Civils Aeronautics Bureau - Fundamentals of

Civils Aeronautics Bureau - Fundamentals of
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Fundamentals
of ElementaryFlight
ManeuYers
Civil Aeronaudcs Bulletin No. 82
TABTE OF COI{TENTS
llucollcr
Familiarization with the elrplane----Sterting the engine--raxllngEffect of the coutrols- Straight ond level flight,-------Turns------Coordination exercises (elementary)Normal climbe-..----\9"+gl glides-------U l r m b r n gt u r D s - - - _ - - - Glidingturne------C,ontrdencebuilding tmneuverl--Coordination erercises (advanced)--Seriesof stalls-------Reetangular sourse------Take-offs---gtmggg* approach---I]8norngs____
s-turns &crossI road--------l80{eg$e sido spproach
l8(ldegreeoverhgqdappruch---Series_of
eights (elementaryNo I and No. D---------Fgrgedlanjlings-ontake.ofi----90degreeforcedlandi_ngs
1_8GdegreeforeedlsndingB----Normalapins-------Accidentatspins--:--------Croas-wind tskeoffs----S t e e pt u r n s - - Cross-wind landings----Serie of-eights (elementaryNo.3)------a,roundpylons------llEigltsll
"Eights" on pylons---S e r i e so f t u r n s - - - - - - - T2Gdegreesteep turns (maximum bank)------Spirals------P o w e rl a n d i n g s - - - - - - - - - - - Forward'slips
Drdeeups-^_^-_
'lpraggrng" are&s-------Check flights-
no,
I
8
4
6
6
?
8
9
_ _ _ _ _ _l 0
-------ll
--------11l
-----13
------t4
--- ls
--- 16
______ t7
____-______- 19
----- m
--------2f
------------Xl
---------n
- --- 24
----------25
-------26
------------n
--- 2g
-------------29
---- m
------------tt
gA
----------gg
----------- g4
-------As
g6
--------------------------g7
--- Ag
___ 89
---- 40
--- 4l
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
1. FAMILIARIZATION WITH THE AIRPI,ANE
Now just sit in the plane and familiarize yourself with everytf,ins around vou.
Notice the position of the tbiottle and the
switches. In most planes. thoy are to vour
left. Rest your feei on ihe rudder n6dals
and experiment with their action. G'et tne
feel of the stick. Don't hesitateto sit there
for 10 to 15 minutes. The inside of the
plane should become as familiar to you as
lhe inside of your car. Locato the instruments in their various positions on the instrument ppngl: The tachometer(R.P.II.'s),
air-speed indicator, oil temperature, etc.
Note the full "ON" and "OFF" position
of the Fuel Shut-Off Valve and Carburetor
Heat Controls. Your inshuctor will point them out to you and erplain their functions. Don't
be afraid to ask questions. It rvould be a good idea to try to diaw from memory, later, the
various instrumentsin their correct positions.
sEcItoN
I
BASIC
TLYING
2. STARTING THE ENGINE
THIS IS THE PROCEDURE THAT YOU MUST ALWAYS FOLLOW WHEN YOU STAR,T THE ENGINE
ON IOUR PLAND.
1. Make sure that your plane is clear of other planes. Head it so that it rrorr't blon'dust
on spectators, other, planes, or into the hangar. The dust and dirt raised by your propeller
blastcan damageother planes.
2. Place blocks under the wheels. It is dangerousfor the plale to start, moving rvhen
you ere unprepared. Remember,too, that someonehas to spin the propeller to sti,rt the
enginefor-;;ou,an-dthf t hc w'ill be in tl-rcpath of the plane rvhenthe engine
-yourstarts. Spinnins
thc propeller by hand is called "propping." Always make sure that
plano is blockefi
(or "chocked") securelybeforestartilg the engineand also when you leave it- alter a fiight.
3. Run a line inspe-ctionof the airplane-.- -4.line inspectionis an inspectionof the planc
to seethat it is airworthy. - Thero are available-printedcheck sheets(l'orm ACA 520)-that
list all points to be inspected (control cables,landing gear, spark plug connections,etc.).'
Your instructor will explain this in more detail. Even though a line inspcetion may
have alreaSy !ee.1 Im by sorneoneelse,do it yourself.- _Youcan'i always courit on having
someoneelse do it for you-and ho may not be as careful as you in checking,sinco he's noT
going to fly the plane.
can, and olten will,
.4. Check the gas_andoil supply. -Never rely on_thegas gages;_they
regrsterincorlectly... l,ook in tho tanks yourself. -Replaie gas and oil tanl caps securely.
An empty ga,sor oil tank is a miserableexiuse for a forc'edlanf,ing-and it's a freqirent reason.
6. Fasten your safety belt as soon as you get
in the plane. Ittake this a firm habit,
even.if you're j.yst going to warm up.the engine. On the few occasionswhen you really need
I Delt,you don t nave tlrne to las[en rt.
. 6. Next,.see-that tho Gas Shut-Ofr Yal-veis in the full ON position,that both the ignition
switches are in the full OFF position, and that the throttle is fully ctos6d (Pulled All thi Way
Back).
"prop" the engine yourself while attempting
to handle the throttle at
- 7. Never try_to
the same time. Have somecompetentperson,such as a mec[anic, ,'prop,, it for you. You
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
can't be ln lwo plaeesat-once, and you certainly can't do.a good job of bolh things.
Civil
"while
Air Regulationsrequiro that a competent pemon must be in fhe plane at, all times
tho
engino is running. Don't violate a civil air regulation.
_ 8. Ke_epthe. stick back, so that when the engine starts, the airplane's tail will stay on
the ground. Holding the stick back keepsthe ele-vatorsraised, and ihe air stream from the
propeller will forco tho tail down.
9. "Propping" the engine: The person "propping" the cngine for you will call "Ofr."
Make_sure,ag_qinthat both srvitches &ro Off, and &nswer "Of."
Then he will probably
turn the propellcr over & few times to prime the engine (draw gasinto the cylinders),and then
call "Contact." You will &nsrver"Contact" and then put the srvitchesin the ON position.
When he v'ants the switchesOFF, he will call "OFF." You turn thern OFF and theri &nswer
"OFF."- It's important that you repeat all of his instructions so he can
be sure that you
haye understoodthem.
"Conlqct" before you turn the switcheson; and you always
No{." that you always_ANSTVER
TURN the switchesOFF, before you ANSWER "OFF."
Do not talk to any personother than the person "propping" the engine for you while starting
the engine.
10. Handle the throttle gently. While the engino is being turned over to start it, the
throttle is tept closed. Sometimes,it is very slightly opened-this is called "cracking" the
throttle. Just, as the engino starts, open the throttle a little to "catch" it. With & little
practice, you'Il learn how to do this well and smoothly, so that tho mechanicwon't have to
ryork too long to starl your engine.
11. Check the oil pressureimmediately after the engine has started. If the oil pressure
gage does not register the correct pressure in a few seconds,stop the engine and have a
mechanic locate the trouble.
12. Warm up the engine at about 1000 R. P. M. or the proper speed for the particular
engine on your plane. This means that the propeller is rotatiag at tho rate of L000reaolutions.7ter minute .(R. q. M.) as ildicated by the tachometer. At this speed,the oil pump is
working efficiently and the propeller is blowing enoughair past the cylindcrs to prer:ent1ho
enginefrom overheating. You'll damagethe engineif you run it at a higher speedbeforothe
oil has reachedits proper opcrating temperature. Never let the engino idle (run rvith the
throttle closed)for any length of time, becausethe propellerma,ynot circulate enoughair at
this speedto cool the engineproperly. It can overheat dangerously,under these conditions,
beforoit registerson the oil temperaturegago and warns you;
13. Run your engine on each magneto separatelyfor a check. The engineon the plane
has "twin ignition," or "dual ignition." This meansthat there are tu-o spark plugs on each
cvlindcr. Each sct of spark plugs gets its spark Irom a separatemagneto. Theie are usually
two ignition srvitchesin the plane-one for each rnagneto. (On many plancs tho two magnctoswill bo controlledby a singlefour-positionswitchmarked:"OFF, I{ag 1, I\Iag 2, BOTH").
When both magnetosare ofl, the enginestops.
If the fuII throttle engino R. P. IU. on either magneto alone is 75 R. P. tr{. less than
on both, somethingis wrong. Havo the enginecheckedby one of the mechanics.
14. After the engine warms up, hold the stick back and open the throttle fully, for a
moment, to chcck if tho engineis deliveringmaximum power. Check tho engineIdIe R.P.IvI.
your i-nstructorwhat is the proper tachometerreading (R.P.M.) for your partr'ind out fronr "engine
under theso conditirjns. Check tho other inltruments,'too:-Oil t-emticular type of
perature]bil pt"..,itu, ca,rburetorheat, eto., to make sure that they registerwithin the proper
opcrating Iimits (ask your instructor about this).
Under certain conditions of ignition trouble causing engine failure during flight you will
find that the engine will function normally on the good magneto turned on alone but when
both magnetosaie on, or the defectivemagnetoon alone,the enginewill not function normally.
Rememb-erthis and if you errerencounterenginetrouble during flight, First try the engine on
each magneto separately,by switching from one magneto to the other and note any change
in engine R. P. M.
. \ . ' . . ]
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
3. TAXIING
When taxiing, look for other airplanes gnd Eound obshuctionsl Your visibility ie
extremely li'r!'ited when on the ground. Be ca,refulthat the blast of air from your propeller
(the "pr6p-blast") doesn't blow?ust on spectators,or endangerother airplanesbn thi ground
behind vou.
Thl rudder ts the most lmportant control rhen taxiing. The plane's movomonts aro
eontrolled by the pressureof the air as it movs past the control gurlaceeof the plane (tho
elevators, rudder, and ailerons). On tho ground, most of the pressureon the controls is
urerted by the streamsof air from the propeller. Thus the aileronearo ineffectivesinee tho
"prop-blast" doesnot reach them. Furthermore, since tho plane is not movi:rg through the
air and the "prop-blast" alone afrectsthe controls,you will find that you need a much greater
movement of tho rudder pedals to maneuver tho plane than you do when the plano is flying.
While taxiing follorv an "S"-shaped coursefrom time to time so that you can seewhat is
directly aheadof the planc. If there is dangerof collision,turn ofi the switches. A revoh'ing
propellercausesmoro damagethan a still one.
If your training plane has a steerable tail-wheel, the rudder control will be rather sti{I
while the plano is on tho ground. Moro pressurebut less movement of the ruddcr pedals
wili be used in taxiing tban-if directional control is dcpendent on tho rudder alone.
If the plane has brakes, they are usedto control tho plane when it is moving slowlyon the
ground. The brahepedals'areusuallylocatedjust belori the mdder pedals,roi aro <iperatcd
with your heels. To stop, both right and left brakes aro prossedsiruultaneously. To turn
right, the right brake is used. To turn lcft, the left brake is used.
,All pressureshould be applied gently. Never lrsoyour brakeswhen taking ofr or landing.
(Unlessin an emergcncy.) Never turn with one wheel stationary.
Keep your tail down while taxiing. In taxiing, the stick is used to keep the tail on tho
ground. \4rhentaxiing into the wind (up wind) the elevatorsshould be raisod (by holding the
itick bnck) so that a Judden gust of thri wind will serve only to hold the tail ori the gro*und.
Tllen taxiing with tho wind (down v'ind) the elevatorsshould be lowered (by holding the stick
foru'ard) so that a suddengust of wind from behind the airplanewill force the tail down.
IVhen taxiing into the wind (Up t'ind), keep the stick back of neutral.
4
SECTIONI
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
When taxiing with the wind (Down Wind) keep the stick forward of neutral.
Use the throttle gently. In taxiing, the ongine should-be kept running only lost e1-o_ggh
slowly, about'as fast as you could walk acrossthe ground. \\hen
to lieep the plane moiins-necessery
to increasetho ongineR. P. I\'I. to start the plane nroving,
tho nlane is it rest, it ie
bugbnce it is rolling, the engineR. f. U. should be reduccd. Rest your hand lightly on the
throttle at all times.
Before taking off, check the sir and ground in all directions for incoqing trafficll making
a completeturn t*othe right. Incoming [raffic circlosto the left around the field. By.turning
to tho right you got the-best possibleview of the approachesto the field. Landing airplanes
turn.your
have the'rig[t of way. If, as you check.your traffig, ygu seoa plane.appr-oaching,
olane facini tho traffic as a signal to the pilot who is landing that you intend to wait for him to
land. (If iour ficld rules are-such that, incoming traffio circles to the right, your turn on tho
ground beforstake-ofi should be to the left.)
Thoroushlv familiarize yourself with local field rules and traffic patterns. After landing,
make a co*ileie turn to the left or right (accordingto local field rules) and check for air and
ground traffi.c before taxiing back to tCke ofi, or up to the hangar.
WHEN TAXIING-A STIFFNECK Ig BETTEB
MAKE IT A RULETO LOOK IN LL DIBDCTIONS
THAN A BBOKEN NDCK
+
+
I
r pedals move the rudder.
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
4. EFFECT OF THE CONTROLS
. .,To $PPreciatefully the efiect of the-controls, m-akeBu-reyou are seated comfortably
in tle plane and that you can operate all the controls to their fullest extent. When the
airplane is in level flighi, the contiol eurfaces
(the ailerons,elevators,and rudder) tend to
"streamline" themselvoswith
the srufacesto
which they are attached. That is, due to
th_epressureof tho air flowing over them, the
ailerons will Iie flush with 1or in the eame
plane as) the stabilizer,and'the rudder will
lie flush with the vertical tail fin. Therefore,
with the plane in level flight, tho stick and
rudder will assumethe "neutral" posiCion,
even if the pilot takes his hands and feet ofi
the controls.
The planeismaneuveredby movingthese
control surfacesout of 1[is sheamlineii neutral position. This is dono by exerCinspressure on the controls (the stilk and iudder
pedals),moving them arvayfrom the neutral
position. Hold the stick betweenthe thumb
an4 fingersof your right hand, and rest the
balls of your feet on the rudder pedals,with
your heelson the floor.
The plane is maneuvered by exerting
steady pressure on the controls, never bf
quick rough movements.
Think of yourself as the point around
which the plane pivots when maneuvered.
Forward pressureon the stick pushesthe
nose of the plane away from you, br toward
the-landinggear. Back pressirre6n the stick
pulls the noseof the plano toward your head.
Side pressure on the stick causesthe
plane to roll or bank in the direction of the
pressure. That is, pressureon the stick to the
right lowers the right nirs aud raises the
leTt wing. Pressure-on the"stick to the left
lorversthe left wing and raisesthe right wing.
Pressureon the rudder pedalcausesthe
nose of the plane to swing in the direction
of the pressure,thereforo,iight rudder pres6ure c&usesthe nose of the plane to swing
toward the right wins 1ip. Iift rudder nresstraLion of stability.
sure has the oppositJefrect.
These relationshipshold lrrespectiveof the positionof the plane in relation to the horizon
or ground.
The throttle is the eontrol whic.b
.regulates the amount of fuel gor4g to your engine. It
should berhandled.g-ently,silco eudden
movementsof this controf p"i u"dul-ioadE o" the
engrneor flood it with gas. Learn to fly with your hand on the throttl6 at all times so that you
can use it promptly in Caseof emergency.
The stabilizer control, usually a crank is used to adjust the fore and aft balanceof the
plane. If the plane tends to be frnose-heavy",crank th6 stabilirei-coil;al;;k
io" "onnt",
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
6
clockwise). This holds the nosein a highgr position.- If the planc
tends t,o bo "teil-heevy" ctank the stabilizer control forward (or
clochwise) until the plaie flies lovol without forward or back pressure
being exerted on the etick.
Note the position of the magneto switches. The engine should
be able to opbrate on either one of the mngnetos' Normally, of
courso,it is operated on both for maximum officiencyand safety.
Note the positionof the gasolineShut-Ofi valve. Always check
this valve before taking oft, to be certain it is in the FUL[, ON
position. Check it aga-inobcasionally during flight, to mako sure
lhat vibration hasn't partially closedit.
Note the carburetor heater control. This tums on the carburetor
heater which heats tho air soins into the carburetor intake. Whenever the engineis idling as ii a glide, it is necessarythat the carburetor
heater be in the "on'r position. "Mako it a rule to turn on your
carburetor heat beforo closing your throttle." Some enginesalso
need carburetor heat on take-olf. Aek your instructor about the
engine in your training plane.
