Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide

Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Cumulus Linux 2.5.4
User Guide
Table of Contents
Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Table of Contents
Welcome to Cumulus Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Quick Start Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
What's New in Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Open Source Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Hardware Compatibility List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Installing Cumulus Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Upgrading Cumulus Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Configuring Cumulus Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Configuring 4x10G Port Configuration (Splitter Cables) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Testing Cable Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Configuring Switch Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Configuring a Loopback Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Installation, Upgrading and Package Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Managing Cumulus Linux Disk Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Adding and Updating Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Zero Touch Provisioning - ZTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
System Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Setting Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Netfilter - ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring switchd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power over Ethernet - PoE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
59
71
82
85
Configuring and Managing Network Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Man Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Basic Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Bringing All auto Interfaces Up or Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
ifupdown Behavior with Child Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
ifupdown2 Interface Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Configuring IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Specifying User Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Sourcing Interface File Snippets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Using Globs for Port Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
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Using Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Descriptions to Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caveats and Errata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Useful Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Switch Port Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Buffer and Queue Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
101
102
102
103
103
113
Layer 2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Link Layer Discovery Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prescriptive Topology Manager - PTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bonding - Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Bridging - VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation - MLAG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LACP Bypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Router Redundancy - VRR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP and MLD Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
118
133
139
151
154
183
200
206
211
275
Layer 3 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Routing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quagga Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Quagga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Shortest Path First - OSPF - Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Shortest Path First v3 - OSPFv3 - Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Border Gateway Protocol - BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection - BFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equal Cost Multipath Load Sharing - Hardware ECMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management VRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
282
287
289
291
293
305
315
318
339
345
354
Monitoring and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Serial Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnostics Using cl-support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending Log Files to a syslog Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Next Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single User Mode - Boot Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Interfaces and Transceivers Using ethtool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource Diagnostics Using cl-resource-query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring System Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring System Statistics and Network Traffic with sFlow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitoring Virtual Device Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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359
359
361
362
364
364
366
369
371
379
381
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Understanding and Decoding the cl-support Output File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Application Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting Network Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
386
403
406
412
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Welcome
to Cumulus Networks
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Welcome to Cumulus Networks
We are transforming networking with Cumulus Linux, the industry's first, full-featured Linux operating
system for networking hardware. Cumulus Linux is a complete network operating system, based on
Debian wheezy. Unlike traditional embedded platforms, Cumulus Linux provides a complete
environment pre-installed with scripting languages, server utilities, and monitoring tools. Management
tasks are accomplished via SSH using standard Linux commands or over a serial console connection.
This documentation is current as of December 14, 2015 for version 2.5.4. Please visit the Cumulus
Networks Web site for the most up to date documentation.
Read the release notes for new features and known issues in this release.
Release Notes for Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 (see page 5)
Quick Start Guide (see page 5)
Installation, Upgrading and Package Management
System Management (see page 56)
Configuring and Managing Network Interfaces
Layer 2 Features (see page 117)
Layer 3 Features (see page 281)
Monitoring and Troubleshooting
Quick
Start Guide
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Quick Start Guide
This chapter helps you get up and running with Cumulus Linux quickly and easily.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 6)
What's New in Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 (see page 6)
Open Source Contributions (see page 6)
Prerequisites (see page 7)
Hardware Compatibility List (see page 7)
Installing Cumulus Linux (see page 7)
Upgrading Cumulus Linux (see page 8)
Configuring Cumulus Linux (see page 8)
Login Credentials (see page 9)
Serial Console Management (see page 9)
Wired Ethernet Management (see page 9)
Configuring the Hostname and Time Zone (see page 9)
Installing the License (see page 10)
Configuring 4x10G Port Configuration (Splitter Cables) (see page 11)
Testing Cable Connectivity (see page 11)
Configuring Switch Ports (see page 12)
Layer 2 Port Configuration (see page 12)
Layer 3 Port Configuration (see page 13)
Configuring a Loopback Interface (see page 14)
What's New in Cumulus Linux 2.5.4
Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 has many new features and two new platforms. The release notes contain
information about the release as well as the fixed and known issues.
Open Source Contributions
Cumulus Networks has forked various software projects, like CFEngine, Netdev and some Puppet Labs
packages in order to implement various Cumulus Linux features. The forked code resides in the
Cumulus Networks GitHub repository.
Cumulus Networks developed and released as open source some new applications as well.
The list of open source projects is on the open source software page.
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Prerequisites
Prior intermediate Linux knowledge is assumed for this guide. You should be familiar with basic text
editing, Unix file permissions, and process monitoring. A variety of text editors are pre-installed,
including vi and nano.
You must have access to a Linux or UNIX shell. If you are running Windows, you should use a Linux
environment like Cygwin as your command line tool for interacting with Cumulus Linux.
If you're a networking engineer but are unfamiliar with Linux concepts, use this reference
guide to see examples of the Cumulus Linux CLI and configuration options, and their
equivalent Cisco Nexus 3000 NX-OS commands and settings for comparison. You can also
watch a series of short videos introducing you to Linux in general and some Cumulus Linuxspecific concepts in particular.
Hardware Compatibility List
You can find the most up to date hardware compatibility list (HCL) here. Use the HCL to confirm that
your switch model is supported by Cumulus Networks. The HCL is updated regularly, listing products by
port configuration, manufacturer, and SKU part number.
Installing Cumulus Linux
This quick start guide walks you through the steps necessary for getting Cumulus Linux up and running
on your switch, which includes:
1. Powering on the switch and entering ONIE, the Open Network Install Environment.
2. Installing Cumulus Linux on the switch via ONIE.
3. Booting into Cumulus Linux and installing the license.
4. Rebooting the switch to activate the switch ports.
5. Configuring switch ports and a loopback interface.
To install Cumulus Linux, you use ONIE (Open Network Install Environment), an extension to the
traditional U-Boot software that allows for automatic discovery of a network installer image. This
facilitates the ecosystem model of procuring switches, with a user's own choice of operating system
loaded, such as Cumulus Linux.
If Cumulus Linux is already installed on your switch, and you need to upgrade the software
only, you can skip to Upgrading Cumulus Linux (see page 8) below.
The easiest way to install Cumulus Linux with ONIE is via local HTTP discovery:
1. If your host (like a laptop or server) is IPv6-enabled, make sure it is running a Web server.
If the host is IPv4-enabled, make sure it is running DHCP as well as a Web server.
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2. Download the Cumulus Linux installation file to the root directory of the Web server. Rename
this file onie-installer.
3. Connect your host via Ethernet cable to the management Ethernet port of the switch.
4. Power on the switch. The switch downloads the ONIE image installer and boots it. You can watch
the progress of the install in your terminal. After the installation finishes, the Cumulus Linux
login prompt appears in the terminal window.
These steps describe a flexible unattended installation method. You should not need a
console cable. A fresh install via ONIE using a local Web server should generally complete in
less than 10 minutes.
You have more options for installing Cumulus Linux with ONIE. Read this knowledge base
article to install Cumulus Linux using ONIE in the following ways:
DHCP/Web server with and without DHCP options
Web server without DHCP
FTP or TFTP without a Web server
Local file
USB
ONIE supports many other discovery mechanisms using USB (copy the installer to the root of the drive),
DHCPv6 and DHCPv4, and image copy methods including HTTP, FTP, and TFTP. For more information
on these discovery methods, refer to the ONIE documentation.
After installing Cumulus Linux, you are ready to:
Log in to Cumulus Linux on the switch.
Install the Cumulus Linux license.
Configure Cumulus Linux. This quick start guide provides instructions on configuring switch
ports and a loopback interface.
Upgrading Cumulus Linux
If you already have Cumulus Linux installed on your switch and are upgrading to a maintenance release
(X.Y.Z, like 2.5.1) from an earlier release in the same major and minor release family only (like 2.2.1 to
2.2.2, or 2.5.0 to 2.5.1), you can use various methods, including apt-get, to upgrade to the new
version instead. See Upgrading Cumulus Linux (see page 36) for details.
Configuring Cumulus Linux
When bringing up Cumulus Linux for the first time, the management port makes a DHCPv4 request. To
determine the IP address of the switch, you can cross reference the MAC address of the switch with
your DHCP server. The MAC address should be located on the side of the switch or on the box in which
the unit was shipped.
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Login Credentials
The default installation includes one system account, root, with full system privileges, and one user
account, cumulus, with sudo privileges. The root account password is set to null by default (which
prohibits login), while the cumulus account is configured with this default password:
CumulusLinux!
In this quick start guide, you will use the cumulus account to configure Cumulus Linux.
For best security, you should change the default password (using the passwd command)
before you configure Cumulus Linux on the switch.
All accounts except root are permitted remote SSH login; sudo may be used to grant a non-root
account root-level access. Commands which change the system configuration require this elevated
level of access.
For more information about sudo, read Using sudo to Delegate Privileges (see page 61).
Serial Console Management
Users are encouraged to perform management and configuration over the network, either in band or
out of band. Use of the serial console is fully supported; however, many customers prefer the
convenience of network-based management.
Typically, switches will ship from the manufacturer with a mating DB9 serial cable. Switches with ONIE
are always set to a 115200 baud rate.
Wired Ethernet Management
Switches supported in Cumulus Linux always contain at least one dedicated Ethernet management
port, which is named eth0. This interface is geared specifically for out-of-band management use. The
management interface uses DHCPv4 for addressing by default. You can set a static IP address in the /etc
/network/interfaces file:
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 192.0.2.42/24
gateway 192.0.2.1
Configuring the Hostname and Time Zone
To change the hostname, modify the /etc/hostname and /etc/hosts files with the desired
hostname and reboot the switch. First, edit /etc/hostname:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/hostname
Then replace the 127.0.1.1 IP address in /etc/hosts with the new hostname:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/hosts
Reboot the switch:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot
To update the time zone, update the /etc/timezone file with the correct timezone, run dpkgreconfigure --frontend noninteractive tzdata, then reboot the switch:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/timezone
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure --frontend noninteractive tzdata
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot
It is possible to change the hostname without a reboot via a script available on Cumulus
Networks GitHub site.
Installing the License
Cumulus Linux is licensed on a per-instance basis. Each network system is fully operational, enabling
any capability to be utilized on the switch with the exception of forwarding on switch panel ports. Only
eth0 and console ports are activated on an unlicensed instance of Cumulus Linux. Enabling front panel
ports requires a license.
You should have received a license key from Cumulus Networks or an authorized reseller. Here is a
sample license key:
user@company.com|thequickbrownfoxjumpsoverthelazydog312
There are three ways to install the license onto the switch:
Copy it from a local server. Create a text file with the license and copy it to a server accessible
from the switch. On the switch, use the following command to transfer the file directly on the
switch, then install the license file:
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cumulus@switch:~$ scp user@my_server:/home/user/my_license_file.
txt .
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i my_license_file.txt
Copy the file to an HTTP server (not HTTPS), then reference the URL when you run cl-license:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i <URL>
Copy and paste the license key into the cl-license command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-license -i
<paste license key>
^+d
Once the license is installed successfully, reboot the system:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot
After the switch reboots, all front panel ports will be active. The front panel ports are identified as
switch ports, and show up as swp1, swp2, and so forth.
Configuring 4x10G Port Configuration (Splitter Cables)
If you are using 4x10G DAC or AOC cables, edit the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf to enable support for
these cables then restart the switchd service (see page 85) using the sudo service switchd
restart command. For more details, see Configuring Switch Port Attributes (see page 5).
Testing Cable Connectivity
By default, all data plane ports (every Ethernet port except the management interface, eth0) are
disabled.
To test cable connectivity, administratively enable a port using ip link set <interface> up:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set swp1 up
Run the following bash script, as root, to administratively enable all physical ports:
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Run the following bash script, as root, to administratively enable all physical ports:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo su cumulus@switch:~$# for i in /sys/class/net/*; do iface=`basename $i`; if [[
$iface == swp* ]]; then ip link set $iface up; fi done
To view link status, use ip link show. The following examples show the output of a port in "admin
down", "down" and "up" mode, respectively:
# Administratively Down
swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN mode
DEFAULT qlen 1000
# Administratively Up but Layer 2 protocol is Down
swp1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state
DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 500
# Administratively Up, Layer 2 protocol is Up
swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP
mode DEFAULT qlen 500
Configuring Switch Ports
Layer 2 Port Configuration
To configure a front panel port or create a bridge, edit the /etc/network/interfaces file. After
saving the file, to activate the change, use the ifup command.
Examples
In the following configuration example, the front panel port swp1 is placed into a bridge called br0:
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-ports swp1
bridge-stp on
To put a range of ports into a bridge, use the glob keyword. For example, add swp1 through swp10,
swp12, and swp14 through swp20 to br0:
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auto br0
iface br0
bridge-ports glob swp1-10 swp12 glob swp14-20
bridge-stp on
To activate or apply the configuration to the kernel:
# First, check for typos:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery -a
# Then activate the change if no errors are found:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a
To view the changes in the kernel, use the brctl command:
cumulus@switch:~$ brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
br0
8000.089e01cedcc2
STP enabled
yes
interfaces
swp1
A script is available to generate a configuration that places all physical ports in a single bridge.
Layer 3 Port Configuration
To configure a front panel port or bridge interface as a Layer 3 port, edit the /etc/network
/interfaces file.
In the following configuration example, the front panel port swp1 is configured a Layer 3 access port:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.1/30
To add an IP address to a bridge interface, include the address under the iface configuration in /etc
/network/interfaces:
auto br0
iface br0
address 10.2.2.1/24
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bridge-ports glob swp1-10 swp12 glob swp14-20
bridge-stp on
To activate or apply the configuration to the kernel:
# First check for typos:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery -a
# Then activate the change if no errors are found:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a
To view the changes in the kernel use the ip addr show command:
br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP
link/ether 00:02:00:00:00:28 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.2.2.1/24 scope global br0
swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP
link/ether 44:38:39:00:6e:fe brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.1.1.1/30 scope global swp1
Configuring a Loopback Interface
Cumulus Linux has a loopback preconfigured in /etc/network/interfaces. When the switch boots
up, it has a loopback interface, called lo , which is up and assigned an IP address of 127.0.0.1.
To see the status of the loopback interface (lo), use the ip addr show lo command:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show lo
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
Note that the loopback is up and is assigned an IP address of 127.0.0.1.
To add an IP address to a loopback interface, add it directly under the iface lo inet loopback
definition in /etc/network/interfaces:
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auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.1.1.1
If an IP address is configured without a mask, as shown above, the IP address becomes a /32.
So, in the above case, 10.1.1.1 is actually 10.1.1.1/32.
Multiple loopback addresses can be configured by adding additional address lines:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.1.1.1
address 172.16.2.1/24
Installation,
Upgrading and Package
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Installation, Upgrading and Package
Management
A Cumulus Linux switch can have up to two images of the operating system installed. This section
discusses installing new and updating existing Cumulus Linux disk images, and configuring those
images with additional applications (via packages) if desired.
Zero touch provisioning is a way to quickly deploy and configure new switches in a large-scale
environment.
Managing Cumulus Linux Disk Images
The Cumulus Linux operating system resides on a switch as a disk image. Switches running Cumulus
Linux can be configured with 2 separate disk images. This section discusses how to manage them
including installation and upgrading.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 16)
Commands (see page 16)
Installing a New Cumulus Linux Image (see page 17)
Clean Installation of Cumulus Linux Using ONIE over USB (see page 17)
Installing a New Image when Cumulus Linux Is already Installed (see page 24)
Understanding Image Slots (see page 31)
PowerPC vs x86 vs ARM Switches (see page 32)
PowerPC Image Slots (see page 32)
x86 and ARM Image Slots (see page 33)
Upgrading Cumulus Linux (see page 36)
Reverting an Image to its Original Configuration (PowerPC Only) (see page 37)
Reprovisioning the System (Restart Installer) (see page 37)
Uninstalling All Images and Removing the Configuration (see page 38)
Booting into Rescue Mode (see page 39)
Inspecting Image File Contents (see page 39)
Useful Links (see page 40)
Commands
apt-get
cl-img-install
cl-img-select
cl-img-clear-overlay
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cl-img-clear-overlay
cl-img-pkg
Installing a New Cumulus Linux Image
Before you install Cumulus Linux, the switch can be in two different states:
The switch has no image on it (so the switch is only running ONIE) or a clean installation is
desired. In which case, you would install Cumulus Linux in one of the following ways:
Using USB (see page 17) (see below (see page 17))
For all other ONIE installation methods, refer to this knowledge base article
The switch already has Cumulus Linux installed (see page 24) on it (see below (see page 24))
ONIE is an open source project, equivalent to PXE on servers, that enables the installation of
network operating systems (NOS) on bare metal switches.
Clean Installation of Cumulus Linux Using ONIE over USB
Following the steps below produces a clean installation of Cumulus Linux. This wipes out all preexisting configuration files that may be present on the switch. Instructions are offered for x86, ARM and
PowerPC platforms, and also cover the installation of a license after the software installation.
Make sure to back up any important configuration files that you may need to restore the
configuration of your switch after the installation finishes.
Preparing for USB Installation
1. Download the appropriate Cumulus Linux image for your x86, ARM or PowerPC platform from
the Cumulus Downloads page.
2. Prepare your flash drive by formatting in one of the supported formats: FAT32, vFAT or EXT2.
Optional: Preparing a USB Drive inside Cumulus Linux
It is possible that you could severely damage your system with the following utilities,
so please use caution when performing the actions below!
a. Insert your flash drive into the USB port on the switch running Cumulus Linux and log in
to the switch.
b. Determine and note at which device your flash drive can be found by using output from
cat /proc/partitions and sudo fdisk -l [device]. For example, sudo fdisk
-l /dev/sdb.
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These instructions assume your USB drive is the /dev/sdb device, which is
typical if the USB stick was inserted after the machine was already booted.
However, if the USB stick was plugged in during the boot process, it is possible
the device could be /dev/sda. Make sure to modify the commands below to
use the proper device for your USB drive!
c. Create a new partition table on the device:
sudo parted /dev/sdb mklabel msdos
The parted utility should already be installed. However, if it is not, install it
with: sudo apt-get install parted
d. Create a new partition on the device:
sudo parted /dev/sdb -a optimal mkpart primary 0% 100%
e. Format the partition to your filesystem of choice using ONE of the examples below:
sudo mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.msdos -F 32 /dev/sdb1
sudo mkfs.vfat /dev/sdb1
To use mkfs.msdos or mkfs.vfat, you need to install the dosfstools
package from the Debian software repositories (step 3 here shows you how to
add repositories from Debian), as they are not included by default.
f. To continue installing Cumulus Linux, mount the USB drive in order to move files to it.
sudo mkdir /mnt/usb
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb
3. Copy the image and license files over to the flash drive and rename the image file to:
onie-installer_x86-64, if installing on an x86 platform
onie-installer-powerpc, if installing on a PowerPC platform
onie-installer-arm, if installing on an ARM platform
4. Insert the USB stick into the switch, then continue with the appropriate instructions below for
your x86, ARM or PowerPC platform.
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Instructions for x86 Platforms
Click to expand x86 instructions...
1. Prepare the switch for installation:
If the switch is offline, connect to the console and power on the switch.
If the switch is already online in Cumulus Linux, connect to the console and reboot the
switch into the ONIE environment with the sudo cl-img-select -i command,
followed by sudo reboot. Then skip to step 4 below.
If the switch is already online in ONIE, use the reboot command.
SSH sessions to the switch get dropped after this step. To complete the remaining
instructions, connect to the console of the switch. Cumulus Linux switches display their
boot process to the console, so you need to monitor the console specifically to
complete the next step.
2. Monitor the console and select the ONIE option from the first GRUB screen shown below.
3. Cumulus Linux on x86 uses GRUB chainloading to present a second GRUB menu specific to the
ONIE partition. No action is necessary in this menu to select the default option ONIE: Install OS.
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4. At this point, the USB drive should be automatically recognized and mounted. The image file
should be located and automatic installation of Cumulus Linux should begin. Here is some
sample output:
ONIE: OS Install Mode ...
Version : quanta_common_rangeley-2014.05.05-6919d98-201410171013
Build Date: 2014-10-17T10:13+0800
Info: Mounting kernel filesystems... done.
Info: Mounting LABEL=ONIE-BOOT on /mnt/onie-boot ...
initializing eth0...
scsi 6:0:0:0: Direct-Access SanDisk Cruzer Facet 1.26 PQ: 0
ANSI: 6
sd 6:0:0:0: [sdb] 31266816 512-byte logical blocks: (16.0 GB/14.9
GiB)
sd 6:0:0:0: [sdb] Write Protect is off
sd 6:0:0:0: [sdb] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled,
doesn't support DPO or FUA
sd 6:0:0:0: [sdb] Attached SCSI disk
<...snip...>
ONIE: Executing installer: file://dev/sdb1/onie-installer-x86_64
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
Dumping image info...
Control File Contents
=====================
Description: Cumulus Linux
OS-Release: 2.5.3a-3b46bef-201509041633-build
Architecture: amd64
Date: Fri, 04 Sep 2015 17:10:30 -0700
Installer-Version: 1.2
Platforms: accton_as5712_54x accton_as6712_32x
mlx_sx1400_i73612 dell_s6000_s1220 dell_s4000_c2338
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dell_s3000_c2338 cel_redstone_xp cel_smallstone_xp cel_pebble
quanta_panther quanta_ly8_rangeley quanta_ly6_rangeley
quanta_ly9_rangeley
Homepage: http://www.cumulusnetworks.com/
5. After installation completes, the switch automatically reboots into the newly installed instance of
Cumulus Linux.
6. Determine and note at which device your flash drive can be found by using output from cat
/proc/partitions and sudo fdisk -l [device]. For example, sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb
.
These instructions assume your USB drive is the /dev/sdb device, which is typical if
the USB stick was inserted after the machine was already booted. However, if the USB
stick was plugged in during the boot process, it is possible the device could be /dev
/sda. Make sure to modify the commands below to use the proper device for your USB
drive!
7. Create a mount point to mount the USB drive to:
sudo mkdir /mnt/mountpoint
8. Mount the USB drive to the newly created mount point:
sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/mountpoint
9. Install your license file with the cl-license command:
sudo cl-license -i /mnt/mountpoint/license.txt
10. Check that your license is installed with the cl-license command.
11. Reboot the switch to utilize the new license.
sudo reboot
Instructions for PowerPC and ARM Platforms
Click to expand PowerPC instructions...
1. Prepare the switch for installation:
If the switch is offline, connect to the console and power on the switch.
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If the switch is already online in Cumulus Linux, connect to the console and reboot the
switch into the ONIE environment with the sudo cl-img-select -i command,
followed by sudo reboot. Then skip to step 4.
If the switch is already online in ONIE, use the reboot command.
SSH sessions to the switch get dropped after this step. To complete the remaining
instructions, connect to the console of the switch. Cumulus Linux switches display their
boot process to the console, so you need to monitor the console specifically to
complete the next step.
2. Interrupt the normal boot process before the countdown (shown below) completes. Press any
key to stop the autobooting.
U-Boot 2013.01-00016-gddbf4a9-dirty (Feb 14 2014 - 16:30:46)
Accton: 1.4.0.5
CPU0: P2020, Version: 2.1, (0x80e20021)
Core: E500, Version: 5.1, (0x80211051)
Clock Configuration:
CPU0:1200 MHz, CPU1:1200 MHz,
CCB:600 MHz,
DDR:400 MHz (800 MT/s data rate) (Asynchronous), LBC:37.500 MHz
L1: D-cache 32 kB enabled
I-cache 32 kB enabled
<...snip…>
USB: USB2513 hub OK
Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0
3. A command prompt appears, so you can run commands. Execute the following command:
run onie_bootcmd
4. At this point the USB drive should be automatically recognized and mounted. The image file
should be located and automatic installation of Cumulus Linux should begin. Here is some
sample output:
Loading Open Network Install Environment …
Platform: powerpc-as6701_32x-r0
Version : 1.6.1.3
WARNING: adjusting available memory to 30000000
## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at ec040000 …
Image Name:
as6701_32x.1.6.1.3
Image Type:
PowerPC Linux Multi-File Image (gzip compressed)
Data Size:
4456555 Bytes = 4.3 MiB
Load Address: 00000000
Entry Point: 00000000
Contents:
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Image 0: 3738543 Bytes = 3.6 MiB
Image 1: 706440 Bytes = 689.9 KiB
Image 2: 11555 Bytes = 11.3 KiB
Verifying Checksum ... OK
## Loading init Ramdisk from multi component Legacy Image at
ec040000 …
## Flattened Device Tree from multi component Image at EC040000
Booting using the fdt at 0xec47d388
Uncompressing Multi-File Image ... OK
Loading Ramdisk to 2ff53000, end 2ffff788 ... OK
Loading Device Tree to 03ffa000, end 03fffd22 ... OK
<...snip...>
ONIE: Starting ONIE Service Discovery
ONIE: Executing installer: file://dev/sdb1/onie-installer-powerpc
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
Dumping image info…
Control File Contents
=====================
Description: Cumulus Linux
OS-Release: 2.5.3a-3b46bef-201509041633-build
Architecture: powerpc
Date: Fri, 04 Sep 2015 17:08:35 -0700
Installer-Version: 1.2
Platforms: accton_as4600_54t, accton_as6701_32x, accton_5652,
accton_as5610_52x, dni_6448, dni_7448, dni_c7448n, cel_kennisis,
cel_redstone, cel_smallstone, cumulus_p2020, quanta_lb9,
quanta_ly2, quanta_ly2r, quanta_ly6_p2020
Homepage: http://www.cumulusnetworks.com/
5. After installation completes, the switch automatically reboots into the newly installed instance of
Cumulus Linux.
6. Determine and note at which device your flash drive can be found by using output from cat
/proc/partitions and sudo fdisk -l [device]. For example, sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb
.
These instructions assume your USB drive is the /dev/sdb device, which is typical if
the USB stick was inserted after the machine was already booted. However, if the USB
stick was plugged in during the boot process, it is possible the device could be /dev
/sda. Make sure to modify the commands below to use the proper device for your USB
drive!
