Contents - Rainbow Resource Center

Contents - Rainbow Resource Center

Contents

Chapter One: Background

Chapter Two: Implementation

Chapter Three: Materials

A. Reproducible Help Pages

B. Reproducible Marking Guide

C. Reproducible Sentence List

D. Answer Keys

E. Reproducible Quiz Template

F. Reproducible Pretest

G. Reproducible Check Sheet

H. Program Scope and Sequence

Order Form

Page 1

Page 7

Page 13

Page 13

Page 22

Page 23

Page 25

Page 55

Page 56

Page 59

Page 60

Page 62

SAMPLE

Chapter 1: Background

A. Basic Introduction

Hello, and welcome to DGP! This book presents an entirely different (although quite simple) method of teaching grammar. The method is called Daily Grammar Practice (DGP).

This approach will work for you, but I highly recommend that, to avoid unnecessary frustration and possibility of failure, you read the whole book. I have made lots of mistakes while working toward perfecting DGP. The advice I offer in the following chapters is intended to save you the trouble of making some of the same mistakes yourself.

My promises to you:

1. I will keep the text part of this book short. If you teach English or language arts, you are very busy. I know this. I teach English.

2. This book will be easy to read and to understand.

3. The program will be easy to implement in your own classroom.

4. The program is effective for all grade levels and all ability levels.

5. If you use the program correctly, you will see amazing results.

6. DGP will help YOU improve your grammar skills, too.

Now, on with the rest of the book.

B. Why It’s Important to Teach/Learn

Grammar in the First Place

Students (and all people for that matter) need to have a basic understanding of grammar.

If you’re reading this book, you agree with me so far. A few years ago, I met an English teacher who told me that students don’t need grammar; they need to learn to write according to “what sounds good.” That’s like saying we should all play musical instruments by ear. I hope that teacher never teaches my kids.

In order to help students write better and write correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and that lingo is grammar. If your students know and understand the lingo, you can tell

SAMPLE sentence structure? How can you help them with their writing at all? Okay, you get the idea.

And besides, if you’re going to speak a language, you should understand how it works.

It’s a matter of principle.

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C. How We Know Our Current Methods of Teaching Grammar Are Not Effective

How do we know we’re not doing a good job of teaching grammar? Well, first of all, you’re looking for help. In addition, the business world is looking for help. I recently saw an advertisement for a two-day workshop geared toward people who write business documents.

The workshop promised to help these people improve their communication skills. People obviously didn’t get the grammar background they needed in school. Now the business world is paying to send people to workshops. In addition, colleges want their students to be more grammatically proficient. The SAT and ACT feature writing skills sections with an emphasis on grammar. That ought to tell us something.

The best way to see that our teaching of grammar has not been effective is to look at our students. They don’t remember grammar. They’ll tell you that. In fact, they’ll say, “We’ve done all this every year since the second grade.” Okay, so why do you have to re-teach it every year? Because it didn’t stick. It didn’t go to long-term memory. Why didn’t it? Two reasons:

One, students don’t really understand it. Two, they don’t try to understand it because they know it will all go away once they pass the end-of-unit test, and then they won’t have to worry about it again until the next year.

Also, we know that students aren’t understanding grammatical concepts because they’re not able to apply them. Whose fault is all of this? Middle school teachers blame elementary school teachers; high school teachers blame middle school teachers. College professors and business managers blame us all. Well, it’s time to stop passing the buck and start fixing the problem.

D. Methods We’ve Tried and Why They

Haven’t Worked

If you’ve been teaching for any length of time (or even if you haven’t but remember your own experiences as a student), you know that educators have tried lots of different ways to get kids to learn grammar. For the first two or three years that I taught English, I “taught grammar” in units that spanned two or three weeks because that’s the way I was told to do it. It was very painful for me. It was painful for my students. They had “learned all that” every year since they could remember, yet they couldn’t remember a bit of what they’d “learned.” So we started all over again just like they had every other year. Together we got through it, and when they had no more teeth left for me to pull, they passed their end-of-unit tests, some with flying colors. A few weeks later, I had a bunch of toothless students who had once again forgotten everything I had

“taught” them about grammar.