Under certain conditions of temperature and humidity it may
be necessarvto turn vour carburetorhoat on Severalminuteg before
closing the-throttle to eliminate engineidling too slow nnd possible
"quitting," caused by condensationof moisturs or ice felming in
tho carburetor.
The stick or control
e levator.
colurnn moves the
The stick
or wheel moves the aileron
7
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
5. STRAIGHTAND LEVEL FLIGHT
Straight and level flying is one of the fundamentsl msneuyers, and in certain respec0s,
one of the most difficult. Flytqg
-wingsstraight and level mearrg, of oourso, that the plane is
lev-el,
flying horizontally, with the
a-nd-in a straighl'line across the-ground.
Later on, the straight and level attitude of
"sensed." At first, howyour
-ever,plano will be
teeping the plane flying straight and
level is a matter of a number of mechanical
adjustments.
Your instructor will demonstratestraight
and Ievel flight af cruising speed,,since tho
relationshipsare not the samoat other speeds.
Note the position of the nose of the plane
in relation to the horizon. UsuaIIy it is posaible to pick out some referencepoint on the
noseof the plane (a cylinder, the fas cap, etc.)
which is even with the horizon when the
plane is flying level. During the demonstration, find some reference point on tho
plane or engino that seemsto bo on the horizon..to gou_-in your positi,on, when flying
etraisht and level.
frotethat the undersi4gof th.e.wing
tip
Beems to fbrm a line. When this line is
parallel with the horizon you a,roflying level.
Look out of both sides of the plane and
note that there is the same amount of sky
under each wing tip. This indicates that
your wings are level.
To naintain a straight path over the
ground, pick out a landmark on your line of
flight, and fly toward it. As you reach the
first landmark, pick out another still farther
on, and fly toward it. In still air, little or
no pressureon the controls should be necessary when flying straight and level. 'rTrim"
your plane by adjusting the stabilizer control
so tho plano flies level without pressuro on
the stick.
Don't fight the controls. If a sudden
zust of air blows tho plane ofr its straiEht and
l-evelfliEht, it will redurn to straisht aid level
flight o-f ils own accord eventu"iliy. However, by gently coordinated pressuroon the %
controls, you cen-speedup its rcturr to straight and level flight.
;i; n"'l$; ;;k"'il4;;i;tit
;;;; il ffi ;;y*;i.
But don't be in too much
"droop." You may tend to fly with your right
. B-ecareful that you don't let either wing
you control the stick wit_f,ygur iight hand, you may haio a teirdencf to
yrgg l-ow. -S_*"_".
hold- the stick slightly to the right. A helpful praclice exerciie to ofercome this tend6ncy
follows:. 5j6 it the_pline on the fround. _K6epybgq eye on the ailerons, and practice pullin!;
the stick back. You should bo able to pull tfie-stick back, consistently, withiut moving thE
ailerons.
8
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
6. TURNS
Supposeyou &re in an automobile. If
you make a turn too fast on a flat road thero
is a tendency for tho car to skid outward.
slowly,
Even if y-oumado a shqrp turn fairly-evident.
thie tendency to skid would be
However, if the road were banked tho correct amount (-thedlgree of bank depending
upon the speedof tho car, and the shirpness
of the turn), this tendency would be 6liminated. Similarly, iJ a car made a turn which
wae banked too steeply it would have a
tendency to slip down toward the inside of a
tulrn.
Instead of an airplane flyins alone a
road which is banked, the pilot bankg the plane itself, by side pressurebn tho iticE. Atihe
same time he determineshis rate-of pressureo-ntle rudder, gld by back pressuroon the stick.
Thus, whether he slips or skida dependson whether or not, his pressures
on the controls&recoordinated. If these control pressuresa,rocoorlinated, he will Lave juat the right amount of
bank for his rate of turnA Note on Coordination:
The term "Coordination" (or "coordina,ti6n pressure," t'coordinated controls," etc.) is
one which you will meet frequently in flytog. Therefore it is important that you understand
clearly whit it mea,ns. Cooidinatedpreisule on the controlsmerely meansthit pressuresare
appliej_lgqle_9I more controlssimultaneously,or in seguence,in such I manner t-hatthe plane
does EXACTLY what you want it to do.
Coordinationis important in all maneuyers,but in,your elementary flight training you
will heor it referred to more often in regard to turns than in regard tb anf other maneuver.
This is becausemost of the maneuversin your primary llaining are combinalions of turns.
Good coordinationin a turn requiresthat pressuresbe applied to stick and rudder in such
& mBnner that the plane neither skids nor slips. Since in your turns your air speedwill be
fairly constant,the &cellenceof your turn dependsupon how well your rdte of turn^andamount
of bank are adjusted to eachother. The pressureson the controlsused in making a turn will
be discussed
shortly.
. - Yo_uwill probably wonder how you ean tell if you skid or slip in a turn. The explanation
is simple. During a tury, the same forcesactbg on the plane that causoit to skid and slip
are acting.on you, the pilot. If tho plane skids, you will tend to slide oyer toward the edg-e
of the seat that is on the outside of the turn. If the plane slips, you will tend to slide over
toward the edgeof the seat that is on the inside of the turn. In a good turn, neither of theso
tendencieswill be evident. You will merely feel as if you rverebeing pusheddown into the
seat. (This results from tho centrifugal force that is developed.)
Remember,and this is inlportant, theseforceswhich act on the ship will act on you only
if you aro "riding with the plane." Therefore, don't lean away from the bank, or- attempt
to keep your body perpendicu-lar
to tho horizon. Relax and try to feel thc effectof pressures
on the rveightof your body.
You ean't detect skids or slips unless you are "Riding With the Plane."
An even better indicator of skids or slips is a "Ball Bank" instrument, mounted on the
instrument panel. This consistsof a metal ball restinglooselyinside a sliehtlv curved glass
tubc. ln a-slip or skid, the ball rolls to one side or thJother fiom its normil clntral po#ioo
and thus permits the pilot to "see" as well &s "feel" a skid or slip. Such an instrument is
more sensitivethan "se&t sense"of eyen a good pilot and henceis extremely
useful in perfect-You
i_ngyour coordination. Do !ot, lrowever,iely sirlely on this instrument.
rvill piobably
fly someairpianesnot so equippedand need to be able to detect slips and skids without it.
\'-
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
I
-.Right now-you will be concerned wlth medlum banked, and gentle banked turns. A
medium banked turn is one in which tho anglo of benk is betwoen 30 and 50 deerees.
In a
"will
gentlo banked turn, the angle of bank ie losJ than 30 degrees. Your inetructor
demongtrate tho correct relationship of the lowered wing with the horizon in both of theso turns.
Both of these maneuvers &re done at cruising engine R.P.M.
. -Before y-ou turn, check the air on all sld.esof yog for_other alrplanes. Note with particular care tho ares in which you will be turning, and look behind you in that samedireciion.
To make I turn, epply coordinated pressure on stick gnd rudder in the desired direction.
If you ap.ply too much rudder the noso of- the plane will turn too rypidly for your angle of
bank,.ald the plane-will skid-. If yo_uapply too littlo rudder, tho plane *ill n6t be tuining
enough for your anglo of ban-k,and the plane will slip.
Coordination of pressur-eon rudder and stick ls essential. Whenever you shid or slip,
It is a direct result of lack of coordination on your part.
Jus_tas the plane starts to bank and turn, the nose will drop below its level flight posi.
tion. You will have to exert so_meback pressure on the stick to hold the nos€on tho-horizon,
and prevent loss of altitude. For a detailed discussionof why this back pressureis neededi
seeCivil Aeronautics Bulletin No. 23; secondedition. P, 122-123.
After the bank and turn is established, relax your pressure on the rudder and ailerons,
and return them to neutral, at the same time holding enough
- baek pressureon the elevatorsto
keep the noseon the horizon and prevent lossof altitude.
You will then have to hold Just enoughoppositeaileron (. c., oppositoto the direction of
the bank) to prevent your bank from becomingsteeper. That is, you must compensatefor the
"overba.nkingtendency" of the airplane, which results from tho fact that the wing on the outside
of the turn is going fastor, and therefore has more lift than the inside wing.
To come out of a turn, apply coordinatedrudder and aileron pressurein the oppositedirectlon to the turn, and gradually releasethe back pressrueas the wings becomeleiel. Again,
the rudder and aileron Dressursmust be coordinated, and the back pressurereleasedso that
the nose of the plane roriains level. You will have td start to recove-rfrom the turn slightly
beforethe plano headein th.edesirednew direction, eincoit continuostu:ning during the recovery
process.
Remember: Coordinato your rudder, aileron, and elevator pressure. Ride with the airplane during the turn. Don't lean away from the bank. After the bank and turn is established,
iolease rudiler and aileron pressure,and then apply enough aileron and elevator pressureto
maintain a constant bank and altitude. Don't got the noseof tho plane too high in a turn, tho
plane will stsll at a higher cpoedin a turn than in straight and levol flight
f,EEP FLYING SPEED AT ALL TIMDS
10
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
SECTIONI
1. COORDINATIONEXERCISES(ELEMENTARY)
Coordination of the controls ls very inportant, especially in tums. It'r e good idea to
practice coordination whonover you cen. Here is an exercisewhich will do much to increase
your flying skill.
Alternating banks and turns in level flight:
Before you turn, check the air on all sidesand to the rear of you for other planes,particularly
the area in which you will bo turning.
Start a medium banked turn in either direction, and tum through an B,rcof 90 degrees.
Then roll the plane out of this turn, fly straight and level for a moment, and proceed
to make a turn in the other direction.
Keep your bank about 30 degrees-keep it constant during the turn.
Keep the nose of your plane at a position on the horizon that will prevent loss of altitude.
Keep all the movements smooth and well-coordinated. You'll soon discover the deep
satisfaction that comeswith smooth maneuvering and good coordination.
CONTROL
SIT RELAXEDAND RIDE WITH THE PLANE AND TRY TO "FEEL'' YOURCOORDTNATED
PRESSURES.
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
I\,IANEUVERS
11
8. NORMAL CLIMBS
Before you start s normtl climb, make
sure thst the air ahead and aboye is clear
of other planes.
To start s normal climb, increase your
Itgine S. P. M. about 100 abovo cruising.
Then raiso tho nose of the plane so that it is
slightly higher than in straight and level
flight.
Don't raise the nose abruptly; always
movo your controls smoothly. You will
notice that, in the climb, your enginespeed
will drop back to cruising. This is becauso
the engine has moro work to do.
The proper attitude of the airplane in
a normal climb will be shorn to you by your
instructor. Find some reference point on the plane, such as a cylinder, which is even with
tho horizon in the climb. This can be a useful guide to you later on in estimating if your
climb is normal.
Many things affect the climb. Although we speak of I "normal climb" it is important
to realizethat the performanceof the plane in a climb is affectedby weight of the plane, condition of tho motor, temperaiureof the air, altitude, and other factorsl If in doubt, climb less
steeplythan in a nonnal climbl
If your engine seems to be working too hard, or vibrating more than usual, you ere climbing too sleeply. Rememberthat the enginehas moro work to do in a climb; the steeperthe
ciimb. the moro work it has to do.
For any given set of conditions there is one climbing angle at which the plane gains altitude most rapidly. If you try to climb more steeply than this, the plane will "mush" and,
although you seem to be climbing steeply, you actually gain altitude less rapidly, If you continue to clim[ 1sr steeply, the airspeedbecomeslessand less,and eventually the plane is not
moring fast enough through the air to maintain flight, and a stall (to be taken up later) will
result.
To recover from a normal climb, releesethe back pressureon the stick to lower the nose
to level flight position. When you do this, you'll notice that the ongino R. P. M. increases,
so you musb throttle back to cruising engine R. P. M.
TIIE MAXIMUM CLIMB
A maximum climb is executed in ths ssmo way, oxoept thot full throttls is used. As a
result, your anglo of climb cau be slight\y rtoopor.
L2
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
9.
SECTION I
NORMAL GLIDES
A normal glide is a slide at an ansle and
speed thot will givo tf,e greatest distanco
forward for e givei loss of altitude in still air.
It is importait that the trainee be ablo to
rocognizoand maintain a normal glide.
In all approachesto a landing, the glide
must be normal and constant for good reslults.
For instance,if the slide is too fast the olano
will glide a conside6ble distancejust above
the ground befors the excessspeed is dissipated and it can land. Howover, if th6
glidt+S -speedis slower tha^lrnormal gliding
speed.the plane settlesmore rapidlv and the
qLdi"g dist'ancois shortened. if tU! speedis
oecrea"seO
any more, danger enters rn Ls tho
stalling speedof the'plon6is reached.
tr'or the first few houra of-your trailing, you will be allowed to watch the airspeedindicntor
and keep the glide normal and coqstant by referring to it. After you are familiar with a normal
glide, you shouldnot dependon the airspeedindicalor exclusivelybut sensethe plane'sattitude
and speed. This is done by noting the position of tho nose orr.the horizon, th-eanEleformed
between_thew1-ngand the-horiz^on,_t-he
of the controls, and the sound irf tne alr past the
{e-91
pl-43e. You will ge-texperiencein this wh,ilethe instructor is demonstrating a normal giide and
while you are practicing them using the airspeedindicator.
- In a gnqFg attitude' the noseof nost training planeswill cover the intended flight path of
the-plane. Tberefore it is important to be sure there &re no other planesin the way-beforethe
glide is started.
To begin-theg_lide,the throttle is slowly and smoothlyclosedand the noselowered slightly
by exerting-slight forward pressureon the stick. When the noseis set at tho proper position,
which will be demonstrated,roleaset_be{orward-pressure
on the stick and appiy enoughbac[
pressureto keep the speednormal and the nose in this position.
secondsd_uringthe glide the throttle should be openedslowly and smoothly
- About e_ver-y_20
about a third of the way and then closed again. This will clear out the excessgas in tho engine
rvhichmight causeit to chokeup and quit mnning. To recoverfrom tho glidi, tho throttie is
openedsmoothly to gruisjng QlSine.R.P. M. and back plessureis releaseiiso thnt tho noseof
the plane remarnsIn loyel IUgh0posrtron.
BEIIIEMBER:TURN CARBUBDTOBHDAT ON BEFORECLOSINGTHROTTLE.
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
13
10. CLIMBINGTURNS
A shallow clinbing turn ls elmply a
genth turn made while the airplanC lg
clinbing. .,Thus,.in.Taking a climbilg turn,
comDlne tne pnnctpleB you learned when
you practiced normal climbs and normal
turns.
As in all turns, coordination of your
controls is important. You will find it
ngceslary to hold more back pressure in a
climbing turn than in a norrnal turn, since
tho nose is already held in o climbin! positron.
Remember: In a cli,mb.the air speedof
the planedecreases.Tn atuin your miirimum
safe nylng
sa,reflying speed
speedbecomes
greiter. '-['hus,
Decomesgreater.
Thus, rn
in
ibove this minimum flying speedis lessrhan during
gll'^,{:t^Tfql
:,"*1}ltt-g^
9f ,.?f.ty
elrner a, normal clrmD or & normal
turn.
Therefore: With the same amount of.-po-wer,
the sane degreeof climb cannot be maintained in a climbing turn as in a straight clihtr.
Decreasethe angle of climb before starting the turn.
Make a shallow banked turn.
.. Coordinateyour controls. If vou don't nseenoughrudder for your angleof bank you will
climb with one wing low and."slii." Too much .uia"" to" y;u.;diu
;F [""r "".,,rts in a
BKro,ono a,restutanflossot arr speed.
A skid in a climbing turn is dangerous. It may developinto a spin.
To recoverfrom a climbing turn,
-coordinateoppositerudder and aileronpressure. At the
sametime easeoff vour additional back pressureso^that,by the time the pi"r.-ir"nyi"g "t.aig-hJ
you a,reback in a irormal climb.
A maximum climbing turn is executed_
suqlila{y to a shallow climbing turn, except that it
is done at full throttle so that your anEle of cli:mb ean be ,lig-[tfy-JE"p;i
il;aximum
climbine turns. vour bank shouli be lesi than in a shallow "h*o-g tu*.
r" gun"rui, ln"
steeperlho clirnli, the shallower "[or.tilUu yo* b"rk il;i;;;
-bhesameas from
a normal,climbingturr, oxceptthat when you comeout
. , The recoveryis
of the turn you should bo back in a maximum cumb.
t4
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
11. GLIDING TURNS
'
I
4
.r
*a "il""
rudder
coordinated
turn.Asusuar,
A turn vhieh ls made during a normal
slide is called a gliding turn. Sinco it is gener'
illv used in approabhes for landiirgs, this
mineuver is oft6n executed near the ground.
