API Gateway Manager - Axway Documentation

API Gateway Manager - Axway Documentation
 CONCEPTS GUIDE
Axway API Gateway
Version 7.4.1
3 February 2016
Copyright © 2016 Axway
All rights reserved.
This documentation describes the following Axway software:
Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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Contents
Preface
5
Who should read this document
5
How to use this document
5
Related documentation
5
Support services
5
Accessibility
7
Screen reader support
7
Support for high contrast and accessible use of colors
7
1 Introduction to API Gateway
8
Overview
8
API Gateway services
8
API transformation
8
API control and governance
9
API security
9
API monitoring
9
API development lifecycle
9
API administration
10
API Gateway is core infrastructure
10
API Gateway user roles
11
API Gateway features
12
Integration
12
Performance
13
Governance
13
Security
14
Form factors
15
2 API Management tools
16
Overview
16
API Manager
16
API Portal
18
API Gateway
18
Policy Studio
19
API Tester
20
Configuration Studio
21
API Gateway Manager
21
API Gateway Analytics
22
Key Property Store
23
Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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Embedded Apache ActiveMQ
23
LDAP user repository
24
3 API Gateway architecture
26
Overview
26
API Gateway groups
26
API Gateway domains
27
Simple API Gateway domain
27
Complex API Gateway domain
29
Solution partitioning
29
Virtualization
30
Environment topology
30
Availability, load balancing, and scalability
31
4 API Gateway documentation set
33
API Gateway documentation
33
API Manager and API Portal documentation
34
Glossary
Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
35
Concepts Guide 4
Preface
This document provides an overview of the API Gateway and describes its main concepts, features, and architecture.
Who should read this document
The intended audience for this document is API Gateway architects and evaluators, and all users who are new to API Gateway (for example, policy developers or system administrators). For details on installing API Gateway, see the API Gateway Installation Guide. How to use this document
This document should be used with the other documents in the API Gateway documentation set. Before you begin, review this document thoroughly. The following is a brief description of the contents of each topic:
l Introduction to API Gateway on page 8 p rovides an overview of the services and infrastructure provided by API Gateway, and describes the main user roles and high-level functionality.
l API Management tools on page 16 introduces each of the main API Gateway component tools.
l API Gateway architecture on page 26 explains the main concepts and components in the API Gateway architecture, and shows example deployment scenarios. l API Gateway documentation set on page 33 shows where to look in the API Gateway documentation library for more details. Related documentation
For information other Axway products, see Related documentation on page 1.
Support services
The Axway Global Support team provides worldwide 24 x 7 support for customers with active support agreements.
Email [email protected] or visit Axway Sphere at https://support.axway.com.
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Preface
See "Troubleshoot your API Gateway installation" in the API Gateway Administrator Guide for the information that you should be prepared to provide when you contact Axway Support.
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Accessibility
Axway strives to create accessible products and documentation for users. This documentation provides the following accessibility features:
l Screen reader support on page 7
l Support for high contrast and accessible use of colors on page 7
Screen reader support
l Alternative text is provided for images whenever necessary. l The PDF documents are tagged to provide a logical reading order.
Support for high contrast and accessible use
of colors
l The documentation can be used in high-contrast mode.
l There is sufficient contrast between the text and the background color.
l The graphics have the right level of contrast and take into account the way color-blind people perceive colors. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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Introduction to API Gateway
1 Overview
Axway API Gateway manages, delivers, and secures enterprise APIs, applications, and consumers. The following overview diagram shows the range of transports and protocols supported by API Gateway on the left, and the services that it provides on the right:
API Gateway services
The main services supported by Axway API Gateway are described in this section.
API transformation
The API transformation features include the following:
l API virtualization and mediation
l Wide range of protocols, data formats, and standards
l Bi-directional transformation (for example, REST-to-SOAP, XML-to-JSON, and HTTP-to-JMS)
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API control and governance
The API control and governance features include the following:
l Service Level Agreement (SLA) monitoring and enforcement
l Quota management, traffic throttling, and load balancing
l Content-based routing, blocking, and processing
l Auditing of transactions
API security
The API security features include the following:
l Protect APIs at all levels (interface, access, and data)
l Authentication and authorization
l Identity mediation and integration with IDM platforms
l Data monitoring, redaction, encryption, and signing
l Key and certificate management
API monitoring
The API monitoring features include the following:
l Real-time API monitoring, with alerting based on errors, exceptions, and thresholds
l Configurable logging of API transaction data
l Analyze API use for insight and trends
l Automated generation and delivery of reports
API development lifecycle
The API development features includes the following:
l Manage API lifecycle from creation to end-of-life
l Drag-n-drop policy creation with intuitive flow chart metaphor
l Extensive library of pre-built policy rules
l Interactive API testing tool
l Promotion between environments
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API administration
The API administration features include the following:
l Manage all aspects of the daily API operations
l Transaction management
l Tracing and debugging
l OAuth client management
l Managing JMS-based messaging
For more details, see API Gateway features on page 12. API Gateway is core infrastructure
API Gateway does for APIs what the application server does for applications. This API Gateway role as core application infrastructure is shown as follows:
The API Gateway can be seen as the API runtime environment, which provides core services such as the following:
l Security (for example, authentication and authorization)
l Connectivity with a range of different protocols
l Virtualization
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l Scalability and elasticity
l High availability
l Manageability (for example, using API Gateway Manager)
l Development simplicity
Because the API Gateway provides this core API infrastructure, developers can focus on providing the application logic. They no longer need to build these services into their application, and can leverage the core infrastructure provided by the API Gateway. Previously, the API was not treated as a first class citizen, and in many cases was part of the application interface. However, the API Gateway sees the API as a first class artifact, with its own particular constructs, and its own runtime environment. The API Gateway provides all of the same benefits for the API that the application server provides for the application. In this way, it is important to distinguish between the API and the application as two distinct entities. API Gateway user roles
API Gateway provides the following main user roles:
These user roles are described as follows:
l Policy developer
This user role virtualizes APIs and develops policies for APIs. Policies are rules used to govern or manage an API (for example, for security, integration, SLA monitoring, or transformation). This is a technical developer role.
