GEK-113281D - GE Grid Solutions

GEK-113281D - GE Grid Solutions
Digital Energy
Instruction Manual
EPM 9450/9650 revision: 1.32
GE publication code: GEK-113281D
GE Digital Energy part number: 1601-0159-A5
Copyright © 2012 GE Digital Energy
GE Digital Energy
Tel: (905) 294-6222 Fax: (905) 201-2098
Internet: http://www.gedigitalenergy.com
*1601-0159-A5*
RE
ISO9001:2000
I
N
EM
G
Canada L6E 1B3
D
215 Anderson Avenue, Markham, Ontario
T
GIS ERE
U LT I L
GE Digital Energy's Quality
Management System is
registered to ISO9001:2000
QMI # 005094
GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
• Failure to observe and follow the instructions provided in the equipment manual(s)
could cause irreversible damage to the equipment and could lead to property
damage, personal injury and/or death.
• Before attempting to use the equipment, it is important that all danger and
caution indicators are reviewed.
• If the equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer or
functions abnormally, proceed with caution. Otherwise, the protection provided by
the equipment may be impaired and can result in Impaired operation and injury.
• Caution: Hazardous voltages can cause shock, burns or death.
• Installation/service personnel must be familiar with general device test practices,
electrical awareness and safety precautions must be followed.
• Before performing visual inspections, tests, or periodic maintenance on this device
or associated circuits, isolate or disconnect all hazardous live circuits and sources
of electric power.
• Failure to shut equipment off prior to removing the power connections could
expose you to dangerous voltages causing injury or death.
• All recommended equipment that should be grounded and must have a reliable
and un-compromised grounding path for safety purposes, protection against
electromagnetic interference and proper device operation.
• Equipment grounds should be bonded together and connected to the facility’s
main ground system for primary power.
• Keep all ground leads as short as possible.
• At all times, equipment ground terminal must be grounded during device
operation and service.
• In addition to the safety precautions mentioned all electrical connections made
must respect the applicable local jurisdiction electrical code.
• Before working on CTs, they must be short-circuited.
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Safety Words and Definitions
The following symbols used in this document indicate the following conditions.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious
injury.
Note
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious
injury.
Note
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Note
Indicates significant issues and practices that are not related to personal injury.
Note
Indicates general information and practices, including operational information and
practices, that are not related to personal injury.
NOTE
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
0–3
This product cannot be disposed of as unsorted municipal waste in the European
Union. For proper recycling return this product to your supplier or a designated
collection point. For more information go to www.recyclethis.info.
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1: THREE PHASE POWER
MEASUREMENT
THREE-PHASE SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS .......................................................................... 1-2
WYE CONNECTION ........................................................................................................ 1-2
DELTA CONNECTION ........................................................................................................... 1-4
BLONDELL’S THEOREM AND THREE PHASE MEASUREMENT ......................................... 1-5
POWER, ENERGY AND DEMAND ................................................................................................ 1-8
REACTIVE ENERGY AND POWER FACTOR ............................................................................. 1-11
HARMONIC DISTORTION .............................................................................................................. 1-13
POWER QUALITY .............................................................................................................................. 1-16
2: METER OVERVIEW
THE EPM9450/9650 SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 2-1
DNP V.3.00 LEVEL 1 AND 2 .......................................................................................................... 2-3
FLICKER ................................................................................................................................................ 2-4
INP2 INTERNAL MODEM WITH DIAL-IN/DIAL-OUT OPTION ......................................... 2-5
HARDWARE OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 2-5
DIAL-IN FUNCTION ....................................................................................................... 2-5
DIAL-OUT FUNCTION ......................................................................................................... 2-5
TOTAL WEB SOLUTIONS ............................................................................................................... 2-6
HARDWARE OVERVIEW .............................................................................................. 2-6
HARDWARE CONNECTION ........................................................................................ 2-6
SOFTWARE OVERVIEW ................................................................................................ 2-6
NETWORK SETTINGS ........................................................................................................... 2-7
MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS .................................................................................. 2-9
DEMAND INTEGRATORS ............................................................................................................... 2-13
ORDERING ........................................................................................................................................... 2-16
ORDER CODES ..................................................................................................................... 2-16
EXTERNAL MODULES .......................................................................................................... 2-17
EPM9450/9650 METER SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................. 2-18
POWER SUPPLY ................................................................................................................... 2-18
INPUTS .................................................................................................................................. 2-18
PHYSICAL .............................................................................................................................. 2-18
ENVIRONMENTAL ................................................................................................................. 2-19
TESTING AND CERTIFICATION ............................................................................................. 2-19
EPM P40NPLUS LED EXTERNAL DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS ........................................... 2-21
UPGRADING THE EPM9650 METER’S SOFTWARE KEY .................................................... 2-22
3: HARDWARE
INSTALLATION
MOUNTING THE EPM9450/9650 METER ............................................................................... 3-1
MOUNTING THE EPM LED EXTERNAL DISPLAYS ................................................................ 3-4
MOUNTING THE EPM EXTERNAL I/O MODULES ................................................................. 3-5
4: ELECTRICAL
INSTALLATION
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN INSTALLING METERS ................................................................. 4-1
WIRING THE MONITORED INPUTS AND VOLTAGES .......................................................... 4-3
FUSING THE VOLTAGE CONNECTIONS .............................................................................. 4-3
WIRING THE MONITORED INPUTS - VREF ....................................................................... 4-3
WIRING THE MONITORED INPUTS - VAUX ...................................................................... 4-3
WIRING THE MONITORED INPUTS - CURRENTS .............................................................. 4-3
ISOLATING A CT CONNECTION REVERSAL ............................................................................ 4-5
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INSTRUMENT POWER CONNECTIONS .................................................................................... 4-6
WIRING DIAGRAMS ......................................................................................................................... 4-7
5: COMMUNICATION
WIRING
COMMUNICATION OVERVIEW .................................................................................................... 5-1
RS232 CONNECTION (PORT 1) .................................................................................................... 5-5
RS485 COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................. 5-6
RS485 CONNECTION ......................................................................................................... 5-7
CONNECTION TO AN RS485 MASTER (MODEM MANAGER) ......................................... 5-7
RS485 CONNECTION TO THE EPM P40NPLUS EXTERNAL DISPLAY ....................... 5-8
RJ11 (TELEPHONE LINE) CONNECTION—EPM METER
WITH INTERNAL MODEM OPTION (INP2) TO A PC .................................................. 5-9
RJ45 CONNECTION—EPM METER WITH INTERNAL
NETWORK OPTION (INP200) TO MULTIPLE PCS - 10/100BASET ...................... 5-10
COMMUNICATION PORTS ON THE EPM I/O MODULES ................................................... 5-11
RS485 CONNECTION—EPM METER TO EPM I/O MODULES .................................... 5-11
STEPS TO DETERMINE POWER NEEDED ........................................................................... 5-12
LINKING MULTIPLE EPM METERS IN SERIES ......................................................................... 5-13
REMOTE COMMUNICATION OVERVIEW ................................................................................. 5-14
REMOTE COMMUNICATION—RS232 ............................................................................... 5-14
REMOTE COMMUNICATION-RS485 ................................................................................. 5-14
PROGRAMMING MODEMS FOR REMOTE COMMUNICATION ........................................... 5-15
HIGH SPEED INPUTS CONNECTION ......................................................................................... 5-17
IRIG-B CONNECTIONS .................................................................................................................... 5-18
TIME SYNCHRONIZATION ALTERNATIVES ............................................................................. 5-20
6: USING THE EXTERNAL
DISPLAYS
OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................... 6-1
EPM P40N/P40NPLUS LED EXTERNAL DISPLAYS .............................................................. 6-2
CONNECT MULTIPLE DISPLAYS .......................................................................................... 6-5
EPM P40N/P40NPLUS DISPLAY MODES ................................................................... 6-5
DYNAMIC READINGS MODE ........................................................................................................ 6-7
NAVIGATION MAP OF DYNAMIC READINGS MODE ........................................................... 6-9
EPM INFORMATION MODE ........................................................................................................... 6-10
NAVIGATION MAP OF EPM INFORMATION MODE ............................................................. 6-11
DISPLAY FEATURES MODE ........................................................................................................... 6-12
NAVIGATION MAP OF DISPLAY FEATURES MODE .............................................................. 6-13
7: TRANSFORMER LOSS
COMPENSATION
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 7-1
EPM9450/9650 METER'S TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION .............................. 7-4
LOSS COMPENSATION IN THREE ELEMENT INSTALLATIONS .......................................... 7-4
8: TIME-OF-USE
FUNCTION
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 8-1
THE EPM METER'S TOU CALENDAR .......................................................................................... 8-2
TOU PRIOR SEASON AND MONTH ............................................................................................ 8-3
UPDATING, RETRIEVING AND REPLACING TOU CALENDARS ....................................... 8-4
DAYLIGHT SAVINGS AND DEMAND ......................................................................................... 8-5
9: EXTERNAL I/O
MODULES
HARDWARE OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................. 9-1
PORT OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................. 9-2
I/O MODULE INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................ 9-4
POWER SOURCE FOR I/O MODULES ................................................................................ 9-5
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
USING THE PSIO WITH MULTIPLE I/O MODULES ............................................................... 9-7
STEPS FOR ATTACHING MULTIPLE I/O MODULES .......................................................... 9-7
FACTORY SETTINGS AND RESET BUTTON ............................................................................. 9-9
ANALOG TRANSDUCER SIGNAL OUTPUT MODULES ........................................................ 9-10
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9-10
NORMAL MODE ................................................................................................................... 9-11
ANALOG INPUT MODULES ........................................................................................................... 9-12
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9-12
NORMAL MODE ................................................................................................................... 9-12
DIGITAL DRY CONTACT RELAY OUTPUT (FORM C) MODULE ......................................... 9-14
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9-14
COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................ 9-14
NORMAL MODE ................................................................................................................... 9-15
DIGITAL SOLID STATE PULSE OUTPUT (KYZ) MODULE ..................................................... 9-16
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9-16
COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................ 9-16
NORMAL MODE ................................................................................................................... 9-17
DIGITAL STATUS INPUT MODULE .............................................................................................. 9-18
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9-18
COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................ 9-18
NORMAL MODE ................................................................................................................... 9-19
10: METER WITH
INTERNAL MODEM
OPTION (INP2)
HARDWARE OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................. 10-1
HARDWARE CONNECTION .......................................................................................................... 10-2
DIAL-IN FUNCTION .......................................................................................................................... 10-3
DIAL-OUT FUNCTION ..................................................................................................................... 10-4
11: METER WITH
INTERNAL NETWORK
OPTION (INP200)
HARDWARE OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................. 11-1
NETWORK CONNECTION .............................................................................................................. 11-3
12: FLICKER AND
ANALYSIS
OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................... 12-1
THEORY OF OPERATION ................................................................................................................ 12-2
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 12-3
FLICKER SETTING (EPM9450 METER AND 9650 V-1) ........................................................ 12-5
FLICKER POLLING SCREEN .......................................................................................................... 12-6
LOGGING ............................................................................................................................................. 12-9
POLLING THROUGH A COMMUNICATION PORT ................................................................ 12-10
LOG VIEWER ....................................................................................................................................... 12-11
PERFORMANCE NOTES .................................................................................................................. 12-12
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 POWER QUALITY COMPLIANCE ANALYSIS
(EPM9650 METER WITH SOFTWARE OPTION B) ..................................................... 12-13
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 CONFIGURATION ............................................................ 12-13
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 ANALYSIS ........................................................................ 12-14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 1: Three Phase Power
Measurement
Three Phase Power Measurement
This introduction to three-phase power and power measurement is intended to provide
only a brief overview of the subject. The professional meter engineer or meter technician
should refer to more advanced documents such as the EEI Handbook for Electricity
Metering and the application standards for more in-depth and technical coverage of the
subject.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
1–1
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
1.1
Three-Phase System Configurations
Three-phase power is most commonly used in situations where large amounts of power
will be used because it is a more effective way to transmit the power and because it
provides a smoother delivery of power to the end load. There are two commonly used
connections for three-phase power, a wye connection or a delta connection. Each
connection has several different manifestations in actual use.
When attempting to determine the type of connection in use, it is a good practice to follow
the circuit back to the transformer that is serving the circuit. It is often not possible to
conclusively determine the correct circuit connection simply by counting the wires in the
service or checking voltages. Checking the transformer connection will provide conclusive
evidence of the circuit connection and the relationships between the phase voltages and
ground.
1.1.1
Wye Connection
The wye connection is so called because when you look at the phase relationships and the
winding relationships between the phases it looks like a Y. Figure 1.1 depicts the winding
relationships for a wye-connected service. In a wye service the neutral (or center point of
the wye) is typically grounded. This leads to common voltages of 208/120 and 480/277
(where the first number represents the phase-to-phase voltage and the second number
represents the phase-to-ground voltage).
VC
Phase 2
N
Phase 3
Phase 1
VB
VA
Figure 1-1: Three-phase Wye Winding
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
The three voltages are separated by 120o electrically. Under balanced load conditions the
currents are also separated by 120o. However, unbalanced loads and other
conditions can cause the currents to depart from the ideal 120o separation. Three-phase
voltages and currents are usually represented with a phasor diagram. A phasor
diagram for the typical connected voltages and currents is shown in Figure 1.2.
VC
IC
N
IA
VB
IB
VA
Figure 1-2: Phasor Diagram Showing Three-phase Voltages and Currents
The phasor diagram shows the 120o angular separation between the phase voltages. The
phase-to-phase voltage in a balanced three-phase wye system is 1.732 times the phaseto-neutral voltage. The center point of the wye is tied together and is typically grounded.
Table 1.1 shows the common voltages used in the United States for wye-connected
systems.
Phase to Ground Voltage
Phase to Phase Voltage
120 volts
208 volts
277 volts
480 volts
2,400 volts
4,160 volts
7,200 volts
12,470 volts
7,620 volts
13,200 volts
Table 1–1: Common Phase Voltages on Wye Services
Usually a wye-connected service will have four wires: three wires for the phases and one
for the neutral. The three-phase wires connect to the three phases (as shown in Figure 1.1).
The neutral wire is typically tied to the ground or center point of the wye.
In many industrial applications the facility will be fed with a four-wire wye service but only
three wires will be run to individual loads. The load is then often referred to as a deltaconnected load but the service to the facility is still a wye service; it contains four wires if
you trace the circuit back to its source (usually a transformer). In this type of connection
the phase to ground voltage will be the phase-to-ground voltage indicated in Table 1, even
though a neutral or ground wire is not physically present at the load. The transformer is the
best place to determine the circuit connection type because this is a location where the
voltage reference to ground can be conclusively identified.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
1.1.2
Delta Connection
Delta-connected services may be fed with either three wires or four wires. In a three-phase
delta service the load windings are connected from phase-to-phase rather than from
phase-to-ground. Figure 1.3 shows the physical load connections for a delta service.
VC
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
VB
VA
Figure 1-3: Three-phase Delta Winding Relationship
In this example of a delta service, three wires will transmit the power to the load. In a true
delta service, the phase-to-ground voltage will usually not be balanced because the
ground is not at the center of the delta.
Figure 1.4 shows the phasor relationships between voltage and current on a three-phase
delta circuit.
In many delta services, one corner of the delta is grounded. This means the phase to
ground voltage will be zero for one phase and will be full phase-to-phase voltage for the
other two phases. This is done for protective purposes.
VBC
VCA
IC
IA
IB
VAB
Figure 1-4: Phasor Diagram, Three-Phase Voltages and Currents, Delta-Connected
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
Another common delta connection is the four-wire, grounded delta used for lighting loads.
In this connection the center point of one winding is grounded. On a 120/240 volt, fourwire, grounded delta service the phase-to-ground voltage would be 120 volts on two
phases and 208 volts on the third phase. Figure 1.5 shows the phasor diagram for the
voltages in a three-phase, four-wire delta system.
VC
VCA
VBC
N
VA
VAB
VB
Figure 1-5: Phasor Diagram Showing Three-phase Four-Wire Delta-Connected System
1.1.3
Blondell’s Theorem and Three Phase Measurement
In 1893 an engineer and mathematician named Andre E. Blondell set forth the first
scientific basis for polyphase metering. His theorem states:
If energy is supplied to any system of conductors through N wires, the total power in the
system is given by the algebraic sum of the readings of N wattmeters so arranged that
each of the N wires contains one current coil, the corresponding potential coil being
connected between that wire and some common point. If this common point is on one of
the N wires, the measurement may be made by the use of N-1 Wattmeters.
The theorem may be stated more simply, in modern language:
In a system of N conductors, N-1 meter elements will measure the power or energy taken
provided that all the potential coils have a common tie to the conductor in which there is
no current coil.
Three-phase power measurement is accomplished by measuring the three individual
phases and adding them together to obtain the total three phase value. In older
analog meters, this measurement was accomplished using up to three separate
elements. Each element combined the single-phase voltage and current to produce a
torque on the meter disk. All three elements were arranged around the disk so that the disk
was subjected to the combined torque of the three elements. As a result the disk would
turn at a higher speed and register power supplied by each of the three wires.
According to Blondell's Theorem, it was possible to reduce the number of elements under
certain conditions. For example, a three-phase, three-wire delta system could be correctly
measured with two elements (two potential coils and two current coils) if the potential coils
were connected between the three phases with one phase in
common.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
1–5
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
In a three-phase, four-wire wye system it is necessary to use three elements. Three voltage
coils are connected between the three phases and the common neutral
conductor. A current coil is required in each of the three phases.
In modern digital meters, Blondell's Theorem is still applied to obtain proper metering.
The difference in modern meters is that the digital meter measures each phase voltage
and current and calculates the single-phase power for each phase. The meter then sums
the three phase powers to a single three-phase reading.
Some digital meters calculate the individual phase power values one phase at a time. This
means the meter samples the voltage and current on one phase and calculates a power
value. Then it samples the second phase and calculates the power for the
second phase. Finally, it samples the third phase and calculates that phase power. After
sampling all three phases, the meter combines the three readings to create the equivalent
three-phase power value. Using mathematical averaging techniques, this method can
derive a quite accurate measurement of three-phase power.
More advanced meters actually sample all three phases of voltage and current
simultaneously and calculate the individual phase and three-phase power values. The
advantage of simultaneous sampling is the reduction of error introduced due to the
difference in time when the samples were taken.
C
B
Phase B
Phase C
Node "n"
Phase A
A
N
Figure 1-6: Three-Phase Wye Load Illustrating Kirchhoff’s Law and Blondell’s Theorem
Blondell's Theorem is a derivation that results from Kirchhoff's Law. Kirchhoff's Law states
that the sum of the currents into a node is zero. Another way of stating the same thing is
that the current into a node (connection point) must equal the current out of the node. The
law can be applied to measuring three-phase loads. Figure 1.6 shows a typical connection
of a three-phase load applied to a three-phase, four-wire service. Krichhoff's Law holds
that the sum of currents A, B, C and N must equal zero or that the sum of currents into
Node "n" must equal zero.
If we measure the currents in wires A, B and C, we then know the current in wire N by
Kirchhoff's Law and it is not necessary to measure it. This fact leads us to the conclusion of
Blondell's Theorem- that we only need to measure the power in three of the four wires if
they are connected by a common node. In the circuit of Figure 1.6 we must measure the
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
power flow in three wires. This will require three voltage coils and three current coils (a
three-element meter). Similar figures and conclusions could be reached for other circuit
configurations involving Delta-connected loads.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
1.2
Power, Energy and Demand
It is quite common to exchange power, energy and demand without differentiating
between the three. Because this practice can lead to confusion, the differences between
these three measurements will be discussed.
Power is an instantaneous reading. The power reading provided by a meter is the present
flow of watts. Power is measured immediately just like current. In many digital meters, the
power value is actually measured and calculated over a one second interval because it
takes some amount of time to calculate the RMS values of voltage and current. But this
time interval is kept small to preserve the instantaneous nature of power.
