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TI Designs
Two-Phase Embedded Metering Firmware Upgrade
TI Designs
Design Features
TI Designs provide the foundation that you need
including methodology, testing, and design files to
quickly evaluate and customize the system. TI Designs
help you accelerate your time to market.
•
Design Resources
TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR-FW2
MSP430i2041
Tool Folder Containing
Design Files
Product Folder
ASK Our E2E Experts
WEBENCH® Calculator Tools
Adds Functionality and Flexibility to Original
Firmware on TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR
– I2C Communication Capability in Parallel With
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
(UART) Communication
– Fundamental Voltage, Current, and Power and
Voltage; Current Total Harmonic Distortion
(THD) Measurement of Voltage and Current
– Flexible Assignment of Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC) Channels in Application Level
Without Touching the Metrology Library
Featured Applications
•
•
•
Home Appliances
Power Supplies
Home Security and Automation
An IMPORTANT NOTICE at the end of this TI reference design addresses authorized use, intellectual property matters and other
important disclaimers and information.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
System Overview
1
System Overview
1.1
Cautions and Warnings
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CAUTION
Read the user guide before use.
WARNING
HIGH VOLTAGE: Electric shock is possible
when connecting a board to a live wire. The
board should be handled with care by a
professional. For safety, TI recommends the
use of isolated equipment with overvoltage
and overcurrent protection.
This firmware upgrade is designed to run on the TIDM-2PHASESUBMTR hardware. Please read the
TIDM-2PHASESUBMTR design guide before running the code on the corresponding hardware.
1.2
System Description
This document discuss the firmware upgrade to the original two-phase power measurement application
(TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR) using a simple, low-cost MSP430i2041 microcontroller (MCU) from Texas
Instruments. This design includes enhancements to the metrology library, which has measurements of
fundamental voltage, fundamental current, and fundamental power as well as the total harmonic distortion
for voltage and current. The design also modifies how the ADC is accessed so that the assignment of
ADC channels for different voltage and current measurements can be done at the application level,
instead of fixing these values at the library level. This design also modifies the communication architecture
so that both Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) and UART are supported and can operate simultaneously. This
design guide provides detailed descriptions of these features in later sections.
The TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR-FW2 original firmware includes features that were not considered during the
design of the TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR [1] and corresponding firmware 1.0. The firmware 2.0 design
implements several enhancements.
The purpose of the enhancement to the communication sub-system is to support the communication
between connected units so that the measurement of more than two sets of voltage and current channels
is possible when wiring several boards with the same hardware are connected. As an example, the I2C
(slave mode) is chosen as the target of implementation. The same concept can be applied to easily add or
move the support of other communication protocols, such as the serial peripheral interface (SPI).
Enhancements to the ADC driver sub-system allow an application-level change of the assignment of ADC
channels that vary from the suggested hardware design without having to access and recompile the
metrology library. This new feature may help simplify the PCB layout allowing better noise immunity and
accuracy in a user application board.
The third major enhancement is the addition of measurement parameters, which some applications
require.
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2
Enhancement Details
2.1
Enhanced Communication System
Figure 1 and Figure 2 show the architectural change in the two versions of firmware of the communication
sub-system. Notice that the individual communication ports HAL has been separated from the original
communication layer to form the ports HAL and an intermediate layer. This change in architecture allows
several communication ports to operate simultaneously on the same protocol or each on an individual
protocol.
This change takes most parts of the original emeter-communication.c and modifies it to emeter-uart.c;
keeping only the application program interfaces (API) serial_config and serial_write. These two APIs are
then rewritten to perform the dispatch, port configuration, and port writing to the port specified in the API.
The change in emeter-dlt645.c is minimal and mainly to cope with the way the communication port is
handled in the new architecture.
DLT645 protocol
(emeter-dlt645.c)
Function dispatching
(emeter-dlt645.c)
DLT645 RX
(emeter-dlt645.c)
Meter data and parameters
Metering library functions
Communication data dispatching
(emeter-communication.c)
Protocol
control
HAL layer
External
functions
Figure 1. Communication Sub-System Architecture in Firmware 1.0
DLT645 protocol
(emeter-dlt645.c)
DLT645 RX
(emeter-dlt645.c)
Function dispatching
(emeter-dlt645.c)
DLT645 TX
(emeter-dlt645.c)
Communication data dispatching
(emeter-communication.c)
Meter data and parameters
Metering library functions
IIC RX
(emeter-iic.c)
HAL layer
UART RX
(emeter-uart.c)
Intermediate
IIC TX
(emeter-iic.c)
Protocol
control
UART TX
(emeter-uart.c)
External
functions
Figure 2. Communication Sub-System Architecture in Firmware 2.0
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Enhancement Details
2.1.1
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HAL Implementation
The HAL of the communication sub-system provides a unified view to the upper layer and removes the
requirement for hardware specific code in the upper layer.