More attention must be given to the degree
of bank, and turn, position of the nose,speed
of the plane, and alio to the difrerenceof conas comp&red with burns with
trol piessue,'I'hereloro,
'I'herefore,it rs
particularly rmimpower
parttc
is partrculsrry
-portanton. Therefore, rt
that it be done correctly.
Before starting your turn, looL ln all
directions for other oirplenes.
Then lower vour nose below the normal
trT*#J'*:trt"r:'$X''l"iiltt1*iiil?JJ
wish to turn. Your bank should be modium.
Control presstues are only stightly difrerent in a gliding turn than in a turn with po,wer.
More l"c[ pie""ure is needed aft6r tlo bank has been established,aince you already r*ill bo
cxertins bac'kpressureto hold the plane in a normal glide. You may notlce that-the -r-eslstance
of"6" .'oo1t{ paiticutatly the rudder, is less than_ii flight with power.orr. Thls followsfrom
th,il is no slip stream from the propeller toblow on the rudder during the gliding
;ilj;.i-th"i
turn.
The- plane will recover more quickly than it did when you recoYered from r turn with
f'n a tu* with power, you musi start your recovery eomewhatiefore the plane has
-*"i.
lot"La tle aesirea amouit' Ii-a gliding turn, lhe plane stops fs'ning nlmost as soon 8I] you
start your recovery.
WATCHYOURCOORDINATION.A SKID IN A GLIDINGTURNMAT DEYILOPINTO A SPIN.
KEDPYOURNOSEDOWN TN GLIDINGTUBNS. ALWAYSTNEP TLYING SPEED.
AND LET THI
FLY THE AIRPLANE;DON'T JUST MECIIANICALLYMOYE TIIE CONTROLS
AIRPLANEFLY YOU.
As in all glides, remember to clear the engine about every twenty seconds,_byopening
the throttle to lruising B. P. M. Apply carburelor heat before cloring thc throttle.
.\-
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
15
L2. CONFIDENCE.BUILDING MANEUVERS
Bv this time. vou maY havo the idea
that in airplane' 6 a pretty complicated
mechanismto handle, and that it must be
carefully watched to keep it bohaving
orooerlv. These confidencemaneuyers&re
il""igoed to- ghoy- you that the plane can
takdcare of itself, if necessaryryorl nicely.
\Ianv times. when vou use the controls to
placd the plane in i certain attitude, you
-are
merely helping it to do what it would
an)'\Yay.
In this instruction flight, your instructor
will climb the plane to about 1,000 feeb.
There, h. yll llgce.the plane in lev,elflight
nosition. Then both vo'ir and he will removoyour hands and feet from the controls. You'll
iee how the plane fliei straight and level faiily well with no one controlling. If a wing
drops a littlei the plane will slip toward the low wing, and the plane will tend to right itself.
The plane will recover from a bank and turn by itself. This will be demonstrated by
puttins t[e plane in a medium bank and releasingall the controls. The nosewill immediately
ilrop ilittle and the plano will slip toward the Iow wing, but after a short time will return
to Ievel flight.
After this, your instructor will fly thg plano straight and level and then close the throttle
to idlins positioir. You will notice tf,at th6 noseof t[e plane drops a little and dives slightly.
In othei words, the plane is nose hearry. This characteristicis built into tho airplane as a
plane is allowed to fly "hands-ofi", it wiil dive until it gains enough
safety me{rsure. If t}e -to
speeil to raiso the nose Ievel flight again. However, the plane can be trimmed to glide
''hands-off" by adjusting the stabil-izerclontrol until no'pressure is required on ths stic-k to
hold the planb in'a glide.
The final maneuverswill demonstratethe overlappingfunctions of the controls. They
shorv how the controls c&n be used in an emergency. First, your instructor will show
how b turn can be made using only the elevators and rudder. He'll apply only rudoer, c&using the plane to start a flat skidding turn. In the turn, the outsido wing is traveling through
thi air faster than the inside wing. This gives it more lift, so it goes up, putting the plane
in a bank. Jusbas in any turn, the instructor will apply back pressureas the bank progresses.
When ths rudder is releasedend opposite aileron is applied, the plane will return to straight
and level flight.
Your instructor will demonstrate the samemaneuyer using only the aileronsand elovators.
As he applies pressuroto the stick, the plane will bank and start slipping toward the low wing.
This cauicsaii to stxike againsttbe vertical fin and rudder surfaces,turning the plane. [Vhen
aileron pressuroin the opposite direction is applied, tho plano will slowly return to straight
and level flight.
You will notice in entering e turn that the plane skids when the rudder alone is used, and
it slips when ths aileronsalon6'areused. The ieverseholds true in recoveringfrom a turn.
Although a turn ean be occomplishedby using the rudder or aileronsonly, you can seethat
no precisionwill result. This emphasizesthe importanceof coordinationof control pressrres
in all maneuvers,i. e., the right cimbilation and Bequenceof pressuroon the controls.
There is no reason for alarm when the instructor demonstratesthesemaneuyors. Modern
airplaneshave an amazing amount of stability built inbo them; in fact your plane will "fly
itself" better thon mosbtraineescan fly it durir:g their first few bourg of instructionl
l
t 1 _
il
C
"Sff"[""H'"
16
SECTIONI
(ADVANCED)
EXERCISES
13. COORDINATION
itr".'"$;"!l
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SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
L7
14. SERIES OF STALLS
You need to learn about stalls for two teasons: I'irst, evcry
landins consistsin approachinga atall while the airplane is iust, a
little af,ovethe ground, and letting it "settto bothe gr6und;" second,
in a statl, en airplane ie almost snmanageableand considerablealbitudo is lost before control is regained.
It is very dangerousto stall rn airplane at low altitude (except,
of oourse,while landing), since it is likely to hit the ground before
you aro able to regain control.
Thereforo,it is very necessarythat you practice stalls at a safe
altitude, to be'ableto recognizewLen an airplaneis approachingtho
stalling condition. You must learn to avoid aUon'ingit, actually to
stall, exceptwhen you havo sufrcient'altitude and etall it intention4
aItv.
BUT IT SHOUI,D
E STELL IS A PERFECTLYSAFE IITANEUYER,
TEET
NEVNR BE ATTEI\IPTEDAT ALTITUDESBELOW 2,OOO
ABOVETHE GROUND.
An airplane stalls for one basic reason: The angleof attack has becometoo great for the
specd at rvhich it is moving through the air. Efol'6ver, since we have no "angle of attack"
indicator, it is very import"ant to"know the conclitions'whichlead to too greai an angle of
attack-and henceto a stall.
Most planes will continue to fly at airspeedsmuch below the normal eruisins airspeed.
In level flight most training planes-stall at bctween 35 and 45 m. p. h. nir speed'.'Hoierer:
There is n6 such thing as a-fixed stalling speed. The speed at which a plane stalls is a
function of so many fsctors that one nust not think of stalling speed but of. stalling
condition. Stalling ipeed is increasedbytho load and its distributjon-in tho plane, by aii
temperature and prossure,by altitude, by steepnessof bank, sharpnessof a turn, whcther
po\rcr is ofl or on, ice on wings,etc.,etc. An airplanecan be stalledin any position-even in
a dive if one attempLsto pull out of it too quickly. Always it results from too rnuch bael<
pressureon the stick-and always an approachingstall can be stoppedby releasingthe back
pressure.
Stalls will be demonstratedand you will executethem in order that you may (a) learn to
recognizeapproachingstalls and (D)learn to recover(i. e., regainflying speedand control) with
as little loss of altitude as possiblo.
An airplane may be stalled with power ofr or with power on. In a glide (when tho powerie
off), the airspeedis maintainedonly by "coastingdown hill".
Any attempt to make the glide too shallow, or to climb without sufficient power, rosults in a
loss of airspeedand the airplane soon stalls. Loss of airspeed,whcther power is on or oII,
resultsfrom raisingths noseb1ytho applicationof back pressurion'thestick, oi from flat skidding
turns. There are other ways of losing airspeed,but they needl't bo discusscdhere.
7
Symptomsof an ApproachingStall (Power Otr):
Vision, which has played eo large a part in your previous maneuyers,is of little help in
sensingan'approachingstill (ercepfin n6ting thi airspeedindicotor). Iiather, you have to
letrn to "feel" a stall. Though you won't be able l,o "see" a stall approoching,you may bo
able to "hear" it. Irearn to sensoa stall by the "Bour.d" and the "feel" of your plnno.
As the airspeeddecreases,the firtt symptom of a stall is that the controls (both stick and
rudder) begin to feel "looso" or "sloppy" (i. e., they move much more easily than at cruising
eoeed). Also. vou will discover that normal movementsof the controls result il much less
ri.ponse on tLe part of tho pleno than in normal flight. As the sfqlling condition gets nea.rer
and nearer, the controls becomeIessand less offectivo.
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
18
SECTIONI
or to
applying aileron pressur6no longer 9*!1.":.I:}-to.bank
"f""in"
First, you will notice.that
pr-essures
aileron
that
discover
y9u,Yn
-effect not
cl.os'er,
td"tt alp"pro"aches
nick up a Iow wing.
on tho
tho opposite
t[;ititontty result in
bntv iait to sec're rh"?;"J;.r1,li,ifiil-h;i
plaire.
inltead.o.faffording
This is duoto the fact that, et slowspeed,the-aileronsurfaces-exert-drag
without the use of
level
"*;"intained
uil"iJo;;t"l-i';i.;t;iil:*ilt;
-o"-to"
lift. Hence,"rt""
Aileron control is
accomplished'
is
tni"
no-ti
*ifi a"-ootitJt.
ailerons. Yoo" io"t
and lesseffective'
less
become
will
too
"t.i"t"*
tnJ
decreases,
lost first, but as tne-air"pued
which is almost
rudder,
is
the
contror
until this contror i,6il"J;.-Tilffi#;"i"i"t
inefiectivo.
will start dropping;actually the
Finally, in spiteof all your e$o{s to.hold tho noseup,..it
"tu*Jt':#'i1
i'l,t#i1;',+'""Jbt*t-"'*;;lil"*"dfo:'i'J"il"?'"1*ol"ui[
3""*f
usual)'
as
seat
aihard
#"oi';t;;Gfis A;*""onthe
tolessen the angleof attack,and thus regain
To recoverfrom the stall, it-is-oglr Tecessa,ry
on thestick,*'5ich
Jle;td_l+,lbacklressure
flvinsspeed.Thisi.'ii"i,-ilirn.a bi d;ly
to run "dou'nhill" andthuspick up more
tl"-pl"o"
stilT";;;J,ft-.;id.
nose
diopi the
*-itt Uufoundto functionnormallvagain,
"flffitilt
spe6d. As cruisingilHA i#d;#{il
a'nd the plano will m&neuYer&s usua'l'
"p.owe]
airpl"anomay be similarly stalled with
€" qt"ll". - An
so far we have discussed
the nose
becau.sebtrhe poi'er bcing applied,
Ii:;t;i
eirher cruising", f"ilTh;ff;;fign.?.
for theptaneto "stall'"
Io* enoulh
will haveto behelahi?h"#'u.t"F"*in'"'irripl"h"u*"ot""
neither the rudder nor elevators rvill be as
similar loss of "oot"ol *ill--b"- erperienced,but
d'ring a
6"-";"r"-oi-iti.
firgneller w&sh" flowing over them "labors'"
sloppy as in a,,po*Jr"lti;';t"I,
the
engine
that
note
you-w'ill
,,now-eron,, stoll. e"st[;"po*ei' oo" sttlii. upp.ol"f,.a
present"
""a n.ui iUiJi"U"tiog, au. to ihe greatei vibration
{;"';*,ilii."i
To Summarize:
flying but is' rather' falting
(1) A stall is the condition of an airplane when it is no longer
through the air.
plane is within a few feet of the
(2) It is an extremely dangerouscondition u::l-ess:(a) tho
of thousandfeetabovethe
pt;;L it'o "oupte
Eroundandin po.iffii'dr;ffi;a"#,.;;iia.
speed'
flving
refain
to
dived
be
"uo
;;;;d t"-in"t il
(3)
(4)
(5)
,ii6
vou
"in your seat""
"feel" an epproacbingstall thmugh the controls and
You must learn to
pressureand attaining flying speed'
Recovery is always accomplishedby easingofi back
let it approach stalling speed unless
Keep an eyo on tho airspeedindicator and don't
p*"ti"iog italls at sufficient altitude'
?il,qiJi']"li'?;T
r#lsJif:F[:"bi:'];"'"i5i
,#Lf
"-,llhrf;t#*1i"#'H3,11J,i,:f;'
"completo stall'"
"partial stall," No. 2 a "oot--utitiit,';and }go' 3 a
No. 1 is a
stalls are as follows: Note carelully
snecific instructions for executlng this series o-f-six
go throughtho entireseries
u" gpi;t"
rhe diireren""io pio"""T*"-H;;i;;d fr ffir;;;*tlt
ight"pilot.
#iini.iTir"Jy;";"il;"1;il;;;-ch";tororihs"check-fl
SECTION I
19
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
"Power On" Stalls:
l. Partial Stalt-Set throttle at cruising
ensineR. P. M. in level flsht. Slowlyand
st&dily maneuvorthe airplanoby theuseof
into anattitudeof excessivo
elovatorpressures
climb causing a constantly docreasingairspeodand resulta,ntloss of oontrol pressuro.
As the plane begin-oto settlo, but juit before
the "break"r oc6urs, full throttle-is applied
and recovery is effected by application of
forward stick in dropping the noso to the
horizon.
2. Normal Stall--Start as above but
apply back pressuroon stick until a definite
bieak occurs. Emphasis should be placed
on the importanceof getting a clean-breaking
atall. Recovery is effected by using full
Dower iust after the break and consistsof a
iroderate dive u:rtil flying speedis recovered.
3. Complete Stall-Stall is started as
abovebut stick and elevatoraciion continued
until maximum elevator action is obtained.
Headins is held constant and q'inEs level,
stick fu"ll back, until tho nose fallslhrough
the horizon on the downwards*'ing. Recover.f is efioctedby applicationof full power es
thi nose passes-thioughthe horizon on the
wav dou'n and a modeiate dive is made until
flying speedis regained. Wings wilt be held
level without the use of ailerons.
t '![hen the alr spced furtb€r dlminlshes and nears tho ltslllng
Fr,eedtle nos6 sill tio longer stay ln its origtnsl pos,tioE ltrstead
"br€L" oI tho stall.
li drops. Tbis is called tLo
SERIES OF STALLS
iIORMALSTATI
.
J.7
\Y
p'J-.-r\
t t/(l-X'\
Ft,7J
Z-S
\zN--
t
-
At\
l\Y-{f,
\'
{
t
P€COVERINE fR,OM 'i
SfALL 6O JTURRIEOLY
FeSngfS trt INSUFFI. I
cr9^fr 6Ps€o, carslAcf I
AN IACIPIENT 6TALL I
A PROLOA(IED DIVE
OEFEATS T}TE POF,FSE
OF A MAXII,IUM RECOI'.
Y CREATINA
iED ANO UAA
OF A|:
\
b
20
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
"Power Off" Stalls:
1. Partial Stall-From straight and
level flight close the throttle fully; climb
nlane bv application of elevator pressures,
Lraduallv c'airsinsa redue[ion of air speeci
ind conirol presJures. As the plane b6gins
bo settle, recovery is made just before the
break of the actual stall. To further eflect
rapid recoveryand minimum lossof allitude,
th^e applicatibn of full power is desired.
Headiiilg must be held constant and wings
level, without use of ailerons.
2. Normal Stall-This maneuverisflown
in the samemanner as the Partial Stall, except that a full-breaking stall is desired.
Power is used on recoveiy so that a mimimum of altitude is lost. Application of full
power is desired, coordinat-e-rlwith forward
stick.
3. Complete Stall-Stall is started the
same&s a Partial Stall. Full-up elevator is
used and held until the noso of tho plane
cuts through the horizon after the break.
The wings are held level and the heading
constant-without tho uso of ailerons. Recovery is efrectedby allowing the plane to
regain flying speedin a normal glide without
applicationof power.
NOTE: MAKE IT A RULE TO TURN CAB.
BURETOR HEAT ON BEFORE CLOSING
THROTTLE. LOOK IN ALL DIRECTIONS,
PARTICULARLYBELOW, BDFOBE DXECU.
TING A STALL.
