Computer Practice N4

Computer Practice N4
Book Title
BookBook
Title
Student’s
Student’s
Book
FET FIRST
Level 3
NATEDFET
Series
FIRST
Author
Level
3
COMPUTER PRACTICE N4
Author
Student's Book
P. L. Immelman
FET FIRST NATED Series
Computer Practice N4
Student’s Book
© P. L. Immelman, 2012
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the
copyright holder or in accordance with the provisions
of the Copyright Act, 1978 [as amended].
Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this
publication may be liable for criminal prosecution and civil
claims for damages.
First published 2012 by
Troupant Publishers [Pty] Ltd
P.O. Box 4532
Northcliff
2115
Author: Pieter Immelman
Copy editing by Vanessa Perlman
Proofreading by Catherine Haddon
Cover design by René de Wet
Typesetting by Golden Pear Desktop Publishing
Distributed by Macmillan South Africa [Pty] Ltd
ISBN: 978-1-430800-02-6, eISBN: 978-1430802-19-8
It is illegal to photocopy any page of this book
without written permission from the publishers.
While every effort has been made to ensure the information published in this work is
accurate, the authors, editors, publishers and printers take no responsibility for any
loss or damage suffered by any person as a result of reliance upon the information
contained therein. The publishers respectfully advise readers to obtain professional
advice concerning the content.
To order any of these books contact Macmillan Customer Services at:
Tel: (011) 731 3337
Fax: (011) 731 3535
e-mail: [email protected]
Contents
SYLLABUS GRIDiv
Module 1 INTRODUCTION to computers
1
Unit 1.1 What is a computer?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Unit 1.2 Hardware and software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Module 2 KEYBOARD PROFICIENCY
12
Unit 2.1 The Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Unit 2.2 Correct sitting posture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Module 3 SYSTEM SOFTWARE
24
Unit 3.1 Magnetic storage media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Unit 3.2 Files and file names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Unit 3.3 The operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Unit 3.4 My Computer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Unit 3.5 Formatting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Module 4 TEXt manipulation
43
Unit 4.1 Word processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Module 5 TEXt manipulation (2)
57
Unit 5.1 Special print functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Unit 5.2 The Help menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Module 6 TEXt manipulation (3)
73
Unit 6.1 Formatting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Module 7 TEXt manipulation (4)
116
Unit 7.1 Working with text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Module 8 TEXt manipulation (5)
130
Unit 8.1 Headers and footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Module 9 SPREADSHEETS (1)
170
Unit 9.1 How to start up Excel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Unit 9.2 Types of entries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Module 10 SPREADSHEETS (2)
193
Unit 10.1 Columns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Module 11 SPREADSHEETS (3)
214
Module 12 SPREADSHEETS (4)
236
Glossary256
iii
Module 1
INTRODUCTION to computers
OVERVIEW
At the end of this module, you should be able to:
• Identify different fields of computer applications in the business world.
• Differentiate between different types of computers.
• Identify the different parts of a microcomputer.
• Explain why a computer needs an operating system and differentiate between
systems and applications software.
• Identify the different hardware components of a computer system.
• Differentiate between output and input peripherals.
• Explain why a computer system needs memory and differentiate between ROM
and RAM memory.
• Compare printers.
• Differentiate between and explain the uses of the different peripherals.
UNIT 1.1 What is a computer?
A computer is a set of integrated components that process data according to instructions.
It is an electronic device that carries out arithmetic and logical processing according to a
program (a list of instructions telling the computer what to do). A computer processes
data accurately at high speed and can save great quantities of data in its memory, hard
drive, flash disk or on CDs. A computer can also retrieve processed data from flash disks
or CDs.
Data: information processed by a computer
Program: a set of instructions or code the CPU executes, designed to help you solve problems or perform tasks,
also called software
Hard drive: a piece of hardware in the computer case that permanently stores large amounts of information
Flash disk: a small, ultra-portable storage device which, unlike a hard drive, has no moving parts. Most flash
drives connect to the PC via a built-in USB port
CD: (compact disk) is a type of medium used to store files and information
The development of computers
Long ago, people used sticks and stones to count. They carved marks into pieces of bone
and wood and they made knots on pieces of string to keep records. The abacus, which
originated in China, was the first step in the development of computer technology.
The development of generations was recognised by the time the computer was developed.