7. Create a mount point to mount the USB drive to:
sudo mkdir /mnt/mountpoint
8. Mount the USB drive to the newly created mount point:
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sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/mountpoint
9. Install your license file with the cl-license command:
sudo cl-license -i /mnt/mountpoint/license.txt
10. Check that your license is installed with the cl-license command.
11. Reboot the switch to utilize the new license.
sudo reboot
Installing a New Image when Cumulus Linux Is already Installed
Follow these upgrade steps for both major and minor releases, where:
A major release upgrade is 2.X.X to 3.X.X (e.g. 1.5.1 to 2.5.0)
A minor release upgrade is X.2.X to X.3.X (e.g. 2.2.0 to 2.5.3)
Installing a new image is a six step process:
1. Installing the new image into the alternate image slot (see below (see page 31)).
2. Backing up your configuration files into /mnt/persist.
3. Selecting the alternate slot for next boot (that is, the slot you just installed into).
4. Rebooting the switch.
5. Copying the files from /mnt/persist to the new slot; this happens automatically if you follow
the instructions below.
6. Clearing /mnt/persist out so subsequent reboots don't load /mnt/persist.
Installing a new image overwrites all files — including configuration files — on the target slot.
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Installing a new image overwrites all files — including configuration files — on the target slot.
Cumulus Networks strongly recommends you create a persistent configuration (see page )
to back up your important files, like your configurations.
Step 1: Installing the New Image
Use the cl-img-install command to install a new image into the alternate image slot.
You can only install into the alternate slot, as it is not possible to install into the actively
running slot. The system automatically determines which slot is the alternate slot (slot 2 in
this case).
This example assumes the new image is located in the current directory (where the user is running the
command from):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-install CumulusLinux-2.5.4-amd64.bin
Click to expand full output
cumulus@switch$ sudo cl-img-install CumulusLinux-2.5.3a-amd64.bin
Defaulting to image slot 2 for install.
Dumping image info from CumulusLinux-2.5.3a-amd64.bin ...
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
Control File Contents
=====================
Description: Cumulus Linux
OS-Release: 2.5.3a-3b46bef-201509041633-build
Architecture: amd64
Date: Fri, 04 Sep 2015 17:10:30 -0700
Installer-Version: 1.2
Platforms: accton_as5712_54x accton_as6712_32x mlx_sx1400_i73612
dell_s6000_s1220 dell_s4000_c2338 dell_s3000_c2338 cel_redstone_xp
cel_smallstone_xp cel_pebble quanta_panther quanta_ly8_rangeley
quanta_ly6_rangeley quanta_ly9_rangeley
Homepage: http://www.cumulusnetworks.com/
Data Archive Contents
=====================
-rw-r--r-- build/Development
131 2015-09-05 00:10:29 file.list
-rw-r--r-- build/Development
44 2015-09-05 00:10:29 file.list.
sha1
-rw-r--r-- build/Development 140238619 2015-09-05 00:10:29 sysrootrelease.tar.gz
-rw-r--r-- build/Development
44 2015-09-05 00:10:30 sysrootrelease.tar.gz.sha1
-rw-r--r-- build/Development
8094220 2015-09-05 00:10:29 vmlinuzinitrd.tar.xz
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-rw-r--r-- build/Development
44 2015-09-05 00:10:30 vmlinuzinitrd.tar.xz.sha1
Current image slot setup:
active => slot 1 (primary): 2.5.3-c4e83ad-201506011818-build
slot 2 (alt
): 2.5.2-727a0c6-201504132125-build
About to update image slot 2 using:
/home/cumulus/CumulusLinux-2.5.3a-amd64.bin
Are you sure (y/N)? y
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
Validating sha1 for vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz... done.
Validating sha1 for sysroot-release.tar.gz... done.
Installing OS-Release 2.5.3a-3b46bef-201509041633-build into image
slot 2 ...
Info: Copying sysroot into slot 2
Creating logical volume SYSROOT2 on volume group CUMULUS... done.
Verifying sysroot copy... OK.
Copying kernel into CLBOOT partition... done.
Verifying kernel copy... OK.
Generating grub.cfg ...
Found Cumulus Linux image: /boot/cl-vmlinuz-3.2.65-1+deb7u2+cl2.5+5slot-1
Found Cumulus Linux image: /boot/cl-vmlinuz-3.2.65-1+deb7u2+cl2.5+5slot-2
done
Success: /home/cumulus/CumulusLinux-2.5.3a-amd64.bin loaded into
image slot 2.
Step 2: Backing up Your Configuration Files into /mnt/persist
Any files that have been modified from the factory default should be backed up to /mnt/persist.
Recommended Files to Make Persistent
Cumulus Networks recommends you consider making the following files and directories part of a
persistent configuration.
Network Configuration Files
File Name
and
Location
Explanation
Cumulus Linux Documentation
Debian
Documentation
/etc
/network/
Network
configuration
files, most
notably /etc
/network
/interfaces
Configuring and Managing Network Interfaces
(see page 89)
wiki.debian.org
/NetworkConfiguration
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File Name
and
Location
Explanation
Cumulus Linux Documentation
Debian
Documentation
/etc/resolv.
conf
DNS
resolution
Not unique to Cumulus Linux: wiki.debian.org
/NetworkConfiguration#The_resolv.
conf_configuration_file
www.debian.org/doc
/manuals/debianreference/ch05.en.
html
/etc
/quagga/
Routing
application
(responsible
for BGP and
OSPF)
Quagga Overview (see page 291)
packages.debian.org
/wheezy/quagga
/etc
/hostname
Configuration
file for the
hostname of
the switch
Quick Start
wiki.debian.org
Guide#ConfiguringtheHostnameandTimeZone /HowTo
(see page 9)
/ChangeHostname
/etc
/cumulus
/ports.
conf
Breakout
cable
configuration
file
Configuring Switch Port
Attributes#ConfiguringBreakoutPorts (see
page 108)
N/A; please read the
guide on breakout
cables
/etc
/cumulus
/switchd.
conf
Switchd
configuration
Configuring switchd (see page 82)
N/A; please read the
guide on switchd
configuration
Additional Commonly Used Files
File Name
and
Location
Explanation
Cumulus Linux
Documentation
Debian Documentation
/etc/motd
Message of the day
Not unique to Cumulus
Linux
wiki.debian.org
/motd#Wheezy
/etc
/passwd
User account information
Not unique to Cumulus
Linux
www.debian.org/doc/manuals
/debian-reference/ch04.en.
html
/etc
/shadow
Secure user account
information
Not unique to Cumulus
Linux
www.debian.org/doc/manuals
/debian-reference/ch04.en.
html
/etc/lldpd.
conf
Link Layer Discover
Protocol (LLDP) daemon
configuration
Link Layer Discovery
Protocol (see page 133)
packages.debian.org/wheezy
/lldpd
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File Name
and
Location
Explanation
Cumulus Linux
Documentation
Debian Documentation
/etc/lldpd.
d/
Configuration directory for
lldpd
Link Layer Discovery
Protocol (see page 133)
packages.debian.org/wheezy
/lldpd
/etc
/nsswitch.
conf
Name Service Switch (NSS)
configuration file
LDAP Authentication and
Authorization (see page
68)
wiki.debian.org/LDAP/NSS
/etc/ssh/
SSH configuration files
SSH for Remote Access
(see page 60)
wiki.debian.org/SSH
/etc/ldap
/ldap.conf
Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol
configuration file
LDAP Authentication and
Authorization (see page
68)
www.debian.org/doc/manuals
/debian-reference/ch04.en.
html
If you are using the root user account, consider including /root/.
If you have custom user accounts, consider including /home/<username>/.
If you are using VXLANs without a controller (see page 226), see this list of files (see page )to
include in a persistent configuration.
Simple Bash Script Example
Example Bash script to automate /mnt/persist backup; click to expand...
The following script is a Bash script that can help grab all the above files and push them to /mnt
/persist automatically.
#!/bin/bash
#network configuration files
cp -r --parents /etc/network/ /mnt/persist/
cp --parents /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/persist/
if [ -f /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf ]; then cp --parents /etc/quagga
/Quagga.conf /mnt/persist; fi
cp --parents /etc/quagga/daemons /mnt/persist
cp --parents /etc/hostname /mnt/persist
cp --parents /etc/cumulus/ports.conf /mnt/persist
#commonly used filed
cp --parents /etc/motd /mnt/persist/
cp --parents /etc/passwd /mnt/persist/
cp --parents /etc/shadow /mnt/persist/
if [ -f /etc/lldpd.conf ]; then cp --parents /etc/lldpd.conf /mnt
/persist/; fi
cp -r --parents /etc/lldpd.d/* /mnt/persist/
cp --parents /etc/nsswitch.conf /mnt/persist
cp -a --parents /etc/ssh/ /mnt/persist/
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if [ -f /etc/ldap.conf ]; then cp --parents /etc/ldap.conf /mnt
/persist; fi
To run the script copy the above into a .sh file (for example, sudo nano backup.sh).
cumulus@switch$ bash backup.sh
To check if the script worked use the Linux tree command:
cumulus@switch$ tree /mnt/persist
/mnt/persist
`-- etc
|-- cumulus
|
`-- ports.conf
|-- hostname
|-- lldpd.d
|
`-- README.conf
|-- motd
|-- network
|
|-- if-down.d
|
|-- if-post-down.d
|
|-- if-post-up.d
|
|-- if-pre-down.d
|
|-- if-pre-up.d
|
|
`-- ethtool
|
|-- if-up.d
|
|
|-- ethtool
|
|
|-- mountnfs
|
|
`-- openssh-server
|
|-- ifupdown2
|
|
`-- ifupdown2.conf
|
|-- interfaces
|
|-- interfaces.d
|
`-- run -> /run/network
|-- nsswitch.conf
|-- passwd
|-- quagga
|
|-- Quagga.conf
|
`-- daemons
|-- resolv.conf
|-- shadow
`-- ssh
|-- moduli
|-- ssh_config
|-- ssh_host_dsa_key
|-- ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
|-- ssh_host_ecdsa_key
|-- ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub
|-- ssh_host_rsa_key
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|-- ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
`-- sshd_config
Step 3: Selecting the Alternate Slot for Next Boot
To select the slot you just installed into, either use cl-img-select -s to switch the primary slot to
the alternate slot, or use cl-img-select with the number of the slot you want directly (for example,
cl-img-select 2).
cumulus@switch$ sudo cl-img-select -s
Success: Primary image slot set to 2.
active => slot 1 (alt
): 2.5.3-c4e83ad-201506011818-build
slot 2 (primary): 2.5.3a-3b46bef-201509041633-build
Reboot required to take effect.
Step 4: Rebooting the Switch
Reboot the switch to boot into the new primary slot.
cumulus@switch$ reboot
Step 5: Copying the Files from /mnt/persist to the New Slot
Files in /mnt/persist automatically are rolled into the primary image slot when the switch boots. For
example, in this scenario everything in /mnt/persist gets automatically copied into slot 2 when the
reboot is performed in step 4 above. The files in /mnt/persist keep their relative path after the
reboot. For example, if there was a /mnt/persist/etc/network/interfaces, it would be copied
into /etc/network/interfaces.
Use the tree command to look at the folder structure of /mnt/.
cumulus@switch$ tree /mnt/
/mnt
`-- persist
`-- etc
`-- network
`-- interfaces
So in this case /mnt/persist/etc/network/interfaces overrides the primary slot's /etc/network
/interfaces on boot.
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Step 6: Clearing /mnt/persist
If /mnt/persist is not cleared out, everything in /mnt/persist will overwrite any relative files in the
primary slot whenever the switch boots. This can be a problem is a user modifies some files but forgets
to also make the changes to /mnt/persist. It is best practice to clear out /mnt/persist so that any
subsequent users can make changes and not have them overwritten the next time the switch boots.
cumulus@switch$ sudo rm -r /mnt/persist/*
cumulus@switch$ ls /mnt/persist/
cumulus@switch$
This is an extra reminder to clear out /mnt/persist. A future reboot will cause everything
in /mnt/persist to overwrite the current primary slot.
Understanding Image Slots
Cumulus Linux uses the concept of image slots to manage two separate Cumulus Linux images. The
important terminology for the slots is as follows:
Active image slot: The currently running image slot.
Primary image slot: The image slot that is selected for the next boot. Often this is the same as
the active image slot.
Alternate image slot: The inactive image slot, not selected for the next boot.
To identify which slot is active, which slot is the primary, and which slot is alternate use the cl-imgselect command:
cumulus@switch$ sudo cl-img-select
active => slot 1 (primary): 2.5.3-c4e83ad-201506011818-build
slot 2 (alt
): 2.5.2-727a0c6-201504132125-build
The above switch is currently running 2.5.3 as indicated by the active. When the switch is rebooted, it
will boot into slot 1, as indicated by primary. The alternate slot is running Cumulus Linux 2.5.2 and
won't be booted into unless the user selects it.
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PowerPC vs x86 vs ARM Switches
The characteristics of the image slots vary, based on whether your switch is on a PowerPC, ARM or x86
platform. You can easily determine which platform the switch is on by using the uname -m command.
For example, on a PowerPC platform, uname -m outputs ppc:
cumulus@PPCswitch$ uname -m
ppc
While on an x86 platform, uname -m outputs x86_64:
cumulus@leaf1$ uname -m
x86_64
While on an ARM platform, uname -m outputs armv7l:
cumulus@leaf1$ uname -m
armv7l
You can also visit the HCL (hardware compatibility list) to look at your hardware to determine the
processor type.
PowerPC Image Slots
Read more about PowerPC image slots
On the PowerPC platform, each image slot consists of a read-only Cumulus Linux base image overlaid
with a read-write user area, as shown in the following diagram:
Files you edit and create reside in the read-write user overlay. This also includes any additional
software you install on top of Cumulus Linux. After an install, the user overlay is empty.
PowerPC Image Slot Overlay Detailed Information
The root directory of an image slot on a PowerPC system is created using an overlayfs file system. The
lower part of the overlay is a read-only squashfs file system containing the base Cumulus Linux image.
The upper part of the overlay is a read-write directory containing all the user modifications.
The following table describes the mount points and directories used to create the overlay for image
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The following table describes the mount points and directories used to create the overlay for image
slots 1 and 2.
Slot
Number
R/O squashfs
device
R/O mount point
R/W block device
R/W directory
1
/dev/sysroot1
/mnt/root-ro
/dev/overlay_rw
/mnt/root-rw
/config1
2
/dev/sysroot2
/mnt/root-ro
/dev/overlay_rw
/mnt/root-rw
/config2
A single read-write partition provides separate read-write directories for the upper part of the
overlay. The lower part of the overlay is a partition, while the upper part is a directory.
The following table describes all the interesting mount points.
Mount
Point
File
System
Purpose
/mnt/rootro
squashfs
Contains the read-only base Cumulus Linux image.
/mnt/rootrw
ext2
Contains the read-write user directories for the overlay.
/
overlayfs
The union of /mnt/root-ro and /mnt/root-rw/config1 (or config2).
/mnt/persist
ext2
Contains the persistent user configuration applied to each image slot.
/mnt
/initramfs
tmpfs
Contains the initramfs used at boot. Needed during shutdown.
x86 and ARM Image Slots
Read more about x86 image slots
Unlike PowerPC-based switches, there is no overlay for an x86-based or ARM-based switch; instead
each slot is a logical volume in the physical partition, which you can manage with LVM.
When you install Cumulus Linux on an x86 or ARM switch, the following entities are created on the disk:
A disk partition using an ext4 file system that contains three logical volumes: two logical
volumes named sysroot1 and sysroot2, and the /mnt/persist logical volume. The logical
volumes represent the Cumulus Linux image slots, so sysroot1 is slot 1 and sysroot2 is slot 2.
/mnt/persist is where you store your persistent configuration (see page ).
A boot partition, shared by the logical volumes. Each volume mounts this partition as /boot.
Managing Slot Sizes
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Managing Slot Sizes
As space in a slot is used, you may need to increase the size of the root filesystem by increasing the size
of the corresponding logical volume. This section shows you how to check current utilization and
expand the filesystem as needed.
1. Check utilization on the root filesystem with the df command. In the following example,
filesystem utilization is 16%:
cumulus@switch$ df -h /
Filesystem
Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/disk/by-uuid/64650289-cebf-4849-91ae-a34693fce2f1
579M 3.2G 16% /
Size
4.0G
2. To increase available space in the root filesystem, first use the vgs command to check the
available space in the volume group. In this example, there is 6.34 Gigabytes of free space
available in the volume group CUMULUS:
cumulus@switch$ sudo vgs
VG
#PV #LV #SN Attr
VSize VFree
CUMULUS
1
3
0 wz--n- 14.36g 6.34g
3. Once you confirm the available space, determine the number of the currently active slot using
cl-img-select.
cumulus@switch$ sudo cl-img-select | grep active
active => slot 1 (primary): 2.5.0-199c587-201501081931-build
cl-img-select indicates slot number 1 is active.
4. Resize the slot with the lvresize command. The following example increases slot size by 20
percent of total available space. Replace the "#" character in the example with the active slot
number from the last step.
cumulus@switch$ sudo lvresize -l +20%FREE CUMULUS/SYSROOT#
Extending logical volume SYSROOT# to 5.27 GiB
Logical volume SYSROOT# successfully resized
The use of + is very important with the lvresize command. Issuing lvresize without
the + results in the logical volume size being set directly to the specified size, rather
than extended.
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5. Once the slot has been extended, use the resize2fs command to expand the filesystem to fit
the new space in the slot. Again, replace the "#" character in the example with the active slot
number.
cumulus@switch$ sudo resize2fs /dev/CUMULUS/SYSROOT#
resize2fs 1.42.5 (29-Jul-2012)
Filesystem at /dev/CUMULUS/SYSROOT# is mounted on /; on-line
resizing required
old_desc_blocks = 1, new_desc_blocks = 1
Performing an on-line resize of /dev/CUMULUS/SYSROOT# to 1381376
(4k) blocks.
The filesystem on /dev/CUMULUS/SYSROOT# is now 1381376 blocks lon
g.
Accessing the Alternate Image Slot on x86 and ARM Platforms
It may be useful to access the content of the alternate slot to retrieve the configuration or logs.
cl-img-install fails while the alternate slot is mounted. It is important to unmount the
alternate slot as shown in step 4 below when done.
1. Determine which slot is the alternate with cl-img-select:
cumulus@switch$ sudo cl-img-select
active => slot 1 (primary): 2.5.3-c4e83ad-201506011818-build
slot 2 (alt
): 2.5.2-727a0c6-201504132125-build
This output indicates slot 2 is the alternate slot.
2. Create a mount point for the alternate slot:
cumulus@switch$ sudo mkdir /mnt/alt
3. Mount the alternate slot to the mount point:
cumulus@switch$ sudo mount /dev/mapper/CUMULUS-SYSROOT# /mnt/alt
Where # is the number of the alternate slot.
The alternate slot is now accessible under /mnt/alt.
4. Unmount the mount point /mnt/alt when done.
cumulus@switch$ cd /
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4.
Cumulus Networks
cumulus@switch$ sudo umount /mnt/alt/
Upgrading Cumulus Linux
If you already have Cumulus Linux installed on your switch and you are upgrading to a maintenance
release (X.Y.Z, like 2.5.1) from an earlier release in the same major and minor release family only (like
2.2.1 to 2.2.2, or 2.5.2 to 2.5.4), you can use apt-get to upgrade to the most current version. (If are
upgrading to a major (X.0) or minor (X.Y) release, you must do a full image install, as described in
Installing a New Cumulus Linux Image (see page 17) above.)
Before you upgrade a PowerPC switch, run df -m and make sure the overlay filesystem /mnt
/root-rw has at least 200MB of free disk space. See this release note for more details.
To upgrade to a maintenance (X.Y.Z) release using apt-get:
1. Run apt-get update.
2. Run apt-get dist-upgrade.
3. Reboot the switch.
While this method doesn't overwrite the target image slot, the disk image does occupy a lot of
disk space used by both Cumulus Linux image slots.
After you successfully upgrade Cumulus Linux, you may notice some some results that you
may or may not have expected:
apt-get dist-upgrade always updates the operating system to the most current
version, so if you are currently running Cumulus Linux 2.5.2 and run apt-get distupgrade on that switch, the packages will get upgraded to their 2.5.4 versions.
When you run cl-img-select, the output still shows the version of Cumulus Linux
from the last binary install. So if you installed Cumulus Linux 2.5.3 as a full image
install and then upgraded to 2.5.4 using apt-get dist-upgrade, the output from
cl-img-select still shows version 2.5.3.
Why you should use apt-get dist-upgrade instead of apt-get upgrade (Click here to expand...)
Cumulus Networks recommends you upgrade Cumulus Linux using apt-get dist-upgrade
instead of apt-get upgrade.
This ensures all the packages in the distribution get updated to the current version. apt-get
upgrade may work correctly if no packages are held back by apt. A package can be held back
if one or more of its dependencies has changed, or it can occur for other reasons. For
example, if you see this message when running apt-get upgrade:
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
"The following packages have been kept back:
linux-image-powerpc"
It means apt-get upgrade did not install the kernel package. However, apt-get distupgrade would have picked it up. Most applications in Cumulus Linux rely on the correct
kernel version. If an application doesn't get the kernel version it expects, It may result in a nonfunctional system.
You can manually install a held back package by running apt-get install on it:
apt-get install linux-image-powerpc
If you must use apt-get upgrade, run it twice. For the second time, include the -s or -dry-run option to verify that all packages were picked up when you upgraded. Otherwise,
you must manually install any held back packages to complete the upgrade.
apt-get upgrade --dry-run
Reverting an Image to its Original Configuration (PowerPC Only)
On PowerPC-based systems, you may want to clear out the read-write user overlay area. Perhaps
something was misconfigured, or was deleted by mistake, or some unneeded software was installed.
You can purge the read-write overlay using the cl-img-clear-overlay command, passing the slot
number as an argument. For example, to purge the read-write overlay for image slot 2, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-clear-overlay 2
Success: Overlay configuration 2 will be re-initialized during the next
reboot.
You must reboot the switch to complete the purge.
Reprovisioning the System (Restart Installer)
You can reprovision the system, wiping out the contents of both image slots and /mnt/persist.
To initiate the provisioning and installation process, use cl-img-select -i:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -i
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WARNING:
WARNING: Operating System install requested.
WARNING: This will wipe out all system data.
WARNING:
Are you sure (y/N)? y
Enabling install at next reboot...done.
Reboot required to take effect.
A reboot is required for the reinstall to begin.
If you change your mind, you can cancel a pending reinstall operation by using cl-imgselect -c:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -c
Cancelling pending install at next reboot...done.
Uninstalling All Images and Removing the Configuration
To remove all installed images and configurations, returning the switch to its factory defaults, use climg-select -k:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -k
WARNING:
WARNING: Operating System uninstall requested.
WARNING: This will wipe out all system data.
WARNING:
Are you sure (y/N)? y
Enabling uninstall at next reboot...done.
Reboot required to take effect.
A reboot is required for the uninstall to begin.
If you change your mind you can cancel a pending uninstall operation by using cl-imgselect -c:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -c
Cancelling pending uninstall at next reboot...done.
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Booting into Rescue Mode
If your system becomes broken is some way, you may be able to correct things by booting into ONIE
rescue mode. In rescue mode, the file systems are unmounted and you can use various Cumulus Linux
utilities to try and fix the problem.
To reboot the system into the ONIE rescue mode, use cl-img-select -r:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -r
WARNING:
WARNING: Rescue boot requested.
WARNING:
Are you sure (y/N)? y
Enabling rescue at next reboot...done.
Reboot required to take effect.
A reboot is required to boot into rescue mode.
If you change your mind you can cancel a pending rescue boot operation by using cl-imgselect -c:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-select -c
Cancelling pending rescue at next reboot...done.
Inspecting Image File Contents
From a running system you can display the contents of a Cumulus Linux image file using cl-img-pkg
-d:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-pkg -d /var/lib/cumulus/installer/onieinstaller
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
Control File Contents
=====================
Description: Cumulus Linux
OS-Release: 2.1.0-0556262-201406101128-NB
Architecture: amd64
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Date: Tue, 10 Jun 2014 11:44:28 -0700
Installer-Version: 1.2
Platforms: im_n29xx_t40n mlx_sx1400_i73612 dell_s6000_s1220
Homepage: http://www.cumulusnetworks.com/
Data Archive Contents
=====================
128 2014-06-10
44 2014-06-10
104276331 2014-06-10
44 2014-06-10
5391348 2014-06-10
44 2014-06-10
cumulus@switch:~$
18:44:26
18:44:27
18:44:27
18:44:27
18:44:26
18:44:27
file.list
file.list.sha1
sysroot-internal.tar.gz
sysroot-internal.tar.gz.sha1
vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz
vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz.sha1
You can also extract the image files to the current directory with the -e option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-img-pkg -e
installer
Verifying image checksum ... OK.
Preparing image archive ... OK.
file.list
file.list.sha1
sysroot-internal.tar.gz
sysroot-internal.tar.gz.sha1
vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz
vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz.sha1
Success: Image files extracted OK.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ls -l
total 107120
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000
128 Jun
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000
44 Jun
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000 104276331 Jun
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000
44 Jun
sha1
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000
5391348 Jun
-rw-r--r-- 1 1063 3000
44 Jun
sha1
/var/lib/cumulus/installer/onie-
10
10
10
10
18:44
18:44
18:44
18:44
file.list
file.list.sha1
sysroot-internal.tar.gz
sysroot-internal.tar.gz.
10 18:44 vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz
10 18:44 vmlinuz-initrd.tar.xz.
Useful Links
Open Network Install Environment (ONIE) Home Page
Adding and Updating Packages
You use the Advanced Packaging Tool (APT) to manage additional applications (in the form of packages)
and to install the latest updates.
