Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide

Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
First Published: September 18, 2015
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CONTENTS
Preface
Preface vii
Audience vii
Document Organization vii
Command Syntax Conventions viii
Related Documentation ix
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request x
CHAPTER 1
Product Overview 1
Supported Cisco Aironet Access Points 2
Supported Features 3
Cisco Mobility Express CLI Commands 3
Licenses 3
Software Release Numbers 4
Interoperability 4
CHAPTER 2
Getting Started 5
Ports 5
Access Point Status LEDs 6
Interfaces 7
WLANs 7
Switch Configuration 7
CHAPTER 3
Deploying Mobility Express 9
Pre-requisites for Deploying Mobility Express 9
Connecting Mobility Express Capable Access Point 10
Using Initial Configuration Wizard 10
Logging into Mobility Express 17
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Contents
CHAPTER 4
Monitoring Mobility Express Network 19
Viewing Network Summary 19
Monitoring Dashboard 19
View Access Points Summary using GUI 21
View Access Points Summary using CLI 22
View Access Point Details using GUI 23
View Access Point Details using CLI 24
View Client Summary using GUI 25
View Client Summary using CLI 25
Viewing Wireless Dashboard 25
Viewing AP Performance 25
Viewing Client Performance 26
Best Practices 27
Infrastructure 28
Application Visibility 28
Local Profiling 28
NTP 29
Fast SSID 29
HTTPS for Management 29
Aironet IE 30
Security 30
802.1X on WLAN 30
Rogue Policies 31
Min Rogue RSSI Threshold 31
SSH/Telnet Access 32
Client Exclusion 32
Legacy IDS 32
Local Management Password Policies 33
User Login Policies 33
RF Management 34
High SSID Counts 34
Client Bandselect 34
Auto Dynamic Channel Assignment 35
Auto Transmit Power Control 36
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Contents
Auto Coverage Hole Detection 36
CleanAir 37
Event Driven Radio Resource Management 37
CHAPTER 5
Managing Wireless Settings 39
WLANs 39
Creating WLANs using GUI 39
Access Points 46
Managing Access Point using GUI 46
WLAN Users 50
Creating a WLAN User using GUI 50
Guest WLANs 51
Creating WLAN using GUI 51
CHAPTER 6
Managing Mobility Express Network 53
Management Access 53
Configuring Management Access using GUI 53
Configuring Management Access using CLI 55
Managing Administrator Accounts 55
Creating an Admin Account using GUI 55
Creating an Admin Account using CLI 56
Editing an Admin Account using GUI 57
Editing an Admin Account using CLI 58
Deleting Admin Account using GUI 58
Deleting Admin Account using CLI 59
Managing Time on Mobility Express Controller 59
Configuring NTP Server on Mobility Express Controller using GUI 59
Configuring NTP Server on Mobility Express Controller using CLI 60
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI (Method
I) 61
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI (Method
II) 62
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using CLI 62
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Software 63
Updating Cisco Mobility Express network using GUI 65
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Contents
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI 68
CHAPTER 7
Using Advanced Settings 71
SNMP 71
Managing SNMP using GUI 71
Managing SNMP using CLI 72
Logging 73
System Logging using GUI 73
System Logging using GUI using CLI 74
Reset to Factory Default 75
Mobility Express Network to Factory Default using GUI 75
CHAPTER 8
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network 77
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network 77
CHAPTER 9
Master AP Failover and Electing a New Master 81
Master AP Failover 81
Master Election 81
CHAPTER 10
Conversion 83
Converting a CAWAP AP into a Mobility Express AP 84
Converting a Mobility Express AP into a CAPWAP AP 86
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
vi
Preface
• Audience, page vii
• Document Organization, page vii
• Command Syntax Conventions, page viii
• Related Documentation, page ix
• Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request , page x
Audience
This publication is for experienced network administrators who configure and maintain Cisco Mobility Express
wireless network.
Document Organization
This document is organized into the following chapters:
Table 1: Document Organization
Chapter
Description
Product Overview
Provides details of supported Cisco Aironet access
points, list of features, licenses, software release
numbers, and supported software images.
Getting Started
Describes about Mobility Express ports, interfaces,
WLANs, LED states and access switch configuration.
Deploying Mobility Express
Details about the monitoring the network summary,
managing wireless settings, managing Mobility
Express, and managing advanced settings.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Preface
Command Syntax Conventions
Chapter
Description
Monitoring Mobility Express Network
Describes about pre-requisites for deploying Mobility
Express Network, connecting Mobility Express
capable access point,using initial configuration wizard
and about logging into Mobility Express.
Managing Wireless Settings
Briefs about creating WLANs, managing access
points, creating WLAN user and Guest WLANs.
Managing Mobility Express Network
Describes about configuring management, managing
administrator accounts, creating admin accounts,
editing admin accounts, deleting admin accounts,
managing time on Mobility express controller,
configuring NTP server, updating Mobility Express
software and updating Mobility Express network.
Using Advanced Settings
Details about Simple Network Management
Protocol(SNMP),managing SNMP, logging and reset
to factory default.
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network Briefs about adding an access point to the Mobility
Express network.
Master AP Failover and Electing a New Master
Describes about Master AP Failover and Master
Election.
Conversion
Details converting a CAPWAP AP into Mobility
Express AP and Mobility Express AP into CAPWAP.
Command Syntax Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Table 2: Command Syntax Conventions
Convention
Description
bold font
Bold text indicates commands and keywords that you
enter as shown
italic font
Italic text indicates arguments for which you supply
value.
[x]
Square brackets enclose an optional keyword or
argument.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
viii
Preface
Related Documentation
Convention
Description
…
An ellipsis (three consecutive non-bolded periods
without spaces) after a syntax element indicates that
the element can be repeated.
|
A vertical line, called a pipe, indicates a choice within
a set of keywords or arguments
[ x|y ]
Square brackets enclosing keywords or arguments
separated by a pipe indicate an optional choice
{ x|y }
Braces enclosing keywords or arguments separated
by a pipe indicate a required choice.
[x {y | z}]
Braces and a pipe within square brackets indicate a
required choice within an optional element.
Reader Alert Conventions
This document uses the following conventions for reader alerts:
Note
Tip
Caution
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the
manual.
Means the following information will help you solve a problem.
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might perform an action that could result in equipment
damage or loss of data.
Means reader beware. In this situation, you might perform an action that could result in bodily injury.
Related Documentation
• User Guide
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/access_point/mob_exp/1/user_guide/b_ME_User_
Guide.html
• Release Note
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/release/notes/crn81mr2.html#12966
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
ix
Preface
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request
For information on obtaining documentation, using the Cisco Bug Search Tool (BST), submitting a service
request, and gathering additional information, see What's New in Cisco Product Documentation, at: http://
www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/general/whatsnew/whatsnew.html
Subscribe to What's New in Cisco Product Documentation, which lists all new and revised Cisco technical
documentation as an RSS feed and delivers content directly to your desktop using a reader application. The
RSS feeds are a free service.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
x
CHAPTER
1
Product Overview
This section provides an overview of Cisco Mobility Express.
Note
In this document, Mobility Express refers to the Cisco 1800 series Access Point which supports the
controller functionality. It is referred to as Master AP.
Cisco Mobility Express is a software-based controller function integrated on Cisco 1800 series Wave 2
Access Points. It is a simplified, low cost, feature rich WiFi architecture with enterprise level WLAN capability
streamlined for small and mid-sized deployments.
In a Cisco Mobility Express network, Access Point (AP) running the wireless controller function is designated
as the Master AP. The other Access Points which are managed by this Master AP are referred as Subordinate
APs.
The Master AP has two roles:
1 It functions and operates as a wireless LAN controller to manage and control the Subordinate APs. The
Subordinate APs operates as lightweight access points to serve clients.
2 Master AP operates as an Access Point to serve clients.
For the list of supported Master and Subordinate APs, see Supported Cisco Aironet Access Points , on page
2.
Note
Cisco Mobility Express supports central authentication, and local switching.
• Supported Cisco Aironet Access Points , page 2
• Supported Features, page 3
• Cisco Mobility Express CLI Commands, page 3
• Licenses , page 3
• Software Release Numbers, page 4
• Interoperability, page 4
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
1
Product Overview
Supported Cisco Aironet Access Points
Supported Cisco Aironet Access Points
Access Points which support the Mobility Express controller function capability are listed in the following
table:
Table 3: Access Points supporting Mobility Access (Master APs)
Access Points supported as Master AP
Cisco Aironet 1850 Series
Supported Model Numbers
• AIR-AP1852I-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1852E-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1852I-x-K9C
• AIR-AP1852E-x-K9C
Cisco Aironet 1830 Series
• AIR-AP1832I-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1832I-x-K9C
Note
The model numbers that contain-UX support the universal regulatory domain.
The model numbers that contain -x- is a placeholder for the actual letter indicating the model's regulatory
domain. For more information on regulatory domains, see www.cisco.com/go/aironet/compliance.
The Access Points which operate as subordinate APs are listed in the following table:
Table 4: Access Points supported as Subordinates
Access Points supported as Subordinate APs
Cisco Aironet 700i Series
Cisco Aironet 700w Series
Cisco Aironet 1600 Series
Supported Model Numbers
• AIR-CAP702I- x-K9
• AIR-CAP702W- x-K9
• AIR-CAP1602I-x-K9
• AIR-CAP1602E-x-K9
Cisco Aironet 1700 Series
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
2
• AIR-CAP1702I- x-K9
Product Overview
Supported Features
Access Points supported as Subordinate APs
Supported Model Numbers
Cisco Aironet 1800 Series
• AIR-AP1832I-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1832I-x-K9C
• AIR-AP1852I-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1852E-UXK9C
• AIR-AP1852I-x-K9C
• AIR-AP1852E-x-K9C
Cisco Aironet 2600 Series
• AIR-CAP2602I-x-K9
• AIR-CAP2602E-x-K9
Cisco Aironet 2700 Series
• AIR-CAP2702I-x-K9
• AIR-CAP2702E-x-K9
Cisco Aironet 3600 Series
• AIR-CAP3602I-x-K9
• AIR-CAP3602E-x-K9
Cisco Aironet 3700 Series
• AIR-CAP3702I-x-K9
• AIR-CAP3702E-x-K9
Supported Features
See Supported features section in Release notes, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/
release/notes/crn81mr2.html#12966 .
Cisco Mobility Express CLI Commands
Cisco Mobility Express maintains CLI command parity for same features with existing WLCs. New CLI
commands specific to Mobility Express operation have been added and are documented in its respective
sections.
Licenses
There is no license requirement for Mobility Express.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
3
Product Overview
Software Release Numbers
Software Release Numbers
Cisco Mobility Express is supported from 8.1.121.0 release. You can check the system information, using the
command:
(cisco controller) >show sysinfo
Manufacturer's Name .................. Cisco systems Inc.
Product Name ......................... Cisco controller
Product version ...................... 8.1.121.0
Interoperability
Cisco Mobility Express can interoperate with the following:
Cisco Prime Infrastructure
• PI Release 3.0.1 and later
Connected Mobility Experiences (CMX)
• Presence is supported on CMX Release 10.2 and later
Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE)
• ISE Release 1.4 and later. 802.1x authentication is supported.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
4
CHAPTER
2
Getting Started
This chapter provides information about the Mobility Express ports, interfaces, WLANs, LED states and
access switch configuration.
