoid
Connector Pin Identification
b.
8.
5.
If the pull-in coil does not energize, check the
resistance of the pull-in coil by placing an ohmmeter between the white wire (8DP—pin B) and the
black wire (CH—pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector. The resistance of the pull-in coil should be
0.2 to 0.3 ohms. If the resistance of the pull-in coil
is not in this range, replace the fuel solenoid.
Check the CH circuit (pin C) in the main wire harness
connector for continuity to a good chassis ground.
Test the hold-in coil.
a.
56
If the pull-in coil does energize, go to step 8.
Energize the hold-in coil by placing a jumper
between the red wire (8D—pin A) in the fuel solenoid connector and the 2 terminal at the fuse link.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
b.
c.
De-energize the hold-in coil by removing the
jumper from the red wire (8D—pin A) and the 2
terminal. The fuel solenoid should make a definite
click when the hold-in coil is de-energized.
d.
If the hold-in coil does not function properly,
check the resistance of the hold-in coil by placing
an ohmmeter between the red wire (8D—pin A)
and the black wire (CH—pin C) in the fuel solenoid connector. The resistance of the hold-in coil
should be 24 to 29 ohms. If the resistance of the
hold-in coil is not in this range, replace the fuel
solenoid.
e.
9.
12. Check the voltage on the 2A circuit at the 30 terminal
in the fuel solenoid relay socket.
Momentarily energize the pull-in coil by placing a
jumper between the white wire (8DP—pin B) in
the fuel solenoid connector and the 2 terminal at
the fuse link. The fuel solenoid should make a
definite click when the pull-in coil is energized,
but should not click when the pull-in coil is deenergized.
a.
If voltage is not present on the 2A circuit, check
the 2A circuit for an open or a short.
b.
If battery voltage is present on the 2A circuit, go to
step 13.
AEA634
1.
2.
3.
4.
If the hold-in coil does function properly, go to
step 9.
30 Terminal—2A/2B Circuit
85 Terminal—8D Wire
87 Terminal—8DP Wire
86 Terminal to Timer
Relay Socket Terminal Identification
13. Test the relay.
Reconnect the fuel solenoid connector and the main
wire harness connector.
a.
Use a jumper to connect the 85 terminal on the
relay to the 2 terminal at the fuse link.
10. Remove the fuel solenoid relay from its socket and
make sure the On-Off switch is in the ON position.
b.
Use another jumper to connect the 86 terminal on
the relay to a CH circuit.
c.
If the relay does not energize, it is defective.
Replace the relay.
d.
If the relay does energize, the timer is defective.
Replace the fuel solenoid timer PC board.
11. Check the voltage on the 8D circuit at the 85 terminal
in the fuel solenoid relay socket. Refer to the following
illustration to identify the terminals in the relay socket.
a.
b.
If battery voltage is not present on the 8D circuit,
check the 8D circuit and the related circuits and
components for a fault (minimum voltage is 10
volts).
14. Turn the unit OFF and reconnect the 8SS wire to the
starter after completing the test procedure.
If battery voltage is present on the 8D circuit, go to
step 12.
57
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
ENGINE VALVE CLEARANCE
ADJUSTMENT
Fuel Solenoid Replacement
1.
Disconnect the fuel solenoid wire connector from the
main wire harness and remove the old fuel solenoid.
1.
Remove the rocker arm cover.
2.
Connect the new fuel solenoid wire connector to the
main wire harness.
2.
Remove the round cover (plug) from the timing mark
access hole on the front of the bell housing.
3.
Place the CYCLE-SENTRY Continuous switch in the
CONTINUOUS position.
3.
4.
Place the On-Off switch in the ON position to energize
the fuel solenoid.
CAUTION: Loosen all of the injection lines at
the injection nozzles to prevent the possibility
of the engine firing while it is being rotated.
4.
Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number one cylinder.
NOTE: The fuel solenoid must be energized when it is
being installed. If it is not, the plunger and the linkage
may not line up correctly and the fuel solenoid will
not function properly.
5.
Place the O-ring in the groove in the end of the fuel
injection pump. Make sure that the O-ring is positioned
correctly during installation to avoid damage and leaks.
6.
Install the new fuel solenoid.
7.
Place the On-Off switch in the OFF position after
installing the fuel solenoid.
AEA635
1.
2.
3.
Fuel Solenoid
O-ring
Groove in Fuel Injection Pump
Fuel Solenoid Components
58
a.
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number one cylinder
to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number one cylinder.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
d.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
one cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number one cylinder.
unit the 2-3 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
1
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number three cylinder to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number three cylinder.
d.
If the rocker arms are tight the engine is at top dead
center of the exhaust stroke for the number three
cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number three cylinder.
2
AEA701
1
Top Dead Center One and Four
2
5.
Check the valve clearance of both valves for the number one cylinder with a feeler gauge. The valve clearance for both the intake valve and the exhaust valve
should be .006 to .010 in. (0.15 to 0.25 mm).
NOTE: Check to make sure that the valve stem cap is
in good condition and is positioned squarely on the
top of the valve stem. Replace the valve stem cap if it
shows significant wear.
6.
AEA706
Top Dead Center Two and Three
Adjust the valves if necessary by loosening the lock nut
and turning the adjustment screw until the valve clearance is correct.
7.
Hold the adjustment screw in place and tighten the lock
nut.
8.
Recheck the valve clearance.
9.
Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number three cylinder.
a.
10. Check and adjust both valves for the number three cylinder.
11. Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the nubmer four cylinder.
a.
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
59
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 1-4 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number four cylinder
to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number four cylinder.
d.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
four cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number four cylinder.
CRANKCASE BREATHER
The crankcase breather is located on top of the rocker arm
cover. The crankcase breather system ducts crankcase gases
formed in the crankcase directly to the air intake. Harmful
vapors that would otherwise collect in the crankcase and
contaminate the oil, or escape to the outside, are drawn back
into the engine and burned. Normal crankcase pressures
with a new air cleaner are 0 to 1 in. (0 to 25 mm) H2O of
vacuum at 1450 rpm and 1 to 2 in. (25 to 51 mm) H2O of
vacuum at 2200 rpm. The vacuum will increase as the air
cleaner gets dirty and becomes more restrictive. The crankcase breather and the breather hose should be inspected
12. Check and adjust both valves for the number four
cylinder.
yearly to make sure they are not plugged or damaged.
13. Place the engine at top dead center of the compression
stroke for the number two cylinder.
a.
3
Rotate the engine in the normal direction of rotation (clockwise viewed from the water pump end)
until the 2-3 timing mark on the flywheel lines up
with the index mark in the timing mark access
hole.
b.
Check the rocker arms on the number two cylinder
to see if they are loose.
c.
If the rocker arms are loose, the engine is at top
dead center of the compression stroke for the number two cylinder.
d.
If the rocker arms are tight, the engine is at top
dead center of the exhaust stroke for the number
two cylinder. Rotate the engine 360° to place the
engine at top dead center of the compression stroke
for the number two cylinder.
4
2
1
ANA228
1.
2.
3.
4.
14. Check and adjust both valves for the number two
cylinder.
Intake Manifold
Air Restriction Indicator
Air Cleaner
Crankcase Breather
Dry Air Cleaner System
15. Replace the rocker arm cover, the cover for the timing
mark access hole, and tighten the fuel injection lines
when finished.
60
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
ENGINE AIR CLEANER (Filter)
Using belt tension gauge, P/N 204-427, is the best method
of checking belts for tightness. Install the belt gauge in the
center of the longest belt span. Press the plunger so the
hook will engage the belt. Make sure the hook is on the face
of the belt, not in a notch. Release the plunger with a quick
motion and without pulling on the belt. Then read the dial.
Use an average of three readings.
A heavy duty, dry air cleaner filters all of the air entering the
engine. Excessive restriction of the air intake system
reduces the flow of air to the engine affecting horsepower
output, fuel consumption and engine life.
An air restriction indicator is installed in the air intake manifold. Visually inspect the restriction indicator periodically
to assure the air filter is not restricted. Service the air filter
when the yellow diaphragm indicates 22 in. of vacuum.
Press the reset button on the bottom of the restriction indicator after servicing the air filter.
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install belts without
loosening adjustments. Belts that are installed by prying
over pulleys will fail prematurely due to internal cord
damage.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to adjust belts with the
unit running.
CAUTION: With the CYCLE-SENTRY switch in
the CYCLE position and the unit On-Off switch in
the ON position, the unit may start operation at any
time without prior warning. Switch the unit On-Off
switch to the OFF position before performing maintenance or repair procedures.
Alternator Belt Adjustment
AEA710
The alternator belt tension should read 35 on the belt gauge.
