Episode 6.5 User Guide for Windows

User Guide

Episode 6.5 User Guide for Windows

161755 May 19, 2015

2

Episode 6.5 User Guide

Copyrights and Trademark Notices

Copyrights and Trademark Notices

Copyright © 2015 Telestream, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, altered, or translated into any languages without the written permission of Telestream. Information and specifications in this document are subject to change without notice and do not represent a commitment on the part of Telestream.

Telestream, Episode, Flip4Mac, FlipFactory, Flip Player, Lightspeed, ScreenFlow,

Vantage, Wirecast, GraphicsFactory, MetaFlip, MotionResolve, and Split-and-Stitch are registered trademarks and Pipeline, Launch, and Videocue are trademarks of

Telestream, LLC. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

QuickTime, MacOS X, and Safari are trademarks of Apple, Inc. Bonjour, the Bonjour logo, and the Bonjour symbol are trademarks of Apple, Inc.

MainConcept is a registered trademark of MainConcept LLC and MainConcept AG.

Copyright 2004 MainConcept Multimedia Technologies.

Microsoft, Windows 7 | 8 | Server 2008 | Server 2012, Media Player, Media Encoder, .Net,

Internet Explorer, SQL Server 2005 Express Edition, and Windows Media Technologies are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.

This product is manufactured by Telestream under license from Avid to pending patent applications.

This product is manufactured by Telestream under license from VoiceAge Corporation

Dolby and the double-D symbol are registered trademarks of Dolby Laboratories.

Other brands, product names, and company names are trademarks of their respective holders, and are used for identification purpose only.

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3

Third Party Library Notices

The following notices are required by third party software and libraries used in Episode.

The software may have been modified by Telestream as permitted by the license or permission to use the software.

X264

Episode includes software whose copyright is owned by, or licensed from, x264 LLC.

SharpSSH2

SharpSSH2 Copyright (c) 2008, Ryan Faircloth. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of Diversified Sales and Service, Inc. nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS

IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE

IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR

PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR

CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,

EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,

PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS;

OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY,

WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR

OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF

ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

SQLite

The SQLite website includes the following copyright notice: http://www.sqlite.org/ copyright.html

. In part, this notice states:

Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or distribute the original

SQLite code, either in source code form or as a compiled binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any means.

Libxml2

Libxml2 by xmlsoft.org is the XML C parser and toolkit developed for the Gnome project. The website refers to the Open Source Initiative website for the following

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Episode 6.5 User Guide

Copyrights and Trademark Notices licensing notice for Libxml2: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.html

.

This notice states:

Copyright (c) 2011 xmlsoft.org

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR

IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,

FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL

THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR

OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARIS-

ING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER

DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

PCRE

The PCRE software library supplied by pcre.org includes the following license statement:

PCRE LICENCE

PCRE is a library of functions to support regular expressions whose syntax and semantics are as close as possible to those of the Perl 5 language. Release 8 of PCRE is distributed under the terms of the “BSD” licence, as specified below. The documentation for

PCRE, supplied in the “doc” directory, is distributed under the same terms as the software itself. The basic library functions are written in C and are freestanding. Also included in the distribution is a set of C++ wrapper functions.

THE BASIC LIBRARY FUNCTIONS

Written by: Philip Hazel

Email local part: ph10

Email domain: cam.ac.uk

University of Cambridge Computing Service,

Cambridge, England.

Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge. All rights reserved.

THE C++ WRAPPER FUNCTIONS

Contributed by: Google Inc.

Copyright (c) 2007-2010, Google Inc. All rights reserved.

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THE "BSD" LICENCE

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

* Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of Google Inc. nor the names of their contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS

IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE

IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PUR-

POSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBU-

TORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR

CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF

SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS

INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN

CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARIS-

ING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSI-

BILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Boost C++ Libraries

The Boost C++ Libraries supplied by boost.org are licensed at the following Web site: http://www.boost.org/users/license.html

. The license reads as follows:

Boost Software License—Version 1.0—August 17th, 2003

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person or organization obtaining a copy of the software and accompanying documentation covered by this license (the

“Software”) to use, reproduce, display, distribute, execute, and transmit the Software, and to prepare derivative works of the Software, and to permit third-parties to whom the Software is furnished to do so, all subject to the following:

The copyright notices in the Software and this entire statement, including the above license grant, this restriction and the following disclaimer, must be included in all copies of the Software, in whole or in part, and all derivative works of the Software, unless such copies or derivative works are solely in the form of machine-executable object code generated by a source language processor.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR

IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,

FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT

SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS OR ANYONE DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE BE LIABLE

FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHER-

WISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE

OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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Copyrights and Trademark Notices

Libevent

The libevent software library supplied by monkey.org is licensed at the following website: http://monkey.org/~provos/libevent/LICENSE . The license reads as follows:

Libevent is covered by a 3-clause BSD license. Below is an example. Individual files may have different authors.

Copyright (c) 2000-2007 Niels Provos <[email protected]> All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED

WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MER-

CHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.

IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,

SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED

TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR

PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF

LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLI-

GENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,

EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

The FreeType Project

The FreeType Project libraries supplied by freetype.org are licensed at the following website: http://www.freetype.org/FTL.TXT

. The license reads in part as follows:

Copyright 1996-2002, 2006 by David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg

We specifically permit and encourage the inclusion of this software, with or without modifications, in commercial products. We disclaim all warranties covering The Free-

Type Project and assume no liability related to The FreeType Project.

Finally, many people asked us for a preferred form for a credit/disclaimer to use in compliance with this license. We thus encourage you to use the following text:

Portions of this software are copyright © 2011 The FreeType Project ( www.freetype.org

). All rights reserved.

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Samba

Samba code supplied by samba.org is licensed at the following website: http:// samba.org/samba/docs/GPL.html

. The license is a GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation and is also listed at this website: http:// www.gnu.org/licenses/. Because of the length of the license statement, the license agreement is not repeated here.

Ogg Vorbis

The Ogg Vorbis software supplied by Xiph.org is licensed at the following website: http://www.xiph.org/licenses/bsd/ . The license reads as follows:

© 2011, Xiph.Org Foundation

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

•Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

•Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

•Neither the name of the Xiph.org Foundation nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

This software is provided by the copyright holders and contributors “as is” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed. In no event shall the foundation or contributors be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, procurement of substitute goods or services; loss of use, data, or profits; or business interruption) however caused and on any theory of liability, whether in contract, strict liability, or tort (including negligence or otherwise) arising in any way out of the use of this software, even if advised of the possibility of such damage.

LibTIFF

The LibTIFF software library provided by libtiff.org is licensed at the following website: www.libtiff.org/misc.html

. The copyright and use permission statement reads as follows:

Copyright (c) 1988-1997 Sam Leffler

Copyright (c) 1991-1997 Silicon Graphics, Inc.

Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee, provided that (i) the above copyright notices and this permission notice appear in all copies of the software and related documentation, and (ii) the names of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics may not be used in any advertising or publicity relating to the software without the specific, prior written permission of Sam Leffler and Silicon Graphics.

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THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS-IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,

EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY

OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

IN NO EVENT SHALL SAM LEFFLER OR SILICON GRAPHICS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,

INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, OR ANY DAMAGES

WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER OR NOT

ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE, AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, ARISING

OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

zlib

The zlib.h general purpose compression library provided zlib.net is licensed at the following website: http://www.zlib.net/zlib_license.html

. The license reads as follows:

Copyright (C) 1995-2010 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler

This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software.

Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions:

1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required.

2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software.

3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

Jean-loup Gailly, Mark Adler

LAME

The LAME MPEG Audio Layer III (MP3) encoder software available at lame.sourceforge.net is licensed under the GNU Lesser Public License (LGPL) at this website www.gnu.org/copyleft/lesser.html

and summarized by the LAME developers at this website: lame.sourceforge.net/license.txt

. The summary reads as follows:

Can I use LAME in my commercial program?

Yes, you can, under the restrictions of the LGPL. The easiest way to do this is to:

1. Link to LAME as separate library (libmp3lame.a on unix or lame_enc.dll on windows).

2. Fully acknowledge that you are using LAME, and give a link to our web site, www.mp3dev.org

.

3. If you make modifications to LAME, you *must* release these modifications back to the LAME project, under the LGPL.

*** IMPORTANT NOTE ***

The decoding functions provided in LAME use a version of the mpglib decoding engine which is under the GPL. They may not be used by any program not released under the

GPL unless you obtain such permission from the MPG123 project ( www.mpg123.de

).

(yes, we know MPG123 is currently under the LGPL, but we use an older version that

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was released under the former license and, until someone tweaks the current MPG123 to suit some of LAME's specific needs, it'll continue being licensed under the GPL).

MPEG Disclaimers

MPEGLA MPEG2 Patent

ANY USE OF THIS PRODUCT IN ANY MANNER OTHER THAN PERSONAL USE THAT

COMPLIES WITH THE MPEG-2 STANDARD FOR ENCODING VIDEO INFORMATION FOR

PACKAGED MEDIA IS EXPRESSLY PROHIBITED WITHOUT A LICENSE UNDER APPLICABLE

PATENTS IN THE MPEG-2 PATENT PORTFOLIO, WHICH LICENSE IS AVAILABLE FROM

MPEG LA, LLC, 6312 S. Fiddlers Green circle, Suite 400E, Greenwood Village, Colorado

80111 U.S.A.

MPEGLA MPEG4 VISUAL

THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE MPEG-4 VISUAL PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE

FOR THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER FOR (i) ENCODING

VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE MPEG-4 VISUAL STANDARD (“MPEG-4 VIDEO”) AND/

OR (ii) DECODING MPEG-4 VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A

PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO

PROVIDER LICENSE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION INCLUDING THAT RELATING TO PROMOTIONAL, INTERNAL

AND COMMERCIAL USES AND LICENSING MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, LLC. SEE

HTTP://WWW.MPEGLA.COM

.

MPEGLA AVC

THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE FOR THE

PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (i) ENCODE VIDEO IN

COMPLIANCE WITH THE AVC STANDARD (“AVC VIDEO”) AND/OR (ii) DECODE AVC VIDEO

THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A PERSONAL AND NON-

COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED

TO PROVIDE AVC VIDEO. NO LICENSE IS GRANTED OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY

OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. SEE

HTTP://WWW.MPEGLA.COM

.

MPEG4 SYSTEMS

THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE MPEG-4 SYSTEMS PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE

FOR ENCODING IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE MPEG-4 SYSTEMS STANDARD, EXCEPT THAT

AN ADDITIONAL LICENSE AND PAYMENT OF ROYALTIES ARE NECESSARY FOR

ENCODING IN CONNECTION WITH (i) DATA STORED OR REPLICATED IN PHYSICAL MEDIA

WHICH IS PAID FOR ON A TITLE BY TITLE BASIS AND/OR (ii) DATA WHICH IS PAID FOR ON

A TITLE BY TITLE BASIS AND IS TRANSMITTED TO AN END USER FOR PERMANENT

STORAGE AND/OR USE. SUCH ADDITIONAL LICENSE MAY BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA,

LLC. SEE < HTTP://WWW.MPEGLA.COM

> FOR ADDITIONAL DETAILS.

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Limited Warranty and Disclaimers

Telestream, LLC (the Company) warrants to the original registered end user that the product will perform as stated below for a period of one (1) year from the date of shipment from factory:

Hardware and Media

. The Product hardware components, if any, including equipment supplied but not manufactured by the Company but NOT including any third party equipment that has been substituted by the Distributor for such equipment (the

“Hardware”), is free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal operating conditions and use.

Warranty Remedies

Your sole remedies under this limited warranty are as follows:

Hardware and Media

. The Company will either repair or replace (at its option) any defective Hardware component or part, or Software Media, with new or like new

Hardware components or Software Media. Components may not be necessarily the same, but will be of equivalent operation and quality.

Software

. If software is supplied as part of the product and it fails to substantially confirm to its specifications as stated in the product user's guide, the Company shall, at its own expense, use its best efforts to correct (with due allowance made for the nature and complexity of the problem) such defect, error or nonconformity.

Software Updates

. If software is supplied as part of the product, the Company will supply the registered purchaser/licensee with maintenance releases of the Company’s proprietary Software Version Release in manufacture at the time of license for a period of one year from the date of license or until such time as the Company issues a new

Version Release of the Software, whichever first occurs. To clarify the difference between a Software Version Release and a maintenance release, a maintenance release generally corrects minor operational deficiencies (previously non-implemented features and software errors) contained in the Software, whereas a Software Version

Release adds new features and functionality. The Company shall have no obligation to supply you with any new Software Version Release of Telestream software or third party software during the warranty period, other than maintenance releases.

Restrictions and Conditions of Limited Warranty

This Limited Warranty will be void and of no force and effect if (i) Product Hardware or

Software Media, or any part thereof, is damaged due to abuse, misuse, alteration, neglect, or shipping, or as a result of service or modification by a party other than the

Company, or (ii) Software is modified without the written consent of the Company.

Limitations of Warranties

THE EXPRESS WARRANTIES SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER

WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY

WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. No oral

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11

or written information or advice given by the Company, its distributors, dealers or agents, shall increase the scope of this Limited Warranty or create any new warranties.

Geographical Limitation of Warranty

. This limited warranty is valid only within the country in which the Product is purchased/licensed.

Limitations on Remedies

. YOUR EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES, AND THE ENTIRE LIABILITY OF

TELESTREAM, LLC WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCT, SHALL BE AS STATED IN THIS

LIMITED WARRANTY. Your sole and exclusive remedy for any and all breaches of any

Limited Warranty by the Company shall be the recovery of reasonable damages which, in the aggregate, shall not exceed the total amount of the combined license fee and purchase price paid by you for the Product.

Damages

TELESTREAM, LLC SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY

LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES

ARISING OUT OF YOUR USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT, OR THE BREACH OF

ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTY, EVEN IF THE COMPANY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF

THE POSSIBILITY OF THOSE DAMAGES, OR ANY REMEDY PROVIDED FAILS OF ITS

ESSENTIAL PURPOSE.

Further information regarding this limited warranty may be obtained by writing:

Telestream

848 Gold Flat Road

Nevada City, CA 95959

You can call Telestream at (530) 470-1300.

Part number:

161755

Publication date:

May 18, 2015

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Episode 6.5

Contents

Episode 6.5 User Guide

1

Copyrights and Trademark Notices

2

Third Party Library Notices

3

MPEG Disclaimers

9

Limited Warranty and Disclaimers

10

Preface

27

About Episode

29

Episode’s Major Features

30

Three Episode Editions

31

Episode Components

31

Extended Media Format Support

31

Installing Episode

33

Platform Requirements

34

Cluster Platform Requirements

34

Pre-requisite Subsystems

34

QuickTime

34

Bonjour for Windows

34

.Net Framework

34

Downloading and Installing Episode

36

Downloading the Installer

36

Installing an Episode Cluster

37

Installing the Episode Premiere Plug-in

37

Uninstalling the Episode Premiere Plug-in

37

Configuring Episode

38

Windows Server 2012 DEP Setup

38

Running Episode as an Administrator

38

Running Episode as a Non-Administrator User

39

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

40

13

14

Contents

Purchasing a License Directly in Episode and Registering It

41

Registering Episode with a Separately Purchased License

42

Upgrading Episode

43

Removing Episode from your Computer

44

Getting Started

45

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

46

Workflows

47

Encoder Tasks

48

Split-and-Stitch Encoding

49

Deployments

50

Tasks

50

Nodes

50

Summary

51

Tour 2: Encoding Your First Media File

52

Encoding Multiple Files in the Same Workflow

53

Summary

53

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

54

Adding Encoder Tasks to a Workflow

54

Editing Encoders

56

Saving Encoders

56

Saving Workflows

57

Summary

57

Tour 4: Automating Workflows with Watch Folders

58

Summary

59

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

60

Joining a Cluster

60

Summary

61

Using Episode

63

Episode’s Workflow Window

63

Using the Media Browser Panel

64

Working with Bookmarks

66

Adding a Bookmark

66

Configuring a Bookmark

66

Deleting a Bookmark

67

Working with Bookmark Folders

67

Working with Files in the Media Browser

68

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB Bookmarks

68

Changing File Views

70

Manually Submitting Files to a Workflow

70

Configuring Source and Deployment Tasks with Bookmarks

71

Using the Library Panel

71

Browsing the Library

72

Adding Items to a Workflow

73

Adding an Item to the Library

73

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Removing an Item from the Library

73

Modifying Library Items

74

Renaming Library Items

75

Duplicating Library Items

75

Library Context Menu

75

Using the Workflow Editor Panel

75

Overview

76

Workflow Panel Context Menu

77

Creating a New Workflow

78

Creating Source Tasks

79

Configuring a File List Source Task

80

Configuring a Watch Folder Source Task

80

Local Watch Folder

81

General

81

Advanced

81

FTP, Network Share/SMB/Autodesk Wiretap Watch Folder

82

General

84

Advanced

84

Configuring Image Sequences

85

Image Sequence Selections

85

Configuring an Encoder Task

87

Configuring a Deployment Task

87

Setting Workflow Priority

88

Submitting Workflows

88

Using the Inspector Panel

88

Using the Media Inspector

90

File Information

90

Player Controls

91

Configuring Source Tasks

92

General

92

Advanced

93

Image Sequence

94

Configuring Encoder Tasks

95

General Panel

96

Format Panel

97

Setting In/Out Points

97

Configuring Timecode

98

Adding Intro & Outro Clips

98

Using Video Filters

99

Using Audio Filters

100

Enabling Split-and-Stitch

100

Adding Metadata

101

Configuring Deployment Tasks

103

User Deployments

103

System Deployments

103

Configuring User and System Source/Desktop Deployments

104

Configuring Closed Captions

107

Adding Captions from a File (.scc or .mcc)

107

Contents

15

16

Contents

Passing Through Captions Embedded in the Source

108

Using the Status Panel

109

Left Side Status Display

109

Right Side Status Display

111

Using the Preview Window

112

Using the Cluster Window

113

Join or Submit by IP or Host Name

114

Using Named Storage

116

Named Storage Simple Example

116

Named Storage Cluster Example

116

Setting Preferences

118

Using the General Tab

118

Using the Cluster Tab

121

Using the License Tab

122

Using the Update Tab

123

Using the Advanced Tab

124

Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

125

Preliminary Steps

126

Exporting and Encoding a Media File

126

Encoding Media Files in a Timeline Sequence

127

Episode Menus

129

File Menu

129

Edit Menu

130

View Menu

130

Media Browser Menu

131

Library Menu

131

Tools Menu

131

Preview

132

Help Menu

132

Shortcuts By Menu

133

Video Encoding Concepts

135

File (Container) Formats And Codecs

135

Color Formats

136

Video Scan

137

Frame Types and I, P, and B Frames

138

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

138

CBR, VBR, and Quality-Based VBR

141

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

141

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp Image

142

Media Containers/Formats

143

3GPP (.3gp)

145

Codecs

145

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Settings

145

Audio & Video Streaming

145

3GPP2 (.3g2)

148

Codecs

148

Settings

148

Audio & Video Streaming

148

3GPP2 EZmovie (.3g2)

151

Codecs

151

Settings

151

AC3/ATSC A/52 (.a52)

152

Codecs

152

Settings

152

ADTS (.aac)

153

Codecs

153

Settings

153

AIFF (.aif)

154

Codecs

154

Settings

154

AMR (.amr)

155

Codecs

155

Settings

155

AVI (.avi)

156

Codecs

156

Settings

156

DASH MPEG Streaming

157

Settings

157

DV-Stream (.dv)

158

Codecs

158

Settings

158

Flash (.flv)

159

Codecs

159

Settings

159

Flash (.swf)

160

Codecs

160

Settings

160

GXF (.gxf)

161

Codecs

161

Settings

161

iTunes Audio (.m4a)

162

Codecs

162

Settings

162

iTunes Video (.m4v)

163

Codecs

163

Settings

163

MOV (.mov)

164

Codecs

164

Settings

166

Audio & Video Streaming

167

Contents

17

18

Contents

MP3 (.mp3)

170

Codecs

170

Settings

170

MP4 (.mp4)

171

Codecs

171

Settings

171

Audio & Video Streaming

171

MPEG Audio (.m1a)

173

Codecs

173

Settings

173

MPEG-ES (.m1v)

174

Codecs

174

Settings

174

MPEG-ES (.m2v)

175

Codecs

175

Settings

175

MPEG-PS (.mpg)

176

Codecs

176

Settings

176

MPEG-TS (.ts)

177

Codecs

177

Settings

178

General

178

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

180

Codecs

180

Settings

180

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

181

Codecs

181

Settings

182

MXF OpAtom Audio (.mxf)

183

Codecs

183

Settings

183

MXF OpAtom Video (.mxf)

184

Codecs

184

Settings

184

MXF Sony XAVC

185

Codecs

185

Settings

185

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

186

Codecs

186

Settings

186

OGG (.ogg)

188

Codecs

188

Settings

188

PSP (.mp4)

189

Codecs

189

Settings

189

TIFO (.tifo)

190

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Codecs

190

Settings

191

WAV (.wav)

192

Codecs

192

Settings

192

WebM (.webm)

193

Codecs

193

Settings

193

WMA (.wma)

194

Codecs

194

Settings

194

WMV (.wmv)

195

Codecs

195

Settings

195

Video Codecs

197

AVC-Intra Codec

199

Blackmagic Codec

200

D-10/IMX Codec

201

Discard Option

202

DPX Sequence Codec

203

DV Codec

205

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

206

Bandwidth Settings

206

Keyframe Settings

207

Profile Settings

207

Encoding Settings

208

H.263 Codec

209

Bandwidth Settings

209

Keyframe Settings

209

Profile Settings

210

Encoding Settings

210

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

212

Bandwidth Settings

212

Frame Type Settings

213

Profile Settings

213

Display Settings

214

Quality Settings

214

Detailed Frame Settings

215

Bitstream Flags

216

Level Signaling

216

Closed Captioning Settings

217

H.264 (x264) Codec

218

Bandwidth Settings

218

Preset and Tuning

220

Frame Type Settings

221

Buffering Settings

223

Contents

19

20

Contents

Display Settings

224

Profile & Level Settings

224

Slices Settings

226

Deblocking Filter Settings

226

Analysis Settings

227

Compatibility Settings

228

Closed Captioning Settings

229

HDV Codec

230

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

231

Bandwidth Settings

231

Preset and Tuning

232

Frame Type Settings

234

Compatibility

236

Buffering Settings

236

Display Settings

236

Profile & Level Settings

237

JPEG Sequence Codec

238

MJPEG Codec

240

Profile Settings

240

Encoding Setting

240

MPEG-1 Codec

241

Bandwidth Settings

241

Keyframe Settings

241

MPEG-2 Codec

243

Bandwidth Settings

243

Display Settings

244

Keyframe Settings

244

Advanced Options

245

Closed Captioning & VBI Settings

245

MPEG-2 VOD Codec

248

MPEG-4 Codec

249

Bandwidth Settings

249

Keyframe Settings

249

Profile Settings

250

Error Correction

250

Encoding Settings

251

Pass Through Option

252

ProRes Codec

253

QuickTime Codecs

254

RGB Levels Codec

255

Targa Cine YUV Codec

256

TGA Sequence Codec

257

TIFF Sequence Codec

259

VP8 Codec

261

VP9 Codec

262

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

264

Bandwidth Settings

264

Keyframe Settings

266

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Profile Settings

266

Encoding Settings

267

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

268

Bandwidth Settings

268

Keyframe Settings

269

Encoding Settings

269

Profile Settings

270

Windows RGB Codec

271

XAVC Codec

272

Settings

272

XDCAM HD Codec

273

YCbCr Codec

274

Video Filters

275

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

277

Black and White Restoration Filter

279

Burn Timecode Filter

280

Caption Importer Filter

280

Color Space Converter Filter

281

Color Space

281

Video Levels

281

Contrast Filter

282

Deinterlace Filter

282

Fade Filter

285

Field Order Filter

286

Frame Rate Filter

287

Gamma Filter

289

HSV Levels Filter

289

Interlace Filter

290

Matte Extractor Filter

290

Noise Reduction Filter

290

Median Method

290

Average Method

291

Temporal Method

291

Resize Filter

292

Size Settings

292

Initial Crop Settings

294

Scaling Details

294

Aspect Ratio Settings

295

RGB Filter

296

Rotate Filter

297

Sharpen Filter

297

Smoothing Filter

297

Timecode Converter

298

VBI Exporter Filter

299

VBI Importer Filter

299

VBI Size

299

Contents

21

22

Contents

Caption Decoding

300

Watermark Filter

300

Watermark Resize Filter

301

Size

302

Initial Crop

303

Scaling Details

303

Aspect Ratio

304

Audio Codecs

307

AAC Codec

307

AAC QuickTime Codec

310

AES Codec

310

AMR Codec

310

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Codec

311

BWF Codec

311

Discard Option

312

DV Audio Codec

312

Lame MP3 Codec

312

MPEG Audio Codec

314

Pass-through Option

314

PCM Audio Codec

315

QuickTime Audio Codecs

315

Vorbis Codec

316

Windows Media Audio 9 Codec

317

Audio Filters

319

Audio Filters are Applied Sequentially

320

Audio Speed Filter

320

Balance Filter

320

Channels and Channel Mapper Filters

321

Channels Filter

321

Under the Hood of the Channels Filter

322

Equalizer Filter

325

Fade Filter

325

High Pass/Low Pass Filter

325

Offset Filter

326

Sample Rate Filter

326

Volume Filter

326

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

328

Channels Filter and Channel Mapper Notes

328

Channels Filter Notes

328

Channels Filter Mappings

328

MONO source to MONO:

328

MONO source to STEREO:

328

MONO source to DUAL STEREO:

328

MONO source to 5.0:

328

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

MONO source to 5.1:

329

MONO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

329

MONO source to 7.1:

329

MONO source to 5.1+Stereo:

329

MONO source to QUAD STEREO:

330

STEREO source to MONO:

330

STEREO source to STEREO:

330

STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

330

STEREO source to 5.0:

330

STEREO source to 5.1:

330

STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

331

STEREO source to 7.1:

331

STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

331

STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

331

DUAL STEREO source to MONO:

331

DUAL STEREO source to STEREO:

331

DUAL STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

332

DUAL STEREO source to 5.0:

332

DUAL STEREO source to 5.1:

332

DUAL STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

332

DUAL STEREO source to 7.1:

332

DUAL STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

332

DUAL STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

332

5.0 source to MONO:

333

5.0 source to STEREO:

333

5.0 source to DUAL STEREO:

333

5.0 source to 5.0:

333

5.0 source to 5.1:

333

5.0 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

334

5.0 source to 7.1:

334

5.0 source to 5.1+Stereo:

334

5.0 source to QUAD STEREO:

334

5.1 source to MONO:

335

5.1 source to STEREO:

335

5.1 source to DUAL STEREO:

335

5.1 source to 5.0:

335

5.1 source to 5.1:

335

5.1 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

336

5.1 source to 7.1:

336

5.1 source to 5.1+Stereo:

336

5.1 source to QUAD STEREO:

336

TRIPLE STEREO source to MONO:

337

TRIPLE STEREO source to STEREO:

337

TRIPLE STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

337

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.0:

337

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.1:

338

TRIPLE STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

338

TRIPLE STEREO source to 7.1:

338

Contents

23

24

Contents

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

338

TRIPLE STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

339

7.1 source to MONO:

339

7.1 source to STEREO:

339

7.1 source to DUAL STEREO:

339

7.1 source to 5.0:

340

7.1 source to 5.1:

340

7.1 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

340

7.1 source to 7.1:

341

7.1 source to 5.1+Stereo:

341

7.1 source to QUAD STEREO:

341

5.1+STEREO source to MONO:

341

5.1+STEREO source to STEREO:

342

5.1+STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

342

5.1+STEREO source to 5.0:

342

5.1+STEREO source to 5.1:

343

5.1+STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

343

5.1+STEREO source to 7.1:

343

5.1+STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

343

5.1+STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

344

QUAD STEREO source to MONO:

344

QUAD STEREO source to STEREO:

344

QUAD STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

345

QUAD STEREO source to 5.0:

345

QUAD STEREO source to 5.1:

345

QUAD STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

346

QUAD STEREO source to 7.1:

346

QUAD STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

346

QUAD STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

346

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to MONO:

347

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to STEREO:

347

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to DUAL STEREO:

347

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.0:

348

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.1:

348

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to TRIPLE STEREO:

348

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 7.1:

348

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.1+Stereo:

349

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to QUAD STEREO:

349

Channel Mapper Filter Details

349

Channel Mapper Examples

350

Troubleshooting Episode

353

Episode won’t install.

353

Episode won’t run from my user account.

353

Episode won’t transcode some of my files.

354

Episode supports my file type but won’t transcode it.

354

Episode reports a license error, but I have a valid license.

354

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

A preview error occurred: Could not find DefaultSource.mov.

354

Access Denied IOServer issues

354

Where should I direct my Pipeline stream?

355

Episode clustering and file sharing don’t work.

355

Contents

25

26

Contents

Episode 6.5

Preface

To obtain product information, technical support, or provide comments on this guide, contact us using our web site, email, or phone number as listed in Table 1 .

Table 1.

Telestream Contact Information

Resource

Technical Support |

Information |

Assistance | FAQs |

Forums | Upgrades

Telestream

International

Distributor Support

Contact Information

Web Site: http://www.telestream.net/telestreamsupport/episode-6/support.htm

Support Web Mail. www.telestream.net/telestreamsupport/episode-6/contact-support.htm

Web Site: www.telestream.net

Sales and Marketing Email: [email protected]

Telestream

848 Gold Flat Road

Nevada City, CA. USA 95959

530-470-1300

Web Site: www.telestream.net

See the Telestream Web site for your regional authorized

Telestream distributor.

Telestream Technical

Writers

Email: [email protected]

If you have comments or suggestions about improving this document, or other Telestream documents—or if you've discovered an error or omission, please email us.

27

28

Preface

Episode 6.5

About Episode

Episode is a powerful application for transcoding video and audio files. It supports a wide variety of media formats (both input and output), and enables you to modify frame rate, audio levels, and other metrics, and perform many quality-improvement operations.

Episode can ingest media files for transcoding directly from local disks, as well as network file servers and hardware-based media systems. Episode can save transcoded media files locally or on network file servers.

Episode is scalable: It can be installed on multiple computers to form a transcoding cluster for parallel transcoding power and maximum speed via Telestream’s unique

Split-and-Stitch™ distributed encoding technology.

Episode’s Major Features

Three Episode Editions

Episode Components

Extended Media Format Support

Note:

This guide is intended for users who are using the Episode graphic user interface application. For users who are using the CLI or XML/RPC interface, or who are using advanced features not available in the Episode graphic user interface application, or who want information about Episode’s system architecture and components, please refer to the Episode Advanced User’s Guide.

29

30

About Episode

Episode’s Major Features

Episode’s Major Features

Telestream Episode is an all-in-one, multi-format, cross-platform video and audio encoding application for post-production and new media workflows. The following list summarizes the most essential Episode features:

Transcodes many compressed and HD formats:

AVC-Intra

Blackmagic

D-10/IMX

Discard

DV

Flash 8 Video (VP6)

H.263

H.264 (MainConcept)

H.264 (x264)

HDV

HEVC

Image Sequences (DPX/JPEG/

TGA/TIFF)

MJPEG-1/2/4

Pass Through

QuickTime

RGB Levels

Targa Cine YUV

VP8 & VP9

Windows Media Video 9

Windows Media Video VC-1

Windows RGB

XAVC

XDCAM HD

YCbCr Codec, and many other formats. ProRes is available for

MacOS X and also Windows Server 2008 |12, for Episode Engine.

Allows advanced conversions such as NTSC-PAL standards conversion and telecine insertion and removal.

Includes full 10-bit 4:2:2:4 pro format support for optimized picture quality.

Provides an easy-to-use graphical workflow builder with pre-made templates that monitors Watch Folders, automatically transcodes files as they are dropped in, and delivers them to specified output folders.

Supports Adobe Premiere Pro with a plug-in panel that allows you to import and select Episode encode and deployment tasks from within Premiere.

Includes one-click clustering with built-in file sharing and parallel batch processing so you can assign multiple Episode instances on networked computers to work on transcoding tasks simultaneously, enhancing transcoding speed.

Provides Split-and-Stitch distributed and segmented encoding that you can use to split up a large video file into smaller, segmented encoding tasks that operate in parallel. The video segments can be worked on by several nodes in a cluster and then stitched back together to more quickly provide finished output.

Includes fully configurable advanced preprocessing filters, such as black and white restoration, HSV and gamma correction, noise removal, image sharpening, as well as audio normalization, balance, fade in/out, and others.

Provides preview functionality for before and after comparison.

Allows adding bumper and trailer intro and outro movies to content.

Permits adding picture-in-picture animation or movie watermarks.

Greatly improved audio channel mapping with automatic and preconfigured selections. Supports 5.1 and 7.1 channel surround sound encoding and easy up or down conversion.

Optional, licensed Pro Audio option adds support for Dolby AC-3, AAC-HE, AAC-LC, and AMR audio codecs.

Offers improved closed caption support.

Episode 6.5

About Episode

Three Episode Editions

31

Three Episode Editions

Episode is offered in three editions, plus an enhanced audio option, to better meet your encoding requirements:

Episode encodes your video files one file at a time and includes many workflow options, clustering capabilities, and codecs. For details on supported input and output media formats, see

Media Containers/Formats

.

Episode Pro adds support for encoding files in parallel, provides the VC-1 codec, image sequences, multi-bit rate (MBR) streaming file support and additional output formats:

GXF, MPEG-2 Transport Streams, and MXF.

Episode Engine includes all the formats of Episode Pro and adds maximum parallel encoding, plus Split-and-Stitch encoding to fully utilize the power of highperformance, multi-core computers.

Pro Audio Option

all editions of Episode can be enhanced with the Pro Audio Option, adding support for AMR, Dolby AC-3, ATSC A/52, and High Efficiency AAC audio codecs.

Episode Components

Generally, you can think of Episode as a desktop program with a graphical user interface used to configure workflows and encode media. However, Episode also consists of several underlying services—a set of several independent, cooperative processes (programs without a user interface):

Episode Assistant Service

performs various user interface support tasks, such as processing workflow changes, exporting files, and so on.

Episode IOserver Service

makes files available to other nodes in the cluster.

Episode Node Service

communicates with other nodes in the cluster and starts

EpisodeWorker processes to perform encoding tasks.

Episode Client Proxy Service

provides the interface between client programs including Episode (the graphic user interface program), programs utilizing the

XML-RPC interface, and the command line interface (

episodectl

).

Episode XML-RPC Service

interfaces between client programs which implement the XML-RPC interface and communicate with Episode Engine.

Extended Media Format Support

Support for media formats (input and output) can also be extended by installing

Telestream and third-party QuickTime components, such as Flip4Mac Windows Media

Components for QuickTime.

Episode can also ingest files from Telestream's Pipeline—a powerful, network-based, real-time media processing—appliance. For more details, see the Pipeline topic on our

Web site: www.telestream.net.

Episode 6.5

32

About Episode

Extended Media Format Support

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Use this chapter to install, upgrade, or uninstall Episode, Episode Pro, or Episode Engine for Windows.

During installation and upgrade, it is important to review and perform the tasks in each topic in order:

Platform Requirements

Pre-requisite Subsystems

Downloading and Installing Episode

Installing an Episode Cluster

Configuring Episode

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

Upgrading Episode

Removing Episode from your Computer

Note:

Telestream recommends that you

do not install

Episode on a computer that is currently hosting FlipFactory, Vantage, or other media processing applications: intense disk and CPU consumption can interfere with proper operation of both programs.

Be sure to review and meet platform requirements before installation.

33

34

Installing Episode

Platform Requirements

Platform Requirements

All Episode editions for Windows have the following minimum system requirements:

Windows 7, 8.1, or Server 2012: 1.5 GHz, 32-bit (x86), 4 GB RAM, 40 GB hard drive

QuickTime v7.6.2 or higher

Bonjour Print Services for Windows v2.0.2

.Net Framework 3.5 SP 1

.NET Framework 4.0

Online Help Browser: Internet Explorer 8 or higher, or Firefox 6 or higher

Make sure that your computer meets these requirements before installing Episode.

Cluster Platform Requirements

When running Episode in a mixed-platform cluster, jobs requiring QuickTime are only submitted to nodes running on the same platform as the submitting node, because

QuickTime does not support the same codecs across platforms.

If you are using third-party QuickTime components, make sure that the same components are installed on all nodes on each platform.

All computers in an Episode cluster must be on the same subnet.

Pre-requisite Subsystems

The following subsystems are required before installing Episode for Windows:

QuickTime

Episode requires QuickTime 7.6.2 for Windows or higher. Before installing/updating

QuickTime, stop Episode installation if it is in process. Install or update QuickTime for

Windows from Apple’s Web site ( www.apple.com/quicktime/download/ ).

Bonjour for Windows

Episode requires Bonjour for Windows. Before installing/updating Bonjour, stop

Episode installation if it is in process (if Bonjour is not installed, the Episode installer will not complete). Obtain Bonjour Print Services for Windows v2.0.2 or later from Apple’s

Web site ( support.apple.com/kb/dl999 ), and install it.

.Net Framework

Episode for Windows requires .Net Framework 3.5 Service Pack 1and .NET Framework

4.0. Before installing/updating .Net, stop Episode installation if in process. Obtain .Net from Microsoft’s Web site ( microsoft.com

).

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Pre-requisite Subsystems

35

Next, proceed to

Downloading and Installing Episode

.

Note:

If you stopped installation to install a subsystem, restart the installer.

36

Installing Episode

Downloading and Installing Episode

Downloading and Installing Episode

When you install Episode, it installs the program and related software, then creates a program entry in All Programs > Telestream > Episode. It also places an Episode shortcut on the desktop.

Note:

If your computer is not connected to the Internet, download the installer using an Internet-connected computer and move the installer to the target computer.

Downloading the Installer

The Episode installer is located on Telestream’s Web site ( www.telestream.net/episode/ overview.htm

) as a zip file.

To download and install Episode (after verifying that you have met the platform requirements and installed the required subsystems), follow these steps:

1.

Download the installer zip file (

Episode_V_MM_DD_YYYY.zip

) to your desktop or other folder.

2.

Right-click on the folder and select Extract All to run the Extraction Wizard and follow the steps to extract the installer files.

3.

When extraction completes, Windows displays the extracted files in the new folder

(

Episode_V_MM_DD_YYYY

).

4.

Open and read the Release Notes text file.

5.

Double-click the installer file (

Episode<Version>setup.exe

) to run the Episode Setup

WIzard.

6.

Follow the steps in the Episode installer to install Episode for Windows.

Note:

Be sure to read the entire End-User License Agreement, and only click the I accept the terms in the License agreement button and continue if you do agree with the entire terms of the agreement.

If installation is interrupted because of a missing or obsolete subsystem, install/update the subsystem and then restart the installer.

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Installing an Episode Cluster

37

Installing an Episode Cluster

Installing multiple copies of Episode (where each installation is referred to as a

node

) as a cluster requires that all computers in the cluster must be part of the same subnet or reachable by IP address or DNS host name of the cluster master.

Follow the steps for installing Episode on each computer that comprises the cluster.

During operation, each node automatically identifies and communicates with each other instance in the cluster.

Each node that you intend to use as an encoder (rather than editing workflows and submitting them to other nodes) must be registered.

Note:

If you have multiple computers running on an XSAN or other shared storage system, Episode may invoke its IO Server and send the media over a slower network connection. To prevent this behavior, make sure the shared storages have the same

mount points on all computers. For more information, see

Episode clustering and file sharing don’t work.

Installing the Episode Premiere Plug-in

Follow these steps to install the Episode Adobe Premiere Pro Create Cloud plug-in:

1.

Install Adobe Premiere Pro on your computer according to Adobe’s instructions.

2.

Install Episode on the same or a different computer according to the instruction guide. Episode also requires QuickTime and .NET 3.5 SP1.

3.

Install Bonjour Print Services on the Premiere and Episode computers.

4.

Install the Episode Premiere Pro Plug-in on the Premiere Pro computer.

Once installation is complete, the plug-in is ready to use with Premiere and should simply be present and functioning when you open Premiere the next time.

Uninstalling the Episode Premiere Plug-in

On Windows, if you need to uninstall the plug-in, use Control Panel > Programs and

Features, select the Episode Premiere Pro Plug-in, and select Uninstall.

On the Macintosh, you need to run a special uninstaller program:

1.

Open a Terminal window.

2.

Type the following to access and run the uninstaller program:

a.

cd Library/Application Support/Adobe/Episode/

b.

sh uninstall.sh

The plug-in will be removed, but any epitasks you’ve created will remain.

Episode 6.5

38

Installing Episode

Configuring Episode

Configuring Episode

In most cases, no setup is required after you install Episode. However, some versions of

Windows or uses of Episode may require some setup tasks.

Windows Server 2012 DEP Setup

When using Windows Server 2012, you may encounter an issue in which the Episode application does not have permission to run. To resolve this, you can set the Windows

Data Execution Prevention (DEP) option to allow Episode to run.

1.

Open the Windows System control panel.

2.

Select Advanced System Settings. The System Properties panel opens.

3.

In the System Properties panel, select the Advanced tab and click Settings. The

Performance Options panel opens.

4.

In the Performance Options panel, select the Data Execution Prevention tab.

5.

In the Data Execution Prevention tab, select the top option: Turn on DEP for essential Windows programs and services only. This allows programs that are not part of the Windows operating system, including Episode, to run without DEP monitoring.

Alternatively, if you need the extra security provided by DEP for your other programs, you can leave DEP on but enter Episode as an exception that gets excluded from DEP monitoring:

6.

Follow the steps above, but select the bottom option in the DEP tab: Turn on DEP for all programs and services, except those I select.

7.

Click Add, browse for Episode, and double-click on Episode.exe. The default path for Episode is C:/Program Files/Telestream/Episode 6/bin/Episode.exe. When properly selected, Episode appears with a check mark in the DEP panel list.

8.

Click OK to save the new setting and close the Performance Options panel, and also click OK to save and close the System Properties panel.

Running Episode as an Administrator

In order for Episode Windows services to run correctly, the Episode user usually needs to have Local Administrator or Administrator privileges. If you already have these privileges, no further action is required. If you are unsure and need to check or change your privileges, follow these steps:

1.

In the Windows User Accounts control panel, click Manage User Accounts.

2.

In the User Accounts panel, click your user name and then Properties. The Group

Membership panel opens. If you cannot display this panel, your system administrator may need to make this change for you.

3.

In the Group Membership panel, select the Administrator button. This assigns administrator privileges to your user account.

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Configuring Episode

39

Running Episode as a Non-Administrator User

For security purposes, your organization may not allow your user account to have administrator privileges.

If Episode is not running under a user with administrator privileges, you can not make changes in Preferences.

When not running Episode as an administrator, an administrator can set Windows to run only the Episode services as an administrator from a non-administrator user account, although this method of accessing Episode is not recommended and may produce unexpected results.

To set up non-administrator access, an administrator can specify the administrator user directly in Episode >

Using the Advanced Tab

, or outside of Episode, using the Windows

Services control panel. The user should now be able to run Episode without being an administrator, and Episode itself will log in with administrative rights.

Episode 6.5

40

Installing Episode

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

An unlicensed copy of Episode is fully functional and allows you to build workflows and submit media for transcoding testing. In a cluster, you can also use unlicensed copies of

Episode to build workflows and submit media to other nodes which are licensed, for transcoding.

Note:

Copies of Episode in a cluster that are only used to edit workflows and submit jobs do not require that you purchase a license.

However, when encoding without a registered license, Episode places a watermark on the video in the output file, and video pass through is not allowed. Episode encodes audio files for up to 30 seconds or one half of the duration if less than 30 seconds.

If your computer is connected to the Internet, the easiest way to register is to purchase

a serial number directly in Episode—proceed to

Purchasing a License Directly in Episode and Registering It

.

You can also purchase a serial number via a Web browser (go to www.telestream.net/ episode/overview.htm

) and then register it in Episode—proceed to

Registering Episode with a Separately Purchased License

.

Note:

If your computer does not have Internet access, do not use this section. Instead, use a separate computer with Internet access to open the Manual Activation Guide on the Telestream Web site ( http://www.telestream.net/pdfs/user-guides/

Manual_Activation_Guide.pdf

). The guide provides a step-by-step procedure to manually activate Episode after purchasing a license.

Purchasing a License Directly in Episode and Registering It

Registering Episode with a Separately Purchased License

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

41

Purchasing a License Directly in Episode and Registering It

1.

To purchase a license directly in Episode, follow these steps: Select Tools >

Preferences and click on the License tab.

Figure 1.

License Tab

Episode 6.5

Click Add to purchase or enter a license and activate it.

2.

Click Add to display the Add License dialog.

Figure 2.

Add License Dialog

Click Purchase to obtain a license.

3.

Click Purchase to display the online Telestream Store main page, which is an ecommerce site with a standard shopping cart interface.

4.

Follow the steps in the store to purchase Episode for your platform plus Episode options. When the transaction for your order is complete, the store displays a receipt (which you should print and save), and includes the serial number.

5.

Close the order receipt window—Episode automatically enters the serial number you received into the Serial Number field.

6.

Click OK to activate the license for this copy of Episode, and close the dialog. Then, click OK to close the Preferences window.

Quit Episode (File > Exit) and re-start it to use it in activated mode.

This copy of Episode is now registered and you can encode media without the watermark or time limits.

42

Installing Episode

Purchasing a License & Registering Episode

Registering Episode with a Separately Purchased License

Use this section to enter and activate a license you purchased separately.

1.

Select Tools > Preferences and click on the License tab.

Figure 3.

License Tab

Click Add to purchase or enter a license and activate it.

2.

Click Add to display the Add License dialog.

Figure 4.