REMEMBER: ON ALL "POWER-ON" AND
..POWER-OFF''STALLS WINGS ARE HELD
LDYEL WITHOUT THE USE OF AILERONS
SECTION I
SERIESOF STALLS
SECTION I
2L
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
15. RECTANGULAR COURSE
Flying a rectangular corrEe consists of
following a ground pattern which is in the
shape of a large rectangle. You'll realize
whv it's va,luabloto practice this msneuvor
wh-cnyou remember ihat the flight path or
traflic pattern around on airport is in ths
shapoof a rectangle.
The sidcs of the coursoehould consist of
easily identifiable straight lines on the
grou-nd, and should not"be less than onefourth mile, or more than one mile in length.
Roads, fences, ditches, tracks, and edges of
fields make good courses. Be sure that ths
e,ourgevou chooseis well awav from all recular air ira{Ec. Your altitudd should be 5OO
feet. Ths maneuver is dono at cruising
speed.
The plane shouJd be flown far enough
outside of the course that the courseis easily
visible at all times.
ffi"e,"
."" C
{+
I
I
a
a
t
:i!
l
l
t
.a'
Your ground path should be parallelto the
sides of the course at all times. Therefore,
when flying cross-wind you must tunr the plane slightly into the wind to correct for drift.
This is called "crabbing" since your plane will apparently be moving somewhat sidewnysover
tho ground, although its flight path will be parallol to tho sides of tho course, and it-will be
flying straight through the air.
It is not necessary to hold rudder when crabbing.- After you turn tho plane the necessary
omount into the tr4, -by coordrJratingthe -stick and rudder, neutralize Checontrols just as
you always do when flying straight and level tbrough the air, although
the air mass(rvind)
-When
may !e moving a,crossthe coursoygu ele following on the ground.
you rovr a boat
straight across a river, you have to head upstreom in order tb counteract the current. The
principle is the samein "crabbi.g."
The turns are not made until you reach the corners of your course. Then, tho cornors
of the cour€eshould bo the center of your turn
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
22
Keen the radius of the turn eonstant.
This means that in a wind, you will have-to
(See
vary the amount of bank as you turn
diagram below.)
When you reeover from your -turn' you
should be tLe same distanceoutsido of your
anound courso es you wero on ,the preceding
3id" or leg of the iectangle. Furthermore,,if
the recovery is made cross-wmdryou EnouICl
recover headed into the wind at tho proper
"crabbing" anglo.
Remember, flY the same distance awaY
from ths ground iourse on all sides of the
rectanglo.
IIow the bank is varied in a rectangular
is
course. The goneral principlo involved
"heading"
this: The "ne&ior" tho planels to
the
into or out of the down-wind direction,
"nearer" it
steeper(relatively) the bank; the
is to heading into or out of the up-wind direction. the sihallower (relativeiy) the bank.
Thid point rvill bo moro fully discussedin a
later lesson.
svterglrxod
&
ffi*,W
MEDIUM
-
STEEP-
STEEP
-
MEDTUM-----:\
1""
-SHALLOW
-SHALLOW
MEDIUM
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
23
16. TAKE.OFFS
First, check the wind direction.
Take-ofis should -alwaygbe made lnto !h!_wind. Lift dependson Eir r1leed. The
-t"ft;fi.
lensth
gt you-r take--ofr4rn depend!.gpon.how quickly you can gaii rufficient 8ir'!p;d t
Therefore, tako advantage of the wind.
Have the full ffeld before you when you start to take ofi. Remember that you can't use
what you leave behind.
.Make a complete tur-n to the-right aftor reac -bingthe take-ofi area, in order to check incoming traf,frc,presence.ofother planes gqd ground obstructions.- _If otf,er planes are hndiog,
turn and face them unttl gll isclear. (If trafrc circles to the nglLt around your airport, ydri
ehould tarn lnft before taking ofr.)
IV!.q the plane-isheadedinto the wind ready for the take-ofi, be sure to check the follow.
ing, and then take ofi immediately:
1. Instrument panel (all instruments).
2. tr'uel shut-ofr valve . . to seethat it is in the F'IILL ON position.
3. Ignition switch . . to see thatBOTH magnetosare ON.4. The stabilizer setting . . . to eeethat it is correct for take-ofi.
5. The runway ahead . . . to see that it is clear of other planes or obstructions.
,Ip|^,
t sEe wt{AT
YOU trl€AN ulflGt| €O _
3AY'U3e ALL An|E F|A.O;
GRADUALLY
OPEN THROT.
TLE
AS PLANE ACCELERATES
TO POINT WHERE COMPLETE CONTROL IS ASSIJRED, APPLY FORWARD
PRESSURETO STICK
THIS RAISES
TAIL TO FLYING POSITION
AS PLANE GAINS
FLT'ING SPEED A
SLIGHT BACK
PRESSURE ON THE
STICK
WILL AID IN LIFTING
THE PLANE INTO THE
AIR AND ESTABLISHING
THE TAKE-OFF CLIMB
24
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
Then: With the stick sliehtlv back"
gpon the throttle gently until thl plan6
begins to move. Thon gradually
- open
the throttJe to ita firllest extenL (Alter
experiencehas been acquirod, thesefirst.
two steps_will morgo into oie.; After
the thr6ttle is widiopen, easefhe stick
aheaduntil the plane ossumesa position
that is the samess a shallow climb position.
AIter this it wiU bc necossarv to
hold slieht back-pressure to keeo-the
plane in this position. 14"htrsid t}';s
positiou uatil the plane takes itself ofr.
Use particular caution to keop a straight
path on the pround, usins only the rudller. It'e a Eood idea to-pic[ someobject at the fai end of tho fi;ld to q,imat.
Bear in minil thst the plane may begin rwinging toward the left. (Due to the fact that
the propeller rotatos clockwise aa Boenfrom the pilo-ttsseat, the plane tends to rotate cou-nterclockwiso,d_uoto torque and_propelleralipstroa,m. This is known as torque etreet.) To correct
for this tondency to changedirection, you willhave tohold a slight prossureon tho right rudder.
After tako-ofi is accomplgh_ed
and you have approxinately 16 to 20 foet of altitude,lowor
'
the noseslightly to the Ievel flight position eo that the plane miy gain additional speed. Then
assumoe nomal climb and proceed to fly etraight ahead. At about 76 feet, eise back the
throttlo to normal clim[ porirlon and climb until vou have at least 400 feet of iltitude and are
at least 1,00Ofeet ryrqy frgm lhg gdge of the airpbrt. At this time, Ievol off and make a g0o
turn to the left. (X'ollov Iocal field rules, if difrerent from thoso.)
Look in all directiong before turning.
Keep your hand on the throttle until a safe altitude is reached.
If take-ofi is from a hard gurface runway keep plane headed directly
- in the middle of the
runwa,y. Note any obstructions that may be on lhe eidesof mnwa,ys. Take particular care
that the plane-has sufrcient oir speedat-the ti'ne the wheeleloave th-eground to eliminate any
tendency for tho plano to again contact the ground.
Careful observation of traffic
tion is imperative.
direc-
SECTION I
25
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
L7. gO.DEGREE APPROACH
The approachto a landing that you will use
most often is the "90-degree approach." TRAFFIC PATTERN
Unless local conditionsand regulationsspec- IS WIDENED TO
ify othenvise,all tralEc around an airport is ACCOMODATE MORE
to the left, i. €., one approachesthe airport PLANES
with it on tho left side and makes left turns
in circling it. A 90-degreeapproachis begun
by flying cross-n'ind,on tho dou'n-windside
of the airport, at an altitude of 500 feet.
\fhile still flying cross-w'ind,you close the
throttle and begin a glide. Then you malie
a gliding tura into the wind and come in for
\ \
I
a normal landing, usually just beyond a
"spot"
choscnpoint or
on the field.
7t l
The 90-degree approach to a landing is
,
t
t
used in preferenceto a straight glide, sinee
in a long, straight glide it is difiicult to estimate your height, and the length of your
glido (rvhich may bo affected by wind conditions). Also your visibility into the area
directly ahead of you is poor. The nost
important advantageof this type of approach
is that it enablesyon to correcrtfor errors in judgmont regarding wind conditions, and tho
distancethe plane will glide.
While you are flying cross-rvindon the dorvn-windside of the airport, close the throttle
and begin your normal glide. Your position at the beginning of your glicle is your I{EY
POSITION. This is tbe point at,rvhichyou estirnatoyour height anri distancefrorn tho ficld,
turn jnto the field can bo made
and tho probablelength of your plano'sglide. The g0-degree
anvwherL along this"cross-irindleg of y-our approach,bu1 nover at an altitucle of less than
150feet.
point from rvhichyou can mainTurn to the left into the fleld from the cross-windleg at the 'I'herefore,
at your key position,
tain a normal glide and land at the chosenor designatedspot.
if you decide that you are too high (or too closeto the field), continue your cross-u-indglido
lorigerbeforemakirig the turn int6 tirb neta. Or, if 5'oudecidethat,you are too lorv (or to6 far
from the field), you can make the turn into the field sooner. If you feel that you still won't
have enorrghaltitude to clear the edgeof the field safe]y,open your throttle to cruisingposition
for a rvhil<ito maintain a eafealtitude in the approach.
You can estimate the velocity of the wind by how much your plane drifts while flying
cross-wind. On the cross-wind)eg,you should crab enoughto keep your flight path at right
anglcsto the u'ind.
Try to maintain a normal glide throughout this maneuver. The poin.tat which you Iand
tlependi upon u'here you closethe tluottle and whore you tum into the field.
Iieep in mind constantlyyour positionin the air in relation to the spot et which you want
to land.
"on" beforo closing
Keep
- your nose down in the gliding turns. Turn carburetor heat
throttle. Clear the engine about eiery 20 secondsduring the glide.
Look in all directions for other planes and obstructions 'in thc air and on llw ground,.
TUR^" IS MADE
ONLY A NORN1AL
GLIDE AND LANDI\C
,//&! |
'STIFF' }{ECK IS BDTTDB TIIAN A 'BROKEN' NDCK."
Remember: "A
+
m
26
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
18. I,ANDINGS
The basic princlple lnvolved ln landlng an alrplane wlth power ofr ls to brlng it close to.
the ground and then keep lt ln the air as long as possible. Sit in the plano while it is on tho
ground, and note the position of the nose with respect to the horizon. This is the position
the plane should be in at the instant before it touchee the ground in landing.
To make a laading, first assume a norm8l glide. Continue this normal glide until you
are approximately 15 or 20 feet above the ground. Look ahead and to the sides of the plane
to judgo your altitude; never look stroight down. Wheu you are about 20 feet abovo the
ground, start the leveling-off process. This ia celled "breaking the glide". Gradually raise
the nose as the plane settles go that by tho time you are about 6 feet above tho ground tho
plone will be in fevel flight position.
From here on try to heep the plane ln the rir. To do this, it will be necess&ryto keop
raising the nose progressively farther as the plane loses apeedand begins to eettle. By the
time the plane touches the ground the stick ghould have been easedall tho way back, and the
plane should be in the "three-point" position. Throughout the landing proccss,bo sure the
wings are level and the planc keepsin e etraight path.
olreoilsnA,rifl#j
se Stt wrtre;{uh
The landing ls not complete until the plane stops rolling. Therefore, be vory careful to
keep the rtick fully back and the plane yelling in c rtraight path on the ground, into the wind.
Vision ls the most lmportant sense used In landing. Koep your eyes level and look far
enough ahead m as to koep objects from blurring.
Cautionsr
If you noticg something in your pat^has you are landing, opon the throtttre, attain proper
altitude and circle the field again.
If you make a bad bounoe to landing, open the tbrottle at once, with a smooth motion,
attein proper dtitude, ond circle the field again. (Your instructor vill enlarge on this aspect
of landing.)
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
27
Helpful Rules For Landing:
1. Keep ons hand on the throttle at all times.
2. Keep the airplane headed directly into the wind.
3. Maintain a normal glido at uI !i+.1; 9]lilullqqqqt_o_ffectively be lost or dissipated
by diving, nor c&na normalglidebe "STRETCHED"
4. Don't "st&re" at the noseof the plane,don't look straight down to judge -your allitudo.
5. Be on the "look-out" for other aircraft, field bazards,-bbstructions,
et-c.
6. Get the tail down just beforethe wheelstouch.
7. Never push the stick forward to correct for an error, either use the throttle or ea,se
off the pressure.
8. Wren in doubt, open the tluottle and go around again.
9. After tho landing,-keeptbo stick back is far as posiible as firmly m possible,until tho
plano stops rolling. Remember that a landing is not courpleteduntil ihe plano
stopsrolling.
10. Do not become"tense" or "stifr" on the controls.
RemembeT: THE PLANE WILL NOT LAND ..THREE POINT', UNLESS IT IS IN A COMPLETE STALL
CONDITION AT THE INSTANT THE WHEELS CONTACT THE GNOUND.
CLIDE
Wf'H
CONTROL
SMMTH
PRESSURE
T H E S T I C KI S C R A D f A L L Y
EASI]D BACK CAUSINGAN
I N C R E A S E DA N O L I JO T A T T A C K
WHICfi SUSTAINSTHE ANIPLANE
I N S I - N I IS T A L L E D F L I C H T J U S T
ABOVE fHI] CROUND.
PRESSUREOJ
T q E S T I C KA C .
GfuVATES tsOU\CE
OFF
POSITIO\
OR WITHOT
[ffim--l
cqd
qqil
l-ffiHl
I
r n u r r r g s , , n o tr ,
ryEd
I
WITH
T POWEN
28
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
19. 'ISII-TURNSACROSSA ROAD
S-turns scross a road consist of s series
of l80-degree turns made across I road or
somo straight line on the ground, such as a
fence, or tracks. Whatovor landmark is
used should be 90 degreesto the direction of
the wind and far enough away from tho
rcgular air traIHc so as not to interfero with it'
This is a basic moneuYer designed to
control coordination,
tcach you subconscious
how to fly o balanced pattern over a given
terrain and how to recognize and overcome
the efiectsof wind drift while flying a pattern
upwind and downwind.
It further helps you to divide attention
lnside and outside the plano while mastering
tho art of flYing.
The maneuvsr is done at 500 feet and at
cruising air sPeed.
The maneuvor is started by flying straight
and level a,crossthe road and at an angle of
90o to it. A turn of 180 degreesis started
immediately after crossingtho road.
The bank is varied in euch s wsy that ths
path of tho plano over the ground is a half
"it"l" to that you crossthe road flying straight
and level when the turn is completed.
*9n 7rr',toAewu a Raa/
This maneuver has lts very PloPer
nlace ln Primary Training, laying the
ioundation for accuratelyand safely pilot'
lns an ahcraft while divid'ing attention
belween the aircraft and outside objects.
The sround pattern ls the desired objec'
tive &rd is ob;tainedthrough the necessar]l
allowance for effect of wind drift.
'---s.ss
qatffit)tr
i
-ffi
i
I
I
I
Immediately after crossingthe road' t turn
in the other direction is stsrted. Again the
plane's path over the ground ig a half cirde.
This half circle should be the sams size as
the preceding ono.
Start tho upwind turns shallow, but steepenthem when eufficient ground distanco has been
coveredto permit completing the l80-degreeturn. The shallow turn, requiring a larger radius
"make distanco" into the wind.
in the l80-iegree turn, will lengthen the ground pettern and
Start the downwind turns steeply, decreasingthe angle of bank to a shallow turn when
sufficient ground distance has been covered to permit completing the l80-degreg !urn. The
steep turipermits a smaller turning radius, thus allowing control of tho rato of drift.
Remember: Tbs nearer the plano is to heading into or out of the dorvn-wind direction,
tho steeper (relatively) the banh; the nearer it is to heading into or out of tho ups-ind direction,
the shallower (relatively) the bank.
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
29
20. ISO.DEGREE SIDE APPROACH
The l80-degree preclsion landing ls a
landing
made on adesignoted epot, follbwing
TRAFFIC PATTERN
an approachwhich desc.ribes
half bf a rectangle.
IS ELONGATED TO
ACCOMODATE MORE
The maneuver is begun (that is, the
PLANES
,-e d----{/
throttle should be closed) when the plane is
o
directly opposite, and to the side of, the spot.
I
The plane is glided down-wind, and a
*
turn qf 90 degreesis made so.that it is flying
directly crosJwind. Then airother turi oi
90 degreesis made (that is, you turn into the
field) and the plane is glided in to a nor:mal
landing.
This is a particularly valuable ma,ncuver,
einceit is tho approach oftcn used in forced
landings.
Your flight path, or pattern over the
ground depends on your altitude and on
wind conditions.