To keep the HAL for communication in this firmware as simple as possible, only the following APIs are
required to provide for the HAL. The “xxx_” below indicates the communication port (for example, iic_).
• xxx_configure: Configure or initialize the communication port
• xxx_write: send data to the communication port
• serial_rx_callback: Callback function to the emeter-communication layer to handle the process when a
byte is received
• serial_tx_callback: Callback function to the emeter-communication layer to handle the process when a
byte has been transmitted
• serial_comm_abort: Callback function to the emeter-communication layer to abort a communication
process in cases where an unrecoverable error has been encountered
In the implementation, the xxx_configure sets the port up with a proper pin configuration, register setting
for the specified bit rate, and register setting for the interrupt, if necessary. The xxx_write performs the
setup of necessary pointers and counters for data transmission and then enables the interrupt, if
necessary. If a port interrupt is enabled, the HAL must also include the handling of interrupts generated
and any error conditions encountered.
The emeter-communication.c is an intermediate layer to further abstract the HAL, creating a unified view
of the upper layer. The emeter-communication.c is responsible for the following:
• Receives the call to configure/initialize all the communication ports involved and call to the HAL layer
individually for performing the configuration/initialization.
• Receives the call to write data to a specific communication port.
• Transfer callback functions from HAL back to the upper layer for unified data byte transmit and receive
handling.
When adding a HAL for another communication port, the user must also modify the
emeter-communication.c and emeter-communication.h files to handle the additional port.
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2.2
Enhanced ADC Channel Assignment Scheme
Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the architectural change in the two versions of firmware in the ADC driver
sub-system. In the firmware 1.0 the assignment of the ADC to different current and voltage channel
sensors is fixed in the metrology library at compile time. The problem with this firmware version is that a
different library version is required to assign the ADC differently. This firmware update adds a layer called
ADC assignment matrix to improve this version and further isolate the metrology library from user
applications.
IA
+
ADC
-
Ch0 registers
+
VA
ADC
-
Ch1 registers
ADC interrupt
handler
IB
+
ADC
-
Upper layers
Ch2 registers
+
VB
ADC
-
Ch3 registers
Figure 3. ADC Driver Sub-System Architecture in Firmware 1.0
IA
+
ADC
-
Ch0 registers
VA data
Ch1 registers
VB data
+
VA
ADC
-
ADC assignment
matrix
IB
+
ADC
-
ADC interrupt
handler
Ch2 registers
IA data
Ch3 registers
IB data
Upper layers
+
VB
ADC
-
Figure 4. ADC Driver Sub-System Architecture in Firmware 2.0
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Enhancement Details
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With the addition of the ADC assignment matrix, the metrology computation no longer accesses the ADC
through direct register access, but rather accesses the ADC abstracted as voltage channels and current
channels. The assignment of an abstract channel to a physical channel is stored in an array, and the
physical channel is accessed by using the abstract channel as an index into this array. When the physical
channel is identified, the physical address for ADC access transmits from the matrix named
SD24_Channel as defined in the emeter-sd24.c file (in the application layer).
The emeter-sd24.c file is the HAL for the SD24 ADC. The HAL includes the following APIs:
• SD24_Channel matrix: This matrix consists of the address of registers for accessing individual
channels in SD24
• Function SD24_Init: This is function calls to initialize the SD24 to the proper clock and reference
voltage
• Function ADC32_OSR256, ADC32_OSR128, and ADC32_OSR64: These are the functions called to
get the 24-bit result for different OSR settings (the metrology library for the TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR
device and this TI design fix the OSR to 256)
With the new architecture changing the channel assignment is simple. Channel assignment is defined in
the metrology-calibration-defaults.c file and the assignment is defined in the array VoltageADCAssign and
CurrentADCAssign. For example, in the following code the voltage channel 0 is using ADC channel 1,
voltage channel 1 is using ADC channel 0, current channel 0 is using ADC channel 3, and current
channel 1 is using ADC channel 2. The length of these two arrays is not important as long as it covers the
required number of channels for voltage and current.
const uint16_t VoltageADCAssign[] = {1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
const uint16_t CurrentADCAssign[] = {3, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
2.3
Enhanced Measurements
Firmware 1.0 for the TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR provides the most basic measurement required for nearly
every application. The firmware 2.0 provides additional functionalities with the available CPU bandwidth.