Tubes and valves were used by the first generation. Transistors were used in the second
1
generation to make computers smaller and faster. The integrated circuit defined the third
generation. The memory and the microprocessing chip started the microcomputer of
the fourth generation. The latest technology continues to produce microcomputers with
more memory, speed and power.
Computer applications
Computers play an essential role in the business world. Today it would be impossible for
a business to work effectively without them. The following are common applications of
computers in the business world.
Word processing
Word processing is the manipulation of text. You can type information and save it on
the hard drive or flash disk or a CD for later use or to be modified and corrected. Word
processing programs include Microsoft Word and Microsoft Word Pad.
Spreadsheets
A spreadsheet program manipulates numbers and does mathematical calculations. You
can also use formulae in a program like Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3.
Accounting
Different transactions can be entered into the computer in a specific accounting program
and neat and accurate results will be available for decision-making by management.
Income statements, balance sheets, stock control, turnover and budgets are only a few
options a program such as Microsoft Pastel offers.
Desktop publishing and graphics
Microsoft Publisher, for example, can be used to design books, newspapers, magazines or
graphics.
Database
This is a type of filing system, such as Microsoft Access, used at schools, colleges,
universities and companies for processing the personal details of students and personnel.
Even video shops can use the database for the videos available in their shop.
Application: a program in which you do your work
Spreadsheet: a program designed to look like an electronic ledger
Types of computers
There are various types of computers. Some include mainframe computers, super
computers, microcomputers and laptop computers.
Mainframe computers
These are huge and powerful computers used by large companies, for example, call
centres, commercial banks and export and import companies. These computers’
2
terminals are linked to the main computer. The terminal consists of a monitor, a
keyboard and a printer.
Figure 1.1 A mainframe computer and a laptop computer
The main computer has multiple access arms with read and write heads capable of
serving more than one terminal at a time. It has a large storage capacity of millions of
characters (gigabytes) and can process a huge amount of information fast.
These computers need air-conditioned, dust-free rooms and are online 24 hours a day.
Specially trained staff need to operate them.
Supercomputers
Supercomputers are more powerful and faster than mainframe computers. They are also
more expensive and only used by very large institutions.
Minicomputers
These are smaller versions of mainframe computers to which a limited number of
terminals can be linked. They are cheaper, slower and have less storage capacity than the
mainframe computer.
Microcomputer setup
The microcomputer consists of a central processing unit (CPU), a mouse and keyboard,
a visual display unit (VDU) and a printer. Smaller businesses use microcomputers for
ordinary data processing, for example, accounting, salaries, wages, word processing and
stock control. Only one operator uses the microcomputer and it has no extra terminals. It
is driven by a powerful microprocessing chip.
Monitor: an output device that looks like a TV screen, also called the computer screen
Keyboard: most common input device, used to enter letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation and commands
into the computer
Printer: a piece of equipment that creates a “hard” paper copy of the input as it is seen on the computer screen
Gigabytes: (GB) 1024 megabytes
CPU: the central processing unit or “brains” of the computer, which interprets and executes program instructions
Microcomputer: a complete computer on a smaller scale, generally a synonym for a personal computer or PC
3
Assessment activity 1.1
(Individual)
1. List the advantages and the disadvantages of using a computer rather than doing
everything manually.
2. In table form, compare three types of computers and three characteristics of each
type.
3. Name the different parts of a microcomputer.
4. Mention the uses of computers in the business world.
UNIT 1.2 Hardware and software
The microcomputer consists of two main components, namely hardware and software.
Figure 1.2 Hardware and software
Software
The software refers to the part of the computer that cannot be seen or touched. Without
the software programs, the computer hardware cannot operate.
Software consists of programs. A program is a set of instructions in computer language,
which tell the computer what to do and how to perform an action. Software or programs
are divided into two different sections:
System software
The system software contains all the primary elements of software – no other software
can be used without it. System software provides the instructions that run the computer.
Systems software is also called the operating system. The operating system controls
the internal management of the computer. Examples of system software are MS DOS,
Windows 98, 200, 2007, XP, NT, UNIX and LINUX.
Applications software
This is specialised software written to execute specific tasks. Microsoft Word, for
instance, is used to type documents such as correspondence. You can do arithmetical
calculations using Microsoft Excel. An auditing company will use Softline Pastel for
budgets, income statements and balance sheets.