l KPS administrator
This is a business or operational role managing dynamic policy configuration data in a Key Property Store (KPS). A KPS is used to store parameters that are passed into policies at runtime (for example, authorization levels, quotas, or customer details). This means that these details do not need to be configured by the policy developer.
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l API Gateway administrator
This role monitors, manages, and troubleshoots the API Gateway. It has full administrative privileges, including deployment of API Gateway configurations. This is the traditional system administration or operational role for the API Gateway. It involves keeping the API Gateway running, monitoring its operation, managing any settings, and performing any troubleshooting. This user typically works in an upstream staging or production environment instead of in a development environment. l API Gateway operator
This role monitors the API Gateway. It has read-only administrative capability. This is typically a production operations role. l Deployer
This role deploys API Gateway configurations using scripts. It has a restricted deployment role, and is typically used in production environments. API Gateway features
API Gateway provides a comprehensive platform for managing, delivering, and securing APIs. It provides integration, acceleration, governance, and security for Web API and SOA-based systems. This section describes the high-level functionality available in API Gateway.
Integration
API Gateway provides the following integration features:
l Identity management
API Gateway integrates with existing third-party Identity Management (IM) infrastructures to perform authentication and authorization of message traffic. For example, integration is provided with LDAP, Microsoft Active Directory, Oracle Access Manager, Computer Associates SiteMinder, Entrust GetAccess, IBM Tivoli Access Manager, RSA Access Manager, and other IM products. API Gateway also interoperates with leading integration products and platforms (for example, Microsoft .NET, Oracle WebLogic, IBM WebSphere, and SAP NetWeaver).
l Scalability
API Gateway is designed to offer a highly flexible and scalable solution architecture. Administrators can deploy new API Gateway instances as needed, and deploy the same or different policies across a group of API Gateway instances as required. This enables administrators to apply polices at any point in their system. Policy enforcement points can be distributed around the network, anywhere traffic is being passed. l Pluggable pipeline
The API Gateway internal message-handling pipeline is extensible, enabling extra access control and content-filtering rules to be added with ease. Customers do not have to wait for a full product release before receiving updates of support for emerging standards and for additional adapters.
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l REST APIs
The API Gateway REST support enables you to make enterprise application data and operations available using Web APIs. For example, you can convert a legacy SOAP service, and deploy it as a REST API to be consumed by mobile apps. REST-to-SOAP conversion is easy to achieve using the API Gateway. It can expose REST APIs that map to SOAP services, dynamically creating a SOAP request based on the REST API call. l Internationalization (i18n)
API Gateway includes support for multi-byte message data and a wide range of international languages and character sets. For example, this includes requests in languages such as Chinese, German, French, Spanish, Danish, Serbian, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and so on. The API Gateway supports character sets such as UTF-8, KO-I8, UTF-16, UTF-32, ISO-8859-1, EUC-JP, US-ASCII, ISO-8859-7, and so on. Performance
API Gateway accelerates performance as follows:
l Processing offload
You can use API Gateway to offload the heavy lifting of XML from application servers, and on to the network. This frees up resources on application servers and enables applications to run faster. Axway's patented high-performance core XML acceleration engine, coupled with hardware acceleration ensures wire speed network performance.
l Acceleration engine
The core acceleration engine is integrated into API Gateway to accelerate the essential XML security primitives. This engine provides XML processing at faster levels than those performed by common JAXP implementations in application servers and other applications that sit downstream from API Gateway. The acceleration engine performs Document Object Model (DOM) processing, XPath, JSON Path, XSLT conversion, and validation of XML and JSON. l Data enrichment
API Gateway can automatically populate content in XML and JSON documents from sources such as databases. By putting this functionality on to the network infrastructure, data is automatically populated in messages before they reach the consuming services. This simplifies and accelerates applications in ESBs and application servers.
Governance
API Gateway provides the following governance features:
l Ease of deployment
API Gateway includes many features that speed up deployment. For example, certificates and private keys, necessary for XML security functions, are issued on board. API Gateway has a denyby-default defense posture, to detect and block unauthorized deployments of services. Policies Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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can be re-applied across multiple endpoints using simple menus. Policies can also be imported and exported as XML files. This minimizes time needed to replicate policies across multiple API Gateways, or to move from a staging system to production environment.