Figure 5 shows the software data flow for the calculation of the measured parameters for a phase. For
each phase each sample undergoes the process to yield the measurement parameters. The next
subsection summarizes the measurements provided and equations used for computation in firmware 1.0,
and the additional functionality provided in firmware 2.0.
Sample trigger
SD24
Fractional delay
I1(n)
+
-
SD24
Fractional delay
V1(n)
S
Preact fund
X
S
Pact fund
X2
S
Irms
S
Pactive
S
Vrms
S
Preactive
90°
i
+
-
X
DC removal filter
X
Pure sine gen
DC removal filter
Z-1
Z-1
v
Phase correction
Fractional phase delay
X2
90° phase shift
X
Cycle begin
DC mode
Cycle begin?
Or DC
++ cycle counter
Enough
sample
Neither
System status flag
Return
Figure 5. Software Data Flow of a Phase
6
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2.3.1
Measurements Provided in Firmware 1.0
1
N
VRMS = VGAIN ´
N
å Vsamp (i) ´ Vsamp (i)
i=1
.
I RMS = IGAIN ´
1
N
N
åIsamp (i) ´ I samp (i)
i=1
.
Pactive = PGAIN ´
1
N
N
å V samp (i) ´ I samp (i)
i=1
.
Preactive = PGAIN ´
1
N
N
å V samp,90 (i) ´ I samp (i)
i=1
.
Papparent = P2active ´ P2reactive
.
PF = cosφ =
2.3.2
Pactive
Papparent
Additional Measurements Provided in Firmware 2.0
1
N
V RMS _ fund = VGAIN ´
Pactive _ fund = PGAIN ´
1
N
Preactive _ fund = PGAIN ´
V THD =
i
N
åI samp (i) ´ V pure (i)
1
N
i
åI samp (i) ´ V pure(p/2)(i)
2
2
- V RMS
V RMS
_ fund
V RMS _ fund
I RMS _ fund =
I THD =
N
å V samp (i) ´ V pure (i)
2
2
Pactive
_ fund + Preactive _ fund
V RMS _ fund
2
2
- I reactive
I RMS
_ fund
I RMS _ fund
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Enhancement Details
2.4
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Other Changes
In addition to all of the major changes previously discussed, there were a few minor changes made to the
firmware version 2.0.
The metrology version number is now retrieved by an API call to the metrology library rather than taking
the constant defined by the application in metrology-calibration-defaults.c and
metrology-calibration-template.h. This new way or retrieving the metrology version isolates the metrology
library from the application and allows the reported version number to remain consistent.
The meter protocol version is now defined in “#define METER_PROTOCOL_VERSION” in the
dlt645-decs.h file. This definition isolates the communication version from the user application and allows
the reported version number to remain consistent.
The meter configuration is now retrieved by an API call to the metrology library rather than composing this
configuration within the emeter-dlt645.c file. This new way of retrieving the meter configuration isolates the
metrology library from the application and allows the reported meter configuration to report the
functionality of the metrology library consistently.
The metrology library has a new name “emeter-metrology-i2041-2-phase.r43”, which has changed from
“emeter-metrology-i2041.r43” in firmware 1.0.
Firmware 2.0 allows measurement of DC voltage and current up to 190-V DC or up to 380-V DC
depending on the configuration set for a two phase measurement. Other operation ratings are the same
as for the TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR device. Please refer to the design guide of TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR
[1] for details about the two configurations for two-phase measurement and the operation ratings.
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Tests
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3
Tests
3.1
Accuracy Test
As the computation algorithm and the hardware is the same as in firmware 1.0, the accuracy test is merely
testing whether the ADC assignment using the SD24_Channel matrix is correct or not.
3.1.1
Apparatus
TI recommends the following list of instruments to perform the calibration and test.