I took a long look at all of the philosophies on teaching grammar. Here is what I discovered:

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SAMPLE

• As I mentioned before, the traditional methods of teaching grammar in isolation don’t work for most students. They hold the information in their heads until they need it for the test, and then they forget about it until the next year. They do tons of grammar exercises that have no value because anyone can find the noun clause in a sentence if the instructions tell you to look for one. The information doesn’t transfer, and it doesn’t stick.

• Research and our own experiences have told us that “whole language” is ineffective.

Students spend so much time looking at the forest that they don’t see the trees. Grammar overkill is a bad idea, but treating grammar like a four-letter word is a worse idea.

• Teaching grammar within the context of writing is great from a supplementary standpoint, but it doesn’t teach kids all of the basics and help them remember and apply them. The bottom line is this: You can’t apply what you don’t understand. We should still teach grammar through writing, but we must not teach it only through writing.

• Programs that offer a sentence to correct each day provide good usage lessons, but again, these programs don’t get to the heart of the problem or provide adequate repetition of concepts. Students still need fundamental grammar skills to understand why the sentences are wrong.

• Programs that attempt to make grammar fun, first of all, aren’t fooling many kids; more importantly, they aren’t any more effective than traditional skill and drill—they just make the process less painful.

After looking at all of the philosophies and research, I realized that what I needed was a grammar vitamin I could give my students once a day for a whole year. So I created Daily

Grammar Practice (DGP), affectionately known among my students as the “daily vitamin approach to grammar.” Eat one each day, and they’re good for you and have long-term benefits.

Take the whole bottle at once, and you’ll just get sick, throw up, and lose any benefits you might have otherwise received. It’s a perfect analogy! In the following box, I have used this vitamin analogy to compare the different approaches to teaching grammar:

Learning through grammar units = taking a whole bottle of vitamins at once

Learning grammar through writing or through daily correct-a-sentence = taking random vitamins at random times but not getting a multi-vitamin every day

Learning through whole language = eating vegetables and hoping you get what you need

Learning grammar by trying to make it “fun” = eating candy

Learning grammar through DGP = getting a good multi-vitamin every day

So, how do you give your students a daily grammar vitamin? Keep reading.

SAMPLE students to work with one sentence per week (in most cases a sentence from or about literature).

For each day of the week, students have a different task to accomplish with the week’s sentence.

At the beginning of each class, you go over the day’s assignment. Students correct any errors they have made and ask any questions they may have. You explain any new concepts that the sentence presents. The whole process takes a couple of minutes, and you’re ready to move on with class.

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On Monday (before coming to class) students must have identified the part of speech for each word in the sentence. (See Chapter 3, Section B for list of abbreviations and sentence markings used in this book.)

Example:

ind pro prep 1 pos pro n av/pres adj n

many of our students like cafeteria food

On Tuesday (before coming to class) students must have identified the sentence parts and phrases for the same sentence.

Example:

S op vt do

many (of our students) like cafeteria food

adj pp

On Wednesday (before coming to class) students must have identified the clauses, sentence type, and sentence purpose for the same sentence.

Example:

ind cl

[many of our students like cafeteria food]

s/dec

On Thursday (before coming to class) students must have added punctuation and capitalization.

Example:

Many of our students like cafeteria food.

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On Friday (before coming to class) students must have diagrammed the sentence. For fifth and sixth graders (or for any novice diagrammers), I recommend that you provide the diagram structure and have the students fill in the words.

Example:

Many like food of

Students learn through daily repetition—just like in the vitamin analogy. You don’t have to do any other grammar exercises—ever. You may be wondering how students can possibly learn everything they need to know about grammar and mechanics with only one sentence per week. Here’s why:

1.

2.

3.

4. cafeteria

SAMPLE

Less is more. They really take these sentences apart and understand every aspect of them. Thinking is required.

Concepts are revisited on a daily basis so that they aren’t forgotten.

Students never work with isolated skills. The organization of DGP allows students to see how all the concepts connect.

The sentences they’re working with aren’t just random sentences. They’re

On Monday (before coming to class) students must have identified the part of speech for each word in the sentence. (See Chapter 3, Section B for list of abbreviations and sentence markings used in this book.)

Example:

ind pro prep 1 pos pro n av/pres adj n

many of our students like cafeteria food

On Tuesday (before coming to class) students must have identified the sentence parts and phrases for the same sentence.

Example:

S op vt do

many (of our students) like cafeteria food

adj pp

On Wednesday (before coming to class) students must have identified the clauses, sentence type, and sentence purpose for the same sentence.