Energy is always based on some time increment; it is the integration of power over a
defined time increment. Energy is an important value because almost all electric bills are
based, in part, on the amount of energy used.
Typically, electrical energy is measured in units of kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kilowatt-hour
represents a constant load of one thousand watts (one kilowatt) for one hour. Stated
another way, if the power delivered (instantaneous watts) is measured as 1,000 watts and
the load was served for a one hour time interval then the load would have absorbed one
kilowatt-hour of energy. A different load may have a constant power requirement of 4,000
watts. If the load were served for one hour it would absorb four kWh. If the load were
served for 15 minutes it would absorb ¼ of that total or one kWh.
Figure 1.7 shows a graph of power and the resulting energy that would be transmitted as a
result of the illustrated power values. For this illustration, it is assumed that the power level
is held constant for each minute when a measurement is taken. Each bar in the graph will
represent the power load for the one-minute increment of time. In real life the power value
moves almost constantly.
The data from Figure 1.7 is reproduced in Table 2 to illustrate the calculation of energy.
Since the time increment of the measurement is one minute and since we specified that
the load is constant over that minute, we can convert the power reading to an equivalent
consumed energy reading by multiplying the power reading times 1/60 (converting the
time base from minutes to hours).
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
80
70
kilowat t s
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Time (minutes)
Figure 1-7: Power Use over Time
Time Interval
(minute)
Power (kW)
Energy (kWh)
Accumulated
Energy (kWh)
1
30
0.50
0.50
2
50
0.83
1.33
3
40
0.67
2.00
4
55
0.92
2.92
5
60
1.00
3.92
6
60
1.00
4.92
7
70
1.17
6.09
8
70
1.17
7.26
9
60
1.00
8.26
10
70
1.17
9.43
11
80
1.33
10.76
12
50
0.83
12.42
13
50
0.83
12.42
14
70
1.17
13.59
15
80
1.33
14.92
Table 1–2: Power and Energy Relationship over Time
As in Table 1.2, the accumulated energy for the power load profile of Figure 1.7 is 14.92
kWh.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
1–9
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
Demand is also a time-based value. The demand is the average rate of energy use over
time. The actual label for demand is kilowatt-hours/hour but this is normally reduced to
kilowatts. This makes it easy to confuse demand with power, but demand is not an
instantaneous value. To calculate demand it is necessary to accumulate the energy
readings (as illustrated in Figure 1.7) and adjust the energy reading to an hourly value that
constitutes the demand.
In the example, the accumulated energy is 14.92 kWh. But this measurement was made
over a 15-minute interval. To convert the reading to a demand value, it must be
normalized to a 60-minute interval. If the pattern were repeated for an additional three 15minute intervals the total energy would be four times the measured value or 59.68 kWh.
The same process is applied to calculate the 15-minute demand value. The demand value
associated with the example load is 59.68 kWh/hr or 59.68 kWd. Note that the peak
instantaneous value of power is 80 kW, significantly more than the demand value.
Figure 1.8 shows another example of energy and demand. In this case, each bar
represents the energy consumed in a 15-minute interval. The energy use in each interval
typically falls between 50 and 70 kWh. However, during two intervals the energy rises
sharply and peaks at 100 kWh in interval number 7. This peak of usage will result in setting
a high demand reading. For each interval shown the demand value would be four times
the indicated energy reading. So interval 1 would have an associated demand of 240 kWh/
hr. Interval 7 will have a demand value of 400 kWh/hr. In the data shown, this is the peak
demand value and would be the number that would set the demand charge on the utility
bill.
100
kilowat t-hours
80
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Intervals (15 mins.)
7
8
Figure 1-8: Energy Use and Demand
As can be seen from this example, it is important to recognize the relationships between
power, energy and demand in order to control loads effectively or to monitor use correctly.
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EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
1.3
Reactive Energy and Power Factor
The real power and energy measurements discussed in the previous section relate to the
quantities that are most used in electrical systems. But it is often not sufficient to only
measure real power and energy. Reactive power is a critical component of the total power
picture because almost all real-life applications have an impact on reactive power.
Reactive power and power factor concepts relate to both load and generation
applications. However, this discussion will be limited to analysis of reactive power and
power factor as they relate to loads. To simplify the discussion, generation will not be
considered.
Real power (and energy) is the component of power that is the combination of the voltage
and the value of corresponding current that is directly in phase with the voltage. However,
in actual practice the total current is almost never in phase with the voltage. Since the
current is not in phase with the voltage, it is necessary to consider both the inphase
component and the component that is at quadrature (angularly rotated 90o or
perpendicular) to the voltage. Figure 1.9 shows a single-phase voltage and current and
breaks the current into its in-phase and quadrature components.
IR
V
0
IX
I
Figure 1-9: Voltage and Complex Current
The voltage (V) and the total current (I) can be combined to calculate the apparent power
or VA. The voltage and the in-phase current (IR) are combined to produce the real power or
watts. The voltage and the quadrature current (IX) are combined to calculate the reactive
power.
The quadrature current may be lagging the voltage (as shown in Figure 1.9) or it may lead
the voltage. When the quadrature current lags the voltage the load is requiring both real
power (watts) and reactive power (VARs). When the quadrature current leads the voltage
the load is requiring real power (watts) but is delivering reactive power (VARs) back into the
system; that is VARs are flowing in the opposite direction of the real power flow.
Reactive power (VARs) is required in all power systems. Any equipment that uses
magnetization to operate requires VARs. Usually the magnitude of VARs is relatively low
compared to the real power quantities. Utilities have an interest in maintaining VAR
requirements at the customer to a low value in order to maximize the return on plant
invested to deliver energy. When lines are carrying VARs, they cannot carry as many watts.
So keeping the VAR content low allows a line to carry its full capacity of watts. In order to
encourage customers to keep VAR requirements low, some utilities impose a penalty if the
VAR content of the load rises above a specified value.
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A common method of measuring reactive power requirements is power factor. Power
factor can be defined in two different ways. The more common method of calculating
power factor is the ratio of the real power to the apparent power. This relationship is
expressed in the following formula:
Total PF = real power / apparent power = watts/VA
This formula calculates a power factor quantity known as Total Power Factor. It is called
Total PF because it is based on the ratios of the power delivered. The delivered power
quantities will include the impacts of any existing harmonic content. If the voltage or
current includes high levels of harmonic distortion the power values will be affected. By
calculating power factor from the power values, the power factor will include the impact of
harmonic distortion. In many cases this is the preferred method of calculation because the
entire impact of the actual voltage and current are included.
A second type of power factor is Displacement Power Factor. Displacement PF is based on
the angular relationship between the voltage and current. Displacement power factor
does not consider the magnitudes of voltage, current or power. It is solely based on the
phase angle differences. As a result, it does not include the impact of harmonic distortion.
Displacement power factor is calculated using the following equation:
Displacement PF = cos θ
(EQ 1.1)
where θ is the angle between the voltage and the current (see Fig. 1.9).
In applications where the voltage and current are not distorted, the Total Power Factor will
equal the Displacement Power Factor. But if harmonic distortion is present, the two power
factors will not be equal.
1–12
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1.4
Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic distortion is primarily the result of high concentrations of non-linear loads.
Devices such as computer power supplies, variable speed drives and fluorescent light
ballasts make current demands that do not match the sinusoidal waveform of AC
electricity. As a result, the current waveform feeding these loads is periodic but not
sinusoidal. Figure 1.10 shows a normal, sinusoidal current waveform. This example has no
distortion.
Current (amps)
1000
500
t
0
a
2a
–500
–1000
Figure 1-10: Nondistorted Current Waveform
Figure 1.11 shows a current waveform with a slight amount of harmonic distortion. The
waveform is still periodic and is fluctuating at the normal 60 Hz frequency. However, the
waveform is not a smooth sinusoidal form as seen in Figure 1.10.
1500
Current (amps)
1000
500
t
0
a
2a
–500
–1000
–1500
Figure 1-11: Distorted Current Waveform
The distortion observed in Figure 1.11 can be modeled as the sum of several sinusoidal
waveforms of frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental 60 Hz frequency. This
modeling is performed by mathematically disassembling the distorted waveform into a
collection of higher frequency waveforms.
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Amplitude
These higher frequency waveforms are referred to as harmonics. Figure 1.12 shows the
content of the harmonic frequencies that make up the distortion portion of the waveform
in Figure 1.11.
Time
3rd harmonic
5th harmonic
7th harmonic
Total
fundamental
Figure 1-12: Waveforms of the Harmonics
The waveforms shown in Figure 1.12 are not smoothed but do provide an indication of the
impact of combining multiple harmonic frequencies together.
When harmonics are present it is important to remember that these quantities are
operating at higher frequencies. Therefore, they do not always respond in the same
manner as 60 Hz values.
Inductive and capacitive impedance are present in all power systems. We are accustomed
to thinking about these impedances as they perform at 60 Hz. However, these impedances
are subject to frequency variation.
XL = jωL and
XC = 1/jωC
At 60 Hz, ω = 377; but at 300 Hz (5th harmonic) ω = 1,885. As frequency changes
impedance changes and system impedance characteristics that are normal at 60 Hz may
behave entirely differently in the presence of higher order harmonic waveforms.
Traditionally, the most common harmonics have been the low order, odd frequencies, such
as the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th. However newer, new-linear loads are introducing significant
quantities of higher order harmonics.
Since much voltage monitoring and almost all current monitoring is performed using
instrument transformers, the higher order harmonics are often not visible. Instrument
transformers are designed to pass 60 Hz quantities with high accuracy. These devices,
when designed for accuracy at low frequency, do not pass high frequencies with high
1–14
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CHAPTER 1: THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
accuracy; at frequencies above about 1200 Hz they pass almost no information. So when
instrument transformers are used, they effectively filter out higher frequency harmonic
distortion making it impossible to see.
However, when monitors can be connected directly to the measured circuit (such as direct
connection to a 480 volt bus) the user may often see higher order harmonic distortion. An
important rule in any harmonics study is to evaluate the type of equipment and
connections before drawing a conclusion. Not being able to see harmonic distortion is not
the same as not having harmonic distortion.
It is common in advanced meters to perform a function commonly referred to as
waveform capture. Waveform capture is the ability of a meter to capture a present picture
of the voltage or current waveform for viewing and harmonic analysis. Typically a
waveform capture will be one or two cycles in duration and can be viewed as the actual
waveform, as a spectral view of the harmonic content, or a tabular view showing the
magnitude and phase shift of each harmonic value. Data collected with waveform capture
is typically not saved to memory. Waveform capture is a real-time data collection event.
Waveform capture should not be confused with waveform recording that is used to record
multiple cycles of all voltage and current waveforms in response to a transient condition.
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1.5
Power Quality
Power quality can mean several different things. The terms "power quality" and "power
quality problem" have been applied to all types of conditions. A simple definition of "power
quality problem" is any voltage, current or frequency deviation that results in misoperation or failure of customer equipment or systems. The causes of power quality
problems vary widely and may originate in the customer equipment, in an adjacent
customer facility or with the utility.
In his book Power Quality Primer, Barry Kennedy provided information on different types of
power quality problems. Some of that information is summarized in Table 1.3.
Cause
Disturbance Type
Source
Impulse transient
Transient voltage disturbance,
sub-cycle duration
Lightning
Electrostatic
discharge
Load switching
Capacitor switching
Oscillatory transient with decay
Transient voltage, sub-cycle duration
Line/cable switching
Capacitor switching
Load switching
Sag/swell
RMS voltage, multiple cycle duration
Remote system faults
Interruptions
RMS voltage, multiple
seconds or longer duration
System protection
Circuit breakers
Fuses
Maintenance
Under voltage/over voltage
RMS voltage, steady state, multiple
seconds or longer
duration
Motor starting
Load variations
Load dropping
Voltage flicker
RMS voltage, steady state, repetitive
condition
Intermittent loads
Motor starting
Arc furnaces
Harmonic distortion
Steady state current or voltage, long-term
duration
Non-linear loads
System resonance
Table 1–3: Typical Power Quality Problems and Sources
It is often assumed that power quality problems originate with the utility. While it is true
that may power quality problems can originate with the utility system, many problems
originate with customer equipment. Customer-caused problems may manifest themselves
inside the customer location or they may be transported by the utility system to another
adjacent customer. Often, equipment that is sensitive to power quality problems may in
fact also be the cause of the problem.
If a power quality problem is suspected, it is generally wise to consult a power quality
professional for assistance in defining the cause and possible solutions to the problem.
1–16
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Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 2: Meter Overview
Meter Overview
This chapter provides basic information on the EPM9450/9650 meter.
2.1
The EPM9450/9650 System
GE Digital Energy’s EPM9450/9650 meter combines high-end revenue metering with
sophisticated power quality analysis. Its advanced monitoring capabilities provide detailed
and precise pictures of any metered point within a distribution network. The P40NPLUS
displays are detailed in Chapter 6. Extensive I/O capability is available in conjunction with
all metering functions. The optional GE Communicator software allows a user to poll and
gather data from multiple EPM meters installed at local or remote locations (see the GE
Communicator User Manual for details). On board mass memory enables the meter to
retrieve and store multiple logs. The EPM meter with Internal Modem (or Network) Option
connects to a PC via standard phone line (or MODBUS/TCP) and a daisy chain of EPM
meters via an RS485 connection. See Chapters 10 and 11 for details.
EPM9450/9650 Revenue Metering
• Delivers laboratory-grade 0.04% Watt-hour accuracy (at full load Unity PF) in a
field-mounted device
• Auto-calibrates when there is a temperature change of about 2 degrees Celsius
• Meets all ANSI C-12.20 and IEC 62053-22 accuracy specifications
• Adjusts for transformer and line losses, using user-defined compensation factors
• Automatically logs time-of-use for up to eight programmable tariff registers
• Counts pulses and aggregates different loads
EPM9450/9650 Power Quality Monitoring
• Records up to 512 samples per cycle on an event
• Records sub-cycle transients on voltage or current readings
• Measures and records Harmonics to the 255th order (Real Time Harmonics to the
128th order)
• Offers inputs for neutral-to-ground voltage measurements
• Synchronizes with IRIG-B or line frequency for clock synchronization
• Measures Flicker (EPM9650 only)
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• Offers EN50160/EN61000-4-15 logging and analysis (EPM9650 with Software
Option B only: see Section 2.11)
EPM9450/9650 Memory, Communication and Control
•
•
•
•
•
•
2–2
Up to 4 Megabytes NVRAM
4 high speed Communication ports
Multiple protocols (see section below on DNP V3.00)
Built-in RTU functionality.
Built-in PLC functionality
High speed updates for Control
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2.2
DNP V.3.00 Level 1 and 2
The EPM9450 supports DNP V3.00 Level 1; the EPM9650 supports DNP V3.00 Level 2.
Note
NOTE
DNP Level 2 Features:
• Up to 136 measurement (64 Binary Inputs, 8 Binary Counters, 64 Analog Inputs)
can be mapped to DNP Static Points (over 3000) in the customizable DNP Point
Map.
• Up to 16 Relays and 8 Resets can be controlled through DNP Level 2.
• Report-by-Exception Processing (DNP Events) Deadbands can be set on a per-point
basis.
• Freeze Commands: Freeze, Freeze/No-Ack, Freeze with Time, Freeze with Time/NoAck.
• Freeze with Time Commands enable the EPM meter to have internal time-driven
Frozen and Frozen Event data. When the EPM meter receives the Time and
Interval, the data is created.
For complete details, download the appropriate DNP User Manual from our website
www.gedigitalenergy.com.
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2.3
Flicker
An EPM9650 meter with Software Option A (base configuration) provides Flicker
Evaluation in Instantaneous, Short Term and Long Term Forms. An EPM9650 meter
with Software Option B provides EN50160 / EN61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance.
See Chapter 12 for a detailed explanation of the Flicker and Power Quality Compliance
functions.
2–4
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2.4
INP2 Internal Modem with Dial-in/Dial-out Option
The following sections describe the optional INP2 Internal Modem.
2.4.1
Hardware Overview
The INP2 Option for the EPM9450/9650 meter provides a direct connection to a standard
telephone line. No additional hardware is required to establish a communication
connection between the meter and a remote computer. The RJ11 Jack is on the face of the
meter. A standard telephone RJ11 plug can connect the meter to a standard PSTN (Public
Switched Telephone Network).
The modem operates at up to 56k baud. It supports both incoming calls (from a remote
computer) and automatic dial-out calls when a defined event must be automatically
reported. With the device configured with the INP2 Option, the meter has dial-in capability
and provides remote access to other Modbus-based serial devices via the meter’s RS485
Gateway over your phone line. The meter recognizes and responds to a Modbus Address of
1. With any other address, the command passes through the gateway and become a
virtual connection between the remote Modbus master and any Modbus slave connected
to the RS485 Gateway.
The modem continuously monitors the telephone line to detect an incoming call. When an
incoming call is detected, the modem will wait a user-set number of rings and answer the
call.
2.4.2
Dial-In Function
The modem can be programmed to check for a password on an incoming call. If the
correct password is not provided, the modem hangs up on the incoming call. If
several unsuccessful incoming call attempts are received in a set time period, the modem
locks out future incoming calls for a user-set number of hours.
When an incoming call is successfully connected, the control of communication is passed
to the calling software program. The modem responds to computer
commands to download data or other actions authorized by the meter passwords.
Refer to the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions on programming the modem.
2.4.3
Dial-Out Function
The Dial-Out Function (INP2) is intended to allow the meter to automatically report certain
conditions without user intervention. The modem polls the meter to determine if any
abnormal or reportable conditions exist. The modem checks programmed meter
conditions and programmed events (set in GE Communicator software) to determine if a
call should be placed.
If any of the monitored events exist, the modem automatically initiates a call to a specified
location to make a report or perform some other function. For log full conditions, the meter
automatically downloads the log(s) that are nearing the full condition.
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2.5
Total Web Solutions
The 10/100BaseT Ethernet Option (INP200) is a fully customizable web server that uses
XML to provide access to real time data via Internet Explorer. GE’s name for this dynamic
system is Total Web Solutions. The system incorporates a highly programmable network
card with built-in memory that is installed in the 100BaseT Option meters. Each card can
be programmed to perform an extensive array of monitoring functions. The INP200 system
is much faster than the 10BaseT Ethernet Option.
EPM meters with the INP10 Option do not support Total Web Solutions.
Note
NOTE
2.5.1
Hardware Overview
The EPM9450/9650 with the 10/100BaseT Ethernet Option (INP200) has all the components
of the standard EPM9450/9650 plus the capability of connection to a network through an
Ethernet LAN or through the Internet via Modbus TCP, DNP3 LAN/WAN (EPM9650 only),
HTTP, SMTP, FTP and/or DHCP.
The Internal Network Option of the EPM9450/9650 meter is an extremely versatile
communication tool. The INP200:
•
•
•
•
•
2.5.2
Adheres to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard using TCP/IP
Utilizes simple and inexpensive 10/100BaseT wiring and connections
Plugs right into your network using built-in RJ45 jack
Is programmable to any IP address, subnet mask and gateway requirements
Communicates using the industry standard Modbus/TCP and DNP3 LAN/WAN over
Ethernet (EPM9650 only) protocols
Hardware Connection
Use Standard RJ45 10/100BaseT cable to connect with the EPM meter. The RJ45 line is
inserted into the RJ45 Port on the face of an EPM meter with the INP200 Ethernet Option.
2.5.3
Software Overview
To make the software connection, follow these steps:
2–6
1.
Using Port 1 or Port 4 (RS485 connection), connect a PC to the meter. An
RS232/RS485 Converter may be required.
2.
Open GE Communicator Software.
3.
Click the Quick Connect or the Connection Manager icon in the Icon tool bar. In
the Connect window that opens, click the Serial Port button. Make sure the
connection data (such as Address) matches the meter and then click Connect.
