Rhino 5 User`s Guide (Mac OSX)

Rhino 5 User`s Guide (Mac OSX)
 Rhinoceros 5
For Mac
User's Guide
© Robert McNeel & Associates, 6/19/2015.
Table of Contents
Section I: Working in 3-D
1
Introduction
3
The Rhino interface
3
Rhino commands
4
Start from the menu
4
Start from a toolbar icon
6
Start from the command line
10
Undo a mistake
13
The history panel
13
Command options
14
Repeat the last command
14
Get help any time
15
Rhino Objects
17
Why NURBS modeling
17
Points
17
Curves
18
Surfaces
18
Closed and open surfaces
19
Trimmed and untrimmed surfaces
19
Surface isoparametric and edge curves
21
Polysurfaces
22
Solids
22
Light-weight extrusion objects
23
Polygon mesh objects
23
Selecting Objects
25
Select objects with windows
27
Other ways of selecting
28
Sub-object selection
30
Navigating Viewports
33
Viewport projection
33
Viewport navigation
33
Mouse navigation
34
Viewport display modes
34
Wireframe
35
Shaded
35
Other shaded modes
36
Viewport title
37
Accurate Modeling
39
The Rhino cursor
39
Snap to the construction plane grid
39
Constrain the angle of movement
39
Snap to existing objects
40
iii
Table of contents
Persistent object snaps
40
Special case object snaps
41
Cursor constraints
41
Distance constraint
41
Angle constraint
42
Distance and angle together
42
Elevator mode
42
SmartTrack™
43
Coordinate systems
43
Cartesian coordinates
43
Right-hand rule
43
World coordinates
44
Construction plane coordinates
44
Relative coordinates
45
Create Surfaces from Curves
47
Edge curves
47
Extrude curves
48
Loft curves
50
Revolve curves
51
Revolve curves with a rail
54
Sweep along one rail curve
58
Sweep along two rail curves
60
Edit Curves and Surfaces
63
Join
63
Explode
63
Trim and Split
63
Control-point editing
63
Control point visibility
63
Change control point locations
64
Add, delete, or redistribute control points
64
Curve and surface degree
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Move
64
67
67
Move objects using distance values
67
Move objects by dragging
68
Elevator mode
69
Copy
74
Rotate
78
Scale
82
Mirror
85
Array
88
Orient
88
Curve and Surface Analysis
89
Measure distance, angle, and radius
89
Curve and surface direction
89
iv
Table of contents
Curvature
90
Visual surface analysis
90
Environment map
90
Curvature analysis
91
Draft angle analysis
91
Edge evaluation
92
Diagnostics
92
Organization and Annotation
93
Layers
93
Groups
93
Blocks
94
Dimensions
94
Text
95
Leaders
95
Dots
95
Hidden line removal
96
Notes
96
Render
97
Lights
97
Materials
98
Render
98
Section II: Tutorials
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
99
101
Enter coordinates
101
Draw the pull toy body
101
Draw the axles and wheel hubs
104
Draw the lug nuts
106
Array the lug nuts
107
Draw the tires
108
Mirror the wheels
109
Draw the eyes
111
Make the pull cord
116
Flashlight - Revolve Curves
127
Set up the model
127
Draw a centerline
129
Draw the body profile curve
130
Draw the lens profile curve
131
Build the flashlight body
132
Create the lens
135
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
137
Create the speaker shell
138
Create the padding and cover
143
Create the mounting bracket
145
Create the headband
149
Round the headband ends
154
v
Table of contents
Create the speaker wire
160
Mirror the headphone parts
164
Learn more
166
Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
167
The body
167
The eyes
175
The beak
181
The feet
188
The tail
198
The wings
201
Finishing touches
206
Render
208
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
209
Lay out the hull curves
210
Check the curves for fairness
211
Fix the curvature
211
Create the 3-D curves
212
Revise the curves
214
Loft the hull surfaces
217
Trim the bow and bottom
219
Build the transom
221
Add the deck
228
Dragonfly - Trace Images
235
Draw the body
235
Draw the head
241
Blend the head and body
249
Draw the eyes
251
Shape the tail
252
Trace the wings
253
Draw the legs
255
Finishing touches
256
Wrap Text - Flow along surface
257
Make a surface
257
Create the objects to wrap
258
Control the object placement
258
Mechanical Part - Blocks
263
Create solid shapes
263
Drill the holes
267
Copy the holes
269
Make a 2-D drawing
272
Dimension the 2-D drawing
272
vi
Rhinoceros 5 User's Guide
Section I: Working in 3-D
Introduction
Modeling in 3-D is the process of creating a mathematical representation of an object's surfaces. The resulting model is displayed on your screen as a two-dimensional image. Rhino provides tools for creating, displaying, and manipulating these surfaces.
The Rhino interface
The image below illustrates some of the major features of the Rhino window.
Menu (1)
The menus group Rhino commands by function. History window (2)
The command history window displays the previous commands and prompts.
Command box (3)
The command box displays a typed command. Once the command is accepted, the prompts, options and a Value box appear in this space. Toolbars (4)
Toolbars contain graphical icons for initiating commands. Many toolbar icons have a second command that you can access by right-clicking the icon. The tooltip that appears when you hover over the icon tells you what the left and right mouse button do. Note: If you are using a one-button mouse or a track pad, to access the second command, hold the Option key and click. To access the command on the first line
4
Click the icon with the left mouse button.
3
Introduction
To access the command on the second line
4
Click the button with the right mouse button.
4
Hold the Option key and click.
Viewports (5)
Viewports display the Rhino working environment.
Sidebar (6)
The right sidebar contains layers, properties, and other settings.
The left sidebar contains the toolbar and the object snap list.
Rhino commands
Rhino is a command driven program. In other words, all actions are activated by named commands such as Line, Box, or CurvatureAnalysis.
Tip: To read more about a command, click the red, underlined command name link. Commands are accessed through the menus, or the toolbars, or by typing the command name. In the next sections, you will explore using these methods. You may find one method easier than another. The choice is yours, and there is no preference for one method over another.
In the exercises, you will use Rhino’s commands, navigation tools, shaded modes, render, and use some basic object manipulation.
Tip: To cancel a command any time, press the Esc key. In this session you will
4
Start a command by choosing from the menu.
4
Start a command by choosing from a toolbar icon.
4
Start a command by typing.
To start your first Rhino model
1. Start Rhino.
2. On the File menu, click New.
3. In the Open Template File dialog box, select SmallObjects - centimeters.3dm and click Open.
Start from the menu
Most Rhino commands are arranged in the menus.
Start the Cone command
4
On the Solid menu, click Cone.
4
Introduction
Draw the cone
1. At the Base of cone… prompt, in the Top viewport, click with the mouse to pick the center point for the base of the cone. 2. At the Radius… prompt, in the Top viewport, drag the mouse and click to draw the cone’s base. 5
Introduction
3. At the End of cone prompt, in the Front viewport, drag the mouse and click to draw the cone’s point. 4. Watch what happens in the Perspective viewport. Start from a toolbar icon
Toolbars provide a graphical interface to the commands. To display a button tooltip, hover your mouse over the icon
4
The command names that are activated with the left and right mouse click or with the Option key + mouse click display. 6
Introduction
Start the Curve command
4
On the toolbar docked on the left side of the Rhino window, click the icon for Control point curve.
7
Introduction
Draw the curve
8
Introduction
1. At the Start of curve… prompt, in the Top viewport, click the mouse to start the curve.
2. At the Next point... prompts, click a few more points in the Top viewport. 3. At the Next point... prompts, move the mouse into the Front viewport and click a few more points. 4. At the Next point... prompts, move the mouse into the Right viewport and click a few more points. 5. Right-click, press Enter or press the spacebar to complete the curve.
9
Introduction
6. Check out the Perspective viewport. Admire your work
4
Drag with the right mouse button to rotate the Perspective view.
Start from the command line
You can start a command by typing the command name. Start the Sphere command by typing
4
Start typing Sphere. Clicking in the command box is not necessary. When you type the first letters of a command, a list of possible commands appears. The most likely candidate auto-completes.
When the command name Sphere appears, press Enter, or choose Sphere from the list.
The default option for the Sphere command is Center, Radius, so you can simply start drawing the center of the sphere.
10
Introduction
Draw the sphere
11
Introduction
1. At the Center of sphere… prompt, in the Perspective viewport, click the mouse to pick the center point for the sphere. 2. At the Radius… prompt, in the Perspective viewport, move the mouse away from the center point, and click the mouse to draw the sphere and click. 3. In the Perspective viewport, click the down-arrow on the viewport title, and on the menu, click Shaded. 12
Introduction
Undo a mistake
If you did something you did not want to do, you can undo your actions.
Undo a command
4
On the Edit menu, click Undo, or press the Command ⌘ and Z keys. You can undo a series of commands.
You can also Redo the Undo if you go too far.
Redo commands
4
On the Edit menu, click Redo, or press the Shift, Command ⌘, and Z keys.
The history panel
The command window contains the command history. You can keep a history window open in the right sidebar, or you can click the command history icon in the lower left corner of the screen to open a temporary window.
13
Introduction
Command options
Command options change how a command acts. For example, when you draw a circle, the circle is normally drawn on the active construction plane. The Circle command has several options including Vertical and AroundCurve. Command options appear in parentheses at the prompt.
To use a command option, click the option name, or type the underlined letter of the option or the whole option name.
Choose a command option
1. Type Circle. As soon as you have typed enough letters to uniquely identify the command, the Circle command automatically completes at the prompt. Press Enter or click the command name.
2. The options for the Circle command appear: Center of circle Deformable Vertical 2 Point 3 Point Tangent Around Curve Fit Points
3. To draw a circle vertical to the active construction plane, use the Vertical option.
Click Vertical, or type V.
Repeat the last command
Many tasks in Rhino are repetitive. You might want to move or copy several objects, for example. Methods for repeating commands are provided. To repeat the last command
4
Press the Enter key when no command is active.
4
In addition to pressing the Enter key on your keyboard, you can press the Spacebar or click the right mouse button in a viewport. These all perform the same function.
Note: Some commands, such as Undo and Delete do not repeat. Instead, the command prior to these commands is repeated. This prevents you from accidentally undoing too many commands or deleting objects accidentally.
In addition, you often want to repeat the command you were using before undoing a mistake. You can define the list of commands that do not repeat to suit your own way of working.
14
Introduction
Get help any time
The Rhino Help file is the major resource for detailed information on specific commands.
To get help on a specific command
4
Go to Rhino Help for the most up-to-date Help information.
4
Find the answers to frequently asked questions at: Rhino Support.
Tip: For more information about the mathematical principles involved in 3-D modeling, see: www.mathopenref.com.
15
Rhino Objects
The fundamental geometric objects in Rhino are points, curves, surfaces, polysurfaces, extrusion objects, and polygon mesh objects. Why NURBS modeling
NURBS (non-uniform rational B-splines) are mathematical representations that can accurately model any shape from a simple 2-D line, circle, arc, or box to the most complex 3-D free-form organic surface or solid. Because of their flexibility and accuracy, NURBS models can be used in any process from illustration and animation to manufacturing.
NURBS geometry is an industry standard for designers who work in 3-D where forms are free and flowing; where both form and function is important. Rhino is used in marine, aerospace, and automobile interior and exterior design. Makers of household and office appliances, furniture, medical and sports equipment, footwear, and jewelry use Rhino to create free-form shapes.
NURBS modeling is also widely used by professional animators and graphic artists. The advantage over using polygon modelers is that there are no facets. The models can be rendered at any resolution. A mesh can be created from the model at any resolution. For more information about the mathematics of NURBS, see What
are NURBS?.
Points
Point objects mark a single point in 3-D space. They are the simplest objects in Rhino. Points can be placed anywhere in space. Points are most often used as placeholders.
17
Rhino Objects
Curves
A Rhino curve is similar to a piece of wire. It can be straight or wiggled, and can be open or closed.
A polycurve is several curve segments joined together end to end.
Rhino provides many tools for drawing curves. You can draw straight lines, polylines that consist of connected line segments, arcs, circles, polygons, ellipses, helices, and spirals.
You can also draw curves using curve control points and draw curves that pass through selected points.
Curves in Rhino include lines, arcs, circles, free-form curves, and combinations of these. Curves can be open or closed, planar or non-planar.
Surfaces
A surface is like a rectangular stretchy rubber sheet. The NURBS form can represent simple shapes, such as planes and cylinders, as well as free-form, sculptured surfaces.
All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. Rhino has many tools for constructing surfaces directly or from existing curves.
All NURBS surfaces have an inherently rectangular organization. 18
Rhino Objects
Even a closed surface such as a cylinder is like a rectangular piece of paper that has been rolled up so two opposite edges are touching. The place where the edges come together is called the seam. If a surface does not have a rectangular shape, either it has been trimmed or the control points on the edges have been moved.
Closed and open surfaces
A surface can be open or closed. An open cylinder is closed in one direction.
A torus (donut shape) is closed in two directions.
Trimmed and untrimmed surfaces
Surfaces can be trimmed or untrimmed. A trimmed surface has two parts: a surface that underlies everything and defines the geometric shape, and trimming curves that mark sections of the underlying surface that are trimmed away.
Trimmed surfaces are created with commands that trim or split surfaces with curves and other surfaces. Some commands create trimmed surfaces directly.
19
Rhino Objects
The shape of a surface is still defined by a set of control points arranged in a rectangular pattern.
Since it can be important for you to know if a surface is trimmed, the Properties command lists the trimmed or untrimmed state of the surface. Some Rhino commands work only with untrimmed surfaces and some software does not import trimmed NURBS surfaces.
Trimming curves lie on the underlying surface. This surface may be larger than the trim curves, but you will not see the underlying surface because Rhino does not draw the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. Every trimmed surface retains information about its underlying surface geometry. You can remove the trimming curve boundaries to make the surface untrimmed with the Untrim command.
If you have a trim curve that runs across a surface, the trim curve itself does not have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. You can see this if you select such a trimmed surface and turn its control points on. You will see the control points for the whole underlying surface.
20
Rhino Objects
If you create a surface from a planar curve, it can be a trimmed surface. The illustrated surface was created from a circle. The control points display shows the rectangular structure of the surface.
The Untrim command removes the trimming curve from the surface to get back to the underlying untrimmed rectangular surface.
Surface isoparametric and edge curves
In wireframe view, surfaces look like a set of crossing curves. These curves are called isoparametric curves or isocurve. These curves help you visualize the shape of the surface. Isoparametric curves do not define the surface the way the polygons do in a polygon mesh. They are merely a visual aid that allows you to see the surface on the screen. When a surface is selected, all of its isoparametric curves highlight.