The API Gateway Appliance (physical or virtual) is a pre-hardened appliance running the API Gateway runtime. The API Gateway Appliance is a locked-down environment that requires no installation, and the system can be managed easily using a web-based management interface. l Centralized management
A web-based system management dashboard provides centralized control of API Gateways in your domain. API Gateway Manager provides quick and easy access to enable you to manage your API Gateways and services. For example, you can use monitoring and a traffic log to monitor messages sent through API Gateways in your domain. All monitoring data can be aggregated across multiple API Gateway instances in a group or domain.
l The Policy Studio tool enables administrators to add security and management policies to the API Gateway, and to manage policy versions across multiple API Gateways. This enables enterprise policy management to be brought under centralized control, rather than be managed separately on each API Gateway.
l Reporting
The API Gateway Analytics tool provides auditing and reporting on usage across all entry points and creates comprehensive reports to meet operational and compliance requirements. API Gateway Analytics also provides root cause analysis by identifying common failure points in multi-service transactions. If a service fails, and impacts the transaction as a whole, API Gateway Analytics can detect this and generate alerts. l Traffic throttling
API Gateway protects services from unanticipated traffic spikes by smoothing out traffic. It also limits clients to agreed service consumption levels in accordance with service usage agreements. This enables Axway customers to charge their clients for different levels of service usage.
Security
API Gateway includes the following security features:
l Identity mediation
Through its support for a wide range of security standards, API Gateway enables identity mediation between different identity schemes. For example, the API Gateway can authenticate external clients by user name and password, but then issue SAML tokens that are used for identity propagation to application servers. l API management
API Gateway enables you to secure Web APIs against attack and abuse. It also enables you to govern and meter access to and usage of Web APIs.API Gateway provides support for API management security standards such as OAuth. This enables you to share private resources with third-party websites without needing to provide credentials. l Application-level networking
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API Gateway routes data based on sender identity, content, and type. This enables messages to be sent to the appropriate application in a secure manner. It also enables service virtualization, where services are exposed to clients with virtual addresses to mask their actual addresses for security and application delivery. In this way, the API Gateway acts as an important control point for network traffic by shielding endpoint services from direct access.
l Audit trail
API Gateway satisfies audit requirements by enabling service transactions to be archived in a tamper-proof store for subsequent audit. Axway also facilitates privacy compliance support by allowing sensitive information, such as customer names, to be encrypted or stripped out of message traffic.
Form factors
API Gateway is available as a physical or virtual appliance, or as software on Windows, Linux, and Solaris. For more details on supported platforms, see the API Gateway Installation Guide. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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API Management tools
2 Overview
Axway API Management provides powerful easy-to-use tools that enable you to develop, deploy, and manage API solutions. This topic introduces each of the API Management tools:
API Manager
API Manager provides the following tools to enable you to virtualize and manage your APIs:
l API Manager web console
The API Manager web interface enables business or operational users (API owners) to easily register REST APIs and apply standard policies defined in the client registry to virtualize the APIs. It enables organizations and API consumers to consume APIs, browse the API Catalog, and monitor their API use. It also enables business or operational users (API administrators) to manage API clients and their consumption of APIs. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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API Manager provides a role-based interface, in which API Manager users are assigned a role (for example, API developer, API consumer, API administrator, API owner, or organization administrator). The operations that a user can perform in API Manager depend on the role they are assigned. For example, a user assigned the API developer role can register and virtualize REST APIs. API Manager is implemented as a web application that is hosted on the API Gateway. The default API Manager has Axway branding, and can be customized to use different branding. API Manager also has a management API that enables organizations to integrate with custom portals and other existing systems.
l API Gateway runtime
This is the runtime gateway that proxies the REST APIs registered in API Manager, and that enforces configured policies on client requests and responses. API Manager is a layered product running on API Gateway, and which provides all the underlying gateway capabilities. API Gateway is a prerequisite product for API Manager.
l API Catalog
This is the catalog of published APIs and their associated documentation that have been registered in API Manager. Client application developers can browse the API Catalog in API Manager and in API Portal. APIs can be tagged for classification and searching. The API Catalog is represented in Swagger format for tool integration.
l Client Registry
This is the repository of organizations and partners, API consumers, and client applications that consume the REST APIs. The Client Registry also contains the authentication credentials of the client applications, and authorization and quota policies defined at the organization and application level. The Client Registry is persisted in an Apache Cassandra backing store. Policy Studio includes API Management filters that provide read-only access to the Client Registry. These enable policy developers to develop policies that leverage the information in the Client Registry. Write access to the Client Registry must be performed using the API Portal API because data consistency checks are required. l REST API development wizard
This plug-in wizard to Policy Studio enables you to create new REST APIs that route to policies developed in Policy Studio. This enables you to develop REST APIs from non-REST back-end applications and services, integrating with them at the application and security levels. For more details, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
l API Portal web console
API Portal is a self-service web-based portal that enables API consumers to consume APIs that you have exposed using API Manager. API consumers can register and manage their user profile, register applications, manage application credentials, browse front-end APIs and supporting documentation, monitor application API usage, and access blogs, forums, and so on.