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2.5.4
Network Settings
Configure the Network Settings using the following steps (refer to the GE Communicator
User Manual for more details).
1.
From GE Communicator ‘s Main screen, click Profile to open the Device Profile
screen.
2.
From the Device Profile screen, double-click on the Communications Ports
line, then double-click on any of the ports. The Communications Settings
screen opens.
3.
If you are going to use DHCP, click the Advanced Settings button and follow
these steps:
4.
•
Click the DHCP tab at the top of the Advanced Settings screen.
•
Click Enable. DHCP automatically enters the IP Address and some or all
of the Interface Settings.
•
Click OK at the bottom of the screen to return to the Communication
Setting screen. You may have to manually enter DNS, Email, Gateway
Setting and/or a unique computer name. Consult your Network
Administrator if you are not sure of the correct information to enter.
•
Click OK.
If you are not using DHCP, enter the following information in the Network
Settings section of the Communication Settings screen (consult your system
administrator if you are not sure of the information to enter):
•
IP Address:
For example:10.0.0.1
•
Subnet Mask:
For example: 255.255.255.0
•
Default Gateway: For example: 0.0.0.0
•
Computer Name: For example: NETWORK
5.
Enter the Domain Name Server and Computer Name.
6.
Default web pages with an extensive array of readings come with the meter.
The content of the pages can be customized using FTP Client. Follow these
steps:
•
Click the Advanced Settings button in the Communications Settings
screen.
•
Click the FTP Client tab on the top of the Advanced Settings screen.
Using FTP, you can easily replace any file by using the same file name as
the one you want to replace.
•
Click OK.
7.
Enter the Email Server IP Address. The Default Settings store one Email Server
IP Address for administrative purposes or to send an alarm, if there is a
problem. An additional 8 email addresses can be configured with FTP Client.
8.
Update Firmware, if necessary, with TFTP protocol (see Appendix C).
9.
After the parameters are configured, GE Communicator connects via the
Network using a Device Address of “1” and the assigned IP Address when you
follow these steps:
•
Open GE Communicator software.
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CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
•
Click the Connect icon in the Icon tool bar to open the Connect screen.
•
Click the Network button at the top of the screen and then enter the
following information:
•
2–8
•
Device Address: 1
•
Host: IP Address (per your network administrator). Example:
10.0.0.1
•
Network Port: 502
•
Protocol: Modbus TCP
Click the Connect button at the bottom of the screen. GE Communicator
connects to the meter via the Network settings you entered.
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2.6
Measurements and Calculations
The EPM9450/9650 meter measures many different power parameters.
Following is a list of the formulas used to perform calculations with samples for Wye and
Delta services.
Samples for Wye: va, vb, vc, ia, ib, ic, in
Samples for Delta: vab, vbc, vca, ia, ib, ic
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Phase Voltages: N = number of samples
For Wye: x = a, b, c
N
VRMS x 
v
t 1
2
x (t )
N
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Line Currents: N = number of samples
For Wye: x =a, b, c, n
For Delta: x = a, b, c
N
I RMS x 
i
t 1
2
x (t )
N
Root Mean Square (RMS) of Line Voltages: N = number of samples
For Wye: x, y= a,b or b,c or c,a
N
VRMS xy 
 (v
t 1
x( t )
 v y( t ) ) 2
N
For Delta: xy = ab, bc, ca
N
VRMS xy 
v
t 1
2
xy ( t )
N
Power (Watts) per phase: N = number of samples
For Wye: x = a, b, c
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N
WX 
v
t 1
x (t )
 ix ( t )
N
Apparent Power (VA) per phase:
For Wye: x = a, b, c
VAx = VRMS X • I RMS X
Reactive Power (VAR) per phase:
For Wye: x = a, b, c
VAR x = VAx2 − W x2
Active Power (Watts) Total: N = number of samples
For Wye:
WT  Wa  Wb  Wc
For Delta:
N
WT 
 v
t 1
ab ( t )
 ia (t )  vbc (t )  ic (t ) 
N
Reactive Power (VAR) Total: N = number of samples
For Wye:
VART  VARa  VARb  VARc
For Delta:
RT = (VRMSab
2–10
⎡ N
⎤
⎢ ∑ vab (t ) • ia (t ) ⎥
2
⎥
• I RMSa ) − ⎢ t =1
N
⎢
⎥
⎢⎣
⎥⎦
2
+
(VRMSbc
⎡ N
⎢ ∑ vbc (t ) • ic (
2
• I RMSc ) − ⎢ t =1
N
⎢
⎢⎣
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Apparent Power (VA) Total:
For Wye:
VAT  VAa  VAb  VAc
For Delta:
VAT  WT2  VART2
Power Factor (PF):
For Wye: x = a,b,c,T
For Delta: x = T
Wx
V Ax
P Fx =
Phase Angles:
x = a, b, c
∠x = cos−1 ( PFx )
% Total Harmonic Distortion (%THD):
For Wye: x = va, vb, vc, ia, ib, ic
For Delta: x = ia, ib, ic, vab, vbc, vca
127
THD =
 ( RMS )
h=2
2
xh
RMS x1
K Factor: x = ia, ib, ic
127
KFactor 
 h  RMS
xh
 RMS

h 1
127
h 1
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2

2
xh
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Watt hour (Wh): N = number of samples
N
W(t )
t 1
3600 sec / hr
Wh  
VAR hour (VARh): N = number of samples
N
VAR(t )
t 1
3600 sec / hr
VARh  
2–12
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2.7
Demand Integrators
Power utilities take into account both energy consumption and peak demand when billing
customers. Peak demand, expressed in kilowatts (kW), is the highest level of demand
recorded during a set period of time, called the interval. The EPM9450/9650 supports the
following most popular conventions for averaging demand and peak demand: Block
Window Demand, Rolling Window Demand, Thermal Demand, and Predictive Window
Demand. You can program and access all conventions
concurrently with the GE Communicator software (see the GE Communicator User Manual).
Block (Fixed) Window Demand:
This convention records the average (arithmetic mean) demand for consecutive time
intervals (usually 15 minutes).
Example: A typical setting of 15 minutes produces an average value every 15 minutes (at
12:00, 12:15. 12:30. etc.) for power reading over the previous fifteen minute interval (11:4512:00, 12:00-12:15, 12:15-12:30, etc.).
Rolling (Sliding) Window Demand:
Rolling Window Demand functions like multiple overlapping Block Window Demands. The
programmable settings provided are the number and length of demand subintervals. At
every subinterval, an average (arithmetic mean) of power readings over the subinterval is
internally calculated. This new subinterval average is then averaged (arithmetic mean),
with as many previous subinterval averages as programmed, to produce the Rolling
Window Demand.
Example: With settings of 3 five-minute subintervals, subinterval averages are computed
every 5 minutes (12:00, 12:05, 12:15, etc.) for power readings over the
previous five-minute interval (11:55-12:00, 12:00-12:05, 12:05-12:10, 12:10-12:15, etc.). In
addition, every 5 minutes the subinterval averages are averaged in groups of 3 (12:00.
12:05, 12:10, 12:15. etc.) to produce a fifteen (5x3) minute average every 5 minutes (rolling
(sliding) every 5 minutes) (11:55-12:10, 12:00-12:15, etc.).
Thermal Demand:
Traditional analog Watt-hour (Wh) meters use heat-sensitive elements to measure
temperature rises produced by an increase in current flowing through the meter. A pointer
moves in proportion to the temperature change, providing a record of demand. The
pointer remains at peak level until a subsequent increase in demand moves it again, or
until it is manually reset. The EPM9450/9650 mimics traditional meters to provide Thermal
Demand readings.
Each second, as a new power level is computed, a recurrence relation formula is applied.
This formula recomputes the thermal demand by averaging a small portion of the new
power value with a large portion of the previous thermal demand value. The proportioning
of new to previous is programmable, set by an averaging interval. The averaging interval
represents a 90% change in thermal demand to a step change in power.
Predictive Window Demand:
Predictive Window Demand enables the user to forecast average demand for future time
intervals. The EPM meter uses the delta rate of change of a Rolling Window Demand
interval to predict average demand for an approaching time period. The user can set a
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
2–13
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
relay or alarm to signal when the Predictive Window reaches a specific level, thereby
avoiding unacceptable demand levels. The EPM9450/9650 calculates Predictive Window
Demand using the following formula:
Example: Using the previous settings of 3 five-minute intervals and a new setting of 120%
prediction factor, the working of the Predictive Window Demand could be described as
follows:
At 12:10, we have the average of the subintervals from 11:55-12:00, 12:00-12:05 and
12:05-12:10. In five minutes (12:15), we will have an average of the subintervals 12:0012:05 and 12:05-12:10 (which we know) and 12:10-12:15 (which we do not yet know). As a
guess, we will use the last subinterval (12:05-12:10) as an approximation for the next
subinterval (12:10-12:15). As a further refinement, we will assume that the next subinterval
might have a higher average (120%) than the last subinterval. As we progress into the
subinterval, (for example, up to 12:11), the Predictive Window Demand will be the average
of the first two subintervals (12:00-12:05, 12:05-12:10), the actual values of the current
subinterval (12:10-12:11) and the prediction for the remainder of the subinterval, 4/5 of the
120% of the 12:05-12:10 subinterval.
# of Subintervals = n
Subinterval Length = Len
Partial Subinterval Length = Cnt
Prediction Factor = Pct
Subn
Sub1
Sub0
Partial
Predict
Len
Len
Len
Cnt
Len
Len −1
Value
i
Sub =
i =0
Len
Cnt −1
Value
i
Partial =
i =0
Cnt
n−2


Valuei 


   Len − Cnt 

 Partial + i =0
 × 1 −  
× Pct  

n

    Len 



2–14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
 n−2

  Subi Sub − Sub    Len − Cnt 

0
n −1
 × 
× Pct 
+  i =0
+

2 x(n − 1)    Len 
 n −1



EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
2.8
Ordering
2.8.1
Order Codes
The order codes for the EPM 9450/9650 meter are shown below:
Table 2–1: EPM 9450/9650 order codes
PL9450 – * – * – * – * –
Base unit
PL9450
|
|
|
|
System frequency
0
|
|
|
1
|
|
|
System voltage
A
|
|
B
|
|
Control power
0
|
1
|
Features
A
Communications
*
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
0
1
2
PL9650 –
PL9650
Base unit
System frequency
System voltage
Control power
Features
Communications
*
|
0
1
–
*
|
|
|
A
B
–
*
|
|
|
|
|
0
1
–
*
|
–
*
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
B
|
0
1
2
2–16
Power meter and data acquisition node
60 Hz frequency system
50 Hz frequency system
120/208 V connection
277/480 V connection
90 to 276 V AC/DC power supply
18 to 60 V DC power supply
512 KB, 8 digital inputs, 8 cycles waveform
capture, 100 day data log
Four RS485 communications ports (userselectable, RS485 Modbus and DNP 3.0 level
1 – no modem or Ethernet connection)
10/100 BaseT Ethernet, Web server and
gateway capability
Internal 56 K modem with pass-through
port
Power meter and data acquisition node
with memory
60 Hz frequency system
50 Hz frequency system
120/208 V connection
277/480 V connection
90 to 276 V AC/DC power supply
18 to 60 V DC power supply
2MB memory, 8 digital inputs, 64 cycles
waveform capture, 96 days data log
As above with flicker, with 4MB memory,
602 days data log
Four RS485 communications ports (userselectable, RS485 Modbus and DNP 3.0 level
2 – no modem or Ethernet connection)
10/100 BaseT Ethernet, Web server and
gateway capability
Internal 56 K modem with pass-through
port
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
2.8.2
External Modules
The following external modules are available:
External modules and accessories must be ordered separately from base meters.
Note
NOTE
Analog output modules:
PL9000 – * – * – * – * – * – * – * – 0 – 0
1
M
A
O
N
4
0
0
0
1
M
A
O
N
8
0
0
0
2
O
M
A
O
N
4
0
0
2
O
M
A
O
N
8
0
0
Four channel 0 to 1 mA analog outputs
Eight channel 0 to 1 mA analog outputs
Four channel 4 to 20 mA analog outputs
Eight channel 4 to 20 mA analog outputs
Analog input modules:
PL9000 – * – * – * – * – * – * – * – 0 – 0
8
A
I
1
0
0
0
0
0
8
A
I
2
0
0
0
0
0
8
A
I
3
0
0
0
0
0
8
A
I
4
0
0
0
0
0
Eight channel 0 to 1 mA analog outputs
Eight channel 0 to 1 mA analog outputs
Eight channel 4 to 20 mA analog outputs
Eight channel 4 to 20 mA analog outputs
Digital output modules:
PL9000 – * – * – * – * – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0
4
R
O
1
4
P
O
1
co
Four channel control relay outputs
Four channel KYZ solid state pulse outputs
Digital input modules:
PL9000 – * – * – * – * – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0
8
D
|
1
0
0
0
0
0
Eight channel digital status inputs
Auxiliary output power supply and mounting:
PL9000 – * – * – I – O – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0 – 0
M
B
I
O
0
0
0
0
0
P
S
I
O
0
0
0
0
0
Mounting bracket (one per module group)
Auxiliary power supply (>4 modules)
Meter display module and software:
PL9000 – * – * – * – * – * – * – * – * – 0
P
4
0
N
P
L
U
S
0
P
6
0
N
0
0
0
0
0
P
6
0
N
1
0
0
0
0
N
C
M
1
0
0
0
0
0
N
C
M
5
0
0
0
0
0
N
C
M
S
0
0
0
0
0
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Three-line LED display
Touch-screen LCD display - 6’ Cable
Touch-screen LCD display - 15’ Cable
GE Communicator software, single user
GE Communicator software, five users
GE Communicator software, single site
2–17
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
2.9
EPM9450/9650 Meter Specifications
2.9.1
Power Supply
CONTROL POWER
Option D: ............................................................24VDC (-20%) to 48 VDC (+20%)
Option D2: .........................................................120V AC/DC (-20%) to 230VAC (+20%)
Connection Screws’ Torque: .....................6 to 9 in-lb max. or 0.68 to 1 Nm max.
Auxiliary Output Power Voltage: .............15 to 20VDC at 5-200mA
Maximum Auxiliary Power Current: .......1A (short protected)
Maximum Power Supply Range: .............100 to 250 VAC
2.9.2
Inputs
INPUT VOLTAGE
Range: .................................................................150 Volts Phase to Neutral, 300V Phase to Phase
(Standard; for use with PTs)
................................................................................300 Volts Phase to Neutral, 600V Phase to Phase
(Option G)
Withstand Capability: ..................................Meets ANSI C37.90.1 Surge withstand capability
Optically isolated: ..........................................to 2500VDC
INPUT CURRENT
Range: .................................................................10A Max. (Programmable to any CT Ratio)
Fault Current: ..................................................recording to 60A peak secondary based on 5A Full Scale
NOTE: 1A and 0.25A current inputs are available by
special order.
Withstand Capability (at 23o C):...............Continuous rating - 20A
Surge - 100A/10 s, 300A/3 s, 500A/1 s
BURDEN
Voltage: ..............................................................0.05VA @120V rms
Current: ..............................................................0.002VA @5A rms
ISOLATION
Inputs and outputs: ......................................2500V
Com ports: .........................................................isolated from each other
SENSING METHOD
RMS Update Time: ........................................200msec - High-speed readings
1 sec - Revenue-accurate reading
FREQUENCY RANGE
Fundamental: ..................................................20 to 65Hz
Measuring Capability: .................................Up to 255th Harmonic
2.9.3
Physical
DIMENSIONS
HxWxL: ................................................................3.4 x 7.3 x 10.5 in/8.6 x 18.5 x 26.6 cm
2–18
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
POWER CONSUMPTION
Maximum: .........................................................40 Watts (with optional modules and display)
Nominal: ............................................................Approximately 12 Watts (without optional modules or
display)
IMPEDANCE
IRIG-B Port Impedance:[email protected]
2.9.4
Environmental
ENVIRONMENTAL RATING
Operating: .........................................................-40 to +70°C
Humidity: ...........................................................to 95% RH Non-condensing
Faceplate Rating: ..........................................NEMA12 (Water Resistant), Mounting included
Overvoltage Category: ...............................2
Pollution Degree: ...........................................2
Altitude: ..............................................................2000 m maximum
2.9.5
Testing and certification
COMPLIANCE
Test
Reference Standard
Level/Class
Electrostatic Discharge
EN/IEC61000-4-2
Level 3
RF immunity
EN/IEC61000-4-3
10V/m
Fast Transient Disturbance
EN/IEC61000-4-4
Level 3
Surge Immunity
EN/IEC61000-4-5
Level 3
Conducted RF Immunity
EN/IEC61000-4-6
Level 3
Radiated & Conducted Emissions
EN/IEC61000-6-4/
CISPR 11
Class A
Power magnetic frequency
EN/IEC61000-4-8
Level 4
Voltage Dip & interruption
EN/IEC61000-4-11
0, 40, 70, 80% dips, 250/300cycle
interrupts
Flicker (EPM9650)
EN/IEC61000-4-15
PQ Analysis
EN50160/IEC610004-30*
* EN50160/EN61000-4-30 PQ Analysis is only available for a EPM9650 meter with Software
Feature B.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
2–19
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
APPROVALS
Applicable Council Directive
CE compliance
According to:
Low voltage directive
EN/IEC61010-1
EMC Directive
EN61000-6-2
EN61000-6-4
North America
cULus Listed
UL61010-1 (PICQ)
C22.2.No 61010-1 (PICQ7)
ISO
Manufactured under a registered
quality program
ISO9001
UL Listing
1244 (not evaluated for accuracy, reliability, or capability to perform intended function)
2–20
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
2.10 EPM P40NPLUS LED External Display Specifications
Maximum Input Voltage: ............................30VDC
Minimum Input Voltage: .............................12VDC
Maximum Power Consumption:..............5W
Nominal Power Consumption: .................Approximately 3W
Operating Temperature Range: .............-20 to +70oC/-4 to +158oF
Overall Dimensions (HxWxD): ..................5.25 x 5.25 x1.79 inches/13.34 x 13.34 x 4.54 cm
(The legacy P40N dimensions are 4.4 x 4.4 x 2.2 inches/
11.1 x 11.1 x 5.9cm)
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
2–21
CHAPTER 2: METER OVERVIEW
2.11 Upgrading the EPM9650 Meter’s Software Key
The EPM9650 meter’s base configuration is Software Option "A". To upgrade your meter to
support flicker with 4 MB, follow these steps:
1.
2.
Obtain an upgrade key by contacting GE’s inside sales staff at
[email protected] or by calling 905-294-6222. You will be asked for the
following information:
•
Serial number(s) of the meter you are upgrading.
•
Desired upgrade.
•
Credit card or Purchase Order number.
GE will issue you the upgrade key. To enable the key, follow these steps:
•
Open the GE Communicator software.
•
Power up your EPM meter.
•
Connect to the meter via GE Communicator. (See Chapter 3 of the GE
Communicator User Manual for detailed instructions. You can open the
manual online by clicking Help > Contents from the GE Communicator
Main screen).
•
Click Tools > Upgrade from the Title Bar of the Main screen. A screen
opens, requesting the encrypted key.
•
Enter the upgrade key provided by GE.
•
Click OK. The key is enabled and the meter is reset.
The EPM9450 meter does not have an upgrade.
Note
NOTE
2–22
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 3: Hardware Installation
Hardware Installation
This chapter provides installation information for the EPM9450/9650 meter and its optional
modules and displays.
3.1
Mounting the EPM9450/9650 Meter
The EPM9450/9650 Meter is designed to mount against any firm, flat surface. Use a #10
screw in each of the four slots on the flange to ensure that the unit is installed securely. For
safety reasons, mount the meter in an enclosed and protected environment, such as in a
switchgear cabinet. Install a switch or circuit breaker nearby; label it clearly as the meter’s
disconnecting mechanism.