Example:

ind cl

[many of our students like cafeteria food]

s/dec

On Thursday (before coming to class) students must have added punctuation and capitalization.

Example:

Many of our students like cafeteria food.

On Friday (before coming to class) students must have diagrammed the sentence. For fifth and sixth graders (or for any novice diagrammers), I recommend that you provide the diagram structure and have the students fill in the words.

Example:

Students learn through daily repetition—just like in the vitamin analogy. You don’t have to do any other grammar exercises—ever. You may be wondering how students can possibly learn everything they need to know about grammar and mechanics with only one sentence per week. Here’s why:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Less is more. They really take these sentences apart and understand every aspect of them. Thinking is required.

Concepts are revisited on a daily basis so that they aren’t forgotten.

Students never work with isolated skills. The organization of DGP allows students to see how all the concepts connect.

The sentences they’re working with aren’t just random sentences. They’re intentionally loaded with specific concepts at specific times. They start simple and get increasingly difficult. Concepts that students should have mastered at their grade level appear in early sentences and appear often. More difficult concepts appear later.

The DGP concept is very simple, but the progression is what sets it apart from other daily programs. Students have to know the parts of speech in order to identify the sentence parts.

They have to know the sentence parts in order to identify the clauses and sentence type. They need to know about the clauses, sentence type, and sentence purpose in order to punctuate. And yes, I still make my students diagram. The Friday diagram shows that they have a complete understanding of the sentence’s structure. Diagramming is an important graphic organizer for the left-brained students in your classroom, and some students even see diagramming as fun.

And you may not believe this, but once my students learn to diagram, they use diagramming to work through writing problems such as parallel structure and word usage.

Take a look at the chart in Chapter 3, Section H. It will show you which concepts are covered at each grade level. You may feel that your students aren’t ready for some of the concepts listed for your grade level, but don’t worry. They will be prepared by the time those concepts come up in the sentence list. And if your students make mistakes in their Daily

Grammar Practice, so be it. They will learn from their errors. By the way, if a student gives a “wrong” answer but has a valid argument in its defense, feel free to accept the answer as

“correct.” In language arts, there are plenty of exceptions to the rules as you know. And besides, the thought process is often as important as the answer.

Although one year of DGP gives students a solid foundation in grammar, students benefit even more from successive years of the program. The program is designed to teach students new and more advanced material at each grade level while also reviewing basic concepts to aide in retention. A student who begins DGP in elementary school and continues it each year will be able to analyze sentence structure in his or her sleep by the time he finishes high school. Even students who begin the program in middle or high school, however, will gain and retain valuable skills.

A quick note about the sentence list: I have chosen sentences from a variety of literary sources for several reasons. First, it’s exciting for students when they recognize a sentence in a novel (“Hey, we had that sentence in DGP!”) or recognize a sentence in DGP (“Hey, I know what story that sentence is from!”). If they haven’t read the literature from which a DGP sentence was taken, that’s okay. Maybe they will someday. The sentences may also include some vocabulary words your students don’t know, but they’ll know them pretty well after working with them for five days straight! Second, analyzing the grammatical structure of sentences from literature helps students to better understand literature in general and allows them to think about stylistic

SAMPLE

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Chapter 2: Implementation

A. How to Get Started

Start by teaching students to use their grammar books or help pages (Chapter 3, Section

A) as a reference. Stop doing grammar units and exercises. Continue doing mini-lessons on usage and teaching usage in the context of writing. Opportunities for usage lessons are built into the DGP sentences, but the primary aim of DGP is to provide students with a strong grammar foundation so that they can make sense of usage and writing lessons. So, I repeat, continue teaching writing and usage in context. But every day, do DGP.

You have three options for presenting DGP to your students.

1.

Workbooks: The workbook approach is the most teacher-friendly and student- friendly. You have to buy a workbook for each student, but the books are costeffective and time-saving. Each workbook provides students with an introduction to the program, a list of abbreviations and markings like the one in Section B of Chapter 3, a sample of how to do the assignments, grammar help pages like those in Section A of Chapter 3, and a separate page for each week’s sentence.

2.