• Ports, page 5
• Access Point Status LEDs, page 6
• Interfaces, page 7
• WLANs, page 7
• Switch Configuration, page 7
Ports
A port is a physical entity that is used to connect Cisco 1800 series access points to the network. The ports
available on Cisco 1800 Access Points are as shown.
Figure 1: Ports of Cisco 1800 series Access Points
Mode
The Mode button is used to reset the Access Point to factory defaults.
Console Port (RJ-45)
The Cisco 1800 series has one console port. It provides console access to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
USB
This port is not currently supported.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Getting Started
Access Point Status LEDs
Aux Port (RJ-45)
This port is not currently supported.
POE (Management Port) (RJ-45)
The Cisco 1800 series Access Points has a port marked as POE. This port is used to provide Management
access to the Mobility Express Controller.
Access Point Status LEDs
The location of the access point status LED is shown in Figure 1: Ports of Cisco 1800 series Access Points,
on page 5.
Note
The LEDs may show small variations in color intensity and hue from unit to unit. This variation is within
the normal range of the LED manufacturer's specifications and is not a defect.
The access point status LED indicates various conditions such as:
Table 5: LED Status Indications
Message Type
LED Type
Meaning of Message
Client Association status
Chirping Green
Normal operating condition, but no
wireless client associated.
Green
Normal operating condition, at
least one wireless client
association.
Boot loader status
Green
Executing boot loader
Boot loader error
Red
Boot loader signing verification
failure.
Boot loader signing verification
failure
Blinking Amber
AP priming to a new regulatory
domain by Neighbor Discovery
Protocol (NDP) is in progress.
Cycling Red, Green and off
AP waiting to be primed.
Chirping Red
AP primed to a wrong regulatory
domain.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Getting Started
Interfaces
Message Type
LED Type
Meaning of Message
Operating status
Blinking amber
Software upgrade is in progress
Cycling through green, red and
amber
Discovery/join process is in
progress
Rapidly cycling through red, green, Access point location command
amber and off
invoked from controller web
interface.
Access point operating system
Cycling through red, green, amber, General warning, insufficient inline
and off
power.
Interfaces
An interface is a logical entity on Mobility Express. The management interface must be configured and is
used for in-band management: Web GUI, Telnet/SSH CLI, SNMP.
WLANs
A WLAN associates Service Set Identifier (SSID) to VLANs. It is configured with Security type, Quality of
Service (QoS), radio policies, and other wireless network parameters. On Mobility Express network, up to
16 WLANs can be configured. The WLANs can be mapped to VLANs trunked on the switch port.
Switch Configuration
All Access Points including the Master AP in a Mobility Express network should be in the same L2 broadcast
domain. Management traffic must not be tagged.
The switch to which the Access Points connects have configuration similar to the one shown below:
vlan 10
name Employee
vlan 20
name Guest
vlan 122
name Management
interface Vlan10
description >> Employee Network <<
ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan20
description >> Guest Network <<
ip address 20.20.20.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface Vlan122
description >> Management, Master AP and Subordinate APs<<
ip address 172.20.229.2 255.255.255.0
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/37
description >> Connected to Cisco 1850 Access Point <<
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Getting Started
Switch Configuration
switchport trunk native vlan 122
switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,20,122
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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CHAPTER
3
Deploying Mobility Express
• Pre-requisites for Deploying Mobility Express, page 9
• Connecting Mobility Express Capable Access Point, page 10
• Using Initial Configuration Wizard, page 10
• Logging into Mobility Express, page 17
Pre-requisites for Deploying Mobility Express
The pre-requisites for deploying Mobility Express network are as follows:
1 You must not have other Cisco wireless controllers, neither appliance nor virtual, in the same network,
during set up or daily operation of a Cisco Mobility Express network.
2 Configure a DHCP server on the switch or externally so that Cisco 1800 series Access Point can obtain
an IP address at boot up. The DHCP server also assigns IP address to other APs and wireless clients.
3 Configure a TFTP server which can be accessed from the Management interface of Mobility Express.
Save the AIR-<AP Type>-K9-<version>.tar and AIR-<AP Type>-K9-ME-<version>.zip file (unzipped)
on the TFTP server.
4 Decide on the first AP to set up. The first AP to setup must support Cisco Mobility Express controller
functionality. You can also connect multiple Cisco 1800 series Access Points running Mobility Express
to the switch.
5 If your network is using universal regulatory domain access points, then you need to prime the access
point to the right regulatory domain, before the APs start serving clients. For more information, see Cisco
Aironet Universal AP Priming and Cisco Air Provision User Guide, at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/access_point/ux-ap/guide/uxap-mobapp-g.html
6 A Wi-Fi-enabled laptop with G Band to connect to the pre-defined CiscoAirProvision SSID. The laptop
needs to have a compatible browser. For a list of browsers compatible with the with the Cisco Mobility
Express wireless LAN controller web interface and the initial configuration wizard, see .
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Connecting Mobility Express Capable Access Point
Connecting Mobility Express Capable Access Point
To connect Mobility Express capable access point, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Connect and power up the Mobility Express capable access point.
a) The switch port to which the Cisco 1800 Access Point is connected must be a trunk port and must be
configured to trunk Native VLAN for Management traffic. Data traffic must be trunked with appropriate
VLANs for local switching as well.
Example of the switch port is as follows:
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/37
description » Connected to Master AP «
switchport trunk native vlan 122
switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,20,122
switchport mode trunk
Step 2
Observe the access point LED (for LED descriptions, see Table 5: LED Status Indications , on page 6).
a) When you power up the access point—The access point starts a power-up sequence that you can verify
by observing the access point LED. If the power-up sequence is successful, the discovery and join process
starts. During this process, the LED blinks sequentially green, red, and OFF.
b) When the access point joins the Mobility Express controller—The LED chirps green if no clients are
associated or turn green if one or more clients are associated.
c) If the LED is not ON—The access point does not receive power.
d) If the LED blinks sequentially for more than 10 minutes— This could be because the access point does
not have the Mobility Express capable image.
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Note
On Cisco Mobility Express, Initial Configurtation Wizard is supported from GUI. Do not use CLI for
Initial Configuration Wizard.
To configure the Mobility Express using setup wizard, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
When a LED chirps green, connect a WiFi enabled laptop, through Wi-Fi, to the CiscoAirProvision SSID.
The default password is password.
The laptop gets an IP address from subnet 192.168.1.0/24.
Note
CiscoAirProvision SSID is broadcast at
2.4GHz.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Step 2
Open a browser and go to http://192.168.1.1 which redirects to the initial configuration wizard.
The initial configuration wizard's admin account page appears.
Figure 2: Initial Configuration Wizard's Admin Account Page
The banner on the opening page shows the name of the AP model on which the Mobility Express wireless
LAN controller is being configured. For example, 'Cisco Aironet 1850 Series Mobility Express'.
Note
Step 3
Take the checklist that you have filled before and proceed with the following steps.
Create an admin account on the controller by specifying the following parameters and then click Start.
• Enter the admin username. Maximum up to 24 ASCII characters.
• Enter the password. Maximum up to 24 ASCII characters.
When specifying a password, ensure that:
• The password must contain characters from at least three of the following classes – lowercase letters,
uppercase letters, digits, special characters.
• No character in the password can be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The new password must not be the same as the associated username and the username reversed.
• The password must not be cisco, ocsic, or any variants obtained by changing the capitalization of letters
of the word Cisco. In addition, you cannot substitute 1, I, or ! for i, 0 for o, or $ for s.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Step 4
Set up your controller by specifying the values.
On the Set Up Your Controller screen, using the checklist, specify the following:
Field Name
Description
System Name
Enter the system name for Mobility Express.
Example: MobilityExpress-WLC
Country
Choose the country from the drop down list.
Date & Time
Choose the current date and time.
Note
The wizard attempts to import the clock
information (date and time) from the
computer using JavaScript. It is highly
recommended that you confirm the clock
settings before continuing. The access points
depend on clock settings to join the WLC.
Time Zone
Choose the current time zone.
NTP Server
Enter the NTP server details.
Management IP Address
Enter the Management IP address.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask address.
Default Gateway
Enter the default gateway.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Figure 3: Set Up Your Controller Tab
Step 5
Step 6
Click Next.
Create the wireless networks by specifying the following fields:
Field Name
Description
Network Name
Enter the network name.
Security
Choose the security type from the drop-down list.
(Choose either WPA2 Personal which uses
Pre-Shared Key (PSK) authentication or select WPA2
Enterprise (also called 802.1x) which requires a
RADIUS server for authentication).
Pass Phrase
If you have chosen WPA2 Personal security, specify
the Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
Confirm Pass Phrase
Re-enter and confirm the pass phrase.
Authentication Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Authentication Server
Shared Secret
If you have chosen WPA2 Enterprise, specify the
shared secret for the RADIUS server.
VLAN
Choose Management VLAN or create a new VLAN
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Field Name
Description
VLAN ID
If you have created a new VLAN specify the VLAN
ID. (VLAN ID from 1 to 4096).
Figure 4: Create Your Wireless Networks Tab Fields
Step 7
Enable the Guest Network slider and specify the following parameters:
Field Name
Description
Network Name
Specify the SSID for your Guest network.
Security
Choose Web Consent or WPA2 Personal from the
drop-down list.
Pass Phrase
If WPA2 Personal security is chosen, specify the
Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
VLAN
Choose Employee VLAN or create a New VLAN
(with VLAN ID 1 to 4096).
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID of the new VLAN (with VLAN
ID 1 to 4096).
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
Figure 5: Create Your Wireless Networks - Guest
Step 8
In the Advanced Settings tab, enable RF Parameter Optimization slider and optimize by indicating the
expected client density and traffic type in your network.
Figure 6: Advanced Settings Tab
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
15
Deploying Mobility Express
Using Initial Configuration Wizard
The following table depicts the default values when low, typical, or high deployment type is selected from
RF parameters
Step 9
Select Traffic Type and click Next to continue.
A confirmation screen displays the summary of the configuration.
Step 10 Click Apply, if all the settings are correct
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Logging into Mobility Express
A message appears with a prompt 'System will reboot...Do you want to apply these configuration?
Step 11 Click OK to reboot.
Note
After the Access Point reboots, it will start the Mobility Express controller function.
Step 12 APs reboots and join the Mobility Express controller, if there are more than one 1800 series APs.
Logging into Mobility Express
To log in to the Mobility Express, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the IP address of the Mobility Express management interface in the web browser.
The Cisco Wireless LAN Controller window appears.
Step 2
Click Login.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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Deploying Mobility Express
Logging into Mobility Express
Step 3
Enter the administrator user name and password.
Note
The Mobility Express controller uses a self-signed certificate for HTTPs. Therefore, all browsers
display a warning message and asks whether you wish to proceed with an exception or not when the
certificate is presented to the browser. Accept the risk and proceed to access the Mobility Express
Wireless LAN Controller login page.
The Network Summary page appears.
Cisco Mobility Express Deployment Guide
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CHAPTER
4
Monitoring Mobility Express Network
• Viewing Network Summary , page 19
• Viewing Wireless Dashboard, page 25
• Best Practices, page 27
Viewing Network Summary
The Monitoring service enables the Master AP to monitor the Cisco Mobility Express network.