The EPM meter with the Internal Modem Option mounts the same way.
Note
NOTE
Maintain the following conditions:
• Operating Temperature: -40°C to +70°C / -40°F to +158°F
• Storage Temperature: -40°C to +70°C / -40°F to +158°F
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
3–1
CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE INSTALLATION
• Relative Humidity: 5 to 95% non-condensing
Figure 3-1: EPM9450/9650 Mounting Diagram Top View
3–2
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Figure 3-2: EPM9450/9650 Mounting Diagram Side View
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
3–3
CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE INSTALLATION
3.2
Mounting the EPM LED External Displays
The EPM9450/9650 LED displays (model numbers P40NPLUS mount using a standard ANSI
C39.1 drill plan.
Secure the four mounting studs to the back of the panel with the supplied nuts.
Six feet of RS485 communication/power cable harness is supplied. Allow for at least a
1.25-inch (3.17cm) diameter hole in the back for the cable harness. See Chapter 5 for
communication and power supply details.
The cable harness brings power to the display from the EPM9450/9650 meter, which
supplies 15–20V DC. The P40NPLUS can draw up to 500mA in display test mode.
4.38” Sq.
(11.12 cm)
.75”
1.438” Sq. (1.91
(3.65 cm) cm)
P40N Front Dimensions
P40N Side Dimensions
Figure 3-3: Legacy P40N Dimensions
The P40N is not intended for new applications.
Note
NOTE
Figure 3-4: ANSI C39.1 Drill Plan for P40NPLUS Display
3–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE INSTALLATION
3.3
Mounting the EPM External I/O Modules
Secure the mounting brackets to the I/O using the screws supplied (#440 pan-head
screws). Next, secure the brackets to a flat surface using a #8 screw with a lock washer.
If multiple I/O modules are connected together, as shown in Figure 3.5, secure a mounting
bracket to both ends of the group. One EPM meter will supply power for a number of I/O
modules. See Sections 5.6.2 to see if you need to use an additional power supply, such as
the GE PSIO. Connect multiple I/O modules using the RS485 side ports.
Six feet of RS485 cable harness is supplied. The cable harness brings power to the display
from the EPM meter. See Chapter 5 for power supply and communication details.
Figure 3-5: I/O Modules Mounting Diagram Overhead View
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
3–5
CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE INSTALLATION
Mounting Brackets (MBIO)
Female RS485
Side Port
I/O Port
(Size and Pin
Configuration Vary)
Male RS485
Side Port
Figure 3-6: I/O Module Communication Ports and Mounting Brackets
Figure 3-7: I/O Modules Mounting Diagram Front View
3–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
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Chapter 4: Electrical Installation
Electrical Installation
This chapter provides electrical installation information for the EPM9450/9650 meter.
4.1
Considerations When Installing Meters
Installation of the EPM9450/9650 meter must be performed only by qualified personnel
who follow standard safety precautions during all procedures. Those personnel should
have appropriate training and experience with high voltage devices. Appropriate
safety gloves, safety glasses and protective clothing are recommended.
During normal operation of the EPM meter, dangerous voltages flow through many parts
of the unit, including: Terminals and any connected CTs (Current Transformers) and PTs
(Potential Transformers), all I/O Modules and their circuits. All Primary and Secondary
circuits can, at times, produce lethal voltages and currents. Avoid contact with any
current-carrying surfaces.
Do not use the meter or any I/O device for primary protection or in an energy-limiting
capacity. The meter can only be used as secondary protection.
Do not use the meter for applications where failure of the meter may cause harm or death.
Do not use the meter for any application where there may be a risk of fire.
All meter terminals should be inaccessible after installation.
Do not apply more than the maximum voltage the meter or any attached device can
withstand. Refer to meter and/or device labels and to the Specifications for all devices
before applying voltages. Do not HIPOT/Dielectric test any Outputs, Inputs or
Communications terminals.
GE recommends the use of Shorting Blocks and Fuses for voltage leads and power supply
to prevent hazardous voltage conditions or damage to CTs, if the meter needs to be
removed from service. CT grounding is optional.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–1
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
To comply with UL standards, the meter case must be connected to a reliable protective
earth available within the installation area. For this connection use minimum #14 AWG
wire crimped to a ring terminal (3) with a dedicated tool. Fasten the ring terminal (3) to the
lower left slot of the meter case with minimum #6 metal screw(1) and star washer (2), as is
shown in Figure 4.1.
The UL Classification of the meter is Measurement Category III, Pollution Degree 2.
Figure 4-1: Meter Case’s Earth Ground Connection
Note
Note
Note
4–2
IF THE EQUIPMENT IS USED IN A MANNER NOT SPECIFIED BY THE MANUFACTURER, THE
PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE EQUIPMENT MAY BE IMPAIRED.
THERE IS NO REQUIRED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OR INSPECTION NECESSARY FOR
SAFETY. HOWEVER, ANY REPAIR OR MAINTENANCE SHOULD BE PERFORMED BY THE
FACTORY.
DISCONNECT DEVICE: A SWITCH OR CIRCUIT-BREAKER SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE ENDUSE EQUIPMENT OR BUILDING INSTALLATION. THE SWITCH SHALL BE IN CLOSE PROXIMITY
TO THE EQUIPMENT AND WITHIN EASY REACH OF THE OPERATOR. THE SWITCH SHALL BE
MARKED AS THE DISCONNECTING DEVICE FOR THE EQUIPMENT.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
4.2
Wiring the Monitored Inputs and Voltages
Select a wiring diagram from Section 4.9 that best suits your application. Wire the
EPM9450/9650 meter exactly as shown. For proper operation, the voltage connection
must be maintained and must correspond to the correct terminal. Program the CT and PT
Ratios in the Device Profile section of the GE Communicator software; see the GE
Communicator User Manual for details.
The cable required to terminate the voltage sense circuit should have an insulation rating
greater than 600V AC and a current rating greater than 0.1 Amp. Use a minimum of 14
AWG wire for all phase voltage and current connections. The maximum installation torque
for both the current input terminals and the voltage connections is 1 Newton-Meter.
4.2.1
Fusing the Voltage Connections
For accuracy of the readings and for protection, GE requires using 0.25-Amp rated fuses on
all voltage inputs as shown in the wiring diagrams (see Section 4.9).
The EPM9450/9650 meter can handle a maximum voltage of 150V phase to neutral and
300V phase to phase. Potential Transformers (PTs) are required for higher voltages with the
standard rating. With Option G, the direct voltage input is extended to 300V phase to
neutral and 600V phase to phase.
Option G is only intended for use with direct connections. For PT connections, use the
standard 150 Volt version.
Note
NOTE
4.2.2
Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VRef
The Voltage Reference connection references the monitor to ground or neutral.
4.2.3
Wiring the Monitored Inputs - VAux
The Voltage Auxiliary connection is an auxiliary voltage input that can be used for any
desired purpose, such as monitoring neutral to ground voltage or monitoring two different
lines on a switch. The VAux Voltage rating is the same as the metering Voltage input
connections.
4.2.4
Wiring the Monitored Inputs - Currents
Install the cables for the current at 600V AC minimum insulation. The cable connector
should be rated at 10 Amps or greater and have a cross-sectional area of 14 AWG.
Mount the current transformers (CTs) as close as possible to the meter. The following table
illustrates the maximum recommended distances for various CT sizes, assuming the
connection is via 14 AWG cable.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–3
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
CT size (VA)
Maximum Distance from
CT to EPM Meter (Ft)
2.5
10
5
15
7.5
30
10
40
15
60
30
120
DO NOT leave the secondary of the CT open when primary current is flowing. This may
cause high voltage, which will overheat the CT. If the CT is not connected, provide a
shorting block on the secondary of the CT.
It is important to maintain the polarity of the CT circuit when connecting to the EPM9450/
9650 meter. If the polarity is reversed, the meter will not provide accurate readings. CT
polarities are dependent upon correct connection of CT leads and the direction CTs are
facing when clamped around the conductors. Although shorting blocks are not required
for proper meter operation, GE recommends using shorting blocks to allow removal of the
EPM9450/9650 meter from an energized circuit, if necessary.
4–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
4.3
Isolating a CT Connection Reversal
For a Wye System, you may either:
• Check the current phase angle reading on the meter's external display (see
Chapter 6). If it is negative, reverse the CTs.
• Go to the Phasors screen of the GE Communicator software (see Chapter 3 of the
GE Communicator User Manual for instructions). Note the phase relationship
between the current and voltage: they should be in phase with each other.
For a Delta System:
• Go to the Phasors screen of the GE Communicator software program (see Chapter
3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions). The current should be 30
degrees off the phase-to-phase voltage.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–5
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
4.4
Instrument Power Connections
The EPM9450/9650 meter requires a separate power source.
To use AC power:
1.
Connect the line supply wire to the L+ terminal
2.
Connect the neutral supply wire to the N- terminal on the meter.
To use DC power:
1.
Connect the positive supply wire to the L+ terminal.
2.
Connect the negative (ground) supply wire to the N- terminal on the meter.
Power supply options and corresponding suffixes are listed in the table below.
Control Power
Option Suffix
18-60 Volts DC
D
90-276 Volts AC/DC
D2
• Do not ground the unit through the negative of the DC supply. Separate grounding
is required.
• Externally fuse the power supply with a 5 Amp @250V rated slow blow fuse. GE
recommends that you fuse both the L+ and N- connections for increased safety,
but if you are fusing only one connection, fuse the L+ connection.
• Use at least 14 Gauge supply wire for the power supply and ground connections.
Note
NOTE ON CORRECT METER FUNCTIONING:
The EPM9450/9650 meter has a Heartbeat LED, located on the top, right side of the meter
face. When the meter is functioning correctly, the red LED pulse toggles on and off (blinks)
5 times per second. If the meter is not functioning correctly, the Heartbeat LED slows to
one pulse per second
4–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
4.5
Wiring Diagrams
Choose the diagram that best suits your application. Diagrams appear on the following
pages. If the connection diagram you need is not shown, contact GE for a custom
Connection diagram.
Note
If you purchased a "G" Option EPM9450/9650 meter for a 300 Volt secondary, be sure to
enable the option on the CT and PT screen of the GE Communicator software's Device
Profile (see Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions). Do not use the
“G” option with PTs. It is intended for direct Voltage connection, only.
Figure #
Description
4.2
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element Direct Voltage with 4 CTs
4.3
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 4 CTs
4.4
4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 3 CTs
4.5
3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
4.6
3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 2 CTs
4.7
3-Wire, 2-Element Delta Direct Voltage with 3 CTs
4.8
3-Phase, 4-Wire Wye, 2.5 Element with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
4.9
4-Wire, 3-Element Grounded Delta with 4 CTs - G Option
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–7
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-1: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element Direct Voltage with 4 CTs
4–8
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-2: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 4 CTs
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–9
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-3: 4-Wire Wye, 3-Element with 3 PTs and 3 CTs
4–10
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-4: 3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–11
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-5: 3-Wire, 2-Element Open Delta with 2 PTs and 2 CTs
4–12
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-6: 3-Wire, 2-Element Delta Direct Voltage with 3 CTs
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–13
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-7: 3-Phase, 4-Wire, 2.5 Element with 2 PTs and 3 CTs
4–14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
Figure 4-8: 4-Wire, 3-Element Grounded Delta with 4 CTs - G Option
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4–15
CHAPTER 4: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
4–16
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 5: Communication Wiring
Communication Wiring
This chapter provides wiring information for the EPM9450/9650 meter’s
communication options.
5.1
Communication Overview
RS232 communication is used to connect a single EPM9450/9650 meter with another
device, such as a computer, RTU or PLC. The link is viable for a distance of up to 50 feet
(15.2 meters) and is available only through the meter’s Port 1. You must set the selector
switch beneath the port to RS232.
RS485 communication allows multiple EPM meters to communicate with another device at
a local or remote site. The I/O modules and the EPM displays use RS485 to communicate
with the EPM meter. All RS485 links are viable for a distance of up to 4000 feet (1220
meters). Ports 1 through 4 on the EPM9450/9650 meter are two-wire, RS485 connections
operating up to 115200 baud. To use Port 1 for RS485, set the selector switch to RS485 (the
switch is located under the port).
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–1
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
RJ11 Telephone Line allows a EPM9450/9650 meter with the Internal Modem Option (INP2)
to communicate with a PC. No other hardware is necessary for this easy-to-use
connection. For more details, see Chapter 10.
Figure 5-1: RJ11 Communication with Internal Modem Option
RJ45 Network Connection allows a EPM9450/9650 meter with the Internal Network Option
(INP200) to communicate with multiple PC’s simultaneously. No other hardware is
necessary for this easy-to-use connection. In an EPM meter with INP200, Port 2 becomes a
Gateway for connecting multiple EPM meters using RS485.
5–2
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
See Chapter 11 for INP200 details.
Figure 5-2: RJ45 Communication with Internal Network Option
EPM9650 meters can also communicate with DNP 3.0 protocol over Ethernet.
Note
NOTE
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–3
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
-
- ++G
23-ASTER
5NICOMOR
-ODEM-ANAGER
+ - S -V+
)/-ODULE
+ - S -V+
0.
%XTERNAL$ISPLAY
'
RT=
~120 Ohms
RT=
~120 Ohms
36
24
^/HMS
RS232
24
Extension
^/HMS
Cable
1:1 Wiring
36
RT=
~120 Ohms
24
^/HMS
23
%XTENSION
#ABLE
7IRING
RT=
120 Ohms
+V- S - + +V- S - +
+V- S - +
63
0ORT
2323
3ELECTABLE
876543210
63 63 63
0ORT
24
^/HMS
24
^/HMS
24
^/HMS
+V- S - +
RT=
~120 Ohms
RT=
~120 Ohms
0ORT
0ORT
- +
(IGH3PEED)NPUTS)2)'"
Figure 5-3: Communication Wiring
Note
5–4
• I/O Modules and External Displays require power connections to the +/- Voltage
terminals (dashed lines).
• For all communications: S = Shield. This connection is used to reference the EPM
meter’s port to the same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground
connection. You must also connect the shield to earth-ground at one point.
• You can use ANY port to connect an EPM display or RS485 Master. The I/O modules
use Port 3 or Port 4. EPM P40NPLUS displays are shipped pre-programmed to use
Port 3—see Section 5.3.4 for details.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.2
RS232 Connection (Port 1)
• Use Port 1 for RS232 communication. Set the selector switch beneath the port to
RS232.
• Insert one end of an RS232 extension cable into the EPM9450/9650 meter’s 9-pin
female serial port. Insert the opposite end into a port on the computer.
• The RS232 standard limits the cable length to 50 feet (15.2 meters).
• The RS232 Port is configured as Data Communications Equipment (DCE).
RS232 Port
230ORT
Pin #2=Transmit
230ORT
0IN4RANSMIT
0IN2ECEIVE
0IN'ROUND
Pin #3=Receive
Pin #5=Ground
63
5
Pins:
4 3 2 1
9 8 7 6
0INS
Figure 5-4: RS232/RS485 Port Detail
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–5
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.3
RS485 Communication
RS485 communication allows multiple devices to communicate on a bus. The EPM9450/
9650 meter’s Ports 1 to 4 are RS485 terminals, viable for a distance of up to 4000 feet
(1219 meters). (Port 1 can be switched between RS232 and RS485.) The
following figure shows wiring detail of a 2-wire RS485 port.
Figure 5-5: 2-Wire RS485 Port Detail
All of the EPM9450/9650 meter’s RS485 ports have the following connections:
• +V- (Voltage terminals for power connections): use with EPM I/O Modules and
Displays only. The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies 17V DC through the +Vterminal connections.
Do not connect these pins to devices that receive power from another source—e.g., a
computer—or to devices that do not require power to operate.
Note
NOTE
On RS485 Communication:
Note
NOTE
5–6
• S (Shield): the Shield connection is used to reference the meter’s port to the same
potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point. Do not connect the shield to
ground at multiple points, as this will interfere with communication.
• +/- (Two-wire, RS485 communication terminals): connect the + terminal of the EPM
meter’s port to the + terminal of the device; connect the - terminal of the EPM
meter’s port to the - terminal of the device.
• Use a shielded twisted pair cable 22 AWG (0.33 mm2) or larger, grounding the
shield at one end only.
• Establish point-to-point configurations for each device on an RS485 bus: connect
(+) terminals to (+) terminals; connect (-) terminals to (-) terminals.
• Protect cables from sources of electrical noise.
• Avoid both “star” and “tee” connections (see Figure 5.6). No more than two cables
should be connected at any one point on an RS485 network, whether the
connections are for devices, converters or terminal strips.
• Include all segments when calculating the total cable length of a network. If you
are not using an RS485 repeater, the maximum length for cable connecting all
devices is 4000 feet (1219 meters).
• RT EXPLANATION: Termination Resistors are generally used on both ends of longer
length transmission lines. The value of the Termination Resistors is determined by
the electrical parameters of the cable. Use RTs only on Master and Last Slave when
connecting multiple meters in a Daisy Chain.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
Slave device 1
SH
+
-
Long stub results “T” connection that can cause
interference problem!
Master device
Last Slave device N
RT
RT
Slave device 2
SH +
-
SH
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
+
-
SH
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Earth Connection, preferably at
single location
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Slave device 1
Slave device 2
SH +
-
-
Master device
SH
+
SH
+
-
+ SH
“STAR” connection can cause interference
problem!
-
SH
Slave device 3
+
Slave device 4
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Figure 5-6: Incorrect “T” and “Star” Topologies
5.3.1
RS485 Connection
• Use any Port on the EPM9450/9650 meter. If you use Port 1, set the selector switch
beneath the port to RS485.
• The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
• You must use an RS485 to RS232 converter.
• For information on connecting the EPM9450/9650 meter to a modem, see sections
5.8.2 and 5.8.3.
• Do not use the V(+)/V(-) pins: they supply power to the EPM displays and I/O
modules.
5.3.2
Connection to an RS485 Master (Modem Manager)
• To establish communication between a EPM9450/9650 meter and any RS485
master, Modem Manager or other RS232/RS485 converter, use a shielded, twisted
pair cable.
• Use an RS485 port (Ports 1–4) on the EPM meter. If you use Port 1, set the selector
switch beneath it to RS485. Connect the (+) and (-) terminals on the meter to the (+)
and (-) terminals on the master. Provide jumpers on the master, linking its two (-)
terminals and two (+) terminals. RS485 communication is viable for up to 4000 feet
(1219 meters).
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
• Connect the shield to the Ground (G) terminal on the Master. The (S) terminal on the
EPM meter is used to reference the EPM meter’s port to the same potential as the
source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also connect the shield to
earth-ground at one point.
• Provide resistors at each end, connected to the (+) and (-) lines. RT is approximately
120 Ohms, but this value may vary based on length of cable run, gauge and the
impedance of the wire. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3.
5.3.3
RS485 Connection to the EPM P40NPLUS External Display
Insert one end of the supplied RS485 cable into Port 3 of the EPM9450/9650 meter. Port 3 is
factory-set to match the EPM display’s baud rate of 9600. To use a port other than Port 3,
you must set the port’s baud rate to 9600 using the GE Communicator software (see
Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions). Insert the other end of
the cable into the back of the EPM P40N/P40NPLUS display. (The connectors fit only one
way into the ports.)
The cable harness brings 17V DC to the displays from the EPM meter. RS485
communication is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters). If your cable length exceeds 200
feet you must use a remote power supply, such as GE’s PSIO, and:
5–8
1.
Connect the shield to the shield (S) terminal on the EPM display port. The (S)
terminal on the EPM meter is used to reference the EPM meter’s port to the
same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must
also connect the shield to earth-ground at one point.
2.
Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the + and - lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.4
RJ11 (Telephone Line) Connection—EPM Meter with Internal Modem
Option (INP2) to a PC
Use RJ11 Standard Telephone Line to connect with the EPM9450/9650 meter. For details
on this connection, see Chapter 10.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.5
RJ45 Connection—EPM Meter with Internal Network Option (INP200) to
Multiple PCs - 10/100BaseT
The Internal Network Option conforms to the IEEE 802.3, 10BaseT and 100BaseT
specification using unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. This allows the use of
inexpensive RJ45 connectors and CAT 3 or better cabling. For details on this
connection, see Chapter 11.
5–10
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.6
Communication Ports on the EPM I/O Modules
• Female RS485 Side Port: use to connect to another module’s female RS485 side
port.
• Male RS485 Side Port: use to connect to the EPM meter’s Port 3 or Port 4, or to
connect to another module’s male RS485 side port.
• I/O Port: use for functions specific to the type of module; size and pin configuration
varies depending on type of module.
• For more detail, refer to the following section and Chapter 9.
Female RS485
Side Port
I/O Port
(Size and Pin
Configuration Vary)
Male RS485
Side Port
Figure 5-1: I/O Module Communication Ports
5.6.1
RS485 Connection—EPM Meter to EPM I/O Modules
• Six feet of RS485 cable harness is supplied. Insert one end of the cable into Port 3
or Port 4 of the EPM9450/9650 meter.
• Insert the other end of the cable into the I/O module’s female RS485 side port (see
Figure 5.8). The connectors fit only one way into the ports.
• Use the male RS485 side port to attach another I/O module. The EPM9450/9650
meter can power up to four connected I/O modules using 15–20V DC at 50–
200mA. Use the steps in Section 5.6.2 to determine if you must use a separate
power source (for example, GE’s PSIO) to supply added power to the group. See
Section 9.2.1 for information on the PSIO. RS485 communication is viable for up to
4000 feet (1219 meters). However, if your cable length exceeds 200 feet, use the
remote power supply and:
1.
Connect the + and - terminals on the EPM meter to the + and - terminals of the
female RS485 port. Connect the shield to the shield (S) terminal. The (S)
terminal on the EPM meter is used to reference the meter’s port to the same
potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point.
2.
Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the + and - lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.6.2
Steps to Determine Power Needed
Available power for all ports of the EPM9450/9650 meter is 12 VA.
1.
Refer to the tables on the next two pages to determine the VA Ratings for I/O
modules and displays.
2.
Add together the VA Ratings for all I/O modules and displays in use.
3.
Compare available power to power needed to determine if you must use an
additional power source.
GE recommends the PSIO 12V power source if the I/O module VA rating exceeds the EPM
specification. See Section 9.2.1 for information and usage instructions.
Note
NOTE
I/O Module Factory Settings and VA Ratings
Model#
Module
Address
VA Rating
1mAON4
0-1mA, 4 Analog Outputs
128
2.7VA
1mAON8
0-1mA, 8 Analog Outputs
128
3.2VA
20mAON4
4-20mA, 4 Analog Outputs
132
5.0VA
20mAON8
4-20mA, 8 Analog Outputs
132
8.5VA
8AI1
0-1mA, 8 Analog Inputs
136
2.3VA
8AI2
0-20mA, 8 Analog Inputs
140
2.3VA
8AI3
0-5VDC, 8 Analog Inputs
144
2.3VA
8AI4
0-10VDC, 8 Analog Inputs
148
2.3VA
4RO1
4 Latching Relay Outputs
156
2.7VA
4PO1
4 KYZ Pulse Outputs
160
2.7VA
8DI1
8 Status Inputs (Wet/Dry)
164
1.0VA
As the table above shows, all I/O modules are shipped pre-programmed with a baud rate
of 57600 and addresses. For programming instructions, refer to Chapter 8 of the GE
Communicator User Manual.
See the next page for the external displays’ VA Ratings.
For 24 or 48 VDC applications, GE recommends the PB1 power supply.
Note
NOTE
Example order number: PB1-D-12VO (PB1)
If you are using a PSIO (for 125V AC/DC input) or PB1 your maximum VA is 12.
EPM Display VA Ratings
P40NPLUS
5–12
LED Displays
8VA
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.7
Linking Multiple EPM Meters in Series
You may connect a total of 31 EPM meters in series on a single bus using RS485. The cable
length may not exceed 4000 feet (1219 meters). Before assembling the bus, each EPM
meter must be assigned a unique address. See Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User
Manual for instructions.
• Connect the + and - terminals of each EPM meter. Use jumpers on any RS485
Master connected at the end of the chain.
• Connect the shield to the (S) terminal on each EPM meter and to the Ground on the
RS485 Master. This connection is used to reference the EPM meter’s port to the
same potential as the source. It is not an earth-ground connection. You must also
connect the shield to earth-ground at one point.
• Provide termination resistors at each end, connected to the (+) and (-) lines. RT is
approximately 120 Ohms, but this value may vary based on length of cable run,
gauge or the impedance of the wire. See RT EXPLANATION in Section 5.3 .
Master device
Last Slave device N
RT
SH
+
RT
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Slave device 1
Slave device 2
SH
SH
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
+
-
SH
+
-
Twisted pair, shielded (SH) cable
Earth Connection, preferably at
single location
Figure 5-1: Linking Multiple EPM Meters in Series
You can use an RS485 repeater to network several links of instruments.
Note
NOTE
• A maximum number of 31 EPM meters may be connected to one repeater.
• A maximum number of 31 repeaters may be included on the same network.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.8
Remote Communication Overview
Either RJ11 (INP2 Option) or RJ45 (INP200 Option) can connect devices at great distances.
Section 5.1 gives an overview of these communication options. Chapter 10 explains the
INP2 Internal Modem Option; Chapter 11 explains the INP200 Network Option.
You can use also use modems to connect devices. GE recommends using RS485 wiring
with a Modem Manager. See Section 5.8.2 for additional information.
5.8.1
Remote Communication—RS232
The link using RS232 is viable for up to 50 feet (15.2 meters).
Set the selector switch under Port 1 to RS232.
Use an RS232 serial extension cable connected to the 9-pin female serial port of the
EPM9450/9650 meter’s Port 1. Program this port for Modbus ASCII. See Chapter 3 of the GE
Communicator User Manual for details.
• You must use a Null Modem or Null Cable between the EPM meter and the remote
modem when using RS232. A Null Modem enables two DCE devices to
communicate. The figure below details how a null modem reconfigures the RS232
pins.
0INSAT.ULL-ODEM-ALE%ND
0INSAT&EMALE-ODEM-ALE%ND
Figure 5.10: Standard Null Modem Configuration
Connecting the EPM meter to a modem via RS485 protocol with GE’s Modem Manager
converter eliminates the need for a Null Modem (see Section 5.8.2).
Note
NOTE
5.8.2
• The remote modem must be programmed for auto-answer and set at a fixed baud
rate of 9600 with no Flow Control. See Section 5.8.3 and the GE Communicator User
Manual for further details.
Remote Communication-RS485
Use any Port on the EPM9450/9650 meter. If you use Port 1, set the selector switch
beneath the port to RS485. The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
Use GE Communicator software to set the port's baud rate to 9600 and enable Modbus
ASCII protocol. See Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions.
Remember, Modbus RTU will not function properly with modem communication. You must
change the protocol to Modbus ASCII.
5–14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
You must use an RS485 to RS232 converter and a Null Modem. GE recommends using its
Modem Manager, a sophisticated RS232/RS485 converter that enables devices with
different baud rates to communicate. It also eliminates the need for a Null modem and
automatically programs the modem to the proper configuration. Also, if the telephone
lines are poor, Modem Manager acts as a line buffer, making the communication more
reliable.
5.8.3
Programming Modems for Remote Communication
You must program a modem before it can communicate properly with most RS485 or
RS232-based devices. This task is often quite complicated because modems can be
unpredictable when communicating with remote devices.
If you are not using the GE Modem Manager device, you must set the following strings to
communicate with the remote EPM meter(s). Consult your modem’s manual for the proper
string settings or see Section 5.8.3.1 for a list of selected modem strings.
Use a Modem Manager! The product was designed to make this task “plug and play.” We
highly recommend it for all serial modem solutions.
Note
NOTE
Modem Connected to a Computer (the Originate Modem)
• Restore modem to factory settings. This erases all previously programmed
settings.
• Set modem to display Result Codes. The computer will use the result codes.
• Set modem to Verbal Result Codes. The computer will use the verbal result codes.
• Set modem to use DTR Signal. This is necessary for the computer to ensure
connection with the originate modem.
• Set modem to enable Flow Control. This is necessary to communicate with remote
modem connected to the EPM meter.
• Instruct modem to write the new settings to activate profile. This places these
settings into nonvolatile memory; the setting will take effect after the modem
powers up.
Modem Connected to the EPM Meter (the Remote Modem)
• Restore modem to factory settings. This erases all previously programmed
settings.
• Set modem to auto answer on n rings. This sets the remote modem to answer the
call after n rings.
• Set modem to ignore DTR Signal. This is necessary for the EPM meter, to insure
connection with originate modem.
• Set modem to disable Flow Control. The EPM meter’s RS232 communication does
not support this feature.
• Instruct modem to write the new settings to activate profile. This places these
settings into nonvolatile memory; the setting will take effect after the modem
powers up.
• When programming the remote modem with a terminal program, make sure the
baud rate of the terminal program matches the EPM meter’s baud rate.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–15
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.8.3.1 Selected Modem Strings
Modem
5–16
String/Setting
Cardinal modem
AT&FE0F8&K0N0S37=9
Zoom/Faxmodem VFX V.32BIS(14.4K)
AT&F0&K0S0=1&W0&Y0
Zoom/Faxmodem 56Kx Dual Mode
AT&F0&K0&C0S0=1&W0&Y0
USRobotics Sportster 33.6
Faxmodem:
DIP switch setting
AT&F0&N6&W0Y0 (for 9600 baud)
USRobotics Sportster 56K
Faxmodem:
DIP switch setting
AT&F0&W0Y0
Up Up Down Down Up Up Up Down
Up Up Down Down Up Up Up Down
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.9
High Speed Inputs Connection
The EPM9450/9650 meter’s built-in High Speed Inputs can be used in many ways:
• Attach the KYZ HS Outputs from other meters for totalizing.
• Attach relaying contacts for breaker status or initiated logging.
• Set as an Input Trigger for Historical Log 2.
Refer to the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions on programming these
features.
The High Speed Inputs can be used with either dry or wet field contacts. For Wet contacts,
the common rides on a unit-generated Nominal 15V DC. No user programming is
necessary to use either wet or dry field contacts.
Figure 5-2: High-Speed Inputs Connections
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–17
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.10 IRIG-B Connections
IRIG-B is a standard time code format that synchronizes event time-stamping to within 1
millisecond. An IRIG-B signal-generating device connected to the GPS satellite system
synchronizes EPM9450/9650 meters located at different geographic locations. EPM meters
use an un-modulated signal from a satellite-controlled clock (such as Arbiter 1093B). For
details on installation, refer to the User’s Manual for the satellite-controlled clock in use.
Below are installation steps and tips that will help you.
Connection
Connect the (+) terminal of the EPM meter to the (+) terminal of the signal generating
device; connect the (-) terminal of the EPM meter to the (-) terminal of the signal generating
device.
Installation
Set Time Settings for the meter being installed.
1.
5–18
From the GE Communicator Device Profile menu:
•
Click General Settings > Time Settings > one of the Time Settings lines,
to open the Time Settings screen.
•
Set the Time Zone and Daylight Savings (Select AutoDST or Enable and
set dates).
•
Click Update Device Profile to save the new settings. (See Chapter 3 of
the GE Communicator User’s Manual for details.)
2.
Before connection, check that the date on the meter clock is correct (or, within
2 Months of the actual date). This provides the right year for the clock (GPS
does not supply the year).
3.
Connect the (+) terminal of the EPM meter to the (+) terminal of the signal
generating device; connect the (-) terminal of the EPM meter to the (-) terminal
of the signal generating device.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
Troubleshooting Tip: The most common source of problems is a reversal of the two wires.
If you have a problem, try reversing the wires.
GP
S
Sa
tel
lite
Co
nn
ec
tio
n
IRIG-B Port
+
+
-
-
IRIG-B Time
Signal
Generating
Device
Figure 5-1: IRIG-B Communication
Please make sure that the selected clock can drive the amount of wired loads.
Note
NOTE
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
5–19
CHAPTER 5: COMMUNICATION WIRING
5.11 Time Synchronization Alternatives
(See the GE Communicator User Manual for details.)
IRIG-B
• All EPM9450/9650 meters are equipped to use IRIG-B for time synchronization.
• If IRIG-B is connected, this form of time synchronization takes precedence over the
internal clock. If the GPS Signal is lost, the internal clock takes over time keeping at
the precise moment the signal is lost.
Line Frequency Clock Synchronization
• All EPM meters are equipped with Line Frequency Clock Synchronization, which
may be enabled or disabled for use instead of IRIG-B. If Line Frequency Clock
Synchronization is enabled and power is lost, the internal clock takes over at the
precise moment power is lost.
Internal Clock Crystal
• All EPM meters are equipped with internal clock crystals which are accurate to
20ppm, and which can be used if IRIG-B is not connected and/or Line Frequency
Clock Synchronization is not enabled.
DNP Time Synchronization
• Using GE Communicator, you can set the meter to request time synchronization
from the DNP Master. Requests can be made from once per minute to once per
day. See the EPM DNP User Manual for instructions. You can download the manual
from GE’s website: www.gedigitalenergy.com.
Other Time Setting Tools
• Tools > Set Device Time: For manual or PC time setting
• Script & Scheduler: Time stamps retrieved logs and data
• MV90: Can synchronize time on retrievals in the form of a Time Stamp. Refer to the
GE Communicator User Manual (HHF Converter) for more MV-90 details.
5–20
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 6: Using the External
Displays
Using the External Displays
This chapter provides information on the EPM9450/9650 meter’s external displays.
6.1
Overview
GE Digital Energy offers three external displays for use with the EPM9450/9650 meter. The
P40NPLUS are LED displays that provide easy-to-use access to the information stored in
your EPM meter. The P40NPLUS display also features a USB port for direct data download.
Plug one of the EPM external displays into Port 3 or 4 of the meter, using the cable supplied
with the display. The displays operate at 9600 baud. Port 3 is already factory-set to 9600
baud (see Chapter 5 for communication details). To use a display on another port,
configure that port to operate at 9600 baud with the GE Communicator Software. See
Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions on configuring the meter's
port.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
6–1
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.2
EPM P40N/P40NPLUS LED External Displays
The EPM P40NPLUS LED external display has a USB port on the front for direct data
downloads. You can connect to the USB port with GE Communicator to poll and configure
the meter attached to the display. To use the USB, follow these instructions:
1.
6–2
Use the EPM Series Product CD, shipped with your meter, to install the GE
Communicator software and the driver for the P40NPLUS USB port.
•
Insert the CD into your PC's CD drive. The screen shown below opens in
your Browser.
•
To install GE Communicator, click the Install Software button and click
Run on the screen that opens.
•
Click on the USB Driver button and click Run on the screen that opens.
The P40NPLUS driver is installed.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
2.
Connect the USB cable from your PC to the port: using a USA-A Male to USB-B
Male cable, attach the USB-A connector to the PC and attach the USB-B
connector to the P40NPLUS USB port. See Figure 6.1.
Figure 6-1: USB-B Male Connector and P40NPLUS USB Port
Once the USB cable is connected to the P40NPLUS, the display clears and the message
“USB in Use” scrolls at the bottom of the display. Additionally, the USB LED icon lights up
when the USB connection is being used. You connect to the USB port using GE
Communicator software the same way you connect to a meter with the software. Follow
these instructions:
1.
Determine which port the PC's USB is using:
•
On your PC, click Start > Settings > Control Panel.
•
Double-click the System folder.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
6–3
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6–4
•
Click the Hardware tab. You will see the screen below.
•
Click the Device Manager button. You will see a list of the computer's
hardware devices.
•
Click the plus sign next to Ports (COM & LPT). The COM ports are
displayed. Note the COM number for the USB Serial Port. This is the
number you will use to connect to the P40NPLUS through GE
Communicator. See the figure below.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.2.1
2.
Open GE Communicator software and click the Connect icon in the Icon bar.
See the screen shown below.
3.
Click the Serial Port button if it’s not already selected.
4.
Set the Baud Rate to 9600. (It uses 9600 because it shares an existing Com
port for displayed readings.)
5.
Click the Available Ports button and select the USB COM Port number from
the drop-down list.
6.
Protocol should be Modbus RTU.
7.
Flow Control should be None.
8.
Echo Mode should be No Echo.
9.
Click Connect. The software connects to the meter through the P40NPLUS.
Refer to the GE Communicator User's Manual for programming instructions.
(Click Help > Contents from the GE Communicator Title Bar to view the
manual online.)
Connect Multiple Displays
One cable (housing two-wire RS485 and two-wire power wires plus shield) is used to
connect the displays. The EPM meter’s ports support 12 VA. Each P40N/P40NPLUS requires
3.3 VA (maximum 3.8 VA). The Master display (P40NPLUS) is the master in communication.
The Amp, Power and EPM devices are slaves in communication. Therefore, the Master
display (P40NPLUS) should be at the end of the daisy-chained units.
6.2.2
EPM P40N/P40NPLUS Display Modes
The EPM P40N/P40NPLUS LED external display has three modes:
• Dynamic Readings mode (sections 6.3 and 6.4)
• EPM Information mode (sections 6.5 and 6.6)
• Display Features mode (sections 6.7 and 6.8)
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
6–5
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
Each mode is divided into groups. Most groups are further broken down into readings.
• Use the MODE button to scroll between modes.
• Use the UP/DOWN arrows to scroll from group to group within each mode.
• Use the LEFT/RIGHT arrows to scroll from reading to reading within each group.
Use the GE Communicator software to Flash Update the P40N/P40NPLUS external display.
Refer to the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions.
6–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.3
Dynamic Readings Mode
The External Display puts itself in the Dynamic Readings Mode upon power-up. Use the
Mode button to access the Dynamic Readings from other Modes. Use the Up/Down arrows
to navigate from Group to Group within this Mode. See Section 6.4 for a Navigation map of
the Dynamic Readings Mode.
Group 1: Phase to Neutral Voltages (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following
readings, in order.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Volts AN/BN/CN
Maximum Volts AN/BN/CN
Minimum Volts AN/BN/CN
Volts AN/BN/CN %THD
Volts AN/BN/CN Maximum %THD
Volts AN/BN/CN Minimum %THD
Group 2: Phase to Phase Voltages (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following
readings, in order.)
• Volts AB/BC/CA
• Minimum Volts AB/BC/CA
• Maximum Volts AB/BC/CA
Group 3: Current (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Current A/B/C
Maximum Current
Minimum Current
Current %THD
Current Maximum %THD
Current Minimum %THD
Current Calculated N/Measured N
Maximum Current Calculated N/Measured N
Group 4: Watt/VAR (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in order.)
