APPENDIXES Appendix 1: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 3 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 3 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar Focus: Expressing Hopes and Wishes 1. Complete the sentences with words in the box! 1. Hope and Wish Hope (n) : Something good that you want to happen in the future. What are your hopes and dreams for the future? Is there any hope of getting financial support? Hope (V) : To want something to be true. I am hoping for an interview next week She’s hoping (that) she won’t be away too long. I hope (that) she’ll win Wish (V) HOPE : To hope for somebody’s success or Happiness. We wish you every success in the future to see to remind a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) me you to reserve to be you you to make I wish ________ a complaint. I wish ________ a table for six We wish ________ our customers will be closed tomorrow I wish ________ all the best in your new job We wish ________ a merry Christmas I don’t wish ________ identified Wish ________ luck for my exam I wish ________ the manager I wish ________ a safe journey Wish (N) GREETING: Something you say or write to show that you hope someone has good luck. Do give/send Patrick my best wishes 2. Giving and Responding to Hopes When we are expressing hope, we say: I hope that the money will come soon hopefully we can get a good harvest this season I do hope that everything will be fine he hopes that somebody will hire him When we want to respond a hope, we say: I hope so. I hope they will do so. Yes, let’s hope so. I hope not I hope they won’t do so Let’s hope not 3. Giving Someone General Wishes When someone is celebrating a birthday: Happy Birthday. Many happy returns (of the day). When we want to send regards Convey my regards to your mother. Say my hello to your sister. 2. Listen and repeat these expressions! I hope you’ll get better soon in a day or two I wish good fortune always be with you I hope you have an enjoyable moment with your child We wish to complain about the application of the school regulations. e) May you be happy and successful in your new life. f) Thank you and a happy new year to you too. g) Good luck. Thank you a) b) c) d) 3. Match the statements of hopes with the right responses! Statements: 1 We’re hoping to have an abundant harvest this season. 2 I’m going for a job interview next Monday 3 Do you think we can erase poverty from the world? 4 What’s your hope for this activity in the long run? 5 Do you think the project will be successful? Response: a Good luck. I hope you get the job you’ve been dreaming of b Hopefully, we can alleviate the poverty in the slum areas c I hope so d let’s hope so e I don’t think we can be successful but I hope so. Send my warmest regards to father. Send my love to your grandma Please give your parents my best wishes. When someone is going far away: Good bye and good luck. Have a good time. Have a good flight. Have a good trip. Have some fun. When someone is going to have an examination or a job interview Every success in your new job I wish you a success Best of luck When someone is ill Get well soon I wish you get a speedy recovery Responding to general wishes Thank you Thanks. You too. Thank you very much. Thank you and the same to you. Thanks. 4. Language Structures in Informal Letter 4. What would you say to somebody who: a) has a birthday? b) is just going on holiday? c) is just going for an interview? d) is just going to a party? e) is in hospital because of his sickness? 5. Respond the following good wishes! a) Have a good weekend. b) Best of luck. c) Enjoy yourself. d) Please say hello me to your husband. e) Have a nice holiday. f) Give my regards to your wife. g) Good luck. h) Happy New Year. 6. Read the two model letters of good wishes and observe how the letters are organized. a) A letter of good wishes to a friend on his birthday. Greeting Dear Harry, If I am not mistaken, you are celebrating your 21st birthday on the 5th April, 2015. Last year, I was fortunate enough to have joined you for your birthday party. Reason This time, however, due to another important engagement, I 1. Opening/ greeting: How are you? I have just received your letter I have not heard from you for a long time I am surprised/happy/glad to receive your letter I hope you are well I hope you are at the peak of health 2. Reason: The reason why I am writing this letter is to … : - Inform you - Tell you about - Apologize - say sorry - advice 3. Conclusion : - That’s all for now - Bye - Please send my regards/greetings to … - I hope to hear from you soon - Till I hear from you again 4. Sign off : (Friend) Your friend, Yours sincerely, (Family member) Love, Yours lovingly Your cousin Your uncle 5. The difference between “wish” and “hope” will not be able to meet you on your birthday. I am, therefore, taking this opportunity to convey to you my good wishes through this letter. I am sending you a book entitled “ The secret of the Happy life” by parcel as a token of my affection. I hope that you will enjoy reading it. Wishing you a very happy 21st birthday. Your sincerely, Vivakananda - Conclusion Sign off What did the writer mean by writing “ my good wishes through this letter” ? b) An e-mail of good wishes to a friend who has been ill. To: [email protected] Greeting Dear Salma, Thank you for your last e-mail telling me that you have been in hospital for a week for a typhoid disease. Reason Ailments are a part of our life and they should not depend on spirits. Your illness is only a phasing phase. you have to remain cheerful. Your disease is curable and I believe that you are under the treatment of a competent doctor. If time permits, I will visit you this week. Wish Hope Wish is most commonly Hope can also be used in used in imagined/unreal expressions of goodwill, but situations: the grammar is slightly Example: different Examples: - I wish (that) I met you.(unfortunately, - I hope (that) you have an I didn’t meet you unforgettable moment. (some and I miss you.) time in the future) - I hope (that) you had a nice Sometimes wish is used party. (some time in the in greeting and future) expressions of goodwill. Example: We wish you a Hope can be used to specify a “Lucky day,” desired outcome. For future hopes, the possibilities remain Remember: open, but for past hopes, the “I wish you had finished outcomes has usually been the work is a regret. You determined already. didn’t do the work (in the Examples: past) and I am annoyed - I hope you can come to the because of that. party tomorrow. (future possibility) - I was hoping that you would come to the party . (but you didn’t ) Take heart and may God bless you. Wishing you a very speedy recovery. Conclusion Your sincerely, Anya - Sign off The writer wrote “ take heart and may God bless you. Wishing you a very speedy recovery.” what does it mean? 7. Analyze the expressions below by competing the following columns! One is done for you. Form 1 I hope that the money will come soon Let’s hope that everything will be running well Hopefully, we can get a good harvest this season I do hope that everything will be fine He hopes that somebody will hire him Essential Subject clues I hope that money Predicate will come soon - I had hoped to see you at the party (but you didn’t) Hope can be used in the following ways: - I would like to speak English fluently. - I really want to speak English fluently. - What I really want is to speak English fluently. Form 2 Convey my regards to your mother Say hello to your sister Send my warmest regards to father Verb 1 Convey Object 1 Form 3 Best of luck Good luck Good fortune be with you Adjective Best Object 2 Say Send Noun of luck Others 8. Complete the “ Get Well” messages with the words provided! a) “ I just want to write b) I know that everyone to encourage you to gets sick sometimes. I stay strong and just don’t like ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… c) e) “ If I told you get d) “ I’m writing you a well soon, it wouldn’t prescription to get be soon enough. better . Don’t forget ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ……………………………………… I am praying for a quick recovery for you. Get better and ………...…… …………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………...………… Get Well Now!” to take your medicine.” to let you know you are in my thoughts and prayers.” make my prayers come true.” to see someone as nice as you suffer. Get well!” 9. Read the following expressions and find the similar expressions in your mother tongue! Statements 1. “ I am sorry you are not feeling well. I am praying for you to have a complete and quick recovery.” 