License Tab

Click OK after entering the license.

3.

Enter the serial number into the Serial Number field.

4.

Click OK to activate the license for this copy of Episode, and close the dialog. Then, click OK to close the Preferences window.

5.

Quit Episode (File > Exit) and re-start it to use it in activated mode.

This copy of Episode is now registered and you can encode media without the watermark or time limits.

Episode 6.5

Installing Episode

Upgrading Episode

43

Upgrading Episode

Episode upgrades are periodically posted on the Telestream site at www.telestream.net/episode/overview.htm

. Go to that page and click Support >

Episode > Upgrade—upgrades are displayed in the right column.

Download the upgrade you want to install. Before upgrading the version, be sure to remove the previous version of Episode. See

Removing Episode from your Computer

, below.

Then follow the instructions in

Downloading and Installing Episode

to install the new

version of Episode on your computer.

Episode 6.5

44

Installing Episode

Removing Episode from your Computer

Removing Episode from your Computer

To uninstall Episode from your Windows computer, display Control Panel > Add/

Remove programs. Select Episode and click Remove.

Note:

If uninstalling Episode fails, open the Services control panel and manually stop each Episode service, then retry.

If you have installed an Episode cluster (individual copies of Episode on more than one

Windows computer), perform this task on each computer where Episode is installed.

For details about removing Episode for MacOS X nodes, see the Episode for MacOS X

User’s Guide > Installing Episode > Removing Episode from your Computer.

Removing the Episode program from a computer does not remove any workflows you’ve made, or any media you’ve saved on the computer.

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

The more you know about Episode, the better it can meet your encoding requirements.

The best way to get up and running quickly is to jump right in. In these short guided tours, you'll learn how Episode is designed to work.

When you've completed the tours, you'll be ready to design and implement workflows for the kinds of encoding work you want to perform.

You'll be able to submit media manually and automatically, and jobs as Episode goes to work—transcoding and delivering your media—in the right format, to the right place, at the right time.

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

Tour 2: Encoding Your First Media File

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

Tour 4: Automating Workflows with Watch Folders

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

45

46

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

This tour introduces the main components of Episode. If you haven't yet done so, start

Episode and take a minute to explore the panels of Episode’s main window.

Figure 5.

Main Episode Window

Media browser panel.

Library Tabbed Tasks panel.

Inspector panel.

Status panel.

Workflow panel.

Episode’s main window is comprised of five panels.

The

Media Browser

on the left is a two-level panel where you can create and browse bookmarks of key directories on your local computer and network servers. These bookmarks allow you to gain quick access to the media files and folders you use in your encoding workflows.

The top center

Library Tasks panel

provides tabs for

Workflows, Sources, Encoders

, and

Deployments

(you’ll be introduced to these in Tour 2).

Directly below the

Library Tasks panel

is the

Workflow panel

, where you can view, create and edit workflows—combining tasks into a

workflow

, which specifies (among other things) how to encode a source file and where to save the output file or files.

The right panel is the

Inspector panel

, where you review and configure the settings of the currently-selected task to customize your workflow.

The

Status

panel displays all of your jobs and their details. On the Mac, the Status panel opens in a separate window when you click Submit or select Window > Show Status.

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

47

Workflows

The way you specify how you want to encode your media in Episode is the

workflow

. A workflow describes where new source files to encode are located, how files are encoded, and where the newly-encoded file or files are saved. When a new file is identified, a job is created for each source file, containing all the tasks in the workflow.

Then Episode goes to work - decoding the source file, encoding it per your Encode task configuration, and deploying the file to the location you’ve specified.

At a minimum, a useful workflow consists of three tasks: a source, an encoder, and a deployment. You can customize all three types of tasks to accomplish your specific transcoding purposes.

Figure 6.

Typical Three-task Workflow

A source task may consist of a single file or a list of files. It may also use a Watch Folder on local disk, an FTP server, or a network server. New media files placed in this directory are retrieved (localized) and encoded.

Figure 7.

Typical Watch Folder Source Task

A Watch Folder (named “Incoming” in the figures) is checked at regular (user-settable) intervals for new files. When a file is saved in the Watch Folder, it is identified and a job is scheduled for encoding. However, writing the entire media file to the folder takes time and the file cannot be encoded until the file transfer is complete, so Episode polls the file to see when it has been completely written and released. Only then is the encoding job submitted.

While it is possible to set up multiple Watch Folders to watch the same folder, this is both inefficient and error-prone. It is better to set up a single Watch Folder for the folder you want to watch and connect multiple encoders to that Watch Folder in one workflow.

Episode 6.5

48

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

Figure 8.

Watch Folder with Default Settings

Encoder Tasks

Each encoder task contains a specification of how a source file should be encoded, providing the output file format, which codecs should be used for encoding video and/ or audio data, what filtering operations should be applied to the data and whether or not encoding should be performed as a Split-and-Stitch job.

While a workflow always contains a single source task (which may contain multiple files), the source can be connected to an arbitrary number of encoder tasks, so that each source file is transcoded into multiple output files.

Settings files from earlier Episode versions can be used, but you should always verify that they have been correctly imported. For example, if the settings specify the use of

AAC audio and you don't have the Pro Audio Option, you must adjust the encoder accordingly. You should also save legacy settings files to the Library and then drag them from the Library to use them; this upgrades the files to the current settings file format and changes any discontinued settings to the closest available alternative.

Figure 9.

Typical Encoder Task

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

49

Split-and-Stitch Encoding

In Split-and-Stitch jobs, the source media is split into several segments, which are encoded in parallel utilizing all available nodes in your cluster. The resulting output segments are then stitched back together to form the output file, using all available resources to reduce total transcoding time. Formats that have the hinted streaming option checked cannot be processed using Split-and-Stitch. These formats are automatically encoded as a regular job even if you specify Split-and-Stitch.

Note:

In Split & Stitch jobs, deployment tasks execute on the same server as the stitch task. This is done to minimize network file transfer inefficiencies. The only way to disable this feature is to use the XML/RPC interface.

The decision to use Split-and-Stitch depends on what kind of jobs you typically encounter. If you have a steady influx of many files, the files will be encoded in parallel anyway, so you can make the best use of resources by avoiding the overhead of Splitand-Stitch. Additionally, if your source files are relatively small, little time will be gained from employing Split-and-Stitch.

However, if you have many Episode nodes and you often process single large files, or process a few large files simultaneously, and you need them encoded as quickly as possible, then Split-and-Stitch is the right choice.

Jobs that shouldn’t be held up by long-running Split-and-Stitch jobs can be run at a higher priority, enabling these jobs to go to the head of the queue.

If you have several Episode installations, you can divide your computers into two or more Episode clusters, and dedicate one cluster to high-priority jobs.

Figure 10.

Split-and-Stitch Example

Split-and-Stitch

Episode 6.5

50

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

Deployments

A deployment specifies where the output file from an encoder task is stored. The store may be a directory on local disk or a network server, or it may be an FTP-based Internet media service, such as YouTube. Each encoder task may be connected to multiple deployment tasks, so that each output file can be stored in several different places.

Figure 11.

Typical Deployment Task

Tasks

Task

is the general term for the activities in a workflow and generally refers to source tasks, encoder tasks, and deployment tasks. Episode offers a variety of predefined tasks, but you can always modify these tasks (or create your own) and then store these as

user tasks

. Tasks are stored as XML files and can be easily sent to other users.

System tasks are located on your system drive, in \Program Files\Telestream\Episode

6\bin\resources\templates\tasks\.

User tasks are located in \Documents and Settings\<User>\My Documents\Episode

6\Tasks\.

Figure 12.

Predefined System Encoder Tasks

Nodes

A

node

is an instance of Episode running on a computer. A node can either run alone or it can be associated with a

cluster

. Any node can create a new cluster, and become the

master

for that cluster. Other nodes joining that cluster become

participants

. Clusters can be accessed on the local subnet or via IP or DNS host name. Jobs submitted at a cluster node are routed via the master, which then sends them to a suitable node for encoding.

If a master node leaves a cluster, no additional jobs can be submitted to that cluster until the master rejoins the cluster. Also, when the master rejoins, it may not be the

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 1: Episode Concepts

51

master, depending on the cause of its leaving the cluster; be sure to check its status before submitting jobs.

Figure 13.

Cluster Browser Showing Episode Nodes

Nodes in a cluster can run on both MacOS X and Windows computers. Submitted jobs are processed on any available machine according to the job scheduling policy—see

Setting Preferences

—with the restriction that QuickTime encoding can only be

performed on a node running on the same type of platform as the node that submits the job.

Note:

MacOS X and Windows computers that share a SAN cannot directly share files over that SAN because the path structures are different on the two operating systems.

However, the Named Storage feature of Episode allows files on SANs to be accessed by

both platforms. Please refer to

Using Named Storage

on

page 116

for details.

Summary

In this tour, you learned about the main Episode window panels and components: workflows, sources and Watched Folders, encoders, deployments, tasks, and nodes.

Episode 6.5

52

Getting Started

Tour 2: Encoding Your First Media File

Tour 2: Encoding Your First Media File

This tour takes less than 10 minutes and introduces you to using Episode.

Episode provides a wide variety of pre-configured workflows in its workflow library.

These pre-configured workflows are an easy way to get started, a convenient way to encode most media, and allow you to modify the workflow to meet your needs.

Let's encode your first media file, using one of these pre-configured workflows.

1.

If Episode isn’t running, start it now.

2.

Select the Workflows tab.

3.

In the menu directly below, display only the workflows for Apple platforms—select

System Workflows > Apple Devices.

Note:

If you don’t have enough room to view the list easily, make the main window larger or resize your panels to suit your needs.

4.

Click and drag the iPhone SD workflow onto the Workflow panel below.

The iPhone SD workflow converts a source file into a format for playback on the iPhone and saves the output in the same folder as the source file, with the proper extension.

This workflow contains a blank source task (far left) and two predefined tasks: an encoder task (center) and a deployment task (right).

Figure 14.

Typical Episode Workflow

5.

Now, let’s add a file to be encoded by this workflow—select it from the Media

Browser—the panel on the left.

The top part of the browser displays

bookmarks

, directories that contain your media files. Episode by default includes bookmarks for some common media directories (and you can add your own). To select a file, open a bookmark to display its directories and files in the bottom panel. Select the file you want to submit by dragging it onto the File List task in the workflow.

6.

Open the Computer bookmark and navigate to a short file of your choice on your computer.

7.

Drag and drop the file onto the source box at the far left.

Figure 15.

Adding Video to Workflow

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 2: Encoding Your First Media File

53

Notice that when you drop a media file onto the blank source task, Episode assumes you want this workflow to be used for manual submission, so it automatically adds a

File List task.

8.

Click the Submit button (located at the bottom right corner of the center panel) to start the encoding job.

Episode displays the details of all currently-active encoding jobs in the Status panel. In the absence of other jobs, your job quickly activates.

Note:

If you’re using Episode without a license, Episode displays a License Issue window, notifying you that you do not have a license to encode media, and it applies a watermark to the video. Click Yes, encode as demo to continue.

9.

Select your job to display its progress (you can also display further details by clicking on the triangle).

Figure 16.

Status of Jobs

When the job is finished, you can find the output file with an

m4v

suffix, in the same folder as the source file you submitted.

10.

Double-click the new output file to play it in QuickTime Player.

Encoding Multiple Files in the Same Workflow

To encode several files at the same time in the same workflow, select and drag all of the source files onto the Workflow Editor (not the source task) panel. Episode adds the new file references to the file list (which still includes the existing file), and you can click

Submit (as before) to encode all files.

If you want to remove an existing file from the list, click the file list—the file names are listed in the far right panel. You can click the Delete button next to the file name, or right-click on the name and click

Remove

.

Summary

You just learned how to start Episode, how to review a workflow in the Workflow Editor, and how to submit a file for transcoding—and transcoded your first file.

Episode 6.5

54

Getting Started

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

As easy as it is to select a pre-configured workflow and encode media, most workflows must be modified to meet your particular encoding requirements—adding new tasks, making changes to encoding settings, delivering media to a specific directory, etc.

In this tour, which takes less than 15 minutes, you'll learn how to modify workflows by adding tasks and changing their settings.

Note:

When you make changes to a workflow, Episode displays a diagonal Changed banner in the upper right corner of the panel, to indicate that you should save your changes.

In addition to encoding one or more files using the same encoder, you can encode files with multiple encoders in the same workflow. For example, you can create or modify a workflow that encodes media for the iPod, and simultaneously encodes the same file to

Flash and Windows Media Video.

Adding Encoder Tasks to a Workflow

1.

If you quit Episode, start it again.

2.

Select the Workflows tab at the top and display the Apple platforms workflows— select System Workflows > Apple Devices.

3.

Drag the iPhone SD workflow to the

workflow editor

.

4.

Select the Encoders tab.

5.

From the dropdown menu, select System Encoders, then scroll down and open the

Web > Download > Flash > Flash 8 folder to display only the encoders in the Flash 8 category.

Figure 17.

Encoders—Organized by Category

>

6.

Drag the

Flash8 FLV 640x480

task to the workflow editor just below the original iPhone encoder. When you drop the encoder template, the new encoder task connects to the File List task.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

55

Figure 18.

Adding Encoders to Workflow

7.

Now navigate to the WMV9 (Windows Media) encoders (select System Encoders >

Web > Streaming > WMV9) to display them.

8.

Drag the

WM9 1MBit

task to the workflow editor below the bottom encoder. When you drop it, the new encoder also connects to the File List task.

Notice that the new encoder tasks you just added don't yet have output destinations. Instead of outputting your encoded files back to the source directory, let's place the output in another directory.

9.

Click and drag the Desktop directory from the Media Browser panel (at the far left) and drop it directly onto the deployment task outline to the right of each new encoder task to replace it.

If the encoder already has a destination and you want to add another, drop it below the current destination. The new one is added to make the encoder send its output to both destinations.

Note:

You can also drop tasks on an existing task to replace it with the new one.

Figure 19.

Adding Destinations to a Workflow

Drag the bookmark from here...

... to here to add it to your workflow.

56

Getting Started

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

Editing Encoders

Several pre-configured encoder templates are supplied with Episode, but usually you need to adjust their settings to suit your particular application or problem.

10.

Select the iPhone 640x480 Letterbox encoder in the workflow editor. The

inspector

on the right displays the current settings.

11.

Select Video Encoder in the Output subpanel to display the codec parameters in the bottom panel.

12.

Change the codec to MPEG-4 using the small arrow at the right of the video codec selection.

Figure 20.

Inspector Panel for Encoders

13.

Change the Average Bit Rate to match the 1600Kbps rate of the other files.

Saving Encoders

When you change an encoder's settings, the change is immediately effective in the current workflow, but the settings in the original encoder template have not changed.

The next time you add the

iPhone 640x480 Letterbox

encoder to another workflow, it has its original settings.

This is an easy way to make changes for testing or one-time usage, but if you’ve made extensive changes that you want to re-use, you should save the encoder task with its new settings to the Library as a different template.

Lets start by renaming the encoder template.

14.

Click on the Task Name field at the top of the inspector, and enter a new name. For example,

iPhone 640x480 Letterbox 1600

.

15.

Click Save as (at the bottom of the Inspector panel). Episode displays an explorer dialog. You can determine where to save the encoder (by default, it is saved in User

Encoders), and also change the name. Click OK to save it.

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 3: Editing Workflows

57

It may be difficult to find your modified encoder templates among all the others, so you can choose User Encoders in the filter menu to display only the encoders you have created yourself.

Figure 21.

User-modified Encoder Templates

Saving Workflows

When you make changes to a workflow, you need to save it. When you save a workflow

(even with the same name as the system template workflow), it is saved in User

Workflows. To save the workflow using another name, enter the new workflow’s name in the Name field at the bottom of the workflow panel.

16.

Save your workflow by clicking File > Save Workflow As (Control-Shift-S) and entering a name in the Save As window and clicking OK.

Episode saves your new workflow in Workflows > User Workflows.

Summary

In this tour, you learned how to add new tasks, and learned how to configure them using the inspector. You also learned how to save encoders as templates, and how to save workflows.

If you want to continue, just jump right into the next tour.

Episode 6.5

58

Getting Started

Tour 4: Automating Workflows with Watch Folders

Tour 4: Automating Workflows with Watch Folders

Manually submitting a file or list of files as input is useful for one-shot encodings, but in a production environment you can automatically process source files arriving from other users or systems. You can achieve this by using

Watch Folders

. A Watch Folder on local or remote storage is monitored by an Episode workflow. When a file is saved in the folder, Episode retrieves the file for processing in the workflow.

Let's configure the iPhone SD workflow with an Watch Folder.

1.

Start Episode if it is not already running.

2.

Open Workflows > System Workflows > Apple Devices > iPhone_Flash8_WMV_SD.

3.

Create a new folder named

CaptureMedia

on your computer desktop.

4.

Back in Episode, in the Media Browser panel, click Add Bookmark (+). This creates a new, untitled bookmark for a local folder. (You can also create bookmarks for FTP servers and network servers).

5.

Use the URL Browser Path menu to navigate to the

CaptureMedia

folder and click

OK. You can also use the drop-down menu to create bookmarks on other servers, including an FTP server or network share (and SMB server—MacOS X only).

To connect to other servers, you will need to include your user credentials and a port number (default 21).

If you wish to you use Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption for FTP data transfers, select an option from the SSL Mode drop-down menu. Off does not use SSL. On enables SSL but drops back to unencrypted mode if SSL fails. Force Control uses SSL encryption and fails to connect if SSL fails. Force All uses SSL encryption for all traffic.

Figure 22.

Adding a Bookmark

6.

To change the name of the bookmark, click the new bookmark, enter

CaptureMedia

in the Bookmark Inspector name field and click OK.

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 4: Automating Workflows with Watch Folders

59

7.

Drag the

CaptureMedia

bookmark from the Media Browser panel to the File List task in the workflow editor. Because a folder was dragged in as a source task, Episode knows you intend to create a Watch Folder.

8.

Press Submit to start the workflow polling the Watch Folder for new files. Episode displays the Status panel, and your new task is running.

Files that are added to the target directory are automatically submitted to a workflow.

Summary

In this tour, you’ve learned some advanced tasks—how to make and use bookmarks, and how to implement Watch Folders to automate workflow processing.

Episode 6.5

60

Getting Started

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

If you have multiple copies of Episode running on different computers (

nodes

) on the same network, they can form encoding

clusters

. In a cluster, encoding jobs are distributed to maximize the throughput of the cluster to scale your processing power and increase throughput.

Note:

When operating as part of a cluster, deployment tasks always execute on the same server as the encode task in the job. In Split & Stitch jobs, deployment tasks execute on the same server as the stitch task. This is done to minimize network file transfer inefficiencies. The only way to disable this feature is to use the XML/RPC interface.

You can have different editions of Episode in the same cluster, and each one can encode as many parallel jobs as its edition allows.

Joining a Cluster

1.

If Episode is not running, start it again.

2.

Display the Cluster Browser window (select View > Cluster Browser) to view the clusters on your network.

Figure 23.

Cluster Browser Window

Notice that your node is identified as currently private.

To join a cluster, first make sure you don’t have any jobs running.

3.

Select the cluster you want to join, and choose Join <cluster name> from the dropdown menu.

Episode displays a warning: Any jobs currently underway will be stopped.

4.

Click Yes to continue.

Note:

If the cluster you want to access is not on your local subnet, you can access it by

IP address or DNS host name. Use the gear drop-down menu in the lower right corner

Episode 6.5

Getting Started

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

61

of the Cluster Browser to select Join or Submit, and enter the address or host name of the cluster master.

Figure 24.

Joined Cluster

Your computer has been added to the cluster you selected. You can now submit jobs to the cluster, and other machines on the cluster can submit jobs to your machine. The jobs are encoded by the best available computer.

Note:

If you want to submit jobs from your machine to the cluster for processing, but you do not want to receive jobs from other machines in the cluster, choose Submit instead of Join from the drop-down menu.

Summary

In this tour, you learned about scaling up Episode to include several Episode nodes on different computers, creating a cluster, and joining each node to the cluster to perform large-scale parallel encoding.

Episode 6.5

62

Getting Started

Tour 5: Cluster Encoding

Episode 6.5

Using Episode

Use this chapter to learn about using the main Episode window and its panels, plus the

Preview and Cluster windows, setting preferences, and using online help. These topics are presented:

Episode’s Workflow Window

Using the Media Browser Panel

Using the Library Panel

Using the Workflow Editor Panel

Using the Inspector Panel

Using the Status Panel

Using the Preview Window

Using the Cluster Window

Setting Preferences

Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

Note:

If you haven’t yet taken the tours in

Getting Started

, we encourage you to do so.

It’s a great way to learn the basics of Episode and quickly gain hands-on experience using the application. After completing the tours, use these topics as reference, for detailed instructions when using Episode.

Episode’s Workflow Window

The Workflow window is Episode’s main window, where you perform most of your work. You use the Workflow window to create and edit workflows, submit jobs, monitor jobs in progress, and manage your source files and output deployments.

63

64

Using Episode

Using the Media Browser Panel

Figure 25.

Workflow window

Media Browser panel Library panel Workflow panel

Inspector panel

Status panel

The Workflow window is comprised of five panels, each designed to help you with workflow creation and management—the Media Browser, Library, Workflow, Inspector, and Status panels. The main window also includes a toolbar at the top, which is discussed later in this section. You can adjust the size and layout of each of panel by grabbing and dragging its border handles to suit your needs.

Using the Media Browser Panel

The left-most panel is the

Media Browser panel

, a two-level panel where you can browse directories and files on your local computer and network servers, and create bookmarks for the directories you use most. These bookmarks provide quick access to media files and folders to use when creating your workflows.

Episode 6.5

Using Episode

Using the Media Browser Panel

65

Figure 26.

Media Browser—Easy Access to Your Media

Click to add a new bookmark. Configure it in the URL Browser window.

Bookmarks are listed under their respective categories, which you can open or close.

Episode 6.5

Directories and files in the selected bookmark.

Click to display as icons or a list

You can use the Media Browser panel in the same way you use Windows Explorer.

You can create bookmarks that identify folders on local drives, FTP sites, Wiretap servers. You can also create bookmarks for shares and using SMB (MacOS X only) to identify network-based media folders. (If the server is not available, of course the media files in those directories are not available either.)

Storage devices such as internal and external hard drives, USB storage devices, and browsable storage on digital cameras are also displayed in the Media browser.

Bookmarks make it easy to submit media for processing. Bookmarks also make it easy to configure monitored folders for source tasks and destination directories for deployment tasks. Just add the bookmark, configure it with your target directory, and drag and drop it in place in your workflow.

You select a bookmark or device to display its files and folders in the bottom half of the

Media Browser. If the bookmark points to an FTP site, Wiretap server, or network share/

SMB server, it may take a moment to connect.

You can drag media from any bookmark in the Media Browser directly onto the

Workflow Editor, and then submit it for processing.

You can optionally use the arrows to expand or collapse the Media Browser panel, which displays on the left side of the Workflow window. These topics explain the Media

Browser panel:

Working with Bookmarks

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB Bookmarks

Changing File Views

Manually Submitting Files to a Workflow

Configuring Source and Deployment Tasks with Bookmarks

66

Using Episode

Using the Media Browser Panel

Working with Bookmarks

The Media Browser panel includes buttons and context menus for various bookmark functions. You can also access some of these functions in the Media Browser menu at the top of the Episode main window.

In Episode, you can bookmark a local folder, and FTP or SMB directory (for network and

Internet-based locations), and an Autodesk Wiretap directory. These topics explain how to work with Bookmarks:

Adding a Bookmark

Configuring a Bookmark

Deleting a Bookmark

Working with Bookmark Folders

Working with Files in the Media Browser

Adding a Bookmark

To add a bookmark, use one of the following methods:

Click and drag a folder from Windows Explorer into the top pane of the Media

Browser

Select Media Browser > Add Bookmark

Click the

Add Bookmark

button at the top of the panel

Right-click in the Media Browser open area and select

Add Bookmark

.

Configuring a Bookmark

When you drag a folder from Windows Explorer, you automatically configure it.

When you create a new, untitled bookmark by the other methods, Episode displays the

URL Browser to help you configure it. How you configure it depends on the type of bookmark you want to create.

To edit an existing bookmark’s settings:

Select it in the Media Browser to display it in the Inspector. Click Edit to display the URL

Browser to view and configure settings.

When you update the settings in the URL Browser, click OK to save the changes or

Cancel to abandon your changes.

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Figure 27.

Bookmark Inspector and URL Browser (when bookmark is selected)

Click Edit to view and change bookmark details

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Click OK to apply changes or

Cancel to abandon changes.

Configuring a Local Directory bookmark is simple: optionally, change the name, and change the location by entering or navigating to and selecting the proper path to the directory.

Configuring FTP, share/SMB and Autodesk Wiretap bookmarks is more complex. For

details, see

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB Bookmarks

.

Deleting a Bookmark

To delete a bookmark, use one of these methods:

Select the bookmark and press the Delete key

Select

Delete (Del)

from the

Edit

menu

Right-click the bookmark and select Delete

Deleting a bookmark does not delete files or folders. It just removes the shortcut in

Episode that identifies the source of the bookmark.

Working with Bookmark Folders

To work with bookmark folders:

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Right-click a bookmark to display a context menu with these options:

Add as Watch Folder

. Add as a Watched Folder source to the current workflow

Add as Deployment.

Add the folder as a deployment to the current workflow

Delete Bookmark

. Delete the selected bookmark

Refresh

. Update the selected bookmark’s folder contents list

Open in Explorer

. Open the bookmark in Explorer

When you highlight a bookmark, information about it and additional options display in the Bookmark Inspector panel.

FTP, Wiretap servers, and network share (SMB) servers require configuration in the URL

Browser to make bookmarks for them (see

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB

Bookmarks

). When these servers are mounted in Windows Explorer, they are treated as local folders. However, the connection is not automatically reinstated if lost or if the server is unmounted. For this reason, it is better to make bookmarks that connect directly to the remote location.

Working with Files in the Media Browser

To work with files in the Media Browser bottom panel:

Right-click a file to view a context menu offering these options:

Add to Workflow

. Adds the file as an input file list to the current workflow

Preview

. Opens the file for viewing in the Preview window

Open in Explorer

. Opens the folder containing the file in Explorer

Open With Associated Program

. Opens the file using the program assigned to that file type by the operating system

When you highlight a file, information about it and additional options appear in the

Inspector panel, including the option to preview the file in the Inspector panel Quick

Preview window for some file types.

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB Bookmarks

FTP, Wiretap, and SMB/network share bookmarks require more configuration than bookmarks for local files systems. (Note that directories on an FTP or SMB/network share server running directly on your computer can be configured using a local bookmark.)

Episode supports FTPS (encrypted FTP over SSL/TLS) for FTP servers and includes an

SSL Mode selection controlling how SSL is used.

To configure one of these bookmarks, follow these steps:

1.

Click

Add Bookmark

to create a new bookmark and display the URL Browser.

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Figure 28.

URL Browser

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2.

In the URL Browser, select the Protocol popup menu and select FTP | Network Share

(SMB) | Autodesk Wiretap. (FTP is shown in the figure.)

3.

Configure the settings listed below and click Apply to update the bookmark and test your connectivity.

Host

. Enter the host name or IP address of the server, in the form

192.168.1.1

|

myftpserverdomain.com

|

myServername

.

Don’t add the

smb://, ftp://,

or

wiretap://

prefix to the server name or IP address.

Share

. Manually enter the path or navigate to the target folder and select it. A network share, for example,

C:\folder1\folder2\shared

could be named

Shared

assuming Shared is the share name. You can also double-click the folder if it appears in the contents box, to add it to the path.

User

. Enter the authorized user name to log in to the server.

Domain

. Manually enter the domain name for the target share.

Password

. Enter password for the user name you supply.

Port

. The TCP/IP port number used to connect to the server. Default for SMB: 445, for

FTP: 21, for Wiretap: 7549.

SSL Mode

(FTP only). Controls FTP Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for secure data transfer:

Off

. Disables SSL. All transmissions occur using an unencrypted FTP connection.

On

. Enables SSL encryption and falls back to a clear connection if SSL fails.

Force Control

. enables SSL encryption and fails to connect if SSL fails.

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Force All

. Enables SSL encryption and ensures that all traffic is encrypted.

Open

. Click Open to attempt to connect. If connection is successful, Episode displays the directories in the contents pane.

OK/Cancel

. Click OK to update and save the bookmark, or click Cancel to cancel the bookmark.

A yellow exclamation icon indicates incorrect server information. If you can connect, the

Contents list displays the server’s folders. If not, correct the configuration and try again.

Proxy servers are not supported for FTP.

Changing File Views

Use the Media Browser Views buttons (in the bottom left corner) to change views in the file list.

Icons

. Select to view files as icons on a grid.

List

. Select to view files as a list.

Manually Submitting Files to a Workflow

To manually submit a file to a workflow:

1.

Navigate to and open the directory containing the media using the Media Browser panel.

2.

Drag and drop the media files on the Source task, which becomes a File List (if it isn’t already). You can drag and drop local media files from Windows Explorer to the source task.

3.

Click Submit to start processing your workflow.

Note:

To add files or a directory from a network location, it is best to create a bookmark for that location as described in the next section. Bookmarks completely define all information required to access a network location. If you drag a file or folder from Windows Explorer, the location information might be incomplete and the location unavailable

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Configuring Source and Deployment Tasks with Bookmarks

You can easily configure your source and deployment tasks using a bookmark. You can add a local, FTP or network share (SMB) directory to a source. You can add a local, FTP,

Network Share (SMB), or Wiretap directory as a deployment.

Drag and drop the selected bookmark from the Media Browser directly on the source or deployment task placeholder. (You can also drag and drop files directly from Windows to create local file lists.)

After you add the bookmark to your workflow, you need to configure it for use. For configuring source monitors, see

Configuring a Watch Folder Source Task . For

configuring deployment tasks, see

Configuring a Deployment Task

.

For information on creating and configuring bookmarks, see

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB Bookmarks

.

Using the Library Panel

The top center

Library panel

is tabbed. All of Episode’s workflow resources are stored in the library, and organized by

Workflows, Sources, Encoders, and Deployments

tabs.

Figure 29.

Library Panel

Resources are itemized by workflows, sources, encoders, and deployments.

Enter text to filter the library items that display.

Display as list or icons

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Items in the selected category display here.

Select the category to display:

System or User

Click a tab to see the corresponding lists of system and user resources for each task type. For example, to see available encoders, click the Encoders tab, and then click the popup menu below the tab for a list of system and user Encoder resources.

The

Library panel

is where you save your configured workflows, and your source, encoder, and deployment tasks for use in other workflows. The library is also where you browse and display your workflows and individual tasks, making it much easier to create and assemble new workflows from predefined tasks without the effort of configuring them.

When you see the resource you want to use, click and drag it to a task box in the

Workflow panel, and the task will use that resource. You can also deploy entire workflows (system or user-defined) by dragging and dropping them from the Library to the Workflow panel.

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Episode also provides a wide variety of predefined resources in its library. Episode provides over 250 predefined encoder tasks for use in your workflows. For a list of all library commands, see

Library Menu

.

The following topics describe library management tasks and topics.

Browsing the Library

Adding Items to a Workflow

Adding an Item to the Library

Removing an Item from the Library

Modifying Library Items

Renaming Library Items

Duplicating Library Items

Library Context Menu

Browsing the Library

Items in the library are organized by type:

Workflows

Source tasks

Encoder tasks

Deployment tasks

To view a given type of library item:

Click on its tab or select Library > Browse Workflows | Sources | Encoders |

Deployments.

Items of each type are further organized by category. Episode displays the items of the selected type, based on the category selected in the Category popup menu, which is located directly below the tabs.

All items are categorized as System and User. Items in the System category are provided by Episode, and can’t be modified. User items are resources that you’ve created yourself. Tasks and workflows are displayed in alphabetical order.

Workflow and Encoder library items are further organized by special categories. For example, workflow items have a special Web Formats category. Encoder items are subcategorized by file format, usage, and media formats: for example, AAC, XDCAMHD,

Mobile and Devices, and Streaming.

You can restrict the items that display by using the category menu or entering a search term in the search box at top right.

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Adding Items to a Workflow

To add any item in the library to the current workflow, drag the item into the Workflow panel or select Library > Add to Workflow. If you drag another workflow from the

Library to the Workflow Editor, the previous workflow is replaced with the new one.

CAUTION:

When you drag a workflow from the Library, it replaces the current workflow in the Workflow Editor, and any changes to the previous workflow are lost unless you saved them. Be sure to save a workflow first, using the File menu or the context menu before replacing it with another workflow from the Library.

You can also import tasks into a workflow from previously exported workflows using the Import option in the File menu.

Adding an Item to the Library

You can create a new item and add it to the library, or you can add an item from the workflow that you’ve already configured.

To add a new item to the library from an edited workflow:

1.

Select Library > New Source | Encoder | Deployment

Episode creates a new, untitled item of the type selected, and displays its configuration in the Inspector.

2.

Configure the item in the Inspector (for details, see the Inspector topic for the selected item) and click Save to save the item in the library.

To save an item from an already-configured workflow:

3.

Select File > Save Task As (Control-Alt-Shift-S) and supply the appropriate name.

You can save existing edited workflows under the same name or you can save edited workflows under a new name with File > Save Workflow As (Shift-Command-S).

A selected edited task can be saved by right-clicking Save Task As. If you want to send your workflow/task to someone else to use, you can export them with File > Export

Workflow and File > Export Task respectively.

Workflows are saved as a unit to the following locations:

System workflows are stored in \Program Files\Telestream\Episode

6\bin\resources\templates\workflows\systemworkflows.

User workflows are stored in \Documents and Settings\User\My Documents\Episode 6\Workflows\\userworkflows.

Removing an Item from the Library

To delete an item from the library:

1.

Select the item.

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2.

Select Library > Remove Item (Control-Delete).

3.

Click Remove to confirm.

You cannot delete System items; you can only delete user-created items.

CAUTION:

Library items are permanently deleted and cannot be retrieved.

Modifying Library Items

To modify a library item:

1.

Select the library item you want to reconfigure.

2.

Configure the item in the Inspector.

3.

Click Save or Save As to save the item in the library.

System items cannot be saved, but you can modify them and use Save As to save them as user items.

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Renaming Library Items

To rename a library item:

1.

Double-click the item’s name in the library or select the item.

2.

Select Library > Rename <Item Type> to edit the name.

You can also rename an item in the inspector. System items cannot be renamed but must be duplicated and saved as a user item under a new name.

Duplicating Library Items

To duplicate a library item:

1.

Select the item.

2.

Select Library > Duplicate <item> (Control-D) to create a new item with the same name and an incrementing numeric suffix.

3.

Now, modify the item and rename it.

Library Context Menu

The Library context menu offers quick access to Library options.

To display the workflow context menu:

Right-click an item in the Library panel to access these commands:

Add to Workflow

. (+) Adds the selected library task/workflow to the currently edited workflow.

Save As <item>

. Save the selected library item as a new item.

Duplicate <item>

. Create another instance of the selected library item.

Rename <item>

. Rename the selected library item.

Remove <item>

. Remove the selected library item from the library.

Delete <item>

. Delete the selected library item.

Using the Workflow Editor Panel

Directly below the Library panel is the

Workflow panel

, where you create, edit, and view workflows. These topics explain the Workflow Editor Panel:

Overview

Workflow Panel Context Menu

Creating a New Workflow

Creating Source Tasks

Configuring a File List Source Task

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Using the Workflow Editor Panel

Configuring a Watch Folder Source Task

Configuring Image Sequences

Configuring an Encoder Task

Configuring a Deployment Task

Setting Workflow Priority

Submitting Workflows

Using the Preview Window

Passing Through Captions Embedded in the Source

Overview

A

workflow

in Episode is a series of tasks you assemble in a specific order and configure to specify how you want Episode to encode a file and where to save the output. As you create workflows, you can name and save them using the File > Save Workflow As menu.

Figure 30.

Workflow Editor with Typical Workflow

Priority slider or value field.

Click to submit the workflow for processing.

Use Control-S (File > Save As) to save the workflow.

Click to create a new, untitled workflow.

Name of the workflow to save.

Each

workflow

is a connected set of tasks—encoders and deployments—with an optional source. You can configure a workflow to determine how your source files are submitted, how to encode them, and where to save the output files.

Workflows are organized left to right with three columns—the sources (clips) to encode on the left, the encoders in the middle, and the deployments (destinations) on the right. Each box in the workflow is called a

task

.

For each workflow, a single source task is permitted. Often it is convenient to save workflows without a source task. In this way, standard workflows can be reused, simply by placing them in the workflow editor and dragging in a new source. Workflows can have multiple encoders and multiple deployments for the output files from the encoder.

You can drag and drop local media files from Windows Explorer, the Media Browser panel, or the Library to the source task in the Workflow panel. When you click on a task, its detailed information is shown in the Inspector panel.

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Note:

To add files or a directory from a network location, it is best to create a bookmark for that location as described in

Configuring FTP, Wiretap, and Share/SMB

Bookmarks

. Bookmarks completely define all information required to access a network location. If you drag a file or folder from Windows Explorer, the location information might be incomplete and the location unavailable

After creating a workflow, you should provide it a meaningful name using the name field at the bottom of the panel, and select File > Save As (Control-Shift-S) to save it in the library. Workflows you create are saved in the library’s User Workflows category.

You also use the workflow editor to submit media to a workflow for transcoding. You can submit media in two ways: manually, by adding it to the source task’s file list, or automatically by dragging and dropping files into a directory being monitored by a running workflow. (The automatic method works only if the workflow has been submitted and is currently running.)

The workflow name you provide displays in the Status window when you submit media to it for processing.

Workflow Panel Context Menu

The workflow context menu offers quick access to workflow options.

To display the workflow context menu:

Right-click in the Workflow panel to access these commands:

Preview

. Displays the Preview window. If one or more files is in the file list, the latest one added is displayed.

Save Task As

. When a task which has unsaved changes is selected, saves the task in the library.

Save Workflow As

. Saves a workflow to the Library (User Workflows) using the name you specify in the save as dialog.

Export Task

. When a task is selected, displays the Save As dialog. Enter a name for this task or use the existing name, select a location, and click Save to save the task as a

*.epitask file.

You can save these files as archives, or move them to another Episode installation and add them into the library for use in that copy of Episode.

Export Workflow

. Displays the Save dialog. Enter a name for this workflow or use the existing name, select a location, and click Save to save the workflow as a *.episubmission file.

You can save these files as archives, or move them to another Episode installation and import them into the library for use in that copy of Episode.

Delete

. Deletes the selected workflow or task.

Select All

. Selects all tasks in the workflow.

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Set as Deployment for All Encoders

. When a workflow has multiple encoders, select to add the selected deployment to all encoder tasks.

Submit Workflow

. Submits the job for processing, and displays it in the Status panel.

Creating a New Workflow

To create a new workflow:

1.

If you’re working with another workflow, click Clear. If you are working on a changed workflow, Episode reminds you to save your changes. Episode clears the workspace and creates a new, untitled workflow.

2.

Name the workflow using the name field at the bottom, and click File > Save As to save it in the library (User Workflows category).

Note:

From now on, to save changes to your workflow, you can right-click and select

Save Workflow As from the context menu. This allows you to save over the existing saved workflow or save the workflow under a new name.

Each workflow has three task placeholders: Source, Encoder, and Deployment.

3.

Configure your source task by dragging files from Windows Explorer, bookmarks from the media browser or sources from library’s Sources tab onto the source task template.

4.

Configure your encoder tasks by dragging an encoder from the library’s encoder tab onto the Encoder task.

5.

Configure your deployment tasks by dragging bookmarks from the media browser or deployments from library’s Deployment tab onto the deployment task template.

To remove an object from the workflow, select the object, and press Delete.

After configuring your workflow (or even during the design process if you choose), you should configure each task. You configure each task by selecting it and updating its settings in the Inspector.

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Creating Source Tasks

You can create file list source tasks by adding files from Windows Explorer or adding bookmarks from the Media Browser—dragging and dropping them onto the source task box in the Workflow Editor. When the workflow is submitted for processing, the files are processed in a queue. Files in a file list can remain in a processing queue for up to 7 days, after which, they time out.

Note:

You can only drag and drop files from Windows Explorer if they are on local storage. If you are using a network volume, you should create and configure a network watch folder to accept files from this location.

You can also create

watch folder source tasks

to continually monitor watch folders and submit files in real time, as they are written into the target folder. You can configure a watch folder to poll a local directory, or an FTP, network share/SMB, or Autodesk

Wiretap server location.

Folders are continually monitored for activity for one year, with the timer restarting each time a new file is added; if there is no activity after a year, monitoring stops.

To create a watch folder:

1.

First add a bookmark.

2.

Then select Media Browser > Add Bookmark or click the Add Bookmark button in the Media Browser.

3.

Select the new, untitled bookmark to display it in the Inspector panel on the right.

You can name the bookmark, specify the type of watch folder (Local Directory, FTP,

Network Share (SMB), or Autodesk Wiretap), and manage its files in the Inspector panel. Naming is necessary only if you plan to save it in the Library. Just click the task to see its Inspector panel.

4.

Once the bookmark is created and specified, drag it to the source task in a workflow to make it a watch folder.

Note:

Episode replaces the existing source when you drag and drop a new source folder onto the source task. If you drag and drop a file onto a file source, the new file is added to the file list. If you drag and drop a folder, a Watch Folder is created, replacing the previous source, if any.

In summary, to encode multiple files using one workflow, you have two options. You can place all the files in a single watch folder where Episode will automatically pick them up and encode them. Or you can keep all the files in separate (non-monitored) folders and drag the individual files you want encoded into a source file list and manually submit them for processing.

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Configuring a File List Source Task

To view/edit the details of a file list task:

1.

Click the task in the workflow to select it and view its details in the Inspector panel.

2.

Make changes in the Inspector. Changes are saved automatically as they are made.

Figure 31.

File List Inspector Panel

The following options are available:

Task Name

. Enter a meaningful name in the text field.

Files

. To add files, you can drag and drop files from your bookmarks or Windows

Explorer directly onto a file list task. You delete files from the task by selecting the file in the inspector’s File list and clicking the delete (X) button.

Configuring a Watch Folder Source Task

To configure or view a Watch Folder task in the inspector, click the source task in the workflow to display it in the Inspector panel.

Episode provides the following types of watch folders:

Local Watch Folder

FTP, Network Share/SMB/Autodesk Wiretap Watch Folder

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Local Watch Folder

Figure 32.

Local Watch Folder Inspector

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Task Name

. Enter a meaningful name in the text field.

General

Watch Folder

. Click to display the Media Browser dialog, and navigate and select a directory to monitor. Folders are monitored for activity for one year, with the timer restarting each time a new file is added; if there is no activity after a year, monitoring stops.

Pickup Present Files

. Check to specify that files already present in the directory when the workflow is submitted for execution are encoded. If unchecked, only files added after starting the workflow are encoded.

Advanced

Adaptive Safety Threshold

. Select the threshold setting to adapt to the update behavior of the file system. Off: the Safe delay is strictly used. Normal and Double:

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Episode dynamically adapts the delay to the detected intervals between file updates.

Use Double if the watch folder often submits unfinished files.

Watch Folder Poll Interval

. Specify in seconds how often to check for new files in the watch folder.

File Safety Delay

. Specify in seconds how long a file has to remain unchanged (file transfer is complete) before being submitted.

Recursion Depth

. Set how many folder levels directly below the monitored directory to poll when searching for files to encode.

Retry Max Attempts

. Set how many times to try to monitor the watch folder before failing. For example, your computer might be monitoring a Windows share, or an SMB folder, but your computer is disconnected from the network.

Encode while ingest

. Check to encode TIFO streams from Telestream Pipeline.

File Filter

. Click Add to add sets of filter criteria. Use the filter criteria drop-down menu and the text entry field to select a term to filter directories, files, or extensions in or out.

Workflow Success Actions

. Set actions following a successful encode.

Remove source file

. Check to delete the source files after encoding

Move source file

. Set a directory where the source files are moved after encoding. Click to display the file system browser, and navigate and select a directory. If none is specified, the source files are not moved.

Workflow Failure Actions

. Set actions following an unsuccessful encode.

Move source file

. Set a directory where the source files are moved after failing to encode. Click to display the file system browser, and navigate and select a directory. If none is specified, the source files are not moved.

Stop other encodes

. Stops all other encodes in this workflow.

FTP, Network Share/SMB/Autodesk Wiretap Watch Folder

Add a bookmark pointing to a folder on an FTP server, network share, SMB, or Autodesk

Wiretap location as follows:

1.

In the Bookmarks panel, right-click and select Add Bookmark.

2.

In the URL Browser, make settings to access the bookmark location. Setting details are described below.

3.

Click Save at the bottom of the inspector.

When you make the above settings and save them, you are saving the connection details for the bookmark. Episode can then access the remote folder when it runs a workflow that contains the bookmark as a Watch Folder.

To add the bookmark as a Watch Folder follow these steps:

1.

Drag the new bookmark to the Source icon in a workflow to create a Watch Folder for the bookmarked location.

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2.

Edit the settings in the Watch Folder Inspector for the new Watch Folder.

Figure 33.

FTP/Network Share (SMB)/Wiretap Server Watch Folder Setup

Episode 6.5

Name

. Enter a meaningful name in the text field.

Kind

. Select File Transfer Protocol (FTP) | Network Share (SMB) | Autodesk (Wiretap) from the popup menu.

Note:

When you select Wiretap, the Username, Password, and Save password controls are hidden.

Server

. Enter the name of the server. (or

localhost

if running on this computer.) Do not use slashes—just enter the server name. For example:

ftp.telestream.net

Port

. Enter the port number for the server. In most cases the default port is correct.

Username (FTP/SMB only)

. Enter the username of the FTP account you’re using

Password (FTP/SMB only)

. Enter the password for this account, if any.

. C

Path

. Enter the path to the folder you want to watch. Start the path with a back slash

(\).