18oostoe
APPROACH
The higher you sre the farther you will
glide.
The stronger_thewind, the shorter your path over tho ground will be when headed into
tho wind, and longer when headeddorvn-frnd.
Since_you will be making these approachesfrom a relatively constant altitude of approximately 600 feet, the important factor is the wind. Your problem thereforeis to adiust the
lcngth.of the "legs" of ,yo.urapp.roachso that your glido will be ended and the landi:rg
made just beyond the designatedspot.
The down-wind leg: If the w-indis weak, this leg should be longer; thus your cross-wind
leg will be flown farther from the spot. If the wind is strong, your doun-r'ind leg should be
shorter, and your cross-wind leg will be flown closer to the field.
The cross-windleg: At the beginningof this leg is your "KEY POSITION." l'rom this
position you estimate how fa.r tho plane will glide, and then decide what you must do to land
a_t-the igt-ended s_pot. If, becauseof your height and distance from the field, you think your
glide rvill be.too short to hit tUe spot,.you can-rnakeyour turn into the field'sboner(at iosition A; seediagram on following pege).
- - If you think your gJido_will[6 1ee long (that is, if you t'ave a lot of altitude to lose) glide
farther on your cross-wind leg (position C, see diagram) before turning into the field. While
flying cross-wind, it will be necesseryto "cr&b" in order to stay the same distance dorvn-rvind
from the soot.
- The trial epproach: After the turn lnto the field. is mad.e,concentrato primarily upon
making the landing. Since a normal glide must be maintnined, the quest,ionof whcthei or
not you hit tho spot has already been decidedby tho nature of your flight path on the first
two legs.
Remember:
The precision oJ your landing ilepcndson the first two legs, which shoald be agrytrorimatety
equa.l,in length,.
Keep a sharp lookout ahead and below for other planes.
Keep in mind constantly your position in the air in relation to the spot at wbich you
want to land. This is the ri:rly yai il *Fgb you c&n judgo tho length oi glide necessary,
and the point at which you turn in[o the field.
7'----'\@
SECTIONI
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
30
rr yourkeypositlon.- n*n-.*t^'-tl-"^Il{
otrths-ground
-AIi"'
Don't selecta deftnttespotor obJect
wint to ussthe180oapproach
yorimav
all,
poritiJJi, J;i,;;ifi" pi.i,; ili",i" niefii p;th:
on a strangeffeld somodaY.
trEEPYoURNosBDowNINGIIDIN-G-IUBNS.qlE{B
jlqqENGINEDURINGYoURGLIDE
bIiiB-UNUtONEEAT WIIEN NECESSARY'
ABOUTEVEBYTWENi; iEObfrOS-.-..USE
sPoT
APPRoACH
LEG
/
WIND
ND
cRoss-wl
BAsE-LEG
rI
NOTE
CRABBI NG
CLOSETHROTTLE
D I R E C T L YO P P OIST E
S P O TA T A N A L T I T U D E
oF 600r
K E YP O S I T I O N +
DOWNWIND LEG
4..
SECTION I
31
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
2I. IBO-DEGREEOVERHEADAPPROACH
The l80-degree overhead approachis e
n&ncuver in which the plane is flown to the
key positionfor a precisionlanding at a designated spot on an auxiliary field.
This maneuver is particularly valuable
in cassof a forcedlandins while flvins down
rvind rvhendirectly over t'Leplaco of in"tended
landing.
--o--q|s--o--
The maneuver is becun bv closins the
tlrrottlo while flying down wind, dir:octly
ovor the spot on the auxiliary field.
The altitude oyer the spot should bo
approximately800 feet.
Immediately after closing the throttle
a 45-decreerisht turn is made and the plano
glided to a poiht ac the sideof the field where
a l8O-dogreesido approach to the fisld can
be made.
1."-
/
/ltc'orul
.
i-s-lp-
- r---rr(
M
\
\
?{TFfiE-fiidFT
t
woli€r
ls
I
-*.*aRfr€Ao
f*"
Fl
APPRoAcH
side approach,the wind is an important factor, and you must allow
- .L.ike the l.80--degree
for drift and wind velocity on all legsof the approach.
The main object is to maneuver the-plane to the key position rvherea normal gg-degree
aideapproachto the spot can bo accuratelyexocutod.
The altitude over the spotwill determinethe distanceof your glide to reachtho key position.
. Constantlykeep in mind your position in the air in relation to the spot at which you plan
to land.
Always maintain a safe gliding speed particularly in your gliding turns.
Remember to clear engine about every 20 secondsin the glide.
As this maneuyer does not conform to the-regular flow of traffic at an airport
lt muet alwayr
'
be practiced at an auxiliary ffeld whero there is absolutely no other haflc.
32
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
22. SERIESOF EIGHTS(ELEMENTARY, NO. 1 and NO. 2)
If your plane Ieft a record of the path it flies in the air, that path would usually not be
oxactly the samoas the ground path of the plane. I{ there is any wind, the whole air massis
moving over the ground. Since the air path of the plane is a part of the air mass which is
movi:rg over the ground, a plano whosepath in the air rvas a perfect circlo would never have a
ground path of a perfect circle except in caseswhere there was no wind at all.
The movement of a plane with the air massis called "drift". The purposeof the elementary eights is to show you the efiect of drift on your ground path during a turn, and to givc
you practice in compensatingfor this drift in order to fly a given path over tho ground.
Elementary Eights No. I (The Half Eight).
The purpose of tho half eight is to show you the eIlecbof "drift" on your ground path
during a turn.
Select I road or similar landmark rvhich lies cross wind and fly your plane at 500 feet
directly down it. (You will have to "cr&b" a little so as to not "drift" arvay from the road.)
(Seediagram below.) Then make a 3600 degreeturn in either direction. Be particularly
careful to maintain a constant degree of bank throughout tho turn.
You will find that the turn will be completed with the plane flying some distance from
your landmark and on the down wind side of if provided, of course,that there is appreciable
wind. This maneuverillustrates tho amount of drift you c&n expectin winds of given velocities. In the m&neuyersincluded in tbe rest of the seriesof eights vou will be required to
m&neuyeryour plano to compensatefor this drift in order to follorv a prescribedground pattorn.
WIND
N O .I
HALFEIGHT
(CoNSTANTEANK)
TIO. 2
ELEMENTARY
EIGHT
Elementary Eights No. 2.
In this manouyer, which is tlone at 600 feet, you will make two 360-degreeturns on either
side of th" ioturce"ti6n of two landmarks, such-as two roads, or fonce iows. The general
pattern of the maneuvoris asfollows: Flv d6wn wind above ths landmark which lies with the
ine wina (Landmark e in the diagram shown). \[hen you reach the intersoction, start a turn
in either direction. Tho tu:n sn"ouldbe completed directly above the intorsection, with the
plane flyins"This
straisht and level, and another 360-degreeturn made immediately in the opposite
hirectio"n.
lurn should also bo completed when tho plane is diroctly over the intersoction.
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
33
When you eomplete your turns, the plane should be f,lng rtralght and level directly
over the intersection of your landmarks. This noans that your groutd pollr should be a
perfoct circle, and that you will therefore have to compensatefor drift.
Drift during r turn is compensatedfor by varying the bank of the plane. When you are
heading up wind, and turning, becauseof the drift you have to actually fly farther "througb
the ait'' than if you were flying down wind. Therefore you make your turn more gradudJ,
which means that you decreasoyour bank.
'When
you aro heading down wind, and turning, since the drift is carrying you over the
ground, you actually don't fly so far "through the ah". Thorefore, you mako your turn
eharply, which meaffr that you increaseyour bank.
Renember the following general principles:
The "nearer" tho plane is to heading into, or out of, the dowa wind direction, the steeper
(relatively) the bank.
The "nearer" the plane is fp [sgding iato, or out of, the up wind direction, the shallo\rer
(relatively) 1[s ]nnk.
Yerying the bank to correct for drift when turning is a Eadual and continuous operation.
Eandle the controls gently, and make the trnnsition from ono degrooof be"k to another smooth,
and almost impercept'ible.
The.emo-hasisin these maneqyers! oo preclsion. .Always keep;tn minfl ys111'plane's
ou loge
loge altitude
altitude on
position
Keep your 4titude c-o-nstsnt.If 'You
on
in relation to the lf"Srr*h.
-one
of the turns try to regain it on the nert oie. You should complete tLe maneuvor at the
rame altitude you rta.rted it.
*:.l
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
34
SECTION I
23. FORCED I,ANDINGSON TAKE -OFF
look
If the encine quits on take-ofi, and you have lossthan 100 feet of altitude: Don't
butBACK-,
DONTT TURN
bncli-.
- (1i Establisha normal glide immediatolv'
aheld, regardlessof w\at lios ahoad.
iti Ndk; ; ""t-*-f""a'i"g-straight
BUTFEw IIAvE
NEVEIi ATT.EIIITTO TURNnACf INTO THE FIELDI MANYHAvETRIDDlT
SUCCEEDEDI
The main danger
I'orced Iandings on take-oft are potentially dangerous but nsed not be.
field.
into
tho
back
turn
ties in trying to
and low air
If vou trv to turn back: (1) You aro attcnrpting a turn at very.low altitude,
m&king
tno
Drrl'n' you
rn
you
do
succeed'
(2)
i[
Even
srroed, rvhicb ir inviting a stall, and
wind.
down
landing
trltt l'e
THD NOSE DowN; ESTAB'
To
"' REPEAT: IF YOUR ENGINE QUIrs-oN TAKE--OI$IIIRFT-94T
TriEN rlrAKE A NoRIIiAL LANDING, STRAIGHT AHEAD' AND
iisH'A'Nonrlrlr,'-dr,idrs;
RDMAIN RELAXED.
24. 90 DEGREE FORCED LANDINGS
of altitudo:
quitswhenyo.uha,vemorethrn 100teet,!y! lossths,n500feet,
It the engrno
can land (preferablyinto
Fzrstestabtisha normit';iid;.'" ini piiu rut a tetd into which^you
depending
the wind). plan youia"pproa.n-ti'll'*, h"ta, using^eithera l80d or 90o approach,
field'
tho
f
rorn
distanco
and
altitr'rde,
posiiion,
iipo"
.toiit
'
ti tnere is no suitable field within gliding distance,and thsre is nothing below but trees,
il iJ tnen thai you have your slowestground speed'
.n.L., tioi.t, "t"., d;ll i;ir th;;i;al;i:
Landings:
Forced
About
Things to Bemember
safsfield withit glidingrB.ngo.
i. AI*ur., try to havoa reasonably
*i"a- "itir selectinga field"(unl6ssy6u distancoand altitucle
i: iil';'";;il";rs;;il
permits).
"STRETCHED."
3 . i normal glide cannotbe
to the n.ldT"t i"g particularcereasto-wincldirectionand volocity.
itfi-;;;Jproach
forced.lairdirtgis, aftor-all,only anothorlanding.
i;;"i;*""Ti]u*ua------a
to a field and land on it'
down
dive
to
is
impossible
6 . It
air speed'
Moi"tui" a safeglid"ingspood. Avoid oxcessivo
.;i; i;; for..edla"ding:------tn"y must be accomplished
o"u"n*d"u""a"f"u!1
8 . Th;;il;;
A
f .
safely.
the ch,angein control
llemember: Tho increased angle of glido necessary-fo-ra-safe air.speod,.
"'dras"
l;.;-r;i,.* ; *riby ;;A"iF;etirFiiptt
propelLer.
:rorn,aid Lhoincreased
caused
by a stationary
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
35
25. T8ODEGREE FORCED LANDINGS
Think of altitude as spacefor maneuver'
tng. Tho greater 1,he-altitude,the greater
the distanceyou c&n glide, if necessary,to a
rafo landing area'
If the engine quits when you are above
500feet:
First establisha normal glide.
Then pick out a field in which to land.
Plan your approach,so that you canland
on the field into the wind.
Remainrelaxed.
If you glide too steeply,the plane will be-flyingtoo fast for a
Maintain a normal glide.
istretch''
ihe g"lide,the plaie *ilI orily mush ard iL may stall.
la"di.,g.-- if you try io
l\{any a forced landing that was not aceomplishedsafely would have been successful
l"a ii,Jn'if* p^i[rr"i..ttEntion to the fundamcntalsof flying tho plane,insteadof devoting
Lo n,u"h attention to the ground, and other details.
the.clangeincontrol
safe air-speed,
Remember: The incrcasedangleof gli<lenecess&ryJor-o
drd,g caused by a staiionary
the
increased
aod
pro'pt\1s,
ilipstream
Uyirrr
o{
;;.;;;;"*a
grogteller.
36
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
26. NORMAL SPINS
It is always surprising, nowadays,. to
roalize how many trainees have an avorsron
- earlY daYs of flYing, this
i" tti.
;;";;ilPlanei woren't lhe -well-"ur''luttinoa
precision r-nachi"es
i;i*ti;d;-;eil-balanced
presont-dayplane
The
today.
are
lhnt-thev
.u" U" e"asilycontrblledi'l a a-pin'. It is a lot
easierto "sei out of a spin than it is to get
into ottu. Today'e plane is so designedthat
it must be mado to sPin.
A spin is extremely dangerous' if it
oceurslcl6seto the ground. But when thero
"f distanie between you and. the
ir;t.";t
ctol;d'itpi"s are executedat ah altitude of
3"". i,obd feet), and you know the simple
rules of recoYery,there is-nothing to..wony
a
\
about. A spin is one of tho most easily oxo* frishb^manouvors. It places no excescuted
riu" lo"T- o" the plane when properly
t
performed; the same is true of any othor
1
r
normal m&nouver.
rl
Gi
I
a1
Occasionally'Eome people get- a little
-3t
sick in a spin. That doesn't-prove that sptns
"..- liin"^t dangerous or uncomfortable'
So-"-puople ahd get sick just from riding
I
in trains or cars.
I
heavier-thanis
a
airplane
Because an
uir ma"ni"e, it flies-only wh-91the-air flow'
ins ovor the wings createslift sufficient to
Speed,
oo'ur.o*. ths foices of gravity.
therefore,is essentialto flight.
below
As flvins speedis lost or reduced"stall'
u "uttui""tdiito,tttt, commonly called
ing speed" a stall will occur.
A snin results from a seYerestall, which
has beeh developed either intentionally or
Similarly' & seYerestall will
"""ia""1uUv.
usually resirlt in a sPin.
The nroper method of entry to, and rocoverv from, spins u'ilI be reviewed on the
grou.tld,prior to the flight.
fect'
Spins should be started at an altitude of at least 3,000feet, but not more than 3,500
q
ti
l g
r*b
Tl:l
first checktrafficby loohingbelo.1,an!,119u.1d.
After properaltitudeis reach_ed,
&pproxl-
-H"tJ-lhe-pl-ane
and closothe throttlel and raise,thenosoo{ the-planoto
t"." on th6 carburotorheat
in this attitude by. increasingthe back prcssule'
;;;i;h il;;i"g-p";iri";
Aileron coitrol is never used during a spin'
traa".tnii"'i"gri"""t.iin'iu"
ffi"g"J;;;f.?.'p
nrcldcr
When the stick is in the full back position,and the plane.hasreallystalled, pressf ull
the left.if a.left spin is desired,and to tlre
in the e.,i*d aii."tio" of ;-t"ti;; ;"ti""d'g-to
"faII off" and start to rotate.
;Lir; if ";Unt;pi" i; desired. This caises the plane to
--
R. P' M. on tbo utrv. to lhc apln' - A tl er the il' In
to 1,200.6ngloc
to usoromc
,G --JGt
plsnes,tt wlll be necsmry
neqhap;.1,000
jniitrr. n"fiit-rnower;
"itd'iia idlotb turouin tne ipin. Asr vow Inshuctorsn€ning tho planc vou ar'
hasstarred.bowovsr,tne tn.oririji"ri'r-di
using.
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
3?
During the spin, maintain the controls ln the samoposition as in entry. This means that
the stick must be held all the way back and full rudder held in tho direction of rotation.
Recovery from thq spin requires coordinat€d control pressuroopposite to that used in the
entry. Apply opytositerudder pressuromd ptt4hthe stick sharply forn'ard. This will stop the
rotation and loave tho plane headeddownwardin a rather steepdive. At this point the rudder.
is neutralized.
the dive: Gradually apply back pressureon the stick, thus pulling the nose
Recovery_fr_on!
up to tho lovel flight position. As the level flight position has beenreached,easethi throttle
open to cruising engine R. P. IU. and cruising air apeed.