•
•
•
•
•
kWatt/kVAR
Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
Maximum -kWatt/-kVAR/CoIn kVAR
Block (Fixed) Window Average Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
Predictive Rolling (Sliding) Window Maximum +kWatt/+kVAR/CoIn kVAR
Group 5:VA/PF/Frequency (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
kVA/PF lag/Hz
Maximum kVA/Hz
Minimum kVA/Hz
Maximum Quadrant 1 Total PF
Minimum Quadrant 1 Total PF
Maximum Quadrant 2 Total PF
Minimum Quadrant 2 Total PF
Maximum Quadrant 3 Total PF
Minimum Quadrant 3 Total PF
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
• Maximum Quadrant 4 Total PF
• Minimum Quadrant 4 Total PF
Group 6: Delivered Energy (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
•
•
•
•
•
+kWatthr Quadrant 1+Quadrant 4 (Primary)
+kVAhr Quadrant 1 (Primary)
+kVARhr Quadrant 1 (Primary)
+kVAhr Quadrant 4 (Primary)
-kVARhr Quadrant 4 (Primary)
Group 7: Received Energy (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
•
•
•
•
•
-kWatthr Quadrant 2+Quadrant 3 (Primary)
+kVAhr Quadrant 2 (Primary)
+kVARhr Quadrant 2 (Primary)
+kVAhr Quadrant 3 (Primary)
-kVARhr Quadrant 3 (Primary)
Group 8: Accumulations (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
•
•
•
•
•
•
kI2t A
kI2t B
kI2t C
kV2t A
kV2t B
kV2t C
Group 9: Phase Angles (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
•
•
•
•
6–8
Phase Angle Van/bn/cn
Phase Angle Ia/b/c
Phase Angle Vab/bc/ca
Phase Sequence
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.4
Navigation Map of Dynamic Readings Mode
• Use Left/Right arrow keys to navigate Readings
• Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
5HDGLQJV
*
U
R
X
S
V
1 Second Volts
AN,BN,CN
Maximum Volts
AN,BN,CN
Minimum Volts
AN,BN,CN
%THD Volts
AN,BN,CN
1 Second Volts
AB,BC,CA
Minimum Volts
AB,BC,CA
Maximum Volts
AB,BC,CA
Return to
First
Reading
1 Second
IA,IB,IC
Maximum
IA,IB,IC
1 Second
kWatt, kVAR
+Max kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn
kVAR
1 Second
kVA, PF
lag,
Frequency
Max
kVA,
Freq
Positive
kWatthour
Q1+Q4
Min
kVA,
Freq
Minimum
IA,IB,IC
%THD
IA,IB,IC
-Max kWatt,
-kVAR,CoIn
kVAR
Block WinAvg Max
+kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn kVAR
Max Q1,
Total PF
Positive
kVARhr
Q1
Min Q1,
Total PF
Max Q2,
Total PF
Negative
kVARhr
Q4
Return to
First
Reading
Negative
kWatthr
Q2+Q3
Positive
kVARhr
Q2
Negative
kVARhr
Q3
Return to
First
Reading
2
kI t A
2
kI t B
2
kI t C
2
kV t A
Phase Angles V
AN,BN,CN
Phase Angles I
A,B,C
Max %THD
IA,IB,IC
Phase Angles V
AB,BC,CA
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Max %THD
Volts
AN,BN,CN
Min %THD
Volts
AN,BN,CN
Min %THD
IA,IB,IC
1 Second
INc,INm
Pred Roll Win Avg
+kWatt,
+kVAR,CoIn kVAR
Min Q2,
Total PF
Max Q3,
Total PF
2
kV t B
Phase
Sequence
Min Q3,
Total PF
2
kV t C
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Min Q4,
Total PF
Min Q4,
Total PF
Return to
First
Reading
Return to
First
Reading
Return to First
Reading
6–9
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.5
EPM Information Mode
Use the Mode button to access the EPM Information mode from other modes. Use the Up/
Down arrows to navigate from group to group within this mode. See Section 6.6 for a
Navigation map of the EPM Information Mode.
Group 1: Device Time
Meter Time
Group 2: Communication Settings (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following
readings, in order.)
•
•
•
•
Communication Settings Port 1: Baud/Addr/Protocol
Communication Settings Port 2: Baud/Addr/Protocol
Communication Settings Port 3: Baud/Addr/Protocol
Communication Settings Port 4: Baud/Addr/Protocol
Group 3: PT/CT Ratios (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the following readings, in
order.)
• PT Ratio
• CT Ratio
Group 4: External Display Units
Primary/Secondary
Select either Primary or Secondary units for the External Display using the GE
Communicator software (see the GE Communicator User Manual).
• When Primary is selected, the Display shows all readings in Primary units based on
the user programmed PT and CT Ratios.
• When Secondary is selected, the Display shows all readings in Secondary units.
Group 5: Firmware Versions and Serial Numbers (Use the Left/Right arrows to access the
following readings, in order.)
• Run Time External Display/Run Time DSP/RunTime Comm
• Boot External Display/Boot DSP/Boot Comm
• Serial Number External Display; Serial Number EPM Monitor
6–10
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.6
Navigation Map of EPM Information Mode
• Use Left/Right arrow keys to navigate Readings
• Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
5HDGLQJV
*
U
R
X
S
V
Meter Time
Comm
Settings
Port 1
Comm
Settings
Port 2
PT Ratio
CT Ratio
Return
To
First Reading
Boot
Display,
DSP, Comm
Serial #
Display, Serial
# Monitor
Comm
Settings
Port 3
Comm
Settings
Port 4
Return
To
First Reading
Display
Primary/Secondary
Run-time
Display,
DSP, Comm
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Return
To
First
Reading
6–11
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.7
Display Features Mode
Use the Mode button to access the Display Features Mode from other modes. Use the Up/
Down arrows to navigate from group to group within this mode. See Section 6.8 for a
Navigation map of the Display Features mode.
Group 1: Reset Max/Min
Press Enter to reset the Max and Min values.
If the Password Protection feature has been enabled through GE Communicator software,
you will need to enter a password to reset the Max/Min readings. Follow this procedure:
Note
NOTE
1.
Press Enter.
2.
Enter the password, one character at a time, by pressing the Up or Down
arrows. (Each password character begins as an "A". Press the Up arrow to
increment the character from "A to Z" and then from "0 to 9". Press the Down
arrow to decrement the character from "9 to 0" and then from "Z to A".)
3.
Press Set to enter each character in the password.
4.
When the entire password is shown on the Display screen, press Enter.
5.
Once the password is entered correctly, press Enter again to reset the Max/
Min values.
Group 2: Reset Energy
Press Enter to reset the Energy readings.
Note
NOTE
If the Password Protection feature has been enabled through GE Communicator software,
you will need to enter a password to reset the Energy readings. Follow steps 1 to 4, above,
then press Enter again to reset energy.
Group 3: Display Baud Rate/Address
Group 4: Display Communication Protocol
Group 7: Lamp Test
Press Enter to conduct an LED test.
Group 8: Display Scroll ON/OFF
Press Enter to turn the scroll feature on or off. When the scroll feature is on, the P40NPLUS
external display scrolls through the first reading of each group in the Dynamic Readings
mode. If a button is pressed during the scroll, scrolling pauses for one minute.
6–12
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6.8
Navigation Map of Display Features Mode
Use Up/Down arrows to scroll between groups.
*
U
R
X
S
V
Reset Max/Min
Reset Energy
Baud
Rate/Address
Communication
Protocol
Lamp Test
Display Scroll
On/Off
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
6–13
CHAPTER 6: USING THE EXTERNAL DISPLAYS
6–14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 7: Transformer Loss
Compensation
Transformer Loss Compensation
7.1
Introduction
The Edison Electric Institute's Handbook for Electricity Metering, Ninth Edition defines Loss
Compensation as:
A means for correcting the reading of a meter when the metering point and point of
service are physically separated, resulting in measurable losses including I2R losses in
conductors and transformers and iron-core losses. These losses may be added to or
subtracted from the meter registration.
Loss compensation may be used in any instance where the physical location of the meter
does not match the electrical location where change of ownership occurs. Most often this
appears when meters are connected on the low voltage side of power transformers when
the actual ownership change occurs on the high side of the transformer. This condition is
shown pictorially in Figure 7.1.
Ownership Change
M
Figure 7-1: Low Voltage Metering Installation Requiring Loss Compensation
It is generally less expensive to install metering equipment on the low voltage side of a
transformer and in some conditions other limitations may also impose the requirement of
low-side metering even though the actual ownership change occurs on the high-voltage
side.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
7–1
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
The need for loss compensated metering may also exist when the ownership changes
several miles along a transmission line where it is simply impractical to install metering
equipment. Ownership may change at the midway point of a transmission line where
there are no substation facilities. In this case, power metering must again be
compensated. This condition is shown in Figure 7.2.
M
Point of Ownership
Change
Figure 7-2: Joint Ownership Line Meeting Requiring Loss Compensation
A single meter cannot measure the losses in a transformer or transmission line directly. It
can, however, include computational corrections to calculate the losses and add or
subtract those losses to the power flow measured at the meter location. This is the method
used for loss compensation in the EPM meter. Refer to Appendix B of the GE Communicator
User Manual for detailed explanation and instructions for using the Transformer Line Loss
Compensation feature of the EPM9450/9650 meter.
The computational corrections used for transformer and transmission line loss
compensation are similar. In both cases, no-load losses and full-load losses are evaluated
and a correction factor for each loss level is calculated. However, the calculation of the
correction factors that must be programmed into the meter differ for the two different
applications. For this reason, the two methodologies will be treated separately in this
chapter.
In the EPM meter, Loss Compensation is a technique that computationally accounts for
active and reactive power losses. The meter calculations are based on the formulas below.
These equations describe the amount of active (Watts) and reactive (VARs) power lost due
to both iron and copper effects (reflected to the secondary of the instrument transformers).
Total Secondary Watt Loss =
(((Measured Voltage/Cal point Voltage)2 x %LWFE) + ((Measured Current/Cal Point
Current)2 x %LWCU)) x Full-scale Secondary VA
Total Secondary VAR Loss =
(((Measured Voltage/Cal point Voltage)4 x %LVFE) + ((Measured Current/Cal Point
Current)2 x %LVCU)) x Full-scale Secondary VA
The Values for %LWFE, %LWCU, %LVFE, and %LVCU are derived from the transformer and
meter information, as demonstrated in the following sections.
The calculated loss compensation values are added to or subtracted from the measured
Watts and VARs. The selection of adding or subtracting losses is made through the meter's
profile when programming the meter (see the following section for instructions). The meter
uses the combination of the add/subtract setting and the directional definition of power
flow (also in the profile) to determine how to handle the losses. Losses will be "added to" or
"subtracted from" (depending on whether add or subtract is selected) the Received Power
7–2
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
flow. For example, if losses are set to "Add to" and received power equals 2000 kW and
losses are equal to 20kW then the total metered value with loss compensation would be
2020 kW; for these same settings if the meter measured 2000 kW of delivered power the
total metered value with loss compensation would be 1980 kW.
Since transformer loss compensation is the more common loss compensation method, the
meter has been designed for this application. Line loss compensation is calculated in the
meter using the same terms but the percent values are calculated by a different
methodology.
EPM Meter Transformer Loss Compensation:
• Performs calculations on each phase of the meter for every measurement taken.
Unbalanced loads are accurately handled.
• Calculates numerically, eliminating the environmental effects that cause
inaccuracies in electromechanical compensators.
• Performs Bidirectional Loss Compensation.
• Requires no additional wiring; the compensation occurs internally.
• Imposes no additional electrical burden when performing Loss Compensation.
Loss Compensation is applied to 1 second per phase Watt/VAR readings and, because of
that, affects all subsequent readings based on 1 second per phase Watt/VAR readings.
This method results in loss compensation being applied to the following quantities:
• Total Power
• Demands, per Phase and Total (Thermal, Block (Fixed) Window, Rolling (Sliding)
Window and Predictive Window)
• Maximum and Minimum Demands
• Energy Accumulations
• KYZ Output of Energy Accumulations
Loss Compensation is disabled when the meter is placed in Test Mode.
Note
NOTE
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
7–3
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
7.2
EPM9450/9650 Meter's Transformer Loss Compensation
The EPM meter provides compensation for active and reactive power quantities by
performing numerical calculations. The factors used in these calculations are derived
either:
• By clicking the TLC Calculator button on the Transformer Loss screen of the Device
Profile, to open the GE Loss Compensation Calculator in Microsoft Excel
• By figuring the values from the worksheet shown here and in Appendix B of the GE
Communicator User Manual.
Either way, you enter the derived values into the GE Communicator software through the
Device Profile Transformer and Line Loss Compensation screen.
The GE Communicator software allows you to enable Transformer Loss Compensation for
Losses due to Copper and Iron, individually or simultaneously. Losses can either be added
to or subtracted from measured readings. Refer to Appendix B in the GE Communicator
User Manual for instructions.
Loss compensation values must be calculated based on the meter installation. As a result,
transformer loss values must be normalized to the meter by converting the base voltage
and current and taking into account the number of elements used in the metering
installation. For three-element meters, the installation must be normalized to the phaseto-neutral voltage and the phase current; in two-element meters the installation must be
normalized to the phase-to-phase voltage and the phase current. This process is
described in the following sections.
7.2.1
Loss Compensation in Three Element Installations
Loss compensation is based on the loss and impedance values provided on the
transformer manufacturer's test report. A typical test report will include at least the
following information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manufacturer
Unit Serial Number
Transformer MVA Rating (Self-Cooled)
Test Voltage
No Load Loss Watts
Load Loss Watts (or Full Load Loss Watts)
% Exciting Current @ 100% voltage
% Impedance
The transformer MVA rating is generally the lowest MVA rating (the self-cooled or OA rating)
of the transformer winding. The test voltage is generally the nominal voltage of the
secondary or low voltage winding. For three-phase transformers these values will typically
be the three-phase rating and the phase-to-phase voltage. All of the test measurements
are based on these two numbers. Part of the process of calculating the loss compensation
percentages is converting the transformer loss values based on the transformer ratings to
the base used by the meter.
Correct calculation of loss compensation also requires knowledge of the meter installation.
In order to calculate the loss compensation settings you will need the following
information regarding the meter and the installation:
7–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
•
•
•
•
•
Number of meter elements
Potential Transformer Ratio (PTR)
Current Transformer Ratio (CTR)
Meter Base Voltage
Meter Base Current
This section is limited to application of EPM meters to three-element metering installations.
As a result, we know that:
• Number of metering elements = 3
• Meter Base Voltage = 120 Volts
• Meter Base Current = 5 Amps
7.2.1.1 Three-Element Loss Compensation Worksheet
Company
Station Name
Date
Trf. Bank No.
Trf Manf
Trf Serial No.
Calculation by
Transformer Data (from Transformer Manufacturer's Test Sheet)
Winding
Voltage
MVA
Connection
HV - High
∆-Y
XV - Low
∆-Y
YV - Tertiary
∆-Y
Value
Watts Loss
3-Phase
1-Phase
1-Phase kW
No-Load Loss
Load Loss
Enter 3-Phase or 1-Phase values. If 3-Phase values are entered, calculate 1-Phase values
by dividing 3-Phase values by three. Convert 1-Phase Loss Watts to 1-Phase kW by
dividing 1-Phase Loss Watts by 1000.
Value
3-Phase MVA
1-Phase MVA
1-Phase kVA
Self-Cooled Rating
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
7–5
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
Enter 3-Phase or 1-Phase values. If 3-Phase values are entered, calculate 1-Phase values
by dividing 3-Phase values by three. Convert 1-Phase Self-Cooled MVA to 1-Phase kVA by
multiplying by 1000.
% Exciting Current
% Impedance
Value
Phase-to-Phase
Phase-to-Neutral
Test Voltage (Volts)
Full Load Current (Amps)
Test Voltage is generally Phase-to-Phase for three-phase transformers. Calculate Phaseto-Neutral Voltage by dividing Phase-to-Phase Voltage by the square root of 3. Calculate
Full Load Current by dividing the (1-Phase kW Self-Cooled Rating) by the (Phase-to-Neutral
Voltage) and multiplying by 1000.
Meter/Installation Data
Instrument Transformers
Numerator
Denominator
Multiplier
Potential Transformers
Current Transformers
Power Multiplier [(PT Multiplier) x (CT Multiplier)]
Enter the Numerator and Denominator for each instrument transformer. For example, a PT
with a ratio of 7200/120 has a numerator or 7200, a denominator or 120 and a multiplier
of 60 (7200/120 = 60/1).
Meter Secondary Voltage (Volts)
120
Meter Secondary Current (Amps)
5
Base Conversion Factors
Quantity
Transformer
Multiplier
Trf IT Sec
Meter Base
Voltage
120
Current
5
Meter/Trf
For Transformer Voltage, enter the Phase-to-Neutral value of Test Voltage previously
calculated. For Transformer Current, enter the Full-Load Current previously calculated. For
Multipliers, enter the PT and CT multipliers previously calculated.
7–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
TrfIT Secondary is the Base Value of Voltage and Current at the Instrument Transformer
Secondary of the Power Transformer. These numbers are obtained by dividing the
Transformer Voltage and Current by their respective Multipliers. The Meter/Trf values for
Voltage and Current are obtained by dividing the Meter Base values by the TrfIT Secondary
values.
Load Loss at Transformer
No-Load Loss Watts (kW) = 1-Phase kW No-Load Loss = ______________
No-Load Loss VA (kVA)
= (%Exciting Current) * (1-Phase kVA Self-Cooled Rating) / 100
= (______________) * (________________) / 100
= _______________ kVA
No-Load Loss VAR (kVAR)
= SQRT((No-Load Loss kVA)2 - (No-Load Loss kW)2) =
SQRT((_________________)2 - (________________)2)
= SQRT((__________________) - (_________________))
= SQRT (_________________)
= ____________________
Full-Load Loss Watts (kW) = 1-Phase Kw Load Loss = ______________
Full-Load Loss VA (kVA)
= (%Impedance) * (1-Phase kVA Self-Cooled Rating) / 100
= (______________) * (________________) / 100
= _______________ kVA
Full-Load Loss VAR (kVAR)
= SQRT((Full-Load Loss kVA)2 - (Full-Load Loss kW)2)
= SQRT((_________________)2 - (________________)2)
= SQRT((__________________) - (_________________))
= SQRT (_________________)
= _________________
Normalize Losses to Meter Base
Quantity
Value at
Trf Base
M/T Factor
M/T Factor
Value
Exp
No-Load Loss
kW
V
٨2
No-Load Loss
kVAR
V
٨4
Load Loss kW
1
٨2
Load Loss
kVAR
1
٨2
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
M/T Factor w/Exp
Value at
Meter Base
7–7
CHAPTER 7: TRANSFORMER LOSS COMPENSATION
Enter Value at Transformer Base for each quantity from calculations above. Enter Meter/
Trf Factor value from Base Conversion Factor calculations above. Calculate M/T Factor
with Exponent by raising the M/T Factor to the power indicated in the "Exp" (or Exponent)
column.
Calculate the "Value at Meter Base" by multiplying the (M/T Factor w/ Exp) times the (Value
at Trf Base).
Loss Watts Percentage Values
Meter Base kVA
= 600 * (PT Multiplier) * (CT Multiplier) / 1000
= 600 * (____________) * (___________) / 1000
= ________________
Calculate Load Loss Values
Quantity
Value at Meter
Base
Meter Base
kVA
% Loss at
Meter Base
Quantity
No-Load Loss
kW
% Loss Watts FE
No-Load Loss
kVAR
% Loss VARs FE
Load Loss kW
% Loss Watts CU
Load Loss kVAR
% Loss VARs CU
Enter "Value at Meter Base" from Normalize Losses section. Enter "Meter Base kVA" from
previous calculation. Calculate "% Loss at Meter Base" by dividing (Value at Meter Base) by
(Meter Base kVA) and multiplying by 100.
Enter calculated % Loss Watts values into the EPM meter using GE Communicator
software. Refer to Appendix B of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions.
7–8
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 8: Time-of-Use Function
Time-of-Use Function
8.1
Introduction
A Time-of-Use (TOU) usage structure takes into account the quantity of energy used and
the time at which it was consumed. The EPM9450/9650 meter's TOU function, available
with the GE Communicator software, is designed to accommodate a variety of
programmable rate structures. The EPM meter's TOU function accumulates data based on
the time-scheme programmed into the meter.
See Chapter 10 of the GE Communicator User Manual for details on programming the
EPM9450/9650 meter's 20-year TOU calendar and retrieving TOU data.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
8–1
CHAPTER 8: TIME-OF-USE FUNCTION
8.2
The EPM Meter's TOU Calendar
A EPM TOU calendar sets the parameters for TOU data accumulation. You may store up to
twenty calendars in the EPM9450/9650 meter and an unlimited amount of calendar files
on your computer.