The workbooks are designed to be inserted easily into a three-ring binder. If you choose the workbook approach, have students read the introduction together or on their own. Be sure they understand the goals of the program. Show them the sample week so that they understand exactly what you expect them to do each day. Have students write in the month and day at the top of each week’s page so that they know which sentence they are supposed to be working on at all times.

Then, students follow the instructions in their workbooks to complete each day’s task. You can find more information about the workbooks or order workbooks at www.dgppublishing.com. For your convenience, you can also find an order form in the back of this book.

Reproducible list: Section C of Chapter 3 provides a reproducible list of sentences for student use. They are the same sentences that appear in the workbooks. If you use the reproducible list approach, provide each student with a copy of the sentence list. The daily instructions are at the top of the page. Explain to your students how DGP works. Provide them with copies of the abbreviations and markings, the grammar help pages, and a sample week if

3.

SAMPLE paper, you’ll want to go over each day’s task as a class. You can simply write the week’s sentence on the board and mark (or have students mark) the answers.

If you prefer the convenience of an overhead or LCD projector or an interactive whiteboard, you can purchase transparencies or CDs to go along with DGP. Both the transparencies and the CDs provide a separate page for each week, much like a workbook page but with larger type. CDs also include the help pages. Please

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note that you cannot print from the CDs, though. They are for projection use only. You can order or learn more about the transparencies and CDs at www.

dgppublishing.com. For your convenience, you can also find an order form in the back of this book.

Regardless of which method you choose, during the first week of class you may want to do a pretest and a brief review of basic grammar concepts. Extensive review won’t be necessary, nor will it stick. Students will learn as they go, and they will have their help pages to refer to. If you operate on a semester system, you will ideally do the first 15 sentences first semester and the rest of the sentences second semester. If your school does not operate on a semester schedule, just use as many of the sentences as you need to provide your students with one per week. Keep in mind that the last week of your term will probably be taken up by final exams or some kind of end-of-course testing. And somewhere during the semester, you may have to give up a week to standardized testing or some other demon that so often invades our instructional time. Therefore,

DGP is a 30-week program.

Although you and your students may move slowly through the process the first week or so, once you get into the DGP routine, you’ll find that it runs itself with very little disruption to your regular classroom schedule.

B. How to Do DGP Daily

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DGP should be the first thing you do at the beginning of each class period. The thought of “doing grammar” every day may seem overwhelming with everything else you have to squeeze into your class period, but DGP is not overwhelming at all. Yes, it will take two or three minutes of your class time each day, but it will ultimately save time spent on grammar units and on re-teaching concepts.

You could do each day’s assignment together as a class or in small groups. If students are doing the assignments for homework, they must have their Monday work out on their desks where you can see it when the class begins on Monday. You then sweep the room to see that everyone has attempted to identify the parts of speech. If a student does not have his DGP completed, put a tally mark by his name in your grade book or on your checklist (see Chapter

3, Section G for a reproducible checklist, and Section D of this chapter for information about monitoring progress). Remember that the “P” in DGP stands for practice. The attempt is more

SAMPLE turning in assignments, etc. If they have nothing else to do, suggest that they begin the next day’s DGP to get it out of the way. Recommend to your students, however, that they don’t get too far ahead because a mistake they make on Monday may affect the rest of the week’s answers.

Besides, you shouldn’t take too many vitamins at once!

Each day as you go over DGP, don’t just provide the answers for your students.

Encourage participation by asking them to provide answers. Students usually enjoy putting the

Friday diagram on the board, but on other days, you might want to save time by asking students to provide answers orally. It’s still a good idea, though, if you put the answers on the board while you go over them in order to benefit the visual learners and to reinforce the concepts.

Throughout the week, take advantage of teachable moments—plenty of them have been planted in the provided sentences (and pointed out to you in the teaching points at the top of each week’s answer key). Also, be sure to discuss why a sentence is punctuated a certain way or why an appositive is essential or nonessential. But don’t spend too much time each day on DGP. It’s a vitamin, not a blood transfusion.

C. How to Motivate Your Students to Do DGP

You’ve heard the old adage: You can give a student a vitamin, but you can’t make him swallow it. As with anything else you do in your classroom, half the battle is just getting your students to buy into it. There are four main reasons most kids will actively participate in DGP:

1. It’s practice, so there’s no pressure. Now, for some kids, practice translates into

“It doesn’t matter whether or not I try as long as I put something down.” But for many kids, the practice element provides a comfort zone in which they can at least try without fear of failure.