Save

. Click Save to save the bookmark settings. Once you click save, other settings display in the panel.

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General

Watch folder

—use the browse button or directly edit the path to select the folder you want to watch.

Pickup present files

—check this option if you want to pick up and process files already in the watch folder.

Advanced

Adaptive Safety Threshold

. This is an amount of time Episode automatically adds to the Safe Delay wait time to ensure that a file has been completely written to the watch location before encoding. Set to

Off

if you have a fast network or are working locally on a fast machine. Set to

Normal

for a typical network, and set to

Double

if the network tends to be slow or you have trouble with files being picked up and encoding attempted before the files are done being written.

Watch Poll Interval (sec)

. Enter the number of seconds Episode should wait between checks of the watch folder to detect new or updated files. The default is 2 seconds.

File Safety Delay (sec)

. Enter the number of seconds Episode should delay after detecting no changes in a new or updated file before encoding the file. This ensures the file is done being written before encoding.

Recursion depth

. Set how many folder levels directly below the watched folder to poll when searching for files to encode.

Retry Max Attempts

. Enter the successive number of times Episode should attempt to connect and properly process the folder before stopping.

SSL Mode

. Enables or disables FTP Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for secure data transfer:

Off—Disables SSL. All transmissions occur using an unencrypted FTP connection.

On—Enables SSL encryption and falls back to a clear connection if SSL fails.

Force Control—Enables SSL encryption and fails to connect if SSL fails.

Force All—Enables SSL encryption and ensures that all traffic is encrypted.

Note:

Displaying network-accessible folders, and local folders containing significant volumes of files (for example, 100 or more) can take considerable time and network bandwidth. To prevent problems including failed jobs, consider setting the Watch Poll

Interval to 10 seconds (or more as necessary), and increasing the File Safety Delay to 3 times the watch poll interval: In this example, 30 seconds.

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Configuring Image Sequences

Episode Pro and Engine include the ability to encode numbered image sequences, such as those produced in compositing or animation, into a movie in virtually any video format available in Episode. This feature has been present in the command line for quite some time, and now it is available in the user interface as well.

These are the accepted image input file formats: DPX, TGA, TIFF, and JPEG. Formats cannot be mixed in the same job.

There are two methods for creating an image sequence workflow: (1) drag and drop a file in an existing sequence on the Source task in a workflow, or (2) set up a Watch

Source task on a folder that will receive the sequence input files.

To drag and drop an image sequence:

1.

Select File > New > Source > Image Sequence (Windows),

or

drag an Image

Sequence source onto the workflow Source task.

The Source task changes to Image Sequence and an untitled Image Sequence inspector panel opens.

2.

Give the image sequence a Task Name and fill in the other inspector fields (see

Image Sequence Selections

below for details).

3.

Drop an image from the sequence onto the workflow Source task.

4.

Select and configure a video encoder in the workflow Encoder task.

5.

Select and configure the workflow Deployment task for the output location.

6.

Submit the workflow to start encoding the image sequence.

Episode recognizes all the images in the sequence based on the numbering (all must be in the same folder) and processes them in the workflow.

To create an image sequence Watch on a folder:

1.

Select File > New > Source > Watch folder (Windows), or drag a Watch Folder source onto the workflow Source task.

2.

Check the Image Sequence option in the inspector panel, give the Watch Folder a

Task Name, select the watch folder, and fill in the other inspector fields.

3.

Select and configure a video encoder in the workflow Encoder task.

4.

Select and configure the workflow Deployment task for the output location.

5.

Submit the workflow to start watching the folder for image sequences.

When image sequence files are dropped into the source folder, Episode processes them.

Image Sequence Selections

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

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Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

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Configuring an Encoder Task

The encoders task box only accepts encoders. An encoder defines how the source is to be transformed (encoded) by the codec using the settings you choose. You drag and drop preset encoders from the Encoders tab or from the Explorer. You can also create a new default encoder with File > New > Encoder.

To add encoders to a workflow:

You can drag and drop multiple encoders into a workflow. As you drag and drop them, they all connect to the source task. All files in the source are encoded with each encoder in the workflow.

You can also add a new, untitled encoder task to your workflow by selecting File > New

> Encoder.

Because of the complexity of configuring an encoder task, it may be simpler and faster to select a similar encoder from the library and make changes in the Inspector.

To view and change encoder settings:

Select the encoder and view its settings in the Inspector panel. In the Inspector, you can set Format options, including Container, Video Encoder, Audio Encoder, In/Out points

(on your source file), Timecode to use, Intro and Outro, etc. When you’re done, click

Save As to save the encoder under a new name.

Configuring a Deployment Task

Deployment

tasks are similar to watch folders in that they reference directories, locally or on a server. Episode supports multiple deployments per encoder.

If you have several encoders, each of them has its own set of deployment tasks.

Therefore, if you want all new files in the workflow to be saved in the same directory, you should add the same deployment to each encoder. Add the deployment task to one encoder, and then right-click on the deployment task and select Set as

Deployment for All Encoders from the context menu.

To deploy the output from a single encoder to multiple locations:

Drag and drop the appropriate deployment from the library near the right edge of the target encoder to connect it to the encoder.

To view and change deployment settings:

Select the deployment and display the Inspector panel.

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Setting Workflow Priority

You can set workflow processing priorities so some workflows process ahead of others.

To set workflow processing priority (-10 to 10):

Use the slider, or enter the value in the field to the left of the Submit button. (Currentlyexecuting jobs are not affected.)

Submitting Workflows

Workflows do not begin encoding media until they are submitted for processing.

To submit media for processing:

1.

Display the workflow you want to use in the Workflow panel. (Make sure it is saved).

2.

Click Submit or select Tools > Submit Workflow to submit it for processing.

If this workflow has a file list as a source, the files are queued and each is encoded as soon as other jobs ahead of it are complete, or there is a free slot in the cluster you are attached to. If the source is an watch folder, the job is activated, and encoding is performed whenever there are files to be processed in the watched folder.

Using the Inspector Panel

The right-most panel is the

Inspector panel

.

The

Inspector

displays configuration details about selected items and enables you to change their settings.

Note:

You can only change user items, not system-defined items.

The Inspector panel’s title and contents change as you select different objects, allowing you to review and configure the settings of the selected object—a bookmark, a library resource, or a task in your workflow. For example, when you select a bookmark, the

Inspector displays details for the bookmark, including its name and file path. When you select an encoder in the library or the workflow, the Inspector displays the details about the selected encoder, such as specifics and selections regarding the format, video, and audio. You can also enter metadata, or set up a Split-and-Stitch job.

Split-and-Stitch (at the bottom of the Inspector panel when an encoder is selected) allows you to distribute processing of a long source clip to multiple computers in your

Episode computer cluster. By allowing multiple computers to work simultaneously on a piece of the clip and then stitch it back together into a single clip when they are done, processing time can be sped up greatly.

The Split-and-Stitch subpanel allows you to set the minimum duration of a clip before

Split-and-Stitch will be used and also set the maximum number of video splits or pieces to divide the clip into.

To save an edited item in the Inspector:

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After you edit an item, you can save changes by clicking the Save/Save As button at the bottom of the panel or selecting the Save Task As context menu (right-click). If you change your mind before saving it, just click the Revert button—this restores the item to the last saved version (if the workflow or task was previously saved).

These topics describe the Inspector panels

Using the Media Inspector

Configuring Source Tasks

Configuring Encoder Tasks

Configuring Deployment Tasks

Configuring Closed Captions

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Using the Media Inspector

The Media Inspector displays when you navigate to and select a media file in the Media

Browser. The Media Inspector provides a preview player, and displays an icon when you are previewing media with only an audio track, along with file details. If Episode can not load the selected file, it displays an error message.

Figure 34.

Media Inspector Panel

The Media Inspector provides the following fields and controls:

File Information

Name

. The name of the file you’re inspecting.

URL

. The fully-qualified URL to the file.

Size

. The size of the file as reported by the operating system, in kilobytes.

Below the preview panel, video and audio track details are displayed. This information can assist you in applying filters, and setting up encoding configurations, for example.

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Note:

FTP and Wiretap sources are not analyzed.

Player Controls

Audio Volume

. Hover over the audio volume control to the left of the scrubber to display it. You can mute the volume by clicking the icon; click it again to turn it back on.

Drag the volume button to decrease or increase volume.

Play/Pause/Scrub

. Click the Play button to preview the file at normal speed; click it again to pause it. Drag the scrubber button to move forward and backward in the file.

Loopback

. Click the Loopback button (to the right of the play bar) to loop the file during preview; click it again to disable loopback.

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Configuring Source Tasks

Source task configuration for file lists consists only of setting the name and saving the task in the Inspector. For local and network watch folder source tasks, more options are available.

Figure 35.

Source/Watch Folder and Image Sequence Inspector Panels

To configure source tasks:

Click the source task in the Workflow window. The Inspector displays the available options:

Task Name

. Enter a name for the task before saving.

General

Watch Folder

. Use the browse button or directly edit the path to select the folder you want to watch.

Pickup present files

. Check this option if you want to pick up and process files already in the watch folder.

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Advanced

Adaptive Safety Threshold

. This is an amount of time Episode automatically adds to the Safe Delay wait time to ensure that a file has been completely written to the watched location before encoding. Set to

Off

if you have a fast network or are working locally on a fast machine. Set to

Normal

for a typical network, and set to

Double

if the network tends to be slow or you have trouble with files being picked up and encoding attempted before the files are done being written.

Watch Poll Interval (sec)

. Enter the number of seconds Episode should wait between checks of the monitor source folder to detect new or updated files. The default is 2 seconds.

File Safety Delay (sec)

. Enter the number of seconds Episode should delay after detecting no changes in a new or updated file before encoding the file. This ensures the file is done being written before encoding.

Recursion depth

. Set how many folder levels directly below the monitored directory to poll when searching for files to encode.

Retry Max Attempts

. Enter the successive number of times Episode should attempt to connect and properly process the folder before stopping.

Encode While Ingest

. Use this option with Telestream Pipeline to encode TIFO files as they are being written to disk. To use this feature, you must have your Pipeline delivering its content in a TIFO container to the same location being monitored by

Episode.

File Filter

. Click Add/+ to add sets of filter criteria. Use the filter criteria drop-down menu and the text entry field to select a term to filter directories, files, or extensions in or out. Many filter terms are available, including

contains

,

is equal to

,

begins with

,

ends with

, the converse of each of those terms, and so on.

Workflow Success Actions

Configure these options to specify how to operate on the source file after the workflow completes successfully:

Remove Source File

. Check to delete the source file.

Move Source File

. Use the popup menu to specify an optional location for copying the source file.

Workflow Failure Actions

Configure these options to specify how to operate on the source file if the workflow fails on any action:

Move Source File

. Use the popup menu to specify an optional location for copying the source file.

Stop Other Encodes

. Check to stop other encodes in the same workflow.

Delete picked up source files

. Choose this option if you want Episode to delete the source files after encoding completes.

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Move picked up files to

. Choose this option if you want Episode to move files to a new location after encoding. This can be very handy if you want to ensure you keep alreadyencoded files separate from files waiting for encoding.

Revert

. Select this option before saving to restore the selections in this panel to the last saved state before the most recent changes.

Save As

. Select to save changes.

Image Sequence

If the source task is an image sequence, the following inspector selections are presented rather than the watch folder options.

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

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Configuring Encoder Tasks

Encoder tasks include five main categories of configuration that you can edit in the

Inspector panel: Format, Video Filters, Audio Filters, Split-and-Stitch, and Metadata.

These categories are presented in expandable subpanels.

To view a subpanel:

Click the triangle next to it. To close an expanded subpanel, click the triangle again.

Figure 36.

Encoder Inspector Panel

Each subpanel includes extensive selections, including check boxes and data entry fields that provide comprehensive control over the encoding process. Some of the subpanels contain additional subpanels that can be expanded further to provide access to more configuration selections and adjustments.

For details explaining the details of each selection for each encoder, refer to the file formats, video and audio codec, and filter chapters later in this guide. The following figure provides an example of a partially expanded Encoder Inspector panel, and the following topics present a summary description of each panel.

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Figure 37.

Partially Expanded Encoder Inspector Panel

The following topics describe Encoder task configuration:

General Panel

Format Panel

Setting In/Out Points

Configuring Timecode

Adding Intro & Outro Clips

Using Video Filters

Using Audio Filters

Enabling Split-and-Stitch

Adding Metadata

General Panel

The General panel at the top only includes the encoder’s name, which you can change and then save using the Save As button at the bottom of the Inspector to create another variation of an item.

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Format Panel

The format panel organizes and displays the following categories:

Container.

Select the container format of the output file from the dropdown list. The container format you select determines which video and audio are available. Container settings are listed and described in detail in

Media Containers/Formats

.

Video Encoder (Codec).

Select the video codec for any video tracks in the output file. If you uncheck the box, even if video is present in the input file, no video tracks are added to the output file.

When you choose the Pass Through option, the video stream is inserted into the output file untouched, provided that the format is supported in the output container format

you selected. For video codec settings, see

Video Codecs

.

Audio Encoder (Codec).

Select the codec for any audio tracks in the output file. If you uncheck the box, no audio tracks are added to the output file.

When you choose the Pass Through option, the audio stream is inserted into the output file untouched, provided that the format is supported in the output container format you selected. For audio codec settings, see

Audio Codecs

.

Audio & Video Streaming.

For media formats (with video/audio codecs as well) that can be

streamed

(sent out in real time from a server), check to enable the output file from

Episode to be streamable

. Displays only when streaming is supported.

QuickTime and MPEG-4 streaming media require special

hint tracks

that tell the streaming server how to packetize the media for transmission.

Streaming settings are listed by container in

Media Containers/Formats

.

Container and codec combinations that can be streamed:

Table 2.

Supported Streaming Containers and Codecs

Container

3GPP

3GPP2

MPEG-4

QuickTime

Windows Media

Video and Audio Codecs

H.263, H.264, MPEG-4, AAC, AMR

H.263, H.264, MPEG-4, AAC, AMR

H.264, MPEG-4, AAC

H.263, H.264, MPEG-4, AAC, AMR

WMV9, VC-1, WMA

Setting In/Out Points

Check the In/Out Points option to set the encoding in and out times when you only want to encode a segment of the source into the output file.

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Figure 38.

In/Out Points Settings

In/Out Points

. Set the in and out times to only encode a segment of the source.

Timecode is specified as follows: <hours>:<minutes>:<seconds>:<hundredths sec>.

To enter the entire In/Out point timecode:

Click once to select it and type in the timecode without colons. You can enter each value segment manually by clicking directly on a segment to select it and type in the numbers. Or you can adjust the number using the up/down arrows to the right of the field. Note that you can set in/out points only if the source files contain valid timecode.

Configuring Timecode

If the source file has a timecode track, the timecode track is automatically added to the output file (providing the selected container format supports timecode).

If you want a different timecode track starting value than is in the source or the source has no timecode track and you want a timecode track in the output (providing the selected container format supports timecode):

Check Timecode and set the starting timecode value to place in the output file.

Figure 39.

Timecode Settings

Time Code

. Enter a time code in the format HH:MM:SS:HS to set the starting time for the timecode track.

For formats that do not support a timecode track, you can combine the timecode filter with the burn timecode filter to add the timecode directly to the video track, rather than as a separate timecode track. This enables you to use timecodes in

any

file format.

See

Burn Timecode Filter

.

CAUTION:

The burn timecode filter permanently changes the video. Once the timecode has been added to the video it cannot be removed.

Adding Intro & Outro Clips

To add Intro and Outro clips to your output file:

Check the intro and outro selection and choose from the revealed settings.

Intro and outro clips (bumpers and trailers) are added before and after the main source media. They are set to the same format, size and frame rate as the output file but are not otherwise transformed. In particular, they are not de-interlaced if the output is progressive and vice versa.

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These clips must have video and audio tracks corresponding to the video and audio tracks of the output. For example, output with both video and audio requires clips with both video and audio, but video-only output does not require audio tracks in the clips.

Figure 40.

Intro & Outro Settings

Using Video Filters

You can implement video filters to affect the video in various ways: changing its size, frame rate, color, or other metrics. Video filters are applied to baseband video after decoding.

The video codec encodes the video after all video filters have been applied, and may entail additional changes.

You can apply one or more video filters to your video. However, be certain that you understand when and how to use a filter; some filters are not appropriate for certain video formats, and some video filter combinations are not appropriate. You can use the

Preview Window Right/Left Preview Filters features to see the effects of filters alongside unaltered video.

Video filters (when enabled) are applied in the order they are listed in the inspector.

Figure 41.

Video Filters Panel

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Check a video filter to apply it. Next, click on it to select it and display its settings in the edit panel at the bottom, and configure the settings to meet your needs. Episode automatically saves your settings.

You can undo and redo changes to a setting by selecting Edit > Undo | Redo.

For details about video filters, see

Video Filters

.

Using Audio Filters

You can implement audio filters to affect the audio track in various ways: changing its volume, speed, sample rate, or other metrics. Like video filters, audio filters are also applied in the order they are listed in the inspector. Audio filters are applied to baseband audio after decoding.

The audio codec encodes the audio after all video filters have been applied, and may entail additional changes.

You can apply one or more filters to your audio. However, be certain that you understand when and how to use a filter; some filters are not appropriate for certain audio, and some audio filter combinations are not appropriate.

For details about audio filters, see

Audio Filters

.

Figure 42.

Audio Filters Panel

Enabling Split-and-Stitch

This feature is available when you have a license for Episode Engine. In a Split-and-

Stitch job, the source is split into a number of segments that are encoded in parallel on all available nodes in your cluster. The resulting output segments from multiple computers are then stitched back together to form a single final output file. This method spreads the processing load and greatly reduces the total transcoding time.

Note:

Some video formats cannot be processed using Split-and-Stitch. These formats are automatically encoded as a regular job even if you specify Split-and-Stitch.

Also,3GP, MP4, and MOV files can not be processed using Split-and-Stitch when audio or video streaming is enabled.

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In Split & Stitch jobs, deployment tasks execute on the same server as the stitch task.

This is done to minimize network file transfer inefficiencies. The only way to disable this feature is to use the XML/RPC interface.

To enable Split-and-Stitch jobs:

Expand the panel and check the Split-And-Stitch option. For details, see

Getting Started

.

Figure 43.

Split-and-Stitch Panel

Minimum Split Duration

. Enter a an integer value (in seconds) to specify the minimum size of split segments (default: 30). The minimum allowed duration is 9 seconds; the maximum is 3600.

Maximum Number of Video Splits

. Enter an integer value to specify the maximum number of video split segments (default: 16). The minimum number of video splits is 2; the maximum is 32.

Split on GOP Size.

Enter a number that evenly divides the number of frames in a Group of Pictures (GOP) for the media you are processing. This will produce a clean split between GOPs rather than in the middle of a GOP for media that is sensitive to where a split occurs. For example, if each GOP in your media contains 12 frames, set this number to 12. The default setting is 1, which allows a split to occur at any position.

Note:

This feature does not work with the Advanced Frame Rate Filter. Also note that this feature does not control the GOP size, which is set using settings in the codec.

Codec settings are made separately when you select an encoder for your workflow.

Limitations of Split-and-Stitch

Split-and-Stitch does not support video and audio streaming. If video or audio streaming is activated, Episode ignores Split-and-Stitch (if selected) and performs a regular encode. Similarly, Split-and-Stitch requires files to have timestamps or durations specified; if not, Split-and-Stitch is ignored and a regular encode is done.

Adding Metadata

Metadata is information

about

a file, such as copyright information, source file names, creation date, etc. Many media formats have data fields for metadata. Each format supports different metadata fields. The inspector automatically identifies the available fields for the output format and displays them.

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Figure 44.

Metadata Panel

The edit panel displays a Key column (left) and a Value column (right). The Key column displays available metadata tags. They are disabled until you enter a value in the corresponding Value field. Double-click to activate the text field and enter your value.

Fields for which you have not entered a value are not added to the output file.

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Configuring Deployment Tasks

You can configure Deployment tasks to write your output files to local directories, FTP servers, network share/SMB servers, or YouTube accounts

.

In addition to user-created deployments, Episode provides three different system deployments you can use in your workflows.

User Deployments

System Deployments

Configuring User and System Source/Desktop Deployments

User Deployments

You can configure your user deployments to set their names, set their destinations, and determine whether to increment file names with an added numeral as new deployments with the same name are created or allow new deployments to overwrite existing deployment files.

System Deployments

Episode provides several predefined (or system) deployments: Same As Source,

Desktop, and YouTube.

Same As Source and Desktop Deployments

A Same As Source deployment uses the source directory as the output directory for a workflow, hence, the name, Same As Source. A desktop deployment places workflow outputs on the desktop.

To implement a Same As Source or Desktop deployment task:

Display the Library panel, select the Deployments tab and navigate to System

Deployments. Drag and drop the desired deployment resource onto the Deployment task template to create a new copy of the task so you can configure it.

YouTube Deployments

You can add the YouTube deployment task to your workflow, configure it for your workflow, and automatically upload the output file to YouTube.

To implement a YouTube deployment task, display the Library panel, select the

Deployments tab and navigate to System Deployments. Drag and drop the YouTube task onto the Deployment task box to create a new copy of the task so you can configure it.

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Figure 45.

YouTube Deployment Task

Task Name

. Enter a meaningful task name.

Username

. Enter your YouTube user name.

Password

. Enter your YouTube password.

Video Info Title

. Specify the title for the video you’re submitting.

Video Info Description

. Describe the contents of your video.

Category

. Select the category that best fits the contents of your video.

Keywords

. Enter keywords summarizing the contents of your video.

Private Video

. Check to restrict the distribution of your video, so that it can only be viewed by invited users.

Configuring User and System Source/Desktop Deployments

To configure a deployment, select it in the workflow or in the library. If you select a deployment from the library, you must save it as a new task before you can edit it.

Figure 46.

Example Deployment Task

Task Name

. Enter a meaningful task name.

Destination Folder

. The browse menu allows you to navigate and select the location where you want output files saved. By default this is the same as the source, or the desktop, depending on which deployment you use.

File Name

. Use this field to enter text (and optionally, variables) to define how the output file name is to be constructed.

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If you don’t provide any text or variables, Episode generates the file name in this format:

source file base name + Workflow ID

. For example,

Original_File_Name-9045-3AA6-4FAD-

A1BC-29DA158082

.

If you only enter text, the file name is the name you enter.

You can use the following variables to dynamically compose a file name:

Table 3.

File Name Variables

Variable

$deployment.name$

Description

The name of the deployment in this job.

$encoder.name$

$encoder.input-durationhms$

Name of encoder that processed the job.

Input file length, expressed in timecode format.

$encoder.input-duration-s$ Input file length, expressed as seconds.

$encoder.input-pixeldimensions$

Input file frame size, expressed in pixels.

$encoder.input-samplerate$ Input file sample rate, in frames per second.

$encoder.output-bitratekbps$

Output file bitrate, expressed in kbits/second.

Output file bitrate, expressed in Mbits/second.

$encoder.output-bitratembps$

$encoder.output-durationhms$

$source.extension$

Output file length, expressed in timecode format.

Extension of the source file submitted to the job.

$source.filename$ Base name of source file submitted to the job.

$encoder.output-duration-s$ Output file length, expressed as seconds.

Output file frame size, express in pixels.

$encoder.output-pixeldimensions$

$encoder.outputsamplerate$

Output file sample rate, expressed in frames per second.

$source.name$

$source.type$

$source.filename$

$source.parent-dir-name$

$source.grandparent-dirname$

The root of the source filename.

The suffix of the source filename.

The source full filename.

The directory of the source file.

The second-level directory of the source file.

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Table 3.

File Name Variables

Variable

$uuid$

$uuid.uppercase$

$uuid.lowercase$

$workflow.submission- client$

Description

The UUID of the job.

The UUID, converted to all upper-case letters.

The UUID, converted to all lower-case letters.

Computer from which the job was submitted.

$workflow.submission- host$ Master node in the cluster.

$workflow.submissionname$

Workflow that processed the job.

$workflow.id$ The ID of this workflow.

$workflow.name$

$workflow.spawn-time$

The name of this workflow.

The time this workflow job started.

$workflow.submission-time$ The time this workflow job was submitted.

$workflow.template-id$ The ID of the template for this workflow.

Click the + icon to display a menu of the variables, and click the variable you want to enter. To delete a variable, click to the right and press Backspace.

Table 4.

Dynamic File Name Variables

Variable

$ dynamic.time

$ dynamic.hr-time

$ dynamic.year.YY

$ dynamic.year.YYYY

$ dynamic.month.name

$ dynamic.month.short-name

$ dynamic.month.MM

$ dynamic.day.name

Variable

$ dynamic.day.short-name

$ dynamic.day.DD

$ dynamic.hours.HH

$ dynamic.minutes.MM

$ dynamic.seconds.SS

$ dynamic.hostname

$ dynamic.node-id

$ dynamic.platform

Increment File Names

. When checked, output files with the same filename are suffixed by an incrementing integer. For example, if the first file is

File-encoder.mov,

the 2nd is

File-encoder (1).mov,

the 3rd is

File-encoder (2).mov

, etc. If unchecked, files encoded with the same output filename overwrite the existing file without warning.

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Maximum Throughput (KB)

. When throttling is required, enter the value in kilobytes, for the maximum amount of data to transmit per second. Some FTP sites require a maximum throughput, for example.

Recreate Source Sub-directories

. When checked, output files are written to the output directory in the same path as the source, including any intervening subdirectories, thus, retaining the source subdirectory structure in the output directory as well.

FTP-only options

SSL Mode.

Enables or disables FTP Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for secure data transfer:

Off—Disables SSL. All transmissions occur using an unencrypted FTP connection.

On—Enables SSL encryption and falls back to a clear connection if SSL fails.

Force Control—Enables SSL encryption and fails to connect if SSL fails.

Force All—Enables SSL encryption and ensures that all traffic is encrypted.

Configuring Closed Captions

The Inspector is used to configure closed captioning. Closed captioning works with ordinary workflows as well as Split and Stitch. Captions may be passed through if they are already embedded, or they may be embedded during encoding from an scc or mcc file.

These output formats and video codecs support closed captioning:

MXF (AS-11, Op1a, XDCAM) container

MPEG-2 codec

H.264 (MainConcept) and H.264 (x264) codecs

The following topics explain how to configure closed captioning.

Note:

Closed caption configuration is done in four places: the Container, the Video

Encoder, the VBI Importer Video Filter, and the Caption Importer Video Filter. Take care to set each one correctly in order to produce a successfully captioned output.

Adding Captions from a File (.scc or .mcc)

Episode can import .scc or .mcc caption files and embed their closed captioning data in the transcoded output. Caption files of the .scc type will add EIA-608 SD captions.

MacCaption or CaptionMaker files of the .mcc type will add both EIA-608 SD and EIA-708

HD captions. The source media file and .scc or .mcc files must include QuickTime timecode starting at 00:00:00:00.

The caption data from the .scc or .mcc file is inserted into the SMPTE TT user data of the

MPEG-2 or H.264 output files.

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Using the Inspector Panel

To import a .scc or .mcc caption file:

1.

Create a workflow to encode a media file into one of the formats supporting captions: MXF Container, MPEG-2 Video Encoder, or H.264 Video Encoder.

2.

Select

Video Filters

in the Inspector.

3.

Select the

Caption Importer Filter

.

4.

Use the

File

menu in the Caption Importer to browse, select, and import a .scc or

.mcc caption file. Captions from the file will be embedded during encoding.

Note:

Because you must explicitly specify a file (and not a file variable), you must select the file in the filter each time you run the caption import workflow.

5.

Enable captions in the encoded output by making one or both of these selections:

To add the captions to an MXF container file, select the container, and check

Add

Ancillary Closed Caption Track

.

To add the captions to an MPEG-2 or H.264 video bitstream, select the Video

Codec and ensure Closed Captioning is set to

Same As Source

. (Since this is the default setting, you won’t actually have to change anything.)

Passing Through Captions Embedded in the Source

Episode allows EIA-608, EIA-708, or SCTE-20 captions already embedded in the source media vertical blanking interval (VBI) or user data to be passed-through to the transcoded output. Settings depend on the source format:

Note:

Episode cannot pass through embedded closed captions from MOV sources.

To pass captions embedded in an MXF or MPEG-2 source:

1.

Create a workflow to encode the source file containing captions into a format supporting captions: MXF Container, MPEG-2 Video Encoder, or H.264 Video Encoder.

2.

No input Video Filter settings are required. The captions will automatically pass through to the output.

3.

Enable captions in the encoded output by making one or both of these selections:

To add the captions to an MXF container file, select the container, and check

Add

Ancillary Closed Caption Track

.

To add the captions to an MPEG-2 or H.264 video bitstream, select the Video

Codec and ensure Closed Captioning is set to

Same As Source

. (Since this is the default setting, you won’t actually have to change anything.)

To pass captions embedded in a source

other than

MXF or MPEG-2:

1.

Create a workflow to encode the source file containing captions into a format supporting captions: MXF Container, MPEG-2 Video Encoder, or H.264 Video Encoder.

2.

Select the VBI Importer Video Filter, and check

Decode Captions

. When set to

Automatic

(the default), this will detect and extract the caption data on the input for embedding in the output. Instead of using

Automatic

, you have the option of

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setting decoding to

Manual

and selecting the vertical blanking line number that contains the caption data.

3.

Enable captions in the encoded output by making one or both of these selections:

To add the extracted captions to an MXF container file, select the container, and check

Add Ancillary Closed Caption Track

.

To add the captions to an MPEG-2 or H.264 video bitstream, select the Video

Codec and ensure Closed Captioning is set to

Same As Source

. (Since this is the default setting, you won’t actually have to change anything.)

For details about caption outputs, see these format and codec descriptions:

MXF AS-11

(.mxf)

,

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

,

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

,

MPEG-2 Codec

or

H.264 (x264) Codec

.

Using the Status Panel

The Status panel displays the status of jobs in queue and in execution on the current cluster. Depending on your preferences settings, the status of previously executed jobs

may also be displayed, optionally subject to an age limit. See

Setting Preferences

.

Figure 47.

Status Panel

Episode 6.5

The Status panel opens automatically whenever you submit a workflow for processing.

To open the Status panel, click the Status popup menu icon in the lower left corner of the Workflow Editor.

The Status panel includes a job/task list on the left, and the status of the specific selected job on the right. Each side includes multiple information columns that can be rearranged by clicking and dragging.

Using controls at the bottom of the panel, you can start, stop, or pause workflows and resubmit the selected job.

Left Side Status Display

The left half of the Status panel lists workflows being processed and displays their status. The Status panel includes buttons and menus along the top of the panel that allow you to organize and filter the workflows and jobs you want to see.

To change the status view:

Using the

Jobs

and

Tasks

buttons in the upper left corner, you can select between showing a hierarchical view with workflows on the left and their job details on the right, or a full-width listing of all individual tasks.

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To filter what is displayed:

Using the top drop-down menus, you can filter the display to only display jobs with a given submitter, workflow status, or job status. In a hierarchical view you can expand the detail view to display the component tasks of each job in the workflow and their status.

The order of jobs or tasks can be sorted by clicking any of the column headings. Click once to reverse the order and again to restore the original order. Note that if you have specified two-pass encoding, Episode cycles the progress bar twice—once for each pass.

To stop, pause, resume:

The Status panel lets you control encoding on the node. In the lower left corner there are

Stop

and

Pause

buttons. They only affect the currently selected workflow/job. You can also use the context menu (right click) to pause, resume, or stop the selected workflow/job (or delete the selected workflow).

Note that when you pause a queued workflow to postpone its execution, it still occupies a slot on the cluster, and blocks execution of other jobs in that slot. (Slots in general correspond to a CPU core on a node, so you typically have multiple slots on each node.)

You can change workflow execution priority by selecting the workflow in the list on the left and adjusting the Priority slider or entering a new priority number in the field next to the slider. If you want to leave a workflow running but stop it from picking up any more files for processing, click the Stop button to the right of the Priority slider.

To open the selected workflow in the Workflow Editor, right click and select

Open

(Recall) (Command-O).

CAUTION:

If jobs are currently processing, do not change the system date and time, as this can cause the job to fail.

Left Panel Status Selections

The following selections are available in the left jobs panel. Each column label can be clicked to sort the jobs list.

Jobs/Tasks.

Selects between a split display, showing a list of jobs on the left and tasks on the right, or a single display showing everything.

Client/Machine.

Selects whether to show jobs running only on this machine or on all visible client machines.

Workflow Status.

Filters the job display based on workflow status—any (all) workflows, running workflows, successful workflows, failed workflows, or pending workflows.

Job Status.

Filters the job display based on job status—any (all) jobs, running (active) jobs, successful (completed) jobs, failed jobs, or pending/idle jobs.

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Workflow Type.

Filters the job display to show watch folder workflows, manually submitted workflows, or any workflows.

Workflow column.

Lists workflow names.

Submitted column.

Lists date and time submitted for each job.

Progress column.

Shows a progress description for each job.

Priority column.

Shows a priority setting for each workflow, ranging from -10 to +10.

Adjust the slider or enter a number to change the priority.

Start/Stop button column.

Click to start or stop the selected (highlighted) job.

Resume/Pause/Stop (bottom buttons).

Use these player-like controls to restart, pause, or stop activity on the selected (highlighted) job.

Right Side Status Display

The right side displays the detailed job status of the workflow you select on the left.

Column headings and bottom panel start, stop, and pause controls work the same as they do for the left side display with the addition of a Requeue Job button for resubmitting jobs to the queue.

The right side status panel includes a search field for entering specific file names whose status you want to find and view.

To view status details:

The right side columns display the Job and Task Name and show processing Progress and Priority, as well as helpful information about Current Time spent processing, when the job started (Start time), when it ended (End time) if it has ended, the length of the output media file (Media Duration), how many times the job has attempted to run

(Attempt), the machine the job ran on, who submitted the job, and how long the encoding task took to run (Task Duration).

Right Panel Status Selections

The following selections are available in the right tasks panel. Each column label can be clicked to sort the tasks list.

Search.

Allows entering and searching for a task by file name.

Job.

Lists tasks based on task file name and task type.

Task Name.

Lists the names of tasks

Progress.

Shows the current progress for each task.

Priority.

Shows the priority of each task.

Current Time.

Shows how much time has been spent so far processing each task.

Pass.

Indicates whether each task has passed or failed.

Start time.

Shows the time each task was started.

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End (Stop) time.

Shows the time that each completed task was finished.

Media Duration.

Shows the length of the transcoded output file for each task.

Attempt.

Shows how many times the task has attempted to complete.

Machine.

Shows which machine the task is running on or has run on.

Submitter.

Lists who submitted the associated workflow.

Task Duration.

Shows how long the task took to complete.

Resume/Pause/Stop/Requeue Job (bottom buttons).

Use these player-like controls to restart, pause, or stop activity on the selected (highlighted) job. The Requeue Job button resubmits the job to the queue to repeat processing.

Using the Preview Window

The Preview windows displays the source video, optionally before and after an encoder has been applied to it. This window works like a simple video player and editor for viewing a media file or the output of a workflow task before you save and submit the workflow. The preview is updated in real time, so that you can modify the settings of a filter and immediately see how different values affect the output.

To open the Preview window, select View > Preview Window (Command-1).

Figure 48.

Preview Window

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At the top of the Preview window, controls are provided to change the source and encoder for the current preview and to change the size of the image in the Preview window. You can also turn all filters on or off or split the screen to indicate the effect of filtered compared to unfiltered video. When filtering is on, to move the filter split screen divider, click on the divider and drag it to the position you want. While filters are on, you can edit them in the Inspector and watch the preview video change.

The bottom of the window includes buttons for play, step back, step forward, jump to start, jump to end, set mark in, set mark out, jump to mark in, jump to mark out. The camera button allows you take a snapshot and save it.

A timeline displays progress as the clip plays, and a Current display displays the current position of play. Mark In and Mark Out displays show where you have marked encoding for the clip to start and end so that you encode only the selected portion of the source.

A button below and to the right of the timeline allows magnifying the timeline.

Source

.

Displays the currently selected source file, or the default preview source if no media is present

. If you have only a single source file, selecting the source box is enough.

If you have multiple source files in your workflow when you open preview, this box will allow you to select which piece of media you would like to preview.

Select a file by clicking in the file list in the source box. Preview displays the effect of the currently selected encoder applied to the currently selected source.

Encoder

. Enables you to view the results of using different encoders by moving them into the workflow and previewing your media.

Filters

. Displays the filtered view over the entire window. Left and Right display the filtered view in the left or right part of the window, respectively; dragging the mouse in the window moves the separator further left or right. Off turns off the filtered view, except for Deinterlace and Resize.

By default, the full timeline is displayed, but for long video sequences the resolution may not be enough to allow you to select the precise point you want. Select a suitable scale with the zoom slider. The zoom is centered around the current point. Use the scrubber slider to select the region of the timeline to be shown in the scrubber.

Resize

. Changes the display size of the image in the Preview window. Select Half Size |

Normal | Double Size | Resize to Window.

Player Controls

. In addition to playing the clip and moving to its ends, you can set in

and out points (for restricting encoding duration) directly in the timeline. See

Setting In/

Out Points

. You can move to the in or out point by clicking the corresponding button.

For a description of each control, see Preview

.

Capture Frame

. Save the current preview image as a file in BMP | GIF |JPEG | PNG | TIFF format.

Using the Cluster Window

The Cluster Browser is a window that displays all Episode nodes on the network, and their relationship (if any) with each other. The Cluster Browser window allows you to

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Using the Cluster Window view, create, and join Episode clusters to take advantage of multiple computers for features such as Split-and-Stitch.

Note:

You can set cluster processing behavior in Preferences. See

Setting Preferences

.

The Cluster Browser displays all Episode clusters and nodes visible on the network.

Open the cluster browser with View > Cluster Window (Control-2).

To display the Cluster Browser window, select View > Cluster Browser.

Figure 49.

Cluster Browser

A cluster is a named collection of computers with Episode installed that work together to process Episode workflows. Each instance of Episode running on a computer is called a node. You can define a cluster temporarily to process a specific large job, or you can create clusters and leave them in operation for long periods.

Use the drop-down menu to create clusters, join existing clusters, specify the master of a cluster, or specify that your machine is working alone. The Cluster Browser displays the existing clusters, and clicking their popup menus displays the machines in the cluster.

Each cluster item can be expanded to display the nodes in that cluster.

A list of Machines Working Alone, indicates nodes that are not members of any cluster.

To manage clusters using the drop-down menu:

Operate Alone

. Handle all jobs locally.

Create Cluster

. Create a new cluster with the current node as master.

Submit to selected cluster

. Submit to a cluster, but do not receive submissions.

Join Cluster

. Join the selected cluster to submit to and receive from a cluster.

Join or Submit by IP or Host Name

To join or submit to clusters by IP address or DNS host name (for hosts not on your local subnet), click the gear menu in the lower right corner and select Join or Submit:

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Join Cluster Via IP Address/Host Name

. Select this option and enter an IP address or a

DNS host name to join the specified cluster, allowing you to submit jobs to or receive jobs from the cluster.

Submit To Cluster Via IP Address/Host Name

. Select this option and enter an IP address or DNS host name for the master of the cluster. This will allow you to submit jobs to the specified cluster, but you will not receive any jobs from the cluster.

After you join or submit, the Cluster Browser window indicates that you are joined to or submitting to a cluster. To return to working alone, use the top drop-down menu to select Operate Alone. The Cluster Browser window indicates private operation.

Figure 50.

Cluster Browser Join by IP or Name (Submit is similar)

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Using Named Storage

The Named Storage feature allows you to define a storage location, such as a SAN, with a user-configurable name so that the same physical location can be used across Mac and Windows platforms even though the local path to that storage is different on each machine. Named Storage can be used within a cluster to permit access to files by multiple machines of either platform belonging to the cluster.

Named Storage is implemented using CLI commands, which means that you must have

Episode Pro or Engine with API. For instructions in using the CLI, please refer to the

Episode Advanced User’s Guide

. To access CLI help for instructions in using Named

Storage, enter the following in the CLI:

Windows: episodectl ns --help

Mac: ./episodectl ns --help

Named Storage Simple Example

Windows Machine1 accesses a media location on a SAN using a windows path S:\

Mac Machine2 accesses the same location using a mac path /Volumes/MediaSAN/

In order for Episode to recognize both locations as the same physical storage, the CLI

Named Storage feature must be used. You enter a CLI command on each machine that gives the physical location a name common to both machines. Then when that location is used, the system compares lists of named storage and matches them up so that the

IO Server is not used and the files are moved directly from that storage. These are the commands you use for the two Windows and Mac example machines:

On Windows Machine1: episodectl ns --add MediaSAN S:\

On Mac Machine2: ./ episodectl ns --add MediaSAN /Volumes/MediaSAN/

Named Storage Cluster Example

You can also set up Named Storage to work with an Episode cluster, as this example illustrates. Adjust details shown in the example to fit your situation and network.

Note:

Named storage must be defined on all machines before they join the cluster.

Starting Conditions

1.

A network location is mounted on a Mac with the volume name “studioshares”.

2.

Note the folder level where the “root” of this mounted volume is located: smb://<servername>/<folder1>/<folder2>/studioshares/

3.

Also note that once mounted, the path to this location on this machine is this:

/Volumes/studioshares/

4.

On Windows, you need to establish and note the full network path to this same location. In this example, “studioshares” is a shared folder on the server:

\\<servername>\<folder1>\<folder2>\studioshares\

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Named Storage Setup

5.

On the Mac, define the named storage:

./episodectl node storage --add stgservices /Volumes/ studioshares/stgservices/

6.

On Windows, define the same named storage but use the full network path: episodectl node storage --add stgservices \\<server-name>\<folder1>\<folder2>\studioshares\stgservices\

Note:

If there are any required user credentials for this server, add them as part of the path when defining the named storage:

\\<user>:<password>@<servername>\<folder1>\<folder2>\studioshares

\stgservices\

The key detail to remember regarding the named storage defined path is that it must end in the same directory on all machines. In this case it’s “stgservices”.

7.

Create the cluster.

8.

Join or submit to cluster all client machines.

The cluster should now be operational and the named storage accessible to all machines in the cluster.

Note:

If you need to add new named storage to an existing cluster, you must take down the cluster first and ensure that all machines are working alone. Then you can add new named storage to each machine, create a new cluster, and join or submit to cluster all the machines that you want to include in the cluster.

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Setting Preferences

Setting Preferences

Select Tools > Preferences to display the Preferences window. The Preferences window has several tabs: General, Cluster, License, Update, and Advanced.

Using the General Tab

Using the Cluster Tab

Using the License Tab

Using the Update Tab

Using the Advanced Tab

Using the General Tab

Use the general tab to set up your preview options, specify the number of simultaneous encodes, specify how long to keep job history, and reset your user interface warnings.

Figure 51.

Preferences—General Tab

Preview—Keep Preview Window on Top

. Check to always display the Preview window on top of all other windows in Episode.

Preview—Default Preview Source

. Click Browse to navigate and select the source to display in the Preview window.

Simultaneous Encodes

. Use the slider to set the number of jobs that can execute in parallel on this platform (node). Higher license levels can encode more simultaneous jobs. With the Engine license, Episode can encode up to 32 simultaneous jobs.

The number of jobs you can run efficiently in parallel is independent of the number of cores available in the host machine. In a transcode, each component (file parser,

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decoder, filter, encoder and exporter) runs separately and can use separate cores.

Consequently, a typical HD ProRes transcode to H.264 can use 4 or 5 cores or more.

Calculating the optimal number of jobs to run in parallel depends on several factors:

Cores:

Always run fewer jobs than you have hardware cores.

Memory:

For HD jobs you need at least 2GB of memory per job.

Resolution:

If you are coding smaller (lower resolution) files, you can run more jobs in parallel than if you run HD or 4K jobs.

To determine the optimum number of parallel jobs to specify for a typical batch, see how long the batch takes using the number recommended by Episode. Then first increase and then decrease the number of parallel jobs to pinpoint the best setting.

Recommend

. Click to allow Episode to set the number of simultaneous encodes to the volume considered best for this platform. The maximum number of simultaneous encodes are also controlled by your license level.

Keep Job History

. The Status window displays submitted jobs in queue, executing, and

also for a given period after they have finished. See

Using the Status Panel

.

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Setting Preferences

Select how long you want to keep job history information from the options in the dropdown menu:

Keep for 1 hour

Keep for 24 hours

Keep for 1 week

Clear Manually (retains the history indefinitely, until explicitly deleted)

Job history is cached locally on each node. When you connect to a cluster the master node of that cluster transfers the job history to you.

Clear History

. Click to permanently remove the job history information. Deleting the job history on a cluster’s master node makes the earlier history unavailable to new nodes, but existing local history caches are retained until purged on those nodes.

UI Warnings—Reset

. Click to reset the user interface warnings to the factory default settings, so that they start displaying again.

Application Logging Level

. Select the level at which you want logging to be active.

When a level is selected, all events at that level and above will be logged.

None—Nothing logged.

Fatal—Only errors that cause Episode to crash.

Error —Standard errors, such as workflows failing etc.

Warn—Any warnings that workflows generate.

Info—General events, minor errors, and state changes pertaining to normal operation of Episode and workflows.

Debug—All levels of errors, warnings, and events are logged.

Clear Log File

. Click to permanently delete the entries in the log file. The log file is located at

C:\Users<user name>\AppData\Local\Telestream\episode_log.txt

.

For more information see

Edit Menu

, Technical Support Information.

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Using the Cluster Tab

Use the Cluster tab to set up cluster operational preferences.

Note:

When operating as part of a cluster, deployment tasks always execute on the same server as the encode task in the job. In Split & Stitch jobs, deployment tasks execute on the same server as the stitch task. This is done to minimize network file transfer inefficiencies. The only way to disable this feature is to use the XML/RPC interface.

Figure 52.

Preferences Window—Cluster Tab

Episode 6.5

Private Mode—Visible on network

. When your node is not part of a cluster, check to make this node visible in the cluster browsers of other nodes.