2. “I’m sending you warm regards, and I hope that you will get well soon.” 3. “ I’m sorry to hear that you are not felling well. get ell soon!” 4. “Get well soon, so I can come over and bother you.” 5. “I am praying that you have the strength and the peace to get through your illness.” Your Mother Tongue 10. Work in pairs. In turns, express a wish/ hope about the following topic. See the model below! A: B: A: Hello, good morning. Morning, you look very busy. What’s up? I’ve spent the whole morning at the library… looking for information about ATMs – you remember- for the B: A: B: assignment that’s due Wednesday? I know. I hope I can meet Miss Asri for some suggestions. Wish me luck Well, good luck and please give her my best wishes. Thank you and the same to you. The advantages of homework. Hopefully I can find more references about it. The platinum generation I hope I can finish my assignment soon The problems of being fat Let’s hope that everything will run well The importance of English language I wish I had done it last week Best of luck. I wish you luck I wish you all the best. Good fortune be with you Say hello to your sister. Send my regards to your mother Convey my warm regards to your father Say my hello to your brother 11. Create a similar dialogue by changing the phrase in italic. See the model below! Dialogue 1 Woman: Not many people know that I’m going to get my master degree. Man: Well, congratulations. Your secret is safe with me. Woman: I hope that my thesis will be approved tomorrow. Wish me luck Man : I know you’ve done very hard. SO, good luck. By the way, How about having lunch before meeting your lecture? Woman : That’s a good idea. Dialogue 2 Man : I thought your mother wanted orange juice. Woman: She doesn’t like orange juice. She prefers apple. Man : But the machine only has milk. What do you think? Woman: Let’s go to the canteen and have a glass of apple juice. Man: By the way, is your mother very sick? Woman: Actually, she is a tough person. She looks like a superwoman. Man : Are you trying to say that she is invincible? Woman: Right. But she is human after all. She is in my thoughts and prayers. Man: Let’s hope that she gets well soon. Appendix 2: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 5 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 5 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) Grammar Focus: Simple Present, Simple Past, Connectors in Personal Letter. 1. Simple Present and Simple Past in Personal Letter Simple Present To present ideas or information in the present time Adverbs of Usually, commonly, always, generally, every time week, every day, once a week, etc. Pattern Statement: Subject + Verb 1/ Verb 1 (s/es) Negative statement: Subject + don’t/doesn’t + Verb 1 Interrogative statement: Function Simple Past To tell about a past experience Yesterday, a long time ago, last week, in 900, etc Statement: Subject + Verb 2 Negative statement: Subject + did not + Verb 1 Interrogative statement: Did + Subject + Verb 1 WH-questions: GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Read the following letter. Identify the verbs in the simple present and simple past! Dear Rangga, I’m sorry I was not able to visit you last Sunday. I had to take care of my brother because mum had to accompany dad to the ball. I know my parents are the best but they are very busy. We rarely have good communication so I feel that they don’t understand me. I hope they have more times for me. They also want to know everything I do. They always want to know where I go after school, with whom I go. I like listening to rock music very much but my parents don’t like the music I listen to. They argue that it is too noisy and it is not good for my ears. I feel that my parents pay more attention to my baby brother. I hope my parents know how I feel about things. Do you have any advice? Your friend, Cinta Do/Does + Subject + Verb 1 WH-questions: WH-question + don’t/doesn’t + subject + Verb 1 WH-question + did + subject + Verb 1 2. Analyze the patterns of simple present and simple past tense used in the letter above by completing the following tables! Subject Simple Present (positive) Simple Present (negative) Simple Present (interogative) I Verb/linking verb Know Aut. Verbs Do Subject you Subject I Simple past Verb/linking verb Was not able to Others My parents are the best Verb/Others Others Visit you last Sunday 3. Read the following letter and fill in the blanks with the simple present or past form of the words in the brackets! Dear Cinta, It’s alright that you couldn’t visit me last Sunday. Don’t you (1) ________ (know) there’s always another Sunday? Do you still (2) ________ (remember) Tom Page? He (3) ________ (ask) me to accompany him to visit a home for disabled children two days ago. Some of them speak and walk properly. We (5) ________ (bring) some presents for them. It (6) ________ (to be) enjoyable day for children and us. Your Mum and Dad (7) ________ (want) to know who your friends (8) ________ (to be) and where you (9) ________ (go) after school because they (10) ________ (care) of you. You should thank them. As for your music, I think it’s better if you use your headphones when you listen to your favorite music. That way, you won’t disturb anyone. Your parents (11) ________ (to be) right about the danger of listening to loud music. It may cause hearing problems later. I (12) ________ (advise) to talk to your parents about your problems. Hopefully they will understand you. Just remember that there are no better friends than your Mum and Dad. Your friend, Rangga 2. Connectors in Sentences Compound Sentence Two sentences are related using connectors (and, but, or) and they result a compound sentence Complex Sentence The complex sentences have two parts: independent and dependent clauses. Independent clause is a complete thought while dependent clause can come before or after independent clause. They are related using because, so, although, that, etc. 4. Continue the following sentences with suitable sentence/ question provided. Add appropriate conjunctions or connectors! a) Yesterday Amir asked me to visit ‘Bali’ Island. ______________________________ b) My parents would be angry with me for watching TV before studying. ______________________________ c) I think it would be very hard for me to, live in a big city. ______________________________ d) I love him so much but I do not know what to do. ______________________________ e) I don’t speak any Chinese so ______________________________ f) The more I write to you, the more problems see. ______________________________ I know that an international relationship is difficult There are so many problems They want me to spend more time on reading I knew he would I would have a difficult time finding a job Would I fit in to a busy society? 5. Complete the personal letter with suitable connectors. Choose the best one! Dear Achmad, Last Sunday was a fine day 1. _________ (but, or, and) the first thing I did in the morning was to go to Candi Park to lead a “ Gotong Royiong” to clean up the park. In the past, I used to go to this park to walk and exercise once a week, 2. _________ (or, and, but)I am unable to do so lately 3. _________ (although, so, because) I have to take final examinations. 4. _________ (So, Because, After) I had heard some complaints from some jogger friends who used to jog in this park, I went to my school principal to organize this “Gotong-royong” activity starting at 9am. When I arrived at the park, I was told by my friends 5. _________ (so, and, that) the park had been cleaned up in the past few days, and the contractor of the park evener-installed the pillar of the gate which was broken for half a year. They told me that they have been blamed by the management of the park for inviting me to interfere into the park’s “affairs”. Our presence there made the new management of the park quickly clean up all rubbish in the park. Never mind. I am quite delighted to hear that. My friends 6. _________ (or, but, and) I walked around the park to pick up rubbish for about an hour. Then I rushed back home to take a quick shower. You know what, my body was aching after all that. I had a great appetite during lunch. 