Importantt
e of air
necomplished in tha same
However, tho
of,Time each must
bo_-applied
vaiies widely from one type of aircraft to another. Someplan'es(most light planos)
will recoveraftor the controls are neutralized;others are designedso that they musdbe-"{lou'n
out"-of a spin,-i. e., require considerablooppositerudder control and that th6 stick bepushed
well forw'ardof neutral. - Always useas much of eachcontrol as neededto (a) stop rotatibn and
(b) regan at least cruising air speed.
SIow and cautious movements during recovery are to be avoided, whereas-/t
brisk and
/lpq"iU"" "p"."tt"t
Do not-push the stick too far forward or hold forward pressure too long or you will pick
up too much air speedin the dive.
- Retovery from the dive m-ustbe gradual, especi4ly if an qxcess_ofair speedhas beenpicked
up.i -nthe divc. Romemberthat the.abruptuessof your pull-out
-pressurois best eensedby your orvn
weight as felt pushing dow:r against lhe ae;rt. The foore
on your seat, tt'e lreater is
tho load on the wings. Don't make it too greatl
Remember, under certain conditions of.tcmpe_ratura
and humidity it may be necessaryto
tu_rnyour carburetorheat on eeueralminutci beJorcclosingthc throttle to- eliminato en-gino
i'dling too.slouand possible"quitting," causedby condensationof moisture or ice forming
in the carburetor.
amount of opposrte ru
amount of forw
Occasionallycheck your engineldle speedduring a spin.
It!. -f.o avoid stalling the_engine 4griog a_Ep!4it- is recornmendedto increaeethe enginospeed
-conqboye the normal engine idie R. P.-M. during the epin- (Ask your instructor
,pight'ly
zlcerningthis.)
38
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
27. ACCIDENTAL SPINS
Accldental sDins arc demonstrated go that you msy kn-owwhat occul:tlwhen control pres.u""J"""-applied incorrectly, and eo that you may know how to.aakc the proper recorely.
y";-*ilt b;fiqfi"d
to perfonn these maneriverelaler;just now it is important that you know
under what coiditionl they occur and how to sensetheir approach.
Spins From Climbing Turnst
If too much speed ls lost ln a climbing turn, the.action of the controls becomesths same
turn - the stick b back and possibly
rpi". Remember that] in a climbi _nB
". i-a"-i"t."tio"rit
paa"" p*rsure is befng applied. I! the plaqe approachesstalling speed (rtl,igh is somewhat
ti;h; fi;;trr"" iuu" ii atriignt flight), ybu hav6 very nearly tho samo conditions that result
in an intentional spin.
Keep plenty of flying speedln climbing turns.
If you think you are climbing too steeply,reduce the angle of clinb.
Spins from Skidding Turns:
Skidding in turns rcsultg in great loss of air speed.. If the planeroachesthe stalling point
g.hilo a large"amolnt of rudder plessureir boing applied, the nose drops. l'his can oasily load
rnto a spm.
Never try a turn without banking. @xcopt up high to test what has just beensaidl)
Properly coordinaterudder and aileron pressureswhen entering into and recoveringfrom
turns.
Spins From Too Shallow A Glidol
If the nose is held too high in a gli{e, flying speedis lost, the plane gPProachesa stall and
tne "oro i""ar to atop. The"naturaliuiaenby at &is point is to try to raisothe nosebypulliag
UuLt oo th" Jti"t. t'his results in a completo stall anil the plane is on the verge of a spin.
"sloppy
When flying speedis lost in too shallow-a glide (as indicated by a falling nose or
controls"), e-asetne stick forward to regain it.
Spins From Gliding Turns:
A turn attempted in too shallow a glide pl.acgsthe plane in a position vory similar to the
ooe eocounteredin a climbing turn wit-h too-little flying speed. The plane is -approachinga
stall and rudder pressureis pdssiblybeing -applied.-.You csn understandthat tho plane needs
very little coaxingto go into a spin u-nderthesecondrtrons.
Again, when flying speedis lost in too shallowa glide, easethe stick forward to regain iL
Spins From Steep Turns:
As has already been discussed,the stalling speedof .an airpla-nein P.turn is higher than in
straisht and level?isht, and the steeperthe turi, tho highor ii the stalling speed. Therefore,
banhedTurn, the plano will spin at air air spied far in excessof what is ordinarily
i;;;;;6ty
planes,it is very easyto turn so sharply that,the
coosider6dsufe. Especiallyin iow-horsepbwer
air speedfalls below the sialling speedind a ipin will result.
RecoveryFrom AccidentalSpins:
is exactly tho same as from intentional spins. Review
. Recovery from acaidentalspins
the materr&lon sPInrecoYerY.
When nracticineintentionalspins,pay particrrlarattention to the sensationsyou experienco
just before^theplan6 spins. Remembeiibirm and use them always as warnings.
Learn to recognizean approachingetall and you will avoid spins. Theseare the warnings:
1. Ineffectivenessof aileron and elevator control, as indicated by necessityfor greater
movementsof stick to achieveresults.
2. Decreasoin pitch and intensity of sound of air past the plane.
J
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
39
E. Increaseln "laborine" end vibration of enginewhen power is on.
{. Glance at your air-ipeed indicator from lime to tiiro aird make ruro you have
plenty of air epeedfoi the manouyeryou are flvine. A few m. n. h. excessairspeed
i,s the best sori of life insuranco. Eien the b-est"pilotcannot hy a plane below itr
Italling speedl
Alwayr Keep Plenty of Flying Speed.
TEE BESTWAY TO BECOYDR
FROM A SPIN IS TO AVOID GETTINGINTO ONE.
I,FTRSQUIRED
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
40
SECTION I
28. CROSS.WIND TAKE-OFFS
You should, of coulre, always take off,intg the wind-if-possible,bg.t t.t sometimesbecomes
necess&ryto tak'e-ofi cross-wind. It may be that, you
-So will be in a small airport eomeday with
the cross-wind take-ofi is included in ths
ody ondmnway long enough for e eafe i,ake-ofi.
trarnrng currrculum.
You will be required to porforn this maneuver only a few times. Your instructor will
demonstrateond exilain it to-you, ao that it ie well that-you be preparedto underetandwhat
ho's talking about.
This tako-ofi difiers from take-ofis into the wind in the following respocts:
l. You attain a higher speed before actually leaving tho ground, by keeping the tail
slishtly higher tf,an noimal. This is to insure that the plano will stay in the air once
it [asjeftlhe sround. The plane drilts after it takes to the air in across-windtakeoff, and if it seltles again whil-edrifting sovereloads are put on the landing gear.
2. It is usually necessaryto lower the wing which is into the wind. You do this by using
a,ileroninto the wind.
B. Down-wind rudder is necessaryto keep the plane heading straight on the ground,
becausethe plane will tend to turn into the wind.
4. After the take-ofi. when you have gained about 50 or 75 feet of altitude, you may
start a very gentle climbidg turn into the wind (aqd into the traffic lane). After this,
tlie proced-ureis tho same as for a normal take-off.
BE especially careful of traffic in cross-wind landings and take-offs. Other trainees will
not be practicing this maneuverat tho sametims and you will be taking ofi in a difierent direction than tho regular traffic.
TH
OH I TLV
-l.llr
ArB W|TA
OF^EASE---
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
4L
29. STEEP TURNS
A steep banked turn is one in which the
bank is more than 50 degrees. Most training planes now usod, will not hold their altitu-ddin a bank of mors than about 60 degrees,
so the steep banks will be betweon 50 and 60
degrees,oi the maximum for the plane you
are flying.
Before the turn ls started, chcck trafrc
and then open the throttle fully. (Maximum
engino R. P. M.) The amount of pressure
applied to the controls to begin and recover
fr^&n steep banks is the same-asthe pressure
used in aI other banks. You mer6lv continue them longer until the plane has banked
the desired am-ount. Howeior, as the bank
steepens,more back pressuremust be applied to keep the noseup. This pressurois progressiveiy inbreasedas the bank increases. I[ is not releasedwhen the ai]eron and ruddor pressures
are, but is held just as in o shallow or medium banked turn. Bocauso of the overbanking
tendency, as in medium banks, a slight pressuromust be held on the ailerons in the direction
oppositeto the turn.
The degree of bank should be held eonstantduring the turn. If a correction is needed,
it should be made using coordirnatedpressureon the controls.
To recover from a steep turn, the pressureis applied in the opposite dircction on rudder
and ailerons,and as the bank starts to ihallow oui, the back pressureon tho stick is gradually
easedofi to keep the noselevel.
the turn, the stalling speed of the plane is increased. Therefore,,steepb-anks
During
-entered
with plenty of- aii speedand this speedshould bc maintained throughout
should be
the bank. This is one of the ieasonswhy steepturns should uot be attempted near tho ground
. . . especiallywithout maximum (engineR. P. M.) power.
Maintain a constantaltitude throughout the turns.
Bemember: CEECK TRAFFIC IN ALL DIRECTIONS BEFORE STARTING THE I\IANEUVEB
42
B.ASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
30. CROSS-WIND LANDINGS
Like take-offs,landingsshould be made
into the wind whenever possible. However,
thero may someday be an obstruction on th6
down-wind side of the field that you are
trying to Iand in, making a cross-windlandi''g
necossary.
Cross-wind landings ghould be at.
tempted only wheu the wind is rather gentle.
In some situations, only the aDproach
need be cross-wind. Aftei the obstacres
which make tho cross-wind approach necossary have beon passed,and wLile the plane
is etill in the air, make a shallow turn intb the
wind and land in tho normal manner.
There are three methods of making
cross-wind landings:
\r,,
ruu
srtp urEuuu(l
; Iu
ttppl'o&culxg
landuls area,
area, the
the
Che la,ndmg
up-wind:h.
the up-wind
winsg is
i" lowered
lowered just
iust enough
enc
to counteract the drift
'l'hrs
resurtrnglrom the
tl-"
crosswrnd. This-resulrs
lssultrr
in
in
a
a
irtraight
straight
path over the ground. you
::?,"lli"_q
If-T
^"19r"+d.
ono-ughban-k
yrll,ha,v.eto usejust ouo,ugn
D&n-Kanc
and opposlte
oppositeruclder
rudder-in
rn the
tle side
sideslip
slip to
lo keep
t Z"p cho
ilu plano
oLr"
headed.!n I scralghtpath
over thg
the ground,allowing,
allowine
for
for
plll 9I"I
drift andreiociry
drift
and veiocif,voi
.,i tne
tho ivina.
i.i.,tEoun$,
Just
tusr before
D€rorecontacting
contaclrngrhe
ground, the plurre
tn€ground,"tFg
pl&neis
rs le"&ea
leveledon;;J;fd;i#;;d#ilffii
off and sufficientrudder control
appliod to keep the plane ro-llingsrraigh^tahead. ta rtro"g wi"Jtil;;;
'
b";";;;;
to keopthe wing down and touch the"up-windwheelfust.'
(2) The-"ruddor or crab method": fn the ap-proach,the plane is headedsliehtlv into
wind and.jyst a secondbeforecontact wi-t[ the giou"d t-h"opp"rit" ;;iff;i""pp"rit" the
ii
the wind) is applied to head the plane in the"actual direcifou;ii;"ii;#
oyer
tho
grouno.
(3) The "combi-nationmethod" is a comh.inationof the ,,slip method', and
tho ,,rudder or
crab method."- In this method the plano is first "slipp6dt-i"o- -TtU;are?ariations
" nt*i""-ittit"de and
whe,nnearingtho ground the "ruddey', or ,,cr&bmeth<id';is;;.
of these mothods of exeeruting"rorr-*ioi fidi"d;il;everi
in eit["-",Jn""a the aim
is to prevent tho plane from contacting thp g"i-a*nit..i.iltiiilJii#i""J'and
thus
,,g.or-,'dioopio;;;;i;fl;
prevent severoloadson the landing gearand p-ossible
t1""..-*
BEMOMbCT:OTIIER PLANES MAY BE LANDING INTO TIIE WIND, THEREFORE,
CIIECK TBAFFIC
IN ALL DIRECTIONS WHILE PRACTICING CBOSS.WIND IIINDINGSi
SECTIONI
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
43
31. SERIESOF EIGHTS(ELEMENTARYNO. 3)
In this maneuver you use the same type of landmarks that you used ln making the No. 2
elementaryeight, that is, the intersectionof two landmarkesuch as roadsor fencelines,which
lie at righi a"glel to each other. Your plane'spath over the ground should describoi figure
eight, tie twoloops of which lie along tho cross-windlandmar[. (Seediagram.)
To begin the maneuver,start,from a position on the up-wind side of the landmark which
lies cross-t'ind (landmark B in the figure below), and over to the right or left of the intersection of your two landmarks far enough so that when you fly toward tho intersection,your
flight path rvill bisect the .90-degreeangle betweenlandmarks A and B, as in tho diagrarn
below.
Then fly directly towards the intersection. When you reach the intersection continue
the level flight for a short interval, and then start the first loop of your eight.
Vary your bank so that your plane will cross the road at a right angle at the end of the
loop of your eight (positionX in the diagranr). Then continueyour turn, and plan your
so thabyou will comser1 of your turu headcdtoward the interscction,and will have
rec<-rvery
an inteival of straight and level flight beforepassingthrough the intersection.
After you pass the intersection,.continuestraight and level flight for a short interval, and
then mal<ethe other loop of your eight. Again be certain that your plane is at right angles
to the road at the end of tho loop of your eight (positionY in the diagrarn).
Your flight path through the intersection of the landmarks, betrve,.nthe loops of your
anglebetrveentlreselandrnarks. Remember,
eight,,should approximatelybisecbthe 9O-degree
th"atin order to^uraintainihis flight path, you u-ill have to "cr&b" a little into the wind.
REMDI\{BER THE GANERAL PRINCIPLES YOU I,EARNDD EARLIEII RDGARDING VARIING THE
I}ANtr TO CORRECT FOR DRIFT.
SECTIONI
BASIC FLYING
I\{ANEUVERS
44
32. ''EIGHTS''AROUNDPYLONS
plane is flown around
Pvlon Eiehts (or eights around pylons) ie a maneuverin which the '?8",
of tbe
bothloops
fltchfi,"ln n""i"g the shapeof.afigure
r*" ilt";;#il?i;"';;ffi;;th"
thr6ughouttLe turns.
mainhlined
pylon's
in"
tto*
&;;-iltilie;ii;"i";;A-iutuor*?irtiaocu
clossTwo largo trees, intersectioj,rs,or other landmarks are selected that a,redirectly
windlnd far"apart, .i"ougn to ailoiv a short straightaway flight between turns.
approximately 600 feet directlv dorvn-wtdn
The maneuver is started by flying at an altitude of
the pia',"ei"a"n"' the.doi'r-rv'ind
til;;ti;;.
wind to'vard rhe poini"f,;ir;;i f.G;;
oi risht into the wind, arou.nd
the
lelt
turn,-to
sideof the pylons,rt"tii"+slto;-0-aigre;:ba'n"k
iirl"n*i pyi;";k;Lpi;;"t[" ii.t""i" t-r"?,*tle pyton ihe ru*e throu{hout the turn bv varving
the degreeof bank to compensatelor orut'
of the
As the plane approachesthe oppositeside of-the.pylon (the up-wind side) roll out' the
(o-n
+vind
side)
dorvn,
the
pyion
ot'h"er
the
point
opposite
piane
the
to
tu.r-o.,J n"lud the
pylon'
""*" airt*"" from ihe pylon as ihe first-lurn was started around the first
this pylon,
when opposite the secondpylon (on the down-wind side) start a turn oround
to comthe
bank
varying
by
the
turn
through
keepinc tho d.istance"il;1ilp'ytoo tit. same
peniat6 for drift.
a secondturn
\Mhen the turn is completedhcad the plane toward the oppositopylon for
pylon.
around this
loops of your
Remernberto start and stop your turns- aroYn{ t\e pylons so that both
..8', Tv.illform the r";;;;th;;;"ih;
gro,;a and the disiance from the pylons remains tho
same through the turns.
straighta$'ay
caro must,be exercisedin compensatilg for drift in the turns and duriug
flight between PYlons.
SArr REolrcEotoeE to
GO|PEilSAIE FOA ORIFI
fns nrusrRmoNPf,Esstrrs
conbrtrolrs
wtrn MoDERAT€
WNDS AJiID ORIFT PNOBLEMS,
WNDSORIFr
*ro{ slRor{GgR
MUST 8E trROgORfIO'{ATgLY
CORRECIEO At{o Wro| CALII Wlf'lo
co,tDrTor.s DtlFf wlLL ttolq'st
wArc'| foRofilEBAlncRAft
nElGH!S.|.