Monitoring Dashboard
The monitoring dashboard of the Network Summary page displays count of the following:
1 Wireless Networks
2 Access Points
3 Active Clients in 2.4 GHz and 5GHz
4 Rogues AP and Clients
5 Interferers
Note
Rogues and interferers are not clickable link. Only the count is displayed.
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Monitoring Dashboard
The Network Summary page has five customizable widgets representing data in both tabular and graphical
formats for the following:
1 Access Points (by usage)
2 Clients (by usage)
3 Applications (by usage)
4 Operating System (by clients)
5 Top WLANs (by usage)
Note
The widgets under Network Summary shows aggregate data for the wireless network.
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View Access Points Summary using GUI
View Access Points Summary using GUI
To view access points using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Click Monitoring > Network Summary > Access Points .
A table displays the list of Access Points.
Toggle between 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz tabs to view a list of the access points operating at respective radio
frequencies.
(Optional) Click the down arrow on the top right of the column header to select columns to be hidden or
shown in the table view. Hide or show desired fields or to filter the table view based on desired parameters.
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View Access Points Summary using CLI
View Access Points Summary using CLI
To view access point summary using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Enter the following command to display a summary of all access points associated to the Master AP:
show ap summary
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View Access Point Details using GUI
View Access Point Details using GUI
To view access point details using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click on any of the Access Points from the list to see detailed information about the AP. The default tab is
the RF Troubleshoot tab, displays the following information:
1 General AP Parameters
2 Performance Summary of the two radios (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz)
3 Neighbor and Rogue APs
4 Clean Air Interferers
5 Client Distribution by Usage
6 Client Distribution by and Data Rates
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View Access Point Details using CLI
Step 2
Click Tools to restart the AP or clear the AP configuration.
View Access Point Details using CLI
To view access points using CLI, perform the following steps:
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View Client Summary using GUI
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the following command to view the access points:
show ap <option>
Step 2
Enter the following command to restart the AP:
(Cisco Controller) >config ap reset <Cisco AP>
View Client Summary using GUI
To view client summary using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Click Monitoring > Network Summary > Clients.
(Optional) Click the down arrow on the top right of the column header to select columns to be hidden or
shown in the table view.
Hide or show desired fields or to filter the table view based on desired parameters.
View Client Summary using CLI
To view client summary using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Enter the following command to display a summary of all access points attached to the Mobility Express
network:
show client summary
Viewing Wireless Dashboard
The Wireless Dashboard provides details of AP and client performance.
Viewing AP Performance
The AP Performance dashboard helps the user to identify and troubleshoot the issues in the Mobility Express.
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Viewing Client Performance
To access AP Performance dashboard, choose Monitoring > AP Performance.
The AP Performance dashboard displays the following charts:
• Channel Utilization Top APs—Level of traffic including data and interference over the channel that
is assigned on the AP. Interference includes both Wi-Fi and non Wi-Fi signals. High utilization of
channel, for example above 50%, suggests high level of interference including noise from nearby
APs/clients/rogues on the same channel which results in poor client performance.
• Client Load TOP APs—Load indicator displays current number of connected clients on each access
point. Higher load may impact performance, using client load balancing you can improve client
distribution on the wireless network.
• Interference Top APs—RF interference involves unwanted, interference of RF signals that disrupt
normal wireless operations, that creates potential network latency and poor client performance. Interfering
RF signals includes both Wi-Fi and non Wi-Fi signals.
• Coverage BOTTOM APs—Coverage holes are areas where clients cannot receive a signal from the
wireless network. A coverage hole is considered to have occurred when client SNRs falls below a
predetermined level. A coverage hole event is when several clients are stuck in the same coverage hole.
Viewing Client Performance
The Client Performance dashboard helps the users to determine the cause of connection failure to the Mobility
Express network and troubleshoot client related issues.
To access Client Performance dashboard, choose Monitoring > Client Performance.
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Best Practices
The Client Performance dashboard displays the following charts:
• Signal Strength—Strong signal strength results in more reliable connections and higher speeds. Signal
strength is represented in -dBm format, ranges from 0 to -100dBm. The closer the value to 0, the stronger
the signal. Click to get a summary of clients.
• Connection Rate—Each client's throughput varies depending on the data rate used (802.11 a/b/n/ac)
at any time, and this data rate may vary every second. Various factors such as RSSI values, RF
interference, and so on, may affect a client device's instantaneous data rate.
• Signal Quality—Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the power ratio between the signal strength and the
noise level. This value is represented as a +dBm value. In general, you should have a minimum of
+25dBm signal-to-noise ratio. Lower values than +25dBm result in poor performance and speed.
• Client Connections—Shows clients associated with the access points, of any connectivity types.
Best Practices
The Best Practices page displays the default features that are enabled for Infrastructure, Security, and RF
Management in the Mobility Express.
The Best Practices cannot be disabled from GUI. If any of the Best Practices are disabled from CLI, user can
enable from GUI by expanding the disabled Best Practice and clicking on the Restore Default button.
Click + More Optimizations to view all the Best Practices for that category as shown in the fig below.
The following three Best Practices may require Manual Configuration as highlighted in the figure below:
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Infrastructure
1 Infrastructure > NTP.
2 Security > WLAN with 802.1x/WPA2.
3 High SSID count.
Infrastructure
The Infrastructure lists the following best practices:
Application Visibility
Application Visibility (no control) classifies applications using Cisco's DeepPacket Inspection (DPI) techniques
with Network-Based Application Recognition (NBAR) engine and provides application-level visibility into
Wi-Fi network. Using application visibility, the controller can detect more than 1000 applications. This
application enables you to perform real-time analysis.
Application Visibility is enabled by default on all WLANs. If Application Visibility is disabled, click Restore
Default to enable Application Visibility on all WLANs.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled on all WLANs.
• Unselected—Disabled on one or more WLANs.
CLI Option:
Enable Application Visibility on a WLAN by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan avc wlan-id visibility enable
Local Profiling
Cisco Mobility Express controller can determine the client type from the information received when a client
device associates with the controller. This controller acts as the collector of the information, and either displays
the information directly on the Cisco Mobility Express GUI dashboard or sends required data to the ISE
optimally. Local profiling is enabled on all WLANs by default.
Local Profiling is enabled by default. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enable local profiling
(DHCP/HTTP) on the Cisco Mobility Express controller; this may impact service at that specific time.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled on all WLANs. It is shown in Green state if RADIUS profiling is enabled.
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Infrastructure
• Unselected—Disabled.
CLI Option:
Enable local profiling (DHCP/HTTP) on all WLANs by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan profiling local all enable
NTP
NTP server must be used to synchronize the Mobility Express controller date and time. It is important for
several features and is mandatory to use NTP synchronization on Mobility Express if you use any of these
features: Location, SNMPv3.
If NTP server is not configured, click Manual Configuration >Management > Time to configure NTP
server details.
Status:
• Selected—Configured.
• Unselected—Disabled.
CLI Option:
Enable NTP server by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config time ntp server ntp-server-index ntp-server-ip-address
Fast SSID
When fast SSID changing is enabled, the controller allows clients to move faster between SSIDs. When fast
SSID is enabled, the client entry is not cleared and the delay is not enforced. Fast SSID is important for
supporting Apple IOS devices.
Fast SSID is enabled by default. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enables Fast SSID.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled.
• Unselected—Disabled.
CLI Option:
Enable fast SSID by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config network fast-ssid-change
HTTPS for Management
HTTPS for management provides greater security by allowing secure access. HTTPS Access must be enabled
for managing the Mobility Express controller. Web access (HTTP) must be disabled.
Status:
• Selected— HTTPS enabled; HTTP disabled.
• Unselected— HTTPS enabled, HTTP enabled or HTTPS disabled, HTTP enabled.
CLI Option:
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Security
Disable the web mode to deny users to access the Mobility Express controller GUI using http://ip-address
by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config network webmode disable
Enable HTTPS for Management to allow users to access the Mobility Express controller GUI using
https://ip-address by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config network secureweb enable
Aironet IE
Aironet IE is a Cisco proprietary attribute used by Cisco devices for better connectivity. It contains information,
such as the access point name, load, number of associated clients, and so on sent out by the access point (AP)
in the beacon and probe responses of the WLAN. The Cisco Client Extensions (CCX) clients use this
information to choose the best AP with which to associate.
The CCX software is licensed to manufacturers and vendors of third-party client devices. The CCX code
resident on these clients enables them to communicate wirelessly with Cisco APs and to support Cisco features
that other client devices do not. The features are related to increased security, enhanced performance, fast
roaming, and power management.
Aironet IE is optional for CCX based clients, however it can cause compatibility issues with some types of
wireless clients. We recommend to enable WGB and Cisco voice, but for general production network, it can
be beneficial to disable Aironet IE after testing.
CCX Aironet IE feature must be disabled. If it is enabled, click Restore Default to disable.
Status:
• Selected— CCX Aironet IE disabled on all WLANs.
• Unselected— CCX Aironet IE enabled on all WLANs.
CLI Option:
Disable support for Aironet IEs for a particular WLAN by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan ccx aironetIeSupport disable wlan-id
Security
The Security lists the following best practices:
802.1X on WLAN
The WLAN must use 802.1X security. Day 0 (Wireless Express Setup), by default does not mandate an
802.1X.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled if at least one WLAN is using 802.1X.
• Unselected—Disabled.
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Security
Rogue Policies
The Rogue wireless devices are an ongoing threat to corporate wireless networks. The network owners need
to do more than just scanning the unknown devices. They must be able to detect, disable, locate, and manage
rogue/intruder threats automatically in real time.
The Rogue APs can disrupt wireless LAN operations by hijacking legitimate clients and using plain text,
denial-of-service attacks, or man-in-the-middle attacks. That is, a hacker can use a rogue AP to capture sensitive
information, such as passwords and usernames. The hacker can then transmit a series of clear-to-send (CTS)
frames, which mimics an AP informing a particular wireless LAN client adapter to transmit and instruct all
others to wait. This scenario results in legitimate clients being unable to access the wireless LAN resources.
Thus, wireless LAN service providers look for banning rogue APs from the air space.
The best practice is to use rogue detection to minimize security risks, for example, in a corporate environment.
However, there are certain scenarios in which rogue detection is not needed, for example, in OEAP deployment,
open venues/stadium, citywide, and outdoors. Using outdoor mesh APs to detect rogues would provide little
value while incurring resources to analyze. Finally, it is critical to evaluate (or avoid altogether) rogue
auto-containment, as there are potential legal issues and liabilities if left to operate automatically. Policy must
be at least High.
The Rogue policy is set to High by default. If it is set to Custom, click Restore Default to change the Rogue
policy to High.
Status:
• Selected— Policy is set to High or above.
• Unselected— Policy is set to Custom.
CLI Option:
Set the rogue detection security level to High by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config rogue detection security-level high
Min Rogue RSSI Threshold
This criterion normally indicates that unknown rogue APs are inside the facility perimeters, and can cause
potential interference to the wireless network.
We do not recommend this rule for retail customers or venues that are shared by various tenants, where WiFi
signals from all parties normally bleed into each other.