Edge curves bound the surface. Surface edge curves can be used as input to other commands.
Isocurves (1), Edge curves (2).
21
Rhino Objects
Polysurfaces
A polysurface consists of two or more surfaces that are joined together. A polysurface that encloses a volume of space defines a solid.
Solids
A solid is a surface or polysurface that encloses a volume. Solids are created anytime a surface or polysurface is completely closed. Rhino creates single-surface solids, polysurface solids, and extrusion solids. A single surface can wrap around and join itself. Example commands include Sphere, Torus, and Ellipsoid. Control points can be displayed on single-surface solids and moved to change the surface.
Some Rhino commands create polysurface solids. Pyramid, Cone, and TCone are examples of commands that create polysurface solids.
The SolidPtOn command turns on grip points for polysurfaces, which act like control points.
22
Rhino Objects
Light-weight extrusion objects
Light-weight extrusion objects use only a profile curve and a length as input instead of the network of isocurves normally needed for NURBS objects. The Box, Cylinder, Tube, and ExtrudeCrv commands create extrusion objects. Extrusion objects can be closed with a planar cap or open. These objects will be converted to polysurfaces by some commands if necessary to add additional information for editing.
Polygon mesh objects
Because there are many modelers that use polygon meshes to represent geometry for rendering, animation, stereolithography, visualization, and finite element analysis, the Mesh command translates NURBS geometry into polygonal meshes for export. In addition, the Mesh creation commands MeshSphere, MeshBox, MeshCylinder, etc., draw mesh objects.
Note: There is no easy way to convert a mesh model into a NURBS model. The information that defines the objects is completely different. However, Rhino has a few commands for drawing curves on meshes and extracting vertex points and other information from mesh objects to assist in using mesh information to create NURBS models.
23
Selecting Objects
Most operations you will do in Rhino require you to select one or more objects. Objects can be selected by clicking anywhere on the object. Click away from the object to deselect it. This method lets you select one object at a time.
To select additional objects
4
Hold the Shift key while clicking the objects.
To remove objects from the selection
4
Hold the Command ⌘ key and click the objects again.
To cancel the selection
4
Click away from the objects or press the Esc key.
Practice selecting objects
1. Open the tutorial model Select Objects.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. In the Perspective viewport, click to select the sphere. 25
Selecting Objects
3. Hold the Shift key and select the cylinder. The cylinder is added to the selection.
4. Hold the Command ⌘ key and click the sphere again. The sphere is removed from the selection.
5. Click away from the objects, or press the Esc key. The selection is canceled.
26
Selecting Objects
Select objects with windows
Another method is to make a window selection or a crossing selection to select multiple objects in one operation.
You can click in an open area of the screen and drag to create a selection window. To make a window selection click in an open area of the screen and drag to the right. To make a crossing selection click in an open area of the screen and drag to the left.
A window selection, selects all objects completely enclosed by the window. A crossing selection, selects all objects that are enclosed by the window or any object the window crosses.
To add objects, hold the Shift key while making a window or crossing selection. To remove objects, hold the Command ⌘ key while making a window or crossing selection.
27
Selecting Objects
Practice window and crossing select
1. In the Perspective viewport, click and drag a window around the sphere. 2. In the Perspective viewport, hold the Shift key then click and drag a window around the box and the cylinder. The cylinder and box are added to the selection.
3. In the Perspective viewport, hold the Command ⌘ key then click and drag a crossing over the box and cylinder. The cylinder and box are removed from the selection.
Other ways of selecting
Rhino has many commands and methods for selecting objects. You can select object by name, layer, color, type; by capturing with boundaries or crossing fences; by volume shapes, by group name and many others. Review the help topic Selection commands.
28
Selecting Objects
Practice selection by object type
1. In the Value box, type SelAll. 2. Type SelNone. This clears the objects from the selection.
29
Selecting Objects
3. Type SelSrf. This selects all surfaces. In this case, only the sphere is a surface.
4. Type SelPolysurface.
This adds all polysurfaces to the selection. In this case, the cylinder and box are polysurfaces.
5. Press the Esc key.
This also clears the selection.
Sub-object selection
You can select sub-parts of objects for use in commands, for example, select a surface edge to use as input for a Loft or ExtrudeCrv operation. The available parts include polysurface faces; surface and polysurface edge curves; control points; mesh vertices, faces, boundaries, and edges; and objects within a group. Review the help topic for Sub-object selection.
To select parts of objects for use with other commands
4
Press and hold both the Command ⌘ and Shift keys at the same time and click an object part.
30
Selecting Objects
Practice sub-object selection
1. In the Perspective viewport, press the Command ⌘ and Shift keys and click a face of the box. The face you select highlights. 2. Press the Delete key. The face of the box is separated from the box solid and deleted.
31
Navigating Viewports
The viewport title has some special functions for manipulating the viewport.
4 Click the title to make the viewport active without disturbing the view.
4
Double-click the viewport title to maximize the viewport. Double-click again to restore the size to normal.
Viewport projection
Viewports can have one of three projections: parallel, perspective or two-point perspective.
Right mouse navigation works differently in the two viewport styles. In parallel views, right mouse dragging pans the view. In perspective views, right-mouse dragging rotates the view. In the usual four-viewport layout, there are three parallel viewports and one perspective viewport.
Parallel
Parallel views are also called orthogonal views in some systems. In a parallel view, all the grid lines are parallel to each other, and identical objects look the same size, regardless of where they are in space.
Perspective
In a perspective view, grid lines converge to a vanishing point. This provides the illusion of depth in the viewport. Perspective projection makes objects farther away look smaller.
Viewport navigation
Rhino’s easy navigation helps you to visualize your model.
The simplest way to change the view is to drag the mouse with right button held down. This pans the view in parallel views and rotates the view in perspective views.
You can change your view in the middle of a command to see precisely where you want to select an object or choose a point.
4 Hold down the Command ⌘ key and drag up and down with the right mouse button held down.
Tip: If you have a mouse with a wheel, use the wheel to zoom in and out.
Command
Key and mouse combinations
33
Navigating Viewports
In parallel viewports (for example: Top, Front, and Right), drag with the right mouse button.
In perspective viewports, hold the Shift key, and drag with the right mouse button.
Pan
In parallel viewports (for example: Top, Front, and Right), hold the Command ⌘and Shift keys, and drag with the right mouse button.
RotateView
In perspective viewports, drag with the right mouse button. Hold the Command ⌘ key, and drag up and down with the right mouse button, or rotate the mouse wheel.
Zoom
Mouse navigation
Working in 3-D on a computer requires visualizing three-dimensional objects drawn on a two-dimensional medium—the computer screen. Rhino provides tools to help do this.
Drag with the right mouse button to easily manipulate the views to look model from various angles. Use the right mouse button view manipulations in both wireframe and shaded views.
To pan in a viewport
4
In the Top viewport, drag the mouse with the right mouse button held down to pan the view.
or
Restore a view
If you get lost, there are several ways to get yourself reoriented:
4 Press the Home key orthe Command ⌘ + Up Arrow keys to step back through your view changes.
4
Press the End key or the Command ⌘ + Down Arrow keys to step forward through your view changes.
4
To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane, use the Plan command.
4
To bring all your objects into view, use the Zoom command Extents option.
Practice rotating the view
1. Click the left mouse button in the Perspective viewport to make it active. An active viewport is the viewport where all your commands and actions take place. The active viewports title highlights so you can easily see which viewport is active.
2. In the Perspective viewport, drag the mouse with the right mouse button held down to rotate the view and see the objects from a different angle.
Viewport display modes
You can view your model in a variety of ways that depend on your own needs. Wireframe mode usually offers the fastest display speed, shaded modes offer the ability to view surfaces and solids with shading to help you visualize the shapes.
Standard and customized shaded modes allow easier visualization of surfaces and solids.
34
Navigating Viewports
Wireframe
In Wireframe mode, surfaces look like a set of crossing curves. These curves are called isoparametric curves or isocurves.
Isocurves do not define the surface the way the polygons do in a polygon mesh. They are merely a visual aid.
To set wireframe mode
1. Click a mouse button in the Perspective viewport to make it active. An active viewport is the viewport where all your commands and actions take place.
2. On the viewport title menu, click Wireframe. Shaded
The Shaded modes, (for example, Shaded, Rendered, Artistic, and Pen) display surfaces and solids with the surfaces shaded using their layer, object, or custom color. You can work in any of the shaded modes. The surfaces are opaque or transparent.
35
Navigating Viewports
To set shaded mode
1. On the viewport title menu, click Shaded. Rotate your view by holding down the right mouse button and dragging from the bottom of the view toward the top.
You are now under the objects looking up.
The construction plane grid helps you stay oriented. If the objects are behind the grid, you are looking at the bottom of the construction plane.
2. Press the Home key to undo your view changes.
Rendered
Rendered mode shows the objects with lighting and render materials applied.
Other shaded modes
Other display modes and custom settings are described in the Rhino Help.
Artistic (left) and Pen (right) display modes.
36
Navigating Viewports
Viewport title
The viewport title has some special functions for viewport control.
4 Click the title to make the viewport active without disturbing the view.
4
Double-click the viewport title to maximize the viewport. Double-click again to restore the size to normal.
37
Accurate Modeling
The cursor can always move freely in space, but chances are, you will want to relate your modeling elements to the construction plane grid, existing objects, or coordinates in space. You can restrict the cursor’s movement to the grid, enter specific distances and angles from a point, snap to specific locations on existing objects, and enter Cartesian coordinates to locate points in 2-D or 3-D space.
The Rhino cursor
There are two parts of the cursor: the cursor (1) and the marker (2). The cursor always follow the mouse movement.
The marker sometimes leaves the center of the cursor because of some constraint on it such as grid snap or ortho. The marker is a dynamic preview of the point that will be picked when the left mouse button is clicked.
When the marker is constrained, in elevator mode, for example, a tracking line (3) also displays.
Constraints move your marker to a specific point in space or make its movement track according to the constraint so you can model accurately.
Snap to the construction plane grid
Grid snap constrains the marker to an imaginary grid that extends infinitely. You can set the snap spacing to any value.
Click the Grid Snap pane on the status bar to turn grid snap on and off.
Tip: To read more about a command, click the red, underlined command name link.
Constrain the angle of movement
Ortho mode constrains the marker movement or object dragging to a specific set of angles. By default, this is parallel to the grid lines, but you can change this. Ortho is similar to the axis lock function found in drawing or animation programs.
Click the Ortho pane on the status bar to turn ortho on and off. Press and hold the Shift key to temporarily toggle the ortho mode.
Another common use for ortho is to constrain object dragging to a specific axis.
39
Accurate Modeling
Ortho is active after the first point for a command. For example, after picking the first point for a line, the second point is constrained to the ortho angle.
Ortho off (left); Ortho on (right).
If you only need a different angle for a single operation, angle constraint is faster to use. Enter a specific angle for one operation instead of changing the ortho angle and then changing it back.
Snap to existing objects
Object snaps constrain the marker to specific points on an object. When Rhino asks you to specify a point, you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing geometry. When an object snap is active, moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point.
Object snaps can persist from pick to pick, or can be activated for one pick only. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set from the status bar. All object snaps behave similarly, but snap to different parts of existing geometry. In addition, there are special object snaps that work for one pick only.
Persistent object snaps
Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points. Since persistent object snaps are easy to turn on and off, you can set them and leave them on until they get in your way. You can then set a different one or just disable them.
Sometimes object snaps interfere with each other and with grid snap or ortho. Object snaps normally take precedence over grid snap or other constraints.
There are other situations where object snaps work in conjunction with other constraints. You will see examples of this in this chapter. For more information including video demonstrations, see the Rhino help topic Object snaps.
The Osnap panel
The Osnap panel is usually located at the left of the screen.
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Accurate Modeling
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Click a check box to turn on an object snap.
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Right click a check box to turn an object snap on and turn off all other object snaps.
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When an object snap is active, moving the cursor near an eligible point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point and a tooltip to appear. The check boxes in the Osnap panel allow single-use overrides for the persistent object snaps.
To suspend all persistent object snaps
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In the Osnap panel, click the Disable all button. All persistent object snaps will be suspended, but remain checked.
To clear all persistent object snaps
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In the Osnap panel, click Disable all with the right mouse button. All persistent object snaps will be cleared.
To turn on one object snap and turn all others off with one click
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In the Osnap panel, right-click the object snap you want to turn on.
Special case object snaps
Complex object snaps that allow selecting multiple reference points or add other advanced controls. See the Rhino help topic Object snaps for more information.
Cursor constraints
When entering points, you can constrain the marker to a distance or angle from the previous point. Once you have set the distance, drag the line around to any angle. You can also use further snaps to point the line in a specific direction.
Distance constraint
During any command that requires two points, such as the Line command, place the first point. Then at the next prompt, type a distance and press Enter.
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Accurate Modeling
The marker will be constrained to the specified distance from the previous point. Drag the cursor around the first point and then pick a point.
Angle constraint
Angle constraint is similar to ortho, but you can set any angle and it is a one-time setting.
The < symbol is used because it is similar to the symbol used in geometry to indicate an angle.
The marker will be constrained to lines radiating from the previous point separated by the specified angle, where the first line is the specified number of degrees counterclockwise from the x-axis. If you enter a negative number, the angle will be clockwise from the x-axis.
Distance and angle together
Distance and angle constraints can be used at the same time. 1. In the Value box, type the distance, and press Return. 2. In the Value box, type the < character and the angle value, and press Return. The order of the distance and angle does not matter. The marker will drag around your original point at angle increments at the specified distance.
Elevator mode
Pick a second point to specify the z-coordinate of the desired point. It is easiest to see this in a different viewport or use the Perspective viewport. Drag the mouse cursor around to see the marker move vertically from the base point along the tracking line.
Pick the point with the mouse or type the height above the construction plane. Positive numbers are above the construction plane; negative numbers are below it. You can use further constraints like coordinates, object snaps or grid snap for the first point, and you can use object snaps for the height.
To move the marker in the construction plane z-direction, hold the Command ⌘ key and click a point on the construction plane, and then drag vertically from the construction plane and click to pick a point. This constraint is called elevator mode. Using elevator mode to move your pick point vertically from the construction plane lets you work more in the Perspective viewport.
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SmartTrack™
SmartTrack is a system of temporary reference lines and points that is drawn in the Rhino viewport using implicit relationships among various 3-D points, other geometry in space, and the coordinate axes directions.
Temporary infinite lines (tracking lines) and points (smart points) are available to object snaps very much like real lines and points.
You can snap to intersections of the tracking lines, perpendiculars, and directly to smart points as well as intersections of tracking lines and real curves. The tracking lines and smart points are displayed for the duration of a command.