The EPM TOU calendar profile allows you to assign a programmable usage schedule - e.g.,
"Weekday," "Weekend," or "Holiday"- to each day of the calendar year. You may create up
to 16 different TOU schedules.
Each TOU schedule divides the 24-hour day into fifteen-minute intervals from 00:00:00 to
23:59:59. You may apply one of eight different programmable registers - e.g., "Peak," "Off
Peak," or "Shoulder Peak," to each fifteen-minute interval.
The EPM9450/9650 meter stores:
• Accumulations on a seasonal basis (up to four seasons per year)
• Accumulations on a monthly basis.
Seasonal and monthly accumulations may span from one year into the next. Each season
and month is defined by a programmable start/billing date, which is also the end-date of
the prior season or month.
A season ends at midnight of the day before the start of the next season.
A month ends at midnight of the month's billing day.
If the year ends and there is no new calendar, TOU accumulations stop. The last
accumulation for the year ends on 12:31:23:59:59.
If a calendar is present for the following year, TOU accumulations continue until the next
monthly bill date or next start-of-season is reached. Accumulation can span into the
following year.
8–2
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 8: TIME-OF-USE FUNCTION
8.3
TOU Prior Season and Month
The EPM9450/9650 meter stores accumulations for the prior season and the prior month.
When the end of a billing period is reached, the current season or month becomes stored
as the prior. The registers are then cleared and accumulations resume, using the next set
of TOU schedules and register assignments from the stored calendar.
Prior and current accumulations to date are always available.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
8–3
CHAPTER 8: TIME-OF-USE FUNCTION
8.4
Updating, Retrieving and Replacing TOU Calendars
GE Communicator software retrieves TOU calendars from the EPM meter or from the
computer's hard drive for review and edit.
Up to a maximum of twenty yearly calendars can be stored in the EPM meter at any given
time. You may retrieve them one at a time; a new calendar can be stored while a current
calendar is in use.
Accumulations do not stop during calendar updates. If a calendar is replaced while in use,
the accumulations for the current period will continue until the set end date. At that point,
the current time will become the new start time and the settings of the new calendar will
be used.
Reset the current accumulations, if you replace a calendar in use. A reset clears only the
current accumulation registers. This causes the current accumulations to use the present
date as the start and accumulate to the next new end date, which will be taken from the
new calendar. Once stored, prior accumulations are always available and cannot be reset.
See Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions on resetting TOU
accumulations.
At the end of a defined period, current accumulations are stored, the registers are cleared
and accumulations for the next period begin. When the year boundary is crossed, the
second calendar, if present, is used. To retain continuity, you have up to one year to replace
the old calendar with one for the following year.
8–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 8: TIME-OF-USE FUNCTION
8.5
Daylight Savings and Demand
To enable Daylight Savings Time for the meter: from the Device Profile menu click General
Settings > Time Settings. In the Time Settings screen, click Auto DST, which sets Daylight
Savings Time automatically (for the United States only). You can also select User Defined
and enter the desired dates for Daylight Savings Time. See Chapter 3 of the GE
Communicator User Manual for instructions.
To set Demand intervals: from the Device Profile menu click Revenue and Energy Settings
> Demand Integration Intervals and set the desired intervals. See Chapter 3 of the GE
Communicator User Manual for instructions.
To set Cumulative Demand Type, from the Device Profile menu click Revenue and Energy
Settings > Cumulative Demand Type and select Block or Rolling Window Average. See
Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for instructions.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
8–5
CHAPTER 8: TIME-OF-USE FUNCTION
8–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 9: External I/O Modules
External I/O Modules
9.1
Hardware Overview
All EPM External I/O modules have the following components:
• Female RS485 Side Port: use to connect to another module’s male RS485 side port.
• Male RS485 Side Port: use to connect to the EPM9450/9650 Meter’s Port 3 or 4 or
to another module’s female RS485 side port.
• I/O Port: used for functions specific to the type of module; size and pin
configuration vary depending on type of module.
• Reset Button: Press and hold for three seconds to reset the module’s baud rate to
57600 and its address to 247 for 30 seconds.
• LEDs: when flashing, signal that the module is functioning.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–1
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
• Mounting Brackets (MBIO): used to secure one or more modules to a flat surface.
Figure 9-1: I/O Module Components
9.1.1
Port Overview
All GE Digital Energy I/O Modules have ports through which they interface with other
devices. The port configurations are variations of the four types shown below.
Four Analog Outputs
(0-1mA and 4-20mA)
0-1mA
Analog Output
Module
Eight Analog Outputs
(0-1mA and 4-20mA)
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
COM
COM
OUT 1
OUT 1
OUT 2
OUT 2
OUT 3
OUT 3
OUT 4
OUT 4
OUT 5
OUT 6
OUT 7
OUT 8
RESET
9–2
RESET
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
Eight Analog Inputs
(0-1mA, 0-20mA, 0-5Vdc,
0-10Vdc) or Eight Status Inputs
Four Relay Outputs
or Four KYZ Pulse Outputs
NO
0-1mA
Analog Input
Module
C
1
NO
COM
INPUT 1
INPUT 2
INPUT 3
INPUT 4
INPUT 5
INPUT 6
NO
K
Y
Z
C
2
NO
O
U
T
P
U
T
S
NO
C
3
NO
NO
INPUT 7
C
INPUT 8
RESET
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
4
NO
RESET
9–3
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.2
I/O Module Installation
See sections 3.3 and 5.6 for installation instructions for the external I/O Modules.
9–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.2.1
Power Source for I/O Modules
The EPM9450/9650 can supply power to a limited number of I/O Modules and external
displays. For more modules, you must use an external power source, such as the GE PSIO
(12V). Refer to Section 5.6.2 to determine power needed.
Figure 9-2: PSIO Power Supply Side View, Showing Male RS485 Port
Figure 9-3: Power Flow from PSIO to I/O Module
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–5
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
Figure 9-4: PSIO Side and Top Labels (Labels are Red and White)
9–6
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.3
Using the PSIO with Multiple I/O Modules
Female
RS485
side Port
Mounting
bracket
Figure 9-5: PSIO Used with Multiple I/O Modules
As shown, the PSIO must be to the right of I/O Modules when viewing the side label.
Note
NOTE
9.3.1
Steps for Attaching Multiple I/O Modules
1.
Each I/O module in a group must be assigned a unique address. See the GE
Communicator User Manual for details on configuring and programming the I/
O Modules.
2.
Determine how many power sources (such as the PSIO) are needed for the
number of modules in use. See Section 5.6.2 for details.
3.
Starting with the left module and using a slotted screwdriver, fasten the first
I/O Module to the left Mounting Bracket. The left Mounting Bracket is the one
with the PEM. Fasten the internal screw tightly into the left Mounting Bracket.
4.
Next, slide the female RS485 port into the male RS485 side port to connect the
next I/O module to the left module. Fasten together enough to grab, but do
not tighten yet.
5.
One by one combine the modules together.
6.
If you require an additional power supply, attach a PSIO (power supply) to the
right of the group of I/O Modules it is supplying with power.
The PB1 can also be used for a Low Voltage Power Supply. It must be mounted separately.
Note
NOTE
7.
Once you have combined all the I/O modules together for the group, fasten
tightly. This final tightening will lock the whole group together as a unit.
8.
Attach the right Mounting Bracket to the right side of the group using small
phillips head screws provided.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–7
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.
9–8
Mount the group of modules on a secure, flat surface. This procedure will
insure that all modules stay securely connected.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.4
Factory Settings and Reset Button
Factory Settings:
All EPM I/O Modules are shipped with a preset address and a baud rate of 57600. See
following sections for I/O Module addresses.
Reset Button:
If there is a communication problem or if you are unsure of a module’s address and baud
rate, press and hold the RESET button for 3 seconds; the module will reset to a default
address of 247 at 57600 baud rate for 30-seconds. This enables you to interrogate the I/O
using the GE Communicator software; see the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules User
Manual.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–9
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.5
Analog Transducer Signal Output Modules
Table 0
Analog Transducer Signal Output Module Specifications
Model Numbers
1mAON4: 4-channel analog output 0 ±1mA
1mAON8: 8-channel analog output 0 ±1mA
20mAON4: 4-channel analog output 4 to 20mA
20mAON8: 8-channel analog output 4 to 20mA
Accuracy
0.1% of Full Scale
Scaling
Programmable
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Power Requirement
15-20VDC @50-200mA; EPM9450/EPM9650 support up to two modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Maximum Load Impedance
0 ±1mA: 10k Ohms; 4-20mA: 500 Ohms
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 1mAON4: 128; 1mAON8: 128; 20mAON4: 132; 20mAON8:
132
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.5.1
Overview
The Analog Transducer Signal Output Modules (0 ±1mA or 4 to 20mA) are available in either
a 4- or 8-channel configuration. Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 17
registers.
The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies power for up to two connected Analog Output
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2 to
determine if you must use an additional power source, such as GE’s PSIO.
All outputs share a single common point. This is also an isolated connection (from ground).
The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in the
Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
9–10
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.5.2
Normal Mode
Normal Mode is the same for the 0-1mA and the 4-20mA Analog Output Modules except
for the number of processes performed by the modules.
Both devices:
1.
Accept new values through communication.
2.
Output current loops scaled from previously accepted values.
The 0-1mA module includes one more process in its Normal Mode:
3.
Read and average the A/D and adjust values for Process 2 above.
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
Baud Rate:
Transmit Delay Time:
247 (F7H)
57600 Baud
20 msec
Normal Operation is prevented by a number of occurrences. See Section 9.4 for details.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–11
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.6
Analog Input Modules
Table 0
Analog Input Module Specifications
Model Numbers
8AI1: 8-channel analog input 0 ±1mA
8AI2: 8-channel analog input 0 ±20mA
8AI3: 8-channel analog input 0 ±5VDC
8AI4: 8-channel analog input 0 ±10VDC
Accuracy
0.1% of Full Scale
Scaling
Programmable
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Power Requirement
15-20VDC @50-200mA; EPM9450/EPM9650 support up to four
modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Maximum Load
Impedance
0 ±1mA: 10k Ohms; 4-20mA: 500 Ohms
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 8AI1: 136; 8AI2: 140; 8AI3: 144; 8AI4: 148
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset
Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.6.1
Overview
The Analog Input Modules (0 ±1mA, 0 ±20mA, 0 ±5Vdc and 0 ±10Vdc) are available in 8channel format. Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 17 registers.
The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Analog Input modules. See
Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2 to determine if you
must use an additional power source, such as GE’s PSIO.
All inputs share a single common point. This is also an isolated connection (from ground).
The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in the
Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
9.6.2
Normal Mode
In Normal Mode, the Input Module:
1.
9–12
Reads and averages the A/D and adjusts values for process 2.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
2.
Calculates the percentage of Input Value.
The percentage value of the Input is stored in Input Value Registers (Registers 0409704104).
Note
NOTE
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
Baud Rate:
Transmit Delay Time:
247 (F7H)
57600 Baud
20 msec
Normal Operation is prevented by a number of occurrences. See Section 9.4 for details.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–13
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.7
Digital Dry Contact Relay Output (Form C) Module
Digital Dry Contact Relay Output Module Specifications
Model Number
4RO1: 4 matching relay outputs
Accuracy
0.1% of Full Scale
Scaling
Programmable
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Power Requirement
15-20VDC @50-200mA; EPM9450/EPM9650 support up to four
modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Maximum Load Impedance
0-1mA: 10k Ohms; 4-20mA: 500 Ohms
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 156
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.7.1
Overview
The Relay Output Module consists of four Latching Relay Outputs. In Normal Mode, the
device accepts commands to control the relays. Relay output modules are
triggered by limits programmed with the GE Communicator software. See the
GE Communicator User Manual for details on programming limits.
The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Relay Output modules.
See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2 to determine if
you must use an additional power source, such as GE’s PSIO.
The Modbus Map for the Analog Output Module (and operating details) can be found in the
Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
Each latching relay will hold its state in the event of a power loss.
9.7.2
Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following default parameters:
Address:
Baud Rate:
9–14
247 (F7H)
57600 Baud
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
Transmit Delay Time:
20 msec
Some situations will cause the device to operate with the above Default Parameters. See
Section 9.4 for details of Default Mode.
9.7.3
Normal Mode
Normal Mode consists of one process: the device accepts new commands to control the
relays.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
9–15
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.8
Digital Solid State Pulse Output (KYZ) Module
Digital Solid State Pulse Output Module Specifications
Model Number
4PO1
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Power Requirement
15-20VDC @50-200mA; EPM9450/EPM9650 support up to four modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Voltage Rating
Up to 300VDC
Commands Accepted
Read and Write with at least 4 registers of data per command
Memory
256 Byte IC EEPROM for storage of programmable settings and non-volatile
memory
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 160
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset
Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.8.1
Overview
The KYZ Pulse Output Modules have 4 KYZ Pulse Outputs and accept Read and Write
Commands with at least 4 registers of data per command. Digital Solid State Pulse Output
(KYZ) Modules are user programmed to reflect VAR-hours, Watt-hours, or
VA-hours. See the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules User Manual for details on
programming the module.
The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected KYZ Pulse Output
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to Section 5.6.2 to
determine if you must use an additional power source, such as GE’s PSIO.
The Modbus Map for the KYZ Pulse Output Module (and operating details) can be found in
the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
NC = Normally Closed; NO = Normally Open; C = Common.
9.8.2
Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following Default Mode Parameters. See Section 9.4 for
details.
9–16
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
Address:
Baud Rate:
Transmit Delay Time:
9.8.3
247 (F7H)
57600 Baud
20 msec
Normal Mode
Energy readings are given to the device frequently. The device generates a pulse at each
channel after a certain energy increase.
Normal Operation consists of three processes:
1.
The first process accepts writes to registers 04097 - 04112. Writes can be up
to four registers long and should end on the fourth register of a group (register
04100, or registers 04103-04112 or registers 04109-04112). These writes can
be interpreted as two-byte, four-byte, six-byte or eight-byte energy readings.
The reception of the first value for a given channel provides the initial value for
that channel. Subsequent writes will increment the Residual for that channel
by the difference of the old value and the new value. The previous value is
then replaced with the new value. Attempting to write a value greater than the
programmed Rollover Value for a given channel is completely ignored and no
registers are modified. If the difference is greater than half of the
programmed Rollover Value for a given channel, the write does not increment
the Residual but does update the Last Value. Overflow of the Residual is not
prevented.
2.
The second process occurs in the main loop and attempts to decrement the
Residual by the Programmed Energy/Pulse Value. If the Residual is greater
than the Programmed Energy/Pulse Value and the Pending Pulses Value for
that channel has not reached the maximum limit, then Residual is
decremented appropriately and the Pending Pulses is incremented by two,
signifying two more transitions and one more pulse.
3.
The third process runs from a timer which counts off pulse widths from the
Programmable Minimum Pulse Width Values. If there are Pulses Pending for a
channel and the delay has passed, then the Pulses Pending is decremented
for that channel and the Output Relay is toggled.
Operation Indicator (0000H = OK, 1000H = Problem):
Bit 1:1 = EEPROM Failure
Bit 2:1 = Checksum for Communications Settings bad
Bit 3:1 = Checksum for Programmable Settings bad
Bit 4:1 = 1 or mor Communications Settings are invalid
Bit 5:1 = 1 or more Programmable Settings are invalid
Bit 6:1 = 1 or more Programmable Settings have been modified
Bit 7:1 = Forced Default by Reset Value
Bit 15:1 = Normal Operation of the device is disabled
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CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.9
Digital Status Input Module
Digital Status Input Module Specifications
Model Number
8DI1
Communication
RS485, Modbus RTU
Programmable Baud Rates: 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Power Requirement
15-20VDC @50-200mA; EPM9450/EPM9650 support up to four
modules
Operating Temperature
(-20 to +70)o C/(-4 to +158)o F
Voltage Rating
Up to 300VDC
Detection
Wet/Dry, Auto-detect
Memory
256 Byte I2C EEPROM for storage of programmable settings and
non-volatile memory
Factory Settings
Modbus Address: 164
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 0
Default Settings (Reset Button)
Modbus Address: 247
Baud Rate: 57600
Transmit Delay Time: 20msec
9.9.1
Overview
The Digital Status Input Module is used either for additional status detect or for
accumulating pulses from external equipment, such as power meters, water meters, etc.
The EPM9450/9650 meter supplies power for up to 4 connected Digital Status Input
modules. See Section 9.2 for power and communication details. Refer to
Section 5.6.2 to determine if you must use an additional power source, such as GE’s PSIO.
9.9.2
Communication
Maximum registers per request, read or write, is 4 registers.
The device will operate with the following Default Mode Parameters. See Section 9.4 for
details.
Address:
247 (F7H)
Baud Rate:
57600 Baud
Transmit Delay Time:
9–18
20 msec
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CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9.9.3
Normal Mode
The device polls the inputs at 100Hz (once every 10 msec), debouncing the inputs and
incrementing the Transition Accumulators for each channel as appropriate.
The inputs are represented by Channel 1 in the LSB through Channel 8 in the MSB of the
low order byte of the register.
The Modbus Map for the Digital Status Input Modules (and operating details) can be found
in the Modbus Communicating I/O Modules Manual.
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CHAPTER 9: EXTERNAL I/O MODULES
9–20
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 10: Meter with Internal
Modem Option
Meter with Internal Modem Option (INP2)
10.1 Hardware Overview
The EPM9450/9650 meter with the INP2, Internal Modem Option, has all the components
of the standard EPM meter plus the capability of connecting to a PC via a standard phone
line. No additional hardware is required to establish this connection.
If desired, the internal expansion port of the EPM9450/9650 meter can be configured with
an internal 56K bps modem. This gives the meter Dial-In and Dial-Out capability without
additional hardware. This configuration of the meter is ideal for small remote applications.
Figure 10-1: Meter Communication with Internal Modem Option
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
10–1
CHAPTER 10: METER WITH INTERNAL MODEM OPTION (INP2)
10.2 Hardware Connection
Use RJ11 Standard Telephone Line to connect with the EPM9450/9650 meter. Insert the
RJ11 line into the RJ11 Port on the face of a EPM meter with the Internal Modem Option.
The RJ11 connection is virtually unlimited, since it utilizes a PSTN (Public Switched
Telephone Network).
10–2
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CHAPTER 10: METER WITH INTERNAL MODEM OPTION (INP2)
10.3 Dial-In Function
The modem continuously monitors the telephone line to detect an incoming call. When an
incoming call is detected, the modem waits a pre-programmed number of rings and then
answers the call. The modem can be programmed to check passwords and lock-out a user
after unsuccessful attempts to connect.
When an incoming call is successfully connected, the control of communication passes to
the calling software program. The modem respond to computer demands to download
data or perform other actions authorized by the meter's passwords.
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CHAPTER 10: METER WITH INTERNAL MODEM OPTION (INP2)
10.4 Dial-Out Function
The Dial-Out Function enabled by the INP2 Option allows the meter to automatically report
certain conditions without direct user oversight. The modem normally polls the meter to
determine if any abnormal or reportable conditions exist, such as those in the following
list. If such conditions are found, the modem checks meter conditions and events, which
have been programmed through GE Communicator, to determine if a call should be
placed.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Are any meter set-point limits exceeded?
Has the status of the High-Speed Inputs changed?
Has a waveform been recorded?
Has a power quality event been recorded?
Has a control output changed?
Is either history log approaching a full condition?
Is the event log approaching a full condition?
Is any other log approaching a full condition?
Has the Modem Password failed?
Has communication with the EPM meter failed?
If any of the monitored events exist, the modem automatically initiates a call to a specified
location to make a report or perform some other function. For log full conditions, the meter
automatically downloads the log(s) that are nearing the full state. The modem can be
programmed to call two different numbers to make the required reports: Primary and
Backup.