Air Restriction Indicator
BELTS
Belts should be regularly inspected during unit pre-trip
inspections for wear, scuffing or cracking. Belt tension
should also be checked during scheduled maintenance
inspections. Belts that are too loose will whip and belts that
are too tight put too much strain on the belt fibers and bearings.
61
1.
Loosen the alternator pivot bolt and the adjusting arm
bolt.
2.
Move the alternator on the adjusting arm slots to adjust
the belt to 35 on the belt tension gauge.
3.
Tighten the adjusting arm bolt and alternator pivot bolt.
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Upper and Lower Fan Belt Adjustment
2.
Push in or pull out on the adjusting arm to “center” the
idler pulley assembly between the belts and balance the
tension equally between the upper and lower belts.
3.
Tighten both adjusting arm bolts and both idler assembly pivot bolts.
The upper fan belt should read 74 and the lower fan belt
should read 67 on the belt tension gauge.
NOTE: Both the upper and lower fan belts are adjusted at
the same time in one procedure.
NOTE: If the idler assembly binds when moving for
belt adjustment, loosen the upper idler support
bracket mounting bolts to free up the assembly. Check
the main idler retainer nut assembly for proper alignment between the nut and the support bracket slots.
NOTE: If a fan belt is loose or damaged, replace the belt
(see Fan Belt Removal and Installation procedure).
1.
Loosen the idler assembly pivot bolts and the adjusting
arm bolts.
5
6
4
7
3
8
2
9
10
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ANA229
Engine Pulley
Alternator Belt
Belt Tension Adjustment Arm
Upper Fan Belt
Condensor Fan Pulley
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Condensor Fan
Condensor Inlet Ring
Pivot Bolt
Idler Assembly
Lower Fan Belt
Model 30 Belt Arrangement
62
Engine Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
Fan Belt Removal and Installation
5.
NOTE: Do not attempt to remove or install the belts without loosening the adjustments. Belts that are installed by
prying over pulleys will fail prematurely due to internal
cord damage.
NOTE: If the condenser fan does not slide on the fan
shaft with light tapping, remove the small access
panel located on the condenser coil header above the
radiator tank. Thread a 1/4-20 x 1 in. diameter bolt
into the end of the fan shaft. Tighten the bolt and
washer down on the condenser fan hub to loosen the
blower wheel. Drive the blower wheel back to provide
1/2 in. (13 mm) clearance between the blower wheel
and condenser fan inlet ring.
Lower Fan Belt
Removal
1.
Loosen both belt tension adjustment arm pivot bolts
and both idler pulley pivot bolts.
2.
Push the adjustment arm IN. The lower fan belt will
come off the engine pulley. Move the arm OUT far
enough to clear the roadside idler mounting bracket.
Tap the blower wheel with a soft hammer to drive
the blower wheel up the fan shaft to provide 1/2 in.
(13 mm) clearance between the blower wheel and the
inlet ring.
6.
Lift the belt up over the condenser blower wheel and
remove it from the unit.
Installation
1.
Slip the belt into the groove of the idler pulley.
2.
Push the adjustment arm back in toward the unit.
3.
4.
5.
Installation
1.
Slip the belt over the condenser blower wheel and place
it in the condenser fan pulley.
Slip the belt onto the pulley groove on the engine.
2.
Pull the adjustment arm back OUT and adjust the belts
to the proper tension.
Drive the condenser blower wheel out toward the condenser fan inlet ring using a soft hammer.
3.
Adjust the blower wheel to inlet ring overlap to 0.10 to
0.15 in. (2.5 to 3.8 mm). Tighten the hub bolts that hold
the hub to the fan shaft.
4.
Check the radial clearance between the blower wheel
and inlet ring with a gauge wire. Check around the
entire circumference to the inlet ring and blower wheel
(see Condenser and Evaporator Fan Location under
Structural Maintenance).
5.
Torque the blower hub clamping bolts to 13 ft-lb
(17.6 N•m).
6.
Seat the upper belt in the blower wheel pulley groove.
7.
Push inward on the adjustment arm and slip the belt
into the idler pulley groove.
8.
Pull the adjustment arm forward and install the lower
fan belt.
Tighten the idler pulley pivot bolts and the adjustment
arm pivot bolts.
Upper Fan Belt
Removal
1.
Loosen the adjustment arm pivot bolts and remove the
lower fan belt (see Lower Fan Belt Removal).
2.
Push the adjustment arm in and the idler shaft up. The
upper belt should become slack and slip down out of
the idler pulley groove.
3.
Pull the adjustment arm OUT. The upper fan belt
should slip off the idler pulley as the idler pulley hub
clears the curbside idler mounting bracket.
4.
Loosen the two condenser fan hub to the shaft clamping
bolts.
63
64
Refrigeration Maintenance
NOTE: The following procedures involve servicing the refrigeration system. Some of these service procedures are regulated by Federal, and in some cases, by State and Local laws.
All regulated refrigeration service procedures must be performed by an EPA certified technician, using approved equipment and complying with all Federal, State and Local laws.
REFRIGERANT CHARGE
8.
Testing the Refrigerant Charge with an Empty
Trailer
Testing the Refrigerant Charge with a Loaded
Trailer
If the unit has an insufficient charge of refrigerant, the evaporators will be “starved” and the box temperatures will rise
even though the unit is operating. The suction pressure will
drop as the refrigerant charge decreases. If the unit has an
overcharge of refrigerant, the unit may not cool properly
and the suction and discharge pressure may be high. The
charge may be determined by inspection of the refrigerant
through the receiver tank sight glasses with the following
conditions established:
1.
Place a test box over the evaporator.
2.
Install a gauge manifold
3.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
Under these conditions, the ball should be floating in
the receiver tank sight glass.
1.
Install a gauge manifold.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
3.
Build up and maintain 275 psi (1896 kPa) of head pressure. If the pressure is below this, it can be raised by
covering the roadside condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to block condenser air flow.
4.
Cool the compartment to the lowest temperature
required.
5.
Check suction pressure. It should be 13 to 25 psi (90 to
165 kPa).
6.
Under these conditions, the ball should be floating in
the lower receiver tank sight glass.
4.
Use the Microprocessor thermometer to monitor the
return air temperature.
5.
Run the unit on high speed cool until the air in the box is
at 0 F (-18 C). By allowing the box to leak a small
amount, you will be able to maintain 0 F (-18 C).
Testing for an Overcharge
6.
The suction pressure should be 13 to 18 psi (90 to 124
kPa).
1.
Install a calibrated gauge manifold on the compressor.
2.
7.
The discharge pressure should be at least 275 psi (1896
kPa).
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool. Refer to the appropriate Operation and Diagnosis
Manual for specific information about the Service Test
Mode.
3.
Operate the unit in high speed cool long enough to stabilize system pressures and reduce the box temperature
to approximately 60 F (16 C) or colder.
Use the following procedure to identify a Thermo King unit
with an excessive refrigerant charge:
If the pressure is below this, it can be raised by covering a portion of the condenser grille with a piece of
cardboard to block condenser airflow.
65
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
4.
NOTE: When adding refrigerant, maintain a discharge pressure of at least 275 psi (1896 kPa) (150 psi
[1034 kPa] for R-134a).
Observe discharge pressure and cover the condenser to
increase the discharge pressure approximately 75 to
100 psi (500 to 690 kPa) above observed pressure.
NOTE: If the ball and liquid level in the receiver sight
glass drops during step #3, the unit is not overcharged
and it is not necessary to complete the procedure.
4.
5.
Remove the condenser cover to rapidly reduce discharge pressure.
6.
Observe the receiver tank sight glass and the unit discharge pressure.
The receiver tank is equipped with moisture indicating sight
glasses. The outer edge of each sight glass has a colored
ring approximately 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) thick. The color of the
ring indicates the moisture content of the refrigerant, but it
is not completely reliable.
7.
By the time the discharge pressure drops approximately
50 psi (345 kPa), the ball in the receiver tank sight glass
should begin to move and the liquid level should drop.
Green = Dry
a.
When the discharge pressure stabilizes, the ball
and liquid level will rise.
Yellow = Wet
b.
If the ball will not begin to move or the liquid level
will not drop, the unit most likely has an overcharge of refrigerant. The refrigerant level should
be adjusted.
Repeat overcharge test.
Moisture Indicating Sight Glasses
Chartreuse = Caution
1
2
To adjust the refrigerant level:
1.
SP2026
1.
2.
With the unit operating in high speed cool, use a gauge
manifold set to pump refrigerant from the RECEIVER
TANK into an approved container.
2.
