GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar Focus: Expressing Hopes and

GRAMMAR EXERCISES Grammar Focus: Expressing Hopes and
APPENDIXES
Appendix 1: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 3
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 3
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Grammar Focus: Expressing Hopes and Wishes
1. Complete the sentences with words in the box!
1. Hope and Wish
 Hope (n) : Something good that you want to happen
in the future.
 What are your hopes and dreams for the future?
 Is there any hope of getting financial support?
 Hope (V) : To want something to be true.
 I am hoping for an interview next week
 She’s hoping (that) she won’t be away too long.
 I hope (that) she’ll win
 Wish (V) HOPE : To hope for somebody’s success or
Happiness.
 We wish you every success in the future
to see
to remind
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
me
you
to reserve
to be
you
you
to make
I wish ________ a complaint.
I wish ________ a table for six
We wish ________ our customers will be closed tomorrow
I wish ________ all the best in your new job
We wish ________ a merry Christmas
I don’t wish ________ identified
Wish ________ luck for my exam
I wish ________ the manager
I wish ________ a safe journey
 Wish (N) GREETING: Something you say or write
to show that you hope someone has good luck.
 Do give/send Patrick my best wishes
2. Giving and Responding to Hopes
When we are expressing hope, we say:
 I hope that the money will come soon
 hopefully we can get a good harvest this season
 I do hope that everything will be fine
 he hopes that somebody will hire him
When we want to respond a hope, we say:
 I hope so.
 I hope they will do so.
 Yes, let’s hope so.
 I hope not
 I hope they won’t do so
 Let’s hope not
3. Giving Someone General Wishes
When someone is celebrating a birthday:
 Happy Birthday.
 Many happy returns (of the day).
When we want to send regards
 Convey my regards to your mother.
 Say my hello to your sister.
2. Listen and repeat these expressions!
I hope you’ll get better soon in a day or two
I wish good fortune always be with you
I hope you have an enjoyable moment with your child
We wish to complain about the application of the school
regulations.
e) May you be happy and successful in your new life.
f) Thank you and a happy new year to you too.
g) Good luck. Thank you
a)
b)
c)
d)
3. Match the statements of hopes with the right responses!
Statements:
1 We’re hoping to have an abundant harvest this season.
2 I’m going for a job interview next Monday
3 Do you think we can erase poverty from the world?
4 What’s your hope for this activity in the long run?
5 Do you think the project will be successful?
Response:
a Good luck. I hope you get the job you’ve been dreaming of
b Hopefully, we can alleviate the poverty in the slum areas
c I hope so
d let’s hope so
e I don’t think we can be successful but I hope so.
 Send my warmest regards to father.
 Send my love to your grandma
 Please give your parents my best wishes.
When someone is going far away:
 Good bye and good luck.
 Have a good time.
 Have a good flight.
 Have a good trip.
 Have some fun.
When someone is going to have an examination or a job
interview
 Every success in your new job
 I wish you a success
 Best of luck
When someone is ill
 Get well soon
 I wish you get a speedy recovery
Responding to general wishes
 Thank you
 Thanks. You too.
 Thank you very much.
 Thank you and the same to you.
 Thanks.
4. Language Structures in Informal Letter
4. What would you say to somebody who:
a) has a birthday?
b) is just going on holiday?
c) is just going for an interview?
d) is just going to a party?
e) is in hospital because of his sickness?
5. Respond the following good wishes!
a) Have a good weekend.
b) Best of luck.
c) Enjoy yourself.
d) Please say hello me to your husband.
e) Have a nice holiday.
f) Give my regards to your wife.
g) Good luck.
h) Happy New Year.
6. Read the two model letters of good wishes and observe how the
letters are organized.
a) A letter of good wishes to a friend on his birthday.
Greeting
Dear Harry,
If I am not mistaken, you are celebrating your 21st birthday
on the 5th April, 2015. Last year, I was fortunate enough to have
joined you for your birthday party.
Reason
This time, however, due to another important engagement, I
1. Opening/ greeting:
How are you?
I have just received your letter
I have not heard from you for a long time
I am surprised/happy/glad to receive your letter
I hope you are well
I hope you are at the peak of health
2. Reason:
The reason why I am writing this letter is to … :
- Inform you - Tell you about
- Apologize - say sorry
- advice
3. Conclusion :
- That’s all for now - Bye
- Please send my regards/greetings to …
- I hope to hear from you soon
- Till I hear from you again
4. Sign off :
(Friend)
Your friend,
Yours sincerely,
(Family member) Love,
Yours lovingly
Your cousin
Your uncle
5. The difference between “wish” and “hope”
will not be able to meet you on your birthday. I am, therefore,
taking this opportunity to convey to you my good wishes through
this letter.
I am sending you a book entitled “ The secret of the Happy
life” by parcel as a token of my affection. I hope that you will
enjoy reading it. Wishing you a very happy 21st birthday.
Your sincerely,
Vivakananda
-
Conclusion
Sign off
What did the writer mean by writing “ my good wishes through
this letter” ?
b) An e-mail of good wishes to a friend who has been ill.
To: [email protected]
Greeting
Dear Salma,
Thank you for your last e-mail telling me that you have been in
hospital for a week for a typhoid disease.
Reason
Ailments are a part of our life and they should not depend on
spirits. Your illness is only a phasing phase. you have to remain
cheerful. Your disease is curable and I believe that you are under the
treatment of a competent doctor. If time permits, I will visit you this
week.
Wish
Hope
 Wish is most commonly  Hope can also be used in
used in imagined/unreal
expressions of goodwill, but
situations:
the grammar is slightly
Example:
different
Examples:
- I wish (that) I met
you.(unfortunately,
- I hope (that) you have an
I didn’t meet you
unforgettable moment. (some
and I miss you.)
time in the future)
- I hope (that) you had a nice
 Sometimes wish is used
party. (some time in the
in greeting and
future)
expressions of goodwill.
Example:
We wish you a
 Hope can be used to specify a
“Lucky day,”
desired outcome. For future
hopes, the possibilities remain
Remember:
open, but for past hopes, the
“I wish you had finished
outcomes has usually been
the work is a regret. You
determined already.
didn’t do the work (in the
Examples:
past) and I am annoyed
- I hope you can come to the
because of that.
party tomorrow. (future
possibility)
- I was hoping that you would
come to the party . (but you
didn’t )
Take heart and may God bless you. Wishing you a very speedy
recovery.
Conclusion
Your sincerely,
Anya
-
Sign off
The writer wrote “ take heart and may God bless you. Wishing
you a very speedy recovery.” what does it mean?
7. Analyze the expressions below by competing the
following columns! One is done for you.
Form 1
I hope that the money
will come soon
Let’s hope that
everything will be
running well
Hopefully, we can get a
good harvest this season
I do hope that
everything will be fine
He hopes that somebody
will hire him
Essential
Subject
clues
I hope that money
Predicate
will come
soon
-