2.

3.

Your students know they don’t get grammar. They’ve known it for years.

Combine that with the fact that they hate grammar exercises, and you have a real argument for why kids should give DGP a try. It’s good for you but doesn’t taste bad.

DGP won’t go away like a two-week grammar unit will. As one of my colleagues once pointed out, students have learned that they’re going to “do grammar” for a couple of weeks every year. If they can just muddle through it, they will be free and clear until the next year. Well, DGP doesn’t work that

4. way. They may as well go ahead and try to get it because it’s going to haunt them every day of the year.

Finally, DGP is served in small helpings. No student is overwhelmed by one sentence per day. In fact, most of them think they’re getting away with something. I heard one of my students once say to a friend from another class,

SAMPLE grammar before or after school.

Finally, I believe in positive reinforcement. Two things really motivate kids to keep trying once they’ve begun:

1. Excitement. Truly, your students will be so excited the first time something clicks that they will want the clicks to keep on coming. I’m not lying to you. Nothing inspires kids like success.

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2. Stickers. I have discovered that students never outgrow stickers. I give out “DGP worked for me” stickers to kids who have “eureka” moments or to kids who do well on

DGP quizzes or to kids who diagram on the board on Fridays. They put these stickers on their notebooks, and they are badges of honor. Even high school seniors will do anything for a sticker. Go figure.

D. How to Monitor Student Progress

Now that your students are motivated to try, how do you ascertain whether or not the

DGP is actually taking effect? If you’re paying attention at all, you’ll be able to tell, but in case you want some more concrete evidence, here are some suggestions:

1. Give a pretest: I mentioned before that it is a good idea to begin the year with a pretest over all of the concepts that students at your grade level should have mastered. This pretest will serve two purposes. For one thing, it will show you which concepts you need to review (briefly!) before beginning DGP. Also, if you end the year with a posttest, it will show you how effective DGP has been for your students. See Chapter 3, Section F for a reproducible pretest/posttest.

2. Monitor daily sentences: Along the way, you can do daily monitoring while making students accountable for their practice. If you work through 15 sentences in one term, each student can earn a total of 75 points. Deduct one point for each time a student didn’t have his or her daily sentence completed. Keep track by putting tally marks in your grade book or by using the check sheet in Chapter 3, Section G. Monitor progress each day as you go over the day’s sentence. Take an extra minute for a difficult concept.

Relate one of the day’s concepts to some other point you want to make about writing.

Invite students to diagram on the board each week. If you’re looking for more grades, take up a week’s worth of work on a Friday and check to be sure students have been making corrections. Doing this check early in the semester will encourage students to pay attention while going over the answers each day and will show them that they need to take DGP seriously.

3. Stress application of concepts: When you do a mini-lesson on usage or on some other aspect of writing, show students how the concepts learned in DGP come into play. When conferencing about a student’s writing, you’ll find that the student will often apply the concepts himself: “I think I need a comma here. Isn’t this an introductory adverb dependent clause?” In just thirty sentences, some concepts won’t get extensive review,

SAMPLE to memorize it all. At some point, memory will come naturally with repetition.

5. Give a posttest: The DGP pretest can also serve as the posttest, or you could use the quiz template to create a separate posttest. Either way, a posttest will show you exactly what the students have learned throughout the year.

E. Some Words of Caution

DGP may work like magic, but it really isn’t magic at all. You must commit to the program in order to see results. You can’t go skipping vitamins. You must make DGP a priority every day, or you will lose the benefit of daily repetition. Your students won’t make it a priority if you don’t, and you know that you can’t fool them. They can read you like crib notes.

Don’t let yourself get discouraged. Remember that, unless your students had DGP last year, the light bulbs may not start coming on until about week 5 or 6. For some students it will be earlier and for some it will be later, but the bottom line is this: The first couple of weeks you’ll wonder why you’re putting yourself through this torture. Your students will wonder why you’re putting them through it, too. Don’t give up, and encourage them not to either. It will help them tremendously to know that you don’t expect them to get it right away. But let them know that you do expect them to keep trying! Give them the vitamin analogy. Remind them that they won’t see results until they’ve been taking the vitamins every day for several weeks.