API Portal is implemented as a stand-alone CMS-based portal, which you can run using the default Axway branding and functionality, or customize and extend to meet your specific requirements and those of your target API consumers. You can deploy the internet-facing API Portal separately from the API Gateway and API Manager, with a dedicated web interface to limit potential security breaches.
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l API Portal API
This REST-based API provides the underlying capabilities supporting API Portal. This API enables the management of the data in the Client Registry and the browsing of registered APIs, with API documentation returned in Swagger format. The API Portal API enables the development of custom API consumer portals and integration with external partner management systems. For more details, see the API Manager API Management Guide.
API Portal
The main API Portal features are as follows:
l Developer self-registration and profile management
Client application developers can self-register and manage their profiles.
l Browse and test APIs in the API Catalog
The API Catalog contains the APIs that have been registered in API Manager and are available for use by client application developers. They can browse these APIs and their associated documentation, and invoke APIs using the built-in test capability.
l Create and manage applications
Application developers can register their applications that will use the APIs, and obtain API key or OAuth credentials for the application. They can also monitor their application's use of APIs using graphical real-time data sourced from API Gateway Analytics.
l Content management, blogs, and discussion forums
API Portal runs on Joomla!™, an open source CMS platform for developing and deploying web sites. You can use the content management capabilities of Joomla to store additional content, such as PDF documents and video, for display in API Portal. Joomla also provides plugins for third-party blog and discussion forums.
l Customizable to provide a branded experience
You can deploy API Portal with no customization, using the out-of-the-box Axway branding, which is suitable for internal-facing API deployments. For external-facing API deployments, you can customize API Portal to provide a branded developer portal experience. You can customize API Portal using Joomla configuration screens (upgradeable), or by editing the API Portal PHP source code (not upgradeable).
For more details, see the API Portal User Guide.
API Gateway
The central API Gateway core component is described as follows:
l Provides the runtime environment for exposing virtualized APIs and executing policies
l Implemented using combination of native code for performance and Java for extensibility
l Deployed and managed in a distributed environment of multiple servers providing scalability and availability
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l Available in the following form factors:
o Software—Windows, Linux, and Solaris
o Physical appliance
o Virtual appliance
o Axway Cloud
In enterprise organizations, the API Gateway is typically deployed in the DMZ between the public Internet and private intranet.
For more details, see API Gateway architecture on page 26.
Policy Studio
Policy Studio is graphical tool that enables you to virtualize APIs and develop policies (for example, to enforce security, compliance, and operational requirements). It includes the following features:
l Flow-chart style visualization for easy development and maintenance
l Graphical drag-and-drop user interface that enables you to drag filters (processing rules) on to the policy canvas and configure them
l Extensive library of filters to build powerful policies
The following example shows the policy canvas at the center and the filter library on the right:
A filter is an executable rule that performs a specific type of processing on a message. For example, the Message Size filter rejects messages that are greater or less than a specified size. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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There are many categories of message filters available with the API Gateway (for example, Authentication, Authorization, Content Filtering, Conversion, Trust, and so on). In Policy Studio, a filter is displayed as a block of business logic that forms part of an execution flow known as a policy.
A policy is a network of filters in which each filter is a modular unit that processes a message. A message can traverse different paths through the policy, depending on which filters succeed or fail. For example, this enables you to configure policies that route messages that pass a Schema
Validation filter to a back-end system, and route messages that pass a different Schema
Validation filter to a different system. A policy can also contain other policies, which enables you to build modular reusable policies. In Policy Studio, the policy is displayed as a path through a set of filters, as shown in the previous example.
For more details, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
API Tester
Axway API Tester is a graphical tool that enables you to test API performance, scalability, and security. For example, you can use API Tester to send an example request message to a specific API service, and view the associated response. API Tester includes the following features:
l REST API and SOAP Web services testing
l Security token insertion (for example, WS-Security and SAML)
l SOAP attachment management
l Simplified certificate and key management
l Test case creation and stress testing
For more details, see the API Tester online help.
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Configuration Studio
Configuration Studio is a graphical tool used to promote API Gateway configuration from development environments to upstream environments (for example, testing o r production). Configuration Studio enables API Gateway administrators to take configuration prepared by policy developers, and to create environment-specific configuration for deployment. Configuration Studio is designed for the skills of upstream administrators, and does not assume expertise in policy development and policy configuration.
Configuration Studio enables administrators to perform tasks such as the following:
l Open a policy package (.pol) received from a development environment.
l Specify values for environment-specific settings selected in a development environment (for example, policy, listener, and external connections).
l Import or create environment-specific certificates and keys.
l Define environment-specific users and user groups.
l Export the environment package to a file on disk. The environment package is implemented as an .env file.
For more details, see the API Gateway Deployment and Promotion Guide.