I had hoped to see you at the
party (but you didn’t)
Hope can be used in the
following ways:
- I would like to speak
English fluently.
- I really want to speak
English fluently.
- What I really want is to
speak English fluently.
Form 2
Convey my regards to
your mother
Say hello to your sister
Send my warmest
regards to father
Verb 1
Convey
Object 1
Form 3
Best of luck
Good luck
Good fortune be with
you
Adjective
Best
Object 2
Say
Send
Noun
of luck
Others
8. Complete the “ Get Well” messages with the words
provided!
a)
“ I just want to write
b)
I know that everyone
to encourage you to
gets sick sometimes. I
stay strong and
just don’t like
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
c)
e)
“ If I told you get
d)
“ I’m writing you a
well soon, it wouldn’t
prescription to get
be soon enough.
better . Don’t forget
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
………………………………………
I am praying for a quick recovery
for you. Get better and ………...……
……………………………………………………………
………………………………………………...…………
Get Well Now!”
to take your
medicine.”
to let you know you
are in my thoughts
and prayers.”
make my prayers
come true.”
to see someone as
nice as you suffer.
Get well!”
9. Read the following expressions and find the similar
expressions in your mother tongue!
Statements
1. “ I am sorry you are not
feeling well. I am praying
for you to have a complete
and quick recovery.”
2. “I’m sending you warm
regards, and I hope that you
will get well soon.”
3. “ I’m sorry to hear that you
are not felling well. get ell
soon!”
4. “Get well soon, so I can
come over and bother you.”
5. “I am praying that you have
the strength and the peace to
get through your illness.”
Your Mother Tongue
10. Work in pairs. In turns, express a wish/ hope about the
following topic. See the model below!
A:
B:
A:
Hello, good morning.
Morning, you look very busy. What’s up?
I’ve spent the whole morning at the library… looking
for information about ATMs – you remember- for the
B:
A:
B:
assignment that’s due Wednesday?
I know. I hope I can meet Miss Asri for some suggestions.
Wish me luck
Well, good luck and please give her my best wishes.
Thank you and the same to you.
The advantages
of homework.
Hopefully I can
find more
references about
it.
The platinum
generation
I hope I can finish
my assignment
soon
The problems
of being fat
Let’s hope that
everything will
run well
The
importance of
English
language
I wish I had
done it last
week
Best of
luck.
I wish
you
luck
I wish you
all the
best.
Good
fortune be
with you
Say hello to
your sister.
Send my
regards to
your mother
Convey my
warm regards
to your father
Say my hello
to your
brother
11. Create a similar dialogue by changing the phrase in italic. See
the model below!
Dialogue 1
Woman: Not many people know that I’m going to get my master
degree.
Man:
Well, congratulations. Your secret is safe with me.
Woman: I hope that my thesis will be approved tomorrow. Wish me
luck
Man : I know you’ve done very hard. SO, good luck. By the way,
How about having lunch before meeting your lecture?
Woman : That’s a good idea.
Dialogue 2
Man :
I thought your mother wanted orange juice.
Woman: She doesn’t like orange juice. She prefers apple.
Man :
But the machine only has milk. What do you think?
Woman: Let’s go to the canteen and have a glass of apple juice.
Man:
By the way, is your mother very sick?
Woman: Actually, she is a tough person. She looks like a
superwoman.
Man :
Are you trying to say that she is invincible?
Woman: Right. But she is human after all. She is in my thoughts and
prayers.
Man:
Let’s hope that she gets well soon.
Appendix 2: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 5
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 5
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
Grammar Focus: Simple Present, Simple Past,
Connectors in Personal Letter.
1. Simple Present and Simple Past in Personal Letter
Simple Present
To present ideas or
information in the present
time
Adverbs of Usually, commonly,
always, generally, every
time
week, every day, once a
week, etc.
Pattern
Statement:
Subject + Verb 1/ Verb 1
(s/es)
Negative statement:
Subject + don’t/doesn’t +
Verb 1
Interrogative statement:
Function
Simple Past
To tell about a past
experience
Yesterday, a long time
ago, last week, in 900, etc
Statement:
Subject + Verb 2
Negative statement:
Subject + did not + Verb 1
Interrogative statement:
Did + Subject + Verb 1
WH-questions:
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Read the following letter. Identify the verbs in the simple
present and simple past!
Dear Rangga,
I’m sorry I was not able to visit you last Sunday. I had to take
care of my brother because mum had to accompany dad to the ball. I
know my parents are the best but they are very busy. We rarely have
good communication so I feel that they don’t understand me. I hope
they have more times for me. They also want to know everything I
do. They always want to know where I go after school, with whom I
go.
I like listening to rock music very much but my parents don’t
like the music I listen to. They argue that it is too noisy and it is not
good for my ears. I feel that my parents pay more attention to my
baby brother. I hope my parents know how I feel about things.
Do you have any advice?
Your friend,
Cinta
Do/Does + Subject + Verb
1
WH-questions:
WH-question +
don’t/doesn’t + subject +
Verb 1
WH-question + did +
subject + Verb 1
2. Analyze the patterns of simple present and simple past tense
used in the letter above by completing the following tables!
Subject
Simple Present
(positive)
Simple Present
(negative)
Simple Present
(interogative)
I
Verb/linking
verb
Know
Aut. Verbs
Do
Subject
you
Subject
I
Simple past
Verb/linking verb
Was not able to
Others
My parents are
the best
Verb/Others
Others
Visit you last
Sunday
3. Read the following letter and fill in the blanks with the simple
present or past form of the words in the brackets!
Dear Cinta,
It’s alright that you couldn’t visit me last Sunday. Don’t you
(1) ________ (know) there’s always another Sunday? Do you still
(2) ________ (remember) Tom Page? He (3) ________ (ask) me to
accompany him to visit a home for disabled children two days ago.
Some of them speak and walk properly. We (5) ________ (bring)
some presents for them. It (6) ________ (to be) enjoyable day for
children and us.
Your Mum and Dad (7) ________ (want) to know who your
friends (8) ________ (to be) and where you (9) ________ (go) after
school because they (10) ________ (care) of you. You should thank
them. As for your music, I think it’s better if you use your
headphones when you listen to your favorite music. That way, you
won’t disturb anyone. Your parents (11) ________ (to be) right about
the danger of listening to loud music. It may cause hearing problems
later.
I (12) ________ (advise) to talk to your parents about your problems.
Hopefully they will understand you. Just remember that there are no
better friends than your Mum and Dad.
Your friend,
Rangga
2.
Connectors in Sentences
Compound Sentence
Two sentences are related
using connectors (and, but, or)
and they result a compound
sentence
Complex Sentence
The complex sentences have
two parts: independent and
dependent clauses.
Independent clause is a
complete thought while
dependent clause can come
before or after independent
clause. They are related using
because, so, although, that, etc.
4. Continue the following sentences with suitable sentence/
question provided. Add appropriate conjunctions or
connectors!
a) Yesterday Amir asked me to visit ‘Bali’ Island.
______________________________
b) My parents would be angry with me for watching TV before
studying. ______________________________
c) I think it would be very hard for me to, live in a big city.
______________________________
d) I love him so much but I do not know what to do.
______________________________
e) I don’t speak any Chinese so
______________________________
f) The more I write to you, the more problems see.
______________________________
I know that an international relationship is difficult
There are so many problems
They want me to spend more time on reading
I knew he would
I would have a difficult time finding a job
Would I fit in to a busy society?
5. Complete the personal letter with suitable connectors.
Choose the best one!
Dear Achmad,
Last Sunday was a fine day 1. _________ (but, or, and) the
first thing I did in the morning was to go to Candi Park to lead a “
Gotong Royiong” to clean up the park.
In the past, I used to go to this park to walk and exercise once a
week, 2. _________ (or, and, but)I am unable to do so lately 3.
_________ (although, so, because) I have to take final examinations.
4. _________ (So, Because, After) I had heard some complaints from
some jogger friends who used to jog in this park, I went to my school
principal to organize this “Gotong-royong” activity starting at 9am.
When I arrived at the park, I was told by my friends
5.
_________ (so, and, that) the park had been cleaned up in the past
few days, and the contractor of the park evener-installed the pillar of
the gate which was broken for half a year. They told me that they
have been blamed by the management of the park for inviting me to
interfere into the park’s “affairs”.
Our presence there made the new management of the park
quickly clean up all rubbish in the park. Never mind. I am quite
delighted to hear that. My friends 6. _________ (or, but, and) I
walked around the park to pick up rubbish for about an hour. Then I
rushed back home to take a quick shower.
You know what, my body was aching after all that. I had a
great appetite during lunch. 7. _________ (Before, So, After) I went
back home after lunch, I slept for two and a half hours. Oh my God, I
have not slept for so long in the afternoons for long time. I then cut
my night activity and slept a bit earlier that night (11.40 p.m).
Oh God, age is catching up. I did not realize my body was so
exhausted after that one hour ”Gotong-royong”.
You know, the joke is, I hardly ever to clean up my own home,
I used to hire a part-time maid to do it, 8. _________ (although, so,
and) now I went to sweep and clean up the park. Ha…..
ha…..ha….!!!
Your friend,
Theresa Kok
Appendix 3: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 6
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 6
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
Grammar Focus: Imperatives, Gambits Action
in order, Adverbs
A. Imperatives
a) Imperatives sentences to show instructions.
Start instructions with the infinitive without to form
E.g :
 Check…
 Collect..
 Buy…
b) Negative imperative shows that something is not allowed
to be done
E.g :
 Don’t litter the trash…
 Don’t break…
 Don’t blow out the candle.
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
1. Listen and repeat this repeat this spoken instructions!
Insert your ticket. You may make the payment in cash or by
credit card. Remove your ticket, please. You will need it to leave
the parking lot. Thank you very much.
Have a nice day!
2. Rearrange the pictures according to the instructions you heard!
These pictures tell you how to use a life jacket
Dos and Don’ts:
These are the English phrases of rules about what you
must do and what you mustn’t do in a particular
situation
3. Listen to the instructions and Match the pictures with the
right instructions you heard!
a) Doing Stretching
Instruction… Instruction…
Instruction…
Instruction…
b) Making Jelly
Instruction… Instruction…
Instruction…
Instruction…
4. Look at the following pictures and write down what you
should do and should not do!
(1) (Picture A) What should and should not be done to this dress?
a. This dress should be hand washed
b. This dress should ………………………
c. This dress ……………………………….
(2) (Picture B)
a. The blouse ………………………………
b. The blouse cannot ………………………
c. The blouse cannot be ironed …………….
d. …………………………………………..
(3) (Picture C)
a. Should this skirt be washed with other clothes?
b. Can bleaching damage fabric?
c. How should it be ironed?
d. can this skirt be washed in hot water? Explain your answer!
(Picture A)
(Picture C)
(Picture B)
5. Supply the following pictured-instructions with the
imperatives verbs!
How to Serve Instant Boiled Noodle
a)……….. the noodle into boiling water and b) …………
Slowly for three minutes. Meanwhile, c) ………………
all the seasonings into a bowl. d) …………………… the noodle
and the gravy into the bowl and e) ……………….
thoroughly. f)………………… some fried onion onto the
noodle. g)………… the noodle while it is hot.
6. Here are some tips what you must do and mustn’t do
while travelling. Put them in the correct columns of
Dos and Don’ts!
AIRPORT SECURITY: DOS AND DON’T’S
Dos
Don’ts