When the liquid level beings to drop in the receiver
tank sight glass, close the hand valve on the gauge
manifold immediately. Allow new level to stabilize (1
to 2 minutes).
3.
If the liquid level is less than a full sight glass, adjust by
adding vapor through the suction service valve. With
the unit running in high speed cool, add vapor until the
ball is near the top of the sight glass. Allow to stabilize
(1 to 2 minutes).
Floating Ball
Colored Ring
Moisture Indicating Sight Glass
A system has to run for at least 15 minutes to change the
color of an indicator ring after the moisture content of the
system has been changed. For example, evacuating a system to remove the moisture will not change the color of the
indicator ring until the system has been recharged and then
operated for at least 15 minutes.
REFRIGERANT LEAKS
Use a reliable leak detector (e.g., electronic detector or
Halide torch) to leak test the refrigeration system. Inspect
for signs of oil leakage which is the first sign of a leak in the
refrigeration system.
66
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
CHECKING COMPRESSOR OIL
1.
The compressor oil should be checked when there is evidence of oil loss (oil leaks) or when components in the
refrigeration system have been removed for service or
replacement.
Connect the gauge manifold to the compressor discharge service valve with a heavy duty, black jacketed
thick wall #HCA 144 hose with a 900 psi (6204 kPa)
working pressure rating.
2.
Use the Service Test Mode to run the unit in high speed
cool.
To check compressor oil level with an ambient air
temperature above 50 F (10 C):
Install a gauge manifold on the compressor.
Operate the unit on Cool with a 20 psi (138 kPa) minimum
suction pressure and a 185 psi (1275 kPa) minimum discharge pressure for 15 minutes or more.
After the unit has maintained the above conditions for 15
minutes, observe the oil level. The oil should be 1/4 to 1/2
up in the sight glass.
To check compressor oil level with an ambient air
temperature below 50 F (10 C)
Run the unit through a complete defrost cycle. After completing the defrost cycle, run the unit on Cool for ten minutes. Observe the oil level. The oil should be 1/4 to 1/2 up
in the sight glass.
1.
2.
3.
If the box is empty, you can run the unit on the heat cycle
instead of the defrost cycle.
Relief Valve (66-2202)
O-Ring (33-1015)
Adapter Tee Weather Head (No. 552X3)
High Pressure Cutout Manifold
NOTE: Use refrigeration compressor oil ONLY. Polyol
Ester P/N 203-413 is required for R-404A.
3.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT SWITCH
(HPCO)
The HPCO is located on the compressor discharge manifold. If the discharge pressure rises above 450 psi (3103
kPa), the HPCO opens the 8 circuit, de-energizing the fuel
solenoid. To test the HPCO, rework a gauge manifold following the High Pressure Cutout Manifold illustration.
Raise the discharge pressure of the compressor first by
blocking the condenser coil air flow by covering the
condenser grille with a piece of cardboard. If this does
not raise the discharge pressure to the cutout level of
the HPCO, increase the engine speed by overriding the
throttle solenoid. This should increase the discharge
pressure enough to cause the HPCO to cut out.
NOTE: The discharge pressure should never be
allowed to exceed a pressure of 450 psi (3103 kPa).
67
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
4.
Failure of the HPCO system to stop compressor operation should be investigated first by checking the control
circuit operation and secondly by HPCO switch
replacement.
When the unit is running on defrost or heat, if the condenser
pressure is higher than the discharge pressure, the check
valve opens and the condenser pressure is bled off until it
drops to the level of the discharge pressure. The purpose of
the valve is to improve heating/defrosting ability and threeway valve response.
THREE-WAY VALVE CONDENSER
PRESSURE BYPASS CHECK VALVE
To check the operation of the valve:
A three-way valve condenser pressure bypass check valve is
used in this unit. This check valve controls the bypass flow
of refrigerant gas between the condenser inlet line and the
compressor discharge line.
The check valve is closed when the unit is running on cool,
or whenever the discharge pressure is higher than the condenser pressure.
ANA242
1.
2.
1
Cooling Position
Check Valve
1.
Remove the condenser pressure bypass check valve cap
from the three-way valve.
2.
Using a screwdriver, gently turn the check valve stem
in until the valve is front seated.
3.
Install a gauge manifold set on the compressor.
4.
Close (front seat) the receiver tank outlet valve.
3
2
3.
4.
Heating/Defrost Position
Check Valve
68
4
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
5.
Operate the unit on cool and pump down the low side to
20 in. Hg (-68 kPa) of vacuum.
10. Replace the cap on the condenser pressure bypass
check valve.
6.
Stop the unit. The condenser and suction pressures
should remain stable, indicating no leaks.
NOTE: Valve stem MUST be back seated during normal unit operation.
7.
Shift the three-way valve to the heat position. Low side
gauge will raise slightly. High side gauge will drop to
approximately zero. Gauges will equalize.
11. Open the receiver tank return outlet valve, remove the
gauges and return the unit to normal operation.
8.
Gauges will remain in this position approximately zero
if the three-way valve seals properly toward the condenser and the condenser pressure bypass check valve
seals properly.
9.
MODULATION VALVE OPTION
The modulation valve is normally open. As a controlled
electrical signal is applied to the coil the armature overcomes spring pressure and the valve moves a precise
amount in the closed direction. As the signal strength is
increased, the valve closes more. This controls the flow of
refrigerant to the compressor. The controller monitors the
return and discharge air temperature to control the signal
and the position of the modulation valve.
Back seat condenser pressure bypass check valve stem
against snap ring. Both gauges should rise indicating
the condenser pressure bypass check valve is properly
releasing condenser pressure into the discharge tube
and evaporator.
2
3
1
4
ANA243
5
6
1.
2.
3.
Outlet
Armature
Electric Coil
4.
5.
6.
69
Inlet
Opening Spring
Seats
Refrigeration Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
HOT GAS SOLENOID
Unlike other valves, the pressure from the flow of fluid
going past the valve has no opening or closing force
because of the valve and seat design. The forces cancel each
other. The operation of this valve allows a very exact temperature to be maintained in the box by controlling the
pumping ability of the compressor.
The modulation valve is not repairable but the electric coil
can be replaced.
The hot gas solenoid is used in conjunction with the modulation valve to reduce the capacity of the unit during modulation. This normally closed solenoid valve is located in the
refrigeration line that connects the discharge line to the hot
gas line. The hot gas solenoid is energized (opened) at full
modulation. The hot gas solenoid is de-energized (closed)
when modulation is discontinued.
Refer to the appropriate Microprocessor Operation and
Diagnosis Manual for information about testing the modulation valve. See the Refrigeration Service Operations section
of this manual for removal and installation procedures.
Refer to the appropriate Microprocessor Operation and
Diagnosis Manual for information about testing the hot gas
solenoid. See the Refrigeration Service Operation chapter of
this manual for removal and installation procedures.
70
Refrigeration Service Operations
NOTE: It is generally good practice to replace the filter drier whenever the high side is opened or when the low side is
opened for an extended period of time.
COMPRESSOR
NOTE: The compressor drive coupling will only slide
onto the coupling pins in either of two positions,
which are 180 degrees apart.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
3.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
Release the remaining refrigerant pressure from the
compressor.
Install the service valves using new gaskets soaked in
compressor oil. Connect the high pressure cutout
switch and the pilot solenoid valve line.
4.
Pressurize the compressor and test for refrigerant leaks.
5.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the compressor.
6.
Backseat the suction and discharge service valves.
7.
Operate the unit at least 30 minutes and then inspect the
oil level in the compressor. Add or remove oil if necessary.
8.
Check the refrigerant charge and add refrigerant if
needed.
3.
Unbolt the discharge and suction service valves from
the compressor.
4.
Disconnect the high pressure cutout switch and the
pilot solenoid line.
5.
Support the compressor and remove the compressor
mounting bolts from the flywheel housing.
6.
Lift the service valves out of the way.
7.
Slide the compressor to the left until the coupling pins
are clear.
8.
Remove the compressor from the front of the unit.
Keep the compressor ports covered to prevent dust,
dirt, etc., from falling into the compressor.
CONDENSER COIL
Removal
NOTE: When the compressor is removed from the
unit, the oil level should be noted, or the oil removed
from the compressor should be measured so that the
same amount of oil can be added before placing the
replacement compressor in the unit.
Installation
1.
Slide the compressor into the unit.
2.
Place the compressor in position and install the mounting bolts.
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Open the roadside condenser fan grille.
3.
Drain engine coolant from the expansion tank. Unbolt
and remove the coolant expansion tank from the condenser coil frame. Unsolder the tank breather tube.
4.
Remove the condenser coil mounting bolts. Remove
the mounting clamps from the condenser inlet line.
5.