• AC meter test set (see http://bit.ly/1CgeVH4)
• A reference meter capable of giving AC parameter readings based on the voltage, current, and phase
setting from the AC meter test set (see http://bit.ly/1Fgh2LF)
3.1.2
Setup
Neutral
W
Current IN
(Phase B)
Live
Current IN
(Phase A)
W
= Reference Meter
Current OUT
Figure 6. Connection to AC Meter Test Set
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Tests
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3.1.3
Test Results
1%
1%
Output A PF = 1
Output A PF = 0.5 L
Output A PF = 0.5 C
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0
-0.2%
-0.4%
0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0
-0.2%
-0.4%
-0.6%
-0.6%
-0.8%
-0.8%
-1%
0.01 0.02
0.05 0.1 0.2
0.5 1
2 3 4 5 7 10
Load Current (A)
20 30
D001
Figure 7. Phase A — Accuracy Test Result
3.1.4
Output B PF = 1
Output B PF = 0.5 L
Output B PF = 0.5 C
0.8%
Power Percentage Error
Power Percentage Error
0.8%
-1%
0.01 0.02
0.05 0.1 0.2
0.5 1
2 3 4 5 7 10
Load Current (A)
20 30
D002
Figure 8. Phase B — Accuracy Test Result
Accuracy Test Summary
When comparing the accuracy of the 1.0 firmware to the 2.0 firmware there is no significant difference in
the level of accuracy observed for these parameters.
With the proper test settings and calibration, this design achieves an accuracy of < 0.2% error over a
30-mA to 30-A range, and a < 0.5% error over a 10-mA to 30-A range. The higher percentage error in the
low current range is due to noise present on the shunt resistor. The effect of the noise diminishes as the
test current increases. The error starts to increase at 20 A due to the heat generated on the shunt, which
causes thermal drift to the shunt resistance.
3.2
THD Test
The THD test is conducted using the same generator as the accuracy test with a reference meter that
measures THD in current. See the Yokogawa website for the meter used in this test: http://bit.ly/1aCONiI.
In the test, a 5-A sinusoidal current is applied with an additional odd harmonic selected at approximately
25% in magnitude. The reading of the THD from the reference meter and the unit under the test is
recorded. The percentage deviation from the reading of the reference meter is calculated.
Table 1. THD Accuracy Test Result
10
HARMONIC
REF METER READING (%)
UUT READING (%)
DIFFERENCE
3rd
22.63
22.55
–0.08
5th
22.38
22.05
–0.33
7th
22.96
22.15
–0.81
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3.3
Communication Test
The I2C slave communication capability is tested with three units connected together by an I2C host to an
RS232 converter. As Figure 9 shows, the test unit has a three-phase voltage applied (120° between
phases) and each of the test boards applies two of the three phases. Note that there are more than one
power supply units in all of the boards together. As Figure 10 shows, all but one power supply is removed.
The VDD and VSS of the boards is connected with the remaining power supply so that the system runs on
a single rail.
To PC through RS2332
RS232 to I2C Host
Commander
Test Unit 1
(I2C Address : 0x0A)
Test Unit 2
(I2C Address : 0x0B)
Test Unit 3
(I2C Address : 0x0C)
SCL
SDA
Figure 9. I2C Functional Test Setup
Figure 10. I2C Test Unit
3.4
I2C Functionality Test Result
The test setup is set to run for four hours of continuous reading from each board at a reading interval of
160 ms with no read error reported.
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Design Files
4
Design Files
4.1
Software Files
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To download the software files, source code, and the metrology library, see the software files at:
TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR-FW2.
5
References
1. Texas Instruments, Two-Phase Embedded Metering, User’s Guide, (TIDU641)
2. Texas Instruments, MPS430i2xx Family, User’s Guide, (SLAU335)
6
About the Author
MARS LEUNG received his Bachelor of Engineering at Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Master of
Science at Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is an experienced field application engineer specialized
in MCU application support and development; senior smartcard application engineer specialized in smart
card payment system definition and implementation; staff engineer specialized in MCU and new module
definition; staff engineer in analog system applications specializing in digital system and video processing
of dynamic LED backlight control. He is now a staff engineer in Texas Instruments in the Smartgrid
Application Team, which specializes in embedded electricity metering applications.