4
Language systems
Programmers use language systems to write programs, for example, Pascal, Basic and C.
Hardware
The hardware of a computer consists of those parts that you can see and touch, including
devices that can be attached to the computer and the CPU. Examples of these devices are
modems, keyboards, disk drives, printers and mouses.
Hardware components
CPU
The CPU is referred to as the brain of the computer. It coordinates and supervises the
operation of the input, memory, output and Arithmetic Logic Unit of a computer.
All the information is first translated into 0s (on) and 1s (off) (or binary codes) for the
computer to manipulate. This is because the computer processor cannot work with
letters, figures or words. The memory storage capacity of a computer (in other words, the
space on the computer) is measured in bits and bytes.
1 bit = 1 binary number 0/1
8 bits = 1 byte (8 bits is a unit of information)
1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte
1 million bytes = 1 megabyte
1024 megabytes = 1 gigabyte
Operating system (OS): needed to make computer programs work. Operating systems perform basic tasks,
such as recognising input from the keyboard or mouse, sending output to the computer screen, keeping track of
information stored on disk drives, and controlling hardware such as printers.
Document: a file that has been created in an office program, such as word processing or spreadsheet
Modems: devices that connect a computer to the internet through a telephone line
Bit: the smallest piece of information used by a computer, in computer language, either a 1 or a 0
Byte: a piece of computer information made up of 8 bits
Input device: computer hardware that accepts data and instructions, such as the keyboard and mouse
Output device: a hardware component, such as a monitor or printer, that returns processed data
Arithmetic Logic Unit: the part of a CPU that performs mathematical operations
The CPU consists of the following parts:
The control unit
This unit controls the computer’s input and output devices. It also loads and stores data
to and from the computer and it controls the flow of information between the main
memory and the Arithmetic Logic Unit.
5
The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
This unit is responsible for the arithmetic calculations such as adding, subtracting,
multiplying, dividing and comparisons.
Read Only Memory (ROM)
The ROM is the permanent memory of the computer. It contains the instructions to start
the computer. The data/information on the ROM can only be read and cannot be deleted
or changed. The computer uses the ROM to read the circuit boards and to check the
peripherals of the computer. Information necessary to make the computer run smoothly
is stored on the ROM during the manufacturing process.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
The RAM is the temporary memory of the computer. It is used to save data and programs
during processing. The RAM of the computer will be erased when the computer is
switched off. It also defines the size of your computer, for example,16MB, 32MB.
Programs used during processing and data entered via the keyboard are stored in the
RAM. Information or data can also be transferred from the RAM to a flash disk or CD.
Peripherals
All other attachments to the computer are called peripherals. These devices are either
used to send information to the computer or to receive information from the CPU. The
terms input and output devices are used for these functions.
Input
Output
Keyboard (communication)
Printer (hard copy)
Disk drives
Visual Display Unit (VDU or screen)
Mouse
Modem
Plotter
Joystick
Scanner
Lightpen
Voice recognition devices
ROM (Read Only Memory): a computer’s built-in memory containing data that can normally only be read and
not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows the computer to be booted up
Peripherals: devices connected to a computer, but not part of it, such as a mouse or keyboard
RAM (Random Access Memory): a computer’s temporary memory. RAM stores data and programs while they
are being used
MB: Short for megabyte or 1024 kilobytes, used to measure the size of a computer’s memory
6
Assessment activity 1.2
(Individual)
1. Define hardware and software.
2. Differentiate between application software and system software.
3. In a diagram, show the computer system, the input and output devices as well as
the CPU and the different memories.
4. List the functions of the CPU and name its parts.
5. Differentiate between the RAM and the ROM of a computer.
Components of a computer system
CPU (central processing unit/the
brain of the computer)
Arithmetic Logic Unit
The primary memory
ROM (read only memory)
RAM (random access memory)
Output
Diskettes
Printer
Fig 1.3 Components of a computer system
7
Visual display unit
Keyboard
The keyboard is used for
communication between the
computer and the Visual Display Unit
(VDU or screen). All the information
that you key in will be displayed on
the VDU.
Figure 1.3 A keyboard
Visual Display Unit
The screen is similar to the screen of a TV except that
you can see the text you type on the screen. It is the
communication device between the operator and the
computer. Make sure that you read the information on
the screen because it is the only way that the computer
can communicate with you – the operator.