Unsolder the inlet line and liquid line connections. Lift
the coil from the unit.
Installation
71
1.
Clean the fittings for soldering.
2.
Place the coil in the unit and install the mounting bolts.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
3.
Solder the inlet line and liquid line connections.
IN-LINE CONDENSER CHECK VALVE
4.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
5.
Install the clamps on the condenser inlet line.
This unit uses an in-line condenser check valve. The in-line
check valve is not repairable and must be replaced if it fails.
A heat sink must be used on the in-line check valve when it
is being soldered in place to prevent damage to the neoprene
6.
Install the engine coolant expansion tank and refill half
way with engine coolant.
7.
Close hinged roadside condenser fan grille.
8.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
seal.
2
3
1
DISCHARGE VIBRASORBER
ANA244
Removal
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Heat the connections on the vibrasorber until the vibrasorber can be removed.
4
1.
2.
3.
4.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584 or
wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent
damaging the vibrasorber.
Cross Section of In-line Condenser Check Valve
CONDENSER CHECK VALVE
REPLACEMENT
Installation
1.
2.
Prepare the vibrasorber and tubing fittings by cleaning
thoroughly.
Removal
Solder the vibrasorber connections.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink, P/N 204-584 or
wrap the vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent
damaging the vibrasorber.
3.
4.
Valve
Neoprene Seal
Valve Seat
Spring
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Place a heat sink on the check valve.
3.
Unsolder the lines and remove the check valve.
Installation
Pressurize the system and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the system.
NOTE: A heat sink must be used on the in-line check
valve when it is being soldered in place to prevent damage
to the neoprene seal.
Charge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor oil level.
1.
72
Clean the tubes for soldering.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
Place the check valve in position. The arrow on the
valve body indicates the direction of refrigerant flow
through the valve.
RECEIVER TANK
3.
Place a heat sink on the check valve.
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
4.
Solder the inlet and outlet connections.
2.
5.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks.
6.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
Unsolder the condenser check valve line from the
receiver tank. Disconnect the filter drier inlet and the
bypass check valve lines. Remove the check valve
from the receiver tank.
7.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
3.
Unbolt the mounting brackets and remove the receiver
tank from the unit.
2.
Removal
Installation
BYPASS CHECK VALVE
1.
Coat the bypass check valve fittings with compressor
oil. Install the check valve on the receiver tank outlet
tube. Tighten securely, holding the hex on the receiver
tank outlet tube with a back-up wrench.
2.
Place the receiver tank in the unit and install the mounting bolts and nuts loosely. Position the receiver tank so
that the sight glass is clearly visible through the viewing hole in the mounting bracket.
3.
Solder the condenser check valve line to the receiver
tank.
4.
Connect the bypass check valve and filter drier inlet
lines.
5.
Tighten the receiver tank mounting hardware securely.
6.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and check for leaks.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
7.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Close the bypass service valve.
3.
Unscrew the flare nut from the check valve.
4.
Unscrew the check valve from the bypass valve.
CAUTION: The receiver tank outlet tube may
be bent if a back-up wrench is not used on the
fitting.
Installation
1.
2.
Coat the fittings on the bypass check valve with compressor oil and install on the service valve fitting.
Tighten it securely, and use a back-up wrench.
Install and tighten the bypass flare nut on the check
valve outlet. Hold the check valve with a back-up
wrench on the hex.
3.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the system.
4.
Open the bypass service valve and place the unit in
operation.
FILTER DRIER
Removal
1.
73
Pump down the refrigeration system and equalize the
pressure to slightly positive.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
2.
Disconnect the nuts at the ends of the drier.
3.
Loosen the mounting hardware and remove the drier.
Installation
2.
Connect the inlet liquid line and solder the distributor
to the expansion valve.
3.
Connect the equalizer line to the suction line.
4.
Clean the suction line to a bright polished condition.
Install the feeler bulb clamps and the feeler bulb on the
side of the suction line in its former position. The
feeler bulb must make good contact with the suction
line or operation will be faulty. Wrap with insulating
tape.
1.
Place the new O-rings in the ORS fittings on the ends
of the drier.
2.
Install the new drier and tighten the mounting screws
and nuts.
3.
Install and tighten the inlet nut. Hold the drier with a
back-up wrench on the hex behind the inlet fitting.
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the low side.
Release a small amount of refrigerant to purge the air
through the drier. Then tighten the outlet nut.
6.
Replace the access panels.
7.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
8.
Test the unit to see that the expansion valve is properly
4.
5.
Pressurize the system and inspect for leaks. If no leaks
are found, open the refrigeration valves and place the
unit in operation.
installed.
EXPANSION VALVE ASSEMBLY
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the evaporator access panels.
3.
Remove the feeler bulb from the clamp. Note the position of the feeler bulb on the suction line.
4.
Disconnect the equalizer line from the suction line.
5.
Disconnect the inlet liquid line and unsolder the distributor from the expansion valve.
6.
AEA713
1.
2.
Remove the expansion valve mounting bolt and remove
the expansion valve from the unit.
Location of Expansion Valve Bulb
Installation
1.
End View
Side View
Install and bolt the expansion valve assembly in the
unit.
74
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
HEAT EXCHANGER
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the upper and lower evaporator access panels.
3.
Remove the mounting bolts that hold the heat
exchanger on the bulkhead.
4.
Disconnect the equalizer line from the suction line.
5.
Disconnect the liquid outlet line from the expansion
valve.
6.
Note the position of the feeler bulb on the side of the
suction line. Remove the expansion valve feeler bulb
from the suction tube.
7.
Unsolder the suction line at the evaporator coil end.
8.
Unsolder the remaining outlet suction line and inlet liquid line connections from the condenser side of the
bulkhead. Remove any putty from around the lines
before unsoldering the connections.
9.
2.
Place the heat exchanger assembly in the evaporator
housing and install the mounting hardware loosely.
3.
4.
6.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the low side.
7.
Tighten the heat exchanger mounting hardware
securely.
8.
Clean the suction tube to a brightly polished condition. Install the feeler bulb clamps and the feeler bulb
on the side of the suction line in its former position.
The feeler bulb must make good contact with the suction line or the operation will be faulty. Wrap with
insulating tape.
9.
Replace the upper and lower evaporator access panels.
EVAPORATOR COIL
Removal
Installation
Clean the tubes for soldering.
Connect the equalizer line to the suction line and the
liquid outlet line to the expansion valve.
10. Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
Slide the heat exchanger assembly out of the evaporator
housing.
1.
5.
Solder the liquid inlet and the suction outlet line connections on the condenser side of the bulkhead. Seal
the openings through the bulkhead with putty when the
refrigerant lines have cooled off.
Solder the suction line connection to the evaporator
coil.
75
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the upper and lower rear access panels.
3.
Remove the roadside and curbside evaporator access
panel mounting channels.
4.
Disconnect the sensors.
5.
Remove the feeler bulb from the suction line clamp.
Note the position of the feeler bulb on the suction line.
6.
Unsolder the distributor from the expansion valve.
7.
Unsolder the hot gas line and the suction line from the
evaporator coil.
8.
Remove the mounting bolts, lift and slide the coil from
the housing.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
Installation
4.
Disconnect the tee fitting from the accumulator tank.
1.
Place the evaporator coil in the evaporator housing and
install the mounting bolts.
5.
Unbolt and remove the accumulator from the unit.
2.
Solder the hot gas line and suction line connections to
the evaporator coil.
3.
Connect the distributor to the expansion valve.
4.
Replace and connect the sensors.
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the low side.
6.
Clean the suction line to a bright polished condition.
Install the feeler bulb on the side of the suction line in
its former position. The feeler bulb must make good
contact with the suction line or operation will be faulty.
Wrap with insulating tape.
Installation
1.
Place the accumulator in the unit and tighten the
mounting bolts and nuts.
2.
Solder the inlet and outlet suction lines to the accumulator.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
3.
If applicable, connect the water lines to the accumulator
tank.
4.
Connect the tee fitting and lines to the accumulator.
7.
Replace the roadside and curbside evaporator access
panel mounting channels.
5.
Pressurize the low side and test for refrigerant leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the low side.
8.
Replace the upper and lower rear access panels.
6.
9.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation. Check the refrigerant charge and compressor oil.
Add as required.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation. Check the refrigerant charge and the compressor
oil, and add as required.
THREE-WAY VALVE REPAIR
ACCUMULATOR
NOTE: The three-way valve can be repaired in the unit if
leakage or damage to the Teflon seals should occur. There
is usually enough give in the copper tubing to separate the
three sections of the valve without unsoldering any tubes.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
If applicable, disconnect the water lines from the accumulator.