Specifies the minimum RSSI value that rogues must have for APs to detect them and for the rogue entries to
be created in the controller. Recommended value is -80 dBm.
Min Rogue RSSI threshold is set to -80 dBm. If it is set to lower, click Restore Default to change the minimum
RSSI value to -80 dBm.
Status:
• Selected— Set to -80 dBm.
• Unselected— Set to less than -80 dBm.
CLI Option:
Set the minimum RSSI value that rogues must have by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config rogue detection min-rssi rssi-in-dBm
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Security
SSH/Telnet Access
The SSH to the Mobility Express controller must be enabled by default and Telnet must be disabled.
If SSH is disabled and Telnet is enabled or SSH is enabled and Telnet is also enabled, click Restore Default
to enable SSH and disable Telnet.
Status:
• Selected— SSH enabled; Telnet disabled.
• Unselected— SSH enabled and Telnet enabled (or) SSH disabled and Telnet enabled.
CLI Option:
Enable SSH by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config network ssh enable
Disable Telnet by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config network telnet disable
Client Exclusion
When the user fails to authenticate, the controller excludes the client. The client cannot connect to the network
until the exclusion timer expires or is manually overridden by the administrator.
Client exclusion detects authentication attempts made by a single device. When the device exceeds a maximum
number of failures, that MAC address is not allowed to associate any longer to the controller.
Client exclusion is enabled by default on the Mobility Express controller allowing it to exclude clients from
joining the controller during the above events. If it is disabled, clicking Restore Default button enables Client
Exclusion feature for all events.
Status:
• Selected— Client exclusion is enabled for all events.
• Unselected—Client exclusion is disabled for all events.
CLI Option:
Enable client exclusion for all events by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wps client-exclusion all enable
Legacy IDS
The Cisco Mobility Express controller performs WLAN IDS analysis using all the connected APs and reports
detected attacks on to the virtual controller. The Wireless IDS analysis is complementary to any analysis that
may otherwise be performed by a wired network IDS system. The embedded Wireless IDS capability of the
Cisco Mobility Express controller analyzes 802.11- and Cisco Mobility Express controller-specific information
that is not available to a wired network IDS system.
This enables wireless IDS feature and 17 built-in signatures to avoid intrusion attacks. If it is disabled, click
Restore Default to enable wireless IDS feature that enables check on and 17 built-in signatures to avoid
intrusion attacks.
Status:
• Selected— All standard signature check is enabled.
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Security
• Unselected— All standard signature check is disabled.
CLI Option:
Enable signature check by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wps signature enable
Local Management Password Policies
You must enforce a strong password. The password policies allow enforcement of strong password checks
on newly created passwords for additional management users of controller and access point. The following
are the requirements enforced on the new password:
• case-check—Checks the occurrence of same character thrice consecutively.
• consecutive-check—Checks the default values or its variants is used.
• default-check—Checks either username or its reverse is used.
• all-checks—Enables/disables all the strong password checks.
• position-check—Checks four-character range from old password.
• case-digit-check—Checks all four combinations to be present: lower, upper, digits, and special characters.
Enforce strong password policies. If it is changed, click Restore Default to enable the strong password policies.
Status:
• Selected— All strong password policies are enabled.
• Unselected— Some or no password policies are enabled.
CLI Option:
Enable all strong password policies by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config switchconfig strong-pwd all-checks enable
User Login Policies
The user login policies provides details to limit the number of concurrent logins of the local net users of the
controller. You can limit the number of concurrent logins. We recommend to use greater than 0. Default value
is zero.
Users Login Policies are configured by default. If they are not configured, click Restore Default to configure
the User Login Policies.
Status:
• Selected— Configured.
• Unselected— No user login policies are present.
CLI Option:
Verify the limit of the net users by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show netuser summary
Configure user login policies by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config netuser maxUserLogin count
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RF Management
RF Management
The RF Management lists the following best practices:
High SSID Counts
Number of WLANs must be less than four.
We recommend to limit the number of service set identifiers (SSIDs) that are configured at the controller.
You can configure 16 simultaneous SSIDs (per radio on each AP), but as each WLAN/SSID needs separate
probe responses and beaconing, the RF pollution increases as more SSIDs are added. Furthermore, some small
wireless stations like PDA, WiFi phones, and barcode scanners cannot manage with high number of basic
SSID (BSSID) information. This results in lockups, reloads, or association failures. Also the more SSIDs, the
more beaconing needed, so less RF time is available for real data transmits. For example, we recommend to
have one to three SSIDs for corporate, and one SSID for high-density designs. The AAA override can be
leveraged for per user VLAN or settings on a single SSID scenario.
If there are four or more SSID enabled, click Manual Configuration to navigate to the Wireless Settings >
WLANs page so that you can ensure that there are less WLANs is enabled.
Status:
• Selected—Less than 4.
• Unselected—4 or more than 4.
CLI Option:
Verify the number of WLANs by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show wlan summary
Disable unwanted WLANs by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan disable wlan-id
Client Bandselect
Band selection enables the client radios that are capable of dual-band (2.4 and 5 GHz) operation to move to
a less congested 5 GHz AP. The 2.4 GHz band is often congested. The clients on 2.4 GHz band experience
interference from bluetooth devices, microwave ovens, and cordless phones as well as co-channel interference
from other APs because of the 802.11b/g limit of three non-overlapping channels. To prevent these sources
of interference and improve overall network performance, you can configure band selection on the controller.
Band selection is enabled/disabled globally by default. Band selection works by regulating probe responses
to clients. It makes 5 GHz channels more attractive to clients by delaying probe responses to clients on 2.4
GHz channels.
Evaluate band selection for voice, particularly focusing on roaming performance. Most of the newer model
clients prefer 5 GHz by default, if the 5 GHz signal of the AP is equal to or stronger than the 2.4-GHz signal.
Band select must be enabled for high-density designs. Also, in high-density designs, the study of available
UNII-2 channels must be performed. Those channels that are unaffected by Radar and also usable by the client
base must be added to the RRM DCA list as usable channels.
Dual-band roaming can be slow depending on the client. If a majority of the base of voice clients exhibits a
slow roaming behavior, it is more likely that the client sticks to 2.4 GHz. In this case, it has scanning issues
on 5 GHz. Generally when a client decides to roam, it scans its current channel and band first. The clients
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RF Management
generally scan for an AP that has a better signal level, maybe as much as 20 dB and/or a better SNR. Failing
such available connection, the client may remain with its current AP. In this case, if the CU on 2.4 GHz is
low and the call quality is not poor, then disabling the selected band maybe fine. However, the preferred
design is to enable band selection on 5 GHz with all data rates enabled and 6 Mbps as mandatory. Then, set
the 5 GHz RRM minimum Tx power level 6 dBm higher than the average 2.4 GHz power level set by RRM.
The goal of this configuration recommendation is to enable the client to obtain a band and channel with better
SNR and Tx power initially. Generally when a client decides to roam, it scans its current channel and band
first. So, if the client initially joins the 5 GHz band, then it is more likely to stay on the band if there are good
power levels on 5 GHz. The SNR levels on 5 GHz are generally better than 2.4 GHz because 2.4 GHz has
only three Wi-Fi channels and is more susceptible to interference such as bluetooth, iBeacons, and microwave
signals.
802.11k is recommended to be enabled with dual-band reporting. This enables all 11k enabled clients to have
the benefit of assisted roaming. With dual-band reporting enabled, the client receives a list of the best 2.4
GHz and 5 GHz APs upon a directed request from the client. Here, the client mostly checks the list of top
APs on the same channel, and then on the same band as the client is currently on. This logic reduces scan
time and saves battery power. Enabling 802.11k on the WLC does not have a downside effect for non-802.11k
clients.
Client Bandselect is enabled by default. If Client Bandselect is disabled, click Restore Default to enable
Client Bandselect.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled on all WLANs.
• Unselected—Disabled.
CLI Option:
Verify Bandselect by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show band-select
Enable Bandselect on a WLAN by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan band-select allow enable wlan-id
Auto Dynamic Channel Assignment
Auto Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) must be enabled to allow RRM and to select suitable channels
for each radio.
When a wireless network is initialized, all radios participating require a channel assignment to operate without
interference by optimizing the channel assignments to allow for interference free operation. Wireless network
does this using the air metrics reported by each radio on every possible channel, and providing a solution that
maximizes channel bandwidth and minimizes RF interference from all sources - Self (signal), other networks
(foreign interference), Noise (everything else).
DCA is enabled by default and provides a global solution to channel that are planning for your network. If it
is disabled, click Restore Default to enable ADS.
Status:
• Selected—DCA is enabled for 802.11a/b.
• Unselected—None or one DCA is enabled.
CLI Option:
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RF Management
Enable auto DCA by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11a channel global auto
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11b channel global auto
Auto Transmit Power Control
Auto Transmit Power Control (TPC) is enabled to allow RRM to select best transmit power for each radio.
The controller dynamically controls the access point transmit power based on real-time wireless LAN conditions.
You can choose between two versions of transmit power control: TPCv1 and TPCv2. With TPCv1, power
can be kept low to gain extra capacity and reduce interference. With TPCv2, transmit power is dynamically
adjusted with the goal of minimum interference. TPCv2 is suitable for dense networks. In this mode, there
could be higher roaming delays and coverage hole incidents.
The Transmit Power Control (TPC) algorithm increases and decreases the power of an access point (AP) in
response to changes in the RF environment. In most instances, TPC seeks to lower the power of the AP to
reduce interference. But, in the case of a sudden change in the RF coverage-for example, if the AP fails or
becomes disabled-TPC can also increase power of the surrounding APs. This feature is different from coverage
hole detection, which is primarily concerned with clients. TPC provides enough RF power to achieve desired
coverage levels while avoiding channel interference between APs.
Note
For optimal performance, use the Automatic setting to allow best transmit power for each radio. Auto
Transmit power is enabled by default on the Radios. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enable.
Status:
• Selected—TPC enabled for 802.11a/b.
• Unselected—None or one enabled.
CLI Option:
Enable Auto TPC by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11a txPower global auto
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11b txPower global auto
Auto Coverage Hole Detection
The controller uses the quality of client signal levels reported by the APs to determine if the power level of
that AP needs to be increased. Coverage Hole Detection (CHD) is controller independent, so the RF group
leader is not involved in those calculations. The controller identifies how many clients are associated with a
particular AP and what are the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values for each client.
If a client SNR value drops below the configured threshold value on the controller, the AP increases its power
level to compensate for the client. The SNR threshold value is based on the transmit power of the AP and the
coverage profile settings on the controller.
For more information, on how to configure auto CHD, see the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Configuration
Guide.
Auto CHD is enabled by default. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enable.
Status:
• Selected—CHD enabled.
• Unselected—None or one enabled.
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RF Management
CleanAir
To effectively detect and mitigate RF interference, CleanAir must be enabled whenever needed. There are
recommendations to various sources of interference to trigger security alerts, such as generic DECT phones,
jammer, and so on.
CleanAir is enabled by default. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enable.
Status:
• Selected—Enabled.
• Unselected—Disabled.