Types of vDUs
Monochrome screens
These screens cannot display colours. The background
screen is black with white, green or amber characters.
Figure 1.4 A VDU
Colour screens
These screens can display different colours in different resolutions. Colour can also convey
information. Resolution is measured in the number of horizontal and vertical pixels (dots).
Pixels make up graphics. Various types of adapters are available for colour screens.
EGA and CGA (Enhanced/Colour Graphics Adapter)
It displays text and graphics in colour.
VGA (Video Graphics Adapter)
It has more colours, but is otherwise the same as the EGA.
Super VGA
This screen is very sophisticated and displays more than 256 colours.
Sizes of VDUs
Screens come in different sizes from 14 inch to 20 inch. To reduce eye fatigue, try to
use a 15 inch screen. You should be able to see 80 characters horizontally and 24 lines
vertically on the screen. You can adjust the brightness and contrast with the buttons on
the screen.
How to reduce eye fatigue
The recommended screen size is 14 inches (288 mm) to 15 inches (355 mm) horizontally.
This will not cause eye strain with characters that are too small and require too much
8
eye movement. Keep your eyes the correct
distance from the screen or about 30 inches
or 621 mm away from the screen (two
screen lengths). The correct reading angle is
10 to 15 degrees or just below the horizontal
viewing line. You can adjust your chair to
ensure the correct reading angle. You can
use overhead lighting to avoid reflection
on the screen. Also avoid reflection of light
from doors and windows. Try not to strain
your eyes for more than an hour at a time.
Rest your eyes after an hour. Intensive
full-time work on a computer makes
heavy demands on the eyes and can cause
headaches, blurred vision and double vision.
Go for regular eye tests.
Printers
Printers are divided into two main groups:
impact and non-impact printers.
Figure 1.5 Eye fatigue must be avoided
Impact printers
Dot matrix printers
These printers are used for general office work
and work on the principle of eight straight
pins in a line. They can print text and graphics
and a variety of letter types. They are cheaper
and faster than daisy wheel printers. The letter
quality is not outstanding, but you can use the
near letter quality (NLQ) function.
Figure 1.6 A dot matrix printer
Daisy wheel printers
They work on the principle of a round disk with spokes, with characters attached on the
end of each spoke. The wheel rotates to find the desired character. This impacts on the
ribbon and then onto the paper to print the required characters. Daisy wheel printers
cannot print graphics or a variety of letter types. They are slow and more expensive
than dot matrix printers. They give a high letter quality and are usually used for word
processing.
Non-impact printers
Laser printers
Laser printers represent the highest state of printing technology. They include laser
imaging, precise paper movement and microprocessor control of all actions. They have
9
fewer moving parts than impact printers. They
are faster, easier to use and less noisy than impact
printers. You do not have to change ribbons
or daisy wheels. Laser printers can print text
and graphics with a variety of letter types. A
high quality of printing is produced. They are
expensive to buy, but save time and increase
efficiency.
Figure 1.7 A laser printer
Ink jet printers
Ink jet printers are becoming more affordable
and are being used in the general office environment. The letter quality is good, and a
variety of letter types and graphics can be printed. These printers use a print cartridge
with black ink which forms the characters. Colour cartridges produce a high quality of
colour printing.
Ink jet printers can feed paper automatically, adjust to the paper size, and print labels and
envelopes which make them a popular printer for general office work. They are userfriendly and printing is fast and quiet.
Other peripherals
Mouses
The most popular mechanical pointing
device is the mouse. You can point to
images instead of typing commands. You
can use the mouse for application programs using
graphic displays (icons) to control the cursor.
Figure 1.8 Examples of mouses
The mouse has two or three control buttons, which will transfer signals to the software.
Old mouses have a moving ball underneath them. When you move your mouse on the
mouse pad, the cursor will move on the screen.
Lightpens
You can use a lightpen to draw images on a flat LCD screen. They are usually used by
architects.
Joysticks
Joysticks are used to move the
cursor quickly when playing
games. They also have a lever
that can move in different
directions.
Figure 1.9 An old and modern joystick
10
Scanners
Scanners, the eyes of a computer, may be handheld or flat-bed. They convert graphics,
text, pictures or drawings into a code so that they can be used in a DeskTop Publishing
(DTP) program to display the images on your screen. You can also print, edit and save
these pictures.