Coordinate systems
Rhino uses two coordinate systems: construction plane coordinates and world coordinates. World coordinates are fixed in space. Construction plane coordinates are defined for each viewport.
Cartesian coordinates
When Rhino prompts you for a point, if you type x and y Cartesian coordinates, the point will lie on the construction plane of the current viewport. For more information about coordinate systems and numeric constraints, see www.mathopenref.com/coordinates. Right-hand rule
Rhino follows what is called the right-hand rule. The right-hand rule can help you determine the direction of the z-axis. Form a right angle with the thumb and forefinger of your right hand. When your thumb points in the positive x-direction, your forefinger points in the positive y-direction, and the palm of your hand faces in the positive z-direction.
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Accurate Modeling
World coordinates
Rhino contains one world coordinate system. The world coordinate system cannot be changed. When Rhino prompts you for a point, you can type coordinates in the world coordinate system.
The arrow icon in the lower left corner of each viewport displays the direction of the world x-, y-, and z-axes. The arrows move to show the orientation of the world axes when you rotate a view.
Construction plane coordinates
Each viewport has a construction plane. A construction plane is like a tabletop that the cursor moves on unless you use coordinate input, elevator mode, or object snaps or a few other instances where input is constrained. The construction plane has an origin, x- and y-axes, and a grid. The construction plane can be set to any orientation. By default, each viewport’s construction plane is independent of those in other viewports.
The construction plane represents the local coordinate system for the viewport and can be different from the world coordinate system.
Rhino’s standard viewports come with construction planes that correspond to the viewport. The default Perspective viewport, however, uses the world Top construction plane, which is the same construction plane that is used in the Top viewport.
The grid lies on the construction plane. The dark red line represents the construction plane x-axis. The dark green line represents the construction plane y-axis. The red and green lines meet at the construction plane origin.
To change the direction and origin of a construction plane, use the CPlane command. Preset construction planes (World Top, Right, and Front) give you quick access to common construction planes. In addition, you can save and restore named construction planes and import named construction planes from another Rhino file.
2-D construction plane coordinates
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In a Value box, type the coordinates in the format x,y where x is the x-coordinate and y is the ycoordinate of the point. 44
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3-D construction plane coordinates
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In a Value box, type the coordinates in the format x,y,z where x is the x-coordinate, y is the ycoordinate, and z is the z-coordinate of the point. There are no spaces between the coordinate values.
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To place a point 3 units in the x-direction, 4 units in the y-direction, and 10 units in the z-direction from the construction plane origin, type 3,4,10 at the prompt.
Tip: If you enter only x- and y-coordinates, the point will lie on the construction plane.
Relative coordinates
Rhino remembers the last point used, so you can enter the next point relative to it. Relative coordinates are useful for entering a list of points where the relative locations instead of absolute locations of the points are known. Use relative coordinates to locate points according to their relationship to the previous active point.
To use relative coordinates
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In a Value box, type the coordinates in the format rx,y where r signifies that the coordinate is relative to the previous point.
For example
1. Start the Line command.
2. At the Start of line… prompt, click to place the first end of the line.
3. At the End of line… prompt, type r2,3, and press Enter. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point.
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Create Surfaces from Curves
A common way of working in 3-D is to draw curves that represent edges, profiles, cross-sections, or other surface features and then to use surfacing commands to create surfaces from those curves.
Edge curves
You can create a surface from three or four curves that form the sides of the surface.
Create a surface from edge curves
1. Open the tutorial model EdgeSrf.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Edge Curves.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the EdgeSrf command.
3. Select the four curves. Objects change to yellow when you select them.
A surface is created from the curves that form its edges.
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Extrude curves
Extruding creates surfaces by tracing the path of a curve in a straight line. Create an extruded surface
1. Open the tutorial model Extrude.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Extrude Curve, and then click Straight.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the ExtrudeCrv command.
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Create Surfaces from Curves
3. Select the curve (1). 4. At the Extrusion distance prompt, drag a distance with your mouse and click. 49
Create Surfaces from Curves
Loft curves
Lofting creates a smooth surface that blends between selected shape curves. This surface looks similar to the Sweep a curve with two rails example, but is created without rail curves. Instead, the edges of the surface are created by fitting smooth curves through the shape curves.
Create a lofted surface
1. Open the tutorial model Loft.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Loft.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the Loft command.
3. Select the three curves (1), (2), and (3), and press Enter. 4. In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK. 5. Try some of the Style options and then click Preview to see the various loft styles.
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Create Surfaces from Curves
Revolve curves
Revolving a curve creates a surface by revolving a profile curve about an axis. This is sometimes called lathing.
Create a revolved surface
1. Open the tutorial model Revolve.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. In the status bar, click Osnap.
3. In the Osnap panel, click End.
4. On the Surface menu, click Revolve.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the Revolve command.
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5. Select the profile curve (1) and press Enter. 52
Create Surfaces from Curves
6. At the Start of revolve axis prompt, snap to one end of the axis line (2). 7. At the End of revolve axis prompt, snap to the other end of the axis line (3). 8. At the Start angle... prompt, select the FullCircle option. 53
Create Surfaces from Curves
Revolve curves with a rail
Rail revolve creates a surface by revolving a profile curve around an axis while at the same time following a rail curve. This is basically the same as Sweep Along 2 Rails, except one of the rails is a central point.
Create a revolved surface with a rail curve
1. Open the tutorial model RailRev.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Rail Revolve.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the RailRevolve command. 54
Create Surfaces from Curves
3. Select the profile curve (1). 55
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4. At the Select rail curve... prompt, select the rail curve the revolve will follow (2). 56
Create Surfaces from Curves
5. At the Start of RailRevolve axis prompt, snap to an endpoint of the axis line (3). 6. At the End of RailRevolve axis prompt, snap to the other end of the axis line (4). 57
Create Surfaces from Curves
Sweep along one rail curve
Sweeping creates a surface with cross sections that maintain the initial orientation of the shape curve(s) to the path curve.
Create a sweep surface
1. Open the tutorial model Sweep1.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the Sweep1 command.
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Create Surfaces from Curves
3. Select the rail curve (1). 4. At the Select cross section curves ... prompt, select the cross-section curve (2), and press Enter. 5. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box, click OK. 59
Create Surfaces from Curves
Sweep along two rail curves
Using two rails for a sweep creates a smooth surface through two or more shape curves that follow two curve rails. The rails also affect the overall shape of the surface. Use this command when you want to control the location of the edges of the surface.
Create a sweep surface with two rail curves
1. Open the tutorial model Sweep2.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Surface menu, click Sweep 2 Rail.
Tip: Open the Help panel to review the help topic for the Sweep2 command.
3. Select the first rail curve (1).
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4. At the Select second rail... prompt, select the second rail curve (2). 5. At the Select cross section curves prompt, select the two cross-section curves (3) and (4), and press Enter. 6. In the Sweep 2 Rails Options dialog box, click OK. 61
Edit Curves and Surfaces
The editing operations in this section break objects apart, cut holes in them, and put them back together. Some of these commands connect curves to curves or surfaces to surfaces or polysurfaces and break a composite curve or polysurface into its components.
The commands: Join, Explode, Trim, and Split apply to curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces.
The Rebuild, ChangeDegree, and Smooth commands alter the shape of a curve or surface by changing its underlying control point structure.
In addition, objects have properties that are assigned to them such as color, layer, rendering material, and other attributes depending on the object. The Properties command manages these properties.
Join
The Join command connects curves or surfaces together into one object. For example, a polycurve can consist of straight-line segments, arcs, polylines, and free-form curves. The Join command also connects adjacent surfaces into a polysurface.
Explode
The Explode command removes the connection between joined curves or surfaces. For polysurfaces, this is useful if you want to edit each individual surface with control points.
Trim and
Split
The Trim and Split commands are similar. The difference is when you trim an object, you select the parts to remove and they are deleted. When you split an object, all parts are left.
The Split command will split a surface with a curve, surface, polysurface, or its own isoparametric curves.
The Untrim command removes a surface’s trimming curve, with an option to keep the curve so you can reuse it.
Control-point editing
You can make subtle changes in the shape of a curve or surface by moving the location of its control points. Rhino offers many tools for editing control points. Some commands such as Rebuild, Fair, and Smooth offer some automated solutions for redistributing control points over a curve or surface. Other commands, such as control point dragging and nudging,and HBar let you manually control the location of individual or groups of control points.
Control point visibility
To edit curves and surfaces by manipulating control points, use the PointsOn command to turn the control points on.
When you are finished with control-point editing, use the PointsOff command or press Esc to turn them off.
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Control points of polysurfaces cannot be turned on for editing. Editing the control points of polysurfaces could separate the edges of the joined surfaces creating “leaks” in the polysurface.
Change control point locations
When you move control points, the curve or surface changes, and Rhino smoothly redraws it. The curve or surface is not drawn though the control points rather it is attracted to the new positions of the control point. This allows the object to be smoothly deformed. When control points are on, Rhino’s transform commands can manipulate the points. You can also rebuild surfaces to add control points and redistribute them.
Add, delete, or redistribute control points
Adding control points to a curve gives you more control over the shape of the curve. Manipulating control points also lets you remove kinks, make curves uniform, and add or subtract detail. The Delete key erases curve control points. This changes the shape of the curve.
Curve and surface degree
A polynomial is a function like y = 3x3 –2x +1. The "degree" of the polynomial is the largest power of the variable. For example, the degree of 3x3 –2x + 1 is 3; the degree of –x5 + x2 is 5, and so on. NURBS functions are rational polynomials and the degree of the NURBS is the degree of the polynomial. From a NURBS modeling point of view, the (degree –1) is the maximum number of "bends" you can get in each span.
For example:
A degree-1 curve must have at least two control points.
A line has degree less than 1. It has zero bends.
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A degree-2 curve must have at least three control points.
A parabola, hyperbola, arc, and circle (conic section curves) have degree less than 2. They have one bend.
A degree-3 curve must have at least four control points.
A cubic Bézier has degree less than 3 If you arrange its control points in a zig-zag shape, you can get two bends.
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Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Transforms change the location, rotation, number and shape of whole objects by moving, mirroring, arraying, rotating, scaling, shearing, twisting, bending, and tapering. The transform commands do not break the objects into pieces or cut holes in them.
Note: For all of the following exercises, the images were captured using Shaded mode display.
Move
Use the Move command when you want to move an object a certain distance or if you want to use object snaps to place an object accurately. Move objects using distance values
The Move command requires a from and to location.
You can pick these locations on the screen or type coordinates in the Value box.
Practice moving objects
The object of this exercise is to move an object from a specific location on the object to a location in the coordinate system.
1. Start a new model using any template.
2. Draw a Sphere of any size anywhere on the screen. 3. Select the sphere.
4. Start the Move command.
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5. At the Point to move from prompt, with the Center object snap on, move the mouse around the edge of the sphere until the Cen tooltip displays and click. 6. At the Point to move to prompt, type 0,0,0.
The sphere moves to the 0,0,0 coordinate point. Tip: Simply typing 0 is a shortcut for the coordinates 0,0,0.
Move objects by dragging
The quickest way is to click the object and drag it. Rhino provides tools for making dragging objects accurate. You can drag objects in any viewport. Object snaps will help align objects to each other.
Practice dragging objects
1. Open the tutorial model Drag Objects.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. In the Osnap panel, turn on the Center object snap.
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3. In the Perspective viewport, click the cone at the bottom edge and pause until the Center object snap tooltip displays. 4. Drag the cone until the center of the cone's base lines up with the top surface of the cylinder and the Center object snap for the cylinder's top face displays.
5. Release the mouse button to place the cone.
6. In the Front viewport, drag the cone to the top of the cylinder. Watch what happens in the Perspective viewport.
There are many times when you have to watch what is happening in other viewports to accurately place your objects.
Elevator mode
You can press the Command ⌘ key to move objects in the z-direction. This is called elevator mode. Elevator mode is like Ortho, except the movement is vertical to the active construction plane.
To practice using the Command ⌘ key to move vertically, you are going to move the box to a location 5 units above the center of the sphere.
Using elevator mode to move objects vertically lets you work more in the Perspective viewport.
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Move the box vertically
Note: For the following images, Shade-highlight selected surfaces and
polysurfaces has been turned on. (Rhinoceros > Preferences > Display Modes > Shaded > Objects > Selection)
1. Turn Ortho off.
2. On the Transform menu, click Move.
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3. In the Perspective viewport, rotate the view so the sphere is toward the front, and select the box. 71
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
4. At the Point to move from... prompt, turn on the End object snap and click a corner of the box. 72
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
5. At the Point to move to prompt, turn on the Center object snap, hold down the Command ⌘ key, and click the center of the sphere. 6. Release the mouse button and the Command ⌘ key and start to drag the box. The box can now move only up and down in the z-direction.
7. In the Value box, type 5. The box will be placed with the selected corner 5 units in the z-direction from the center of the sphere.
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Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Copy
The Copy command makes copies of objects.
Some transform commands like Rotate, Rotate3D, and Scale have a Copy option. This lets you create a copy of the object as you rotate or scale it.
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Practice copying objects
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1. On the Transform menu, click Copy.
2. In the Perspective viewport, use a crossing window to Select the cone and the cylinder. 3. At the Point to copy from prompt, click anywhere in the Top viewport. 4. At the Point to copy to prompt, click where you want the first copy. Zoom in or out if you like.
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5. At the next Point to copy to prompts, click other places to make some copies of the box. When you have enough copies, press Enter to end the command.
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Rotate
The Rotate command rotates an object in relation to the construction plane around a center point.
Rotate an object
1. Open the tutorial model Rotate-Scale.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Transform menu, click Rotate.
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3. In the Top viewport, select the green half-cylinder as shown in the illustration below. 79
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
4. At the Center of rotation... prompt, with the End object snap on, click the lower left corner of the box. 5. At the Angle or first reference point... prompt, check to see that Ortho is turned on, drag the cursor to the right and click. 6. At the Second reference point... prompt, toggle Ortho on or off depending on whether you want to rotate the box in 90-degree increments or to rotate it freely.
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Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
7. Drag the cursor up to rotate the box as shown in the illustration below, and click. 81
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Scale
The Scale commands give you control over the direction of the scale. You can re-size objects uniformly in one, two, or three directions, or scale an object with a different scale factor in each direction.
Scale the prism
1. Select the prism shape. 2. On the Transform menu, click Scale, and then click Scale 3-D.
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3. At the Origin point... prompt, click the corner of the prism as shown in the illustration below. The origin point is the base point from which the object will be scaled. It is like an anchor point. The object will grow or shrink around this point.
To scale an object, you must first show an original size, and then show a new size. Drag the cursor and click another point on the object to show the original size, and then drag the cursor and click again to show the new size.