API Gateway Manager
API Gateway Manager is a Web-based administration console that enables you to perform operational monitoring, management, and troubleshooting. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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API Gateway Manager includes the following features:
l Dashboard displaying the distributed topology with a real-time overview of message traffic by domain, group, and API Gateway
l Real-time monitoring of message traffic and content, enabling easy identification of exceptions and drilling into message details
l Real-time monitoring of performance metrics by API service, system, and remote host
l Aggregated view of audit, alert, and SLA alert messages across the domain
l Centralized viewing of audit and debug logs of each API Gateway instance
l Managing dynamic system settings l Managing user roles assigned in the domain
For more details, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
API Gateway Analytics
API Gateway Analytics is a Web-based monitoring and reporting console that enables you to generate scheduled reports and analyze API use in multiple API Gateways across the domain.
API Gateway Analytics includes the following features:
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l Web-based console that monitors and reports on all API Gateways in the domain (multiple API Gateways are shown on the left in the diagram)
l Reporting over an extended time period rather than immediate operational monitoring
l Analysis of what APIs are used, how often APIs are used, when APIs are used, and who is using APIs
l Scheduled reports in PDF format can be emailed to specific users
For more details, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
Key Property Store
The API Gateway Key Property Store (KPS) is used to store configuration parameters that are dynamically passed into policies at runtime. This enables policy configuration data to be managed directly by business or operational users at runtime, and allows dynamic change of policy behavior. The KPS includes the following features:
l Policies look up configuration data in the KPS at runtime to dynamically determine behavior
l Policies developed in the Policy Studio use a selector syntax to specify context-sensitive lookup of policy configuration data at runtime from the KPS (for example, ${kps.CustomerProfiles
[JoeBloggs].age} obtains the age of the specified customer)
l Provides a cached read-frequently, write occasionally cache with backing stores
l Policy-specific UIs can be developed for business or operational users to manage the policy configuration data in the KPS
For more details, see the API Gateway Key Property Store User Guide.
Embedded Apache ActiveMQ
API Gateway can act as a native Java Message Service (JMS) provider by embedding Apache ActiveMQ. This enables the API Gateway to integrate external facing REST APIs and SOAP Web services with back-end systems and applications using reliable, asynchronous messaging. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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For internal integration and ESB-style projects, API Gateway provides a messaging and mediation solution to route and transform messages flowing between applications and services. In addition, JMS queues hosted on the embedded ActiveMQ can be used by API Gateway policies to provide asynchronous policy behavior. An ActiveMQ broker is embedded in each API Gateway instance, with brokers organized by API Gateway groups. An active/active deployment is supported to ensure high availability of the messaging infrastructure, with an external shared file system used for the persistent message store. Queue and topic management is integrated into the API Gateway Manager web console, which enables the API administrator to view queues and topics, messages on queues, and individual message contents. For example:
The API Gateway installation includes the ActiveMQ Java JMS 1.1 client library, which applications can use to send and receives message to and from the queues and topics hosted on the embedded ActiveMQ broker. In addition, ActiveMQ clients that use the OpenWire protocol (ActiveMQ default transport protocol) can interact with the embedded broker. For more details, seehttp://activemq.apache.org/openwire.html.
For details on how to manage ActiveMQ brokers embedded in API Gateway, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
LDAP user repository
The API Management reference solution includes the following sets of users:
l API Gateway admin users
These include administrative system operators that monitor and manage the API Gateway infrastructure at runtime. These are internal users.
l API Manager and API Portal users
These include the following:
o API administrators that register APIs and manage partner consumption of APIs. These are internal users.
o API owners that register APIs. These are internal users.
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o API consumers (client application developers) that log on to the API Portal to browse and consume APIs. These can be internal or external users.
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API Gateway architecture
3 Overview
API Gateway supports a distributed architecture based on groups of API Gateways in an administrative domain. The benefits of this architecture include the following:
l Managing a group of API Gateways as a single unit
l Solution partitioning by group
l Load balancing, scalability, and availability across the group
l Virtualization by separating logical and physical architectures—decoupling what is built from the physical architecture that runs it to enable infrastructure flexibility and scalability
l Running multiple isolated API applications on shared virtualized infrastructure
l Managing the domain based on administrative boundaries
API Gateway groups
An API Gateway group consists of one or more API Gateway instances that are managed as a unit and run the same configuration to virtualize the same APIs and execute the same policies. API Gateway groups enable you to organize API Gateway instances by solution type and manage them as a single entity. The following diagram shows two API Gateway groups, each consisting of two API Gateway instances, distributed across two different host machines. Each API Gateway instance in the same group runs the same configuration to distribute the APIs and policies across both hosts for scalability and availability. Both groups run different configurations to virtualize different APIs, and run different policies that manage different solutions:
This group-based architecture is described as follows:
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l API Gateways are deployed on the host machines.
l API Gateways are organized into groups of multiple API Gateways. A group must contain at least one API Gateway.
l All API Gateways in the group run the same configuration to virtualize the same APIs and execute the same policies. Partitioning of APIs and policies into different configurations should be performed by solution type.
l Groups span multiple host machines to provide availability, scalability, and load balancing.
l Management operations are performed on groups. For example:
o Aggregating monitoring information from API Gateways in the group
o Deploying API and policy configurations to all API Gateways in the group
Note
Multiple API Gateways can run on the same host machine. However, each API Gateway would be in a different group and run a different configuration. There is no benefit to running multiple API Gateways in the same group on a single host machine.