Modems
Modems make communication possible through two computers via a telephone line.
When you use a modem, both computers should be connected to it. Information is
transferred from one computer to another via the modem.
Plotters
A plotter is an output device. It takes the form of a drawing machine connected to the
computer and receives impulses from the computer to produce pictures or graphics.
Plotters are used to make drawings of dams, roads, buildings and bridges. The plotter
works with pens moving across the paper to produce graphics.
Voice recording devices
These use the human voice and a direct input device. They can only be used once a
person’s voice is pre-programmed into the computer to be recognisable.
Mouse: an input device you roll across a flat surface, used to control the pointer by pointing and clicking, double
clicking or dragging objects on the screen
Cursor: the pointer, usually arrow-shaped, which is controlled by the mouse
Assessment activity 1.3
(Individual)
1. In table form, compare the features of a dot matrix printer, laser printer and ink
jet printer.
2. Differentiate between the different types of VDUs.
3. Name five peripherals that could be connected to your computer.
Module Summary
In this Module you:
• Identified different fields of computer applications in the business world.
• Differentiated between the different types of computers.
• Identified the different parts of a microcomputer.
• Learnt about an operating system and the difference between systems and applications
software.
• Identified different types of hardware components.
• Learnt about output and input peripherals and compared printers and about the uses
of different peripherals
• Explained the need for computer memory and the difference between ROM and RAM
memory.
11
Module 2
KeYBoARd pRoFICIeNCY
oveRvIeW
At the end of this module, you should be able to:
• I dentify the different parts of the keyboard.
• L
ocate different important keys on the keyboard.
• A
pply the correct sitting posture in front of the computer.
• I dentify the alphabetical, numerical, direction and function keys.
• T
ouch-type using the correct finger positions on the keyboard.
• T
ype accurately achieving at least 10 words per minute.
• I nterpret and execute manuscript signs correctly.
UNIT 2.1 THe KeYBoARD
The keyboard is the input device of the computer that communicates between the
operator and the computer. The keyboard can be divided into four sections.
Qwerty keyboard
• A
lphabetical keys
• N
umerical keys and the special signs on the top of each key at the top row.
• S pace bar
• E
nter key
• T
wo shift keys
• C
aps lock key
• Tab key
• B
ackspace key
• E
scape key
Fig 2.1 A QWERTY keyboard
• T
wo Ctrl (control) keys
• T
wo Alt keys to use in
conjunction with other keys
Function keys
The function keys are situated at the top of the keyboard (F1–F12). They are
programmable keys and can execute different functions with different programs.
Direction keys
You can find the direction keys on the right-hand side of the keyboard. These arrow keys
control the movement of your cursor on the screen to the left, right, top and bottom.
12
Above these arrow keys are direction keys: page up will take your cursor to the top of
the page; page down will take your cursor to the top of the next page; while the end
and home keys will, with the cooperation of other keys, move your cursor quickly to a
specific place. The insert key is used to switch the insert function on or off. When the
insert key is on, you will be able to type over other text and delete it at the same time. The
delete key deletes the character to the right of the cursor. The backspace key deletes the
character to the left of the cursor.
Numerical keyboard
The numbers 0–9 and the calculation symbols are situated on the numerical keyboard on
the right-hand side of the QWERTY keyboard. You can use of this keyboard when you
want to type numbers. Make sure that your Num Lock key is on when using numbers
(the green light above the keyboard for Num Lock should be on). When the Num Lock
key is off, you can use this keyboard for the other functions marked on the keypad, for
example, direction.
Assessment activity 2.1
(Individual)
See if you can locate the following numerical, directional and functional keys on your
keyboard.
1.PgUp
2. Num Lock
3.Home
4.Insert
5.Delete
6.End
7.F10
8. Calculation signs +, -, *, / and %
9. Direction arrows left, right, up and down
10.PgDn
UNIT 2.2 Correct sitting posture
It is important to maintain the correct sitting posture while you are typing. Practice the
following steps:
• S it up straight with your body leaning slightly forward. Support your back with the
chair rest.
• Try to keep your feet flat on the floor with one slightly in front of the other.
• Curl your fingers slightly like a claw on the keyboard with your thumbs on the
spacebar. Your wrists and arms should not rest on the table or keyboard. Keep your
elbows comfortably close to your body.