CLI Option:
Verify CleanAir configuration on a network by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show 802.11{a|b} cleanair config
Enable CleanAir functionality on a network by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11{a|b} cleanair enable network
Configure to enable interference detection for specifically jammer by entering the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config 802.11{a|b} cleanair device enable jammer
Event Driven Radio Resource Management
Y - Spontaneous interference is interference that appears suddenly on a network that possibly block a channel
or a range of channels completely. Cisco CleanAir spectrum event-driven Radio Resource Management (RRM)
feature allows you to set a threshold for air quality (AQ) that, if exceeded, triggers an immediate channel
change for the affected access point. Most RF management systems can avoid interference, but this information
takes time to propagate through the system. Cisco CleanAir relies on AQ measurements to continuously
evaluate the spectrum and can trigger a move within 30 seconds. For example, if an access point detects
interference from a video camera, it can recover by changing channels within 30 seconds of the camera
becoming active. Cisco CleanAir also identifies and locates the source of interference so that more permanent
mitigation of the device can be performed at a later time.
Event driven RRM is enabled by default. If it is disabled, click Restore Default to enable.
Status:
• Selected— Enabled.
• Unselected—Disabled.
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RF Management
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CHAPTER
5
Managing Wireless Settings
The Wireless Settings tab helps you to manage WLANS, Access Points, WLAN Users and Guest WLANs.
• WLANs, page 39
• Access Points, page 46
• WLAN Users, page 50
• Guest WLANs, page 51
WLANs
The Cisco Mobility Express solution can control up to 16 WLANs for lightweight access points. Each WLAN
has a WLAN ID (1 through 16), a Profile Name, a WLAN SSID, and can be assigned with unique security
types.
Note
Management traffic is untagged and we recommend you to assign one VLAN for Management and another
set of VLANs for client.
Creating WLANs using GUI
To create a WLAN using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless Settings > WLANs.
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Creating WLANs using GUI
Step 2
Step 3
The WLAN configuration page appears displaying the count of Active WLANs.
Click Add New WLAN. The Add New WLAN window appears.
In the General tab, perform the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
The WLAN Id is automatically selected but you can change it.
Enter the Profile Name for the WLAN.
Enter the SSID.
Choose Admin State for the WLAN from the drop-down list. The default Admin State is Enabled.
Choose Radio Policy from the drop-down list. The default Radio Policy is ALL.
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Creating WLANs using GUI
Step 4
In the WLAN Security tab, perform the following:
Choose the Security type from the drop-down list. The supported security types for WLAN are:
The default Security is WPA2 Enterprise with Authentication Server as External Radius.
• WPA2 Enterprise—Means Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 with a with a local authentication server or
RADIUS server.
1 Local Authentication (AP)—The default option is to have a local authentication method (choose AP
in the Authentication Server drop-down list). This option is a Local EAP authentication method that
allows users and wireless clients to authenticate locally. The Mobility Express controller serves as
the authentication server using the local user database, thus removing dependence on an external
authentication server.
2 To have a RADIUS server-based authentication method, choose External Radius in the Authentication
Server drop-down list. Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a client/server
protocol that enables communication with a central server to authenticate users and authorize their
access to the WLAN. You can specify up to two RADIUS authentication servers. For each server
you need to specify the following details:
• Radius IP—IPv4 address of the RADIUS server
• Radius Port—Enter the communication port of the RADIUS server. The default value is 1812.
• Shared Secret—Enter the secret key used by the RADIUS server, in ASCII format.
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Creating WLANs using GUI
• Guest—The controller can provide guest user access on WLANs which are specifically designated for
guest users. To set this WLAN exclusively for guest user access, choose the Security as Guest. You can
set the authentication for guest users by choosing one of the following options in the Guest Authentication
drop-down list:
1 Require Username and Password—This is the default option. Choose this option to authenticate
guests using the username and password which you can specify for guest users of this WLAN, under
Wireless Settings > WLAN Users.
2 Display Terms and Conditions—Choose this option to allow guest access to the WLAN upon
acceptance of displayed terms and conditions. This option allows guest users to access the WLAN
without entering a username and password.
3 Require Email Address—Choose this option, if you want guest users to be prompted for their e-mail
address when attempting to access the WLAN. Upon entering a valid email address, access it provided.
This option allows guest users to access the WLAN without entering a username and password.
• Open—Open authentication allows any device to authenticate and then attempt to communicate with
the access point. Using open authentication, any wireless device can authenticate with the access point.
• WPA2 Personal—This option stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 with Pre-Shared Key (PSK). WPA2
Personal is a method of securing your network with the use of a PSK authentication. The PSK is
configured separately both on the controller AP, under WLAN security policy, and on the client. WPA2
Personal does not rely on an authentication server on your network. This is used when you do not have
an enterprise authentication server. If you choose this option, then specify the PSK in the Shared Key
field.
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Creating WLANs using GUI
Step 5
In the VLAN & Firewall tab, perform the following:
a) Use VLAN Tagging—The default is No. If Yes is selected, enter the VLAN ID. By enabling VLAN
Tagging, the chosen VLAN ID is inserted into a packet header in order to identify which VLAN the packet
belongs to. This enables the controller to use the VLAN ID to determine which VLAN to send a broadcast
packet to, thereby providing traffic separation between VLANs.
b) Enable Firewall—The default is No. If Yes is selected, enter the following information:
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Creating WLANs using GUI
Field Name
Description
A
ACL Name
Enter the name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. The ACL name must be unique.
B
Add Rule
To set rules for the ACL, click Add Rule.
Note
The ACL rules are applied to the VLAN. Multiple WLANs can use
the same VLAN, hence inheriting ACL rules, if any.
C
Action
From the Action drop-down list, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block
packets or Permit to cause this ACL to allow packets. The default is Permit.
The controller can permit or deny only IP packets in an ACL. Other types of
packets (such as ARP packets) cannot be specified.
D
Protocol
From the Protocol drop-down list, choose the protocol ID of the IP packets to
be used for this ACL. These are the protocol options:
• Any—Any protocol (this is the default value).
• TCP—Transmission Control Protocol.
• UDP—User Datagram Protocol.
• ICMP—Internet Control Message Protocol.
• ESP—IP Encapsulating Security Payload.
• AH—Authentication Header.
• GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation
• IP in IP—Internet Protocol (IP) in IP (permits or denies IP-in-IP packets).
• Eth Over IP—Ethernet-over-Internet Protocol
• OSPF—Open Shortest Path First.
• Other—Any other Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) protocol.
If you choose Other, enter the number of the desired protocol in the
Protocol text box. You can find the list of available protocols in the IANA
website.
E
Dest. IP / Mask
In the Dest. IP / Mask field, enter the IP address and netmask of the specific
destination.
F
Dest. Port
If you have chosen TCP or UDP, you need to specify a Destination Port. This
destination port can be used by applications that send and receive data to and
from the networking stack. Some ports are designated for certain applications
such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, and so on.
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Creating WLANs using GUI
G
Field Name
Description
DSCP
From the DSCP drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the
differentiated services code point (DSCP) value of this ACL. DSCP is an IP
header text box that can be used to define the quality of service across the
Internet.
• Any—Any DSCP (this is the default value).
• Specific—A specific DSCP, ranges from 0 to 63, which you can enter in
the DSCP edit box.
Step 6
Step 7
Click Apply to save ACL.
In the QoS tab, perform the following:
a) QOS—Quality of service (QoS) refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to selected
network traffic over various technologies. The primary goal of QoS is to provide priority including dedicated
bandwidth, controlled jitter and latency (required by some real-time and interactive traffic), and improved
loss characteristics. The Cisco Mobility Express controller supports the following four QoS levels. Under
the QoS tab, from the QoS drop-down list, you can choose one of the following QoS levels:
• Platinum/Voice—Ensures a high quality of service for voice over wireless.
• Gold/Video—Supports high-quality video applications.
• Silver/Best Effort—Supports normal bandwidth for clients and this is the default setting.
• Bronze/Background—Provides the lowest bandwidth for guest services.
b) Application Visibility—Application Visibility classifies applications using the Network-Based Application
Recognition (NBAR2) engine, and provides application-level visibility in wireless networks. Application
Visibility enables the controller to detect and recognize more than 1000 applications and perform real-time
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Managing Wireless Settings
Access Points
analysis. Application Visibility is enabled by default on WLANs. Protocol Pack version 13.0 and Engine
version 16.0 is supported.
Step 8
Click Apply.
Access Points
Managing Access Point using GUI
To manage the access points that are associated with the Mobility Express controller using GUI, perform the
following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click Wireless Settings > Access Points.
The Access Point Administration page displays the count of access points and Access Point table with the
associated APs.
Note
The AP table displays the first 10 APs on first page and the other APs on the next page.
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Managing Access Point using GUI
The Master AP and Subordinate AP icons are as shown:
Figure 7: Master AP Icon
Figure 8: Subordinate AP Icon
Step 2
Click Edit.
The Edit window displaying general parameters of access point appears.
The General tab displays the following AP parameters:
• Operating Mode(Read only field)—For a master AP, this field displays AP & Controller. For other
associated APs, this field displays AP only.
• AP Mac(Read only field)—Displays the MAC address of the Access Point.
• AP Model(Read only field)—Displays the model details of the Access Point.
• IP Configuration—Choose Obtain from DHCP to allow the IP address of the AP be assigned by a
DHCP server on the network, or choose Static IP address. If you choose Static IP address, then you can
edit the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Gateway fields.
• AP Name—Edit the name of access point. This is a free text field.
• Location—Edit the location for the access point. This is a free text field.
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Managing Access Point using GUI
Step 3
Click Controller to edit the following parameters for the Mobility Express controller:
Note
The Controller option is available only for Master
AP.
• IP Address—IP address decides the login URL to the controller's web interface. The URL is in https://<ip
address> format. If you change this IP address, the login URL also changes.
• Subnet Mask
• Country Code
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Managing Access Point using GUI
Step 4
Click802.11 b/g/n Radio and 802.11 a/n/ac Radio to edit the following parameters:
• Admin Mode—Choose Enabled from the Admin drop-down list to enable the corresponding radio on
the AP (2.4 GHz for 802.11 b/g/n or 5 Ghz for 802.11 a/n/ac).
• Channel—Automatic is set as default channel. This enables dynamic channel assignment, such that
the channels are dynamically assigned to each AP, under the control of the Mobility Express controller.
This prevents neighboring APs from broadcasting over the same channel and hence prevents interference
and other communication problems. For the 2.4 GHz radio, 11 channels are offered in the US, up to 14
in other parts of the world, but only 1-6-11 can be considered non-overlapping if they are used by
neighboring APs. For the 5 GHz radio, up to 23 non-overlapping channels are offered. Assigning a
specific value statically assigns a channel to that AP.
◦802.11 b/g/n - 1 to 11
◦802.11 a/n/ac - 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157,
161, 165
• Channel Width—Set as 20 MHz for 2.4 GHz and 20, 40 and 80 MHz for 5 GHz.
• Transmit Power—1 to 8. The default value is Automatic.
This is a logarithmic scale of the transmit power, the transmission energy used by the AP, 1 being the
highest, 2 being half of it, 3 being 1/4th and so on.
Selecting Automatic adjusts the radio transmitter output power based on the varying signal level at the
receiver. This allows the transmitter to operate at less than maximum power for most of the time; when
fading conditions occur, transmit power increases as needed until the maximum power is reached.