Contents
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 40)
Commands (see page 41)
Updating the Package Cache (see page 41)
Listing Available Packages (see page 42)
Adding a Package (see page 43)
Listing Installed Packages (see page 44)
Upgrading to Newer Versions of Installed Packages (see page 45)
Upgrading a Single Package (see page 45)
Upgrading All Packages (see page 45)
Adding Packages from Another Repository (see page 45)
Configuration Files (see page 46)
Useful Links (see page 46)
Commands
apt-get
apt-cache
dpkg
Updating the Package Cache
To work properly, APT relies on a local cache of the available packages. You must populate the cache
initially, and then periodically update it with apt-get update:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get update
Get:1 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5 Release.gpg [490 B]
Get:2 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5 Release [16.2 kB]
Get:3 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/main powerpc
Packages [181 kB]
Get:4 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/addons powerpc
Packages [75.1 kB]
Get:5 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/updates powerpc
Packages [112 kB]
Get:6 http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/security-updates
powerpc Packages [28.5 kB]
Ign http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/addons Translation-en
Ign http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/main Translation-en
Ign http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/security-updates
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Translation-en
Ign http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-2.5/updates Translation-en
Fetched 413 kB in 3s (117 kB/s)Reading package lists... Done
Listing Available Packages
Once the cache is populated, use apt-cache to search the cache to find the packages you are
interested in or to get information about an available package. Here are examples of the search and
show sub-commands:
cumulus@switch:~$ apt-cache search tcp
libwrap0-dev - Wietse Venema's TCP wrappers library, development files
libwrap0 - Wietse Venema's TCP wrappers library
librelp0 - Reliable Event Logging Protocol (RELP) library
socat - multipurpose relay for bidirectional data transfer
openssh-client - secure shell (SSH) client, for secure access to remote
machines
netbase - Basic TCP/IP networking system
libpq5 - PostgreSQL C client library
tcpdump - command-line network traffic analyzer
openssh-server - secure shell (SSH) server, for secure access from remote
machines
librelp-dev - Reliable Event Logging Protocol (RELP) library - development
files
fakeroot - tool for simulating superuser privileges
rsyslog - reliable system and kernel logging daemon
quagga-doc - documentation files for quagga
quagga - BGP/OSPF/RIP routing daemon
jdoo - utility for monitoring and managing daemons or similar programs
iperf - Internet Protocol bandwidth measuring tool
nmap - The Network Mapper
tcpstat - network interface statistics reporting tool
tcpreplay - Tool to replay saved tcpdump files at arbitrary speeds
nuttcp - network performance measurement tool
collectd-core - statistics collection and monitoring daemon (core system)
tcpxtract - extracts files from network traffic based on file signatures
nagios-plugins-basic - Plugins for nagios compatible monitoring systems
tcptrace - Tool for analyzing tcpdump output
python-dpkt - Python packet creation / parsing module
jdoo - utility for monitoring and managing daemons or similar programs
cumulus@switch:~$ apt-cache show tcpreplay
Package: tcpreplay
Priority: optional
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Section: net
Installed-Size: 984
Maintainer: Noël Köthe <noel@debian.org>
Architecture: powerpc
Version: 3.4.3-2+wheezy1
Depends: libc6 (>= 2.7), libpcap0.8 (>= 0.9.8)
Filename: pool/CumulusLinux-2.5/addons/tcpreplay_3.4.3-2+wheezy1_powerpc.deb
Size: 435904
MD5sum: cf20bec7282ef77a091e79372a29fe1e
SHA1: 8ee1b9b02dacd0c48a474844f4466eb54c7e1568
SHA256: 03dc29057cb608d2ddf08207aedf18d47988ed6c23db0af69d30746768a639ae
SHA512:
a411b08e7a7bea62331c527d152533afca735b795f2118507260a5a0c3b6143500df9f6723cf
f736a1de0969a63e7a7ad0ce8a181ea7dfb36e2330a95d046fb1
Description: Tool to replay saved tcpdump files at arbitrary speeds
Tcpreplay is aimed at testing the performance of a NIDS by
replaying real background network traffic in which to hide
attacks. Tcpreplay allows you to control the speed at which the
traffic is replayed, and can replay arbitrary tcpdump traces. Unlike
programmatically-generated artificial traffic which doesn't
exercise the application/protocol inspection that a NIDS performs,
and doesn't reproduce the real-world anomalies that appear on
production networks (asymmetric routes, traffic bursts/lulls,
fragmentation, retransmissions, etc.), tcpreplay allows for exact
replication of real traffic seen on real networks.
Homepage: http://tcpreplay.synfin.net/
cumulus@switch:~$
The search commands look for the search terms not only in the package name but in other
parts of the package information. Consequently, it will match on more packages than you
would expect.
Adding a Package
In order to add a new package, first ensure the package is not already installed in the system:
cumulus@switch:~$ dpkg -l | grep {name of package}
If the package is installed already, ensure it’s the version you need. If it’s an older version, then update
the package from the Cumulus Linux repository:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get update
If the package is not already on the system, add it by running apt-get install. This retrieves the
package from the Cumulus Linux repository and installs it on your system together with any other
packages that this package might depend on.
For example, the following adds the package tcpreplay to the system:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get install tcpreplay
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following NEW packages will be installed:
tcpreplay
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 1 not upgraded.
Need to get 436 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1008 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Get:1 https://repo.cumulusnetworks.com/ CumulusLinux-1.5/main tcpreplay
powerpc 3.4.3-2+wheezy1 [436 kB]
Fetched 436 kB in 0s (1501 kB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package tcpreplay.
(Reading database ... 15930 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking tcpreplay (from .../tcpreplay_3.4.3-2+wheezy1_powerpc.deb) ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Setting up tcpreplay (3.4.3-2+wheezy1) ...
cumulus@switch:~$
Listing Installed Packages
The APT cache contains information about all the packages available on the repository. To see which
packages are actually installed on your system, use dpkg. The following example lists all the packages
on the system that have "tcp" in their package names:
cumulus@switch:~$ dpkg -l \*tcp\*
Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold
| Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trigpend
|/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad)
||/ Name
Version
Architecture Description
+++-==============-============-=============================================
ii
tcpd
7.6.q-24
powerpc
Wietse Venema's TCP wrapper
4.3.0-1
powerpc
command-line network traffic
utili
ii
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
anal
ii
tcpreplay
3.4.3-2+whee powerpc
Tool to replay saved tcpdump
file
cumulus@switch:~$
Upgrading to Newer Versions of Installed Packages
Upgrading a Single Package
A single package can be upgraded by simply installing that package again with apt-get install. You
should perform an update first so that the APT cache is populated with the latest information about the
packages.
To see if a package needs to be upgraded, use apt-cache show <pkgname> to show the latest
version number of the package. Use dpkg -l <pkgname> to show the version number of the installed
package.
Upgrading All Packages
You can update all packages on the system with apt-get update. This upgrades all installed versions
with their latest versions but will not install any new packages.
Adding Packages from Another Repository
As shipped, Cumulus Linux searches the Cumulus Linux repository for available packages. You can add
additional repositories to search by adding them to the list of sources that apt-get consults. See man
sources.list for more information.
For several packages, Cumulus Networks has added features or made bug fixes and these
packages must not be replaced with versions from other repositories. Cumulus Linux has
been configured to ensure that the packages from the Cumulus Linux repository are always
preferred over packages from other repositories.
If you want to install packages that are not in the Cumulus Linux repository, the procedure is the same
as above with one additional step.
Packages not part of the Cumulus Linux Repository have generally not been tested, and may
not be supported by Cumulus Linux support.
Installing packages outside of the Cumulus Linux repository requires the use of apt-get, but,
depending on the package, easy-install and other commands can also be used.
To install a new package, please complete the following steps:
1. First, ensure package is not already installed in the system. Use the dpkg command:
cumulus@switch:~$ dpkg -l | grep {name of package}
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2. If the package is installed already, ensure it's the version you need. If it's an older version, then
update the package from the Cumulus Linux repository:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get update
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get install {name of package}
3. If the package is not on the system, then most likely the package source location is also not in
the /etc/apt/sources.list file. If the source for the new package is not in sources.list,
please edit and add the appropriate source to the file. For example, add the following if you
wanted a package from the Debian repository that is not in the Cumulus Linux repository:
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian wheezy main
deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main
Otherwise, the repository may be listed in /etc/apt/sources.list but is commented out, as
can be the case with the testing repository:
#deb http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-VERSION testing
To uncomment the repository, remove the # at the start of the line, then save the file:
deb http://repo.cumulusnetworks.com CumulusLinux-VERSION testing
4. Run apt-get update then install the package:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get update
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get install {name of package}
Configuration Files
/etc/apt/apt.conf
/etc/apt/preferences
/etc/apt/sources.list
Useful Links
Debian GNU/Linux FAQ, Ch 8 Package management tools
man pages for apt-get, dpkg, sources.list, apt_preferences
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Zero Touch Provisioning - ZTP
Zero touch provisioning (ZTP) allows devices to be quickly deployed in large-scale environments. Data
center engineers only need to rack and stack the switch, then connect it to the management network —
or alternatively, insert a USB stick and boot the switch. From here, the provisioning process can start
automatically and deploy a configuration.
The provisioning framework allows for a one-time, user-provided script to be executed. This script can
be used to add the switch to a configuration management (CM) platform such as puppet, Chef,
CFEngine, or even a custom, home-grown tool.
In addition, you can use the autoprovision command in Cumulus Linux to manually invoke your
provisioning script.
ZTP in Cumulus Linux can occur automatically in one of two ways:
Via DHCP
Using a USB drive inserted into the switch (ZTP-USB)
The two methods for using ZTP are discussed below in greater detail.
The standard Cumulus Linux license requires you to page through the license file before
accepting the terms, which can hinder an unattended installation like zero touch provisioning.
To request a license without the EULA, email licensing@cumulusnetworks.com.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 47)
Commands (see page 48)
Zero Touch Provisioning over DHCP (see page 48)
Triggering ZTP over DHCP (see page 48)
Configuring The DCHP Server (see page 48)
Detailed Look at HTTP Headers (see page 49)
Testing and Debugging ZTP Scripts for DHCP (see page 49)
Zero Touch Provisioning Using USB (ZTP-USB) (see page 49)
Testing and Debugging ZTP-USB Scripts (see page 51)
Writing ZTP Scripts (see page 52)
Example ZTP Scripts (see page 52)
(see page 53)
Manually Using the autoprovision Command (see page 54)
Notes (see page 55)
Configuration Files (see page 56)
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Commands
autoprovision
Zero Touch Provisioning over DHCP
For ZTP using DHCP, provisioning initially takes place over the management network and is initiated via
a DHCP hook. A DHCP option is used to specify a configuration script. This script is then requested from
the Web server and executed locally on the switch.
The zero touch provisioning process over DHCP follows these steps:
1. The first time you boot Cumulus Linux, eth0 is configured for DHCP and makes a DHCP request.
2. The DHCP server offers a lease to the switch.
3. If option 239 is present in the response, the zero touch provisioning process itself will start.
4. The zero touch provisioning process requests the contents of the script from the URL, sending
additional HTTP headers (see page 49) containing details about the switch.
5. The script's contents are parsed to ensure it contains the CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING flag
(see example scripts (see page 53)).
6. The autoprovision command checks its configuration file (see page 56) to see if
autoprovisioning has already occurred and completed.
7. If autoprovision determines that provisioning is necessary, then the script executes locally on
the switch with root privileges.
8. The return code of the script gets examined. If it is 0, then the provisioning state is marked as
complete in the autoprovisioning configuration file.
Triggering ZTP over DHCP
If provisioning has not already occurred, it is possible to trigger the zero touch provisioning process
over DHCP when eth0 is set to use DHCP and one of the following events occur:
Booting the switch
Plugging a cable into or unplugging it from the eth0 port
Disconnecting then reconnecting the switch's power cord
Configuring The DCHP Server
During the DHCP process over eth0, Cumulus Linux will request DHCP option 239. This option is used
to specify the custom provisioning script.
For example, the /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf file for an ISC DHCP server would look like:
option cumulus-provision-url code 239 = text;
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
option cumulus-provision-url "http://192.168.0.2/demo.sh";
}
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Additionally, the hostname of the switch can be specified via the host-name option:
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
option cumulus-provision-url "http://192.168.0.2/demo.sh";
host dc1-tor-sw1 { hardware ethernet 44:38:39:00:1a:6b; fixedaddress 192.168.0.101; option host-name "dc1-tor-sw1"; }
}
Detailed Look at HTTP Headers
The following HTTP headers are sent in the request to the webserver to retrieve the provisioning script:
Header
-----User-Agent
AutoProvision/0.4
CUMULUS-ARCH
CUMULUS-BUILD
09251712-final
CUMULUS-LICENSE-INSTALLED
CUMULUS-MANUFACTURER
CUMULUS-PRODUCTNAME
CUMULUS-SERIAL
CUMULUS-VERSION
CUMULUS-PROV-COUNT
CUMULUS-PROV-MAX
Value
-----
Example
------CumulusLinux-
CPU architecture
powerpc
1.5.1-5c6829a-2013
Either 0 or 1
1
dni
et-7448bf
XYZ123004
1.5.1
0
32
Testing and Debugging ZTP Scripts for DHCP
One can manually run a provisioning session at any time using --force (-f) option with the
autoprovision command as shown below:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision --force --url
http://192.168.1.1/demo.sh
Zero Touch Provisioning Using USB (ZTP-USB)
This feature has been tested only with "thumb" drives, not an actual external large USB hard
drive.
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Cumulus Linux supports the use of a FAT32, FAT16, or VFAT-formatted USB drive as an installation
source for ZTP scripts. A daemon called ztp-usb runs by default in Cumulus Linux (you can disable it
by specifying START=no in /etc/default/ztp-usb).You can plug in a USB stick at any time — when
you power up a switch or even when the switch has been running for some time. This is useful for
performing a full installation of the operating system for cases like fresh installs or disaster recovery.
At minimum, the script should:
Install the Cumulus Linux operating system and license.
Copy over a basic configuration to the switch.
Restart the switch or the relevant serves to get switchd up and running with that configuration.
Follow these steps to perform zero touch provisioning using USB:
1. Copy the Cumulus Linux license and installation image (see page 17) to the USB stick.
2. When Cumulus Linux boots, the ztp-usb daemon starts.
3. Every 30 seconds, the ztp-usb daemon looks for unmounted FAT32-, FAT16- or VFAT-formatted
volumes.
4. Each new device detected by the kernel is mounted to /mnt/usb.
5. The daemon searches the root filesystem of the newly mounted device for filenames matching
an ONIE-style waterfall (see the patterns and examples below), looking for the most specific
name first, and ending at the most generic.
6. The script's contents are parsed to ensure it contains the CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING flag
(see example scripts (see page 53)).
7. The autoprovision command checks its configuration file (see page 56) to see if
autoprovisioning has already occurred and completed.
8. If autoprovision determines that provisioning is necessary, then the script executes locally on
the switch with root privileges.
9. The return code of the script gets examined. If it is 0, then the provisioning state is marked as
complete in the autoprovisioning configuration file.
The filenames searched are as follows:
'cumulus-ztp-' + architecture + '-' + vendor + '_' + model + '-r' +
revision
'cumulus-ztp-' + architecture + '-' + vendor + '_' + model
'cumulus-ztp-' + vendor + '_' + model
'cumulus-ztp-' + architecture
'cumulus-ztp'
For example:
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp-powerpc-cel_smallstone-rUNKNOWN
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp-powerpc-cel_smallstone
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp-cel_smallstone
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp-powerpc
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp
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Testing and Debugging ZTP-USB Scripts
It is possible to test the scripts you've written for ztp-usb using the techniques described below.
Once a script has been placed on a USB drive and is ready for testing follow the procedure below:
1. Disable the ztp-usb daemon.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ztp-usb stop
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ztp-usb status
[FAIL] ztp-usb is not running ... failed!
2. Insert the USB stick into the switch.
3. Move the autoprovision configuration file to a safe location.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mv /var/lib/cumulus/autoprovision.conf
/var/lib/cumulus/autoprovision.conf.original
By moving the configuration file to a new location, the autoprovision framework has no
record of previous provisioning successes or failures, which means any new attempt to
autoprovision succeeds.
4. Use debugging mode to run the ztp-usb script.
cumulus@wan1$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/ztp-usb -d
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,280 Initial hash value
731845549779ee9c37bd630c7d24cc1d
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,280 Parsing partitions
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,518 /dev/sda: unsupported partition
type =
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,519 INFO: Trying to mount: "/dev
/sda1" of type: "vfat"
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,519 Creating /mnt/usb mount
directory
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,640 Waterfall search for /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp-unknown-accton_as5712_54x-rUNKNOWN
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,640 Waterfall search for /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp-unknown-accton_as5712_54x
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,640 Waterfall search for /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp-unknown-accton
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,640 Waterfall search for /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp-unknown
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,640 Waterfall search for /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,641 Found matching name, passing
/mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp to autoprovision wrapper
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:49,641 Found /mnt/usb/cumulus-ztp
script, passing to autoprovision
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ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,370 Script returned exit code 0
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,370 Unmounting drive and removing
mountpoint.
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/sdb: unsupported partition
type =
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/sdb1: unsupported
partition type =
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/sdb2: unsupported
partition type = ext4
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/sdb3: unsupported
partition type = ext4
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/sdb4: unsupported
partition type = LVM2_member
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/CUMULUS-PERSIST:
unsupported partition type = RM=0
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,396 /dev/CUMULUS-SYSROOT1:
unsupported partition type = RM=0
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,397 /dev/CUMULUS-SYSROOT2:
unsupported partition type = RM=0
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:39:51,397 Current hash value
731845549779ee9c37bd630c7d24cc1d
ztp-usb: 2015-09-18 14:40:21,427 Current hash value
731845549779ee9c37bd630c7d24cc1d
Writing ZTP Scripts
Remember to include the following line in any of the supported scripts which are expected to
be run via the autoprovisioning framework.
# CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING
This line is required somewhere in the script file in order for execution to occur.
The script must contain the CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING flag. This can be in a comment or remark
and does not needed to be echoed or written to stdout.
The script can be written in any language currently supported by Cumulus Linux, such as:
Perl
Python
Ruby
Shell
The script must return an exit code of 0 upon success, as this triggers the autoprovisioning process to
be marked as complete in the autoprovisioning configuration file.
Example ZTP Scripts
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The following script install Cumulus Linux and its license from USB and applies a configuration:
#!/bin/bash
function error() {
echo -e "\e[0;33mERROR: The Zero Touch Provisioning script failed
while running the command $BASH_COMMAND at line $BASH_LINENO.\e[0m" >&
2
exit 1
}
# Log all output from this script
exec >/var/log/autoprovision 2>&1
trap error ERR
#Add Debian Repositories
echo "deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian wheezy main" >> /etc/apt
/sources.list
echo "deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main" >> /etc/apt
/sources.list
#Update Package Cache
apt-get update -y
#Install netshow diagnostics commands
apt-get install -y netshow htop nmap
#Load interface config from usb
cp /mnt/usb/interfaces /etc/network/interfaces
#Load port config from usb
#
(if breakout cables are used for certain interfaces)
cp /mnt/usb/ports.conf /etc/cumulus/ports.conf
#Install a License from usb and restart switchd
cl-license -i /mnt/usb/license.txt && service switchd restart
#Reload interfaces to apply loaded config
ifreload -a
#Output state of interfaces
netshow interface
# CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING
exit 0
Here is a simple script to install puppet:
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#!/bin/bash
function error() {
echo -e "\e[0;33mERROR: The Zero Touch Provisioning script failed
while running the command $BASH_COMMAND at line $BASH_LINENO.\e[0m" >&
2
exit 1
}
trap error ERR
apt-get update -y
apt-get upgrade -y
apt-get install puppet -y
sed -i /etc/default/puppet -e 's/START=no/START=yes/'
sed -i /etc/puppet/puppet.conf -e 's/\[main\]/\[main\]
\npluginsync=true/'
service puppet restart
# CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING
exit 0
This script illustrates how to specify an internal APT mirror and puppet master:
#!/bin/bash
function error() {
echo -e "\e[0;33mERROR: The Zero Touch Provisioning script failed
while running the command $BASH_COMMAND at line $BASH_LINENO.\e[0m" >&
2
exit 1
}
trap error ERR
sed -i /etc/apt/sources.list -e 's/repo.cumulusnetworks.com/labrepo.
mycompany.com/'
apt-get update -y
apt-get upgrade -y
apt-get install puppet -y
sed -i /etc/default/puppet -e 's/START=no/START=yes/'
sed -i /etc/puppet/puppet.conf -e 's/\[main\]/\[main\]
\npluginsync=true/'
sed -i /etc/puppet/puppet.conf -e 's/\[main\]/\[main\]
\nserver=labpuppet.mycompany.com/'
service puppet restart
# CUMULUS-AUTOPROVISIONING
exit 0
Now puppet can take over management of the switch, configuration authentication, changing the
default root password, and setting up interfaces and routing protocols.
Manually Using the autoprovision Command
Be sure to specify the full path to the autoprovision command.
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All forms of ZTP use the autoprovision command on the backend to execute a provided provisioning
script, whether that script is sourced from a URL over the network or locally via a file from a USB drive.
One of the benefits of using the autoprovision command — instead of simply scheduling a cronjob
to run your script — is that autoprovision tracks whether or not a script has already been executed
(and when) in its configuration file /var/lib/cumulus/autoprovision.conf, ensuring that a switch
that has already been provisioned is not accidentally provisioned again at a later date.
Users with root privileges can interact with the autoprovision command directly using the examples
below.
To enable zero touch provisioning, use the -e option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision -e
To run the provisioning script against a script hosted on a Web server, use the -u option and include
the URL to the script:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision -u http://192.
168.0.1/ztp.sh
To run the provisioning script against a script hosted on the local filesystem, use the --file or -i
option and include the file location of the script:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision --file /mnt/usb
/cumulus-ztp.sh
To disable zero touch provisioning, use the -x option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision -x
To enable startup discovery mode, without relying on DHCP when you boot the switch, use the -s
option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision -s
To force provisioning to occur and ignore the status listed in the configuration file use the -f option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo /usr/lib/cumulus/autoprovision -f --file /mnt
/usb/cumulus-ztp.sh
Notes
During the development of a provisioning script, the switch may need to be reset.
You can use the Cumulus Linux cl-img-clear-overlay command to revert the image to its
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You can use the Cumulus Linux cl-img-clear-overlay command to revert the image to its
original configuration.
You can use the Cumulus Linux cl-img-select -i command to cause the switch to
reprovision itself and install a network operating system again using ONIE.
Configuration Files
/var/lib/cumulus/autoprovision.conf: Stores configuration options and details for the
autoprovisioning framework
/etc/default/ztp-usb: Stores the enable/disable flag for the ztp-usb service
System
Management
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System Management
Setting Date and Time
Setting the time zone, date and time requires root privileges; use sudo.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 57)
Commands (see page 57)
Setting the Time Zone (see page 57)
Setting the Date and Time (see page 58)
Setting Time Using NTP (see page 59)
Configuration Files (see page 59)
Useful Links (see page 59)
Commands
date
dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
hwclock
ntpd (daemon)
ntpq
Setting the Time Zone
To see the current time zone, list the contents of /etc/timezone:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/timezone
US/Eastern
To set the time zone, run dpkg-reconfigure tzdata as root:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
Then navigate the menus to enable the time zone you want. The following example selects the US
/Pacific time zone:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
Configuring tzdata
-----------------Please select the geographic area in which you live. Subsequent
configuration
questions will narrow this down by presenting a list of cities, representing
the time zones in which they are located.
1. Africa
4. Australia
7. Atlantic
10. Pacific
2. America
5. Arctic
8. Europe
11. SystemV
3. Antarctica
6. Asia
9. Indian
12. US
13. Etc
Geographic area: 12
Please select the city or region corresponding to your time zone.
1. Alaska
4. Central
7. Indiana-Starke
10. Pacific
2. Aleutian
5. Eastern
8. Michigan
11. Pacific-New
3. Arizona
6. Hawaii
9. Mountain
12. Samoa
Time zone: 10
Current default time zone: 'US/Pacific'
Local time is now:
Mon Jun 17 09:27:45 PDT 2013.
Universal Time is now:
Mon Jun 17 16:27:45 UTC 2013.
For more info see the Debian System Administrator’s Manual – Time.
Setting the Date and Time
The switch contains a battery backed hardware clock that maintains the time while the switch is
powered off and in between reboots. When the switch is running, the Cumulus Linux operating system
maintains its own software clock.
During boot up, the time from the hardware clock is copied into the operating system’s software clock.
The software clock is then used for all timekeeping responsibilities. During system shutdown the
software clock is copied back to the battery backed hardware clock.
You can set the date and time on the software clock using the date command. See man date(1) for
details.
You can set the date and time on the hardware clock using the hwclock command. See man hwclock
(8) for details.
A good overview of the software and hardware clocks can be found in the Debian System Administrator’
s Manual – Time, specifically the section Setting and showing hardware clock.
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Setting Time Using NTP
The ntpd daemon running on the switch implements the NTP protocol. It synchronizes the system time
with time servers listed in /etc/ntp.conf. It is started at boot by default. See man ntpd(8) for ntpd
details.
By default, /etc/ntp.conf contains some default time servers. Edit /etc/ntp.conf to add or update
time server information. See man ntp.conf(5) for details on configuring ntpd using ntp.conf.
To set the initial date and time via NTP before starting the ntpd daemon, use ntpd -q (This is same as
ntpdate, which is to be retired and not available).
ntpd -q can hang if the time servers are not reachable.