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4. At the Scale factor or first reference point... prompt, click the corner of the prism as shown in the illustration below. This establishes the first reference point.
5. At the Second reference point... prompt, drag the cursor. The object grows the amount you drag the cursor.
6. Click to set the second reference point. Enter a number to set the scale factor
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To make the object twice its original size, in the Value box, type 2.
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To make the object half its original size, in the Value box type .5.
Scale an object to a specific size
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To make the prism in this example 2.35 units along the original side, at the Second reference
point prompt, in the Value box, type 2.35.
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Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Mirror
In this exercise, you are going to practice another basic editing command: Mirror. The Mirror command makes a reverse-image copy of the object. Objects are mirrored across a line that you draw in a viewport.
Mirror an object
1. Open the tutorial model Mirror Objects.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror.
3. On the status bar, turn Ortho on.
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4. Select the object. 86
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
5. At the Start of mirror plane... prompt, in the Top or Front viewport, click to the right of the face as shown in the illustration below. 6. At the End of mirror plane... prompt, drag the line toward the bottom of the screen, and click to end the mirror line. 87
Transforms - Move, Copy, Rotate, Scale
Array
The Array commands copy objects into evenly spaced rows and columns or around a circle.
Orient
The Orient commands combine move or copy, scale, and rotate operations to help you position and size objects in one command.
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Curve and Surface Analysis
Since Rhino is a mathematically accurate NURBS modeler, tools that provide accurate information about the objects are provided.
Measure distance, angle, and radius
Some analysis commands provide information about location, distance, angle between lines, and radius of a curve. For example:
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Distance displays the distance between two points.
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Angle displays the angle between two lines.
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Radius displays the radius of a curve at any point along it.
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Length displays the length of a curve.
Curve and surface direction
Curves and surfaces have a direction. Many commands that use direction information display direction arrows and give you the opportunity to change (flip) the direction.
The Dir command displays the direction of a curve or surface and lets you change the direction.
The illustration shows the curve direction arrows. If the direction has not been changed, it reflects the direction the curve was originally drawn. The arrows point from the start of the curve toward the end of the curve.
The Dir command also displays surface u-, v-, and normal direction. Surface normals are represented by arrows perpendicular to the surface, and the u- and v-directions are indicated by arrows pointing along the surface. Closed surfaces always have the surface normals pointing to the exterior.
The Dir command can change the u-, v-, and normal-directions of a surface. This direction can be important if you are applying textures to the surface.
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Curvature
Curve analysis tools let you turn on a graph showing the direction perpendicular to the curve at a point and the amount of curvature, display a curvature circle, test the continuity between two curves and the intervals of overlap between the two curves.
The CurvatureGraph command displays a curvature graph on curves and surfaces. The lines on the graph represent a direction perpendicular to the curve at that point. The length of the line indicates the curvature.
Visual surface analysis
Visual surface analysis commands let you examine surfaces to determine smoothness as determined by its curvature, tangency, or other surface properties. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness with false color or reflection maps so you can see the curvature and breaks in the surface.
Environment map
The EMap command displays a bitmap on the object so it looks like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. This tool helps you find surface defects and validate your design intent.
The fluorescent tube environment map simulates tube lights shining on a reflective metal surface.
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Curve and Surface Analysis
Curvature analysis
The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false-color mapping. It analyzes Gaussian curvature, mean curvature, minimum radius of curvature, and maximum radius of curvature.
The Zebra command displays surfaces with reflected stripes. This is a way to visually check for surface defects and for tangency and curvature continuity conditions between surfaces.
Draft angle analysis
The DraftAngleAnalysis command displays by false-color mapping the draft angle relative to the construction plane that is active when you start the command.
The pull direction for the DraftAngleAnalysis command is the z-axis of the construction plane.
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Curve and Surface Analysis
Edge evaluation
Geometry problems such as Boolean or join failures can be caused by edges on surfaces that have become broken or edges between surfaces that have been moved through point editing so they create holes. An edge is a separate object that is part of the surface’s boundary representation.
The ShowEdges command highlights all the edges of the surface.
A polysurface may look closed, but the Properties command may tell you that it is open. Some operations and export features require closed polysurfaces, and a model using closed polysurfaces is generally higher quality than one with small cracks and slivers.
Rhino provides a tool for finding the unjoined or “naked” edges. When a surface is not joined to another surface, it has naked edges. Use Properties command to examine the object details. A polysurface that has naked edges lists as an open polysurface. Use the ShowEdges command to display the unjoined edges.
Other edge tools let you split an edge, merge edges that meet end-to-end, or force surfaces with naked edges to join. You can rebuild edges based on internal tolerances. Other edge tools include:
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SplitEdge splits an edge at a point.
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MergeEdge merges edges that meet end to end.
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JoinEdge forces unjoined (naked) edges to join nearby surfaces.
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RebuildEdges redistributes edge control points based on internal tolerances.
Diagnostics
Diagnostic tools report on an object’s internal data structure and select objects that may need repair. The output from the List, Check, SelBadObjects, and Audit3dmFile commands is normally most useful to a Rhino programmer to diagnose problems with surfaces that are causing errors.
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Organization and Annotation
Rhino offers aids to organizing your work: ●
Layers
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Groups
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Blocks
Each method offers a different approach to model organization. Using layers lets you assign a layer designation to objects. Groups associate objects so they can be selected as one. Blocks let you store and update an association of objects. Worksessions let you work on a part of a project while using other models in the project as references.
Rhino also provides the ability to add notation to your model. These appear as objects in the model. ●
Dimensions
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Leaders
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Text blocks
A different form of notation always displays facing towards the view plane.
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Annotation dots
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Arrowheads
In addition, you can add Notes to the model. Notes do not appear in the model, but display in a separate window.
Layers
Layers are a way of grouping objects and applying certain characteristics to all objects that have that layer assignment. There are two “mental models” you can use when you think of layers—they can be thought of either as a “storage location” for the objects or as a way to assign a set of characteristics or properties to objects.
Layer states include a layer name, the color used to display the objects, and the on/off and locked/unlocked status of all the objects on a layer. Objects on layers that are off are not visible in the model. Objects on locked layers cannot be selected but can be snapped to. Objects are always created on the current layer. This layer assignment can be changed later.
To accomplish the most common tasks related to layers, click the Layer pane in the status bar to display the popup layer list. You can set the current layer; change the on/off, locked/unlocked state; and the layer color. In addition, right-click the layer name to create a new layer, rename a layer, delete the selected layer, select objects on the selected layer, change objects to the selected layer, and copy objects to the selected layer.
Accomplish more detailed layer management with the Layers panel. Right-click the Layer pane to open the Layers panel. The Layers panel sets the current layer, locks and unlocks layers, turns layers on and off, changes the layer color and sets the layer render material. You can create new layers, delete layers, move layers up or down in the layer list, filter the layer list, set the current layer to match an object in the model, change objects to a selected layer, select all layers, and invert the selection.
The SelLayer command selects all objects on a layer.
Groups
A group is a collection of objects that select as one for moving, copying, rotating, or other transforms and applying properties such as object color. Grouping objects assigns a group name to each object that is displayed as a part of its properties. Objects with the same group name belong to the same group.
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Group groups objects for selection. A group can contain one or more sub-groups.
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Ungroup destroys the group.
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SetGroupName changes the name assigned by default. Naming different groups to the same name combines those groups into one.
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AddToGroup and RemoveFromGroup add and remove objects from groups.
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SelGroup selects groups by name.
Blocks
A block is another way of associating objects together to form a single object. The Block command creates a block definition in the current model. The Insert command places instances of this block definition in your model. You can scale, copy, rotate, array, and otherwise transform block instances in the model. If you edit the block definition, all instances of the block are changed to this new definition. Blocks can streamline modeling, reduce model size, and promote standardization of parts and details.
Multiple instances of a block can be located, scaled, and rotated into a model with the Insert command. Block definitions are created with the Block or Insert command. Materials and other object properties on block instances are determined by the component objects.
Exploding a block instance places the block geometry using the instance location, scale, and rotation. To redefine a block, Explode the block, edit the geometry, and then re-create the block with the same insertion point and name.
The BlockManager command displays a dialog box that lists all the block definitions in the model. Use the Block Manager dialog box to view block properties, export a block definition to a file, delete a block definition and all its instances, update a block definition from a file, find out what blocks are nested in other blocks, and count the number of block instances in the model.
Dimensions
You can dimension objects in your model, with your choice of font, units display, decimal precision, text and arrow size, and text alignment. After dimensions are placed, you can select all dimensions, edit dimension text, turn control points on to move dimension elements, and delete dimensions. You can place horizontal, vertical, aligned, rotated, radial, diameter, and angle dimensions, text blocks, leaders, and create a 2-D hidden line drawing.
Dimensions are not associative. Changing your geometry will not update the dimension unless the dimension was drawn with history enabled. Changing the dimension will not update your geometry.
The Dim command places horizontal and vertical dimensions depending on the direction you pick the points.
Dimensions are created using the current dimension style. Create new dimension styles to control text size and font, and other dimension properties. Use the settings in the Document Properties window to create new styles and set the properties of existing styles.
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Text
The Text command places annotation text in your model.
Leaders
The Leader command draws an arrow leader.
Dots
The Dot command places a text dot.
Dots are always parallel to the view. Dots are displayed in the layer color. Dot size is constant on the screen. As you zoom in and out, the dot displays the same size.
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Hidden line removal
The Make2D command creates curves from the selected objects as silhouettes relative to the active view. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x,y-plane.
The command options create the 2-D drawing from the current view, current construction plane, create a fourview layout using US or European projection angles, set layers for the hidden lines, and display tangent edges.
Notes
The Notes command provides a means of storing text information in your model file. You can type information directly into the Notes text box. If you leave the Notes box displayed when you close the model file, it will display the next time the file is opened.
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Render
In addition to shaded previews, Rhino provides full-color rendering with lights, transparency, shadows, textures, and bump mapping. Objects will render white until you add render color, highlight, texture, transparency, and bumps. These attributes are controlled through the Properties panel, Material page.
The process needed to render scenes consists of four basic steps:
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Add lighting
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Assign materials
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Render
Although the steps do not have to be done in this order, using this method seems to make setting up a scene more efficient. To improve quality, repeat these steps until the image looks right to you.
Lights
In every Rhino rendering there are light sources that Rhino uses to calculate how the objects are to be illuminated. If you do not add any light sources to your scene, the default light is used. The default light is a directional light with parallel rays that acts as though you have a lamp shining over your left shoulder.
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Render
Add indoor lights
4
Insert Spotlights, Directional Lights, Linear Lights, Point Lights, or Rectangular Lights.
Materials
Materials specify the color, finish, transparency, texture, and bump for use by the renderer.
Assign materials to layers
1. In the Layers panel, select one or more layer names, and click in the Material column.
2. In the Layer Material dialog box, set up material properties.
Assign materials to objects
1. Select an object.
2. On the Edit menu, click Object Properties.
3. In the Properties panel, Material page, set up material properties.
Render
Render and save an image.
Render and save the image
1. On the Render menu, click Render.
2. In the Render Window, on the File menu, click Save As.
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Rhinoceros 5 User's Guide
Section II: Tutorials
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
This tutorial demonstrates using solid primitives and simple transforms.
You will learn how to:
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Enter coordinates to place points exactly.
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Draw a free-form curve and polygon.
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Create a pipe along a curve.
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Use a polar array to copy objects in a circular pattern.
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Extrude a curve to create a surface.
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Use planar mode. Enter coordinates
When you pick a point with the mouse, the point lies on the construction plane of the active viewport unless you use a modeling aid such as object snap or elevator mode. When Rhino prompts for a point, you can enter x-, y-, and z-coordinates instead of picking a point. Each viewport has its own construction plane on which its x- and y-coordinates lie. The z-coordinate for the active viewport is perpendicular to the x-y plane.
The grid is a visual representation of the construction plane. The intersection of the dark red and green lines shows the location of the origin point (x=0, y=0, z=0) of the coordinate system.
Draw the pull toy body
This exercise uses x-, y-, and z-coordinates to accurately place points. When you are to type coordinates, type them just as they are shown in the manual. The format is x,y,z. For example, type 1,1,4. You must type the commas. This sets the point at x=1, y=1, and z=4 in the active viewport.
Whenever you type points, look in all viewports at where the point is placed so you can start getting an idea of how coordinate entry works.
Tip: Pay close attention to the viewport required in each instruction.
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Start the model
1. Begin a New model.
2. In the Open Template File dialog box, select Small Objects - Centimeters.3dm, and click Open.
Draw an ellipsoid
1. Turn on Ortho.
2. On the Solid menu, click Ellipsoid > From Center.
3. With the Top viewport active, at the Ellipsoid center… prompt, type 0,0,11, and press Enter. This places the center point of the ellipsoid at x=0, y=0, and z=11. Look at the point in the Perspective viewport.
4. At the End of first axis… prompt, type 15, and press Enter.
5. Move the cursor to the right to show the direction and click. 6. At the End of second axis prompt, type 8, and press Enter.
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7. Move the cursor up to show the direction and click. This sets the width of the ellipsoid.
8. At the End of third axis prompt, type 9, and press Enter. You now have an egg shape that has different dimensions in all three directions.
9. Rotate the perspective viewport so you are looking along the x-axis as illustrated. Turn on Shaded display mode in the Perspective viewport.
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Draw the axles and wheel hubs
The axles and wheel hubs are cylinders. The axles are long, thin cylinders, and the wheel hubs are short, fat cylinders. You are going to make one axle and one complete wheel. You will then mirror the complete wheel to the other side. You can then either mirror or copy the complete axle and wheel set to the front of the toy.
Create the axle
1. On the Solid menu, click Cylinder.
2. With the Front viewport active, at the Base of cylinder… prompt, for the location of the cylinder's center, type 9,6.5,10, and press Enter. 3. At the Radius… prompt, type .5, and press Enter.
4. At the End of cylinder prompt, type -20, and press Enter. 104
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
Create a wheel hub
1. On the Solid menu, click Cylinder.
2. With the Front viewport active, at the Base of cylinder… prompt, type 9,6.5,10, and press Enter. 3. At the Radius… prompt, type 4, and press Enter.
4. At the End of cylinder prompt, type 2, and press Enter. 105
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Draw the lug nuts
You will make the lug nuts by extruding a hexagonal polygon curve.
Create a hexagon
1. On the Curve menu, click Polygon > Center, Radius.
2. At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4… ) prompt, type 6, and press Enter.
3. In the Front viewport, at the Center of inscribed polygon… prompt, type 9,8,12, and press Enter. This will place the polygon right on the surface of the wheel hub.