The daily habit of doing DGP will take a couple of weeks to instill in your students (and maybe in yourself). You’ll need to remind students to do their daily task. You’ll need to remind them to have it finished and on their desks when the bell rings. But after a couple of weeks, it will become second nature to them (and to you).

Next, you must know grammar well to teach it well. Don’t feel bad if you’re not comfortable with grammar. You’re not a bad person, but you do need to brush up before you embark on DGP because you and your students will be taking an intensive look at each of the sentences on your list. You really have to know what you’re talking about when you’re going over these sentences. If you’re rusty, here’s what you need to do:

1. Use Chapter 3, Section A as a crash course or refresher. It hits on all the basic concepts you need to know. It’s also the same reference material your students

2. have in their workbooks.

Practice on the students’ sentence list. That’s right. Do the work, and then check yourself against the answer keys. You’ll be amazed at how much you’ll learn, and you’ll see the program from the students’ point of view.

Finally, you have to use the lingo in your classroom. Even when you’re not going over the day’s sentence, you need to throw the terminology around to help your kids see how the grammar applies to different situations. For example, if you’re doing a writing lesson, discuss the importance of using different types of clauses and phrases. Have students highlight independent clauses, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, and noun clauses in a draft to determine whether or not they need more sentence variety. When you’re doing a mini-lesson on pronoun

SAMPLE

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Chapter 3: Materials

A. Help Pages

Monday Notes

(Parts of Speech)

NOUN

• person, place, thing, idea

• common (n): names a general noun; begins with lower case letter (city)

• proper (N): names a specific noun; begins with capital letter (Detroit)

• possessive (pos n, pos N): shows ownership (girl’s, Roger's)

PRONOUN (pro)

• takes the place of a noun

• types o personal (1 st

person: pronouns having to do with “me”; 2 nd

person: pronouns having to do with “you”; 3 rd

person: pronouns having to do with everyone else)

 singular nominative (nom): I, you, he, she, it

 plural nominative (nom): we, you, they

 singular objective (obj): me, you, him, her, it

 plural objective (obj): us, you, them

 singular possessive (pos): my, your, his, her, its, mine, yours

 plural possessive (pos): our, your, their, ours, yours, theirs o interrogative (int): asks a question

Which? Whose? What? Whom? Who?

o demonstrative (dem): demonstrates which one

 this, that, these, those o indefinite (ind): doesn’t refer to a definite person or thing

 each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, several, few, many, none, one, someone, no one, everyone, anyone, somebody, nobody, everybody, anybody, more, much, another, both, any, other, etc.

o reflexive (ref): reflects back to “self”

 o relative (rp): starts adj. dependent clauses

SAMPLE

ADVERB (adv)

• modifies adjectives (really cute), verbs (run quickly), and other adverbs (very easily)

• tells How? When? Where? To what extent?

• Not and never are always adverbs.

© DGP Publishing, Inc. (Permission is granted to copy this page for individual classroom use only.)

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ADJECTIVE (adj)

• modifies nouns (I have a green pen.) and pronouns (They are happy.)

• tells Which one? How many? What kind?

• articles (art): a, an, the

• proper adjective (Adj): proper noun used as an adjective (American flag)

PREPOSITION (prep)

• shows relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence

• across, after, against, around, at, before, below, between, by, during, except, for, from, in, of, off, on, over, since, through, to, under, until, with, according to, because of, instead of, etc.

• We went to school. We went up the stairs.

CONJUNCTION

• joins words, phrases, and clauses

• types o coordinating (cc)

FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) o subordinating (sc)

 starts adv. dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)

 after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.

o correlative (cor conj)

 not only/but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/and

INTERJECTION (int)

• expresses emotion but has no real connection with the rest of the sentence

• set apart from sentence by comma or exclamation point

• No, I’m not finished with my homework. Wow! What a great new car!

VERB

• shows action or state of being

• types o action (av)

• shows action

• o linking (lv)

SAMPLE

(action)

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© DGP Publishing, Inc. (Permission is granted to copy this page for individual classroom use only.)

o helping (hv)

• “helps” an action verb or linking verb

• If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are helping. If it has three verbs, the first two are helping. And so on.

• can be helping: is, be, am, are, was, were, been, being, will, would, can, could, shall, should, may, might, must, have, has, had, do, does, did

• We have been taking notes all day. (Taking is action.)

• She will be cold without a jacket. (Be is linking.)