To verify that ntpd is running on the system:
cumulus@switch:~$ ps -ef | grep ntp
ntp
4074
1
0 Jun20 ?
00:00:33 /usr/sbin/ntpd -p /var/run
/ntpd.pid -g -u 101:102
Configuration Files
/etc/default/ntp — ntpd init.d configuration variables
/etc/ntp.conf — default NTP configuration file
/etc/init.d/ntp — ntpd init script
Useful Links
Debian System Administrator’s Manual – Time
http://www.ntp.org
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_Time_Protocol
http://wiki.debian.org/NTP
Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
SSH for Remote Access (see page 60)
User Accounts (see page 61)
Using sudo to Delegate Privileges (see page 61)
PAM and NSS (see page 68)
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SSH for Remote Access
You use SSH to securely access a Cumulus Linux switch remotely.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 60)
Access Using Passkey (Basic Setup) (see page 60)
Completely Passwordless System (see page 61)
Useful Links (see page 61)
Access Using Passkey (Basic Setup)
Cumulus Linux uses the openSSH package to provide SSH functionality. The standard mechanisms of
generating passwordless access just applies. The example below has the cumulus user on a machine
called management-station connecting to a switch called cumulus-switch1.
First, on management-station, generate the SSH keys:
cumulus@management-station:~$ ssh-keygen
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/cumulus/.ssh/id_rsa):
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /home/cumulus/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/cumulus/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
8c:47:6e:00:fb:13:b5:07:b4:1e:9d:f4:49:0a:77:a9 cumulus@managementstation
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|
|
|
.
.= o o.
|
o . O *..
|
. o = =.o
|
|
. O oE
|
|
+ S
|
|
+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+-----------------+
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Next, append the public key in ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub into ~/.ssh/authorized_keys in the target
user’s home directory:
cumulus@management-station:~$ scp .ssh/id_rsa.pub cumulus@cumulus-switch1:.
ssh/authorized_keys
Enter passphrase for key '/home/cumulus/.ssh/id_rsa':
id_rsa.pub
Remember, you cannot use the root account to SSH to a switch in Cumulus Linux.
Completely Passwordless System
When generating the passphrase and its associated keys, as in the first step above, do not enter a
passphrase. Follow all the other instructions.
Useful Links
http://www.debian-administration.org/articles/152
User Accounts
By default, Cumulus Linux has two user accounts: cumulus and root.
The cumulus account:
Default password is CumulusLinux!
Is a user account in the sudo group with sudo privileges
User can log in to the system via all the usual channels like console and SSH (see page 60)
The root account:
Default password is disabled by default
Has the standard Linux root user access to everything on the switch
Disabled password prohibits login to the switch by SSH, telnet, FTP, and so forth
For best security, you should change the default password (using the passwd command) before you
configure Cumulus Linux on the switch.
You can enable a valid password for the root account using the sudo passwd root command and can
install an SSH key for the root account if needed. Enabling a password for the root account allows the
root user to log in directly to the switch. The Cumulus Linux default root account behavior is consistent
with Debian.
You can add more user accounts as needed. Like the cumulus account, these accounts must use sudo
to execute privileged commands (see page 61), so be sure to include them in the sudo group.
To access the switch without any password requires booting into a single shell/user mode. Here are the
instructions (see page 364) on how to do this using PowerPC and x86 switches.
Using sudo to Delegate Privileges
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Using sudo to Delegate Privileges
By default, Cumulus Linux has two user accounts: root and cumulus. The cumulus account is a normal
user and is in the group sudo.
You can add more user accounts as needed. Like the cumulus account, these accounts must use sudo
to execute privileged commands.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 62)
Commands (see page 62)
Using sudo (see page 62)
sudoers Examples (see page 63)
Configuration Files (see page 68)
Useful Links (see page 68)
Commands
sudo
visudo
Using sudo
sudo allows you to execute a command as superuser or another user as specified by the security
policy. See man sudo(8) for details.
The default security policy is sudoers, which is configured using /etc/sudoers. Use /etc/sudoers.d/
to add to the default sudoers policy. See man sudoers(5) for details.
Use visudo only to edit the sudoers file; do not use another editor like vi or emacs. See man
visudo(8) for details.
Errors in the sudoers file can result in losing the ability to elevate privileges to root. You can
fix this issue only by power cycling the switch and booting into single user mode. Before
modifying sudoers, enable the root user by setting a password for the root user.
By default, users in the sudo group can use sudo to execute privileged commands. To add users to the
sudo group, use the useradd(8) or usermod(8) command. To see which users belong to the sudo
group, see /etc/group (man group(5)).
Any command can be run as sudo, including su. A password is required.
The example below shows how to use sudo as a non-privileged user cumulus to bring up an interface:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state
DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 500
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link/ether 44:38:39:00:27:9f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link set dev swp1 up
RTNETLINK answers: Operation not permitted
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set dev swp1 up
Password:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master
br0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:27:9f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
sudoers Examples
The following examples show how you grant as few privileges as necessary to a user or group of users
to allow them to perform the required task. For each example, the system group noc is used; groups
are prefixed with an %.
When executed by an unprivileged user, the example commands below must be prefixed with sudo.
Category
Privilege
Monitoring
Switch
port info
Example Command
ethtool -m swp1
sudoers Entry
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
/sbin/ethtool
Monitoring
System
diagnostics
cl-support
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/cumulus/bin/cl-support
Monitoring
Routing
diagnostics
cl-resource-
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
query
/cumulus/bin/cl-resourcequery
Image
management
Install
images
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/cumulus/bin/cl-img-install
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Category
Privilege
Example Command
sudoers Entry
cl-img-install
http://lab
/install.bin
Image
management
Swapping
slots
cl-img-select 1
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/cumulus/bin/cl-img-select
Image
management
Clearing
an overlay
cl-img-clear-
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
overlay 1
/cumulus/bin/cl-img-clearoverlay
Package
management
Any aptget
command
apt-get update
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
or apt-get
/bin/apt-get
install
Package
management
Just aptget update
apt-get update
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/bin/apt-get update
Package
management
Package
management
Install
packages
apt-get install
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
mtr-tiny
/bin/apt-get install *
Upgrading
apt-get upgrade
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Category
Privilege
Example Command
sudoers Entry
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/bin/apt-get upgrade
Netfilter
Install ACL
policies
cl-acltool -i
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
/cumulus/bin/cl-acltool
Netfilter
List
iptables
rules
iptables -L
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
/sbin/iptables
L1 + 2 features
Any LLDP
command
lldpcli show
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
neighbors /
/sbin/lldpcli
configure
L1 + 2 features
Just show
neighbors
lldpcli show
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
neighbors
/sbin/lldpcli show
neighbours*
Interfaces
Interfaces
Modify any
interface
ip link set dev
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
swp1 {up|down}
/sbin/ip link set *
ifup swp1
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
Up any
interface
/sbin/ifup
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Category
Privilege
Interfaces
Down any
interface
Example Command
ifdown swp1
sudoers Entry
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
/sbin/ifdown
Interfaces
Up/down
only swp2
ifup swp2 /
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
ifdown swp2
/sbin/ifup swp2,/sbin
/ifdown swp2
Interfaces
Any IP
address
chg
ip addr
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
{add|del}
/sbin/ip addr *
192.0.2.1/30
dev swp1
Interfaces
Only set IP
address
ip addr add
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
192.0.2.1/30
/sbin/ip addr add *
dev swp1
Ethernet
bridging
Any bridge
command
brctl addbr br0
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
/ brctl delif
/sbin/brctl
br0 swp1
Ethernet
bridging
66
Add
bridges
and ints
brctl addbr br0
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
/ brctl addif
/sbin/brctl addbr *,/sbin
br0 swp1
/brctl addif *
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Category
Privilege
Spanning tree
Set STP
properties
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Example Command
sudoers Entry
mstpctl
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:
setmaxage br2 20
/sbin/mstpctl
service switchd
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
restart
/sbin/service switchd *
service switchd
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
cron
/sbin/service
tcpdump
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
Restart
switchd
Restart
any service
Packet
capture
/sbin/tcpdump
L3
Add static
routes
ip route add
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/bin
10.2.0.0/16 via
/ip route add *
10.0.0.1
L3
Delete
static
routes
ip route del
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/bin
10.2.0.0/16 via
/ip route del *
10.0.0.1
L3
Any static
route chg
ip route *
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/bin
/ip route *
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Category
Privilege
L3
Any
iproute
command
Example Command
ip *
sudoers Entry
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/bin
/ip
L3
Nonmodal
OSPF
cl-ospf area
%noc ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:/usr
0.0.0.1 range
/bin/cl-ospf
10.0.0.0/24
Configuration Files
/etc/sudoers - default security policy
/etc/sudoers.d/ - default security policy
Useful Links
sudo
Adding Yourself to sudoers
LDAP Authentication and Authorization
Cumulus Linux uses Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) and Name Switch Service (NSS) for user
authentication.
NSS provides the lookup and mapping of users, while PAM provides login handling, authentication and
session setup.
PAMs can be used with protocols like LDAP to provide user authentication for numerous services on a
network.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 68)
Configuring LDAP (see page 69)
Installing libnss-ldapd (see page 69)
Configuring nslcd.conf (see page 69)
Troubleshooting LDAP Authentication (see page 69)
Common Problems (see page 70)
Configuring LDAP Authorization (see page 70)
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Configuring LDAP Authorization (see page 70)
A Longer Example (see page 70)
References (see page 70)
Configuring LDAP
There are 3 common ways of configuring LDAP authentication on Linux:
libnss-ldap
libnss-ldapd
libnss-sss
This chapter covers using libnss-ldapd only. From internal testing, this library worked best with
Cumulus Linux and was the easiest to configure, automate and troubleshoot.
Installing libnss-ldapd
To install libnss-ldapd, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get install libnss-ldapd ldap-utils
This brings up an interactive prompt asking questions about the LDAP URI, base domain name and so
on. To pre-fill these details, run apt-get install debconf-utils and populate debconf-setselections with the appropriate answers. Run debconf-show <pkg> to check the settings.
Here is an example of how to prefill questions using debconf-set-selections.
For nested group support, libnss-ldapd must be version 0.9 or higher. For Cumulus Linux 2.
x, you can get this from the wheezy-backports repo.
Configuring nslcd.conf
/etc/nslcd.conf is the main configuration file that needs to be changed after the package is
installed. The nslcd.conf man page details all the available configuration options.
Here is an example configuration using Cumulus Linux.
Troubleshooting LDAP Authentication
By default, password and group information is cached by the nscd daemon. It is recommended when
setting up LDAP authentication for the first time, to turn off this service using service nscd stop.
Stop the nslcd service and run it in debug mode. Debug mode works whether you are using LDAP over
SSL (port 636) or an unencrypted LDAP connection (port 389).
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service nslcd stop
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo nslcd -d
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Common Problems
nslcd cannot read the SSL certificate. nslcd will report a “Permission denied” error in the
debug during server connection negotiation. The sniffer trace output will show only a TCP
handshake and then a TCP FIN from the switch. Check the permission on each directory in the
path of the root SSL certificate. Ensure that is is readable by the nslcd user.
The FQDN on the LDAP URI does not match the SSL FQDN exactly.
The search filter returns wrong results. Check for typos in the search filter. Use ldapsearch to
test your filter. For example:
In $HOME/.ldaprc configure basic ldapsearch parameters
--------------URI: ldaps://myadserver.rtp.example.test
BASE ou=support,dc=rtp,dc=example,dc=test
TLS_CACERT /etc/ssl/certs/rtp-example-ca.crt
----# ldapsearch \
-D 'CN=cumulus admin,CN=Users,DC=rtp,DC=example,DC=test' \
-w '1Q2w3e4r!' \
"(&(ObjectClass=user) \
(memberOf=cn=cumuluslnxadm,ou=groups,ou=support,dc=rtp,
dc=example, dc=test))"
Configuring LDAP Authorization
In the /etc/nslcd.conf file, the "filter" keyword defines an LDAP search filter. Use this search filter to
only show the users and or groups one desires. In the example below, only users in the
cumuluslnxadm group are shown in the passed database:
# This filter says to get all users who are part of the cumuluslnxadm group.
filter passwd (&(Objectclass=user)(!(objectClass=computer))
(memberOf=cn=cumuluslnxadm,ou=groups,ou=support,dc=rtp,dc=example,dc=test))
A Longer Example
A longer, more complete example for configuring LDAP is available on our knowledge base.
References
https://wiki.debian.org/LDAP/PAM
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https://raw.githubusercontent.com/arthurdejong/nss-pam-ldapd/master/nslcd.conf
http://backports.debian.org/Instructions/
Netfilter - ACLs
Netfilter is the packet filtering framework in Cumulus Linux, as well as every other Linux distribution.
iptables, ip6tables and ebtables are userspace tools in Linux to administer filtering rules for IPv4
packets, IPv6 packets and Ethernet frames respectively. cl-acltool is the userspace tool to
administer filtering rules on Cumulus Linux, and is the only tool for configuring ACLs in Cumulus Linux.
cl-acltool operates on a series of configuration files, and uses iptables, ip6tables and ebtables
to install rules into the kernel. In addition to programming rules in the kernel, cl-acltool programs
rules in hardware for interfaces involving switch port interfaces, which iptables, ip6tables and
ebtables do not do on their own.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 71)
Commands (see page 71)
Files (see page 72)
Netfilter Framework in the Cumulus Linux Kernel (see page 72)
Limitations on Number of Rules (see page 72)
Enabling Nonatomic Updates (see page 73)
ebtables and Memory Spaces (see page 74)
Memory Spaces with Multiple Commands Line Options (see page 74)
Installing Packet Filtering (ACL) Rules using cl-acltool (see page 75)
Specifying which Policy Files to Install (see page 77)
Managing ACL Rules with cl-acltool (see page 77)
Further Examples (see page 78)
cl-acltool and Network Troubleshooting (see page 78)
Policing Control Plane and Data Plane Traffic (see page 79)
Useful Links (see page 80)
Caveats and Errata (see page 80)
Not All Rules Supported (see page 80)
iptables Interactions with cl-acltool (see page 81)
Where to Assign Rules (see page 81)
Generic Error Message Displayed after ACL Rule Installation Failure (see page 82)
Commands
cl-acltool
ebtables
iptables
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iptables
ip6tables
Files
/etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf
/etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/
Netfilter Framework in the Cumulus Linux Kernel
Netfilter uses a table-based system for packet filtering. Tables are hooks in the kernel for packet
filtering. Each table has a set of default chains, or categories of ACL rules. Each chain contains packet
filter rules.
The default table in Netfilter is the filter table. The three chains in the filter table are:
INPUT chain, for network traffic going to the switch
OUTPUT chain, for traffic emanating from the switch
FORWARD chain, for traffic being forwarded or routed through the switch
Cumulus Linux, like all Linux distributions, divides ACLs into chains. ACLs are handled both in hardware
and software depending on which chain you use.
Data to Filter
iptables Chain
Hardware Accelerated?
Data plane egress
FORWARD (-o)
Yes
Data plane ingress
FORWARD (-i)
Yes
Control plane input
INPUT
Yes
Control plane output
OUTPUT
No
Limitations on Number of Rules
The maximum number of rules that can be handled in hardware is a function of the platform type
(Apollo2, Firebolt2, Triumph, Trident, Trident+ or Trident II) and a mix of IPv4 and/or IPv6. See the HCL
to determine which switches operate on these platforms.
Apollo2 and Triumph2 Limits
Direction
Atomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Atomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Ingress
2048
1024
4096
2048
Egress
512
256
1024
512
Firebolt2 Limits
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Firebolt2 Limits
Direction
Atomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Atomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Ingress
1024
512
2048
1024
Egress
512
256
512
256
Trident/Trident+ Limits
Direction
Atomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Atomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Ingress
384
384
1024
1024
Egress
512
256
1024
512
Trident II Limits
Direction
Atomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Atomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv4 Rules
Nonatomic Mode
IPv6 Rules
Ingress
1024
1024
2048
2048
Egress
512
256
1024
512
Enabling Nonatomic Updates
You can enable nonatomic updates for switchd, which offer better scaling because all hardware
resources are used to actively impact traffic. With atomic updates, half of the hardware resources are
on standby and do not actively impact traffic.
To always start switchd with nonatomic updates:
1. Edit /etc/cumulus/switchd.conf.
2. Add the following line to the file:
acl.non_atomic_update_mode = TRUE
3. Restart switchd (see page 85):
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3.
Cumulus Networks
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
During nonatomic updates, traffic is stopped first, and enabled after the new configuration is
written into the hardware completely.
ebtables and Memory Spaces
ebtables rules are put into either the IPv4 or IPv6 memory space depending on whether the rule
utilizes IPv4 or IPv6 to make a decision. L2-only rules, which match the MAC address, are put into the
IPv4 memory space.
Memory Spaces with Multiple Commands Line Options
INPUT and ingress (FORWARD -i) rules occupy the same memory space. A rule counts as ingress if the i option is set. If both input and output options (-i and -o) are set, the rule is considered as ingress
and shares that memory space. For example:
-A FORWARD -i swp1 -o swp2 -s 10.0.14.2 -d 10.0.15.8 -p tcp -j ACCEPT
If you set an output flag with the INPUT chain you will get an error. For example, running clacltool -i on the following rule:
-A FORWARD,INPUT -i swp1 -o swp2 -s 10.0.14.2 -d 10.0.15.8 -p tcp -j
ACCEPT
generates the following error:
error: line 2 : output interface specified with INPUT chain
error processing rule '-A FORWARD,INPUT -i swp1 -o swp2 -s 10.0.14.2
-d 10.0.15.8 -p tcp -j ACCEPT'
However, simply removing the -o option and interface would make it a valid rule.
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Installing Packet Filtering (ACL) Rules using cl-acltool
cl-acltool takes access control list (ACL) rules input in files. Each ACL policy file contains iptables,
ip6tables and ebtables categories under the tags [iptables], [ip6tables] and [ebtables]
respectively.
Each rule in an ACL policy must be assigned to one of the rule categories above.
See man cl-acltool(5) for ACL rule details. For iptables rule syntax, see man iptables(8). For
ip6tables rule syntax, see man ip6tables(8). For ebtables rule syntax, see man ebtables(8).
See man cl-acltool(5) and man cl-acltool(8) for further details on using cl-acltool;
however some examples are listed below, and more are listed in the Cumulus Networks Help Center.
The default directory for ACL policy files is /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d. By default, all *.rules files
in this directory are included in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf. And by default all files included in
this policy.conf file are installed when the switch boots up.
Here is an example ACL policy file:
[iptables]
-A INPUT --in-interface swp1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD --in-interface swp1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
[ip6tables]
-A INPUT --in-interface swp1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD --in-interface swp1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
[ebtables]
-A INPUT -p IPv4 -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -p IPv4 -j ACCEPT
Variables can be used to specify chain and interface lists to ease administration of rules:
INGRESS = swp+
INPUT_PORT_CHAIN = INPUT,FORWARD
[iptables]
-A $INPUT_PORT_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
[ip6tables]
-A $INPUT_PORT_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
[ebtables]
-A INPUT -p IPv4 -j ACCEPT
ACL rules for the system can be written into multiple files under the default /etc/cumulus/acl
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ACL rules for the system can be written into multiple files under the default /etc/cumulus/acl
/policy.d/ directory. Ordering of rules during install follow the sorted order of the files based on file
names.
Use multiple files support to stack rules. The example below shows two rules files separating rules for
management and datapath traffic:
cumulus@switch:~$ ls /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/
00sample_mgmt.rules
01sample_datapath.rules
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00sample_mgmt.rules
INGRESS_INTF = swp+
INGRESS_CHAIN = INPUT
[iptables]
# protect the switch management
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s 10.0.14.2 -d 10.0.15.8 -p
tcp -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s 10.0.11.2 -d 10.0.12.8 -p
tcp -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -d 10.0.16.8 -p udp -j DROP
cumulus@switch:~$ cat 00sample_datapath.rules
INGRESS_INTF = swp+
INGRESS_CHAIN = INPUT, FORWARD
[iptables]
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s 192.0.2.5 -p icmp -j
ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s 192.0.2.6 -d 192.0.2.4 -j
DROP
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s 192.0.2.2 -d 192.0.2.8 -j
DROP
Install all ACL policies under a directory:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i -P ./rules
Reading files under rules
Reading rule file ./rules/01_http_rules.txt ...
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Processing rules in file ./rules/01_http_rules.txt ...
Installing acl policy ...
Done.
Install all rules and policies included in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
Specifying which Policy Files to Install
By default, any .rules file you configure in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/ will be installed by
Cumulus Linux. To add other policy files to an ACL, you need to include them in /etc/cumulus/acl
/policy.conf. For example, in order for Cumulus Linux to install a rule in a policy file called 01_new.
acl, you would add include /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/01_new.acl to policy.conf, as in
this example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vi /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf
#
# This file is a master file for acl policy file inclusion
#
# Note: This is not a file where you list acl rules.
#
# This file can contain:
# - include lines with acl policy files
#
example:
#
include <filepath>
#
#
see manpage cl-acltool(5) and cl-acltool(8) for how to write policy
files
#
include /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/*.rules
include /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/01_new.acl
Managing ACL Rules with cl-acltool
You manage Cumulus Linux ACLs with cl-acltool. Rules are first written to the iptables chains, as
described above, and then synced to hardware via switchd.
To examine the current state of chains and list all installed rules, run:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -L all
------------------------------- Listing rules of type iptables:
------------------------------TABLE filter :
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 90 packets, 14456 bytes)
pkts bytes target prot opt in out source destination
0 0 DROP all -- swp+ any 240.0.0.0/5 anywhere
0 0 DROP all -- swp+ any loopback/8 anywhere
0 0 DROP all -- swp+ any base-address.mcast.net/8 anywhere
0 0 DROP all -- swp+ any 255.255.255.255 anywhere
...
To list installed rules using native iptables, ip6tables and ebtables, run these commands:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -L
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip6tables -L
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ebtables -L
To flush all installed rules, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -F all
To flush only the IPv4 iptables rules, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -F ip
If the install fails, ACL rules in the kernel and hardware are rolled back to previous state. Errors from
programming rules in kernel or BCM hardware are reported appropriately.
Further Examples
More examples demonstrating how to use cl-acltool are available in the Help Center.
cl-acltool and Network Troubleshooting
You use cl-acltool for both system diagnostics and troubleshooting the whole network. See
Network Troubleshooting (see page 412) for information on using ACLs for counting rules (see page 415
) as well as monitoring packets via SPAN and ERSPAN (see page ).
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Policing Control Plane and Data Plane Traffic
You can configure quality of service for traffic on both the control plane and the data plane. By using
QoS policers, you can rate limit traffic so incoming packets get dropped if they exceed specified
thresholds.
Counters on POLICE ACL rules in iptables do not currently show the packets that are dropped
due to those rules.
Use the POLICE target with iptables. POLICE takes these arguments:
--set-class value: Sets the system internal class of service queue configuration to value.
--set-rate value: Specifies the maximum rate in kilobytes (KB) or packets.
--set-burst value: Specifies the number of packets or kilobytes (KB) allowed to arrive
sequentially.
--set-mode string: Sets the mode in KB (kilobytes) or pkt (packets) for rate and burst size.
For example, to rate limit the incoming traffic on swp1 to 400 packets/second with a burst of 100
packets/second and set the class of the queue for the policed traffic as 0, set this rule in your
appropriate .rules file:
-A INPUT --in-interface swp1 -j POLICE --set-mode
pkt
--set-rate
400 --
set-burst 100 --set-class 0
Here is another example of control plane ACL rules to lock down the switch. This is specified in /etc
/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules:
INGRESS_INTF = swp+
INGRESS_CHAIN = INPUT
INNFWD_CHAIN = INPUT,FORWARD
MARTIAN_SOURCES_4 = "240.0.0.0/5,127.0.0.0/8,224.0.0.0/8,255.255.255.255/32"
MARTIAN_SOURCES_6 = "ff00::/8,::/128,::ffff:0.0.0.0/96,::1/128"
#Custom Policy Section
SSH_SOURCES_4 = "192.168.0.0/24"
NTP_SERVERS_4 = "192.168.0.1/32,192.168.0.4/32"
DNS_SERVERS_4 = "192.168.0.1/32,192.168.0.4/32"
SNMP_SERVERS_4 = "192.168.0.1/32"
[iptables]
-A $INNFWD_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -s $MARTIAN_SOURCES_4 -j DROP
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p ospf -j POLICE --set-mode
pkt --set-rate 2000 --set-burst 2000 --set-class 7
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-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bgp -j POLICE
--set-mode pkt --set-rate 2000 --set-burst 2000 --set-class 7
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --sport bgp -j POLICE
--set-mode pkt --set-rate 2000 --set-burst 2000 --set-class 7
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p icmp -j POLICE --set-mode
pkt --set-rate 100 --set-burst 40 --set-class 2
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p udp --dport bootps:bootpc
-j POLICE --set-mode pkt --set-rate 100 --set-burst 100 --set-class 2
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bootps:bootpc
-j POLICE --set-mode pkt --set-rate 100 --set-burst 100 --set-class 2
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p igmp -j POLICE --set-mode
pkt --set-rate 300 --set-burst 100 --set-class 6
# Custom policy
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport 22 -s
$SSH_SOURCES_4 -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p udp --sport 123 -s
$NTP_SERVERS_4 -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p udp --sport 53 -s
$DNS_SERVERS_4 -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p udp --dport 161 -s
$SNMP_SERVERS_4 -j ACCEPT
# Allow UDP traceroute when we are the current TTL expired hop
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p udp --dport 1024:65535 -m
ttl --ttl-eq 1 -j ACCEPT
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -j DROP
Useful Links
http://www.netfilter.org/
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO//packet-filtering-HOWTO-6.html
Caveats and Errata
Not All Rules Supported
Please note that not all iptables and ebtables rules are fully supported. See man cl-acltool(5)
for more information.
Further, there is no way to implement or extend transit filtering in software, and there is no way to
hardware accelerate the OUTPUT chain. If the maximum number of rules for a particular table is
exceeded, cl-acltool -i generates the following error:
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error: hw sync failed (sync_acl hardware installation failed)
Rolling back ..
failed.
iptables Interactions with cl-acltool
Since Cumulus Linux is a Linux operating system, the iptables commands can be used directly and
will work. However, you should consider using cl-acltool instead because:
Without using cl-acltool, rules are not installed into hardware.