B. Must and Mustn’t
We use “must” to say that something is necessary to be
done.
E.g:
 You must go now or you’ll be late.
 The doors must be locked. Otherwise a thief will
break into your house.
We use “mustn’t “ to say that something is not allowed to
be done.
E.g.:
 She mustn’t say such a thing to older people. It is
impolite
 Visitors mustn’t feed the animals in the zoo.
Travel under another person’s name.
Provide straight answers when you are questioned at checkin.
Look the custom office right in the eye.
Leave your bag unattended at the airport.
Pack only carry-on luggage when possible.
Take care not to exceed limits on the size of your luggage.
Pack electronic gear in your hand luggage
Bring your prescription drugs with you in their original
container
Carry large amount of cash
7. Work in pairs. Fill in the blank spaces with “must” or
“mustn’t”!
Before board on a plane you 1) _________ show your
boarding card. You 2) _________ fasten your seatbelt during takeoff
and landing and during the flight when the sign is lit up. passengers
3) _________ radio sets on board. You 4) _________ use toilet
during takeoff or landing, and you 5) _________ smoke in the toilet
at any time. Passengers 6) _________ smoke in the no-smoking
area. After landing, you 7) stay in your seat until the aircraft has
come to standstill.
C. Sentence Connectors for Telling Actions in Order
8. Complete the paragraphs using the sentence connectors of
action in order.
Pay attention to this text
These are the steps of operating your Microsoft Window XP
First, crack an egg into a bowl like this. Then, with the egg
with a fork until it is smooth. See, it is smooth now. After
that, add some milk and whisk well. grate the cheese into
the bowl and stir. Now, heat the oil in a frying pan, and
pour the mixture into the frying pan. Then, turn the omelet
with a spatula when it browns. See, like this. Okay, next,
cook both sides. After the omelet is cooked, place it on a
plate, don’t forget to season it with salt and pepper. Well,
you can eat it while warm. It’s easy isn’t it?
The underlined words in the spoken text above are called
sentence connectors. They are used for telling actions in
order (showing someone how to do something or to make
things or showing the order of instruction)
Here are the list of the connectors:
First of all
Meanwhile
Then
Make sure you
Next
Be careful not to
After that
Remember to
Finally
Don’t forget to
computer. 1) __________ switch on your computer. Wait for the
Microsoft Window XP to appear. 2) __________, click the start
button in the down –left corner hand task bar, select the PROGRAM
and click. 3) __________, the MS Word screen may appear. 4)
__________, you can start typing.
To save a document or a file, you can follow these steps. 5)
__________, select and click the file in the upper-left hand corner
taskbar, then, select SAVE as if you want to save the file for the first
time. Name the file and 6) __________, click the SAVE button.
Now, after you have finished working with your computer, you
may close it using the following steps. 7) __________, save you’re
your work. 8) __________, click the close button. 9) __________,
One
Two
Three
First
Second
click START and select TURB OFF button. 10) __________, the
computer will close its program.
9. Complete the text using the se sentence connectors of action
in order!
Here are some steps to make a glass of orange juice. 1) __________ cut the orange in half pieces and remove the seeds. 2)
__________ grip the one half of the orange tightly and squeeze it by
hand, using the plain juicer to get the juice out. It is best to use an
electric orange juicer, as you will get much more juice from the
orange and into the glass. 3) __________ scrape the orange with the
spoon and add fruit directly to juice if you use a hand juicer for more
pulp. If you prefer clear juice, pour the juice through a strainer before
drinking. 4) __________ drink and enjoy a cold glass of freshly
squeezed orange juice.
D. Adverbs
An adverb is a word that qualifies the meaning of verb,
adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs typically answer
questions such as how? In what way? When? Where? And
to what extent?
An adverb comes from adjective + (-ly) such as in slowly,
suddenly, strongly, etc. an adverb provides information
about the manner, place time, frequency, degree or other
10. Pay attention to this text and underline the adverbs
Installing a printer!
If you are still unable to print, or the computer installing a printer
software installation fails:
1 Remove the CD from the computer CD drive and then
disconnect the USB cable from the computer.
2 Restart the computer.
3 Temporarily disable any software firewall and close any
circumstances.
Adverbs of
manner
Slowly
Fast
Adverbs of
place
Nowhere
Somewhere
Hard
At the
market
place
In the dark
Upstairs
From the
market
Beautifully
strongly
Adverbs of
time
Yesterday
Two days
later
At 5 o’clock
Adverbs of
frequency
Always
Nearly
In spring
In February
In 1969
Hardly ever
Often
After/before
1969
Sometimes
4
5
antivirus software. Restart these programs after the printer
software is installed.
Insert the printer software cd drive, then follow on screen
instructions to install the printer software. Do not connect the
cable until you are told to do so.
After the installation finishes, restart the computer.
11. Supply the appropriate adverbs for these tips!
Tips on Answering Phone Calls Politely at the Office
a. When you’re answering the phone
___________ 1), you don’t ___________2)
On the right foot
know who is ___________ 3). It could be your
On the other end
boss, a customer, one of your colleagues, or
Always
even a wrong number. Answering the phone
At your office
___________ 4) will start whatever
professionally
conversation you are about to have get off
___________ 5).
b. Stop what you are doing ___________ 6) and
take a brief moment to prepare for answering
in your tone
the call. It makes a difference whether you are
On the other
eating something, or chewing a gum, or crying,
side
your caller _________ 7) will hear that
__________ 8)
now
Appropriately
In business
situation
c. ___________ answer the phone ___________.
Tell your name and company: Good morning,
Rudely
Too informally
immediately
Efficiently
Carefully
On a piece of
memo Available
Appropriately
Quickly
Unwisely
Carefully
thank you for calling ABC Company. This is
Jane Doe. How may I help you?”
d. Try not to speak ___________, until you know
who the caller is. If the speaker does not
introduce themselves ___________12),say. “
may I ask who is calling?”. Don’t ask the
speaker ___________13) or she/he might get
displeased with you.
e. listen___________ 14) and find out the reason
why the person is calling and respond
___________ 15). If the person they trying to
reach is not ___________ 16), take a message,
record the person’s name, phone number and
purpose of call ___________ 17). If this is an
important call, it can be dealt ___________ 18)
and ___________ 19).
f. If the callers requests details about or others,
consider ________ 20) before responding. You
should be careful unless they are a trusted
contact. Some people may use it_________ 21)
for wrong purpose.
12. Match three of the pictures with the instructions by writing
the correct numbers in the boxes below. Then write
instructions to go with the other two pictures. Use the
instructions in the three previous pictures!
A. Sit on the floor with your legs straight in front of you.
Stretch your arm forward and touch our toes.
B. Lie on your back. Lift your bags straight up and point your
toes. Then lift your hips off the floor. Support yourself
with hands on your lower back.
C. Sit crossed-legged. Raise your left arm over your head and
stretch to the right.
Picture 1
Picture 2
Picture 4
Picture 3
Picture 5
13. Learn these pictures. The pictures tell you about taking a
picture with your cell phone. With your friends, present
your instructions and demonstration.
1. Hold up your phone facing
person or item you want to
take a photo off.
2. Press the camera button on
the keypad.
3. Be prepared to take the
snapshoot.
4. Press the OK button to
take the photo.
Appendix 4: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 7
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 7
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Grammar Focus : To be + Verb 3
Passive Voice
1. Look at the pictures. Match each picture with the suitable
words provided.
a) The Pattern of Passive Voice
Tea plantation
Subject + to be + past participle/verb
3
b) There are some academic verbs you may use when you
are writing in a scientific genre such as say, assume,
believe, claim, predict, theorize, think, fear, feel, etc
Tea trees
We can use academic verbs in passive voice.
o It was said that the world was flat.
o It is predicted that the result of the research will
change nothing.
Tea leave
Tea –leave
pickers
Tea bag
Grown
Picked
Dried
Selected
Sliced
Put into