3.
Unsolder the inlet and outlet suction lines from the
accumulator.
Removal/Disassembly
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
76
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Clean the exterior surface of the valve.
3.
Remove the line from the three-way valve to the pilot
solenoid.
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
4.
Loosen the four 1/4 in. Allen head screws (DO NOT
REMOVE); use tool P/N 204-424 to break the gasket at
each side of the center section.
CAUTION: Do not force the tool into the brass
or against the bolts.
5.
Remove the four bolts from the valve.
6.
Remove the top cap and spring.
7.
Remove the spring clip. Observe the slot in the piston
and slide piston off the stem.
8.
Remove the seat and stem assembly.
9.
Inspect the following parts for wear or damage:
a.
Bottom cap, sealing and support area.
b.
Seat, sealing surface.
c.
Top cap, sealing and support surface.
The following parts will be discarded:
d.
Stem assembly.
e.
All gaskets.
f.
Piston seal
10. Remove the screen. If any particles drop from the
screen into the discharge line, the discharge line must
be removed at the compressor.
NOTE: The valve body cannot be reconditioned.
Seat positions change and improper sealing will
result.
77
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
Assembly/Installation
After cleaning and inspecting all parts, reassemble the
valve.
1.
Install the screen in the bottom cap.
2.
Install the new stem in the bottom cap.
3.
Install new gaskets on both sides of the seat. Dip the
gaskets in compressor oil before installing.
4.
Place the piston on the stem and attach with spring clip.
5.
Install a new seal on the piston. The open side of the
seal must face the steam and seat. The closed side of
the seal must face the top cap.
6.
Install the spring and top cap.
7.
Line up the passageways in the cap and body. Failure
to line up the holes will result in improper operation of
the valve.
8.
Install the bolts and tighten in rotating
9.
Install the pilot line and pressurize the system with
refrigerant to check for leaks.
sequence.
AEA714
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cap
Top Cap
Check Valve
Spring
Piston
Seal
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Clip
Seat
Gaskets
Stem Assembly
Screen
Bottom Cap
Three-Way Valve
78
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
10. If there are no leaks, evacuate the system and recharge
with the proper refrigerant.
11. Run the unit to check for proper three-way valve operation.
THREE-WAY VALVE CONDENSER
PRESSURE BYPASS CHECK VALVE
REPAIR
Removal
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Unscrew the condenser pressure bypass check valve
cap from the three-way valve.
3.
Remove the snap ring.
4.
Unscrew the check valve stem by using a screwdriver
in the slot provided.
AEA715
1.
2.
3.
Teflon Check Valve
Snap Ring
Cap
4.
5.
6.
Stem
O-ring
Spring
Teflon Check Valve Assembly
Installation
NOTE: The spring and valve are held in by the stem.
While removing the stem, use care so the spring and
valve are not lost.
5.
Remove the spring and Teflon check valve.
6.
Inspect the check valve seat in the three-way valve.
7.
If replacement parts are needed, a 60-163 kit must be
used which includes the Teflon check valve, spring, Oring, valve stem and snap ring.
1.
Coat the O-ring with compressor oil and install it on the
check valve stem.
2.
Insert the spring into the hole in the check valve stem
and then install the Teflon check valve on the other end
of the spring with the hole in the valve towards the
spring.
3.
Coat the entire assembly with compressor oil and
install the assembly into the Teflon check valve seat in
the three-way valve.
CAUTION: The Teflon check valve must be
inserted with the flat side against the valve seat
to ensure proper sealing.
4.
Screw the check valve stem into the three-way valve
until the snap ring can be installed.
5.
Install the snap ring.
6.
Unscrew (back seat) the check valve stem against the
snap ring.
NOTE: The valve stem must be back seated during
normal unit operation.
79
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
7.
Coat sealing area in the cap with compressor oil, install
and tighten the cap on the three-way valve.
8.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
9.
2.
Unsolder the suction hose from the suction service
valve. Unsolder the connection to the accumulator and
remove from the unit.
Installation
Recharge the unit.
PILOT SOLENOID
1.
Prepare the suction hose and tube fittings for soldering
by cleaning thoroughly.
2.
Solder the vibrasorber to the suction service valve.
Removal
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap vibrasorber with wet rags to prevent damaging the
vibrasorber.
1.
Remove the refrigerant.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the coil from the
valve.
3.
Solder the suction hose connection to the accumulator.
3.
Unsolder the refrigeration lines.
4.
4.
Remove the mounting bolts and remove the valve.
Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the system.
5.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
Installation
1.
Remove the coil from the valve.
2.
Place the valve in the unit and install the mounting
bolts.
Removal
3.
Solder the refrigeration lines to the valve.
1.
4.
Install the coil and connect the wires.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
5.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
Release the remaining pressure.
6.
Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor oil.
3.
Disconnect the wires and remove the high pressure cutout switch from the compressor discharge manifold.
HIGH PRESSURE CUTOUT SWITCH
Installation
SUCTION VIBRASORBER
1.
Apply a refrigerant locktite to the threads of the high
pressure cutout switch.
2.
Install and tighten the high pressure cutout switch and
reconnect the wires.
3.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks.
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize pressure to
slightly positive.
80
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
4.
If no leaks are found, open the refrigeration service
valves and place the unit in operation.
HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
2.
Remove the cotter pin from the castle nut and remove
the nut.
3.
Remove the spring and piston.
4.
Loosen all the bolts on the bellows end cap.
Removal
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Unscrew and remove the high pressure relief valve.
CAUTION: This end cap is under slight spring
pressure.
Installation
1.
Apply a refrigerant oil to the O-ring of the high pressure relief valve.
2.
Install and tighten the high pressure relief valve.
3.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks. If
no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
4.
Recharge the unit with the proper refrigerant and check
the compressor coil.
5.
Break the gasket free and remove the end cap.
6.
Note the number of shims next to the cap. These can be
reused.
THROTTLING VALVE
Removal
1.
Pump down the low side and equalize the pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Front seat the discharge and suction service valves.
Release the remaining pressure.
3.
Remove the suction service valve and line from the
compound gauge.
4.
ADL06
1.
2.
3.
Throttling Valve
Unbolt and remove the throttling valve from the unit.
Repair
Disassembly
1.
Inspect Cap
Inspect Spring
Shims
Remove the piston end cap (round end).
81
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
7.
Remove the bellows.
Reassembly
8.
Inspect all the parts.
1.
Install the bellows with the O-ring in the housing.
a.
Piston and cap for wear (scuff marks).
2.
Center the spring on the bellows shoulder.
b.
Body for stripped threads.
3.
c.
Bellows end cap for damage i the pilot hole.
Oil the gasket, install it on the housing, and place the
shims in the end cap (use same number as removed).
Tighten the end cap in place with the vent hole closest
to the outlet opening of the valve housing.
4.
Install the piston, spring and tighten the castle nut until
it is firmly seated against the bottom of the piston.
5.
Back off the castle nut, one full turn only.
6.
Insert the cotter pin.
7.
Oil the gasket and install the end cap.
8.
The throttling valve will have to be recalibrated on
operating unit. (Refer to the Specification chapter for
setting.)
9.
Adjust by adding or removing shims under the spring.
NOTE: The bellows is normally replaced.
9.
Clean the parts that will be reused
1.
Inspect for Wear
AEA716
1.
1.
Inspect for Damage
82
Tighten castle nut to bottom (then back off
1 turn only) and insert cotter pin
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
Installation
1.
2.
Install the throttling valve using a new O-ring soaked in
compressor oil. Bolt the throttling valve to the compressor.
3.
Pressurize the low side and check for leaks. If no leaks
are found, evacuate the low side.
4.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
Install the suction valve and the line from the compound gauge.
AEA717
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
SCREW - mtg plate
FLATWASHER
PLATE - bellows end
GASKET - end plate
WASHER - adjusting
SPRING - bellows
BELLOWS & SHAFT - assy
O-RING
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
GASKET - piston housing
PISTON
SPRING - piston
NUT - adjusting
PIN - cotter
HOUSING - piston
O-RING - valve to compressor
CAP - rubber
Throttling Valve Assembly
83
Refrigeration Service Operations (Rev. 7/00)
MODULATION VALVE
HOT GAS SOLENOID VALVE
Removal
Removal
1.
1.
Remove the refrigerant charge.
2.
Disconnect the wires and remove the coil for the valve.
3.
Unsolder the lines and remove the valve.
Pump down the low side and equalize pressure to
slightly positive.
2.
Remove the evaporator access panels.
3.
Disconnect the modulation valve wire harness connector and remove the modulation valve coil.
4.