7. _________ (Before, So, After) I went back home after lunch, I slept for two and a half hours. Oh my God, I have not slept for so long in the afternoons for long time. I then cut my night activity and slept a bit earlier that night (11.40 p.m). Oh God, age is catching up. I did not realize my body was so exhausted after that one hour ”Gotong-royong”. You know, the joke is, I hardly ever to clean up my own home, I used to hire a part-time maid to do it, 8. _________ (although, so, and) now I went to sweep and clean up the park. Ha….. ha…..ha….!!! Your friend, Theresa Kok Appendix 3: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 6 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 6 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) Grammar Focus: Imperatives, Gambits Action in order, Adverbs A. Imperatives a) Imperatives sentences to show instructions. Start instructions with the infinitive without to form E.g : Check… Collect.. Buy… b) Negative imperative shows that something is not allowed to be done E.g : Don’t litter the trash… Don’t break… Don’t blow out the candle. GRAMMAR EXERCISES 1. Listen and repeat this repeat this spoken instructions! Insert your ticket. You may make the payment in cash or by credit card. Remove your ticket, please. You will need it to leave the parking lot. Thank you very much. Have a nice day! 2. Rearrange the pictures according to the instructions you heard! These pictures tell you how to use a life jacket Dos and Don’ts: These are the English phrases of rules about what you must do and what you mustn’t do in a particular situation 3. Listen to the instructions and Match the pictures with the right instructions you heard! a) Doing Stretching Instruction… Instruction… Instruction… Instruction… b) Making Jelly Instruction… Instruction… Instruction… Instruction… 4. Look at the following pictures and write down what you should do and should not do! (1) (Picture A) What should and should not be done to this dress? a. This dress should be hand washed b. This dress should ……………………… c. This dress ………………………………. (2) (Picture B) a. The blouse ……………………………… b. The blouse cannot ……………………… c. The blouse cannot be ironed ……………. d. ………………………………………….. (3) (Picture C) a. Should this skirt be washed with other clothes? b. Can bleaching damage fabric? c. How should it be ironed? d. can this skirt be washed in hot water? Explain your answer! (Picture A) (Picture C) (Picture B) 5. Supply the following pictured-instructions with the imperatives verbs! How to Serve Instant Boiled Noodle a)……….. the noodle into boiling water and b) ………… Slowly for three minutes. Meanwhile, c) ……………… all the seasonings into a bowl. d) …………………… the noodle and the gravy into the bowl and e) ………………. thoroughly. f)………………… some fried onion onto the noodle. g)………… the noodle while it is hot. 6. Here are some tips what you must do and mustn’t do while travelling. Put them in the correct columns of Dos and Don’ts! AIRPORT SECURITY: DOS AND DON’T’S Dos Don’ts B. Must and Mustn’t We use “must” to say that something is necessary to be done. E.g: You must go now or you’ll be late. The doors must be locked. Otherwise a thief will break into your house. We use “mustn’t “ to say that something is not allowed to be done. E.g.: She mustn’t say such a thing to older people. It is impolite Visitors mustn’t feed the animals in the zoo. Travel under another person’s name. Provide straight answers when you are questioned at checkin. Look the custom office right in the eye. Leave your bag unattended at the airport. Pack only carry-on luggage when possible. Take care not to exceed limits on the size of your luggage. Pack electronic gear in your hand luggage Bring your prescription drugs with you in their original container Carry large amount of cash 7. Work in pairs. Fill in the blank spaces with “must” or “mustn’t”! Before board on a plane you 1) _________ show your boarding card. You 2) _________ fasten your seatbelt during takeoff and landing and during the flight when the sign is lit up. passengers 3) _________ radio sets on board. You 4) _________ use toilet during takeoff or landing, and you 5) _________ smoke in the toilet at any time. Passengers 6) _________ smoke in the no-smoking area. After landing, you 7) stay in your seat until the aircraft has come to standstill. C. Sentence Connectors for Telling Actions in Order 8. Complete the paragraphs using the sentence connectors of action in order. Pay attention to this text These are the steps of operating your Microsoft Window XP First, crack an egg into a bowl like this. Then, with the egg with a fork until it is smooth. See, it is smooth now. After that, add some milk and whisk well. grate the cheese into the bowl and stir. Now, heat the oil in a frying pan, and pour the mixture into the frying pan. Then, turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns. See, like this. Okay, next, cook both sides. After the omelet is cooked, place it on a plate, don’t forget to season it with salt and pepper. Well, you can eat it while warm. It’s easy isn’t it? The underlined words in the spoken text above are called sentence connectors. They are used for telling actions in order (showing someone how to do something or to make things or showing the order of instruction) Here are the list of the connectors: First of all Meanwhile Then Make sure you Next Be careful not to After that Remember to Finally Don’t forget to computer. 1) __________ switch on your computer. Wait for the Microsoft Window XP to appear. 2) __________, click the start button in the down –left corner hand task bar, select the PROGRAM and click. 3) __________, the MS Word screen may appear. 4) __________, you can start typing. To save a document or a file, you can follow these steps. 5) __________, select and click the file in the upper-left hand corner taskbar, then, select SAVE as if you want to save the file for the first time. Name the file and 6) __________, click the SAVE button. Now, after you have finished working with your computer, you may close it using the following steps. 7) __________, save you’re your work. 8) __________, click the close button. 9) __________, One Two Three First Second click START and select TURB OFF button. 10) __________, the computer will close its program. 9. Complete the text using the se sentence connectors of action in order! Here are some steps to make a glass of orange juice. 1) __________ cut the orange in half pieces and remove the seeds. 2) __________ grip the one half of the orange tightly and squeeze it by hand, using the plain juicer to get the juice out. It is best to use an electric orange juicer, as you will get much more juice from the orange and into the glass. 3) __________ scrape the orange with the spoon and add fruit directly to juice if you use a hand juicer for more pulp. If you prefer clear juice, pour the juice through a strainer before drinking. 4) __________ drink and enjoy a cold glass of freshly squeezed orange juice. D. Adverbs An adverb is a word that qualifies the meaning of verb, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how? In what way? When? Where? And to what extent? An adverb comes from adjective + (-ly) such as in slowly, suddenly, strongly, etc. an adverb provides information about the manner, place time, frequency, degree or other 10. Pay attention to this text and underline the adverbs Installing a printer! If you are still unable to print, or the computer installing a printer software installation fails: 1 Remove the CD from the computer CD drive and then disconnect the USB cable from the computer. 2 Restart the computer. 3 Temporarily disable any software firewall and close any circumstances. Adverbs of manner Slowly Fast Adverbs of place Nowhere Somewhere Hard At the market place In the dark Upstairs From the market Beautifully strongly Adverbs of time Yesterday Two days later At 5 o’clock Adverbs of frequency Always Nearly In spring In February In 1969 Hardly ever Often After/before 1969 Sometimes 4 5 antivirus software. Restart these programs after the printer software is installed. Insert the printer software cd drive, then follow on screen instructions to install the printer software. Do not connect the cable until you are told to do so. After the installation finishes, restart the computer. 