Passive Voice: When to use it and to avoid it
In English, all sentences are either “Active” or “Passive” voice. In
an active sentence, the person or thing responsible for the action in
the sentence comes first.
 In a passive sentence the person or thing acted on comes
first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced with the
preposition “by”.
 In a passive sentence, we often omit the actor completely.
2. Listen a dialogue between a mother and her son talking about
‘ from Tea tree to a cup of tea’, and complete the text.
For many years, Indonesia has produced thousands of kilograms
of tea every year for its people and for international trade. Have you
ever thought about how the tea gets from the tea to your cup. You
should know about it.
First, 1) __________ in tea plantations in hilly and cool areas.
Next, the tea leaves 2) __________ by the tea-leave pickers and the
leaves 3) __________ under the sun for about a day until they are
almost dry. After that, the tea leaves of good quality 4) _________ and
When do I use Passive voice?
they 5) __________ by a cutting machine. They 6) _________ once
In some sentences, passive voice can be perfectly acceptable. you again.
When the processes has finished, the tea 7) _________. Later, the
might use it in the following cases:
tea 8) __________, supermarkets, perhaps a shop near your home or
1. The actor is unknown
e.g. The cave painting were made in the Upper Old Stone exported for international markets.
When you drink your tea, you can think about the many people
Age. ( We don’t know who made them.)
who have worked together to produce the tea and bring it to you.
2. The actor is irrelevant.
e.g.: An experimental solar power plant will be built in the
3. Check your comprehension. Answer the following question!
Australian desert. (We are not interested in who is building
a) Are tea trees only grown in cool areas?
it.)
b) What happens after the tea leaves are picked?
3. You want to be vague about who is responsible
c) How long are tea leaves sliced?
e.g.: Mistakes were made. (Common in bureaucratic
d) What happens to the tea leaves before the tea leaves are
writing!)
delivered to the store?
4. You are talking about a general truth
e.g.: Rules are made to be broken (By whomever, whenever)
5. You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on
e.g.: Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by researchers at
the University of Toronto. It is still the only treatment
available for diabetes.
6. You are writing in a scientific genre
Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific
research papers, most notably in the materials and methods
section.
e.g.: The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water. This
solution was then titrated with hydrochloric acid.
(The passive voice places the emphasis on your experiment
rather than on you.)
When should I avoid passive voice?
Passive sentences can get into trouble in academic writing
because they can be vague about who is responsible for the
action:
Both Othello and lago desire Desdemona. She is courted.
(Who courts Desdemona? Othello? lago? Both of them?)
4. Put the similar forms you found in the textunder these
headings!
Subject
Tea tress
To Be
are
Verbs 3
grown
Others
In tea plantations
5. Write sentences based on the following words. The sentences
will be about the process of how pulp and paper are produced
from forest trees.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
The tops and branches of the trees – cut out.
The logs – take to the mill.
The logs – remove.
The logs- take to a chipper.
The logs cut into small pieces called wood chips.
The wood chips – screen to remove dirt and other impurities.
The wood chips – export.
The wood chips- change into the pulp.
The pulp – bleach.
Academic writing often focuses on differences between the ideas
of different researches, or between your own ideas and those of
the researchers you are discussing. Too many passive sentences
can create confusion:
Research has been done to discredit this theory. (Who did
the research? You? Your professor? Another author? )
Passive sentences often sound wordy and indirect. They can
make the reader work unnecessarily hard. And since they usually
longer than active sentences, passive sentences take up precious
room in your paper:
Since the car was being driven by Michael at the time of
the accident, the damages should be paid for by him.
j) The water content – remove.
k) The pulp roll out to make paper.
6. Read the Text and then summarize it by completing the
sentences!
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and belong to
the order Hymenoptear. more than 12.500 out of an estimated total
of 22,000 species have been classified. they are easily identified with
their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that
forms a slender waist.
Ants are found on all continents except Antarctica. Ants
occupy a wide range of ecological niches, and are able to exploit a
wide range of food resources either as direct or indirect herbivores,
predators, and scavengers. most species are omnivorous generalists,
but a few are specialist feeders. Their ecological dominance may be
measured by their biomass.
Ants range in size from 0,75 to 52 millimeters, the largest
species being the fossil Titanomyrma giganteum, the queen of which
was 6 centimeters (2,4 in) long with wingspan of 15 centimeters (5,9
in). Ants vary in color; most ants are red or black, but a few species
are green and some tropical species have a metallic luster. more than
12.000 species are currently known with the greatest diversity in the
tropics. Taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and
systematic of ants. Online databases of ant species, including Ant
Base and the Hymenoptera Name Server, help to keep track of the
known and newly described species. The relative ease with which
ants may be sampled and studied in ecosystems has made them
useful as indicator species in biodiversity studies.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
12.500 ants ___________________.
Ants ___________________ with their elbowed antennae.
Ants ___________________ on Antartica.
Ants ecological dominance can be ___________________.
Newly ant species ___________________ to keep track of
the known and new species.
f. More than 12.000 species ___________________ with the
greatest diversity in the tropics.
7. Work in pairs. Underline the passive sentences in the extract
below!
A Tsunami Hit
There is very little warning before tsunamis hit. This means
that people living in towns and villages on the coast do not have time
to escape. Unfortunately, one of the biggest and worst effects of
tsunami is the cost to human life. Hundreds and thousands of people
are killed by tsunamis. People may be instantly killed or drowned as
water rushes on the land.
8. Rewrite the following paragraph using the passive form.
People may also 1. ____________ (kill) if a building 2.
____________ (knock down) by the tsunami and it hits them. they
can also 3. ____________ (electrocute) if wires fall down into the
water or they may 4. ____________ (kill) by wires or explosion.
Tsunami generally consists of a series of waves with periods ranging
from minutes to hours, arriving in a so called “wave-train”. wave
heights of tens of meters can 5. ____________ (generate) by large
events. although the impact of tsunamis 6. ____________ (limit) to
coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous.
Active and Passive Sentence
Tense
Simple
present
Active
Passive
Present
perfect
Active
Passive
Sentence
with
modals
(can,
May,
shall, etc)
Subject
Verb
Leaves
surround
The large
mass of
flower head
is
surrounded
Researcher
has found
A high
intake of
broccoli
has been
found
We
may eat
Broccoli
may be
eaten
Object
The large
mass of
flower
head
a high
intake of
broccoli
raw
broccoli
Others
by leaves
to reduce
prostate
cancer
raw
9. The passage below is an informal talk on “glass making”. It
uses active sentences. Rewrite the passage into formal
language using passive sentences!
“Well, first of all, we mix sand, soda, limestone, dolomite and
feldspar in the mixer. Then, we transfer them to the tank furnace.
There we heat them to a temperature of about 1500 degree Celsius
and when the glass is liquid, we reduce the temperature to about 900
degree Celsius and add arsenic and manganese dioxide. This removes
discoloration. Then, we mould the liquid in the required shape, we
cool it slowly. This stops it cracking.”
Glass making
a) First, sand, soda, limestone, dolomite and feldspar are
mixed in the mixer.
b) ___________________________________.
c) ___________________________________.
d) ___________________________________.
e) ___________________________________.
f) ___________________________________.
g) ___________________________________.
h) ___________________________________.
10. Read the following sentences. Put the sentences in the right
column and rewrite it!
Active sentences