API Gateway domains
An API Gateway domain is a distinct administrative entity that consists of multiple groups spanning multiple host machines. Domains are scoped on the boundaries of administrative control, which may be organizational or geographical. Multiple domains are possible based on different boundaries of administrative control. For example, you might have different domains for development and production environments, or different domains for each business unit.
Simple API Gateway domain
The following diagram shows the deployment of the two groups from the previous example in the context of a domain:
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This domain-based architecture is described as follows:
l The Admin Node Manager in the domain is the central administration server for the entire domain, and is responsible for performing all management operations across the domain.
l The Node Manager (NM) on each machine manages all the local API Gateways on that machine, regardless of the group they are in. This includes the following:
o Collecting monitoring information
o Managing dynamic settings
o Deploying API and policy configurations
l In addition to managing the local API Gateways on its host, the Admin Node Manager communicates with the NMs to perform management operations across the domain.
l Node Managers only communicate with the Admin Node Manager.
l The API Gateway Manager and Policy Studio tools connect to the Admin Node Manager.
l Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) for administrative users is across the domain. For example, an API Gateway administrator can log into API Gateway Manager and manage all API Gateways and groups in the domain.
l There is a single API Gateway Analytics database in a domain. All API Gateways record analytics information in this single database.
Note
A single Admin Node Manager is deployed in the domain by default. However, you must configure at least two Admin Node Managers for high availability. For more details, see the API Gateway Administrator Guide.
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Complex API Gateway domain
The following diagram shows a more complex domain with three groups distributed across four host machines:
Solution partitioning
API Gateway groups enable you to partition your APIs and policies by solution type. Partitioned APIs and policies associated with specific solutions are implemented in different API Gateway configurations, which are deployed to different groups and managed independently.
The following diagram shows an example API Gateway solution partitioned into groups:
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Virtualization
The API Gateway group and domain-based architecture enables virtualization by separating logical and physical architectures. The APIs and policies that are built and packaged into API Gateway configurations are decoupled from the physical architecture that they run, which provides flexibility and scalability of infrastructure.
Environment topology
The following diagram shows a typical environment topology that includes separate domains for each environment:
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In this context, promotion refers to moving API Gateway configuration between environments and ensuring that environment-specific settings are properly configured. Deployment refers to the physical act of pushing configuration to an API Gateway instance (for example, using Policy Studio). For details on how to promote between environments, see the API Gateway Deployment and Promotion Guide.
Availability, load balancing, and scalability
Availability and horizontal scalability is achieved by deploying multiple API Gateways on multiple hosts and load balancing across them using a standard load balancer. The API Gateway imposes no special requirements on load balancers. Loads are balanced on a number of characteristics including the response time or system load. API Gateways being load balanced must run the same configuration to virtualize the same APIs and execute the same policies. If multiple groups are deployed, load balancing should be across groups also. For example, the following diagram shows load balancing across two groups of API Gateways deployed on two hosts:
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The execution of policies is stateless, and the route that a message takes has no bearing on its processing. No session data is created, so there is no need to replicate session state across API Gateways. If the policies use caches and counters, these should be configured to use the distributed cache shared by all API Gateways. For more details on caching, see the API Gateway Policy Developer Guide.
For details on API Gateway Appliance clustering and failover, see the API Gateway Appliance Installation and Administration Guide.
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API Gateway documentation
set
4 Go to Axway Sphere at https://support.axway.com to find all documentation for this product version.
API Gateway documentation
The API Gateway documentation set includes the following guides:
l API Gateway Installation Guide
Describes how to install API Gateway components on all platforms and how to upgrade API Gateway versions.
l API Gateway Concepts Guide
Provides an overview of the API Gateway components, tools, and architecture.
l API Gateway Administrator Guide
Describes how to configure and manage an API Gateway domain.
l API Gateway Policy Developer Guide
Describes the main API Gateway features (for example, all policies, filters, configuration options and so on), and how to configure them using the Policy Studio graphical tool.
l API Gateway Deployment and Promotion Guide
Describes how to promote and deploy API Gateway configuration between different environments (for example, development, testing, and production).
l API Gateway OAuth User Guide
Describes how to configure API Gateway for OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect.
l API Gateway Developer Guide
Describes how to extend, leverage, and customize API Gateway.
l API Gateway Key Property Store User Guide
Describes how to use the Key Property Store (KPS) to configure and manage data referenced from policies running on API Gateway.
l API Gateway PassPort Interoperability Guide
Describes how to configure API Gateway and Axway PassPort to work together.
l API Gateway Sentinel Interoperability Guide
Describes how to configure API Gateway and Axway Sentinel to work together.
l API Gateway Validation Authority Interoperability Guide
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4 API Gateway documentation set
Describes how to configure API Gateway and Axway Validation Authority to work together.
l API Gateway Appliance Installation and Administration Guide
Describes how to install, configure, and administer the API Gateway Appliance.
l API Gateway Security Guide
Describes how to strengthen the security of API Gateway.