11. Supply the appropriate adverbs for these tips! Tips on Answering Phone Calls Politely at the Office a. When you’re answering the phone ___________ 1), you don’t ___________2) On the right foot know who is ___________ 3). It could be your On the other end boss, a customer, one of your colleagues, or Always even a wrong number. Answering the phone At your office ___________ 4) will start whatever professionally conversation you are about to have get off ___________ 5). b. Stop what you are doing ___________ 6) and take a brief moment to prepare for answering in your tone the call. It makes a difference whether you are On the other eating something, or chewing a gum, or crying, side your caller _________ 7) will hear that __________ 8) now Appropriately In business situation c. ___________ answer the phone ___________. Tell your name and company: Good morning, Rudely Too informally immediately Efficiently Carefully On a piece of memo Available Appropriately Quickly Unwisely Carefully thank you for calling ABC Company. This is Jane Doe. How may I help you?” d. Try not to speak ___________, until you know who the caller is. If the speaker does not introduce themselves ___________12),say. “ may I ask who is calling?”. Don’t ask the speaker ___________13) or she/he might get displeased with you. e. listen___________ 14) and find out the reason why the person is calling and respond ___________ 15). If the person they trying to reach is not ___________ 16), take a message, record the person’s name, phone number and purpose of call ___________ 17). If this is an important call, it can be dealt ___________ 18) and ___________ 19). f. If the callers requests details about or others, consider ________ 20) before responding. You should be careful unless they are a trusted contact. Some people may use it_________ 21) for wrong purpose. 12. Match three of the pictures with the instructions by writing the correct numbers in the boxes below. Then write instructions to go with the other two pictures. Use the instructions in the three previous pictures! A. Sit on the floor with your legs straight in front of you. Stretch your arm forward and touch our toes. B. Lie on your back. Lift your bags straight up and point your toes. Then lift your hips off the floor. Support yourself with hands on your lower back. C. Sit crossed-legged. Raise your left arm over your head and stretch to the right. Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 4 Picture 3 Picture 5 13. Learn these pictures. The pictures tell you about taking a picture with your cell phone. With your friends, present your instructions and demonstration. 1. Hold up your phone facing person or item you want to take a photo off. 2. Press the camera button on the keypad. 3. Be prepared to take the snapshoot. 4. Press the OK button to take the photo. Appendix 4: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 7 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 7 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar Focus : To be + Verb 3 Passive Voice 1. Look at the pictures. Match each picture with the suitable words provided. a) The Pattern of Passive Voice Tea plantation Subject + to be + past participle/verb 3 b) There are some academic verbs you may use when you are writing in a scientific genre such as say, assume, believe, claim, predict, theorize, think, fear, feel, etc Tea trees We can use academic verbs in passive voice. o It was said that the world was flat. o It is predicted that the result of the research will change nothing. Tea leave Tea –leave pickers Tea bag Grown Picked Dried Selected Sliced Put into Passive Voice: When to use it and to avoid it In English, all sentences are either “Active” or “Passive” voice. In an active sentence, the person or thing responsible for the action in the sentence comes first. In a passive sentence the person or thing acted on comes first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced with the preposition “by”. In a passive sentence, we often omit the actor completely. 2. Listen a dialogue between a mother and her son talking about ‘ from Tea tree to a cup of tea’, and complete the text. For many years, Indonesia has produced thousands of kilograms of tea every year for its people and for international trade. Have you ever thought about how the tea gets from the tea to your cup. You should know about it. First, 1) __________ in tea plantations in hilly and cool areas. Next, the tea leaves 2) __________ by the tea-leave pickers and the leaves 3) __________ under the sun for about a day until they are almost dry. After that, the tea leaves of good quality 4) _________ and When do I use Passive voice? they 5) __________ by a cutting machine. They 6) _________ once In some sentences, passive voice can be perfectly acceptable. you again. When the processes has finished, the tea 7) _________. Later, the might use it in the following cases: tea 8) __________, supermarkets, perhaps a shop near your home or 1. The actor is unknown e.g. The cave painting were made in the Upper Old Stone exported for international markets. When you drink your tea, you can think about the many people Age. ( We don’t know who made them.) who have worked together to produce the tea and bring it to you. 2. The actor is irrelevant. e.g.: An experimental solar power plant will be built in the 3. Check your comprehension. Answer the following question! Australian desert. (We are not interested in who is building a) Are tea trees only grown in cool areas? it.) b) What happens after the tea leaves are picked? 3. You want to be vague about who is responsible c) How long are tea leaves sliced? e.g.: Mistakes were made. (Common in bureaucratic d) What happens to the tea leaves before the tea leaves are writing!) delivered to the store? 4. You are talking about a general truth e.g.: Rules are made to be broken (By whomever, whenever) 5. You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on e.g.: Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by researchers at the University of Toronto. It is still the only treatment available for diabetes. 6. You are writing in a scientific genre Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers, most notably in the materials and methods section. e.g.: The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water. This solution was then titrated with hydrochloric acid. (The passive voice places the emphasis on your experiment rather than on you.) When should I avoid passive voice? Passive sentences can get into trouble in academic writing because they can be vague about who is responsible for the action: Both Othello and lago desire Desdemona. She is courted. (Who courts Desdemona? Othello? lago? Both of them?) 4. Put the similar forms you found in the textunder these headings! Subject Tea tress To Be are Verbs 3 grown Others In tea plantations 5. Write sentences based on the following words. The sentences will be about the process of how pulp and paper are produced from forest trees. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) The tops and branches of the trees – cut out. The logs – take to the mill. The logs – remove. The logs- take to a chipper. The logs cut into small pieces called wood chips. The wood chips – screen to remove dirt and other impurities. The wood chips – export. The wood chips- change into the pulp. The pulp – bleach. Academic writing often focuses on differences between the ideas of different researches, or between your own ideas and those of the researchers you are discussing. Too many passive sentences can create confusion: Research has been done to discredit this theory. (Who did the research? You? Your professor? Another author? ) Passive sentences often sound wordy and indirect. They can make the reader work unnecessarily hard. And since they usually longer than active sentences, passive sentences take up precious room in your paper: Since the car was being driven by Michael at the time of the accident, the damages should be paid for by him. j) The water content – remove. k) The pulp roll out to make paper. 6. Read the Text and then summarize it by completing the sentences! Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and belong to the order Hymenoptear. more than 12.500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. they are easily identified with their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist. Ants are found on all continents except Antarctica. Ants occupy a wide range of ecological niches, and are able to exploit a wide range of food resources either as direct or indirect herbivores, predators, and scavengers. most species are omnivorous generalists, but a few are specialist feeders. Their ecological dominance may be measured by their biomass. Ants range in size from 0,75 to 52 millimeters, the largest species being the fossil Titanomyrma giganteum, the queen of which was 6 centimeters (2,4 in) long with wingspan of 15 centimeters (5,9 in). Ants vary in color; most ants are red or black, but a few species are green and some tropical species have a metallic luster. more than 12.000 species are currently known with the greatest diversity in the tropics. Taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and systematic of ants. Online databases of ant species, including Ant Base and the Hymenoptera Name Server, help to keep track of the known and newly described species. The relative ease with which ants may be sampled and studied in ecosystems has made them useful as indicator species in biodiversity studies. a. b. c. d. e. 12.500 ants ___________________. Ants ___________________ with their elbowed antennae. Ants ___________________ on Antartica. Ants ecological dominance can be ___________________. Newly ant species ___________________ to keep track of the known and new species. f. More than 12.000 species ___________________ with the greatest diversity in the tropics. 7. Work in pairs. Underline the passive sentences in the extract below! A Tsunami Hit There is very little warning before tsunamis hit. This means that people living in towns and villages on the coast do not have time to escape. Unfortunately, one of the biggest and worst effects of tsunami is the cost to human life. Hundreds and thousands of people are killed by tsunamis. People may be instantly killed or drowned as water rushes on the land. 8. Rewrite the following paragraph using the passive form. People may also 1. ____________ (kill) if a building 2. ____________ (knock down) by the tsunami and it hits them. they can also 3. ____________ (electrocute) if wires fall down into the water or they may 4. ____________ (kill) by wires or explosion. Tsunami generally consists of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so called “wave-train”. wave heights of tens of meters can 5. ____________ (generate) by large events. although the impact of tsunamis 6. ____________ (limit) to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous. Active and Passive Sentence Tense Simple present Active Passive Present perfect Active Passive Sentence with modals (can, May, shall, etc) Subject Verb Leaves surround The large mass of flower head is surrounded Researcher has found A high intake of broccoli has been found We may eat Broccoli may be eaten Object The large mass of flower head a high intake of broccoli raw broccoli Others by leaves to reduce prostate cancer raw 9. The passage below is an informal talk on “glass making”. It uses active sentences. Rewrite the passage into formal language using passive sentences! “Well, first of all, we mix sand, soda, limestone, dolomite and feldspar in the mixer. Then, we transfer them to the tank furnace. There we heat them to a temperature of about 1500 degree Celsius and when the glass is liquid, we reduce the temperature to about 900 degree Celsius and add arsenic and manganese dioxide. This removes discoloration. Then, we mould the liquid in the required shape, we cool it slowly. This stops it cracking.” Glass making a) First, sand, soda, limestone, dolomite and feldspar are mixed in the mixer. b) ___________________________________. c) ___________________________________. d) ___________________________________. e) ___________________________________. f) ___________________________________. g) ___________________________________. h) ___________________________________. 10. Read the following sentences. Put the sentences in the right column and rewrite it! Active sentences Passive sentences 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. Elephants’ tusks are made of a hard white substance like bone. People pay a lot of money for the ivory of an elephant’s tusks. The ivory from the tusks is made into many beautiful things. An elephants uses its tusk in many ways. An elephant pulls up trees with its trunk when it wants to make a path through the jungle. The trunk is also used to get water. The trunk can hold a lot of water. An elephant needs to drink three hundreds pints of water every day. 11. Read the text about “ Auctions”. Analyze the underlined sentences by completing the columns! Some are done for you. Subject He Subject They Active Sentences Predicate Object asks The crowd assembled Passive Sentences Predicate Object are conducted Others in the auction room Others by an officially approved auctioneer Auctions Auctions are public sales of goods. They are conducted by an officially approved auctioneer. He asks the crowd assembled in the auction-room to make offers, or bids for the various items on sale. He encourages buyers to bid higher figures, and finally names the highest bidder as the buyer of the goods. This is called “knocking down” the goods, for the bidding ends when the auctioneer bangs a small hammer on a table at which he stands. This is often set on a raised platform called a rostrum. An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full particulars of the articles to be sold and the place and the time they can be viewed by the prospective buyers. If the advertisement cannot give full details, catalogues are printed, and each group of goods to be sold together, called a “lot”, is usually given a number. Practically all goods are sold by auction. Among these are antique furniture, houses, paintings, cars, land, and property, rare books, and ceramics. The Auctions rooms at Christie’s in London, and Sotheby’s in New York are world-famous. 12. This diagram shows “how porcelain is made”. Complete the paragraph below with suitable words and the passive forms to explain the process clearly! Porcelain is made from materials like Clay, Feldspar, Glass, Bone ash and Alabaster. After (1) _________ are selected and (2) _________ at the desired amounts, they (3) _________ and (4) _________. Then, the materials (5) together before they (6) _________ into one of the four forming: soft plastic forming, stiff plastic forming, pressing or casting. After the porcelain has been formed, (7) _________must (8) _________ before the porcelain (9) _________. Finally, the porcelain (10) _________ between about 1200 and 1400 degree Celsius. Appendix 5: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 10 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 10 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar Focus: Simple Present tense, Phrases and Connective used in the persuasive text. 1. Read this text and underline all the verbs in present form! 1. Simple Present tense Shopping in Saturday is usually difficult. Why? Many people commonly do their shopping on the same day. This makes the sores crowded. Customers often have to wait for a long time, for the clerks are very busy. Frequently, there are not enough clerks. For these reasons some people prefer to shop on days of the week. In pairs, answer these questions! 1) What do you call the present form of verbs used in he paragraph above? 2) What does simple present donate? 3) What adverbs of frequency are used in the paragraph? 4) Mention some other adverbs of frequency used in the Simple Present and give examples in sentences. 5) Complete the following pattern of simple present. Affirmative Plural Subject …. subject …. Verb 1 + … e.g. : ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Negative Plural Subject …. subject …. … Verb 1 Verb 1 e.g. : ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Interrogative Plural Subject …. subject …. Verb 1 + … Verb … Verb 1 … e.g. : ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. Change the verbs in brackets into the simple present form to complete the text! Believe it or not, there are still really good reasons to care about the environment even if you ______________ (1. not consider) yourself an environmentalist. Here are several reasons why everyone should care about the environment, no matter who you are. We desperately ______________ (2. need) to care about our environment because every second the earth is getting polluted by poisonous gasses and fumes made by cars and factories. If we carry on to polluting this much what will happen to our kids? How will they live? By keeping our environment clean, it ______________ (3. help) clear the pollution. We ______________ (4. get) lots of resources from our forests such as water, power, and oxygen. If we use to much the resources and we ______________ (5. re-green) or restore those forests, we may run out of the resources. The quality of our environment ______________ (6. affect) all of us no matter where we live. The environment ______________ (7. be) our home. if it is not healthy, we will not be healthy either. When people ______________ (8. abuse) the environment, this ______________ (9. affect) us all. If water is polluted, if the air is full of smoke and chemicals, if food ______________ (10.contain) poisons, people, plants and animals will get sick. In conclusion, all people have a responsibility to protect and use the environment in a way that will protect it for us, our children, and our grandchildren. 2. IF Clause 3. Read the sentences and answer the questions! Nuclear energy is very dangerous If there is a small leak in the nuclear plant, the people who work or live in the nearby area will be affected by nuclear radiation. If nuclear energy is not wisely managed, it can be used as a devastating weapon in the wrong hands. If the nuclear waste is not properly stored, it will be extremely hazardous to any living things. Questions: 1) What are the sentences about? 2) What do you call the sentences above? 3) Write the pattern Active sentence If Simple Present Tense If Subject + …. Passive sentence If Simple Present Tense If Subject + …. Present Future Subject + …. Present Future Subject + …. 3. Phrases and connective in the persuasive text a. When you want to prove your thesis statement in an analytical exposition text, you can use these expressions. - Why do I say that? (informal) - This is so for several reasons. - This is true based on the facts below. - Let me tell you the reasons why. (informal) - I say that for several reasons b. You can develop an analytical exposition text by enumeration. Numeral phrases used are: - First, second, third, fourth, … - Firstly, secondly, thirdly, …. finally …. - In the first place, first of all, second, additionally, also, furthermore, moreover, finally, last of all, last but not least. c. Another way to develop an analytical exposition text is list reasons. Phrases used are: - One reason is that …. - Another is that …. - Still another reason is that …. d. In making a reiteration in an analytical exposition text, you can restate the thesis statement or make a conclusion. 4. Complete the analytical exposition text using suitable phrases and conjunctions! Apartments offer Friendly Living The number of high-rise apartment building continues to mushroom not only in the center of the city but also in suburban areas. This shows that many Indonesian enjoy living in apartments. ________________ (1). ________________ (2), people prefer to live in apartment ________________ (3) it is located near their offices; they can save time ________________ (4) energy as they don’t have to experience terrible traffic jams. ________________ (5), enjoy the new life style ________________ (6) an apartment offers comfort and privacy and they don’t have to worry about the city’s high crime rate because most apartments have 24-hour security systems. ________________ (7) people who enjoy practically, ________________ (8) this is reflected in the design of their place: living rooms become smaller and verandah is no longer considered important part of the house. ________________ (9) ________________ (10) will be more constructed in Indonesian cities in the future. Restating the thesis statement: Working long hours at a computer, can cause eyestrain. Why do I say that? First, ……. . Second, ……. . Third, ……. . So, working long hours at a computer can cause eyestrain. In making a conclusion, you will need these expressions: From the facts above, it is clear that ……. . Based on the reasons listed above, it is obvious that ……. . From the facts above, we conclude that ……. . Based on the reasons listed above, it is concluded that ……. . Thus, from the reasons above, we can conclude that ……. . Appendix 6: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 11 GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 11 GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC) GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar focus : Simple, Continuous, and Perfect tenses Noun Phrases Auxiliary A. Tenses 1. Simple present Active Positive: Subject + is/am/are + noun/ adjective/complement To talk about facts that are generally true or stay true for a long time. Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity are about basic ideas we use to describe natural happenings. They are about time, space, mass, movement, and gravity Subject (he/she) + Verb 1 + s/es Subject (they/we/you) + Verb 1 Active negative: 1. Complete these extracts with the simple past tense form of the words in brackets. Then, say who the person is! A. He 1. __________ (to be) one of the most well known leaders in the world. He 2. __________ (bear) on 15 January 1929 in Atlanta, the United States of America. He 3. __________ (to be) a key personality in the civil rights movement in America. While he 4. __________ (to be) still a student, he became interested in Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of non violent resistance. In 1959, he 5. __________ (go) to India to meet followers of Gandhi. He then 6. __________ (become) certain that non-violent resistance 7. __________ (to be) the best way to fight for freedom. B. He 8. __________ (to be) born June 6, 1901 in Surabaya, of She/he + does not + verb1 They/you/we + do not + verb 1 2. Present continuous Active Positive: To talk about an event that is happening at the time of speaking Subject + am/is/are + verb 1 + Ving 3. Simple past You do not know who. “You are looking for someone,” he said To talk about event which took place in the past. Active Positive: Active negative: Active: A.H. Nasution died in Jakarta, 6 September 2000 at the age of 81 years. Subject + did not + Verb1 He did not actually become a member His father was very religious. Subject + Verb2 / Subject + was/were Passive : Subject + was/were + verb3 Javanese and Balinese parents. His father 9. __________ (to be) a Javanese school teacher and his mother Balinese. He thus 10. __________ (represent) a mixture of the Islamic Javanese and Hindu Balinese Malay subcultures. he 11. __________ (go) to secondary school in which most of the students were Dutch. he thus not only 12. __________ (get) a good education, but 13. __________ (become) imbued with a fierce desire for Indonesian independence. In 1927 he 14. __________ (receive) a degree in civil engineering from the Bandung technical Institute and became an architect. but by this time he 15. __________ (find) his true calling 16. __________ (to be) as an orator and politician. he found he could profoundly move crowds with his oratory. In 1928 he 17. __________ (help) found Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), the Indonesian nationalist Party. it had previously been known as the Perserikatan Nasional Indonesia, the Union of Indonesian nationalists. there 18. __________ (to be) a number of other nationalistic parties formed at that time and later, but PNI was the most effective in promoting a mass following. 2. In groups, analyze the language features in the biography by completing the columns. See the examples! Passive: Abdul Haris Nasution was born in Hutapungkut, Mandailing natal regency, North Sumatra. 4. Past continuous Active Positive: Subject+ was/were + V1 + ing On 30 January 1948, Gandhi was assassinated while he was in his way to a gathering. To show our interest in the actions itself as it is actually taking place. He was studying the complex mathematics of calculus when all his friends were still studying simple mathematics Simple past tense Past Perfect tense Gandhi was born in India on October 2nd, 1869 World leader like Marthin luther king and Nelson Mandela had used Gandhi’s method to get justice for their people. Subject: World leader like Marthin luther king and Nelson Mandela Predicate: had used The preeminent leader His birthday, 2 October, will always be commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday. Real noun: leader Subject: His birthday, 2 October Adjective: preeminent Others: Gandhi’s method to get justice for their people. Others: the father of the nation Predicate : will always be commemorated Others: commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday. Subject: Gandhi Predicate: was born Others: In India on October 2nd, 1869 Noun Phrase Auxiliary 5. Past perfect Active Positive: Subject + had + Verb 3 The past perfect tense is often used in a sentence when we are relating two events which happened in the past. World leaders like Dr. martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela had used Gandhi’s methods to get justice for their people. 3. In pairs, analyze the following biography according to its social functions, the text structure and the language features. Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was a scientist who changed the way we understand the universe. In the year 1905, he published some important papers in a German scientific magazine. They included one of the most scientific documents in history. It was filled with mathematics. It explained what came to be called his ‘Special theory of relativity.” Ten years later, he expanded it into a “General theory of relativity”. Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity are about the basic ideas we use to describe natural happenings. They are about time, space, mass, movement and gravity. Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, in 1879. His father owned a factory that made electrical devices. His mother enjoyed music and books. Albert was a quiet child who spent much of his time alone. He was slow to talk and had difficulty learning to read. He also did not like school. One story says Albert told his uncle Jacob how much he hated school, especially mathematics. His uncle told him to solve mathematical problems by pretending to be a policeman. “You are looking for someone,: he said, “but you do not know who. Call him X Find him by using the mathematical The use of Simple Present …………… Present Continuous …………... tools of algebra and geometry.” Albert learned to love mathematics. He was studying the complex mathematics of calculus when all his friends were still studying simple mathematics. Instead of playing with friends, he thought about things such as: “ What would happen if people could travel at the speed of light?” Albert decided that he wanted to teach mathematics and physics. He attended the federal polytechnic Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. He graduated with honors, but could not get a teaching job. SO he began working for Swiss government as an inspector of patents for new inventions. The job was not demanding. He had a lot of time to think about some of his scientific theories. In 1921, He won the Nobel prize in Physics. It was given to him, not for his theories of relativity, but for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. This scientific law explained how and why some metals give off electrons after light falls on their surfaces. The discovery led to the modern electronics, including radio and television. Albert Einstein taught in Switzerland and Germany. He left Germany when Adolph Hitler came to power in 1933. He moved to the United States to continue his research. He worked at the institute for advanced study in Princeton, New Jersey. Einstein Simple Past tense ……………. . Past Perfect …………… Past continuous ……………. . Noun Phrases ………..… B. Noun Phrases Subject : Albert Einstein theories of relativity are about the basic ideas we use to describe natural happenings. Object of verb : He published some important papers in a German scientific magazine. Object of preposition : He published some important papers in a German scientific magazine. Subjective complement : Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the pre-eminent leader and freedom fighter of Indian Nationalism. C. Auxiliary Subject A. H. Nasution Albert Einstein World leaders like Dr. Martin Auxiliary verb (be) Was Verb Others Promoted To corporal Was Studying Auxiliary verb (has/have) Used The complex mathematics of calculus Gandhi’s methods to get justice became a citizen of the United States in 1940. Einstein was a famous man, but you would not have known that by looking at him. His white hair was Auxiliary long and white. he wore old clothes. He showed an inner …………… joy when he was playing his violin or talking about his work. Students and friends said he had a way of explaining difficult ideas using images that were easy to understand. He died in 1955. He was seventy- sic years old. 4. In pairs, analyze the followings. See the examples! Noun Phrase Phrase Words used before a noun Noun Some important some important papers papers One of the most one of the most, documents important important, scientific scientific documents The complex the complex mathematics mathematics of of calculus calculus The pre-eminent leader The freedom fighter of Indian nationalism A Hindu family Luther King and Nelson Mandela His birthday, 2 October for their people Have Auxiliary verb (modal) Will always be commemorated There as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday Auxiliary verbs are additional verbs that may be used with main verbs to add meanings. All the forms of be, have, do and all Modals are auxiliary verbs. Avoid using –ing forms without ‘be’, participles without ‘have’ and verb words without modals. 5. Read the text about William Shakespeare. Underline the auxiliary verbs found in the text. William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was born in 1564 at Stratford-on-Avon in England. At the time Elizabeth I had been queen for six years. We do not know much about Shakespeare’s life. However, we do know that his father was a shopkeeper and that his mother was the daughter of a farmer. William went to Strafford Grammar school, where he learnt Latin, Scripture and mathematics. When he left school, William was employed by his father. He married a local girl, Anne Hathaway, when he was eighteen. Three years later he left Strafford and went to London. We do not know anything about Shakespeare’s life between the years 1585 and 1590. We are certain, however, that by the end of 1590 he had joined a group of actors and had started writing plays. During the next twenty years, he wrote thirty two plays. He wrote possibly more plays. During the next twenty years, he wrote thirty two plays, which he hadn’t published or performed. Shakespeare went back to Stratford-on-Avon a few years before he died in 1616 at the age of 52. Appendix 7: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 3 WRITING MATERIALS IN UNIT 3 Topic Expressing hopes Language features Using Simple Present tense, Present Continuous tense, Modal, and Adverbs within the topic of expressing hopes. Expressing hopes and wishes Using Simple Present tense, Present Continuous tense, Modal, and Adverbs within the topic of expressing hopes and wishes. Giving Wishes in personal letter Using the language structures of personal letter (The expression at the opening , body, and Writing Assignments 5. Write sentences expressing ‘hope’ for the situations given below! a The prices of nine staple foods are soaring. There is a fear that there will be a famine sweeping the nation. b Some children are exploited to ask for money at the traffic light. c Some excellent students are forced to discontinue their study at universities. d Dozens of students in sub-districts have had to sit on the floor in the classroom since 2006. e Poor patients do not receive proper health support from hospitals. 6. Create a dialogue based on the situations given! a) One for your friend is going for a final examination. You meet her on the street on the way there b) Two people are talking in an office. One has just been transferred to a different city. This is the last time you will see each other. c) You are talking with an acquaintance at a party. She tells you that she is going to study abroad. d) 7. Send a letter/email of good wishes to a friend of yours who will celebrate her 17th birthday in Patra Jasa Convention Hall. Tell her that you will be there to join her happiness on that occasion. Convey your birthday wish to her. closing ), the expression of Giving wishes, and using Simple Present tense and Simple Past tense in Personal letter. 