Running cl-acltool -i (the installation command) will reset all rules and delete anything that
is not stored in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf.
For example performing:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type
echo-request -j DROP
Does work, and the rules appear when you run cl-acltool -L:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -L ip
------------------------------Listing rules of type iptables:
------------------------------TABLE filter :
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 72 packets, 5236 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
destination
0
anywhere
0 DROP
icmp -anywhere
any
any
icmp echo-request
However, running cl-acltool -i or reboot will remove them. To ensure all rules that can be
in hardware are hardware accelerated, place them in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf and
run cl-acltool -i.
Where to Assign Rules
If a switch port is assigned to a bond, any egress rules must be assigned to the bond.
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When using the OUTPUT chain, rules must be assigned to the source. For example, if a rule is
assigned to the switch port in the direction of traffic but the source is a bridge (VLAN), the traffic
won’t be affected by the rule and must be applied to the bridge.
If all transit traffic needs to have a rule applied, use the FORWARD chain, not the OUTPUT chain.
Generic Error Message Displayed after ACL Rule Installation Failure
After an ACL rule installation failure, a generic error message like the following is displayed:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo cl-acltool -i -p 00control_plane.rules
Using user provided rule file 00control_plane.rules
Reading rule file 00control_plane.rules ...
Processing rules in file 00control_plane.rules ...
error: hw sync failed (sync_acl hardware installation failed)
Installing acl policy... Rolling back ..
failed.
Configuring switchd
switchd is the daemon at the heart of Cumulus Linux. It communicates between the switch and
Cumulus Linux, and all the applications running on Cumulus Linux.
The switchd configuration is stored in /etc/cumulus/switchd.conf.
Versions of Cumulus Linux prior to 2.1 stored the switchd configuration at /etc/default
/switchd.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 82)
The switchd File System (see page 82)
Configuring switchd Parameters (see page 84)
Restarting switchd (see page 85)
Commands (see page 85)
Configuration Files (see page 85)
The switchd File System
switchd also exports a file system, mounted on /cumulus/switchd, that presents all the switchd
configuration options as a series of files arranged in a tree structure. You can see the contents by
parsing the switchd tree; run tree /cumulus/switchd. The output below is for a switch with one
switch port configured:
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cumulus@cumulus:~# sudo tree /cumulus/switchd/
/cumulus/switchd/
|-- config
|
|-- acl
|
|
|-- non_atomic_update_mode
|
|
`-- optimize_hw
|
|-- arp
|
|
|
|-- buf_util
|
|
|-- measure_interval
|
|
`-- poll_interval
|
|-- coalesce
|
|
|-- reducer
|
|
`-- timeout
|
|-- disable_internal_restart
|
|-- ignore_non_swps
|
|-- interface
|
|
|-- swp1
|
|
|
`-- storm_control
|
|
|
|-- broadcast
|
|
|
|-- multicast
|
|
|
`-- unknown_unicast
|
|-- logging
|
|-- route
|
|
|-- host_max_percent
|
|
|-- max_routes
|
|
`-- table
|
`-- stats
|
`-- next_hops
`-- poll_interval
|-- ctrl
|
|-- acl
|
|-- hal
|
|
|
|-- logger
|
|-- netlink
|
|
|
|-- resync
|
`-- sample
|
`-- resync
`-- resync
`-- ulog_channel
|-- run
|
`-- route_info
|
|-- ecmp_nh
|
|
|-- count
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|
|
|-- max
|
|
`-- max_per_route
|
|-- host
|
|
|-- count
|
|
|-- count_v4
|
|
|-- count_v6
|
|
`-- max
|
|-- mac
|
|
|-- count
|
|
`-- max
|
`-- route
|
|-- count_0
|
|-- count_1
|
|-- count_total
|
|-- count_v4
|
|-- count_v6
|
|-- mask_limit
|
|-- max_0
|
|-- max_1
|
`-- max_total
`-- version
Configuring switchd Parameters
You can use cl-cfg to configure many switchd parameters at runtime (like ACLs, interfaces, and
route table utilization), which minimizes disruption to your running switch. However, some options are
read only and cannot be configured at runtime.
For example, to see data related to routes, run:
cumulus@cumulus:~$ sudo cl-cfg -a switchd | grep route
route.table = 254
route.max_routes = 32768
route.host_max_percent = 50
cumulus@cumulus:~$
To modify the configuration, run cl-cfg -w. For example, to set the buffer utilization measurement
interval to 1 minute, run:
cumulus@cumulus:~$ sudo cl-cfg -w switchd buf_util.measure_interval=1
To verify that the value changed, use grep:
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cumulus@cumulus:~# cl-cfg -a switchd | grep buf
buf_util.poll_interval = 0
buf_util.measure_interval = 1
You can get some of this information by running cl-resource-query; though you cannot
update the switchd configuration with it.
Restarting switchd
Whenever you modify any switchd hardware configuration file (typically changing any *.conf file that
requires making a change to the switching hardware, like /etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf),
you must restart switchd for the change to take effect:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
You do not have to restart the switchd service when you update a network interface
configuration (that is, edit /etc/network/interfaces).
Restarting switchd causes all network ports to reset in addition to resetting the switch
hardware configuration.
Commands
cl-cfg
Configuration Files
/etc/cumulus/switchd.conf
Power over Ethernet - PoE
Cumulus Linux supports Power over Ethernet (PoE), so certain Cumulus Linux switches can supply
power from Ethernet switch ports to enabled devices over the Ethernet cables that connect them.
The currently supported platforms include:
Accton AS4610-54P, a newly supported switch with an ARM processor
PoE+ and uPoE are not supported at this time.
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How It Works
When a powered device is connected to the switch via an Ethernet cable:
If the available power is greater than the power required by the connected device, power is
supplied to the switch port, and the device powers on
If available power is less than the power required by the connected device and the switch port's
priority is less than the port priority set on all powered ports, power is not supplied to the port
If available power is less than the power required by the connected device and the switch port's
priority is greater than the priority of a currently powered port, power is removed from lower
priority port(s) and power is supplied to the port
If the total consumed power exceeds the configured power limit of the power source, low
priority ports are turned off. In the case of a tie, the port with the lower port number gets
priority
For the Accton AS4610-54P switch, power is available as follows:
PSU 1
PSU 2
PoE Power Budget
920W
x
750W
x
920W
750W
920W
920W
1650W
The AS4610-54P has an LED on the front panel to indicate PoE status:
Green: The poed daemon is running and no errors are detected
Yellow: One or more errors are detected or the poed daemon is not running
About Link State and PoE State
Link state and PoE state are completely independent of each other. When a link is brought down on
particular port using ip link <port> down, power on that port is not turned off.
LLDP with POE Attributes not Supported
Cumulus Linux does not support LLDP auto discovery and negotiation of PoE attributes via LLDP
between the powered device and the switch.
Configuring PoE
You use the poectl command utility to configure PoE on a switch that supports the feature. You can:
Enable or disable PoE for a given switch port
Set a switch port's PoE priority to one of three values: low, high or critical
By default, PoE is enabled on all Ethernet/1G switch ports, and these ports are set with a low priority.
Switch ports can have low, high or critical priority.
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To change the priority for one or more switch ports, run poectl -p swp# [low|high|critical].
For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo poectl -p swp1-swp5,swp7 high
To disable PoE for one or more ports, run poectl -d [port_numbers]:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo poectl -d swp1-swp5,swp7
To display PoE information for a set of switch ports, run poectl -i [port_numbers]:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo poectl -i swp1-swp5,swp7
Port
Status
Priority
PD type
PD class Voltage
Current
----------------
--------
-------
-------- -------- -------
searching
low
none
none
0.00 V
0
low
none
none
0.00 V
0
low
none
none
0.00 V
0
low
none
none
0.00 V
0
low
802.3af
1
53.94 V
39
high
none
none
0.00 V
0
Power
----------swp1
mA
0.00 W
swp2
mA
searching
0.00 W
swp3
mA
searching
0.00 W
swp4
mA
disabled
0.00 W
swp5
mA
delivering power
2.10 W
swp7
mA
searching
0.00 W
Or to see all the PoE information for a switch, run poectl -s:
cumulus@switch:~$ poectl -s
System power:
Total:
Used:
Available:
730.0 W
11.0 W
719.0 W
Connected ports:
swp11, swp24, swp27, swp48
The set commands (priority, enable, disable) either succeed silently or display an error message if the
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The set commands (priority, enable, disable) either succeed silently or display an error message if the
command fails.
poectl Arguments
The poectl command takes the following arguments:
Argument
Description
-h, --help
Show this help message and exit
-i, --port-info
PORT_LIST
Returns detailed information for the specified ports. For example:
-i swp1-swp5,swp10
-p, --priority
PORT_LIST
PRIORITY
Sets priority for the specified ports: low, high, critical.
-d, --disableports
PORT_LIST
Disables PoE operation on the specified ports.
-e, --enableports
PORT_LIST
Enables PoE operation on the specified ports.
-s, --system
Returns PoE status for the entire switch.
-r, --reset
PORT_LIST
Performs a hardware reset on the specified ports. Use this if one or more ports are
stuck in an error state. This does not reset any configuration settings for the
specified ports.
-v, --version
Displays version information.
--save
Saves the current configuration. The saved configuration is automatically loaded on
system boot.
--load
Loads and applies the saved configuration.
Logging poed Events
The poed service logs the following events to syslog:
When a switch provides power to a powered device
When a device that was receiving power is removed
When the power available to the switch changes
Errors
Man Pages
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Man Pages
man poectl
Configuring
and Managing Network
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Configuring and Managing Network
Interfaces
ifupdown is the network interface manager for Cumulus Linux. Cumulus Linux 2.1 and later uses an
updated version of this tool, ifupdown2.
For more information on network interfaces, see Configuring Switch Port Attributes (see page 103).
By default, ifupdown is quiet; use the verbose option -v when you want to know what is
going on when bringing an interface down or up.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 90)
Commands (see page 90)
Man Pages (see page 91)
Configuration Files (see page 91)
Basic Commands (see page 91)
Bringing All auto Interfaces Up or Down (see page 92)
ifupdown Behavior with Child Interfaces (see page 93)
ifupdown2 Interface Dependencies (see page 94)
ifup Handling of Upper (Parent) Interfaces (see page 97)
Configuring IP Addresses (see page 97)
Purging Existing IP Addresses on an Interface (see page 99)
Specifying User Commands (see page 99)
Sourcing Interface File Snippets (see page 100)
Using Globs for Port Lists (see page 100)
Using Templates (see page 101)
Adding Descriptions to Interfaces (see page 102)
Caveats and Errata (see page 102)
Useful Links (see page 103)
Commands
ifdown
ifquery
ifreload
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ifreload
ifup
mako-render
Man Pages
The following man pages have been updated for ifupdown2:
man ifdown(8)
man ifquery(8)
man ifreload
man ifup(8)
man ifupdown-addons-interfaces(5)
man interfaces(5)
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Basic Commands
To bring up an interface or apply changes to an existing interface, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup <ifname>
To bring down a single interface, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown <ifname>
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
To administratively bring an interface up or down, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set dev swp1 {up|down}
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If you specified manual as the address family, you must bring up that interface manually
using ifconfig. For example, if you configured a bridge like this:
auto bridge01
iface bridge01 inet manual
You can only bring it up by running ifconfig bridge01 up.
ifdown always deletes logical interfaces after bringing them down. Use the --admin-state
option if you only want to administratively bring the interface up or down.
To see the link and administrative state, use the ip link show command:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp13: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,
UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
In this example, swp1 is administratively UP and the physical link is UP (LOWER_UP flag). More
information on interface administrative state and physical state can be found in this knowledge base
article.
Bringing All auto Interfaces Up or Down
You can easily bring up or down all interfaces marked auto in /etc/network/interfaces. Use the -a
option. For further details, see individual man pages for ifup(8), ifdown(8), ifreload(8).
To administratively bring up all interfaces marked auto, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup -a
To administratively bring down all interfaces marked auto, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown -a
To reload all network interfaces marked auto, use the ifreload command, which is equivalent to
running ifdown then ifup, the one difference being that ifreload skips any configurations that
didn't change):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
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ifupdown Behavior with Child Interfaces
By default, ifupdown recognizes and uses any interface present on the system — whether a VLAN,
bond or physical interface — that is listed as a dependent of an interface. You are not required to list
them in the interfaces file unless they need a specific configuration, for MTU, link speed, and so forth
(see page 103). And if you need to delete a child interface, you should delete all references to that
interface from the interfaces file.
For this example, swp1 and swp2 below do not need an entry in the interfaces file. The following
stanzas defined in /etc/network/interfaces provide the exact same configuration:
With Child Interfaces Defined
auto swp1
iface swp1
auto swp2
iface swp2
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp1
swp2
bridge-vids 1-100
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
Without Child Interfaces Defined
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp1
swp2
bridge-vids 1-100
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
Bridge in Traditional Mode - Example
For this example, swp1.100 and swp2.100 below do not need an entry in the interfaces file. The
following stanzas defined in /etc/network/interfaces provide the exact same configuration:
With Child Interfaces Defined
auto swp1.100
iface swp1.100
auto swp2.100
iface swp2.100
auto br-100
iface br-100
address 10.0.12.2
/24
address 2001:dad:
beef::3/64
bridge-ports
swp1.100 swp2.100
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Without Child Interfaces Defined
auto br-100
iface br-100
address 10.0.12.2/2
4
address 2001:dad:
beef::3/64
bridge-ports swp1.1
00 swp2.100
bridge-stp on
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bridge-stp on
For more information on the bridge in traditional mode vs the bridge in VLAN-aware mode, please read
this knowledge base article.
ifupdown2 Interface Dependencies
ifupdown2 understands interface dependency relationships. When ifup and ifdown are run with all
interfaces, they always run with all interfaces in dependency order. When run with the interface list on
the command line, the default behavior is to not run with dependents. But if there are any built-in
dependents, they will be brought up or down.
To run with dependents when you specify the interface list, use the --with-depends option. --withdepends walks through all dependents in the dependency tree rooted at the interface you specify.
Consider the following example configuration:
auto bond1
iface bond1
address 100.0.0.2/16
bond-slaves swp29 swp30
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
auto bond2
iface bond2
address 100.0.0.5/16
bond-slaves swp31 swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
auto br2001
iface br2001
address 12.0.1.3/24
bridge-ports bond1.2001 bond2.2001
bridge-stp on
Using ifup --with-depends br2001 brings up all dependents of br2001: bond1.2001, bond2.2001,
bond1, bond2, bond1.2001, bond2.2001, swp29, swp30, swp31, swp32.
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifup --with-depends br2001
Similarly, specifying ifdown --with-depends br2001 brings down all dependents of br2001: bond1.
2001, bond2.2001, bond1, bond2, bond1.2001, bond2.2001, swp29, swp30, swp31, swp32.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown --with-depends br2001
As mentioned earlier, ifdown2 always deletes logical interfaces after bringing them down.
Use the --admin-state option if you only want to administratively bring the interface up or
down. In terms of the above example, ifdown br2001 deletes br2001.
To guide you through which interfaces will be brought down and up, use the --print-dependency
option to get the list of dependents.
Use ifquery --print-dependency=list -a to get the dependency list of all interfaces:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=list -a
lo : None
eth0 : None
bond0 : ['swp25', 'swp26']
bond1 : ['swp29', 'swp30']
bond2 : ['swp31', 'swp32']
br0 : ['bond1', 'bond2']
bond1.2000 : ['bond1']
bond2.2000 : ['bond2']
br2000 : ['bond1.2000', 'bond2.2000']
bond1.2001 : ['bond1']
bond2.2001 : ['bond2']
br2001 : ['bond1.2001', 'bond2.2001']
swp40 : None
swp25 : None
swp26 : None
swp29 : None
swp30 : None
swp31 : None
swp32 : None
To print the dependency list of a single interface, use:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=list br2001
br2001 : ['bond1.2001', 'bond2.2001']
bond1.2001 : ['bond1']
bond2.2001 : ['bond2']
bond1 : ['swp29', 'swp30']
bond2 : ['swp31', 'swp32']
swp29 : None
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swp30 : None
swp31 : None
swp32 : None
To print the dependency information of an interface in dot format:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=dot br2001
/* Generated by GvGen v.0.9 (http://software.inl.fr/trac/wiki/GvGen)
*/
digraph G {
compound=true;
node1 [label="br2001"];
node2 [label="bond1.2001"];
node3 [label="bond2.2001"];
node4 [label="bond1"];
node5 [label="bond2"];
node6 [label="swp29"];
node7 [label="swp30"];
node8 [label="swp31"];
node9 [label="swp32"];
node1->node2;
node1->node3;
node2->node4;
node3->node5;
node4->node6;
node4->node7;
node5->node8;
node5->node9;
}
You can use dot to render the graph on an external system where dot is installed.
To print the dependency information of the entire interfaces file:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --print-dependency=dot -a >interfaces_all.dot
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ifup Handling of Upper (Parent) Interfaces
When you run ifup on a logical interface (like a bridge, bond or VLAN interface), if the ifup resulted in
the creation of the logical interface, by default it implicitly tries to execute on the interface's upper (or
parent) interfaces as well. This helps in most cases, especially when a bond is brought down and up, as
in the example below. This section describes the behavior of bringing up the upper interfaces.
Consider this example configuration:
auto br100
iface br100
bridge-ports bond1.100 bond2.100
auto bond1
iface bond1
bond-slaves swp1 swp2
If you run ifdown bond1, ifdown deletes bond1 and the VLAN interface on bond1 (bond1.100); it also
removes bond1 from the bridge br100. Next, when you run ifup bond1, it creates bond1 and the
VLAN interface on bond1 (bond1.100); it also executes ifup br100 to add the bond VLAN interface
(bond1.100) to the bridge br100.
As you can see above, implicitly bringing up the upper interface helps, but there can be cases where an
upper interface (like br100) is not in the right state, which can result in warnings. The warnings are
mostly harmless.
If you want to disable these warnings, you can disable the implicit upper interface handling by setting
skip_upperifaces=1 in /etc/network/ifupdown2/ifupdown2.conf.
With skip_upperifaces=1, you will have to explicitly execute ifup on the upper interfaces. In this
case, you will have to run ifup br100 after an ifup bond1 to add bond1 back to bridge br100.
Although specifying a subinterface like swp1.100 and then running ifup swp1.100 will also
result in the automatic creation of the swp1 interface in the kernel, Cumulus Networks
recommends you specify the parent interface swp1 as well. A parent interface is one where
any physical layer configuration can reside, such as link-speed 1000 or link-duplex
full.
It's important to note that if you only create swp1.100 and not swp1, then you cannot run
ifup swp1 since you did not specify it.
Configuring IP Addresses
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Configuring IP Addresses
In /etc/network/interfaces, list all IP addresses as shown below under the iface section (see
man interfaces for more information):
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 12.0.0.1/30
address 12.0.0.2/30
The address method and address family are not mandatory. They default to inet/inet6 and static
by default, but inet/inet6 must be specified if you need to specify dhcp or loopback:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
You can specify both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in the same iface stanza:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 192.0.2.1/30
address 192.0.2.2/30
address 2001:DB8::1/126
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
To make non-persistent changes to interfaces at runtime, use ip addr add:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr add 192.0.2.1/30 dev swp1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr add 2001:DB8::1/126 dev swp1
To remove an addresses from an interface, use ip addr del:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr del 192.0.2.1/30 dev swp1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr del 2001:DB8::1/126 dev swp1
See man ip for more details on the options available to manage and query interfaces.
To show the assigned address on an interface, use ip addr show:
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cumulus@switch:~$ ip addr show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
pfifo_fast state UP qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.0.2.1/30 scope global swp1
inet 192.0.2.2/30 scope global swp1
inet6 2001:DB8::1/126 scope global tentative
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
Purging Existing IP Addresses on an Interface
By default, ifupdown2 purges existing IP addresses on an interface. If you have other processes that
manage IP addresses for an interface, you can disable this feature including the address-purge
setting in the interface's configuration. For example, add the following to the interface configuration in
/etc/network/interfaces:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address-purge no
Purging existing addresses on interfaces with multiple iface stanzas is not supported. Doing
so can result in the configuration of multiple addresses for an interface after you change an
interface address and reload the configuration with ifreload -a. If this happens, you must
shut down and restart the interface with ifup and ifdown, or manually delete superfluous
addresses with ip address delete specify.ip.address.here/mask dev DEVICE. See
also the Caveats and Errata (see page 102) section below for some cautions about using
multiple iface stanzas for the same interface.
Specifying User Commands
You can specify additional user commands in the interfaces file. As shown in the example below, the
interface stanzas in /etc/network/interfaces can have a command that runs at pre-up, up, postup, pre-down, down, and post-down:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 12.0.0.1/30
up /sbin/foo bar
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Any valid command can be hooked in the sequencing of bringing an interface up or down, although
commands should be limited in scope to network-related commands associated with the particular
interface.
For example, it wouldn't make sense to install some Debian package on ifup of swp1, even though
that is technically possible. See man interfaces for more details.
Sourcing Interface File Snippets
Sourcing interface files helps organize and manage the interfaces(5) file. For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
source /etc/network/interfaces.d/bond0
The contents of the sourced file used above are:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces.d/bond0
auto bond0
iface bond0
address 14.0.0.9/30
address 2001:ded:beef:2::1/64
bond-slaves swp25 swp26
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
Using Globs for Port Lists
Some modules support globs to define port lists (that is, a range of ports). You can use the glob
keyword to specify bridge ports and bond slaves:
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-ports glob swp1-6.100
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auto br1
iface br1
bridge-ports glob swp7-9.100
swp11.100 glob swp15-18.100
Using Templates
ifupdown2 supports Mako-style templates. The Mako template engine is run over the interfaces file
before parsing.
Use the template to declare cookie-cutter bridges in the interfaces file:
%for v in [11,12]:
auto vlan${v}
iface vlan${v}
address 10.20.${v}.3/24
bridge-ports glob swp19-20.${v}
bridge-stp on
%endfor
And use it to declare addresses in the interfaces file:
%for i in [1,12]:
auto swp${i}
iface swp${i}
address 10.20.${i}.3/24
Regarding Mako syntax, use square brackets ([1,12]) to specify a list of individual numbers
(in this case, 1 and 12). Use range(1,12) to specify a range of interfaces.
You can test your template and confirm it evaluates correctly by running mako-render /etc
/network/interfaces.
For more examples of configuring Mako templates, read this knowledge base article.
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Adding Descriptions to Interfaces
You can add descriptions to the interfaces configured in /etc/network/interfaces by using the alias
keyword. For example:
auto swp1
iface swp1
alias swp1 hypervisor_port_1
You can query interface descriptions by running ip link show. The alias appears on the alias line:
cumulus@switch$ ip link show swp1
3: swp1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether aa:aa:aa:aa:aa:bc brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
alias hypervisor_port_1
Interface descriptions also appear in the SNMP OID (see page 374) IF-MIB::ifAlias.
Caveats and Errata
While ifupdown2 supports the inclusion of multiple iface stanzas for the same interface, Cumulus
Networks recommends you use a single iface stanza for each interface, if possible.
There are cases where you must specify more than one iface stanza for the same interface. For
example, the configuration for a single interface can come from many places, like a template or a
sourced file.
If you do specify multiple iface stanzas for the same interface, make sure the stanzas do not specify
the same interface attributes. Otherwise, unexpected behavior can result.
For example, swp1 is configured in two places:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
source /etc/interfaces.d/speed_settings
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.0.14.2/24
As well as /etc/interfaces.d/speed_settings
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cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/interfaces.d/speed_settings
auto swp1
iface swp1
link-speed 1000
link-duplex full
ifupdown2 correctly parses a configuration like this because the same attributes are not specified in
multiple iface stanzas.
And, as stated in the note above, you cannot purge existing addresses on interfaces with multiple
iface stanzas.
Useful Links
http://wiki.debian.org/NetworkConfiguration
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bonding
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bridge
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/vlan
Configuring Switch Port Attributes
This chapter discusses the various network interfaces on a switch running Cumulus Linux.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 103)
Commands (see page 104)
Man Pages (see page 104)
Configuration Files (see page 104)
Interface Types (see page 104)
Settings (see page 104)
Port Speed and Duplexing (see page 105)
Auto-negotiation (see page 106)
MTU (see page 106)
Configuring Breakout Ports (see page 108)
Breaking out a 40G port into 4x10G Ports (see page 108)
Combining Four 10G Ports into One 40G Port (see page 109)
Logical Switch Port Limitations (see page 110)
Verification and Troubleshooting Commands (see page 111)
Statistics (see page 111)
Querying SFP Port Information (see page 112)
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Useful Links (see page 112)
Commands
ethtool
ip
Man Pages
man ethtool
man interfaces
man ip
man ip addr
man ip link
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Interface Types
Cumulus Linux exposes network interfaces for several types of physical and logical devices:
lo, network loopback device
ethN, switch management port(s), for out of band management only
swpN, switch front panel ports
(optional) brN, bridges (IEEE 802.1Q VLANs)
(optional) bondN, bonds (IEEE 802.3ad link aggregation trunks, or port channels)
Settings
You can set the MTU, speed, duplex and auto-negotiation settings under a physical or logical interface
stanza:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.1/24
mtu 9000
link-speed 10000
link-duplex full
link-autoneg off
To load the updated configuration, run the ifreload -a command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
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Port Speed and Duplexing
Cumulus Linux supports both half- and full-duplex configurations. Supported port speeds include 1G,
10G and 40G. Set the speeds in terms of Mbps, where the setting for 1G is 1000, 10G is 10000 and 40G
is 40000.
You can create a persistent configuration for port speeds in /etc/network/interfaces. Add the
appropriate lines for each switch port stanza. For example:
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.1/24
link-speed 10000
link-duplex full
If you specify the port speed in /etc/network/interfaces, you must also specify the
duplex mode setting along with it; otherwise, ethtool defaults to half duplex.
You can also configure these settings at run time, using ethtool.
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
You can use ethtool to configure duplexing and the speed for your switch ports. You must specify
both port speed and duplexing in the ethtool command; auto-negotiation is optional. The following
examples use swp1.
To set the port speed to 1G, run:
ethtool -s swp1 speed 1000 duplex full
To set the port speed to 10G, run:
ethtool -s swp1 speed 10000 duplex full
To enable duplexing, run:
ethtool -s swp1 speed 10000 duplex full|half
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Port Speed Limitations
Ports can be configured to one speed less than their maximum speed.
Switch port Type
Lowest Configurable Speed
1G
100 Mb
10G
1 Gigabit (1000 Mb)
40G
10G*
*Requires the port to be converted into a breakout port.
Auto-negotiation
You can enable or disable auto-negotiation (that is, set it on or off) on a switch port.
auto swp1
iface swp1
link-autoneg off
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
You can use ethtool to configure auto-negotiation for your switch ports. The following example use
swp1:
To enable or disable auto-negotiation, run:
ethtool -s swp1 speed 10000 duplex full autoneg on|off
MTU
Interface MTU applies to the management port, front panel port, bridge, VLAN subinterfaces and
bonds.
auto swp1
iface swp1
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mtu 9000
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
To set swp1 to Jumbo Frame MTU=9000, use ip link set:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set dev swp1 mtu 9000
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 9000 qdisc
pfifo_fast state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
You must take care to ensure there are no MTU mismatches in the conversation path. MTU
mismatches will result in dropped or truncated packets, degrading or blocking network
performance.
When you are configuring MTU for a bridge, don't set MTU on the bridge itself; set it on the individual
members of the bridge. The MTU setting is the lowest MTU setting of any interface that is a member of
that bridge (that is, every interface specified in bridge-ports in the bridge configuration in the
interfaces file), even if another bridge member has a higher MTU value. Consider this bridge
configuration:
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-ports bond1 bond2 bond3 bond4 peer5
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-vids 100-110
bridge-stp on
In order for br0 to have an MTU of 9000, set the MTU for each of the member interfaces (bond1 to
bond 4, and peer5), to 9000 at minimum.
auto peer5
iface peer5
bond-slaves swp3 swp4
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-lacp-rate 1
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bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
mtu 9000
When configuring MTU for a bond, configure the MTU value direcly under the bond interface; the
configured value is inherited by member links.
To show MTU, use ip link show:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Configuring Breakout Ports
Cumulus Linux has the ability to:
Break out 40G switch ports into four separate 10G ports for use with a breakout cable.
Combine (also called aggregating or ganging) four 10G switch ports into one 40G port for use
with a breakout cable (not to be confused with a bond (see page 151)).
A typical DAC (directly-attached copper) 40G 1xQSFP to 10G 4xSFP+ looks like this:
You configure breakout ports with the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf file. After you modify the
configuration, restart switchd to push the new configuration (run sudo service switchd restart
; this interrupts network services (see page 85)).
Breaking out a 40G port into 4x10G Ports
/etc/cumulus/ports.conf varies across different hardware platforms. Check the current
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/etc/cumulus/ports.conf varies across different hardware platforms. Check the current
list of supported platforms on the hardware compatibility list.
A snippet from the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf looks like this:
# QSFP+ ports
#
# <port label 49-52> = [4x10G|40G]
49=40G
50=40G
51=40G
52=40G
To change a 40G port to 4x10G ports, edit the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf file with a text editor
(nano, vi, zile). Change 40G to 4x10G.
In the following example, switch port 49 is changed to a breakout port:
# QSFP+ ports
#
# <port label 49-52> = [4x10G|40G]
49=4x10G
50=40G
51=40G
52=40G
To load the change restart switchd:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
Many services depend on switchd. It is highly recommended to restart Cumulus Linux if possible in
this situation.
Combining Four 10G Ports into One 40G Port
To gang (aggregate) four 10G ports into one 40G port for use with a breakout cable, you must edit /etc
/cumulus/ports.conf.
/etc/cumulus/ports.conf varies across different hardware platforms. Check the current
list of supported platforms on the hardware compatibility list.
A snippet from the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf looks like this:
# SFP+ ports#
# <port label 1-48> = [10G|40G/4]
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1=10G
2=10G
3=10G
4=10G
5=10G
To change four 10G ports into one 40G port, edit the /etc/cumulus/ports.conf file with a text
editor (nano, vi, zile). Change 10G to 40G/4 for every port being ganged.
In the following example, switch ports swp1-4 are changed to a ganged port:
# SFP+ ports#
# <port label 1-48> = [10G|40G/4]
1=40G/4
2=40G/4
3=40G/4
4=40G/4
5=10G
To load the change, restart switchd.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
Many services depend on switchd. It is highly recommended to restart Cumulus Linux if possible in
this situation.
You must gang four 10G ports in sequential order. For example, you cannot gang
swp1, swp10, swp20 and swp40 together.
The ports must be in increments of four, with the starting port being swp1 (or swp5,
swp9, or so forth); so you cannot gang swp2, swp3, swp4 and swp5 together.
Logical Switch Port Limitations
40G switches with Trident II chipsets (check the 40G Portfolio section of the HCL) can support a certain
number of logical ports, depending upon the manufacturer.
Before you configure any logical/unganged ports on a switch, check the limitations listed in /etc
/cumulus/ports.conf; this file is specific to each manufacturer.
For example, the Dell S6000 ports.conf file indicates the logical port limitation like this:
# ports.conf -#
# This file controls port aggregation and subdivision. For example,
QSFP+
# ports are typically configurable as either one 40G interface or four
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# 10G/1000/100 interfaces. This file sets the number of interfaces
per port
# while /etc/network/interfaces and ethtool configure the link speed f
or each
# interface.
#
# You must restart switchd for changes to take effect.
#
# The DELL S6000 has:
#
32 QSFP ports numbered 1-32
#
These ports are configurable as 40G, split into 4x10G ports or
#
disabled.
#
#
The X pipeline covers QSFP ports 1 through 16 and the Y pipeline
#
covers QSFP ports 17 through 32.
#
#
The Trident2 chip can only handle 52 logical ports per pipeline.
#
#
This means 13 is the maximum number of 40G ports you can ungang
#
per pipeline, with the remaining three 40G ports set to
#
"disabled". The 13 40G ports become 52 unganged 10G ports, which
#
totals 52 logical ports for that pipeline.
#
The means the maximum number of ports for this Dell S6000 is 104.
Verification and Troubleshooting Commands
Statistics
High-level interface statistics are available with the ip -s link command:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip -s link show dev swp1
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
RX: bytes packets errors dropped overrun mcast
21780
242
0
0
0
242
TX: bytes packets errors dropped carrier collsns
1145554
11325
0
0
0
0
Low-level interface statistics are available with ethtool:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ethtool -S swp1
NIC statistics:
HwIfInOctets: 21870
HwIfInUcastPkts: 0
HwIfInBcastPkts: 0
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HwIfInMcastPkts: 243
HwIfOutOctets: 1148217
HwIfOutUcastPkts: 0
HwIfOutMcastPkts: 11353
HwIfOutBcastPkts: 0
HwIfInDiscards: 0
HwIfInL3Drops: 0
HwIfInBufferDrops: 0
HwIfInAclDrops: 0
HwIfInBlackholeDrops: 0
HwIfInDot3LengthErrors: 0
HwIfInErrors: 0
SoftInErrors: 0
SoftInDrops: 0
SoftInFrameErrors: 0
HwIfOutDiscards: 0
HwIfOutErrors: 0
HwIfOutQDrops: 0
HwIfOutNonQDrops: 0
SoftOutErrors: 0
SoftOutDrops: 0
SoftOutTxFifoFull: 0
HwIfOutQLen: 0
Querying SFP Port Information
You can verify SFP settings using ethtool -m. The following example shows the output for 1G and 10G
modules:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo ethtool -m | egrep '(swp|RXPower :|TXPower :
|EthernetComplianceCode)'
swp1: SFP detected
EthernetComplianceCodes : 1000BASE-LX
RXPower : -10.4479dBm
TXPower : 18.0409dBm
swp3: SFP detected
10GEthernetComplianceCode : 10G Base-LR
RXPower : -3.2532dBm
TXPower : -2.0817dBm
Useful Links
http://wiki.debian.org/NetworkConfiguration
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/vlan
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bridge
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bonding
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Configuring Buffer and Queue Management
Hardware datapath configuration manages packet buffering, queueing, and scheduling in hardware.
There are two configuration input files:
/etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf, which describes priority groups and assigns the
scheduling algorithm and weights
/etc/bcm.d/datapath/datapath.conf, which assigns buffer space and egress queues
Versions of these files prior to Cumulus Linux 2.1 are incompatible with Cumulus Linux 2.1
and later; using older files will cause switchd to fail to start and return an error that it cannot
find the /var/lib/cumulus/rc.datapath file.
Each packet is assigned to an ASIC Class of Service (CoS) value based on the packet’s priority value
stored in the 802.1p (Class of Service) or DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) header field. The
packet is assigned to a priority group based on the CoS value.
Priority groups include:
Control: Highest priority traffic
Service: Second-highest priority traffic
Lossless: Traffic protected by priority flow control
Bulk: All remaining traffic
A lossless traffic group is protected from packet drops by configuring the datapath to use priority
pause. A lossless priority group requires a port group configuration, which specifies the ports
configured for priority flow control and the additional buffer space assigned to each port for packets in
the lossless priority group.
The scheduler is configured to use a hybrid scheduling algorithm. It applies strict priority to control
traffic queues and a weighted round robin selection from the remaining queues. Unicast packets and
multicast packets with the same priority value are assigned to separate queues, which are assigned
equal scheduling weights.
Datapath configuration takes effect when you initialize switchd. Changes to the traffic.conf file
require you to restart switchd (see page 85).
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 113)
Commands (see page 114)
Configuration Files (see page 114)
Configuring Traffic Marking through ACL Rules (see page 115)
Configuring Link Pause (see page 116)
Useful Links (see page 117)
Caveats and Errata (see page 117)
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Commands
If you modify the configuration in the /etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf file, you must restart
switchd (see page 85) for the changes to take effect:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
Configuration Files
The following configuration applies to 10G and 40G switches only (any switch on the Trident, Trident+,
or Trident II platform).
/etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf: The default datapath configuration file.
/etc/cumulus/datapath/custom_traffic.conf: An optional customized configuration file.
An example traffic configuration file:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf
section: traffic
# packet priority source:
# -- 802.1p or dscp
packet priority source: 802.1p
# packet priority mapping to ingress priority values 0..7
packet priorities = (0), ingress priority: 0
packet priorities = (1), ingress priority: 1
packet priorities = (2), ingress priority: 2
packet priorities = (3), ingress priority: 3
packet priorities = (4), ingress priority: 4
packet priorities = (5), ingress priority: 5
packet priorities = (6), ingress priority: 6
packet priorities = (7), ingress priority: 7
# remark packet priority value
# -- 802.1p or none
remark packet priority: none
# traffic configurations:
# -- name: an arbitrary label
# -- type: lossless, control, service, or bulk packets
# -- priorities assigned to each group
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# -- bandwidth percent (for the lossless traffic group only)
traffic group name: green,
type: bulk,
ingress priority values =
traffic group name: blue,
type: service,
ingress priority values = (2)
traffic group name: yellow,
type: lossless, ingress priority values = (3),
(0,1,4,5,6)
bandwidth: 1000.0 Mb/s
traffic group name: red,
type: control,
ingress priority values = (7)
config_end
Configuring Traffic Marking through ACL Rules
You can mark traffic for egress packets through iptables or ip6tables rule classifications. To enable
these rules, you do one of the following:
Mark DSCP values in egress packets.
Mark 802.1p CoS values in egress packets.
To enable traffic marking, use cl-acltool. Add the -p option to specify the location of the policy file.
By default, if you don't include the -p option, cl-acltool looks for the policy file in /etc/cumulus
/acl/policy.d/.
The iptables-/ip6tables-based marking is supported via the following action extension:
-j SETQOS --set-dscp 10 --set-cos 5
You can specify one of the following targets for SETQOS:
Option
Description
–set-cos
INT
Sets the datapath resource/queuing class value. Values are defined in IEEE_P802.1p.
–set-dscp
value
Sets the DSCP field in packet header to a value, which can be either a decimal or hex
value.
–set-dscpclass class
Sets the DSCP field in the packet header to the value represented by the DiffServ class
value. This class can be EF, BE or any of the CSxx or AFxx classes.
You can specify either --set-dscp or --set-dscp-class, but not both.
Here are two example rules:
[iptables]
-t mangle -A -FORWARD -i --in-interface swp+ -p tcp --dport bgp -j SETQOS -cumulusnetworks.com
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set-dscp 10 --set-cos 5
[ip6tables]
-t mangle -A -FORWARD -i --in-interface swp+ -j SETQOS --set-dscp 10
You can put the rule in either the mangle table or the default filter table; the mangle table and filter
table are put into separate TCAM slices in the hardware.
To put the rule in the mangle table, include -t mangle; to put the rule in the filter table, omit -t
mangle.
Configuring Link Pause
The PAUSE frame is a flow control mechanism that halts the transmission of the transmitter for a
specified period of time. A server or other network node within the data center may be receiving traffic
faster than it can handle it, thus the PAUSE frame. In Cumulus Linux, individual ports can be configured
to execute link pause by:
Transmitting pause frames when its ingress buffers become congested (TX pause enable) and
/or
Responding to received pause frames (RX pause enable).
Just like configuring buffer and queue management link pause is configured by editing /etc/cumulus
/datapath/traffic.conf.
Here is an example configuration which turns of both types of link pause for swp2 and swp3:
# to configure pause on a group of ports:
# uncomment the link pause port group list
# add or replace a port group name to the list
# populate the port set, e.g.
# swp1-swp4,swp8,swp50s0-swp50s3
# enable pause frame transmit and/or pause frame receive
# link pause
link_pause.port_group_list = [port_group_0]
link_pause.port_group_0.port_set = swp2-swp3
link_pause.port_group_0.rx_enable = true
link_pause.port_group_0.tx_enable = true
A port group refers to one or more sequences of contiguous ports. Multiple port groups can be defined
by:
Adding a comma-separated list of port group names to the port_group_list.
Adding the port_set, rx_enable, and tx_enable configuration lines for each port group.
You can specify the set of ports in a port group in comma-separated sequences of contiguous ports;
you can see which ports are contiguous in /var/lib/cumulus/porttab . The syntax supports:
A single port (swp1s0 or swp5)
A sequence of regular swp ports (swp2-swp5)
A sequence within a breakout swp port (swp6s0-swp6s3)
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A sequence within a breakout swp port (swp6s0-swp6s3)
A sequence of regular and breakout ports, provided they are all in a contiguous range. For
example:
...
swp2
swp3
swp4
swp5
swp6s0
swp6s1
swp6s2
swp6s3
swp7
...
Restart switchd (see page 85) to allow link pause configuration changes to take effect:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
Useful Links
iptables-extensions man page
Caveats and Errata
You can configure Quality of Service (QoS) for 10G and 40G switches only; that is, any switch on
the Trident, Trident+, or Trident II platform.
Layer
2 Features
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Layer 2 Features
Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning Tree
Spanning tree protocol (STP) is always recommended in layer 2 topologies, as it prevents bridge loops
and broadcast radiation on a bridged network.
mstpd is a daemon that implements IEEE802.1D 2004 and IEEE802.1Q 2011. Currently, STP is disabled
by default on the bridge in Cumulus Linux.
To enable STP, configure brctl stp <bridge> on.
The STP modes Cumulus Linux supports vary depending upon which bridge driver mode (see
page 154) is in use. For a bridge configured in traditional mode, STP, RSTP, PVST and PVRST
are supported; with the default set to PVRST. VLAN-aware (see page 175) bridges only operate
in RSTP mode.
If a bridge running RSTP (802.1w) receives a common STP (802.1D) BPDU, it will automatically
fall back to 802.1D operation.
You can configure mstpd to be in common STP mode only, by setting setforcevers to STP.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 118)
Commands (see page 118)
PVST/PVRST (see page 119)
Creating a Bridge and Configuring STP (see page 119)
Configuring Spanning Tree Parameters (see page 121)
Understanding the Spanning Tree Parameters (see page 122)
Bridge Assurance (see page 129)
BPDU Guard (see page 130)
Configuring BPDU Guard (see page 130)
Recovering a Port Disabled by BPDU Guard (see page 130)
BPDU Filter (see page 132)
Configuration Files (see page 133)
Man Pages (see page 133)
Useful Links (see page 133)
Caveats and Errata (see page 133)
Commands
brctl
mstpctl
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mstpctl
mstpctl is a utility to configure STP. mstpd is started by default on bootup. mstpd logs and errors are
located in /var/log/syslog.
PVST/PVRST
Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) creates a spanning tree instance for a bridge. Rapid PVST (PVRST)
supports RSTP enhancements for each spanning tree instance. You must create a bridge corresponding
to the untagged native/access VLAN, and all the physical switch ports must be part of the same VLAN.
When connected to a switch that has a native VLAN configuration, the native VLAN must be configured
to be VLAN 1 only.
Cumulus Linux supports the RSTP/PVRST/PVST modes of STP natively when the bridge is configured in
traditional mode (see page 154).
Creating a Bridge and Configuring STP
To create a bridge, configure the bridge stanza under /etc/network/interfaces. More information
on configuring bridges can be found here. (see page 154) To enable STP on the bridge, include the
keyword bridge-stp on.
auto br2
iface br2
bridge-ports swp1.101 swp4.101 swp5.101
bridge-stp on
To enable the bridge, run ifreload -a:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
You use brctl to create the bridge, add bridge ports in the bridge and configure STP on the bridge.
mstpctl is used only when an admin needs to change the default configuration parameters for STP:
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
sudo
sudo
sudo
sudo
brctl addbr br2
brctl addif br2 swp1.101 swp4.101 swp5.101
brctl stp br2 on
ifconfig br2 up
To get the bridge state, use:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br2
8000.001401010100
yes
swp1.101
swp4.101
swp5.101
To get the mstpd bridge state, use:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showbridge br2
br2 CIST info
enabled
yes
bridge id
F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
designated root F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
regional root
F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
root port
none
path cost
0
internal path cost
0
max age
20
bridge max age
20
forward delay 15
bridge forward delay 15
tx hold count 6
max hops
20
hello time
ageing time
200
2
force protocol version
rstp
time since topology change 90843s
topology change count
4
topology change
no
topology change port
swp4.101
last topology change port
swp5.101
To get the mstpd bridge port state, use:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showport br2
E swp1.101 8.001 forw F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
8.001 Desg
swp4.101 8.002 forw F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
8.002 Desg
E swp5.101 8.003 forw F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00
8.003 Desg
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showportdetail br2 swp1.101
br2:swp1.101 CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.001
state
forwarding
admin external cost
0
external port cost 2000
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internal port cost 2000
designated root
admin internal cost
0
F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 dsgn external cost
0
dsgn regional root F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 dsgn internal cost
0
designated bridge
F.000.00:14:01:01:01:00 designated port
8.001
admin edge port
no
auto edge port
yes
oper edge port
yes
topology change ack
no
point-to-point
yes
admin point-to-point auto
restricted role
no
restricted TCN
no
port hello time
2
disputed
no
bpdu guard port
no
bpdu guard error
no
network port
no
BA inconsistent
no
Num TX BPDU
45772
Num TX TCN
4
Num RX BPDU
0
Num RX TCN
0
Num Transition BLK
2
Num Transition FWD 2
Configuring Spanning Tree Parameters
The persistent configuration for a bridge is set in /etc/network/interfaces. The configuration
below shows every possible option configured. There is no requirement to configure any of these
options:
auto br2
iface br2 inet static
bridge-ports swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-maxage 20
mstpctl-ageing 300
mstpctl-fdelay 15
mstpctl-maxhops 20
mstpctl-txholdcount 6
mstpctl-forcevers rstp
mstpctl-treeprio 32768
mstpctl-treeportprio swp3=128
mstpctl-hello 2
mstpctl-portpathcost swp1=0 swp2=0
mstpctl-portadminedge swp1=no swp2=no
mstpctl-portautoedge swp1=yes swp2=yes
mstpctl-portp2p swp1=no swp2=no
mstpctl-portrestrrole swp1=no swp2=no
mstpctl-portrestrtcn swp1=no swp2=no
mstpctl-portnetwork swp1=no
mstpctl-bpduguard swp1=no swp2=no
mstpctl-bpdufilter swp4=yes
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Understanding the Spanning Tree Parameters
The spanning tree parameters are defined in the IEEE 802.1D, 802.1Q specifications and in the table
below.
While configuring spanning tree in a persistent configuration, as described above, is the preferred
method, you can also use mstpctl to configure spanning tree protocol parameters at runtime.
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
The mstp daemon is an open source project that some network engineers may be unfamiliar with. For
example, many incumbent vendors use the keyword portfast to describe a port that is automatically
set to forwarding when the port is brought up. The mstpd equivalent is mstpctl-portadminedge. For
more comparison please read this knowledge base article.
Examples are included below:
Parameter
Description
maxage
Sets the bridge's maximum age to <max_age> seconds. The default is 20.
The maximum age must meet the condition 2 * (Bridge Forward Delay - 1 second)
>= Bridge Max Age.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-maxage 24
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setmaxage <bridge> <max_age>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setmaxage br2 24
ageing
Sets the Ethernet (MAC) address ageing time in <time> seconds for the bridge
when the running version is STP, but not RSTP/MSTP. The default is 300.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-ageing 240
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setageing <bridge> <time>
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Parameter
Description
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setageing br2 240
fdelay
Sets the bridge's bridge forward delay to <time> seconds. The default is 15.
The bridge forward delay must meet the condition 2 * (Bridge Forward Delay - 1
second) >= Bridge Max Age.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-fdelay 15
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setfdelay <bridge> <time>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setfdelay br2 15
maxhops
Sets the bridge's maximum hops to <max_hops>. The default is 20.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-maxhops 24
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setmaxhops <bridge> <max_hops>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setmaxhops br2 24
txholdcount
Sets the bridge's bridge transmit hold count to <tx_hold_count>. The default is 6.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-txholdcount 6
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
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Parameter
Description
mstpctl settxholdcount <bridge> <tx_hold_count>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl settxholdcount br2 5
forcevers
Sets the bridge's force STP version to either RSTP/STP. MSTP is not supported
currently. The default is RSTP.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-forcevers rstp
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setforcevers <bridge> {mstp|rstp|stp}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setforcevers br2 rstp
treeprio
Sets the bridge's tree priority to <priority> for an MSTI instance. The priority
value is a number between 0 and 65535 and must be a multiple of 4096. The
bridge with the lowest priority is elected the root bridge. The default is 32768.
For msti, only 0 is supported currently.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-treeprio 8192
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl settreeprio <bridge> <mstid> <priority>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl settreeprio br2 0 8192
treeportprio
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Parameter
Description
Sets the priority of port <port> to <priority> for the MSTI instance. The priority
value is a number between 0 and 240 and must be a multiple of 16. The default is
128.
For msti, only 0 is supported currently.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-treeportprio swp4.101 64
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl settreeportprio <bridge> <port> <mstid> <priority>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl settreeportprio br2
swp4.101 0 64
hello
Sets the bridge's bridge hello time to <time> seconds. The default is 2.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-hello 20
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl sethello <bridge> <time>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl sethello br2 20
portpathcost
Sets the port cost of the port <port> in bridge <bridge> to <cost>. The default is
0.
mstpd supports only long mode; that is, 32 bits for the path cost.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
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Parameter
Description
mstpctl-portpathcost swp1.101=10
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportpathcost <bridge> <port> <cost>
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportpathcost br2
swp1.101 10
portadminedge Enables/disables the initial edge state of the port <port> in bridge <bridge>. The
default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-portadminedge swp1.101=yes
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportadminedge <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportadminedge br2
swp1.101 yes
portautoedge
Enables/disables the auto transition to/from the edge state of the port <port> in
bridge <bridge>. The default is yes.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-portautoedge swp1.101=no
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportautoedge <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
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Parameter
Description
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportautoedge br2
swp1.101 no
portp2p
Enables/disables the point-to-point detection mode of the port <port> in bridge
<bridge>. The default is auto.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-portp2p swp1.101=no
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportp2p <bridge> <port> {yes|no|auto}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportp2p br2 swp1.101
no
portrestrrole
Enables/disables the ability of the port <port> in bridge <bridge> to take the root
role. The default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-portrestrrole swp1.101=no
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportrestrrole <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportrestrrole br2
swp1.101 yes
portrestrtcn
Enables/disables the ability of the port <port> in bridge <bridge> to propagate
received topology change notifications. The default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
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Parameter
Description
mstpctl-portrestrtcn swp1.101=yes
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportrestrtcn <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportrestrtcn br2
swp1.101 yes
portnetwork
Enables/disables the bridge assurance capability for a network port <port> in
bridge <bridge>. The default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-portnetwork swp4.101=yes
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportnetwork <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportnetwork br2 swp4.
101 yes
bpduguard
Enables/disables the BPDU guard configuration of the port <port> in bridge
<bridge>. The default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-bpduguard swp1=no
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setbpduguard <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
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Parameter
Description
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setbpduguard br2 swp1.
101 yes
portbpdufilter
Enables/disables the BPDU filter functionality for a port <port> in bridge <bridge>
. The default is no.
To set this parameter persistently, configure it under the bridge stanza:
mstpctl-bpdufilter swp4.101=yes
To set this parameter at runtime, use:
mstpctl setportbpdufilter <bridge> <port> {yes|no}
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportbpdufilter br2
swp4.101 yes
Bridge Assurance
On a point-to-point link where RSTP is running, if you want to detect unidirectional links and put the
port in a discarding state (in error), you can enable bridge assurance on the port by enabling port type
network. The port would be in a bridge assurance inconsistent state until a BPDU is received from the
peer. You need to configure the port type network on both the ends of the link:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportnetwork br1007 swp1.1007 yes
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showportdetail br1007 swp1.1007 | grep
network
network port
yes
BA inconsistent
yes
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo grep -in assurance /var/log/syslog | grep mstp
1365:Jun 25 18:03:17 mstpd: br1007:swp1.1007 Bridge assurance inconsistent
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BPDU Guard
To protect the spanning tree topology from unauthorized switches affecting the forwarding path, you
can configure BPDU guard (Bridge Protocol Data Unit). One very common example is when someone
hooks up a new switch to an access port off of a leaf switch. If this new switch is configured with a low
priority, it could become the new root switch and affect the forwarding path for the entire Layer 2
topology.
Configuring BPDU Guard
You configure BPDU guard under the bridge stanza in /etc/network/interfaces:
auto br2
iface br2 inet static
bridge-ports swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4 swp5 swp6
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-bpduguard swp1=yes swp2=yes swp3=yes swp4=yes
To load the new configuration, run ifreload -a:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Non-Persistent Configuration
You can also configure BPDU guard on an individual port using a runtime configuration.
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$
sudo
sudo
sudo
sudo
mstpctl
mstpctl
mstpctl
mstpctl
setbpduguard
setbpduguard
setbpduguard
setbpduguard
br2
br2
br2
br2
swp1
swp2
swp3
swp4
yes
yes
yes
yes
Recovering a Port Disabled by BPDU Guard
If a BPDU is received on the port, STP will bring down the port and log an error in /var/log/syslog.
The following is a sample error:
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mstpd: error, MSTP_IN_rx_bpdu: bridge:bond0 Recvd BPDU on BPDU Guard
Port - Port Down
To determine whether BPDU guard is configured, or if a BPDU has been received, run mstpctl
showportdetail <bridge name>:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showportdetail br2 swp1 | grep guard
bpdu guard port
yes
bpdu guard error
yes
The only way to recover a port that has been placed in the disabled state is to manually un-shut or
bring up the port with sudo ifup [port], as shown in the example below:
Bringing up the disabled port does not fix the problem if the configuration on the connected
end-station has not been rectified.
cumulus@leaf2$ mstpctl showportdetail bridge
bridge:bond0 CIST info
enabled
no
Disabled
port id
8.001
discarding
external port cost 305
internal port cost 305
designated root
8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
dsgn regional root 8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
designated bridge 8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
1
admin edge port
no
oper edge port
no
point-to-point
yes
restricted role
no
port hello time
10
bpdu guard port
yes
network port
no
Num TX BPDU
3
Num RX BPDU
488
Num Transition FWD 1
bpdufilter port
no
clag ISL
no
clag role
unknown
0:0:0:0
clag remote portID F.FFF
0:0:0:0
bond0
role
state
admin external cost
admin internal cost
dsgn external cost
dsgn internal cost
designated port
0
0
0
0
8.00
auto edge port
topology change ack
admin point-to-point
restricted TCN
disputed
bpdu guard error
BA inconsistent
Num TX TCN
Num RX TCN
Num Transition BLK
yes
no
auto
no
no
yes
no
2
2
2
clag ISL Oper UP
clag dual conn mac
no
0:0:
clag system mac
0:0:
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo ifup bond0
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cumulus@leaf2$ mstpctl showportdetail bridge
bridge:bond0 CIST info
enabled
yes
port id
8.001
forwarding
external port cost 305
internal port cost 305
designated root
8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
dsgn regional root 8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
designated bridge 8.000.6C:64:1A:00:4F:9C
1
admin edge port
no
oper edge port
no
point-to-point
yes
restricted role
no
port hello time
2
bpdu guard port
no
network port
no
Num TX BPDU
3
Num RX BPDU
43
Num Transition FWD 1
bpdufilter port
no
clag ISL
no
clag role
unknown
0:0:0:0
clag remote portID F.FFF
0:0:0:0
bond0
role
state
Root
admin external cost
admin internal cost
dsgn external cost
dsgn internal cost
designated port
0
0
0
0
8.00
auto edge port
topology change ack
admin point-to-point
restricted TCN
disputed
bpdu guard error
BA inconsistent
Num TX TCN
Num RX TCN
Num Transition BLK
yes
no
auto
no
no
no
no
2
1
0
clag ISL Oper UP
clag dual conn mac
no
0:0:
clag system mac
0:0:
BPDU Filter
You can enable bpdufilter on a switch port, which filters BPDUs in both directions. This effectively
disables STP on the port.
To enable it, add the following to /etc/network/interfaces under the bridge port iface
section example:
auto br100
iface br100
bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100
mstpctl-portbpdufilter swp1=yes swp2=yes
To load the new configuration from /etc/network/interfaces, run ifreload -a:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
For more information, see man(5) ifupdown-addons-interfaces.
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
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A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
To enable BPDU filter at runtime, run mstpctl:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl setportbpdufilter br100 swp1.100=yes swp2.
100=yes
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Man Pages
brctl(8)
bridge-utils-interfaces(5)
ifupdown-addons-interfaces(5)
mstpctl(8)
mstpctl-utils-interfaces(5)
Useful Links
The source code for mstpd/mstpctl was written by Vitalii Demianets and is hosted at the sourceforge
URL below.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/mstpd/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanning_Tree_Protocol
Caveats and Errata
MSTP is not supported currently. However, interoperability with MSTP networks can be
accomplished using PVRSTP or PVSTP.
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
The lldpd daemon implements the IEEE802.1AB (Link Layer Discovery Protocol, or LLDP) standard.
LLDP allows you to know which ports are neighbors of a given port. By default, lldpd runs as a
daemon and is started at system boot. lldpd command line arguments are placed in /etc/default
/lldpd. lldpd configuration options are placed in /etc/lldpd.conf or under /etc/lldpd.d/.
For more details on the command line arguments and config options, please see man lldpd(8).
lldpd supports CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol, v1 and v2). lldpd logs by default into /var/log
/daemon.log with an lldpd prefix.
lldpcli is the CLI tool to query the lldpd daemon for neighbors, statistics and other running
configuration information. See man lldpcli(8) for details.
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 134)
Commands (see page 134)
Man Pages (see page 134)
Configuring LLDP (see page 134)
Example lldpcli Commands (see page 135)
Enabling the SNMP Subagent in LLDP (see page 138)
Configuration Files (see page 139)
Useful Links (see page 139)
Caveats and Errata (see page 139)
Commands
lldpd (daemon)
lldpcli (interactive CLI)
Man Pages
man lldpd
man lldpcli
Configuring LLDP
You configure lldpd settings in /etc/lldpd.conf or /etc/lldpd.d/.
Here is an example persistent configuration:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cat /etc/lldpd.conf
configure lldp tx-interval 40
configure lldp tx-hold 3
configure system interface pattern-blacklist "eth0"
lldpd logs to /var/log/daemon.log with the lldpd prefix:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo tail -f /var/log/daemon.log
| grep lldp
Aug
7 17:26:17 switch lldpd[1712]: unable to get system name
Aug
7 17:26:17 switch lldpd[1712]: unable to get system name
Aug
7 17:26:17 switch lldpcli[1711]: lldpd should resume operations
Aug
7 17:26:32 switch lldpd[1805]: NET-SNMP version 5.4.3 AgentX subagent
connected
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Example lldpcli Commands
To see all neighbors on all ports/interfaces:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lldpcli show neighbors
--------------------------------------------------------------------LLDP neighbors:
--------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
eth0, via: CDPv1, RID: 72, Time: 0 day, 00:33:40
Chassis:
ChassisID:
local test-server-1
SysName:
test-server-1
SysDescr:
Linux running on
Linux 3.2.2+ #1 SMP Mon Jun 10 16:21:22 PDT 2013 ppc
MgmtIP:
192.0.2.72
Capability:
Router, on
Port:
PortID:
ifname eth1
--------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
swp1, via: CDPv1, RID: 87, Time: 0 day, 00:36:27
nChassis:
ChassisID:
local T1
SysName:
T1
SysDescr:
Linux running on
Cumulus Linux
MgmtIP:
192.0.2.15
Capability:
Router, on
Port:
PortID:
ifname swp1
PortDescr:
swp1
--------------------------------------------------------------------... and more (output truncated to fit this doc)
To see neighbors on specific ports:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lldpcli show neighbors ports swp1,swp2
--------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
swp1, via: CDPv1, RID: 87, Time: 0 day, 00:36:27
Chassis:
ChassisID:
local T1
SysName:
T1
SysDescr:
Linux running on
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Cumulus Linux
MgmtIP:
192.0.2.15
Capability:
Router, on
Port:
PortID:
ifname swp1
PortDescr:
swp1
--------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
swp2, via: CDPv1, RID: 123, Time: 0 day, 00:36:27
Chassis:
ChassisID:
local T2
SysName:
T2
SysDescr:
Linux running on
Cumulus Linux
MgmtIP:
192.0.2.15
Capability:
Router, on
Port:
PortID:
ifname swp1
PortDescr:
swp1
To see lldpd statistics for all ports:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lldpcli show statistics
---------------------------------------------------------------------LLDP statistics:
---------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
eth0
Transmitted:
9423
Received:
17634
Discarded:
0
Unrecognized: 0
Ageout:
10
Inserted:
20
Deleted:
10
-------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
swp1
Transmitted:
9423
Received:
6264
Discarded:
0
Unrecognized: 0
Ageout:
0
Inserted:
2
Deleted:
0
---------------------------------------------------------------------
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Interface:
swp2
Transmitted:
9423
Received:
6264
Discarded:
0
Unrecognized: 0
Ageout:
0
Inserted:
2
Deleted:
0
--------------------------------------------------------------------Interface:
swp3
Transmitted:
9423
Received:
6265
Discarded:
0
Unrecognized: 0
Ageout:
0
Inserted:
2
Deleted:
0
---------------------------------------------------------------------... and more (output truncated to fit this document)
To see lldpd statistics summary for all ports:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lldpcli show statistics summary
--------------------------------------------------------------------LLDP Global statistics:
--------------------------------------------------------------------Summary of stats:
Transmitted:
648186
Received:
437557
Discarded:
0
Unrecognized: 0
Ageout:
10
Inserted:
38
Deleted:
10
To see the lldpd running configuration:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lldpcli show running-configuration
-------------------------------------------------------------------Global configuration:
-------------------------------------------------------------------Configuration:
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Transmit delay: 1
Transmit hold: 4
Receive mode: no
Pattern for management addresses: (none)
Interface pattern: (none)
Interface pattern for chassis ID: (none)
Override description with: (none)
Override platform with: (none)
Advertise version: yes
Disable LLDP-MED inventory: yes
LLDP-MED fast start mechanism: yes
LLDP-MED fast start interval: 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration does not persist when you reboot the switch — all changes are lost.
To configure active interfaces:
lldpcli configure system interface pattern "swp*"
To configure inactive interfaces:
lldpcli configure system interface pattern-blacklist "eth0"
The active interface list always overrides the inactive interface list.
To reset any interface list to none:
lldpcli configure system interface pattern-blacklist ""
Enabling the SNMP Subagent in LLDP
LLDP does not enable the SNMP subagent by default. You need to edit /etc/default/lldpd and
enable the -x option.
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo nano /etc/default/lldpd
# Uncomment to start SNMP subagent and enable CD
P, SONMP and EDP protocol
#DAEMON_ARGS="-x -c -s -e"
# Enable CDP by default
DAEMON_ARGS="-c"
DAEMON_ARGS="-x"
Configuration Files
/etc/lldpd.conf
/etc/lldpd.d
/etc/default/lldpd
Useful Links
http://vincentbernat.github.io/lldpd/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Link_Layer_Discovery_Protocol
Caveats and Errata
Annex E (and hence Annex D) of IEEE802.1AB (lldp) is not supported.
Prescriptive Topology Manager - PTM
In data center topologies, right cabling is a time-consuming endeavor and is error prone. Prescriptive
Topology Manager (PTM) is a dynamic cabling verification tool to help detect and eliminate such errors.
It takes a graphviz-DOT specified network cabling plan (something many operators already generate),
stored in a topology.dot file, and couples it with runtime information derived from LLDP to verify
that the cabling matches the specification. The check is performed on every link transition on each
node in the network. It also detects forwarding path failures using Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (
BFD).
You can customize the topology.dot file to control ptmd at both the global/network level and the
node/port level.
PTM runs as a daemon, named ptmd.
For more information, see man ptmd(8).
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 139)
Supported Features (see page 140)
Configuring PTM (see page 140)
Configuration Parameters (see page 141)
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Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) (see page 144)
Configuring BFD (see page 144)
Echo Function (see page 145)
Scripts (see page 146)
Enabling Quagga to Check Link State (see page 146)
Using ptmd Service Commands (see page 147)
Using ptmctl Commands (see page 147)
ptmctl Examples (see page 147)
ptmctl Error Outputs (see page 149)
Configuration Files (see page 150)
Useful Links (see page 150)
Caveats and Errata (see page 150)
Supported Features
Topology verification using LLDP. ptmd creates a client connection to the LLDP daemon, lldpd,
and retrieves the neighbor relationship between the nodes/ports in the network and compares
them against the prescribed topology specified in the topology.dot file.
Only physical interfaces, like swp1 or eth0, are currently supported. Cumulus Linux does not
support specifying virtual interfaces like bonds or subinterfaces like eth0.200 in the topology
file.
Forwarding path failure detection using Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD); however,
demand mode is not supported. For more information on how BFD operates in Cumulus Linux,
see below (see page 144) and see man ptmd(8).
Integration with Quagga (PTM to Quagga notification).
Client management: ptmd creates an abstract named socket /var/run/ptmd.socket on
startup. Other applications can connect to this socket to receive notifications and send
commands.
Event notifications: see Scripts below.
User configuration via a topology.dot file; see below (see page 140).
Configuring PTM
ptmd verifies the physical network topology against a DOT-specified network graph file, /etc/ptm.d
/topology.dot. This file must be present or else ptmd will not start. You can specify an alternate file
using the -c option.
At startup, ptmd connects to lldpd, the LLDP daemon, over a Unix socket and retrieves the neighbor
name and port information. It then compares the retrieved port information with the configuration
information that it read from the topology file. If there is a match, then it is a PASS, else it is a FAIL.
PTM performs its LLDP neighbor check using the PortID ifname TLV information. Previously, it
used the PortID port description TLV information.
PTM also supports undirected graphs:
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PTM also supports undirected graphs:
graph G {
node [shape=record];
graph [hostnametype="hostname", version="1:0", date="04/12/2013"];
edge [dir=none, len=1, headport=center, tailport=center];
//R1's connections - R1 is top-tier spine
"R1":"swp1" -- "R3":"swp3";
"R1":"swp2" -- "R4":"swp3";
}
It’s a good idea to always wrap the hostname in double quotes, like “www.example.com”.
Otherwise, ptmd can fail if you specify a fully-qualified domain name as the hostname and do
not wrap it in double quotes.
Configuration Parameters
You can configure ptmd parameters in the topology file. The parameters are classified as host-only,
global, per-port/node and templates.
Host-only Parameters
Host-only parameters apply to the entire host on which PTM is running. You can include the
hostnametype host-only parameter, which specifies whether PTM should use only the host name (
hostname) or the fully-qualified domain name (fqdn) while looking for the self-node in the graph file.
For example, in the graph file below, PTM will ignore the FQDN and only look for switch04, since that is
the host name of the switch it's running on:
graph G {
hostnametype="hostname"
BFD="upMinTx=150,requiredMinRx=250"
"cumulus":swp44 -- "switch04.cumulusnetworks.com":swp20
"cumulus":swp46 -- "switch04.cumulusnetworks.com":swp22
}
However, in this next example, PTM will compare using the FQDN and look for switch05.
cumulusnetworks.com, which is the FQDN of the switch it’s running on:
graph G {
hostnametype="fqdn"
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"cumulus":swp44 -- "switch05.cumulusnetworks.com":swp20
"cumulus":swp46 -- "switch05.cumulusnetworks.com":swp22
}
Global Parameters
Global parameters apply to every port listed in the topology file. There are two global parameters: LLDP
and BFD. LLDP is enabled by default; if no keyword is present, default values are used for all ports.
However, BFD is disabled if no keyword is present, unless there is a per-port override configured. For
example:
graph G {
LLDP=""
BFD="upMinTx=150,requiredMinRx=250,afi=both"
"cumulus":swp44 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp20
"cumulus":swp46 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp22
}
Per-port Parameters
Per-port parameters provide finer-grained control at the port level. These parameters override any
global or compiled defaults. For example:
graph G {
LLDP=""
BFD="upMinTx=300,requiredMinRx=100"
"cumulus":swp44 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp20 [BFD="upMinTx=150,
requiredMinRx=250,afi=both"]
"cumulus":swp46 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp22
}
Templates
Templates provide flexibility in choosing different parameter combinations and applying them to a
given port. A template instructs ptmd to reference a named parameter string instead of a default one.
There are two parameter strings ptmd supports:
bfdtmpl, which specifies a custom parameter tuple for BFD.
lldptmpl, which specifies a custom parameter tuple for LLDP.
For example:
graph G {
LLDP=""
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BFD="upMinTx=300,requiredMinRx=100"
BFD1="upMinTx=200,requiredMinRx=200"
BFD2="upMinTx=100,requiredMinRx=300"
LLDP1="match_type=ifname"
LLDP2="match_type=portdescr"
"cumulus":swp44 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp20 [BFD="bfdtmpl=BFD1", LLDP="
lldptmpl=LLDP1"]
"cumulus":swp46 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp22 [BFD="bfdtmpl=BFD2", LLDP="
lldptmpl=LLDP2"]
"cumulus":swp46 -- "qct-ly2-04":swp22
}
In this template, LLDP1 and LLDP2 are templates for LLDP parameters while BFD1 and BFD2 are
template for BFD parameters.
Supported BFD and LLDP Parameters
ptmd supports the following BFD parameters:
upMinTx: the minimum transmit interval, which defaults to 300ms, specified in milliseconds.
requiredMinRx: the minimum interval between received BFD packets, which defaults to 300ms,
specified in milliseconds.
detectMult: the detect multiplier, which defaults to 3, and can be any non-zero value.
afi: the address family to be supported for the edge. The address family must be one of the
following:
v4: BFD sessions will be built for only IPv4 connected peer. This is the default value.
v6: BFD sessions will be built for only IPv6 connected peer.
both: BFD sessions will be built for both IPv4 and IPv6 connected peers.
The following is an example of a topology with BFD applied at the port level:
graph G {
"cumulus-1":swp44 -- "cumulus-2":swp20 [BFD="upMinTx=300,
requiredMinRx=100,afi=v6"]
"cumulus-1":swp46 -- "cumulus-2":swp22 [BFD="detectMult=4"]
}
ptmd supports the following LLDP parameters:
match_type, which defaults to the interface name (ifname), but can accept a port description (
portdescr) instead if you want lldpd to compare the topology against the port description
instead of the interface name. You can set this parameter globally or at the per-port level.
match_hostname, which defaults to the host name (hostname), but enables PTM to match the
topology using the fully-qualified domain name (fqdn) supplied by LLDP.
The following is an example of a topology with LLDP applied at the port level:
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graph G {
"cumulus-1":swp44 -- "cumulus-2":swp20 [LLDP="match_hostname=fqdn"]
"cumulus-1":swp46 -- "cumulus-2":swp22 [LLDP="
match_type=portdescr"]
}
When you specify match_hostname=fqdn, ptmd will match the entire FQDN, like cumulus-2.
domain.com in the example below. If you do not specify anything for match_hostname, ptmd
will match based on hostname only, like cumulus-3 below, and ignore the rest of the URL:
graph G {
"cumulus-1":swp44 -- "cumulus-2.domain.com":swp20 [LLDP="
match_hostname=fqdn"]
"cumulus-1":swp46 -- "cumulus-3":swp22 [LLDP="
match_type=portdescr"]
}
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
BFD provides low overhead and rapid detection of failures in the paths between two network devices. It
provides a unified mechanism for link detection over all media and protocol layers. Use BFD to detect
failures for IPv4 and IPv6 single or multihop paths between any two network devices, including
unidirectional path failure detection. For more information, see the BFD chapter (see page 339).
BFD requires an IP address for any interface on which it is configured. The neighbor IP
address for a single hop BFD session must be in the ARP table before BFD can start sending
control packets.
You cannot specify BFD multihop sessions in the topology.dot file since you cannot specify
the source and destination IP address pairs in that file. Use Quagga (see page 293) to
configure multihop sessions.
Configuring BFD
You configure BFD one of two ways: by specifying the configuration in the topology.dot file, or using
Quagga (see page 339). However, the topology file has some limitations:
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The topology.dot file supports creating BFD IPv4 and IPv6 single hop sessions only; you
cannot specify IPv4 or IPv6 multihop sessions in the topology file.
The topology file supports BFD sessions for only link-local IPv6 peers; BFD sessions for global
IPv6 peers discovered on the link will not be created.
Echo Function
Cumulus Linux supports the echo function for IPv4 single hops only, and with the a synchronous
operating mode only (Cumulus Linux does not support demand mode).
You use the echo function primarily to test the forwarding path on a remote system. To enable the
echo function, set echoSupport to 1 in the topology file.
Once the echo packets are looped by the remote system, the BFD control packets can be sent at a
much lower rate. You configure this lower rate by setting the slowMinTx parameter in the topology file
to a non-zero value of milliseconds.
You can use more aggressive detection times for echo packets since the round-trip time is reduced
because they are accessing the forwarding path. You configure the detection interval by setting the
echoMinRx parameter in the topology file to a non-zero value of milliseconds; the minimum setting is
50 milliseconds. Once configured, BFD control packets are sent out at this required minimum echo Rx
interval. This indicates to the peer that the local system can loop back the echo packets. Echo packets
are transmitted if the peer supports receiving echo packets.
About the Echo Packet
BFD echo packets are encapsulated into UDP packets over destination and source UDP port number
3785. The BFD echo packet format is vendor-specific and has not been defined in the RFC. BFD echo
packets that originate from Cumulus Linux are 8 bytes long and have the following format:
0
1
2
3
Version
Length
Reserved
My Discriminator
Where:
Version is the version of the BFD echo packet.
Length is the length of the BFD echo packet.
My Discriminator is a non-zero value that uniquely identifies a BFD session on the transmitting
side. When the originating node receives the packet after being looped back by the receiving
system, this value uniquely identifies the BFD session.
Transmitting and Receiving Echo Packets
BFD echo packets are transmitted for a BFD session only when the peer has advertised a non-zero
value for the required minimum echo Rx interval (the echoMinRx setting) in the BFD control packet
when the BFD session starts. The transmit rate of the echo packets is based on the peer advertised
echo receive value in the control packet.
BFD echo packets are looped back to the originating node for a BFD session only if locally the
echoMinRx and echoSupport are configured to a non-zero values.
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Using Echo Function Parameters
You configure the echo function by setting the following parameters in the topology file at the global,
template and port level:
echoSupport: Enables and disables echo mode. Set to 1 to enable the echo function. It defaults
to 0 (disable).
echoMinRx: The minimum interval between echo packets the local system is capable of
receiving. This is advertised in the BFD control packet. When the echo function is enabled, it
defaults to 50. If you disable the echo function, this parameter is automatically set to 0, which
indicates the port or the node cannot process or receive echo packets.
slowMinTx: The minimum interval between transmitting BFD control packets when the echo
packets are being exchanged.
Scripts
ptmd executes scripts at /etc/ptm.d/if-topo-pass and /etc/ptm.d/if-topo-failfor each
interface that goes through a change, running if-topo-pass when an LLDP or BFD check passes and
running if-topo-fails when the check fails. The scripts receive an argument string that is the result
of the ptmctl command, described in ptmd Commands below.
You should modify these default scripts as needed.
Enabling Quagga to Check Link State
The Quagga routing suite enables additional checks to ensure that routing adjacencies are formed only
on links that have connectivity conformant to the specification, as determined by ptmd.
You only need to do this to check link state; you don't need to enable PTM to determine BFD
status.
To enable the check:
quagga# conf t
quagga(config)# ptm-enable
quagga(config)#
To disable the checks:
quagga# conf t
quagga(config)# no ptm-enable
quagga(config)#
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When the ptm-enable flag is configured by the user, the zebra daemon connects to ptmd over a Unix
socket. Any time there is a change of status for an interface, ptmd sends notifications to zebra. Zebra
maintains a ptm-status flag per interface and evaluates routing adjacency based on this flag. To
check the per-interface ptm-status:
quagga# show interface swp1
Interface swp1 is up, line protocol is up
PTM status: pass
Description: T1
index 3 metric 1 mtu 1500
flags: <UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>
HWaddr: 44:38:39:00:27:1d
inet 192.0.2.1/31 broadcast 255.255.255.255
inet6 2001:DB8::271d/64
quagga#
Using ptmd Service Commands
PTM sends client notifications in CSV format.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ptmd start|restart|force-reload: Starts or restarts the
ptmd service. The topology.dot file must be present in order for the service to start.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ptmd reconfig: Instructs ptmd to read the topology.dot
file again without restarting, applying the new configuration to the running state.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ptmd stop: Stops the ptmd service.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service ptmd status: Retrieves the current running state of ptmd.
Using ptmctl Commands
ptmctl is a client of ptmd; it retrieves the daemon’s operational state. It connects to ptmd over a Unix
socket and listens for notifications. ptmctl parses the CSV notifications sent by ptmd.