• Your fingers should rest slightly on the home row and move back to their original
position after each keystroke.
13
• T
ouch the keys lightly and release them immediately. All the keys on the keyboard are
repetitive and will repeat if you press your finger down on a key.
• K
eep your eyes on your work.
45–70 cm (18–28 in.)
Shoulders relaxed
Forearms and hands
in a straight line
Top of the screen at or slightly below
eye level (you may need to adjust the
height of your monitor by placing
something under it or by raising your
work surface.)
Screen positioned to
avoid reflected glare
Forearms level
or tilted up slightly
Clearance under work surface
Lower back supported
Thighs horizontal
Feet flat on the floor
Fig 2.2 The correct sitting posture
Assessment activity 2.2
(Individual)
1. 20 rows
asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf asdf
20 rows
;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj ;lkj
20 rows
asdf ;lkj asdf ;lkj asdf ;lkj asdf ;lkj asdf ;lkj asdf ;lkj asdf
20 rows
fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf fgf
20 rows
fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj fgf jhj
10 rows
adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls;
20 rows
jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj jhj
14
2. After you have finished Activity 2.2, do Speed drill 1 a couple of times, trying not
to look at your fingers.
Speed drill 1
Home row
add adds jas fas da as las lad laf dak dalk afsak alle klas ask
gall gas shall has had haak daag dalk gaas all klas ask saak
saak alla salf fall lads add all dad salads flask all ja saf
alla salf fall lads lag all dad dash flask glad shall half
alla saf lass kla asks lass sal klad klas faak lad a klad kalf
adda kla asks half sal klad klas faak lad a klad kalf sad kaf
sad kaf sad falls kaas laas faas daal daaf saak saal jaaf kaal
sad falls glass saag faas hak daad fla saal jaaf kaal faal aas
faal klaas kla dads salad klasse afdak flasks lads sads fads
glass kla dads salad glasses klasse gaaf ag gala jaag laag hak
kaas jas klas dak jak dalk all
all dads add salad; all dads add salad;
has lads ask lass; has lads ask lass;
all lass fall as lads asks; all lass fall as lads asks;
had all dads add salad; had all dads add salad;
a sad lass ask a lad a flask; a sad lass ask a lad a flask;
glass has fall as lads asks; glass has fall as lads asks;
alle klasse sal dalk kla; alle klasse sal dalk kla;
all dads has a flask; all dads has a flask;
jakkals kla kalf ja; jakkals kla kalf ja;
saag as dak afsak; saag as dak afsak;
dalk sal dak afsak; dalk sal dak afsak;
haas daag jakkals as jakkals kla; haas daag jakkals as jakkals
kla;
Assessment activity 2.3
(Individual)
1. 10 rows
adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls; adfghjkls;
20 rows
ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded ded
20 rows
kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik kik
15
20 rows
k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k k,k
20 rows
l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l l.l
Once only
AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA AaA
SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS SsS
DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD DdD
FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF FfF
Once only
LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL LlL
KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK KkK
JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ JjJ
:;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;: :;:
20 rows
frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf frf
20 rows
10 rows
juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj juj
adefghjklrsu;., adefghjklrsu;., adefghjklrsu;.,
2. After you have finished Activity 2.3, do Speed drill 2 five times, trying not to look
at your fingers.
Speed drill 2
Keys e, i, r, u, Comma, full stop,Capital letters
Dads hide seaside fish like a flash; Lads dish salad if lassies dish a kiss; He dash
like a flash if he feeds a seal; Jill likes Alfie, Alfie likes Sheila, Sheila likes Joe. Alida
sells shells, Ilse sells flasks: He is glad he has legs, eggs, glasses, shoes, fish.
She sells glasses, lilies, dahlias, shells, like a flash. Raffia are red, lilies are dull,
dahlias are real. Ursula files all her files as her leader. Dale is a useful leader, he
reads his files regular. Koos gee Jakkie raad as hulle duur kruie ruik. Die skurke
skrik die eerlike kiesers af.
16
Lassies like daisies like lads like fish; Elsa sal die gedig dadelik lees en lees; Hier
gesels selfs die klas as die fees geldig is; Like a selfish lass he hid his glasses. He
dislike glasses. He sells his desk, she likes his desk. Lads like sea shells.