Passive sentences
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
Elephants’ tusks are made of a hard white substance like bone.
People pay a lot of money for the ivory of an elephant’s tusks.
The ivory from the tusks is made into many beautiful things.
An elephants uses its tusk in many ways.
An elephant pulls up trees with its trunk when it wants to make a
path through the jungle.
The trunk is also used to get water.
The trunk can hold a lot of water.
An elephant needs to drink three hundreds pints of water every
day.
11. Read the text about “ Auctions”. Analyze the underlined
sentences by completing the columns! Some are done for you.
Subject
He
Subject
They
Active Sentences
Predicate
Object
asks
The crowd
assembled
Passive Sentences
Predicate
Object
are
conducted
Others
in the
auction room
Others
by an
officially
approved
auctioneer
Auctions
Auctions are public sales of goods. They are conducted by an
officially approved auctioneer. He asks the crowd assembled in the
auction-room to make offers, or bids for the various items on sale. He
encourages buyers to bid higher figures, and finally names the highest
bidder as the buyer of the goods. This is called “knocking down” the
goods, for the bidding ends when the auctioneer bangs a small hammer
on a table at which he stands. This is often set on a raised platform
called a rostrum.
An auction is usually advertised beforehand with full
particulars of the articles to be sold and the place and the time they can
be viewed by the prospective buyers. If the advertisement cannot give
full details, catalogues are printed, and each group of goods to be sold
together, called a “lot”, is usually given a number.
Practically all goods are sold by auction. Among these are
antique furniture, houses, paintings, cars, land, and property, rare
books, and ceramics. The Auctions rooms at Christie’s in London, and
Sotheby’s in New York are world-famous.
12. This diagram shows “how porcelain is made”. Complete the
paragraph below with suitable words and the passive forms
to explain the process clearly!
Porcelain is made from materials like Clay, Feldspar, Glass,
Bone ash and Alabaster. After (1) _________ are selected and (2)
_________ at the desired amounts, they (3) _________ and (4)
_________. Then, the materials (5) together before they (6) _________
into one of the four forming: soft plastic forming, stiff plastic forming,
pressing or casting. After the porcelain has been formed, (7)
_________must (8) _________ before the porcelain (9) _________.
Finally, the porcelain (10) _________ between about 1200 and 1400
degree Celsius.
Appendix 5: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 10
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 10
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Grammar Focus: Simple Present tense, Phrases and
Connective used in the persuasive text.
1. Read this text and underline all the verbs in present form!
1. Simple Present tense
Shopping in Saturday is usually difficult. Why? Many people
commonly do their shopping on the same day. This makes the sores
crowded. Customers often have to wait for a long time, for the clerks
are very busy. Frequently, there are not enough clerks. For these
reasons some people prefer to shop on days of the week.
In pairs, answer these questions!
1) What do you call the present form of verbs used in he
paragraph above?
2) What does simple present donate?
3) What adverbs of frequency are used in the paragraph?
4) Mention some other adverbs of frequency used in the Simple
Present and give examples in sentences.
5) Complete the following pattern of simple present.
Affirmative Plural Subject
…. subject
….
Verb 1 + …
e.g. : ___________________________________________
___________________________________________
Negative
Plural Subject
…. subject
….
…
Verb 1
Verb 1
e.g. : ___________________________________________
___________________________________________
Interrogative
Plural Subject
…. subject
….
Verb 1 + …
Verb …
Verb 1 …
e.g. : ___________________________________________
___________________________________________
2. Change the verbs in brackets into the simple present form to
complete the text!
Believe it or not, there are still really good reasons to care
about the environment even if you ______________ (1. not consider)
yourself an environmentalist. Here are several reasons why everyone
should care about the environment, no matter who you are.
 We desperately ______________ (2. need) to care about our
environment because every second the earth is getting polluted
by poisonous gasses and fumes made by cars and factories. If
we carry on to polluting this much what will happen to our
kids? How will they live? By keeping our environment clean,
it ______________ (3. help) clear the pollution.
 We ______________ (4. get) lots of resources from our forests
such as water, power, and oxygen. If we use to much the
resources and we ______________ (5. re-green) or restore
those forests, we may run out of the resources.
 The quality of our environment ______________ (6. affect) all
of us no matter where we live. The environment
______________ (7. be) our home. if it is not healthy, we will
not be healthy either. When people ______________ (8.
abuse) the environment, this ______________ (9. affect) us
all. If water is polluted, if the air is full of smoke and
chemicals, if food ______________ (10.contain) poisons,
people, plants and animals will get sick.
In conclusion, all people have a responsibility to protect and use
the environment in a way that will protect it for us, our children, and
our grandchildren.
2. IF Clause
3. Read the sentences and answer the questions!
Nuclear energy is very dangerous
 If there is a small leak in the nuclear plant, the people who
work or live in the nearby area will be affected by nuclear
radiation.
 If nuclear energy is not wisely managed, it can be used as a
devastating weapon in the wrong hands.
 If the nuclear waste is not properly stored, it will be extremely
hazardous to any living things.
Questions:
1) What are the sentences about?
2) What do you call the sentences above?
3) Write the pattern
Active sentence
If
Simple Present
Tense
If
Subject + ….
Passive sentence
If
Simple Present
Tense
If
Subject + ….
Present Future
Subject + ….
Present Future
Subject + ….
3. Phrases and connective in the persuasive text
a. When you want to prove your thesis statement in an
analytical exposition text, you can use these expressions.
- Why do I say that? (informal)
- This is so for several reasons.
- This is true based on the facts below.
- Let me tell you the reasons why. (informal)
- I say that for several reasons
b. You can develop an analytical exposition text by
enumeration. Numeral phrases used are:
- First, second, third, fourth, …
- Firstly, secondly, thirdly, …. finally ….
- In the first place, first of all, second, additionally, also,
furthermore, moreover, finally, last of all, last but not
least.
c. Another way to develop an analytical exposition text is list
reasons. Phrases used are:
- One reason is that ….
- Another is that ….
- Still another reason is that ….
d. In making a reiteration in an analytical exposition text, you
can restate the thesis statement or make a conclusion.
4. Complete the analytical exposition text using suitable phrases
and conjunctions!
Apartments offer Friendly Living
The number of high-rise apartment building continues to
mushroom not only in the center of the city but also in suburban
areas. This shows that many Indonesian enjoy living in apartments.
________________ (1).
________________ (2), people prefer to live in apartment
________________ (3) it is located near their offices; they can save
time ________________ (4) energy as they don’t have to experience
terrible traffic jams.
________________ (5), enjoy the new life style
________________ (6) an apartment offers comfort and privacy and
they don’t have to worry about the city’s high crime rate because
most apartments have 24-hour security systems.
________________ (7) people who enjoy practically,
________________ (8) this is reflected in the design of their place:
living rooms become smaller and verandah is no longer considered
important part of the house.
________________ (9) ________________ (10) will be more
constructed in Indonesian cities in the future.
Restating the thesis statement:
Working long hours at a computer, can cause eyestrain.
Why do I say that?
First, ……. . Second, ……. . Third, ……. .
So, working long hours at a computer can cause eyestrain.
In making a conclusion, you will need these expressions:
From the facts above, it is clear that ……. .
Based on the reasons listed above, it is obvious that ……. .
From the facts above, we conclude that ……. . Based on
the reasons listed above, it is concluded that ……. . Thus,
from the reasons above, we can conclude that ……. .
Appendix 6: The Presentation of the Grammar Materials in Unit 11
GRAMMAR MATERIALS IN UNIT 11
GRAMMATICAL ASPECTS TAUGHT (TOPIC)
GRAMMAR EXERCISES
Grammar focus :
 Simple, Continuous, and Perfect tenses
 Noun Phrases
 Auxiliary
A. Tenses
1. Simple present
Active Positive:
Subject + is/am/are + noun/
adjective/complement
To talk about facts that are
generally true or stay true
for a long time.