Cluster participation mode—Only Accept Jobs Submitted By Me

. When your node is part of a cluster, check to enable this node to submit jobs to other nodes in the cluster, but only accept submissions from itself.

Run Jobs

. When this node is the master node of a cluster, check to determine specify that this node can also run jobs, or uncheck to just assign them to the other nodes in the cluster. You can thus use a low-end machine as cluster master, sending jobs to more powerful nodes.

Job Scheduling [Select from dropdown]

. Select to assign jobs to cluster members and select how to schedule jobs:

Round Robin

simply sends jobs to each node in order.

Hardware Balanced

is more likely to send jobs to more powerful nodes, as determined by processor number, speed, and memory size.

Load Balanced

uses the same capacity computation as Hardware Balanced but in addition considers the current CPU load on all nodes.

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Setting Preferences

Using the License Tab

Use the License tab to add, remove, or deactivate a license on this computer.

If you are purchasing additional licenses for use of Episode on other computers,

Telestream recommends that you purchase them directly from the Telestream Web store at http://www.telestream.net/purchase/store.htm

.

When a license is selected in the list, you can copy it or click the Copy button to place the license on the clipboard.

Note:

If your Episode Engine is connected to a cluster, you must remove it from the cluster (see

Using the Cluster Window

) before making license changes. Make the changes, then add it back to the cluster.

Figure 53.

Preferences—License Tab

Add

. Click

Add (+)

to open a window where you can enter or purchase a license. Enter the license serial number in the

Serial Number

field. If you don't have one, click

Purchase

to enter our online store where you can purchase a license and enter it here.

Figure 54.

Adding a License

Remove

. Select a serial number and click

Remove (-)

to remove it. You should do this if you intend to move your license to some other computer. It is suggested that you save the serial number in a text file, so as not to lose it.

Deactivate

. Select a serial number and click to deactivate it but leave it available in this window for later use.

Episode 6.5

Using the Update Tab

Use the Update tab to check for and install Episode software updates.

Figure 55.

Preferences—Update Tab

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123

Update Settings—Check for Updates

. Click the popup menu to set how often

Episode checks for new software versions. You can choose Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or

Never.

Check Now

. Check immediately for new versions.

The

Last Check for Update

field indicates when the last check was made.

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Setting Preferences

Using the Advanced Tab

Use the Advanced tab to set background processing and other processing options.

Figure 56.

Preferences—Advanced Tab

Background Processing

. You can specify whether or not the Episode services run in the absence of the Episode desktop application. This can be useful if you need to run

Episode interactively as part of an encoding cluster and you want it to keep working

when you are not logged in. See

Episode Components

.

Start working on computer startup

. Check to start and run all Episode processes, whether a user is logged in or the Episode application is running or not.

Keep working after application quits

. Check this to allow Episode to keep processing workflow tasks even after the user closes the application.

Act as a low priority process

. Choosing this option allows Episode to run as a lower priority process so that it does not draw excessive processing power away from foreground applications that need to be responsive to user input.

Specify Windows User Account for File/Folder Access

. Since Episode services can run even if a user is not logged in or when running Episode as a non-administrator, you must specify what access rights should be assumed for the processes. The account that you specify must be an administrator with a password.

Note:

Since all processes run in their own context, they only have access to the UNC volumes (in the form \\Server\Volume\File) the user has in their password cache.

Use default

. Use the access rights of the SYSTEM user (which must be an administrator with password).

To use Episode to give a non-administrative user administrative access to Episode

Services, start Episode using an administrator account.

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Deselect (uncheck) Use Default in the Specify Windows User Account for File/Folder

Access and enter a username and password (administrator account) that will access

Episode services for the user.

User Name

. Enter the name of the administrator account to use, in the form

<domain>\<username>.

Password

. Enter the password of the selected account.

Close Episode, restart Windows as the Episode non-administrative user, and open

Episode again. The user should now be able to run Episode without being an administrator, and Episode itself will log in with administrative rights.

Serve files to old clusters for

. Use the popup menu to specify how long Episode will continue to have access to files on machines that have resigned from a cluster. During that access time period, the machine that has resigned will continue to supply any files that are part of a job being processed by the cluster, but the machine will not participate in processing the jobs.

If you often create ad-hoc clusters for encoding several jobs and then break the cluster up into machines working alone, this setting will ensure that if a machine serving files leaves the cluster, those files will still be accessible to the rest of the encoding cluster even after it has resigned.

File Cache Path

. Some encoders write temporary files during encoding, and Split-and-

Stitch jobs write temporary files during processing. If you have a faster disk somewhere else than the default location you can use a cache directory on that disk.

If you have an Episode cluster, and you are using shared storage (SAN, NAS, etc.) then you should set the file cache path to the same location on all nodes in the cluster.

Note:

You should not change the cache directory, nor clear the cache while jobs are executing, because it is likely to cause the jobs to fail.

Browse

. Set the cache directory.

Clear Cache

. Delete all cache files. You should normally never need to do this, unless for some reason large cache files have not been automatically purged.

Set Default

. Set the cache directory to C:\WINDOWS\TEMP\.

Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

There are some preliminary steps and two basic workflows for using the Episode

Premiere plug-in:

Preliminary Steps

Exporting and Encoding a Media File

Encoding Media Files in a Timeline Sequence

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Using Episode

Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

Preliminary Steps

Before you begin using the Episode Premiere Pro Plug-in, there are some steps to complete:

Make sure the Episode systems you want to access are available on your local network and are configured for your desired workflow.

In Episode, create and export Episode epitasks and deployment epitasks configured to deliver the outputs you desire. These epitasks will be used in the following

Premiere workflows.

Exporting and Encoding a Media File

The following workflow example demonstrates how to use Episode from within Adobe

Premiere:

1.

Start Adobe Premiere Pro and create a new project.

2.

In the Media Browser, double-click a media clip. The file opens in Source Monitor.

3.

Select File > Export > Media. The Export Settings window opens.

4.

In the Export Settings window, select the following:

Format: Episode Exporter

Video tab > Configure Settings button

The Episode Export window opens, and Bonjour scans the network for Episode instances that you can select to use for encoding.

5.

In the Episode Export window (see figure below), make the following selections:

a.

Use Choose Episode host to select an Episode system or cluster to perform the encoding.

b.

Use Choose Target folder to specify a destination for the encoded file.

c.

Select the Encoding Mode (Use Export First, then encode—for 1.0 this is the only working mode).

d.

Select Intermediate Quality to choose the video quality.

e.

Use Choose Encoding Task to select an epitask that you created and saved previously using Episode. You can use the Add button to browse and add more epitasks to the list.

Note:

If you select a deployment epitask here, Episode delivers the file twice— once to the target folder and again to the deployment task output.

f.

Click OK, and then click the Export button in the Export Settings window.

The selected Episode system begins encoding the selected media file. Premiere shows an encoding progress bar, and you can also watch progress and view status information in the Status window on the Episode system.

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Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

127

When encoding is complete, the encoded file appears in the target folder specified by the epitask.

Encoding Media Files in a Timeline Sequence

You can also use Episode and the Episode Premiere Pro Plug-in to encode multiple files on an Adobe Premiere Pro Timeline:

1.

Import or drag and drop a media clip onto the timeline to create a sequence.

2.

Play the clip in the timeline and edit as desired, including marking in and out points.

3.

Repeat steps 3–5 of the previous procedure—

Exporting and Encoding a Media File

to encode the media file used in the sequence.

Encoding progress is displayed in Premiere and can also be viewed in the Episode

Status window. Your encoded outputs will be placed in the target folder specified by the epitask.

This concludes the description of Episode with Adobe Premiere. For more information, please visit the Telestream.net and Adobe.com Web sites.

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Using the Episode Premiere Plug-in

Episode 6.5

Episode Menus

This chapter provides details about Episode all menus and their menu items.

File Menu

Edit Menu

View Menu

Media Browser Menu

Library Menu

Tools Menu

Preview

Help Menu

Shortcuts By Menu

File Menu

New Workflow

. (Control-N) Select to display a new, unnamed workflow in the

Workflow panel, with three empty tasks: source, encoder, and deployment.

New > New Source

. Select to create a new, untitled source task in your current workflow. You can only have one source in a workflow.

Windows systems include specific source selections:

File List

,

Watch Folder

, and

Image Sequence

.

New > New Encoder

. Select to add a new, untitled encoder task to your current workflow.

New > New Deployment

. Select to add a new, deployment task to your current workflow.

Windows systems include specific deployment selections:

Desktop

and

YouTube

..

Save Workflow As

. (Control-Shift-S) Select to save the current workflow as a new item or use the same name to overwrite.

129

130

Episode Menus

Edit Menu

Save Task As

. (Control-Alt-Shift-S) Select to save the highlighted task as a new task with a new name or use the same name to overwrite. Enter a name in the Inspector’s

Name field. Tasks are saved in the Library.

If the item has already been saved as a user task, you can right-click on the name in the library and select Rename <item>. System tasks cannot be renamed.

Import

. (Control-O) Select to import tasks or workflows. Episode displays the Open dialog, where you can navigate and select the task or workflow to open.

Export Task

. When a task is selected, select to display a file system dialog, where you can navigate to your target directory and save the task. Episode task files are saved with an epitask suffix. You can archive these files, move them to other servers, and import them in other Episode instances.

Export Workflow

. (Control-Shift-S)Select to display the file system dialog, where you can navigate to your target directory and save the workflow. Episode workflows files are saved with an episubmission suffix. You can archive these files, move them to other servers, and import them in other Episode instances.

Edit Menu

Most Edit menu commands function the same as they do in other applications. A few are unique to Episode.

Undo

. (Control-Z) Roll back to the state before your last action.

Redo

. (Control-Y) Restore the state you just used Undo to roll back.

Copy

. (Control-C) Copy the highlighted text or selected object to memory.

Cut

. (Control-X) Remove the highlighted text or selected object and store it in memory.

Paste

. (Control-V) Place the previously copied or cut text or selected object from memory into the target component.

Delete

. (Del) Remove the highlighted object.

Select All

. (Control-A) Select all objects in the selected panel.

Set as Deployment for All Encoders

. When a Deployment is highlighted, select to automatically use this Deployment for all encoders.

View Menu

Preview

. (Control-1) Select to open the video Preview window.

Cluster Browser

. (Control-2) Select to open the Cluster Browser window.

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Episode Menus

Media Browser Menu

131

Media Browser Menu

Add Bookmark

. Open the Inspector panel and select to create a new, unnamed bookmark. Configure the bookmark and click Save to create the bookmark and display it in the Media Browser.

Add As Watch Folder

. (Control- +) Add the selected folder as a watch folder.

Add As Deployment

. (Alt- +) Add the selected object as a deployment.

Add to Workflow

. (+) Add the selected object as a workflow.

Library Menu

Browse Workflows

. (Control-Alt-W) Select to display the Workflows tab in the library.

Browse Sources

. (Control-Alt-S) Select to display the Sources tab in the library.

Browse Encoders

. (Control-Alt-E) Select to display the Encoders tab in the library.

Browse Deployments

. (Control-Alt-D) Select to display the Deployments tab in the library.

New Source

. Select to create a new, unnamed source task in the library. This command can create a watch folder or a file list, depending on what you select in the menu.

New Encoder

. Select to create a new, unnamed encoder task in the library.

New Deployment

. Select to create a new, unnamed deployment task in the library.

Two selections are available directly in this menu: Desktop and YouTube. The YouTube selection allows you to fill in the inspector with your YouTube login and details so you can deploy directly to your YouTube account.

Rename <item>

. Select to highlight the name text of the selected item (in any of the sections) in the library, so you can edit it.

Duplicate <item>

. (Control-D) Select to duplicate the item in the library. Episode creates a new item identical to the selected item, adding a numeric suffix to its name.

Edit the name of the duplicated item as appropriate.

Remove <item>

. (Delete) Select to permanently remove the selected workflow in the library.

Add to Workflow

. (+) Select to add the selected library task to the current workflow. In the case of a source task, the current task (if any) is replaced by the new task, because only one source per workflow is permitted.

Tools Menu

Submit Workflow.

(Control-R) Select to activate a workflow and begin monitoring, encoding, and deploying.

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Preview

Submit Workflow As MBR.

(Control-B) Select to activate a workflow and begin monitoring, encoding, and deploying a multi-bit-rate workflow. (MBR is available only with Pro and Engine licenses.)

Preferences

. Select to open the Preferences panel and set preference options.

Preview

The following commands are available in the Preview window.

Play

. (Space) Select to play the video normally. Select again to pause the video.

Step Forward

. (Right Arrow) Select to step the video forward a single frame at a time.

Step Backward

. (Left Arrow) Select to step the video backward a single frame at a time.

Half Size

. (Control-Zero) Select to display the preview at half the actual size.

Normal Size

. (Control-1) Select to display the preview at the actual size, up to the maximum size of the monitor. This is the default size.

Double Size

. (Control-2) Select to display the preview at double the actual size, up to the maximum size of the monitor.

Fit to Window

. (Control-3) Select to display the preview video at the size of the current window. Continues to adjust size as you adjust window size.

Fit to Screen

. (Control-4) Select to maximize the window and display the preview at the maximum monitor size.

Set Mark In

. (Control-i) Select to set the mark in value at the current frame.

Set Mark Out

. (Control-o) Select to set the mark out value at the current frame.

Jump to Start

. (Home) Select to go to the beginning of the current clip.

Jump to End

. (End) Select to go to the end of the current clip.

Jump to Mark In

. (Control-Shift-i) Select to jump to the current mark in value, if set.

Jump to Mark Out

. (Control-Shift-o) Select to jump to the current mark out value, if set.

Snapshot

. (Control-Alt-c) Select to take a snapshot of video in the preview window and save it to the location you specify as a JPEG file.

Zoom Timeline In

. (+) Magnifies the timeline.

Zoom Timeline Out

. (-) Restores the timeline to normal size.

Help Menu

Episode Help

. Displays the Episode User’s Guide (the document you’re currently reading) and support information.

Episode 6.5

Episode Menus

Shortcuts By Menu

133

Technical Support Information

. Displays a tabbed window with information beneficial to assisting user’s with problems using Episode. Click OK to save all of this information in a zip file, which you can send to Telestream Customer Service for analysis.

About

. Displays the About Episode window, where you can view the version of Episode you’re using.

Shortcuts By Menu

Episode provides shortcuts for many menu items. These tables list Episode menu items with shortcuts, organized by menu. Common operating system shortcuts, such as in the Edit menu, are not listed.

Table 5.

File Menu Item Shortcuts

Menu Item

New Workflow

Save Task As

Save Workflow As

Import

Shortcut

Control-N

Control-Alt-Shift-S

Control-Shift-S

Control-O

Table 6.

Media Browser Menu Item Shortcuts

Menu Item

Add As Watch Folder

Add As Deployment

Add to Workflow

Shortcut

Control - +

Alt - +

+

Table 7.

Library Menu Item Shortcuts

Menu Item

Browse Workflows

Browse Sources

Browse Encoders

Browse Deployments

Duplicate Item

Add to Workflow

Shortcut

Control-Alt-W

Control-Alt-S

Control-Alt-E

Control-Alt-D

Control-D

+

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Shortcuts By Menu

Table 8.

Tools Menu Item Shortcuts

Menu Item

Submit Workflow

Shortcut

Control-R

Table 9.

Preview Control Shortcuts

Menu Item

Show | Hide Preview

Play

Step Forward

Step Backward

Half Size

Actual Size

Double Size

Fit to Window

Fit to Screen

Set Mark In

Set Mark Out

Jump to Start

Jump to End

Jump to Mark In

Jump to Mark Out

Capture Frame To Disk

Shortcut

Control-1

Space

Right Arrow

Left Arrow

Control-Zero

Control-1

Control-2

Control-3

Control-4

Control-i

Control-o

Home

End

Control-Shift-i

Control-Shift-o

Control-Alt-c

Episode 6.5

Video Encoding

Concepts

This chapter discusses encoding concepts and how they apply to Episode transcoding.

File (Container) Formats And Codecs

Color Formats

Video Scan

Frame Types and I, P, and B Frames

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

CBR, VBR, and Quality-Based VBR

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp Image

File (Container) Formats And Codecs

Many media file/container formats are actually wrappers—they contain video and/or audio data encoded with one of a number of codecs—each with their own format.

While many media files contain a single audio track, or a single video (with audio) track, some media file formats (QuickTime MOV format for example) contain multiple media tracks.

Each track may have a different resolution, bandwidth, language, etc. Consequently, even though a file may be in a format supported by Episode, the media contained inside the file may be encoded with a codec that is not supported, leading to an error during transcoding.

For details on the encoders and codecs supported by Episode, see

Media Containers/

Formats

.

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136

Video Encoding Concepts

Color Formats

Color Formats

The most basic way to represent color in both still and moving digital images is to use the RGB color space. In RGB each pixel has three values: red, green and blue, which are mixed to generate the intended color. This is the way most computers store and display color.

However, the RGB color space is not represented in most video codecs, due to the way television emerged, at first with only black and white images and later with color images.

The color format for television was designed to contain all the black and white information in one channel, and the color information in two additional channels. The black and white channel is called luma (light), and the two color channels are called chroma (color). The separation of luma and chroma make it possible for older, black and white televisions to still work, only processing the black and white image, while color televisions can benefit from the color information.

This color space is called YUV, or YCbCr. Y is the luma and U (Cb) and V (Cr) are color differences—the luma subtracted from a transformed blue and red, respectively. (The green values are not passed in the signal—they are computed from these values.) This encoding has several advantages over RGB in terms of video compression, since most of the image information ends up in the luma channel and the chroma channels hold much less information for most video material. This, in combination with the fact that human visual perception is less sensitive to color than to brightness, makes it possible to sample the chroma more sparsely, thereby reducing the amount of data required to store (and transmit) an image.

The subsampling pattern is commonly given in the notation (a):(b):(c), which is interpreted in the following manner: In a block of size (ax2) there are (ax2) luma samples. (b) is the number of chroma samples along the top row and (c) is the number of chroma samples along the bottom row. In other words, 4:4:4 means there is a chroma sample for each luma sample—no subsampling. 4:4:0 means every second row has full chroma samples and every second is skipped. 4:2:2 means every second column has full chroma samples and every second is skipped. These two therefore have (2/3) the number of total samples, compared to 4:4:4. 4:2:0 means every second row has chroma samples for every second column, thus halving the number of total samples compared to 4:4:4.

Luma and chroma samples are not necessarily taken at the same positions relative to image pixels, but that is beyond the scope of this manual. For more information, refer to an article by Doug Kerr:

Chrominance Subsampling in Digital Images (The Pumpkin,

November 2005)

.

Episode 6.5

Video Encoding Concepts

Video Scan

137

Video Scan

Video material (de-interlaced or interlaced) can be rendered either a full frame at a time, a progressive scan, or with every other line of the frame at a time—interlaced scan.

The two half-frames in interlaced video are referred to as the top and the bottom fields.

One of the fields is the dominant field and should always be played back first.

When encoding material to be recorded on DVD and played back on a television, it is important that the dominant field is set as the first field. If you have not edited the material you are going to encode, it can be difficult to know whether the dominance lies in the top or bottom field.

These are the normal field dominances of common formats:

Table 10.

Common Formats and Field Dominance

Format

DV 25

DVCPRO 25/50

DVCPRO 100 HD

IMX

Apple Intermediate Codec

Uncompressed 4:2:2

Field dominance

Bottom Field

Bottom Field

Top Field

Top Field

Top field

Top field

Much of today’s digital video is generated from non-interlaced film material, where a single film frame may be sampled several times to generate video fields. This technique is known as telecine.

For NTSC material this is typically done by taking 3 fields from one frame and 2 from the next (known as 3-2 pulldown); for PAL, 2-2 pulldown is normal. Knowing this sequence of fields—the cadence—can greatly improve the quality of deinterlacing. Typically subsequent editing breaks up the cadence, but Episode detects and adapts to broken cadences.

For more information, read the article entitled

DVD benchmark—Part 5—Progressive scan DVD

, by Don Munsil and Brian Floria in Secrets of Home Theater and High Fidelity,

7(4), October 2000.

Note:

The preferred method of working with interlaced material in Episode is to deinterlace any interlaced source material to double-frame rate progressive material, apply video filters and then, if needed, re-interlace the material before creating the output file. See

Field Order Filter

,

Frame Rate Filter

,

Deinterlace Filter

,

Advanced Frame

Rate Filter

, and

Interlace Filter

for further information.

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Video Encoding Concepts

Frame Types and I, P, and B Frames

Frame Types and I, P, and B Frames

Except for raw data formats and editing formats such as DV or Motion JPEG, most video formats do not simply consist of a sequence of frames, allowing them to be decoded independently. Since a video frame often looks a lot like its neighboring frames, a video codec typically searches for differences between frames to achieve a good compression ratio (temporal compression). Only the differences between these frames are stored in the encoded video file. However, for the encoded stream to be decodable, independent frames with full content—which can be decoded directly—must be scattered throughout the clip. These frames are called keyframes, or I-frames.

To decode a frame at a certain time in the movie the decoder must therefore begin the decoding process at the nearest previous key-frame and decode to the desired frame.

Keyframes spaced far apart make the clip hard to search, but result in a good compression ratio. Accordingly they are good for streaming material in which searching is not usually done. A compromise is to limit the distance between keyframes to some maximum distance. This is used in most encoded video material.

A frame that predicts data from a previous frame is called a P-frame (

Predictive Frame

). A frame that predicts data from both a previous and a subsequent frame is called a Bframe (

Bi-Predictive Frame

). The use of B-frames provides a somewhat better compression ratio, but is also more CPU intensive.

In MPEG-derived formats, the sequence of frames from an I-frame to the next I-frame is known as a Group Of Pictures (GOP).

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

A digital video frame is a serial stream (ordinal sequence) of pixels which represents (or displays as) a two-dimensional lattice of pixels, where each pixel has a given color.

Figure 57.

Aspect Ratio Example

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Encoding Concepts

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

139

In the diagram above, a lattice of (m x n) pixels is represented. M x N represents the pixel resolution of the image. The aspect ratio of the display is (width:height). While computer displays normally have an aspect ratio which is identical to (m:n) (thus the pixels are square), this is often not true for televisions.

In cases the pixels on the monitor are not square, the pixel aspect ratio = pixel width:pixel height <> 1:1.

For example, PAL is defined as 720 x 576 pixels, with a display aspect ratio of (4:3. Since

720:576 = 5:4 this means the pixel aspect ratio is 16:15.

SVCD is a video format that is stored on CDs and often played on computers. SVCD stores NTSC video in 480 x 480 pixels with a pixel aspect ratio of 4:3. The consequent display aspect ratio of 4:3 requires the player software to stretch the pixels, interpolating along the horizontal axis to show the image on 640 x 480 square pixels.

Compressing dimensions in this way is known as anamorphic video.

Some codecs (D-10/IMX, DV, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 in particular) allow the user to set a display aspect ratio for the output video in order to inform a player of the desired aspect ratio for viewing. However, this field is inconsistently used—in particular its 1:1 setting does not mean that the display is square, but rather that the pixels themselves have a square aspect ratio. Often this field is also labelled as pixel aspect ratio. There is a risk that different equipment interprets this field in different ways.

QuickTime enables you to explicitly set the pixel aspect ratio if it is different from the display aspect ratio.

In Episode, you can also use the resize filter and the codec settings to manage pixel resolution and aspect ratio. See

Resize Filter

.

For example, to create an SVCD video, use the resize filter and set both Width and

Height to 480 in order to get the desired pixel resolution. Set the Aspect Ratio to 4:3 in the MPEG-2 codec settings to get the desired display aspect ratio.

If the input data has a non-square aspect ratio and this is not indicated in the source file

(or if you wish to override this setting), you can configure the resize filter to use the

Input display aspect ratio menu. Continuing with the example of SVCD video, first convert it to PAL output. The (m:n) ratio is not the same for SVCD and PAL, so you should select Cut in the Maintain Proportion With menu and set the Input display aspect ratio to Assume 4:3. In the codec, set Aspect ratio to 4:3 or Same as Input.

Finally, to convert from one pixel resolution to another, you have two options: either to scale the smallest dimension to fit the output format and cut off parts of the largest dimension, or to scale the largest dimension to fit and pad the smallest dimension with black.

Example

: You have an HD video of 1280 x 720 pixels and you want to encode it as a PAL video at 720 x 576 pixels while retaining as much of the picture as possible. You use the resize filter and set the Maintain Proportion With menu to Letterbox (Pad), scaling down the width of the picture until it fits. This shrinks the vertical dimension to 324 pixels and the picture has 126-pixel black borders along the top and bottom as shown in the figure below.

140

Video Encoding Concepts

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

Figure 58.

Converting HD to PAL with Letterbox Formatting

The other alternative is to select Cut, where the vertical dimension is scaled to 576 pixels and the horizontal to 1024 pixels, of which 152 are cut off at both the left and right sides as shown below:

Figure 59.

Converting HD to PAL with Cut Formatting

Letterbox formatting retains the full width and fills in missing height and width; Cut formatting retains the full height, but trims the edges. For more precise control you can use the Initial crop values to crop parts of the picture before scaling with either cutting or padding.

Episode 6.5

Video Encoding Concepts

CBR, VBR, and Quality-Based VBR

141

CBR, VBR, and Quality-Based VBR

Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Variable Bit Rate (VBR) and Quality-Based VBR are encoding options available in several video encoders. A clip encoded in CBR mode has a relatively constant bit rate throughout its duration. CBR encoding is necessary when the content is distributed over networks or from devices that cannot handle peaks that are higher than the average bit rate.

However, the use of true CBR (also called Flat Rate), is difficult since it requires every encoded video frame to be exactly equal in size. This degrades visual quality. I-frames, for example, must be larger for overall quality to be high.

Different segments of a movie often require different bit rates in order to maintain constant quality. The quality delivered by most modern video encoders partly depends on the amount of motion and fine detail in the material. For this reason, VBR is superior, while keeping the average rate at the desired level. VBR is more suitable for playback on devices with higher available bandwidth. Since the average rate is known, it is still possible to predict the resulting file size with good accuracy.

When quality is most important, Quality-Based VBR is the best encoding mode. Using this mode you only specify the desired quality of the encoded material.

For each segment of the clip, the encoder uses the bit rate required to reach the specified quality. Thus, file size cannot be predicted, since it depends on how difficult the clip is to compress. For example, for the same visual quality, a 30-second clip of a news anchor (low movement) yields a small file while a 30-second clip of a football game (high movement) is significantly larger.

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

To control variations in bit rate when encoding, a Video Buffer Verifier (VBV) is used. The buffer size determines the elapsed time over which the bit rate must be kept constant.

Episode measures the VBV in seconds. A buffer size of 0-5 seconds is considered CBR.

Setting the VBV value greater than 5 seconds is considered VBR. During the specified

VBV period the bit rate may vary without limits, as long as the average rate in the region is correct.

This enables the codec to use higher bit rates for difficult segments and lower bit rates for easier segments. A larger VBV enables the codec to encode difficult passages better, since the bit rate is allowed to peak for a longer period of time. Some specifications specify the buffer size in bits. In these situations, you can convert to seconds by dividing by the bit rate.

Since the buffer size determines how much the bit rate may vary, it sets a constraint on how long a player must buffer before starting playback, to ensure smooth playback without need for re-buffering.

In practice, the size of the VBV buffer is a trade-off. A large VBV enables the encoder to vary the bit rate more freely depending on the difficulty of the current part of the material, while maintaining the correct average bit rate. However, the player has to

Episode 6.5

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Video Encoding Concepts

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp Image buffer a larger portion of the clip before playback can be started. A small VBV forces the codec to encode at a more constant bit rate throughout the clip. This results in lower quality for difficult passages, but the buffer time for the player is lower.

When encoding a clip with Quality-Based VBR there is no constraint on the size of the

VBV—it is ignored.

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp

Image

In order to maintain the specified bit rate, most video encoders vary the quality of the encoded clip. Another alternative supported by some encoders is to skip frames when the bit rate gets too high. This enables the encoder to keep a higher quality for each encoded frame, but the motion of the video is not as smooth. Depending on the material being encoded, smooth motion may be more important than crisp image and vice versa.

The frame skip probability controls the trade-off between skipping frames and lowering quality. A frame skip probability of 1 means that when the encoder has to choose between lowering the quality or skipping a frame, it skips a frame. A probability of 0 does not mean frames are never skipped, but that it only happens when image quality cannot be lowered more.

Frame skip probability is also important to use when creating content for networks with extreme bandwidth limitations such as GPRS, 3G or when streaming over modems. These networks sometimes cannot handle even the slightest peaks over the specified bit rate, and frames can be skipped to avoid this. When streaming to such a device, set the priority towards sustaining the bit rate and sacrificing the frame rate if necessary.

When encoding for a less bandwidth limited target platform, such as local playback on a computer, the frame skip probability value can be set lower. This is possible since the data rate from the computer's hard drive is sufficient to handle quite large bit rate peaks.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/

Formats

This chapter describes each of the container/file formats you can encode or decode in

Episode, including each user-configurable setting. Each has a default file extension, which you can change as required. Many formats also have settings that you can configure.

Note:

For a complete list of supported formats, see the Format Support document at http://www.telestream.net/pdfs/datasheets/Episode6_Format_Support.pdf.

Each format supports a specific set of video and/or audio codecs, with details including its ability to decode (in) and encode (out), plus notes about required subsystems and other limits, as appropriate.

Episode decodes only one (the first) audio track in source files it processes, except for

MOV and MXF files. The track may contain multiple channels.

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF source and creates one track with all channels in it. For example, 2 stereo tracks becomes one track with 4 channels.

Note:

Some formats require Episode Pro | Episode Engine, as noted.

3GPP (.3gp)

3GPP2 (.3g2)

3GPP2 EZmovie (.3g2)

AC3/ATSC A/52 (.a52)

ADTS (.aac)

AIFF (.aif )

AMR (.amr)

AVI (.avi)

DASH MPEG Streaming

DV-Stream (.dv)

143

144

Media Containers/Formats

Flash (.flv)

Flash (.swf )

GXF (.gxf )

iTunes Audio (.m4a)

iTunes Video (.m4v)

MOV (.mov)

MP3 (.mp3)

MP4 (.mp4)

MPEG Audio (.m1a)

MPEG-ES (.m1v)

MPEG-ES (.m2v)

MPEG-PS (.mpg)

MPEG-TS (.ts)

MXF AS-11 (.mxf )

MXF Op1a (.mxf )

MXF OpAtom Audio (.mxf )

MXF OpAtom Video (.mxf )

MXF Sony XAVC

MXF XDCAM (.mxf )

OGG (.ogg)

PSP (.mp4)

TIFO (.tifo)

WAV (.wav)

WebM (.webm)

WMA (.wma)

WMV (.wmv)

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP (.3gp)

145

3GPP (.3gp)

3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) video format is based on MPEG-4 file format and GSM specifications. 3GPP specifies video standards for 3G technology known as

UMTS. 3GPP is intended for use on mobile phones.

1

Codec

AAC

AMR

H.263

H.264

HE-AAC

MPEG-4

Codecs

Table 11.

3GPP (.3gp) Codecs

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Out requires Pro Audio Option in/out in/out in/out out in/out in/out out in/out

Requires Pro Audio Option

Settings

Figure 60.

3GPP Settings

3GP Version

. Select 3GPPv5 | 3GPPv6 depending on the target players.

For broadest compatibility, select 3GPP version 5, because many older mobile phones that cannot play 3GPP version 6. Most version 6 phones are backward-compatible with version 5.

Fast start

. Check to add information to the file which enables a player to start playing the file before it has completely downloaded (progressive download). Fast start functionality is an alternative to streaming media.

Audio & Video Streaming

MP4 supports streaming of H263 | H264 | MPEG-4 video, and AAC | AAC QuickTime |

AMR audio. Both video and audio codecs must support streaming to enable streaming.

1.

3rd Generation Partnership Project

.

Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Universal Mobile

Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Transparent end-to-end packet switched streaming service (PSS); 3GPP file format (3GP), v 9.1.0 edition, 2010

www.3gpp.org

.

Episode 6.5

146

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP (.3gp)

H263 Packetizer

Figure 61.

H263 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

Packetizing Type

. Select

1998 (QT) | 2000

.

Insert Extra Headers

. Check to enable error correction.

H264 Packetizer

Figure 62.

H264 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

MPEG-4 Packetizer

Figure 63.

MPEG-4 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC Packetizer

Figure 64.

AAC Packetizer Settings

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer

Figure 65.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer Settings

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP (.3gp)

147

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AMR Packetizer

Figure 66.

AMR Packetizer Settings

Frames Per Packet

. Use the slider (or manually enter) to specify the number of frames per packet. A higher number improves bandwidth efficiency, but a player may not be able to store all frames. Range: 1 to 10.

Packetizing Mode

. Select from these options:

Octet Align

packetizing mode is supported by all players.

Bandwidth Efficient

packetizing mode is not supported by all players, but can make better use of available bandwidth.

Cyclic Redundancy Check

. Check to add CRC so the client can verify content validity errors that may have occurred in transmission. Not supported by all players.

Robust Sorting

. Check to reorder data to decrease the impact of transmission errors.

Not supported by all players.

148

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP2 (.3g2)

3GPP2 (.3g2)

3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2) video format is based on MPEG-4 file format and 3G CDMA technology. 3GPP2 is intended for use on mobile phones

1

. 3GPP2 serves a similar purpose but is a different format from 3GPP.

Codecs

Table 12.

3GPP2 (.3g2) Codecs

Codec

AAC

AMR

H.263

H.264

HE-AAC

MPEG-4

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in in in Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

in/out in/out in in/out in/out in in/out in/out

Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.3g2

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Audio & Video Streaming

3GGP2 format supports streaming of H263 | H264 | MPEG-4 video, and AAC | AAC

QuickTime | AMR audio. Both video and audio codecs must support streaming to enable streaming.

H263 Packetizer

Figure 67.

H263 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

Packetizing Type

. Select

1998 (QT) | 2000

.

Insert Extra Headers

. Check to enable error correction.

1.

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

.

3GPP2 File Formats for Multimedia Services

. www.3gpp2.org

.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

H264 Packetizer

Figure 68.

H264 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

MPEG-4 Packetizer

Figure 69.

MPEG-4 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC Packetizer

Figure 70.

AAC Packetizer Settings.

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP2 (.3g2)

149

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer

Figure 71.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer Settings

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

AMR Packetizer

Figure 72.

AMR Packetizer Settings

150

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP2 (.3g2)

Frames Per Packet

. Use the slider (or manually enter) to specify the number of frames per packet. A higher number improves bandwidth efficiency, but a player may not be able to store all frames. Range: 1 to 10.

Packetizing Mode

. Select from these options:

Octet Align

packetizing mode is supported by all players.

Bandwidth Efficient

packetizing mode is not supported by all players, but can make better use of available bandwidth.

Cyclic Redundancy Check

. Check to add CRC so the client can verify content validity errors that may have occurred in transmission. Not supported by all players.

Robust Sorting

. Check to reorder data to decrease the impact of transmission errors.

Not supported by all players.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

3GPP2 EZmovie (.3g2)

151

3GPP2 EZmovie (.3g2)

3GPP2 EZmovie format is 3GPP2-compatible video extended with EZmovie features developed by KDDI Corporation

1

, which can be used on devices that use KDDI’s mobile video application or others that support these features.

Codecs

Table 13.

3GPP2 (.3g2) EZMovie Codecs

Codec

AAC

AMR

H.263 in

H.264 in

HE-AAC in

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in in/out in/out in in in Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

in/out in/out in in Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

MPEG-4 in in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 73.

3GPP2 EZmovie Settings

Episode 6.5

Restrict Distribution

. Check to implement distribution restriction mechanisms.

Restrict Playback

. Check to limit the number of times the file can be played.

Playback Count

. Integer value determines the number of times the file can be played.

Restrict Expiration

. Check to limit the number of days the file can be played.

Expiration Time (Days)

. Specify an integer value for the number of days this video can be played, after which it expires and can not be played.

Note:

A player may ignore these restrictions.

1.

Ezmovie

. www.au.kddi.com

152

Media Containers/Formats

AC3/ATSC A/52 (.a52)

AC3/ATSC A/52 (.a52)

ATSC A/52 is an audio format developed by Advanced Television Systems Committee

1 for use in HDTV digital television and DVD applications. It is also known as AC-3.

Codecs

Table 14.

ATSC A/52 (.a52) Codecs

Codec

A-52

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.a52

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Advanced Television Systems Committee

.

Digital Audio Compression Standard (AC-3, E-AC-3), 2010

. www.atsc.org.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

ADTS (.aac)

153

ADTS (.aac)

ADTS (Audio Data Transport Stream) is a wrapper format for AAC-encoded audio files.

1

ADTS is used by MPEG TS and others to stream audio.

Codecs

Table 15.

ADTS (.aac) Codecs

Codec

AAC

HE-AAC

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in in/out in in/out in/out Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.aac

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information

Part 7: Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), 2006

.

Episode 6.5

154

Media Containers/Formats

AIFF (.aif)

AIFF (.aif)

AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format) is an audio file format standard for playback on personal computers and other audio devices, co-developed by Apple.

1

The audio data in AIFF is uncompressed, lossless PCM used by professional-level audio and video applications, unlike the better-known lossy MP3 format.

Codecs

Table 16.

AIFF (.aif ) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

PCM in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.aif

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Apple

.

Audio Interchange File Format: AIFF, version 1.3 edition, 1989

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

AMR (.amr)

155

AMR (.amr)

Note:

This format is available only with Pro Audio Option.

AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) is a standard, mandatory audio codec in 3GPP.

1

AMR is a speech format, ideal for storing the spoken word, and is unlikely to give ideal results for music audio.

Codecs

Table 17.

AMR (.amr) Codecs

Codec

AMR

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.amr

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Internet Engineering Task Force

.

RTP Payload Format and File Storage Format for Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) &

Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband Audio Codecs, 2007

. www.rfc-editor.org

Episode 6.5

156

Media Containers/Formats

AVI (.avi)

AVI (.avi)

AVI (Audio Video Interleave) is a multimedia (audio and video) container format developed by Microsoft in 1992.

1

AVI allows synchronous audio-with-video playback.

Many AVI files also use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group. These extensions are supported by Microsoft, and are unofficially called AVI 2.0.

Codecs

Table 18.

AVI (.avi) Codecs

Codec

DV 25

DVCPro 25

DVCPro 50

DivX

MJPEG

MP3

PCM

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in in in/out in/out in/out in/out

Requires Divx QuickTime plugin in in in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Requires MP3 QuickTime plugin

Windows RGB in

Avid in/out

YCbCr in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out Requires Avid QuickTime plugin in/out

Settings

Figure 74.

AVI Settings

Version

. Select

Version 1 (Regular AVI)

|

Version 2 (Large Files)

. Version 2 is not supported by all players. but enables encoding of source files larger than 4GB.

1.

AVI File Format, 2010

. msdn.microsoft.com

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

DASH MPEG Streaming

157

DASH MPEG Streaming

The Dynamic Adaptive Streaming, or MPEG DASH, format provides MP4 high quality adaptive bitrate streaming of media via HTTP web servers. DASH breaks a long media program into small segments which are encoded at multiple different bit rates, all of which are made available to receiving devices.

During playback, a device chooses the best segment bitrate available for its connection and processing capacity so as to minimize buffering and resultant pauses in playback.

This enables DASH clients to play back high quality video without interruptions despite changing network conditions.

Figure 75.

DASH Encoder Example

Settings

For settings, please see the settings for the chosen container and encoder.

TIFO (.tifo)

is

the default container, and

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

is the default video encoder.

Episode 6.5

158

Media Containers/Formats

DV-Stream (.dv)

DV-Stream (.dv)

DV (Digital Video) format (originally known as Blue Book) was developed by a group of leading video camera manufacturers.

1

Audio in DV is stored uncompressed as either 16-bit linear PCM at 48kHz or 4 nonlinear

12-bit PCM channels at 32 kHz. DV also supports 16-bit audio at 44.1 kHz.

Codecs

Table 19.

DV-Stream (.dv) Codecs

Codec

DV 25

DVCPro 25

DVCPro 50

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in in in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.dv

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

International Electrotechnical Commission

.

Helical-scan digital video cassette recording system using 6.35 mm magnetic tape for consumer use (525-60, 625-50, 1125-60 & 1250-50 systems), 2001

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

Flash (.flv)

159

Flash (.flv)

Adobe Flash video format (FLV was originally developed by Macromedia) is a video container file format.

1

Flash is used to deliver video over the Internet for use by Adobe

Flash Player versions 6-10, and may also be embedded in SWF files.

Codecs

Table 20.

Flash (.flv) Codecs

Codec

VP6 (Flash 8)

Episode

in/out

H.264 (Flash 9) in/out

Episode Pro

in/out in/out

Episode Engine

in/out in/out

Notes

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.flv

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Adobe Systems

.

Video File Format Specification, version 10 edition, 2008

.

Episode 6.5

160

Media Containers/Formats

Flash (.swf)

Flash (.swf )

Adobe SWF (Small Web Format) is a multimedia wrapper format

1

. SWF support was added to Flash Player 6. Episode only allows the wrapping of video and audio tracks in

SWF files.

Codecs

Table 21.

Flash (.swf ) Codecs

Codec

VP6 (Flash 8)

Episode

in/out

H.264 (Flash 9) in/out

Episode Pro

in/out in/out

Episode Engine

in/out in/out

Notes

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.swf

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Adobe Systems

.

SWF File Format Specification, version 10 edition, 2008

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

GXF (.gxf)

161

GXF (.gxf )

GXF (General eXchange Format) is an interchange format for storage and data transfer originally developed by Grass Valley Group.

1

Codecs

Table 22.

GXF (.gxf ) Codecs

Codec

MPEG-2

MPEG-2 HD

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.gxf

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

General Exchange Format (GXF), 2009

.

Episode 6.5

162

Media Containers/Formats

iTunes Audio (.m4a)

iTunes Audio (.m4a)

iTunes Audio is AAC audio in an MPEG-4 wrapper, containing the audio layer (nonvideo) of an MPEG-4 movie file. Also known as Apple Lossless.

Codecs

Table 23.

iTunes Audio (.m4a) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

AAC in/out

HE-AAC in in/out in in/out in Output (encoding) requires Pro

Audio Option.

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.m4a

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

iTunes Video (.m4v)

163

iTunes Video (.m4v)

iTunes Video is an MPEG-4 multi-media (audio and video) wrapper intended for playing files in iTunes. This format supports copyright protection.

Codecs

Table 24.

iTunes Video (.m4v) Codecs

Codec

MPEG-4

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

AAC in/out

H.264 in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.m4v

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

164

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

MOV (.mov)

MOV format is Apple’s

1

QuickTime multimedia framework.

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF source and creates one track with all channels in it. For example, 2 stereo tracks becomes one track with 4 channels.

You can quickly extend the encoding and decoding abilities of Episode by downloading and installing third-party QuickTime codec plugins in your system. You access the QuickTime video and audio codecs directly. See

QuickTime Codecs

and

QuickTime Audio Codecs

.

Codecs

Table 25.

MOV (.mov) Codecs

Codec

uLaw 2:1 aLaw 2:1

AVC-Intra 50

AVC-Intra 100

AAC

AMR

Animation

Apple

Component in/out in/out

Apple GSM 10:1 in/out in/out Apple

Intermediate

Apple Lossless

Apple ProRes in/out in/out

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out Use QuickTime codec in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec

Episode ProRes output on

Windows available only with

Episode Engine license on

Windows Server 2008|12.

Apple

Uncompressed

Apple Video in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out Use QuickTime codec

1.

Apple

.

QuickTime File Format Specification, 2007-09-04 edition, 2007

. developer.apple.com

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

165

Table 25.

MOV (.mov) Codecs

H.264

HDV

HE-AAC

IMA

D-10/IMX

MJPEG

MP3

MPEG-4

Codec

Avid

Avid DNxHD

Avid DV

Avid Meridien

Blackmagic

Cinepak

DV 25

DVCPro 25

DVCPro 50 in/out in/out

DVCPro 100/HD in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

GoPro Cineform

H.261

H.263

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out Requires Avid QuickTime codec in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Requires Avid QuickTime codec

Requires Avid QuickTime codec

Requires Avid QuickTime codec

Use Quicktime codec

Use QuickTime codec in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in in/out in/out

Requires Final Cut Pro

Requires Final Cut Pro

Use QuickTime codec. Requires

Final Cut Pro or Raylight for

Windows

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec

Mace 3:1

Mace 6:1

Media 100 in/out in in in/out in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in /out in in/out in /out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Out requires Pro Audio Option

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec

Use QuickTime codec

Requires Media 100 QuickTime codec

PCM

Pixlet in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out Use QuickTime codec

Episode 6.5

166

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

Table 25.

MOV (.mov) Codecs

Codec

ProRes 4:2:2 and

4:4:4:4

QDesign

RAW

RED

Sheer Video

Sorenson Video 1

Sorenson Video 2

Sorenson Video 3

Targa Cine YUV

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Windows output available only on

Windows Server

2008/2012.

Alpha channel is supported in

Apple ProRes 4:4:4:4 QuickTime with

millions of colors +

selected.

Episode ProRes 4:4:4:4 does not support

millions of colors +

Use QuickTime codec in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out in/out in in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Requires RED QuickTime plugin

Requires Sheer QuickTime plugin

Use QuickTime legacy codec

Use QuickTime legacy codec

Use QuickTime codec

XDCAM

XDCAM EX in in

XDCAM HD in

XDCAM HD 422 in

YCbCr in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in /out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 76.

QuickTime MOV Settings

Disable Saving

. Check to prevent others from transcoding the output file to other formats.

Add QuickTime Timecode Track

. Check to add a QuickTime timecode track in conjunction with the Timecode option. The timecode track can be toggled on or off in

QuickTime Player.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

167

Note:

QuickTime Player Version 7.6.6 and earlier fails to increment the timecode for the first B-frame in a video, causing the timecode to seem out of synch, but no frames are skipped.