Gals like sea side. Dale, Dollie, Alfie sells desks, daisies, like Joe. Sheila shall sell
shells, glasses, fish, flasks: Dassie sal Elsie deeg gee as Elsie die gediggie gee. Fasie,
Jakkie, Sadie skaaf die geel geld glad: Alida uses real raffia like her lilies.
Assessment activity 2.4
(Individual)
1. 10 rows
adefghjklrsu;., adefghjklrsu;., adefghjklrsu;.,
20 rows
20 rows
lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol lol
20 rows
dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd dcd
20 rows
jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj jmj
20 rows
ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf ftf
20 rows
jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj jnj
20 rows
‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n ‘n
20 rows
fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf fbf
20 rows
jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj jyj
10 rows
abcdefghjklmnorstuwy;.,’n abcdefghjklmnorstuwy;.,’n
sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws sws
17
2. After you have finished Activity 2.4, type Speed drill 3 five times, trying not to
look at your fingers.
Speed drill 3
Keys w, o, c, m, t, n, ‘n, b, y
Willie Wood worked well. Willie Wood worked well.
Carrie Cook cooks cake. Carrie Cook cooks cake.
The children use glasses to drink cool drinks.
Nellie leen ‘n naald, gare en materiaal.
My brother Barry and Rosemary went to Yskor to work.
Daar is nie twyfel dat baie yslike winste gewys word nie.
We will show our flowers where we go.
carefree charged success checked card car came cameo
The teachers marked all the tasks within a week.
Nellie gaan ‘n rok, ‘n gordel en ‘n hoed maak.
Beauty Blarney borrowed money from the bank of Boston, she bought a big
house in Bay Street.
He will walk, while she will work.
dice clear circular clear cereal church cruiser chief
Our language is of great interest to all students.
Jannie sal nie ‘n hammer, ‘n tang en ‘n skroewedraaier kan hanteer nie.
Bobby rebuilt the bathroom, bought a big brass bottom bath and begged Barry for
a basin.
Wallie do not like food, Ollie do like food.
decade decree cedar meal maid main milk magic mine
French classes are interesting and meaningful.
The guys are always full of energy, they go to the gymnasium.
Wil Willie ook wag waar wilde diere wei.
material measure more make museum murmur mum gum amend
marked male mailed mom same
Nolene is a nurse, she works in the hospital.
The lady’s books, the boy’s shirt and the girl’s shoes were stolen.
Ollie kook ook rooi goud oor die kole.
maak mamma maker meel mees moord moker middel maat moes
Cecil is a new leader, he is a good friend.
Gysie druk ‘n doel in sy vyfde wedstryd, hy is vol ywer.
18
Assessment activity 2.5
(Individual)
1. 10 rows
abcdefghjklmnorstuwy;.,’n abcdefghjklmnorstuwy;.,’n
20 rows
;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p; ;p;
20 rows
fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf fvf
20 rows
sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs sxs
20 rows
aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa aqa
20 rows
aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza aza
3 rows
P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P P-P
3 rows
;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/; ;/;
3 rows
;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?; ;?;
10 rows
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz;
2. After you have finished Activity 2.5, type Speed drill 4 five times, trying not to
look at your fingers.
Speed 4
Keys p, -,?, v, x, q, z
The parents of the personnel helped to ease the pressure on the posting
personnel. The parcels were posted promptly to the pupils, they had no problem
in presenting their programme for the parents and personnel. They had planned
pleasant programmes, and deposited heaps of money for their promotion.
19
Vincent Cox made an exotic garment, using extravagantly textured material. His
exotic garment was rated one of the six best exotic garments. An exporter favours
him and expects Cox to make extra extravagantly garments to export. Cox was an
executive at the garment exhibition.
Zorka went to the bazaar, he met Zebeze the Zoeloe there. At the bazaar they
joined up with a crazy squad, to look at the wizard of Ozlo, and the lizards of
Zambezi. They danced the mazurka and jazzed with Quentin. The next morning
they had to answer questions as requested by the queen.
Are the parcels from Penny posted to Peter presently?
The shepherd painted a picture of a pleasant peaceful place.
Has Peter a purple dress and a purple jacket?
Polly Polite painted pictures of pleasant persons she passed.
Pak Pieter, Pauline en Pierre graag pakke plante op die plate?
Pas die pakke klere vir die manne wat na die partytjie gaan?