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Appendix A Example Application Code
A.1
Introduction
Project structure:
• emeter-communication.c – source code for intermediate level communication interface
• emeter-dlt645.c – source code for the polling mode protocol implementation
• emeter-iic.c – source code for I2C driver
• emeter-iic.h – header code for I2C driver
• emeter-main.c – source code for system initialization, main loop, callback functions implementation,
and interrupt vector placement
• emeter-metrology-i2041-2-phase.r43 – embedded metering library object code
• emeter-setup.c – source code for low-level system initialization
• emeter-template.h – source code for configuration
• emeter-uart.c – source code for UART driver
• emeter-uart.h – header code for UART driver
• metrology-calibration-default.c – source code to put the user defined default calibration parameter into
a proper data structure (should only modify the const VoltageADCAssign and CurrentADCAssign for
assignment of ADC and must not modify the other part of this file)
• metrology-calibration-template.h – source code of user defined default calibration parameter
A.2
RS232 to I2C Master Application
The emeter-iic-master-i2040 is a standalone application project written to test the I2C functionality of
firmware 2.0. The application acts as a bridge to convert the RS232 command and the I2C command to
and from three units of the TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR device. The result makes the whole connected test
setup function as a six-channel metering unit. The application is also designed to run on the same
hardware as TIDM-2PHASE-SUBMTR.
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
A.3
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
1. After launching the IAR Embedded Workbench® IDE Version 5.5, click on File → Open → Workspace
2. Select emeters.eww when prompted to open Workspace.
Figure 11. Opening Workspace
3. Select the emeter-app-i2041 project tab at the bottom of the Workspace window.
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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4. Check project options by right clicking the project name and select Options… from the pop-up menu
(see Figure 12).
Figure 12. Project Tab
5. When the options appear, select C/C++ Compiler on the left-hand column. Then select the
Optimizations tab on the right-hand side and check the optimization settings as shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13. Optimization Options
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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6. Select FET Debugger on the left-hand column, then select the Setup tab. The EVM uses Spy-Bi-Wire
for its code downloading and debugging. Check to make sure the options are as shown in Figure 14.
Figure 14. Debugger Options
7. Select the Download tab. Under Flash erase, do not choose Erase main memory and Information
memory; this option erases both sets of data and cannot be recovered. Instead, choose Erase main
memory as the download option to preserve these factory parameters: system clock calibration, ADC
calibration, and internal reference calibration (see Figure 15). However, metrology calibration stored in
the main memory, such as VGAIN, IGAIN, PGAIN, and so on, are always erased after downloading.
Figure 15. Download Options
8. Click OK after completing all of the changes.
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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9. Rebuild the project by right-clicking on the project and select Rebuild All from the pop-up menu (see
Figure 16). Three warnings will be reported during rebuilding (see Figure 17), which are safe to ignore.
To open the project workspace and modify, compile, and download the code, the user must have IAR
Embedded Workbench 5.5 installed with a valid license. If a valid license is not available, the user can
still download the object code. See Section A.4 for downloading procedures.
Figure 16. Compiling the Application
Figure 17. Warnings
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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10. Make sure the jumper on J8 is short properly and the the jumpers on J5 are open. Connect the 14-pin
connector P1 to MSP-FET430UIF by a flat cable as Figure 18 shows.
CAUTION
The debugging interface is NOT ISOLATED. Make
sure to properly isolate between the EVM and the PC
used for debugging with the AC or DC high voltage
connected.
NOTE: Connection to debugging interface is optional for the operation of the EVM. The EVM can
operate without a debugger connected.
Figure 18. Connecting EVM and FET
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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11. Click the Download and Debug button to download and debug (see Figure 19).
Figure 19. Code Downloading
12. After successfully completing the download, Figure 20 appears. Click the Go button to run the
application.
Figure 20. Debugger Screen
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Preparing the Application Code to Run
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Figure 21. EVM Running
20
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Downloading Without an IAR License
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A.4
Downloading Without an IAR License
If a valid IAR Embedded Workbench 5.5 license is not available, download the executable code to the
board with the following steps using the installed IAR Embedded Workbench 5.5.
1. Open the project workspace as described in Section A.3, Steps 1 through 7. Then connect the board to
the MSP-FET430UIF as described in Step 10 in Section A.3.
2. Select Project→Download→Download File… from the menu (see Figure 22).
3. When prompted to select a file, go to the folder [Submeter i2040
4k_2_PHASES_AUTO_OSR_IAR5.5]\emeter-app\emeter-app-i2041\Debug\Exe and select the file
named “emeter-app-i2041.d43” (Figure 23).
The executable code then downloads to the board.
Figure 22. Download Executable File
Figure 23. Select File to Download
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Example Application Code
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21
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