Fast Start

. Check to add information to the file which enables a player to start playing the file before it has completely downloaded (progressive download). Fast start functionality is an alternative to streaming media.

Audio & Video Streaming

QuickTime MOV format supports streaming of H263 | H264 | MPEG-4 video, and AAC |

AAC QuickTime | AMR audio. Both video and audio codecs must support streaming to enable streaming.

H263 Packetizer

Figure 77.

H263 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

Packetizing Type

. Select

1998 (QT) | 2000

.

Insert Extra Headers

. Check to insert extra headers.

H264 Packetizer

Figure 78.

H264 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

MPEG-4 Packetizer

Figure 79.

MPEG-4 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC Packetizer

Figure 80.

AAC Packetizer Settings

168

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer

Figure 81.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer Settings

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MOV (.mov)

169

AMR Packetizer

Figure 82.

AMR Packetizer Settings

Frames Per Packet

. Use the slider (or manually enter) to specify the number of frames per packet. A higher number improves bandwidth efficiency, but a player may not be able to store all frames. Range: 1 to 10.

Packetizing Mode

. Select from these options:

Octet Align

packetizing mode is supported by all players.

Bandwidth Efficient

packetizing mode is not supported by all players, but can make better use of available bandwidth.

Cyclic Redundancy Check

. Check to add CRC so the client can verify content validity errors that may have occurred in transmission. Not supported by all players.

Robust Sorting

. Check to reorder data to decrease the impact of transmission errors.

Not supported by all players.

170

Media Containers/Formats

MP3 (.mp3)

MP3 (.mp3)

MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III) is the audio format of MPEG-1.

1

Codecs

Table 26.

MP3 (.mp3) Codecs

Codec

MP3

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 83.

MP3 Settings

Use ID3 tag v 1.1. Check to add ID3 v1.1 metadata tags to the output file.

Use ID3 tag v 2.3. Check to add ID3 v2.3 metadata tags to the output file.

See

Adding Metadata

for more information on metadata. See

www.id3.org

for more information ID3 tags.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbs—Part 3: Audio, 1993.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MP4 (.mp4)

171

MP4 (.mp4)

MP4 or MPEG-4 Part 14 format is a multimedia container format.

1

It is commonly used to store digital video and digital audio streams (especially MPEG). Like most modern container formats, MP4 can be streamed over the Internet.

Episode can add ODSM (Object Descriptor Stream) and SDSM (Scene Description

Stream) tracks to MPEG-4 files which are required by some players. A check box in the

Format panel enables this feature.

Codecs

Table 27.

MP4/MPEG4 (.mp4) Codecs

Codec

AAC

MPEG-4

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

AAC QuickTime in/out

H264 in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

These are the user-configurable settings:

Audio & Video Streaming

MP4 supports streaming of H264 | MPEG-4 video, and AAC | AAC QuickTime audio. Both video and audio codecs must support streaming to enable streaming in this container.

H264 Packetizer

Figure 84.

H264 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

MPEG-4 Packetizer

Figure 85.

MPEG-4 Packetizer Settings

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Coding of audio-visual objects, 2004.

Episode 6.5

172

Media Containers/Formats

MP4 (.mp4)

AAC Packetizer

Figure 86.

AAC Packetizer Settings

ODSM and SDSM Tracks.

A check box at the bottom of the Format panel enables these tracks to be included (or excluded by unchecking).

Figure 87.

ODSM and SDSM Track Selection

Figure 88. Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Packet Size Limit

. Specify the maximum packet size, in bytes.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer

Figure 89.

AAC QuickTime Packetizer Settings

Encoding

. Select from these options:

Generic (ISMA and QuickTime Default)

is the best to use for Web media.

LATM (MPEG-4 and 3GPP Default)

is the best to use for mobile phones.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG Audio (.m1a)

173

MPEG Audio (.m1a)

MPEG Audio is an MPEG-1 elementary stream with a single audio track.

1

see

MPEG

Audio Codec

.

Codecs

Table 28.

MPEG Audio (.m1a) Codecs

Codec

MPEG-1

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.m1a

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbs—Part 1: Systems, 1993.

Episode 6.5

174

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-ES (.m1v)

MPEG-ES (.m1v)

MPEG-ES is an MPEG-1 elementary stream with a single video track.

1

Codecs

Table 29.

MPEG-ES (.m1v) Codecs

Codec

MPEG-1

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.m1v

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology –Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbs—Part 1: Systems, 1993.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-ES (.m2v)

175

MPEG-ES (.m2v)

MPEG-ES format is an MPEG-2 elementary stream with a single video track.

1

Codecs

Table 30.

MPEG-2 ES (.m2v) Codecs

Codec

MPEG-2

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.m2v

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems, 2007.

Episode 6.5

176

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-PS (.mpg)

MPEG-PS (.mpg)

MPEG-PS (MPEG Program Stream) is a format for multiplexing digital audio, video and more. It contains interleaved (multiplexed) packetized elementary streams. Program streams are intended for reasonably reliable media such as DVD or SVCD.

Codecs

Table 31.

MPEG-PS (.mpg) Codecs

Codec

AAC

ATSC A-52

H.264

MPEG audio

MPEG-2

MPEG-4

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

out out out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 90.

MPEG-PS Settings

Max Packet Size

. Set the size of interleaved packets (300-5000 bytes).

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-TS (.ts)

177

MPEG-TS (.ts)

Note:

This format is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

MPEG-TS (MPEG Transport Stream) is a container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and data and is used in broadcast systems—which are inherently less reliable than disk-based storage and transmission systems.

2

In this application, packets may be lost and viewers must be able to enter a transmission in mid-stream. Packetized elementary streams are interleaved (muxed) in the transport stream.

Codecs

Table 32.

MPEG-TS (.mpg) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

AAC in out out

AES

ATSC A-52 in in/out in in/out in/out in/out

H.264 in

HDV in/out in/out in/out

MPEG audio in in/out

MPEG-2 in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

MPEG-4 in in/out

PCM in in/out in in

Episode 6.5

178

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-TS (.ts)

Settings

Figure 91.

MPEG-TS Settings

General

PID Assignment

Each packet contains a PID (Packet IDentifier), so that the receiving system/application can utilize the incoming packet in the correct video or audio stream. PID values can be set in the range 16 to 8190, but video and audio streams should not use values below

32.

Audio PID

. Set the audio PID.

Video PID

. Set the video PID.

PCR PID

. Set the PID for the Program Clock Reference (PCR) packets, which control media timing. The PID may be identical to a media track (typically the Video PID) or have a unique value. The PCR PID cannot be the same as the PMT PID.

PMT PID

. Set the PID for the Program Map Tables (PMT), which describe the structure of tracks within a program in the transport stream. Since Episode only creates singleprogram transport streams, only one PMT can be specified.

Transport Rate

The transport rate determines the bit rate of the resulting stream.

Transport Rate Mode

. Select

Automatic

to set the transport rate to the sum of the rates of the media tracks plus approximately 10% overhead for system packets. This is the lowest possible rate for the stream.

Select

Manual

to explicitly specify the transport rate. If the sum of the rates of the media tracks and system packets is lower than the specified bit rate, the stream is padded to the specified bit rate. If the total rate is higher than the specified rate, the rate is automatically adjusted up to the lowest possible rate, as it is for Automatic.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MPEG-TS (.ts)

179

Transport Rate

. Specify the manual transport rate numeric value.

Transport Rate Unit

. Select the unit type: bps | Kbps | Mbps.

PES Options

Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) describes how the media tracks (elementary streams) are stored within the transport stream.

PES Mode

. Select

Automatic Max Size

to automatically set the maximum size of PES packets.

Select

One PES per Frame

to store each frame of video in one PES packet. This may be required for compatibility with some video-on-demand services.

Select

Manual Max Size

to manually set the maximum size of PES packets.

PES Max Size

. When Manual Max Size is checked, enter the appropriate PES size.

Language

ISO 639 Language Code

. Select a language code, or

None

. If a language code is selected, an ISO-639

1

language descriptor is added to the audio track of the stream.

System Packets

These settings enable you to configure various settings in the set commonly known as system packets.

Figure 92.

MPEG-TS System Packets Settings

Transport Stream ID

. Set the ID number for the transport stream.

Program Number

. Set the number for the single program stream within this transport stream (range: 1-65535).

PAT Interval

. Set the maximum time interval between Program Association Table (PAT) packets. These indicate the programs available in the transport stream.

PMT Interval

. Set the maximum time interval between PMT packets.

PCR Interval

. Set the maximum time interval between PCR packets.

Force NULL Packets

. Check to add null packets to the stream in order to create a constant bit rate stream.

NULL Interval

. When Force NULL Packets is checked, set the maximum time interval in seconds between NULL packets.

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Codes for the representation of names of languages

Part 2: Alpha-

3 code, 1998.

Episode 6.5

180

Media Containers/Formats

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

MXF AS-11 is defined by the Advanced Media Workflow Association (AMWA) as a format containing HD AVC-Intra or SD D-10 video with AES3 audio used by program producers and distributors for distributing programming to broadcasters. Episode supports AS-11 transcoding using the codecs listed below.

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF sources and creates one track with all channels. For example, two stereo tracks become one track with 4 channels.

Codecs

Table 33.

MXF AS-11 (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec

AES

AVC-Intra 50 in

AVC-Intra 100 in

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

D-10/IMX in in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 93.

MXF AS-11 Settings

File Extension

. Specifies the .mxf file extension by default but allows you to enter a different extension.

Split audio channels to separate tracks

. Check to send the input audio channels to separate tracks in the output file.

Add Ancillary Closed Caption track

. Check this option to include a CEA-608 or CEA-

708 closed caption track in the VANC data of the output MXF file container if captions are present in the incoming media. Uncheck this option to exclude MXF file captions.

(

Note:

To enable captions imported from .scc or .mcc files, also see the

Caption Importer

Filter

. To enable embedded input captions, also see the

VBI Importer Filter

.)

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

181

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

MXF Op1a wrapper file format is defined in SMPTE 377M.

1

Op1a corresponds to the

SMPTE 378M standard.

2

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF sources and creates one track with all channels. For example, two stereo tracks become one track with 4 channels.

Codecs

Table 34.

MXF Op1a (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec

AES

AVC-Intra 50 in

AVC-Intra 100 in

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

DNxHD

DV25

DVCPro25 out out in in/out in/out in in/out in/out

Requires Avid QuickTime plugin

DVCPro50

DVCProHD in in/out in/out in in/out in/out Requires QuickTime plugin

D-10/IMX in in/out in/out in in in in/out in in/out

JPEG2000

H.264

MainConcept

H.264 (x264)

MPEG-2 ES

XDCAM HD in in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

1.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

Television

Material Exchange Format (MXF)

File Format

Specification, 2004.

2.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

Television

Material Exchange Format (MXF)

Operational pattern 1A (Single Item, Single Package), 2004.

Episode 6.5

182

Media Containers/Formats

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

Settings

Figure 94.

MXF OP1a Settings

File Extension

. Specifies the .mxf file extension by default but allows you to enter a different extension.

Split audio channels to separate tracks

. Check to send the input audio channels to separate tracks in the output file.

Add Ancillary Closed Caption track

. Check this option to include a CEA-608 or CEA-

708 closed caption track in the VANC data of the output MXF file container if captions are present in the incoming media. Uncheck this option to exclude MXF file captions.

(

Note:

To enable captions imported from .scc or .mcc files, also see the

Caption Importer

Filter

. To enable embedded input captions, also see the

VBI Importer Filter

.)

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MXF OpAtom Audio (.mxf)

183

MXF OpAtom Audio (.mxf)

MXF OpAtom format is similar to MPEG Elementary Stream format, in that either a video track or an audio track can be wrapped, but not both at the same time.

1

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF sources and creates one track with all channels. For example, two stereo tracks become one track with 4 channels.

Codecs

Table 35.

MXF OPAtom (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

AES out

BWF out out out

Settings

Figure 95.

MXF OpAtom Settings

Wrap as Avid compliant OpAtom (BWF only)

. Check to generate a file using the proprietary modifications to the standard for Avid video editing systems.

Framerate

. Select the frame rate, in frames per second.

1.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

Television

Material Exchange Format (MXF)

Specialized

Operational Pattern Atom (Simplified Representation of a Single Item), 2004

.

Episode 6.5

184

Media Containers/Formats

MXF OpAtom Video (.mxf)

MXF OpAtom Video (.mxf)

MXF OpAtom Video format is similar to MPEG Elementary Stream format, in that either a video track or an audio track can be wrapped, but not both at the same time.

1

Codecs

Table 36.

MXF OPAtom Video (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec

AVC-Intra 50 in

AVC-Intra 100 in

DNxHD

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out out in/out in/out out Requires Avid QuickTime plugin

DVCPro25

DVCPro50

DVCProHD

MPEG-2 ES

XDCAM HD out out out out out out Requires DVCProHD QuickTime plugin out out out out

Settings

Figure 96.

MXF OpAtom Settings

Wrap as Avid compliant OpAtom

. Check to generate a file using the proprietary modifications to the standard for Avid video editing systems.

1.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

Television

Material Exchange Format (MXF)

Specialized

Operational Pattern Atom (Simplified Representation of a Single Item), 2004

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MXF Sony XAVC

185

MXF Sony XAVC

MXF XAVC serves digital cinema with standards of 4096x2160 resolution in the MXF file wrapper. The XAVC codec supports a variety of Sony digital cameras and camcorders.

Codecs

Table 37.

MXF XAVC (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec

XAVC

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 97.

MXF XAVC Settings

File Extension

. Specifies the .mxf file extension by default but allows you to enter a different extension.

Episode 6.5

186

Media Containers/Formats

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

Note:

This format is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

MXF XDCAM format is a unique MXF version used by the Sony XDCAM video camera.

Episode decodes all audio tracks and channels in MOV and MXF sources and creates one track with all channels. For example, two stereo tracks become one track with 4 channels.

Codecs

Table 38.

MXF XDCAM (.mxf ) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

AES in in/out in/out

BWF

DNxHD in in in/out in/out in/out in/out Requires Avid QuickTime plugin

DV25

DVCPro25

DVCPro50

DVCProHD in in in in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out Requires DVCProHD QuickTime plugin

IMX

MPEG-2 ES

MPEG-4 in in in in/out in/out in in/out in/out in

XDCAM HD in

XDCAM HD 422 in

XDCAM EX in in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 98.

MXF XDCam Settings

File Extension

. Specifies the .mxf file extension by default but allows you to enter a different extension.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

187

Add Ancillary Closed Caption track

. Check this option to include a CEA-608 or CEA-

708 closed caption track in the VANC data of the output MXF file container if captions are present in the incoming media. Uncheck this option to exclude MXF file captions.

(

Note:

To enable captions imported from .scc or .mcc files, also see the

Caption Importer

Filter

. To enable embedded input captions, also see the

VBI Importer Filter

.)

188

Media Containers/Formats

OGG (.ogg)

OGG (.ogg)

OGG format is an open media wrapper format designed for efficient streaming and manipulation.

1

Codecs

Table 39.

OGG (.ogg) Codecs

Codec

Vorbis

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

out out out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.ogg

), there are no user-configurable settings.

1.

Internet Engineering Task Force

. Ogg Encapsulation Format Version 0, 2003. www.rfc-editor.org

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

PSP (.mp4)

189

PSP (.mp4)

PSP format is an MPEG-4 file format for PlayStation Portable.

PSP can play MPEG-4 files, but requires that they be named

M4V99999.mp4

, where

99999

is five decimal digits, and stored in the directory

E:\MP_ROOT\100MNV01

on the

PSP. You can set up the file naming convention in the deployment.

Codecs

Table 40.

PSP (.mp4) Codecs

Codec

AAC

MPEG-4

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out

AAC QuickTime in/out

H264 in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default

.mp4

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

190

Media Containers/Formats

TIFO (.tifo)

TIFO (.tifo)

Telestream Intermediary Format is an intermediate media wrapper format designed by

Telestream. Its primary use is in efficiently moving file-based media between

Telestream digital media products.

Codecs

Table 41.

TIFO (.tifo) Codecs

Codec

Blackmagic

Episode

in/out

D-10/IMX in/out

DV in/out

Flash 8 Video

H263

H264

HDV in/out in/out in/out in/out

MJPEG

MPEG-1

MPEG-2

MPEG-4

QuickTime

RGB Levels

Targa Cine YUV

VP 8

Windows Media 9

Windows Media VC-1

Windows RGB

XDCAM HD

YCbCr in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Episode Pro

in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Episode Engine

in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

TIFO (.tifo)

191

Settings

Figure 99.

TIFO Settings

TIFO Version

. Select the version number required to maintain compatibility with older versions of Telestream products.

Episode 6.5

192

Media Containers/Formats

WAV (.wav)

WAV (.wav)

The Waveform audio format was co-developed by Microsoft and IBM.

1

Codecs

Table 42.

WAV (.wav) Codecs

Codec Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

PCM in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Figure 100.

WAV Settings

Add Broadcast wave header

. Check to add a BWF header, which allows you to add

metadata to the output file. See

Adding Metadata

.

1. Multiple channel audio data and wave files, 2007. www.microsoft.com

.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

WebM (.webm)

193

WebM (.webm)

WebM is a multimedia container format designed to provide a royalty-free, high-quality open video compression format for use with HTML5 video. The project's development is sponsored by Google.

A WebM file consists of VP8 video and Vorbis audio streams, in a container based on a profile of Matroska. The project releases WebM related software under a BSD license and all users are granted a worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free patent license.

Codecs

Table 43.

Webm (.webm) Codecs

Codec

VP8

Vorbis

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

out out out out out out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default .

webm

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

194

Media Containers/Formats

WMA (.wma)

WMA (.wma)

Windows Media is a proprietary multimedia framework developed by Microsoft. WMA format is the audio portion of Windows Media.

Codecs

Table 44.

WMA (.wma) Codecs

Codec

Windows

Media Audio

WMA Pro

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default .

wma

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

Media Containers/Formats

WMV (.wmv)

195

WMV (.wmv)

Windows Media is a proprietary multimedia framework developed by Microsoft. WMV is the video portion of Windows Media.

Codecs

Table 45.

WMV (.wmv) Codecs

Codec

VC-1

WMV7

WMV8

Episode Episode Pro Episode Engine Notes

out in out in out in in in in

Requires Flip4Mac component

(Available for MacOS X only)

Requires Flip4Mac component

(Available for MacOS X only) in/out in/out in/out WMV9

WMA in/out

WMA Pro in/out in/out in/out in/out in/out

Settings

Except for File Extension (default .

wmv

), there are no user-configurable settings.

Episode 6.5

196

Media Containers/Formats

WMV (.wmv)

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

This chapter describes each of the video codecs provided in Episode, including a description of each user-configurable parameter.

Note:

See

Media Containers/Formats

for a table of formats and supported codecs.

Some codecs require an Episode Pro or Episode Engine license, as indicated.

AVC-Intra Codec

Blackmagic Codec

D-10/IMX Codec

DPX Sequence Codec

DV Codec

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

H.263 Codec

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

H.264 (x264) Codec

HDV Codec

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

JPEG Sequence Codec

MJPEG Codec

MPEG-1 Codec

MPEG-2 Codec

MPEG-2 VOD Codec

MPEG-4 Codec

Pass Through Option

ProRes Codec

QuickTime Codecs

RGB Levels Codec

197

198

Video Codecs

Targa Cine YUV Codec

TGA Sequence Codec

TIFF Sequence Codec

VP8 Codec

VP9 Codec

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

Windows RGB Codec

XAVC Codec

XDCAM HD Codec

YCbCr Codec

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

AVC-Intra Codec

199

AVC-Intra Codec

Episode is able to encode AVC-Intra media in both MXF and MOV formats. AVC-Intra was developed by Panasonic. It is fully compliant with the H.264/MPEG AVC standard and follows the SMPTE RP 2027-2007 recommended practice specifications. AVC-Intra utilizes 10-bit intra-frame AVC compression and can be used for both 1080 and 720 HD frame sizes.

Note:

Input is supported in all editions. Output is supported in Episode Pro and

Episode Engine only.

Figure 101.

AVC-Intra Codec Settings

AVC-Intra Class

. Select from the following options:

Class 50

. Produces 50 Mbit/s CABAC encoding. 1920X1080 (1440X1080 encoded pixels) formats are High 10 Intra Profile, Level 4, 4:2:0 chrominance. 1280X720 (960X720 actual pixels) formats are High 10 Intra Profile, level 3.2, 4:2:0 chrominance.

Class 100

. Produces 100Mbit/s CAVLC encoding. All formats are High 4:2:2 Intra Profile, level 4.1, 4:2:2 Chrominance. All formats are full frame (1920X1080 and 1280X720).

Episode 6.5

200

Video Codecs

Blackmagic Codec

Blackmagic Codec

The Blackmagic codec provides uncompressed video used by Decklink and AJA products.

Figure 102.

Blackmagic Codec Settings

Bit depth

. Select

8 |10

bits per color channel.

Note:

10-bit encoding does not increase the quality of 8-bit source data.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from the following options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in the source material or the value set in the resize filter if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1 | 2.35:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect

ratio. See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

D-10/IMX Codec

201

D-10/IMX Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

The D-10/IMX codec is a form of MPEG-2 4:2:2 I-frames-only video (SMPTE 356M).

1

The codec is restricted to encoding NTSC and PAL frame sizes and frame rates.

Figure 103.

D-10/IMX Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Select

30 Mbs | 40 Mbs | 50 Mbs

.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from the following options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect ratio.

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

1.

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

.

Television

Type D-10 Stream Specifications

MPEG-2 4:2:2P @

ML for 525/60 and 625/50, 2001.

Episode 6.5

202

Video Codecs

Discard Option

Discard Option

When the Discard option is selected from the Video Codec dropdown menu, Episode does not decode the video or pass it to the encoder. Thus, there is no video stream in the output.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

DPX Sequence Codec

203

DPX Sequence Codec

Note:

This feature is available in both the Episode CLI and in the GUI client with the

Episode Engine license. For CLI details, see the

Episode Advanced User’s Guide

.

Select a sequence of DPX images as an input format for conversion to video. Support includes 8-bit, 10-bit, and 12-bit resolution.

Figure 104.

Image Sequence Settings

Episode 6.5

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

204

Video Codecs

DPX Sequence Codec

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

DV Codec

205

DV Codec

DV does not use intra-frame prediction—all frames are keyframes. Thus, each frame is decodable separately. This makes DV video suitable for editing and provides a remarkably even quality, even in segments that are typically difficult for other video encoders to encode well.

The DV codec is restricted to NTSC and PAL frame sizes and rates.

Figure 105.

DV Codec Settings

DV Type

. Select from the following options. The DV type automatically sets the audio in the

sample rate filter

to the appropriate value.

DV

, also known as DV25, has a fixed 25 Mbs bit rate. DV25 can encode PAL video (720 x

576) pixels at 25 FPS with a 4:2:0 color space and NTSC video (720 x 480) pixels at 29.97

FPS with a 4:1:1 color space. Audio at 32 | 44.1 | 48 kHz is supported in both cases.

Note:

The DVCPRO and DBVCPRO50 codecs are available only in Episode Pro and

Episode Engine.

DVCPRO

has a fixed 25 Mbs bit rate. DVCPRO can encode PAL video (720 x 576) at 25

FPS with a 4:1:1 color space and NTSC video (720 x 480) at 29.97 FPS with a 4:1:1 color space. Audio at 32 | 48 kHz is supported in both cases.

DVCPRO5

0 has a fixed 50 Mbs bit rate. DVCPRO50 can either PAL video (720 x 576) pixels at 25 FPS with a 4:2:2 color space and NTSC video (720 x 480) pixels at 29.97 FPS with a 4:2:2 color space. Audio at 32 | 48kHz is supported in both cases.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from these options:

4:3 | 16:9

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect ratio. See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect ratio.

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Frame Mode

. Select from these options:

Same as Source

sets the output frame mode the same as the input file.

Interlaced

sets the output frame mode to interlaced.

Progressive

sets the output frame mode to progressive.

Episode 6.5

206

Video Codecs

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

Flash 8 is Adobe’s implementation of VP6 Video.

Note:

Storing Flash 8 video in SWF format restricts the possible image frame rates depending on the audio sample rates. For audio sample rates of 11025 Hz the maximum allowed frame rate is 9 FPS. For audio samples rates of 22050 Hz and 44100

Hz the maximum allowed frame rate is 38 FPS. FLV format has no such limitations.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Profile Settings

Encoding Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 106.

Flash 8 (VP6) Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Peak Rate

. Specify the maximum allowed bit rate over any one-second interval. Range:

15 Kbps to 100,000 Kbps.

Average Rate

. Specify the desired bit rate of the video track. Range: 15 Kbps to 100,000

Kbps.

Frame Skip Probability

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the probability of skipping frames so that if the set bit rate is exceeded, 0.0 is least likely and

1.0 is most likely to cause frame skipping. See

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs.

Crisp Image

.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size. Range: 0 to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer

Verifier

.

VBR Strength

. When Bit Rate (under Encoding Settings) is set to VBR, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the amount of bit rate variability allowed in the bit rate.

0 is equal to constant bit rate.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

207

Keyframe Settings

Figure 107.

Flash 8 Codec—Keyframe Settings

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Forced Keyframes Only

creates keyframes with exactly the specified keyframe distance.

Natural and Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe at Keyframe distance from the latest keyframe. If

Keyframe distance is 0, only natural keyframes are created.

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Keyframe Interval

. Specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range 0 to 200 frames.

Minimum Interval

. Specify the minimum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 50 frames. Minimum distance cannot be larger than keyframe distance.

Profile Settings

Figure 108.

Flash 8 Codec—Profile Settings

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Vp6-S

works better for large image sizes but does not allow two-pass encoding.

Vp6-E

allows higher compression rates.

Error Resilient Mode

. Check to add error correction codes to the output. This improves quality on lossy networks, but increases the output size by approximately 5%.

Encode Alpha

. Check to copy any alpha (transparency) channel in the source to the output.

Episode 6.5

208

Video Codecs

Flash 8 Video (VP6) Codec

Encoding Settings

Figure 109.

Flash 8 Codec—Encoding Settings

Complexity

. Select from these settings:

Normal Quality

provides average visual quality with faster encoding.

Best Quality

improves visual quality but increases encoding time.

Two-pass Encoding

. Check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits.

Two-pass encoding produces better output image quality, but increases encoding time.

Bit Rate

. Select from these settings:

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

keeps the output bit rate constant.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

allows the output bit rate to vary up to the Peak rate, variability depending on setting in VBR Strength.

Sharpness

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the sharpness indicator. A low sharpness setting blurs the image slightly. A high sharpness setting enhances edges but may also cause image artifacts.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.263 Codec

209

H.263 Codec

H.263 is designed for low-bit rate video

1

. It is suitable for streaming to handheld devices.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Profile Settings

Encoding Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 110.

H.263 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Average Bit Rate

. Set the desired bit rate of the video track. Range: 0 to 30,000 Kbps.

Frame Skip Probability

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the probability of skipping frames so that if the set bit rate is exceeded, 0.0 is least likely and

1.0 is most likely to cause frame skipping. See

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs.

Crisp Image

.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size. Range: 0 to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer

Verifier

.

Keyframe Settings

Figure 111.

H263 Codec—Keyframe Settings

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Forced Keyframes Only

creates keyframes with exactly the specified keyframe distance.

1.

International Telecommunication Union

.

Video coding for low bit rate communication, 2005

. www.itu.int

.

Episode 6.5

210

Video Codecs

H.263 Codec

Natural and Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe at Keyframe distance from the latest keyframe. If keyframe distance is 0, only natural keyframes are created.

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Intra Block Refresh

updates only moving areas in the image instead of the entire frame.

This is useful when streaming at very low bit rates, since it keeps the bit rate more constant.

Keyframe Interval

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum distance between keyframe. Range: 0 to 1,000 frames.

Intra Refresh Period

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum distance between Intra Block Refreshes. Range 0 to 140 frames.

Profile Settings

H.263 has a number of profiles, supporting different features.

Figure 112.

H263 Codec—Profile Settings

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Baseline

(Profile 0) only allows the picture sizes QCIF (176 x144) and Sub-QCIF (128 x

96). No other profile settings are enabled.

Profile 3

supports all picture sizes and enables the following options:

Advanced Intra Coding

. Check to use an advanced algorithm for coding intra blocks.

Deblocking Filter

. Check to reduce artifacts at the edges of encoding blocks.

Slice Structure

. Check to use slices when encoding frames. This allows faster resynchronization of the picture for lossy connections.

Modified Quantization

. Check to use an alternate quantization method to increase color fidelity.

Encoding Settings

Figure 113.

H263 Codec—Encoding Settings

Two-pass encoding

. Check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.263 Codec

211

the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

212

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

H.264 is also known as AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10

1

. H.264 uses many different techniques to achieve excellent video compression ratio for bit rates ranging from very low levels for hand-held devices to high levels for HD television.

Note:

This topic describes how to use the MainConcept H.264 codec. You can also generate H.264 video using the

H.264 (x264) Codec

.

Bandwidth Settings

Frame Type Settings

Profile Settings

Display Settings

Quality Settings

Detailed Frame Settings

Bitstream Flags

Level Signaling

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 114.

H264 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Bandwidth Control

. Select from the following options:

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

uses the constant bit rate with the Average Bit Rate setting.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

uses the Average Bit Rate setting.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)—Quality Based

uses the VBR Quality setting.

Average Bit Rate

. When

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

is selected, specify the desired bit rate of the video track. Range: 15 to 100,000 Kbps.

Note:

The actual maximum size of the VBV is determined by the encoding level and target bit rate and may be considerably less than 60 s. In this case it is limited to the maximum possible value. See

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

.

Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Quality

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the image quality for a video frame expressed as a percent: 0% (most compression, lowest quality) to 100% (least compressed, highest quality).

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Coding of audio-visual objects, 2004

.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

213

Frame Type Settings

Figure 115.

H264 Codec—Frame Type Settings

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Forced Keyframes Only

creates keyframes with exactly the specified keyframe distance.

Natural and Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe at Keyframe distance from the latest keyframe. If

Keyframe distance is 0, only natural keyframes are created.

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Keyframe Interval

. When enabled (

Forced Keyframes Only | Natural and Forced

Keyframes)

Specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 300.

Use Adaptive B-frames

. Check to use fewer than the number of B-frames (specified in

Number of B-frames) in a sequence if this improves quality.

Number of B-frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the number of

B-frames between P-frames in a GOP. Range: 0 to 3.

Number of Reference Frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the number of reference frames stored. A higher number may improve coding quality but increases encoding time. Range: 0 to 16.

Profile Settings

Figure 116.

H264 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Profile Settings

. Select

Baseline | Main | High

profile.

Baseline

is primarily used for low-cost applications that require additional data loss robustness. This profile is used in some videoconferencing and mobile applications.

Main

is used for standard-definition digital TV broadcasts that use the MPEG-4 format.

Episode 6.5

214

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

High

is primarily used for broadcast and disc-based applications, particularly for highdefinition applications.

Entropy Coding

. When enabled (

Main | High

profile), select from these options:

CAVLC

is simpler and faster. When Baseline profile is selected, CAVLC is used.

CABAC

is slower and higher quality.

Display Settings

The color space option is only enabled when High profile is selected. For Baseline and

Main, only 4:2:0 color space is used.

Figure 117.

H264 Codec—Display Settings

Color Space

. When High profile is selected, choose

Same as Source | 4:2:0 | 4:2:2

. See

Color Formats

.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from these options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9

explicitly set the display aspect ratio.

Quality Settings

Figure 118.

H264 Codec—Quality Settings

Two-pass Encoding

. Check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Deblocking Filter

. Check to smooth out block artifacts which may occur in the image when using lower bit rates.

Adaptive Interlacing Mode

. Check to generate more efficient interlaced output. This option increases encoding time.

Episode 6.5

Detailed Frame Settings

Figure 119.

H264 Codec—Detailed Frame Settings

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

215

Episode 6.5

Number of Slices

. Select from these options:

Automatic (One per CPU)

speeds up processing by transcoding parts (slices) of the same frame in parallel.

1 Slice | 2 Slices | 3 Slices | 4 Slices

Select to speed encoding. Using more slices may decrease image quality somewhat as redundancies between parts of the frame cannot be fully utilized.

Initial Buffer Fullness

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum percent of the buffer to be utilized.

When encoding starts, the encoder assumes a certain level of bits in the buffer, to obtain an even bit rate right from the beginning. How full the buffer is affects how large the first frames are. Lower means fewer available bits and the first frames are smaller.

This is good when you want to limit the size of the first frame which typically can be very large, especially if there is little motion in the material (because then it makes sense to spend a lot of bits on the quality of the first frame). A low value decreases quality slightly for the first frames of the movie. The default value is 50%.

IDR Frames

. Select from the following options to set the frequency of IDR frames:

Every

| Every 2nd | Every 3rd | Every 5th | Every 10th

.

An IDR frame is an I-frame whose preceding frames cannot be used by predictive frames. Predictive frames (P-frames and B-frames) coming after an I-frame may look at frames before the I-frame for best compression. More distant IDR frames may allow more efficient compression but limits the ability of a player to move to arbitrary points in the video. In particular, QuickTime Player may display image artifacts when you scrub the timeline unless every I-frame is an IDR frame.

Limit Frame Size

. Check to enable the Frame Size option so you can set it as appropriate.

Even if the average bit rate stays below the set limit, individual frames may become larger than a decoder can handle in real time, thus you may need to set limits on how large frames can get. This limitation may reduce image quality considerably, so you should not use this setting unless you have definite problems.

Frame Size

. When enabled, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to limit the maximum frame size. Range: 2 to 10 times the average frame size.

216

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

Bitstream Flags

Figure 120.

H264 Codec—Bitstream Flag Settings

Force Headers for Every GOP

. Check to insert a header before every GOP, which is a requirement for producing Blu-ray media.

Add Picture Timing SEI

. Check to add Supplemental Enhancement Information fields indicating the global time for each frame and suitable decoder settings. They add a small overhead to the file size, but can help a decoder play out the video more efficiently.

Signal Fixed Framerate

. Check to indicate that the clip is to be played out with a fixed framerate.

Pulldown

. Select how to set the flag which tells a player how to pull down fields in order to display at a higher frame rate. See

Video Scan

.

Select from these options:

None

does not perform pulldown.

2:3 (23.976/24 -> 29.97/30 FPS) | 3:2 (23.976/24 -> 29.97/30 FPS) | 2:3 (23.976/24 -> 59.94/60

FPS) | 3:2 (23.976/24 -> 59.94/60 FPS)

. If the frame rate does not match 23.976 or 24 these settings are ignored.

Level Signaling

Figure 121.

H264 Codec—Level Signalling Settings

Level

. Select an option to mark the level of the output as a higher value than the default. Select from these options:

Auto | Level 1.1... Level 5.1

.

The level you select provides the decoder the required maximum values for macro block rates, frame sizes and bit rates. Episode automatically marks the level as corresponding to the lowest level matching the current values for those parameters. If you indicate a level lower than allowed by the current parameter values, the lowest legal level is silently selected.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

217

Closed Captioning Settings

Figure 122.

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec—Closed Captioning Settings

Closed Captioning

. Select

None

|

Same as Source

|

EIA-608 | EIA-608 + EIA-708

.

This setting controls and enables only the output side of the closed captioning capability. When set to

None

, no captions are embedded in the encoded output. When set to

Same as Source

,

EIA-608

, or

EIA-608 + EIA708

, closed captions (of the type selected) embedded in the source are likewise embedded into the encoded output.

None.

Embedded closed captions in the source are

not included

in the output.

Same as Source.

Embedded captions in input media are embedded in output media.

EIA-608.

608 captions embedded in input media are embedded in output media.

EIA-608 + EIA-708.

Embedded 608/708 input captions are embedded in the output.

Note:

Depending on the source, you may also need to enable an input Video Filter:

To make captions embedded in source blanking available to the encoder, select

Decode Captions

in the

VBI Importer Filter

. (Strips input VBI captions if

not

selected).

To import 608/708 captions from .scc or .mcc caption files, select the

Caption Importer

Filter

and browse for the .scc or .mcc caption file.

MPEG-2 source files containing embedded captions in the user data do not require the

VBI Importer Filter. As long as

Closed Captioning

is enabled for the encoder, captions on the input should pass to the transcoded output.

You can also choose to include closed captions in the

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

,

MXF Op1a

(.mxf)

, or

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

file containers. To do so, select Container in the Inspector,

and select

Add Ancillary Closed Caption Track

.

Episode 6.5

218

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

H.264 (x264) Codec

H.264 is also known as AVC and MPEG-4 Part 10

1

. H264 uses many different techniques to achieve excellent video compression ratio for bit rates ranging from very low levels for hand-held devices to high levels for HD television.

Note:

This topic describes the x264 H.264 codec, often referred to simply as

x264

. You

can also generate H.264 media using the

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

.

Tables below each user interface figure identify corresponding standard x264 CLI commands so that you can correlate the two interfaces more easily.

The CLI commands in these tables are not those of the x264 implementation in the Episode CLI

.

Bandwidth Settings

Preset and Tuning

Frame Type Settings

Buffering Settings

Display Settings

Profile & Level Settings

Slices Settings

Deblocking Filter Settings

Analysis Settings

Compatibility Settings

Closed Captioning Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 123.

x264 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

1.

International Organization for Standardization

.

Information technology—Coding of audio-visual objects, 2004

.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

219

Table 46.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Bandwidth Settings

Rate Control Method

Average Bit Rate -B, --bitrate

-q, --qp

HRD Compliance

VBV Size

VBV Max Bit Rate

Constant Quality

--nal-hrd

Disabled

CBR

VBR

--vbv-maxrate none cbr vbr

--vbv-bufsize

Rate Control Method

. Select from the following options:

Average Bit Rate

uses the Average Bit Rate setting.

Constant Quality Based

uses the Quality setting.

Average Bit Rate

. When

Average Bit Rate

is selected, specify the desired bit rate of the video track. Range: 15 to 400,000 Kbit/s.

HRD Compliance.

HRD (Hypothetical Reference Decoder) is a reference model of a decoder that is specified in the H.264 standard. It defines two buffers by their size and read/write speed. Creation of HRD-compliant video streams is important when the stream is to be streamed at a constant bit rate or played back on a hardware device with limited resources (DVD/Blu-ray players, etc.).

Select from these options:

Disabled

eliminates the requirement to adhere to the HRD model. This is the preferred choice when encoding a file for local playback or download to a computer.

CBR

encodes to a constant bit rate targeted at the average bit rate value. This is the preferred choice when encoding files to be streamed to a device. For CBR mode, you must also specify the VBV size. The VBV maximum bit rate is set to the same value as the average bit rate.

VBR

encodes to an average bit rate constrained to the average bit rate value. For VBR mode one must also specify the VBV size and the VBV max bit rate. VBR mode is the preferred choice when the VBV buffer has a bit rate different from the average bit rate.

For example, a Blu-ray player can fill the VBV buffer at a higher bit rate than the video average bit rate.

VBV Size.

Specifies the size of the VBV buffer in kilobits. A larger buffer provides the encoder a longer time for varying the bit rate. The buffer is filled at the bit rate set by the VBV Max bit rate. A larger buffer also increases the time the decoder/player has to

220

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec buffer the stream before it should start playback (buffering time (in seconds) = VBV Size

/ VBV Max bit rate).

VBV Max Bitrate.

The bit rate at which the VBV buffer fills. In a scenario where you stream a file at a constant bit rate (for example, a VOD transport stream), this is set to the same rate as the video bit rate. If you are encoding for a device that can refill the buffer faster than the average bit rate, set it here.

Quality

. When

Constant Quality

is selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the image quality for a video frame expressed as a whole number: 1 (Best) to 51

(Worst).

Preset and Tuning

Figure 124.

x264 Codec—Preset and Tuning

Table 47.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Preset and Tuning Settings

Preset

Ultra Fast

--preset ultrafast

Super Fast

Very Fast

Faster

Fast superfast veryfast faster fast

Medium

Slow

Slower

Very Slow

Placebo

Tuning

Disabled

Film

Animation

Grain medium slow slower veryslow placebo

--tune

(--tune not set) film animation grain

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H.264 (x264) Codec

221

Table 47.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Preset and Tuning Settings

Still Image stillimage

PSNR

SSIM

Fast Decode

Zero Latency psnr ssim fastdecode zerolatency

Preset

. Select from these options, which trade encoding speed for visual quality:

Ultra Fast | Super Fast | Very Fast | Faster | Fast | Medium | Slow | Slower | Very Slow |Placebo

Tuning

. Select from these options, which optimize encoding quality for a particular type of source content:

Disabled

performs no special optimization of the video frame during encoding.

Film

optimizes the output assuming film-based input.

Animation

optimizes the output assuming animated media input.

Grain

optimizes the output assuming grainy video input.

Still Image

optimizes the output assuming still images as input.

PSNR

optimizes the encoder for PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) at the expense of visual quality.

SSIM

optimizes the encoder for SSIM (structural similarity) at the expense of visual quality.

Fast Decode

optimizes the output for fastest decoding on the display device.

Zero latency

optimizes the output to target zero latency on the display device.

Frame Type Settings

Figure 125.

x264 Codec—Frame Type Settings

Episode 6.5

222

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

Table 48.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Frame Type Settings

Keyframe Control

Natural Keyframes

Only

Natural and Max

Keyframe Interval

Natural and Forced

Keyframe Interval

Forced Keyframe

Interval Only

Keyframes Only

--no-scenecut

-i, --min-keyint 1

Keyframe Interval

Max Number of Reference

Frames

Adaptive B-Frames

-I, --keyint

--ref

--b-adapt

Number of B-Frames

B-Frames As Reference

Frames (B-Pyramid)

Auto (From Preset)

Disabled

Fast

Trellis

0

1

2

-b, --bframes

--b-pyramid

Disabled

Strict

Normal none strict normal

Keyframe Control

. Controls the method of inserting keyframes into the stream.

Select from the following options:

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Natural and Max Keyframe Interval

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe if the Keyframe Interval distance is reached before a natural keyframe has been created.

Forced Keyframe Only

only creates keyframes at the set keyframe interval.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

223

Natural and Forced Keyframe Interval

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe at the set keyframe interval.

Forced Keyframe Only

creates all frames (requires higher bit rates).

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Keyframe Interval

. When

Natural and Max Keyframe Interval | Forced Keyframe Only |

Natural and Forced Keyframe Interval

are selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 300.

Max Number of Reference Frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum number of frames a frame can reference. More reference frames provides better quality, because the encoder has more frames in which to find similarities, but increases memory use by the decoder. Range: 1 to 16.

Adaptive B-Frame

. Check to enable adaptive B-frame placement. Sometimes it is better to create a P-frame rather than a B-frame, so the number of B-frames between Pframes may become less than the Number of B-frames value.

Number of B-Frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the number of

B-frames that can be used between P-frames. Range: 1 to 16.

B-Frames as Reference Frames (B-Pyramid)

. Allows the use of B-frames as references for other frames.

Select from these options:

Disabled

does not allow B-frames to the used as references.

Strict

allows one B-frame per mini-GOP to be used as a reference.

Normal

allows numerous B-frames per mini GOP to be used as a reference.

Buffering Settings

Figure 126.

x264 Codec—Buffering Settings

Episode 6.5

Table 49.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Buffering Settings

Number of Frames To Look

Ahead

--rc-lookahead

Two-Pass Encoding -p, --pass 2

Override Number of Frames to Look Ahead.

Check to override the default Frame

Look-ahead value.

224

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

Number of Frames to Look Ahead.

Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the number of frames the encoder can look ahead to detect more difficult areas to encode, and save bits for those sections. Range: 0 to 250.

Two-Pass Encoding.

Check to perform encoding in two passes. In the first pass, the encoder analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass, it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Display Settings

Figure 127.

H264 Codec—Display Settings

Table 50.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Display Settings

Display Aspect Ratio

Square Pixels (will use --sar to set correct display aspect ratio)

4:03:00

16:09:00

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from these options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9

explicitly set the display aspect ratio.

Profile & Level Settings

Figure 128.

H264 Codec—Profile & Level Settings

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

225

Table 51.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Profile and Level Settings

Profile

Baseline

--profile baseline

L evel

Entropy Coding

Main

High main high

--level

Auto (From Preset)

Context-Adaptive

Variable-Length

Coding (CAVLC)

Context-Adaptive

Binary-Arithmetic

Coding (CABAC)

--no-cabac

(--no-cabac not set)

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Baseline

uses the fastest encode and decode profile.

Main

uses a more complex encoder, which usually provides better quality/bit rate ratio.

High

use an even more complex encoder. Requires Episode Pro or Episode Engine.

Level

. The level you select provides the decoder the maximum values for macro block rates, frame sizes, reference frames, VBV information, and bit rates.

Select from these options:

Auto.

Episode automatically marks the level as corresponding to the lowest level matching the current configuration.

Levels (1.0 to 5.1).

Select an option to mark the level of the output as a higher value than the default. If you manually select a level lower than allowed by the current parameter values, the configuration may silently change to match the selected level.

Entropy Coding

. When enabled (

Main | High

profile), select from these options:

CAVLC

is simpler and faster. When

Baseline profile

is selected, CAVLC is used.

CABAC

is slower and higher quality.

CABAC

is enabled when Main or High files are selected.

226

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

Slices Settings

Figure 129.

x264 Codec—Slices Settings

Table 52.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Slices Settings

Number of Slices --slices

Number of Slices

. Select from these options:

Auto

speeds up processing by transcoding parts (slices) of the same frame in parallel.

1 Slice | 2 Slices | 3 Slices | 4 Slices.

Select to speed encoding. Using more slices may decrease image quality somewhat as redundancies between parts of the frame cannot be fully utilized.