Step 5
Click Apply to save the changes.
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Managing Wireless Settings
WLAN Users
WLAN Users
A wireless client needs to connect to a WLAN in the network. To connect to a WLAN, the wireless client
enters the user credentials. If the WLAN uses WPA2-Personal as a security policy, then the user must provide
the appropriate WPA2-PSK details for that WLAN. If the Security Policy is set to WPA2-Enterprise, then
the user must provide a valid user identity and its corresponding password in the RADIUS user database. For
local authentication, provide the valid user identity and its corresponding password in the RADIUS user
database.
The WLAN Users page lists all WLAN users in the network. The WLAN Users page also displays the following
information for each user:
Table 6: WLAN Users–Field and Description
Field
Description
User name
Specifies the name of the WLAN user.
Guest user
Specifies the type of WLAN user. Check this
checkbox if the WLAN user is guest. Guest user
account is limited with validity of 86400 seconds (or,
24 hours) from the time of its creation.
WLAN Profile
Specifies the WLANs to which the user can connect.
Password
Specifies the password of the WLAN user.
Description
Specifies the additional details or comments about
the user.
Creating a WLAN User using GUI
To add a local EAP user, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless Settings > WLAN Users.
The WLAN Users page appears displaying the count of the users that are configured on the Mobility Express
controller.
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Guest WLANs
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Click Add WLAN User to create a WLAN user.
Enter the User Name for the WLAN user.
Note
User names are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. User names must not
contain space.
If the user is a Guest WLAN user, check the Guest User checkbox.
From the drop down list, choose the WLAN Profile of the user.
Step 6
Step 7
Step 8
Enter a password and re-enter confirm password for the new WLAN User.
Enter a description for the WLAN User.
Click Apply.
Guest WLANs
Creating WLAN using GUI
To create a customized login page for guest WLANs, perform the following steps:
Note
A Guest WLAN must be setup for Guest Users.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless Settings > Guest WLANs.
The Guest WLAN page appears displaying the count of Guest WLANs that are configured on the Mobility
Express controller.
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Step 2
From the Display Cisco Logodrop-down list, choose Yes (Default) to display Cisco logo.
You can choose No. However, you do not have an option to display any other logo of your choice. This field
is set as Yes by default.
Step 3
Enter the desired URL in Redirect URL After Login field. The guest user is redirected to the specified URL
(such as the URL of your company) after login.
You can enter can be up to 254 characters.
Step 4
Enter the headline that needs to be displayed when logged in Page Headline field.
You can enter up to 127 characters. The default headline is Welcome to the Cisco Wireless Network.
Step 5
Enter the message that needs to displayed when logged in Page Message field.
You can enter up to 2047 characters. The default message is Cisco is pleased to provide the Wireless LAN
infrastructure for your network. Please login and put your air space to work.
Step 6
Click Apply.
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CHAPTER
6
Managing Mobility Express Network
Using the Management tab, the admin users can perform the following:
• Configure access to the Mobility Express controller
• Manage admin accounts
• Configure time
• Perform a software update
• Management Access, page 53
• Managing Administrator Accounts, page 55
• Managing Time on Mobility Express Controller, page 59
• Updating Cisco Mobility Express Software, page 63
Management Access
Configuring Management Access using GUI
The Management Access interface on the Mobility Express controller is the default interface for in-band
management of the controller and connectivity to enterprise services. It is also used for communications
between the controller and access points. There are four types of Management Access supported on the
Mobility Express controller.
1 HTTP Access—To enable HTTP access mode, choose Enabled from the HTTP Access drop-down list.
This allows you to access the controller GUI using http://<ip-address> through a web browser. Otherwise,
choose Disabled.
The default value is Disabled. HTTP access mode is not a secure connection.
2 HTTPS Access—To enable HTTPS access mode, choose Enabled from the HTTPS Access drop-down
list. This allows you to access the controller GUI using http://ip-address through a web browser. Otherwise,
choose Disabled.
The default value is Enabled. HTTPS access mode is a secure connection.
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Configuring Management Access using GUI
3 Telnet Access—To enable Telnet access mode, choose Enabled from the Telnet Access drop-down list.
This allows remote access to the controller’s CLI using your laptop’s command prompt. Otherwise, choose
Disabled.
The default value is Disabled. The Telnet access mode is not a secure connection.
4 SSHv2 Access—To enable Secure Shell Version 2 (SSHv2) access mode, choose Enabled from the
SSHv2 Access drop-down list. This is a more secure version of Telnet that uses data encryption and a
secure channel for data transfer. Otherwise, choose Disabled.
The default value is Enabled. The SSHv2 access mode is a secure connection.
To enable or disable the different types of management access on the controller, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click Management > Access.
The Management Access page appears displaying the count of the access type which are enabled.
Step 2
For the various Access Types, choose either as Enabled or Disabled.
Note
There must be at least one access enabled else admin user will be locked out of Mobility Express
Controller and you have to use console to make changes for providing access again.
Step 3
Click Apply.
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Configuring Management Access using CLI
Configuring Management Access using CLI
To configure the management access using CLI, enter the following commands:
• (Cisco
• (Cisco
• (Cisco
• (Cisco
Controller) >config network webmode <enable | disable>
Controller) >config network secureweb <enable | disable>
Controller) >config network ssh <enable | disable>
Controller) >config network telnet <enable | disable>
Managing Administrator Accounts
You can configure admin usernames and passwords to prevent unauthorized users from reconfiguring the
controller and viewing configuration information.
The Admin user accounts are required for logging into Mobility Express controller to monitor and configure
the wireless network. The admin accounts can be configured with Read/Write or Read only privileges.
• Choose Management > Admin Accounts.
• The Admin Accounts page appears displaying the count of administrator accounts on the controller and
list of all administrator accounts available on the Cisco Mobility Express controller.
Creating an Admin Account using GUI
To create an admin account using GUI, perform the following steps:
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Creating an Admin Account using CLI
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Click Add New User.
Enter the admin user name in the Account Name field.
Note
Admin account name must be unique. It is case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters
without spaces.
Choose Read/Write or Read Only from Access drop-down list.
Read Only—It creates an administrative account with read-only privileges. The admin user can only view the
controller configuration but cannot make any changes to the configuration.
Read/Write—It creates an administrative account with read and write privileges. The admin user can view
and make changes to the controller configuration.
Step 4
Enter the new password for admin user account in the New Password field.
1 Passwords are case sensitive and cannot contain space.
2 The password must contain a minimum of 8 characters from ALL of the following classes:
a Lowercase letters
b Uppercase letters
c Digits
d Special characters.
3 No character in the password can be repeated more than three times consecutively.
4 The password must not contain the word Cisco or a management username. The password must also not
be any variant of these words, obtained by reversing the letters of these words, or by changing the
capitalization of letters, or by substituting 1, |, or ! or substituting 0 for o or substituting $ for s.
Step 5
Step 6
Re-enter the password in the Confirm Password field.
Click Apply to the save changes.
Creating an Admin Account using CLI
To create an admin account using CLI, perform the following steps:
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Editing an Admin Account using GUI
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Create admin user using the following CLI commands:
(Cisco Controller) >config mgmtuser add <username> <password> <read-only | read-write>
To view the list of all the admin accounts, use the CLI below
(Cisco Controller) >show mgmtuser
Editing an Admin Account using GUI
To edit an admin account using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click Edit .
Step 2
Change password and click Apply.
Note
Access cannot be changed for an admin account after creation, it can only be deleted and recreated.
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Editing an Admin Account using CLI
Editing an Admin Account using CLI
To edit an admin account using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Edit an existing admin user account using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config mgmtuser password <username> <password>
Note
Access cannot be changed for an admin account after creation, it can only be deleted and recreated.
Deleting Admin Account using GUI
To delete an admin account using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click Delete in the GUI.
Step 2
Click OK to confirm.
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Deleting Admin Account using CLI
Deleting Admin Account using CLI
To delete an admin account using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Delete an existing admin user account using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config mgmtuser delete <username>
Managing Time on Mobility Express Controller
The system date and time on the Cisco Mobility Express controller is first configured when running the initial
Wireless Express setup wizard.
A Network Time Protocol (NTP) server can be configured to synchronize date and time if one was not
configured during the Wireless Express setup. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used as the standard for
setting the time zone on the controller.
Configuring NTP Server on Mobility Express Controller using GUI
To configure an NTP server, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Time from the left pane.
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Configuring NTP Server on Mobility Express Controller using CLI
Step 2
Choose the desired time zone from the Time zone drop down list.
Note
To change the Time zone; disable the NTP state, change the Time zone and enable the NTP state.
Step 3
Step 4
Choose Enable from NTP State drop-down list.
Enter the polling interval in seconds in the NTP Polling Interval field.
Note
The polling interval ranges from 3600 to 604800
seconds.
Enter the NTP server's IPv4 address in the NTP Server field
Click Apply.
Note
Synchronizing of the date and time with the NTP server occurs every moment when the controller
reboots and at each user-defined polling interval.
Step 5
Step 6
Configuring NTP Server on Mobility Express Controller using CLI
To configure NTP server on Mobility Express Controller using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Configure an NTP server from CLI using the following commands:
(Cisco Controller) >config time ntp server <index> <NTP IP Address>
<index> 1 as only one NTP server is supported on Mobility Express controller
(Cisco Controller) >config time ntp interval <interval>
<interval>
Enter NTP polling interval, between 3600 and 604800(in seconds).
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Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI (Method I)
Step 3
Configure the Time zone using anyone of the following commands:
(Cisco Controller) >config time timezone location <location_index>
(Cisco Controller) >config time timezone delta <delta_hours> <delta_min>
<delta_hours> Enter the local hour difference from Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).
<delta_mins>
Enter the local minute difference from Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).
Step 4
View current date and time along with time setting using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show time
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI
(Method I)
To configure date and time manually using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Choose the desired Time Zone from the Time Zone drop down list.
Check the check box for Set Time Automatically from Current Location to set time based on the Time
Zone.
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Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI (Method II)
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using GUI
(Method II)
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Click Date icon from Set Time Manually field and change the date.
Click Time icon from Set Time Manual and choose time from the drop down list.
Click Apply.
Configuring Date and Time Manually on Mobility Express Controller using CLI
To configure date and time manually using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Configure time manually using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config time manual <MM/DD/YY> <HH:MM:SS>
Step 3
Configure the Time zone using one of the following commands:
(Cisco Controller) >config time timezone location <location_index>
(Cisco Controller) >config time timezone delta <delta_hours> <delta_min>
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Updating Cisco Mobility Express Software
<delta_hours>
<delta_mins>
Step 4
Enter the local hour difference from Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).
Enter the local minute difference from Universal Coordinated Time (UTC).
View current date and time along with the time setting using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show time
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Software
Cisco Mobility Express controller software update can be performed using the controller's web interface.
Software update ensures that both the controller software and all the Access Points associated are updated.
The Access Points that have older software are automatically upgraded to the Mobility Express software on
joining the master AP. An AP joining the controller compares its Cisco Mobility Express software version
with the master AP version and incase of mismatch, the new AP requests for a software upgrade. The master
AP facilitates the transfer of the new software from the TFTP server to the new AP.