?vLoil
(enouxo PYLoxg,
ot glAnc€ fRof{
RErAlis rr€ sAllE
txRoueHoul tHE
TURilA
SECTION I
45
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
33. ''EIGHTS'' ON PYLONS
_ The pupose. 9f this mareuyer is to enable the trainee to acquire precision in handling
the plane in positions with which, up to now, he has been unfsmiliar.- They
all require i
-the
thorough knowledge of the effect,of the controls, relaxation, good "feel" of
plaie and
proper timing.
The pylon eight or the eight on pylons is a maneuver in v-hich the airplane is flown around
two pylons, the flight path having the shapeof a figure "8" &nd the tums being such that, some
portion of the airplane, such as the lower wing tip, is held continuously on a line from the
pilot's eye to tire pylon. This line should be parallel to the lateral axis of the airplans.
This maneuver differs from eights around pylons in two important, respects. It will bs
recalledthat in the eights "&round pylons" the distancefrom the pylons remains the same.
yhi]" rp the eights "o[ pylons" the distance from the pylons varies if there is any wind. Thir;
ls the nrst,polnt oI drnerence.
The secondpoint is that the bank varies in quite a different way, increasingas the distance
from the pylon decreasesand decreasingas the distance from the pylon increases.
Since the airplane is closer to the pylon on the windward or up-wind side, it is obvious
that the bank must be increasedin order to hold any given point on the wings in line with the
pilot's eye and the pylon. Conversely,on the down--windiide, the bank iust be shallower
becausetbe airplane io farther oway-from the pylon. As a result, the degreeof bank, the
radius of the turn, and the distance of the airplane from the pylon continuously are chanling.
On pylon "eights" are consideredthe rnost difficult type of eight sincetheir execution is
afrected by the speed, the altitude, and the angle of bank as well-as the other factors which
affectall eights. If the "on" pylon eight is to be performedperfectly,there is only oue altitude
for a given air speed,and this altitude is the samefor all anglesof bank.
In performingthis maneuver,however,you must remembelthat steepbanksdemandhigh
speedsto prevent,stalling. For medium and gentle banks, on the other hand, you rvill nbt
want to use unnecessaryspeed,becauseof the excessloads on the engine. Therefore,it is
best to do the medium and gentle pylon eights at cruising speed,with the same altitude, and
thcn do the steeppylon eights at a speedthat is safe for them and consequentlyat a higher
altitude. The altitude required for any given speedcan be found by tlial, in which also the
aboverules can be checlied.
Reference marks for sighting parallel to the wing span are not rvell defined on many
on the ground
airplanes and usually have to be figured out rvith somec&reby measurernents
befbrestarting the maneuver. The ground objectsshould be selectedin the samem&nneras
for eights aroilnd pylons, or the samJ pylons cin be usedif desired(providedthey are objects
of about the sameheight), and all turns should be started into the wind as before.
{rus ill.uffi^Tror{ PRESE'TG;
co$tofTtoxswtn{ iToDERAT-:E
WNDS AIIO ORIFT PROSIIMS,
gilH S1P0il6ER WtilDs oRtFr
I,IUST €E PROPOf,TIONA1ELY
CORRE/CTED
4fl9 Wrfi CAlr{ $iD
con$noHs gRrPf wtl|. rof tttgr
tffirctr fion,,otlral
AnC&fB
46
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
oirplane
The stsrtinepointshouldbe lrr gnqughtg tle sldeof_thepyloSsothot when.th9.
lP
contor
arrives at a poin=t-one line with it and the lnnk is ssslrmecl'tho,pylon will sPpear
tho
usualf
itia*"y l.t*eeo the -twoouter strutt of a biplane. . In a To-nopfgne
;i^iff;;f"a
"jur;r strut."
and
wing,
the
the
V+hute'
by
the
bounded
a,roa
or
the
ir
Gea
tip
iitf"itl.'*i"g
Ths bantr,must not bs started until the wing can be lovered rnd the pylon appearln
thls position.
The following rules will assistthe trainee in making the propereorrections:
to nove toward the tpper
l. Assumingln"t tfie altitude is correct, if the pylon appean
-bank glightty to rstain or regainthe
*id or-to*rr{ the leading odge,decroase-the
desiiedposition.
2, It s pylon appgarsto move-toworftle lower wing el trlnilingedge,increassf,[6 fnnlr
slightly to retain or regaintho dostrodposruon.
plreotionis eensedor observod,
-g. The morequickly the pylon'stendenoy-to.more.in.any
to hold the desir€dposition'
tdG. tne^corr6ctiontocessory
In order to eccomplishthe objective of this typ" 9t oight, the pylon must be watched
goortoU" "".i tU" uffro"" flown iccur"t"ti tltpGl the u]sebt tinLitnesia or "feel," with
"i"*t-p""t""pUon not tevoted pqnady to-it Thg.eyq.nust be kept 99 t&e.qyloryend the
rT€rencero
attitude of- the wins tips alsomay beobservoq aswoll e9t_helrsoeuungo-ctrou_wrGrl
tir pitot. T-his;1l iidicete th6 attitude and actionof the noseaawell as the bank. Other
*ag;"--"itt warn of opproae,hingslipe end akids. The amount of init'ial bank should be
about 46 degrees.
Execution-select two pylons located so that an imaginary-lirle conneclingthem ls et
as suitablefor
gOoto mo wina. X'ly parall6fto this line at the altitude previously_detennined
the speedto be wed [a-poking the turn ond at eucha distancefr-omlhe pylgnstlat the turn can
b"-fr"a" on it properly. .WEuqappror.imat"Iyin line.with tle lrst P;ylon,.lowert'hc.wing
until the sighting point strikes the pylon, at the samstrmo be$nnrDga tum rnto tno wrnd.
tr'lv a,roundthe pvlon with the pylon constantly in line with the sighting point until thc
oositioi for recoverlihasbeenreacEed. Level the wings and,-with duo allovanccfor drift,
fry to the properlocationto staxtthe trun a,roundthe secondpylou
ComnonFaults:
1. Usua,lfaults in turnr.
2. Startins turn too soonor too late.
3. StartinE turn et \rrong alt'itude.
4. StartinE turn at incorrect distoncefrom pylons.
5. Comini out of tu:n too late.
incorrectspeed.
O. lnconict throttle settins and consequently
i. trtolinS the noeeup or-downwith [,heelevatorsto make the airplaneremain on the
pylon.
Fa-ilureto correct for drift betweenpylons.
8. 'Watching
pylon too closelyond nogloctingposition of nose.
9.
SECTION I
47
BASIC FLNNG
IVIANEUVERS
34. SERIES OF TURNS
This manelver, known as"series of Turns," embodiesnothing.which yort h-avenot alrcady
learned,but it will be ono of the requiredmrneuverson your parb,becauseib callsfor planning,
for holding altitude, and for precision.
This series of turns is done at 1,500feet, and the excellencoof your performance-depends
on the accuracy and precision with which you make the turns, aud on the degreeto rvhich you
hold your altitude constant.
It is necessarythat you memorize the order of this series of turns, which is as follows (refer
to
-- diasram):
1:Tw;r gentlo 90-degreeturns; first one into the wind, then one cross-wind.
i. t*o fredium l80]degreotuins; in oppositedirections,started when flying cross-wind.
turn into the v-ind.
3. One gentle 9O-degree
turns made in opposite directions, each started when flying'
360-d"egree
l. i*"?t.ep
directly into the-wind.
First: Choosetwo roads or sectionlines for your landmarks. They must,be at right anglesto
each other, and the first landmark must be cross-wind.
d_on.nyour first landmarl<. As you-ap-proachBegin the maneuver by flying -cross-wind,
-Second:
look around for other planes, and then
your
landmark,
s-ecotrd
of
th"eintersection
irake a gently banked 90-degreeturn into the wind.
Fly straight and level d,irectlyinto thc wind for a ferv seconds,look for.other planes,
Third:
-|"a
*otu attof,hergentle 90-degreeturn in the oppositedirection from tho first turn.
At This point You \trill Again Be Cross-Wind And Parallel To The Original Landmark.
-Fourth:
-;;di;; X'ly straight and Ievel for a few seconds,and after cheching-for other planes,mahe,a
j66-a";.ue turn into the wind, using'not morc than_a 45-degreobanl<. Again.lly
look for traffic, and make another merlium
r|r"i*ni u"a t.o-.t cross-windfor a few'secon"d.,
l80-degreetu.rn in tho opposite direction.
As \f ou Finish your Second l80-Degree Turn, You Shoutd Again Be Flying Cross-Wind, Parallel To Your
Original Landmark.
Fifth:
- -il; Check for planes, and-then make a gentle 90-{9S.re.e tttrn so thatyou are.again flying
it u *i"a, $arallei to the road or sectJonline which is your secondlandmark.
S E R I E SO F T U R N S
E X E C U T EA T I S O O ' A L T I T U o e
MEDI UM
45"
GENTLE
30"
' G E N TL E _
ENTLEfoo
50"
WIND
48
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
Sixth: Irook around, and then make a steep (60-degreebank) 360-degreeturn. FIy straight
and levei into the wind for a few seconds,again c-heckfor other planes,and follow immcdiately wil,h another steep 360-degreeturn in the oppositedirection to your first 360-degree
turn.
It is important-thateachturn be completedexactlyin line with your landmarks. In ot\er
words, they aro to be precise90, 180,and 86Odegreeiurns.
It is also very important that you come out of this series of turns at the same altitude as
you e-nteredit. f{eal-ly, you should neither gain nor lose altitude on any of your turns, but if
you shouldlose altitude on one turn try to _gainit on t_!enext-in other rvbrds,keepcontinually
for ertors, and plan ahead so that you will completethe series of turirs at exactly
9o11e^c!ing
1.500feet.
Remember: During .ths time y.gu qrg flytog straight and level betweentho various lurns, it
may be necessary for.you.to "crab" into the wind in order to keepyour flight path parallel
to your reference andmarks.
LOOK IN ALL DIRDCTIONS FOR OTHER PLANES, PARTICULARLY IN THE DIRECTION
WILL BD TURNINGT
YOU
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
49
35. ?2o-DEGREESTEEP TURNS(MAXTMUMBANK)
This maneuverconsistsof llying trvo completecirclesat a constant altitudo and constant
degreeof bank. - Its purposeis to help you acquirecoordinationand accuracyin entering into
and recoveringfrom turns.
Your altitude should be at least 1,500feet.
bank shouldremain constant at 50 to 60 degtees,or the maximum for type
-Your degrce_of
of plane uscii. Youshouldfeel a sharp "burnp" during the iccorid 360-degree
turn. lrliis
wili be causedby a propeller wash rnadc during ihe lirst tirn. If you don't fc"clit, either your
al titude or your radius of tuln has varied. In cither casc,you har.enot performedthe mancuver
correc,tlv.
Full throttle is used for the maneuver. Sincea good portion of the l'ings'Iift is used to
countelactcentrifugalforceand due to the higherstaliingspeedin a stccpbnrili,you rnust uso
all the po\{er availableto nraintainyour altitude.
Pick a landmark before starting. You l'ill be able to judge your turns better if you choose
somestraight landrnark,such &s a l'c)&d,to go by. Firrd one tlrat is directlv cross-g'ind,and
do the maicu"er on tlie dorvn-rvindsidc of i1, stirting the turn into the rviid. In this'l'sy
you clrn use the road as a guidc to help you recovet:at tho ploper time and in the cor.e"l
drrectron.
To Execute the Maneuver:
tr'ly dou'n-windof your landlnarli nnd parallcllritli it at an altitutlc of notle,qst]ran I,500
feot. Check the air around you for other planes.
Open the throttle fully.
Start a bank and turn into the 'wind. Your bank shrlrld be about 60 degrecs,or ns str:cp
&sc&nbe mrintaincd'rvithoutlosingaltitudc.
Continue the turn through two completecircles, or 720 degrees.
Recover so that you will be flying parallel with your landmark. You l'ill }iave to anticipate in your recovely,so &snot to overshoot.
Cautions:
properly. Rememberthat, you don't use more aileron prcssure
Be certain to coordinate_
for a steepbank-you just hold the pressurelonger. Malie your entranceand rccoverysmooth.
Hold your bank constant. There is very little overbanking tendencyin a stecp turn so
very little oppositeaiieronwill be necessery.
Hold the nose of the plane up. You rvill have to use consitlerablebacl<plcssurein order
to "tighten up" the turn and not lose altitude.
But remercber that the plane can and will stall in a turn as in any otller positiou il tor.r
much back plessureis applied too lory.
50
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
SECTION I
36. SPIRALS
A spiral is a steeplybanked gliding turn
maintained through several revolutions
This maneuver enables you to lose altitude while circling around some point on
the ground. If your
-on enginequit, and you
a field almost directly
wanied to land
below you, you can see how the spiral
would 5e uieiul in coming down to a fosition from which to begin your landing
approach.
In practicing this maneuY€r' start the
spiral a[ &bout 2,000 feet. This will give
you enoughaltitude to make 4 or 5 turns
before coming out of the spiral at 1,000
feet.
lb. McFishbiscuit
you donrt have to
splral that t
Check trafic tn ell directions.
To start the maneuver,head into the
wind, far enoughto the left of the selected
point on the giound so that you can seeit from the windorv of your plane rvithout leaning in
the seat.
Apply carburetor heat,before closing throttle'
Close your throttle, and start a gliding turn around the point on the ground.
Keep a constant distance flem, the poin-tthl!$hout the spiral. That is, make the point
on the sr;md the center of the circle tbrbugh which you turn. Ttt order to make-yourground
"utn.ii""tur, you will have to vary your bank to coirect,for-drift,-just as you did wtren praciicins ,'8's" itid S-to*r. Remember,&s you head up-wind, shallow out your bonkl as you
headdown wind, steepenup your bank'
About every 20 seconds,open throttle and clear engineof accumulatedgases.
averagebank during thls maneuvershould be between 50 arrd 60 degrees. That.is,
-aUout
The
power tu.Fl . Howevcr, when practicing
as Eteeplyas you-did in your 720-degree
bant
a good idea to use a shallowerbank
is-sorietinies
tri;ls
it
first
fcw
this maneuv*r, oo-y6ur
"feel" of the maneuvei. Tl'cn, after you get,used to the
get,
you.
the
intil
a"gtL.r)
45
i;i;;i
maneuver,you can spiral using a steeperbank.
Maintain a constant gliding speed. Since in turns the stalling gPe.edof your plane.is
,uir"a. ior. speeclrvill hav"eto b"ehigher than the nonnal gliding-spe1dof the plane. But be
the nose too lorv, o"ra spiral dive will resJlt. ehggt your air-speedindicator
;;;"1il'";;i;i;i.i
*a *oi"t*in an airspeedabout 10'm. p. h. higher than normal gliding airspeed'
your controlsin the entry and re{overy.. One of the purposesof this maneuver
Coordinate
-a.""lop
"til io executi-nggliding t,-rns. Be caieful not to skid or slip especially in the
ir to
recovery.
pick some reference points on the ground besides yo-urspot, so that.you d 1o! lose your
.*r. oi direction or orieniation. Roails, trees,or oth-erlandm-arksusually servethis-purpose.
of iL""e la,"amarks during the spiral, you will always be arvare of the direcil [;il-il;t;
you
are heading.
which
in
ti6n
come out of the spiral, and resume the normal gllde at 1,000feet.
Never continue your spiral below 1,000feet.
Rememberto clear engine about every 20 secondsir the glide and check traffic.
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVE&S
51
;f" i
,Jl'*
37. POWERLANDINGS
In a normal landing, the plane is partially stalled just before it touches the qround. as
you.knoy, whgn th-eplane is sballed-,the controls lose most of their effectivenessand the plane
is difrcult to handle. . T'hu.q,in a high and gusty wind you may not be able to controll the
plane during a norrnal landing.
Under these conditions, the power wh-eellanding is extremely useful, since the plane is
literally "flo,w:r-onto the gr6und" with sufficient air speed to endble the pilot to have comp_lete-control
of the Plt e througtrout-themsneuver. The approachis made rvith power on,
lhe-pllne la-nds-onitl front wheels only and_rollsglong on the ground in a tail-high positionj
unti-l the pilot closesthe [hrottle and luts the tail on the grouid.
The a-pproachto a power landing is made with power on, and consequently the angle of
tho-glido during tbe approach,issomewhatflatter than during tho normal glida Tlhen you
begin lhe approac_h,throttle the engine back slightly, and place your plane-in a gliding angle
somewhatflatter than s nonnal glide.