• tenses o present (pres)

• happening now (jump, talk, eat) o past (past)

• happened previously (jumped, talked, ate, fell) o future (f)

• will happen in the future (will jump, shall talk) o present perfect (pres per)

have or has plus past participle (have jumped, has talked) o past perfect (past per)

had plus past participle (had jumped, had talked) o future perfect (f per)

will have or shall have plus past participle (will have jumped, shall have talked) o present progressive (pres prog)

is, are, or am plus present participle (am jumping, is jumping, are jumping) o past progressive (past prog)

was or were plus present participle (was jumping, were jumping) o future progressive (f prog)

will be or shall be plus present participle (will be jumping, shall be jumping)

SAMPLE

© DGP Publishing, Inc. (Permission is granted to copy this page for individual classroom use only.)

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Tuesday Notes

(Sentence Parts and Phrases)

SIMPLE SUBJECT (S)

• the "who" or "what" of the verb

• ex: The dog with spots likes to bark loudly.

• must be noun or pronoun

• can never be in a prepositional phrase

• There and here are never the subject of a sentence.

• The subject can be an “understood you”: Bring me the remote control, please. (You bring it.)

COMPLETE SUBJECT (underlined once)

• simple subject plus its modifiers

• ex: The dog with spots likes to bark loudly.

Dependent clauses modifying the subject are part of the complete subject of the independent clause. (The dog that has spots likes to bark.)

SIMPLE PREDICATE/VERB

• transitive verb (vt): takes a direct object (We love English.)

• intransitive verb (vi): does not take a direct object (Please sit down.)

• All linking verbs are intransitive.

COMPLETE PREDICATE (underlined twice)

• verb plus its modifiers

The dog with spots likes to bark loudly.

• Dependent clauses modifying the verb are part of the complete predicate of the independent clause. (The dog likes to bark when I’m asleep.)

COMPLEMENT

• completes the meaning of the subject and verb

• types o direct object (do)

• is a noun or pronoun and is never in a prepositional phrase

SAMPLE

• He gave me the paper. “He gave paper to whom?” me (indirect object) o predicate nominative (pn)

• is a noun or pronoun

• follows linking verb and renames subject

To find it, say “subject, linking verb, what or who?”

• He is a nice guy. “He is what?” guy (predicate nominative)

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B. Marking Guide

Monday Abbreviations

n = common noun

N = proper noun pos n = possessive noun pro = personal pronoun

1 = first person

2 = second person

3 = third person nom = nominative obj = objective pos = possessive ind pro = indefinite pronoun int pro = interrogative pronoun dem pro = demonstrative pronoun ref pro = reflexive pronoun rp = relative pronoun adj = adjective

Adj = proper adjective art = article av = action verb lv = linking verb hv = helping verb pres = present tense past = past tense f = future tense per = perfect tense prog = progressive tense adv = adverb prep = preposition cc = coordinating conjunction sc = subordinating conjunction cor conj = correlative conjunction

Tuesday Abbreviations

S = simple subject

__ = complete subject vt = transitive verb vi = intransitive verb

__ = complete predicate do = direct object io = indirect object pn = predicate nominative pa = predicate adjective op = object of preposition

( ) = phrase adj prep ph = adjective prepositional phrase adv prep ph = adverb prepositional phrase app = appositive nda = noun of direct address

Wednesday Abbreviations

[ ] = clause ind cl = independent clause dep cl = dependent clause ss = simple sentence cd = compound sentence cx = complex sentence dec = declarative imp = imperative exc = exclamatory int = interrogative

Thursday Proofreading Marks

(Write in each symbol as your teacher goes over it with you in class.) capitalize: insert apostrophe: insert quotation marks: insert semicolon: insert comma: insert end punctuation: italicize:

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© DGP Publishing, Inc. (Permission is granted to copy this page for individual classroom use only.)

D: Answer Keys

Week One

(starting ______/______)

Teaching points for this week: Review the difference between a common and a proper noun. Remind students to use commas between items in a series. Introduce the predicate nominative, which can follow a linking verb but not an action verb. Remember that all linking verbs are intransitive. For more practice with punctuating adjectives in a series, assign a descriptive paragraph.

Monday:

Identify parts of speech including noun (type), pronoun (type, case, person), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, article, preposition, conjunction (type).