The six vice-principals have done a vast amount of index work.
The motive of the six foxes was to catch the exotic doves.
You may have a maximum of five errors in the exam.
Vicky was excused from exotic services when her voice relaxed.
Six students and sixteen lecturers ran to the exit of the examination room.
Vasie en Valie vang vis na vermaning van vader.
Vroeg vanaand vries vars voedsel van die koue.
Van veertig jaar voel ‘n mens nog vars, vurig en vol lewe.
Alt key ASCII Codes
In order to use certain letters and symbols, the ALT key is required. What follows are the
ASCII codes that are used in conjunction with the ALT key to create these characters.
â
131
ê
136
î
140
ô
147
û
150
ÿ
152
½
171
ß
225
ä
132
ë
137
ï
139
ö
148
ü
129
ñ
164
¼
172
µ
230
à
133
è
138
ì
141
ò
149
ù
151
Ñ
165
¢
155
±
241
á
160
é
130
í
161
ó
162
ú
163
£
156
«
174
÷
246
å
134
é
144
§
21
Ö
153
Ü
154
ç
135
°
248
ò
149
Manuscript signs
In order to input changes from a hard copy document into an electronic one, you need to
understand the manuscript signs used to mark up mistakes or changes.
20
21
22
Module summary
In this Module you learnt how to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I dentify the different parts of the keyboard.
Locate different important keys on the keyboard.
Apply the correct sitting posture in front of the computer.
Identify the alphabetical, numerical, direction and function keys.
Touch-type using the correct finger positions on the keyboard.
Type accurately achieving at least 10 words per minute.
Interpret and execute manuscript signs correctly.
23
Module 3
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
OVERVIEW
At the end of this module, you should be able to:
• Identify different types of secondary magnetic storage media, for example, floppy
diskette, stiffy diskette and a hard disk.
• Explain what happens to a diskette when it is formatted and give reasons for doing
so.
• Write protect your data diskette.
• Implement the rules for care and handling of diskettes.
• Assign filenames to files obeying the rules regarding file names.
• Identify the functions of an operating system.
• Move around and select options using the mouse.
• Print screens of the following commands and paste them into Microsoft Word:
– Set the system date and time.
– Change the active drive or folder.
– Obtain a list of files on the active drive or folder.
– Copy a file from one folder to another.
– Delete a file.
– Show the format dialog box to format a disk.
– Rename a file.
– Duplicate a diskette.
– Scan a disk for defects.
– Create a new folder.
– Format a disk.
– Check folders or sub-folders for fragmentation and fix fragmentation.
– Use the Help function.
24
UNIT 3.1 Magnetic storage media
Microcomputers can use disks or flash disks as a secondary memory for storing data or
programs. Magnetic storage media include diskettes or flash disks and hard disks.
Floppy diskettes
Note that these disks are no longer used. They were made of a flat, flexible and round
magnetic piece of material on which data is stored. There is a protective cover, within
which it turns during processing. If you place the disk into the disk drive, you can
transfer data to and from the diskette. However, floppies have been superseded today by
other storage media, such as flash drives.
Specifications
Size 5.25 inches (floppy disk)
Double-sided (DS) or Single-sided (SS)
Storage capacity 360KB or 1.2MB
Density, double density (DD) or high density (HD)
360KB – 40 tracks and 9 sectors, DD, DS
1.2MB – 80 tracks and 15 sectors, HD, DS
Figure 3.1 A floppy disk
Stiffy diskettes
These are flat, round magnetic pieces of material with hard plastic protective covers. They
also need a special stiffy diskette drive to be able to operate. These are also no longer
used.
Specifications
Size 3.5 inches
Double-sided (DS) or Single-sided (SS)
Storage capacity 720KB or 1.44MB or 2.88MB
Density, double density (DD) or high density (HD)
720KB – 80 tracks and 9 sectors, DD, DS
Fig 3.2 A stiffy disk
1.44MB – 80 tracks and 18 sectors, HD, DS
2.88MB – 80 tracks and 36 sectors, HD, DS
Hard disks
Hard disks are used as external memory for programs or data and are magnetic devices.
They are sealed inside the computer. Hard disks are mounted on spindles and consist
of rigid steel platters. They are covered with magnetic material. Data is read or written
through read-write heads to the hard disk. The hard disk is called the workaholic of the
computer.
25
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement