+
CompTIA A
COMPLETE
®
Guide to PCs
SIXTH EDITION
CHERYL A. SCHMIDT
Florida State College at Jacksonville
Pearson
800 East 96th Street
Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA
Complete CompTIA® A+ Guide to PCs, Sixth Edition
Associate Publisher
Dave Dusthimer
Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
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liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained
herein.
ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-4976-5
ISBN-10: 0-7897-4976-9
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Contents at a Glance
Introduction ..............................................................................................................................xxiv
Features of This Book ........................................................................................................ xxvi
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer Repair ..................................................................1
Chapter 2: On the Motherboard ........................................................................................ 45
Chapter 3: System Configuration...................................................................................... 93
Chapter 4: Disassembly and Power............................................................................... 119
Chapter 5: Logical Troubleshooting............................................................................... 183
Chapter 6: Memory ................................................................................................................201
Chapter 7: Storage Devices ...............................................................................................249
Chapter 8: Multimedia Devices ....................................................................................... 333
Chapter 9: Other Peripherals ............................................................................................379
Chapter 10: Computing Design ....................................................................................... 449
Chapter 11: Basic Operating Systems .......................................................................... 471
Chapter 12: Windows XP, Vista, and 7 ......................................................................... 575
Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity .................................................................................. 695
Chapter 14: Introduction to Networking ......................................................................727
Chapter 15: Computer and Network Security ........................................................... 811
Glossary ......................................................................................................................................873
Index ............................................................................................................................................. 911
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. xxiv
Features of This Book ...................................................................................................................... xxvi
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer Repair ........................................................................... 1
Overview ............................................................................................................................................2
CompTIA A+ Certification ............................................................................................................2
Safety Note ........................................................................................................................................3
Technician Qualities .......................................................................................................................3
Basic Computer Parts ....................................................................................................................5
External Connectivity .................................................................................................................. 11
Mouse and Keyboard Ports ........................................................................................................ 12
Mice and Keyboards ..................................................................................................................... 13
Wireless Input Devices ................................................................................................................ 15
Mouse and Keyboard Preventive Maintenance ...................................................................... 18
Keyboard/Mouse Troubleshooting ........................................................................................... 18
Video Port....................................................................................................................................... 19
USB Port ........................................................................................................................................ 22
Installing Extra USB Ports ........................................................................................................ 26
USB Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................. 27
Parallel Ports ................................................................................................................................. 28
Serial Ports .................................................................................................................................... 29
Audio Ports .................................................................................................................................... 29
IEEE 1394 Ports ........................................................................................................................... 30
IEEE 1394 Troubleshooting ...................................................................................................... 32
eSATA Ports .................................................................................................................................. 33
Network Ports ............................................................................................................................... 33
Modem Ports ................................................................................................................................. 34
Pros and Cons of Integrated Motherboards ........................................................................... 34
Docking Stations and Port Replicators ................................................................................... 35
Chapter Summary ........................................................................................................................ 38
Key Terms ...................................................................................................................................... 38
Review Questions ......................................................................................................................... 39
Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 40
Lab 1.1 Identifying Tower Computer Parts ..................................................... 40
Lab 1.2 Identification of Computer Ports........................................................ 41
Lab 1.3 Identification of Video Ports ............................................................... 42
Lab 1.4 Port Identification ............................................................................... 42
Activities ......................................................................................................................................... 43
Chapter 2: On the Motherboard ................................................................................................. 45
Processor Overview ...................................................................................................................... 46
Processor Basics ........................................................................................................................... 46
Intel Processors ............................................................................................................................ 48
Contents
AMD Processors ............................................................................................................................ 49
Speeding Up Processor Operations Overview ........................................................................ 50
Cache ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Clocking .......................................................................................................................................... 53
Threading Technology ................................................................................................................ 54
Connecting to the Processor ..................................................................................................... 54
Multi-Core Processors ................................................................................................................. 55
Sockets and Slots.......................................................................................................................... 57
Processor Cooling ........................................................................................................................ 59
Installing Processors ................................................................................................................... 62
Mobile Device Motherboards/CPUs .......................................................................................... 64
Overclocking Processors............................................................................................................. 65
Troubleshooting Processor Issues ........................................................................................... 66
Expansion Slots............................................................................................................................. 67
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) ........................................................................... 67
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) ............................................................................................ 69
PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express).......................................................... 70
Laptop Expansion ......................................................................................................................... 74
More Motherboard Connectors ................................................................................................. 76
Chipsets........................................................................................................................................... 76
Types of Motherboards ................................................................................................................ 78
Upgrading and Replacing Motherboards ................................................................................ 79
Motherboard Troubleshooting .................................................................................................. 80
Soft Skills—Active Listening..................................................................................................... 81
Chapter Summary ........................................................................................................................ 83
Key Terms ...................................................................................................................................... 84
Review Questions ......................................................................................................................... 84
Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 86
Lab 2.1 ATX Motherboard Parts Identification Exercise ................................ 86
Lab 2.2 Motherboard Analysis .......................................................................... 87
Lab 2.3 Processor Speed, Processor Socket, and Ports .................................. 89
Activities ......................................................................................................................................... 89
Chapter 3: System Configuration............................................................................................... 93
Configuration Overview .............................................................................................................. 94
BIOS Overview .............................................................................................................................. 94
The Setup Program ..................................................................................................................... 95
Flash BIOS ..................................................................................................................................... 96
BIOS Configuration Settings..................................................................................................... 98
CMOS Memory ............................................................................................................................ 100
Motherboard Batteries .............................................................................................................. 101
Other Configuration Parameters ............................................................................................ 102
IRQ (Interrupt Request)........................................................................................................... 102
PCI Interrupts ............................................................................................................................. 105
I/O (Input/Output) Addresses.................................................................................................. 106
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Contents
Memory Addresses...................................................................................................................... 108
Adapter Configuration............................................................................................................... 109
Soft Skills—A Good Technician Quality: One Thing at a Time ..................................... 109
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 111
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 111
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 111
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 113
Lab 3.1 Configuration Method Exercise and Review .................................... 113
Lab 3.2 System Resource Configuration Through the Setup Program ....... 114
Lab 3.3 Examining System Resources by Using Windows ........................... 115
Lab 3.4 Device Drivers.................................................................................... 116
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 116
Chapter 4: Disassembly and Power ........................................................................................ 119
Disassembly Overview ............................................................................................................... 120
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) ................................................................................................ 120
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) ..................................................................................... 122
Disassembly.................................................................................................................................. 122
Tools .............................................................................................................................................. 122
Opening the Case........................................................................................................................ 124
Cables and Connectors .............................................................................................................. 124
Storage Devices ........................................................................................................................... 128
Motherboards............................................................................................................................... 129
Mobile Device Issues .................................................................................................................. 130
Reassembly................................................................................................................................... 132
Preventive Maintenance............................................................................................................ 132
Basic Electronics Overview ...................................................................................................... 134
Electronics Terms ...................................................................................................................... 134
Power Supply Overview ............................................................................................................ 137
Power Supply Form Factors .................................................................................................... 138
Purposes of a Power Supply .................................................................................................... 141
Power Supply Voltages .............................................................................................................. 143
Mobile Device Travel and Storage .......................................................................................... 144
Mobile Device Power ................................................................................................................. 144
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) ...................................................... 147
Replacing or Upgrading a Power Supply .............................................................................. 151
Symptoms of Power Supply Problems .................................................................................. 152
Solving Power Supply Problems ............................................................................................ 153
Adverse Power Conditions ....................................................................................................... 154
Adverse Power Protection ........................................................................................................ 155
Surge Protectors......................................................................................................................... 155
Line Conditioners ....................................................................................................................... 157
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) ................................................................................... 158
Standby Power Supply (SPS) .................................................................................................. 160
Phone Line Isolator ................................................................................................................... 161
Contents
Electrical Fires ............................................................................................................................ 161
Computer Disposal/Recycling ................................................................................................. 162
Soft Skills—Written Communications Skills ...................................................................... 162
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 164
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 165
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 165
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 168
Lab 4.1 Performing Maintenance on an Antistatic Wrist Strap ...................... 168
Lab 4.2 Computer Disassembly/Reassembly ........................................................ 169
Lab 4.3 Amps and Wattage ....................................................................................... 172
Lab 4.4 Continuity Check......................................................................................... 172
Lab 4.5 Pin-Out Diagramming................................................................................ 173
Lab 4.6 Fuse Check .................................................................................................... 174
Lab 4.7 Using a Multimeter ..................................................................................... 174
Lab 4.8 Wall Outlet and Power Cord AC Voltage Check ................................... 176
Lab 4.9 Device DC Voltage Check .......................................................................... 177
Lab 4.10 Windows XP Power Options ................................................................... 178
Lab 4.11 Windows Vista/7 Power Options ............................................................ 179
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 180
Chapter 5: Logical Troubleshooting ........................................................................................183
Troubleshooting Overview ....................................................................................................... 184
Identify the Problem.................................................................................................................. 184
Establish a Theory of Probable Cause ................................................................................... 185
Test the Theory to Determine Cause .................................................................................... 190
Establish a Plan of Action and Implement the Solution .................................................. 191
Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures ....................... 191
Soft Skills—Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes and
Provide Feedback........................................................................................................................ 192
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 194
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 194
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 194
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 196
Lab 5.1 Logical Troubleshooting ................................................................... 196
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 197
Chapter 6: Memory............................................................................................................................201
Memory Overview ....................................................................................................................... 202
Memory Physical Packaging .................................................................................................... 203
Planning the Memory Installation ......................................................................................... 204
Planning the Memory Installation—Memory Technologies............................................ 205
Mobile Device Memory .............................................................................................................. 207
Planning the Memory Installation—Memory Features .................................................... 207
Planning for Memory—The Amount of Memory to Install ............................................. 209
Planning for Memory—How Many of Each Memory Type?............................................. 212
Planning for Memory—Researching and Buying Memory .............................................. 216
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Contents
Installing Memory Overview .................................................................................................... 218
Removing/Installing Memory .................................................................................................. 218
Adding More Cache/RAM ......................................................................................................... 220
Windows Disk Caching.............................................................................................................. 221
Monitoring Memory Usage Under Windows ........................................................................ 223
Old Applications Under Windows ........................................................................................... 224
Troubleshooting Memory Problems ...................................................................................... 225
Flash Memory .............................................................................................................................. 226
Soft Skills—Teamwork ............................................................................................................. 228
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 229
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 230
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 230
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 232
Lab 6.1 Configuring Memory on Paper, Part 1 ................................................... 232
Lab 6.2 Configuring Memory on Paper, Part 2 ................................................... 234
Lab 6.3 Configuring Memory on Paper, Part 3 ................................................... 236
Lab 6.4 Configuring Memory on Paper, Part 4 ................................................... 238
Lab 6.5 Configuring Memory on Paper, Part 5 ................................................... 240
Lab 6.6 Examining Memory Resources Using Windows XP ............................ 241
Lab 6.7 Using the System Information Tool in Windows XP to
View Memory ............................................................................................................... 242
Lab 6.8 Using Windows XP Task Manager to View Memory ............................ 242
Lab 6.9 Examining Memory Resources Using Windows 7 ............................... 242
Lab 6.10 Using the System Information Tool in Windows 7
to View Memory .......................................................................................................... 243
Lab 6.11 Using Windows 7 Task Manager to View Memory ............................. 243
Lab 6.12 Determining Memory Resources in an iOS-Based Device............... 245
Lab 6.13 Determining Memory Resources in an Android-Based Device....... 245
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 246
Chapter 7: Storage Devices ........................................................................................................249
Storage Devices Overview ......................................................................................................... 250
Floppy Drive Overview .............................................................................................................. 251
Floppy Media and Construction .............................................................................................. 252
Floppy Drive Installation or Replacement ........................................................................... 252
Hard Drive Overview.................................................................................................................. 253
Hard Drive Geometry ................................................................................................................ 253
Hard Drive Interfaces Overview .............................................................................................. 257
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) ........................................................................................ 259
SSD (Solid State Drive) ............................................................................................................ 263
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ........................................................................... 264
Storage Device Configuration Overview ............................................................................... 266
PATA Physical Installation ...................................................................................................... 266
SATA Physical Installation ....................................................................................................... 271
SSD Physical Installation ......................................................................................................... 274
Parallel SCSI Configuration .................................................................................................... 276
Contents
SCSI ID Configuration and Termination ............................................................................. 276
SCSI Cables .................................................................................................................................. 279
SAS Installation .......................................................................................................................... 280
Mobile Device Storage ............................................................................................................... 281
System BIOS Configuration for Hard Drives ...................................................................... 282
Hard Drive Preparation Overview .......................................................................................... 282
Partitioning.................................................................................................................................. 283
How Drive Letters Are Assigned ............................................................................................. 289
Windows Disk Management ..................................................................................................... 290
Fault Tolerance ........................................................................................................................... 291
High-Level Formatting ............................................................................................................. 293
Troubleshooting Devices .......................................................................................................... 294
RAID Issues.................................................................................................................................. 299
Preventive Maintenance for Hard Drives .............................................................................. 299
Data Security ............................................................................................................................... 301
Removable Drive Storage ......................................................................................................... 303
Disk Caching/Virtual Memory ................................................................................................. 304
Soft Skills—Phone Skills ......................................................................................................... 305
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 306
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 308
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 308
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 310
Lab 7.1 Configuring a PATA IDE Hard Drive on Paper .................................... 310
Lab 7.2 Configuring a PATA IDE Cable Select Configuration ......................... 312
Lab 7.3 Configuring a SATA Hard Drive on Paper ............................................. 312
Lab 7.4 Installing an IDE PATA/SATA Hard Drive with
Windows XP Disk Management Tool, diskpart, and convert........................ 314
Lab 7.5 Installing an IDE PATA/SATA Hard Drive with the Windows 7
Disk Management Tool, diskpart, and convert ................................................ 318
Lab 7.6 Striping and Spanning Using Windows 7 .............................................. 323
Lab 7.7 Windows XP Backup Tool.......................................................................... 324
Lab 7.8 Windows 7 Backup Tool............................................................................. 325
Lab 7.9 Windows XP/Vista Hard Disk Tools......................................................... 326
Lab 7.10 Windows 7 Hard Disk Tools.................................................................... 328
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 329
Chapter 8: Multimedia Devices ................................................................................................. 333
Multimedia Overview ................................................................................................................. 334
Optical Disk Drive Overview .................................................................................................... 334
Optical Drive Features............................................................................................................... 335
Optical Drive Interfaces and Connections ............................................................................ 338
Optical Drive Installation ......................................................................................................... 339
Troubleshooting Optical Drive Issues.................................................................................... 341
Preventive Maintenance for ODDs and Discs ...................................................................... 342
Theory of Sound Card Operation ........................................................................................... 345
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Contents
Installing Sound Cards.............................................................................................................. 347
Sound Cards Using Windows................................................................................................... 348
Mobile Device Sound ................................................................................................................. 349
Speakers ........................................................................................................................................ 350
Troubleshooting Sound Problems ......................................................................................... 352
Scanners ....................................................................................................................................... 354
Digital Cameras........................................................................................................................... 358
Soft Skills—Attitude.................................................................................................................. 360
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 362
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 362
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 363
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 365
Lab 8.1 Sound and Optical Drives in Windows XP ............................................ 365
Lab 8.2 Sound and Optical Drives in Windows 7 ............................................... 367
Lab 8.3 Optical Drive Installation Lab .................................................................. 369
Lab 8.4 DirectX Diagnostics in Windows XP ....................................................... 369
Lab 8.5 DirectX Diagnostics in Windows 7 .......................................................... 370
Lab 8.6 Installing a Sound Card and Speakers in
Windows XP ................................................................................................................. 371
Lab 8.7 Installing a Sound Card and Speakers in Windows 7 ......................... 373
Lab 8.8 Installing a USB Scanner........................................................................... 375
Lab 8.9 Changing the Drive Letter of an Optical Drive Using the Disk
Management and diskpart Utility ......................................................................... 376
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 376
Chapter 9: Other Peripherals ..................................................................................................... 379
Chapter Overview ....................................................................................................................... 380
Video Overview ............................................................................................................................ 380
Types of Video Output Devices ................................................................................................ 380
Video Terminology and Theory ............................................................................................... 385
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) .................................................................................................. 386
Video Ports and Cables .............................................................................................................. 390
Multiple Displays ........................................................................................................................ 392
Projectors ..................................................................................................................................... 394
Monitor Preventive Maintenance ........................................................................................... 395
Monitor Energy Efficiency ....................................................................................................... 396
Privacy........................................................................................................................................... 397
Video Adapters............................................................................................................................. 397
Specialized Video Cards ............................................................................................................ 398
Video Memory.............................................................................................................................. 399
Installing a Video Adapter ........................................................................................................ 401
Troubleshooting Video .............................................................................................................. 402
Printers Overview ....................................................................................................................... 404
Printer Ports................................................................................................................................ 405
Networked Printers .................................................................................................................... 405
Contents
Wireless Printers ........................................................................................................................ 406
Categories of Printers................................................................................................................ 406
Impact Printers ........................................................................................................................... 407
Inkjet Printers ............................................................................................................................. 409
Laser Printers .............................................................................................................................. 411
Thermal Printers ........................................................................................................................ 416
Paper.............................................................................................................................................. 416
Refilling Cartridges, Re-inking Ribbons, and Recycling Cartridges.............................. 417
Printer Installation .................................................................................................................... 418
Upgrading Printers .................................................................................................................... 420
Printer Preventive Maintenance ............................................................................................. 420
Printers in the Windows Environment ................................................................................. 422
Windows Printer Troubleshooting ......................................................................................... 425
General Printer Troubleshooting ........................................................................................... 427
Impact Printer Troubleshooting ............................................................................................. 428
Inkjet Printer Troubleshooting ............................................................................................... 429
Laser Printer Troubleshooting ............................................................................................... 429
Soft Skills—Work Ethics .......................................................................................................... 430
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 431
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 432
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 432
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 435
Lab 9.1 Exploring Video in Windows XP .............................................................. 435
Lab 9.2 Exploring Video in Windows 7 ................................................................. 435
Lab 9.3 Configuring a Second Monitor Attached to the
Same PC ....................................................................................................................... 437
Lab 9.4 Configuring a Second Monitor Attached to a Windows 7 PC ........... 437
Lab 9.5 Determining the Amount of Video Memory ......................................... 438
Lab 9.6 Determining the Minimum Video Memory Installed ......................... 439
Lab 9.7 Exploring Video Memory on a Windows 7 Computer ....................... 440
Lab 9.8 Installing a Generic/Text Only Print Driver on a Windows XP
Computer ..................................................................................................................... 441
Lab 9.9 Installing a Local Printer on a Windows XP Computer ..................... 442
Lab 9.10 Exploring a Windows 7 Printer ............................................................ 443
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 444
Chapter 10: Computer Design ...................................................................................................449
Design Overview ......................................................................................................................... 450
Computer System Design ......................................................................................................... 450
Motherboard and Associated Component Design ............................................................... 453
Power Supply and Case Design ............................................................................................... 454
Storage Subsystem Design ....................................................................................................... 456
Audio Subsystem Design .......................................................................................................... 458
Display Subsystem Design........................................................................................................ 459
Mobility Design ........................................................................................................................... 460
Soft Skills—Dealing with Irate Customers .......................................................................... 461
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Contents
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 463
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 464
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 464
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 465
Lab 10.1 Computer System Design........................................................................ 465
Lab 10.2 Design Components.................................................................................. 467
Lab 10.3 Subsystem Design Components ............................................................ 468
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 469
Chapter 11: Basic Operating Systems ....................................................................................471
Basic Operating Systems Overview ........................................................................................ 472
Basic Windows Usage Overview .............................................................................................. 474
Basic Mobile Device Usage ....................................................................................................... 480
Managing Windows Files and Folders ................................................................................... 484
Attributes, Compression, and Encryption ............................................................................ 488
Determining the Windows Version ........................................................................................ 490
Windows Registry ....................................................................................................................... 490
Editing the Windows Registry ................................................................................................. 491
Recovering the Windows OS ................................................................................................... 492
Recovering a Mobile OS ............................................................................................................ 493
Virtualization Basics .................................................................................................................. 493
Recovery Console/WinRE ......................................................................................................... 494
Command Prompt Overview ................................................................................................... 495
Command Prompt Basics......................................................................................................... 496
Moving Around from a Command Prompt .......................................................................... 498
The TYPE Command................................................................................................................. 498
Copying Files ............................................................................................................................... 499
The ATTRIB Command ........................................................................................................... 500
Why Learn Commands? ............................................................................................................ 500
Command Format ...................................................................................................................... 500
Soft Skills—Staying Current ................................................................................................... 516
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 517
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 517
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 518
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 519
Lab 11.1 XP Basic Usage ........................................................................................... 519
Lab 11.2 Windows Vista/7 Basic Usage.................................................................. 526
Lab 11.3 Introduction to Mobile Operating Systems ........................................ 536
Lab 11.4 Windows XP/Vista/7 Taskbar Options................................................... 537
Lab 11.5 Windows XP/Vista/7 File and Folder Management ........................... 540
Lab 11.6 Managing Files on a Mobile Device ...................................................... 545
Lab 11.7 Windows XP/Vista/7 File Extension ...................................................... 546
Lab 11.8 Windows XP/Vista/7 Attributes, Compression, and
Encryption ................................................................................................................... 547
Lab 11.9 Using REGEDIT in Windows XP/Vista/7 ................................................. 550
Contents
Lab 11.10 Modifying the Windows XP Start Button .......................................... 551
Lab 11.11 Modifying the Windows Vista/7 Start Button ................................... 553
Lab 11.12 Basic Commands at a Command Prompt ........................................ 555
Lab 11.13 The COPY, MD, DEL, and RD Commands................................................ 558
Lab 11.14 The ATTRIB Command and Moving Around in the Directory
Structure ...................................................................................................................... 561
Lab 11.15 Backup Software and the Archive Bit ................................................ 566
Lab 11.16 Creating a Boot Floppy Disk in Windows XP ................................... 567
Lab 11.17 Installing and Exploring Windows XP Recovery Console ............ 568
Lab 11.18 Creating a Windows 7 System Repair Disc ...................................... 569
Lab 11.19 Creating a Windows 7 System Image Disc ...................................... 570
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 571
Chapter 12: Windows XP, Vista, and 7 .................................................................................. 575
Windows XP Overview............................................................................................................... 576
Windows Vista/7 Overview........................................................................................................ 577
Logging on to Windows ............................................................................................................ 580
Pre-Installation of Windows .................................................................................................... 580
Viruses ........................................................................................................................................... 585
Installation/Upgrade of Windows............................................................................................ 587
Corporate Windows Deployment ............................................................................................ 588
Verifying the Installation .......................................................................................................... 590
Troubleshooting a Windows Installation .............................................................................. 591
Dual-Booting Windows ............................................................................................................ 592
Virtualization .............................................................................................................................. 593
Reloading Windows .................................................................................................................. 594
Updating Windows ..................................................................................................................... 595
Backing Up/Restoring the Windows Registry ..................................................................... 597
Backing Up and Restoring the Windows System State..................................................... 598
Configuring Windows Overview.............................................................................................. 599
Configuring Windows ............................................................................................................... 600
Adding Devices ........................................................................................................................... 600
System Restore ........................................................................................................................... 603
Installing/Removing Software ................................................................................................. 605
Microsoft Management Console .............................................................................................. 606
Advanced Boot Options Menu ................................................................................................. 610
Overview of the Windows Boot Process ................................................................................ 611
Speeding Up the Windows Boot Process .............................................................................. 614
Troubleshooting the Windows Boot Process ...................................................................... 614
Windows XP ASR (Automated System Recovery) ............................................................. 616
WinRE ........................................................................................................................................... 616
System Configuration Utility................................................................................................... 617
Task Manager and Event Viewer ............................................................................................. 619
Troubleshooting a Service That Does Not Start ................................................................. 623
Windows Reboots ....................................................................................................................... 623
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Shutdown Problems .................................................................................................................. 624
Monitoring System Performance ........................................................................................... 624
Supporting Windows Computers Remotely ......................................................................... 630
Preventive Maintenance for Your Operating System......................................................... 632
Soft Skills—Avoiding Burnout ............................................................................................... 632
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 634
Key Terms ................................................................................................................................... 635
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 635
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 636
Lab 12.1 Windows XP Clean Installation.............................................................. 636
Lab 12.2 Windows XP Upgrade Installation ......................................................... 638
Lab 12.3 Windows 7 Installation ............................................................................ 638
Lab 12.4 Installing VMware Workstation ............................................................. 639
Lab 12.5 Installing Windows into a VMware Workstation Virtual
Machine ........................................................................................................................ 640
Lab 12.6 Working with a VMware Workstation Virtual Machine ................... 641
Lab 12.7 Windows XP/Vista/7 Registry Modification ......................................... 644
Lab 12.8 Windows XP System State Backup ....................................................... 645
Lab 12.9 Windows 7 Backup .................................................................................... 646
Lab 12.10 Windows Automatic Update Utility ..................................................... 646
Lab 12.11 Windows XP Mouse, Keyboard, Accessibility, and
Sound Options ............................................................................................................ 647
Lab 12.12 Configuring Windows 7 Ease of Access ............................................. 650
Lab 12.13 Windows XP System Restore Utility ................................................... 653
Lab 12.14 Windows 7 System Restore Utility ...................................................... 654
Lab 12.15 Upgrading a Hardware Driver and Using Driver
Roll Back Using Windows XP/Vista/7..................................................................... 655
Lab 12.16 Disabling a Hardware Driver Using Windows XP, Vista, or 7....... 656
Lab 12.17 Installing Hardware Using Windows XP/Vista/7 .............................. 656
Lab 12.18 Installing Administrative Tools in Windows XP .............................. 657
Lab 12.19 Installing and Removing Windows XP Components ...................... 658
Lab 12.20 Installing and Removing Windows Vista/7 Components ............... 659
Lab 12.21 Windows XP Microsoft Management Console .................................. 662
Lab 12.22 Windows 7 Microsoft Management Console ..................................... 666
Lab 12.23 Exploring Windows XP Boot Options ................................................ 669
Lab 12.24 Exploring Windows 7 Boot Options ................................................... 672
Lab 12.25 Windows XP System Configuration Utility ....................................... 676
Lab 12.26 Windows 7 Startup Configuration ...................................................... 677
Lab 12.27 Halting an Application Using Task Manager in
Windows XP/Vista/7 ................................................................................................... 679
Lab 12.28 Using Windows XP Event Viewer ........................................................ 680
Lab 12.29 Using Windows Vista/7 Event Viewer ................................................. 681
Lab 12.30 Using Task Manager to View Performance ....................................... 682
Lab 12.31 Using the System Monitor Utility in Windows XP .......................... 682
Lab 12.32 Using the Performance Monitor Utility in
Windows XP ................................................................................................................. 683
Contents
Lab 12.33 Performance and Reliability in Windows 7 ....................................... 685
Lab 12.34 Installing and Using Remote Desktop in
Windows XP ................................................................................................................. 686
Lab 12.35 Windows 7 Remote Desktop ................................................................. 688
Lab 12.36 Windows 7 Task Scheduler .................................................................. 689
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 691
Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity ............................................................................................695
Internet Connectivity Overview .............................................................................................. 696
Modems Overview....................................................................................................................... 696
Serial Communication Overview ............................................................................................ 697
How to Configure Serial Ports and Devices ......................................................................... 698
56Kbps Modems .......................................................................................................................... 701
Fax Modems ................................................................................................................................. 702
Digital Modems and ISDN ........................................................................................................ 702
VoIP ............................................................................................................................................... 703
Cable Modems ............................................................................................................................. 704
xDSL Modems.............................................................................................................................. 706
Troubleshooting Cable and DSL Modems ............................................................................ 708
Satellite Modems ........................................................................................................................ 709
Modem Preventive Maintenance ............................................................................................. 709
Mobile Connectivity ................................................................................................................... 709
Web Browsers .............................................................................................................................. 711
Soft Skills—Mentoring ............................................................................................................. 713
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 714
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 714
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 714
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 716
Lab 13.1 Exploring Serial Devices in Windows XP ............................................ 716
Lab 13.2 Exploring Serial Devices in Windows Vista/7 ..................................... 717
Lab 13.3 Windows XP Direct Cable Connection ................................................. 718
Lab 13.4 Internal and External Modem Installation .......................................... 719
Lab 13.5 Introduction to Internet Explorer Configuration ............................. 723
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 724
Chapter 14: Introduction to Networking ............................................................................... 727
Networking Overview ................................................................................................................ 728
Types of Local Area Networks ................................................................................................. 729
Network Topologies ................................................................................................................... 732
Network Media Overview .......................................................................................................... 734
Copper Media ............................................................................................................................... 734
Fiber Media .................................................................................................................................. 737
Protecting Your Network and Cable Investment ................................................................ 738
Ethernet Issues and Concepts ................................................................................................. 741
Network Standards ..................................................................................................................... 742
The OSI Model ............................................................................................................................ 743
xv
xvi
Contents
The TCP/IP Model...................................................................................................................... 745
Network Addressing ................................................................................................................... 746
IP Addressing .............................................................................................................................. 748
Subnetting Basics....................................................................................................................... 750
Wireless Networks Overview .................................................................................................... 752
Bluetooth...................................................................................................................................... 753
Wireless Networks ...................................................................................................................... 753
Antenna Basics............................................................................................................................ 760
Wireless Network Standards .................................................................................................... 764
Wired or Wireless NIC Installation ........................................................................................ 765
Wireless Broadband ................................................................................................................... 770
Virtualization Network Issues ................................................................................................. 770
Access Point/Router Installation ............................................................................................ 771
Configuring a Networked Printer ........................................................................................... 771
Network Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................ 772
Network Printer Troubleshooting.......................................................................................... 775
Network Terminology ............................................................................................................... 775
The TCP/IP Model in Action ................................................................................................... 778
Sharing.......................................................................................................................................... 779
Email ............................................................................................................................................. 782
Network Connectivity ................................................................................................................ 783
Mobile Device Network Connectivity ..................................................................................... 784
Mobile Apps.................................................................................................................................. 784
Soft Skills—Being Proactive ................................................................................................... 787
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 788
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 789
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 789
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 791
Lab 14.1 Installing and Configuring a NIC Using Windows XP ...................... 791
Lab 14.2 Creating a Straight-Through CAT 5, 5e, or 6 Network
Patch Cable .................................................................................................................. 792
Lab 14.3 Creating a CAT 5, 5e, or 6 Crossover
Network Cable ............................................................................................................. 795
Lab 14.4 Networking with Windows 7 .................................................................. 797
Lab 14.5 Connecting to a Windows XP/Vista/7 Shared or
Networked Printer ...................................................................................................... 800
Lab 14.6 Installing a Dial-Up Connection Using Windows XP ........................ 801
Lab 14.7 Identifying Basic Wireless Network Parts ........................................... 802
Lab 14.8 Installing a Wireless NIC ......................................................................... 803
Lab 14.9 Configuring a Wireless Network............................................................ 804
Lab 14.10 Wireless Network Case Study............................................................... 805
Lab 14.11 FTP Server and Client............................................................................ 806
Lab 14.12 Subnet Practice Lab ............................................................................... 807
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 808
Contents
Chapter 15: Computer and Network Security .................................................................... 811
Security Overview....................................................................................................................... 812
Security Policy ............................................................................................................................ 812
Physical Security ........................................................................................................................ 813
Protecting the Operating System and Data ......................................................................... 818
DEP (Data Execution Prevention) ......................................................................................... 822
Protecting Access to Local and Network Resources .......................................................... 823
Permissions ................................................................................................................................ 827
Internet Security ........................................................................................................................ 833
Security Incident Reporting .................................................................................................... 843
Wireless Network Security Overview ..................................................................................... 844
Wireless Authentication and Encryption .............................................................................. 844
Default Settings .......................................................................................................................... 847
More Wireless Options .............................................................................................................. 848
Wireless Security Conclusion .................................................................................................. 848
Wireless Network Troubleshooting ........................................................................................ 849
Mobile Security ........................................................................................................................... 850
A Final Word About Security .................................................................................................. 851
Soft Skills—Building Customer Trust .................................................................................. 851
Chapter Summary ...................................................................................................................... 852
Key Terms .................................................................................................................................... 853
Review Questions ....................................................................................................................... 853
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................... 854
Lab 15.1 Encrypting a File and Folder.................................................................. 854
Lab 15.2 Using Windows Vista/7 System Protection ........................................ 856
Lab 15.3 Making a Folder Private in XP ............................................................... 857
Lab 15.4 Sharing a Folder in Windows XP .......................................................... 858
Lab 15.5 Sharing a Folder in Windows 7 ............................................................ 860
Lab 15.6 Creating a Local Security Policy for Passwords ................................. 864
Lab 15.7 Windows Defender in Windows 7 ......................................................... 868
Lab 15.8 Configuring a Secure Wireless Network .............................................. 869
Activities ....................................................................................................................................... 870
Glossary .................................................................................................................................................... 873
Index ............................................................................................................................................................. 911
xvii
About the Author
Cheryl Schmidt is a professor of Network Engineering Technology at Florida State College at
Jacksonville. Prior to joining the faculty ranks, she oversaw the LAN and PC support for the
college and other organizations. She started her career as an electronics technician in the U.S.
Navy. She teaches computer repair and various networking topics, including CCNA, CCNP,
VoIP, QoS, and wireless technologies. She has published other works with Pearson, including
IP Telephony Using CallManager Express and Routing and Switching in the Enterprise
Lab Guide.
Cheryl has won awards for teaching and technology, including Outstanding Faculty of the
Year, Innovative Teacher of the Year, and Cisco Networking Academy Stand Out Instructor.
She has presented at U.S. and international conferences. Cheryl keeps busy maintaining her
technical certifications and teaching, but also loves to travel, hike, do all types of puzzles,
and read.
Dedication
A Note to Instructors
I was a teacher long before I had the title professor. Sharing what I know has always been
as natural as walking to me, but sitting still to write what I know is not as natural, so composing this text has always been one of my greatest challenges. Thank you so much for choosing
this text. I thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience with your students. Your
dedication to education is what makes the student experience so valuable.
A Note to Students
Writing a textbook is really different from teaching class. I have said for years that my students are like my children, except that I don’t have to pay to send them through college. I am
happy to claim any of you who have this text. I wish that I could be in each classroom with you
as you start your IT career. How exciting!
Another thing that I tell my students is that I am not an expert. Computer repair is an
ever-changing field and I have been in it since PCs started being used. You have to be excited
about the never-ending changes to be good in this field. You can never stop learning or you
will not be very good any more. I offer one important piece of advice:
Consistent, high-quality service boils down to two equally important things: caring and
competence.
—Chip R. Bell and Ron Zemke
I dedicate this book to you. I can help you with the competence piece, but you are going
to have to work on the caring part. Do not ever forget that there are people behind those
machines that you love to repair. Taking care of people is as important as taking care of the
computers.
Acknowledgments
I am so thankful for the support of my family during the production of this book. My husband
Karl and daughters Raina and Karalina were such a source of inspiration and encouragement.
Thanks to my colleagues, adjuncts, and students at my college who offered numerous valuable
suggestions for improvement and testing the new material. I am especially grateful for the help
and edits provided by Kathy A. Himle from Salt Lake Community College.
Many thanks are also due the folks at Pearson. The professionalism and support given
during this edition was stellar. Thank you so much Pearson team and especially Drew Cupp,
Mary Beth Ray, and two of the toughest technical reviewers I have had since my first and
second editions, Chris Crayton and Jeff McDowell. You two kept me up late at night trying to
figure out a way to make things better. I thank you so much for your conscientious efforts.
Finally, thank you to the students who have taken the time to share their
recommendations for improvement. You are the reason I write this book each time. Please
send me any ideas and comments you may have. I love hearing from you and of your successes.
I may be reached at cheryl.schmidt@fscj.edu.
We Want to Hear from You!
As the reader of this book, you are our most important critic and commentator. We value
your opinion and want to know what we’re doing right, what we could do better, what areas
you’d like to see us publish in, and any other words of wisdom you’re willing to pass our way.
We welcome your comments. You can email or write to let us know what you did or didn’t
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When you write, please be sure to include this book’s title and author as well as your name
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It Pays to Get Certified
In a digital world, digital literacy is an essential survival skill.
Certification proves you have the knowledge and skill to solve business problems in virtually
any business environment. Certifications are highly-valued credentials that qualify you for jobs,
increased compensation and promotion.
Certification
Advances
Your Career
Q
The CompTIA A+ credential—provides foundation-level knowledge
and skills necessary for a career in PC repair and support.
Q
Starting Salary—CompTIA A+ Certified individuals can earn as much
as $65,000 per year.
Q
Career Pathway—CompTIA A+ is a building block for other
CompTIA certifications such as Network+, Security+ and vendor
specific technologies.
Q
More than 850,000—Individuals worldwide are CompTIA A+
certified.
Q
Mandated/Recommended by organizations worldwide—Such as
Cisco and HP and Ricoh, the U.S. State Department, and U.S.
government contractors such as EDS, General Dynamics, and
Northrop Grumman.
Some of the primary benefits individuals report from
becoming A+ certified are:
Q
More efficient troubleshooting
Q
Improved career advancement
Q
More insightful problem solving
CompTIA Career Pathway
CompTIA offers a number of credentials that form a foundation for your career in technology
and allows you to pursue specific areas of concentration. Depending on the path you choose
to take, CompTIA certifications help you build upon your skills and knowledge, supporting
learning throughout your entire career.
Steps to Certification
Steps to Getting Certified and Staying Certified
Review Exam Objectives
Review the certification objectives to make sure you know what
is covered in the exam. http://www.comptia.org/certifications/
testprep/examobjectives.aspx
Practice for the Exam
After you have studied for the certification, take a free assessment
and sample test to get an idea what type of questions might be
on the exam. http://www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/
practicetests.aspx
Purchase an Exam
Voucher
Purchase your exam voucher on the CompTIA Marketplace,
which is located at: www.comptiastore.com.
Take the Test!
Select a certification exam provider and schedule a time to take
your exam. You can find exam providers at the following link:
http://www.comptia.org/certifications/testprep/testingcenters.aspx
Join the Professional Community
Join IT Pro Community
http://itpro.comptia.org
The free IT Pro online community provides valuable content to
students and professionals.
Career IT Job Resources
n
Where to start in IT
n
Career Assessments
n
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n
US Job Board
Forums on Networking, Security, Computing and Cutting Edge
Technologies
Access to blogs written by Industry Experts
Current information on Cutting Edge Technologies
Access to various industry resource links and articles related to
IT and IT careers
Content Seal of Quality
This courseware bears the seal of CompTIA Approved Quality Content.
This seal signifies this content covers 100% of the exam objectives
and implements important instructional design principles. CompTIA
recommends multiple learning tools to help increase coverage of the
learning objectives.
Why CompTIA?
n
Global Recognition—CompTIA is recognized globally as the leading IT non-profit trade
association and has enormous credibility. Plus, CompTIA’s certifications are vendor-neutral
and offer proof of foundational knowledge that translates across technologies.
n
Valued by Hiring Managers—Hiring managers value CompTIA certification because it is
vendor- and technology-independent validation of your technical skills.
n
Recommended or Required by Government and Businesses—Many government
organizations and corporations either recommend or require technical staff to be CompTIA
certified. (For example, Dell, Sharp, Ricoh, the U.S. Department of Defense, and many more.)
n
Three CompTIA Certifications ranked in the top 10—In a study by DICE of 17,000
technology professionals, certifications helped command higher salaries at all experience
levels.
How to obtain more information
Visit CompTIA online: www.comptia.org to learn more about getting CompTIA certified.
Contact CompTIA: Call 866-835-8020 ext. 5 or email questions@comptia.org
Connect with us :
Introduction
Complete CompTIA A+ Guide to PCs, Sixth Edition, is intended for one or more courses geared
toward CompTIA A+ Certification and Computer Repair. It covers all the material needed for
the CompTIA A+ 220-801 and 220-802 exams. The book is written so that it is easy to read and
understand, with concepts presented in building-block fashion. The book focuses on hardware,
software, mobile devices, virtualization, basic networking, and security.
Some of the best features of the book include the coverage of difficult subjects in a
step-by-step manner, carefully developed graphics that illustrate concepts, photographs that
demonstrate various technologies, reinforcement questions, critical thinking skills, soft skills,
and hands-on exercises at the end of each chapter. Also, this book is written by a teacher who
understands the value of a textbook from someone who has been in IT their entire career.
What’s New in the Sixth Edition?
This update has been revised to include coverage of mobile devices such as smartphones and
tablets, virtualization, and design. This edition differs from the Fifth Edition Update book in
the following ways:
• Conformity with the latest CompTIA A+ Exam requirements, including the CompTIA
A+ 220-801 exam, as well as the CompTIA A+ 220-802 exam.
• A new chapter on computer design was added after the hardware chapters. The chapter
includes design activities with various scenarios.
• Mobile devices and virtualization technologies have been added to relevant hardware
and software chapters. Labs have also been included.
• Chapters 1 through 10 focus on hardware and design. Chapters 11 and 12 are the
operating system chapters. Chapter 13 and 14 cover Internet/networking concepts.
Chapter 15 handles security concepts.
• The Internet Connectivity chapter was moved after the Windows chapters and before
the Introduction to Networking chapter. The chapter was revamped to be a better
introduction to Internet technologies, before the book dives into the details of
supporting devices that connect to a wired or wireless network.
• Chapters 1 through 3 were reorganized to better flow through the basic concepts.
• The book has always been filled with graphics and photos, but even more have been
added to target those naturally drawn to the IT field.
• The number of questions at the end of each chapter was reduced, but more questions
are available in the test bank available from the Pearson Instructor Resource Center.
Organization of the Text
The text is organized to allow thorough coverage of all topics and also to be a flexible teaching
tool. It is not necessary to cover all the chapters, nor do the chapters have to be covered in
order.
• Chapter 1 covers beginning terminology and computer part and port identification.
Chapter 1 does not have a specific soft skills section as do the other chapters. Instead,
it focuses on common technician qualities that are explored in greater detail in the soft
skills sections of later chapters.
• Chapter 2 details components, features, and concepts related to motherboards,
including processors, cache, expansion slots, and chipsets. Active listening skills are
described in the soft skills section in this chapter.
Organization of the Text
• Chapter 3 deals with system configuration basics. BIOS options, UEFI BIOS, and system
resources are key topics. The soft skills section covers how one thing at a time should
be done when replacing components.
• Chapter 4 steps the student through how to disassemble and reassemble a computer.
Laptop disassembly is also covered. Tools, ESD, EMI, and preventive maintenance are
discussed. Subsequent chapters also include preventive maintenance topics. Basic
electronics and computer power concepts are also included in this chapter. Written
communication tips are provided for the soft skills training.
• Chapter 5 covers troubleshooting skills and error codes. Good communication skills are
stressed in the soft skills section.
• Chapter 6 covers memory installation, preparation, and troubleshooting. The
importance of teamwork is emphasized as the soft skill.
• Chapter 7 deals with storage devices including the floppy drive and IDE PATA/SATA and
SCSI (parallel and SAS) hard drive installation, preparation, and troubleshooting. SSDs
are also covered. Phone communication skills is the target area for soft skills in this
chapter.
• Chapter 8 covers multimedia devices, including optical drives, sound cards, cameras,
scanners, and speakers. The chapter ends with a section on having a positive, proactive
attitude.
• Chapter 9 deals with peripheral devices, including printers and video output devices. A
discussion of work ethics finishes the chapter.
• Chapter 10 is the new computer design chapter. Not only are the specialized computers
and components needed within those types of systems covered, but computer subsystem
design is also included. The soft skills section targets recommendations for dealing with
irate customers.
• Chapter 11 introduces operating systems, including Windows, Android, and iOS. The
chapter also includes common desktop or home icons, how to manage files and folders,
the registry, and how to function from a command prompt. The soft skills section
includes tips on how to stay current in this fast-paced field.
• Chapter 12 covers Windows XP, Vista, and 7. Details include how to install, configure,
and troubleshoot the environment. Avoiding burnout is the soft skill discussed in this
chapter.
• Chapter 13 handles Internet connectivity. Analog and digital modems, cable modems,
DSL modems, and mobile connectivity including wireless, WiMax, and broadband
cellular are all discussed. Internet browser configuration is covered along with the soft
skill of mentoring.
• Chapter 14 introduces networking. Basic concepts, terminology, and exercises make
this chapter a favorite. An introduction to subnetting has been added. The focus of the
soft skills section is being proactive instead of reactive.
• Chapter 15 describes computer, mobile device, and network security. The exercises
include file and folder security, event monitoring, and local policy creation. The soft
skills section is on building customer trust.
xxv
xxvi
Features of This Book
Features of This Book
The following key features of the book are designed to enable a better learning experience.
OBJECTIVES Each chapter begins with BOTH chapter objectives and the
CompTIA A+ exam objectives
GRAPHICS AND PHOTOGRAPHS Many more have been added to better
illustrate the concepts
Features of This Book
TECH TIPS The chapters are filled with Tech Tips that highlight technical issues
and certification exam topics
KEY TERMS IN CONTEXT As you read the chapter, terms that appear in blue are
considered key terms and are defined in the glossary
KEY TERMS LIST At the end of the chapter, all key terms are listed with page
references to which to refer for context
xxvii
xxviii
Features of This Book
SOFT SKILLS Technology is not the only thing you must learn and practice; each
chapter offers advice, activities, and examples of how to be a good tech, an ethical
tech, a good work mate, a good communicator, and so on
CHAPTER SUMMARY Recap the key concepts of the chapter, and use this for
review to ensure you’ve mastered the chapter’s learning objectives
Features of This Book
REVIEW QUESTIONS Hundreds of review questions, including true/false,
multiple choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions, assess your
knowledge of the learning
LAB EXERCISES More than 125 labs enable you to link theory to practical
experience
xxix
xxx
Features of This Book
ACTIVITIES Extensive practice with Internet Discovery, Soft Skills, and Critical
Thinking Skills round out your technical knowledge so that you can be prepared for
IT work
CompTIA A+ Exam Objectives
EXAM TIPS Read through these tips on the CompTIA A+ exams so you aren’t
caught off guard when you sit for the exam
CompTIA A+ Exam Objectives
Tables I-1 and I-2 summarize where you can find all the CompTIA A+ exam objectives covered
in the book.
Table I-1 CompTIA A+ 220-801 exam objectives
Objective
Chapters
220-801
1.0 PC Hardware
1.1 Configure and apply BIOS settings.
3, 7, 8, 15
1.2 Differentiate between motherboard components, their purposes, and
properties.
1, 2, 3, 4,
6, 14
1.3 Compare and contrast RAM types and features.
6
1.4 Install and configure expansion cards.
3, 8, 9, 13
1.5 Install and configure storage devices and use appropriate media.
1, 6, 7, 8
1.6 Differentiate among various CPU types and features and select the
appropriate cooling method.
2
1.7 Compare and contrast various connection interfaces and explain their
purpose.
1, 13, 14
1.8 Install an appropriate power supply based on a given scenario
4
1.9 Evaluate and select appropriate components for a custom
configuration, to meet customer specifications or needs.
10
1.10 Given a scenario, evaluate types and features of display devices.
1, 9
1.11 Identify connector types and associated cables.
1, 7, 9, 13
1.12 Install and configure various peripheral devices.
1, 8, 9
xxxi
xxxii
CompTIA Exam Objectives
Objective
Chapters
220-801
2.0 Networking
2.1 Identify types of network cables and connectors.
14
2.2 Categorize characteristics of connectors and cabling.
14
2.3 Explain properties and characteristics of TCP/IP.
14
2.4 Explain common TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purpose.
14
2.5 Compare and contrast wireless networking standards and encryption
types.
14, 15
2.6 Install, configure, and deploy a SOHO wireless/wired router using
appropriate settings.
14, 15
2.7 Compare and contrast Internet connection types and features.
13, 14
2.8 Identify various types of networks.
14
2.9 Compare and contrast network devices their functions and features.
13, 14, 15
2.10 Given a scenario, use appropriate networking tools.
14
3.0 Laptops
3.1 Install and configure laptop hardware and components.
1, 2, 4, 6, 7,
8, 9, 14
3.2 Compare and contrast the components within the display of a laptop.
9, 14
3.3 Compare and contrast laptop features.
1, 8, 14, 15
4.0 Printers
4.1 Explain the differences between the various printer types and
summarize the associated imaging process.
9
4.2 Given a scenario, install, and configure printers.
3, 9, 14
4.3 Given a scenario, perform printer maintenance.
9
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures.
4, 14
5.2 Explain environmental impacts and the purpose of environmental
controls.
4, 10
5.3 Given a scenario, demonstrate proper communication and
professionalism.
1, 2, 4, 5, 7,
10, 15
5.4 Explain the fundamentals of dealing with prohibited content/activity.
15
CompTIA A+ Exam Objectives
Table I-2 CompTIA A+ 220-802 Exam Objectives
Objective
Chapters
220-802
1.0 Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast the features and requirements of
various Microsoft operating systems.
6, 11, 12, 15
1.2 Given a scenario, install and configure the operating system
using the most appropriate method.
7, 11, 12, 14
1.3 Given a scenario, use appropriate command line tools.
11, 12, 14
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate operating system features
and tools.
4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12,
14, 15
1.5 Given a scenario, use Control Panel utilities (the items are
organized by “classic view/large icons” in Windows).
4, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14,
15
1.6 Setup and configure Windows networking on a client/desktop.
13, 14, 15
1.7 Perform preventive maintenance procedures using appropriate
tools.
7, 11, 12
1.8 Explain the differences among basic OS security settings.
14, 15
1.9 Explain the basics of client-side virtualization.
2, 11, 12, 14, 15
2.0 Security
2.1 Apply and use common prevention methods.
12, 15
2.2 Compare and contrast common security threats.
12, 15
2.3 Implement security best practices to secure a workstation.
15
2.4 Given a scenario, use the appropriate data destruction/
disposal method.
7, 15
2.5 Given a scenario, secure a SOHO wireless network.
15
2.6 Given a scenario, secure a SOHO wired network.
15
3.0 Mobile Devices
3.1 Explain the basic features of mobile operating systems.
6, 11
3.2 Establish basic network connectivity and configure email.
1, 14
3.3 Compare and contrast methods for securing mobile devices.
15
3.4 Compare and contrast hardware differences in regards to
tablets and laptops.
1
3.5 Execute and configure mobile device synchronization.
14
4.0 Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a scenario, explain the troubleshooting theory.
5
4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common problems related to
motherboards, RAM, CPU, and power with appropriate tools.
2, 4, 5, 6, 14
xxxiii
xxxiv
CompTIA Exam Objectives
Objective
Chapters
220-802
4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot hard drives and RAID arrays
with appropriate tools.
7
4.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common video and display
issues.
9
4.5 Given a scenario, troubleshoot wired and wireless networks
with appropriate tools.
13, 14
4.6 Given a scenario, troubleshoot operating system problems
with appropriate tools.
6, 7, 11, 12
4.7 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common security issues with
appropriate tools and best practices.
12, 15
4.8 Given a scenario, troubleshoot, and repair common laptop
issues while adhering to the appropriate procedures.
1, 4, 9, 14
4.9 Given a scenario, troubleshoot printers with appropriate tools
9
Summary of Exam Domains by Chapter
Schmidt Table of Contents
220-801 Domains
220-802 Domains
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer
Repair
1, 5
3, 4
Chapter 2: On the Motherboard
1, 3, 5
1, 4
Chapter 3: System Configuration
1, 4
Chapter 4: Disassembly and Power
1, 3, 5
1, 4
Chapter 5: Logical Troubleshooting
5
4
Chapter 6: Memory
1, 3
1, 3, 4
Chapter 7: Storage Devices
1, 3, 5
1, 2, 4
Chapter 8: Multimedia Devices
1, 3
1
Chapter 9: Other Peripherals
1, 3, 4
4
Chapter 10: Computing Design
1, 5
Chapter 11: Basic Windows Operating
Systems
1, 3, 4
Chapter 12: Windows XP, Vista, and 7
1, 2, 4
Chapter 13: Internet Connectivity
1, 2
1
Chapter 14: Introduction to Networking
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1, 3, 4
Chapter 15: Computer and Network
Security
1, 2, 3, 5
1, 2, 3, 4
chapter
4
Disassembly
and Power
Chapter Objectives:
In this chapter you will learn:
●
How to prevent static electricity, RFI, and
EMI from harming or interfering with a
computer
●
The tools needed to work on computers
●
How to take apart a computer and put it back
together
●
How to perform basic voltage and continuity
checks
●
How to upgrade or replace a power supply
●
Different power-saving techniques
●
What type of power devices can be used to
protect computers
●
Tips for good written communication
CompTIA Exam Objectives:
What CompTIA A+ exam objectives are covered in this chapter?
✓
801-1.2 Differentiate between motherboard
components, their purposes, and properties.
✓
802-1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate
operating system features and tools.
✓
801-1.8 Install an appropriate power supply
based on a given scenario.
✓
802-1.5 Given a scenario, use Control Panel
utilities.
✓
801-3.1 Install and configure laptop hardware and components.
✓
✓
801-5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate
safety procedures.
802-4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot
common problems related to motherboards,
RAM, CPU, and power with appropriate tools.
✓
✓
801-5.2 Explain environmental impacts
and the purpose of environmental controls.
802-4.8 Given a scenario, troubleshoot, and
repair common laptop issues while adhering
to the appropriate procedures.
✓
801-5.3 Given a scenario, demonstrate
proper communication and professionalism.
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
120
Disassembly Overview
It is seldom necessary to completely disassemble a computer. However, when a technician
is first learning about PCs, disassembly can be both informative and fun. Technicians might
disassemble parts of a computer to perform preventive cleaning or to troubleshoot a problem.
It may also be appropriate to disassemble a computer when it has a problem of undetermined
cause. Sometimes, the only way to diagnose a problem is to disassemble the computer outside the case or remove components one by one. Disassembling a computer outside the case
may help with grounding problems. A grounding problem occurs when the motherboard
or adapter is not properly installed and a trace (a metal line on the motherboard or adapter)
touches the computer frame, causing the adapter and possibly other components to stop working. Don’t forget to remove jewelry and use proper lifting techniques, as described in Figure
1.1 (see Chapter 1) before disassembling a computer.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
You must take many precautions when disassembling a computer. The electronic circuits
located on the motherboard and adapters are subject to ESD. ESD (electrostatic discharge) is
a difference of potential between two items that causes static electricity. Static electricity can
damage electronic equipment without the technician’s knowledge. The average person requires
a static discharge of 3,000 volts before he or she feels it. An electronic component can be damaged with as little as 30 volts. Some electronic components may not be damaged the first time
static electricity occurs. However, the effects of static electricity can be cumulative, weakening
or eventually destroying a component. An ESD event is not recoverable—nothing can be done
about the damage it induces. Electronic chips and memory modules are most susceptible to
ESD strikes.
Atmospheric conditions affect static electricity. When humidity is low, the potential for
ESD is greater than at any other time; however, too much humidity is bad for electronics. Keep
humidity between 45 and 55 percent to reduce the threat of ESD.
A technician can prevent ESD by using a variety of methods. The most common tactic is
to use an antistatic wrist strap. One end encircles the technician’s wrist. At the other end,
an alligator clip attaches to the computer. The clip attaches to a grounding post or a metal part
such as the power supply. The electronic symbol for ground follows:
An antistatic wrist strap allows the technician and the computer to be at the same voltage
potential. As long as the technician and the computer or electronic part are at the same potential, static electricity does not occur. An exercise at the end of the chapter demonstrates how to
attach an antistatic wrist strap and how to perform maintenance on it. Technicians should use
an ESD wrist strap whenever possible.
A resistor inside an antistatic wrist strap protects the technician in case something accidentally touches the ground to which the strap attaches while he or she is working inside a
computer. This resistor cannot protect the technician against the possible voltages inside a
monitor. See Figure 4.1 for an illustration of an antistatic wrist strap. Figure 4.2 shows a good
location for attaching an antistatic wrist strap.
Tech
Tip
When not to wear an antistatic wrist strap
Technicians should not wear an ESD wrist strap when working inside a CRT monitor because
of the high voltages there.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
121
Adjustable wrist strap
Alligator clip
Figure 4.1 Antistatic wrist strap
4
Antistatic bags are good for storing spare adapters and motherboards when the parts are
not in use. However, antistatic bags lose their effectiveness after a few years. Antistatic mats are
available to place underneath a computer being repaired; such a mat may have a snap for connecting the antistatic wrist strap. Antistatic heel straps are also available.
If an antistatic wrist strap is not available, you can still reduce the chance of ESD damage.
After removing the computer case, stay attached to an unpainted metal computer part. One
such part is the power supply. If you are right-handed, place your bare left arm on the power
supply. Remove the computer parts one by one, always keeping your left elbow (or some other
bare part of your arm) connected to the power supply. If you are left-handed, place your right
arm on the power supply. By placing your elbow on the power supply, both hands are free to
remove computer parts. This method is an effective way of keeping the technician and the
computer at the same voltage potential, thus reducing the chance of ESD damage. It is not
as safe as using an antistatic wrist strap. Also, removing the power cable from the back of the
Disassembly
and Power
Figure 4.2 Attaching an antistatic wrist strap
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
122
computer is a good idea. A power supply provides a small amount of power to the motherboard
even when the computer is powered off. Always unplug the computer and use an antistatic
wrist strap when removing or replacing parts inside a computer!
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference)
EMI (electromagnetic interference, sometimes called EMR, for electromagnetic radiation) is
noise caused by electrical devices. Many devices can cause EMI, such as a computer, a pencil
sharpener, a motor, a vacuum cleaner, an air conditioner, and fluorescent lighting. The electrical devices around the computer case, including a CRT-type monitor and speakers, cause more
problems than the computer.
A specific type of electromagnetic interference that affects computers is RFI (radio frequency interference). RFI is simply those noises that occur in the radio frequency range.
Anytime a computer has an intermittent problem, check the surrounding devices for the
source of that problem. For example, if the computer goes down only when the pencil sharpener operates or when using the optical drive, EMI
could be to blame. EMI problems are very hard to track
to the source. Any electronic device including computReplace empty slot covers
ers and printers can be a source of EMI/RFI. EMI/RFI
To help with EMI and RFI problems, replace slot
can affect any electronic circuit. EMI can also come
covers for expansion slots that are no longer being
through power lines. Move the computer to a different
used. Slot covers also keep out dust and improve
wall outlet or to a totally different circuit to determine
the air flow within the case.
if the power outlet is the problem source. EMI can also
affect files on a hard drive.
Tech
Tip
Disassembly
Before a technician disassembles a computer, several steps should be performed or considered.
The following disassembly tips are helpful:
• Do not remove the motherboard battery, or the configuration information in CMOS will
be lost.
• Use proper grounding procedures to prevent ESD damage.
• Keep paper, a pen, a phone, and a digital camera nearby for note taking, diagramming,
and photo taking. Even if you have taken apart computers for years, you might find
something unique or different inside this one.
• Have ample flat and clean workspace.
• When removing adapters, do not stack the adapters on top of one another.
• If possible, place removed adapters inside a special ESD protective bag.
• Handle each adapter, motherboard, or processor on the side edges. Avoid touching the
gold contacts on the bottom of adapters. Sweat, oil, and dirt cause problems.
• Remember that hard drives require careful handling. A very small jolt can cause damage
to stored data.
• You can remove a power supply, but do not disassemble a CRT-style monitor or power
supply without proper training and tools.
• Document screw and cable locations. Label them if possible.
Tools
No chapter on disassembly and reassembly is complete without mentioning tools. Tools can be
divided into two categories: (1) those you should not leave the office without and (2) those that
are nice to have in the office, at home, or in the car.
Tools
123
Many technicians do not go on a repair call with a full tool case. Ninety-five percent of all
repairs are completed with the following basic tools:
• Small and medium flat-tipped screwdrivers
• #0, #1, and #2 Phillips screwdrivers
• 1/4- and 3/16-inch hex nut drivers
• Small diagonal cutters
• Needlenose pliers
Screwdrivers take care of most disassemblies and
Do not use magnetized screwdrivers
reassemblies. Sometimes manufacturers place tie
Avoid using a magnetic screwdriver when working
wraps on new parts, new cables, or the cables inside
on a computer. It can cause permanent loss of
the computer case. The diagonal cutters are great
data on hard drives or floppy disks. Magnetism can
for removing the tie wraps without cutting cables
also induce currents into components and damage
or damaging parts. Needlenose pliers are good for
them. Sometimes, technicians are tempted to use a
straightening bent pins on cables or connectors, and
magnetic screwdriver when they drop a small part
doing a million other things. Small tweaker screwsuch as a screw into a hard-to-reach place, but
drivers and needlenose pliers are indispensable.
avoid using a magnetic screwdriver.
Many technicians start with a basic $15 microcomputer repair kit and build from there. A bargain
table 6-in-1 or 4-in-1 combination screwdriver that
has two sizes of flat-tipped and two sizes of Phillips screwdrivers is a common tool among new
technicians. A specialized Swiss army knife with screwdrivers is the favorite of some technicians.
Other technicians prefer to carry an all-in-one tool in a pouch that connects to their belt.
Alternatives to the magnetic screwdriver include a screw pick-up tool and common sense.
A screw pick-up tool is used in hard-to-reach places and sometimes under the motherboard. If
a screw rolls under the motherboard and cannot be reached, tilt the computer so that the screw
rolls out. Sometimes the case must be tilted in different directions until the screw becomes dislodged.
There are tools that no one thinks of as tools but that should be taken on a service call every
time. They include a pen or pencil with which to take notes and fill out the repair slip and a
bootable disc containing the technician’s favorite repair utilities. Usually a technician has several
bootable discs for different operating systems and utilities. Often a flashlight comes in handy
because some rooms and offices are dimly lit. Finally, do not forget to bring a smile and a sense
of humor.
Tools that are nice to have but not used daily include the following:
• Multimeter
• Screw pick-up tool
• Screwdriver extension tool
• Soldering iron, solder, and flux
• Screw-starter tool
• Medium-size diagonal cutters
• Metric nut drivers
• Cable-making tools
• Cable tester
• Loopback plug
• Punch down tool
• Toner probe
• Wire stripper
• Crimper
Tech
Tip
4
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and Power
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
• AC circuit tester
• Right-angled, flat-tipped, and Phillips screwdrivers
• Hemostats
• Pliers
• Optical laser cleaning kit
• Nonstatic vacuum or toner vacuum
• Disposable gloves
• Small plastic scribe
• T8, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Torx (star) screwdriver
You could get some nice muscle tone from carrying all these nice-to-have but normally
unnecessary tools. When starting out in computer repair, get the basics. As your career path
and skill level grow, so will your tool kit. Getting to a job site and not having the right tool can
be a real hassle. However, because there are no standards or limitations on what manufacturers
can use in their product lines, it is impossible to always have the right tool on hand. However,
always remember that no tool kit is complete without an antistatic wrist strap.
Opening the Case
Opening or removing the case is sometimes the hardest part of disassembly. Some manufacturers have tabs or covers over the retaining screws, and others have retention levers or tabs that
have to be depressed before the cover slides open or away. For some computers you must press
a tab on top of the computer downward while simultaneously pressing upward on a tab on the
bottom of the computer. Once the tabs are pressed, the cover can be pried open. Sound like a
two-person job? Sometimes it is.
Some cases have screws that loosen but do not have to be removed all the way to remove
or open the case. For all computer screws, make diagrams and use an egg carton and label
each section of the carton with where you got the screws. When possible, refer to the manufacturer’s directions when opening a case.
Cables and Connectors
Internal cables commonly connect from a device to the motherboard, the power supply to a
device, the motherboard to the front panel buttons or ports, and/or from a card that occupies
an expansion space to the motherboard. Cables can be tricky. Inserting a cable backward into
a device or adapter can damage the device, motherboard, or adapter. Most cables are keyed so
the cable inserts into the connector only one way. However, some cables or connectors are not
keyed.
Removing a cable for the first time requires some muscle. Many cables have a pull tab or
plastic piece used to remove the cable from the connector and/or device. Use this if possible
and do not yank on the cable. Some cables have connectors with locking tabs. Release the locking tab before disconnecting the cable; otherwise, damage can be done to the cable and/or connector.
Be careful with hard drive cables. Some of the narrow drive cables, such as the one shown
in Figure 4.3, are not as sturdy and do not connect as firmly as some of the other computer
cables. Also, with this particular cable type, it does not matter which cable end attaches to the
device. A 90⁰-angled cable (see Figure 4.4) may attach to devices in a case that has a limitedspace design and may have a release latch.
Cables and Connectors
125
Figure 4.3 Both cable ends are the same
4
Each cable has a certain number of pins, and all cables have a pin 1. Pin 1 on a cable connects to pin 1 on a connector. In the event that the pin 1 is not easily identified, both ends of
the cable should be labeled with either a 1 or 2 on one side or a higher number, such as 24,
25, 49, 50, and so on, on the other end. Pins 1 and 2
are always on the same end of a cable. If you find a
Pin 1 is the cable edge that is colored
higher number, pin 1 is on the opposite end. Also,
Pin 1 on a ribbon cable is easily identified by the
the cable connector usually has an arrow etched into
colored stripe that runs down the edge of the cable.
its molding showing the pin 1 connection. Figure 4.5
shows pin 1 on a ribbon cable.
Tech
Tip
Disassembly
and Power
Figure 4.4 90˚-angled cable with a latch
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
126
Arrow
shows pin 1
on the cable
Figure 4.5
Stripe
shows pin 1
on the cable
Arrow
shows pin 1
on the cable
Pin 1 on a ribbon cable
Just as every cable has a pin 1, all connectors on devices, adapters, or motherboards have
a pin 1. Pin 1 on a cable inserts into pin 1 on a connector. Cables are normally keyed so that
they insert only one way. Some manufacturers stencil a 1 or a 2 by the connector on the motherboard or adapter; however, on a black connector, it’s
difficult to see the small number. Numbers on adapters
Snug connections
are easier to distinguish. When the number 2 is etched
When connecting cables to a motherboard or
beside the adapter’s connector, connect the cable’s pin
internal components, ensure that each cable is
1 to this side. Remember that pins 1 and 2 are always
connected tightly, evenly, and securely.
on the same side, whether on a connector or on a
cable. Some technicians use a permanent marker to
label a cable’s function. Figure 4.6 shows an example of
a stenciled marking beside an adapter’s connector. Figure 4.6 illustrates the number 2 etched
onto the adapter, but other manufacturers stencil a higher number, such as 33, 34, 39, or 40,
beside the opposite end of the connector.
Tech
Tip
Pin 1 of the cable connects to
pin 1 on the adapter connector
J5
2
Figure 4.6 Pin 1 on an adapter
Motherboard connectors are usually notched so that the cable inserts only one way; however, not all cables are notched. Some motherboards have pin 1 (or the opposite pin) labeled.
Always refer to the motherboard documentation for proper orientation of a cable into a motherboard connector. Figure 4.7 shows the motherboard connectors used for the thin cables
shown in Figures 4.3 and 4.4. These connectors commonly have hard drives and optical drives
attached. Figure 4.8 show three other motherboard connectors that are notched.
Cables and Connectors
127
Figure 4.7 Motherboard connectors for narrow cables
Pin 1
4
Disassembly
and Power
Notched connectors
Figure 4.8
Three motherboard connectors
Some manufacturers do not put any markings on the cable connector; even so, there is
a way to determine which way to connect the cable. Remove the adapter, motherboard, or
device from the computer. Look where the connector solders or connects to the motherboard
or adapter. Turn over the adapter. Notice the silver blobs, known as solder joints, on the back
of the motherboard or adapter. Solder joints connect electronic components to the motherboard or
Pin 1 is on the opposite end from the
adapter. The connector’s solder joints are normally
higher stenciled number
round, except for the solder joint for pin 1, which is
If a higher number, such as 39 or 40, is stenciled
square. Look for the square solder joint on the back
beside the connector, connect pin 1 and 2 of the
of the connector. If the square solder joint is not
cable to the opposite end of that connector.
apparent on the connector, look for other connectors
or solder joints that are square. All chips and connectors mount onto a motherboard in the same direction—all pin 1s are normally oriented in the
same direction. If one pin 1 is found, the other connectors orient in the same direction. Insert
the cable so pin 1 matches the square solder joint of the connector. Figure 4.9 shows a square
solder joint for a connector on the back of an adapter.
Tech
Tip
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
On the back of the adapter,
the square solder joint is pin 1
Pin 1 of cable connects to pin 1
on the adapter’s connector
Figure 4.9 Pin 1 on a connector
Specific cables connect a motherboard to lights, ports, or buttons on the front panel. These
include the power button, a reset button, USB ports, IEEE 1394 ports, a microphone port, a
headphone port, speakers, fans, the hard drive usage light, and the power light, to name a few.
Be very careful when removing and reinstalling these cables. Usually, each one of these has a
connector that must attach to the appropriate motherboard pins. Be sure to check all ports
and buttons once you have reconnected these cables. Refer to the motherboard documentation
if your diagramming or notes are inaccurate or if you have no diagrams or notes. Figure 4.10
shows the motherboard pins and the connectors.
Figure 4.10 Motherboard front panel connectors
Storage Devices
Hard drives must be handled with care when disassembling a computer. Inside traditional hard
drives are hard platters with tiny read/write heads located just millimeters above the platters.
If dropped, the read/write heads can touch the platter, causing damage to the platter and/or
the read/write heads. The platter is used to store data and applications. Today’s mechanical
hard drives have self-parking heads that pull the heads away to a safe area when the computer
is powered off or in a power-saving mode. Always be careful neither to jolt nor to jar the hard
drive when removing it from the computer. Even with self-parking heads, improper handling
can cause damage to the hard drive.
A solid-state drive does not contain fragile heads. However, these drives are susceptible to
ESD. Use proper antistatic handling procedures when removing/installing them. Store a solidstate drive in an antistatic bag when not in use. Avoid touching the drive with a metal tool.
Motherboards
129
Motherboards
Chapter 2 covered motherboard replacement extensively, and here we discuss issues related
to building a computer from scratch or disassembling a computer: I/O shield, standoffs, and
retaining clips. Some cases include a standard I/O panel shield that may need to be removed to
install the I/O shield that comes with some motherboards. The I/O shield is a part what allows
for optimum air flow and grounding for the motherboard ports. The I/O shield helps ensure
the motherboard is installed correctly and properly aligned with the case. Figure 4.11 shows a
motherboard I/O shield.
Figure 4.11 Motherboard I/O shield
Figure 4.12 Motherboard standoff
4
Disassembly
and Power
Some computer cases have plastic or metal (commonly brass) standoffs that allow the
motherboard to be screwed into the case without the motherboard solder joints touching and
grounding to the computer case, causing the motherboard not to work. Some standoffs are
plastic, and they slide into slots on the computer case. Do not remove these types of standoffs
but just leave them attached and slide the motherboard out of the slots. The most common
type of standoff is a metal standoff that screws into the case; this standoff has a threaded side
that the motherboard sits on and a screw that attaches the motherboard to the standoff, as
shown in Figure 4.12.
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Some motherboards not only have screws that attach them to the metal standoffs but
one or more retaining clips. A retaining clip might need to be pressed down, lifted up, or bent
upward in order to slide the motherboard out of the case. The case might contain one or more
notches and require the motherboard to be slid in a particular direction (usually in the direction going away from the back I/O ports) before being lifted from the case.
Mobile Device Issues
Chapter 1 contains information on removing laptop keyboards, and Chapter 2 includes information on removing laptop adapters, motherboards, and CPUs. Other laptop issues relating
to disassembling a laptop include memory, plastics, the DC power jack, and the speaker.
Whenever taking anything out of a laptop, one of the major issues is tiny screws. Many manufacturers label the type of screen or location for ease of explaining disassembly. Always keep
like screws together (in containers or an egg carton) and take notes. All the parts are manufacturer dependent, but the following explanation and graphics/photos should help with these
portable devices.
Laptop memory and expansion cards are commonly located in a bottom compartment
accessed by removing a screw. Figure 4.13 shows this on a netbook computer.
Figure 4.13 Netbook memory compartment
Some laptop and mobile device compartments require levering the compartment cover
away from the case or removing plastic parts such as the cover that fits over a mobile computer
keyboard. A plastic scribe is the best tool to use for this levering. Figure 4.14 shows a plastic
scribe being used to lift the plastic part that is between the keyboard and the laptop screen.
Mobile Device Issues
131
Figure 4.14 Scribe used to remove a laptop plastic piece
Laptop/netbook speakers commonly mount above or to the side of the keyboard. The
keyboard usually has to be removed to reach the speakers. Sometimes, speaker cables run
alongside the keyboard and must be pried out of the case. The DC power plug commonly has a
similar cable, as shown in Figure 4.15.
DC
plug
Internal
power cord
4
Disassembly
and Power
Figure 4.15 Laptop DC power plug cable
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Reassembly
Reassembling a computer is easy if the technician is careful and properly diagrams the disassembly. Simple tasks such as inserting the optical drive in the correct drive bay become
confusing after many parts have been removed. Writing down reminders takes less time than
having to troubleshoot the computer because of poor reassembly. Reinsert all components into
their proper place; be careful to replace all screws and parts. Install missing slot covers, if possible.
Three major reassembly components are motherboards, cables, and connectors. When
reinstalling a motherboard, reverse the procedure used during disassembly. Ensure that the
motherboard is securely seated into the case and that all retaining clips and/or screws are
replaced. This procedure requires practice, but eventually a technician will be able to tell when
a motherboard is seated into the case properly. Visual inspection can also help. Ensure that the
ports extend fully from the case through the I/O shield. As a final step, ensure that the drives
and cover are aligned properly when the case is reinstalled.
Cables and connectors are the most common source of reassembly problems once the
motherboard is installed. Ensure that cables are fully attached to devices and the motherboard.
Ensure that power cables are securely attached. Matching pin 1 on the cable to pin 1 on the
motherboard connector is critical for older ribbon cables. Attaching the correct device to the
correct cable can be difficult if proper notes were not taken.
Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance includes certain procedures performed to prolong the life of a computer. Some computer companies sell maintenance contracts that include preventive maintenance programs. A computer in a normal working environment should be cleaned at least once
a year. Typical preventive measures include vacuuming the computer/printer and cleaning
the optical drive laser, keyboard keys, printers, and display screen. Be sure to power down the
computer and remove the power cord for any computer, remove the battery and AC adapter for
a laptop/netbook, and allow a laser printer to cool before accessing internal parts. Preventive
exercises for many individual devices are described in their respective chapters. For example,
the steps detailing how to clean CDs/DVDs/BDs are included in Chapter 8. This section gives an
overview of a preventive maintenance program and some general tips about cleaning solvents.
When performing preventive maintenance, power on the computer to be certain it operates. Perform an audio and visual inspection of the computer as it boots. It is a terrible feeling
to perform preventive maintenance on a computer only to power it on and find it does not
work. You will wonder if the cleaning you performed caused the problem or if the computer
had a problem before the preventive maintenance.
Repair companies frequently provide a preventive maintenance kit for service calls. The
kit normally includes a portable vacuum cleaner, special vacuum cleaner bags for laser printers, a can of compressed air, a floppy head cleaning kit, urethane swabs, monitor wipes, lintfree cloths, general-purpose cloths, general-purpose cleanser, denatured alcohol, a mouse ball
cleaning kit, an antistatic brush, gold contact cleaner, and an optical drive cleaning kit.
The vacuum is used to suck dirt from the inside of the computer. Ensure that you use
nonmetallic attachments. Some vacuum cleaners have the ability to blow air. Vacuum first and
then set the vacuum cleaner to blow to get dust out of hard-to-reach places. Compressed air
can also be used in these situations. The floppy head cleaning kit is used to clean the read/write
heads on the floppy drive. Monitor wipes are used on the front of the monitor screen. Monitor
wipes with antistatic solution work best.
Urethane swabs are used to clean between the keys on a keyboard. If a key is sticking,
remove the keyboard before spraying or using contact cleaner on it. Touchpads normally
require no maintenance except being wiped with a dampened lint-free cloth to remove residual
finger oil.
General-purpose cleanser is used to clean the outside of the case and to clean the desktop
areas under and around the computer. Never spray or pour liquid on any computer part. Liquid
cleaners are used with soft lint-free cloths or lint-free swabs.
Preventive Maintenance
Be careful when cleaning LCD monitors and laptop displays
Use one of the following to clean LCD monitors and laptop displays: (1) wipes specifically
designed for LCDs or (2) a soft lint-free cloth dampened with either water or a mixture of
isopropyl alcohol and water. Never put liquid directly on the display and ensure that the
display is dry before closing the laptop.
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Tech
Tip
Denatured alcohol is used on rubber rollers, such as those found inside printers. An antistatic brush can be used to brush dirt away from hard-to-reach places. Gold contact cleaner is
used to clean adapter contacts as well as contacts on laptop batteries and the contacts where
the battery inserts. A useful CD/DVD/BD cleaning kit can include a lens cleaner that removes
dust and debris from an optical lens; a disk cleaner that removes dust, dirt, fingerprints, and oils
from the disk; and a scratch repair kit used to resurface, clean, and polish CDs, DVDs, and BDs.
Many cleaning solution companies provide MSDS (material safety data sheets) that contain
information about a product, including its toxicity, storage, disposal, and health/safety concerns. Your state may also have specific disposal procedures for chemical solvents. Check with
the company’s safety coordinator for storage and disposal information.
To perform the preventive maintenance, power off
the computer, remove the power cord, and vacuum
Know your state aerosol can
the computer with a nonmetallic attachment. Do not
disposal laws
start with compressed air or by blowing dust out of
Some states have special requirements for disposal
the computer because the dirt and dust will simply
of aerosol cans, especially those that are clogged
go into the air and eventually fall back into the comand still contain some product.
puter and surrounding equipment. After vacuuming
as much as possible, use compressed air to blow the
dust out of hard-to-reach places, such as inside the power supply and under the motherboard.
If you are performing maintenance on a notebook computer, remove as many modules as possible, such as the optical drive, battery, and hard drive, before vacuuming or using compressed
air. Inform people in the immediate area that they might want to leave the area if they have
allergies.
If you remove an adapter from an expansion slot, replace it into the same slot. If the
computer battery is on a riser board, it is best to leave the riser board connected to the motherboard so the system does not lose its configuration information. The same steps covered in
the disassembly section of this chapter hold true when you are performing preventive maintenance.
When you perform preventive maintenance,
Use a preventive maintenance call as a
take inventory and document what is installed in the
time for updates
computer, such as the hard drive size, amount of
A preventive maintenance call is a good time to
RAM, available hard drive space, and so on. During
check for operating system, BIOS, antivirus, and
the maintenance procedure, communicate with the
driver updates.
user. Ask if the computer has been giving anyone
trouble lately or if it has been performing adequately.
Computer users like to know that you care about
their computing needs. Also, users frequently ask questions such as whether sunlight or cold
weather harms the computer. Always respond with answers the user can understand. Users
appreciate it when you explain things in terms they comprehend and that make sense.
A preventive maintenance call is the perfect opportunity to check computers for viruses.
Normally, first you clean the computer. Then, while the virus checker is running, you might
clean external peripherals such as printers. Preventive maintenance measures help limit computer problems as well as provide a chance to interact with customers and help with a difficulty
that may seem minuscule but could worsen. A preventive maintenance call is also a good time
to take inventory of all hardware and software installed. In a preventive maintenance call,
entry-level technicians can see the different computer types and begin learning the computer
components.
Tech
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Basic Electronics Overview
A technician needs to know a few basic electronic terms and concepts when testing components. The best place to start is with electricity. There are two types of electricity: AC and DC.
The electricity provided by a wall outlet is AC (alternating current), and the type of electricity
used by computer components is DC (direct current). Devices such as radios, TVs, and toasters use AC power. Low-voltage DC power is used for a computer’s internal components and
anything powered by batteries. A computer’s power supply converts AC electricity from the
wall outlet to DC for the internal components. Electricity involves electrons flowing through a
conductor, similar to the way that water runs through a pipe. With AC, the electrons flow alternately in both directions. With DC, the electrons flow in one direction only.
Electronics Terms
Voltage, current, power, and resistance are terms commonly used in the computer industry.
Voltage, which is a measure of the pressure pushing electrons through a circuit, is measured
in volts. A power supply’s output is measured in volts. Power supplies typically put out +3.3
volts, +5 volts, +12 volts, and –12 volts. You will commonly see these voltages shown in power
supply documentation as +5V or +12V. Another designation is +5VSB. This is for the computer’s standby power. This power is always provided, even when the computer is powered
off. This supplied voltage is why you have to unplug a
computer when working inside it.
Polarity is important only when
The term volts is also used to describe voltage from
measuring DC voltage
a wall outlet. Wall outlet voltage is normally 120VAC
(120 volts AC). Exercises at the end of the chapter
When a technician measures the voltage coming
explain how to take both AC and DC voltage readings.
out of a power supply, the black meter lead (which
Figure 4.16 shows a photograph of a multimeter being
is negative) connects to the black wire from the
used to take a DC voltage reading on the power conpower supply (which is ground). The red meter lead
nectors coming from a power supply. When the meter
connects to either the +5 or +12 volt wires from the
leads are inserted correctly, the voltage level shown is
power supply.
of the correct polarity.
Tech
Tip
Figure 4.16 DC voltage reading
Electronics Terms
135
The reading on the meter could be the opposite of what it should be if the meter’s leads
are reversed. Since electrons flow from one area where there are many of them (negative polarity) to an area where there are few electrons (positive polarity), polarity shows which way an
electric current will flow. Polarity is the condition of being positive or negative with respect to
some reference point. Polarity is not important when measuring AC. Figure 4.17 shows rules to
observe when working with meters.
1. Select AC or DC on the meter (some meters automatically select AC or DC).
Insulated
parts
2. Select the appropriate voltage range (0-10V, 0-100V, etc).
The meter can be damaged if you measure a high voltage in
a low range (but not the reverse). Use the highest range for
unknown voltages.
Meter probes
3. Touch only the insulated parts of the meter probes.
Figure 4.17 Meter rules
Monitors and power supplies can have dangerous voltage levels. Monitors can have up to
35,000 volts going to the back of the CRT. Note that flat-panel displays and mobile device displays use low DC voltage and AC voltage, but not at the voltage levels of CRTs. 120 volts AC is
present inside the power supply. Power supplies and monitors have capacitors inside them. A
capacitor is a component that holds a charge even after the computer is turned off. Capacitors
inside a monitor can hold a charge for several hours after the monitor has been powered off.
Current is measured in amps (amperes), which is the number of electrons going
4
Disassembly
and Power
through a circuit every second. In the water pipe analogy, voltage is the amount of pres- Tech
sure applied to force the water through the pipe, and current is the amount of water flow- Tip
ing. Every device needs a certain amount of current
Do not work inside a CRT monitor unless
to operate. A power supply is rated for the amount
you have special training
of total current (in amps) it can supply at each
voltage level. For example, a power supply could be
Monitors require high-voltage meters and special
rated at 20 amps for the 5-volt level and 8 amps for
precautions.
the 12-volt level.
Power is measured in watts, which is a measurement of how much work is being done. It is determined by multiplying volts by amps.
Power supplies are described as providing a maximum number of watts. This is the sum of Tech
all outputs: For example, 5 volts × 20 amps (100 watts) plus 12V 8 amps (96 watts) equals
Tip
196 watts. An exercise at the end of the chapter
explains how current and power relate to a techniCurrent is what kills people when
cian’s job.
an electrical shock is received
Resistance is measured in ohms, which is the
Voltage determines how much current flows
amount of opposition to current in an electronic
through the body. A high-current and low-voltage
circuit. The resistance range on a meter can be
situation is the most dangerous.
used to check continuity or check whether a fuse
is good. A continuity check is used to determine
whether a wire has a break in it. A conductor
(wire) in a cable or a good fuse will have very low resistance to electricity (close to zero
ohms). A broken wire or a bad fuse will have a very high resistance (millions of ohms,
sometimes shown as infinite ohms, or OL). For example, a cable is normally made up of
several wires that go from one connector to another. If you measure the continuity from
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
136
one end of a wire to the other, it should show no resistance. If the wire has a break in it,
the meter shows infinite resistance. Figure 4.18 shows examples of a good wire reading
and a broken wire reading.
Tech
Tip
Always unplug a computer before working inside it
The power supply provides power to the motherboard, even if the computer is powered off.
Leaving the power cord attached can cause damage when replacing components such as
the processor or RAM.
Good connection
Broken wire
Figure 4.18 Sample resistance meter readings
Digital meters have different ways of displaying infinity. Always refer to the meter manual
for this reading. When checking continuity, the meter is placed on the ohms setting, as shown
in Figure 4.18. The ohms setting is usually illustrated by an omega symbol (Ω).
Polarity is not important when performing a continuity check. Either meter lead (red or black) can be
Dealing with small connections and a
placed at either end of the wire. However, you do need
meter
a pin-out diagram (wiring list) for the cable before you
Some connectors have small pin connections. Use
can check continuity because pin 1 at one end could
a thin meter probe or insert a thin wire, such as a
connect to a different pin number at the other end. An
paper clip, into the hole and touch the meter to the
exercise at the end of the chapter steps through this
wire to take your reading.
process.
The same concept of continuity applies to fuses.
A fuse has a tiny wire inside it that extends from end
to end. The fuse is designed so that the wire melts (breaks) if too much current flows through
it. The fuse keeps excessive current from damaging electronic circuits or starting a fire. A fuse
is rated for a particular amount of current. For example, a 5-amp fuse protects a circuit if the
amount of current exceeds 5 amps.
Tech
Tip
Power Supply Overview
Use the right fuse or lose
Never replace a fuse with one that has a higher amperage rating. You could destroy
electronic circuits or cause a fire by allowing too much current to be passed by the fuse,
defeating the fuse’s purpose.
137
Tech
Tip
Take a fuse out of the circuit before testing it. A good fuse has a meter reading of 0 ohms
(or close to that reading). A blown fuse shows a meter reading of infinite ohms. Refer to the
section on resistance and Figure 4.18. An exercise at the end of this chapter demonstrates how
to check a fuse.
A technician needs to be familiar with basic electronics terms and checks. Table 4.1 consolidates this information.
Table 4.1 Basic electronics terms
Term
Value
Usage
Voltage
Volts
Checking AC voltage on a wall outlet (typically 120VAC). Checking the
DC output voltage from a power supply (typically +/– 12, +3.3, and +/– 5
VDC).
Current
Amps
(amperes)
Each device needs a certain amount of current to operate. A power
supply is rated for total current in amps for each voltage level (such as
24 amps for 5-volt power and 50 amps for 12-volt power).
Resistance
Ohms
Resistance is the amount of opposition to electric current. Resistance is
used to check continuity on cables and fuses. A cable that shows little
or no resistance has no breaks in it. A good fuse shows no resistance. If
a cable has a break in it or if a fuse is bad, the resistance is infinite.
Wattage
(power)
Watts
Watts is a measure of power and is derived by multiplying amps
by volts. Power supply output is measured in watts. Also, A UPS
(uninterruptible power supply) is rated in volt-amps. The size of UPS to
purchase depends on how many devices will plug in to it.
4
A power supply is an essential component within a computer; no internal computer device
works without it. The power supply converts AC to DC, distributes lower-voltage DC power to
components throughout the computer, and provides cooling through the use of a fan located
inside the power supply. The AC voltage a power supply accepts is normally either 100 to 120
volts or 200 to 240 volts. Some dual-voltage power supplies can accept either. This type of
power supply can have a selector switch on the back or can automatically detect the input
voltage level. The power supply is sometimes a source of unusual problems. The effects of the
problems can range from those not noticed by the user to those that shut down the system.
There are two basic types of power supplies: switching and linear. A computer uses a
switching power supply. It provides efficient power to
Powering on a power supply without
all the computer’s internal components (and possibly
anything attached could damage the
to some external ones, such as USB devices). It also
power supply
generates minimum heat, comes in small sizes, and is
cheaper than linear power supplies. A switching power
Do not power on a power supply without connecting
supply requires a load (something attached to it) in
to the motherboard and possibly a device such as
order to operate properly. With today’s power supplies,
an optical drive or hard drive. An ATX power supply
a motherboard is usually a sufficient load, but a techniusually requires a motherboard connection at a
cian should always check the power supply specificaminimum.
tions to be sure.
Tech
Tip
Disassembly
and Power
Power Supply Overview
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
138
Power Supply Form Factors
Just as motherboards come in different shapes and sizes, so do power supplies. Today’s power
supply form factors are ATX, ATX12V v1.x, ATX12V v2.x, and micro-ATX. Other form factors
include LFX12V (low profile), SFX12V (small form factor), EPS12V (used with server motherboards and has an extra 8-pin connector), CFX12V (compact form factor), SFX12V (small form
factor), TFX12V (thin form factor), WTX12V (workstation form factor for high-end workstations and select servers), and FlexATX (smaller systems that have no more than three expansion slots). Intel, AMD, and video card manufacturers certify specific power supplies that work
with their processors and video cards. A computer manufacturer can also have a proprietary
power supply form factor that is not compatible with different computer models or other vendors’ machines. Laptop power supplies are commonly proprietary.
Tech
Tip
The motherboard and power supply must be compatible
The motherboard form factor and the power supply form factor must fit in the case and
work together. For optimum performance, research what connectors and form factors are
supported by both components.
The ATX12V version 2 standard has a 24-pin motherboard connector instead of a 20-pin
version 1 connector. This did away with the need for the extra 6-pin auxiliary connector. In
addition, version 2 power supplies have a SATA power connector. Some 24-pin motherboard
connectors accept the 20-pin power supply connector. Table 4.2 lists the possible ATX power
supply connectors.
Table 4.2 ATX power supply connectors
Connector
Notes
Voltage(s)
24-pin
Main ATX power connector to the
motherboard
+3.3, +5, +12, –12
20-pin
Main power connector to the motherboard
+3.3, +5, –5, +12, –12
15-pin
SATA connector
+3, +5, +12
8-pin
12V for CPU used with an ATX12V v1 power
supply
+12
8-pin
PCIe video; connects to a PCIe video adapter.
Note that some connectors are 6+2-pin
meaning they accept either the 6- or 8-pin
cable.
+12
6-pin
PCIe video; connects to PCIe video adapter
+12
6-pin
Sometimes labeled as AUX; connects to the
motherboard if it has a connector
+3.3, +5
4-pin Molex
Connects to peripheral devices such as hard
drives and CD/DVD drives
+5, +12
4-pin Berg
Connects to peripheral devices such as the
floppy drive
+5, +12
4-pin
Sometimes labeled as AUX or 12V; connects
to the motherboard for CPU
+12
3-pin
Used to monitor fan speed
N/A
Power Supply Form Factors
139
Figure 4.19 shows a few ATX power supply connectors. Figure 4.20 shows more ATX power
supply connectors.
4-pin CPU power connector
SATA power connector
6-pin PCIe power connector
Figure 4.19 Common power supply connectors
Not all 24-pin motherboard connectors accept 20-pin power supply
connectors
You can purchase a 24-pin to 20-pin power adapter. The site http://www.formfactors.org
provides information regarding power supply form factors.
Tech
Tip
Tech Tip
PCIe power
connector: 6-pin
CPU 8-pin
connector
4
P4 CPU 4-pin
connector
4-pin Molex
power connector
Main power
connector: 24-pin
Figure 4.20 ATX power supply connectors
Figure 4.21 illustrates the compatibility between the ATX 20- and 24-pin motherboard
connector standards. Notice in Figure 4.21 that the power cable is only one connector, notched
so the cable inserts into the connector one way only. This is a much better design than older
power supplies, where two connectors were used and could be reversed. Also, notice that a
power good signal (labeled PWR_OK in Figure 4.21) goes to the motherboard. When the
computer is turned on, part of POST is to allow the power supply to run a test on each of
the voltage levels. The voltage levels must be correct before any other devices are tested and
allowed to initialize. If the power is okay, a power good signal is sent to the motherboard. If the
power good signal is not sent from the power supply, a timer chip on the motherboard resets
the CPU. Once a power good signal is sent, the CPU begins executing software from the BIOS.
Figure 4.21 also shows the +5vsb connection to provide standby power for features such as
Wake on LAN or Wake on Ring (covered later in this chapter).
Disassembly
and Power
Fan speed
monitor connector
4-pin floppy
power connector
Tech
Tip
140
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Pin 1
20-pin power
connector
from power
supply
Pin 13
+3.3v
+3.3v
+3.3v
–12v
GND
GND
+5v
24-pin motherboard
power connector
PS_ON#
GND
GND
+5v
GND
GND
GND
PWR_OK
–5v
+5vsb
+5v
+12v
+5v
+12v
+5v
+3.3v
GND
Pin 12 Pin 24
Figure 4.21 ATX 24- and 20-pin motherboard connectivity
A high-quality power supply delays sending the power good signal until all of the power
supply’s voltages have a chance to stabilize. Some cheap power supplies do not delay the power
good signal. Other cheap power supplies do not provide the power good circuitry, but instead,
tie 5 volts to the signal (which sends a power good signal even when it is not there).
The number and quantity of connectors available on a power supply depends on the power
supply manufacturer. If a device requires a Berg connector and the only one available is a
Molex, a Molex-to-Berg connector converter can be purchased. If a SATA device needs a power
connection, a Molex-to-SATA converter is available. Figure 4.22 shows a Molex-to-SATA converter and a Molex-to-Berg converter.
Figure 4.22 Molex-to-SATA and Molex-to-Berg converters
Power supply connectors can connect to any device; there is not a specific connector for
the hard drive, the optical drive, and so on. If there are not enough connectors from the power
supply for the number of devices installed in a computer, a Y power connector can be purchased at a computer or electronics store. The Y connector adapts a single Molex connector to
two Molex connectors for two devices. Verify that the power supply can output enough power
to handle the extra device being installed. Figure 4.23 shows a Y power connector.
Purposes of a Power Supply
Power converters and Y connectors are good to have in your tool kit
In case a service call involves adding a new device, having various power converters
available as part of your tool kit is smart.
141
Tech
Tip
Figure 4.23 Y Molex connector
Purposes of a Power Supply
The power from a wall outlet is high-voltage AC. The type of power computers need is lowvoltage DC. All computer parts (the electronic chips on the motherboard and adapters, the
electronics on the drives, and the motors in the hard drive and optical drive) need DC power
to operate. Power supplies in general come in two types: linear and switching. Computers use
switching power supplies. The main functions of a power supply include the following:
• Convert AC to DC
• Provide DC voltage to the motherboard, adapters, and peripheral devices
• Provide cooling and facilitate air flow through the case
One purpose of a power supply is to convert AC to DC so the computer has proper power
to run its components. An ATX power supply does not connect to the front panel switch as the
old AT-style power supplies did. With the ATX power supply, a connection from the front panel
switch to the motherboard simply provides a 5-volt signal that allows the motherboard to tell
the power supply to turn on. This 5-volt signal allows ATX power supplies to support ACPI,
which is covered later in the chapter, and also lets the motherboard and operating system control the power supply. Figures 4.24 and 4.25 show the front panel connections to the motherboard on two different computers.
If an ATX power supply switch is present and in the off position, the motherboard and
operating system cannot turn on the power supply. Some ATX power supplies do not have
external on/off switches, and the computer can be powered down only via the operating
system.
Disassembly
and Power
On an ATX power supply that has an on/off switch, ensure that it is set to
the on position
4
Tech
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Figure 4.24 Front panel connections to a motherboard
Figure 4.25 Another view of front panel connections
Another purpose of a power supply is to distribute proper DC voltage to each component.
Several cables with connectors come out of the power supply. With ATX motherboards, there is
only a 20- or 24-pin connector used to connect power to the motherboard. The power connector inserts only one way into the motherboard connector. Figure 4.26 shows an ATX connector
being inserted into a motherboard.
Power Supply Voltages
Figure 4.26
143
Installing an ATX power connector on a motherboard
Another purpose for a power supply is to provide cooling for the computer. The power supply’s fan circulates air throughout the computer. Most computer cases have air vents on one
side, on both sides, or in the rear of the computer. The ATX-style power supply blows air inside
the case instead of out the back. This is known as reverse flow cooling. The air blows over the
processor and memory to keep them cool. This type of power supply keeps the inside of the
computer cleaner than older styles.
Don’t block air vents
Whether a computer is a desktop model, a tower model, or a desktop model mounted in
a stand on the floor, ensure that nothing blocks the air vents in the computer case. Do not
place a laptop on a blanket or pillow, causing the vents to be blocked.
Tech
Tip
Disassembly
and Power
Electronic components generate a great deal of heat but are designed to withstand fairly
high temperatures. Auxiliary fans can be purchased to help cool the internal components of a
computer. Some cases have an extra mount and cutout for an auxiliary fan. Some auxiliary fans
mount in adapter slots or drive bays.
Be careful when installing an auxiliary fan
Place the fan so the outflow of air moves in the same direction as the flow of air generated
by the power supply. If an auxiliary fan is installed inside a case in the wrong location, the
auxiliary air flow could work against the power supply air flow, reducing the cooling effect.
Figure 2.19 in Chapter 2 details how air flow can be aided with an auxiliary fan.
Power Supply Voltages
Refer to Figure 4.21 and notice how +3.3, +5, –5, +12, and –12 volts are supplied to the motherboard. The motherboard and adapters use +3.3 and +5 volts. The –5 volts is seldom used. If
the motherboard has integrated serial ports, they sometimes use +12V and –12V power. Hard
drives and optical drives commonly use +5 and +12 volts. The +12 voltage is used to operate
4
Tech
Tip
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
144
the device motors found in drives, the CPU, internal cooling fans, and the graphics card. Drives
are now being made that use +5V motors. Chips use +5 volts and +3.3 volts. The +3.3 volts are
also used for memory, AGP/PCI/PCIe adapters, and some laptop fans. The negative voltages are
seldom used.
A technician must occasionally check voltages in a system. There are four basic checks for
power supply situations: (1) wall outlet AC voltage, (2) DC voltages going to the motherboard,
(3) DC voltages going to a device, and (4) ground or lack of voltage with an outlet tester. A
power supply tester can be used to check DC power levels on the different power supply connectors.
Mobile Device Travel and Storage
When traveling with a laptop, remove all cards that insert into slots and store them in containers so that their contacts do not become dirty and cause intermittent problems. Remove
all media discs such as CDs, DVDs, or BDs. Check that drive doors and devices are securely
latched. Ensure that the mobile device is powered off or in hibernate mode (not in sleep/suspend or standby power mode, which is covered later in this chapter).
Carry the device in a padded case. If you have to place the device on an airport security
conveyor belt, ensure that the device is not placed upside down, which could cause damage to
the display. Never place objects on top of a mobile device or pick up a laptop by the edges of
the display when the laptop is opened. When shipping a mobile device, place it in a properly
padded box. The original shipping box is a safe container.
The United States has regulations about lithium batteries on airplanes. If battery contacts
come in contact with metal or other batteries, the battery could short-circuit and cause a fire.
For this reason, any lithium batteries are to be kept in original packaging. If original packaging is not available, place electrical tape over the battery terminals or place each battery in an
individual bag. Spare lithium batteries are not allowed in checked baggage but can be taken in
carry-on bags.
Like other electronic devices, laptops have heating issues. The following can help with laptop overheating:
• Locate air vents and keep them unblocked and clean. Do not place a laptop on your lap
to work.
• In the BIOS settings, check the temperature settings for when fans turn on.
• Check the laptop manufacturer website or documentation for any fan/temperature
monitoring gauges.
• Place a laptop on something that elevates it from the desk, such as drink coasters. In
addition, pads, trays, and mats can be purchased with fans that are AC powered or USB
powered.
Mobile Device Power
A portable computer (laptop/netbook/ultrabook/tablet) uses either an AC connection or a battery as its power source. On most models, when the mobile device connects to AC power,
the battery normally recharges. Laptop batteries are usually modules with one or two
release latches that are used to remove the module.
Smartphone batteries either have a release latch or
Check input voltage selector
you slide part of the phone away and reveal the battery.
Some power supplies and laptops have input
Figure 4.27 shows a netbook computer with its battery
voltage selectors; others have the ability to accept
module removed. Battery technologies have improved
input from 100 to 240 volts for use in various
in the past few years, probably due to the development
countries (dual voltage). Ensure that the power
of more devices that need battery power, such as tabsupply accepts or is set to the proper input voltage.
lets, digital cameras, and portable CD, DVD, and BD
players.
Tech
Tip
Mobile Device Power
145
Figure 4.27 Netbook battery
NiCad (nickel cadmium) batteries originally used in laptops were replaced with lighter
and more powerful NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) batteries. These batteries were replaced with
Li-ion (lithium-ion) batteries, which are very light and can hold a charge longer than any
other type. They are also more expensive. Mobile
phones, tablets, portable media players, and digital
Do not power on after a temperature
cameras also use Li-ion batteries. These batteries
change
lose their charge over time even if they are not being
Computers are designed to work within a range of
used. Use your laptop with battery-provided power.
temperatures, but sudden change is not good for
Ensure that a laptop that has an Li-ion battery is not
them. If a mobile device is in a car all night and the
plugged into an AC outlet all the time. Calibrate a
temperature drops, allow the device to return to
laptop battery according to manufacturer instrucroom temperature before powering on. Avoid direct
tions so the battery meter displays correctly.
Tech
Tip
sunlight. Inside the computer case, it is usually
40°F hotter than outside.
Tech
Tip
Do not fully discharge a Li-ion battery
Li-ion batteries do not suffer from the memory
effect, as do some nickel-based batteries. Fully
discharging a lithium battery, such as an Li-ion
battery, is actually bad for it. However, most lithium
batteries have a circuit to prevent the battery from
being totally discharged.
Disassembly
and Power
Li-ion polymer batteries are similar to Li-ion
batteries except that they are packed in pouched
cells. This design allows for smaller batteries and a
more efficient use of space, which is important in
the portable computer and mobile devices industries. For environmentalists, the zinc-air battery is
the one to watch. AER Energy Resources, Inc., has
several patents on a battery that uses oxygen to
generate electricity. Air is allowed to flow during
battery discharge and is blocked when the battery is not in use. This battery holds a charge for
extended periods of time. Another upcoming technology is fuel cells. Fuel cells used for a laptop can
provide power for 5 to 10 hours.
4
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
146
Tech
Tip
Keep Li-ion batteries cool
Li-ion batteries last longer if they are kept cool (not frozen). When you store an Li-ion battery,
the battery should be only 40 percent charged and placed in a refrigerator to prolong its life.
Mobile devices rely on their batteries to provide the mobility. The following tips can help
you get more time out of your batteries:
• Most people do not need a spare Li-ion battery. If you are not using an Li-ion battery
constantly, it is best not to buy a spare. The longer the spare sits unused, the shorter
the lifespan it will have.
• Buy the battery recommended by the laptop manufacturer.
• For a mobile device or smartphone, use an AC outlet rather than a USB port for faster
charging.
• If using a USB port for charging a mobile device or smartphone, unplug all unused USB
devices. Note that not all USB ports can provide a charge if the host device is in sleep
mode.
• Do not use the optical player when running on battery power.
• Turn off the wireless adapter if a wireless network is not being used. For Windows-based
devices, use the Network and Internet Control Panel. For smaller mobile devices, use
flight mode to turn off both the wireless and the cellular (3G/4G) networks. Apple iOS
devices can use Settings to access Airplane Mode. Android devices can use the Settings
option to access Flight mode through the Wireless and network option.
• In the power options, configure the mobile device for hibernate rather than standby
(covered later in the chapter).
• Save work only when necessary and turn off the autosave feature.
• Reduce the screen brightness. In Windows, use the Display Control Panel link found
within the Hardware and Sound Control Panel. In Apple iOS, us the Brightness &
Wallpaper setting; on an Android device, use the Sound and display option from the
Settings application.
• Keep the hard drive defragmented especially before running on battery power.
• Avoid using external USB devices such as flash drives or external hard drives.
• Add more RAM to reduce swapping of information from the hard drive to RAM to CPU
or to just be more efficient.
• Keep battery contacts clean with a dab of rubbing alcohol on a lint-free swab once a
month.
• Use your mobile device until the battery is drained when possible and then recharge it.
Constantly recharging the battery reduces the battery life. Most lithium batteries have a
circuit that keeps the battery from being discharged completely.
• Avoid running multiple programs. To close an application on an iOS-based device,
hold down on the icon from the home menu. On an Android-based device, use the
Applications > Manage Applications option from the Settings application.
• Disable automatic updates. In Windows, use the Windows Update link from the System
and Security Control Panel. On iOS or Android systems, disable push reports and application notifications that make sounds or vibrations from within the Settings option.
Have the OS check less often for mail; use the Mail, Contacts, Calendars option to
change the settings.
• Avoid temperature extremes.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
All power supplies are not created equal
A technician needs to replace a power supply with one that provides an equal or greater
amount of power. Search the Internet for power supply reviews. A general rule of thumb is
that if two power supplies are equal in wattage, the heavier one is better because it uses a
bigger transformer, bigger heat sinks, and more quality components.
147
Tech
Tip
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface)
Today’s computer user needs to leave a computer on for extended periods of time in order to
receive faxes, run computer maintenance tasks, automatically answer phone calls, and download software upgrades and patches. Network managers want control of computers so they can
push out software upgrades, perform backups, download software upgrades and patches, and
perform tests. Laptop users have always been plagued by power management problems, such as
short battery life, inconsistent handling of screen blanking, and screen blanking in the middle
of presentations. Such problems occurred because originally the BIOS controlled power. Power
management has changed.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) gives the BIOS and operating system
control over various devices’ power and modes of operation, as shown in Figure 4.28.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
An act like this...
might bring to life the...
Re-access
the computer
4
IT
after-hours
update
Figure 4.28 ACPI actions
With ACPI, the user can control how the power switch operates and when power to specific
devices, such as the hard drive and monitor, is lowered. For example, the Instant On/Off BIOS
setting can control how long the power switch is held in before the power supply turns on or
off. Case temperatures, CPU temperatures, and CPU fans can be monitored. The power supply
can be adjusted for power requirements. The CPU clock can be throttled or slowed down to
keep the temperature lower and prolong the life of the CPU and reduce power requirements
especially in portable devices when activity is low or nonexistent. ACPI has various operating
states, as shown in Table 4.3.
Disassembly
and Power
After-hours
phone call
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
148
Table 4.3 ACPI operating states
Global system
state
Sleep
state
Description
G0 Working
(S0)
The computer is fully functional. Software, such as the autosave function
used with Microsoft products, can be optimized for performance or lower
battery usage.
G1 Sleeping
G2
Requires less power than the G0 state and has multiple sleeping states:
S1, S2, S3, and S4.
(S1)
CPU is still powered, and unused devices are powered down. RAM is still
being refreshed. Hard disks are not running.
(S2)
CPU is not powered. RAM is still being refreshed. System is restored
instantly upon user intervention.
(S3)
Power supply output is reduced. RAM is still being refreshed. Some info in
RAM is restored to CPU and cache.
(S4)
Lowest-power sleep mode and takes the longest to come up. Info in RAM
is saved to hard disk. Some manufacturers call this the hibernate state.
(S5)
Also called soft off. Power consumption is almost zero. Requires the
operating system to reboot. No information is saved anywhere.
G3
Also called off, or mechanical off. This is the only state where the
computer can be disassembled. You must power on the computer to use
it again.
Tech
Tip
Two common BIOS and adapter features that take advantage of ACPI are Wake on LAN and
Wake on Ring. The Wake on LAN feature allows a network administrator to control the power
to a workstation remotely and directs the computer
to come out of sleep mode. Software applications can
Windows power management
also use the Wake on LAN feature to perform updates,
Use the Power Options link from within the System
upgrades, and maintenance tasks. The feature can also
and Security Control Panel to configure power from
be used to bring up computers immediately before
within the Windows environment.
the business day starts. Wake on LAN can be used
with Web or network cameras to start recording when
motion is detected or to bring up a network printer so
that it can be used when needed. Wake on Ring allows a computer to come out of sleep mode
when the telephone line has an incoming call. This lets the computer receive phone calls,
faxes, and emails when the user is not present. Common BIOS settings related to ACPI are
listed in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4 Common BIOS power settings
Setting
Description
Delay Prior to Thermal
Defines the number of minutes the system waits to shut down the system
once an overheating situation occurs.
CPU Warning Temperatures
Specifies the CPU temperature at which a warning message is displayed
on the screen.
ACPI Function
Enables or disables ACPI. This is the preferred method for disabling ACPI
in the event of a problem.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface)
149
Setting
Description
Soft-off
Specifies the length of time a user must press the power button to turn
off the computer.
Deep S4/S5
Uses less power and only wakes from S4/S5 states with the power
button or a RTC (real time clock) alarm, such as waking the computer to
complete a task.
Power on by Ring, Resume by
Ring, or Wakeup
Allows the computer to wake when an adapter or an external device
supports Wake on Ring.
Resume by Alarm
Allows a date and time to be set when the system is awakened from
Suspend mode. Commonly used to update the system during nonpeak
periods.
Wake Up on LAN
Allows the computer to wake when a Wake on LAN signal is received
across the network.
CPU THRM Throttling
Allows a reduction in CPU speed when the system reaches a specific
temperature.
Power on Function
Specifies which key (or key combination) will activate the system’s power.
Hot Key Power On
Defines what keystrokes will reactivate system power.
Doze Mode
When the system is in a reduced activity state, the CPU clock is throttled
(slowed down). All other devices operate at full speed.
After Power Failure
Sets power mode after a power loss.
Windows 7 has three power plans available, and you can customize these power plans. You
might want to customize a power plan when there is a problem with poor video quality when
playing a movie. Use the Change plan settings link followed by the Change advanced power
settings link to expand a section such as the Multimedia settings option. Table 4.5 shows the
three main power plans you can just click and select.
Power plan
Description
Balanced
The most common plan because it provides full power when you need it and
saves power when the computer is not being used.
Power saver
Saves power by running the CPU more slowly and reducing screen brightness.
High performance
Select the Show additional plans link to see this option. This provides the
maximum performance possible.
Sometimes, when a computer comes out of Sleep mode, not all devices respond, and the
computer’s power or reset button has to be pressed to reboot the computer. The following situations can cause this to happen:
• A screen saver conflicts with ACPI
• All adapters/devices are not ACPI compliant
• An adapter/device has an outdated driver
• The system BIOS or an installed adapter BIOS needs to be updated
4
Disassembly
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Table 4.5 Windows 7 power plans
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
150
Tech
Tip
Power values for energy-efficient monitors
Always keep the screen saver timeout value shorter than the power saver timeout value,
especially with green (energy-efficient) monitors!
To see if the screen saver causes a problem, use the Display Control Panel and set the
screen saver option to None. Identifying a problem adapter, device, or driver will take Internet
research. Check each adapter, device, and driver one by one. Use the Power Options Control
Panel to change the power scheme. Also check all devices for a Power Management tab on the
Properties dialog box. Changes can be made there.
Links on the left of the Power Options Control Panel provide access to advanced settings
such as requiring a password to come out of sleep mode. The power options for a Windows 7
laptop are shown in Figure 4.29.
Figure 4.29
Windows 7 power settings
Other laptop Power Options Control Panel settings include the following links: Require a
password on wakeup, Choose what the power button does (as shown in Figure 4.29), Choose
what closing the lid does, Create a power plan, Choose when to turn off the display, and
Change when the computer sleeps. Laptop power settings affect battery life. Users and technicians should adjust these settings to best fit how the laptop or mobile device is used.
In Windows Vista and 7, use the Power Options Control Panel to edit the power settings.
Select the Change advanced power settings link to configure passwords, standby power behavior, and other power-related settings. If the computer does not go into the Sleep mode, check
the following:
• Determine if ACPI is enabled in BIOS.
• Try disabling the antivirus program to see if it is causing the problem.
• Set the screen saver to None to see if it is causing the problem.
• Determine if all device drivers are ACPI compliant.
• Determine if power management is enabled through the operating system (use the
Power Options Control Panel).
• Disconnect USB devices to see if they are causing problems.
Replacing or Upgrading a Power Supply
151
Replacing or Upgrading a Power Supply
Power supplies are rated in watts. Today’s typical computers have power supplies with ratings ranging from 250 to 500 watts, although powerful computers, such as network servers or
higher-end gaming systems, can have power supplies rated 600 watts or higher. Each device
inside a computer uses a certain amount of power, and
the power supply must provide enough to run all the
Watch the wattage
devices. The power each device or adapter requires is
Many manufacturers overstate the wattage. The
usually defined in the documentation for the device
wattage advertised is not the wattage available at
or adapter or on the manufacturer’s website. The
higher temperatures, such as when mounted inside
computer uses the wattage needed, not the total
a computer. Research a model before purchasing.
capacity of a power supply. The efficiency (more AC is
converted to DC) is what changes the electricity bill.
Some power supplies are listed as being dual
or triple (or tri) rail. A dual-rail power supply
has two +12V output lines. A triple-rail power supply simply has three +12V output lines for
devices. Keep in mind that most manufacturers do not have two or more independent 12V
sources; they all derive from the same 12V source but have independent output lines. Figure
4.30 shows how the +12V rails might be used.
Tech
Tip
+12V
Look on top of the power supply for the various voltage levels and
maximum current output in amps.
Dual
rail
+12 volts
Triple
rail
+12 volts
Drive motors
CPU
CPU
Video card
12V rails
Power supplies can be auto-switching or have a fixed input. An auto-switching power
supply monitors the incoming voltage from the wall outlet and automatically switches itself
accordingly. Auto-switching power supplies accept voltages from 100 to 240VAC at 50 to 60Hz.
These power supplies are popular in mobile devices and are great for international travel.
A power supply might also allow adjusting the input value by manually selecting the value
through a voltage selector switch on the power supply. A fixed-input power supply is rated for a
specific voltage and frequency for a country, such as 120VAC 60Hz for the United States.
Some people are interested in exactly how much power their system is consuming.
Every device in a computer consumes power, and each device could use one or more
different voltage levels (+5V, –5V, +12V, –12V, +3.3V). A power supply has a maximum
amperage for each voltage level (for example, 30 amps at +5 volts and 41 amps at +12V).
To determine the maximum power being used, in watts, multiply the amps and volts. If
you add all the maximum power levels, the amount will be greater than the power supply’s
rating. This means that you cannot use the maximum power at every single voltage level
(but since the –5V and –12V are not used very often, normally this is not a problem).
In order to determine the power being consumed, you must research every device to
determine how much current it uses at a specific voltage level. Internet power calculators
are available to help with this task. Table 4.6 lists sample computer components’ power
requirements.
4
Disassembly
and Power
Figure 4.30
Drive motors
and video card
152
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Table 4.6 Sample computer component power requirements
Component
Power consumption
Motherboard (without processor)
5 to 150W
Processor
10 to 140W
Floppy drive
5W
PATA hard drive
3 to 30W
SATA hard drive
2 to 15W
Optical drive
10 to 30W
Non-video adapter
4 to 25W
AGP video adapter
20 to 50W
PCIe video card with one power
connector
50-150W
PCIe video card with two power
connectors
100-300W
Extra fan
3W
RAM stick
15W
Different physical sizes of power supplies are available. When replacing a power supply,
purchasing a power supply for a new computer, or upgrading a power supply, verify that the
power supply will fit in the computer case. Also, verify that the power supply produces enough
power for the installed devices and for future upgrades. Do not forget to check that the on/off
switch on the new power supply is in a location that fits in the computer case.
When purchasing a new power brick for a laptop or battery for a mobile device, ensure that
it has the same specifications as the one from the manufacturer. Less expensive models might
not provide the same quality as approved models. Ensure that the replacement has a power
jack that does not wiggle when it is inserted into the device. Ensure that a laptop power brick
has the appropriate DC voltage required by the laptop. Current (amperage) should be equal to
or more than the original power brick.
Power management on both laptops and desktops is important. Most computer components are available as energy-efficient items. ENERGY STAR is a joint effort by the U.S. EPA
(Environmental Protection Agency) and Department of Energy to provide device standards and
ratings that easily identify products (including computer components) that are energy efficient.
Many computers today are on more than they are off, and settings such as power options, CPU
throttling, and some advanced BIOS settings affect power settings. A technician must be aware
of all these options and be willing to offer advice such as turn the computer off when finished
working on it; set the power management option to allow work to be performed at an affordable cost; disable options not being used, such as wireless capabilities when wired networking
is functioning; be aware of monitor costs (CRT-type monitors take the most energy, followed
by plasma displays and then LCD or flat-panel technology); and purchase energy-efficient parts
and computers.
Symptoms of Power Supply Problems
The following is a list of symptoms of a power supply problem:
• The power light is off and/or the device won’t turn on.
• The power supply fan does not turn when the computer is powered on.
Solving Power Supply Problems
153
• The computer sounds a continuous beep. (This could also be a bad motherboard or a
stuck key on the keyboard.)
• When the computer powers on, it does not beep at all. (This could also be a bad motherboard.)
• When the computer powers on, it sounds repeating short beeps. (This could also be a
bad motherboard.)
• During POST, a 02X or parity POST error code appears (where X is any number); one
of the POST checks is a power good signal from the power supply; a 021, 022, . . . error
message indicates that the power supply did not pass the POST test.
• The computer reboots or powers down without warning.
• The power supply fan is noisy.
• The power supply is too hot to touch.
• The computer emits a burning smell.
• The power supply fan spins, but there is no power to other devices.
• The monitor has power light, but nothing appears on the monitor, and no PC power
light illuminates.
Solving Power Supply Problems
When you suspect that the power supply is causing a problem, swap the power supply, make
the customer happy, and be on your way! Power problems are not usually difficult to detect or
troubleshoot.
Do not overlook the most obvious power supply
symptom. Start by checking the computer power
Do not disassemble a power supply
light. If it is off, check the power supply’s fan by placPower supplies are not normally disassembled.
ing your palm at the back of the computer. If the
Manufacturers often rivet them shut. Even when
fan is turning, it means the wall outlet is providing
a power supply can be disassembled, you should
power to the computer and you can assume that the
not take it apart unless you have a background in
wall outlet is functioning. Check the motherboard for
electronics.
LEDs and refer to the manual for their meaning. Test
the power outlet with another device. Ensure that the
power cord is inserted fully into the wall outlet and
the computer. If you suspect that the wall outlet is faulty, use an AC circuit tester to verify
that the wall outlet is wired properly.
On a mobile device that is running on battery power, check the battery charge icon
through the operating system. Try using the device on AC power. If it works on AC power, try
recharging the battery. If the battery does not recharge, replace it. Wiggle the AC power to see
if the connection is loose. Remove the battery for a moment and then re-insert it (and attach
AC power if battery power does not work). On a laptop, see if the power brick has a power light
on it and whether it is lit. Try a different AC adapter from the same manufacturer because AC
adapters are proprietary between laptop vendors.
If a mobile device or smartphone won’t power on after recharging the battery, remove the
battery for about a minute. Reinstall the battery and try powering on again. If the system will
still not power on, try powering on with the power cable attached. If the system works with the
power cable attached, the battery probably needs to be replaced.
The following troubleshooting questions can help you determine the location of a power
problem:
• Did the power supply work before? If not, check the input voltage selector switch on the
power supply and verify that it is on the proper setting.
• Is the power supply’s fan turning? If yes, check voltages going to the motherboard. If
they are good, maybe just the power supply fan is bad. If the power supply’s fan is not
turning, check the wall outlet for proper AC voltages.
Tech
Tip
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Disassembly
and Power
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
154
• Is a surge strip used? If so, check to see if the surge strip is powered on, then try a different outlet in the surge strip, or replace the surge strip.
• Is the computer’s power cord okay? Verify that the power cord plugs snugly into the
outlet and into the back of the computer. Swap the power cord to verify that it is functioning.
• Is the front panel power button stuck?
• Are the voltages going to the motherboard at the proper levels? If they are low, something may be overloading the power supply. Disconnect the power cable to one device
and recheck the voltages. Replace the power cable to the device. Remove the power
cable from another device and recheck the motherboard voltages. Continue doing this
until the power cord for each device has been disconnected and the motherboard voltages have been checked. A single device can short out the power supply and cause the
system to malfunction. Replace any device that draws down the power supply’s output
voltage and draws too much current. If none of the devices is the cause of the problem,
replace the power supply. If replacing the power supply does not solve the problem,
replace the motherboard.
If a computer does not boot properly, but it does boot when you press c + a + D,
the power good signal is likely the problem. Some motherboards are more sensitive to the
power good signal than others. For example, say that a motherboard has been replaced and the
system does not boot. At first glance, this may appear
to be a bad replacement board, but the problem could
Check the power good (sometimes
be caused by a power supply failing to output a consiscalled power OK) signal
tent power good signal.
Check the power supply documentation to see
Sometimes, none of these troubleshooting actions
if the power supply outputs a power good signal
work. A grounding problem might be the issue. Build
(rather than the normal +5 volts). Turn on the
the computer outside the computer case, on an anticomputer. Check the power good signal going
static mat, if possible. Start with only the power supinto the motherboard power connector. Do this
ply, motherboard, and speaker connected. Even though
before replacing the motherboard. A power supply
it will normally produce a POST audio error, verify
with a power good signal below +3V needs to be
that the power supply fan will turn. Most power supreplaced.
plies issue a click before the audio POST beeps. Next,
verify the voltages from the power supply. If the fan
turns and the voltages are correct, power down the
machine and add a video adapter and monitor to the system. If the machine does not work, put
the video adapter in a different expansion slot and try again. If placing the video adapter in a
different expansion slot does not work, swap out the video adapter.
If the video adapter works, continue adding devices one by one and checking the voltages.
Just as any one device can cause the system not to operate properly, so can any one adapter. If
one particular adapter causes the system to malfunction, try a different expansion slot before
trying a different adapter.
If the expansion slot proves to be a problem, check the slot for foreign objects. If none are
found but the problem still occurs, place a note on the expansion slot so that no one will use it.
Tech
Tip
Adverse Power Conditions
There are two adverse AC power conditions that can damage or adversely affect a computer:
overvoltage and undervoltage. Overvoltage occurs when the output voltage from the wall
outlet (the AC voltage) is over the rated amount. Normally, the output of a wall outlet is 110
to 130 volts AC. When the voltage rises above 130 volts, an overvoltage condition exists. The
power supply takes the AC voltage and converts it to DC. An overvoltage condition is harmful
to the components because too much DC voltage destroys electronic circuits. An overvoltage
condition can be a surge or a spike.
Surge Protectors
155
When the voltage falls below 110 volts AC, an undervoltage condition exists. If the voltage is too low, a computer power supply cannot provide enough power to all the components.
Under these conditions, the power supply draws too much current, causing it to overheat,
weakening or damaging the components. An undervoltage condition is known as a brownout or
sag. Table 4.7 explains these power terms.
Table 4.7 Adverse power conditions
Major type
Subtype
Explanation
Overvoltage
spike
A spike lasts 1 to 2 nanoseconds. A nanosecond is onebillionth of a second. A spike is harder to guard against
than a surge because it has such short duration and high
intensity.
surge
A surge lasts longer (3 or more nanoseconds) than a spike.
Also called transient voltage. Causes of surges include
lightning, poorly regulated electricity, faulty wiring, and
devices that turn on periodically, such as elevators, air
conditioners, and refrigerators.
brownout
In a brownout, power circuits become overloaded.
Occasionally, an electric company intentionally causes a
brownout to reduce the power drawn by customers during
peak periods.
sag
A sag occurs when the voltage from the wall outlet drops
momentarily.
blackout
A blackout is a total loss of power.
Undervoltage
Adverse Power Protection
Power supplies have built-in protection against adverse power conditions. However, the best
protection for a computer is to unplug it during a power outage or thunderstorm. Surge
protectors and UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) are commonly used to protect against
adverse power conditions. A line conditioner can also be used. Each device has a specific purpose and guards against certain conditions. A technician must be familiar with each device in
order to make recommendations for customers.
Surge Protectors
A surge protector, also known as a surge strip or surge suppressor, is commonly a multioutlet strip that offers built-in protection against overvoltage. Surge protectors do not protect
against undervoltage; they protect against voltage increases. Figure 4.31 shows a picture of a
surge protector.
4
Disassembly
and Power
Electric companies offer surge protection for homes. Frequently, there are two choices. A
basic package protects large appliances, such as refrigerators, air conditioners, washers, and
dryers. It allows no more than 800 volts to enter the electrical system. A premium package protects more sensitive devices (TVs, stereos, and computers) and reduces the amount of voltage
allowed to 323 volts or less. Some suppressors handle surges up to 20,000 volts. The exterior
surge arrestor does not protect against voltage increases that originate inside the building,
such as those caused by faulty wiring.
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
156
Figure 4.31 Surge protector
Most surge protectors have an electronic component called an MOV (metal oxide varistor),
which protects the computer or device that plugs into one of the outlets on the surge strip. An
MOV is positioned between the AC coming in and the outlet into which devices are plugged.
When a surge occurs, the MOV prevents the extra voltage from passing to the outlets. An MOV, however,
Do not create a trip hazard with a surge
has some drawbacks. If a large surge occurs, the MOV
strip
will take the hit and be destroyed, which is better than
When installing a surge protector, do not install it in
damaging the computer. However, with small overvolsuch a manner that it causes a trip hazard because
tages, each small surge weakens the MOV. A weakened
the cord lies in an area where people walk.
MOV might not give the proper protection to the computer in the event of a bigger surge. Also, there is no
simple check for an MOV’s condition. Some MOVs have
indicator lamps attached, but they indicate only when the MOV has been destroyed, not when
it is weakened. Still, having an indicator lamp is better than nothing at all. Some surge protectors also have replaceable fuses and/or indicator lamps for the fuse. A fuse works only once
and then is destroyed during a surge in order to protect devices plugged into surge protector
outlets.
Several surge protector features deserve consideration. Table 4.8 outlines some of them.
Tech
Tip
Table 4.8 Surge protector features
Feature
Explanation
Clamping voltage
The level at which surge protector starts protecting the
computer. The lower the value, the better the protection.
Clamping speed
How much time elapses before protection begins.
The lower the value, the better the protection. Surge
protectors cannot normally protect against power spikes
(overvoltages of short duration) because of their rated
clamping speed.
Line Conditioners
Feature
Explanation
Energy absorption/
dissipation
The greater the number of joules (a unit of energy) that
can be dissipated, the more effective and durable a surge
protector is. This feature is sometimes called energy
absorption. A surge protector rating of 630 joules is more
effective than a rating of 210 joules.
TVS (transient voltage
suppressing) rating
This is also known as response time. The lower the rating
the better. For example, a 330 TVS-rated surge protector
is better than a 400 TVS-rated one.
UL rating
UL (Underwriters Laboratories) developed the UL 1449
VPR (voltage protection rating) standard to measure the
maximum amount of voltage a surge protector will let
through to the attached devices. The UL 497A standard is
for phone line protection, and the UL 1283 standard is for
EMI/RFI.
157
The federal government designates surge suppressor grades—A, B, and C. Suppressors are
evaluated on a basis of 1,000 surges at a specific number of volts and amps. A Class A rating is
the best and indicates tolerance up to 6,000 volts and 3,000 amps.
Which surge strip to buy?
When purchasing or recommending a surge protector, be sure it conforms to the UL 1449
standard and has an MOV status lamp. Also, check to see if the vendor offers to repair or
replace the surge-protected equipment in the event that they are damaged during a surge.
Tech
Tip
Surge protectors are not the best protection for a computer system because most provide
very little protection against other adverse power conditions. Even the good ones protect only
against overvoltage conditions. Those with the UL 1449 rating and an MOV status lamp are
usually more expensive. Unfortunately, people tend to put their money into their computer
parts, but not into the protection of those parts.
4
Disassembly
and Power
Line Conditioners
An alternative for computer protection is a line conditioner. Line conditioners, sometimes
known as power conditioners, are more expensive than surge protectors, but they protect a computer from overvoltages, undervoltages, and adverse noise conditions over electrical lines. A line
conditioner monitors AC electricity. If the voltage is too low, the line conditioner boosts voltage
to the proper range. If the voltage level is too high, the line conditioner clamps down the voltage and sends the proper amount to the computer. Figure 4.32 shows a line conditioner.
Be careful not to plug too many devices into a line conditioner
A line conditioner is rated for a certain amount of current. Some devices, such as laser
printers, can draw a great deal of current (up to 15 amps). Some line conditioners are not
rated to handle these devices. Because laser printers draw so much current, if a computer
and a laser printer are on the same electrical circuit, that circuit should be wired to a 20-amp
circuit breaker. Most outlets in today’s buildings are on 20-amp breakers.
Tech
Tip
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
158
Figure 4.32 Line conditioner
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
A UPS (uninterruptible power supply), sometimes called an online (or true) UPS or a line
interactive UPS, provides power to a computer or other device for a limited amount of time
when there is a power outage. A UPS provides enough time to save work
and safely shut down the computer. Some operating systems do not operate properly if power abruptly cuts off and the computer is not brought
to a logical stopping place. A network server, the main computer for a
network, is a great candidate for a UPS. Network operating systems are
particularly susceptible to problems during a power outage. Some UPSs
have a connection for a cable and special software that automatically
maintains voltages to the computer, quits all applications, and powers off
Sine wave
the computer. Some UPS units have USB and/or network connections as
well.
A UPS also provides power conditioning for the devices attached to
it. The AC power is used to charge a battery inside the UPS. The battery
inside the UPS supplies power to an inverter. The inverter makes AC for
the computer. When AC power from the outlet fails, the battery inside
the UPS continues to supply power to the computer. The battery inside
the UPS outputs DC power, and the computer accepts (and expects) AC
Square wave
power. Therefore, the DC power from the battery must be converted to
AC voltage. AC voltage looks like a sine wave when it is in its correct
Figure 4.33 Sine wave and
form, but cheaper UPSs produce a square wave (especially when power
square wave
comes from the battery) that is not as effective. Some computer systems
and peripherals do not work well on a 120VAC square wave, modified sine
wave, or quasi-sine wave. Figure 4.33 illustrates a sine wave and a square wave.
A UPS can be the best protection against adverse power conditions because it protects
against overvoltage and undervoltage conditions, and it
provides power so a system can be shut down properly.
When purchasing a UPS, be sure that (1) the amount
Do not plug a laser printer into a UPS
of battery time is sufficient to protect all devices; (2)
unless it has a rating less than 1400VA
the amount of current the UPS produces is sufficient
Most UPSs cannot handle the very high current
to protect all devices; and (3) the output waveform is a
requirements of a laser printer.
sine wave.
Tech
Tip
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
159
To install a UPS, perform the following steps:
1. Connect the UPS to a wall outlet and power it on. When a UPS is first plugged in, the
battery is not charged. See the UPS manufacturer’s installation manual for the specific
time it will take to charge.
2. Power off the UPS.
3. Attach device power cords, such as the PC, to the UPS. Ensure that the UPS is rated to
supply power to the number and type of connected devices.
4. Power on the UPS.
A UPS has a battery inside that is similar to a car battery (except that the UPS battery is
sealed). Because this battery contains acid, you should never drop a UPS or throw it in the
trash. Research your state’s requirements for recycling batteries. All batteries fail after some
time, and most UPSs have replaceable batteries.
UPS troubleshooting is not difficult. In addition to following the manufacturer’s recommendations for troubleshooting, try the following guidelines:
•• If a UPS will not power on, check the on/off switch. Verify that the UPS is attached to an
electrical outlet. Ensure that the outlet has power and that the circuit breaker for the
outlet has not been tripped. Ensure that the battery is installed properly.
•• Check whether the UPS unit has a self-test procedure and include a self-test button.
•• With some UPS units, a beep indicates that a power interruption has occurred. This is a
normal function.
•• Some UPS units beep at a different rate when the battery is low. Others have a light
indicator to indicate that it’s time to recharge or replace the battery.
•• If a UPS is overloaded—that is, has too many devices attached—the UPS may shut off,
trip a circuit breaker, beep, or turn on a light indication for this problem.
Figure 4.34 shows the front of an American Power Conversion UPS. Notice the diagnostic
lights on it.
4
Figure 4.34 Front of an American Power Conversion UPS
Disassembly
and Power
Diagnostic
lights
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Standby Power Supply (SPS)
A device similar to a UPS is an SPS (standby power supply). An SPS contains a battery like
the UPS, but the battery provides power to the computer only when it loses AC power. It does
not provide constant power, like the UPS. An SPS is not as effective as a UPS because the SPS
must detect a power-out condition first and then switch over to the battery to supply power to
the computer. As a result, SPS switching time is important. Any time under 5 milliseconds is
fine for most systems. Figures 4.35 and 4.36 show the differences between how SPSs and UPSs
work.
Switch
DC
Battery
charger
AC
Battery
SPS/Line interactive UPS normal operation
(solid line)
1. AC power is brought through the UPS.
2. The battery is charged simultaneously.
3. With some units, small over or
undervoltages are evened out
before sending through the UPS.
Inverter
SPS/Line interactive UPS abnormal power
operation (dashed line)
1. When high voltage or large undervoltage
for some units and with loss of power is
present in all units, DC power from the
battery is sent to the inverter for as long
as the battery lasts.
2. The DC power is converted to AC and
provided to the attached devices.
Figure 4.35 SPS/line interactive UPS operation
AC
DC
DC
Filter/Rectifier
AC
Battery
Inverter
Bypass
Online UPS normal operation (solid line)
1. AC power is brought into the UPS
and cleaned up by the filter and
converted to DC by the rectifier.
2. The battery is charged and outputs
DC to the inverter.
3. The DC is converted to AC and
provided to the attached devices.
Figure 4.36 Online UPS operation
Online UPS abnormal
power operation (dashed line)
1. When the battery has died,
the attached devices still
receive power through
the bypass circuit.
Electrical Fires
161
Phone Line Isolator
Just like AC power outlets, phone outlets can experience power fluctuations. A power surge can
enter a computer through a modem, a device used to connect a computer to a phone line. Not
only can a modem be damaged by a power surge on the phone line, but other electronics inside
the computer, such as the motherboard, can be damaged. A phone line isolator, sometimes
called a modem isolator, can be purchased at an electronics store. It provides protection
against phone line surges. No computer connected to a phone line through a modem should
be without one. Many surge protectors now come with a modem isolator built into the strip.
Figure 4.31 shows an example of a surge strip that has modem protection integrated into the
unit.
Power supplies and associated protection equipment are not exciting topics, but they are
very important to a technician. Power problems can catch you unaware. Always keep power in
your mind as a potential suspect when troubleshooting a computer.
Electrical Fires
No discussion of power is complete without a brief warning about fire. Electrical fires are
uncommon in computers, but if one occurs, a technician must know what to do. If a fire
occurs inside a computer or peripheral, unplug the equipment if possible, but do not put yourself in harm’s way attempting to do this. Use a Type C or a Type A-B-C fire extinguisher
to put out the fire. Type C fire extinguishers are made specifically for electrical (Type C) fires.
Type A-B-C fire extinguishers can be used for Class A, Class B, and Class C fires. Class A fires
involve paper, wood, cloth, or other normal combustibles. Class B fires involve flammable
liquids and gases. It is also a good idea to have a dry chemical 20lb ABC fire extinguisher in
homes for the electronics (including computers) located there. Home computer equipment
should be listed on the home insurance policy. Figure 4.37 shows a Type A-B-C fire extinguisher.
4
Disassembly
and Power
Figure 4.37
Type A-B-C fire extinguisher
When a fire occurs, pull out the fire extinguisher pin. Aim the fire extinguisher nozzle at
the base (bottom) of the fire. Squeeze the fire extinguisher’s handle and move the nozzle back
and forth in a slow sweeping motion. With electrical fires, the smoke is a breathing hazard.
Burning plastics produce lethal toxic fumes. Always evacuate the people in the building and
call the fire department.
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Computer Disposal/Recycling
Computers and other electronic devices can contain materials such as beryllium, chromium,
cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. The levels of these materials are increasing dramatically every year in landfills and can pose a threat to our environment. Plastics that are part of
computers are hard to isolate and recycle. CRTs (cathode ray tubes) are found in older monitors and TVs and usually contain enough lead and mercury to be considered hazardous waste.
However, the EPA has been successful in obtaining exclusions from the federal hazardous
waste standards for unbroken CRTs, so they can be recycled more effectively.
Batteries contain acids that can burn or hurt body parts. Batteries can introduce lead and
acid into the environment. Heavy metals can leach into the ground and water sources.
Every state and many cities have specific guidelines about how to dispose of electronics.
These rules must be followed by technicians who replace broken computer equipment. For
example, in Florida and New York, steps have been taken to increase CRT recycling; however,
other states regulate all CRTs as hazardous waste and ban them from being sent to landfills. If
you are unsure about how to get rid of any piece of broken electronic equipment, contact your
direct supervisor for instructions.
The following list provides alternatives and suggestions for being environmentally conscious about discarding electronics:
• Donate equipment that is operational to schools and charities so that those who do not
have access to technology can get some exposure. If the operating system is not transferred to another system, leave the operating system on it and provide proof of purchase
along with documentation. Also, do not forget to erase all data stored on the computer
before donating it.
• Recycle very outdated electronics. If the devices are so outdated that a school or charity
does not want them, consider recycling them. Many companies accept old electronics
and have determined ways to reuse some of their parts.
• Remove parts that do work and donate or recycle them.
• Buy electronics that are designed with saving resources in mind and are easy to
upgrade, which extends their usefulness period; are energy efficient; contain fewer toxins; use recycled materials; and offer leasing or recycling programs.
• Check with the computer or component manufacturer to see if it has a recycling program. Most of them do.
Soft Skills—Written Communications
Skills
When technicians are in school, they seldom think that the skills they should be learning
involve writing. However, in the workplace, technicians use written communication skills
when they document problems and use email. Advisory committees across the country say that
in addition to having technical knowledge, it is important that technicians be able to communicate effectively both written and orally, be comfortable working in a team environment, and
possess critical thinking skills (that is, solve problems even though they have not been taught
the specific problem).
Soft Skills—Written Communications Skills
4
Disassembly
and Power
Regardless of the size of a company, documentation is normally required. The documentation may only be the number of hours spent on a job and a basic description of what was done,
but most companies require a bit more. Documentation should be written so others can read
and understand it. Keep in mind that if another technician must handle another problem from
the same customer, it saves time and money to have good documentation. The following list
includes complaints from managers who hire technicians. You can use this list to improve and
avoid making the same mistakes:
• Avoids doing documentation in a timely manner
• Does not provide adequate or accurate information on what was performed or tried
• Has poor spelling, grammar, capitalization, and punctuation skills
• Writes in short, choppy sentences, using technical jargon
• Does not provide updates on the status of a problem
Email is a common means of communication for technicians. However, most technicians
do not take the time to communicate effectively using email. The following is a list of guidelines for effective email communication:
• Do not use email when a meeting or a phone call is more appropriate.
• Include a short description of the email topic in the subject line.
• Do not write or respond to an email when you are angry.
• Send email only to the appropriate people.
• Stick to the point; do not digress.
• Use a spelling and grammar checker; if one is not included in the email client, write the
email in a word processing application, check it, and then paste the document into the
email.
• Use proper grammar, punctuation, and capitalization; do not write in all uppercase or
all lowercase letters.
• Do not copy others unnecessarily.
• Write each email as if you were putting the message on a billboard; you never know
how the content might be used or who might see it.
The number-one complaint about technical support staff is not their lack of technical
skills but their lack of communication skills. Spend as much of your education practicing your
communication skills as you do your technical skills.
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Chapter Summary
• Wearing a wrist strap or staying in contact with unpainted metal keeps you and the
computing device at the same electrical potential so you won’t induce current into any
part and weaken/damage it.
• EMI and RFI cause issues. Move the computer or the offending device and replace all
slot covers/openings.
• When removing parts, have the right tools, lighting, antistatic items, and ample work
space. Take notes. Don’t use magnetized tools. Avoid jarring hard drives.
• Be careful installing an I/O shield and be aware of standoffs when dealing with the
motherboard.
• Laptops and mobile devices frequently have compartments for memory and expansion
card. These devices frequently have plastic parts that must be removed. A scribe helps
with prying plastics and covers off. Laptop speakers and DC power plug frequently have
cables that run along the back or sides of the device. Keep screws separated and take
notes for any parts removal.
• Ribbon cables have a colored stripe indicating pin 1. Pin 1 of a cable must attach to pin
1 of a connector.
• Preventive maintenance procedures prolong the life of the computer. Vacuum before
spraying compressed air.
• An MSDS describes disposal and storage procedures and contains information about
toxicity and health concerns. Cities/states have specific disposal rules for chemicals, batteries, CRTs, electronics, and so on. Always know the disposal rules in the area where
you work.
• AC power goes into the power supply or mobile device power brick. DC power is provided to all internal parts of the computing device. AC and DC voltage checks can be
done and only with DC power does polarity matter. Use the highest meter setting possible with unknown voltage levels. Power is measured in watts.
• Continuity checks are done on cabling and a good wire shows close to 0 ohms.
• A power supply converts AC to DC, distributes DC throughout a unit, and provides cooling. The power supply must be the correct form factor and able to supply the current
amount of wattage for a particular voltage level such as +5V or +12V. Multiple “rails”
are commonly available for +12V since the CPU commonly needs its own connection.
The number and type of connectors vary, but converters can be purchased.
• Li-ion batteries are used with mobile devices. If a device must be attached to AC power
or a USB port to work, replace the battery with one of with the correct DC power jack,
appropriate DC voltage level, and current (amperage) equal to or higher than the original power brick.
• Conserve mobile device power by adding more RAM, turning off wireless/Bluetooth,
configuring power options, reducing screen brightness, and avoiding temperature
extremes.
• You use ACPI to control power options through BIOS and the operating system. Wake
on LAN and Wake on Ring are power features that allow a device to be powered up from
a lowered power condition for a specific purpose.
• An AC circuit tester, multimeter, and power supply tester are tools used with power
problems.
• Power issues include overvoltage conditions such as a surge or spike that can be helped
with surge protectors, power conditioners, and UPSs. Power conditioners and UPSs help
with undervoltage conditions such as a sag. A UPS is the only device that powers a computer when a blackout occurs.
Review Questions
165
• Ensure that a surge protector has a Class A rating and adheres to the UL 1449 standard.
• Ensure that a UPS outputs a sine wave from the battery and can output enough power
for attached devices.
• Have a Type C or Type A-B-C fire extinguisher around in case of fire.
• In all communications and written documentation, be professional and effective. Use
proper capitalization, grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Key Terms
AC .................................. 134
AC circuit tester ........... 153
ACPI .............................. 147
amp ............................... 135
antistatic wrist strap..... 120
auto-switching .............. 151
Berg ............................... 138
blackout ........................ 155
brownout....................... 155
capacitor ....................... 135
clamping speed ............. 156
clamping voltage .......... 156
continuity ..................... 135
current .......................... 135
DC ................................. 134
dual-rail power supply .. 151
EMI................................ 122
energy absorption/
dissipation ..................... 157
ESD ............................... 120
grounding ..................... 120
I/O shield....................... 129
Li-ion battery ................ 145
line conditioner ............ 157
modem isolator............. 161
Molex ............................. 138
MOV............................... 156
ohm ............................... 135
overvoltage .................... 154
phone line isolator ....... 161
pin 1 .............................. 125
power............................. 135
power good signal......... 139
power supply tester ...... 144
preventive
maintenance ................. 132
resistance ...................... 135
RFI................................. 122
sag ................................. 155
scribe ............................. 130
spike .............................. 155
SPS ................................ 160
standby power ............... 134
standoff ......................... 129
surge ............................. 155
surge protector ............. 155
TVS rating ..................... 157
Type A-B-C fire
extinguisher ................. 161
Type C fire
extinguisher .................. 161
UL 1449 VPR ................. 157
undervoltage ................. 154
UPS................................ 158
volt ................................ 134
voltage ........................... 134
Wake on LAN ................ 148
Wake on Ring ............... 148
watt ............................... 135
Review Questions
2. List three tasks commonly performed during preventive maintenance.
3. Computers used in a grocery store warehouse for inventory control have a higher part
failure rate than the other company computers. Which of the following is most likely to
help in this situation?
a. an antistatic wrist strap
b. a preventive maintenance plan
c. antistatic pads
d. high wattage power supplies
Disassembly
and Power
1. What would happen if you removed the battery from the motherboard by accident?
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
4. Which of the following can prolong the life of a computer and conserve resources? (Select
all that apply.)
a. a preventive maintenance plan
b. antistatic mats and pads
c. upgraded power supply
d. a power plan
e. using a Li-ion battery as a replacement
f. extra case fans
5. Which power component has a 20- or 24-pin connector?
a. ATX power supply
b. UPS
c. line conditioner
d. SPS
e. surge protector
6. An optical drive randomly becomes unavailable, and after replacing the drive, the technician now suspects a power issue. What could help in this situation?
a. a UPS
b. a surge protector
c. antistatic wipes
d. a preventive maintenance plan
e. a multimeter
7. Which unit would you recommend for the help desk people who sit at a computer for a
24/7 operation where help must be provided at all times?
a. a UPS
b. a surge protector
c. an upgrade power supply
d. a line conditioner
8. When disassembling a computer, which tool will help you remove the memory module?
a. magnetic screwdriver
b. needlenose pliers
c. #1 or #2 Phillips screwdriver
d. antistatic wrist strap
9. How would a technician normally access a memory module that needs to be replaced on a
netbook? (Select the best answer.)
a. by removing the DC power jack
b. by removing a secured bottom compartment
c. by removing the speaker
d. by removing the display
10. Which part would be specialized when used with a laser printer?
[ surge strip | vacuum | multimeter | antistatic wrist strap ]
11. Which two of the following would most likely cause a loud noise on a desktop computer?
(Select two.) [ motherboard | USB drive | power supply | case fan | memory | PCIe adapter ]
Review Questions
167
12. A computer will not power on. Which of the following would be used to check the wall
outlet? [ power supply tester | UPS | multimeter | POST ]
13. A computer will not power on. After checking the wall outlet and swapping the power
cord, what would the technician use next?
a. power supply tester
b. UPS
c. antistatic wrist strap
d. magnetic screw driver
e. nonmagnetic screw driver
14. Which of the following is affected by the power supply wattage rating?
a. number of internal storage devices
b. number of power supply connectors
c. speed of the processor
d. type of processor
e. type of power supply connectors
15. Which of the following would help with computer heat?
a. increased power supply wattage
b. larger power supply form factor
c. unplug unused power connectors
d. install case fans
16. Lightning is prevalent in Jacksonville, Florida. What would you recommend for home
owners who would like to keep working even when a storm is rolling through?
[ surge protector | phone line protector | UPS | line conditioner ]
17. Consider the following email.
From: Cheryl a. Schmidt
To: Network Engineering Technology Faculty
Subj: [None]
Reword this email to illustrate good written communication skills.
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Disassembly
and Power
We have little time to get the PMS done on the PCs and N/W gear. What software do
you want?
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
18. List three recommendations for good technical written communication.
19. What type of fire extinguisher can be used on electronic equipment?
20. List three recommendations for saving power on a laptop.
Exercises
Lab 4.1 Performing Maintenance on an Antistatic Wrist
Strap
Objective: To understand how to care for and properly use an antistatic wrist strap
Parts:
Antistatic wrist strap
Computer chassis
Multimeter
Note:
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) has great potential to harm the electronic components inside a computer. Given this fact, it is vitally important that you practice
proper ESD precautions when working inside a computer case. One tool you can
use to prevent ESD is an antistatic wrist strap. This tool channels any static electricity from your body to the computer’s chassis, where it is dissipated safely.
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Examine the wrist strap for any obvious defects such as worn or broken straps, loose
grounding lead attachments, dirt or grease buildup, and so on.
2. If necessary, remove any dirt or grease buildup from the wrist strap, paying close attention to the electrical contact points such as the wrist contact point, the ground lead
attachment point, and the computer chassis attachment clip. Use denatured alcohol to
clean these contact points.
3. If possible, use a multimeter to check continuity between the wrist contact point and the
computer chassis attachment clip. A reading of zero ohms of resistance indicates a good
electrical pathway.
How many volts of static electricity does it take to harm a computer’s electrical
components?
4. Adjust the wrist strap so it fits snugly yet comfortably around your wrist. Ensure that the
wrist contact is in direct contact with your skin, with no clothing, hair, etc., being in the
way.
5. Attach the ground lead to the wrist strap and ensure it snaps securely into place.
6. Attach the computer chassis attachment clip to a clean metal attachment point on the
computer chassis.
7. Any static electricity generated or attracted by your body will now be channeled through
the antistatic wrist strap to the computer chassis, where it will be safely dissipated.
How many volts will an ESD be before you will feel anything?
Exercises
169
Should you use an antistatic wrist strap when working inside a monitor?
Instructor initials: _____________
Lab 4.2 Computer Disassembly/Reassembly
Objective: To disassemble and reassemble a computer correctly
Parts:
A computer to disassemble
A tool kit
An antistatic wrist strap (if possible)
Note:
Observe proper ESD handling procedures when disassembling and reassembling a
computer.
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Gather the proper tools needed to disassemble the computer.
2. Clear as much workspace as possible around the computer.
3. Power on the computer.
Why is it important to power on the computer before you begin?
External Cables
4. Turn off the computer and all peripherals. Remove the power cable from the wall outlet
and then remove the power cord from the computer.
5. Note where the monitor cable plugs into the back of the computer. Disconnect the monitor including the power cord and move it to a safe place. Take appropriate notes.
6. Remove all external cables from the back of the computer. Take notes on the location of
each cable. Move the peripheral devices to a safe place.
Did the mouse cable connect to a PS/2 or USB port?
Computer Case Removal
Adapter Placement
8. Make notes or draw the placement of each adapter in the expansion slots.
9. On your notes, draw the internal cable connections before removing any adapters or
cables from the computer. Make notes regarding how and where the cable connects to the
adapter. Do not forget to include cables that connect to the motherboard or to the computer case.
List some ways to determine the correct orientation for an adapter or cable.
Disassembly
and Power
7. If possible, remove the computer case. This is usually the hardest step in disassembly if
the computer is one that has not been seen before. Diagram the screw locations. Keep the
cover screws separate from other screws. An egg carton or a container with small compartments makes an excellent screw holder. Label each compartment and reuse the container. Otherwise, open the case as directed by the manufacturer.
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Internal Cable Removal
10. Remove all internal cables. WARNING: Do not pull on a cable; use the pull tab, if available, or use the cable connector to pull out the cable. Some cables have connectors with
locking tabs. Release the locking tabs before you disconnect the cable. Make appropriate
notes regarding the cable connections. Some students find that labeling cables and the
associated connectors makes reassembly easier, but good notes usually suffice.
Adapter Removal
11. Start with the left side of the computer (facing the front of the computer) and locate the
leftmost adapter.
12. Write down any jumpers or switch settings for this adapter. This step may need to be
performed after you remove the board from the computer if the settings are inaccessible.
13. If applicable, remove the screw or retaining bracket that holds the adapter to the case.
Place the screw in a separate, secure location away from the other screws already
removed. Make notes about where the screw goes or any other notes that will help you
when reassembling the computer.
14. Remove the adapter from the computer.
Why must you be careful not to touch the gold contacts at the bottom of each adapter?
15. Remove the remaining adapters in the system by repeating Steps 12–15. Take notes
regarding screw locations, jumpers, switches, and so forth for each adapter.
Drives
16. Remove all power connections to drives, such as hard drives, floppy drives, CD/DVD/BD
drives, and so on. Note the placement of each drive and each cable, as well as any reminders needed for reassembly.
17. Remove any screws holding the drives in place. Make notes about where the screws go.
Keep these screws separate from any previously removed screws.
18. Remove all drives.
Why must you be careful when handling a mechanical hard drive?
What would you do differently when handling an SSD than a SATA hard drive?
Power Supply
19. Before doing this step, ensure that the power cord is removed from the wall outlet and the
computer. Remove the connectors that connect the power supply to the motherboard.
20. Take very good notes here so you will be able to insert the connectors correctly when
reassembling.
21. Remove the power supply.
What is the purpose of the power supply?
Exercises
171
Motherboard
22. Make note of any motherboard switches or jumpers and indicate whether the switch
position is on or off.
What is the importance of documenting switches and jumpers on the motherboard?
23. Remove any remaining connectors except those that connect a battery to the motherboard. Take appropriate notes.
24. Remove any screws that hold the motherboard to the case. Place these screws in a different location from the other screws removed from the system. Write any notes pertaining
to the motherboard screws. Look for retaining clips or tabs that hold the motherboard
into the case.
25. Remove the motherboard. Make notes pertaining to the motherboard removal. The computer case should be empty after you complete this step.
Instructor initials: _____________
Reassembly
Did the computer power on with POST error codes? If so, recheck all diagrams, switches,
and cabling. Also, check a similar computer model that still works to see if you made
a diagramming error. A chapter on logical troubleshooting comes next in the book.
However, at this point in the course, the most likely problem is with a cable connection or
with an adapter not seated properly in its socket.
Instructor initials: ______________
4
Disassembly
and Power
26. Reassemble the computer by reversing the steps for disassembly. Pay particular attention
to cable orientation when reinstalling cables. Before reconnecting a cable, ensure that
the cable and the connectors are correctly oriented and aligned before pushing the cable
firmly in place. Refer to your notes. The first step is to install the motherboard in the
computer case and reconnect all motherboard connections and screws.
27. Install the power supply by attaching all screws that hold the power supply in the case.
Reattach the power connectors to the motherboard. Refer to your notes.
28. Install all drives by attaching screws, cables, and power connectors. Refer to your notes.
Attach any cables that connect the drive to the motherboard.
29. Install all adapters. Attach all cables from the adapter to the connecting device. Replace
any retaining clips or screws that hold adapters in place. Refer to your previous notes and
diagrams.
30. Connect any external connectors to the computer. Refer to previously made notes, when
necessary.
31. Replace the computer cover. Ensure that slot covers are replaced and that the drives and
the front cover are aligned properly. Ensure that all covers are installed properly.
32. Reinstall the computer power cable.
33. Once the computer is reassembled, power on all external peripherals and the computer. A
chassis intrusion error message may appear. This is just an indication that the cover was
removed.
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Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Lab 4.3 Amps and Wattage
Objective: To determine the correct capacity and wattage of a power supply
Parts:
Power supply
Internet access (as needed)
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Locate the documentation stenciled on the power supply, if possible.
Can you determine from the documentation how many amps of current the power supply
is rated for at 5 volts? If not, proceed to Optional Step 2.
2. Optional: Use the Internet to find the power supply’s documentation on the manufacturer’s website. Use the information you find to answer the remaining questions.
How many amps is the power supply rated for at 5 volts?
How many amps is the power supply rated for at 12 volts?
How many +12V rails does the power supply have?
What is the maximum rated output power of the power supply in watts?
Instructor initials: _____________
Lab 4.4 Continuity Check
To perform a continuity check on a cable and find any broken wires
Multimeter
Cable and pin-out diagram
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Obtain a meter, cable, and pin-out diagram from your instructor.
2. Set the meter to ohms.
3. Power on the meter.
4. Lay the cable horizontally in front of you. The connector on the left is referred to as
Connector A. The connector on the right is referred to as Connector B.
5. Determine the number of pins on the cable connector. On a separate sheet of paper, write
numbers vertically down the left side of the paper, similar to the numbering used in Lab
4.5. There should be a number for each connector pin. At the top of the numbers write
Connector A as the heading. Create a corresponding set of identical numbers vertically on
the right side of the paper.
6. Check the continuity of each wire. Document your findings by placing a check mark
beside each pin number that has a good continuity check.
What meter setting did you use to check continuity, and what meter symbol is used for
this setting?
Objective:
Parts:
7. Power off the meter and return all supplies to the instructor.
Instructor initials: _____________
Exercises
173
Lab 4.5 Pin-Out Diagramming
To draw a pin-out diagram using a working cable
Multimeter
Good cable
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and perform the accompanying activities.
1. Obtain a meter and a good cable from your instructor.
2. Set the meter to ohms.
Instructor initials: _____________
3. Power on the meter.
4. Lay the cable horizontally in front of you. The connector on the left is referred to as
Connector A. The connector on the right is referred to as Connector B.
5. Touch one meter lead to Connector A’s pin 1. Touch the other meter lead to every
Connector B pin. Notice when the meter shows zero resistance, indicating a connection.
Using the table that follows, draw a line from Connector A’s pin 1 to any Connector B pins
that show zero resistance. Add more pin numbers as needed to the table or use a separate
piece of paper. Remember that all pins do not have to be used in the connector. There are
no review questions; however, there is a connector table that contains connection lines.
The lines will be cable dependent.
Objective:
Parts:
Connector A
Connector B
❐1
❐1
❐2
❐2
❐3
❐3
❐4
❐4
❐5
❐5
❐6
❐6
❐7
❐7
4
❐8
❐8
❐9
❐9
❐ 10
❐ 10
❐ 11
❐ 11
Disassembly
and Power
❐ 12
❐ 12
❐ 13
❐ 13
❐ 14
❐ 14
❐ 15
❐ 15
❐ 16
❐ 16
❐ 17
❐ 17
❐ 18
❐ 18
❐ 19
❐ 19
❐ 20
❐ 20
174
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
6. Power off the meter.
Instructor initials: _____________
7. Return all supplies to the instructor.
Lab 4.6 Fuse Check
Objective: To determine if a fuse is good
Parts:
Multimeter
Fuse
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Obtain a meter and a fuse from your instructor.
2. Look at the fuse and determine its amp rating.
What is the amperage rating of the fuse?
3. Set the meter to ohms.
Instructor initials: _____________
4. Power on the meter.
5. Connect one meter lead to one end of the fuse. Connect the other meter lead to the opposite end.
6. Look at the resistance reading on the meter.
What is the resistance reading?
Is the fuse good?
7. Power off the meter.
Instructor initials: _____________
8. Return all materials to the instructor.
Lab 4.7 Using a Multimeter
Objective: To check voltage and resistance levels using a multimeter
Parts:
Multimeter
AA, AAA, C, D, or 9-volt battery
Extended paperclip or wire
Caution: Keep both hands on the behind the protective rings on the meter handles. See
Figures 4.16 and 4.17.
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and perform the accompanying activities.
1. All voltage inside the computer is DC voltage (except for some parts inside the power supply, of course). Learning how to measure DC voltage is important for a technician. The
best place to start is with a battery. Obtain a battery. Look carefully at the battery and
determine where the positive end or connector is located (usually has a + (plus) symbol
nearby) and where the negative end or connector is located.
Why is it important to locate positive and negative on a battery?
2. Look carefully at the battery and determine the voltage rating. Document your findings.
DC voltage:
3. Place the battery on a flat surface. If the battery is an AA, AAA, C, or D battery, place the
battery so that the positive side (the side with a nodule) pointing toward your right side. If
the battery is a 9-volt battery, place the battery so that the connectors are facing you and
the positive connector (the smaller connector) is on your right side.
Exercises
175
4. If the meter has leads that attach, attach the black meter lead to the appropriate port colored as a black port or has the COM labeling. Attach the red meter lead to the positive or
port marked with a plus sign ( + ).
5. Turn on the meter. Set the meter so that it is measuring VDC (DC voltage). This may
involve manually rotating a dial and/or pushing a button. Note that some meters can
autodetect the setting, but most involve configuration.
Document what you did to configure the meter for VDC.
What indication, if any, did the meter show in the meter window that VDC is being
measured?
6. Hold the meter leads so that the black lead is in your left hand and the right lead is in
your right hand. Ensure your hands are behind the protective ring on the meter handle.
Refer to Figure 4.16 if you are unsure.
7. Place the black meter lead to the negative side (left side or left connector). Also touch the
red meter lead to the positive side (right side or right connector) of the battery. Make a
note of the meter reading.
DC volts:
Based on your findings, is the battery good (usable in an electronic device)?
8. Now reverse the meter leads—place the black lead to the positive side and the red lead to
the negative side. Record your findings.
DC volts:
What was different from the original meter reading?
4
Disassembly
and Power
9. Perform this voltage check on any other batteries given to you by the instructor or lab
assistant.
10. Straighten a paperclip or obtain a wire. Place the paperclip or wire on a flat surface.
11. Change the meter so that it reads ohms. This is normally shown by the omega symbol (Ω).
While having the meter leads up in the air (not touching each other), what does the
meter display?
12. Touch the meter leads together to make a complete circuit or path.
What does the meter display now?
13. Touch one meter lead to one end of the paperclip or wire, and touch the other meter lead
to the opposite paperclip or wire end. Sometimes it is easier to just lay the meter lead on
top of the wire close to the end.
What is the meter reading?
14. Some meters have the ability to make a sound when a wire is good. This is frequently
shown on your meter as a sound wave ( ). If your meter has this ability, configure the
meter and redo the test. You can see how much easier this would be than trying to hold
your meter leads straight and watch the meter.
Instructor initials: ______________
15. Power off the meter. Disconnect the leads as necessary. Return all parts to the appropriate
location.
176
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Lab 4.8 Wall Outlet and Power Cord AC Voltage Check
Objective: To check the voltage from a wall outlet and through a power cord
Parts:
Multimeter
Computer power cord
Caution: Exercise extreme caution when working with AC voltages!
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and perform the accompanying activities.
1. Set the multimeter to AC VOLTAGE (refer to the meter’s manual if you are unsure about
this setting). Important: Using a current or resistance setting could destroy the meter.
2. Power on the multimeter. Locate an AC power outlet. Refer to Figure 4.38 for the power
connections.
Neutral
Hot
Ground
Figure 4.38
AC outlet
3. Insert the meter’s black lead into the round (Ground) AC outlet plug.
4. Insert the meter’s red lead into the smaller flat (Hot) AC outlet plug. The meter reading
should be around 120 volts. Use Table 4.9 to record the reading.
5. Move the meter’s red lead into the larger flat (Neutral) AC outlet plug. The meter reading
should be 0 volts. Use Table 4.9 to record the reading.
Table 4.9 Wall outlet AC checks
Connections
Expected voltage
GND to hot
120VAC
GND to neutral
0VAC
Hot to neutral
120VAC
Actual voltage
Exercises
177
6. Remove both leads from the wall outlet.
7. Insert the meter’s black lead into the smaller flat (hot) AC outlet plug.
8. Insert the meter’s red lead into the larger flat (neutral) AC outlet plug. The meter reading
should be around 120 volts. Use Table 4.9 to record the reading.
9. Plug the computer power cord into the AC wall outlet that was checked using Steps 3
through 8.
10. Verify the other end of the power cord is not plugged into the computer.
11. Perform the same checks you performed in Steps 3 through 8, except this time check the
power cord end that plugs into the computer. Use Table 4.10 to record the reading.
Table 4.10 Power cord AC checks
Connections
Expected voltage
GND to hot
120VAC
GND to neutral
0VAC
Hot to neutral
120VAC
Actual voltage
12. If the voltage through the power cord is correct, power off the meter. Notify the instructor
of any incorrect voltages.
Instructor initials: _____________
Lab 4.9 Device DC Voltage Check
To check the power supply voltages sent to various devices
Multimeter
Computer
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and perform the accompanying activities.
1. Set the multimeter to DC VOLTAGE (refer to the meter’s manual if unsure about the
setting).
2. Power on the multimeter.
3. Power off the computer.
4. Remove the computer case.
5. Locate a Molex or Berg power connector. If one is not available, disconnect a power connector from a device.
6. Power on the computer.
7. Check the +5 volt DC output from the power supply by placing the meter’s black lead
in (if the connector is a Molex) or on (if the connector is a Berg) one of the grounds* (a
black wire). Place the meter’s red lead on the +5 volt wire (normally a red wire) in or on
the connector. Consult Figure 4.39 for the layout of the Molex and Berg power supply
connections. Figure 4.39 also contains a table with the acceptable voltage levels.
*Use and check both ground connections (black wires going into the connector); do not
check all the voltages using only one ground connection.
Objective:
Parts:
4
Disassembly
and Power
178
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
Yellow: +12V
Black: ground
Black: ground
Red: +5V
Berg connector
Molex connector
Red: +5V
Black: ground
Black: ground
Yellow: +12V
Voltages
Minimum
+ 5 Volts
+ 4.75
Maximum
+ 5.25
+ 12 Volts
+ 11.4
+ 12.6
Figure 4.39 Molex and Berg power connectors
Write the voltage level found for the +5 volt wire in Table 4.11.
Table 4.11 +5 volt check
Voltage being checked
Voltage found
+5 volts
8. Check the +12 volt DC output by placing the meter’s black lead in (if the connector is a
Molex) or on (if the connector is a Berg) one of the grounds. Place the meter’s red lead on
the +12 volt wire in or on the connector. See Figure 4.39 for the layout of the Molex and
Berg power supply connections. The figure also contains a table with acceptable voltage
levels. Write the voltage level found for the +12 volt wire in Table 4.12.
Table 4.12 +12 volt check
Voltage being checked
Voltage found
+12 volts
9. Notify the instructor of any voltages out of the acceptable range.
10. Power off the meter.
Instructor initials: _____________
11. Power off the computer.
Lab 4.10 Windows XP Power Options
Objective:
To be able to control power options via BIOS and Windows XP
Parts:
Computer with Windows XP loaded
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Power on the computer and ensure it boots properly before the exercise begins.
2. Reboot the computer and access BIOS Setup.
Exercises
179
List the BIOS options related to power management.
Can ACPI be disabled via BIOS?
3. Exit the BIOS setup program without saving any settings. Boot to Windows XP.
4. From the Start button > access Control Panel > Classic view > and the Power Options
Control Panel.
On the Power Schemes tab, what is the current setting used?
Using the Power Schemes drop-down menu, list the power schemes available.
What is the current setting for the monitor power scheme?
What is the current setting for the hard drive power scheme?
What is the current setting for the system standby?
What is the maximum amount of time the monitor can be on and then be shut off by the
operating system?
5. Select the Advanced tab.
Describe the power savings icon shown on this window.
What options are available for the power button?
6. Select the Hibernate tab.
How much disk space is required for hibernation?
7. Click Cancel.
Objective:
To be able to control power options via BIOS and Windows Vista/7
Parts:
Computer with Windows Vista or 7 loaded
Procedure:
1. Power on the computer and ensure it boots properly before the exercise begins.
2. Reboot the computer and access BIOS Setup.
List the BIOS options related to power management.
Can ACPI be disabled via BIOS?
3. Exit the BIOS Setup program without saving any settings. Boot to Windows Vista/7.
4. Access the current power settings by using the Start > Control Panel > System and
Maintenance (Vista)/System and Security (7) > Power Options.
What power plan is currently configured?
5. Select the Create a power plan link on the left. Type a unique name in the Plan name
textbox. Click Next.
Disassembly
and Power
Lab 4.11 Windows Vista/7 Power Options
4
180
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
6. Use the Turn off the display drop-down menu to select a time. Use the Put the computer
to sleep drop-down menu to select a time for the computer to go into reduced power
mode. Note that on a laptop computer there will be two columns of choices: On battery
and Plugged in.
What global ACPI state do you think this would assign? Look back through the chapter to
review.
7. Click the Create button. Notice that your new plan appears in the list of preferred plans.
Also notice that the Show additional plans reveal arrow might be in the center of the
window on the right if someone has hidden the additional plans. Click on Show additional
plans, and other plans are revealed.
8. Click on the Change plan settings link under or beside the plan you just created. Select
the Change advanced power settings link.
List at least three devices for which you can have power controlled through this control
panel.
9. Expand the USB settings, if possible, and the USB selective suspend setting.
What is the current setting?
10. Expand the Processor power management setting, if possible.
What is the minimum processor state?
What is the maximum processor state?
11. Expand the Multimedia settings, if possible.
What setting(s) is configured with this option?
12. Click the Cancel button to return to the Change settings window. Click the Cancel button
again. Show the instructor or lab assistant your settings.
Instructor initials: __________
13. To delete a power plan you created (the default ones cannot be deleted), select the radio
button for the original power plan. Refer to Step 4, if necessary. Under the plan you created, select the Change settings for the plan link. Select the Delete this plan link and click
OK. The plan should be removed from the power options list. Show the instructor or lab
assistant that the plan has been deleted.
Instructor initials: __________
Activities
Internet Discovery
To obtain specific information on the Internet regarding a computer or its
associated parts
Parts:
Computer with Internet access
Procedure: Complete the following procedure and answer the accompanying questions.
1. Locate an Internet site that provides tips for doing computer preventive maintenance.
Write 10 of the tips and the URL where you found the information.
Objective:
Activities
181
2. Locate an Internet site to buy a computer tool kit that contains non-magnetic screwdrivers.
List the URL where you found the tool kit and at least three sizes of screwdrivers or bits
provided.
3. Locate a surge protector for the whole house. Determine if it replaces the need for individual surge protectors.
Write the name and part number as well as your findings.
4. A customer owns a Belkin 12-outlet surge protector with phone/Ethernet/coaxial protection and an extended cord.
What is the warranty amount for this surge protector and at what URL did you find this
information?
5. A customer has a Rosewill CAPSTONE-450 power supply.
What is the power supply’s maximum power output (in watts) and how many amps are
provided for +3.3V, +5V, and +12V (combined amount for +12V)? Write the URL where
you found this information as well.
6. A customer has an Enermax Liberty ELT500AWT power supply.
Does this power supply comply with the ATXV12 version 2.2 or higher specification?
How many PCIe connectors are provided?
Does the power supply have any SATA power connectors? If so, how many?
At what website did you find this information?
7. A customer owns a Toshiba Satellite R845-ST6N02 laptop.
What type of battery provides power for the longest amount of time for this model? Write
the URL where you found this information.
9. Locate an A-B-C fire extinguisher.
Give the model, cost, and URL where you found this information.
Soft Skills
Objective:
To enhance and fine-tune a future technician’s ability to listen, communicate
in both written and oral form, and support people who use computers in a
professional manner
Activities:
1. Using the information gathered in Critical Thinking Skills Activity 1 or researching an
appropriate replacement power supply for any computer, prepare a business proposal for
the power supply as if you were offering it to a customer. Present your proposal to the
class.
Disassembly
and Power
8. Your company has a Tripp Lite Smart 700 UPS.
What are the part number and cost for a replacement battery? At what website did you
find this information?
4
182
Chapter 4 • Disassembly and Power
2. Work in teams to decide the best way to inform a customer about the differences between
a line conditioner and a UPS. Present your description to the class as if you were talking
to the customer. Each team member must contribute. Each classmate votes for the best
team explanation.
Critical Thinking Skills
Objective:
To analyze and evaluate information as well as apply learned information to new
or different situations
Activities:
1. Locate a computer on the Internet that lists each device that is installed and the type of
motherboard, integrated ports, and so on. Then locate a power supply calculator. Find a
replacement power supply, based on the calculations performed. Write the details of what
you looked for in the replacement power supply, the power supply, vendor, number and
type of connectors, and cost.
2. For one of the computers in the classroom, locate an appropriate UPS that can provide
power for 10 minutes. Write the details of your findings in a report.
A+ Certification Exam Tips
✓
Review the chapter summary. Quite a few questions are about preventive maintenance procedures. Don’t forget that other chapters have preventive maintenance
tips, too, including the chapters on storage devices, multimedia devices, and other
peripherals chapters.
✓
Power down a computer, remove the power cord/power brick/battery, and allow
a laser printer to cool before performing maintenance.
✓
Know what the +5 and +12 volts are used for in a computer.
✓
Review a couple of videos on laptop disassembly. Know where the common
parts, including the following, are located on different vendors’ products: memory,
wireless antennas, mini PCI/PCIe adapters, DC power jack, and speakers.
✓
Know what tools are commonly used: flat-tip/Phillips screwdrivers, #0 Phillips
screwdriver for laptop and mobile device screws, antistatic wrist strap (don’t use
in a CRT monitor or inside a power supply).
✓
Know all about static electricity, RFI, and EMI and how to prevent them.
✓
Know the purpose of various power protection devices: surge protector, line
conditioner, SPS, UPS, and modem isolator.
✓
Know what type of fire extinguishers are used with electronic devices.
✓
Be able to identify all motherboard, PCIe adapter, and power supply power connectors.
✓
The following communication and professionalism skills are part of the 220-801
exam: Provide proper documentation on the services provided.
✓
Be familiar with all the power options that can be set on a desktop and a mobile
device.
Index
Symbols
3 UTP cable, 735
4GB RAM, 214
5 UTP cable, 735
6 UTP cables, 735
6a UTP cables, 735
8-bit sound cards, 346
10BaseT, 741
10GBaseER Ethernet, 742
10GBaseLR Ethernet, 741
10GBaseLX4 Ethernet, 741
10GBaseSR Ethernet, 741
10GBaseT Ethernet, 742
16-bit
sound cards, 347
Windows XP, 576
32-bit
video processors, 398
Windows Vista/7, 578
Windows XP, 576
40-pin cables (IDE), 260
56K point to point connections,
783
56Kbps modems, 701-702
64-bit
video processors, 398
Windows Vista/7, 578
100BaseT Ethernet, 741
802.11-based wireless networks,
764
1000BaseLX Ethernet, 741
1000BaseSX Ethernet, 741
1000BaseT Ethernet, 741
! (exclamation points), Device
Manager, 104
/ (forward slash), commands, 500
μPGA (micro pin grid array)
sockets, 57
Ω (Greek omega symbol) (ohms),
136
| (pipe), commands, 500
A
AAX (audible enhanced audio file)
extension, 485
AC (alternating current), 134
adverse power conditions,
154-155
AC circuit testers, 153
AC to DC power conversion, 141
Accelerated Graphics Port. See
AGP
accelerated processing units. See
APUs
accelerometers, 383
acceptable use security policies,
812
access
attacks, 841
physical
locking computers, 816
security, 812
principle of least privilege, 828
protecting
auditing, 826
authentication, 823
authorization, 823
files/folders, 826-827
user IDs/passwords,
823-826
remote
Remote Assistance, 630-631
Remote Desktop, 630-631,
687-689
security policies, 812
access points. See APs
access time (memory), 216
accessibility
Windows 7 Ease of Access,
configuring, 650-653
Windows XP, configuring,
648-649
Accessibility Options control panel,
521, 648-649
accessing
Add or Remove Programs
control panel, 605
Administrator accounts
(Windows XP), 474
Advanced Boot Options, 610
command prompts, 496, 504
Event Viewer, 620
MMC, 662
Recovery Console, 495
remote network devices, 514
Setup program, 95
shares, 780
Task Manager, 619
web cams on PCs, 359-360
Windows 7 MMC, 666
Windows Update, 596
912
accounts
accounts
Administrator, accessing in
Windows XP, 474
email, hijacked, 834
user, 608
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface), 99, 147
BIOS settings, 148-149
configuring, 99
operating states, 147-148
Wake on LAN, 148
Wake on Ring, 148
ACPI Function BIOS power setting,
148
ACR (Advanced Communications
Riser) connectors, 76
activating Windows, 588
active Disk Management status
state, 298
active heat sinks, 60
active listening skills, 3, 81-82
active matrix LCDs, 386
active scripting, 835
active terminators, 278
adapters
configuring, 109
defined, 8
digital, 391
flash memory, 226
function, identifying, 8
grounding problems, 120
installing, 8
mini PCI/PCIe, 74
network, ipconfig command,
508
non-video, power consumption,
152
oldest, placement, 602
PCIe, removing, 73
PnP, 109
removing, 133
SATA, 273
SCSI, 264
video, 397-398
32-bit/64-bit processors, 398
AGP, 152, 397
display design considerations, 460
GPUs, 397
installing, 401
memory, 399-400
PCIe cards, 397
Add Hardware wizard, 602
Add or Remove Programs control
panel, 605
Add Printer Wizard, 772
Add/Remove Hardware control
panel, 521
Add/Remove Programs control
panel, 521
Additional Options control panel,
530
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP),
776
addresses
alternative IP, 766
broadcast, finding, 751-752
I/O, 106-107
IP
alternative, 766
APIPA, 766
broadcast address, 749
default gateways, 766-767
DNS servers, 767
host, 748
IPv4, 747
IPv6, 747
network numbers, 748
pinging, 774
private ranges, 748
statically assigning, 765-766
subnet masks, 749-752
two-network example,
748-749
types, 747
viewing, 773
MAC, 746
memory, 108
administrative shares, 826
Administrative Tools, 521, 657
Administrator accounts, 608
Windows XP, accessing, 474
Administrator group, 825
Administrator logins (Windows XP),
580
Administrators, 825
Adobe Illustrator extension (AI),
485
ADSL (Asymmetrical DSL), 706
Advanced Boot Options menu,
610-611
Advanced Communications (ACR)
connectors, 76
Advanced Configuration and Power
Interface. See ACPI
Advanced Encryption Standard. See
AES
Advanced Host Controller Interface.
See AHCI
advanced programmable interrupt
controllers. See APICs
Advanced tab (Internet Explorer
Internet Options), 712
adverse power conditions, 154-155
adware, 840
Aero (Windows), 577
aerosol can disposal, 133
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), 846
After Power Failure BIOS power
setting, 149
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), 69
bus speed, 51
ports, 390
slots, 69-71
video adapters, power consumption, 152
AHCI (Advanced Host Controller
Interface) mode, 282
AI (Adobe Illustrator) extension,
485
air filters, 456
air vents, 143
alerts, firewall security, 838
alternating current (AC), 134
alternative IP addresses, 766
ALU (arithmetic logic unit), 47
AMD
CrossFireX, 399
Direct Connect, 55
processors, 49-50
AMI BIOS audio beeps, 185
amplification (speakers), 350-352
amps (amperes), 135
AMR (Audio/Modem Riser)
connectors, 76
analog phone lines versus digital
phone lines, 701
authentication
Appearance and Personalization
control panel, 530
Apple iOS devices
apps, 482, 784-785
Bluetooth, configuring, 16
email, configuring, 787
gaming, 484
geo-tracking, 483
GPS app, 483
home screens, 480
lock screen, 482
multitasking gestures/screen
rotation settings, 386
network connectivity, 784
notification area, 481
operating system interaction,
481-482
operating system, recovering,
493
sound settings, 349
storage, 786
synchronizing with iTunes, 786
system bar, 481
video ports, 22
web cams, accessing, 360
application layer
OSI model, 745
TCP/IP model, 746, 779
application logs, 620
Application Programming Interfaces. See APIs
Applications and Services logs, 621
Applications tab (Task Manager),
619
Apply buttons, Windows dialog
boxes, 479
apps, 482. See also programs
deleting, 785
folders, creating, 785
GPS, 483
installing, 784
moving, 785
stopping, 785
synchronizing with iTunes, 786
APs (access points), 754
channel IDs, 757-759
connectivity, 755-756
D-Link, 754
infrastructure, 755
installing, 771
passwords/SSIDs, 757, 847-848
PoE, 754
repeater, 760
router, 771
APUs (accelerated processing units),
49
arithmetic logic unit. See ALU
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol),
776
ARP spoofing, 841
artifacts, 404
aspect ratios, LCDs, 387
ASR (Automated System Recovery),
616
Asymmetrical DSL (ADSL), 706
asynchronous data transfers, 30
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM), 783
asynchronous transmissions,
697-698
ATA (AT Attachment), 259
ATA-1 Standard, 260
ATA-5 Standard, 260
ATAPI (AT Attachment Packet Interface), 259
Athlon/Mobile AMD processors, 50
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer
Mode), 783
Atom Intel processors, 49
attenuation, 761
attitude (technicians), 360-361
attrib command, 500-501
ATX motherboards, 78
ATX power supplies, 138-139
Audible enhanced audio file (AAX)
extension, 485
audio. See also sound
high-definition controllers,
configuring, 99
ports, 29, 37
Audio/Modem Riser (AMR) connectors, 76
audio/video editing PCs, 451
auditing, 826
authentication, 823
biometrics, 815-816
Kerberos protocol, 823
multifactor, 815
Index
Android devices
apps, 482, 784-785
Bluetooth, configuring, 16
email, configuring, 786
gaming, 484
geo-tracking, 483
GPS app, 483
home screens, 480
lock screen, 482
multitasking gestures/screen
rotation settings, 386
network connectivity, 784
notification area, 481
operating system interaction,
481-482
operating system, recovering,
493
sound settings, 349
storage, 786
system bar, 481
video ports, 22
antennas, 760, 764
attenuation, 761
dipole, 764
directional, 761
gain, 762
laptops, wireless, 760
MIMO, 763
omnidirectional, 760
parabolic, 763
signal strength, 762
site survey, 762
transmission interference, 762
types, 763
wireless locator devices, 763
Yagi, 763
antistatic bags, 121
antistatic wrist straps, 120
antivirus programs
running, 587
security policies, 812
APICs (advanced programmable
interrupt controllers), 102
APIPA (Automatic Private IP
Addressing), 766
APIs (Application Programming
Interfaces), 348
appearance, web browsers, 712
913
914
authentication
open, 844
password guidelines, 823
shared key, 844
single sign-on, 824
two-factor, 814
user IDs/passwords, 824-826
wireless networks, 844-845
authenticators, 845
authorization, 823
Auto-Detect feature (BIOS), hard
drives, 282
Automated System Recovery.
See ASR
automatic booting after crashes,
611
automatic disk checking, 503
Automatic Private IP Addressing.
See APIPA
Automatic Update settings,
customizing, 597
automatic updates, configuring, 646
Automatic Updates (Windows),
595-596
AutoPlay/AutoRun, disabling, 819
auto-switching power supplies, 151
auxiliary fans
installing, 60, 143
power consumption, 152
AV hard drives, 452
Available Physical Memory field
(Task Manager Performance tab),
223
B
back side bus, 51
backbone (networks), 776
backdoor attacks, 841
backing up
data before installing Windows,
585
files, xcopy command, 515
system state, 598
Windows 7, 646
Windows files/folders, 488
Windows registry, 492, 597
Windows XP System State, 645
backlights, 14, 381
backup operators, 825
Backup utility, 597-598
backups
differential, 302
full, 302
hard drives, 301-303
incremental, 302
ntbackup command, 511
wbadmin command, 515
bandwidth, 705
bus, comparisons, 72
cable modems, 705
DSL, 707
networks, 776
barcode readers, 354
basic disks, 290
basic input/output system.
See BIOS
basic storage, 290
BAT (batch file) extension, 485
batteries
CMOS, 100
digital cameras, 358
disposal, 162
fuel cells, 145
Li-ion, 145
Li-ion polymer, 145
lithium regulations, 144
mobile devices, 144-146,
152-153
motherboard, 101-102
NiCad, 145
NiMH, 145
recycling programs, 102
UPSs, 159
zinc-air, 145
baud, 698
bcd file, 612
BCD store, configuring, 501
bcdedit command, 501, 592
BDs, cleaning, 133
BEDO (burst EDO), 205
Berg connectors, 140
binary prefixes (processors), 46
biometrics, 815-816
BIOS (basic input/output system),
6, 94
ACPI settings, 148-149
adapters, configuring, 109
booting, 94-95, 185
CMOS, 100, 109
configuring, 98-100
default settings, 99
energy-efficiency settings, 396
exit options, 100
flash, 96-98
functions, 94
hard drive configuration, 282
memory, configuring, 219
motherboard, 187-188
POST, 94
AMI audio beeps, 185
memory, troubleshooting,
226
memory installation error
codes, 220
multiple errors, 187
Phoenix audio beeps, 187
written error messages,
185-187
processor installation settings,
55
RAID configuration settings,
293
recovery, 96
security options, 100, 817
Setup program, 95
SSDs, recognizing, 275
UEFI, 96-97
update compatibility, 585
upgrading, 96
virtualization, enabling, 593
viruses, 586
BIOS ROM checksum error—
System halted message, 185
bit depth, scanners, 357
BitLocker drive encryption, 302,
818
bitmap (BMP) extension, 485
bits, 46
bits per second (bps), 698
blackouts (power), 155
Bloom, Benjamin, 450
Bloom’s Taxonomy, 450
blue screen of death (BSOD), 403
Bluetooth, 16-17, 753
Blu-ray discs. See also ODDs
cleaning, 342-343
handling, 342
cables
Start Windows Normally, 611
startup programs, configuring/
disabling, 615
warm, 95, 190
Windows, 611-616
Vista/7, 613-614
XP, 613
Windows 7, 613-614
options, 673-674
startup options, 677-679
Windows XP, 670-672
boot.ini file, 502, 612
bootmgr.exe file, 612
bootrec.exe utility, 617
bootree command, 502
bootsect.dos file, 612
bps (bits per second), 698
bridges, wireless, 754
brightness, LCDs, 387
broadband, 776
broadband cable/satellite connections, 783
broadcast addresses, 749
finding, 751-752
broadcasting SSID, 848
brownouts (power), 155
browser hijack viruses, 586
browsers, 711-712
hijacked, 833-834
redirect, 833
security, 712
active scripting, 835
cookies, controlling, 835
firewalls, 836-839
malicious code types, 839
phishing, 841
programs, 840
proxy servers, 836
social engineering, 840
brute force attacks, 841
BSA (Business Software Alliance),
843
BSOD (blue screen of death), 403
Windows updates, 604
BTX motherboards, 79
buffer memory, ODDs, 337
burning discs, 337
burnout (technicians), 632-633
burst EDO (BEDO), 205
bus, 47
AGP speed, 51
back side, 51
bandwidth comparisons, 72
dual independent (DIB), 54
external data, 47
front side, 51
HyperTransport, 55
internal data, 47
PCI speed, 51
PCIe speed, 51
PCI-X bus, 68
bus-powered hubs, 24
bus speed, 51
bus topology, 734
Business Software Alliance (BSA),
843
buttons (taskbar), 538
buying memory, 216-217
bytes, 46
C
CAB (cabinet file) extension, 485
cable modems, 704-706
troubleshooting, 708-709
cables
coaxial, 736-737
connecting, 253
crossover, 735
floppy drives, 252
IDE 40-pin, 260
IEEE 1394, 30
installing, 126
modems, 696
motherboards, 126-128
network
copper, 734-737
crossover CAT 5 UTP, creating, 795-797
fiber-optic, 737-738
installing, 736
labeling, 734
ladder racks, 739
protecting, 738-739
RJ-11 connectors, 736
RJ-45 connectors, 736
Index
labeling, 338
ODD compatibility, 337
region codes, 337
sound, enabling, 343-345
writeable, 335
Blu-ray drives, 334
BMP (bitmap) extension, 485
boot inspection, 132
boot partitions
NTFS, 289
Windows, booting, 612
boot sectors, 294
Boot tab (System Configuration
utility), 618
boot volumes, 290
bootcfg command, 502
booting
Advanced Boot Options menu,
610-611
automatic after crashes, 611
bcdedit command, 501
boot process, 185
bootcfg command, 502
bootree command, 502
cold, 94
configuring, 98
Debugging mode, 611
driver signatures, disabling,
611
dual, 592-593
Enable Boot Logging, 611
Enable low resolution video,
610
Enable VGA Mode, 610
fixboot command, 507
Last Known Good Configuration, 610
MBR
partition tables, 288
rewriting, 507
viruses, 586
PXE boot, 590
rebooting, 611
Repair Your Computer, 611
Safe Mode, 610-611
Safe Mode with Command
Prompt, 610
Safe Mode with Networking,
610
915
916
cables
straight-through CAT 5 UTP,
creating, 792-794
tools, 740
twisted-pair, 734
wiring standards, 735
PATA, 260
PATA IDE, 267-269
pin 1, 125
power supplies, 454
projectors, 394
reassembling, 132
removing, 124-125
SATA, 262, 271
SCSI, 279
serial, 697
sound designs, 458
straight through, 735
twisted-pair, 734-736
USB, 23-24
video, 391-392
cache memory, 51-52
adding, 220
Cached Physical Memory field (Task
Manager Performance tab), 223
caches, creating, 304
calibrating batteries, mobile devices, 145
cameras. See digital cameras
Cancel buttons, Windows dialog
boxes, 479
capacities (memory), 209
capacitive keyboards, 13
capacitive touch screens, 383-384
capacitors, 135
capitalization, command prompts,
496
CardBus, 75
cards
CompactFlash, 226
microSD, 226
miniSD, 226
NICs. See NICs
POST, 187
SD, 226
smart, 813
sound, 345-348
TV tuner, 398
video capture, 398
xD, 226
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA),
764
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD), 741
cartridges (ink)
inkjet printers, 410
recycling, 417
refilling, 417-418
toner
defined, 414
refilling, 418
spills, 416
troubleshooting, 429
cases
cleaning, 132
design components, 455-456
removing, 124
CAT 5 cables, 735
cathode ray tubes. See CRTs
CCFL (cold cathode fluorescent
lamp), 381
cd command, 498, 502
CD drives, 334
CDFS (Compact Disk File System),
284
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), 776
CDs (compact discs), 334. See also
ODDs
burning, 337
cleaning, 133, 342-343
handling, 342
labeling, 338
sound, enabling, 343-345
writeable, 335
Celeron/Mobile Intel processors, 49
center frequencies, 758
central processing unit (CPU). See
processors
centralized data storage, 303
Centrino Intel processors, 49
CERT (U.S. computer emergency
readiness team), 843
certified W-USB, 26
CF (Compact Flash), 226, 358
channel IDs, access points, 757-759
characters, filenames/folder names,
484
charging laser printers, 412
checkboxes in Windows dialog
boxes, 480
checking disks, 503
child exploitation, reporting, 843
chipsets
defined, 76
design components, 453-454
function, 77
ICH, 77
locating, 77
manufacturers, 76
MCH, 77
Z277, 77
chkdsk command, 300, 503
chkntfs command, 503
choosing
cases, 455
chipsets, 453
memory, 453
power supplies, 454-455
processors, 453
speakers, 351
cipher command, 503-504
CL (column address strobe [CAS]
latency), 216-217
CL ratings, memory, 216-217
clamping speed, 156
clamping voltage, 156
classes (IPv4 addresses), 747
clean installations
Windows, 580-582
Windows XP, 636-637
cleaning
aerosol can disposal, 133
cases, 132
contacts, 133
dirt removal, 133
discs, 342-343
displays, 395
floppy drives, 132, 252
inside of computers, 132
keyboards, 18, 132
laser lens (ODDs), 343
laser printers, 413-414
LCD monitors, 133
mice, 18
MSDs, 133
optical lens, 133
printers, 420-421
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
capitalization, 496
closing, 506
commands. See commands
directories, 496-498
drives, mapping, 780
external commands, 496
files, copying, 499
internal commands, 495
operation requires elevation
message, 516
root directories, 496
Safe Mode with Command
Prompt boot option, 610
viewing, 496
commands
attrib, 500-501
bcdedit, 501, 592
benefits, 500
bootcfg, 502
bootree, 502
cd, 498, 502
chkdsk, 503
chkntfs, 503
cipher, 503-504
clearing, 504
cls, 504
cmd, 504
convert, 583
copy, 499, 504
defrag, 504
del, 505
dir, 505
disable, 505
diskpart, 505
dxdiag, 506
enable, 506
exit, 506
expand, 506
explorer, 507
external, 496
fdisk, 507
fixboot, 507
fixmbr, 507
format, 500, 507
gpresult, 507
help, 508
internal, 495
ipconfig, 508, 773
listsvc, 508
logon, 508
map, 509
md, 509
more, 509
msconfig, 509
msinfo32, 509
mstsc, 509
nbtstat, 510
net, 687
net use, 510
netstat, 510
notepad, 510
nslookup, 510, 774
ntbackup, 511
ping, 511, 772-774
rd, 511
Recovery Console, 569
regsvr32, 512
ren, 512
robocopy, 512
services.msc, 623
set, 513
sfc, 513
shutdown, 513
switches, 500
systeminfo, 514
systemroot, 514
taskkill, 514
tasklist, 514
telnet, 514
tracert, 515, 774
type, 498, 515
wbadmin, 515
xcopy, 515
Commit field (Task Manager
Performance tab), 224
Communications Network Riser
(CNR) connectors, 76
Compact Disk File System (CDFS),
284
Compact Flash (CF). See CF
compartment covers (laptops),
removing, 130
compatibility mode, 582
Compatibility mode tool (Windows
Vitsa/7), 224
complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor. See CMOS
Index
rubber rollers, 133
scanners, 357
clear text email, 834
clearing
commands, 504
Event Viewer, 622
client/server network. See serverbased LANs
client-side DNS, 767
clients, FTP, 806
clips (fans/heat sinks), 60
Clock, Language, and Region control panel, 530
clock speed, 51
clocking, 53
Close buttons in Windows dialog
boxes, 479
closing command prompts, 506
cloud storage, 251, 304, 786
cls command, 504
clusters, 284
FAT16 partitions, 285
FAT32 partitions, 286
lost, locating, 300
NTFS, 286
size, 294
cmd command, 504
CMOS (complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor), 100
error messages, 185-186
ESCD, 109
CNR (Communications Network
Riser) connectors, 76
coaxial cables, 736-737
Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA), 776
cold boots, 94
cold cathode fluorescent lamp
(CCFL), 381
color inkjet printers, 410
column address strobe (CAS)
latency (CL ratings), 216-217
COM (command file) extension, 485
command prompt environments,
473
command prompt tool, 617
command prompts
accessing, 496, 504
attributes, viewing, 500
917
918
Complete PC Restore tool
Complete PC Restore tool, 617
component/RGB video analog ports,
395
Component Services snap-in, 606
components (PCs)
input devices, 6
KVM switches, 7
laptops, 9-10
memory types, 10
motherboards, 7
adapters, 8
connectors, 12
expansion slots, 8
integrated, 11, 34-35
locating, 7
mouse/keyboard ports, 12
ports, 11
riser boards, 8
optical drives, 7
output devices, 7
power supplies, 7
storage devices, 7
Windows Vista/7, installing/
verifying, 659-662
Windows XP
installing, 658-659
removing, 658
composite video ports, 395
compressed file (ZIP) extension, 485
compressing files/folders, 488-489,
549
CompTIA A+ certification, 2
computer cages, 814
Computer icon, 475
Computer Management console.
See MMC
Computer Management tool, Services snap-in, 623
computers
locking, 816
naming, 765
viewing through networks, 823
conditioning rollers (laser printers),
412-414
conferencing features, display design considerations, 459
configuring
accessibility
Windows 7 Ease of Access,
650-653
Windows XP, 648-649
ACPI, 99
adapters, 109
automatic updates, 646
BCD store, 501
BIOS, 98-100
Bluetooth, 16
booting options, 98
date/time, 98
displays
image quality, 386
Windows XP, 522
email, mobile devices, 786-787
executable code prevention, 99
file/folder attributes, 488
hard drive encryption, 99
hardware monitor, 99
high-definition audio controllers, 99
home pages (web browsers),
712
Hyper-Threading, 99
IDE devices, 99
Internet Explorer, 723-724
intrusion detection, 99
IRQs with Device Manager,
102-104
jumpers, 94
keyboards, Windows XP, 647
LANs, 730-731
lojack, 99
memory, 219
mice, 647-648
microphones, 348
mobile device networks, 784
motherboards, 94
multiple displays, 392
multitasking gestures, 386
network printers, 771-772
networks, Windows 7, 797-800
number lock key, 98
parallel SCSI, 276
passwords, 98
PCI slots, 99
PCIe slots, 99
peripherals, 99
printers
default, 422
feed options, 417
paper sizes, 417
processors, 98
projectors, laptops, 394
RAID, 291
resolution, 386
restore points, 856-857
SATA, 99
screen rotation, 386
SCSI IDs
electrical signals/terminators, 277
priority levels, 276
software, 279
serial ports/devices, 698-700
speakers, 650
Start menu (Windows Vista/7)
default icons, 554
icon size, 553
programs, 553-555
Start menu (Windows XP)
default icons, 552
icon size, 551
programs, 551-553
startup programs, 615
storage devices, 266
System Restore, 653-654
systems, 450-453
TPM, 99
UAC, 533
USB options, 98
video, 98
virtual machines, 224
virtual memory, 221, 304
virtualization, 99
virus protection, 98
VMware Workstation virtual
machines, 642
VPNs, 842
Windows 7 startup, 677-679
Windows taskbar buttons, 479
wireless networks, 804
security, 869-870
Windows Vista/7, 847
wireless NICs, 768
connecting cables, 253
Connections tab (Internet Explorer
Internet Options), 712
connectivity
APs, multiple devices, 756
cooling processors
USB ports, 36
3.0, 23
cabling rules, 24
converters, 25
defined, 22
devices supported, 22
hubs, 24
installing extra, 26
installing USB devices, 25
maximum cable length, 23
mini, 25
on-the-go, 26
power, 24
removing USB devices, 25,
347
speeds, 23
troubleshooting, 27-28
upstream/downstream, 23
versions, 23
wireless, 26
video ports, 19, 36-37
Android devices, 22
Apple iOS devices, 22
DisplayPorts, 22
DVI, 19-20
HDMI, 20
laptops, 22
projectors, 21
RCA jacks, 21
S-Video, 19
Thunderbolt, 22
VGA, 19
virtualization, 594
VPNs, 843
web browsers, 712
connectors
ATX power supplies, 138-139
cable pins, matching, 126
disabling, 95
fiber-optic cables, 737
motherboard front panel, 128
motherboard IDE, 267
motherboards, 76, 126
PATA, ODD connectivity, 340
PATA/SATA motherboard, 259
power supplies, 140
reassembling, 132
RJ-11, 736
RJ-45, 736
SATA, 261-262
solder joints, 127
contacts, cleaning, 133
Content tab (Internet Explorer
Internet Options), 712
context menus, Windows desktop,
480
continuity checks, 135-137
contrast ratios
display design considerations,
459
LCDs, 387
Control Panel, 478
control panel assembly (laser
printers), 414
control panels
Accessibility Options, 648-649
Bluetooth Devices, 753
defined, 599
Printers and Other Hardware,
647-648
unique, 599
views, 599
Windows Vista/7, 527, 530
Windows XP, 521
controllers, APICs, 102
controlling
content in web browsers, 712
sound, 349, 649-650
convergence, 703
convert command, 583
CONVERT program, 284
converters
IEEE 1394, 33
USB, 25
converting
file systems, 583
partitions, 284
cookies, controlling, 835
cooling
Li-ion batteries, 146
power supplies, 143
reverse flow, 143
cooling processors, 59
air vents, 143
airflow, 60
auxiliary fans, installing, 60,
143
Index
cable modems, 704
cables, determining direction,
127
connectors, 12
direct cable, 718-719
docking stations, 35
DSL modems, 707
Internet
dial-up, installing, 801-802
overview, 696
mobile device networks, 784
mobile Internet, 709-710
modems, 696
multiple displays, 393
networks, 783
troubleshooting, 772-773
ODDs with PATA connectors,
340
PATA, 269
port replicators, 36
ports
audio, 37
defined, 11
eSATA, 37
eSATAp, 37
Ethernet, 33, 37
game, 37
IEEE 1394, 36
male/female, 11
MIDI, 37
modem, 34, 37
mouse/keyboard, 12
network, 33
parallel, 36
PS/2 keyboard, 36
PS/2 mouse, 36
S-Video, 37
S/PDIF, 37
serial, 36
processors, 54-55
projectors, 394
remote network devices, testing, 511
SATA, 272
scanners, 355
sound designs, 458
speakers, 351
storage device design
considerations, 457
919
920
cooling processors
fans
3-pin/4-pin, 59
power consumption, 152
heat sinks, 60
installation clips, 60
liquid cooling system, 62
copper media, 734
coaxial, 736-737
RJ-45 pin 1 assignments, 736
twisted-pair, 734-736
UTP
crossover CAT 5, creating,
795-797
straight-through CAT 5,
creating, 792-794
wiring standards, 735
copy command, 499, 504
copying
directories, 515
files, 475, 499, 541
between folders, 543
copy command, 504
discs, 337
multiple, 542
robocopy command, 512
xcopy command, 515
folders, 475
Core i3 Intel processors, 49
Core i5 Intel processors, 49
Core i7 Extreme Intel processors,
49
Core i7 Intel processors, 49
corporate network shares, 782
corporate Windows installations,
588-590
costs
laptop display repairs, 389
peer-to-peer LANs, 730
SSDs, 264
CPU. See processors
CPU speed, 51
CPU THRM Throttling BIOS power
setting, 149
CPU Warning Temperatures BIOS
power setting, 148
crimpers, 741
CrossFireX, 399
crossover cables, 735
crossover CAT 5 UTP cable, creating, 795-797
CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors,
19
CRTs (cathode ray tubes), 381
cleaning, 396
removing, 396
Crucial website, 216
CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Avoidance), 764
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple
Access/Collision Detection), 741
current, measuring, 135
cursors, ghost, 14
customer trust, building, 851
cylinders (hard drives), 255
D
data
backing up, 301-303, 585
security, 819-821
data bits, 699
data circuit-terminating equipment.
See DCE
Data Execution Prevention. See
DEP
data link layer (OSI model), 745
data migration, 582
data terminal equipment. See DTE
date/time, configuring, 98
Date/Time control panel, 521
DBR (DOS boot record), 294
DC (direct current), 134
AC conversion, 141
voltage distribution, 142
DC power plugs, removing from
laptops, 131
DCE (data circuit-terminating
equipment), 700
DCE signal connections, 700
DDoS attacks, 842
DDR (double data rate), 205
DDR2, 205-206
DDR3, 205-206
DDR3L, 205
Debugging mode, 611
decoders, 342
Deep S4/S5 BIOS power setting,
149
default folders, 486
default gateways, 766-767
default printers, configuring, 422
defrag command, 504
defragmenting
with Disk Defragmenter tool,
609
hard drives, 300-301
Degauss, 385
del command, 505
Delay Prior to Thermal BIOS power
setting, 148
deleting. See removing
Dell Webcam Control, 359
demilitarized zones. See DMZs
Denial of Service. See DoS
density control blade (laser printers), 412-414
DEP (Data Execution Prevention),
822
design components
cases, 455-456
chipsets, 453
computer systems, 450-453
displays, 459-460
memory, 453
mobile devices, 460-461
motherboards, 453-454
overview, 450
power supplies, 454-455
processors, 453
sound, 458
storage devices, 456-458
desktop
Aero, 577
My Computer icon, 523
notification update icon, 596
Quick Launch toolbar, 539
Recycle Bin
Windows Vista/7, 534
Windows XP, 524
shortcuts, creating, 525
Start menu
Administrative tools, adding/
removing, 657
customizing, 606
directories
drivers, 585
IDE, configuring, 99
IEEE 1394
connecting, 31-32
troubleshooting, 32-33
input
defined, 6
keyboards. See keyboards
mice. See mice
ports, 12
touch/multitouch, 14
wireless, 15-16
integrated sound adapters, 348
KVM switches, 7
masters versus slaves, 267
network security settings, 848
onboard configuration options,
98
OSI model layers, 746
output, defined, 7
PATA, storage device design
considerations, 458
physical security, 813-817
remote network
accessing, 514
attaching, 510
connectivity, testing, 511
serial, 697-700
shutdown problems, 624
storage. See storage devices
TCP/IP model layers, 746
uninstalling/disabling, 602
USB
configuring, 98
installing, 25
removing, 25, 347
troubleshooting, 27-28
video output, 380-384
wireless broadband, 770
wireless locators, 763
DHCP, IP addressing, 766
diagnostic displays (motherboards),
187-188
Diagnostic startup radio button
(System Configuration utility),
618
dial-up Internet connection, installing, 801-802
dial-up networks, 696
DIB (dual independent bus), 54
differential backups, 302
files/folders, 489
digital adapters, 391
digital cameras, 358-360
Digital Light Processing. See DLP
digital modems, 702
digital phone lines versus analog
phone lines, 701
digital signatures, device drivers,
601
digital subscriber line. See DSL
digital video recorders (DVRs), 452
digital visual interface. See DVI
ports
DIMMs (dual in-line memory
modules), 10, 203
DDR2/DDR3, 206
installing, 219
models, listing of, 206
removing, 218
small-outline (SO-DIMMs),
207, 217
DIP (dual in-line package) chips,
10, 203
dipole antennas, 764
dir command, 505
direct cable connections (Windows
XP), 718-719
Direct Connect (AMD), 55
direct current (DC), 134
directional antennas, 761
directories, 496. See also folders
attributes, viewing, 500
commands. See commands
copying, 515
deleting, 511
filenames, 497
files
copying, 499, 504
deleting, 505
listing, 505
folders, creating, 509
navigating, 498
renaming, 512
root, 496
setting as root, 514
structure, example, 496-497
subdirectories, 497
Index
Windows Vista/7, 526-527,
553-555
Windows XP, 519-520,
551-553
system tray icons, customizing,
603
taskbar options, 538
Windows, 474
common icons, 475
context menus, 480
dialog boxes, 478-480
double-clicking icons, 476
icons, 474
notification area, 478
organizing, 476
Recycle Bin, 476-477
shortcuts, 475-476
shut down options, 477
Start button, 476-477
taskbar, 476-479
wallpaper, 476
desktop computers, laptop
components compared, 460
destroying hard drives, 818
developing cylinders (laser
printers), 412-414
device driver (DRV) extension, 485
device drivers
defined, 5, 600
digital signatures, 601
disabling, 656
handling, 602
installing, 601-603, 655
new hardware, finding, 600
rolling back, 602, 655
signatures, disabling, 611
upgrading, 655
Device Manager, 602, 608
error codes, 104
exclamation points, 104
IRQs, 102-104
resource conflicts, 104
resource verification, 104
Windows 7, 668
Windows XP, 664-665
devices
adding, 600-602
biometric, 816
Bluetooth, 753
921
922
DirectX
DirectX, 342
APIs, 348
diagnostics, 506
DirectX Diagnostic Tool (Windows),
342
dirt removal, 132-133
Disable automatic restart on system
failure option, 611
disable command, 505
disabling
AutoRun/AutoPlay, 819
device drivers, 656
driver signatures, 611
ports/connectors, 95
SSID broadcasting, 848
startup programs, 615, 670
disassembly
cables, 124-128
case removal, 124
hard drives, 128
laptops, 130-131
motherboards, 129-130
power supplies, 153
preparations, 122
safety, 120-122
solid-state drives, 128
tools, 122-124
disk boot failure message, 296
disk caches, creating, 304
Disk Cleanup program, 300
Disk Defragmenter tool, 609
Disk Management, 283, 290-291,
609
status states, 298-299
Windows 7, 669
Windows XP, 665
diskpart command, 283, 505
disks
checking, 503
floppy, 252
formatting, 507
Display control panel, 521
DisplayPorts, 22, 391
displays
cleaning, 395
CRTs, 381, 396
Degauss, 385
design components, 459-460
disposal, 403
DLP, 381
energy efficiency, 396
horizontal scanning frequency,
385
image quality, configuring, 386
interlacing, 385
laptops, 388-389, 402-404
LCDs, 381, 386-389, 396
LEDs, 381
mobile devices, multitasking
gestures/screen rotation settings, 386
multiple, 392-393
multi-scan, 385
OLEDs, 381
pixels, 385-387
plasma, 381
ports/cables, 390-392
preventive maintenance,
395-396
privacy, 397
refresh rate, 385
resolution, 385-388
touch screen, 383-384
troubleshooting, 402-404
vertical scan rate, 385
Windows Vista/7 settings, 531
Windows XP settings, 522
disposal, 162
CRTs, 381
displays, 403
Distributed Denial of Service. See
DDoS
DL (dual-layer technology), 335
D-Link access point, 754
DLLs (dynamic link libraries), 485,
512, 606
DLP (Digital Light Processing), 381
DMZs (demilitarized zones), 837
DNS (Domain Name System), 778
client-side, 767
IP addresses, 767
troubleshooting, nslookup
command, 510
DNS servers, troubleshooting, 774
DOC/DOCX (Microsoft Word) extension, 485
docking stations, 35
documentation
PATA IDE storage devices, 270
for troubleshooting, 192-193
Documents icon, 475
Domain Name System. See DNS
domain networks, 588
domains, 729, 824
DoS attacks, 842
DOS boot record. See DBR
dot matrix printers. See impact
printers
dots per inch. See DPI
double-clicking icons, 476
double data rate (DDR), 205
double-sided memory, 208
double tap gesture, 481
downstream
cable modems, 705
ports, 23
Doze Mode BIOS power setting, 149
DPI (dots per inch), 409-410
Dr. Watson utility, 620
DRAM (dynamic RAM), 203
drive buffers, storage device design
considerations, 458
driver.cab file, 600
drivers. See also device drivers
disabling, 505
enabling, 506
listing, 508
print, 424
software, troubleshooting, 402
Windows installations, 585
drives
destroying, 818
floppy. See floppy drives
hard. See hard drives
letters, 484
logical, 287
mapping to network shares,
780
ODDs. See ODDs
PATA, installing, 266-270
removable, 303
SATA, installing, 271-274
SSDs. See SSDs
tape, 303
USB flash, 227
emergency procedures (security policies)
dynamic link libraries. See DLLs
dynamic RAM. See DRAM
dynamic storage, 290
E
EAP (Extensible Authentication
Protocol), 845
Ease of Access, configuring,
650-653
Easy Transfer program, 582
EBs (exabytes), 46
ECC (error correcting code), 208
ECP (electronic control package),
414
editing Windows registry, 491-492
EDO (extended data out), 205
effective permissions, 832
efficiency
displays, 396
system design components, 453
EFS (Encrypting File System), 821
EIDE (Enhanced IDE), 257
electricity
AC/DC, 134
blackouts, 155
brownouts, 155
capacitors, 135
continuity checks, 136-137
current, measuring, 135
fires, 161
line conditioners, 157
phone line isolators, 161
power consumption, 151-152
power, measuring, 135
power supplies, 137
AC voltage, 137
auto-switching, 151
cables, 454
comparing, 147
connectors, 140
converting AC to DC, 141
cooling function, 143
DC voltage distribution, 142
design components, 454-455
disassembly, 153
dual-rail, 151
fixed input, 151
form factors, 138-139
functions, 141
mobile devices, 152
physical sizes, 152
power good signals, 139
problem symptoms, 152-153
standby, 160
switching, 137
testers, 144
triple-rail, 151
uninterruptible, 158-159
upgrading/replacing,
151-152
voltages, 143
watts, 151
resistance, 135
sags, 155
spikes, 155
standby power, 134
surge protection, surge
protectors, 156-157
surge protectors, 155-157
surges, 155
troubleshooting, 153-154
grounding problems, 154
overvoltage, 154-155
power good signals, 154
problem sources, finding,
153
undervoltage, 155
wall outlets, testing, 153
voltage, 134-135
volts, 134
electromagnetic interference.
See EMI
electronic control package (ECP),
414
electronic key cards, 813
electronics donation and recycling
website, 381
electrostatic discharge. See ESD
email, 782
forwarding, 783
mobile devices
configuring, 786-787
security, 834
security policies, 812
servers, 782
emergency procedures (security
policies), 812
Index
drop-down menus, Windows dialog
boxes, 480
drums (laser printers), 414
DRV (device driver) extension, 485
D-shell connectors, 12
DSL (digital subscriber line), 706,
783
DSL modems, 706-709
DSL Reports website, 707
DTE (data terminal equipment),
700
DTE signal connections, 700
dual-booting Windows, 592-593
dual-channel memory, 212-214
dual-core processors, 55
dual independent bus (DIB), 54
dual in-line memory modules.
See DIMMs
dual in-line package (DIP) chips,
10, 203
dual-layer technology (DL), 335
dual link DVI connectors, 20
dual-rail power supplies, 151
dual-voltage memory, 217
DUN (Dial-up Network) utility, 801
duplexing assemblies (laser printers), 414
DVD drives, 334
DVDs (digital video discs), 334. See
also ODDs
burning, 337
cleaning, 133, 342-343
decoders, 342
handling, 342
labeling, 338
region codes, 337
sound, enabling, 343-345
writeable, 335
DVI ports, 19-20, 391
DVI-A connectors, 20
DVI-D connectors, 20
DVI-I connectors, 20
DVI-to-HDMI cables, 392
DVRs (digital video recorders), 452
dxdiag command, 506
dye sublimation printers, 410
Dynamic Disk Management status
state, 298
dynamic disks, 290-291
923
924
EMI (electromagnetic interference)
EMI (electromagnetic interference),
122
emptying Recycle Bin, 477
Enable Boot Logging, 611
enable command, 506
Enable low resolution video, 610
Enable VGA Mode, 610
enabling
Remote Desktop, 631
virtualization, 593
encapsulated postscript file (EPS),
485
encrypting
files, 550
files/folders, 855-856
hard drives, configuring, 99
Encrypting File System (EFS), 821
encryption
BitLocker, 302, 818
BitLocker To Go, 818
files/folders, 503-504, 821
Windows files/folders, 490
wireless networks, 845-847
energy efficiency, 152
displays, 396
system design components, 453
ENERGY STAR, 152
displays, 396
system configuration, 453
“Engineer Guy LCD monitor
teardown” video, 386
Enhanced IDE (EIDE), 257
EPA ENERGY STAR, displays, 396
EPEAT rating system, 453
EPS (encapsulated postscript file)
extension, 485
erase lamps, laser printers, 413-414
Error-checking (Check Now) tool,
300
error correcting code (ECC), 208
errors
Device Manager error codes,
104
disk boot failure message, 296
hardware, detecting, 188
memory, troubleshooting,
225-226
POST, 100
AMI BIOS audio beeps, 185
memory installations/
upgrades, 220
multiple, 187
Phoenix audio beeps, 187
written messages, 185-187
software, 190
stop 0x000000xx Kernel xxx,
295
eSATA (External SATA), 33, 262
devices, 273-274
partitioning, 287
ports, 33, 37
eSATAp ports, 33, 37
ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data), 109
ESD (electrostatic discharge),
120-122
Ethernet, PoE, 754
Ethernet networks, 732, 741
CSMA/CD, 741
FastEthernet, 776
full-duplex, 742
half-duplex, 741
speeds, 741
standards, 741
Ethernet ports, 33, 37
Event Viewer, 620
accessing, 620
clearing, 622
event details, viewing, 622
services, troubleshooting, 623
symbols, 622
Windows Vista/7, 681-682
Windows Vista/7 improvements, 620
Windows Vista/7 logs, 621
Windows XP, 680-681
Windows XP logs, 620
exabytes (EBs), 46
exclamation points (!), Device Manager, 104
EXE (executable file) extension, 485
executable code prevention,
configuring, 99
exFAT file systems, 284
exit command, 506
expand command, 506
expansion cards, removing
(laptops), 130
expansion slots, 67
AGP, versions, 69
bus bandwidth comparisons, 72
defined, 8
laptops, 74-76
PCI, 67-69
PCIe, 70-73
types, 67
Explorer. See Windows Explorer
explorer command, 507
exporting Windows registry
sections, 551
exposing laser printers, 412
ExpressCard slots, 75
extended data out (EDO), 205
extended partitions, 287
Extended System Configuration
Data. See ESCD
Extensible Authentication Protocol
(EAP), 845
extensions, files, 484-485
external commands, 496
external connectivity, 11-12
external data bus, 47
external hard drives, 257
external modems, installing,
720-721
external SATA. See eSATA devices
extreme digital (XD) memory cards,
11
F
facial recognition devices, 816
failed Disk Management status
state, 298
fans
auxiliary, installing, 143
installing, 60
power consumption, 152
power supplies, 143
processors, 3-pin/4-pin, 59
fast page mode (FPM), 205
FastEthernet, 776
FAT file systems, 284
FAT16, high-level formatting, 293
FAT16/FAT32 disk partitions,
managing, 507
FAT16 partitions, 285
FireWire
files
attributes, configuring, 488
attributes, viewing, 500
backing up, 488. See also backups
xcopy command, 515
BOOT.INI, editing, 502
compressing, 488-489, 549
copying, 475, 499, 541
between folders, 543
copy command, 504
multiple, 542
robocopy command, 512
xcopy command, 515
defined, 472
deleted, retrieving, 544
deleting, 505, 544
permanently, 476
directory structure example,
496-497
dll, registering, 512
driver.cab, 600
encrypting, 550, 855-856
encryption, 490, 503-504
extensions, 484-485
formats, digital cameras, 359
indexing, 485
inf, finding, 603
libraries, 484
listing, 505
log. See logs
moving between folders, 543
names, 484, 497
characters, 484
wildcards, 499
navigating, 498
network transfers. See FTP
organizing, 484
page, 576
paths, 475-476
long filenames, 486
viewing, 486
protecting, 826-827
quarantined, deleting, 820
recovering, 303
removable media, deleting, 486
renaming, 512
root directory maximum, 496
saving, 486
scanner formats, 356
searching
Windows Vista/7, 532
Windows XP, 523
security, 820-821
sharing
effective permissions, 832
inherited permissions, 831
libraries, 828
NTFS permissions, 830-831
permissions, 827, 830
Public folders, 828
tips, 832
Windows XP method with
Windows Vista/7, 829
shortcuts, creating, 525
swap, 221
virtual memory, 304
system, 612-613
text, viewing, 509, 515
uncompressing, 506
viewing, 498
viruses, 586
Windows, locations, 613
film scanners, 354
FilterKeys, 649
filters, privacy, 814
finding inf files, 603
fingerprint readers, 816
fire extinguishers, 161
fires (electrical), 161
firewalls, 836
antivirus/antispyware programs, 836
DMZs, 837
network location settings, 839
overview, 836
port forwarding, 838
port triggering, 838
programs, allowing, 838
Remote Desktop, 688
security alerts, 838
troubleshooting, 839
verifying, 838
wireless networks, 844
FireWire. See IEEE 1394 ports
Index
FAT32 file systems, 284
FAT32 partitions, 286
FATs (file allocation tables), 294
fault tolerance, 291-293
BIOS configuration settings,
293
hardware, configuring, 291
hot swapping, 292
levels, 291-292
software, configuring, 291
fax modems, 702
faxing VoIP interference, 704
FCBGA (flip chip ball grid array)
sockets), 57
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data
Interface), 776
fdisk command, 507
features, memory, 207-209
feed assemblies, thermal printers,
416
feeding paper (printers), 417
female ports, 11
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI), 776
fiber-optic cables, 737-738
FIFO, serial ports, 699
file allocation tables (FATs), 294
file systems
CDFS, 284
comparison, 294
converting, 583
defined, 283
exFAT, 284
FAT, 284
FAT16
high-level formatting, 293
partitions/clusters, 285
FAT32, 284
partitions/clusters, 286
NTFS, 284
benefits, 286
boot partitions, 289
high-level formatting, 293
partitions/clusters, 286
system partitions, 289
types, determining, 283
Windows pre-installation
considerations, 583
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 778
925
926
firmware
firmware
defined, 6
printers, upgrading, 427
five-wire resistive touch screen
displays, 384
fixboot command, 507
fixed input power supplies, 151
fixmbr command, 507
flash BIOS, 96-98
Flash memory, 226-227
CompactFlash cards, 226
defined, 11
failures, troubleshooting, 227
internal memory, viewing, 227
technologies, 226
thumb drives, 227
flashlights, 123
flat panel monitors, 19, 388
flatbed scanners, 354-355
flick gesture, 481
flip chip ball grid array (FCBGA)
sockets, 57
Floppy disk(s) failed message, 186
floppy drives, 7
cable, 252
cleaning, 132, 252
installing, 252-253
media, 252
overview, 251
power consumption, 152
read/write heads, 252
flow control, serial ports, 699-700
Folder Options control panel, 521
folders
apps, creating, 785
attributes, 488
configuring, 488
backing up, 488
compressing, 488-489
copying, 475
creating, 541
default, 486
defined, 472
deleting, 544
directory, creating, 509
encrypting, 855-856
encryption, 490, 503-504
indexing, 485
listing, 505
moving files between, 543
names, characters, 484
paths, 475-476
private, creating, 857-858
protecting, 826
administrative shares, 826
hidden shares, 827
local shares, 826
Public, 828
searching
Windows Vista/7, 532
Windows XP, 523
security, 820-821
sharing, 780
effective permissions, 832
inherited permissions, 831
libraries, 828
maximum users, 821
NTFS permissions, 830-831
permissions, 827, 830
Public folders, 828
subfolders, 820
tips, 832
Windows 7, 860-863
Windows XP, 858-859
Windows XP method with
Windows Vista/7, 829
startup
program shortcuts, creating,
676
verifying, 670
subfolders, 484
following up with customers, 193
Fonts control panel, 521
force quitting, programs, 620
forced perfect termination (FPT),
278
foreign Disk Management status
state, 298
form factors
hard drives, 256
motherboards, 78-79
power supplies, 138-139
format command, 507
formats
files
digital cameras, 359
scanners, 356
MAC addresses, 746
formatting
CF cards, 226
commands, 500
disks, 507
full formats, 293
hard drives
high-level, 283, 293-294
low-level, 283
quick formats, 293
forward slash (/), commands, 500
forwarding email, 783
Found New Hardware wizard, 600
four-wire resistive touch screen
displays, 384
FPM (fast page mode), 205
FPT (forced perfect termination),
278
Frame Relay, 783
Free Physical Memory field (Task
Manager Performance tab), 223
frequencies (wireless), 757
frequency response, 346
frequency response range
(speakers), 351
Friend, Ernie, 190
front side bus (FSB), 51
FSB (front side bus), 51
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 778
clients, 806
security, 806
servers, 806
fuel cells (laptops), 145
full backups, 302
files/folders, 488
full control NTFS permission, 831
full-duplex Ethernet, 742
full format partitions, 583
full formats, 293
fully buffered memory, 208
fuser cleaning pads, 412
fuses, continuity checks, 136-137
fusing assemblies (laser printers),
414
fusing laser printers, 413
fusing rollers, 412
fusing rollers (laser printers), 414
Fusion AMD processors, 49
FX AMD processors, 49
hard drives
G
H
hal.dll file, 612
half-duplex Ethernet, 741
hand scanners, 816
handheld scanners, 354
Handles field (Task Manager
Performance tab), 224
handshaking serial ports, 699
Hard disk install failure message,
186
hard drives
AV, 452
backing up, 301-303
BIOS configuration, 282
cables, removing, 124
caching, 304
cylinders, 255
defined, 7
defragmenting, 300-301
destroying, 818
encryption, configuring, 99
external, 257
fault tolerance, 292-293
full format versus quick format,
583
head crashes, 254
high-level formatting, 293-294
IDE, 259-261
eSATA, 262, 273-274
PATA, 259-260
SATA, 261-263
interfaces, 257-258
IDE, 259-263
letters, assigning, 289-290
low-level formatting, 283
magnetic, 253
mobile devices, 281
overview, 253
partitions
advantages, 283
boot partitions, 289
cluster size, 294
clusters, 284
converting partitions, 284
creating, 286
defined, 283-289
deleting, 289
diskpart command, 505
efficiency, 285
eSATAs, 287
extended, 287
FAT16, 285
FAT32, 286
GPT, 289
high-level formatting, 283
HPA, 289
logical drives, 288
multiple operating systems,
loading, 283
NTFS, 286
OEM, 289
partition tables, 288
primary, 287
separating data files from
application files, 285
system partitions, 289
type, determining, 290
types, 283
volumes, 287
Windows installation, 583
passwords, 303
PATA
installing, 266-270
power consumption, 152
physical sizes, 256
platters, 253
preparations, 282
preventive maintenance,
299-301
RAID, 291
BIOS configuration settings,
293
hardware, configuring, 291
hot swapping, 292
levels, 291-292
software, configuring, 291
troubleshooting, 299
Index
G.SHDSL (Symmetric High-speed
DSL), 706
gain (antennas), 762
game ports, 37
gaming mobile devices, 484
Gaming PCs, 451
gateways, default, 766-767
GBs (gigabytes), 46
General tab (Internet Explorer Internet Options), 712
geo-tracking, 483
gestures, mobile devices, 481-482
configuring, 386
ghost cursors (laptops), 14
GHz (gigahertz), 46
GIF (Graphic Interchange Format),
356
GIF (graphics interchange format)
extension, 485
gigabytes (GBs), 46
gigahertz (GHz), 46
glass (scanners), 357
Global Positioning System (GPS),
483
Global System Mobile (GSM), 776
gold memory modules, 204
gpresult command, 507
GPS (Global Positioning System),
483
GPT (GUID partition table), 289
GPUs (graphics processing unit),
49, 397
Graphic Interchange Format (GIF),
356
graphics/CAD/CAM system
configurations, 451
graphics interchange format (GIF)
extension, 485
graphics processing unit (GPUs),
49, 397
grayware, 840
reporting, 843
green, motherboards, 79
green computer system configuration, 453
grounding, troubleshooting, 154
grounding problems, 120
group policies, viewing, 507
grouping taskbar buttons, 538
groups, 824-825
GSM (Global System Mobile), 776
guest accounts, 608
guest users, 825
GUID partition table (GPT), 289
GUIs (graphical user interfaces),
472
gyroscopes, 383
927
928
hard drives
removable, 303
removing, 128
repairing/recovering, 502
RPMs, 254
SATA
installing, 271-274
power consumption, 152
SCSI, 264-266
cables, 279
electrical signals/
terminators, 277
host adapters, 264
ID configuration/
termination, 276-279
installing, 280-281
multiple, installing, 280
networking, 266
parallel, configuring, 276
powering on, 276
SAS, 266
standards, 265
symbols, 278
types, 264
sectors, 256
SSDs, compared, 263
storage device design
considerations, 457
swap files, 221
tracks, 255
troubleshooting
Disk Management status
states, 298-299
new drive installations,
295-296
noises, 294
previously working drives,
297-298
sticky, 297
virtual memory, 221, 304
configuring, 304
size, configuring, 221
VMM, 304
volumes, 287
wiping, 302
writing to, 253
hardware
adding, 600-602
audio ports, 29
cable modems, 706
defined, 5
DEP, 822
device drivers, defined, 5
docking stations, 35
drivers, 655-656
Windows installations, 585
eSATA ports, 33
firmware, defined, 6
IEEE 1394 ports, 30
cables, 30
connecting devices, 31-32
data transfer modes, 30
speeds, 30
standards, 31
troubleshooting, 32-33
input devices. See input devices
installing, 656-657
keyboards. See keyboards
KVM switches, 7
memory, types, 10
mice. See mice
modem ports, 34
motherboards. See motherboards
network ports, 33
output devices, 7
parallel ports, 28
port replicators, 36
power supplies, 7
printers, troubleshooting, 427
RAID, configuring, 291
serial ports, 29
storage devices, 7
troubleshooting, 185-188
USB ports
3.0, 23
cabling rules, 24
converters, 25
defined, 22
devices supported, 22
hubs, 24
installing extra, 26
installing USB devices, 25
maximum cable length, 23
mini, 25
on-the-go, 26
power, 24
removing USB devices,
25, 347
speeds, 23
troubleshooting, 27-28
upstream/downstream, 23
versions, 23
wireless, 26
video ports, 19-22
Windows requirements,
584-585
wireless input devices, 15-17
Hardware and Sound control panel,
528
Hardware-Assisted Virtualization
Detection Tool, 594
hardware firewalls, 836
hardware handshaking, 699
hardware monitor, configuring, 99
HDI (head-to-disk interference),
254
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia
Interface) ports, 20
HDMI ports/cabling, 391
HDSL (High bit-rate DSL), 706
head crashes, 254
head-to-disk interference (HDI),
254
headers, OSI, 744
healthy Disk Management status
state, 298
heat sinks, 60
heavy lifting, 3
help
MMC, 662
permissions, 832
Windows dialog boxes, 480
Windows Vista/7, 532
Windows XP, 523
Help and Support Center
(Windows), 341
help command, 508
Hewlett-Packard LightScribe, 338
hexa-core processors, 55
hexadecimal numbers, I/O
addresses, 107
hidden shares, 827
hiding taskbars, 538
High-bit rate DSL (HDSL), 706
importing Windows registry sections
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol), 778
HTTPS (HTTP over SSL), 778
hubs
Ethernet, 732
ICH, 77
IEEE 1394, 33
MCH, 77
star topologies, 733
switch advantage, 742
USB, 24
humidity, paper, 417
HVD (high-voltage differential), 278
hybrid topologies, 732
HyperTerminal program, 721-723
Hypertext Markup Language
(HTML), 776
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP), 778
Hyper-Threading, configuring, 99
Hyper-Threading Technology
(HTT), 54
HyperTransport, 55
hypervisors, types, 593
I
ICH (I/O controller hub), 77
ICMP (Internet Control Message
Protocol), 776
icons
My Computer, missing, 523
Start menu (Windows Vista/7),
553-554
Start menu (Windows XP),
551-552
system tray, customizing, 603
VMware Workstation virtual
machines, creating, 644
Windows desktop, 474-476
Windows update notification,
596
IDE (integrated drive electronics),
259-263
40-pin cables, 260
ATA-1 standard, 260
ATA-5 standard, 260
eSATA, 262
installing, 273
partitions, 287
unmounting, 274
PATA, 259
cables, 260
installing, 266-270
motherboard connectors,
259
standards, 260
SATA, 261-263
cables, 262
connectors, 261-262
installing, 271-274
motherboard connectors,
259
IDE devices, configuring, 99
identifying problems, 184
IDs
process, listing, 514
SCSI, 276-279
configuration software, 279
electrical signals/
terminators, 277
priority levels, 276
terminating, 276-278
IEEE (Institute for Electrical and
Electronics Engineers), 742
IEEE 802 standards, 742-743
IEEE 1394 ports, 30, 36
cables, 30
connecting devices, 31-32
data transfer modes, 30
shutdown problems, 624
speeds, 30
standards, 31
system resources, 108
troubleshooting, 32-33
iLink. See IEEE 1394 ports
IMAP (Internet Message Access
Protocol), 778
impact printers, 407-408
advantages, 408
defined, 407
maintenance, 420
printheads, 407-408
printwires, 407
re-inking, 418
troubleshooting, 428
Important Updates (Windows
Update), 597
importing Windows registry
sections, 551
Index
High-Definition Multimedia
Interface (HDMI) ports, 20
high-level formatting, hard drives,
293-294
high-voltage differential (HVD), 278
high-voltage power supplies (laser
printers), 414
hijack viruses, 586
hijacked browsers, 833-834
hijacked email accounts, 834
hijacking TCP/IP, 842
history, web browsing, 712
Hkey_Classes_Root subtree, 491
Hkey_Current_Config subtree, 491
Hkey_Current_User subtree, 491
Hkey_Local_Machine subtree, 491
Hkey_Users subtree, 491
HLP (Windows-based help file)
extension, 485
home pages (web browsers), 712
home screens, mobile devices, 480
home server computer systems
configuration, 452
home theater PCs (HTPCs), 452
homegroup networks, 588
accessing from Windows XP/
Vista, 782
creating, 781
horizontal scanning frequency, 385
host (IP addresses), 748
host machines, virtualization, 494
Host Protected Area (HPA), 289
hosted hypervisors. See Type 2
hypervisors
Hot Key Power On BIOS power setting, 149
hot spots (wireless), 710
hot swapping
expansion cards, 75
RAID drives, 292
hotfixes, 595
HPA (Host Protected Area), 289
HT (Hyper-Threading Technology),
54
HTC TouchFlo, 14
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 776
HTPCs (home theater PCs), 452
929
930
incident reporting (security)
incident reporting (security),
843-844
increasing
processor speed, 50-51
Windows bootup speed, 614
incremental backups, 302
incremental backups, files/folders,
489
indexing, 485
industrial computer configuration,
452
inf files, finding, 603
INF (information) extension, 485
infrared, 776
infrared touch screen displays, 384
infrared wireless input devices, 16
inherited permissions, 831
INI (initialization file) extension,
485
ink cartridges
inkjet printers, 410
recycling, 417
refilling, 417-418
toner
defined, 414
refilling, 418
spills, 416
troubleshooting, 429
inkjet printers, 409-411
defined, 407
maintenance, 420
refilling cartridges, 418
troubleshooting, 429
in-place upgrades, Windows XP/
Vista, 581
in-plane switching (IPS), 388
input devices
defined, 6
keyboards, 13
capacitive, 13
cleaning, 18
laptops, 13-14
PS/2 ports, 36
troubleshooting, 18
mice, 13
cleaning, 18
mechanical, 13
optical, 13
PS/2 ports, 36
troubleshooting, 18
ports, 12
touch/multitouch, 14
wireless, 15-16
input/output operations per second.
See IOPS
installing
access points, 771
adapters, 8, 109
Administrative Tools on Start
menu, 657
apps, 784
auxiliary fans, 143
cables, 125-128
cache memory, 220
CF cards, 226
clean installs, 580
connectors, motherboard front
panel, 128
device drivers, 601-603, 655
devices, 600-602
dial-up Internet, 801-802
eSATA drives, 273-274
fans, 60
floppy drives, 252-253
hard drives, troubleshooting,
295-296
hardware, 656-657
heat sinks, 60
IEEE 1394 devices, 32
lite touch (LTI), 590
memory
configuring, 219
DIMMs/RIMMs, 219
mobile devices, 220
overview, 218
planning. See planning
memory installations
POST error codes, 220
removing memory, 218
modems, 720-721
network cables, 736
network printers, 771-772
NICs
pre-installation steps, 765
requirements, 765
Windows XP, 792
ODDs, 339-341
operating systems, multiple,
583
PATA devices, 266-270
PATA drives, connectivity, 269
printers, 418-422
processors, 62-64
BIOS settings, 55
programs, 605-606
Recovery Console, 495, 568
Remote Desktop, 687
remote networks, 590
riser boards, 8
SAS, 280-281
SATA drives, 271-274
SCSI, multiple, 280
sound cards, 347
SSDs, 274-275
unattended installations, 590
updates, 597
UPSs, 159
USB devices, 25
USB ports, 26
video adapters, 401
VMware Workstation, 639-640
Windows, 587
activation, 588
corporate computers,
588-590
multiple computers, 583
networks, selecting, 588
pre-installation. See Windows, pre-installation
checklist
setup log files, 592
troubleshooting, 591
verification, 590
VMware Workstation virtual
machine, 640-641
Windows 7, 638-639
Windows Vista/7, older operating systems, 613
Windows Vista/7 components,
659-662
Windows XP, 636-638
Windows XP components, 659
wireless NICs, 768-769
Institute for Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 742
IRQs (Interrupt Requests)
defined, 696
digital, 702
digital versus analog, 701
DSL. See DSL
external, installing, 720-721
fax, 702
internal, installing, 720
maintenance, 709
phone line limits, 701
satellite, 709
security, 833
active scripting, 835
clear text emails, 834
cookies, controlling, 835
encryption, 833
firewalls, 836-839
hijacked browsers, 833-834
hijacked email accounts, 834
malicious code types, 839
network attacks, 841-842
phishing, 841
programs, 840
proxy servers, 836
social engineering, 840
spam, 834
VPNs, 842-843
serial communication, 697-700
service providers (ISPs), 709
VoIP, 703-704
faxing interference, 704
web browsers, 711-712
Internet appliances, defined, 6
Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP), 776
Internet Explorer
active scripting, 835
configuring, 723-724
cookies, controlling, 835
icon, 475
Internet Options tabs, 711-712
proxy servers, 836
Internet layer
TCP/IP, 779
TCP/IP model, 746
Internet Message Access Protocol
(IMAP), 778
Internet Options control panel, 521
interpolation, scanners, 357
Interrupt Requests. See IRQs
interrupts
IRQs, 102-104
MSI/MSI-X, 106
PCI, 105
Intruder detection error message,
186
intrusion detection, configuring, 99
invalid Disk Management status
state, 298
I/O addresses, 106-107
I/O APICs, 102
I/O controller hub (ICH), 77
I/O shields, 129
IOPS (input/output operations per
second), 457
IP addresses, 747
alternative, 766
alternative configuration, 766
assigning, 765-766
broadcast address, 749
default gateways, 766-767
DNS servers, 767
host, 748
IPv4, 747-748
IPv6, 747
network numbers, 748
pinging, 774
subnet masks, 749-752
two-network example, 748-749
types, 747
viewing, 773
ipconfig command, 508, 773
IPS (in-plane switching), 388
IPv4 addresses, 747-748
IPv6 addresses, 747
irate customers, handling, 461-462
IRQs (Interrupt Requests), 102
APICs, 102
configuring with Device
Manager, 102-103
defined, 102
MSI/MSI-X, 106
multiple-device port
assignments, 102
PCI, 105
resource conflicts, 104
steering, 105
Index
integrated drive electronics. See
IDE
integrated motherboards
advantages/disadvantages,
34-35
defined, 11
Integrated Services Digital Network. See ISDN
integrated sound, 348
Intel, Z277 chipset, 77
Intel HTT (Hyper-Threading
Technology), 54
Intel processors, 48-49
Intel website, 49
interfaces
APIs, sound cards, 348
hard drives, 257-258
IDE, 259-263
parallel, 258
SCSI, 264-266, 276-280
serial, 258
types, 257
ODDs, 338-339
operating systems, 472-473
interlacing displays, 385
internal commands, 495
internal data bus, 47
internal modems, installing, 720
Internet
browsers
active scripting, 835
cookies, controlling, 835
firewalls, 836-839
hijacked, 833-834
malicious code types, 839
phishing, 841
proxy servers, 836
security programs, 840
social engineering, 840
connectivity
dial-up, installing, 801-802
overview, 696
mobile connectivity, 709-710
modems, 696
56Kbps, 701-702
cable, 704-708
cabling, 696
communication, 721-723
connectivity, 696
931
932
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
Network), 702-783
isochronous data transfers, 30
ISP (Internet Service Providers),
709
iTunes, 786
J
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts
Group), 356
JPG (joint photographic experts)
extension, 485
jumpers, 94
CMOS password, 100
K
KBs (kilobytes), 46
Kerberos protocol, 823
kernel (operating system), 6
Key Management Service (KMS),
590
Keyboard control panel, 521
Keyboard error or no keyboard
present message, 186
Keyboard is locked out—Unlock the
key message, 186
keyboard, video, mouse (KVM)
switches, 7, 393
keyboards, 13
capacitive, 13
cleaning, 18, 132
configuring Windows XP, 647
laptops, 13-14
mechanical, 13
number lock key, configuring,
98
ports, 12
PS/2 ports, 36
troubleshooting, 18
keyed connectors, 12
killing processes/tasks, 514
kilobytes (KBs), 46
Kingston Technology website, 216
KMS (Key Management Service),
590
KVM switches, 7, 393
L
L1 cache, 51
L2 cache, 51
L3 cache, 51
labeling discs, 338
labeling network cables, 734
ladder racks (cables), 739
land grid array (LGA) sockets, 57
landscape mode, LCDs, 387
LANs (local area networks), 728
Ethernet, 741-742
network resource management,
731
peer-to-peer, 729-731
security, 729
server-based, 729-730
LAPICs (local APICs), 102
laptops
batteries, 144-146
replacing, 152
troubleshooting, 153
components, 9
design components, 460-461
desktop components, compared, 460
disassembly, 130-131
displays, 388-389
cleaning, 133
troubleshooting, 402-404
docking stations, 35
expansion slots, 74-76
ghost cursors, 14
GUIs, 472
hard drives, 281
Internet connectivity, 709-710
keyboards, 13-14
media bays, 10
memory, 207, 220
motherboards, compared with
desktop motherboards, 64
operating systems, recovering,
493
port replicators, 36
processors, 64
projectors, 394
security, 850-851
physical, 817
sound, 349-350
speakers, 349
storage, 281
traveling with, 144
USS, 817
video ports, 22
Windows 7 power settings, 150
wireless antennas, 760
large format inkjet printers, 411
laser lens (ODDs), cleaning, 343
laser printers, 411-415
defined, 407
maintenance, 421
memory upgrades, 420
spilled toner, 416
toner cartridges
defined, 414
refilling, 418
spills, 416
troubleshooting, 429
troubleshooting, 429-430
UPSs, 158
Last Known Good Configuration,
booting from, 610
Last Known Good Configuration
option, 611
latency, networks, 774
launching programs, 605
layers
OSI model, 743-745
TCP/IP, 746, 779
LCD monitors, cleaning, 133
LCDs (liquid crystal displays), 381,
386-389
cleaning, 396
LDAP (Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol), 778
LEDs (light-emitting diodes), 381
motherboards, 188
LGA (land grid array) sockets, 57
libraries, 484, 828
licensing
virtualization, 593
Windows Vista/7, 590
lid close detectors (laptop displays),
389
lifting, 3
light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 381
Lightweight Directory Access
Protocol (LDAP), 778
megabytes (MBs)
loopback plugs, 188
lost clusters, locating, 300
low-level hard drive formatting, 283
low-voltage differential (LVD), 278
LTI (lite touch installation), 590
lumens, LCDs, 387
LVD (low-voltage differential), 278
Lynx. See IEEE 1394 ports
M
MAC addresses, 746
macro viruses, 586
main motors (laser printers), 414
mainboards. See motherboards
maintenance
displays, 395-396
floppy drives, cleaning, 252
keyboards, cleaning, 18
mice, cleaning, 18
modems, 709
ODDs, 342-345
cleaning discs, 342-343
disc handling, 342
laser lens, 343
sound, enabling, 343-345
operating systems, 632
preventive, 132-133
hard drives, 299-303
implementing, 191
inventory, taking, 133
printers, 420-421
projectors, 395
scanners, 357
MAK (Multiple Activation Key), 590
male ports, 11
malware, 840
managing
dynamic disks, 291
FAT16/FAT32 partitions, 507
memory, 225
MMC, 606-608
power
ACPI, 147-148
BIOS settings, 148-149
coming out of sleep mode,
149
efficiency, 152
energy-efficient monitors,
150
going into, 150
screen saver conflicts with
sleep mode, 150
Wake on LAN, 148
Wake on Ring, 148
Windows 7, 149-150
printers, Windows, 422
storage devices. See Disk
Management
MANs (metropolitan area
networks), 728
mantraps, 814
map command, 509
MAPI (Messaging Application
Programming Interface), 779
mapping
drive letters to network shares,
780
viewing, 509
marking subsystem (printers), 404
master devices, 267
material safety data sheets. See
MSDS
MBR
partition tables, 288
rewriting, 507
viruses, 586
MBSA (Microsoft Baseline Security
Analyzer), 840
MBs (megabytes), 46
MCBF (mean cycles between
failure), 337
MCH (memory controller hub), 77
md command, 509
MDT (Microsoft Deployment
Toolkit), 589
mean cycles between failure
(MCBF), 337
mean time between failures
(MTBF), 266
mechanical keyboards, 13
mechanical mice, 13
media bays, laptops, 10
media (networks)
copper, 734-737
fiber-optic, 737-738
media players, 452
megabytes (MBs), 46
Index
Li-ion batteries, 145-146
Li-ion polymer batteries, 145
line conditioners, 157
line-of-sight networks, 711
link-local addresses, 747
liquid cooling system, 62
liquid crystal displays. See LCDs
list folder contents NTFS
permission, 831
listing files/folders, 505
listsvc command, 508
lite touch installation (LTI), 590
lithium battery regulations, 144
lithium-ion batteries, 145-146
local APICs (LAPICs), 102
local area networks. See LANs
local policies
passwords, controlling, 826
passwords, creating, 864-868
local shares, 826
local user settings, 608
Local Users and Groups tool (MMC),
607-608
locating
chipsets, 77
taskbar, 538
lock screens (mobile devices), 482
locking
computers, 816
taskbar, 538
log files, Windows, 592
logging in, Windows, 474
logging on, Windows, 580
logical drives, 287-288
logical troubleshooting, 184
establishing a theory, 185-190
flow chart, 192
full system functionality, verifying, 191
identifying the problem, 184
plan of action, 191
preventive measures, implementing, 191
testing the theory, 190-191
logon command, 508
logs, 620-621
booting, enabling, 611
lojack, configuring, 99
long touch gesture, 481
933
934
memory
memory
access time, 216
addresses, 108
buffer, ODDs, 337
buying, 216-217
cache, 51-52
adding, 220
capacities, 209
CL ratings, 216-217
CMOS, 100
ESCD, 109
design components, 453
double-sided, 208
dual-channel, 212-214
dual-voltage, 217
ECC, 208
features, 207-209
Flash, 11, 226-227
fully buffered memory, 208
installed amount, determining,
211
installing, 218-220
laptops, removing, 130
managing, 225
mobile devices, 207, 220
module type amounts, determining, 212-215
monitoring, 223-224
motherboard chip support, 205
motherboard maximums, 211
multi-core processor access, 55
non-parity, 208
operating system requirements,
210-211
PAE, 223
pages, 221
parity, 208-209
physical packaging, 203-204
printers, upgrading, 420
quadruple-channel, 215
RAM
defined, 10
mobile devices, 11
over 4GB, 214
performance, 203
ROM, compared, 202
types, 203
video, 400
RAM sticks power consumption, 152
refreshing, 203
registered, 208
removing, 218
requirements, 203, 209-211
researching, 216-217
ROM
compared, 202
defined, 10
safety, 218
sample advertisements, 216
shared system, 400
single-sided, 208
SO-DIMM advertisements, 217
software instructions, fetching,
203
SPD, 208
speed, 216-217
technologies, 205-206
triple-channel, 215
troubleshooting, 225-226
types, 10
unbuffered, 208
upgrading, 225
video, 399-400
virtual, 221-222, 304
wear leveling, 263
Windows 7 requirements, 584
Windows Memory Diagnostic
Tool, 617
write amplification, 263
memory, flash, thumb drives, 227
memory card readers, 359
memory controller hub
(MCH), 77
Memory Diagnostics tool
(Windows), 225
memory optimal error message, 186
Memory size decrease error message, 186
Memory Sticks, 358
Memory test fail message, 186
mentoring skills, 713
menus, context (Windows), 480
mesh topology, 734
Message Signaled Interrupt (MSI),
106
Messaging Application Programming Interface), 779
metal oxide varistors (MOVs), 156
meter rules (electricity), 135
MetroE (MetroEthernet), 783
metropolitan area networks
(MANs), 728
mice, 13
cleaning, 18
configuring, 647-648
mechanical, 13
optical, 13
ports, 12
PS/2 ports, 36
troubleshooting, 18
micro pin grid array (μPGA)
sockets, 57
microdrives, 226
microHDMI connectors, 20
microphones
mobile devices, 350
sound designs, 458
Windows, 348
microprocessor. See processors
microSD cards, 226
Microsoft
Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool, 594
Management Console. See
MMC
Setup Manager, 589
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit
(MDT), 589
Microsoft Excel extension (XLS/
XLSX), 485
Microsoft Magnifier, 649
Microsoft OneNote file (ONE)
extension, 485
Microsoft Paint (PNG) extension,
485
Microsoft Paintbrush (PCX)
extension, 485
Microsoft PowerPoint (PPT/PPTX)
extension, 485
Microsoft Security Baseline
Analyzer. See MBSA
Microsoft Security Essentials, 587
Microsoft Word (DOC/DOCX)
extension, 485
motherboards
geo-tracking, 483
GPS app, 483
GUIs, 472
hard drives, 281
home screens, 480
Internet connectivity, 709-710
lock screen, 482
memory, 207, 220
motherboards, 64
network connectivity, 784
notification area, 481
operating system interaction,
481-482
operating systems, recovering,
493
processors, 64
RAM, 11
screen orientations, 383
security, 850-851
sound, 349-350
speakers, 349
storage, 281, 786
system bar, 481
touch/multi-touch technologies, 14
traveling with, 144
video ports, 22
Mobile PC control panel, 530
modem isolators, 161
modems (modulator/demodulator),
696
56Kbps, 701-702
cable, 704-706
troubleshooting, 708-709
cabling, 696
communication, 721-723
connectivity, 696
defined, 696
dial-up, installing, 801-802
digital, 702
digital versus analog phone
lines, 701
DSL, 706-707
troubleshooting, 708-709
external, 696
faxes, 702
installing, 720-721
internal, 696
maintenance, 709
overview, 696
phone line isolators, 161
phone line limits, 701
ports, 34, 37
satellite, 709
speeds, 701
xDSL, 706
modify NTFS permission, 831
modulator/demodulator. See
modems
Molex connectors, 140
monitoring
memory, 223-224
performance, 624, 683-685
systems, Windows XP, 682-683
monitors
CRT versus flat panel, 19
disposal, 162
energy-efficiency, 150
LCD, cleaning, 133
screen savers, sleep mode
conflicts, 150
video ports, 19-22
voltage, 135
more command, 509
motherboards, 7
adapters, 8, 602
antistatic measures, 80
audio ports, 29
batteries, 101-102
BIOS
ACPI settings, 148-149
adapters, configuring, 109
boot process, 185
CMOS, 100
cold boots, 94
default settings, 99
energy-efficiency settings,
396
exit options, 100
flash, 96-98
functions, 94
hard drive configuration,
282
POST, 94
POST errors, 185-187
RAID settings, 293
recovery, 96
security settings, 100, 817
Index
Microsoft WordPad (WRI)
extension, 485
Microsoft Works text file format
(WPS) extension, 485
MIDI (musical instrument digital
interface), 344
MIDI ports, 37, 344
migrating data, 582
MIMO antennas, 763
MIMO (multiple input/multiple
output), 763
mini-DIN connectors, 12
miniHDMI connectors, 20
mini PCI/PCIe cards, 74
miniSD cards, 226
mini-USB ports, 25
MLCs (multi-level memory cells),
264
MMC (Microsoft Management
Console), 606
Device Manager, 608
Local Users and Groups tool,
607
Services and Applications
category, 609
shares, 607
Storage category, 609
System Tools, 607
System Tools category, Local
Users and Groups tool, 608
tool categories, 607
viewing, 606
Windows 7, 666-669
Windows XP, 662-665
MMCs (multimedia cards), 358
mobile devices
apps, 482, 784-786
batteries, 144-146
replacing, 152
troubleshooting, 153
Bluetooth, configuring, 16
design components, 460-461
disassembly, 130-131
displays
cleaning, 133
multitasking gestures/screen
rotation settings, 386
troubleshooting, 402-403
email, configuring, 786-787
gaming, 484
935
936
motherboards
setup options, 98-100
Setup program. See Setup
program
SSDs, recognizing, 275
UEFI, 96-97
update compatibility, 585
upgrading, 96
virtualization, enabling, 593
viruses, 586
warm boots, 95
cables, 127-128
chipsets, 76-77
design components, 453-454
configuring, 94
connectors, 12, 76, 126
design components, 453-454
diagnostic display, 187-188
eSATA ports, 33
expansion slots, 8, 67
AGP, 69
hot swapping, 75
laptops, 74-76
PCI, 67-69
PCIe, 70-73
types, 67
form factors, 78-79
green, 79
grounding problems, 120
IDE connectors, 267
IEEE 1394 ports, 30-33
integrated
advantages/disadvantages,
34
defined, 11
LEDs, 188
locating, 7
memory, maximum, 211
memory chip support, 205
mobile devices, desktop motherboards (compared), 64
modem ports, 34, 37
network ports, 33
parallel ports, 28
PATA/SATA connectors, 259
PCI IRQ assignments, 105
ports, 11-12
power consumption, 152
processors
ALU, 47
AMD, 49-50
binary prefixes, 46
BIOS settings, 55, 98
bits, 46
bus, 47
bytes, 46
cache memory, 51-52
clocking, 53
connections, 54-55
cooling, 59-62
defined, 46
design components, 453-454
installing, 62-64
Intel, 48-49
IRQs, 102-104
laptops versus desktops, 64
multi-core, 55-57
multiple, installing, 63
multipliers, 55
nanometers, 453
overclocking, 65-66
pipelining, 48
power consumption, 152
register size, 47
replacing in laptops, 64
sockets, 57-58
speed, 50-51
speeds, 46
threading, 54
throttling, 63
troubleshooting, 66-67
upgrading, 63
voltage requirements, 63
reassembling, 132
removing, 80, 129-130
replacement considerations, 80
riser boards, 8
serial ports, 29
sound, integrated, 348
sound ports, 344-345
speakers, 344
troubleshooting, 80-81
upgrading, 79-80
USB ports. See USB ports
video ports. See video, ports
Mouse control panel, 521
MouseKeys, 649
movie clip extension (MPG), 485
moving
apps, 785
files/folders, 475
moving files between folders, 543
MOVs (metal oxide varistors), 156
MPG (movie clip) extension, 485
msconfig command, 509
MSDS (material safety data sheets),
3, 133
MSI (Message Signaled Interrupt),
106
msinfo32 command, 509
MSI-X, 106
mstsc command, 509
MTBF (mean time between
failures), 266
multi-core processors, 55-57
multifactor authentication, 815
multi-level memory cells (MLCs),
264
multimedia
digital cameras, 358-360
media players, 452
ODDs, 334
Blu-ray compatibility, 337
blue-violet laser technology,
334
buffer memory, 337
burning discs, 337
DL, 335
DVD/Blu-ray region codes,
337
external, installing, 340
factor numbers, 336
installing, 339-341
interfaces, 338-339
labeling discs, 338
MCBF, 337
PATA connectivity, 340
preventive maintenance,
342-345
random access time, 337
read-only, 335
reads/writes, 335
red laser technology, 334
sound, troubleshooting, 353
speeds, 335-336
networks
N
names
computers, 765
files, 484
characters, 484
directories, 497
wildcards, 499
folders, characters, 484
nanometers, 453
The Narrator, 649
NAT (Network Address Translation),
776
Remote Assistance support, 631
native hypervisors. See type 1
hypervisors
native resolution, LCDs, 387
navigating directories, 498
nbtstat command, 510
net command, 687
net use command, 510
netbook design components, 461
netstat command, 510
network access layer, TCP/IP model,
746, 779
Network Address Translation (NAT),
776
network cable testers, 741
Network Configuration Operators
group, 825
Network and Dial-up control panel,
521
Network icon, 475
network interface cards. See NICs
Network and Internet control panel,
528
network layer, OSI model, 745
network operating system (NOS),
729
Network Time Protocol (NTP), 779
networking
printers, 405
SCSI storage devices, 266
networks
adapters, ipconfig command,
508
addresses, 746-748
APs, 771
ARP, 776
backbone, 776
bandwidth, 776
broadband, 776
cables, 734-740
crossover CAT 5 UTP, creating, 795-797
straight-through CAT 5 UTP,
creating, 792-794
CDMA, 776
computers, viewing, 823
connectivity, 783
troubleshooting, 772-773
copper media, coaxial, 737
defined, 728
devices, security settings, 848
dial-up, 696
Ethernet, 732, 741
CSMA/CD, 741
FastEthernet, 776
full-duplex, 742
half-duplex, 741
PoE, 754
speeds, 741
standards, 741
FastEthernet, 776
FDDI, 776
folders, sharing, 780
FTP (File Transfer Protocol),
806
GSM, 776
homegroups, 781-782
HTML, 776
ICMP, 776
infrared, 776
IP addresses, pinging, 774
IP addressing, 765-767
LANs, 728-731
Ethernet. See Ethernet
latency, 774
line-of-sight, 711
MANs, 728
mobile device connectivity, 784
NAT, 776
NICs. See NICs
OSI model, 743-746
PANs, 728
PAT, 776
POP, 776
ports, 33
printers
configuring, 771-772
connectivity, 800
printing, 801
troubleshooting, 775
remote devices, 510-511, 514
remote installations, 590
requirements, 731
security, 841-843
shares
accessing, 780
corporate, 782
defined, 779
drive letters, mapping, 780
SSL, 776
standards, 742-743
subnet masks, 750-752
TCP, 777
TCP/IP, 745-746, 778-779
Telnet, 777
Index
troubleshooting, 341-342
writeable media, 335
scanners, 354-357
sound, 348-352
troubleshooting, 352-354
sound cards, 345-348
troubleshooting, 353
multimedia cards (MMCs), 358
multi-mode fiber-optic cables, 738
multiple, display design considerations, 459
Multiple Activation Key (MAK), 590
multiple displays, 392-393
multiple input/multiple output
(MIMO), 763
multipliers, 55
multi-scan monitors, 385
multi-touch gestures, mobile
devices, 481-482
multi-touch technologies, 14
multitasking gestures, configuring
mobile devices, 386
musical instrument digital
interface. See MIDI
muting audio, 348
My Computer icon, 475, 523
My Documents icon, 475
My Network Places icon, 475
937
938
networks
topologies, 732-734
troubleshooting, 772-775
types, 588, 728
UDP, 777
virtual machines, connecting,
594
virtualization issues, 770
VoIP, 777
WANs, 728
Windows 7, configuring,
797-800
Windows installation, choosing, 588
wireless. See wireless networks
WLANs, 728
WWANs, 728
NiCad (nickel cadmium) batteries,
145
nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)
batteries, 145
NICs (network interface cards), 33
installing
pre-installation steps, 765
Windows XP, 792
IP addresses, assigning, 765
IP addressing, 765-767
properties, 769
QoS, 769
requirements, 765
speed, 769
TCP/IP stack, checking, 772
troubleshooting, 774-775
vendor software, 846
Wake-on-LAN, 769
wireless
configuring, 768
defined, 754
half-duplex/full-duplex/auto,
769
installing, 768-769, 803
types, 754
NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) batteries, 145
nonoverlapping ID channels,
758-759
Nonpaged Kernel Memory field
(Task Manager Performance tab),
224
non-parity, memory, 208
non-video adapters, power
consumption, 152
north bridge. See MCH
north bridge chips, 68
NOS (network operating system),
729
not initialized Disk Management
status state, 298
Notepad, starting, 510
notepad command, 510
notification area
mobile devices, 481
Windows desktop, 478
nslookup command, 510, 774
NT Virtual DOS Machine (NTVDM),
224
ntbackup command, 511
ntbootdd file, 612
ntdetect.com file, 612
NTFS, 284-286
benefits, 286
boot partitions, 289
high-level formatting, 293
permissions, 827
system partitions, 289
NTFS permissions, 830-831
ntldr file, 612
ntoskrnl.exe file, 612
NTP (Network Time Protocol), 779
NTVDM (NT Virtual DOS Machine),
224
number lock key, configuring, 98
O
OCR (Optical Character
Recognition), 357
octa-core processors, 55
ODDs (optical disk drives), 334
Blu-ray compatibility, 337
blue-violet laser technology,
334
buffer memory, 337
burning discs, 337
defined, 7
DL, 335
DVD/Blu-ray region codes, 337
factor numbers, 336
installing, 339-341
interfaces, 338-339
labeling discs, 338
MCBF, 337
PATA connectivity, 340
power consumption, 152
preventive maintenance,
342-345
random access time, 337
read-only, 335
reads/writes, 335
red laser technology, 334
sound, troubleshooting, 353
speeds, 335-336
storage device design considerations, 457
troubleshooting, 341-342
writeable media, 335
OEM (original equipment manufacturer), 289
versions of Windows, 583
Offer Remote Assistance Helper
group, 825
offline Disk Management status
state, 298
ohms, 135
ohms (Greek omega symbol), 136
OK buttons, Windows dialog boxes,
479
old Windows software, 224
OLEDs (organic LEDs), 381
omnidirectional antennas, 760
on-the-go USB (OTG), 26
on the road system configurations,
451
ONE (Microsoft OneNote file) extension, 485
online Disk Management status
state, 299
open authentication, 844
Open Systems Interconnect. See
OSI model
opening System Information window, 509
operating systems
clean installs, 580
command prompt. See command prompts
command prompt environment, 473
defined, 5, 472
paths
overvoltage, 154-155
overwriting hard drives, 302
ozone, 421
P
packaging memory, 203-204
PAE (physical address extension),
223
page files, 221, 576. See also swap
files
Paged Kernel Memory field (Task
Manager Performance tab), 223
pages (memory), 221
PANs (personal area networks), 728
paper (printers), 416-417
storage tray/feeder upgrades,
420
troubleshooting, 428
stuck, 427
paper transport subsystem (printers), 404
parabolic antennas, 763
Parallel ATA (PATA), 258-259
parallel hard drive interfaces, 258
parallel ports, 28, 36
parallel SCSI, 264, 276
parity
memory, 208-209
serial ports, 699
partitioning hard drives
diskpart command, 505
Windows installation, 583
partitions
boot, booting Windows, 612
cluster size, 294
hard drives
advantages, 283
boot partitions, 289
clusters, 284
converting partitions, 284
creating, 286
defined, 283-289
deleting, 289
efficiency, 285
eSATAs, 287
extended, 287
FAT16, 285
FAT32, 286
GPT, 289
HPA, 289
logical drives, 288
multiple operating systems,
loading, 283
NTFS, 286
OEM, 289
partition tables, 288
primary, 287
separating data files from
application files, 285
system partitions, 289
type, determining, 290
types, 283
volumes, 287
system, booting Windows, 612
pass-through terminators, 278
passive matrix LCDs, 386
passive terminators, 277
passwords
access points, 757, 847-848
BIOS settings, 98
CMOS jumper, 100
guidelines, 823
hard drives, 303
LANs, peer-to-peer, 731
local policies, creating, 864-868
managers, 826
protecting, 823-826
security policies, 812
Windows Vista/7 protection,
828
PAT (Port Address Translation), 776
PATA (Parallel ATA), 258
ODD connectivity, 340
storage device design considerations, 458
PATA devices, 259-260
installing, 266-270
80-conductor cable settings,
267
documentation, 270
motherboard connectors, 259
PATA hard drives, power consumption, 152
patch cables, 735
patches, 595
patches (software), 190
paths, 475-476, 486
Index
GUIs, 472
hotfixes, 595
installing multiple, 583
interfaces, 472
kernel, 6
licensing virtualization, 593
memory requirements, 210-211
mobile devices, 480-484
recovering, 493
patches, 595
preventive maintenance, 632
recovering Windows, 492-493
security, 818-819
AutoPlay/AutoRun,
disabling, 819
viruses, 819-820
service packs, 490, 595
upgrading, 580
virtualization, 493-494
Windows. See Windows
operation requires elevation
message, 516
Optical Character Recognition
(OCR), 357
optical drives. See ODDs
optical lens, cleaning, 133
optical mice, 13
optical storage, 303
optimization, configuring Setup
program, 98
optimized dpi (inkjet printers), 410
organic LEDs (OLEDs), 381
organizing
files, 484
Windows desktop, 476
original equipment manufacturer
(OEM), 289
versions of Windows, 583
OSI (Open Systems Interconnect)
model, 743
defined, 743
devices, 746
layers, 743-745
peer communication, 744
troubleshooting, 744
output devices, defined, 7
overclocking processors, 65-66
Override enabled—Defaults loaded
message, 186
939
940
PBs (petabytes)
PBs (petabytes), 46
PC Card/ExpressBus drives, 358
PC Cards, 75, 709
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), 67
PCI bus speed, 51
PCI expansion slots, 67-69
PCI Express. See PCIe slots
PCI interrupts, 105
PCI slots
bus bandwidth comparisons, 72
configuring, 99
PCIe, compared, 71
PCIe (PCI Express), 70
PCIe bus speed, 51
PCIe slots, 70-73, 99
PCIe video cards, power
consumption, 152
PCI-X bus, 68
PCMCIA (Personal Computer
Memory Card International
Association), 75
PCs (personal computers), 6
components, 6
memory, 10
optical drives, 7
types, 6
web cams, accessing, 359
PCX (Microsoft Paintbrush)
extension, 485
PDF extension, 485
PDF (Portable Document Format),
356
PDSL (Power line DSL), 706
peer-to-peer LANs, 729-731
Pentium/Mobile Intel processors, 49
performance
evaluating, 682
memory, upgrading, 225
monitoring with Performance
Monitor, 683-685
RAM, 203
software, troubleshooting, 226
system, monitoring, 624
video, 404
Windows 7, 685-686
Performance Log Users group, 825
Performance Monitor utility,
Windows XP, 683-685
Performance tab (Task Manager),
223
Performance utility, memory,
223-224
Peripheral Component Interconnect. See PCI
peripherals, configuring, 99
permissions, 827
effective, 832
inherited, 831
NTFS, 827-831
shared folder, 827-830
Windows help, 832
personal area networks. See PANs
Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association
(PCMCIA). See PC Cards
personal computers. See PCs
petabytes (PBs), 46
PGA (pin grid array) sockets, 57
phage viruses, 586
Phenom AMD processors, 49
phishing, 841
reporting, 843
Phoenix BIOS audio beeps, 187
Phone and Modem Options control
panel, 521
phone filters, 707
phone line isolators, 161
phone line limits, 701
phone skills (technicians), 305
physical access
locking computers, 816
security, 812
physical address extension (PAE),
223
physical layer (OSI model), 745
physical security, 813-814
biometrics, 815
laptops, 817
real-world applications, 816
pickup rollers (laser printers), 414
pin 1 (cables), 125
pin grid array (PGA) sockets, 57
pinch gesture, 482
ping command, 511, 772-774
pinning applications (Start menu),
534
pins (motherboards), configuring,
94
pipelines (processors), 48
pixels
dead, LCDs, 387
defined, 381
displays, number determining,
385
response rate, LCDs, 387
Plain Old Telephone Service
(POTS), 783
plan of action (troubleshooting),
191
planars. See motherboards
plane to line switching (PLS), 388
planning memory installations
amount of memory needed,
determining, 209-211
buying, 216-217
memory features, 207-209
mobile devices, 207
module type amounts, determining, 212-215
researching, 216-217
technologies, 205-206
plasma, defined, 381
plastic parts, removing from laptops, 130
plastic pin grid array (PPGA) sockets, 57
platters (hard drives), 253
plenum cables, 735
PLS (plane to line switching), 388
plug and play devices, installing,
600-602
plug and play (PnP), 109
PNG (Microsoft Paint) extension,
485
PNG (Portable Network Graphics),
356
PnP (plug and play), 109
PoE (power over Ethernet), 754
Point of Presence (POP), 776
Point-to-Point protocol (PPP), 783
polarity, 135-136
policies
group, viewing, 507
local, controlling passwords,
826
security, 812
power
troubleshooting physical problems, 188
upstream, 23
USB, 36
3.0, 23
cabling rules, 24
configuring, 98
converters, 25
defined, 22
devices supported, 22
hubs, 24
installing extra, 26
installing USB devices, 25
maximum cable length, 23
mini, 25
on-the-go, 26
power, 24
printers, troubleshooting,
427-428
removing USB devices, 25,
347
scanners, 355
shutdown problems, 624
sound, 349
speeds, 23
troubleshooting, 27-28
upstream/downstream, 23
versions, 23
wireless, 26
video, 19-22, 36-37, 390-392
positive attitude, 4
POST (power-on self-test), 94
errors, 100, 185-187
memory error codes, 220
memory, troubleshooting, 226
Post Office Protocol version 3
(POP3), 779
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), 783
pounds (paper), 416
power
AC/DC, 134
batteries
digital cameras, 358
disposal, 162
lithium regulations, 144
mobile device replacement,
152
troubleshooting, 153
battery recycling programs, 102
blackouts, 155
brownouts, 155
capacitors, 135
consumption, 151-152
continuity checks, 135-136
current, measuring, 135
DC power plugs, removing, 131
electrical fires, 161
flash BIOS, 98
fuel cells, 145
IEEE 1394 hubs, 33
laser printers, 414
line conditioners, 157
managing, 147-152
measuring, 135
mobile device batteries,
144-146
motherboard, 101-102
over Ethernet (PoE), 754
phone line isolators, 161
projectors, 395
resistance, 135
safety, 3
sags, 155
saving, 396
sleep mode, 149-150
speakers, 351
spikes, 155
standby, 134
storage device design considerations, 457-458
supplies, 7, 137
AC voltage, 137
auto-switching, 151
cables, 454
comparing, 147
connectors, 140
converting AC to DC, 141
cooling function, 143
DC voltage distribution, 142
design components, 454-455
disassembly, 153
dual-rail, 151
fixed input, 151
form factors, 138-139
functions, 141
mobile devices, 152
Index
polymorphic viruses, 586
POP (Point of Presence), 776
POP3 (Post Office Protocol version
3), 779
Port Address Translation (PAT), 776
portable document format. See PDF
Portable Network Graphics (PNG),
356
portrait mode, LCDs, 387
ports
audio, 29, 37
component/RGB video analog,
395
composite video, 395
defined, 11
disabling, 95
downstream, 23
eSATA, 33, 37
eSATAp, 33, 37
Ethernet, 33, 37
forwarding, 838
game, 37
IEEE 1394, 30-33, 36
shutdown problems, 624
system resources, 108
male/female, 11
MIDI, 37
modem, 34, 37
mouse/keyboard, 12
multiple-device IRQ
assignments, 102
network, 33
parallel, 28, 36
printers, 405, 427
projectors, 394-395
PS/2 keyboard, 36
PS/2 mouse, 36
replicators, 36
RJ-11, 33
RJ-45, 33
SATA, enabling, 273
serial, 29, 36, 697-700
sound, 344-345
sound designs, 458
S/PDIF, 37
S-Video, 37
TCP/IP, 778-779
triggering, 838
941
942
power
physical sizes, 152
power good signals, 139
problem symptoms, 152-153
standby, 160
switching, 137
testers, 144
triple-rail, 151
uninterruptible, 158-159
upgrading/replacing,
151-152
voltage, 135
voltages, 143
watts, 151
surge protection, 156-157
surge protectors, 155-157
surges, 155
troubleshooting, 153-154
grounding problems, 154
overvoltage, 154-155
power good signals, 154
problem sources, finding,
153
under-voltage, 155
wall outlets, 153
USB ports, 24
voltage, 134-135
volts, 134
Windows 7, 149-150
Windows management settings,
148
Windows Vista/7 schemes, 532
Windows XP schemes, 522
power good signals, 139
testing, 154
troubleshooting, 154
Power line DSL (PDSL), 706
Power on by Ring, Resume by Ring,
or Wakeup BIOS power setting,
149
Power on Function BIOS power
setting, 149
power-on self-test. See POST
Power Options control panel, 521
power ratings (speakers), 350
power users, 825
PPGA (plastic pin grid array)
sockets, 57
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), 783
PPT/PPTX (Microsoft PowerPoint)
extension, 485
preboot execution environment
(PXE boot), 590
pre-installation checklist
(Windows), 580
backing up data, 585
clean install, 580-582
data migration, 582
drivers, 585
file systems, 583
hardware requirements,
584-585
multiple operating systems,
583
partition size, 583
power-/disk-management tools,
removing, 585
program compatibility, 582
upgrading, 580-581
virus scans, 585
preparations, disassembly, 122
presentation layer (OSI model), 745
preventing ESD, 120-121
preventive maintenance
adapters, removing, 133
aerosol can disposal, 133
boot inspection, 132
contacts, 133
defined, 132
dirt removal, 132-133
displays, 395-396
floppy drives, 132
hard drives, 299-301
backups, 301-303
implementing, 191
inventory, taking, 133
keyboards, 18, 132
kits, 132
LCD monitors, 133
mice, 18
modems, 709
MSDs, 133
ODDs, 342-345
operating systems, 632
optical lens, 133
outside case, 132
printers, 420-421
rubber rollers, 133
scanners, 357
updates, checking, 133
viruses, 133
primary corona (laser printers), 414
Primary master hard disk fail
message, 186
primary partitions, 287
Primary slave hard disk fail
message, 186
print drivers, 424
print engine (printers), 404
print jobs, reordering, 422
printed materials security, 821
printers
categories, 406-407
default, configuring, 422
DPI, 409-410
dye sublimation, 410
impact, 407-408
re-inking, 418
troubleshooting, 428
ink cartridges, 417-418
inkjet, 409-411
maintenance, 420
refilling cartridges, 418
troubleshooting, 429
installing, 418-420
Windows, 422
large format inkjet, 411
laser. See laser printers
memory, upgrading, 420
network
configuring, 771-772
troubleshooting, 775
networking, 405
networks, 800-801
paper, 416-417
storage tray/feeder upgrades,
420
stuck, troubleshooting, 427
troubleshooting, 428
ports, 405
troubleshooting, 427
print spoolers, 424-425
properties, 423
solid ink, 410
subsystems, 404-405
programs
design components, 453-454
installing, 62-64
Intel, 48-49
IRQs, 102-103
laptops, 64
multi-core, 55-57
multiple, installing, 63
multipliers, 55
nanometers, 453
overclocking, 65-66
pipelining, 48
power consumption, 152
register size, 47
sockets, 57-58
software instructions, fetching,
203
speed, 50-51
speeds, 46
threading, 54
throttling, 63
troubleshooting, 66-67
upgrading, 63
video, 397-398
voltage requirements, 63
Profile tab, MMC
Windows 7, 667
Windows XP, 663
profiles, users, 490
programs
allowing through firewalls, 838
antivirus, running, 587
AutoPlay/AutoRun, disabling,
819
Backup utility, 597-598
CHKDSK, 300
Computer Management, Services snap-in, 623
CONVERT, partitions, 284
Disk Cleanup, 300
Disk Defragmenter, 301
Disk Management, 283,
290-291
status states, 298-299
diskpart utility, 283
Dr. Watson, 620
Easy Transfer, 582
Event Viewer, 680-682
force quitting, 620
HyperTerminal, 721-723
installing, 605-606
launching, 605
MBSA, 840
NIC vendor software, 846
not responding, troubleshooting, 624
nslookup, 774
paths, 475-476
Performance Monitor, Windows
XP, 683-685
pinning to Start menu, 534
print spoolers, 424-425
regedit, 491
registry, backing up, 597
REGEDIT. See REGEDIT
regedt32, 491
Remote Desktop, starting, 509
security, 840
Setup, 94-99
Start menu, customizing
Windows Vista/7, 553-555
Windows XP, 551-553
startup
configuring, 615
disabling, 615, 670
Windows Vista/7, 533
Windows XP, 524
startup folder shortcuts,
creating, 676
stopping, 680
System Configuration, 617-618
starting, 509, 617
Windows 7, 677-679
Windows XP, 676-677
System File Checker
running, 297
starting, 513
System Monitor, Windows XP,
682-683
System Restore, 603-604
registry, 604
restore points, 604
Windows 7, configuring, 654
Windows XP, configuring,
653
Task Manager, 619-620
tracert, 774
web browser options, 712
Index
test pages, printing, 424
thermal, 416
defined, 407
maintenance, 421
thermal wax transfer, 411
troubleshooting, 427-430
upgrading, 420
Windows, 422-426
wireless, 406
Printers and Other Hardware
control panel, 647-648
Printers control panel, 521
printheads
impact printers, 407-408
inkjet printers, 409
thermal printers, 416
printing, troubleshooting, 428
printwires, impact printers, 407
priority levels (SCSI IDs), 276
privacy
displays, 397
web browsers, 712
privacy filters, 397, 814
Privacy tab (Internet Explorer
Internet Options), 712
private folders, creating, 857-858
private IP address ranges, 748
proactive technicians, 787
probable cause theory
(troubleshooting), 185-190
process IDs, listing, 514
processes, killing, 514
Processes field (Task Manager
Performance tab), 224
processing laser printers, 412
processors
ALU, 47
AMD, 49-50
binary prefixes, 46
BIOS settings, 55, 98
bits, 46
bus, 47
bytes, 46
cache memory, 51-52
clocking, 53
connections, 54-55
cooling, 59-62
defined, 46
943
944
programs
Windows compatibility, 582
Windows XP Mode, 582
Programs control panel, 529, 605
Programs tab (Internet Explorer
Internet Options), 712
projector ports, 21
projectors, 394-395
properties
NICs, 769
printers, 423
protocols
DHCP, IP addressing, 766
Kerberos, 823
PPP, 783
TCP, 777
TCP/IP, 745
devices, 746
hijacking, 842
layers, 746, 779
NIC stack, checking, 772
overview, 745, 778
protocols/ports, 778-779
statistics, viewing, 510
proxy servers, 836
PS/2 keyboard ports, 36
PS/2 mouse ports, 36
PSTN (public switched telephone
network), 703
Public folder, 828
punch down tools, 741
PVC cables, 735
PXE boot (preboot execution
environment), 590
Q
QoS (quality of service), 703
NICs, 769
quad-core processors, 55
quadruple-channel memory, 215
qualities (technicians), 3-4
active listening skills, 3, 81-82
documentation, 192-193
doing one thing at a time, 110
follow up, 193
gun slingers, 110
positive attitude, 4
teamwork, 228
technical language
familiarity, 4
written communication skills,
162-163
quality of service. See QoS
quality of video, 380
quarantined files, deleting, 820
quick format partitions, 583
quick formats, 293
Quick Launch (taskbar), 538
Quick Launch toolbar, 539
quitting programs, 620
R
radio buttons, Windows dialog
boxes, 480
radio frequency ID (RFID), 813
radio frequency interference (RFI),
122
radio wireless input devices, 16
RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL), 706
RAID (redundant array of
independent disks), 291-293
troubleshooting, 299
RAM (random access memory)
defined, 10
mobile devices, 11
over 4GB, 214
performance, 203
ROM, compared, 202
types, 203
video, 400
virtual memory, 221
RAM sticks power consumption,
152
Rambus DRAM (RDRAM), 205
Rambus memory modules. See
RIMMs
random access memory. See RAM
random access time, ODDs, 337
Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL), 706
RAW volumes, 290
RCA jacks, 21
rd command, 511
RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol),
779
RDRAM (Rambus DRAM), 205
RE (reads/writes) ODDs, 335
read & execute NTFS permission,
831
read NTFS permission, 831
read-only memory. See ROM
read-only ODDs, 335
read/write heads, 252
ReadyBoost, 614
re-arming computers, 589
reassembly, 132
reconnaissance attacks, 842
recovery, 303
BIOS, 96
hard drives, 502
mobile operating systems, 493
Recovery Console, 494-495
Windows XP, 672
restore points, configuring,
856-857
Windows, 616-617
Windows 7, 675
Windows OS, 492-493
WinRE, 494-495
Recovery Console, 494-495
accessing, 495
commands, 569
installing, 495, 568
limitations, 495
running, 495
Windows XP, 672
recovery discs, 492
Recycle Bin
emptying, 477
Windows desktop, 476
Windows Vista/7, 534
Windows XP, 524
Recycle Bin icon, 475
recycling, 162
ink cartridges, 417
red laser technology, 334
redirecting browsers, 833
redundant array of independent
disks. See RAID
refilling ink cartridges, 417-418
refresh rate, displays, 385
refreshing memory, 203
REGEDIT, registry, 550-551
regedit program, 597
regedit tool, 491
restoring
batteries, mobile devices, 144
BIOS write protection, 96
cables, 124-126
case, 124
CRTs, 396
DC power plug, laptops, 131
directories, 511
dirt, 133
expansion cards, laptops, 130
files, 505, 544
permanently, 476
removable media, 486
flash drives, 227
folders, 544
hard drives, 128
laptop displays, 389
laptop keyboards, 13
memory, 218
laptops, 130
mobile devices, 220
motherboard front panel
cables/connectors, 128
motherboards, 80, 129
I/O shields, 129
retaining clips, 130
standoffs, 129
partitions, 289
PCIe adapters, 73
plastic parts, laptops, 130
quarantined files, 820
SATA drives, 456
solid-state drives, 128
speakers, laptops, 131
USB devices, 25, 347
viruses, 819-820
Windows XP components, 658
ren command, 512
renaming files and directories, 512
repair installation (Windows),
594-595
Repair Your Computer, 611
repairing hard drives, 502
repeater access points, 760
replacing. See also removing
floppy drives, 252-253
laptop processors, 64
motherboard batteries, 101
motherboards, 80
power supplies, 151-152
printheads, impact printers,
408
touch input devices, 14
replay attacks, 842
reporting security incidents,
843-844
requirements
cable modems, 706
hardware, 584-585
iTunes, 786
memory
calculating, 209-211
capacities, 209
determining, 203
installed amount, determining, 211
operating systems, 210-211
Windows 7, 584
Windows XP/Vista/7, 210
networks, 731
NICs, 765
Remote Desktop, 631
Virtual PC, 593
researching memory, 216-217
resistance, measuring, 135
resistive touch screen displays, 384
resistive touch screens, 383
resolution
digital cameras, 358
displays, 385-388
scanners, 357
resources
adapters, assigning, 109
conflicts, 104
Device Manager verification,
104
system, 102-108
troubleshooting, 184
response time, LCDs, 387
restarting computers, 513
restore points, 604
configuring, 856-857
controlling, 819
restoring
registry, 604
restore points, 604
Shadow Copies, 604
Index
regedt32 tool, 491
Regional Options control panel, 521
register size (processors), 47
registered memory, 208
registering dll files, 512
registry
backing up, 597
restoring, 597, 604
Windows, 109
registry (Windows), 491
backing up, 492
customizing, 644-645
defined, 490
dll files, registering, 512
editing, 491-492
exporting/importing sections,
551
subtrees, 490
viewing, 550
regsvr32 command, 512
re-imaging Windows 7, 589
re-installing Windows, 594-595
reliability, Windows 7, 685-686
remote access
Remote Assistance, 631
Remote Desktop, 631, 687-689
Remote Desktop versus Remote
Assistance, 630
security policies, 812
Remote Assistance, 630-631
Remote Desktop, 393, 630-631,
687-689
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP),
779
remote desktop users, 825
Remote Desktop utility, starting,
509
remote network devices
accessing, 514
attaching, 510
connectivity, testing, 511
remote network installations, 590
removable drives, 303
removable media files, deleting, 486
removing
adapters, 133
Administrative Tools from Start
menu, 657
apps, 785
945
946
restoring
System Restore. See System
Restore
System Restore utility, 603-604
system state, 598
Windows registry, 597
Resume by Alarm BIOS power
setting, 149
retaining clips, 130
retinal scanners, 816
retrieving deleted files, 544
reverse flow cooling, 143
revolutions per minute (RPMs), 254
RFI (radio frequency interference),
122
RFID (radio frequency ID), 813
RG-6 coax cable, 737
RG*-58 A/U coax cable, 737
RG-59 coax cable, 737
rich text format (extension), 485
RIMMs (Rambus memory modules),
10, 204
installing, 219
removing, 218
ring topology, 734
riser boards, installing, 8
Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA)
security token, 813
RJ-11 connectors, 736
RJ-11 ports, 33
RJ-45 connectors, 736
RJ-45 ports, 33
robocopy command, 512
rolling back device drivers, 602, 655
ROM (read-only memory)
defined, 10
RAM, compared, 202
root directories, 496
file maximum, 496
setting directories as, 514
rootkits, 833
routers
access points, 771
network layer, 745
wireless, 754
RPMs (revolutions per minute), 254
RS232 serial communication
standard, 700
RS232C, 698
RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman) security token, 813
RTF (rich text format) extension,
485
RTS/CTS (hardware handshaking),
699
rubber ducky, 764
rubber printer rollers, troubleshooting, 427
rubber rollers, cleaning, 133
running Recovery Console, 495
RW (reads/writes) ODDs, 335
S
S-Video ports, 19, 37
Safe Mode, 610-611
Safe Mode with Command Prompt,
610
Safe Mode with Networking, 610
SAFER+ (Secure and Fast Encryption Routine), 844
safety
electrical fires, 161
EMI, 122
ESD, 120-122
laser printers, 415
LCDs, 388
lifting, 3
memory, 218
MSDS, 3, 133
power, 3
refilling ink cartridges, 418
static electricity, SSDs, 275
sags (power), 155
sampling
8-bit, 346
16-bit, 347
SAS (Serial Attached SCSI), 258,
264-266
installing, 280-281
SATA (serial AT attachment), 33,
258-263
BIOS options, 99
cables, 262
connectors, 261-262
devices
installing, 271-274
motherboard connectors,
259
hard drives, power consumption, 152
SATA 1, 261
SATA 2, 261
SATA 3, 261
satellite modems, 709
saving
files, 486
power, 396
scalable link interface (SLI), 399
scanner units (laser printers), 414
scanners, 354-357
Scheduled Tasks control panel, 521
screen orientations, mobile devices,
383
screen rotation, configuring mobile
devices, 386
screen savers, 397
sleep mode conflicts, 150
screw pick-up, 123
screwdrivers, 123
scribes, 130
scroll gesture, 482
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface), 257, 264-266
cables, 279
host adapters, 264
IDs, 276-279
multiple, installing, 280
networking, 266
parallel, configuring, 276
powering on, 276
SAS, 266
installing, 280-281
standards, 265
symbols, 278
types, 264
SD (Secure Digital) memory cards,
11, 226
SDelete utility, 302
SDRAM, 205
SDSL (Symmetric DSL), 706
SE (single-ended) terminators, 277
searches (web browsers), 712
searching files/folders
Windows Vista/7, 532
Windows XP, 523
Secondary master hard disk fail
message, 186
Setup program
mobile devices, 850-851
network cabling, 738-739
networks
attacks, 841-842
VPNs, 842-843
operating systems, 818-820
passwords, local policies,
864-868
peer-to-peer LANs, 730
permissions, 827-832
physical, 813-816
physical access, locking computers, 816
policies, 812
principle of least privilege, 828
private folders, creating,
857-858
user IDs/passwords, 823-826
web browsers, 712
WFP, Windows XP support, 576
Windows Defender, 868-869
Windows System Protection,
restore points, 856-857
wireless networks. See wireless
networks
WRP (Windows Resource Protection), 579
Security control panel, 528
security logs, 620
Security tab (Internet Explorer Internet Options), 712
security tokens, RSA, 813
Selective startup radio button
(System Configuration utility),
618
self-powered hubs, 24
Sempron/Mobile AMD processors,
50
separation pad (laser printers), 414
serial AT attachment. See SATA
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), 258,
264-266
serial devices, 697-700
serial hard drive interfaces, 258
serial ports, 29, 36, 697
configuring, 698-700
DCE signal connections, 700
DTE signal connections, 700
flow control, 699-700
hardware handshaking, 699
parity, 699
RS232 serial communication
standard, 700
software handshaking, 699
transmission speeds, 698
serial presence detect (SPD), 208
server-based LANs, 729-731
Server Message Block (SMB), 779
servers
DNS
IP addresses, 767
troubleshooting, 774
email, 782
FTP, 806
home computer system configuration, 452
NOS, 729
proxy, 836
service packs, 490, 595
service packs (software), 190
service releases (software), 190
service set identifiers (SSIDs), 757
services
disabling, 505
enabling, 506
listing, 508
process IDs, listing, 514
system shut down problems,
624
troubleshooting, 623
Services and Applications category
(MMC), 609
services.msc command, 623
Services snap-in, 623
Services tab (System Configuration
utility), 618
session layer (OSI model), 745
set command, 513
Setup program, 94-95
accessing, 95
ACPI, 99
advanced options, 99
boot options, 98
date/time, 98
executable code prevention, 99
exit options, 100
general optimization, 98
hard drive encryption, 99
hard drives, 282
Index
Secondary slave hard disk fail
message, 186
sectors (hard drives), 256
Secure and Fast Encryption
Routine (SAFER+), 844
Secure Digital (SD) memory cards,
11, 226
Secure Digital storage, 358
Secure File Transfer Protocol
(SFTP), 779
Secure Shell (SSH), 779
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), 776
security
auditing, 826
authentication, 823
authorization, 823
biometrics, 815-816
BIOS settings, 100, 817
Bluetooth, 753
data, 820-821
DEP, 822
file/folder encryption, 855-856
files/folders, 826-827
flash drives, 227
FTP, 806
hard drives, backing up,
301-303
incident reporting, 843-844
Internet, 833
active scripting, 835
clear text emails, 834
cookies, controlling, 835
encryption, 833
firewalls, 836-839
hijacked browsers, 833-834
hijacked email accounts, 834
malicious code types, 839
network attacks, 841-842
phishing, 841
programs, 840
proxy servers, 836
social engineering, 840
spam, 834
VPNs, 842-843
LANs, 729
laptops, physical, 817
local policies, passwords, 826
Microsoft Security Essentials,
587
947
948
Setup program
hardware monitor, 99
Hyper-Threading, 99
IDE devices, 99
intrusion detection, 99
lojack, 99
number lock key, 98
onboard devices, 98
passwords, 98
PCI slots, 99
PCIe slots, 99
peripherals, 99
ports/connectors, disabling, 95
processors, 98
SATA, 99
system information, 98
TPM, 99
USB, 98
video, 98
virtualization, 99
virus protection, 98
sfc command, 513
SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol), 779
Shadow Copies, 604
shared folder permissions, 827-830
Shared Folders tool (MMC),
607-608
shared key authentication, 844
shared system memory, 400
shares
administrative, 826
hidden, 827
local, 826
network, 779-780
networks, corporate, 782
shares (MMC), 607
sharing
files/folders, 827-832
folders, 780
maximum users, 821
subfolders, 820
Windows 7, 860-863
Windows XP, 858-859
PCI IRQs, 105
sheetfed scanners, 354
shielded twisted-pair (STP), 734
shielding (speakers), 351
shortcuts
creating, 525
desktop icons, 475-476
ShowSounds, 649
shredding printed materials, 821
shut down options, Windows, 477
shutdown command, 513
shutting down computers, 513
Windows Vista/7, 535
Windows XP options, 525
shutting down Windows, troubleshooting, 624
signals, SCSI electrical, 277
SIIA (Software and Information
Industry Association), 843
SIM (System Image Manager), 589
SIMMs (single in-line memory
modules), 203
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP), 779
Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP), 779
simple volumes, 290
single-ended (SE) terminators, 277
single IDE setting, 267
single in-line memory modules
(SIMMs), 203
single-level memory cells (SLCs),
264
single link DVI connectors, 20
single-mode fiber-optic cables, 738
single-sided memory, 208
single sign-on authentication, 824
site surveys (antennas), 762
size
clusters, 294
display design considerations,
459
hard drives, 256
icons, Start menu
Windows Vista/7, 553
Windows XP, 551
paper, configuring, 417
PCIe slots, 72
power supplies, 152
storage devices, 457
UTP, 734
virtual memory, configuring,
221
skills, technicians
attitude, 360-361
burnout, avoiding, 632-633
customer trust, building, 851
irate customers, handling,
461-462
mentoring, 713
phone, 305
proactive, 787
staying current, 516
work ethics, 430
slave devices, 267
SLCs (single-level memory cells),
264
sleep-and-charge USB ports, 24
sleep mode, 149-150
SLI (scalable link interface), 399
Small Computer System Interface.
See SCSI
small-outline DIMMs (SO-DIMMs),
207
smart cards, 813
SmartMedia, 358
smartphones
apps, 784-786
batteries
removing, 144
troubleshooting, 153
design components, 461
displays, troubleshooting, 404
email, configuring, 786-787
GUIs, 472
multitasking gestures/screen
rotation settings, 386
notification area, 481
security, 850-851
storage, 786
SMB (Server Message Block), 779
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol), 779
smurf attacks, 842
snap-ins, Component Services, 606
snapshots
virtualization, 494
VMware Workstation virtual
machines, 643-644
SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol), 779
social engineering, 840
SSDs (solid state drives)
speakers, 350
amplification, 350-352
choosing, 351
configuring, 650
connectivity, 351
extras, 351
features, 350
frequency response range,
351
popping sounds, troubleshooting, 352
power rating, 350
power sources, 351
shielding, 351
sound designs, 458
troubleshooting, 352
volume, controlling, 650
troubleshooting, 352-354
sound cards, 345
8-bit, 346
16-bit, 347
analog to digital conversions,
346
defined, 29
frequency response, 346
installing, 347
sound design considerations,
458
troubleshooting, 353
Windows, 348
sound waves, 345
Sounds and Multimedia control
panel, 521
Sounds, Speech, and Audio Devices
control panel, 649-650
SoundSentry, 649
south bridge (ICH), 77
spam, 834
spanned volume, 290
SPD (serial presence detect), 208
SPD error messages, troubleshooting, 225
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface), 29
S/PDIF sound ports, 37, 344
speakers, 350
amplification, 350-352
choosing, 351
configuring, 650
connectivity, 351
extras, 351
features, 350
frequency response range, 351
laptops, removing, 131
mobile devices, 349
motherboard, 344
popping sounds, troubleshooting, 352
power rating, 350
power sources, 351
shielding, 351
sound designs, 458
troubleshooting, 352
volume, controlling, 650
specialized video, 398-399
speech recognition devices, 816
speed
cable modems, 705
clamping, 156
Ethernet, 741
IEEE 1394 ports, 30
memory, 216-217
modems, 701
NICs, 769
ODDs, 335-336
processors, 46, 50-51
serial port transmissions, 698
USB ports, 23
Windows boot process, increasing, 614
SPGA (staggered pin array) sockets,
57
spikes (power), 155
spilled toner, 416
spontaneous reboots (Windows),
623
spread gesture, 482
SPSs (Standby Power Supplies), 160
spyware, 840
reporting, 843
SRAM (static RAM), 203
SSDs (solid state drives), 264
cost, 264
defined, 263
defragmenting, 301
externally, 275
hard drives, compared, 263
industries supported, 263
Index
sockets, 57-58
SO-DIMMs (small-outline DIMMs),
207
sample advertisements, 217
Soft-off BIOS power setting, 149
software
defined, 5
device drivers, 5
errors, 190
firmware, 5
older Windows, 224
performance, troubleshooting,
226
printers, troubleshooting, 428
programs, 605
RAID, configuring, 291
SCSI configuration, 279
service packs, 190
software drivers, troubleshooting,
402
software-enforced DEP, 822
software firewalls, 836
software handshaking, 699
Software and Information Industry
Association (SIIA), 843
software piracy, reporting, 843
software. see
solder joints, 127
solid ink printers, 410
solid state drives (SSDs), 263
Sony/Philips Digital Interface
(S/PDIF), 29
sound
audio/video editing PCs, 451
controlling, 649-650
design components, 458
media players, 452
microphones
mobile devices, 350
sound designs, 458
Windows, 348
mobile devices, 349-350
motherboard speakers, 344
muting, 348
ODDs, 343-345
ports, 344
sound cards, 345-348
sound port colors, 345
sound waves, 345
949
950
SSDs (solid state drives)
installing, 274-275
MLCs, 264
reliability, 263
SLCs, 264
static electricity, 275
wear leveling, 263
write amplification, 263
SSH (Secure Shell), 779
SSID broadcasting, 848
SSIDs (service set identifiers), 757
access points, 757, 847-848
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), 776
staggered pin array (SPGA) sockets,
57
standard users, 825
standards
Ethernet, 741
IDE PATA, 260
IEEE 1394, 31
network, 742-743
SCSI, 265
twisted-pair cables, 735
wireless networks, 764
standby power, 134
Standby Power Supplies (SPSs), 160
standoffs, 129
star topology, 733-734
start bit, 698
Start button, Windows desktop,
476-478
Start menu
Administrative tools, 657
applications, pinning, 534
customizing, 606
Windows Vista/7, 526-527
default icons settings, 554
icon size, 553
programs, customizing,
553-555
Windows XP, 519-520
default icon settings, 552
icon size, 551
programs, customizing,
551-553
Start Windows Normally boot option, 611
starting
applications
Windows Vista/7, 533
Windows XP, 524
Notepad, 510
programs, 605
Remote Assistance, 631
Remote Desktop, 509
System Configuration utility,
509, 617
System File Checker, 513
Task Manager, 619
Windows Explorer, 507
startup files. See system files
startup folders
program shortcuts, creating,
676
verifying, 670
startup programs, 615
Startup Repair tool, 617
Startup tab (System Configuration
utility), 618
state (system)
backing up/restoring, 598
backing up Windows XP, 645
static electricity, SSDs, 275
static RAM (SRAM), 203
staying current (technicians), 516
stealth viruses, 586
StickyKeys, 649
stop 0x000000xx Kernel xxx error,
295
stop bits, 698
serial ports, 699
stopping
apps, 785
programs, 680
storage
digital cameras, 358
mobile devices, 786
storage capacities, 46
Storage category (MMC), 609
storage devices, 7, 250
cloud, 251, 304
configuring, 266
design components, 456-458
eSATA, 262
installing, 273
partitions, 287
unmounting, 274
floppy drives, 251-253
hard drives. See hard drives
IDE, 259
managing. See Disk Management
mobile devices, 281
PATA, installing, 266-270
PATA IDE, 259-260
RAID, troubleshooting, 299
removable, 303
SAS, installing, 280-281
SATA IDE, 261-263
installing, 271-274
SCSI, 264-266
cables, 279
electrical signals/terminators, 277
host adapters, 264
ID configuration/termination, 276-279
multiple, installing, 280
networking, 266
parallel, configuring, 276
powering on, 276
SAS, 266
standards, 265
symbols, 278
types, 264
SSDs, 264
cost, 264
defined, 263
defragmenting, 301
hard drives, compared, 263
industries supported, 263
installing, 274-275
MLCs, 264
reliability, 263
SLCs, 264
static electricity, 275
wear leveling, 263
write amplification, 263
troubleshooting
Disk Management status
states, 298-299
hard drive noises, 294
installations, 297
new drive installations,
295-296
previously working hard
drives, 297-298
storing laptops during travel, 144
TBs (terabytes)
performance
evaluating, 682
monitoring, 624
restore points, 856-857
services, 505-506
system bars, mobile devices, 481
System Configuration utility,
617-618
services, troubleshooting, 623
starting, 509, 617
Windows 7, 677-679
Windows XP, 676-677
System control panel, 521
system design components, 450-453
system file, 612
System File Checker
running, 297
starting, 513
system files, 612
system image disc (Windows 7),
creating, 570
System Image Manager (SIM), 589
System Image Recovery tool, 617
system images, 492
System Information window,
opening, 509
system logs, 620
System and Maintenance control
panel, 527
System Monitor utility, Windows
XP, 682-683
system partitions
NTFS, 289
Windows, booting, 612
System Protection (Windows
Vista/7), restore points, 856-857
system repair disc (Windows 7),
creating, 569-570
system repair discs, 492
system resources
defined, 102
IEEE 1394 ports, 108
I/O addresses, 106-107
IRQs, 102-105
memory addresses, 108
MSI/MSI-X interrupts, 106
PCI interrupts, 105
System Restore utility, 603-604, 617
configuring
Windows 7, 654
Windows XP, 653
System and Security control panel,
527
System State, backing up (Windows
XP), 645
system state, backing up/restoring,
598
System Tools (MMC), 607-608
system tray, icons (customizing),
603
system volumes, 290
systemboards. See motherboards
systeminfo command, 514
systemroot (%around), 613
systemroot command, 514
T
T1 connections, 783
T3 connections, 783
tables
FATs, 294
partition, 288
tablets
design components, 461
security, 850-851
tabs, Windows dialog boxes, 479
Tag Image File Format (TIF/TIFF),
356, 485
tailgating, 813
tape drives, 303
Task Manager, 619
Applications tab, 619
force quitting programs, 620
performance, evaluating, 682
Performance tab, 223
programs, stopping, 680
starting, 619
Task Scheduler, Windows 7,
689-690
taskbar
options, 538
Windows desktop, 476-478
taskkill command, 514
tasklist command, 514
tasks, killing, 514
TBs (terabytes), 46
Index
STP (shielded twisted-pair),
734-736
straight-through cables, 735
straight-through CAT 5 UTP cable,
creating, 792-794
striped volumes, 290
subdirectories, 497
subfolders, 484
sharing, 820
subnet masks, 749-750
broadcast address, 751-752
network number, 751-752
prefix notation, 750
purpose, 750
rules, 750
stopping point, showing,
750-751
viewing, 750
subtrees, Windows registry, 490
supplicants, 845
surface wave touch screen displays,
384
surge protection, surge protectors,
156-157
surge protectors, 155-157
surges (power), 155
swap files, 221
virtual memory, 304
swipe gesture, 481
switches
advantage over hubs, 742
APs, connecting, 755
commands, 500
Ethernet, 732
star topology, 733
switching power supplies, 137
symbols, SCSI, 278
Symmetric DSL (SDSL), 706
Symmetric High-speed DSL
(G.SHDSL), 706
synchronization rate, LCDs, 387
synchronizing Apple iOS devices
with iTunes, 786
Sysprep tool, 589
system
configuration information,
viewing, 514
configuring. See Setup
program
951
952
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol), 777
TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol),
745-746
hijacking, 842
layers, 779
NIC stack, checking, 772
overview, 778
protocols/ports, 778-779
TCP/IP statistics, 510
teamwork, 228
technicians
qualities, 3-5
active listening skills, 3,
81-82
doing one thing at a time,
110
gun slingers, 110
positive attitude, 4
technical language familiarity, 4
skills
attitude, 360-361
burnout, avoiding, 632-633
customer trust, building,
851
documentation, 192-193
follow up, 193
irate customers, handling,
461-462
mentoring, 713
phone, 305
proactive, 787
staying current, 516
teamwork, 228
work ethics, 430
written communication,
162-163
Telnet, 777-779
telnet command, 514
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), 846
terabytes (TBs), 46
terminating SCSI IDs, 276-278
terminators, SCSI electrical, 277
test pages (printers), 424
testing
networks, connectivity, 772-773
ODD installations, 341
ports, 188
power good signals, 154
remote network device
connectivity, 511
troubleshooting theories,
190-191
wall outlets, 153
text file format (TXT) extension,
485
text files, viewing, 509, 515
textboxes, Windows dialog boxes,
479
theories (problems)
establishing, 185-190
testing, 190-191
thermal paste, 60
thermal printers, 416
defined, 407
feed assemblies, 416
maintenance, 421
printheads, 416
thermal wax transfer printers, 411
thick client computer system
configuration, 452
thin client computer system
configuration, 452
threading, 54
Threads field (Task Manager
Performance tab), 224
throttling processors, 63
thumb drives, 227
Thunderbolt ports, 22, 391
TIFF (Tag Image File Format), 356,
485
tin memory modules, 204
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol), 846
TN (twisted nematic), 388
ToggleKeys, 649
toner
defined, 414
refilling, 418
spills, 416
troubleshooting, 429
toner probes, 740
tools
AC circuit testers, 153
Administrative, 657
Backup utility, 597-598
bootrec.exe, 617
command prompt, 617
Compatibility mode (Windows
Vista/7), 224
Complete PC Restore, 617
Computer Management,
Services snap-in, 623
corporate Windows installations, 589
DirectX Diagnostic, 342
disassembly, 122-124
Disk Defragmenter, 301, 609
Disk Management, 609
Windows 7, 669
Windows XP, 665
Dr. Watson, 620
DUN, 801
Event Viewer, 620-622
Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool, 594
HyperTerminal, 721-723
loopback plugs, 188
MDT, 589
Microsoft Setup Manager, 589
MMC, Local Users and Groups,
607-608
network cabling, 740
nslookup, 774
Performance Monitor, Windows
XP, 683-685
phone line isolators, 161
power supply testers, 144
preventive maintenance kits,
132
Recovery Console, 568-569
REGEDIT. See REGEDIT
regedit, 491
regedit program, registry
(backing up), 597
regedt32, 491
Remote Desktop, starting, 509
scribes, 130
SDelete, 302
SIM, 589
Startup Repair, 617
surge protectors, 155-157
Sysprep, 589
System Configuration
services, troubleshooting,
623
troubleshooting
tracert command, 515, 774
tracking modules, 814
tracks (hard drives), 255
transfer corona, 413
transfer corona wires (laser
printers), 414
transferring laser printers, 413
transient voltage suppressing (TVS)
ratings, 157
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), 777
Transmission Control Protocol/
Internet Protocol. See TCP/IP
transport layer
OSI model, 745
TCP/IP model, 746, 779
traveling with mobile devices/
laptops, 144
triple-channel memory, 215
triple-rail power supplies, 151
Trojan horse viruses, 586
Troubleshooter tool (Windows),
printers, 425
troubleshooting
Bluetooth, Windows, 17
BSOD, Windows updates, 604
cable modems, 708-709
Device Manager, 104
digital cameras not appearing
in Windows Explorer, 359
DirectX, 342
DNS, slookup command, 510
documentation, 192-193
drive failures, improper
removal, 227
DSL modems, 708-709
firewalls, 839
flash drive failures, 227
floppy rives, cleaning, 252
flow chart, 192
follow up, 193
ground problems, 120
hard drives, 294-299
hardware, 187-188
hijacked browsers, 833-834
hijacked email accounts, 834
IEEE 1394 ports/devices, 32-33
Internet malicious code, 839
I/O address hexadecimal
numbers, 107
keyboards, 18
Last Known Good Configuration option, 611
logical steps, 184
establishing a theory,
185-190
full system functionality,
verifying, 191
identifying the problem, 184
plan of action, 191
preventive measures, implementing, 191
testing the theory, 190-191
memory, 225-226
mice, 18
motherboard diagnostic displays, 187-188
motherboards, 80-81
My Computer icon, 523
network printers, 775
networks, 772
affected devices, calculating,
772
connectivity, 772-773
DNS servers, 774
IP addresses, testing, 774
NICs, 774-775
packet paths, 774
star topologies, 733
ODDs, 341-342
operation requires elevation
message (command prompt),
516
overview, 184
plug and play, 109
ports, physical problems, 188
POST errors, 100
AMI, 185
multiple, 187
Phoenix audio beeps, 187
written error messages, 185
power supplies, 152-155
printers, 425-430
printing, light printing, 428
processors, 66-67
programs not responding, 624
RAID, 299
Recovery Console, Windows
XP, 672
Index
starting, 509
Windows 7, 677-679
Windows XP, 676-677
System Configuration utility,
617-618
System File Checker, starting,
513
System Image Recovery, 617
System Monitor, Windows XP,
682
System Restore, 603-604, 617
registry, 604
restore points, 604
Windows 7, configuring, 654
Windows XP, configuring,
653
Task Manager, 619-620
Applications tab, 619
force quitting programs, 620
starting, 619
tracert, 774
VMM, 304
WDS, 589
Windows hard drive preventive
maintenance, 300
Windows Memory Diagnostic,
617
Windows Memory Diagnostics
tool, 225
Windows Performance utility
memory, monitoring,
223-224
Windows Troubleshooter,
printers, 425
Windows XP Mode, 582
WinRE, 617
Tools tab (System Configuration
utility), 618
topologies (network), 732-734
Toshiba netbook Synaptics touchpad settings, 15
Total Physical Memory field (Task
Manager Performance tab), 223
touch and hold gesture, 481
touch gesture, 481
touch screen displays, 383-384
touch technologies, 14
TouchFlo, 14
TPM (Trusted Platform Module),
99, 814
953
954
troubleshooting
resources, 184. See also
recovery
services, 623
sleep mode, 149-150
software
error detection, 190
patches/service releases, 190
performance, 226
sound, 352-354
mute button, 348
sound cards, 353
speakers, popping sounds, 352
UPSs, 159
USB devices, 27-28
video, 402-404
viruses
antivirus programs, running, 587
symptoms, 586
Windows
repair installation, 594-595
shutting down, 624
spontaneous reboots, 623
Windows 7 system image disc,
creating, 570
Windows 7 system repair disc,
creating, 569-570
Windows boot process, 614-616
Windows Defender, 868-869
Windows installations, 591
Windows updates, BSOD, 604
wireless networks, 849
Trusted Platform Module (TPM),
99, 814
Turion AMD processors, 50
TV tuner cards, 398
TVS (transient voltage suppressing)
ratings, 157
TWAIN (scanners), 357
twisted nematic (TN), 388
twisted-pair cables, 734-736
two-factor authentication, 814
TXT (text file format) extension,
485
Type 1 hypervisors, 593
Type 2 hypervisors, 593
Type A-B-C fire extinguishers, 161
Type C fire extinguishers, 161
type command, 498, 515
types
antennas, 763
APICs, 102
backups, 302
batteries, mobile devices, 145
coaxial cable, 737
displays design considerations,
459
expansion slots, 67
flash memory, 11
hard drive interfaces, 257
hypervisors, 593
IP addresses, 747
keyboards, 13
LANs, 729
LCDs, 386
memory, 10, 202
mice, 13
monitors, 19
motherboards, 78-79
network attacks, 841-842
networks, 588, 728
partitions, 283
PCI slots, 67
power supplies, 137
printers, 406-407
RAM, 203
scanners, 354
SCSI, 264
sockets, 57
touch technologies, 14
twisted-pair cables, 734
viruses, 586
wireless NICs, 754
U
UAC (User Access Control), 577, 608
configuring, 533
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter), 698
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 777
UDSL (Uni-DSL), 706
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware
Interface) BIOS, 96-97
UL (Underwriters Laboratories) ratings, 157
Ultra ATA/66 standard, 260
unallocated Disk Management
status state, 299
unattended installations, 590
unbuffered memory, 208
uncompressing files, 506
undervoltage, 155
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
ratings, 157
Uni-DSL (UDSL), 706
Unified Extensible Firmware
Interface (UEFI) BIOS, 96-97
UNII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure), 759
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
(UPSs), 158
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/
Transmitter (UART), 698
universal security slot (USS), 817
Universal Serial Bus. See USB
unknown Disk Management status
state, 299
Unlicensed National Information
Infrastructure (UNII), 759
unmounting eSATA drives, 274
unreadable Disk Management status
state, 299
unshielded twisted-pair. See UTP
Up Time field (Task Manager
Performance tab), 224
updates
BIOS, compatibility, 585
checking, 133
updating
automatic updates,
configuring, 646
Windows, 595-597
BSOD, 604
Upgrade Advisor, 581
upgrading
BIOS, 96
device drivers, 655
memory, 225
mobile devices, 207
motherboards, 79-80
operating systems, 580
power supplies, 151-152
printers, 420
firmware, 427
processors, 63
video
user IDs, protecting, 823-826
user profiles, 490
users
account control. See UAC
adding
Windows 7, 666-667
Windows XP, 663
Administrators, 825
groups, 664, 825
Windows 7, 667-668
Windows XP, 664
guest, 825
guest accounts, 608
local settings, 608
logging on to Windows, 580
power users, 825
remote desktop, 825
standard, 825
standard accounts versus
Administrator accounts, 608
viewing, 607
Windows user rights
assignment settings, 867
USMT (User State Migration Tool),
582
USS (universal security slot), 817
utilities. See programs
UTP (unshielded twisted-pair), 734
CAT 5
crossover, creating, 795-797
straight-through, creating,
792-794
categories, 735
installing, 736
plenum, 735
PVC, 735
sizes, 734
wiring standards, 735
V
VA (vertical alignment), 388
variables, viewing, 513
VDSL, 706
verification, Windows installations,
590
verifying
Administrative Tools, 657
firewalls, 838
full system functionality troubleshooting step, 191
NICs installation, 792
resources, Device Manager, 104
startup folders, 670
Windows versions, 490
Windows Vista/7 component
installation, 659-662
Windows XP components installation, 658
versions
WEP, 845
Windows, verifying, 490
Windows 7, 577-578
Windows Vista, 577-578
Windows XP, 576
vertical alignment (VA), 388
vertical scan rate, 385
VESA (Video Electronics Standards
Association), 22
VESA DisplayPorts, 22
VGA ports, 19, 391
video
adapters, 397-401
AGP adapters, power consumption, 152
audio/video editing PCs, 451
BIOS settings, 98
CrossFireX, 399
CRTs, cleaning, 396
Degauss, 385
digital recorders (DVRs), 452
displays
cleaning, 395
design components, 459-460
energy efficiency, 396
preventive maintenance,
395-396
privacy, 397
horizontal scanning frequency,
385
image quality, configuring, 386
interlacing, 385
LCDs, 386-388
media players, 452
memory, 399-400
mobile devices, multitasking
gestures/screen rotation
settings, 386
Index
Windows, 580-581
Windows XP, 581, 638
UPSs (Uninterruptible Power
Supplies), 158-159
upstream, cable modems, 705
upstream ports, 23
USB (Universal Serial Bus), 22
USB devices
configuring, 98
flash drives, 227
installing, 25
printers, 405
installing, 418-420
troubleshooting, 427-428
removing, 25, 347
scanners, 355
troubleshooting, 27-28
USB OTG (on-the-go), 26
USB ports, 36
3.0, 23
cabling rules, 24
configuring, 98
converters, 25
defined, 22
devices supported, 22
hubs, 24
installing extra, 26
maximum cable length, 23
mini, 25
on-the-go, 26
printers, troubleshooting,
427-428
scanners, 355
shutdown problems, 624
sound, 349
speeds, 23
troubleshooting, 27-28
upstream/downstream, 23
versions, 23
wireless, 26
USB-to-serial converters, 697
U.S. computer emergency readiness
team (CERT), 843
User Account Control. See UAC
User Accounts and Family Safety
control panel, 530
User and Passwords control panel,
521
User Datagram Protocol (UDP), 777
955
956
video
multiple displays, 392-393
multi-scan monitor, 385
output devices, 380-381
touch screen displays,
383-384
performance, 404
pixels, 385-387
ports, 19-22, 36-37, 390-392
projectors, 394-395
quality, 380
refresh rate, 385
resolution, 385-388
SLI, 399
subsystem, 380
troubleshooting, 402-404
TV tuner cards, 398
vertical scan rate, 385
video capture cards, 398
web cams, 359-360
video capture cards, 398
video cards, PCIe, 152
Video Electronics Standards
Association. See VESA
viewable size, LCDs, 387
viewing
command prompts, 496
computer mappings, 509
computers through networks,
823
control panels, 599
file/directory attributes, 500
file extensions, 484
file paths, 486
flash internal memory, 227
group policies, 507
IP addresses, 773
MMC, 606
subnet masks, 750
system configuration
information, 514
taskbar, 538
TCP/IP statistics, 510
text files, 509, 515
users, 607
variables, 513
window thumbnails, 538
Windows Explorer, 487
security-related display
options, 820
Windows registry, 550
viewing angle, LCDs, 387
virtual machines, 494
configuring, 224
customizing, 642
icons, creating, 644
network connectivity, 594
snapshots, 643-644
Windows, installing, 640-641
virtual memory, 221
configuring, 304
hard drives, 304
PAE, 223
pages, 221
size, configuring, 221
swap files, 221
VMM, 304
Windows, 221-222
Virtual Memory Manager (VMM),
304
Virtual PC, requirements, 593
virtual private networks. See VPNs
virtualization, 57, 493-494
configuring, 99
connectivity, 594
enabling, 593
Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Detection Tool, 594
host machines, 494
hypervisor, 494
hypervisors, types, 593
network issues, 770
operating system licenses, 593
snapshot, 494
system configuration, 451
virtual machines, 494
Virtual PC, requirements, 593
viruses, 594
VMware Workstation, installing, 639-640
VMware Workstation virtual
machine, 640-644
Windows 7, 593
virus protection, BIOS settings, 98
viruses
antivirus programs, running,
587
antivirus security policies, 812
BIOS, 586
defined, 585
file, 586
hijack, 586
macros, 586
MBR, 586
phage, 586
polymorphic, 586
preventive maintenance, 133
removing, 819-820
reporting, 843
scanning for, 585
stealth, 586
symptoms, 586
Trojan horses, 586
types, 586
virtualization, 594
worms, 586
VLK (volume license key), 590
VMM (Virtual Memory Manager),
304
VMware Workstation
installing, 639-640
virtual machines, 640-644
voice grade cable, 735
voice recognition devices, 816
VoIP (Voice over IP), 348, 703-704,
777
voltage, 134-135
clamping, 156
voltage regulator module (VRM), 63
voltages, power supplies, 143
volts, 134
volume, muting, 348
volume license key (VLK), 590
volumes, 287, 290
VPNs (virtual private networks),
842-843
VRM (voltage regulator module), 63
vulnerability scanners, 842
W
Wake-on-LAN, NICs, 769
Wake on LAN power feature, 148
Wake on Ring power feature, 148
Wake Up on LAN power setting, 149
wallpaper, Windows desktop, 476
WANs (wide area networks), 728
Windows
Add Printer Wizard, 772
Advanced Boot Options menu,
610-611
Aero, 577
APIs, sound cards, 348
backup utility, 303
registry, 597
System State, 598
Bluetooth, 16-17, 753
booting, 611-616
CF cards, formatting, 226
compatibility mode, 582
configuring, 600
context menus, 480
Control Panel, 478
control panels, 599
defragmenting hard drives, 301
Deployment Services (WDS),
589
desktop, 474
Aero, 577
common icons, 475
double-clicking icons, 476
icons, 474
notification area, 478
notification update icon, 596
organizing, 476
Quick Launch toolbar, 539
Recycle Bin, 476-477, 524,
534
shortcuts, 475-476
shortcuts, creating, 525
shut down options, 477
Start button, 476-477
Start menu, customizing,
606
Start menu (Windows Vista/7), 526-527
Start menu (Windows XP),
519-520
system tray icons, customizing, 603
taskbar, 476-479, 538
wallpaper, 476
Device Manager, 602
dialog boxes, 478-480
DirectX Diagnostic tool, 342
Disk Cleanup program, 300
Disk Defragmenter, 301, 609
Disk Management, 290-291
dual-booting, 592-593
DUN, 801
energy-saving features, 396
Event Viewer, 620-623
Explorer, display options, 487
file protection. See WFP
files
attributes, 488
backing up, 488
compressing, 488-489
deleting permanently, 476
encryption, 490
extensions, viewing, 484
locations, 613
paths, 486
removable media, deleting,
486
saving, 486
firewalls, 838-839
folders, 488-490
Found New Hardware Wizard,
600
Help and Support Center, 341
indexing, 485
installing, 587
activation, 588
corporate computers,
588-590
multiple computers, 583
networks, selecting, 588
setup log files, 592
troubleshooting, 591
verification, 590
VMware Workstation virtual
machine, 640-641
logging in, 474
logging on, 580
MBSA, 840
memory, monitoring, 223-224
Memory Diagnostics tool, 225,
617
Notepad, starting, 510
OEM versions, 583
older software, 224
paper sizes, configuring, 417
password policy options, 864
permission help, 832
power management, 148
Index
WAPD (Web Proxy AutoDiscovery),
836
warm booting, 95, 190
wattage, power supplies, 151
watts, 135
wbadmin command, 515
WDS (Windows Deployment
Services), 589
wear leveling, 263
web browsers, 711-712
hijacked, 833-834
redirect, 833
security, 712, 835-841
web cams, 359-360
Web Proxy AutoDiscovery (WAPD),
836
websites
battery recycling programs, 102
CERT, 843
Crucial, 216
DSL Reports, 707
electronics donation and
recycling, 381
ENERGY STAR, 396
Engineer Guy LCD monitor
teardown (quotes) video, 386
IEEE 802 standards, 743
Intel, 49
Kingston Technology, 216
SDelete utility, 302
weight, paper, 416
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy),
845-846
Western Digital PATA IDE hard
drive example, 270
WFP (Windows file protection), 576
wide area networks (WANs), 728
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), 846
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS), 847
wildcards, 499
WiMAX, 710
windows
System Information, opening,
509
thumbnails, viewing, 538
Windows
activating, 588
adapters, installing, 109
Add Hardware Wizard, 602
957
958
Windows
pre-installation, 580
pre-installation checklist
backing up data, 585
clean install, 580-582
data migration, 582
drivers, 585
file systems, 583
hardware requirements,
584-585
in-place upgrades, 581
multiple operating systems,
583
partition size, 583
power-/disk-management
tools, removing, 585
program compatibility, 582
upgrading, 580-581
virus scans, 585
printers. See printers
programs, stopping, 680
ReadyBoost, 614
recovering, 492-493
recovery, 616-617
Recovery Console, 494-495
Recovery Environment.
See WinRE
registry, 109, 491
backing up, 492, 597
customizing, 644-645
defined, 490
dll files, registering, 512
editing, 491-492
exporting/importing
sections, 551
restoring, 597
subtrees, 490
viewing, 550
re-installing, 594-595
Remote Desktop, 393
security settings, 867
services
system shut down problems,
624
troubleshooting, 623
shutting down, troubleshooting, 624
sound, microphones, 348
sound cards, 348
System Configuration utility,
617-618
services, troubleshooting,
623
system state, baking up/restoring, 598
Task Manager, 619-620
Performance tab, 223
Troubleshooter tool, printers,
425
troubleshooting, 623-624
updates
automatic, configuring, 646
BSOD after, 604
updating, 595-597
upgrading, 581
user ID/password options,
824-826
user rights assignment settings, 867
versions, verifying, 490
virtual machines, configuring,
224
virtual memory, 221-222
VMM, 304
WinRE, 494-495
XP Mode, 582
Windows 7
32-bit/64-bit, 578
advanced boot options, 611
Aero desktop, 577
applications, 533-534
backing up, 646
boot process, 613-614
booting, 673
burning discs, 337
Check now tool, 300
components, installing/verifying, 659-662
control panels, 527, 530
unique, 599
DEP, 822
device drivers, 601-603
Display control panel, 388
display settings, 531
Ease of Access, configuring,
650-653
energy-saving features, 396
Event Viewer, 681-682
accessing, 620
clearing, 622
event details, viewing, 622
Event Viewer logs, 621
Event Viewer symbols, 622
file/folder sharing, 828-831
file paths, viewing, 486
firewall verification, 838
folder sharing, Windows XP
method, 829
folders, sharing, 860-863
hard drive defragmentation,
301
hardware, installing, 602
help, 532
homegroups, 781-782
installing, 587, 638-639
activation, 588
corporate computers,
588-590
networks, selecting, 588
older operating systems, 613
setup log files, 592
troubleshooting, 591
verification, 590
libraries, 484, 282
licensing, 590
logging on, 580
memory limits, 210
memory requirements, 584
MMC, 666-669
multiple displays, configuring,
392
network printers, 800-801
networks, configuring, 797-800
older software, running, 224
password protection, 828
performance, 685-686
power, 149-150
power schemes, 532
pre-installation, 580
pre-installation checklist
backing up data, 585
clean install, 580-582
data migration, 582
drivers, 585
hardware requirements, 585
Windows Vista
virtual memory size, configuring, 221
Virtual PC, requirements, 593
virtualization, 593
VPNs, configuring, 842
Windows Defender, 840
Windows Update, 596-597
WinRE, 616-617
wireless settings, 847
WRP, 579
Windows-based help file (HLP)
extension, 485
Windows Defender, 840, 868-869
Windows desktop, My Computer
icon, 523
Windows Explorer, 472
display options, 487
security-related display options,
820
starting, 507
Windows logs, 621
Windows Resource Protection
(WRP), 579
Windows Update, 596-597
Windows Vista
32-bit/64-bit, 578
advanced boot options, 611
Aero desktop, 577
applications, 533-534
applications, starting, 533
boot process, 613-614
components, installing/
verifying, 659-662
control panels, 527, 530
unique, 599
device drivers, 601-603
Display control panel, 388
display settings, 531
energy-saving features, 396
Error-Checking tool, 300
Event Viewer, 681-682
accessing, 620
clearing, 622
event details, viewing, 622
Event Viewer logs, 621
Event Viewer symbols, 622
file/folder sharing, 828-831
file paths, viewing, 486
firewall verification, 838
folder sharing, Windows XP
method, 829
hard drive defragmentation,
301
hardware, installing, 602
help, 532
homegroup access, 782
installing
activation, 588
corporate computers,
588-590
networks, selecting, 588
older operating systems, 613
setup log files, 592
troubleshooting, 591
verification, 590
licensing, 590
logging on, 580
memory limits, 210
network printers, 800-801
older software, running, 224
password protection, 828
power schemes, 532
pre-installation, 580-583
pre-installation checklist,
584-585
programs, installing, 605
Recycle Bin, 534
re-installing, 595
Remote Assistance, NAT
support, 631
Remote Desktop, enabling, 631
resolution, configuring, 386
screen savers, 397
searching, 532
Shadow Copy, 604
shut down options, 477
shutdown options, 535
SIM, 589
Standard user versus Administrator accounts, 608
Start menu, 526-527
default icon settings, 554
icon size, 553
programs, customizing,
553-555
System Configuration utility,
starting, 617
Index
in-place upgrades, 581
multiple operating systems,
583
partition size, 583
power-/disk-management
tools, removing, 585
program compatibility, 582
upgrading, 580
virus scans, 585
programs, installing, 605
recovery, 675
Recycle Bin, 534
re-imaging, 589
re-installing, 595
reliability, 685-686
Remote Assistance, NAT
support, 631
Remote Desktop, 688-689
enabling, 631
resolution, configuring, 386
screen savers, 397
searching, 532
Shadow Copy, 604
shut down options, 477
shutdown options, 535
SIM, 589
Standard user versus
Administrator accounts, 608
Start menu, 526-527
default icon settings, 554
icon size, 553
programs, customizing,
553-555
startup, configuring, 677-679
System Configuration utility,
starting, 617
system image disc, creating,
570
System Protection, restore
points, 856-857
system repair disc, creating,
569-570
System Restore utility, configuring, 654
system state, backing up/restoring, 598
Task Scheduler, 689-690
UAC, 608
UAC, configuring, 533
versions, 577-578
959
960
Windows Vista
System Protection, restore
points, 856-857
system state, backing up/
restoring, 598
UAC, 608
update notifications,
customizing, 597
versions, 577-578
virtual memory size,
configuring, 221
VPNs, configuring, 842
Windows Defender, 840
Windows Update, 596-597
WinRE, 616-617
wireless settings, 847
WRP, 579
Windows XP
16-bit/32-bit, 576
accessibility options, 648-649
Add Hardware Wizard, 602
Add or Remove Programs
control panel, 605
Administrative Tools, 657
Administrator accounts,
accessing, 474
Administrator logins, 580
applications, starting, 524
ASR, 616
Automatic Updates, 595-596
Backup utility, System State,
598
boot process, 613
booting, 670-672
Check Disk tool, 300
components, 658-659
control panels, 521
unique, 599
device drivers, 600-602
dial-up connections, installing,
801-802
direct cable connections,
718-719
Display control panel, 388
Dr. Watson, 620
Enable VGA Mode, 610
energy-saving features, 396
Event Viewer, 680-681
accessing, 620
symbols, 622
Event Viewer logs, 620
file/folder searches, 523
file/folder sharing, 827
NTFS permissions, 830-831
permissions, 830
firewall verification, 838
folders
private, creating, 857-858
sharing, 858-859
hard drive defragmentation,
301
help, 523
homegroup access, 782
installing, 587
activation, 588
clean install, 636-637
corporate computers,
588-590
networks, selecting, 588
setup log files, 592
troubleshooting, 591
upgrading, 638
verification, 590
keyboards, configuring, 647
logging on, 580
memory limits, 210
mice, configuring, 647-648
Microsoft Setup Manager tool,
589
MMC, 662-665
multiple displays, configuring,
392
network printers, 800-801
new hardware, installing, 602
NICs, installing, 792
Performance Monitor utility,
683-685
power schemes, 522
pre-installation, 580
pre-installation checklist,
580-585
programs, installing, 605
Recovery Console, 672
commands, 569
installing, 568
Recycle Bin, 524
refresh rate, 385
re-installing, 595
Remote Desktop, 687-688
screen savers, 397
shutdown options, 525
sound, controlling, 649-650
speakers, 650
Start menu, 519-520
default icon settings, 552
icon size, 551
programs, customizing,
551-553
Sysprep tool, 589
System Configuration utility,
676-677
System Configuration utility,
starting, 617
System Monitor utility, 682-683
System Restore utility, configuring, 653
System State, backing up, 645
upgrading, 581
versions, 576
virtual memory size, configuring, 221
VPNs, 842-843
WFP, 576
winload.exe file, 612
winlogon.exe file, 612
WinRE (Windows Recovery Environment), 494-495, 616-617
winresume.exe file, 612
wiping hard drives, 302
wire strippers, 741
Wired Equivalent Privacy. See WEP
wireless broadband devices, 770
wireless hot spots, 710
wireless input devices, 15-16
wireless Internet connectivity, 710
wireless LANs (WLANs), 728
wireless network printers, installing, 772
wireless networks
802.11-based, 764
antennas, 760-764
APs, 754-756
channel IDs, 757-759
passwords, 757
repeater, 760
SSIDs, 757
Bluetooth, 753
bridges, 754
ZTI (zero-touch installations)
worm viruses, 586
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), 846
WPA2, 846
WPS (Microsoft Works text file
format) extension, 485
WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup), 847
WRI (Microsoft WordPad)
extension, 485
write amplification, 263
write-black laser printers, 413
write NTFS permission, 831
write protection, BIOS (removing),
96
write-white laser printers, 413
writing optical media, 335
written communication skills,
162-163
WRP (Windows Resource
Protection), 579
WWANs (wireless WANs), 728
X
xcopy command, 515
xD (extreme digital) memory cards,
11, 226
xDSL modems, 706
XLS/XLSX (Microsoft Excel) extension, 485
XON/XOFF handshaking, 699
Y
Yagi antennas, 763
YBs (yottabytes), 46
Z
Z277 chipset, 77
ZBs (zetabytes), 46
ZIF (zero insertion force) sockets,
57
zinc-air batteries, 145
ZIP (compressed file) extension, 485
ZTI (zero-touch installations), 590
Index
broadband devices, 770
configuring, 804
defined, 752
desktops, 752
frequency channels, 757
infrared, 776
routers, 754
security
access point settings,
847-848
authentication, 844
common network device
configuration settings, 848
configuring, 869-870
EAP, 845
firewalls, 844
overview, 844-849
WEP, 845-846
Windows Vista/7 settings,
847
WPA, 846
WPA2, 846
WPS, 847
standards, 764
troubleshooting, 849
wireless NICs, 768-769
defined, 754
installing, 803
QoS, 769
speed, 769
types, 754
Wake-on-LAN, 769
wireless printers, 406
wireless sound, 349
wireless USB, 26
wireless WANs (WWANs), 728
wiring standards, twisted-pair
cables, 735
wizards
Add Hardware, 602
Add Printer, 772
Found New Hardware, 600
WLANs (wireless LANs), 728
work ethics (technicians), 430
workgroup networks, 588
workgroups, 729
security, 824
961