Albert Einstein’s
theories of relativity are
about basic ideas we
use to describe natural
happenings.

They are about time,
space, mass, movement,
and gravity
Subject (he/she) + Verb 1 +
s/es
Subject (they/we/you) +
Verb 1
Active negative:
1. Complete these extracts with the simple past tense form of the
words in brackets. Then, say who the person is!
A.
He 1. __________ (to be) one of the most well known
leaders in the world. He 2. __________ (bear) on 15 January 1929
in Atlanta, the United States of America. He 3. __________ (to
be) a key personality in the civil rights movement in America.
While he 4. __________ (to be) still a student, he became
interested in Mahatma Gandhi’s idea of non violent resistance. In
1959, he 5. __________ (go) to India to meet followers of Gandhi.
He then 6. __________ (become) certain that non-violent
resistance 7. __________ (to be) the best way to fight for freedom.
B.
He 8. __________ (to be) born June 6, 1901 in Surabaya, of

She/he + does not + verb1
They/you/we + do not +
verb 1
2. Present continuous
Active Positive:
To talk about an event that is
happening at the time of
speaking

Subject + am/is/are + verb 1
+ Ving
3. Simple past
You do not know who.
“You are looking for
someone,” he said
To talk about event which
took place in the past.
Active Positive:
Active negative:
Active:
 A.H. Nasution died in
Jakarta, 6 September
2000 at the age of 81
years.
Subject + did not + Verb1

He did not actually
become a member

His father was very
religious.
Subject + Verb2 / Subject +
was/were
Passive :
Subject + was/were + verb3
Javanese and Balinese parents. His father 9. __________ (to be) a
Javanese school teacher and his mother Balinese. He thus 10.
__________ (represent) a mixture of the Islamic Javanese and
Hindu Balinese Malay subcultures. he 11. __________ (go) to
secondary school in which most of the students were Dutch. he
thus not only 12. __________ (get) a good education, but 13.
__________ (become) imbued with a fierce desire for Indonesian
independence. In 1927 he 14. __________ (receive) a degree in
civil engineering from the Bandung technical Institute and became
an architect. but by this time he 15. __________ (find) his true
calling 16. __________ (to be) as an orator and politician. he
found he could profoundly move crowds with his oratory.
In 1928 he 17. __________ (help) found Partai Nasional
Indonesia (PNI), the Indonesian nationalist Party. it had
previously been known as the Perserikatan Nasional Indonesia,
the Union of Indonesian nationalists. there 18. __________ (to be)
a number of other nationalistic parties formed at that time and
later, but PNI was the most effective in promoting a mass
following.
2. In groups, analyze the language features in the biography by
completing the columns. See the examples!
Passive:
 Abdul Haris Nasution
was born in
Hutapungkut,
Mandailing natal
regency, North Sumatra.

4. Past continuous
Active Positive:
Subject+ was/were + V1 +
ing
On 30 January 1948,
Gandhi was assassinated
while he was in his way
to a gathering.
To show our interest in the
actions itself as it is actually
taking place.

He was studying the
complex mathematics of
calculus when all his
friends were still
studying simple
mathematics
Simple
past tense
Past Perfect
tense
Gandhi
was born in
India on
October
2nd, 1869
World leader
like Marthin
luther king
and Nelson
Mandela had
used Gandhi’s
method to get
justice for
their people.
Subject:
World leader
like Marthin
luther king
and Nelson
Mandela
Predicate:
had used
The
preeminent
leader
His birthday, 2
October, will
always be
commemorated
there as Gandhi
Jayanti, a
national holiday.
Real noun:
leader
Subject: His
birthday, 2
October
Adjective:
preeminent
Others:
Gandhi’s
method to get
justice for
their people.
Others: the
father of the
nation
Predicate : will
always be
commemorated
Others:
commemorated
there as Gandhi
Jayanti, a
national holiday.
Subject:
Gandhi
Predicate:
was born
Others: In
India on
October
2nd, 1869
Noun
Phrase
Auxiliary
5. Past perfect
Active Positive:
Subject + had + Verb 3
The past perfect tense is
often used in a sentence
when we are relating two
events which happened in the
past.