API Manager and API Portal documentation
The API Manager and API Portal documentation set includes the following guides:
l API Manager API Management Guide
Describes how to use the API management features available separately in API Manager. API Manager is an additional licensable layered product running on API Gateway.
l API Portal User Guide
Describes how to install, customize, and use the client application developer features available separately in API Portal. API Portal is an additional licensable layered product running on API Gateway. Axway API Gateway 7.4.1
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Glossary
Admin Node Manager
API Gateway component responsible for managing API Gateway instances in a domain. For example, this includes collecting monitoring information, managing dynamic settings, and deploying API and policy configuration. The Admin Node Manager must be running to use the API Gateway management tools that connect to it (for example, Policy Studio and API Gateway Manager).
API
Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of business services that an enterprise can expose to external customers, partners, or employees using a range of different technologies on a range of different devices. For example, APIs typically support HTTP requests and JSON or XML responses to enable mobile client applications.
API Catalog
Contains the APIs that have been registered in API Manager and are available for use by client application developers. They can browse these APIs and their associated documentation, and invoke APIs using the built-in test capability.
API Gateway
Server-side application that manages, delivers, and secures APIs. API Gateway provides services such as API transformation, control and governance, security, monitoring, development lifecycle, and administration.
API Manager
Web-based API administration and partner management tool that is layered on API Gateway. API administrators use API Manager to administer the managed APIs that are exposed to API consumers.
API Portal
Self-service developer portal that enables client application developers to browse and consume APIs for use in their applications.
B2B
Business-to-Business
B2C
Business-to-Consumer
B2E
Business-to-Employee
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Glossary
Base64
Method of encoding 8-bit characters as ASCII printable characters. It is typically used to encode binary data so that it may be sent over text-based protocols such as HTTP and SMTP. Base64 is a scheme where 3 bytes are concatenated, and split to form 4 groups of 6-bits each. Each 6bits is translated to an encoded printable ASCII character, using a table lookup. The specification is described in RFC 2045.
CA
Certificate Authority (CA) issues digital certificates (especially X.509 certificates), and vouches for the binding between the data items in a certificate.
cacerts
File used to keep the root certificates of signing authorities. This is typically stored in ..\jre\lib\security\cacerts. Each entry is identified by a unique alias, and is a key entry or a certificate entry. Key entries consist of a key pair, and certificate entries consist of just a certificate. Because you implicitly trust all CAs in the cacerts file for code signing and verification, you must manage the cacerts file carefully. The cacerts file should contain only certificates of the CAs you trust.
CMS
Content Management System
CRL
Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a signed list indicating a set of certificates that are no longer considered valid by the certificate issuer. CRLs may be used to identify revoked public-key certificates or attribute certificates, and may represent revocation of certificates issued to authorities or to users. The term CRL is also commonly used as a generic term applying to different types of revocation lists.
DName
Distinguished Name (DName or DN) is an identifier that uniquely represents an object in the X.500 Directory Information Tree (DIT). A DName a set of attribute values that identify the path leading from the base of the DIT to the object that is named. An X.509 public-key certificate or CRL contains a DName that identifies its issuer, and an X.509 attribute certificate contains a DN or other form of name that identifies its subject.
Domain
Multiple groups of API Gateways spanning multiple host machines. An API Gateway domain is a distinct administrative entity, which is managed separately by tools such as API Gateway Manager and API Gateway Analytics.
ERP
Enterprise Resource Planning
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Glossary
Filter
Executable rule that performs a specific type of processing on a message. For example, the Message Size filter rejects messages that are greater or less than a specified size. Many categories of message filters are available with API Gateway (for example, Authentication, Authorization, Content filtering, Conversion, Trust, and so on). In Policy Studio, a filter is displayed as a block of business logic that forms part of an execution flow known as a policy.
Group
One or more API Gateway instances that are managed as a unit and run the same configuration to virtualize the same APIs and execute the same policies. API Gateway groups enable you to organize API Gateway instances by solution type and manage them as a single entity.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol for distributed hypermedia systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. For more details, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol.
HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a protocol for secure communication over a computer network, and which is widely deployed on the Internet. It is the result of layering HTTP on top of the SSL/TLS protocol. For more details, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_Secure.
JMS
Java Message Service (JMS) is a messaging standard that enables application components based on Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables communication between different components of a distributed application to be loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous. For more details, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_Message_Service.
JSON
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a lightweight data-interchange format, which is easy for humans to read and write, and easy for machines to parse and generate. JSON is based on a subset of the JavaScript programming language. Its text format is programming language independent, but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C family of languages (for example, C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, and Python). For more details, see http://www.json.org.
JSON Path
JSON Path enables you to locate and process specific parts of a JSON document. It is available in programming languages such as JavaScript, Java, Python and PHP. For more details, see the JSON specification.
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Glossary
Keystore
The keystore file of the JDK contains your public and private keys. It has a file name of .keystore (leading dot makes the file read-only on Unix). It is stored in PKCS #12 format, contains both public and private keys, and is protected by a passphrase.