4. At the Corner of polygon… prompt, type .5, and press Enter.
5. In the Front viewport drag the cursor as illustrated, and click to position the hexagon. Make a solid from the polygon
1. In any viewport, select the hexagon you just created.
2. On the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve > Straight.
3. At the Extrusion distance prompt, notice the command-line options. Set the options as follows: Direction - use default
BothSides=No
Solid=Yes
DeleteInput=Yes
ToBoundary - use default
SplitAtTangents=No
SetBasePoint - use default
If the option is not set as listed above, click the option to change it.
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4. At the Extrusion Distance… prompt, type -.5 (Notice the negative number. If you type a positive number at this point, the nuts will be buried in the wheel hub. You want them to stick out.), and press Enter. Array the lug nuts
To create the lug nuts on the first wheel, you are going to use a polar (circular) array. An array is a set of copies of an object. You control how the copies are made. A polar array copies the objects around a central point. The objects are rotated as they are copied.
Array the nuts around the center
1. Select the lug nut.
2. On the Transform menu, click Array > Polar.
3. With the Front viewport active, at the Center of polar array prompt, use the Cen object snap to snap to the center of the hub. 4. At the Number of elements… prompt, type 5, and press Enter.
5. At the Angle to fill <360> prompt, press Enter.
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6. At the Press Enter to accept prompt, check the preview, and press Enter. Draw the tires
The tires are a solid form called a torus, which looks like a donut. When you are drawing a torus, the first radius is the radius of a circle around which the “tube” is drawn. The second radius is the radius of the tube itself.
To draw the tires, you will draw the center of the torus tube a bit larger than the diameter of the wheel hub. The tube itself is slightly larger than the hub. This makes it dip into the hub.
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Create a torus for the tires
1. On the Solid menu, click Torus.
2. In the Front viewport, at the Center of torus… prompt, type 9,6.5,11, and press Enter. This places the center of the torus at the same point as the center of the wheel hub.
3. At the Radius… prompt, type 5, and press Enter. This makes the radius of the torus tube one unit bigger than the wheel hub.
4. At the Second radius… prompt, type 1.5, and press Enter. This makes the inner dimension of the torus tube .5 units smaller than the wheel hub.
Mirror the wheels
Now that you have a whole wheel created, you can use the Mirror command to create the other three.
Mirror the wheel to the other side
1. In the Top viewport, use a window to select the wheel as illustrated.
2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror.
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3. At the Start of mirror plane… prompt, type 0,0,0, and press Enter. 4. At the End of mirror plane… prompt, with Ortho on, drag to the right in the Top viewport as illustrated and click. Mirror the front wheels and axle
1. In the Top viewport, use a window to select the wheels and axle as illustrated.
2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror.
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3. At the Start of mirror plane… prompt, type 0,0,0, and press Enter. 4. At the End of mirror plane… prompt, with Ortho on, drag down in the Top viewport as illustrated and click. Draw the eyes
You are going to draw a sphere for an eye and a smaller sphere for the pupil.
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Create an eye using a sphere
1. On the Solid menu, click Sphere > Center, Radius.
2. At the Center of sphere… prompt, in the Top viewport, type -12,-3,14, and press Enter. 3. At the Radius… prompt, type 3 and press Enter. 112
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Create the eye pupil
1. Repeat the Sphere command.
2. At the Center of sphere… prompt, in the Top viewport, type -13,-4,15, and press Enter. 3. At the Radius… prompt, type 2 and press Enter. 113
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Mirror the eye
1. In the Top viewport, use a window to select the eye as illustrated.
2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror. 3. At the Start of mirror plane… prompt, type 0 (this is a shortcut for typing 0,0,0), and press Enter.
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4. At the End of mirror plane… prompt, with Ortho on, drag to the left in the Top viewport as illustrated and click. 115
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
Make the pull cord
To make the cord, you are going to draw a freehand curve using elevator and planar mode. When the curve is complete, use the Pipe command to make it a thick solid.
Set up the view
1. Zoom out in all the viewports; you are going to need some space to work.
2. On the status bar, turn Planar mode on, and turn Ortho off.
3. In the Osnap panel, click Disable all to turn off all object snaps.
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Create the pull cord at the front of the toy
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1. On the Curve menu, click Free-form > Control Points.
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2. At the Start of curve… prompt, in the Top viewport, hold the Command ⌘ key to activate elevator mode and click near the front end of the body ellipsoid. 119
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
3. Move the cursor to the Front viewport, drag the marker near the end of the ellipsoid, and click. 120
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
4. At the Next point… prompt, click to the left of the ellipsoid in the Top viewport. Planar mode keeps successive points at the same construction plane elevation. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Watch the curve in the Top and Front viewports.
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5. At the Next point… prompt, use elevator mode to add another point in the Top viewport. 6. At the Next point… prompts, turn off Planar mode and click several more points in the Top viewport to create a curved line. Notice that the points are projected to the Top construction plane.
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Make the cord handle
1. Draw an Ellipsoid with the Diameter option to represent a handle at the end of the curve.
2. At the Start of first axis prompt, use the End object snap to pick the end of the cord curve.
3. At the End of first axis prompt, type 10 to set the length, and press Enter.
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4. Drag the direction so it lines up with the cord curve and click to set the direction. This does not have to be very accurate.
5. At the End of second axis prompt, type 4, press Enter, and drag to set the direction. 6. At the End of third axis prompt, type 2, and press Enter. 124
Pull Toy - Solids and Transforms
Thicken the curve with a pipe
1. Select the curve you just made at the front of the pull toy.
2. On the Solid menu, click Pipe.
3. At the Start radius… prompt, type .2, and press Enter.
4. At the End radius… prompt, press Enter.
5. At the Point for next radius prompt, press Enter. The pipe will be the same diameter for the full length of the curve.
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Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Creating surfaces from curves and joining the surfaces together allows you much greater freedom.
This tutorial introduces the concept of drawing curves and one method of creating surfaces from those curves. You will learn how to:
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Draw free-form curves based on an existing object.
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Edit control points.
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Revolve surfaces around an axis. Revolving curves is a good method for creating tubular shapes like vases, wineglasses, and chair legs.
You are going to use a basic flashlight as a guide for drawing the curves you will need for the new model. Using the basic flashlight gives you a frame of reference for deciding about the size and shape of the object. To get started
4
Open the tutorial model file Flashlight.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
Set up the model
You are going to trace around the old flashlight. To make this easier, you will lock the objects. When objects are locked, you can see them and snap to them, but you cannot select them. This keeps the objects from interfering when you want to select things close by. You can still use object snaps to snap to locked objects. You will then create some curves and revolve them to make the new flashlight.
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Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Lock the flashlight objects
1. Select all the objects. Press the Command ⌘ and A keys to select all the objects in the model.
2. On the Edit menu, click Visibility > Lock. 128
Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Draw a centerline
Draw a construction centerline through the center of the old flashlight.
Draw the construction centerline
1. On the Curve menu click Line > Single Line.
2. At the Start of line… prompt, use the Center object snap to place the start of the line at the center of the flashlight base.
3. At the End of line… prompt, turn Ortho on, and draw the line through the exact center of the old flashlight. 129
Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Draw the body profile curve
You are going to draw a profilecurve that you will use to revolve to create the flashlight body. A profile curve defines a cross-section of one half of the part.
Draw the body curve
1. On the status bar, click the Layer pane and make the layer Free Form Body current.
2. On the Curve menu, click Free-Form > Control Points.
3. At the Start of curve… prompt, in the Front viewport, start drawing a curve around the flashlight body as illustrated. Use the End object snap to start the curve at the end of the construction center line.
Use the Near object snap to end the curve on the construction center line.
Starting and ending the curve exactly on the line is important so that later when you revolve the curve to create a solid, there will be no gaps or overlapping parts.
When drawing the curve, use Ortho to control the first two (1 and 2) points and the last two points (3 and 4) on the curve. If the first two points and the last two points are placed in a straight line, the curve will start and end tangent to that line.
4. When you have placed the last control point, press Enter to finish drawing the curve. To place the last two points in a straight line with each other, use Grid Snap, Ortho, or Perpendicular object snap.
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Draw the lens profile curve
Make another profile curve for the lens.
Create the lens
1. On the Curve menu, click Free-Form > Control Points.
2. At the Start of curve… prompt, in the Front viewport, place the first control point of the lens profile. Use the Near object snap to start and end the curve on the construction centerline.
Place control points in the upper part of the lens curve so it crosses the body profile curve.
Get the old flashlight out of your way
1. On the Edit menu, click Visibility > Unlock.
2. Select all the objects except the two profile curves you just drew and the switch sphere.
3. On the Edit menu, click Visibility > Hide. 131
Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Build the flashlight body
To make the body, you will revolve the profile curve 360 degrees. You will use the endpoint of the curve and ortho to establish the rotation axis.
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Create the flashlight body
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Flashlight - Revolve Curves
1. On the Surface menu, click Revolve.
2. At the Select curve to revolve prompt, select the body profile curve.
3. At the Start of revolve axis prompt, use the End snap to snap to one end of the profile curve. 4. At the End of revolve axis prompt, turn Ortho on, and specify the revolve axis line as illustrated. 5. In the Start angle... prompt, click the FullCircle option. 134
Flashlight - Revolve Curves
Create the lens
Now revolve the lens profile curve in the same way as the body.
Revolve the lens profile curve
1. On the Surface menu, click Revolve.
2. At the Select curve to revolve prompt, select the lens profile curve.
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Flashlight - Revolve Curves
3. At the Start of revolve axis prompt, use End object snap to locate the endpoint of one of the curve profiles. 4. At the End of revolve axis prompt, turn Ortho on, and draw the revolve axis line as illustrated. 5. In the Start angle... prompt, click the FullCircle option. 136
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
This tutorial demonstrates creating surfaces from profile curves using lofts, sweeps, and extrudes.
You will learn how to:
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Use sub-object selection to pre-select objects for a command.
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Create a surface from a planar curve.
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Loft, revolve, sweep, and extrude surfaces.
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Cap planar holes to create a solid.
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Draw a helix around a curve.
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Match curve ends.
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Create solid pipes.
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Mirror objects.
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Use layers.
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Use object snaps. To open the headphone model.
4
Open the tutorial model file Headphone.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Create the speaker shell
The speaker shell is created using a lofted surface, a one-rail sweep, a solid extrusion of a planar curve, and a surface fillet. The resulting geometry is joined into one solid.
Loft curves to create a surface
One way to create a surface is to use existing curves as a guide. When lofting through curves, the curves are used as a guide for creating a smooth surface.
1. Turn on Shaded mode in the Perspective viewport.
2. Select the three circular curves, with a crossing selection as illustrated. 3. On the Surface menu, click Loft.
4. At the Drag seam point to adjust… prompt, note the display of the curve direction arrows at the seam points, and press Enter. In this model, they are nicely lined up for you, so you do not need to adjust them.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
5. In the Loft Options dialog box, click OK to create the loft. Extrude the surface edge
Extrude the lofted surface edge in the center to make a magnet housing.
1. Hold the Command ⌘ and Shift keys to select the surface edge at the center of the lofted surface. Tip: Selecting objects with the Command ⌘ and Shift keys is called sub-object
selection. Hold the Command ⌘ and Shift keys, and click to select polysurface faces; surface and polysurface edge curves; control points; mesh vertices, faces, boundaries, and edges; and objects within a group. 2. On the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve > Straight.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
3. At the Extrusion Distance… prompt, type -2 (notice the negative number) and press Enter. This makes a solid cylinder for the magnet housing that is two units thick and extends in the negative direction from the original surface edge.
Extract the bottom surface
The cylinder you just created is an extrusion object (solid). To remove the bottom, extract the face.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
1. Hold the Command ⌘ and Shift keys, and click to select the bottom face.
2. On the Solid menu, click Extract Surface. 3. At the Select surfaces to extract… prompt, select the surface as illustrated and press Enter. 4. Press the Delete key. 141
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Fillet the edge of the cylinder surface
1. On the Solid menu, click Fillet Edge > Fillet Edge. The current radius setting should be 1.
2. At the Select edges to fillet… prompt, select the edge at the top of the cylinder press Enter. 3. At the Select fillet handle to edit prompt, press Enter. 142
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Join the surfaces
Surfaces that share an edge can be joined into a polysurface. You will join all the surfaces. Since the faces are sometimes hard to see, use two viewports to select them all.
1. Select the surface and the polysurface.
2. On the Edit menu, click Join. To join surfaces, you must select surfaces that are adjacent to each other and the edges must match.
Create the padding and cover
Sweep a curve around the edge of the speaker cone to create the padding around the edge of the speaker.
Reset the view
1. On the View menu, click Zoom > Zoom Extents All.
2. Hide or Delete all of curves used for the loft.
Sweep a curve along one rail
1. Hold the Ctrl and Shift keys, and click to select the loft surface outer edge.
2. Hold theShift key and select the rail curve at the top of the speaker as shown.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
3. On the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail. 4. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box, click OK. 144
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Make a surface from planar curves
Fill the area at the base of the padding with a planar surface created from the edge of the sweep.
1. Hold the Command ⌘ and Shift keys, and click to select the surface edge of the speaker cone as illustrated. 2. On the Surface menu, click Planar Curves. A planar surface is created at the base of the padding.
Create the mounting bracket
The next part is the bracket that holds the speaker to the headband. Since the speaker unit is complete, you can turn its layer off and make the Bracket layer current.
Reset the layers
1. On the status bar, click the Layer pane.
2. Make Bracket the current layer and turn on Bracket Shape Curves. Turn all other layers off.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Reset the view
4
On the View menu, click Zoom > Zoom Extents All to zoom in on the bracket shape curves in all viewports.
Extrude a curve into a solid
Use a planar curve to create a solid shape.
1. Select the closed curve.
2. On the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve > Straight. 3. At the Extrusion distance… prompt, type -1 and press Enter. Fillet the edges
Round the sharp edges with a fillet.
1. On the Solid menu, click Fillet Edge > Fillet Edge.
2. At the Select edges to fillet… prompt, type .2 and press Enter.
3. At the Select edges to fillet… prompt, click ChainEdges and select the front edge of the bracket. The entire edge of the solid should highlight.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
4. Press Enter to close that edge selection. 5. At the Select edges to fillet… prompt, click ChainEdges and select the back edge of the bracket.
6. Press Enter to close that edge selection. 7. Press Enter to finish the edge selection.
8. At the Select fillet handle to edit prompt, press Enter. 147
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Create a tubular surface from the shape curves
1. Select the curve at the top of the bracket.
2. On the Solid menu, click Pipe.
3. At the Starting radius… prompt, type .3 and press Enter.
Before typing the radius, set the command-line options to Cap=Flat and Thick=No.