World leaders like Dr.
martin Luther King and
Nelson Mandela had used
Gandhi’s methods to get
justice for their people.
3. In pairs, analyze the following biography according to its
social functions, the text structure and the language features.
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a scientist who changed the
way we understand the universe. In the year 1905, he
published some important papers in a German scientific
magazine. They included one of the most scientific
documents in history. It was filled with mathematics.
It explained what came to be called his ‘Special theory of
relativity.” Ten years later, he expanded it into a
“General theory of relativity”. Albert Einstein’s theories
of relativity are about the basic ideas we use to describe
natural happenings. They are about time, space, mass,
movement and gravity.
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, in
1879. His father owned a factory that made electrical
devices. His mother enjoyed music and books. Albert
was a quiet child who spent much of his time alone. He
was slow to talk and had difficulty learning to read. He
also did not like school. One story says Albert told his
uncle Jacob how much he hated school, especially
mathematics. His uncle told him to solve mathematical
problems by pretending to be a policeman. “You are
looking for someone,: he said, “but you do not know
who. Call him X Find him by using the mathematical
The use
of
Simple
Present
……………
Present
Continuous
…………...
tools of algebra and geometry.”
Albert learned to love mathematics. He was
studying the complex mathematics of calculus when all
his friends were still studying simple mathematics.
Instead of playing with friends, he thought about things
such as: “ What would happen if people could travel at
the speed of light?”
Albert decided that he wanted to teach
mathematics and physics. He attended the federal
polytechnic Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. He
graduated with honors, but could not get a teaching job.
SO he began working for Swiss government as an
inspector of patents for new inventions. The job was not
demanding. He had a lot of time to think about some of
his scientific theories.
In 1921, He won the Nobel prize in Physics. It
was given to him, not for his theories of relativity, but for
his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. This
scientific law explained how and why some metals give
off electrons after light falls on their surfaces. The
discovery led to the modern electronics, including radio
and television.
Albert Einstein taught in Switzerland and
Germany. He left Germany when Adolph Hitler came to
power in 1933. He moved to the United States to
continue his research. He worked at the institute for
advanced study in Princeton, New Jersey. Einstein
Simple
Past
tense
…………….
.
Past
Perfect
……………
Past
continuous
…………….
.
Noun
Phrases
………..…
B. Noun Phrases
Subject
: Albert Einstein theories of relativity
are about the basic ideas we use to
describe natural happenings.
Object of verb : He published some important papers
in a German scientific magazine.
Object of preposition : He published some important
papers in a German scientific magazine.
Subjective complement : Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
was the pre-eminent leader and freedom
fighter of Indian Nationalism.
C. Auxiliary
Subject
A. H.
Nasution
Albert
Einstein
World
leaders like
Dr. Martin
Auxiliary
verb (be)
Was
Verb
Others
Promoted
To corporal
Was
Studying
Auxiliary
verb
(has/have)
Used
The complex
mathematics
of calculus
Gandhi’s
methods to
get justice
became a citizen of the United States in 1940.
Einstein was a famous man, but you would not
have known that by looking at him. His white hair was Auxiliary
long and white. he wore old clothes. He showed an inner ……………
joy when he was playing his violin or talking about his
work. Students and friends said he had a way of
explaining difficult ideas using images that were easy to
understand. He died in 1955. He was seventy- sic years
old.
4. In pairs, analyze the followings. See the examples!
Noun Phrase
Phrase
Words used before a noun
Noun
Some important
some
important
papers
papers
One of the most
one of the
most,
documents
important
important,
scientific
scientific
documents
The complex
the
complex
mathematics
mathematics of
of calculus
calculus
The pre-eminent
leader
The freedom
fighter of Indian
nationalism
A Hindu family
Luther King
and Nelson
Mandela
His
birthday, 2
October
for their
people
Have
Auxiliary
verb
(modal)
Will always
be
commemorated
There as
Gandhi
Jayanti, a
national
holiday
 Auxiliary verbs are additional verbs that may be used with main
verbs to add meanings.
 All the forms of be, have, do and all Modals are auxiliary verbs.
 Avoid using –ing forms without ‘be’, participles without ‘have’
and verb words without modals.
5. Read the text about William Shakespeare. Underline the
auxiliary verbs found in the text.
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare was born in 1564 at Stratford-on-Avon in
England. At the time Elizabeth I had been queen for six years.
We do not know much about Shakespeare’s life. However, we
do know that his father was a shopkeeper and that his mother was the
daughter of a farmer. William went to Strafford Grammar school,
where he learnt Latin, Scripture and mathematics.
When he left school, William was employed by his father. He
married a local girl, Anne Hathaway, when he was eighteen. Three
years later he left Strafford and went to London.
We do not know anything about Shakespeare’s life between
the years 1585 and 1590. We are certain, however, that by the end of
1590 he had joined a group of actors and had started writing plays.
During the next twenty years, he wrote thirty two plays. He wrote
possibly more plays. During the next twenty years, he wrote thirty
two plays, which he hadn’t published or performed.
Shakespeare went back to Stratford-on-Avon a few years
before he died in 1616 at the age of 52.
Appendix 7: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 3
WRITING MATERIALS IN UNIT 3
Topic
Expressing
hopes
Language features
Using Simple Present
tense, Present Continuous
tense, Modal, and
Adverbs within the topic
of expressing hopes.
Expressing
hopes and
wishes
Using Simple Present
tense, Present Continuous
tense, Modal, and
Adverbs within the topic
of expressing hopes and
wishes.
Giving Wishes
in personal
letter
Using the language
structures of personal
letter (The expression at
the opening , body, and
Writing Assignments
5. Write sentences expressing ‘hope’ for the situations given below!
a
The prices of nine staple foods are soaring. There is a fear that there
will be a famine sweeping the nation.
b Some children are exploited to ask for money at the traffic light.
c Some excellent students are forced to discontinue their study at
universities.
d Dozens of students in sub-districts have had to sit on the floor in
the classroom since 2006.
e Poor patients do not receive proper health support from hospitals.
6. Create a dialogue based on the situations given!
a) One for your friend is going for a final examination. You meet her
on the street on the way there
b) Two people are talking in an office. One has just been transferred
to a different city. This is the last time you will see each other.
c) You are talking with an acquaintance at a party. She tells you that
she is going to study abroad.
d)
7. Send a letter/email of good wishes to a friend of yours who will
celebrate her 17th birthday in Patra Jasa Convention Hall. Tell her that
you will be there to join her happiness on that occasion. Convey your
birthday wish to her.
closing ), the expression
of Giving wishes, and
using Simple Present
tense and Simple Past
tense in Personal letter.
8. Write a letter or e-mail to a friend that has been sick for a month
because of her lung cancer that he has long been suffering from. Tell
him to remain cheer up and give him hope that his disease is curable
and he will get well soon. Convey your wish of his recovery.
Appendix 8: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 5
WRITING MATERIALS IN UNIT 5
Topic
Language features
Personal Letter
Using Present tenses
(Simple, Continuous,
Perfect), Past tenses
(Simple, Continuous,
Perfect), Modal,
Auxiliary, Compound and
Complex sentences, and
Adverbs.
Writing Assignments
1. -
Complete the following table with information of your favorite
song!
Type Of
Song
Pop
Rock
Dangdut
Keroncong
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
-
Title
Describe The
Song
Answer the following questions briefly!
What kind of song do you like most?
Why do you like them?
Which is your favorite song?
Why do you like it?
When did you listen to the song for the first time?
How did you feel when you listened to the song for the first time?
Use your answers to complete the following letter!
Dear Rebecca,
Do you like listening to songs? What sort of songs do you listen to? I
really like pop songs. After school hours, I often listen to my favorite
songs. I like __________ most because__________. My favorite song is
__________ .I like it because __________. I listened to the song for the
first time when__________. When I listened to the song for the first time
I __________.
How about you? What kind of song do you like most? Please write
soon.
Our friend,
Mila
2. - Describe how you spent the last New Year’s Day by Completing
the tables below. See the examples.
Preparation Unforgettable
Activities
Cooked
Ate friend
fried noodle noodle at
12.00 sharp
-
Where
Was It?
Under a
mango
tree
How Was
It?
It was
amazing
but cold
Answer the following question briefly!
a) What did you prepare for the last New Year’s Day?
b) Why did you do it?
c) What activities do you remember well?
How Did
You Feel?
I felt
colder
d)
e)
f)
g)
What makes it difficult to forget?
When did the activity take place?
Where did the activity take place?
How did you feel by doing the activity?
-
Use your answers to complete the following letter!
Dear Rica,
Did you prepare anything for the last New Year’s Day what did you
do that day? I __________ because __________. I remember when I
__________. It is difficult for me to forget it because __________.
Besides ___________. The __________ took place in __________. When
__________ I felt __________. It was __________ but __________.
How about you? Please write soon.
Yours lovingly,
Robby
3. Your friend Sinaga, from Medan, has a one day holiday plan to
visit your town. He wants to know the tourists attractions he
must visit in your town. Write a personal letter to tell him about
the tourist attractions to visit, including the famous food he has to
eat.
Dear Sinaga,
I am very glad to hear that you are going to visit my town. Don’t
worry, I am going to be your guide while enjoying some tourist
attractions in my town. Actually there are many famous and interesting
places in my town to make your one day holiday unforgettable. In the
morning, for example, ……………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………..
In the afternoon, ……………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………… .
In the evening, ………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………… .
Your friend
4. You received a letter from your pen pal Terry in Singapore. Read
about how she spent her holiday and then write back to her.
Dear Sity, The holidays have just passed. How was your holiday? I spent
my holiday in my grandpa’s house. In the morning, we went to the city park.
When we came home, my dad cooked a delicious lunch. After lunch, I
sometimes sat around together with my parents and grandpa, usually talking or
singing. It rained almost every day so I did not go out much.,
Hope to hear from you soon.
With love,
Terry
Appendix 9: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 6
WRITING MATERIALS
Topic
Giving
Instructions
Language features
Using Imperatives,
Connectors, Modal (Must
& Mustn’t or Should &
Shouldn’t/ Can’t &
Can’t), and Adverbs of
manner.
Writing Assignments
1. Match three of the pictures with the instructions by writing the
correct numbers in the boxes below. Then write instructions to go
with the other two pictures!
Picture 1
Picture 2
Picture 4
Picture 3
Picture 5
D. …………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
E. …………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………….
2. Present your tips about handling an emergency situations based
on the pictures provided.
a)
c)
b)
d)
Appendix 10: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 7
WRITING MATERIALS
Topic
Procedural Text
Language features
Using Passive Voice,
Imperatives, Connectors,
Modal (Must & Mustn’t
or Should & Shouldn’t),
and Adverbs of manner.
Writing Assignments
1. Complete the dialogue with suitable information about the process
of making porcelain! (See the diagram in the appendix 4 )
Hi, Tora, you’re back.
You look very sunburned. Did you have a good time?
Hi! Yes, I sure did.
You went to Jardine porcelain manufacture, didn’t you?
What did you do there?
Taher: Well, a beautiful lady named Cathy Pearson explained to me
(1)……………………………………….
Tora : Wow it sounds interesting. So what is it made from?
Taher: (2) ……………………………..…… .
Tora : It’s very simple.
Taher: You’re right and the process is also very simple.
Tora : Really? Could you explain it to me?
Taher: After (3) ………………….…. and (4) …………...………… at the
desired amounts, they (5) …………… and (6) …………………..
Tora : And then the materials (7) …………..…...……….. together before
they (8) ……………………………… into soft plastic forming,
pressing or casting. Am I right?
Taher: Correct.
Tora : The what is the next stage?
Taher:
Tora :
Taher:
Tora :
Taher: After the porcelain has been formed, (9) ……..……….. must (10)
before the porcelain (11) …..……………….………. Finally, the
porcelain (12) ………………………………. between about 1200
and 1400 degree Celsius.
Tora : I think it isn’t a simple process. It sounds like hard work.
Taher: Yes, but it’s enjoyable.
2. Write a short paragraph about the diagram using suitable words
and the passive forms to explain the process clearly!
Appendix 11: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 10
WRITING MATERIALS
Topic
Language features
Persuasive
writing using
topic and
supporting
sentences.
Using Simple Present
tense, and enumeration
used in persuasive text.
Persuasive
writing using
conditional
sentences.
Using If Clause.
Writing Assignments
4. Write your short paragraph using the topic sentences and the
supporting sentences!
a. Good roads are important for our country. Why? They are good for
business because they make possible the fast transportation of food
and merchandise ……………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………
b. A library is one of the most important institutions. First, Knowledge is
stored in the library. Secondly, ………………………………….
…………………………….………….. . Thirdly, …………………
……………………………………………………………………..
c. Basketball is popular in many countries. One reason is that ……….
…………………………………………………………. . Moreover,
Furthermore, ……………………………………………………….. .
d. Among football players, I like Christian Ronaldo very much. ……
……………………………………………………………………...
5. Write your conditional sentences!
Pollution is harmful to all living things
 If the air pollutant combines with the water droplets, it will form acid
rain.
 If the acid rain falls over an area, it can kill trees and harm animals,
fish and other wildlife.
 ……………………………………………………………………
 ……………………………………………………………………
Honey is good for our health
 If you have inflammation, take a spoon of honey and swallow it
because honey contains anti-inflammatory agents.
 …………………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………….
Analytical
exposition text
Using Simple Present
tense, Present
Continuous tense,
Present Perfect tense,
Phrases and connectors
used in persuasive text,
and Compound and
Complex Sentence.
Jakarta need a mass rapid transportation
 …………………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………….
 …………………………………………………………………….
6. Write your own analytical exposition text with the following topics.




Global warming is very hazardous to living things.
Life would be different without electricity.
Corruption should be banned in this country.
Cars should be limited in towns.
Appendix 12: The Presentation of the Writing Materials in Unit 11
WRITING MATERIALS
Topic
Biography Text.
Language features
Using Present tenses
(Simple, Continuous,
Perfect), Past tense
(Simple, Continuous,
Perfect), Noun Phrases,
Adverbs, and Auxiliary.
Writing Assignments
1. Work in groups and search in internet to find 3 texts to find
national heroes or heroines!


Write a simple biography using the information you found
Use the following outline
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Give a short explanation about who he/she
was
Give information about him/her.
 When and where he was born, his education
and his career.
 Write about his work and the qualities that
made him/her special.
 State his achievements
State the importance of his contribution
2. Write a simple biography of a famous person. Do some research
and make the notes. Use the notes to write a biography of more
than 100 words.
You may use the following guide.







Write the name of a famous
person
Date of birth : ____________
Place of Birth : ____________
Education
: ____________
Career
: ____________
Achievement : ____________
Date of death : ____________
Contribution : ____________
3. Write a magazine article about the person you talked about.
Include an imaginary interview with the person! Write about what
she did everyday and what she thought about!
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