During the approaeh,especiallyin rough air, keep your air speedabout ten milos an hour
faster than the normal gli4qg s!'eed of the plane. If you are gliding too fast, raiso the nose,
or decreasethe enginoR.P.M. dependingon whether or not, ybu want to losb altitude mor6
rapidly, or more_slorrly. If you aregliding tooslowlyrincreaseyourglidingangle, or give the
engine more R.P.M.
As you approach the ground, level ofi and fly straight and level about two feet ofi the
gro!+d. Use just enough engino R.P.M. to maintain sufficicnt speed to keep the plano from
settling.
Then, gradually ease the stick forward until the wheels touch the ground. I{old the
whgels on-the ground with q slight {orward pressureon the stick, and taxi along on the ground
in this tail-bigL position. You-will be taxiiig with the tail in the oir, fast enorigh to be"flying,
except for the fact tbat in this tail-high position the wings are at I z€ro angle-of attack, and
thcrefore have littlo lift. Thus a sudden gust of air will not lift the plane ofr the ground, and
the propeller blast on tho tail gives excellent rudder and elevator coitrol.
- When you want to put the tail on the Eound docreasetho engine R.P.lvI. slowly, thereby
slowing up the taxi speed,and gradually let, the tail down. The plane will then roll to a stop.
52
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
Wheel landinqs require more rprcc thrn mrmr_l_landingc.Thereforeif there is afY
q".ril;;;;";
-?rq;ffidift;letffi-or
thefieldonvour".tPjYl:
notyouwill oversh--oot
""a go &rouno agarn. In aciual practice, ths wheel landing is used only
;;;th"'th"tottf",
is
-strong.
wind
when the
30Under these conditions you need to wony less about spacc needep,since in a 25- to
you touch the
as
per
hbur
20'miles
,i"ti
l5
or
;iU
UJ
;t""d
""t"JlJdd
wiod
mile
vour
ground.
Don't nush the stick forward too suddenly or you will hit the wheels too hard and bounce
(". ;;"o;;b;bt;did-;;;;i
ti-ur i" tuooinl toland). Too m.t'ch forward pressureon the
so
be sure to praciice this maneuver first with your instructor.
ooru-oyer,
i
;;.6"
;;i"(;-ilf
SECTION I
BASIC FLNNG
MANEUVERS
53
38. FORWARD SLIPS
The forward slip is a maneuver which
enables you to lose altitude rapidly, and at
tho same time to maintain -your original
fl.ifht natn. over the ground. During the
sllp, ono wrng rs lowered,enough opposrte
rudder is applied to turn tho nose slightly
arvayfrom the low wing, and tho planomoves
sideivaysthrough the air withodt changeof
flight path. The increaseddrag (resistance
of the plane to its movementthrough the air)
when ihe planeis in this positionpieventsan
increaseiri air speed,eventhouchihe anqleof
descentis greaterthan in a normalglidJ.
The advantages
of a forwardslin arc that
it enablcsyou to ihorten and to ste6pcnvour
landingapproachu'ithout increasing
youi fn.ward speetior changingyour flighiliath. I t
also allows a clear vierv of the'ianding area
during the approach.
.
T4" forward llip is partic-ularlyusefulin
F O R I I A RSDLI P
l r { T 0 T l t E} f t N D
forced landinss. Since it enablcsvou to lose
altitude
altrtude ra.pldly
rapidllv wlthoui.lncreaslng.youl'&lr
rapidly
withoui increasine vour air sp.cgd,
without.increasing.yorrl
spjgd, you c_?n^c-oPe
cgn^cglne ln
in over obstrucbions (trees,
wires, etc.) then lose_altitrrde
lose altitrrde rapidlyrapidly and-larxl
and larxl in a small field. Furthermore, it is vaiuable
insuronce against undershooting-a fi-eld, rvhen you hal'e no cngine to help you. Under s1c5
you can
cu'ctllnslanQes,you
circurnstancls,
tnten^uonelryrnaiieyour-approach
rnfrlieyoul_approach with
wrth t6omuch
too much utiitiae.
altrtude. iir"",
l'hen, whcn
*ti""
-c&nintentionally
{o.u ,a,reclose.cnortgh to t}re field to judge tltab ther-eis no danger of undershooting, you can iose
this excesseltitude in a fonvard slip.
--t
To start the maneuver, close your throttle and assumea normal glide. If it is left, open. I
the engine rvill vibrate excessively, since the air rvill not strike the two bladesof the propcliera[
\\ I
\
the same angle.
- :
I
Then lower one wing slightly, and hold aileron pressureto keep the wing lowered.
/Now.ralselne nose above the normal g[de position by e-xertingback pressure. Your air
spe6d during,a fo.rlard slip should be-the-same a.s-duringa n-ormal glTde- If you ao"'t "ui*" tfr"
nose,Yqlt
wiil gain,
air speed,which will increasethe
u u u lengih
F . ; . : - , excessive
r your"glid.,
lllu. Q
destro
gSlfOy
. ! u u r K l r u e t t""a
:-,"*"r JF*'-^
_ r o r r x u u vof
the
u I r E u ) c t r r r r r f r { r .+t
L r r-lhe
u
(Ooanlgn O
But
DUL u
llnarre-rrver.
rlrlretlYel'.
don't
O I l L raise
r t t l S ( . )[the
n O S e too.,hig[
I l e nose
orf tth"e
plaie
l&ne W
ne p
rillL t l Sstall
t a l l fin
n iuil
fUIl
,usefrrllress
readinessforaspin)sgu l(avh.e1 {Ftoa
i * i i , i r i " t - - k l * * ,'fi7i
q")
r-,,
6::F__ i,r,r:i
,jJic'
To recover,useenoughaileronpress.ufe
to raisethe io/wio s:;;tgr{d}i.;.tff'
easeoft yorrr
, &nogradualty"6{t"htif"",
rurlder pressure, at the same time, loiter th,enose and recover to t[e nornial slide"."*it,"r.
glide position
a little pra.cticeyou will be able to coordinateoppositecontrol pressuresand perform
the lnaneuver smoothly.
Conrrnon faults are:
1. It'ailure to raise tho nose,resulting in a nose-don'nslip, with an increasein speed.
2. Releasing rudder too quickly.
3. Insufficient nrdder pressure so that dircction of rnotion is changed and the slip bcconres
a side slip insteatl of a forward slio.
4. Ilolding tlle ttcrretoo high, causing tho plano to stall.
54
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
39. SIDE SLIPS
The side slip differs only slightly from
the forward slip. The principal dillerencelies
in the flight paths followed by the plane'
during thesetwo m&neuYcrs.
lo a forward slip one l'ing is lon'ered,
f
/ tlie nose molres slightly in a dircction opI posite to that of the lorveredwing, and the
\ plane slips sidewaysthrough the oir, along
\lhe originalflight path of the plane.
In a side slip tho longitudinal axis of the
plane is held parallel to the original flight
bath, and wh-en one wing is loivered, ihe
blnnernovcssidewtysthrouqh thc tir in the
direction of the lowercd u:ing, away from
or at an angle to, the original flight path.
The sideslip is executed in essentially
the same manner as the forward slip.
One wing is depressed,and as the plane
starts to turn i.rrthe direction of the Iorvwing,
enoush opposite rudder prcssure is applierl
T H EW I N D
to kicp tir6 noseof the pjane headcdin the
original direction. Tho flight poth will bo
foru,ard, dorvn, and to the left (or right) in the direction of the Iow wing.
As the wing is depressed,tho noso-ofthe plane shouldbo rarled enoughsoJhat.the normal
gliding speeclis"mainlained.- KSSRglancing at your air-specdindicator. It will pro.ba.bly
Bu o.i.rd""y to raiso your noso sligh[ly higher than you raised it in a forward slip, and then
to easeforward on tl_restick enoughto prevent the plano lrom tunlrng.
This maneuver, like the forward slip, requires opposite movernent of stick and rudder.
This ieprcsentsa dijTerenttype of coordinationthan you havo been practicing.
.,Forward and side slips" can be dono into the wind or cross-wind. -If they are executed
"ro., *iod thu l,d.ift" will^a.fiecttheir flight path over tho ground accordi-ugto tho velocity
of the wind.
a "turning slip]' or "spiral slip", in wl-rich
anil Jorwaril slipswe g_et
-degrees
Bv combining the sid,e
tq thi wind with the low wing.he.aded
w-nenine plainois flying at 90
i. ffiil
a ,ial"rfip -bv
Eu.i"e ofi "top^" rudder prc-ssuretho plane ie allowed to turn into the wind and
;;';td:
a foiwsrd slip.' From tJris point on, the control pressurespertaining
rJ""-"-in"-tirritio"-of
to tho forwaid slip applY.
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
55
40. 'IDRAGGING'' AREAS
This manouver is used to enablevou to
look over a strangefield on which you piopose
to land. It, is particularly useful when you
aro running short of g&s, or when you are
forced to land on a field other than an airport
becauseof npproachingbad weather during
I cross-country flight, or when lost.
"Dragging" &n are&consistsin flying over
tho field. to one side of the areain which you
intend to land, at an altitude sufficientlylow
bhat vou will be able to determinothe sizeof
the field in relation to the landing characteristicsof your plane,the condition of the field's
surface,and the prcscnceof obstaclesin your
intended landing path which would not be
visible from a greater altitude.
When you have selectedthe field in which you intend to land, circle it at ap altitude of
500feet. During this circuit pay particular attention to the field'ssize,its contours,approacheq
surfaceconditions,and the wind direction. PIan your approachso that you will have the longest run possibleafter landing, taking into considerationthe wind, and other factors.
Then make a more carefulinspeetionof the area in which you intend to land by "dragging"
the area.
Approachthe field, headed into the wind, in a power-on glide. Sinceyour glide is more
shallow with power on, it will have to be started either farthor from the field, or with less
altitude, than would a normal approach.
Fly up wind over the field, to dne side of the intendedlanding are8,at,30 to 50 feet altitude,
keeping your air speed well above the stalling speed of the plano. Carefully examine the
intended landing area. Look for stumps, holes or soft spots in the field, other obstructions,
and note with particular care the field'e inclination. Ropeat the maneuverif necessary,until
you ere certain that the field is suitable for landing.
Be certain that you are not flying so low that you will be unable to clear obstacles,sush as
trees or buildings at the far end of the field.
In deciding whether or not the field is satisfactory, and in planning your actual approach
for landing, remembers YouR INSTRUCToRPBoBABLv wrr,L HAvE To FLy rHE rLANE
oUT oF THE FIELD. THEBEFOREby certain that thero a,rono tall trees or other obstructions on the up-wind side of the field.
lf the feld is eloping, it is usually better to land down-wind and up-hill rather than upwind and down-hill, unlessthe rvind r9 very strong.
In general,plan your approachso thet you will have the longestrun after landing, taking
into considerationthe wind, and othor factors.
Make several practice approachesbefore making the actual landing.
This maneuver will be demonstratedby your instructor, and you will not be required to
practice it solo. But remember how the maneuver is done as you might lrave occasionto use
It sometrme.
If an occasion arises when you must make &n emergoncylanding in a field due to bad
weathor,becominglost, or for otler reasons,Don't Attempt to take ofr againfrom this field.
Call your instructor or the airport by telephone and explain your difficulty to them.
I
SECTION I
BASIC FLYING
IVIANEUVERS
57
4L. CHECK FLIGHTS
At the end of your trainins pexiod vou
will be given a flishf
"in test bv FAL'personiel.
tr'urth eimore, at terva ls-durin g ybur training, you may be given periodio "check flights"
by somo,person other than Administration
personnel.
These "check flights" are exominations.
Their purpose is to iletermino how well you
ha,velearned to maneuyer &n airplano. As
in any other examination, how will you do
on th6 "chcck flight" depehdsupon h6w well
you are prepared. If you have taken your
instructions seriouslv.if vou have nracticed
conscientiously duriirg ydur solo fliing, and
if you understand tho funda.rnentals you
leairred in ground school, you will not need
to worry about your "check f ights."
Some trainees get "inspectoritis,l' and "blow up" during thoir ,,check flisht." Sometimes this results from.a feeling of urpreparedness... O1ten,however, the simple f-actof having
the check pilot in the front seat makes a trainee "jittery."
Remember that the check flight is just like.any other flight. The..checkpilot will merely
ride
whils youI fly
n y rthe
n eplane
p
through a seriesof maneuvers.
e most_examilations,
you
series of maneuYers
u
while practicing. The checkpilot is a human bei.g,
a trainee himself, and would
probablv rather
probably
rathei give
sive you a gobd
Eobd mark than & poor
rroor one.
o
. ,When practicing,the check flight manelvgls-solo-,imagine that.the check pilot is sitting
in the front seat and give yourself a "check flight" from tine to time. Durins the ,,checf
qight," .the check pilot.will.say little or nothing, so the practice situal,ion won"'t be wholly
diffcrent from the actual flight.
For some of the check flights you will be required to memorize the sequeneeof the various
maneuvers, and to go through tho series without directions from the ch-eckpilot. If this is
the case, be.,certain that you know the. sequenceof .the moneuvers. 'This ihould be easy,
since you will have flown the series both with your instructor, and solo many
' times. T[;
sequencoof maneuversfor the final "check flight" is given on s following page. At anv eiven
poirt in your flight training, practico until you are proficient in all the manluvers in [his list
which you have learnedup to that time.
, Tnu .e.Fnhasisduring.lhe check fights- is on precision! This means you must plan
ahead. All maneuvers will be done with referenco to some landmark on the ground.
During the maneuvers, always be aware of the position of your plane in reference to
these landmarks. For instance, whiJe you a,remaking a turn, estimat-ewhere your turn is
to be completed, and how you will have to vary your bank in order to recover ii the proDer
posi-tioj?in regard to your landmark. -During b] o-maneuver, and during the straigfit and
level flight between manouyers, plan ahead, and decide how and where you will siart the
next ono.
The sequerlcoyr r-hich the maneuvers
.,,
will be flown has been arffi@-ifso tE-attho most flying.an be dono in the least time. But be
deliberate. Enter atld- recover froq your maneuyor€ldecisively, and unless directed otherwise,-fly.straight and lovel for a few secondsbetrveen maneuvers while you "pull yourself
[ogether."
Again remember, the check flight is just like any other flight
_
58
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
Following is the seqence of maneuvers for the final check flight:
f. Taxiing.
2. Take-0fr,
3. Judcment leaving trsffic.r
4. Strdght and lovel flight.
5. Rectangulor course.
b. S-turns-acrossc road.
7. Seriesof eiehtu.
8. Eiehts (aro-undand on PYlons).
g. Climbs and climbing turns to l'500 feel;.
10. Seriesof turns.
11. ?20o turns (maximum benk).
12. Seriesof stalls (power on and ofi).
13. Spins (as required).
14. Slips (forwaid, eid.e).
15. Spirals (right and left).
16. C.lidesandgliding turns.
17. Snot landinls (180oside approach).
18. Sirot landin[s (180ooverheadapproachauxiliary field).
19. Cbordinationexercises.
20. Forced landinss.
21. Judgment ent6ring trafrc.t
22. Planning.a
23. Alertness.s
I TheseltemsBronot msBeurelsto bo flown h the checEfllgbt but aspectsol tour piloting beh8vlorwhlch wlll be rated by th€cbeckpilot
58
BASIC FLYING
MANEUVERS
SECTION I
Following is the seqence of maneuvers for the final check flight:
l. Taxiing.
2. Take-ofi.
3. Judcment leaving tra,ffic.t
4. Strdght and levol flrght.
5. Rectangular courso.
6. S-turns-acrossa road.
7. Seriesof eiehts.
8. Eiehts (aro-undend on PYlons).
S. Climbs and olimbing turns to 1,500feel;.
10. Seriosof turns.
ll. 72Ooturns (maximum bank).
12. Seriesof stalls (power on and off).
t3. Spins (as requirod).
14. Siips (forward, side).
15. Spirals (rieht and left).
16. Glides aird gliding turns.
17. Spot landings (18b" side approach).
i8: Si;i i""ai"E" (180ooverh6id appioach auxiliarv field).
19. Cbordinationexercises.
20. tr'orcedlandinss.
21. Judgment ent6ring traffic.r
22. Plannins.s
23. Alertnes-s.a
I Tbeseltems arenot m8n€uy€rsto be flown tn the cbeckfllght but aspectsot tour piloting behgvlorwhlch wl]] be rsted by the cbeckpilot
l
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