4. At the End radius… prompt, press Enter.
5. At the Point for next radius prompt, press Enter. For the second tube
1. Select the curve at the bottom of the bracket.
2. On the Solid menu, click Pipe. 3. At the Starting radius… prompt, type .2, and press Enter.
4. At the End radius… prompt, press Enter.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
5. At the Point for next radius prompt, press Enter. Create the headband
The headband consists of a series of ellipses swept along a path.
Reset the layers
1. On the status bar, click the Layer pane.
2. Make Headband the current layer and turn on Headband Shape Curves. Turn all other layers off.
Reset the view
4
On the View menu, click Zoom > Zoom Extents All to zoom in on the headband shape curves in all viewports.
Create an ellipse perpendicular to a curve
1. Turn Ortho on.
2. On the Curve menu, click Ellipse > From Center.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
3. At the Ellipse center… prompt, click AroundCurve. 4. At the Ellipse center prompt, snap to an endpoint of the headband curve. Use the End object snap.
5. At the End of first axis prompt, type 0.5, and press Enter.
6. At the End of first axis prompt, drag the cursor in the x-direction and click. 7. At the End of second axis prompt, type 2, and press Enter.
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8. At the End of second axis prompt, drag the cursor in the y-direction and click. Array a curve along a path
1. Select the ellipse.
2. On the Transform menu, click Array > Along Curve.
3. At the Select path curve prompt, select headband curve. 4. In the Array Along Curve Options dialog box, under Method, set the Number of items to 3.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
5. Under Orientation, click Freeform, and click OK. Scale the ellipse
Scale the center ellipse to make it larger.
1. Select the center ellipse. 2. On the Transform menu, click Scale > Scale 1-D. Scale1D stretches an object in one direction.
3. At the Origin point… prompt, in the Perspective viewport, snap to the center of selected ellipse.
4. At the Scale factor or first reference point… prompt, type 2, and press Enter.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
5. At the Scale direction… prompt, drag the cursor in the y-direction and click. 153
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Sweep along one rail
1. Select the curves.
2. On the Surface menu, click Sweep 1 Rail. 3. At the Drag seam point to adjust… prompt, examine the direction and seam points of the curves to make sure they are not twisted, and press Enter.
4. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box, click OK. Round the headband ends
Use the same ellipse that formed the first cross-section curve for the headband to create a rounded end for the headband. Start by splitting the ellipse in half.
Reset the view
1. On the View menu, click Zoom > Window.
2. In the Perspective viewport, zoom in on the left end of the headband you just created.
Split the ellipse in half
1. Select the ellipse.
2. On the Edit menu, click Split.
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3. At the Select cutting objects… prompt, click the Point option.
4. Turn on Quadrant object snap.
5. At the Point to split curve prompts, snap to the two quadrants at the narrow axis of the ellipse. 6. At the Point to split curve prompt, press Enter. The ellipse is split into two halves.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Create a surface of revolution
1. Select left half of the ellipse. 2. On the Surface menu, click Revolve.
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3. At the Start of revolve axis prompt, snap to the end of the ellipse half. 4. At the End of revolve axis prompt, snap to the other end of the ellipse half. 5. At the Start angle... prompt, type 0, press Enter.
6. At the Revolution angle... prompt, type 180, press Enter. A rounded surface is created at the end of the headband.
7. Repeat these steps for the other side of the headband.
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Mirror the rounded end
1. Select the rounded end. 2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror.
3. At the Start of the mirror plane prompt, type 0.
4. At the End of the mirror plane prompt, drag the mirror line in the y-direction as illustrated. 158
Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Join the surfaces
1. Select the surfaces.
2. On the Edit menu, click Join. Three surfaces join into one polysurface.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Create the speaker wire
Use a separate layer to create the speaker wire.
Reset the layers
1. On the status bar, click the Layer pane.
2. Make Wire Shape Curves the current layer and turn on Wire. Turn all other layers off.
Reset the view
4
On the View menu, click Zoom > Zoom Extents All.
Make the helix
1. On the Curve menu, click Helix.
2. At the Start of axis… prompt, click AroundCurve.
3. At the Select curve prompt, select the long free-form curve. 4. At the Radius and start point… prompt, type 1 and press Enter. This sets the radius for the helix.
5. At the Radius and start point… prompt, set Turns=30 and NumPointsPerTurn=8.
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6. At the Radius and start point… prompt, in the Right viewport drag the cursor to the left and click. Reset the view
1. On the View menu, click Zoom > Window.
2. In the Perspective viewport, zoom in on the left end of the helix you just created.
Match and join the helix to the end curves
1. On the Curve menu, click Curve Edit Tools > Match. 2. At the Select open curve to change - pick near end prompt, select near the left end of the helix.
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3. At the Select open curve to match - pick near end… prompt, select near the lower end of the vertical curve. 4. In the Match Curve dialog box, under Continuity, click Tangency, under Preserve other end, click Position, and click Join.
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5. Repeat steps 3 through 6 for the other end of the helix. Create the speaker wire
1. Select the extended helical curve.
2. On the Solid menu, click Pipe.
3. At the Starting radius… prompt, type .2 and press Enter.
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4. At the End radius… prompt, press Enter.
5. At the Point for next radius prompt, press Enter. Create the second wire
1. Select the curve at the top left.
2. On the Solid menu, click Pipe.
3. At the Starting radius… prompt, type 0.1 and press Enter.
4. At the End radius… prompt, press Enter.
5. At the Point for next radius prompt, press Enter. Mirror the headphone parts
Mirror the parts to create the parts for the other side of the headphones.
Reset the layers
1. On the status bar, click the Layer pane.
2. Turn on all layers.
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Headphone - Sweep, Loft, and Extrude
Reset the view
4
On the View menu, click Zoom > Zoom Extents All.
Delete all the shape curves
1. Press Esc to deselect everything.
2. On the Edit menu, click Select Objects > Curves.
3. Press the Delete key.
Mirror the left half of the headphones
1. In the Front viewport, window select the objects as illustrated. (Select the speaker, bracket, small wire, and rotated ellipse.)
2. On the Transform menu, click Mirror. The Mirror command depends on which viewport is active. It uses the construction plane in the active viewport to define the mirror plane. The mirror plane is perpendicular to the construction plane. Two points define the line in this plane about which the selected objects are mirrored.
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3. At the Start of mirror plane prompt, type 0,0. This is the first point of the mirror line.
4. At the End of mirror plane prompt, turn on Ortho, and drag the mirror line straight up and pick. Learn more
For a video tutorial showing a more sophisticated modeling method for a headphone set using Rhino's Gumball feature, see: Modeling stereo headphones.
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
This tutorial demonstrates point-editing techniques including moving and scaling control points and adding knots to surfaces to increase control. In addition, you will use blends to create smooth transitions between surfaces.
You will learn how to:
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Rebuild surfaces to add additional control points.
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Insert knots in a surface to add control points in a specific location.
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Edit surface control points to define a shape.
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Scale control points to change the object shape.
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Use object snaps projected to the construction plane.
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Orient an object on a surface.
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Create smooth blends between surfaces. Rendered with Penguin renderer by Jari Saarinen.
The body
If you like, open the example model, Penguin.3dm, and try to match the shapes as you are building the model. Experiment with your own shapes, too.
Download the tutorial models.
The body and head are created from one sphere. The shape is formed by moving the control points in the sphere to create the head.
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Draw a sphere
4
In the Top viewport, use the Sphere command to draw a sphere with a radius of 10 units. Rebuild the sphere
4
Use the Rebuild command to add more control points to the sphere. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box, set the Point count in the U and V directions to 8 and the Degree in the U and V directions to 3.
Check Delete input.
Click OK.
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Turn control points on
4
Use the PointsOn (F10) command to turn on the sphere’s control points. Look in all the viewports at the structure of the control points. The next step will change this structure so the influence of moving the control points does not extend over the whole sphere.
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Insert knots
4
Use the InsertKnot command to insert two knots in the sphere in the area where you want the neck. Insert the knots in the u-direction only as illustrated.
Examine the control point structure after inserting the knot.
Reposition control points to create the indentation for the neck and to reform the body shape.
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Flatten the bottom
1. In the Front viewport, select all the control points in the lowest rows of the sphere. Use the SetPt command to match them to the bottom pole point in the world z-direction only.
2. In the Set Points dialog box, check Set Z, clear the Set X and Set Y check boxes, and click World.
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3. Drag the selected control points up. This will align all of the selected control points to the same z-value (up in Front viewport), flattening the surface.
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Drag points
4
Select rows of control points with a window and drag them up or down in the Front viewport to shape the body. Use WireFrame display mode if you find it easier to select control points in wireframe views.
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Scale points
1. Select rows of control points with a window in the Front viewport. 2. In the Top viewport, use the Scale2D command to move them closer or farther away from the central point. To pick the base point for the Scale2D command use the Point object snap with Project turned on. This will scale the points parallel to the construction plane. Watch the Front viewport to see the changes in the body shape as you move the control points closer to and farther from the center.
Experiment with the Project setting in the Osnap panel to see how it works. You will be able to see the tracking line projected to the construction plane in the viewports.
Match the example model or use your own shape.
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
3. Drag individual groups of control points to make the body slightly flatter in the front near the neck as illustrated. The eyes
The eye is an ellipsoid shape that is oriented onto the surface.
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Create the eye
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
1. In the Top viewport, start the Ellipsoid command. Place the center point anywhere.
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2. At the End of first axis prompt, type 1.1 to constrain the distance from the center point to the end of the axis to 1.1 units. Drag the cursor to the right and pick.
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3. At the End of second axis prompt, type 1.1 to constrain the distance. Using these constraints has created a circular ellipsoid when seen from the top.
Drag the cursor up or down in the Top viewport and pick.
4. At the End of third axis prompt, type .5, press Enter. Orient the eye on the surface
1. Select the eye ellipsoid in the Top or Perspective viewport.
2. Start the OrientOnSrf command.
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3. At the Base point... prompt, in the Top viewport, pick the center of the ellipsoid. 4. At the Reference point for scaling and rotation prompt, pick any point to the right or left of the eye ellipsoid. The exact location is not important.
5. At the Surface to orient on prompt, select the penguin body/head.
6. In the Orient on Surface dialog box, click OK.
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7. At the Point on surface to orient to… prompt, move the cursor onto the head to where you want to place the eye and click. Mirror the eye
4
Use the Mirror command in the Front viewport to create the second eye. The beak
The beak is another ellipsoid that you can edit to change the shape.
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Create the basic beak shape
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
1. In the Top viewport, start the Ellipsoid command. Place the center point anywhere.
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2. At the End of first axis prompt, type 3 to constrain the distance from the center point to the end of the axis to three units. Drag the cursor to the right and pick.
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3. At the End of second axis prompt, type 2 to constrain the distance. Using these constraints creates a circular ellipsoid when seen from the top.
Drag the cursor up or down in the Top viewport and pick.
4. At the End of third axis prompt, type 1, press Enter. 185
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Shape the beak
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
1. Turn on the beak's control points (F10). In the Front viewport, select the lower row of points and drag them up.
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2. Select the row of points in the top center and drag them down to shape the beak. Try using the Nudge keys (Alt + Arrow direction keys) to nudge the selected points.
Move the beak
4
Move the beak into position. The feet
The feet are created using another ellipsoid. Knots are added to help create the webbed toes.
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Draw the beginning ellipsoid
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Penguin - Point Editing and Blending
1. In the Front viewport, start the Ellipsoid command. Place the center point anywhere.
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2. At the End of first axis prompt, type 1 to constrain the distance from the center point to the end of the axis to one unit. Drag the cursor up and pick.
3. At the End of second axis prompt, type 3 to constrain the distance. In the Top viewport, drag the cursor up and pick.
4. At the End of third axis prompt, type 3, press Enter. 191
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Rebuild the ellipsoid
4
Use the Rebuild command to add more control points to the ellipsoid. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box, set the Point count in the U and V directions to 8 and the Degree in the U and V directions to 3.
Check Delete input.
Insert knots to create the webbed feet
4
Use the InsertKnot command to insert four knots in the ellipsoid as illustrated. Set the Symmetrical=On.
Insert the knots in the V-direction.
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Scale the points from the center
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1. Select control points as illustrated. Use window and crossing selections to select the control points on both the top and bottom of the ellipsoid.
2. Use the Scale2D command to scale the control points out from the center of the foot. Use the Point object snap to set the base point of the scale to the center point of the ellipsoid.
Drag the points to make the whole foot about twice the size of the original ellipsoid.
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Move the foot into position
4
Use the Move command to move the foot under the penguin body.
Rotate the foot out
4
Use the Rotate command to rotate the foot out slightly. Mirror the foot
4
Use the Mirror command to create the second foot. 195
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Create a cutting plane
1. Select the feet.
2. In the Front viewport, use the CutPlane command to make a planar surface that passes through the feet as illustrated. The CutPlane command makes a plane that passes through the selected surfaces along the line you draw.
Trim and
Join the feet and the plane
1. Trim the bottoms of the feet off with the plane as the cutting object.
2. Trim the excess plane from outside the feet.
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3. Join the plane parts and the feet. 197
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The tail
The tail is another ellipsoid. It is joined to the body with a smooth blend surface.
Create the tail shape
4
Draw an Ellipsoid that is 4 units long, 3 units wide (Top viewport), and 1.5 units tall (Front viewport). Position the tail
4
Move and Rotate the tail in position. Union the tail and body
4
Use the BooleanUnion command to trim and join the tail and the body shapes. The transition between the tail and body is rather abrupt; so replace this with a smooth blend surface.
To do this, you must first create a gap between the two parts for the blend surface to fill.
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Pipe the intersection
4
Use the Pipe command to create a circular surface around the edge between the body and tail. At the Select curve to create pipe around prompt, select the edge between the tail and the body.
At the Radius for closed pipe prompt, type .4.
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Trim the body and tail with the pipe
1. Use the Trim command to trim both the body and the tail surfaces inside the pipe.
2. At the Select cutting objects prompt, select the pipe, and press Enter. 3. At the Select object to trim prompt, select the body/tail, and press Enter. Tip: Pick on the isocurve or edge that you can see inside the pipe.
Tip: With the SetObjectDisplayMode command, set the pipe to a wireframe or ghosted display mode so you can see the edge between the body and the tail.
If you select the wrong part, undo within the Trim command and try again.
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Blend between the tail and body
4
Use the BlendSrf command to create a smooth surface between the tail and the body. Join the body and tail
4
Join the blend and tail to the body
The wings
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Create the base wing shape
4
Draw an Ellipsoid that is 2 units long, 2 units wide (Top viewport), and 6.5 units tall (Front viewport). 202
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Rebuild the wing
1. Use the Rebuild command to add more control points to the ellipsoid. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box, set the Point count in the U and V directions to 8 and the Degree in the U and V directions to 3.