Installation
Unsolder the elbow and tube that connect the modulation valve to the heat exchanger, and remove the modulation valve, the elbow and the tube.
1.
Clean the tube for soldering.
2.
Remove the coil and place the valve in position.
3.
Solder the inlet and outlet connections. After the valve
cools, install the coil.
4.
Pressurize the refrigeration system and test for leaks.
5.
If no leaks are found, evacuate the system.
6.
Recharge the unit with proper refrigerant and check the
compressor oil.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap the valve
with wet rags to prevent damaging the valve.
Installation
1.
Clean the tubes and elbow for soldering.
2.
Properly position the modulation valve, the tube, and
the elbow between the evaporator outlet and the heat
exchanger inlet.
3.
Solder the connections.
CAUTION: Use a heat sink or wrap the valve
with wet rags to prevent damaging the valve.
4.
Pressurize the low side and test for leaks. If no leaks are
found, evacuate the low side.
5.
Install the coil on the modulation valve and connect the
wires.
6.
Install the evaporator access panels.
7.
Open the refrigeration valves and place the unit in operation.
84
Structural Maintenance
UNIT AND ENGINE MOUNTING BOLTS
Check and tighten all unit and engine mounting bolts during
scheduled maintenance inspections. Torque the unit mounting bolts to 60 ft-lb (81 N•m). Torque the engine mounting
bolts to 150 ft-lb (203 N•m).
UNIT INSPECTION
Inspect the unit during pre-trip inspection and scheduled
maintenance inspections for loose or broken wires or hardware, compressor oil leaks, or other physical damage which
might affect unit performance and require repair or replacement of parts.
CONDENSER, EVAPORATOR, AND
RADIATOR COILS
Clean the coils during scheduled maintenance inspections.
Remove any debris (e.g., leaves or plastic wrap) that
reduces the air flow. Clean dirty coils with compressed air
or a pressure washer. Be careful not to bend the fins when
cleaning a coil. If possible, blow the air or water through the
coil in the direction opposite the normal airflow. Repair bent
fins and any other noticeable damage.
AEA688
1
DEFROST DRAINS
Clean the defrost drains during scheduled maintenance
inspections to be sure the lines remain open.
UNIT INSTALLATION
All nuts that hold the unit to the trailer are accessible using
an impact wrench with a 10 in. extension, ball-type swivel
and a deep-well socket.
AEA689
NOTE: The nuts for mounting the unit should be elastic
stop nuts (Nylock type).
1.
Check Bolts for Tightness
Unit and Engine Mounting Bolts
85
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
DEFROST DAMPER
To adjust the damper:
Check the damper during scheduled maintenance inspections for shaft wear, end play, and the ability to stop the air
flow.
1.
Remove the damper assembly from the evaporator.
2.
Disconnect the damper link from the eye bolt.
Position the damper so that air flow is stopped on the top
and bottom edges with the solenoid plunger bottomed out.
2
1
3
6
5
4
7
9
AEA719
8
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Stop
Mounting Bolts
Closed Position
Open Position
Damper Link
6.
7.
8.
9.
Eye Bolt
Round Stop
Distance A 2.75 in. (69.85 mm)
Solenoid
Defrost Damper Adjustment
86
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
3.
4.
Condenser Fan Blower
Check Distance A, the distance from the shoulder on
the solenoid to the center of the hole in the eye bolt.
Distance A should be 2.75 in. (69.85 mm) with the
solenoid de-energized.
If necessary, adjust Distance A to the proper dimension
by loosening the lock nut on the end of the solenoid
plunger and turning the eye bolt. Tighten the lock nut
when Distance A is correct.
1.
Loosen the condenser inlet ring (spinning) on the condenser coil bulkhead.
2.
Slide the blower towards the inlet ring until it contacts
the inlet ring. This centers the inlet ring in the blower
orifice.
3.
Tighten the inlet ring securely
5.
Connect the damper link to the eye bolt.
4.
Slide the blower away from the inlet ring.
6.
Energize the solenoid (apply 12 volts dc) and check the
damper blade to make sure that both edges contact the
damper housing. If necessary, adjust this by loosening
the solenoid mounting bolts and moving the solenoid.
Tighten the solenoid mounting bolts when both edges
of the damper blade contact the damper housing.
5.
Pass a gauge wire completely around the blower orifice
to check for uniform clearance.
6.
Spin the blower by hand to check for blower distortion.
7.
Position the blower so the edge of the inlet ring lines up
with the alignment mark on the blower.
Adjust the damper blade stops so they contact the edges
of the damper blade. This keeps the damper from sticking closed.
8.
Torque blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
7.
8.
9.
1
2
De-energize and energize the damper several times to
make sure that the damper operates correctly and seals
properly.
3
Make sure the damper blade rests on the round stops
when the damper is open. Adjust the round stops if necessary.
4
10. Install the damper assembly in the evaporator.
CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR FAN
LOCATION
When mounting the condenser or evaporator fan and hub
assembly on the fanshaft, the blowers and inlet orifices must
be properly aligned for proper air flow and to prevent damage to the blower.
AEA749
1.
Blower Wheel
3.
Alignment Mark
2.
Inlet Ring
4.
Edge of Inlet Ring
Condenser Blower Alignment
87
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
FAN SHAFT ASSEMBLY
Evaporator Fan Blower
1.
Loosen the inlet rings on the sides of the blower housing.
2.
Center the blower wheel in the blower housing with
equal overlap on both inlet rings. The overlap on each
ring should be approximately 0.15 in. (3.8 mm).
3.
Tighten the hub bolts that hold the blower wheel on the
fanshaft.
4.
Center the inlet rings in the blower orifices. Tighten the
inlet rings securely.
5.
Check the radial clearance by passing a wire completely around the circumference of the inlet rings and
the blower wheel.
6.
Torque the blower hub bolts to 18 ft-lb (24 N•m).
The unit is equipped with a one-piece fan shaft assembly
that contains tapered roller bearings in a sealed oil reservoir.
This assembly does not require any maintenance. There is a
level plug and a fill plug, but they are not normally used
except after removal and repair of the fan shaft assembly.
The condenser and evaporator end oil seals should be
checked during the pre-trip inspection for oil leakage. If
there is any sign of leakage, the fan shaft assembly should
be removed and repaired
NOTE: The fan shaft assembly requires a special lubricant, Thermo King P/N 203-278.
Fan Shaft Assembly Overhaul
Disassembly
AEA720
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check Clearance with a Wire
Blower Housing Sides
Inlet Rings
Evaporator Blower
Radial Clearance
Equalize Blower Inlet Overlap
1.
Remove the fan shaft assembly from the unit. Remove
both oil plugs and drain the oil from the housing.
2.
After draining the oil from the housing, remove the
four retaining bolts from the condenser end of the
assembly.
3.
To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the opposite
end of the shaft with a soft hammer. After the shaft has
been removed, clean all parts in clean solvent.
4.
Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the evaporator
end of the assembly. With the seal removed, clean the
housing in clean solvent.
5.
Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
6.
After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the bearings and
bearing races for wear or damage.
7.
If necessary, remove the bearings by tapping them off
the shaft with a hammer and a punch. Be careful not to
damage the shaft with the punch.
Evaporator Fan Location
88
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
8.
6.
The bearing races can now be driven out with a punch
and replaced in the same manner.
Reassembly
1.
Tap the new bearings on the shaft with a pipe.
2.
Install new oil seals after replacing the bearing races.
3.
Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new seal in
the retainer cap. Use the original shims and replace the
O-ring if needed.
4.
5.
Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial indicator
to read end-play. To measure the end-play, rotate the
shaft while pushing in one direction and set the dial
indicator to ‘0’. Now rotate the shaft and pull in the
opposite direction while reading the dial indicator. Endplay should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025 to 0.127 mm).
If end-play is incorrect, use different shims to obtain
correct end-play.
Shims available from the Service Parts Department:
Install the retainer cap assembly over the shaft, then
install the bolts.
Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in equal steps to
80 in-lb (9.04 N•m.)
0.020 in. (0.500 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-4231
0.007 in. (0.177 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2901
AEA721
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cap and Shims
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
Breather Vent
Housing
Roller Bearing
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Oil Seal
Shaft
Sleeve
Pin
O-ring
Fan Shaft Assembly
89
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
7.
After correct end-play is obtained, add oil for the bearings.
8.
Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent facing up.
Pour the oil (P/N 203-278) through the top plug until it
runs out of the side hole. The assembly holds 2.2 oz
(65 ml). Check the condition of the O-ring used on the
plugs and replace if necessary. Install the top and side
plugs. Clean up any spillage.
9.
Place the assembly on the workbench with the vent up.
Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft should be free
enough to rotate without having to hold the housing.
CAUTION: When installing the fan shaft
assembly, make sure that the vent is mounted
facing up.
3.
To remove the shaft from the assembly, tap the opposite
end of the shaft with a soft hammer. After the shaft has
been removed, clean all the parts in clean solvent.
4.
Using a punch, remove the oil seal from the curbside
end of the assembly. With the seal removed, clean the
housing in solvent.
5.
Check the condition of the vent. If it is loose or damaged, it must be repaired or replaced.
6.
After all the parts are cleaned, inspect the bearings and
bearing races for wear or damage.
7.
To replace the bearings, first drive bearing off shaft
with a punch at notch in the base of the shaft.
Reassembly
IDLER ASSEMBLY
The unit is equipped with a one-piece idler assembly that
contains tapered roller bearings in a sealed oil reservoir.
This assembly does not require any maintenance. There is a
level plug and a fill plug, but they are not normally used
except after removal and repair of the idler assembly. The
roadside end oil seal and the curbside end oil seal should be
checked during the pretrip inspection for oil leakage. If
there is any sign of leakage, the idler assembly should be
removed and repaired.
1.
Install the new bearings on the shaft with a pipe. Place
the pipe over the shaft and drive bearing down. Turn
the shaft upside down, and use the pipe to drive the
other bearing down.
2.
Install a new oil seal on the curbside end of the assembly after replacing the bearing race and splash guard.
3.
Replace the shaft in the housing. Install a new seal in
the retainer cap. Use the original shims and replace the
O-ring if needed.
4.
Install the retainer cap assembly over the shaft, then
install the bolts.
5.
Torque the bolts in a criss-cross pattern in equal steps to
80 in-lb (9.04 N•m).
6.
Lock the assembly in a vise and set up a dial indicator
to read end-play. To measure the end-play, rotate the
shaft while pushing in one direction, and set the dial
indicator to ‘0’. Now rotate the shaft and pull in the
opposite direction while reading the dial indicator. Endplay should be 0.001 to 0.005 in. (0.025 to 0.127 mm).
If end-play is incorrect, use different shims to obtain
correct end-play.
Idler Assembly Overhaul
Disassembly
1.
Remove the idler assembly from the unit. Remove both
oil plugs and drain the oil from the housing.
2.
After draining the oil from the housing, remove the
four retaining bolts from the curbside end of the assembly.
90
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
8.
Shims available from the Service Parts Department:
7.
0.020 in. (0.500 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-4231
0.007 in. (0.177 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2902
0.005 in. (0.127 mm)
Thermo King P/N 99-2901
Place the assembly on the workbench with the vent up.
Rotate the shaft by hand. The shaft should be free
enough to rotate without having to hold the housing.
CAUTION: Reinstall the assembly into the
unit, making sure the vent is mounted facing
up.
After the correct end-play is obtained, add approximately 1.5 oz (44 ml) of oil for the bearings.
Lock the assembly in a vise with the vent facing up.
Pour the oil through the top plug until it runs out of the
side hole. Check the condition of the O-ring used on the
plugs and replace if necessary. Install the top and side
plugs. Clean up any spillage.
AEA722
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Oil Seal
Cap and Shims
O-ring
Roller Bearing
Splash Guard Tube
6.
7.
8.
9.
Shaft
Housing
Breather Vent
Oil Plug Screw (Use Oil P/N 203-278)
Idler Assembly
91
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
CONDENSER SHUTTERS
Power Element Installation and
Adjustment
Some units have automatic shutters that remain closed to
recirculate the warm air from the radiator over the condenser coil for increased heating capacity. When operating
in low ambient temperatures, the shutters open or close as
necessary to maintain the condenser air temperature at 70 to
80 F (21 to 27 C). A temperature sensitive power element
opens and closes the shutters.
1.
Cool power element to 32 F (0 C) minimum with an ice
bath or other means. If an ice bath is used, keep the
power element immersed for at least 10 minutes due to
the mass of the element.
NOTE: Complete the rest of the installation and
adjustment procedure as quickly as possible. When
the installation is complete, the temperature of the
power element should still be 10 to 15 F (6 to 9 C)
below the control range of the power element to
ensure proper adjustment of the control assembly.
NOTE: The shutter power element control range is 85 to
100 F (29 to 38 C).
5
4
6
7
3
9
2
1
8
ANA245
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Power Element
Power Element Pin
Dimple
Control Arm
Hold Control Arm for Shutter
Linkage Adjustment
6.
7.
8.
9.
Shutters
92
Clevis
Clevis Bolt
Shutter Cable
Shutter Blade Linkage Rod
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
2.
Push the power element pin in by holding the power
element assembly upright on a workbench and pressing
down firmly. The pin should extend 0.3 in. (7.6) mm
beyond the end of the threaded shaft of the power element when fully retracted.
10. Hold the control arm firmly back against the control
assembly (direction of arrow) to eliminate play
between the control arm and the power element pin.
11. Adjust the clevis end until the hole in the clevis aligns
with the holes in the control arm. When properly
aligned, the pin should slide freely through the holes in
the control arm and clevis.
CAUTION: Do not use a vise or mechanical
press to push the pin in or the power element
may be permanently damaged.
3.
4.
5.
12. Remove the bolt and turn the rod end clockwise four
full turns (shortening the linkage) to apply a small
amount of tension on the shutter cable.
Check the hole where the power element screws into
the control assembly. The dimple or depression should
be centered in the hole. If the dimple is centered, you
may skip Step 4.
13. Fasten the clevis to the control arm with the bolt and
nut.
To center the dimple or depression, screw the chilled
power element into the control assembly ten full turns.
Now unscrew the power element from the control
assembly. The dimple at the bottom of the hole should
now be centered. Repeat the procedure if necessary.
14. Perform shutter travel test.
Shutter Travel Test
If the power element or shutter linkage is replaced or
adjusted, perform the following shutter travel test:
Screw the chilled power element slowly into the control
assembly until the pin just rests in the dimple. A slight
resistance is felt when the pin meets the dimple. Note
the position of the power element. Screw the power element into the control assembly two additional full
turns. Tighten the lock nut with the flat side of the nut
against the control assembly housing.
6.
Install the control assembly in the shutter. Check the
shutter linkage adjustment and perform shutter travel
testosterone Linkage Adjustment Procedure
7.
Disconnect the shutter linkage from the control assembly by removing the clevis bolt and nut.
8.
Manually operate the shutter assembly. There should be
no binding or interference.
9.
Cool power element and control assembly to 32 F (0 C)
minimum with an ice bath or other means.
1.
With the shutters completely closed, slowly apply heat
to the power element with hot wet rags or a hair dryer.
Continue to apply heat slowly until the control assembly completes its stroke to the Full Open position.
CAUTION: Watch for binding or tension in the
shutters or linkage rod as the shutters open to
prevent damage to the shutters or linkage rod
assembly.
2.
93
When the shutters do not open further with the application of additional heat to the power element, manually
push the linkage rod in the open direction. There should
be additional free travel or “play” in the linkage rod and
shutters to prevent jamming or damaging the shutter
assembly.
Structural Maintenance (Rev. 7/00)
3.
If there is no free travel or “play” in the linkage rod
when the control assembly is actuated to the Full Open
position, shorten the linkage rod. Disconnect the linkage from the shutters by removing the clevis bolt and
nut. Rotate the clevis clockwise one additional turn and
fasten linkage rod to shutters again. Check for free
travel or “play” in the linkage rod. Repeat if necessary
until binding and tension is removed from the linkage
rod assembly when the control assembly is actuated to
the Full Open position.
94
Mechanical Diagnosis
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Unit switch ON—LCD Blank
Battery discharged
Charge or replace battery.