Deblocking Filter Settings

Figure 130.

x264 Codec—Deblocking Filter Settings

Table 53.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Deblocking Filter Settings

Deblocking Filter -f, --deblock

Strength

Threshold alpha beta

Deblocking Filter

. Select to enable the in-loop deblocking filter. The deblocking filter provides quality gains without affecting the encoding speed significantly. Telestream recommends that you enable this option.

Strength

. When deblocking is enabled, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify filter strength, which affects the overall amount of deblocking to be applied.

Higher values deblock the picture more effectively, but destroys details in the picture to provide a more softened picture.

Threshold

. When deblocking is enabled, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify filter threshold, which determines whether something in a block is a detail or not. Higher values apply more deblocking to less flat blocks (with more detail present).

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

227

Analysis Settings

Figure 131.

x264 Codec—Analysis Settings

Episode 6.5

Table 54.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Analysis Settings

Motion Estimation Method --me

Auto (From Preset)

Diamond dia

Hexagon

Uneven Multi-Hex

Exhaustive

Transformed

Exhaustive hex umh esa tesa

Motion Estimation Range

Motion Vector Range

Fast Noise Reduction

Weighted P-Frames

Prediction

--merange

--mvrange

--nr

--weightp

Auto (From Preset)

Disabled

Simple

Smart

0

1

2

Motion Estimation Method

. Select the full-pixel motion estimation method to use:

Diamond

|

Hexagon

|

Uneven Multi-Hex | Exhaustive

|

Transformed Exhaustive

Motion Estimation Range

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the maximum range of motion search in pixels. Range 0 to 32.

228

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

Override Motion Vector Range

. Check to override the motion vector value.

Override Motion Vector Range

. When Override Motion Vector Range is checked, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the maximum vertical range of any one motion vector in pixels. Range -1 (Auto) to 1024.

Fast Noise Reduction

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to estimate noise based on this value and attempts to remove it by dropping small details before quantization. Range 0 to 1000.

Weighted P-Frames Prediction

. Select

Auto (from Preset)

|

Disabled

|

Simple

|

Smart

.

Compatibility Settings

Figure 132.

x264 Codec—Compatibility Settings

Table 55.

H264 (x264) Codec CLI—Compatibility Settings

Fake Interlace

Force headers for every

GOP

Open GOP

--fake-interlaced

--open-gop

Blu-Ray Compatibility --preset veryslow

--tune film

--bluray-compat

--vbv-maxrate X

--vbv-bufsize X

--level 4.1

--keyint X

--open-gop

--slices 4

--tff

--colorprim "bt709"

--transfer "bt709"

--colormatrix "bt709"

--sar X

--pass 1

Fake Interlace

. Check to mark the video stream as interlaced even when the stream is progressive. Allows the encoding of 25p and 30p Blu-ray-compliant video streams.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

H.264 (x264) Codec

229

Force Headers for every GOP

. Check to insert a header for every GOP, which is a requirement for producing Blu-ray media.

Open GOP

. Check Open GOP encoding to increase encoding efficiency. However, not all players/decoders support this encoding method.

Blu-Ray Compatibility

. Check to adhere to encode for Blu-Ray compatibility.

Closed Captioning Settings

Figure 133.

x264 Codec—Closed Captioning Settings

Closed Captioning

. Select

None

|

Same as Source

|

EIA-608 | EIA-608 + EIA-708

.

This setting controls and enables only the output side of the closed captioning capability. When set to

None

, no captions are embedded in the encoded output. When set to

Same as Source

,

EIA-608

, or

EIA-608 + EIA708

, closed captions (of the type selected) embedded in the source are likewise embedded into the encoded output.

None.

Embedded closed captions in the source are

not included

in the output.

Same as Source.

Embedded captions in input media are embedded in output media.

EIA-608.

608 captions embedded in input media are embedded in output media.

EIA-608 + EIA-708.

Embedded 608/708 input captions are embedded in the output.

Note:

Depending on the source, you may also need to enable an input Video Filter:

To make captions embedded in source blanking available to the encoder, select

Decode Captions

in the

VBI Importer Filter

. (Strips input VBI captions if

not

selected).

To import 608/708 captions from .scc or .mcc caption files, select the

Caption Importer

Filter

and browse for the .scc or .mcc caption file.

MPEG-2 source files containing embedded captions in the user data do not require the

VBI Importer Filter. As long as

Closed Captioning

is enabled for the encoder, captions on the input should pass to the transcoded output.

You can also choose to include closed captions in the

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

,

MXF Op1a

(.mxf)

, or

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

file containers. To do so, select Container in the Inspector,

and select

Add Ancillary Closed Caption Track

.

Closed Captioning Fields

. Default:

Field 1

. This option is not user-configurable and is always set to Field 1 for H.264 (x264), which means that only Field 1 caption information is forwarded to the output if Closed Captioning is set to

EIA-608

. Any Field 2 caption information is disregarded.

Episode 6.5

230

Video Codecs

HDV Codec

HDV Codec

HDV is a High Definition Video codec which utilizes MPEG-2 compression.

Figure 134.

HDV Codec Settings

HDV Type

. Select from the following options:

HDV 720p (1280 x720 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94 or 60 FPS) | HDV 1080i (1440 x1080 25,

29.97 or 30 FPS) | HDV 1080p (1440 x1080 24 or 25 FPS)

.

Note:

This setting determines the allowable values for the

Resize Filter

,

Frame Rate

Filter

, and

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

and the corresponding values of the source file.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

231

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

The High Efficiency Video Coding format (HEVC), also known as H.265, succeeds the

H.264 format, providing approximately double the compression with the same video quality. HEVC format supports resolutions up to 8K (8192 x 4320) or lower resolutions at higher quality for the same bit rate compared to H.264.

Bandwidth Settings

Preset and Tuning

Frame Type Settings

Compatibility

Buffering Settings

Display Settings

Profile & Level Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 135.

H.265 (x265)Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Episode 6.5

Table 56.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Bandwidth Settings

Rate Control Method

Average Bit Rate -B, --bitrate

-q, --qp

HRD Compliance

VBV Size

VBV Max Bit Rate

Constant Quality

--nal-hrd

Disabled

CBR

VBR

--vbv-maxrate none cbr vbr

--vbv-bufsize

Rate Control Method

. Select from the following options:

232

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

Average Bit Rate

uses the Average Bit Rate setting.

Constant Quality Based

uses the Quality setting.

Average Bit Rate

. When

Average Bit Rate

is selected, specify the desired bit rate of the video track. Range: 15 to 400,000 Kbit/s.

HRD Compliance.

HRD (Hypothetical Reference Decoder) is a reference model of a decoder that is specified in the H.265 standard. It defines two buffers by their size and read/write speed. Creation of HRD-compliant video streams is important when the stream is to be streamed at a constant bit rate or played back on a hardware device with limited resources (DVD/Blu-ray players, etc.).

Select from these options:

Disabled

eliminates the requirement to adhere to the HRD model. This is the preferred choice when encoding a file for local playback or download to a computer.

CBR

encodes to a constant bit rate targeted at the average bit rate value. This is the preferred choice when encoding files to be streamed to a device. For CBR mode, you must also specify the VBV size. The VBV maximum bit rate is set to the same value as the average bit rate.

VBR

encodes to an average bit rate constrained to the average bit rate value. For VBR mode one must also specify the VBV size and the VBV max bit rate. VBR mode is the preferred choice when the VBV buffer has a bit rate different from the average bit rate.

For example, a Blu-ray player can fill the VBV buffer at a higher bit rate than the video average bit rate.

VBV Size.

Specifies the size of the VBV buffer in kilobits. A larger buffer provides the encoder a longer time for varying the bit rate. The buffer is filled at the bit rate set by the VBV Max bit rate. A larger buffer also increases the time the decoder/player has to buffer the stream before it should start playback (buffering time (in seconds) = VBV Size

/ VBV Max bit rate).

VBV Max Bitrate.

The bit rate at which the VBV buffer fills. In a scenario where you stream a file at a constant bit rate (for example, a VOD transport stream), this is set to the same rate as the video bit rate. If you are encoding for a device that can refill the buffer faster than the average bit rate, set it here.

Quality

. When

Constant Quality

is selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the image quality for a video frame expressed as a whole number: 1 (Best) to 51

(Worst).

Preset and Tuning

Figure 136.

H.265 (x265) Codec—Preset and Tuning

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

233

Table 57.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Preset and Tuning Settings

Preset

Ultra Fast

--preset ultrafast

Super Fast

Very Fast

Faster

Fast superfast veryfast faster fast

Medium

Slow

Slower

Very Slow

Placebo

Tuning medium slow slower veryslow placebo

--tune

(--tune not set) film

Disabled

Film

Animation

Grain

Still Image

PSNR

SSIM

Fast Decode

Zero Latency animation grain stillimage psnr ssim fastdecode zerolatency

Preset

. Select from these options, which trade encoding speed for visual quality:

Ultra Fast | Super Fast | Very Fast | Faster | Fast | Medium | Slow | Slower | Very Slow |Placebo

Tuning

. Select from these options, which optimize encoding quality for a particular type of source content:

Disabled

performs no special optimization of the video frame during encoding.

PSNR

optimizes the encoder for PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) at the expense of visual quality.

SSIM

optimizes the encoder for SSIM (structural similarity) at the expense of visual quality.

234

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

Grain

optimizes the output assuming grainy video input.

Zero latency

optimizes the output to target zero latency on the display device.

Fast Decode

optimizes the output for fastest decoding on the display device.

Frame Type Settings

Figure 137.

H.265 (x265) Codec—Frame Type Settings

Table 58.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Frame Type Settings

Keyframe Control

Natural Keyframes

Only

Natural and Max

Keyframe Interval

Natural and Forced

Keyframe Interval

Forced Keyframe

Interval Only

Keyframes Only

--no-scenecut

Keyframe Interval

Max Number of Reference

Frames

Adaptive B-Frames

-i, --min-keyint 1

-I, --keyint

--ref

--b-adapt

Auto (From Preset)

Disabled

Fast

Trellis

0

1

2

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

235

Table 58.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Frame Type Settings

Number of B-Frames -b, --bframes

B-Frames As Reference

Frames (B-Pyramid)

--b-pyramid

Disabled

Strict

Normal none strict normal

Keyframe Control

. Controls the method of inserting keyframes into the stream.

Select from the following options:

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Natural and Max Keyframe Interval

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe if the Keyframe Interval distance is reached before a natural keyframe has been created.

Forced Keyframe Interval Only

only creates keyframes at the set keyframe interval.

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Keyframe Interval

. When

Natural and Max Keyframe Interval | Forced Keyframe Only |

Natural and Forced Keyframe Interval

are selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 300.

Max Number of Reference Frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum number of frames a frame can reference. More reference frames provides better quality, because the encoder has more frames in which to find similarities, but increases memory use by the decoder. Range: 1 to 16.

Adaptive B-Frames

. Check to enable adaptive B-frame placement. Sometimes it is better to create a P-frame rather than a B-frame, so the number of B-frames between Pframes may become less than the Number of B-frames value.

Number of B-Frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the number of

B-frames that can be used between P-frames. Range: 1 to 16.

B-Frames as Reference Frames (B-Pyramid)

. Allows the use of B-frames as references for other frames.

Select from these options:

Disabled

does not allow B-frames to the used as references.

Strict

allows one B-frame per mini-GOP to be used as a reference.

Normal

allows numerous B-frames per mini GOP to be used as a reference.

236

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

Compatibility

Figure 138.

H.265 (x265) Codec Compatibility Settings

Open GOP

. Check Open GOP encoding to increase encoding efficiency. However, not all players/decoders support this encoding method.

Buffering Settings

Figure 139.

H.265 (x265) Codec—Buffering Settings

Table 59.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Buffering Settings

Number of Frames To Look

Ahead

--rc-lookahead

Two-Pass Encoding -p, --pass 2

Override Number of Frames to Look Ahead.

Check to override the default Frame

Look-ahead value.

Number of Frames to Look Ahead.

Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the number of frames the encoder can look ahead to detect more difficult areas to encode, and save bits for those sections. Range: 0 to 250.

Two-Pass Encoding.

Check to perform encoding in two passes. In the first pass, the encoder analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass, it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Display Settings

Figure 140.

H.265 (x265) Codec—Display Settings

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

HEVC (H.265/x265) Codec

237

Table 60.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Display Settings

Display Aspect Ratio

Square Pixels (will use --sar to set correct display aspect ratio)

4:03:00

16:09:00

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from these options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9

explicitly set the display aspect ratio.

Profile & Level Settings

Figure 141.

H.265 (x265) Codec—Profile & Level Settings

Episode 6.5

Table 61.

H.265 (x265) Codec CLI—Profile and Level Settings

Profile

Main

--profile main

L evel

Main10 high

--level

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Main

performs 8-bit encoding.

Main 10

performs 8- to 10-bit encoding. Requires Episode Pro or Episode Engine.

Level

. The level you select provides the decoder the maximum values for macro block rates, frame sizes, reference frames, VBV information, and bit rates.

Select from these options:

Auto.

Episode automatically marks the level as corresponding to the lowest level matching the current configuration.

Levels (1.0 to 5.1).

Select an option to mark the level of the output as a higher value than the default. If you manually select a level lower than allowed by the current parameter values, the configuration may silently change to match the selected level.

238

Video Codecs

JPEG Sequence Codec

JPEG Sequence Codec

Note:

This feature is available in both the Episode CLI and in the GUI client with the

Episode Engine license. For CLI details, see the

Episode Advanced User’s Guide

.

Select a sequence of JPEG images as an input format for conversion to video. RGB 32-bit is supported.

Figure 142.

Image Sequence Settings

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

JPEG Sequence Codec

239

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

240

Video Codecs

MJPEG Codec

MJPEG Codec

The Motion JPEG (MJPEG) codec generates a sequence of JPEG still images, and is suitable to use as an editing format.

Profile Settings

Encoding Setting

Profile Settings

Figure 143.

MJPEG Codec—Profile Settings

Profile

. Select

MJPEG A | MJPEG B | Photo JPEG

. The actual encoding is identical for all versions, but the headers are different.

Color Space

. Select

Same as Source | 4:2:0 | 4:2:2

(see Color Formats (78) ).

Encoding Setting

Figure 144.

MJPEG Codec—Encoding Setting

Encoding Quality

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the image quality as a percent, from 0 (most compression, lowest quality) to 100 (least compressed, highest quality).

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-1 Codec

241

MPEG-1 Codec

MPEG-1 video is accepted by most video players. This format is suitable when it is important to reach a large audience on different platforms. MPEG-1 is recommended for image sizes up to CIF (352 x 288) and bit rates up to 1500 Kbps. Above 1500 Kbps,

MPEG-2 is typically a better encoding option.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 145.

MPEG-1 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Coding Type

. Select from the following options:

Bit Rate-based

controls bandwidth by specifying a maximum bit rate.

Quality-based

controls bandwidth by specifying a maximum quality.

Average Bit Rate

. When

bit rate-based

is selected as the coding type, specify the desired bit rate of the video track, from 16 Kbps upwards.

Encoding Quality

. When

quality-based

is selected as the coding type, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the image quality. Range: 0 (most compression, lowest quality) to 100 (least compressed, highest quality).

Keyframe Settings

Figure 146.

MPEG-1 Codec—Keyframe Settings

Episode 6.5

GOP Format

. Select one of the predefined GOP structures, or select Custom to specify some other GOP structure using the P-frames between I-frames and B-frames between

P-frames fields.

242

Video Codecs

MPEG-1 Codec

GOP Type

. Select

Open GOP | Closed GOP

. In a file using an Open GOP structure, frames are allowed to predict data from frames outside the GOP. This provides better compression but is not accepted by all applications and does not work well when using

MPEG-1 as an editing format. When using Closed GOP, each frame in the GOP is independent of the frames outside of the GOP. Hence all the predictive coding is performed inside each GOP.

P-frames Between I-frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum number of P-frames permitted between I-frames. Range: 0 to 25.

B-frames Between P-frames

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum number of B-frames permitted between P-frames. Range: 0 to 10.

Force Sequence Header for Every GOP

. Check to insert a sequence header before every GOP, a requirement when creating MPEG files for editing.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 Codec

243

MPEG-2 Codec

The MPEG-2 codec is similar to the MPEG-1 codec, but is more suitable for larger frame sizes and higher bit rates. MPEG-2 is the standard format for DVDs and for digital television.

Bandwidth Settings

Display Settings

Keyframe Settings

Advanced Options

Closed Captioning & VBI Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 147.

MPEG-2 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Episode 6.5

Coding Type

. Select from the following options:

Bit Rate-based

controls bandwidth by specifying a maximum bit rate. When selected,

Encoding Quality is disabled, and other bit rate-based settings are enabled, as appropriate.

Quality-based

controls bandwidth by specifying a maximum quality. When selected, only Encoding Quality is enabled.

Bit Rate Control

. When

Bit Rate-Based

is selected, select from the following options:

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

encodes the video with a constant bit rate. The VBV buffer size is adjusted so that the output conforms to Main Profile at Main Level. If you encode the video as I-frames only, frames are padded to reach the set bit rate. This is best suited for high bit rates: 30 Mbs and upwards.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Size

uses the buffer time value in the VBV buffer size field.

The VBV buffer size controls the variation in bit rate. A larger buffer size allows bigger variations in bit rate. For more information, see

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

.

Peak Rate

sets the highest allowed bit rate in the clip to the value in the Peak Rate field.

Average Bit Rate

. When

Bit Rate-Based

is selected, set the desired bit rate of the video track. Range 16 Kbps to 300,000 Kbps.

244

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 Codec

Peak Bit Rate

. When

Peak Rate

is selected, specify the maximum allowed bit rate over any one-second interval. Range: 16 Kbps to 300,000 Kbps.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. When

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Size

is selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size. Range: 0

to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

.

Two-pass Encoding

. When

Bit Rate-Based

is selected, check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Encoding Quality

. When

Quality-Based

is selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the image quality for a video frame. Range: 0 (most compression, lowest quality) to 100 (least compressed, highest quality).

Display Settings

Figure 148.

MPEG-2 Codec—Display Settings

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from the following options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect ratio.

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Field Order

. Select

Top First | Bottom First | Same as Input

.

Keyframe Settings

Figure 149.

MPEG-2 Codec—Keyframe Settings

GOP Format

. Select one of the predefined GOP structures, or select Custom to specify some other GOP structure using the P-frames between I-frames and B-frames between

P-frames fields.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 Codec

245

P-Frames Between I-Frames

. When enabled, enter the maximum number of P-frames permitted between I-frames. Range: 0 to 25.

B-Frames Between P-Frames

. When enabled, enter the maximum number of B-frames permitted between P-frames. Range: 0 to 10.

Force Sequence Header for Every GOP

. Check to insert a sequence header before every GOP, a requirement when creating MPEG files for editing.

GOP Type

. Select

Open GOP | Closed GOP

. In a file using an Open GOP structure, frames are allowed to predict data from frames outside the GOP. This provides better compression but is not accepted by all applications, and does not work well when using MPEG-1 as an editing format. When using Closed GOP, each frame in the GOP is independent of the frames outside of the GOP. Hence, all the predictive coding is performed inside each GOP.

Advanced Options

Figure 150.

MPEG-2 Codec—Advanced Options

Profile

. When Coding Type is set to

Bitrate-Based

, Select

Main | 422 | High

. When Coding

Type is set to

Quality-Based

,

Main

is specified.

Level

. Select

Main | High422 | High

.

Intra DC Precision

. Select

8 Bits | 9 Bits | 10 Bits.

The DC component of the encoded signal determines the base level of each encoded block.

Detect Scene Changes

. Check to insert keyframes (I-frames) in the stream when two consecutive frames differ more than a given threshold.

Pulldown

. Select how to set the flag which tells a player how to pull down fields in order to display at a higher frame rate. See

Video Scan

. Select from the following

options:

None

do not perform pulldown.

2:3 (23.976/24 -> 29.97/30 FPS) | 3:2 (23.976/24 -> 29.97/30 FPS)

. If the frame rate is not

23.976 or 24 FPS, these setting is ignored.

Closed Captioning & VBI Settings

Episode supports writing closed captions in MPEG-2 video in MPEG Elementary,

Program, and Transport Streams. Closed captions are imported from MPEG user data in

Episode 6.5

246

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 Codec

D-10/IMX, HDV, MPEG-2, and XDCAM HD files in the following formats: EIA-608 in ATSC

A/53 wrapping, EIA-708 in ATSC A/53 wrapping, and SCTE-20.

Figure 151.

MPEG-2 codec—Closed Captioning & VBI Settings

Closed Captioning

. Select the format of the output closed captioning data:

None

does not place any closed captions in the output file.

Same as Source

copies any closed captions from the source to the output file.

EIA-608

places captions from the source into the output file Closed Captioning Fields.

EIA-608 + EIA-708

places both ATSC A/53-wrapped EIA-608 and EIA-708 captions from the source into the output file.

SCTE-20

places captions from the source into the selected Closed Captioning Fields of the output file.

This setting controls and enables only the output side of the closed captioning capability. To pass captions from input to output, you also have to set up caption importing from the input source files. Detecting and importing captions on the input source requires enabling either the

VBI Importer Filter

or the

Caption Importer Filter

described in the

Video Filters

chapter. The Caption Importer Filter imports embedded

608/708captions from the source media file, and the VBI Importer Filter ensures that VBI data containing captions is passed to the output and not removed from the input.

When

both

EIA-608 and either VBI Importer Filter or Caption Importer Filter are enabled, captions will be embedded in the transcoded output file if valid captions were present in the input source file or caption file.

MPEG-2 source files containing embedded captions in the user data are an exception to the VBI or Caption Filter requirement; these captions can be forwarded to the transcoded output without enabling any filters as long as Closed Captioning is set to

EIA-608 in the video codec.

Closed Captioning Fields

. When

SCTE-20

is selected, select to indicate the fields in which to place EIA-608 and SCTE-20 captions:

Field 1

places captions in field 1 if the source contains captions in field 1; captions in field 2 are ignored. If there are captions in field 2 and none in field 1, the field 2 captions are placed in field 1.

Field 1 + Field

2 places captions in the same field as they were imported from in the source file.

Add Empty VBI

. Check to pad the height of the image so that there is space for VBI

(Vertical Blanking Information) lines that can be used to store information such as time

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 Codec

247

codes, teletext, etc. Images from 480 to 511 lines high are assumed to be NTSC and are padded up to 512 lines; images from 576 to 607 lines high are assumed to be PAL and are padded up to 608 lines.

VBI Pad Color

. When Add Empty VBI is checked, select the color of the VBI space (

0 | 16

) from the dropdown menu.

248

Video Codecs

MPEG-2 VOD Codec

MPEG-2 VOD Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

The MPEG-2 VOD codec uses automatic and limited encoding parameters. It cannot be customized.

Supported input includes:

528 or 352 x 576 @ 25 FPS

528 or 352 x 480 @29.97 FPS

1920 x 1080 @ 25 or 29.97 FPS

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-4 Codec

249

MPEG-4 Codec

MPEG-4 includes many of the features of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and is accepted by most video players. The role of MPEG-4 has been for the most part superseded by a codec developed to support its subset MPEG-4 Part 10, known as H.264. MPEG-4 can be useful if support in older players and/or platforms is required. MPEG-4 is efficient across a wide range of bit rates, frame sizes. and frame rates.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Profile Settings

Encoding Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 152.

MPEG-4 codec—Bandwidth Settings

Average Bit Rate

. Specify the desired bit rate. Range: 0 to 100,000 Kbps.

Frame Skip Probability

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the probability of skipping frames so that if the set bit rate is exceeded, 0.0 is least likely and

1.0 is most likely to cause frame skipping. See

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs.

Crisp Image

.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size. Range: 0 to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer

Verifier

.

Keyframe Settings

Figure 153.

MPEG-4 codec—Keyframe Settings

Episode 6.5

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Keyframes Only

creates all frames as keyframes. Requires very high video bit rate.

Forced Keyframes Only

creates keyframes with the specified keyframe distance.

250

Video Codecs

MPEG-4 Codec

Natural and Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change, but also inserts a keyframe at keyframe distance from the latest keyframe. If

Keyframe distance is 0, only natural keyframes are created.

Natural Keyframes Only

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Keyframe Interval

. When creating

Forced Keyframes Only

or

Natural and Forced

Keyframes

, specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range 0 to 200 frames.

Number of B-Frames

. When

Advanced Simple Profile

is selected, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the maximum number of B-frames permitted between Pframes. Range: 0 to 10.

Profile Settings

Figure 154.

MPEG-4 codec—Profile Settings

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Simple Profile

Simple Profile (Level 0) is used in 3GPP files. Simple Profile provides the fastest encoding and is supported by any player that supports MPEG-4. If the video bit stream is below 64 Kbps it is tagged as level 0. If the bit stream is between 64 Kbps and

128 Kbps it is tagged as level 0B.

Advanced Simple Profile

Advanced Simple Profile includes additional encoding features but is not supported by all players.

Simple Profile Level 0

. Check to encode media below 64Kbps.

Motion Estimation Accuracy

. When using

Advanced Simple Profile, s

elect the active area for looking at motion estimation.

Half Pel (1/2 pixel) | Quarter Pel (1/4 pixel)

.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select

1:1 | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

.

Error Correction

Packet Length

. Specify data packet length in bits. Large packets have less overhead, but provide less error correction. Range: 0 to 163,840 bits.

Use Data Partition

. Check to insert synchronization markers for better error correction.

This is useful for very low bandwidth and error-prone networks.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

MPEG-4 Codec

251

Use RVLC

. Check to utilize Reversible Variable Length Codes. RVLC make it possible for the player to look back in previously-played video and check previous parts of the image. If the current frame contains corrupt data, the codec can check with previous frames for correction.

Note:

Using RVLC increases bandwidth requirements and may result in lowered image quality. RVLC is dependent on player support.

Encoding Settings

Figure 155.

MPEG-4 codec—Encoding Settings

Two-pass Encoding

. Check to perform two-pass encoding. In pass 1, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the 2nd pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best compress the data. Two-pass encoding provides better output quality but increases encoding time.

Episode 6.5

252

Video Codecs

Pass Through Option

Pass Through Option

When the Pass Through option is selected from the Video Codec dropdown menu,

Episode extracts the video stream from the input file, and passes it through untouched, and inserts it into the output file. That is, no decoding or encoding of the video stream occurs.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

ProRes Codec

253

ProRes Codec

ProRes is capable of recording full HD frame sizes at a variety of bit rates, which is useful for a wide range of purposes from proxies to finish editing and archiving.

ProRes 422 is a full-frame 10-bit 4:2:2 video codec developed by Apple in 2007. ProRes

4444 (MacOS X only) is a 12-bit 4:4:4 video codec. It is a lossy video compression format which supports Variable Bit Rate (VBR). Telestream does not recommend using the

ProRes 4444 encoding in a mixed-platform cluster: the job may be assigned to a

Windows node, and the job will fail.

Note: MacOS X

: ProRes is distributed and installed for encoding and decoding. You can decode ProRes directly in QuickTime, eliminating the requirement to separately install the ProRes codec.

Windows

: ProRes is provided for encode and decode operations in QuickTime. For encode operations, you must be running on Windows Server 2008|2012 and have an

Episode Engine license.

Figure 156.

ProRes Codec Settings

Version

. Select the version of ProRes to use:

ProRes 422

a 10-bit 4:2:2 codec developed by Apple.

ProRes 422

(HQ) video bit rate of approx. 220 mb/s at 1920 x 1080.

ProRes 422

video bit rate of approx 145 mb/s at 1920 x 1080.

ProRes 422(LT)

video bit rate of approx 100 mb/s at 1920 x 1090.

ProRes 422 (Proxy)

video bit rate of approx 45 mb/s at 1920 x 1080.

Episode 6.5

254

Video Codecs

QuickTime Codecs

QuickTime Codecs

Which QuickTime video codecs are installed on your computer depends on your installation. For details about QuickTime codecs, you are referred to the codec supplier’s documentation.

Figure 157.

QuickTime Codec Settings

Options

. Click to display the QuickTime Compression Settings dialog. Choose the codec you wish to use from the Compression Type menu and enter the settings you want to use. For help using this dialog, click the ? icon in the bottom left corner.

Figure 158.

QuickTime Compression Settings Dialog

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select the following options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect ratio.

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

These options override the value set in the Resize filter (if utilized), unless

From Source/

Resize Filter

is selected.

Note:

Episode overrides the frame rate specified in the QuickTime dialog, so you have

to explicitly use the

Frame Rate Filter

. If you use the hardware-accelerated Matrox

H.264 codec you should only run one such job at a time, since only one process can use the accelerator unit at any given time.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

RGB Levels Codec

255

RGB Levels Codec

The RGB Levels codec produces video in an uncompressed video format, which is utilized by QuickTime.

Figure 159.

RGB Levels Codec Settings

Bits Per Pixel

. Select

24 | 32

from the dropdown menu. 24 bits per pixel provides 8 bits each for red, blue, and green. 32 bits per pixel provides additional support for an 8-bit alpha channel.

Episode 6.5

256

Video Codecs

Targa Cine YUV Codec

Targa Cine YUV Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

Targa Cine YUV is an uncompressed video format used with Cinewave cards. The pixel values are stored with 4:2:2 subsampling.

There are no user-settable options.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

TGA Sequence Codec

257

TGA Sequence Codec

Note:

This feature is now available in both the Episode CLI and in the GUI client with the Episode Engine license. For CLI details, see the

Episode Advanced User’s Guide

.

Select a sequence of TGA images as an input format for conversion to video. An alpha channel and 24-bit graphics are supported.

Figure 160.

Image Sequence Settings

Episode 6.5

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

258

Video Codecs

TGA Sequence Codec

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

TIFF Sequence Codec

259

TIFF Sequence Codec

Note:

This feature is now available in both the Episode CLI and in the GUI client with

Episode Engine license. For CLI details, see the

Episode Advanced User’s Guide

.

Select a sequence of TIFF images as an input format for conversion to video. 8-bit and

16-bit are supported.

Figure 161.

Image Sequence Settings

Episode 6.5

Task Name.

Names the task.

Max sequence number increase.

Enables gaps in the sequence numbers. The default value is 1, meaning that one missing number in a sequence is treated as the end of the sequence. If set to another number, that number of sequence numbers must be missing to be considered the end of a sequence.

Safety files.

Controls how many files after any given file need to be present in the sequence before processing of the file begins. This does not apply to the first file in a sequence. This only has practical implications if

Encode While Ingest

is enabled. Setting this to 0 (zero) may significantly decrease the time the encoder has to wait when the end of the sequence is reached, but depending on file system and file format, may result in errors. Default is 0.

Frame rate.

Sets the video frame rate of the output media file.

Encode while ingest.

Encodes files as they are ingested from a scanner or other device that produces an image sequence over time. Wait times between received files can be specified in the following wait fields.

Encode while ingest waits (sec).

Specifies the number of seconds to wait before checking for a newly arrived file during encode while ingest. The default is 5 seconds.

Encode while ingest number of waits.

Specifies the maximum number of times to wait for files during encode while ingest. The default is 5 times. If no files are received for 5 wait times, the sequence is ended. Assuming the defaults are used, the maximum is 5 waits times 5 seconds each for a total of 25 seconds.

Images.

Lists the images selected for processing by the Image Sequence task.

260

Video Codecs

TIFF Sequence Codec

Revert.

Restores the Image Sequence settings to what they were before they were changed.

Save As.

Saves the Image Sequence configuration to a file.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

VP8 Codec

261

VP8 Codec

The VP8 codec is an open source codec released by Google. The codec is based on VP6, which was initially developed by On2 Technologies, and is used in WebM format.

Figure 162.

VP8 Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Enter the maximum bit rate in kbits per second.

Two-pass Encoding

. Check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Keyframe Settings

. Select from the following options:

Natural

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes with exactly the specified keyframe distance.

Minimum Keyframe Interval

. When

Forced Keyframes

is selected, specify the minimum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 50 frames.

Maximum Keyframe Interval

. When

Forced Keyframes

is selected, specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 200 frames.

Video Intended for

. Select

Streaming (CBR) | Download (VBR)

.

Decoders Buffer Time. Use the slider (or enter the value manually to set the amount of media the buffer holds. Range: 0 to 10 seconds.

Maximum Number of Threads

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually to set the maximum number of threads. Range: 1 to 16.

Episode 6.5

262

Video Codecs

VP9 Codec

VP9 Codec

The VP9 codec is open source software released by Google as the successor to VP8 with improved compression to achieve a reduced bit rate while retaining the same video quality. The codec is based on VP6, which was initially developed by On2 Technologies, and is used in WebM format. A number of common browsers allow the VP9 codec to play in the HTML5 video tag.

Figure 163.

VP8 Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Enter the maximum bit rate in kbits per second.

Two-pass Encoding

. Check to perform encoding in two passes. In pass one, the codec analyzes the frames and collects data. In the second pass it uses the collected data as the basis for how to best distribute the bits. Two-pass encoding provides better output image quality but increases encoding time.

Keyframe Settings

. Select from the following options:

Natural

creates keyframes when the encoder detects a scene change.

Forced Keyframes

creates keyframes with exactly the specified keyframe distance.

Minimum Keyframe Interval

. When

Forced Keyframes

is selected, specify the minimum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 50 frames.

Maximum Keyframe Interval

. When

Forced Keyframes

is selected, specify the maximum distance between keyframes. Range: 0 to 200 frames.

Video Intended for

. Select

Streaming (CBR) | Download (VBR)

.

Decoders Buffer Time

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually to set the amount of media the buffer holds. Range: 0 to 10 seconds.

Maximum Number of Threads

. (Mac only) Use the slider (or enter the value manually to set the maximum number of threads. Range: 1 to 16.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Figure 164.

VP9 Codec Settings

Video Codecs

VP9 Codec

263

264

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

The Windows Media Video 9 codec is used in the Windows Media (WM) format, a proprietary format playable in Windows Media Player.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Profile Settings

Encoding Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 165.

Windows Media Video 9 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Coding Mode

. Select from the following options:

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

encodes video at the bit rate specified in the Average

Rate field. Quality is specified using the Picture Quality slider.

One-Pass variable Bit Rate (VBR)

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, at the quality specified in the Smoothness/crispness slider. The encoder uses whatever bit rate necessary to maintain the specified quality. Unlike

One-pass CBR

, a higher quality never causes the encoder to skip frames, only to use a higher bit rate.

Two-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

encodes the clip with constant bit rate. The encoder analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass. This setting is bit rate-based, and has no picture quality setting.

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Unconstrained

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, constrained by the value in Average Rate. The codec analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass. This setting is bit rate-based, but has no peak bit rate limitations.

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak Constrained

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, controlled by the values in Peak Rate and Average Rate. The codec analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass.

Peak Rate

. When encoding

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak Constrained

, Set the maximum allowed bit rate over any one-second interval. Range: 5 Kbps to 20,000 Kbps.

Average Rate

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR), One-Pass Constant Bit

Rate (CBR), Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Unconstrained or Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

265

(VBR) Peak Constrained

, set the desired bit rate of the video track. Range 5 to 20,000

Kbps.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit

Rate (CBR), Two-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR), or Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak

Constrained

, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size.

Range: 0 to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

.

Picture Quality

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

or

One-Pass Variable

Bit Rate (VBR)

, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the probability of skipping frames so that if the set bit rate is exceeded, 0.0 is least likely and 1.0 is most

likely to cause frame skipping (see

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp Image

.

266

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

Keyframe Settings

Figure 166.

Windows Media Video 9 codec—Keyframe Settings

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Natural and Forced Keyframes

causes the codec choose when to insert keyframes, but also ensures that there is at least one keyframe within the specified distance. If

Keyframe distance is set to 0, keyframes are created only when a scene change is detected, making this the same as

Natural Keyframes Only

.

Natural Keyframes Only

causes the codec insert keyframes when it detects scene changes.

Keyframe Interval

. Enter the maximum distance between keyframes regardless of scene changes. With long clips that have lots of redundant data such as news clips

(talking heads), limiting the maximum distance allows the stream to recover more rapidly if losing packets. Range: 0-60 seconds.

Number of B-frames

. When using Main Profile, use the slider (or manually enter the value) to specify the number of B-frames in a GOP (range: 0 to 7). A higher number causes more efficient, slower encoding.

Profile Settings

Figure 167.

Windows Media Video 9 Codec—Profile Settings

Profile

. Select from the following options:

Simple Profile

is the fastest-encodable profile.

Main Profile

allows additional encoding options.

Episode 6.5

Encoding Settings

Figure 168.

Windows Media Video 9 Codec—Encoding Settings

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video 9 Codec

267

Encoding Complexity

. Select from the following options:

Live Fast | Live Normal

are best for streaming video.

Offline Fast | Offline Normal | Offline Slow | Offline High Quality

provide increasingly slower, but higher quality encoding; they are better for downloadable video.

Episode 6.5

268

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

The VC-1 Codec creates Windows Media 9 Advanced Profile CBR (Constant Bit Rate) or

VBR (Variable Bit Rate) files, either in one- or two-pass encoding.

Bandwidth Settings

Keyframe Settings

Encoding Settings

Profile Settings

Bandwidth Settings

Figure 169.

VC-1 Codec—Bandwidth Settings

Coding Mode

. Select from the following options:

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

encodes video at the bit rate specified in the Average

Rate field. Quality is specified using the Picture Quality slider.

One-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, at the quality specified in the Smoothness/crispness slider. The encoder uses whatever bit rate necessary to maintain the specified quality. Unlike

One-pass CBR

, a higher quality never causes the encoder to skip frames, only to use a higher bit rate.

Two-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

encodes the clip with constant bit rate. The encoder analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass. This setting is bit rate-based, and has no picture quality setting.

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Unconstrained

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, constrained by the value in Average Rate. The codec analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass. This setting is bit rate-based, but has no peak bit rate limitations.

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak Constrained

encodes the clip with a variable bit rate, controlled by the values in Peak Rate and Average Rate. The codec analyzes the source clip in the first pass and encodes in the second pass.

Peak Rate

. When encoding

Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Unconstrained

or

Two-Pass

Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak Constrained

, set the maximum allowed bit rate over any onesecond interval. Range: 5 Kbps to 20,000 Kbps.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

269

Average Rate

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Two-Pass Constant Bit

Rate (CBR), Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Unconstrained or Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate

(VBR) Peak Constrained

, set the desired bit rate of the video track. Range 5 to 20,000

Kbps.

Video Buffering Verifier (VBV) Buffer Size

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit

Rate (CBR), Two-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR), or Two-Pass Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Peak

Constrained

, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the VBV buffer size.

Range: 0 to 60 seconds. See

VBV Video Buffer Verifier

.

Smoothness/Crispness

. When encoding

One-Pass Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

or

One-Pass

Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to set the probability of skipping frames so that if the set bit rate is exceeded, 0.0 is least likely and 1.0 is most likely to cause frame skipping. See

Frame Skip Probability Smooth Motion Vs. Crisp Image

.

Keyframe Settings

Figure 170.

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec—Keyframe Settings

Keyframe Control

. Select from the following options:

Natural and Forced Keyframes

causes the codec to choose when to insert keyframes, but also ensures that there is at least one keyframe within the specified distance. If

Keyframe distance is set to 0, keyframes are created only when a scene change is detected, making this the same as

Natural Keyframes Only

.

Natural Keyframes Only

causes the codec insert keyframes when it detects scene changes.

Keyframe Distance

. Enter the maximum distance between keyframes regardless of scene changes. With long clips that have lots of redundant data such as news clips

(talking heads), limiting the maximum distance allows the stream to recover more rapidly if losing packets. Range: 0-60 seconds.

Number of B-frames

. When using Main Profile, use the slider (or manually enter the value) to specify the number of B-frames in a GOP (range: 0 to 7). A higher number causes more efficient, slower encoding.

Encoding Settings

Figure 171.

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec—Encoding Settings

Episode 6.5

270

Video Codecs

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec

Encoding Complexity

. Select from the following options:

Live Fast | Live Normal

are best for streaming video.

Offline Fast | Offline Normal | Offline Slow | Offline High Quality

provide increasingly slower, but higher quality encoding; they are better for downloadable video.

Profile Settings

Figure 172.

Windows Media Video VC-1 Codec—Profile Settings

Field Order

. Select

Derive from Source | Progressive | Top Field First | Bottom Field First

.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Select from the following options:

From Source/Resize Filter

causes the codec to use the display aspect ratio information in

the source material or the value set in the

Resize Filter

if activated.

Square Pixels | 4:3 | 16:9 | 2.21:1 | 2.35:1

causes the codec to use the specified pixel aspect

ratio. See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Width

. Specify the width of the output frame, in pixels.

Display Aspect Ratio

. Specify the height of the output frame, in pixels.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

Windows RGB Codec

271

Windows RGB Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

Windows RGB is an uncompressed I-frames-only format.

Figure 173.

Windows RGB Codec Settings

Bits Per Pixel

. Select

24 | 32

from the dropdown menu. 24 bits per pixel provides 8 bits each for red, blue, and green. 32 bits per pixel provides additional support for an 8-bit alpha channel.

Episode 6.5

272

Video Codecs

XAVC Codec

XAVC Codec

The XAVC video format was invented by Sony for use in its video cameras and camcorders. XAVC uses level 5.2 of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC format, supporting up to 4k resolution (4096 x 2160) and up to 60 frames per second. Color depth can be 8-, 10-, or

12-bits, and chroma subsampling can be 4:2:0, 4:2:2, or 4:4:4. The container format is

MXF.

Figure 174.

XAVC Codec Settings

Settings

XAVC Type

. Select either the XAVC Intra type for intra-frame processing, or the XAVC

Long GOP for Group of Pictures processing. According to Sony specifications, long GOP format at 35 to 50 Mbps is a good choice for HD when the best compromise between small file size with high picture quality and low computational demand is required.

Intra produces high picture quality but requires a higher bitrate and more computational power.

AVC Intra Class

. If you choose Intra type above, also select the Intra Class: 50 to 480

CBG (constant bit rate) or 100 to 480 VBR (variable bitrate). VBR is supported by most equipment and can produce higher video and audio quality. However, it can also take more time to encode and may sometimes exceed the data rate of the connection.

AVC Long GOP Bit Rate

. If you choose Long GOP above, select the bit rate, from 25 to

300 Mbps, or select Automatic to allow the rate to be set automatically.

Episode 6.5

Video Codecs

XDCAM HD Codec

273

XDCAM HD Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

XDCAM HD is an MPEG-2-based codec used by Sony for High-Definition video.

Figure 175.

XDCAM HD Codec Settings

Version

. Select the video profile, which is comprised of a codec, rate control, frame size, color space, and/or bit rate.

Episode 6.5

274

Video Codecs

YCbCr Codec

YCbCr Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

YCbCr is an uncompressed I-frames-only format. It is a transformation of RGB images where Y is the luma (brightness) component of the image and Cb and Cr are the blue and red chroma (color) components, respectively. For details, see

Color Formats

.

Figure 176.

YCbCr Codec settings

Color Space

. Select from these options:

Same as Source

causes the codec to use the color space in the source material.

4:2:0 | 4:2:2 | 4:2:2 Interleaved

causes the codec to use the specified color space. 4:2:2

Interleaved format has Y, Cb, and Cr samples for each pixel stored next to each other, and the planar formats have all Y, Cb, and Cr samples stored in separate sequences

(planes).

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

This chapter describes each of the video filters in Episode:

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

Black and White Restoration Filter

Burn Timecode Filter

Caption Importer Filter

Color Space Converter Filter

Contrast Filter

Deinterlace Filter

Fade Filter

Field Order Filter

Frame Rate Filter

Gamma Filter

HSV Levels Filter

Interlace Filter

Matte Extractor Filter

Noise Reduction Filter

Resize Filter

RGB Filter

Rotate Filter

Sharpen Filter

Smoothing Filter

Timecode Converter

VBI Exporter Filter

VBI Importer Filter

Watermark Filter

Watermark Resize Filter

275

276

Video Filters

Video filters apply transformations to the video track in the source file, before it is encoded. Activated filters are applied to your video in the order they are listed in the

Inspector panel, from top to bottom.

You select a filter to display its properties in the inspector. You

activate

a filter by checking its checkbox, and de-activate it by unchecking the box. You can only alter the properties (or method/option/section within a filter) of an active filter.

Note:

Codecs encode the output after all active video filters have been applied to your input media (as it is being decoded). In some cases, functionality in filters and codecs is duplicated, and if enabled in both it may be unnecessary and harmless, but it may also lead to unintended results. For example, you can enable a filter to change the display aspect ratio. However, in some codecs, you can also chagne the aspect ratio.

Most video filters only operate on 8-bit video data. However, the Frame Rate,

Deinterlace, Advanced Frame Rate, Resize, and Interlace filters can also operate on 10bit data.

Some filters are used to adjust the output format, such as the Frame Rate and Resize filters. Others are used to improve the appearance of the image, such as the Noise

Reduction filter, and the Black And White Restoration filter. Still others add information to the output file, such as the Burn Timecode filter and Watermark filter.

You can view the effects of video filters in real time using the Preview window to determine if you are achieving the intended effect (see

Using the Preview Window

).

Click the question mark icon to display online help for the filter.

Only active filters are applied to your video (as depicted in the figure following), and they are applied frame by frame, to decoded digital baseband video in the order they are listed in the Inspector panel, from top to bottom.

Episode 6.5

This process and result is depicted in the figure below:

Figure 177.

Video Filter Application to a Frame

Video Filters

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

277

In this example, the Contrast, Burn Timecode, and Watermark filters are activated (and configured). On this frame which has just been decoded to digital baseband, first the

Contrast filter is applied, increasing the contrast (which you can see in the output frame). Next, the Burn Timecode filter renders the current timecode onto the frame (see output frame), and finally the Watermark filter applies the specified graphic to the frame—notice that the watermark partially overlays the timecode.

With all the video filters applied, the digital baseband output frame is passed to the encoder for encoding into the output stream.

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

The advanced frame rate filter performs complex frame rate conversions. (Basic frame rate conversions are available in the

Frame Rate Filter

.)