The modem can be programmed with an ASCII string for identification purposes. If this
string is present, the modem plays the string to the host computer upon connection to
identify the meter to the host software. Refer to the GE Communicator User Manual for
programming details.
10–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 11: Meter with Internal
Network Option
Meter with Internal Network Option (INP200)
11.1 Hardware Overview
The EPM9450/9650 meter with the Internal Network Option (INP200) has all the
components of the standard EPM meter, plus giving you the capability of connecting to
multiple PC’s via Modbus/TCP over the Ethernet and providing a DNP LAN/WAN
connection. Additional hardware is not required to establish a connection from a network
to a EPM meter with the Internal Network Option.
With the Internal Network Option, the EPM9450/9650 provides an Ethernet Gateway,
allowing access to other Modbus/RTU devices. Additional connections can include a daisy
chain of standard EPM meters. A daisy chain can include up to 31 meters. You can install
repeaters if you need to connect more than 31 meters. (See Section 5.7 for repeater
details).
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CHAPTER 11: METER WITH INTERNAL NETWORK OPTION (INP200)
Figure 11-1: Meter Communication with Network Option/Daisy Chained Meters
The Internal Network Option of the EPM meter is an extremely versatile communications
tool. The Internal Network Option:
•
•
•
•
•
Adheres to IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard using TCP/IP
Utilizes simple and inexpensive 10/100BaseT wiring and connections
Plugs into your network using built-in RJ45 jack
Is programmable to any IP address, subnet mask and gateway requirements
Communicates using the industry-standard Modbus/TCP and DNP LAN/WAN
protocols.
With the Internal Network Option, the EPM9450/9650 meter’s Port 2 becomes a “gateway”
that allows access to additional EPM meters via the LAN. Simply connect a daisy chain of
EPM meters together via RS485, each with its own device address and using the same
baud rates. With this option, you can access any of those instruments via the single LAN
connection.
The Internal Network Option allows multiple simultaneous connections (via LAN) to the
EPM meter. You can access the meter with SCADA, MV90 and RTU simultaneously.
The Internal Network Option allows multiple users running GE Communicator software to
access the meter concurrently.
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CHAPTER 11: METER WITH INTERNAL NETWORK OPTION (INP200)
11.2 Network Connection
Use Standard RJ45 10/100BaseT cable to connect with the EPM meter. Insert the RJ45 line
into the RJ45 Port on the face of a EPM9450/9650 meter with the Internal Network Option.
Set the IP Address using the following steps: (Refer to Section 3.3.5 of the GE Communicator
User Manual for more detailed instructions.)
1.
From the Device Profile screen, double-click General Settings >
Communications, then double-click on any of the ports. The Communications
Settings screen opens.
2.
In the Network Settings section enter the following data. (Consult your System
Administrator if you do not know this information.)
3.
•
IP Address:
•
Subnet Mask:
•
Default Gateway:
10.0.0.1 (Example)
255.255.255.0 (Example)
0.0.0.0 (Example)
Click OK to return to the Device Profile screen.
Once the above parameters have been set, GE Communicator connects via the network
using a Device Address of "1" and the assigned IP Address when you follow these steps:
1.
Open GE Communicator.
2.
Click the Connect icon in the icon tool bar. The Connect screen opens.
3.
Click the Network button at the top of the screen. Enter the following
information:
4.
•
Device Address:
•
Host:
•
Network Port:
•
Protocol:
1
IP Address
502
Modbus TCP
Click the Connect button at the bottom of the screen. GE Communicator
connects to the meter via the network.
To connect with other EPM meters in either local or remote locations, you must use the
Ethernet Gateway as a Master and an RS485 connection to any port on the remote EPM
meter.
The Address of the remote EPM meter must be something other than “1.” “1” is reserved for
the meter connected to the network via RJ45.
The link using RS485 is viable for up to 4000 feet (1219 meters).
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 11: METER WITH INTERNAL NETWORK OPTION (INP200)
11–4
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
Digital Energy
Multilin
EPM 9450/9650 Advanced Power
Quality Metering
System
Chapter 12: Flicker and Analysis
Flicker and Analysis
12.1 Overview
Flicker is the sensation that is experienced by the human visual system when it is
subjected to changes occurring in the illumination intensity of light sources. The primary
effects of Flicker are headaches, irritability and, sometimes, epileptic seizures.
IEC 61000-4-15 and former IEC 868 describe the methods used to determine Flicker
severity. This phenomenon is strictly related to the sensitivity and the reaction of
individuals. It can only be studied on a statistical basis by setting up suitable experiments
among people.
The EPM9450/9650 meter with Software Option A (base configuration) offers Flicker
monitoring and analysis. The EPM9650 meter with Software Option B has EN50160/
IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance analysis for Flicker and other power quality
measurements. (Refer to the V-Switch™ key information in Chapter 2.) Refer to Chapters 16
(EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance Analysis) and 17 (EN50160/IEC610004-15 Flicker) of the GE Communicator User Manual for additional information.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.2 Theory of Operation
Flicker can be caused by voltage variations that are in turn caused by variable loads, such
as arc furnaces, laser printers and microwave ovens. In order to model the eye brain
change, which is a complex physiological process, the signal from the power network has
to be processed while conforming with Figure 12.1, shown on page 12-4.
• Block 1 consists of scaling circuitry and an automatic gain control function that
normalizes input voltages to Blocks 2, 3 and 4. For the specified 50 Hz operation,
the voltage standard is 230 V RMS.
• Block 2 recovers the voltage fluctuation by squaring the input voltage scaled to the
reference level. This simulates the behavior of a lamp.
• Block 3 is composed of a cascade of two filters and a measuring range selector. In
this implementation, a log classifier covers the full scale in use so the gain
selection is automatic and not shown here. The first filter eliminates the DC
component and the double mains frequency components of the demodulated
output. The configuration consists of a .05 Hz Low High Pass filter and a 6 Pole
Butterworth Low Pass filter located at 35 Hz. The second filter is a weighting filter
that simulates the response of the human visual system to sinusoidal voltage
fluctuations of a coiled filament, gas-filled lamp (60 W - 230 V). The filter
implementation of this function is as specified in IEC 61000-4-15.
• Block 4 is composed of a squaring multiplier and a Low Pass filter. The Human
Flicker Sensation via lamp, eye and brain is simulated by the combined non-linear
response of Blocks 2, 3 and 4.
• Block 5 performs an online statistical cumulative probability analysis of the Flicker
level. Block 5 allows direct calculation of the evaluation parameters Pst and Plt.
Flicker Evaluation occurs in the following forms: Instantaneous, Short Term or Long Term.
Each form is detailed below:
• Instantaneous Flicker Evaluation: An output of 1.00 from Block 4 corresponds to
the Reference Human Flicker Perceptibility Threshold for 50% of the population.
This value is measured in Perceptibility Units (PU) and is labeled Pinst. This is a real
time value and it is continuously updated.
• Short Term Flicker Evaluation: An output of 1.00 from Block 5 (corresponding to the
Pst value) corresponds to the conventional threshold of irritability per IEC 1000-3-3.
In order to evaluate Flicker severity, two parameters have been defined: one for
the short term called Pst (defined in this section) and one for the long term called
Plt (defined in the next section).
The standard measurement time for Pst is 10 minutes. Pst is derived from the time at level
statistics obtained from the level classifier in Block 5 of the Flicker meter. The following
formula is used:
Pst = 0.0314 P0.1 + 0.0525 P1s + 0.0657 P3s + 0.28 P10 s + 0.08 P50 s
where the percentiles P(0.1), P(1), P(3), P(10), P(50) are the Flicker levels exceeded for 0.1, 1, 2,
20 and 50% of the time during the observation period. The suffix S in the formula indicates
that the smoothed value should be used. The smoothed values are obtained using the
following formulas:
P(1s) = (P(.7) + P(1) + P(1.5))/3
P(3s) = (P(2.2) + P(3) + P(4))/3
P(10s) = (P(6) + P(8) + P(10) + P(13) + P(17))/5
12–2
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
P(50s) = (P(30) + P(50) + P(80))/3
The 3-second memory time constant in the Flicker meter ensures that P(0.1) cannot
change abruptly and no smoothing is needed for this percentile.
• Long Term Flicker Evaluation: The 10-minute period on which the short-term
Flicker severity is based is suitable for short duty cycle disturbances. For Flicker
sources with long and variable duty cycles (e.g. arc furnaces) it is necessary to
provide criteria for long-term assessment. For this purpose, the long-term Plt is
derived from the short-term values over an appropriate period. By definition, this is
12 short-term values of 10 minutes each over a period of 2 hours. The following
formula is used:
N
Plt =
3
P
3
sti
i =1
N
where Psti (i = 1, 2, 3, ...) are consecutive readings of the short-term severity Pst.
12.2.1 Summary
Flicker is changes in the illumination of light sources due to cyclical voltage
variations.
Pinst is Instantaneous Flicker values in Perceptibility Units (PU).
Pst is value based on 10-minute analysis.
Plt is value based on 12 Pst values.
Measurement Procedure
1.
Original Signal with amplitude variations
2.
Square demodulator
3.
Weighted filter
4.
Low pass filter 1st order
5.
Statistical computing
Data available
• Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min values for short term recording
• Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min values for long term recording
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
Simulation Of Eye Brain Response
Block 1
Block 2
Voltage
Detector
and Gain
Control
Square
Law
Demodulator
Input
Voltage
Adaptor
Block 3
High Pass
Filter
(DC
Removal)
Low
Pass Filter
(Carrier
Removal
Weighting
Filter
Block 4
Squaring
Multiplier
1st
Order
Sliding
Mean
Filter
Block 5
A/D
Converter
Sampling
Rate
>50Hz
Minimum
64 level
Classifier
Output
Interface
Programming of short and
long observation periods
Output Recording
Instantaneous Flicker in
Perceptibility Units
(Pinst)
Output and Data Display
Pst Max/Min Pst
Plt Max/Min Plt
Figure 12-1: Simulation of Eye Brain Response
12–4
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.3 Flicker Setting (EPM9450 meter and 9650 V-1)
You must set up several parameters to properly configure Flicker.
If your EPM9650 meter has V-Switch key 2, see Section 12.9 for instructions on configuring
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance analysis, including Flicker.
Note
NOTE
1.
Select the Profile icon from GE Communicator's Icon bar.
2.
From the Device Profile screen, double-click Power Quality and Alarm
Settings > EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Flicker. You will see the screen shown
below.
•
Select the Frequency of operation. 50 Hz is the approved frequency
according to Flicker standards. A 60 Hz implementation is available and
can be selected.
Remember the voltage is normalized. For 50 Hz, the normalized voltage is 230 V and for 60
Hz, the normalized voltage is 120 V.
3.
•
Select a Short Term Test Time (PST) time range from 1 to 10 minutes. The
standard measurement period is nominally 10 minutes.
•
Select a Long Term Test Time (PLT) time range from 1 to 240 minutes. The
standard measurement is nominally 12 Pst periods (120 minutes). Plt
time must always be equal to or great than and a multiple of Pst time.
This is reflected in the available selections.
Click OK when you are finished.
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.4 Flicker Polling Screen
From the GE Communicator Title bar, select Real-Time Poll > Power Quality and
Alarms > Flicker. You will see the screen shown below.
Main screen
This section describes the Main Screen functions. These functions are found on the left side
of the screen.
Time
• Start/Reset is the time when Flicker was started or reset. A Reset of Flicker causes
the Max/Min values to be cleared and restarts the Flicker Pst and Plt timers. A Start
of Flicker is also equivalent to a Reset in that the PST and PLT are restarted and the
Max/Min Values are cleared.
• Stop corresponds to the time when Flicker is turned off.
• Current is the current clock time.
• Next Pst is the countdown time to when the next Pst value is available.
• Next Plt is the countdown time to when the next Plt value is available.
Status
• This screen indicates the current status: Active = On; Stopped = Off.
Frequency
• Base is the operating frequency (50 or 60 Hz) selected in the EN50160 Flicker
screen (see Section 12.3).
• Current is the real-time frequency measurement of the applied voltage.
Base Voltage
• This field shows the normalized voltage for the selected frequency (230 V for 50 Hz
or 120 V for 60 Hz).
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Flicker Monitoring
• Clicking on Stop causes Flicker to stop being processed and freezes all the current
values. Stop Time is recorded and the current Max/Min values are cleared.
• Clicking on Start starts Flicker processing. Start Time is recorded.
• Clicking on Reset causes the Max/Min values to be cleared and restarts the Flicker
Pst and Plt timers.
Use the tabs at the top of the screen to navigate to the Instantaneous, Short Term, and
Long Term Readings views, shown on the right side of the screen.
Instantaneous Readings
Note
NOTE
The Instantaneous view is the default of this screen. (See the screen pictured on the
previous page.) If you are in the Short or Long Term views, click on the Instantaneous tab to
display this view.
• The PU values, Pinst for Voltage Inputs Va, Vb and Vc are displayed here and are
continuously updated. The corresponding Current Voltage values for each channel
are displayed for reference.
Short Term Readings
Click on the Short Term tab to access a screen containing three groups of Pst readings
(shown below).
Pst readings displayed:
• Current Pst values for Va, Vb and Vc and the time of computation
• Current Pst Max values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the
last reset
• Current Pst Min values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time of the last
reset
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
Long Term Readings
1.
Click on the Long Term tab to access a screen containing three groups of Plt
readings (shown below).
Plt readings displayed:
2.
12–8
•
Current Plt values for Va, Vb and Vc and the time of computation
•
Current Plt Max values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time
of the last reset
•
Current Plt Min values for Va, Vb and Vc since the last reset and the time
of the last reset
Click OK to exit the EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Flicker Polling screen; click Print
to print all of the Readings views.
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.5 Logging
The EPM9450/9650 meter is capable of logging Flicker values in an independent log. When
Flicker is on, entries are made into the log in accordance with the times that associated
values occur. Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min, Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min, Start/Reset and Stop times are all
recorded. All values can be downloaded to the Log Viewer where they are available for
graphing or export to another program, such as Excel. All Flicker values are predefined and
cannot be changed. Refer to Chapter 8 of the GE Communicator User Manual for additional
instructions concerning the Flicker log.
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.6 Polling through a Communication Port
The Pinst, Pst, Pst Max, Pst Min, Plt, Plt Max, Plt Min values can be polled through the
Communications Port. Refer to the EPM9450 and EPM9650 meters' Modbus and DNP
Mapping manuals for register assignments and data definitions.
12–10
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.7 Log Viewer
1.
Open Log Viewer by selecting the Open Logs icon from GE Communicator's
Icon bar.
2.
Using the menus at the top of the screen, select a meter, time ranges and
values to access.
3.
Click the Flicker icon.
The values and the associated time stamps (when the values occurred) are displayed in a
grid box. Use the buttons at the bottom of the screen to create a graph or export the data
to another program.
• Graphed values include Pst and Plt Va, Vb and Vc.
• Displayed values include Pst and Plt Max and Min for Va, Vb and Vc.
Max and Min values are only displayed; they cannot be graphed. However, Max and Min
values are available for export.
Note
NOTE
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.8 Performance Notes
Pst and Plt average time are synchronized to the clock (e.g. for a 10 minute average, the
times will occur at 0, 10, 20, etc.). The actual time of the first average can be less than the
selected period to allow for initial clock synchronization.
If the wrong frequency is chosen (e.g. 50Hz selection for a system operating at 60Hz),
Flicker will still operate but the computed values will not be valid. Therefore, you should
select the frequency setting with care.
User settings are stored. If Flicker is on and power is removed from the meter, Flicker will
still be on when power returns. This can cause gaps in the logged data.
The Max and Min values are stored, and are not lost if the unit is powered down.
Flicker meets the requirements of IEC 61000-4-15 and former IEC 868. Refer to those
specifications for more details, if needed. Meters with the EN50160 option also meet the
EN50160 conformance standards for Flicker. Refer to chapters 16 and 17 in the GE
Communicator User Manual for additional information.
Operation is at 230V for 50Hz and 120V for 60Hz as per specification. If the input voltage is
different, the system will normalize it to 230V or 120V for computational purposes.
12–12
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
12.9 EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Power Quality Compliance Analysis (EPM9650
meter with Software Option B)
If your EPM9650 meter is equipped with Software Option B, you have access to the
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 PQ Compliance analysis function, as well as to Flicker
measurement.
12.9.1 EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Configuration
1.
Select the Profile icon from GE Communicator's Icon bar.
2.
From the Device Profile screen, double-click Power Quality and Alarm
Settings > EN50160/IEC61000-4-30. Depending on your current setting, you
will see one of the following screens.
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CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
3.
The EPM9650 meter with Software Option B can use Historical Log 2 to record
the results of Flicker testing: you will see the top screen if EN50160/IEC610004-30 logging has not been selected for the meter; you will see the bottom
screen if it has already been selected.
•
To set up EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 recording, click Auto-Configure.
Historical Log 2 will now be used for EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 logging,
only.
•
If EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 recording is already active and you want to
disable it, click Enable Log 2. This will disable the EN50160/IEC61000-430 logging in Historical Log 2. You can then configure Historical Log 2
normally. (See Chapter 3 of the GE Communicator User Manual for
instructions)
It takes a week for the meter to collect all the data needed for the analysis.
Note
NOTE
4.
Make the following selections:
a.
FVF: select the number of Fast Voltage Fluctuations that are acceptable
per day.
b.
Sync Connection: select YES for a system with a synchronous connection
to another system, NO if there is no such synchronous connection.
c.
Select your Frequency (50 Hz or 60Hz).
d.
Nominal Voltage (in Secondary): Enter the value for the Nominal voltage in
Secondary that you want to use in the analysis; for example, 120 V for a
60 Hz frequency, or 230 V for a 50 Hz frequency.
e.
Short Term Test Time: Select the time in minutes for the PST - short-term
test. The available range is from 1-10 minutes.
f.
Long Term Test Time: Select the time in minutes for the LST - long-term
test. The available range is 10-240 minutes, in multiples of 10 (10, 20, 30,
etc.).
7.
Click OK.
8.
Click Update Device to send the new settings to the meter and return to the
main GE Communicator screen.
12.9.2 EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 Analysis
A full week of logging is necessary before an EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 analysis can be
created.
Note
NOTE
12–14
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
1.
From the GE Communicator toolbar, click Logs > Retrieve Logs from Device(s)
or click the Retrieve Logs icon. You will see the screen shown below.
2.
Double-click the No to the right of EN50160/IEC61000-4-30.
3.
You will see a pop-up window displaying the message: "Updated Related Logs
(PQ and Historical Log 2)." Click OK.
4.
The "No" changes to a "Yes" next to the Historical Log 2, Waveform/PQ, and
EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 logs.
5.
Click Start to begin retrieving the logs. GE Communicator retrieves the
selected logs and automatically creates a database for you. Pop-ups confirm
the retrieval and conversion.
6.
The Log Viewer screen appears. (See Chapter 8 of the GE Communicator User
Manual for additional information on using the Log Viewer.)
7.
Click the EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 button. A screen shows the data points
required. Click YES.
8.
A list of all weeks collected for this meter is displayed. Information provided
includes:
9.
•
Start/End Time of Week
•
Device Name
•
Nominal Frequency / Voltage
•
Pass / Fail Value for each component
Select a week from those displayed.
10. Click the IEC 61000-4-30 button at the bottom of the screen. A full analysis is
generated.
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
12–15
CHAPTER 12: FLICKER AND ANALYSIS
11. The EN50160/IEC61000-4-30 HTML Viewer screen is displayed. See Chapter
16 in the GE Communicator User Manual for detailed instructions on using the
EN50160/ IEC61000-4-30 HTML Viewer screen.
12–16
EPM 9450/9650 ADVANCED POWER QUALITY METERING SYSTEM – USER GUIDE
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