Check Delete input.
2. Drag control points to create the shape. 203
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Bend the wing to the body
1. Use the Bend command in the Front viewport to bend the top of the wing shape toward the body. At the Start of spine prompt, in the Front viewport, pick near the bottom of the wing.
At the End of spine prompt, pick near the top of the wing.
At the Point to bend through… prompt, drag the top of the wing toward the body.
2. If further positioning is needed, use the Rotate and Move commands to place the wing. 204
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Mirror to the other side
4
Use the Mirror command to create the opposite wing. Boolean Union the wings and the body
4
To trim the wing holes and the wing, select both wings and the body and use the BooleanUnion command.
Pipe the intersection
4
Use the Pipe command to create a circular surface around the edge between the body and each wing. At the Select curve to create pipe around prompt, select the edge of the hole in the body or the edge of the wing surface.
At the Radius for closed pipe prompt, use a radius of about .6.
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Trim the body and wing
1. Use the Trim command to trim the body and wing surfaces inside the pipe surfaces.
2. Delete the pipe surfaces. Blend between the body and wings
4
Use the BlendSrf command to create a smooth surface between each wing and the body. Join the body and wings
4
Join the blends and wings to the body
Finishing touches
To finish the penguin, split the front part of the body so a different material can be applied to it.
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Draw a trim curve
4
In the Right viewport, draw a Curve from the beak down to the bottom as illustrated. Split the body with the curve
4
Use the Split command to split the body surface with the curve. This allows a different color for the front of the body.
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Join the body parts
4
Use the Join command to join the body (except the front), the tail, and the wings. Render
Rendering creates a realistic picture of your model with colors you assign. These render colors are different from the layer colors you might be using, which control the display in wireframe and shaded modes.
Set up the view
4
Use the Rendered display mode to set the viewport rendered mode.
Assign materials
1. Select the body.
2. Start the Properties command.
3. In the Properties window, click the Material icon.
4. Set Assign material by, to Object.
5. Under Basic Settings, click the Color swatch.
6. In the Select Color dialog box, select a color for the body.
7. Set the Gloss finish to about 40.
8. Select the other parts and apply materials in the same way. 208
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
This tutorial demonstrates classic boat hull lofting techniques using typical plan and profile curves. The classic hull shape is based on a design from an old Boat Builder’s Handbook magazine. Many designs similar to this are available over the Internet.
You will learn how to:
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Create 3-D curves from a 2-D lines drawing.
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Rebuild and simplify the curves.
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Use analytical techniques to ensure fairness.
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Loft surfaces from the curves. Rhino is used by marine designers in many segments of the industry. For more tutorials and information about marine design, see the Rhino website at www.rhino3d.com.
Note: The images in this tutorial use a display setting to change the color of the back of the surfaces.
Front face (1) , backface (2). Yellow arrows indicate surface normal direction, and
green color indicates surface backface.
This lets you see which way the normal direction of the object faces. Search the Rhino Help for Backface settings.
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Marine Terms Used in this Tutorial
Sheer
The fore-and-aft curvature from the bow to the stern of a ship’s deck as shown in side elevation.
Chine
The intersection of the bottom and the sides of a flat or v-bottomed boat.
Transom
The planking forming the stern of a square-ended boat.
Fair
The meaning of “fair” is much debated in the marine industry. No one can define it, but they know when they see it. Although fairing a surface is traditionally associated with hull surfaces, all visible surfaces on any object can benefit from this process. In Rhino, the first cue for fairness in a surface is the spacing of the surface display isocurves.
There are other characteristics of fair curves and surfaces. Although a curve or surface may be fair without exhibiting all of the characteristics, they tend to have these characteristics. If you keep these in mind while modeling, you will end up with a better final product.
The guidelines for creating a fair surface include:
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Use the fewest possible control points to get the curve shape.
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Use the fewest possible curves to get the surface shape.
Lay out the hull curves
The hull lines were created by tracing the original plans using a background bitmap. The first step is to check the lines for fairness before creating surfaces from them.
The designer’s lines are illustrated. The sheer and chine have been extended at the forward and aft ends to accommodate the lofting process.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Start the Model
4
Open the tutorial model file Victory.3dm. Download the tutorial models.
The lines are laid out on the Plan layer and the Profile layer.
Check the curves for fairness
Select each of the designer’s curve pairs in plan and profile and use the CurvatureGraph command to determine if the curves are “fair.” In this case, the file has the original curves that were traced from the background bitmap. They are not "fair." In other words, the curves do not smoothly transition from one end of the sheer to the other. If any curve is not fair, adjust points to make it fair. Start with the sheer (the curve at the top of the hull shape). It has the biggest impact on the appearance of the vessel.
Check curvature
1. Select the curves you want to check.
2. Use the CurvatureGraph command to display its curvature graph. The illustration shows the curvature graph applied to the two-dimensional sheer in profile.
The curvature graph should be continuous and exhibit the characteristics desired for the curve. When the curve is concave downward, the graph will be above the curve. Conversely, concave upward curves will have their graphs below them. The point of inflection (where the curve is neither concave upward nor downward) is indicated where the graph crosses the curve. Fix the curvature
Before doing any point editing to make the curves fair, rebuild the curves to remove excess control points.
Select each curve and use the Rebuildcommand to reduce the number of points and set the degree. Do not use more points than you absolutely need.
Use the CurvatureGraph command to check the curves again for fairness. If the curvature graph is still not satisfactory, move the control points until you have a smooth graph. Proceed with the rest of the curves in the model to be certain they are fair before beginning to surface the model.
Rebuild the curves
1. Select the sheer curve.
2. Start the Rebuild command.
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3. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box, change the Point count to 6 and the Degree to 5. Create the 3-D curves
So far, you have been working with two-dimensional curves. In order to loft the surfaces, these planar curves will be used to create to three-dimensional curves and the planar curves can be discarded.
With the 3D Lines layer current, select the profile and plan view representations of each curve. Use the Crv2View command to create the three-dimensional curve that combines the x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the two-dimensional curves. The two-dimensional curves must be planar for this command to work.
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Create the three-dimensional curves
1. Set the 3D Lines layer current.
2. Select the plan and profile representations of the sheer curve. 3. Start the Crv2View command. The three-dimensional representation of that curve will be created.
4. When you are satisfied that the proper curve was created, delete or Hide the two-dimensional representations.
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5. Repeat the Crv2View command for the chine curve. Revise the curves
For the loft process to work on the bottom panel, it cannot come to a point. The lofted shape must be rectangular. This is why the curves are extended beyond the centerline. The curves can be lofted into a rectangular surface that can then be trimmed back. The curves in the Victory model are already extended for you except for the bottom centerline curve.
Copy the centerline curve
We are going to use a copy of the centerline to create a new extended curve for lofting the hull bottom.
1. Copy the centerline using the InPlace option.
2. Hide the centerline.
Shorten the centerline
1. Select the centerline.
2. Start the SubCrv command.
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3. At the Start of curve prompt, using the End object snap, click the aft end of the centerline. 4. At the End of curve... prompt, using the Midpoint object snap, click the middle of the curve. Extend the centerline
1. Start the Extend command, and at the Select boundary objects... prompt, press Enter for dynamic extend.
2. At the Select curve to extend... prompt, set the Type to Smooth and select the centerline near the forward end.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
3. Draw the curve so it aligns nicely with the chine and sheer curves in the plan view as illustrated. This creates a new bottom curve to use for the surface loft.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
4. Turn on the control points (F10) to check the curve. Loft the hull surfaces
Now that you have created a set of edge curves for the side and bottom, create lofted surfaces from these curves. Start by lofting the bottom surface. Once you have finished it, use its upper edge as the curve from which to loft the side panel.
To loft the bottom panel, select the two edges (chine and centerline) and use the Loft command. In this case, be sure to select the new centerline you created in the previous step.
Loft chine and centerline
1. Select the chine and centerline.
2. Start the Loft command.
3. In the Loft Options dialog box, under Cross-section curve options, select Rebuild with..., and set the control point count to 15, click OK. 217
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Loft the side and bottom
1. Select the surface edge and the sheer curve.
Tip: Hold Command ⌘+ Shift to select the upper edge of the loft surface.
2. Repeat the Loft for the side panel. 218
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
3. In the Loft Options dialog box, under Cross-section curve options, select Rebuild with..., and set the control point count to 15, click OK. Trim the bow and bottom
When you have successfully created both the side and bottom surfaces, construct a buttock one-half inch off the centerline and trim both surfaces to this buttock. To do this, in the Top viewport, draw a line longer than the hull and one-half inch to the right of centerline.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Draw a trim line
1. In the Top viewport, draw a Line along the centerline (x-axis) that is longer than the hull. 2. In the Top viewport, offset the line 1/2 inch toward the hull surfaces. This creates a curve that will be used in the next step. We want a small gap down the center of the boat between the two halves for a keel.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Trim the side and bottom to the trim line
4
Using the offset curve, Trim the bottom (1) and side (2) as illustrated. Build the transom
Like all surfaces in this tutorial, the transom will be built with a surface larger than the finished surface and then trimmed to the hull.
To make sure there is enough surface area to trim, Extend the transom centerline by a foot or two both above the sheer and below the centerline. Trim the hull surfaces with the transom centerline.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Extend the centerline
1. With the Profile layer on, start the Extend command.
2. At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. Press Enter for dynamic
extend prompt, press Enter.
3. At the Select curve to extend… prompt, in the Front viewport, set the Type to Natural, and select near the top of the transom centerline. 4. At the End of extension prompt, select a point above the current top of the transom centerline. 5. At the next Select curve to extend… prompt, select near the bottom of the transom centerline.
6. At the End of extension prompt, select a point below the current bottom of the transom centerline, press Enter. 222
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Trim and
Join the hull surfaces
1. Select the transom centerline. 2. Start the Trim command.
3. Set UseApparentIntersections=Yes.
4. In the Front viewport, at the Select object to trim… prompt, select the hull side and bottom surfaces aft of the transom centerline. 5. Join the hull bottom and side.
Mirror the hull surfaces
In the Right or Top viewport, Mirror the two hull surfaces about the centerline. Use the EdgeSrf command to create surfaces between the two hull halves.
1. Select the two hull surfaces.
2. Start the Mirror command.
3. In the Top viewport, at the Start of mirror plane… prompt, type 0, press Enter.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
4. At the End of mirror plane prompt, with Ortho on, drag the mirror plane along the x-axis, and click. 224
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Create the keel surface
1. Start the EdgeSrf command.
2. At the Select 2, 3, or 4 curves prompt, select the two inner edges of the hull bottom along the keel. 3. Repeat the EdgeSrf command.
4. At the Select 2, 3, or 4 curves prompt, select the two inner edges of the hull sides along the keel at the bow. Tip: The order you select the surface edges determines what direction the keel surface faces.
Extrude the surface
To create the transom surface, Extrude the transom centerline.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
1. In the Front viewport, select the extended transom centerline. 2. Start the ExtrudeCrv command.
3. At the Extrusion distance prompt, set the command-line option BothSides=Yes.
4. In the Perspective, Top, or Right viewport, drag the extension beyond the hull surface. Trim the transom
Trim the transom surface with the hull and a line from the hull edges.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
1. Draw a line between the two aft hull top edges.
2. Start the Trim command. 3. At the Select cutting objects prompt, select all of the hull surfaces, including the keel surface and the line at the top of the hull, press Enter. 4. At the Select object to trim… prompt, select the transom surface outside of the hull lines and surfaces, press Enter. The transom is now complete. 227
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Check for errors
1. Join all of the surfaces. 2. Use the ShowEdges command to check that the join was successful. Display the naked edges. Naked edges are surface edges that are not joined to other surfaces. In this case, the only naked edges should be the ones you expect around the outside of the hull surfaces – not those between the surfaces.
When you have your surfaces built and joined, and have no unjoined edges, look at the surface with the curvature analysis tools.
Add the deck
The last step is to create the deck surface. In the profile lines, two curves describe the silhouette of the deck curve. You will use this curve to create the deck.
Use the Project command to project the vertical line to the side of the hull. This line will act as a marker for the end of the curve. In the Front viewport, draw a curve from the end of the deck centerline curve to the end of the projected curve on one side of the hull. Use Planar mode to keep the curve planar. Place the first three control points using Ortho to keep them lined up at the center.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Project the vertical deck edge to the hull
1. Select the hull and the vertical line.
2. In the Front viewport, use the Project command to project the curve to the hull. The curve will project to both sides of the hull, so you can draw your cross-section curve on either side.
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Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Draw the cross-section curve
1. Click the Planar pane in the status bar to turn on Planar mode.
2. In the Right viewport, use the Curve command to draw a control point curve from the top end of the deck centerline curve to the top of the curve projected to the hull. Use Ortho to place the first three control points in a straight line.
Use the End object snap to place the last point at the top of the projected curve on the hull.
3. Use the CurvatureGraph command to check the curve. 230
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Create the deck surface
1. Use the Sweep2 command to create the deck surface.
2. At the Select rail curves prompts, select the centerline curve and the hull edge. 3. At the Select cross section curves… prompt, select the cross-section curve you created from the deck centerline curve to the projected curve on the hull, press Enter. 231
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Mirror the deck
1. Use the Mirror command to copy the deck surface to the other side. At the Start of mirror plane… prompt, in the Top viewport, type 0, press Enter.
2. At the End of mirror plane… prompt, in the Top viewport, drag the mirror plane with Ortho on. Fill in the missing surface
4
Use the EdgeSrf command to create the small triangular surface at the tip of the bow. 232
Boat Hull - Loft and Sweep
Join the parts
4
Select all of the surfaces and use the Join command to create a single polysurface. 233
Dragonfly - Trace Images
This tutorial demonstrates how to get started modeling an object using photographs as reference material.
You will learn how to:
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Trace an image to create profile curves.
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Create cross-section curves for lofting the profiles.
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Edit control points to change a surface shape. Starting images.
Finished model.
Note: The top and side views are actually of different specimens of this dragonfly. In the side view, the wings are folded up. We will be using the side view image only to draw the side view curves of the body.
Draw the body
Since the dragonfly is symmetrical in the top view, and the model is not going to be a scientific reproduction, trace one side of the dragonfly and mirror the curve to the other side. For the side view, draw two curves since the profile is not symmetrical. Then we will loft cross section curves to make the body. The head will be made separately.
The tail and body will all be made in one piece. The tail is actually several segments that flex. If you were making an animation or a scientific model, you probably would want to divide the dragonfly into smaller surfaces.