-----N----lv/pres art adj adj adj n

tom sawyer is a young playful adventurous boy

Tuesday:

Identify sentence parts including simple and complete subject, simple and complete predicate (transitive or intransitive verb), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), object of preposition, noun of direct address.

------S-----vi pn

tom sawyer is a young playful adventurous boy

Wednesday:

Identify clauses (independent, dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex), and purpose

(declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative).

ind cl

[tom sawyer is a young playful adventurous boy]

s/dec

Thursday:

Add correct punctuation and capitalization.

Tom Sawyer is a young, playful, adventurous boy.

Friday:

Fill in the sentence diagram.

boy a

Tom Sawyer is young playful adventurous

SAMPLE

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Week Twenty-four

(starting ______/______)

Teaching points for this week: Review run-on sentences, semicolons, and indirect objects. (sentence from The Count

of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas)

Monday:

Identify parts of speech including noun (type), pronoun (type, case, person), verb (type and tense), adverb, adjective, article, preposition, conjunction (type).

------N-----hv av

3 obj pro art n

3 nom pro av/past

3 obj pro art

signor pastrini had promised them a banquet he gave them a

adj n

tolerable repast

past per

Tuesday:

Identify sentence parts including simple and complete subject, simple and complete predicate (transitive or intransitive verb), direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative, predicate adjective, appositive or appositive phrase, prepositional phrase (adjective or adverb), object of preposition, noun of direct address.

------S-----vt io do S vt io

signor pastrini had promised them a banquet he gave them a

do

tolerable repast

Wednesday:

Identify clauses (independent, dependent), sentence type (simple, compound, complex), and purpose

(declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative).

ind cl ind cl

[signor pastrini had promised them a banquet] [he gave them a tolerable repast]

cd/dec

Thursday:

Add correct punctuation and capitalization.

Signor Pastrini had promised them a banquet; he gave them a tolerable repast.

Friday:

Fill in the sentence diagram.

Signor Pastrini he

SAMPLE them them repast a tolerable

H: Program Scope and Sequence

At grade levels indicated, students will correct run-on sentences diagram complete sentences identify absolute phrases identify adjectives identify adverbs identify appositives/appositive phrases identify clauses (adjective dependent) identify clauses (adverb dependent) identify clauses (dependent) identify clauses (independent) identify clauses (noun dependent) identify complements (direct objects) identify complements (indirect objects) identify complements (predicate adjectives) identify complements (predicate nominatives) identify conjunctions (coordinating) identify conjunctions (correlative) identify conjunctions (subordinating) identify conjunctive adverbs identify interjections identify noun clause identifiers identify nouns (common) identify nouns (possessive) identify nouns (proper) identify nouns of direct address identify objective complements identify objects of gerunds identify objects of infinitives identify objects of participles identify objects of prepositions identify phrases (adverb and adjective prepositional) identify phrases (gerund) identify phrases (infinitive) identify phrases (participial) identify phrases (prepositional) identify predicates (complete) identify predicates (simple) identify prepositions identify pronouns (demonstrative) identify pronouns (indefinite)

Grade Level

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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identify pronouns (interrogative) identify pronouns (personal) identify pronouns (personal, by case) identify pronouns (personal, by person) identify pronouns (reflexive) identify pronouns (relative) identify sentence purpose (declarative, exclamatory, imperative, interrogative) identify sentence type (complex) identify sentence type (compound) identify sentence type (compound-complex) identify sentence type (simple) identify subjects (complete) identify subjects (simple) identify subjects of infinitives identify verb tense identify verbals (gerunds) identify verbals (infinitives) identify verbals (participles) identify verbs (action) identify verbs (helping) identify verbs (linking) identify verbs (transitive and intransitive) identify voice (active and passive)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

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• recognize elliptical construction recognize inverted sentence structure review common usage problems review pronoun case usage

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• • • • • • • • • review agreement (s/v, pron/ant) • • • • • • • • • • • • review troublesome verbs (sit/set, etc.) • • • • • • • • • • • • review use of homonyms review use of modifiers review use of parallel structure review use of subjunctive mood use apostrophes correctly use capital letters correctly use colons correctly use commas correctly use dashes correctly use end punctuation correctly use hyphens correctly

SAMPLE use quotation marks correctly use semicolons correctly use underlining/italicizing correctly

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