Note:

A frame rate change that changes the video track duration requires you to use

the

Audio Speed Filter

to adjust the audio track to match.

Episode 6.5

278

Video Filters

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

Figure 178.

Advanced Frame Rate Filter Settings

Filter Mode

. Select the type of frame rate conversion you want to perform:

Fixed Frame Rate

enables the Create New Frames field. New frames are created to match the given frame rate.

Twice the Framerate

sets the output frame rate from the filter to twice the input frame rate. This setting is often used when you are interlacing non-interlaced content, using the double frames to create fields in the interlace filter. This setting can optionally be used to create slow motion material by setting the Stated output frame rate to Same as input.

Copy Input Frames

copies the source frames to the output, but a different frame rate can be specified with the Stated output frame rate menu.

Create New Frames at Rate

. When using Fixed Frame Rate

,

use the slider (or manually enter) the new output frame rate. Range: 001 to 200.

Create New Frames

. Select how to create new frames:

As Copy Of Nearest Neighbor

copies the source frame closest in time to the desired output frame. This is the fastest frame generation method, but may cause uneven motion, especially in pans.

By Blending Neighboring Frames

creates the output frame as a weighted average of the two source frames closest to it in time. This provides smoother motion, but may also cause slight blurriness.

Using Smart Motion Compensation

analyzes the motion of the objects in the video to provide both a sharp image and smooth motion. Scenes where the motion of objects is hard to analyze may cause artifacts in the image. The algorithm searches in the most probable direction of motion.

Using Heavy Motion Compensation

searches the entire frame to find the best match for motion. This method is very slow, but often produces in the best result.

Stated Output Frame Rate

. Select the indicated output frame rate:

Same As Input

sets the output frame rate from the filter to be the same as the frame rate of the input material.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Black and White Restoration Filter

279

Note:

If you are using the

Field Order Filter

in this workflow, it may have already changed the frame rate relative to the source frame rate.

To Keep Speed

adjusts the stated output frame rate so that one second of input material generates one second of output material.

Set To

explicitly sets the desired output frame rate from the filter.

Frames Per Second

. When using the

Set To

option, enter the frames per second.

Enable Advanced Options

. Check to enable these advanced features:

Search Block Size (Pixels)

. Select a block size from the dropdown menu to determine how large a search block to use in the interpolation algorithm. A larger search block provides better data to work with but also limits the amount of motion in between frames. Smaller-sized frames should use smaller search blocks.

Motion Search Length

. Select a short, medium, or long motion search distance from the dropdown menu. A longer search distance improves compression, but slows transcoding.

Dampen Deviating Motion

. Use the slider to determine what assumptions to make about motion in the frames. If motion is mostly uniform in one direction, set the slider toward

more

, in which case deviation motion is treated as noise and filtered away. If motion is non-uniform and should be kept so, set the slider toward

less

.

Blur Motion Estimation Errors

. Use the slider to perform a certain amount of imageblurring to hide errors in motion estimation, from

less

to

more

.

Sub-pel Precision

. Check to perform motion estimation for movements smaller than a full pixel. This improves image quality, but slows transcoding.

Black and White Restoration Filter

Content for television (encoded from PAL or NTSC) sometimes appears washed out: black appears dark grey and white appears as light grey. Use the black and white restoration filter to correct this condition by setting a new black and/or white level.

Figure 179.

Black and White Restoration Filter Settings

Black

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the threshold for black. All luma values below this are remapped to black. (Range: 0 to 255.)

White

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the threshold for white. All luma values above this are remapped to white. (Range: 0 to 255.)

Episode 6.5

280

Video Filters

Burn Timecode Filter

Burn Timecode Filter

Use the burn timecode filter to add a visible timecode to the output video. The timecode alters the video frame, and cannot be removed later.

Figure 180.

Burn Timecode Filter Settings

Position X

. Select the horizontal position of the timecode burn-in location:

Left | Center

| Right

.

Position Y

. Select the vertical position of the timecode burn-in location:

Top | Center |

Bottom

.

Opacity (%)

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the opacity value, making the timecode text partially transparent. Lower values are more transparent; higher values are more opaque. Range: 0 to 100.

Width (%)

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the timecode width as a percentage of the image width. Range: 0 to 100.

Font

. Select a font for the timecode.

Header

. Enter the text prefix to display with the timecode.

Caption Importer Filter

Use the Caption Importer Filter to select and import the data from an SCC (.scc) closed caption file or an MCC (.mcc) MacCaption or CaptionMaker file. These files will produce

EIA-608 SD or EIA-708 HD captions on the transcoded MXF, MPEG2, or H.264 (x264) output if you enable the additional output settings explained below.

To pass the imported captions from the .scc or .mcc file through to the transcoded output, select a

Closed Captioning

type in Video Encoder. See these container and encoder descriptions for details about enabling closed captions on the transcoded

output:

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

,

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

,

MXF XDCAM (.mxf)

,

MPEG-2 Codec

,

H.264

(MainConcept) Codec

, or

H.264 (x264) Codec

.

These elements must be present to produce a captioned output from a caption file:

Select an imported .scc or .mcc caption file in the Caption Importer Filter.

Set Video Encoder Closed Captioning to

Same as Source

or the type of captioning you are submitting via the .scc (608) or .mcc (708+608) file.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Color Space Converter Filter

281

Note:

Because you must explicitly specify a file (and not a file

pattern

), you must change the file in the filter each time you run this workflow.

Figure 181.

Caption Importer Filter Settings

Click

Browse

and choose the .scc or .mcc file to import.

Color Space Converter Filter

Use the color space converter filter to convert video between 601 and 709 color spaces.

Additionally, color can be converted between scaled and unscaled color.

Figure 182.

Color Space Converter Settings

Color Space

Input Color Space

. Select

Derive From Source | ITU-R Rec. 601 | ITU-R Rec. 709

to identify the color space of your source video.

Output Color Space

. Select

Derive From Source | ITU-R Rec. 601 | ITU-R Rec. 709

to specify which color space to use to encode your video.

Video Levels

Output Video Levels

. Select the options for dealing with monitor vs. television output from the dropdown menu:

Pass Through

Use the same video level on your output as your input.

Clamp to Studio Range (Video Levels)

Narrow full-range values (RGB 0-255) to studio values (RGB 16-235) by clamping out-of-range values.

Stretch to Full Range (RGB Levels)

Expand studio range video (RGB values 16-235) to fullrange values (RGB 0-255), in a relative manner.

Squeeze to Studio Range (Video Levels)

Narrow full-range values (RGB 0-255) down to studio values (RGB 16-235), in a relative manner.

Episode 6.5

282

Video Filters

Contrast Filter

Contrast Filter

Use the contrast filter to make dark pixels darker and light pixels lighter. Higher positive values increase contrast; higher negative values flatten or reduce contrast.

Video encoded from NTSC/PAL can sometimes look a bit grey or milky. Increasing the contrast may improve the appearance.

Be careful not to increase the contrast too much

lighter pixels have a tendency to become a white blur. In high contrast video, you can lower the contrast, causing the image to become develop a flat or greyish appearance.

Figure 183.

Contrast Filter Settings

Contrast (%)

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the contrast adjustment value.

Deinterlace Filter

Use the deinterlace filter to convert video from interlaced to deinterlaced (progressive).

As explained in

Video Scan

, a television video frame is constructed of two interlaced

fields as a pair, displayed one after the other. Because computers, mobile phones, and other mobile devices use progressive scan, showing a whole frame at once, interlaced video should be deinterlaced for playback on these devices.

Figure 184.

Deinterlace Filter Settings

Field Order

. Select the option to determine which field is dominant.

Top

Indicates that the input should be processed as top-field dominant.

Bottom

Indicates that the input should be processed as bottom-field dominant.

Automatic Detection

Analyzes the correct field order (recommended).

Note:

If the field order filter is activated, the values set in the field order filter are used and this setting is ignored.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Deinterlace Filter

283

Creating New Fields by

. Create each de-interlaced frame from two fields.

Duplication

. Duplicates the dominant field—quicker with less lower visual quality.

Interpolation

. Creates new pixels by linear interpolation of the nearest pixels in the dominant field only; the non-dominant field is discarded. This method provides better results than duplication, but requires more processing time.

Blending

. Averages both fields to smoother motion; less sharpness than interpolation.

Smooth Blending

. Averages both fields, then applies the lowpass filter to the frame.

This method provides a smoother image, but is slightly slower than blending.

Edge Detecting Interpolation

. Interpolates pixels (only vertically). Edge Detecting

Interpolation attempts to find similar elements in the frame and detect edges before interpolating. This method provides more distinct diagonal edges in the output.

Edge Detecting Interpolation Heavy

. Interpolates in the same manner as edge detecting interpolation, but with a more detailed algorithm. This method slows encoding, but provides better results.

Motion Compensation

. Analyzes the motion of objects in the video to obtain more information on how to best create new frames. This method provides sharper output than blending, while preserving smooth motion. Motion compensation usually provides the best results, but may result in artifacts in scenes where motion is difficult to estimate. This method is computationally intense, and therefore the slowest.

Note:

Motion compensation requires deinterlacing of all frames, therefore the

Deinterlace Type setting is ignored when using the Motion Compensation method.

This table displays an original image, and images processed by various methods in the deinterlace filter, to illustrate how these methods change the visual result.

Table 62.

Effects of Different Deinterlacing Types on Frames

Image Description

Unprocessed interlaced frame

Duplication

Interpolation

284

Video Filters

Deinterlace Filter

Table 62.

Effects of Different Deinterlacing Types on Frames

Image Description

Blending

Smooth blending

Edge detecting interpolation

Motion compensation

Deinterlace Type

. Select the type of deinterlacing from the dropdown menu:

Complete Deinterlace

. Deinterlaces the entire frame.

Deinterlace Interlaced Frames (Automatic)

. Deinterlaces frames that are determined to be interlaced. This option is suitable for media with both interlaced and progressive frames, such as telecine media.

Deinterlace Interlaced Frames (Manual)

. Deinterlaces frames that are determined to be interlaced based on the Threshold field value. This option is suitable for media with both interlaced and progressive frames, such as telecine media.

Deinterlace Moving Areas (Automatic)

deinterlaces the moving parts of each frame. This option is not suitable for media with progressive frames, such as telecine media.

Deinterlace Moving Areas (Manual)

deinterlaces the moving parts of each frame.

Deinterlacing is performed on those macroblocks where the average luminance difference between the two frames exceeds the value in the Threshold field. This option is not suitable for media with progressive frames, such as telecine media.

Double Frame Rate

. Separates interlaced frames into two consecutive frames. This

doubles the frame rate, so it is necessary to apply the

Frame Rate Filter

to keep the original speed. One application of this function is converting from HD interlaced to SD progressive media.

Threshold

. Set the threshold for when deinterlacing should occur. The value determines how large the difference can be between the pixels of two fields before deinterlacing. If the value is set to zero the whole frame is de-interlaced.

Deinterlace Chroma

. Check to indicate that the chroma channel is interlaced in the source material and has to be de-interlaced as well. It is not always easy to know if the chroma channels are interlaced or not. One way to find out is to open the clip in the

Preview and step through it frame by frame.

Episode 6.5

Table 63.

Effects of Deinterlacing Luma and Chroma

Image Description

Only luma de-interlaced

Both luma and chroma de-interlaced

Video Filters

Fade Filter

285

Note:

Only apply Deinterlace to interlaced media. Otherwise, undesirable artifacts are created. When using the Field Order filter, make sure your source media has not been de-interlaced prior to use.

Fade Filter

Use the fade filter to fade the encoded clip in and out from/to black or white. The number of frames are counted from the beginning of the clip for a fade in and from the end for a fade out.

Figure 185.

Fade Filter Settings

Episode 6.5

Fade In (Frames)

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the number of frames over which the clip is faded in.

Fade From Color

. Select

Black

or

White

.

Fade Out Frames

. Use the slider to set (or manually enter) the number of frames

(counting from the end of the clip).

Fade To Color

. Select

Black

or

White

.

286

Video Filters

Field Order Filter

Field Order Filter

Use the field order filter to change the field dominance of interlaced video. Subsequent filters may require this field order information to operate properly.

The field order filter can both identify and modify interlacing. You can select from a list of input video choices and then select from choices on how to modify the media.

The field order filter can both identify it and modify field order, depending on the parameters you set.

Figure 186.

Field Order Filter Settings

Input Field Order

. Select the field dominance of the incoming material.

Derive from file format

operates on the field order, based on the assumption that the field order information in the source file is correct (regardless of whether it is or not).

Source has Top Field First

operates on the field order, assuming the source is top field dominant.

Source has Bottom Field First

operates on the field order, assuming the source is bottom field dominant.

Source is Progressive

operates on the field order assuming the source is progressive; disables the filter action option.

Source has unknown field order

does not modify the source; subsequent filters are free to determine the field order themselves; disables the filter action option.

Filter Action

. When source is interlaced, select how to change the dominance of interlaced material:

Same as input

does not change the field dominance; disables the filter method option.

Switch to Top Field First

changes the field dominance to top field dominant.

Switch to Bottom Field First

changes the field dominance to bottom field dominant.

Interlaced to Progressive

deinterlaces the input and creates progressive output; disables

filter method option. If you select this option, do not use the

Deinterlace Filter

. The output frame rate from this filter is twice the input frame rate, so if you also use the

Frame Rate Filter

or

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

you must take account of this.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Frame Rate Filter

287

Filter Method

. When Filter Action is set to Switch to Top Field First or Bottom Field First, select how to change the field order. Spatial shifts reorder the fields in situ and does not cause any problems for cuts, but loses one line of the image.

Spatial Shift Upwards

moves both fields upward by one line (losing the topmost line).

Spatial Shift Downwards

moves both fields downward by one line (losing the bottommost line).

Temporal Shift

moves all fields towards the beginning of the clip, dropping the first field.

Frame Rate Filter

The frame rate filter performs simple conversions of the frame rate of a clip. The

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

performs more complex conversions, suitable for video standard conversions (for example, PAL and NTSC).

A frame rate change that modifies the duration of the video requires you to use the

Audio Speed Filter

to adjust the speed of any audio track to match.

Figure 187.

Frame Rate Filter Settings

Episode 6.5

Filter Mode

. Select the filter mode from the dropdown menu:

Fixed Frame Rate

utilizes the New Frame rate for the output file, using the conversion algorithm you specify in Framerate Preset.

Fractional Frame Rate

specifies the resulting frame rate as the fraction of the original frame rate you specify in Change Framerate To.

Upper limit

sets a maximum frame rate that to be used if the input frame rate is higher. If the input frame rate is lower, the input frame rate is used.

Framerate Preset

. Select the filter mode from the dropdown menu:

Fast

does not interpolate frames but reuses frames if needed to achieve the desired frame rate.

Automatic

analyzes PAL or NTSC source video to determine the best algorithm for the specific conversion.

Telecine 24->29.97 | Telecine 23.976->29.97 | Inv.Telecine, Fixed Cadence 29.97->23.976 |

Inv.Telecine 29.97->24 | Inv.Telecine 29.97->23.976 | Film => PAL 24->25 | PAL => Film 25-

>24

selections perform conversion between formats and deactivates New frame rate.

288

Video Filters

Frame Rate Filter

As explained in

Video Scan

, Episode automatically detects the cadence even when it is

broken. But, if you know that the cadence is fixed for the entire length of the clip, the extra processing is unnecessary.

You can select, for example, Inverse Telecine, Fixed cadence 29.97->23.98 to enable

First interlaced Pair and set which frames have been derived from the first duplicated film frame. If the first frame is a single interlaced frame, this option cannot be used.

New Framerate (FPS)

. Select the desired frame rate of the output video from the dropdown menu.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Gamma Filter

289

Change Framerate To

. When Fractional Framerate is selected in Filter Mode, select the output frame rate as a fraction of the input frame rate from the dropdown menu.

This option simply selects from already existing frames without interpolating, and disables Framerate Preset. 2x speeds up the frame rate

useful when converting HD low frame rate video to SD high frame rate video, for example.

First Interlaced Pair

. Select which frames have been derived from the first duplicated film frame, from the dropdown menu.

Gamma Filter

The gamma filter is a commonly used filter, providing an important correction in many video workflows. Gamma compensates for the color display differences between various display technologies and devices. For example, PDAs, iPods, handheld devices and terminals and MacOS X and Windows computers all have varying gamma.

The gamma filter is a non-linear filter. It only affects midrange tones, leaving the darkest and lightest parts unchanged. This enables you to darken or lighten your video without risk of distorting the darkest and brightest areas.

Figure 188.

Gamma Filter Settings

Gamma

. Use the slider to select (or manually enter) the gamma correction. Range: -100 to 100. Positive numbers (1 to 100) lighten the image. Negative numbers (-1 to -100) darken the image. Larger numbers increase the effect.

HSV Levels Filter

The HSV levels filter makes color adjustments in the Hue, Saturation and Brightness

(Value) color space. This filter compliments the

RGB Filter

which adjusts in the Red,

Green, Blue color space.

Figure 189.

HSV Levels Filter Settings

Episode 6.5

Hue

. Use the slider to select (or manually enter) how to alter the colors. The value is measured in degrees. Range: -180 degrees to +180 degrees. This is useful for correcting badly white-balanced material, for example.

Saturation

. Use the slider to select (or manually enter) how to alter the intensity of the colors. Positive values intensify the colors, and vice versa. Range: -100% to +100%.

290

Video Filters

Interlace Filter

Brightness (Value)

. Use the slider to select (or manually enter) how dark (negative values) or bright (positive values) to make the video. It affects all pixels linearly, unlike

the

Contrast Filter

, which makes dark pixels become darker and bright pixels brighter.

Interlace Filter

Use the interlace filter to convert progressive input to interlaced, at half the input frame rate.

Figure 190.

Interlace Filter Settings

Field Order

. Select the field dominance that is appropriate for the output format. See

Video Scan

for standard field orders for common formats.

Matte Extractor Filter

Use the matte extractor filter to extract the alpha transparency channel of the source file and convert it to a grey-scale image, with completely opaque mapped to white and completely transparent mapped to black.

There are no user-settable options.

Noise Reduction Filter

Use the noise reduction filter to diminish visual

noise

in your video. The filter employs three methods to reduce noise in the clip:

Median Method

Average Method

Temporal Method

You can use one, two, or all three methods and specify how many times each method is to be applied.

Median Method

Use the median method when you want to replace each pixel value with the median value of the pixels in the filter box. This improves the quality of images with impulse noise, by mainly affecting pixels with values very different from those of their neighbors.

Episode 6.5

Figure 191.

Noise Reduction Filter Settings—Median Method

Video Filters

Noise Reduction Filter

291

Enable

. Check to use this method in the filter.

Number Of Runs

. Enter the number of times to run the filter.

Radius (pixels)

. Use the slider to set the size of the filter box (or enter it manually).

Range: 0 to 7.

Only Filter Chroma

. Check to filter only the color component of the material. Luma is left unchanged. This may be useful when encoding old VHS material, since much of the noise often resides in the chroma channel.

Average Method

Use the average method when you want to replace each pixel value with the average value of the pixels in the filter box. This improves the quality of images with impulse noise, by mainly affecting pixels with values very different from those of their neighbors.

Figure 192.

Noise Reduction Filter Settings—Average Method

Enable

. Check to use this method in the filter.

Number Of Runs

. Enter the number of times to run the filter.

Radius (pixels)

. Use the slider to set the size of the filter box (or enter it manually).

Range: 0 to 7.

Threshold

. Set the maximum pixel difference value, beyond which the filter should not alter the filtered pixel if the difference between the and its environment is larger than the threshold. This preserves text and other small objects with large contrast.

Temporal Method

Use the Temporal Method when you want to compare each pixel in the current frame with the corresponding pixel in the previous frame. If the difference is less than the

Episode 6.5

292

Video Filters

Resize Filter threshold value the pixel value is left unchanged; otherwise it is replaced by the pixel value in the previous frame. This smooths a series of frames over time.

Figure 193.

Noise Reduction Filter Settings—Temporal Method

Enable

. Check to use this method in the filter.

Threshold

. Select the threshold level (or enter it manually) for pixel value replacement.

Resize Filter

The resize filter performs conversions on the pixel frame dimensions of a clip. In addition to crop and pad functions, resize also has controls for frame aspect ratio, pixel aspect ratio, and display aspect ratio.

Size Settings

Figure 194.

Resize Filter—Size Settings

Image Size

. Select the output frame size from the options in the dropdown menu.

Select Custom to enter specific (non-standard) values in the Width and Height fields and enable Image Proportions.

Width

. When Custom is selected in Image Size, enter the width of the resized image in pixels.

Height

. When Custom is selected in Image Size, enter the height of the resized image in pixels.

Image Proportions.

Select the aspect ratio for the image. Width and Height settings will automatically conform to the selected aspect ratio, unless you select None

(Unconstrained), in which case, you can enter any values for Width and Height.

Aspect Width and Aspect Height.

Displays the aspect ratio width and height dimensions.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Resize Filter

293

Maintain Proportional Width

. Select the options to determine how to process the original image to achieve the output size, from the dropdown menu. This affects the ratio between the number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. This is

not necessarily the same as the display aspect ratio, as explained in

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Cut

keeps the image proportions of the material by cropping away parts of the image.

For example, if encoding from a source clip with a 16:9 pixel relation to a clip with 4:3 pixel relation, the sides of the source are cut, leaving the resulting image undistorted.

Letterbox (Pad)

pads the image with black borders to fit the destination proportions. For example, a 16:9 clip encoded to 4:3 is padded at the top and bottom of the image.

None (Distort)

stretches the output image to the desired size. This may cause distortion.

The value in the Initial crop field (see below) is used. When coding anamorphic MPEG-2 this is the option to use. Force the source material to PAL or NTSC size with this option, then select 16:9 display aspect ratio for playback in the MPEG-2 codec.

294

Video Filters

Resize Filter

Initial Crop Settings

Before the image is scaled to the new size a cropping operation is applied to the source material. This can be used to remove black borders or edge artifacts from the source material.

Figure 195.

Resize Filter—Initial Crop Settings

Top

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from top of frame.

Bottom

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from bottom of frame.

Left

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from left of frame.

Right

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from right of frame.

Scaling Details

Figure 196.

Resize Filter—Scaling Details Settings

Interpolation Method

. Select the interpolation method to use for resizing:

Automatic

uses bilinear for downsizing and bicubic for upsizing.

Bilinear

usually best when downsizing the image.

Bicubic

usually best when upsizing the image.

Nearest Neighbor

uses the fastest method but produces the lowest quality. It should only be used when speed is more important than quality.

Bicubic Sharpening

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the amount of post re-size edge sharpening to apply.

Preprocessing

select how to implement lowpass filtering to reduce artifacts in downscaled images.

Nothing

performs no filtering.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Resize Filter

295

Lowpass for Large Downscales

filters images where the ratio between in-size and outsize is larger than 1.7 in either the horizontal or the vertical dimension. If the ratio is larger than 3.8 the images are filtered more.

Always Lowpass Source

filters all images regardless of the amount of scaling.

Interlace Handling

. Select how to handle interlaced source.

Automatic

selects between Progressive Output and Scale Fields Independently based on the available field order information.

Progressive Output

scales the image as a whole with no regard to interlacing. This is the default mode and works well in most cases.

Only Crop/Pad to Size—No Scale

crops or pads the image to the new size, without stretching the image. This option is useful when scaling to a size which is only slightly larger or smaller in height than the source, especially if the contents are interlaced.

For example, when converting from NTSC 720 x 486 to MPEG-2 NTSC 720 x 480 you do not need to encode all the source lines to a format that does not use all the lines. By just cropping the unnecessary 6 lines you do not have to interpolate lines which would lose quality.

Scale Fields Independently

divides the image into two fields which are then scaled independently. This keeps the interlacing correct when, for example, downscaling from

HD to SD material.

Aspect Ratio Settings

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

for a discussion of display aspect ratios and pixel

aspect ratios.

Figure 197.

Resize Filter—Aspect Ratio Settings

Episode 6.5

Input Display Aspect Ratio

. Select how to compensate for odd frame sizes and/or anamorphic source material, by indicating the actual display aspect ratio of the source data. For example, Video CD (VCD) material is usually encoded with 480 x 480 pixels, but displayed with 640 x 480 pixels, so you should indicate an input display aspect ratio of 4:3.

Pass Through (Keep Display Aspect Ratio)

uses the display aspect ratio that results from the settings in the Size and Initial crop fields as explained above for Maintain

Proportion With.

Derive From Source

uses the display aspect ratio information in the source file, if available. D-10/IMX, DV, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4 contain display aspect ratio information.

296

Video Filters

RGB Filter

For all other formats, square pixels are assumed. For example, if the source material is

480 x 480 pixels with its display aspect ratio field set to 4:3, Image size is set to 480 x 480 and Maintain proportion with is set to Letterbox (Pad), the output is 480 x 480 pixels, but with a visible area of 480 x 360 pixels with black margins above and below.

Assume Square Pixels

assumes that the source material has square pixels and that its display aspect ratio therefore is the same as width:height.

Assume 4:3 | Assume 5:4 | Assume 16:9 | Assume 2.21:1

use the selected value for the source display aspect ratio. This display aspect ratio is then used in the same manner as for Derive From Source.

Output Display Aspect Ratio

. Select the display aspect ratio of the output file:

Same as Input Display Aspect Ratio

uses the display aspect ratio of the source file.

Automatic

sets the display aspect ratio to Width:Height if Maintain Proportion With has been set to Cut or Letterbox (Pad), otherwise uses the display aspect ratio of the source file (i.e. assumes square pixels).

Square Pixels

sets the display aspect ratio to Width:Height.

4:3 | 5:4 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

explicitly set the display aspect ratio.

Output Pixel Aspect Ratio (MOV only)

. Select the pixel aspect ratio for QuickTime output:

Custom

enables you to explicitly set the Horizontal Pixel Spacing and Vertical Pixel

Spacing. For example, a value of one in each field specifies a square, or 1:1 pixel. In 480

SD video, you may use 10 horizontal, by 11 vertical pixels. In 576 SD video, you may use

59 horizontal by 54 vertical pixels.

Automatic

determines the pixel aspect ratio from the Image size and Output display aspect ratio.

Square

sets a 1:1 pixel aspect ratio.

NTSC ITU-R Rec. 601 | NTSC ITU-R Rec. 601 (16:9) | PAL ITU-R Rec. 601 | PAL ITU-R Rec. 601

(16:9)

sets the appropriate pixel aspect ratios for television standards.

Horizontal Pixel Spacing

. When Output Aspect Ratio is set to Custom, enter an integer value to shape the pixel as a ratio of height to width, in conjunction with the Vertical

Pixel Spacing value.

Vertical Pixel Spacing

. When Output Aspect Ratio is set to Custom, enter an integer value to shape the pixel as a ratio of height to width, in conjunction with the Horizontal

Pixel Spacing value.

RGB Filter

The RGB filter adjusts the colors in the Red Green Blue color space. For each color channel you specify how much to add or subtract from each pixel. 100% is the maximal value for the given color value. This contrasts with the

HSV Levels Filter

, which makes color adjustments in the Hue, Saturation and Value (Brightness) color space.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Rotate Filter

297

Figure 198.

RGB Levels Filter Settings

Red (%)

. User the slider (or enter value manually) to determine what percent of this channel to add or subtract. Range: -100% to 100%.

Green (%)

. User the slider (or enter the value manually) to determine what percent of this color channel to add or subtract. Range: -100% to 100%.

Blue (%)

. User the slider (or enter the value manually) to determine what percent of this channel to add or subtract. Range: -100% to 100%.

Rotate Filter

Use the rotate filter to flip frames horizontally or vertically during encoding.

Figure 199.

Rotate Filter Settings

Flip Operation

. Select None | Horiziontally | Vertically to determine how each frame is rotated.

Sharpen Filter

Use the sharpen filter to increase the contrast (or sharpen) between contrasting areas which appear as objects in the image, thereby creating a more crisp, differentiated appearance.

Figure 200.

Sharpen Filter Settings

Strength (%)

. Use the slider (or manually enter the value) to set the percent of sharpening to apply. Range: 0 to 100. Higher values provide stronger sharpening.

Smoothing Filter

Use the smoothing filter to blur and interpolate the pixels. This makes the material look smoother (but loses some contrast).

Episode 6.5

298

Video Filters

Timecode Converter

Figure 201.

Smoothing Filter Settings

Strength (%)

. Use the slider (or manually enter the value) to set the amount of smoothing to apply. Range: 0 to 100. Higher values provide stronger smoothing.

Size (Pixels)

. Select the size of the smoothing area:

3x3

|

5x5

.

Timecode Converter

The timecode converter filter enables Episode to carry timecode over to encoded outputs even when complex conversions have changed the encoded outputs frame rate. The options provided allow the user to select different methods of timecode calculation.

The filter is used when the encode contains a frame rate altering setting such as the frame rate filter, the advanced frame rate filter, or certain de-interlace modes.

There are several options you can choose to determine output timecode start times in the event the new start frame is not available based on the output timebase. In every case the hours and minutes TC values stay the same.

Figure 202.

Timecode Converter Settings

Scale

. Episode scales the output TC start frame so that it starts on the same relative frame as the input.

For example, if the input time code is 30NDF 01:00:00:27 and the new time base is

24NDF, the output timecode start would be 01:00:00:23. (27/30)*24 (rounded off to the nearest frame)

Round Off

. Episode rounds up to the next second as a new start frame. Using the above example, the output timecode start would be 01:00:01:00 (27 rounded up to the next second).

Keep Count

. Adds the number of frames from the input to the output time base. Using the above example, the output timecode start would be 01:00:01:03

(01:00:00:00+01:03) (27 frames at 24NDF timebase).

Allow drop frame <-> non-drop frame conversions

. This allows the conversion between drop and nondrop timecode.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

VBI Exporter Filter

299

VBI Exporter Filter

Use the VBI exporter filter to add Vertical Blanking Interval (VBI) data to the output file.

Figure 203.

VBI Exporter Filter Settings

Output VBI Size

. Select the method to specify the VBI size from the dropdown menu:

Same as Detected by Vertical Blanking Interval Importer

causes the filter to determine the

VBI size automatically, based on the size determined by the

VBI Importer Filter

when it ran earlier in the job.

Manually Specify Vertical Blanking Interval Size

enables you to set the size for your own requirements, in Manual VBI Size.

Manual VBI Size

. When manually specifying VBI, use the slider (or manually enter the value) to set the VBI size in pixels. Range: 0 to 64.

VBI Importer Filter

Use the VBI importer filter to remove Vertical Blanking Interval (VBI) lines from video

data. If necessary, use the

VBI Exporter Filter

to reinstate the VBI lines in the output. You can also use the VBI Importer Filter to extract closed captions from the input VBI for

embedding on the output (see

Caption Decoding

below).

VBI Size

Figure 204.

VBI Importer Filter—VBI Size Settings

Episode 6.5

Automatic VBI Size

. Select the method to determine the VBI size from the dropdown menu:

Automatically Detect Vertical Blanking Interval Size

causes the filter to determine the VBI size automatically, assuming the source video is NTSC or PAL. This option removes the

32 top video lines.

Manually Specify Vertical Blanking Interval Size

enables you to set the number of lines to remove for your own requirements, in Manual VBI Size. This option assumes the source file has a non-standard VBI size or is neither NTSC nor PAL and removes the number of lines specified in Manual VBI Size.

300

Video Filters

Watermark Filter

Manual VBI Size

. When Manually Specify VBI Size is selected, set the number of lines to remove from the top of the source video.

Caption Decoding

Figure 205.

VBI Importer Filter—Caption Decoding Settings

Decode Captions

. Check to import in-band closed captions from VBI data. Episode can

write these closed captions to these codecs and containers:

MPEG-2 Codec

,

H.264 (x264)

Codec

,

H.264 (MainConcept) Codec

,

MXF AS-11 (.mxf)

,

MXF Op1a (.mxf)

, and

MXF XDCAM

(.mxf)

. Refer to those topics for details regarding the encoder output caption settings.

Closed Captioning Location Mode

. Select the mode for determining the closed captioning line.

Automatic

enables the filter to determine which line closed captioning is on.

Manual

allows you to specify which line to pull closed captioning from, in Closed

Captioning Line.

Closed Captioning Line

. When manually specifying the Closed Captioning Location

Mode, use the slider (or manually enter the value) to specify the closed captioning line in the VBI. Range: 0 to 64.

Watermark Filter

Use the watermark filter to apply a brand, and mark your encoded clip to ensure that the viewers are aware of the origin of the material that they are watching.

You can use the

Watermark Resize Filter

to resize your watermark to better fit in the

image.

Figure 206.

Watermark Filter Settings

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

301

File

. Click Browse to navigate and select the file you intend to use as watermark. The following file formats can be used as watermarks

:

Table 64.

Supported Watermark File Formats

File Format

BMP

JPEG

QuickTime MOV

Targa

TIFF

Details

16/24-bit RGB

EXIF metadata also supported

16/24/32-bit RGB

16/24/32-bit RGB

Corner

. Select the corner of the frame to place the watermark in:

Top Left | Top Right |

Bottom Left | Bottom Right

.

Loop Type

. When the file is a clip, select how the watermark is burned into video frames from the dropdown menu. When the file is static (a single image), this option is ignored.

Play Once

select to play through the animation once and stop on the last frame.

Loop

select to play the animation repeatedly in the video.

X Offset (pixels)

. Enter the horizontal offset from the selected corner.

Y Offset (pixels)

. Enter the vertical offset from the selected corner.

Opacity (%)

. Set the opacity of the watermark. This is not to be confused with the transparency (alpha channel) of the image object itself.

Start time

. Check the option, and use the slider (or enter the value manually) to select the time when to start applying the watermark from the start of the clip. If not set, the watermark is applied at the start of the clip.

End time

. Check the option, and use the slider (or enter the value manually) to select the time when to stop applying the watermark. If not set, the watermark is applied to the end of the clip.

Watermark Resize Filter

The watermark resize filter is a sub-filter of the watermark filter. Use the watermark

resize filter to modify the size of the image that is applied to the video in the

Watermark

Filter

.

Episode 6.5

302

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

Size

Figure 207.

Resize Filter—Size Settings

Image Size

. Select the output frame size from the options in the dropdown menu.

Select Custom to enter specific (non-standard) values in the Width and Height fields and enable Image Proportions.

Width

. When Custom is selected in Image Size, enter the width of the resized image in pixels.

Height

. When Custom is selected in Image Size, enter the height of the resized image in pixels.

Image Proportions.

Select the aspect ratio for the image. Width and Height settings will automatically conform to the selected aspect ratio, unless you select None

(Unconstrained), in which case, you can enter any values for Width and Height.

Aspect Width and Aspect Height.

Displays the aspect ratio width and height dimensions.

Maintain Proportional Width

. Select the options to determine how to process the original image to achieve the output size, from the dropdown menu. This affects the ratio between the number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. This is

not necessarily the same as the display aspect ratio, as explained in

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

.

Cut

keeps the image proportions of the material by cropping away parts of the image.

For example, if encoding from a source clip with a 16:9 pixel relation to a clip with 4:3 pixel relation, the sides of the source are cut, leaving the resulting image undistorted.

Letterbox (Pad)

pads the image with black borders to fit the destination proportions. For example, a 16:9 clip encoded to 4:3 is padded at the top and bottom of the image.

None (Distort)

stretches the output image to the desired size. This may cause distortion.

The value in the Initial crop field (see below) is used. When coding anamorphic MPEG-2 this is the option to use. Force the source material to PAL or NTSC size with this option, then select 16:9 display aspect ratio for playback in the MPEG-2 codec.

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

303

Initial Crop

Before the image is scaled to the new size a cropping operation is applied to the source material. This can be used to remove black borders or edge artifacts from the source material.

Figure 208.

Resize Filter—Initial Crop Settings

Top

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from top of frame.

Bottom

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from bottom of frame.

Left

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from left of frame.

Right

. Enter the number of pixels to trim from right of frame.

Scaling Details

Figure 209.

Resize Filter—Scaling Details Settings

Interpolation Method

. Select the interpolation method to use for resizing:

Automatic

uses bilinear for downsizing and bicubic for upsizing.

Bilinear

usually best when downsizing the image.

Bicubic

usually best when upsizing the image.

Nearest Neighbor

uses the fastest method but produces the lowest quality. It should only be used when encoding speed is more important than quality.

Bicubic Sharpening

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to enhance object edges in the image.

Preprocessing

. Select how to implement lowpass filtering to reduce artifacts in downscaled images.

Nothing

performs no filtering.

Episode 6.5

304

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

Lowpass for Large Downscales

filters images where the ratio between in-size and outsize is larger than 1.7 in either the horizontal or the vertical dimension. If the ratio is larger than 3.8 the images are filtered more.

Always Lowpass Source

filters all images regardless of the amount of scaling.

Interlace Handling

. Select how to handle interlaced source.

Automatic

selects between Progressive Output and Scale Fields Independently based on the available field order information.

Progressive Output

scales the image as a whole with no regard to interlacing. This is the default mode and works well in most cases.

Only Crop/Pad to Size—No Scale

crops or pads the image to the new size, without stretching the image. This option is useful when scaling to a size which is only slightly larger or smaller in height than the source, especially if the contents are interlaced.

For example, when converting from NTSC 720 x 486 to MPEG-2 NTSC 720 x 480 you do not need to encode all the source lines to a format that does not use all the lines. By just cropping the unnecessary 6 lines you do not have to interpolate lines which would lose quality.

Scale Fields Independently

divides the image into two fields which are then scaled independently. This keeps the interlacing correct when, for example, downscaling from

HD to SD material.

Black Level.

Sets video black level from 0 (super black) to 16 (7.5 IRE setup).

Aspect Ratio

See

Picture Resolution and Aspect Ratio

for a discussion of display aspect ratios and pixel

aspect ratios.

Figure 210.

Resize Filter—Aspect Ratio Settings

Input Display Aspect Ratio

. Select how to compensate for odd frame sizes and/or anamorphic source material, by indicating the source data actual display aspect ratio.

For example, since Video CD (VCD) material is usually encoded with 480 x 480 pixels, but displayed with 640 x 480 pixels, indicate an input display aspect ratio of 4:3.

Pass Through (Keep Display Aspect Ratio)

uses the display aspect ratio that results from the settings in the Size and Initial crop fields as explained above for Maintain

Proportion With.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

305

Derive From Source

uses the display aspect ratio information in the source file, if available. D-10/IMX, DV, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4 contain display aspect ratio information.

For all other formats, square pixels are assumed. For example, if the source material is

480 x 480 pixels with its display aspect ratio field set to 4:3, Image size is set to 480 x 480 and Maintain proportion with is set to Letterbox (Pad), the output is 480 x 480 pixels, but with a visible area of 480 x 360 pixels with black margins above and below.

Assume Square Pixels

assumes that the source material has square pixels and that its display aspect ratio therefore is width = height.

Assume 4:3 | Assume 5:4 | Assume 16:9 | Assume 2.21:1

use the selected value for the source display aspect ratio. This display aspect ratio is then used in the same manner as for Derive From Source.

Output Display Aspect Ratio

. Select the display aspect ratio of the output file:

Same as Input Display Aspect Ratio

uses the display aspect ratio of the source file.

Automatic

sets the display aspect ratio to Width:Height if Maintain Proportion With has been set to Cut or Letterbox (Pad), otherwise uses the display aspect ratio of the source file (i.e. assumes square pixels).

Square Pixels

sets the display aspect ratio to Width = Height.

4:3 | 5:4 | 16:9 | 2.21:1

explicitly sets the display aspect ratio.

Output Pixel Aspect Ratio (MOV only)

. Select the pixel aspect ratio for QuickTime output:

Custom

enables you to explicitly set the Horizontal Pixel Spacing and Vertical Pixel

Spacing. For example, a value of one in each field specifies a square, or 1:1 pixel. In 480

SD video, you may use 10 horizontal, by 11 vertical pixels. In 576 SD video, you may use

59 horizontal by 54 vertical pixels.

Automatic

determines the pixel aspect ratio from the Image size and Output display aspect ratio.

Square

sets a 1:1 pixel aspect ratio.

NTSC ITU-R Rec. 601 | NTSC ITU-R Rec. 601 (16:9) | PAL ITU-R Rec. 601 | PAL ITU-R Rec. 601

(16:9)

sets the appropriate pixel aspect ratios for television standards.

Horizontal Pixel Spacing

. When Output Aspect Ratio is set to Custom, enter an integer value to shape the pixel as a ratio of height to width, in conjunction with the Vertical

Pixel Spacing value.

Vertical Pixel Spacing

. When Output Aspect Ratio is set to Custom, enter an integer value to shape the pixel as a ratio of height to width, in conjunction with the Horizontal

Pixel Spacing value.

306

Video Filters

Watermark Resize Filter

Episode 6.5

Audio Codecs

This chapter describes each of the audio codecs provided in Episode, including a description of each user-configurable parameter.

Note:

See

Media Containers/Formats

for a table of formats and supported codecs.

Some codecs require an Episode Pro or Episode Engine license, as indicated.

AAC Codec

AAC QuickTime Codec

AES Codec

AMR Codec

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Codec

BWF Codec

Discard Option

DV Audio Codec

Lame MP3 Codec

MPEG Audio Codec

Pass-through Option

PCM Audio Codec

QuickTime Audio Codecs

Vorbis Codec

Windows Media Audio 9 Codec

AAC Codec

Note:

This codec is available only with the Pro Audio Option option. Episode’s Pro

Audio Option uses the Dolby AAC encoder, providing higher audio quality, in particular for low bit rates.

307

308

Audio Codecs

AAC Codec

You can also encode AAC without the Pro Audio Option, using the

AAC QuickTime

Codec

.

AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) is one of two audio codecs specified in the 3GPP standard (the other is AMR). AAC is an excellent audio codec for music.

High Efficiency AAC HE-AAC, also known as aacPlus, is an extension of the AAC file format using two new coding techniques: Spectral Band Replication (SBR) and

Parametric Stereo. HE-AAC is only partly backwards compatible, as playback of HE-AAC files on AAC decoders is possible, but high frequencies are not reconstructed, and only mono playback is performed, even if Parametric Stereo is used.

In High Efficiency mode, Spectral Band Replication is always used. SBR is a technique which copies the lower half of the audio frequencies to the higher half. A small amount of control data (about 2-4 Kbps) is added to make sure the reconstruction of the high frequencies are correct, or at least perceived to be correct. By doing so, the AAC encoder only has to encode the lower half of the spectrum, which enables encoding at lower bit rates. SBR is recommended for source files with sample rates of 32 kHz or higher, and target bit rates of 20-80 Kbps

1

. (At higher bit rates, regular AAC yields higher sound quality.)

Figure 211.

AAC Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Select the output bit rate based on your input sample rate, determined by the table below. The bit rate and sample rate should be matched according to the following table.

1.

Martin Dietz and Stefan Meltzer

. CT-aacPlus—a state-of-the-art audio coding system.

EBU Technical Review

, July

2002

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Audio Codecs

AAC Codec

309

:

Table 65.

AAC Bit Rate and Sample Rates

Bit Rate (Kbps) Mono Sample Rate (kHz)

8

16

40

48

56

64

20

24

28

32

8-12

8-24

11-24

11-32

11-32

11-48

16-48

22-48

22-48

32-48

Stereo Sample Rate (kHz)

Mono only

8-12

8-12

11-24

11-24

11-24

16-32

22-32

22-48

32-48

Mono sound is supported in the range 8-160 Kbps, 2-channel stereo sound in the range

16-320 Kbps, surround sound in the range 160-640 Kbps, and 7.1channel surround sound in the range 224-640 Kbps.

AAC Mode

. Select

Low Complexity | High Efficiency

.

Keep Codec Delay

. Check to enable codec delay. By design, AAC players skip a segment of data at the start of a file. This can be compensated by inserting empty data at the beginning—codec delay. This option should normally be enabled, but if your target player does not handle this well (your audio plays out of synch), test by encoding with Keep Codec Delay unchecked.

Parametric Stereo

. When AAC Mode is set to High Efficiency, check to enable parametric stereo, an extension to SBR, which encodes stereo information in a very compact way (about 1-3 kb/s). The source file is converted to mono and encoded to

AAC. Depending on the source material, parametric stereo can sometimes improve audio quality at very low bit rates. PS is only available for bit rates up to 56 kb/s. As the name implies, PS can only be applied to stereo source files. HE-AAC with PS is also known as EAAC+.

The bit rate and sample rate have to be matched, according to Table 65, AAC Bit Rate and Sample Rates .

Mono sound is supported in the range 8-160 Kbps, 2-channel stereo sound in the range

16-320 Kbps, surround sound in the range 160-640 Kbps, 7.1 surround sound in the range 224-640 Kbps.

310

Audio Codecs

AAC QuickTime Codec

AAC QuickTime Codec

AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) is one of two audio codecs specified in the 3GPP standard (the other is AMR). AAC is an excellent audio codec for music.

Without the Pro Audio Option, Episode uses QuickTime for AAC encoding.

Figure 212.

AAC QuickTime Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Select the output bit rate from the dropdown menu.

AES Codec

Note:

This codec is available only in Episode Pro and Episode Engine.

The AES codec was designed by the Audio Engineering Society for serial digital transmission of stereo sound. Episode uses the SMPTE331M version.

Figure 213.

AES Codec Settings

Bit Depth

. Select

16 bit

|

24 bit

from the dropdown menu.

AMR Codec

Note:

This codec is available only with the Pro Audio Option option.

AMR is designed for use in cellular phones and mandatory in the 3GPP standard. It is a speech codec that produces extremely low bit rates but does not work well for music.

Figure 214.

AMR Codec Settings

Mode

. Select one of the following options—mode 0 through mode 7:

4.75 Kbps (mode

0) | 5.15 Kbits/s (mode 1) | 5.90Kbits/s (mode 2) | 6.70 Kbps (mode 3) | 7.40 Kbps (mode4) |

7.95 Kbps (mode 5) | 10.2 Kbps (mode 6) | 12.2 Kbps (mode 7).

SID

. Check to use the Silence Descriptor to send less data during silent passages in the audio track. Not all players support the SID option.