8. Write a letter or e-mail to a friend that has been sick for a month because of her lung cancer that he has long been suffering from. Tell him to remain cheer up and give him hope that his disease is curable and he will get well soon. Convey your wish of his recovery. Appendix 8: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 5 WRITING MATERIALS IN UNIT 5 Topic Language features Personal Letter Using Present tenses (Simple, Continuous, Perfect), Past tenses (Simple, Continuous, Perfect), Modal, Auxiliary, Compound and Complex sentences, and Adverbs. Writing Assignments 1. - Complete the following table with information of your favorite song! Type Of Song Pop Rock Dangdut Keroncong a) b) c) d) e) f) - Title Describe The Song Answer the following questions briefly! What kind of song do you like most? Why do you like them? Which is your favorite song? Why do you like it? When did you listen to the song for the first time? How did you feel when you listened to the song for the first time? Use your answers to complete the following letter! Dear Rebecca, Do you like listening to songs? What sort of songs do you listen to? I really like pop songs. After school hours, I often listen to my favorite songs. I like __________ most because__________. My favorite song is __________ .I like it because __________. I listened to the song for the first time when__________. When I listened to the song for the first time I __________. How about you? What kind of song do you like most? Please write soon. Our friend, Mila 2. - Describe how you spent the last New Year’s Day by Completing the tables below. See the examples. Preparation Unforgettable Activities Cooked Ate friend fried noodle noodle at 12.00 sharp - Where Was It? Under a mango tree How Was It? It was amazing but cold Answer the following question briefly! a) What did you prepare for the last New Year’s Day? b) Why did you do it? c) What activities do you remember well? How Did You Feel? I felt colder d) e) f) g) What makes it difficult to forget? When did the activity take place? Where did the activity take place? How did you feel by doing the activity? - Use your answers to complete the following letter! Dear Rica, Did you prepare anything for the last New Year’s Day what did you do that day? I __________ because __________. I remember when I __________. It is difficult for me to forget it because __________. Besides ___________. The __________ took place in __________. When __________ I felt __________. It was __________ but __________. How about you? Please write soon. Yours lovingly, Robby 3. Your friend Sinaga, from Medan, has a one day holiday plan to visit your town. He wants to know the tourists attractions he must visit in your town. Write a personal letter to tell him about the tourist attractions to visit, including the famous food he has to eat. Dear Sinaga, I am very glad to hear that you are going to visit my town. Don’t worry, I am going to be your guide while enjoying some tourist attractions in my town. Actually there are many famous and interesting places in my town to make your one day holiday unforgettable. In the morning, for example, ………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………….. In the afternoon, …………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………… . In the evening, ……………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………… . Your friend 4. You received a letter from your pen pal Terry in Singapore. Read about how she spent her holiday and then write back to her. Dear Sity, The holidays have just passed. How was your holiday? I spent my holiday in my grandpa’s house. In the morning, we went to the city park. When we came home, my dad cooked a delicious lunch. After lunch, I sometimes sat around together with my parents and grandpa, usually talking or singing. It rained almost every day so I did not go out much., Hope to hear from you soon. With love, Terry Appendix 9: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 6 WRITING MATERIALS Topic Giving Instructions Language features Using Imperatives, Connectors, Modal (Must & Mustn’t or Should & Shouldn’t/ Can’t & Can’t), and Adverbs of manner. Writing Assignments 1. Match three of the pictures with the instructions by writing the correct numbers in the boxes below. Then write instructions to go with the other two pictures! Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 4 Picture 3 Picture 5 D. ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. E. ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. 2. Present your tips about handling an emergency situations based on the pictures provided. a) c) b) d) Appendix 10: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 7 WRITING MATERIALS Topic Procedural Text Language features Using Passive Voice, Imperatives, Connectors, Modal (Must & Mustn’t or Should & Shouldn’t), and Adverbs of manner. Writing Assignments 1. Complete the dialogue with suitable information about the process of making porcelain! (See the diagram in the appendix 4 ) Hi, Tora, you’re back. You look very sunburned. Did you have a good time? Hi! Yes, I sure did. You went to Jardine porcelain manufacture, didn’t you? What did you do there? Taher: Well, a beautiful lady named Cathy Pearson explained to me (1)………………………………………. Tora : Wow it sounds interesting. So what is it made from? Taher: (2) ……………………………..…… . Tora : It’s very simple. Taher: You’re right and the process is also very simple. Tora : Really? Could you explain it to me? Taher: After (3) ………………….…. and (4) …………...………… at the desired amounts, they (5) …………… and (6) ………………….. Tora : And then the materials (7) …………..…...……….. together before they (8) ……………………………… into soft plastic forming, pressing or casting. Am I right? Taher: Correct. Tora : The what is the next stage? Taher: Tora : Taher: Tora : Taher: After the porcelain has been formed, (9) ……..……….. must (10) before the porcelain (11) …..……………….………. Finally, the porcelain (12) ………………………………. between about 1200 and 1400 degree Celsius. Tora : I think it isn’t a simple process. It sounds like hard work. Taher: Yes, but it’s enjoyable. 2. Write a short paragraph about the diagram using suitable words and the passive forms to explain the process clearly! Appendix 11: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 10 WRITING MATERIALS Topic Language features Persuasive writing using topic and supporting sentences. Using Simple Present tense, and enumeration used in persuasive text. Persuasive writing using conditional sentences. Using If Clause. Writing Assignments 4. Write your short paragraph using the topic sentences and the supporting sentences! a. Good roads are important for our country. Why? They are good for business because they make possible the fast transportation of food and merchandise …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… b. A library is one of the most important institutions. First, Knowledge is stored in the library. Secondly, …………………………………. …………………………….………….. . Thirdly, ………………… …………………………………………………………………….. c. Basketball is popular in many countries. One reason is that ………. …………………………………………………………. . Moreover, Furthermore, ……………………………………………………….. . d. Among football players, I like Christian Ronaldo very much. …… ……………………………………………………………………... 5. Write your conditional sentences! Pollution is harmful to all living things If the air pollutant combines with the water droplets, it will form acid rain. If the acid rain falls over an area, it can kill trees and harm animals, fish and other wildlife. …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… Honey is good for our health If you have inflammation, take a spoon of honey and swallow it because honey contains anti-inflammatory agents. ……………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………. Analytical exposition text Using Simple Present tense, Present Continuous tense, Present Perfect tense, Phrases and connectors used in persuasive text, and Compound and Complex Sentence. Jakarta need a mass rapid transportation ……………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………. 6. Write your own analytical exposition text with the following topics. Global warming is very hazardous to living things. Life would be different without electricity. Corruption should be banned in this country. Cars should be limited in towns. Appendix 12: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 11 WRITING MATERIALS Topic Biography Text. Language features Using Present tenses (Simple, Continuous, Perfect), Past tense (Simple, Continuous, Perfect), Noun Phrases, Adverbs, and Auxiliary. Writing Assignments 1. Work in groups and search in internet to find 3 texts to find national heroes or heroines! Write a simple biography using the information you found Use the following outline Introduction Body Conclusion Give a short explanation about who he/she was Give information about him/her. When and where he was born, his education and his career. Write about his work and the qualities that made him/her special. State his achievements State the importance of his contribution 2. Write a simple biography of a famous person. Do some research and make the notes. Use the notes to write a biography of more than 100 words. You may use the following guide. Write the name of a famous person Date of birth : ____________ Place of Birth : ____________ Education : ____________ Career : ____________ Achievement : ____________ Date of death : ____________ Contribution : ____________ 3. Write a magazine article about the person you talked about. Include an imaginary interview with the person! Write about what she did everyday and what she thought about!
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