Faulty battery cable connections
Clean battery cables
Fuse link blown
Check for short circuit and replace
fuse link
Fuse F12 blown
Check for short circuits and replace
fuse
Microprocessor switch turned OFF
Check switch
Open circuit
Check 2, 2P, and 2PA circuits
Fuse F9 blown
Check for short circuit and replace
fuse
Faulty On-Off switch
Check On-Off switch
Fuse F21 blown
Check for short circuit and replace
fuse
Open circuit
Check 2A, 2AB, MC, 8, and 8F
circuits
Unit switch ON—LCD backlight
does not come on
Unit switch ON and LCD backlight Batteries discharged
ON but engine will not crank
Defective Preheat-Start switch
Replace or recharge battery
Replace switch
Defective starter solenoid
Replace solenoid
Corroded battery connections
Clean and tighten
Overheated starter
Wait for starter temperature switch
to cool
Defective starter
Repair starter
Water in cylinders
Check for hydrostatic lock. Remove
injectors and turn engine slowly
Starter motor turns but engine
does not crank
Starter clutch defective
Replace
Engine cranks but fails to start
Fuel solenoid not energized
Check 8D circuit, fuel solenoid timer,
and relay
Fuel solenoid defective or stuck
Replace
Fuel injection pump defective
Replace pump
95
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 7/00)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Engine cranks but fails to start
(continued)
Air heater defective
Replace
No fuel or wrong fuel
Fill with proper fuel
Fuel pump defective
Replace pump
Air in fuel system
Bleed air
Compression low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles defective
Replace nozzles
Incorrect timing
Adjust timing
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Defective HPCO
Replace HPCO
Air in injection pump
Bleed fuel system
Fuel filter obstructed
Replace filter element
High head pressure
Eliminate cause of high head
pressure
Vent of fuel tank obstructed
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Air intake system clogged
Clean air intake system
Fuel tank vent clogged
Unclog vent
Clogged fuel tank or fuel lines
Clean fuel tank and fuel lines
Speed adjustment wrong
Adjust speed
Engine stops after starting
Engine does not develop full
power
Insufficient fuel volume leaving filters Check for dirty filters or air in system
Air cleaner clogged
Replace air filter
Delivery of fuel pump insufficient
Repair pump
Injection pump timing off
Adjusting timing
Nozzles defective
Repair or replace nozzles
Compression low or unbalanced
Overhaul engine
Worn injection pump plungers,
delivery valve defective, injection
rate too low, gum formations
Repair or replace pump
96
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 7/00)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
Engine speed too high
Misadjusted high speed solenoid
Adjust high speed solenoid
Defective injection pump
Repair injection pump
Engine fails to stop when unit is
OFF
Fuel solenoid defective
Replace
Injection pump defective
Replace pump
Engine knocks heavily
Air in system
Bleed fuel system
Injection pump not timed
Retime injection pump
Wrong fuel
Change fuel
Compression too low
Overhaul engine
Injection nozzles fouled or opening
pressure too low
Clean, repair or replace injection
nozzles
Valve out of adjustment
Adjust valves
Fuel return line plugged
Remove return line restriction
Rod or main bearing worn
Replace rod or main bearings
Dirty radiator
Wash radiator
Coolant level is low
Add coolant
Cooling system heavily scaled
Cleaning cooling system
Cylinder head gasket leaks
Replace cylinder head gasket. Use
correct gasket
Faulty thermostat
Check or replace thermostat
Loose or worn water pump belt
Replace belt
Condenser shutters do not open
Adjust shutters or check power
element
Insufficient oil in pan
Add oil
Oil relief valve sticking
Disassemble and clean oil pressure
regulator valve
Faulty oil pressure sensor
Check oil line to oil pressure sensor
to see if it is blocked. Check oil
pressure sensor. Replace if
necessary
Worn oil pump, camshaft, main or
connecting rod bearings, loose oil
gallery plug
Repair engine
Engine runs hot
Oil pressure too low or drops
suddenly. Minimum oil pressure
for a hot engine is 17 psi (107
kPa), the setting on the low oil
pressure switch
97
Mechanical Diagnosis (Rev. 7/00)
CONDITION
POSSIBLE CAUSE
REMEDY
High oil consumption
Oil leakage
Check and eliminate possible
causes at rocker arm cover, oil lines,
oil filter, front timing cover or
crankshaft seals
Damaged valve seals
Replace seals on valve stem
Worn valve stem
Replace valves
Broken piston rings or cylinder bore
worn or scored
Have engine repaired and rebored.
Replace broken piston rings
Clogged air cleaner system
Unclog air cleaner
Loose connections in electrical
system
Check all electrical connections and
charging system
Alternator defective
Repair alternator
Voltage regulator faulty
Replace regulator
Battery defective
Replace battery
Alternator wire harness defective
Replace wire harness
Loose alternator belt
Replace alternator belt
Battery is not recharging or is
overcharging
* Change air cleaner when indicator reaches 22 in.
** NOTE: Petroleum oil rated “CD” must be used in the engine to allow 1,500 hour extended maintenance
intervals.
ENGINE EMITS EXCESSIVE SMOKE
WHITE SMOKE
BLACK SMOKE
BLUE SMOKE
Fuel is not burning
Excessive Fuel to Air Ratio
Oil Consumption
•
Air or water in fuel
•
Type of fuel used
•
Poor compression
•
Incorrect timing
•
Cold engine
•
Defective valve seals
•
Poor compression
•
Excessive load
•
Faulty injectors
•
Clogged air intake system
•
Faulty nozzles
•
Poor compression
•
Restricted exhaust
•
Faulty injection pump
98
•
•
•
•
•
• •
• •
• •
• •
• •
•
•
SYMPTOM
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
No head pressure
High suction pressure
Low suction pressure
No suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Suction line frosting back
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Unable to hold vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Unit not refrigerating
Unit not heating or defrosting
Refrigeration Diagnosis
POSSIBLE CAUSES
Overcharge of refrigerant
Shortage of refrigerant
No refrigerant
Air through condenser too hot (ambient)
Air flow through condenser restricted
•
•
•
Air through condenser too cold (ambient)
•
•
• •
Air in refrigerant system
Condenser fan blades bent or broken
•
Air short cycling around evaporator coil
•
•
Air through evaporator restricted
•
•
•
•
Evaporator needs defrosting
•
•
Compressor discharge valves leaking
•
Compressor suction valves leaking
•
Too much compressor oil in system
•
•
•
• • • •
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty compressor drive coupling
Compressor bearing loose or burned out
Broken valve plate in compressor
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty oil pump in compressor
Expansion valve power element lost its charge
Expansion valve feeler bulb improperly mounted
•
Expansion valve feeler bulb making poor contact
Expansion valve open too much
•
Expansion valve closed too much
99
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Expansion valve partially closed by ice, dirt or wax
•
•
•
•
Liquid refrigerant entering compressor
Restricted line on the low side
•
•
Restricted line on the high side
Restricted drier
•
•
•
•
Discharge service valve back seated
•
•
•
•
Suction service valve back seated
•
•
• •
•
• • • •
•
• •
• •
•
•
Faulty pilot solenoid
Loose or broken electrical connections
Sensor out of calibration
Leaky receiver tank outlet valve
Leaky bypass check valve
•
•
• • •
•
Faulty three-way valve
Compound pressure gauge out of calibration
•
•
•
Defrost damper stays open
Defrost damper stuck closed
•
• •
• •
•
POSSIBLE CAUSES
Expansion valve needle eroded or leaking
•
•
SYMPTOM
Rapid cycling between cool and heat
Unit cools in heat and defrost cycle
Unit heats in refrigeration cycle
High head pressure
Low head pressure
No head pressure
High suction pressure
Low suction pressure
No suction pressure
Unit operating in a vacuum
Receiver sight glass empty
Suction line frosting back
Unable to pump down system
Unable to pull vacuum in low side
Unable to hold vacuum in low side
Noisy compressor
Unit not refrigerating
Unit not heating or defrosting
Refrigeration Diagnosis (Rev. 7/00)
•
• •
• •
100
Leaky condenser check valve
Faulty three-way condenser pressure bypass check
valve
Modulation valve stuck closed
Hot gas bypass valve stuck open or leaking
Refrigeration
Cycle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid LIne
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Throttling Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
ANA231
101
Defrost and
Heating Cycle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid LIne
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Throttling Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
ANA232
102
Refrigeration
Cycle With
Modulation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid LIne
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Throttling Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
Modulation Valve
Hot Gas Bypass Valve
ANA233
103
Defrost and
Heating Cycle
With
Modulation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
Compressor
Discharge Service Valve
Discharge Vibrasorber
Discharge Line
Three-way Valve
Three-way Valve Bypass
Check Valve
Condenser Coil
Condenser Check Valve
High Pressure Relief Valve
Receiver Tank
Sight Glass
Receiver Outlet Valve
Liquid LIne
Drier
Heat Exchanger
Expansion Valve
Feeler Bulb
Equalizer Line
Distributor
Evaporator Coil
Suction Line
Accumulator
Suction Vibrasorber
Suction Service Valve
Throttling Valve
Pilot Solenoid
Hot Gas Line
Defrost Pan Heater
Bypass Check Valve
Bypass Service Valve
Modulation Valve
Hot Gas Bypass Valve
ANA234
104
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Wiring Schematic
105
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Wiring Diagram—Page 1 of 4
106
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Wiring Diagram—Page 2 of 4
107
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Wiring Diagram—Page 3 of 4
108
SB-III 30 SR+ w/486 Engine Wiring Diagram—Page 4 of 4
109
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