Episode 6.5

Audio Codecs

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Codec

311

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Codec

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) is used on DVDs and is a leading format in movie theatres.

Figure 215.

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Settings

Bit Rate

. Select the output bit rate from the dropdown menu. Range: 64 to 640 kbps.

Note:

Only bit rates above 80 Kbps can be encoded as stereo or surround sound.

Recommended bit rates for encoding without audible artifacts are 192 Kbps for stereo and 448 Kbps for 5.1 surround sound.

Dialog Normalization

. Use the slider to select (or manually enter the value) to set the average audio level so that media players can adjust the gain.

When combining material from different sources, ensure that the audio levels are normalized across sources. Typically the audio level of speech is considered as the base level. Set the value the average dialogue level in dB of full scale in the source material as indicated by your editor.

A value of -31 is defined as a unit gain. For example, 0 dB attenuation, -1 = 30 dB attenuation.

Note:

Setting the level does not modify audio content. It provides a gain value for the

media player. If you need to adjust the audio levels within the track, use the

Volume

Filter

.

DVB Style PMT Descriptor

. Select for European System B standard audio coding for terrestrial broadcasting according to the ITU-R BS.1196-1 recommendation.

BWF Codec

The Broadcast Wave Format is based on the WAV format, extended with metadata fields.

Figure 216.

BWF Codec Settings

Bit Depth

. Select

16 bit

|

24 bit

from the dropdown menu.

Episode 6.5

312

Audio Codecs

Discard Option

Discard Option

When the Discard option is selected from the Audio Codec dropdown menu, Episode does not decode the audio or pass it to the encoder. Thus, there is no audio stream in the output.

DV Audio Codec

DV Audio settings are dictated by the DV video settings.

Figure 217.

DV Audio Codec Settings

Sample Size

. Select

12 bit

|

16 bit

from the dropdown menu.

Lame MP3 Codec

MPEG-1 Layer III audio is popularly known as MP3. The Lame codec is one of the most extensively used implementations—see lame.sourceforge.net

.

Figure 218.

LAME MP3 Codec Settings

Encoding Type

. Select from these options:

Bit Rate Based

.

Sets the average bit rate of the data and make other adjustments.

Lame Preset

. Enables the Preset menu. Choose one of the options in the Preset menu, which sets all parameters to predefined values.

Preset

. When encoding is set to

Lame Preset

, choose one of these options to set all parameters to predefined values.

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313

R3Mix

is a legacy setting used at http://www.r3mix.net/ . It provides slightly better quality than the Medium setting.

Medium

is an acceptable audio quality for most uses.

Medium Fast

is a faster algorithm than Medium, but should give almost as good audio quality.

Standard

is a good audio quality for normal use.

Fast Standard

is a faster algorithm than Standard, but should give almost as good audio quality.

Extreme

is the best audio quality for high-quality equipment.

Fast Extreme

is a faster algorithm than Extreme but usually provides almost as good audio quality.

Insane

is the absolutely best audio quality, requiring very high bandwidth.

Bit Rate

. When encoding is set to

Bit Rate Based

, select the bit rate from the dropdown menu. Range: 16 to 320 kbit/s.

Setting Type

. Select from these options:

Standard Settings

use suitable default settings for your chosen bit rate. and disable all advanced settings in this codec.

Advanced Settings

enable all advanced settings and allow you to adjust the following parameters:

Quality

. Use the slider (or manually enter the value) to set the quality of the encoding.

Better quality implies slower algorithms. Range: 0 (Best) to 9 (Worst), in Lame parlance.

Mode

. Select

Constant Bit Rate (CBR) | Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

.

Minimum VBR Bit Rate

. When VBR is selected, select the minimum bit rate from the dropdown menu.

Maximum VBR Bit Rate

. When VBR is selected, select the maximum bit rate from the dropdown menu.

Stereo Mode

. Select from these options:

Stereo

encodes each stereo channel separately.

MS Stereo

Uses mid/side encoding, where the shared content of the stereo channels are coded in higher resolution than the difference between them; this decreases the bandwidth requirements for low bit rates (< 128 Kbps) and small stereo separations.

Joint Stereo

decides, frame by frame, whether to use separated stereo or MS stereo.

Copyright Flag

. Check to tag the material as copyrighted.

Original Flag

. Check to tag the material as original, When unchecked, the material is tagged as a copy.

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Audio Codecs

MPEG Audio Codec

Lame Tag

. Check to write metadata on the encoding to the output. The Lame tag is backwards compatible with the Xing header.

Error Protection

. Check to activate CRC error protection. This allows reconstruction of lost packets, but requires slightly more bandwidth to encode the error protection data.

MPEG Audio Codec

The MPEG-1 standard defines three layers of audio encoding (ISO11172-3).The first two layers, sometimes known as MP1 and MP2, are encoded with this codec. Layer III, MP3, is encoded with the Lame encoder. See

MP3 (.mp3)

.

An accessible introduction to MPEG audio encoding is provided in an MPEG tutorial by

Davis Pan

1

.

Figure 219.

MPEG Audio Codec Settings

Bit Rate

. Select the bit rate from the dropdown menu.

Note:

Not all bit rates are available for both layers.

Layer

. Select from these options:

Layer I

uses a simpler encoding method that works best for higher bit rates.

Layer II

uses a more complex encoding method that compresses better.

Psycho model

. The psycho-acoustic model is used to determine the features of the sound that are inaudible and therefore can be compressed away. Select from these options:

Model

uses a simpler model which provides slightly lower quality results for less computation.

Model 2

uses a model that requires more computation but provides better results.

The setting of the

Sample Rate Filter

determines the sample rates. Rates from 16 to 24 kHz are encoded as MPEG-2 audio, sample rates from 32 to 48 kHz are encoded as

MPEG-1.

Pass-through Option

When the Pass-through option is selected from the Audio Codec dropdown menu,

Episode extracts the audio stream from the input file, and passes it through untouched,

1.

Davis Pan

. A tutorial on MPEG/audio compression.

IEEE Multimedia

, 2(2):60

74, Summer 1995.

Episode 6.5

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PCM Audio Codec

315

and inserts it into the output file. That is, no decoding or encoding of the audio stream occurs.

PCM Audio Codec

PCM is an uncompressed audio format.

Figure 220.

PCM Audio Codec Settings

PCM Format

. Select the PCM encoding format from the dropdown menu.

Note:

Not all container formats support all forms of PCM encoding. The selected encoding may be quietly converted into another encoding supported by the selected output format.

Split Channels In Output

. Select from the drop-down menu to place stereo and surround sound channels in separate audio tracks. This applies only when producing

QuickTime (mov) files. For all other formats the setting is ignored.

No

- Outputs audio with 7.1 labels

Yes

- Outputs audio as discrete channels without labels (channel positions).

Yes, and flag as discrete

- Outputs as discrete channels with labels (channel positions) as

Discrete- x

where x is 0 to 7 (that is, Discrete-0, Discrete-1... Discrete-7).

Note:

The Split Channels in Output feature should not be used with the Channel or

Channel Mapper audio filters.

QuickTime Audio Codecs

Which QuickTime codecs are installed on your computer depends on your installation.

For information on codecs you have installed, refer to the codec suppliers’ documentation.

Figure 221.

QuickTime Audio Codec Settings

Options

. Click to display the QuickTime codec dialog. Choose the codec from the

Format menu and modify the settings as appropriate. For help on this dialog, click the ? icon in the bottom left corner.

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Audio Codecs

Vorbis Codec

Figure 222.

QuickTime Sound Settings dialog

Vorbis Codec

Vorbis is a free audio codec for lossy compression (Vorbis-I).

Figure 223.

Vorbis Codec Settings

Encoding Type

. Select from the following options:

Bit Rate Based

. Uses the average rate over the period set by the values specified in Bit

Rate, Max. Bit Rate, and Min. Bit Rate fields.

Quality based

uses the value set in the Quality field.

Quality

. When using quality-based encoding, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the audio quality as a percent, from 0 (most compression, lowest quality) to 100 (least compressed, highest quality). A lower quality setting requires less bandwidth, but lowers the quality of sound reproduction.

Bit Rate

. When using bit rate-based encoding, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the target bit rate for the audio. The codec generates the best audio quality possible for this bit rate.

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317

Max Bit Rate

. When using bit rate-based encoding, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the maximum allowed bit rate.

Min Bit Rate

. When using bit rate-based encoding, use the slider (or enter the value manually) to specify the minimum allowed bit rate.

Windows Media Audio 9 Codec

Windows Media Audio 9 is an audio data compression technology developed by

Microsoft. It is a proprietary technology that forms part of the Windows Media framework.

The original WMA codec, known simply as WMA, was conceived as a competitor to the popular MP3 and RealAudio codecs. WMA Pro, a newer and more advanced codec, supports multichannel and high resolution audio. WMA Lossless compresses audio data without loss of audio fidelity (the regular WMA format is not lossless). WMA Voice, targeted at voice content, applies compression using a range of low bit rates. Episode does not support encoding in WMA Voice.

Figure 224.

WMA9 Codec Settings

Windows Media Audio Version

. Select from the following options:

Windows Media Audio 9 Standard

encodes the audio in WMA 9 Standard format. WMA 9

Standard supports

One Pass, Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

and

One Pass, Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

encoding methods.

Windows Media Audio 9 Professional

encodes the audio in WMA 9 Professional format.

WMA 9 Professional supports multiple channels, at sample rates above 48 kHz and wider than 16 bit samples. However, it is often not available on lower-end platforms, such as mobile phones. WMA 9 Professional supports

One Pass, Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

and

One Pass, Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

encoding methods.

Windows Media Audio 9 Lossless

encodes the audio as uncompressed, thus preserving all of the original content. The final bit rate is dependent on the source. WMA 9 Lossless supports

One Pass, Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

encoding.

Coding Method

select

One Pass, Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

|

One Pass, Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

.

Configuration Settings

. Choose a profile, consisting of fixed combinations of audio quality, bit rate, bit depth and sampling frequency.

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Windows Media Audio 9 Codec

Episode 6.5

Audio Filters

This chapter describes each of the audio filters in Episode.

Audio Speed Filter

Balance Filter

Channels and Channel Mapper Filters

Channels Filter

Equalizer Filter

Fade Filter

High Pass/Low Pass Filter

Offset Filter

Sample Rate Filter

Volume Filter

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

Audio filters apply transformations to the audio track(s) in the source file, before it is encoded. Activated filters are applied to your audio in the order they are listed in the

Inspector panel, from top to bottom.

You select a filter to display its properties in the inspector. You

activate

a filter by checking its checkbox, and de-activate it by unchecking the box. You can only alter the values of an active filter.

Note:

Codecs encode the output after audio filters have been applied to your input media (as it is being decoded). Thus, if you set the channels filter to mono and your codec is set to produce stereo, the audio track is first folded into mono, and this mono track is then replicated to make two stereo tracks

probably not the result you intended.

Click the question mark to display online help for the filter.

319

320

Audio Filters

Audio Filters are Applied Sequentially

Audio Filters are Applied Sequentially

Only activated filters are applied to your audio, and they are applied in the order they are listed in the Inspector panel, from top to bottom.

This process is depicted in the figure below:

Figure 225.

Audio Filter Application to Audio Stream

In this example, the High Pass, Low Pass, and Volume filters are activated (and configured). First the High Pass filter is applied, knocking the high points off the audio.

Next, the Low Pass filter knocks the low points off. Finally the Volume filter increases the overall volume of the altered audio stream.

With all the audio filters applied, the audio stream is passed to the encoder for encoding into the output stream.

Audio Speed Filter

Use the audio speed filter to adjust the speed of the audio track to match the video frame rate. In some cases, transcoding—decoding and encoding—may speed up or slow down the video speed (see

Frame Rate Filter

and

Advanced Frame Rate Filter

).

Figure 226.

Audio Speed Filter Settings

Speed Change

. Select a predefined speed conversion, or select

Custom

to specify a conversion rate not predefined.

Custom Speed (times original)

. When

Custom

is selected, enter a real number or integer multiplier for the speed change. Use negative values to slow the audio.

Balance Filter

Use the balance filter to increase or attenuate the volume of one side of stereo audio over the other, to improve balance.

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321

Figure 227.

Balance Filter Settings

Panning

. Use the slider (or set the value manually) to set the stereo panning towards the left or right audio channel, thus raising the volume of one pair over the other as specified, to improve balance. Range: -100 to 100.

The results of panning surround sound are undefined.

Channels and Channel Mapper Filters

Episode automatically maps audio channels from source to output during encoding according to the settings of the audio

Channels

filter and the audio

Channel Mapper

filter. The

Channels

filter lets you select a standard input format and map it to a standard output format. Generally, this is all you need to do, and you can ignore the

Channel Mapper

, which is used only if you need to set up custom mapping.

Channels Filter

The

Channels

filter makes it easy to map standard input audio formats directly to standard output audio formats without setting up individual channels. Formats such as

Stereo, 5.1, and 7.1 are already mapped for you and are available under the

Input

Channel Layout

(input) and

Mix To

(output) drop-down menus.

To map input audio to output audio, follow these simple steps:

1.

Assign an encoder to the workflow Encoder task, if you have not already done so.

2.

In the Inspector, select

Audio

, check the

Channels

box, and click

Channels

to open the

Channels

menus.

3.

Select an input audio format using the

Input Channel Layout

drop-down menu.

Auto detect

is usually the best choice if the input is a standard audio format. Episode detects the format automatically by examining the actual audio stream.

4.

Select an output audio format from the

Mix To

drop-down menu.

That’s all there is to setting up audio channel mapping in most cases. Episode “knows” all of the audio encoder formats and automatically maps the correct input channels to the correct output channels. In most cases, if any input channels cannot be mapped to output channels, mapping fails and an error message indicates the cause.

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Audio Filters

Channels and Channel Mapper Filters

Figure 228.

Channels Filter Settings

Input Channel Layout

. Select

Auto detect

to let Episode automatically discover the source audio format by examining incoming audio, or select an input audio format:

Auto detect | Mono

|

Stereo

| Dual Stereo |

5.0

|

5.1

|

Triple Stereo | 7.1 | 5.1 + Stereo | Quad

Stereo | Discrete channels

.

Mix to

. Select an audio output format from the dropdown menu:

Mono

|

Stereo

| Dual

Stereo |

5.0

|

5.1

|

Triple Stereo | 7.1 | 5.1 + Stereo | Quad Stereo | Discrete channels

. Not all selections are available for all codecs.

Under the Hood of the Channels Filter

Audio mapping can be confusing with so many different formats in the audio world. A brief discussion of Episode audio mapping “under the hood” may make this topic easier to understand.

Episode is a batch encoding system, not a one-shot conversion application. Its purpose is to allow users to set up the audio conversion in a workflow one time and then forget it. The audio mapping in the workflow should “just work” every time.

Even though different input formats have different channel orders, all different input orders are transformed within Episode into a single internal format which is the same as

AAC. That way the encoder always knows exactly what it's getting. When processing is complete, the audio channels are mapped back to each encoder’s native format.

Thus, no matter what your input format (such as PCM, AAC, or AC-3) and no matter what your target format, Episode handles the conversion automatically—no channelaltering filters are needed. You simply set the

Channel

filter to auto detect or specify the input format and set the output format, and Episode handles the conversion and channel mapping automatically.

Note:

Multiple track output is currently only supported by the PCM, AES and BWF audio codecs. If you choose a different codec, only the first track will be used. For example, if you choose 5.1 + Stereo in AAC, only a 5.1 track will be created.

For a complete listing of the default Channels filter mappings, please see

Appendix:

Default Channel Maps

at the end of this chapter. For those who understand audio

channel mapping, a quick look at the map list will tell you whether you can use the

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323

default Channels filter map or you must create your own map using the Channel

Mapper filter.

Channel Mapper Filter

Generally, you should not have to use the

Channel Mapper

filter, since the

Channel

filter includes virtually all the audio formats you need, enabling automatic conversion and mapping from any standard input format to any standard output format. However, you may have workflows where you want to alter the channel mapping in a non-standard way. That is the purpose of the

Channel Mapper

filter. It allows you to map each input channel to each output channel and track.

CAUTION:

Unless you must map custom channels, Telestream recommends that you use the

Channels

filter to map one audio standard to another, eliminating the need for individual channel mapping. If you choose to use the

Channel Mapper

filter instead, you must manually map each channel. Channels that are not mapped are lost. Also, it is recommended that you do not combine the

Channel Mapper

filter with the

Channels

filter; use one or the other but not both.

To create mappings for audio channels, follow these steps:

1.

Assign an encoder to the workflow Encoder task, if you have not already done so.

2.

In the Inspector, select

Audio

, check the

Channel Mapper

box, and click

Channel

Mapper

to open the

Channel Mapper

menus.

3.

Select the number of inputs from the

Input Channels

drop-down menu.

The standard channel assignments for the number of channels you select is displayed. If your input channels do not match these standard 7.1 channel assignments, map them to the outputs according to their actual functions and your desired output configuration.

4.

Select the number of output channels per track from the

Output Channels Per Track

drop-down menu.

5.

Select the number of output tracks from the

Output Tracks

drop-down menu.

6.

Click

+/Add Mapping

to add as many mappings as the number of input channels you want to map. For eight audio inputs, add eight mappings.

7.

For each mapping, select the input channel you want to map. Typically, for 8 channels, your input selections will be 1–8.

8.

For each input channel, select the output channel and track to which you want the input mapped.

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Audio Filters

Channels and Channel Mapper Filters

Figure 229.

Channel Mapper Filter Settings

Input Channels/Output Channels/Output Tracks

. Select the number of input and output channels and output tracks you intend to map. If the source has more channels than specified, additional channels are ignored; if the source has fewer channels than specified, only the ones actually mapped are used.

Add Mapping

. Each click adds another channel mapping. For eight channels, click this button until 8 mappings are added, and then map each channel.

Delete Mapping (X)

. Click to delete the selected channel map.

Channel In/Channel Out/Track Out

. Select the input channel number and then select the output channel number and track to which you want the input mapped.

Episode 6.5

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Equalizer Filter

325

Equalizer Filter

Use the equalizer filter to boost or cut each frequency band individually. The Equalizer

Filter is a set of five filters, each with a fixed center frequency that cannot be changed.

Figure 230.

Equalizer Filter Settings

Frequency Band (dB)

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to control the amount of boost (peak) or cut (notch) in each frequency band: 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 10 kHz. Range: -12 to 12.

Fade Filter

Use the fade filter to fade the audio in or out in the output file, up to 10 seconds at the beginning and end of the file.

Figure 231.

Fade Filter Settings

Fade In Time

. Use the slider (or set the integer value manually) to set the fade-in time in seconds from the beginning of the clip.

Fade Out Time

. Use the slider to set the fade-out time in seconds from the end of the clip.

High Pass/Low Pass Filter

Use the high pass/low pass filter to trim selected frequency thresholds from your output audio file. For example, you may want to enable high pass filtering and trim frequencies near the top range to eliminate hiss in the recording.

Figure 232.

High Pass/Low Pass Filter Settings.

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Audio Filters

Offset Filter

High Pass

. Check to activate high pass filtering and cut off all frequencies below the specified threshold value you enter. Range: 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

Low Pass

. Check to activate low pass filtering, and cut off all frequencies above the threshold value you enter. Range: 1 to 20 kHz.

Offset Filter

Use the offset filter to advance or retard the audio track in the output file.

If the audio in your source is ahead or behind the video track, you can synch it using this filter.

Figure 233.

Offset Filter Settings

Offset (ms)

. Use the slider (or enter the value manually) to provide a negative or positive offset (in milliseconds) to the audio track to compensate for timing differences between audio and video tracks.

Sample Rate Filter

Use the sample rate filter to specify the audio sample rate in the output file. The audio sample rate is the number of samples per second in the audio track. Higher sample rates allow higher sound frequencies to be reproduced.

The Nyqvist frequency is the highest reproducible sound frequency, which is half the frequency at which the clip is sampled. For example, choosing 16 kHz as the sample frequency allows you to encode audible frequencies up to 8 kHz.

Note:

Not all formats allow all sample rates supported by a given codec.

Figure 234.

Sample Rate Filter Settings

Sample Rate

. Select the audio sample rate to use in the output file from the options in the dropdown menu.

Volume Filter

Use the volume filter to modify the volume of the audio tracks in the file.

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Volume Filter

327

Figure 235.

Volume Filter Settings

Adjustment Mode. Select

Normalize

|

Adjust in Percent

|

Adjust in dB

from the dropdown menu.

Normalize

. Select to analyze the audio stream by looking for the loudest peak in the audio channel and then encodes with this value as a reference, to avoid any clipping or distortion in the sound. Specify the percent in the slider below. For example, if set to

90%, this option sets the highest peak in any audio channel at 90% of full volume and adjusts the rest of the channels in linear correspondence.

Adjust in percent

. Select to change the volume by the percent you specify in the percent slider below. Set the slider to select the percent of change. The default value is

0% (no change).

Adjust in dB

. Select to change the volume by the dB you specify. Set the slider to select the dB of change. The default is 0 dB (no change).

328

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

For advanced users who want the details of audio channel mapping, the following appendix presents the default mappings of the Channels filter.

Channels Filter and Channel Mapper Notes

Multiple track output is only supported by PCM, AES, and BWF audio.

The Channels Filter should always be preferred over the Channel Mapper.

Channels Filter Notes

When converting to Dual or Triple Stereo from sources that have more than 4 or 6 channels, those extra channels will be dropped.

Channels Filter Mappings

The following pages list the default mappings built into the Channels filter selections.

MONO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

MONO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

MONO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

MONO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

1 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

1 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

MONO source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

1 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

1 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent)

MONO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

MONO source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

1 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

1 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

1 => Track 1, Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

1 => Track 1, Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent)

MONO source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

1 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

1 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

1 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

329

330

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

1 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

MONO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

1 => Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

1 => Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

STEREO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

STEREO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

STEREO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 4 (Left Surround) +

Channel 5 (Right Surround)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 4 (Left Surround) +

Channel 5 (Right Surround)

STEREO source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 5 (Left Surround) +

Channel 6 (Right Surround)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 5 (Left Surround) +

Channel 6 (Right Surround)

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331

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent)

STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

STEREO source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 5 (Left Surround) +

Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 6 (Right Surround) +

Channel 7 (Right Surround Direct) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 5 (Left Surround) +

Channel 6 (Right Surround) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center) + Channel 5 (Left Surround) +

Channel 6 (Right Surround) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 3, Channel 1 (Left) +

Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

+ Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

DUAL STEREO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

DUAL STEREO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

332

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

4 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

DUAL STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

DUAL STEREO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 + Channel 3

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 + Channel 3

3 => Track 1, Channel 4

4 => Track 1, Channel 5

DUAL STEREO source to 5.1:

Not supported; Episode job will fail.

DUAL STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

DUAL STEREO source to 7.1:

Not supported; Episode job will fail.

DUAL STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

Not supported; Episode job will fail.

DUAL STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 3, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 3, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

5.0 source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5.0 source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5.0 source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 + Channel 2

4 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

5 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5.0 source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

5.0 source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

333

334

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

5 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

5.0 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

5 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

5.0 source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)+ Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround) + Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

5 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

5.0 source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

5 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) out is empty (silent).

5.0 source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

5 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

5.1 source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5.1 source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5.1 source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5 and 6 are dropped.

5.1 source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

5 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) is dropped.

5.1 source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

335

336

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

5.1 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

5.1 source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround) + Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

5.1 source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

5.1 source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

TRIPLE STEREO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

TRIPLE STEREO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

TRIPLE STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5 and 6 are dropped.

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

337

338

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

5 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 is dropped.

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

TRIPLE STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

TRIPLE STEREO source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround) + Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround) + Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

TRIPLE STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

TRIPLE STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

7.1 source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

7.1 source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

7.1 source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

339

340

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5, 6, 7, and 8 are dropped.

7.1 source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 4 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 5 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Back)

8 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Back)

7.1 source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7.1 source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 7 and 8 are dropped.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

7.1 source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

8 => Track 1, Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

7.1 source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

7.1 source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

5.1+STEREO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

341

342

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5.1+STEREO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5.1+STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5, 6, 7, and 8 are dropped.

5.1+STEREO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 4 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 5 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) is dropped.

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

5.1+STEREO source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 (LFE) is dropped.

5.1+STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 7 and 8 are dropped.

5.1+STEREO source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

8 => Track 1, Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

5.1+STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

343

344

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5.1+STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

QUAD STEREO source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

QUAD STEREO source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

QUAD STEREO source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5, 6, 7, and 8 are dropped.

QUAD STEREO source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 3 (Center)

2 = > Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 3 (Center)

3 = > Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround))

6 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 is dropped.

QUAD STEREO source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

345

346

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

QUAD STEREO source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 7 and 8 are dropped.

QUAD STEREO source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

8 => Track 1, Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

QUAD STEREO source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

QUAD STEREO source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

347

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to MONO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

2 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

6 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Unused)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

4 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

8 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 2 (Right)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to DUAL STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 5, 6, 7, & 8 are dropped

348

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.0:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 4 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 5 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

Channel 4 is dropped.

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left) + Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right) + Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

8 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to TRIPLE STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

Channels 7 and 8 are dropped.

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 7.1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

Episode 6.5

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

349

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 1, Channel 7 (Left Surround Direct)

8 => Track 1, Channel 8 (Right Surround Direct)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to 5.1+Stereo:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Center)

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (LFE)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Left Surround)

6 => Track 1, Channel 6 (Right Surround)

7 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

8 CHANNEL DISCRETE source to QUAD STEREO:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Left)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Right)

3 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left)

4 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right)

5 => Track 3, Channel 1 (Left)

6 => Track 3, Channel 2 (Right)

7 => Track 4, Channel 1 (Left)

8 => Track 4, Channel 2 (Right)

Channel Mapper Filter Details

Episode stores multichannel audio in AAC format:

AAC 5.1 - C, L, R, Ls, Rs, LFE

AAC 7.1 - C, L, R, Ls, Rs, Lsd, Rsd, LFE

QuickTime format for multichannel audio is different. Center is usually channel 3, and

LFE is channel 4.

QT 5.1 - L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs

Episode 6.5

350

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

QT 7.1 - L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs, Lsd, Rsd

A rule of thumb when mapping channels is that Center channel is first, and LFE is always last.

When mapping channels, consider the channel labels and not the specific channel numbers.

Channel Mapper Examples

When mapping 5.1 to 5.1, or 7.1 to 7.1, while no channel mapper is needed, you would map all channels 1 to 1:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1

2 => Track 1, Channel 2

3 => Track 1, Channel 3

4 => Track 1, Channel 4

5 => Track 1, Channel 5

6 => Track 1, Channel 6

7 => Track 1, Channel 7

8 => Track 1, Channel 8

Example Mapping 7.1 to 5.1+Stereo:

The Channel filter should be used. The mappings would be as follows:

1 => Track 1, Channel 1 (Center)

2 => Track 1, Channel 2 (Left)

3 => Track 1, Channel 3 (Right)?

4 => Track 1, Channel 4 (Left Surround)

5 => Track 1, Channel 5 (Right Surround)

6 => Track 2, Channel 1 (Left Surround Direct)

7 => Track 2, Channel 2 (Right Surround Direct)

8 => Track 1, Channel 6 (LFE)

Example Mapping 8 Channels to 8 Tracks, 1 Channel Each:

1 => Track 3, Channel 1

2 => Track 1, Channel 1

3 => Track 2, Channel 1

4 => Track 5, Channel 1

5 => Track 6, Channel 1

Episode 6.5

Episode 6.5

6 => Track 7, Channel 1

7 => Track 8, Channel 1

8 => Track 4, Channel 1

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

351

352

Audio Filters

Appendix: Default Channel Maps

Episode 6.5

Troubleshooting

Episode

The following topics explain how to resolve typical troubleshooting questions. If the suggested fixes don’t resolve an issue, or if you have an issue that is not listed below, please contact Telestream Customer Service (see

Preface

for contact information).

Episode won’t install.

Episode won’t run from my user account.

Episode won’t transcode some of my files.

Episode supports my file type but won’t transcode it.

Episode reports a license error, but I have a valid license.

A preview error occurred: Could not find DefaultSource.mov.

Access Denied IOServer issues

Where should I direct my Pipeline stream?

Episode clustering and file sharing don’t work.

Episode won’t install.

Before you can install Episode, your system must meet certain prerequisites, including the correct operating system and supporting application versions. Review

Installing

Episode

or the Episode download page at Telestream.net

for a list of prerequisites, and make sure the required OS and software are installed before you attempt to install

Episode.

Episode won’t run from my user account.

If Episode indicates you do not have the proper privileges to run it, see the

Configuration topic in

Installing Episode

.

353

354

Troubleshooting Episode

Episode won’t transcode some of my files.

Episode won’t transcode some of my files.

See

Media Containers/Formats

for a list of file types supported by Episode. Episode

includes a very wide variety of codecs for most formats, but the file format you are attempting to decode or encode may not be supported.

Episode supports my file type but won’t transcode it.

If the file type is listed in

Media Containers/Formats

and the file still won’t transcode, verify that the file itself is not damaged by playing it in the appropriate player application. If the file is good, try transcoding it in Episode to a different output file format. Then transcode the resulting file in Episode to the desired output file format.

Episode reports a license error, but I have a valid license.

The license file may be corrupted.

First, deactivate your license—select Preferences > License menu. Then, close Episode.

Next, delete the Episode

Node.XML

file from the Episode application data folder.

Windows 7|8 & Server 2008|2012: C:\ProgramData\Telestream\Episode 6\Node.xml

Now, restart Episode, and reactivate your license using Preferences > License.

A preview error occurred: Could not find

DefaultSource.mov.

Go to Episode Preferences and change Default Preview Source to DefaultSource.mov.

The DefaultSource.mov file is stored in this folder on Windows: C:\Program Files

(x86)\Telestream\Episode 6\bin\resources\DefaultSource.mov.

Access Denied IOServer issues

Active watch folder workflows may have their IOServer (the service that handles the actual sharing of locations in the cluster) time out because of inactivity if they are completely idle and haven't picked up any files for extended periods of time (default 7 days). If this occurs, files dropped into the monitored location are picked up by the monitor service, but the IOServer no longer recognizes the location as a valid share and fails to process the files, causing an Access Denied error in the job.

To resolve this issue, modify the <dynamic-share-keep-time> option in the

IOServer.xml file to a higher value (in seconds).

Episode 6.5

Troubleshooting Episode

Where should I direct my Pipeline stream?

355

The IOServer.xml file resides in these locations:

MacOS X: ~/Library/Application Support/Episode/

(Lion users: if your library is hidden, run this terminal command: chflags nohidden ~/Library

)

Windows 7|8|Server 2008|2012: C:\ProgramData\Telestream\Episode 6\IOServer.xml

Change the number in this line of the IOServer.xml file to specify a timeout greater than

604800 seconds (7 days—the current default value):

<dynamic-share-keep-time>604800</dynamic-share-keep-time>

For example, to set this option to one year, change it to 31449600.

Where should I direct my Pipeline stream?

Point your Pipeline output, which must be set to deliver TIFO files, to the same folder that will be watched by your Episode workflow. Episode's watch folder must be configured with the Encode While Ingest option enabled so it will pick up the TIFO file right away instead of waiting for it to be completed first. These are the steps:

1.

Set Pipeline to deliver TIFO wrapped content.

2.

Point the TIFO Pipeline output to the folder monitored by Episode.

3.

Set your Episode workflow to watch the Pipeline output folder, and select the

Encode While Ingest option. This ensures the file is transcoded by Episode while it is being built by Pipeline instead of waiting until the file is complete.

Episode clustering and file sharing don’t work.

If the ports Episode uses for file sharing and clustering are blocked by the firewall, clustering and IO server file sharing are prevented. Episode may display, “Node Won’t

Connect Error”.

Episode uses many ports between 40410 and 40440. Open your computer’s firewall configuration and set it to open these ports for Episode. The easiest way to do this is to specify that the range of ports from 40410 to 40440 should be open to Episode.

Also, try uninstalling and re-installing Bonjour to solve this problem if it is not a firewall issue.

Episode 6.5

356

Troubleshooting Episode

Episode clustering and file sharing don’t work.

Episode 6.5

Index

Symbols

.Net Framework 3.5, required

34

Numerics

3G

142

3g2 file extension

148

,

151

3gp file extension

145

3GPP

155

,

308

,

310

3GPP (3gp) format

145

3GPP2 (3gp2) format

148

3GPP2 (EZMovie) format

151

3rd Generation Partnership Project

145

3rd Generation Partnership Project 2

148

A

a52 file extension

152

AAC audio

162

AAC Audio codec

307

AAC Codec

307

aac file extension

153

AAC QuickTime Codec

310

AAC QuickTime codec

310

aacPlus, see AAC audio codec

308

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) audio codec

311

AC-3 (ATSC A/52) Codec

311

AC3/ATSC A/52 Format

152

AC3/ATSC A/52 format

152

Adaptive Multi-Rate format

155

Administrator Privileges

38

Adobe Premiere Plug-in

125

Adobe SWF format

160

ADTS format

153

Advanced Audio Coding

See AAC audio codec

308

advanced frame rate filter

277

Advanced Preferences

124

AES audio codec

310

AES Codec

310

aif file extension

154

AIFF format

154

AJA

200

AMR

310

AMR audio codec

310

AMR Codec

310

amr file extension

155

AMR format

155

anamorphic MPEG2, in Resize filter

293

anamorphic, compensating for in Resize filter

295

anamorphic, described

139

anamorphic, in Watermark Resize filter

302

,

304

Apple Intermediate Codec

137

aspect ratio

138

aspect ratio, setting in some formats

139

ATSC A/52 Format

152

ATSC A/52, see AC-3 audio codec

311

ATSC A/53

246

audio balance filter

320

audio channel mapper filter

323

Audio Channel Maps

328

audio channels filter

321

audio equalizer filter

325

audio fade filter

325

Audio Filters Panel

100

audio filters, generally

319

audio filters, how applied

320

357

358

Index

audio high pass/low pass filter

325

Audio Interchange File format

154

audio offset filter

326

audio sample rate filter

326

audio speed filter

320

Audio Video Interleave format

156

audio volume filter

326

Autodesk Wiretap bookmarks, configuring

68

AVC (H.264) video codec

212

AVC (x264) video codec

218

AVC-Intra video codec

199

avi file extension

156

AVI format

156

B

balance (audio) filter

320

black and white restoration filter

279

Blackmagic video codec

200

Blu-ray

216

BMP

113

Bonjour for Windows, required

34

Bookmarks

66

Broadcast Wave Format audio codec

311

burn timecode filter

280

BWF audio codec

311

BWF Codec

311

C

cadence

288

caption importer filter

280

Captions, Embedded

108

Captions, Importing

107

channel mapper (audio) filter

323

channels (audio) filter

321

Closed Captioning

107

closed captions

245

,

300

Cluster Preferences

121

Cluster Window

113

Clusters, how to create

60

codec delay

309

Components of Episode

31

Concepts

46

configuring bookmarks

68

Configuring Episode

38

contrast filter

282

copyright notice

2

D

D

246

D-10, display aspect ratio information in

295

,

305

D-10, setting display aspect ratio in

139

D-10/IMX video codec

201

DASH streaming video codec

157

Decklink

200

Default Audio Channel Maps

328

deinterlace filter

282

de-interlaced, source, preferred method

137

deinterlacing

98

,

137

DEP Setup

38

Deployment Tasks

103

deployment, using FTPS

68

Deployments Task Template

87

Deployments, System

103

deployments, user

103

Deployments, YouTube

103

Discard Audio option

312

Discard video option

202

display aspect ratio

293

,

302

DPX Sequence codec (not avail. in GUI)

203

DV Audio Codec

312

DV Audio codec

312

dv file extension

158

DV formats, field dominance of

137

DV video codec

205

DV, display aspect ratio information in

295

,

305

DV, setting display aspect ratio

139

DVCPRO 100 HD

137

DVCPRO 25/50

137

DV-Stream (DV) format

158

E

EAAC+

309

Edit Menu

130

Editing Workflows, how to

54

EIA

246

EIA-608

246

Encoder Tasks, configuring

95

Encoders Task Template

87

Encoders, defined

48

Encoding a file, how to

52

Episode 6.5

equalizer (audio) filter

325

EZMovie format

151

F

fade (audio) filter

325

fade (video) filter

285

Fast start

167

Features

30

field dominance, of various formats

137

field order filter

286

field order, described

137

File List Source Task

80

File Menu

129

File Views

70

Files to a Workflow

70

Flash (FLV) format

159

Flash (swf) format

160

Flash 8 video codec

206

flv file extension

159

FLV format

159

Format Panel

97

Format Support, extended

31

frame rate filter

287

frame resize filter

292

Frame skip probability

142

FTP bookmarks, configuring

68

FTPS, support for FTP servers

68

G

gamma filter

289

General eXchange Format

161

GIF

113

GOP

138

GPRS

142

gxf file extension

161

GXF format

161

H

H.263 video codec

209

H.264 (MainConcept), codec

212

H.264 (x264), codec

218

HDV

246

HDV codec

230

HDV video codec

230

HE-AAC, see AAC audio codec.

308

Episode 6.5

Index

359

Help Menu

132

HEVC codec

231

high pass/low pass audio filter

325

HSV levels filter

289

I

IMX

137

,

246

IMX video codec

201

IMX, display aspect ratio information in

295

,

305

IMX, setting display aspect ratio in

139

In/Out Points

97

Input Monitors, how to create

58

Inspector

88

Installing Episode

33

interlace filter

290

interlaced

137

interlacing

98

,

137

,

282

Intro/Outro

98

io-verification

355

ISO 11172

170

,

173

,

174

,

176

ISO 13818

175

,

176

,

177

ISO 639 language code

179

ISO11172

170

iTunes Audio (m4a) format

162

iTunes Video (m4v) format

163

J

JPEG

113

,

240

JPEG sequence codec

238

L

Lame MP3 audio codec

312

Lame MP3 Codec

312

Library

71

Library directory, displaying in Lion

355

Library Menu

131

Licenses

122

Licensing & Registering Episode

40

M

m1a file extension

173

m1v file extension

174

m2v file extension

175

m4a file extension

162

m4v file extension

163

360

Index

MainConcept H264 codec

212

matte extractor filter

290

Media Browser Men

131

Media Browser Panel

64

Media Inspector, using

90

Menu Bar

129

Metadata Panel

101

MJPEG video codec

240

mobile phone, use of 3GPP2 in

148

mobile phones, use of 3GPP in

145

Monitor Watch Folder

81

Motion JPEG video codec

240

mov file extension

164

MOV Format

164

MOV format

164

mp3 file extension

170

MP3 format

170

MP4 (MPEG-4) format

171

mp4 file extension

171

,

189

MPEG

245

,

246

MPEG Audio Codec

314

MPEG Audio format

173

MPEG disclaimers

9

MPEG Program Stream

176

MPEG-1

170

,

174

,

243

,

314

MPEG-1 audio codec

314

MPEG-1 Audio Layer III

170

MPEG-1 elementary stream

173

,

174

MPEG-1 Layer III audio codec

312

MPEG-1 video codec

241

MPEG-2

314

MPEG-2 anamorphic, Watermark Resize

302

MPEG-2 elementary stream

175

MPEG-2 transport stream

177

MPEG-2 video codec

243

MPEG-2 VOD video codec

248

MPEG-2, anamorphic, in Resize filter

293

MPEG-2, better used in 1500 Kbps and above

241

MPEG-2, compression, used in HDV codec

230

MPEG-2, display aspect ratio

295

MPEG-2, display aspect ratio information in

305

MPEG-2, form of D-10/IMX

201

MPEG-2, setting display aspect ratio in

139

MPEG-2, writing closed captions to

300

MPEG-2, XDCAM HD based on

273

MPEG-4

163

MPEG-4 file format, for PlayStation Portable

189

MPEG-4 Part 10 (x264) video codec

218

MPEG-4 Part 10, also known as H.264

212

MPEG-4 Part 14 format

171

MPEG-4 video codec

249

MPEG-4, 3GPP based on

145

MPEG-4, 3GPP2 based on

148

MPEG-4, display aspect ratio

295

MPEG-4, display aspect ratio information in

305

MPEG-4, iTunes Video based on

162

MPEG-4, playable on PSP with special naming

189

MPEG-4, setting display aspect ratio in

139

MPEG-ES format

174

,

175

MPEG-PS format

176

MPEG-TS format

177

mpg file extension

176

MXF AS-11 format

180

mxf file extension

181

,

183

,

186

MXF Op1a format

181

MXF OpAtom format

183

MXF XAVC format

185

MXF XDCAM format

186

N

network share bookmarks, configuring

68

Nodes, defined

50

noise reduction filter

290

notices, legal, generally

2

NTSC

205

,

247

,

299

,

302

NTSC, conversion using Frame Rate filter

287

NTSC, encoding in D-10/IMX

201

NTSC, encoding in DVCPRO / DVCPRO50

205

NTSC, enhancing in Contrast filter

282

NTSC, in SVCD

139

NTSC, processing in B&W Restoration filter

279

NTSC, resizing to in Resize filter

293

NTSC, telecine processing of

137

O

offset (audio) filter

326

ogg file extension

188

OGG format

188

Outro/Intro

98

Episode 6.5

Index

361

P

PAL

137

,

139

,

247

,

299

PAL, conversion using Frame Rate filter

287

PAL, encoding in D-10/IMX

201

PAL, encoding in DV

205

PAL, encoding in DVCPRO / DVCPRO50

205

PAL, enhancing in Contrast filter

282

PAL, processing in B&W Restoration filter

279

PAL, resizing to in Watermark Resize filter

302

PAL, sizing to in Resize filter

293

Parametric Stereo

308

Pass Through video option

252

Pass-through audio option

314

PCM audio codec

315

PCM Codec

315

Picture resolution

138

PlayStation Portable

189

PNG

113

preface

27

Preferences

118

Premiere Plug-in, Using the

125

Preview Menu

132

Preview Window

112

progressive

282

ProRes video codec

253

PSP format

189

Q

QuickTime

296

,

310

,

315

QuickTime AAC audio codec

310

QuickTime audio codecs

315

QuickTime Codec

315

QuickTime format

164

QuickTime video codecs

254

QuickTime, Apple MOV format

164

QuickTime, pixel aspect in Watermark Resize

305

QuickTime, setting pixel aspect ratio in

139

R

Removing Episode

44

Requirements, Installation

34

resize filter

292

RGB filter

296

RGB Levels video codec

255

Rotate filter

297

S

sample rate (audio) filter

326

SBR

308

SCTE

246

sequence

TGA

257

TIFF

259

share bookmarks, configuring

68

sharpen filter

297

Shortcuts

133

Small Web format

160

SMB bookmarks, configuring

68

smoothing filter

297

SMPTE 278M

181

SMPTE 356M

201

SMPTE 360

161

SMPTE 377M

181

SMPTE 378M

181

SMPTE331M, see AES audio codec

310

Sony

273

Sony XDCAM unique MXF version

186

Source Task Template

79

Source Task, Watch Folder

80

Source Tasks, configuring

92

space converter filter

281

Spectral Band Replication

308

Split-and-Stitch Encoding, defined

49

Split-and-Stitch Panel

100

SSL

58

,

69

,

84

,

107

Status Panel

109

Supplemental Enhancement Information

216

SVCD

139

swf file extension

160

SWF format

160

System Deployments

103

T

Targa Cine YUV video codec

256

Tasks, defined

50

technical support, supplying information to

133

Telecine

287

telecine

284

Episode 6.5

362

Index

Telestream

contacting

11

International

27

sales and marketing

27

technical support

27

Web site

27

Telestream Intermediary Format

190

Telestream, contacting

27

TGA

257

TGA sequence codec

257

TIFF

113

,

259

tifo file extension

190

TIFO format

190

timecode converter filter

298

timecode, configuring

98

TLS

68

Tools Menu

131

Touring Episode

45

trademark notices

2

transparency

290

troubleshooting

353

ts file extension

177

U

Uncompressed 4:2:2

137

Update Preferences

123

Upgrading Episode

43

user deployments

103

Using Episode

45

V

VBI

299

VBI exporter filter

299

VBI Importer Filter

299

VBI importer filter

299

VC-1 video codec

268

VCD

295

,

304

Vertical Blanking Interval

299

VHS

291

Video Buffer Verifier

141

video fade filter

285

video field order filter

286

Video Filters Panel

99

video filters, generally

276

video filters, how applied

276

video frame resize filter

292

video interlace filter

290

Video scan

137

video sharpen filter

297

video watermark filter

300

video watermark resize filter

301

View Menu

130

volume (audio) filter

326

Vorbis audio codec

316

Vorbis Codec

316

VP-6 (Flash 8) video codec

206

VP8 video codec

261

VP9 video codec

262

W

warranty

10

Warranty and Disclaimers

10

Watch Folder

81

Watch Folder Source Task

80

Watch Folder, using FTPS

68

watermark filter

300

watermark resize filter

301

WAV

311

wav file extension

192

WAV format

192

webm file extension

193

WebM format

193

Windows Media Audio 9 Codec

317

Windows Media Audio 9 codec

317

Windows Media format

194

Windows Media VC-1 video codec

268

Windows Media Video 9 video codec

264

Windows RGB video codec

271

Windows share bookmarks, configuring

68

Wiretap bookmarks, configuring

68

wma file extension

194

WMA format

194

Workflow Context Menu

77

Workflow Editor

63

,

75

Workflow Priority

88

Workflows, defined

47

Workflows, submitting

88

X

x264 H264 codec

218

Episode 6.5

XAVC video codec

272

XDCam HD

246

XDCam HD video codec

273

XSAN

355

Y

YCbCr video codec

274

YouTube deployment

131

YouTube Deployments

103

Index

363

Episode 6.5

364

Index

Episode 6.5

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