Ssoftware download on the Access Points is automatically sequenced to ensure that not more than two APs
are downloading the software simultaneously and the queue refreshes till all the APs requiring upgrade have
downloaded the new image.
Master AP facilitates transfer of image from the TFTP server to the Subordinate APs. The AP images are
stored and served from the TFTP server upon request.
Before you upgrade the Mobility Express network, ensure the following pre-requisites are met:
Pre-requisites for Software Update
1 A TFTP server is reachable from the management IP address of the Mobility Express controller.
2 The AP bundle with AP images downloaded from CCO is unzipped and copied into the TFTP server.
Software Update Sequence:
1 Download the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip or AIR-AP1830-K9-ME-<version>.zip file from
cisco.com on a device running TFTP server. Unzip the file to extract the AP images.
2 Configure TFTP parameters on the Software Update page.
3 Initiate image pre-download on Mobility Express network.
4 Reboot of or scheduled reboot of Mobility Express Controller and associated Access Points.
Note
• image pre-download on APs is automatically sequenced, such that not more than two APs are
pre-download the image simultaneously.
• During the image pre-download there is no service interruption. After completion of the image
pre-download on all APs, a manual or scheduled reboot of Mobility Express network must be
triggered.
To begin Software Update, perform the following steps:
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Procedure
Step 1
Download the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip or AIR-AP1830-K9-ME-<version>.zip file from
cisco.com to a machine running TFTP server.
Step 2
Unzip the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip file to extract the AP images.
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Updating Cisco Mobility Express network using GUI
Updating Cisco Mobility Express network using GUI
To update the software using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Log in to the Mobility Express user interface and choose Management > Software Update.
Step 2
The system displays the current version of the Mobility Express.
Enter the value in the IP Address(IPv4) field.
Note
We recommend to have TFTP server in the same network as the management interface.
Step 3
Enter the File Path of the unzipped AP images.
Step 4
Step 5
Click Save Tftp Parameters.
To initiate the image pre-download, click Update Now or Schedule Later.
• Update Now––Initiates the image pre-download instantaneously. After image pre-download is complete
on all APs, click Restart to manually reboot the APs. After the reboot, all APs will run the new image.
• Schedule Later–– Initiates the image pre-download instantaneously. However,reboot of the APs happen
at a scheduled time configured by the user in the Set Reboot Time field.
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Step 6
Once the image pre-download starts, you can view the status by expanding Preimage Download Status.
Image pre-download involves different states, such as:
1 Predownloading—The AP actively downloads an image on its flash during this state.
2 Initiated—A image pre-download request is sent to the AP during this state.
3 BackedOff—When image pre-download is initiated on two APs, the next two APs are identified and
moved to Initiated state. After the image pre-download on the first two APs, APs which are in Initiated
state are moved to pre-downloading state. If the Initiated state timer expires before the image pre-download
is complete on the first set of the APs, the APs in Initiated state are moved to BackedOff state.
.
Note
Each time the AP is BackedOff, the Update Attempts count increments.
4 Completed—image pre-download is complete on the AP.
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After the image pre-download is complete, the status dashboard displays Update Complete and notifies the
user to reboot the Mobility Express network.
Step 7
After image pre-download is complete, Mobility Express network needs to be re-booted to run the new
software. If Update Now was selected for image pre-download, click Restart to reboot all the APs in the
Mobility Express network.
Note
If you chose Schedule Later for image pre-download and specified Set Reboot Time, do not Restart
the APs, as the reboot happens at the scheduled time.
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Updating Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI
Step 8
After few minutes, log into Mobility Express and check the new version in the Software Update page.
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI
To upgrade Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to Cisco 1850 AP running Mobility Express controller using Telnet or SSH.
Specify the data type, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >transfer download datatype ap-image
Step 3
Specify the transfer mode, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >transfer download ap-images mode tftp
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP server, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >transfer download ap-images serverIp <IP addr>
Step 5
Specify the path of the AP images on the TFTP server, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >transfer download ap-images imagePath <path to AP images>
Note
Step 6
For successful image pre-download, ensure that path to the AP images is correct.
Pre-download the image on the APs, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >transfer download start
Output:
Mode...........................................
Data Type......................................
TFTP Server IP.................................
TFTP Packet Timeout............................
TFTP Max Retries...............................
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TFTP
ap-image
10.1.1.77
10
10
Managing Mobility Express Network
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI
TFTP Path...................................... ap_bundle_8.1.112.30/
This may take some time.
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N) y
TFTP Code transfer starting.
Triggered APs to pre-download the image.
Reboot the controller once AP Image pre-download is complete.
Step 7
Check the pre-download status, using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show ap image all
Output:
Total number of APs............... 3
Number of APs
Initiated.........................1
Predownloading....................2
Completed predownloading..........0
Not Supported.....................0
Failed/BackedOff to Predownload...0
Primary
Backup Predownload Predownload Next Retry Retry Failure
AP Name
Image
Image
Status
Version
Time
Count Reason
––––––––––––––
–––––––––– –––––––-- ––––––––
–––––––––
–––––––
–––– –––––
AP6412.256e.0e78 8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Predownloading
––
NA
NA
APAOEC.F96C.D640 8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Predownloading
––
NA
NA
3600-gemini
8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Predownloading
––
NA
Wait for the image pre-download to complete on the APs.
(Cisco Controller) >show ap image all
Total number of APs............... 3
Number of APs
Initiated.........................1
Predownloading....................2
Completed predownloading..........0
Not Supported.....................0
Failed/BackedOff to Predownload...0
Primary
Backup Predownload Predownload Next Retry Retry Failure
AP Name
Image
Image
Status
Version
Time
Count Reason
––––––––––––––
–––––––––– –––––––-- ––––––––
–––––––––
–––––––
–––– –––––
AP6412.256e.0e78 8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Complete
––
NA
NA
APAOEC.F96C.D640 8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Complete
––
NA
NA
3600-gemini
8.1.112.21 8.1.112.21 Complete
––
NA
Step 8
When pre-download is complete, reset the system using the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >reset system
Output:
The system has unsaved changes.
Would you like to save them now? (y/N) y
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Managing Mobility Express Network
Updating Cisco Mobility Express Network using CLI
Configuration Saved!
System will now restart!
Step 9
Cisco 1850 running Mobility Express re-boots followed by the rest of APs.
Log in to the Mobility Express and check the version of primary image.
The System displays the new version and the Backup Image displays the previous version.
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CHAPTER
7
Using Advanced Settings
• SNMP, page 71
• Logging, page 73
• Reset to Factory Default, page 75
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol Version 2 (SNMPv2) is a protocol for network management. This
protocol is used for collecting information, configuring, and managing all the devices in the network.
Managing SNMP using GUI
To manage SNMP using GUI, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Click Advanced > SNMP.
The SNMP Setup screen appears displaying the supported version details.
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Using Advanced Settings
Managing SNMP using CLI
Step 2
From the SNMPv2 Access drop-down list, choose Enabled.
The default option is disabled.
Step 3
Enter the community name in the Read Only Community field.
The default option is public.
Step 4
Enter the community name in the Read-Write Community field.
The default option is private.
Step 5
From the SNMP Trap drop-down list, choose Enabled.
The default option is Disabled. The SNMP Trap Receiver tool receives logs and displays the SNMP traps
sent from the network.
Step 6
Step 7
Enter IP address of the server in the SNMP Server IP field.
Click Apply.
Managing SNMP using CLI
To manage SNMP using CLI, perform the following steps:
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Using Advanced Settings
Logging
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Log in to the Mobility Express controller CLI.
Enter the following commands to enable and view the SNMP version:
(Cisco Controller) >config snmp version v2c enable
(Cisco Controller) >show snmpversion
Step 3
Enter the following commands to configure and view the Read-Only Community:
(Cisco Controller) >config snmp community accessmode ro public
(Cisco Controller) >show snmpcommunity
Step 4
Enter the following commands to configure and view the Read-Write Community:
(Cisco Controller) >config snmp community accessmode rw private
(Cisco Controller) >show snmpcommunity
Step 5
Enter the following commands to configure and view the SNMP Trap Receive:
(Cisco Controller) >config snmp trapreceiver create 10.10.10.10
(Cisco Controller) >show snmptrap
Step 6
Enter the following commands to send the SNMP traps:
(Cisco Controller) >config snmp trapreceiver mode enable
(Cisco Controller) >show snmptrap
Logging
The System Message logging feature logs the system events to a remote server, called a Syslog server. Each
system event triggers a syslog message that contains the details of the event.
If the System Message logging feature is enabled, the controller sends a syslog message to the syslog server
which is configured on the controller.
System Logging using GUI
To perform system logging using GUI, follow these steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Click Advanced > Logging.
The Logging Setup screen appears.
Choose Enabled from Syslog Logging drop-down list.
The default option is disabled.
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Using Advanced Settings
System Logging using GUI using CLI
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Enter the IPv4 address in the Syslog Server IP field.
From the Logging level drop-down list, choose syslog severity level.
From the Syslog Facility drop-down list, choose the syslog severity level.
Click Apply.
System Logging using GUI using CLI
To perform system logging using CLI, follow these steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the following commands to configure Syslog Server IP:
(Cisco Controller) >config
<0-7>
Set syslog
alerts
Set syslog
critical
Set syslog
debugging
Set syslog
emergencies
Set syslog
errors
Set syslog
informational
Set syslog
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logging
message
message
message
message
message
message
message
syslog level <0-7>
logging message severity level.
logging severity to 'alerts' (severity 1).
logging severity to 'critical' (severity 2).
logging severity to 'debugging' (severity 7).
logging severity to 'emergencies' (severity 0).
logging severity to 'errors' (severity 3).
logging severity to 'informational' (severity 6).
Using Advanced Settings
Reset to Factory Default
notifications
warnings
Step 2
Set syslog message logging severity to 'notifications' (severity 5).
Set syslog message logging severity to 'warnings' (severity 4).
Enter the following commands to configure Syslog Logging Facility:
(Cisco Controller) >config logging syslog facility <facility>
auth-private
Authorization system (private).
authorization
Authorization system.
cron
Cron/at facility.
daemon
System daemons.
ftp
FTP daemon.
kern
Kernel.
local0
Local use.
local1
Local use.
local2
Local use.
local3
Local use.
local4
Local use.
local5
Local use.
local6
Local use.
local7
Local use.
lpr
Line printer system.
mail
Mail system.
news
USENET news.
sys12
System use.
sys13
System use.
sys14
System use.
sys15
System use.
syslog
Syslog itself.
user
User process.
uucp
Unix-to-Unix copy system.
Reset to Factory Default
You can change the Mobility Express network to its default configuration by performing Reset to Factory
Default.
Note
• This operation must be performed by an Admin user. You cannot restore the previous configurations.
• Performing Reset to Factory Default using GUI deletes the controller configuration from all the
Mobility Express capable Access Points which is followed by a reboot of the Master AP. After the
reboot, all Mobility Express capable Access Points will broadcast the CiscoAirProvsion SSID.
Mobility Express Network to Factory Default using GUI
To set Mobility Express network to factory default settings using GUI, perform the following steps:
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Using Advanced Settings
Mobility Express Network to Factory Default using GUI
Procedure
Step 1
Click Advanced > Reset to Factory Default.
The Reset Mobility Express Controller to Factory Default page appears.
Step 2
Click Continue.
A confirmation message box appears.
Step 3
Click Yes.
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CHAPTER
8
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express
Network
• Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network, page 77
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Pre-requisites for Adding an Access Point:
Note
The master AP facilitates transfer of image from TFTP to the new AP which is added.
1 The AP bundle with AP images downloaded from cisco.com is unzipped and copied into the TFTP server.
2 A DHCP server on the same network, so that an Access Point being added and can obtain an IP.
Sequence of Steps
1 Download the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip file from cisco.com on a device running TFTP server.
The bundle version must be the same as the one running on the Master AP. Unzip the file to extract
the AP images.
2 Configure the TFTP parameters in the Software Update (Management > Software Update) page.
3 Connect the AP to the network.
4 When the AP reboots, it obtains an IP address from the DHCP server. If the AP version matches the one
on Master AP, it joins. However, if the version on the AP being added is different than then one on the
Master AP, it starts to download the image from the TFTP server. After the image download is complete,
the AP will reboot and join the Master AP.
Note
During the image download there is no service interruption. After the image download is complete, the
AP automatically re-boots and join the Master AP.
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Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Procedure
Step 1
Download the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip file from cisco.com to a machine running TFTP server.
Step 2
Unzip the AIR-AP1850-K9-ME-<version>.zip file to extract the AP images.
Note
Do not rename the AP images on the TFTP
server.
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Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Step 3
Log in to the Mobility Express user interface and choose Management > Software Update.
The Software Update page displays the current software version running on the Mobility Express controller.
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Step 7
Enter the IPv4 address of the TFTP server in the IP Address (IPv4) field.
Enter File Path for the unzipped AP images.
Click Save Tftp Parameters.
Connect the AP to the Mobility Express network. After the image download is complete, the AP automatically
reboot and join the Master APs.
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Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
Adding an Access Point to Mobility Express Network
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CHAPTER
9
Master AP Failover and Electing a New Master
Cisco Mobility Express is supported on Cisco 1800 Access Points and the Master AP election process
determines which Cisco 1800 AP will be elected to run Mobility Express controller function in case of a
Failover.
Note
Only Cisco 1800 series Access Points can be elected as Master APs.
• Master AP Failover, page 81
• Master Election, page 81
Master AP Failover
To have redundancy in the Mobility Express network, it must have two or more Cisco 1800 series Access
Points. These Access Points should have AP Image type as MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE and AP
Configuration as MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE. In an event of a failure of Master AP, another Cisco
1800 series AP is elected as a Master automatically. The newly elected Master AP has the same IP and
configuration as the original Master AP.
Note
Cisco 1800 series Access points which have the Mobility Express Image but AP Configuration is NOT
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE, they will not participate in the Master AP election process.
Master Election
The Master election process of Cisco 1800 series APs is based on a set of priorities. An AP with the highest
priority is elected as the Master AP, running Mobility Express controller function.
The Master AP election priorities are as follows:
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Master AP Failover and Electing a New Master
Master Election
1 User Defined Master— User can define a preferred Master AP to be elected incase of a failover. The
following command can be entered on the controller CLI :
(Cisco Controller) >config ap next-preferred-master <Cisco AP>
<Cisco AP>
Enter the name of the Cisco AP
To view the preferred master, use the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >show ap next-preferred-master
To clear the user defined priority from an AP, use the following command:
Cisco Controller) >clear ap next-preferred-master
Note
We recommend user not to define the preferred Master AP unless it is required for debugging or
serviceability reasons.
2 Least Client Load—Cisco 1800 series Access Point with least client load is elected as the Master AP.
3 Lowest MAC Address—If the User defined priority is not configured and everything else is the same,
then Access Point with the lowest MAC gets elected as the Master AP.
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CHAPTER
10
Conversion
The Cisco 1800 series access point is capable of operating as a CAPWAP AP or a Mobility Express capable
AP(runs controller function in a Mobility Express network) managing other access points as well as serving
clients.
The following conversions are supported:
1 Converting a CAWAP AP to Mobility Express capable AP - This conversion is required when you have
an 1800 series access point running CAPWAP image, and you want to use them to deploy a Mobility
Express network. For this, you would convert the CAPWAP AP to a Master AP (runs controller function
in a Mobility Express network).
2 Converting a Mobility Express capable AP to CAPWAP AP - There are two reasons for this conversion:
a If you want to migrate the 1800 series access points from a Mobility Express network to another
controller (not Mobility Express) network.
b If you do not want 1800 series access points to participate in the Master AP election process in a
Mobility Express network.
The Cisco 1800 series access points support two different images:
1 CAPWAP image-When a CAPWAP image is installed on an access point, it can only operate as a
CAPWAP access point and does not support the controller function.
2 Mobility Express image - When a Mobility Express image is installed on an access point, it can operate
in one of the modes:
a Both as a controller and an access point
b An access point alone
To determine the image and capability on the access point, you can do a show version on the AP CLI to
determine the AP Image Type and AP Configuration:
If show version does not display AP Image Type and AP Configuration parameters, it means that AP is
running the CAPWAP image.
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Conversion
Converting a CAWAP AP into a Mobility Express AP
If the show version CLI displays AP Image Type: MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE and AP Configuration:
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE, it operates both as Controller and an Access Point. It participates in the
Master Election process in case of a failover.
cisco AI R-AP1852E-UXK9 ARMv7 Processor rev 0 (v71) with 997184/525160K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID RFDP2BCR021
AP Running Image : 8.1.121.0
Primary Boot Image : 8.1.121.0
Backup Boot Image : 8.1.106.33
AP Image type : MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE
AP Configuration : MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE
0 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
0 802.11 Radios
Radio FW version . 1401b63d12113073a3C08aa67f0c039c0
NSS FW version : NSS.AK.1.0.c4-0Z026-E_cust C-1.24160.1
If the show version CLI shows AP Image Type: MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE and AP Configuration:
NOT MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE, it operates only as access point and does not participate in the
Master Election process in case of a failover.
cisco AI R-AP1852E-UXK9 ARMv7 Processor rev 0 (v7I) with 997184/726252K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID RFDP2BCR021
AP Running Image : 8.1.121.0
Primary Boot Image : 8.1.121.0
Backup Boot Image : 8.1.106.33
AP Image type : MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE
AP Configuration : NOT MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE
2 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
2 802.11 Radios
Radio FW version : 1401b63d121b073a3008aa67f0c039d0
NSS FW version : NSS.AK.1.0.c4-00O26-E_cust C-1. 24160.1
• Converting a CAWAP AP into a Mobility Express AP, page 84
• Converting a Mobility Express AP into a CAPWAP AP, page 86
Converting a CAWAP AP into a Mobility Express AP
To convert an access point running CAPWAP image into a Mobility Express capable image, you have to
download and install the Mobility Express image from a TFTP server. A single CLI command has been
provided to download the Mobility Express image from a TFTP server and convert the AP Configuration to
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE.
Pre-requisites for converting CAPWAP AP to Mobility Express:
1 A TFTP server with Mobility Express image. See Procedure below.
2 A DHCP server to assign an IP address to the Cisco 1800 Series access point.
3 The Cisco 1800 series access point must not join any existing controller in the network when you are
trying to load Mobility Express image. If you have an existing controller on your network to which the
AP can join, conversion is not successful.
To convert an AP running CAPWAP image to Mobility Express, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Download the AIR-AP1850-K9-<version>.tar or AIR-AP1830-K9-<version>.tar file from cisco.com to a
machine running TFTP server. Do not untar the file.
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Conversion
Converting a CAWAP AP into a Mobility Express AP
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Connect and login to the Cisco 1800 series Access Point CLI.
Enter enable to go to privileged execution mode.
Enter show version on the Access Point CLI. From the show version output, you can determine the AP Image
type and AP Configuration and can then proceed with the conversion process.
• Case 1: If the AP Image type is MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE and AP configuration is NOT
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE, only conversion of AP Configuration is required. Go to Step 5.
• Case 2: In the show version output, if the AP Image type and AP Configuration are not available,
download of the Mobility Express image and conversion of AP Configuration is required. Go to Step 6.
Step 5
Enter the command below to change the AP Configuration to MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE.
AP#ap-type mobility-express tftp://<TFTP Server IP>/<path to tar file>
Since the Access Point has an AP Image type: MOBILITY EXPRESS IMAGE; a new image does not be
downloaded. After the command is issued, the Access Point reboots and comes up as AP Configuration
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE .
Step 6
If AP Image Type and AP Configuration is not available in show version, it means that the AP is running
CAPWAP image. To do the conversion, execute the command below:
AP#ap-type mobility-express tftp://<TFTP Server IP>/<path to tar file>
Example:
AP#ap-type mobility-express tftp://10.18.22.34/AIR-AP1850-K9-8.1.120.0.tar
Starting the ME image download...
It may take few minutes to finish the download.
Note
After the image download is complete, it writes to flash followed by a reboot.
Image downloaded, writing to flash...
do PREDOWNLOAD, part1 is active part
sh: CHECK_ME: unknown operand
Image start
0x40355008 size 0x01dae41a file size 0x01dae7ca
Key start
0x42103422 size 0x00000230
Sinature start 0x42103652 size 0x00000180
Verify returns 0
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Conversion
Converting a Mobility Express AP into a CAPWAP AP
btldr rel is 16 vs 16, does not need update
part to upgrade is part2
activate part2, set BOOT to part2
AP primary version: 8.1.105.37
Archive done.
Oe as AP needs to boot up with ME image
The system is going down Now!
sent SIGTERM to all processes
sent SIGKILL to all processes
Requesting system reboot79]
[07/24/2015 18:19:43.0887] Restarting system.
[07/24/2015 18:19:43.1257] Going down for restart now
Step 7
After AP reboots, Mobility Express starts in Day 0 and CiscoAirProvison SSID is broadcast.
Converting a Mobility Express AP into a CAPWAP AP
When the AP type is CAPWAP, AP doesn't have the controller function and cannot participate in the Master
AP election process.
After changing the AP Type, if this AP is migrated to another WLC network (non-Mobility Express network),
it joins the controller in that network. If the image on the WLC is different than the one on the AP, a new
CAPWAP image is requested from the WLC.
When the AP type is CAPWAP (as required for this conversion), the AP doesn’t start its own controller
function and when the AP joins the external controller, a new image is requested from the controller and the
AP gets the CAPWAP image.
To convert the Mobility Express AP into the CAPWAP AP, perform the following steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Connect and login to the Cisco 1800 AP through CLI.
Type Enable to go to privileged execution mode.
Enter ap#ap-type capwap and confirm to switch to the CAPWAP type.
To convert multiple 1800 series access points running Mobility Express image to CAPWAP simultaneously
from the Mobility Express controller CLI, execute the following command:
(Cisco Controller) >config ap unifiedmode <switch_name> <switch_ip_address>
<switch_name> and <switch_ip_address> is the name and IP address respectively of the WLC
to which the APs need to be migrate.
The above command converts all Cisco 1800 APs connected to the Mobility Express with AP Configuration:
MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE to AP Configuration: NOT MOBILITY EXPRESS CAPABLE.
When this command is issued the APs are reloaded, and they come back up in local mode.
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