Start the model
1. Begin a New model.
2. In the Template File dialog box, select Small Objects - Millimeters.3dm, and click Open.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw a reference line
4
In the Top viewport, use the Line command to draw a reference line 50 millimeters long starting at 0,0,0.
Place the top view image
1. Start PictureFrame command.
2. Find the image file DragonFly Top.jpg, and place the image in the Top viewport. Download the tutorial models.
Use the reference line to set the length of the picture frame image.
Move the image into place
4
Use object snaps to Move the image from the midpoint of the left side (Midpoint) to the construction plane origin at 0,0,0. 236
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Place the side view image
1. Start PictureFrame command.
2. Find the image file DragonFly Side.jpg, and place the image in the Front viewport. Download the tutorial models.
Use the reference line to set the length of the picture frame image.
3. Using Ortho, drag the image down in the Front viewport until the reference line matches the center of the dragonfly body. Prepare the view
4
Hide the side view picture frame.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw the outline curve
4
In the Top viewport, use the Curve command to draw an outline of the top half of the dragonfly body. Use as many control points as you think are necessary for the detail.
Draw only up to the neck. You will be creating the head another way.
Mirror the curve
4
In the Top viewport, use the Mirror command to copy the curve around the reference line. The photograph shows that the dragonfly is not symmetrical about its center line. However, since your dragonfly will be stylized, it does not matter in this case. You can choose the level of accuracy you need.
Show the side view image
4
Use the Show command to show the side-view picture frame object.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Bend the curve
4
In the Front viewport, use the Bend command to bend the curves down at the tail to match the bend in the body curve in that view. Trace side-view body
4
In the Front viewport, use the Curve command to trace the body outline using two curves, one above the reference line and one below the reference line. Maximize the viewport and zoom in. Pick as many points as you need to create the curves. Use more points when rounding a corner and fewer points for a straight section.
Prepare the view
4
Hide the picture frame objects and the reference line.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Create the body surface
4
Use the CSec command to create cross-section profile curves through the top, bottom, and side curves. Draw as many cross-section curves as you need to maintain the detail. You will be able to see whether you have enough curves when you loft the surface in the next step. If you do not have enough curves to maintain the shape in an area, add more and retry the surface loft.
Loft the body
1. Select all the cross-section curves you just created.
2. Use the Loft command to create a surface through the cross-section profiles. 240
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw the head
Draw the head with an ellipsoid and move the control points around to deform the head. The eyes are also ellipsoids. The neck is a surface blend.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw the head
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
1. Use the Ellipsoid command with the Diameter option to start the ellipsoid in the Front viewport.
243
Dragonfly - Trace Images
2. Use Elevator Mode to position the first point. At the Start of first axis prompt, press and hold the Command ⌘ key and in the Top viewport click near the side of the head.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
3. In the Front viewport, move the cursor up to the center of the head in the side view and click. 245
Dragonfly - Trace Images
4. At the End of first axis prompt, turn on Ortho in the Top viewport, click at the other side of the head. 246
Dragonfly - Trace Images
5. At the End of second axis prompt, draw pick a point in the Front viewport to establish the head size from front to back. Watch the preview in the Top viewport to check the overall size.
6. At the End of third axis prompt, pick a point in the Front viewport at the top of the head. Note: Drawing the ellipsoid in this order and using these viewports is important to get the poles of the ellipsoid in the right place for the next step.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Rebuild the ellipsoid
4
Use the Rebuild command to add more control points to the ellipsoid. Set the point count to 16 in the u-direction and 10 in the v-direction.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Drag control points to shape the head
1. Use the PointsOn command to turn on control points for the ellipsoid. 2. In the Top viewport, select and drag points on both sides of the ellipsoid toward the back to deform the head. 3. In the Right viewport, drag the middle two rows of points down. Blend the head and body
The neck is a blend surface between the head shape and the body. First, you are going to trim the head shape to make an opening.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Trim the neck
4
In the Front viewport, draw lines as illustrated, and use the Trim command to trim the head and body shapes with the lines. Blend the neck and body
4
Use the BlendSrf command to make a blend surface between the head and body. Be sure the seams are aligned and the direction arrows point the same way.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw the eyes
The eyes are simple ellipsoids.
Draw the base ellipsoid
4
Use the Ellipsoid command to draw the eye. Base the size and position on the images.
Position the eye
4
Use the Orient command or the Move and Rotate commands to adjust the position of the eye. Mirror the other side.
4
Use the Mirror command to copy the eye to the other side. 251
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Shape the tail
The end of the tail has a rounded shape cut out of it. Use a Boolean to make this shape.
Cap the body
1. If necessary, extend the tail section by turning on the control points and dragging them to match the bitmap.
2. Use the Cap command to make the body into a solid.
Draw a cutting cylinder
4
Use the Cylinder command to draw a solid cylinder so it cuts through the tail as illustrated. Boolean the tail
4
Use the BooleanDifference command to cut the end out of the tail. 252
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Trace the wings
The wings are solids created from closed curves. The legs are created by tracing a polyline down the center of a leg and using a pipe surface to make a series of tubes around the polyline.
Draw the outline curve
4
In the Top viewport, use the Curve command to trace the wings on one side of the dragonfly. Extrude the curve to make a solid
4
Make the curves into thin solids with the ExtrudeCrv command. Set the command-line option Solid=Yes to Yes.
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Dragonfly - Trace Images
Move the wings into position
4
Position the wings on the back with the Move command. Consult the side view image of the dragonfly. The front wing is slightly higher than the back wing.
Mirror the wings to the other side
4
Use the Mirror command to copy the wings to the other side. 254
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Draw the legs
The legs are piped polylines with different radii at the start and end of the pipes.
Draw the base polyline
1. In the Top viewport, use the Polyline command to trace down the center of the legs.
2. Edit the control points to position the legs in the Top and Front viewports. You will have to use your imagination a little for this since the two pictures do not show the legs of the same insect.
Pipe the legs
4
Use the Pipe command to draw the legs around the polylines. Refer to the background picture to determine the starting and ending diameter of the pipe.
Mirror the legs
4
Use the Mirror command to copy the legs to the other side, or draw different legs for the other side. 255
Dragonfly - Trace Images
Finishing touches
For added realism, add color, reflectivity, and transparency.
Render the model
4
Add materials and textures and render. 256
Wrap Text - Flow along surface
This tutorial demonstrates wrapping text solids and other objects on a cylinder. These objects could be used to trim holes in the cylinder.
You will learn how to:
●
Create text as solid objects.
●
Wrap the objects to a surface. Make a surface
For this example, create a simple cylinder. Once you have learned the basic technique, you will be able to use other types of surfaces. Remember that trimmed surfaces maintain their basic rectangular shape. This underlying shape will affect the placement of the text.
Create a cylinder
4
In the Perspective viewport, use the Cylinder command with the Vertical option to create a solid cylinder. 257
Wrap Text - Flow along surface
Create the objects to wrap
These solid objects will be wrapped on the cylinder surface.
Create the text
1. Use the TextObject command to create your text using Solids. Choose a font that is fairly large and blocky rather than one with many holes and details.
Set the Height at about 1.5 units.
Set the Solid thickness to .1 units.
2. Place the text on the construction plane near the cylinder. The location is not important. Control the object placement
The CreateUVCrv command generates the planar border curves of a surface that can be used as a guide to orient your text. Use the border rectangle to lay your text out before re-applying it to the cylinder. The rectangle then is used as a reference to guide the placement of the other objects.
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Wrap Text - Flow along surface
Create the UV curve
1. Use the CreateUVCrv command on the cylinder side to create curves that represent the border of the surface on the construction plane. 2. Select the side of the cylinder. A rectangle is created starting at 0,0 on the Top construction plane.
Position the text objects
4
Use Move, Rotate, and Scale or other transforms to arrange the text objects inside the rectangle just the way you want them to appear on the cylinder. Add any other decoration curves you want to use.
Create a reference surface
4
Use the PlanarSrf command to make the rectangle into a surface. You will use this surface later as a reference object for the FlowAlongSrf command.
Extrude the decoration curves
1. If you have created other curves, select these.
2. Use the ExtrudeCrv command to thicken the decorations to match the letters.
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Wrap Text - Flow along surface
3. At the Extrusion Distance… prompt, set Solid=Yes.
4. At the Extrusion distance… prompt, type .1. Wrap the lettering on the cylinder
1. Select the lettering and the decoration.
2. Start the FlowAlongSrf command.
3. At the Base surface… prompt, set Rigid=No.
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Wrap Text - Flow along surface
4. Click the rectangular plane near the "lower-left" corner as illustrated. 5. At the Target surface… prompt, click the cylinder near the lower edge of the seam as illustrated. The text and decoration solids wrap around the cylinder.
Now you can use the letters to cut the cylinder or Boolean the objects together.
261
Mechanical Part - Blocks
This example shows how to use Rhino to model a simple mechanical part.
You will learn to
●
Create extrusion objects.
●
Boolean difference shapes.
●
Drill holes.
●
Create a 2-D line drawing from the 3-D shapes.
●
Dimension the 2-D line drawing and modify dimension text.
Open the tutorial model
4
Open the tutorial model file Toolblock.3dm and then click Open. Download the tutorial models.
Create solid shapes
Start by creating two basic solid shapes from the profile curves on layers Profile-01 and Profile-02.
Set up the layers
4
In the Layers panel, confirm that the Profile-01 layer is current.
Extrude the profile curve
1. On the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve > Straight.
2. Turn on the End object snap.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
3. At the Select curves to Extrude prompt, select the blue profile curve, and press Enter. 4. At the Extrusion distance prompt, set the command-line Solid and the DeleteInput options to Yes.
5. Click the end of the magenta construction line. The extruded shape is a solid because it forms a closed volume in space.
Hide the solid
4
Select the solid, on the Edit menu click Visibility > Hide.
Set up the layers
4
In the Layers panel, make layer Profile-02 current.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
Extrude the profile curve
1. Select the red profile curve. 2. On the Solid menu, click Extrude Planar Curve > Straight.
3. At the Select curves to Extrude prompt, set the command-line Solid and the DeleteInput options to Yes.
4. At the Extrusion distance prompt, in the Front viewport, drag the extrusion above the height of the blue curve and click. The solid appears on the current red layer Profile-02.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
Show the solid
4
On the Edit menu click Visibility > Show. Boolean the two solids
1. On the Solid menu, click Difference.
2. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to subtract from prompt, select the blue solid, and press Enter.
3. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to subtract with prompt, set the command-line DeleteInput option to Yes.
4. Select the red solid, and press Enter. The result will be a new solid or polysurface. A polysurface is a collection of surfaces that can be closed or open. A solid is a collection of surfaces that is closed.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
Drill the holes
A construction circle is already in place for creating the first hole.
Make holes in the solid
1. Select the green circle as shown. 2. On the Solid menu click Solid Edit Tools > Holes > Make Hole.
3. At the Select a surface or polysurface prompt, select the blue polysurface.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
4. At the Cut depth point prompt, drag the hole through the upper portion of the object. 5. Pick a point in Front view. 268
Mechanical Part - Blocks
Copy the holes
After one hole is drilled, you can copy the others.
Copy the holes
Copy the three remaining holes that are aligned with the previous hole with this command. 1. In the Osnap panel, turn on the Point object snap. 2. On the Solid menu, click Solid Edit Tools > Holes > Copy Holes. Note: Copy Holes is actually the MoveHole command with the command-line Copy option set to Yes.
3. At the Select holes in one planar surface prompt, select the first hole, and press Enter. 4. At the Point to copy from prompt, pick the point object in the center of the first circle. 269
Mechanical Part - Blocks
5. At the Point to copy to ( Copy=Yes ): prompt, pick the point that makes the center of the next hole. 6. Repeat this for the two holes that are on the other side of the part. Note: Do not use the point in the center of the part.
Create the round hole
The center hole is different in that it does not pass entirely through the upper part of the blue solid. There is no reference circle to start from.
1. On the Solid menu, click Solid Edit Tools > Holes > Round Hole.
2. At the Select target surface prompt, select the top surface of the blue solid.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
3. At the Center point prompt, set the command-line options as follows: Depth=0.5
Diameter=0.312
DrillPointAngle=180
Through=No
Direction=CPlaneNormal
4. Click the point object in the middle of the blue solid to finish creating the hole. Test the solid
The resulting polysurface is a closed solid. A solid defines a closed volume in space. The Properties command will report if this part is a closed solid. The Properties command will give you information about the open/closed status of the object.
1. Select the part.
2. On the Edit menu, click Object Properties (F3).
3. In the Properties panel, click Details. In the Object Description window, you will find the listing to confirm that the object is valid and closed.
Geometry:
Valid polysurface.
Closed solid polysurface with 23 surfaces.
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Mechanical Part - Blocks
Make a 2-D drawing
The Make2D command generates 2-D lines from the 3-D solid.
Create a 2-D line drawing
1. Select the part.
2. On the Dimension menu, click Make 2D.
3. In the 2-D Drawing Options dialog box, under Drawing layout click 4 view (USA). Under Options, check the Show tangent edges and Show hidden lines boxes. 4. Click OK.
Dimension the 2-D drawing
Using the 2-D drawing, add dimensions for the part.
Set up the layers
1. In the Layers panel, make Dimensions layer current.
2. Turn off all layers except Dimensions and the Make2D layers.
3. In the Linetype column for the Make2D > hidden > lines layer, click Continuous.
4. In the Select Linetype window, select Dashed. Set up the viewport
4
Double-click the viewport title to maximize the Top viewport.
Dimension the part
1. On the Dimension menu, click Linear Dimension.
2. In the Osnap panel, turn on the End object snap; turn off the Point object snap.
3. At the First dimension point prompt, pick the upper left corner of the part. 4. At the Second dimension point prompt, pick the upper right corner of the part. 5. At the Dimension location prompt, pick a location for the dimension line. 272
Mechanical Part - Blocks
6. Repeat to generate a vertical dimension on the right side of the part. Chain dimension the part horizontally
1. On the Dimension click Linear Dimension. 2. At the First dimension point set the command-line Continue option to Yes. This will generate a chain of dimensions.
3. At the First dimension point prompt, pick the lower left corner of the part. 4. At the Second dimension point, prompt turn on the Center object snap and pick the center of the first circle.
5. At the Dimension location prompt, pick below the part. 6. At the next Dimension location prompts, continue picking the centers of the circles.
7. Finish by picking the lower right corner of the part, press Enter. 273
Mechanical Part - Blocks
Chain dimension the holes vertically
4
Repeat the chain dimensions to create vertical dimensions. Add radial dimensions
1. On the Dimension menu, click Radial Dimension. 2. At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt, select the hole on the far right. 3. At the Dimension location prompt, pick above the part. 4. Double click the radial dimension text, and in the text edit box, add the text Typ. 5 Places.
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