KPS
Key Property Store (KPS) is a data management component in the API Gateway. Data in a KPS table is assumed to be read frequently and seldom written, and can be changed without incurring an API Gateway service outage. KPS tables are shared across an API Gateway group.
LDAP
LDAP is a lightweight version of Directory Access Protocol (DAP), which is part of X.500, a standard for directory services in a network. An LDAP directory stores information on resources in a hierarchical fashion, which makes data retrieval very efficient.
Node Manager
API Gateway component responsible for managing API Gateway instances on a host machine. There must be one Node Manager on each managed host machine. A single Admin Node Manager communicates with all Node Managers in a domain to perform management operations.
OCSP
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an automated certificate checking network protocol. A client will query the OCSP responder for the status of a certificate. The responder returns whether the certificate is still trusted by the CA that issued it.
PEM
Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) was originally intended for securing email using various encryption techniques. Its scope widened for use in a broader range of applications, such as Web servers. Its format is essentially a base64-encoded certificate wrapped in BEGIN CERTIFCATE and END CERTIFICATE directives.
PKCS#12
Standard for storing private keys and X.509 certificates securely (for example, in a .p12 file).
Policy
Network of API Gateway filters in which each filter is a modular unit that processes a message. Messages can traverse different paths through the policy, depending on which filters succeed or fail. For example, you could configure policies routing messages that pass a Schema Validation filter to a back-end system, and routing messages that pass a different Schema Validation filter to another system. A policy can also contain other policies, which enables you to build modular reusable policies.
Private key
Secret component of a pair of cryptographic keys used for asymmetric cryptography.
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Glossary
Public key
Publicly-disclosed component of a pair of cryptographic keys used for asymmetric cryptography.
RBAC
Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) restricts system access to authorized users based on assigned roles. Permissions to perform specific system operations are assigned to specific roles, and system users are granted permission to perform specific operations only through their roles. This simplifies system administration because users do not need to be assigned permissions directly, and instead acquire them through their assigned roles.
REST
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style for building large-scale distributed software that uses the technologies and protocols of the World Wide Web (for example, JSON/XML and HTTP). For more details, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer.
SAML
Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an XML standard for establishing trust between entities. SAML assertions contain identity information about users (authentication assertions), and information about user access permissions of (authorization assertions). When a user is authenticated at a site, the site issues a SAML authentication assertion to the user. The user can use this assertion in requests at other affiliated sites. These sites need only check the details in the authentication assertion to authenticate the user. In this way, SAML allows authentication and authorization information to be shared between different sites.
SCM
Supply Chain Management
Selector
Special syntax that enables API Gateway configuration settings to be evaluated and expanded at runtime based on metadata values (for example, from a KPS, message attribute, or environment variable).
Signature
Value computed with a cryptographic algorithm and added to a data object in such a way that any recipient of the data can use the signature to verify the data's origin and integrity.
SOAP
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is an XML-based object invocation protocol. SOAP was originally developed for distributed applications to communicate over HTTP and corporate firewalls. SOAP defines the use of XML and HTTP to access services, objects, and servers in a platform-independent way. SOAP is a wire protocol that can be used to facilitate highly ultradistributed architecture. For more details, see the SOAP specification.
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Glossary
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an encrypted communication protocol for sending information securely across the Internet. It sits just above the transport layer, and below the application layer and transparently handles the encryption and decryption of data when a client establishes a secure connection to the server. It optionally provides peer entity authentication between client and server.
TLS
Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the successor to SSL 3.0. Like SSL, it allows applications to communicate over a secure channel.
UDDI
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) is an XML-based lookup service for locating Web services on the Internet. For more details, see the UDDI standard.
URI
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a platform-independent way to specify a file or resource on the Web. Strictly speaking, every URL is also a URI, but not every URI is also a URL. For more details on URI formats, see RFC 2396 and RFC 2732.
WSDL
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. Operations and messages are described abstractly, and bound to a concrete network protocol and message format to define an endpoint. Related concrete endpoints are combined into abstract endpoints (services). WSDL is extensible to allow description of endpoints and messages regardless of what message formats or network protocols are used. For more details, see the WSDL specification.
X.509
Standard that defines the contents and data format of a public key certificate.
XKMS
XML Key Management Specification (XKMS) uses XML to provide key management services so that a Web service can query the trustworthiness of a user's certificate over the Internet. XKMS aims to simplify application building by separating digital-signature handling and encryption from the applications themselves. For more details, see the XML Key Management specification.
XML
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of Structured General Markup Language (SGML). Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in a similar way to HTML. See the XML Specification for more details.
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Glossary
XPath
XML Path (XPath) is a language that describes how to locate and process specific parts of an XML document. For more details, see the XML Path Language specification.
XSL
XML Stylesheet Language (XSL) is used to convert XML documents into different formats, the most common of which is HTML. In a typical scenario, an XML document references an XSL stylesheet, which defines how the XML elements of the document should be displayed as HTML. This enables a clear separation of content and presentation.
XSLT
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) is used to convert XML documents into other XML documents or other formats ( for example, HTML, plain text, or XSL Formatting objects).
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