See man ptmctl for more information.
ptmctl Examples
For basic output, use ptmctl without any options:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl
------------------------------------------------------------port
cbl
BFD
BFD
BFD
BFD
status
status
peer
local
type
------------------------------------------------------------swp1
pass
pass
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N/A
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swp2
pass
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
swp3
pass
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
For more detailed output, use the -d option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl -d
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------port
cbl
exp
BFD
BFD
BFD
act
echo_tx_timeout
state
det_mult
echo_rx_timeout
status nbr
Type
sysname
BFD
portID
portDescr
tx_timeout
match
max_hop_cnt
nbr
peer
last
rx_timeout
on
upd
DownDiag
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------swp45 pass
/A
N/A
h1:swp1 h1:swp1
N/A
/A
N/A
N/A
swp1
N/A
IfName 5m: 5s
N/A
N
N
N/A
h2:swp1 h2:swp1
h2
N/A
/A
swp1
N/A
N/A
swp46 fail
/A
h1
N/A
swp1
N/A
N/A
swp1
N/A
IfName 5m: 5s
N/A
N
N
N/A
To return information on active BFD sessions ptmd is tracking, use the -b option:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl -b
---------------------------------------------------------port
peer
state
local
type
diag
---------------------------------------------------------swp1
11.0.0.2
Up
N/A
singlehop
N/A
N/A
12.12.12.1
Up
12.12.12.4
multihop
N/A
To return LLDP information, use the -l option. It returns only the active neighbors currently being
tracked by ptmd.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl -l
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--------------------------------------------port
sysname
portID
port
match
last
descr
on
upd
--------------------------------------------swp45 h1
swp1
swp1
IfName 5m:59s
swp46 h2
swp1
swp1
IfName 5m:59s
To return detailed information on active BFD sessions ptmd is tracking, use the -b and -d options
(results are for an IPv6-connected peer):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl -b -d
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------port
peer
rx_timeout
state
echo
echo
local
type
max
diag
rx_ctrl
det
tx_ctrl
tx_timeout
rx_echo
tx_echo
mult
tx_timeout
rx_timeout
hop_cnt
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------swp1
900
fe80::202:ff:fe00:1
0
Up
0
N/A
singlehop
N/A
N/A
187172
3
185986
300
0
0
swp1
900
3101:abc:bcad::2
0
Up
0
N/A
singlehop
N/A
N/A
501
533
3
300
0
0
ptmctl Error Outputs
If there are errors in the topology file or there isn’t a session, PTM will return appropriate outputs.
Typical error strings are:
Topology file error [/etc/ptm.d/topology.dot] [cannot find node cumulus] please check /var/log/ptmd.log for more info
Topology file error [/etc/ptm.d/topology.dot] [cannot open file (errno 2)] please check /var/log/ptmd.log for more info
No Hostname/MgmtIP found [Check LLDPD daemon status] cumulusnetworks.com
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please check /var/log/ptmd.log for more info
No BFD sessions . Check connections
No LLDP ports detected. Check connections
Unsupported command
For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ptmctl
------------------------------------------------------------------------cmd
error
------------------------------------------------------------------------get-status
Topology file error [/etc/ptm.d/topology.dot] [cannot open file
(errno 2)] - please check /var/log/ptmd.log for more info
If you encounter errors with the topology.dot file, you can use dot (included in the Graphviz
package) to validate the syntax of the topology file.
Configuration Files
/etc/ptm.d/topology.dot
/etc/ptm.d/if-topo-pass
/etc/ptm.d/if-topo-fail
Useful Links
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
Graphviz
LLDP on Wikipedia
PTMd GitHub repo
Caveats and Errata
Prior to version 2.1, Cumulus Linux stored the ptmd configuration files in /etc/cumulus/ptm.d
. When you upgrade to version 2.1 or later, all the existing ptmd files are copied from their
original location to /etc/ptm.d with a dpkg-old extension, except for topology.dot, which
gets copied to /etc/ptm.d.
If you customized the if-topo-pass and if-topo-fail scripts, they are also copied to dpkgold, and you must modify them so they can parse the CSV output correctly.
Sample if-topo-pass and if-topo-fail scripts are available in /etc/ptm.d. A sample
topology.dot file is available in /usr/share/doc/ptmd/examples.
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Bonding - Link Aggregation
Linux bonding provides a method for aggregating multiple network interfaces (the slaves) into a single
logical bonded interface (the bond). Cumulus Linux bonding supports the IEEE 802.3ad link aggregation
mode. Link aggregation allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation
group (LAG), such that a media access control (MAC) client can treat the link aggregation group as if it
were a single link. The benefits of link aggregation are:
Linear scaling of bandwidth as links are added to LAG
Load balancing
Failover protection
Cumulus Linux LAG control protocol is LACP version 1.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 151)
Example: Bonding 4 Slaves (see page 151)
Hash Distribution (see page 154)
Configuration Files (see page 154)
Useful Links (see page 154)
Caveats and Errata (see page 154)
Example: Bonding 4 Slaves
In this example, front panel port interfaces swp1-swp4 are slaves in bond0 (swp5 and swp6 are not
part of bond0). The name of the bond is arbitrary as long as it follows Linux interface naming
guidelines, and is unique within the switch. The only bonding mode supported in Cumulus Linux is
802.3ad. There are several 802.3ad settings that can be applied to each bond:
bond-slave: The list of slaves in bond.
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bond-slave: The list of slaves in bond.
bond-mode: Must be set to 802.3ad.
bond-miimon: How often the link state of each slave is inspected for link failures. It defaults to 0
, but 100 is the recommended value.
bond-miimon must be defined in /etc/network/interfaces.
bond-use-carrier: How to determine link state.
bond-xmit-hash-policy: Hash method used to select the slave for a given packet; must be
set to layer3+4.
bond-lacp-rate: Rate to ask link partner to transmit LACP control packets.
bond-min-links: Specifies the minimum number of links that must be active before asserting
carrier on the bond. Minimum value is 1, but a value greater than 1 is useful if higher level
services need to ensure a minimum of aggregate bandwidth before putting the bond in service.
bond-min-links must be defined in /etc/network/interfaces and it cannot be
set to 0. See also this release note.
See Useful Links below for more details on settings.
To configure the bond, edit /etc/network/interfaces and add a stanza for bond0:
auto bond0
iface bond0
address 10.0.0.1/30
bond-slaves swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
However, if you are intending that the bond become part of a bridge, you don't need to specify an IP
address. The configuration would look like this:
auto bond0
iface bond0
bond-slaves glob swp1-4
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
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bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
See man interfaces for more information on /etc/network/interfaces.
Here the link state sampling rate is 1/10 sec, and the LACP transmit rate is set to high. bond-minlinks is set to 1 to indicate the bond must have at least one active member for bond to assert carrier.
If the number of active members drops below the bond-min-links setting, the bond will appear to
upper-level protocols as link-down. When the number of active links returns to greater than or equal to
bond-min-links, the bond will become link-up.
When networking is started on switch, bond0 is created as MASTER and interfaces swp1-swp4 come up
in SLAVE mode, as seen in the ip link show command:
3: swp1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
4: swp2: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
5: swp3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
6: swp4: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond0 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
And
55: bond0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,MASTER,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:03:c1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
All slave interfaces within a bond will have the same MAC address as the bond. Typically, the
first slave added to the bond donates its MAC address for the bond. The other slaves’ MAC
addresses are set to the bond MAC address. The bond MAC address is used as source MAC
address for all traffic leaving the bond, and provides a single destination MAC address to
address traffic to the bond.
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Hash Distribution
Egress traffic through a bond is distributed to a slave based on a packet hash calculation. This
distribution provides load balancing over the slaves. The hash calculation uses packet header data to
pick which slave to transmit the packet. For IP traffic, IP header source and destination fields are used
in the calculation. For IP + TCP/UDP traffic, source and destination ports are included in the hash
calculation. Traffic for a given conversation flow will always hash to the same slave. Many flows will be
distributed over all the slaves to load balance the total traffic. In a failover event, the hash calculation is
adjusted to steer traffic over available slaves.
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Useful Links
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bonding
802.3ad (Accessible writeup)
Link aggregation from Wikipedia
Caveats and Errata
An interface cannot belong to multiple bonds.
Slave ports within a bond should all be set to the same speed/duplex, and should match the link
partner’s slave ports.
A bond cannot enslave VLAN subinterfaces. A bond can have subinterfaces, but not the other
way around.
Ethernet Bridging - VLANs
Ethernet bridges provide a means for hosts to communicate at layer 2. Bridge members can be
individual physical interfaces, bonds or logical interfaces that traverse an 802.1Q VLAN trunk.
Cumulus Linux 2.5.0 introduced a new method for configuring bridges that are VLAN-aware (see page 175
) . The bridge driver in Cumulus Linux 2.5.x is capable of VLAN filtering, which allows for configurations
that are similar to incumbent network devices. While Cumulus Linux supports Ethernet bridges in
traditional mode Cumulus Networks recommends using VLAN-aware mode unless you are using
VXLANs in your network.
For a comparison of traditional and VLAN-aware modes, read this knowledge base article.
You can configure both VLAN-aware and traditional mode bridges on the same network in
Cumulus Linux; however you should not have more than one VLAN-aware bridge on a given
switch. If you are implementing VXLANs (see page 226), you must use traditional bridge
mode.
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 155)
Configuration Files (see page 155)
Commands (see page 155)
Creating a Bridge between Physical Interfaces (see page 155)
Creating the Bridge and Adding Interfaces (see page 156)
Showing and Verifying the Bridge Configuration (see page 157)
Examining MAC Addresses (see page 158)
Multiple Bridges (see page 159)
Configuring an SVI (Switch VLAN Interface) (see page 162)
Showing and Verifying the Bridge Configuration (see page 163)
Using Trunks in Traditional Bridging Mode (see page 164)
Trunk Example (see page 165)
Showing and Verifying the Trunk (see page 166)
Additional Examples (see page 166)
Configuration Files (see page 166)
Useful Links (see page 167)
Caveats and Errata (see page 167)
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Commands
brctl
bridge
ip addr
ip link
Creating a Bridge between Physical Interfaces
The basic use of bridging is to connect all of the physical and logical interfaces in the system into a
single layer 2 domain.
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Creating the Bridge and Adding Interfaces
You statically manage bridge configurations in /etc/network/interfaces. The following
configuration snippet details an example bridge used throughout this chapter, explicitly enabling
spanning tree (see page 118) and setting the bridge MAC address ageing timer. First, create a bridge
with a descriptive name of 15 characters or fewer. Then add the logical interfaces (bond0) and physical
interfaces (swp5, swp6) to assign to that bridge.
auto my_bridge
iface my_bridge
bridge-ports bond0 swp5 swp6
bridge-ageing 150
bridge-stp on
Keyword
Explanation
bridgeports
List of logical and physical ports belonging to the logical bridge.
bridgeageing
Maximum amount of time before a MAC addresses learned on the bridge expires from
the bridge MAC cache. The default value is 300 seconds.
bridgestp
Enables spanning tree protocol on this bridge. The default spanning tree mode is Per
VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (PVRST).
For more information on spanning-tree configurations see the configuration section:
Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning Tree (see page 118).
To bring up the bridge my_bridge, use the ifreload command:
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To bring up the bridge my_bridge, use the ifreload command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
To create the bridge and interfaces on the bridge, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addbr my_bridge
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif my_bridge bond0 swp5 swp6
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
my_bridge
8000.44383900129b
yes
bond0
swp5
swp6
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set up dev my_bridge
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set up dev bond0
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo for I in {5..6}; do
ip link set up dev swp$I; done
Showing and Verifying the Bridge Configuration
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show my_bridge
56: my_bridge: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:12:9b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Do not try to bridge the management port, eth0, with any switch ports (like swp0, swp1, and
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Do not try to bridge the management port, eth0, with any switch ports (like swp0, swp1, and
so forth). For example, if you created a bridge with eth0 and swp1, it will not work.
Using netshow to Display Bridge Information
netshow is an add-on tool that is not installed in Cumulus Linux by default. Refer to this knowledge
base article for steps to install it.
cumulus@switch$ netshow interface bridge
Name
Speed
Mtu
Mode
Summary
--
---------
-------
-----
---------
-----------------------
UP
my_bridge
N/A
1500
Bridge/L2
Untagged: bond0, swp5-6
Root Port: bond0
VlanID: Untagged
Bridge Interface MAC Address and MTU
A bridge is a logical interface with a MAC address and an MTU (see page 106) (maximum transmission
unit). The bridge MTU is the minimum MTU among all its members. The bridge's MAC address is
inherited from the first interface that is added to the bridge as a member. The bridge MAC address
remains unchanged until the member interface is removed from the bridge, at which point the bridge
will inherit from the next member interface, if any. The bridge can also be assigned an IP address, as
discussed later in this section.
Examining MAC Addresses
A bridge forwards frames by looking up the destination MAC address. A bridge learns the source MAC
address of a frame when the frame enters the bridge on an interface. After the MAC address is learned,
the bridge maintains an age for the MAC entry in the bridge table. The age is refreshed when a frame is
seen again with the same source MAC address. When a MAC is not seen for greater than the MAC
ageing time, the MAC address is deleted from the bridge table.
The following shows the MAC address table of the example bridge. Notice that the is local? column
indicates if the MAC address is the interface's own MAC address (is local is yes), or if it is learned on
the interface from a packet's source MAC (where is local is no):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl showmacs my_bridge
158
port name mac addr
is local?
ageing timer
swp4
06:90:70:22:a6:2e
no
19.47
swp1
12:12:36:43:6f:9d
no
40.50
bond0
2a:95:22:94:d1:f0
no
1.98
swp1
44:38:39:00:12:9b
yes
0.00
swp2
44:38:39:00:12:9c
yes
0.00
swp3
44:38:39:00:12:9d
yes
0.00
swp4
44:38:39:00:12:9e
yes
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bond0
44:38:39:00:12:9f
yes
0.00
swp2
90:e2:ba:2c:b1:94
no
12.84
swp2
a2:84:fe:fc:bf:cd
no
9.43
You can use the bridge fdb command to display the MAC address table as well:
cumulus@en-sw2$ bridge fdb show
70:72:cf:9d:4e:36 dev swp2 VLAN 0 master bridge-A permanent
70:72:cf:9d:4e:35 dev swp1 VLAN 0 master bridge-A permanent
70:72:cf:9d:4e:38 dev swp4 VLAN 0 master bridge-B permanent
70:72:cf:9d:4e:37 dev swp3 VLAN 0 master bridge-B permanent
You can clear a MAC address from the table using the bridge fdb command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo bridge fdb del 90:e2:ba:2c:b1:94 dev swp2
Multiple Bridges
Sometimes it is useful to logically divide a switch into multiple layer 2 domains, so that hosts in one
domain can communicate with other hosts in the same domain but not in other domains. You can
achieve this by configuring multiple bridges and putting different sets of interfaces in the different
bridges. In the following example, host-1 and host-2 are connected to the same bridge (bridge-A), while
host-3 and host-4 are connected to another bridge (bridge-B). host-1 and host-2 can communicate with
each other, so can host-3 and host-4, but host-1 and host-2 cannot communicate with host-3 and host4.
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To configure multiple bridges, edit /etc/network/interfaces:
auto bridge-A
iface bridge-A
bridge-ports swp1 swp2
bridge-stp on
auto my_bridge
iface my_bridge
bridge-ports swp3 swp4
bridge-stp on
To bring up the bridges bridge-A and bridge-B, use the ifreload command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addbr bridge-A
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif bridge-A swp1 swp2
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addbr bridge-B
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif bridge-B swp3 swp4
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo for I in {1..4}; do
ip link set up dev swp$I; done
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set up dev bridge-A
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link set up dev bridge-B
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
bridge-A
8000.44383900129b
yes
swp1
bridge-B
8000.44383900129d
yes
swp2
swp3
swp4
cumulus@en-sw2$ ip link show bridge-A
97: bridge-A: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 70:72:cf:9d:4e:35 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@en-sw2$ ip link show bridge-B
98: bridge-B: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 70:72:cf:9d:4e:37 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Using netshow to Display the Bridges
netshow is an add-on tool that is not installed in Cumulus Linux by default. Refer to this knowledge
base article for steps to install it.
cumulus@switch$ netshow interface bridge
Name
Speed
Mtu
Mode
Summary
--
--------
-------
-----
---------
----------------
UP
bridge-A
N/A
1500
Bridge/L2
Untagged: swp1-2
Root Port: swp2
VlanID: Untagged
UP
bridge-B
N/A
1500
Bridge/L2
Untagged: swp3-4
Root Port: swp3
VlanID: Untagged
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Configuring an SVI (Switch VLAN Interface)
A bridge creates a layer 2 forwarding domain for hosts to communicate. A bridge can be assigned an IP
address — typically of the same subnet as the hosts that are members of the bridge — and participate
in routing topologies. This enables hosts within a bridge to communicate with other hosts outside the
bridge through layer 3 routing.
When an interface is added to a bridge, it ceases to function as a router interface, and the IP
address on the interface, if any, becomes reachable.
The configuration for the two bridges example looks like the following:
auto swp5
iface swp5
address 192.168.1.2/24
address 2001:DB8:1::2/64
auto bridge-A
iface bridge-A
address 192.168.2.1/24
address 2001:DB8:2::1/64
bridge-ports swp1 swp2
bridge-stp on
auto bridge-B
iface bridge-B
address 192.168.3.1/24
address 2001:DB8:3::1/64
bridge-ports swp3 swp4
bridge-stp on
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To bring up swp5 and bridges bridge-A and bridge-B, use the ifreload command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Showing and Verifying the Bridge Configuration
cumulus@switch$ ip addr show bridge-A
106: bridge-A: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP
link/ether 70:72:cf:9d:4e:35 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.2.1/24 scope global bridge-A
inet6 2001:db8:2::1/64 scope global
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 fe80::7272:cfff:fe9d:4e35/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
cumulus@switch$ ip addr show bridge-B
107: bridge-B: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state UP
link/ether 70:72:cf:9d:4e:37 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 192.168.3.1/24 scope global bridge-B
inet6 2001:db8:3::1/64 scope global
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
inet6 fe80::7272:cfff:fe9d:4e37/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
To see all the routes on the switch use the ip route show command:
cumulus@switch$ ip route show
192.168.1.0/24 dev swp5 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.1.2 dead
192.168.2.0/24 dev bridge-A proto kernel scope link src 192.168.2.1
192.168.3.0/24 dev bridge-B proto kernel scope link src 192.168.3.1
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
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To add an IP address to a bridge:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr add 192.0.2.101/24 dev bridge-A
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip addr add 192.0.2.102/24 dev bridge-B
Using netshow to Display the SVI
netshow is an add-on tool that is not installed in Cumulus Linux by default. Refer to this knowledge
base article for steps to install it.
cumulus@switch$ netshow interface bridge
--
Name
Speed
Mtu
Mode
--------
-------
-----
---------
Summary
-----------------------------------UP
bridge-A
N/A
1500
Bridge/L3
IP: 192.168.2.1/24, 2001:db8:2::1
/64
Untagged: swp1-2
Root Port: swp2
VlanID: Untagged
UP
bridge-B
N/A
1500
Bridge/L3
IP: 192.168.3.1/24, 2001:db8:3::1
/64
Untagged: swp3-4
Root Port: swp3
VlanID: Untagged
Using Trunks in Traditional Bridging Mode
The IEEE standard for trunking is 802.1Q. The 802.1Q specification adds a 4 byte header within the
Ethernet frame that identifies the VLAN of which the frame is a member.
802.1Q also identifies an untagged frame as belonging to the native VLAN (most network devices default
their native VLAN to 1). The concept of native, non-native, tagged or untagged has generated confusion
due to mixed terminology and vendor-specific implementations. Some clarification is in order:
A trunk port is a switch port configured to send and receive 802.1Q tagged frames.
A switch sending an untagged (bare Ethernet) frame on a trunk port is sending from the native
VLAN defined on the trunk port.
A switch sending a tagged frame on a trunk port is sending to the VLAN identified by the 802.1Q
tag.
A switch receiving an untagged (bare Ethernet) frame on a trunk port places that frame in the
native VLAN defined on the trunk port.
A switch receiving a tagged frame on a trunk port places that frame in the VLAN identified by the
802.1Q tag.
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A bridge in traditional mode has no concept of trunks, just tagged or untagged frames. With a trunk of
200 VLANs, there would need to be 199 bridges, each containing a tagged physical interface, and one
bridge containing the native untagged VLAN. See the examples below for more information.
The interaction of tagged and un-tagged frames on the same trunk often leads to undesired
and unexpected behavior. A switch that uses VLAN 1 for the native VLAN may send frames to
a switch that uses VLAN 2 for the native VLAN, thus merging those two VLANs and their
spanning tree state.
Trunk Example
Configure the following in /etc/network/interfaces:
auto br-VLAN100
iface br-VLAN100
bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100
bridge-stp on
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auto br-VLAN200
iface br-VLAN200
bridge-ports swp1.200 swp2.200
bridge-stp on
To bring up br-VLAN100 and br-VLAN200, use the ifreload command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifreload -a
Showing and Verifying the Trunk
cumulus@en-sw2$ brctl show
bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
br-VLAN100 8000.7072cf9d4e35 no swp1.100
swp2.100
br-VLAN200 8000.7072cf9d4e35 no swp1.200
swp2.200
Using netshow to Display the Trunk
netshow is an add-on tool that is not installed in Cumulus Linux by default. Refer to this knowledge
base article for steps to install it.
cumulus@switch$ netshow interface bridge
Name
Speed
Mtu
Mode
Summary
--
----------
-------
-----
---------
----------------------
UP
br-VLAN100
N/A
1500
Bridge/L2
Tagged: swp1-2
STP: rootSwitch(32768)
VlanID: 100
UP
br-VLAN200
N/A
1500
Bridge/L2
Tagged: swp1-2
STP: rootSwitch(32768)
VlanID: 200
Additional Examples
You can find additional examples of VLAN tagging in this chapter (see page 167).
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
/etc/network/interfaces.d/
/etc/network/if-down.d/
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/etc/network/if-down.d/
/etc/network/if-post-down.d/
/etc/network/if-pre-up.d/
/etc/network/if-up.d/
Useful Links
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bridge
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/vlan
http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/8172
Caveats and Errata
The same bridge cannot contain multiple subinterfaces of the same port as members.
Attempting to apply such a configuration will result in an error.
VLAN Tagging
This article shows two examples of VLAN tagging (see page ), one basic and one more advanced.
They both demonstrate the streamlined interface configuration from ifupdown2. For more
information, see Configuring and Managing Network Interfaces (see page 89).
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 167)
VLAN Tagging, a Basic Example (see page 167)
Persistent Configuration (see page 168)
VLAN Tagging, an Advanced Example (see page 168)
Persistent Configuration (see page 169)
VLAN Translation (see page 174)
VLAN Tagging, a Basic Example
A simple configuration demonstrating VLAN tagging involves two hosts connected to a switch.
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host1 connects to swp1 with both untagged frames and with 802.1Q frames tagged for vlan100.
host2 connects to swp2 with 802.1Q frames tagged for vlan120 and vlan130.
Persistent Configuration
To configure the above example persistently, configure /etc/network/interfaces like this:
# Config for host1
auto swp1
iface swp1
auto swp1.100
iface swp1.100
# Config for host2
# swp2 must exist to create the .1Q subinterfaces, but it is not assigned
an address
auto swp2
iface swp2
auto swp2.120
iface swp2.120
auto swp2.130
iface swp2.130
VLAN Tagging, an Advanced Example
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VLAN Tagging, an Advanced Example
This example of VLAN tagging is more complex, involving three hosts and two switches, with a number
of bridges and a bond connecting them all.
host1 connects to bridge br-untagged with bare Ethernet frames and to bridge br-tag100 with
802.1q frames tagged for vlan100.
host2 connects to bridge br-tag100 with 802.1q frames tagged for vlan100 and to bridge brvlan120 with 802.1q frames tagged for vlan120.
host3 connects to bridge br-vlan120 with 802.1q frames tagged for vlan120 and to bridge v130
with 802.1q frames tagged for vlan130.
bond2 carries tagged and untagged frames in this example.
Although not explicitly designated, the bridge member ports function as 802.1Q access ports and trunk
ports. In the example above, comparing Cumulus Linux with a traditional Cisco device:
swp1 is equivalent to a trunk port with untagged and vlan100.
swp2 is equivalent to a trunk port with vlan100 and vlan120.
swp3 is equivalent to a trunk port with vlan120 and vlan130.
bond2 is equivalent to an EtherChannel in trunk mode with untagged, vlan100, vlan120, and
vlan130.
Bridges br-untagged, br-tag100, br-vlan120, and v130 are equivalent to SVIs (switched virtual
interfaces).
Persistent Configuration
From /etc/network/interfaces :
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# Config for host1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - # swp1 does not need an iface section unless it has a specific setting,
# it will be picked up as a dependent of swp1.100.
# And swp1 must exist in the system to create the .1q subinterfaces..
# but it is not applied to any bridge..or assigned an address.
auto swp1.100
iface swp1.100
# Config for host2
# swp2 does not need an iface section unless it has a specific setting,
# it will be picked up as a dependent of swp2.100 and swp2.120.
# And swp2 must exist in the system to create the .1q subinterfaces..
# but it is not applied to any bridge..or assigned an address.
auto swp2.100
iface swp2.100
auto swp2.120
iface swp2.120
# Config for host3
# swp3 does not need an iface section unless it has a specific setting,
# it will be picked up as a dependent of swp3.120 and swp3.130.
# And swp3 must exist in the system to create the .1q subinterfaces..
# but it is not applied to any bridge..or assigned an address.
auto swp3.120
iface swp3.120
auto swp3.130
iface swp3.130
# Configure the bond - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - auto bond2
iface bond2
bond-slaves glob swp4-7
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
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bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
# configure the bridges
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - auto br-untagged
iface br-untagged
address 10.0.0.1/24
bridge-ports swp1 bond2
bridge-stp on
auto br-tag100
iface br-tag100
address 10.0.100.1/24
bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100 bond2.100
bridge-stp on
auto br-vlan120
iface br-vlan120
address 10.0.120.1/24
bridge-ports swp2.120 swp3.120 bond2.120
bridge-stp on
auto v130
iface v130
address 10.0.130.1/24
bridge-ports swp2.130 swp3.130 bond2.130
bridge-stp on
# - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
To verify:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showbridge br-tag100
br-tag100 CIST info
enabled
yes
bridge id
8.000.44:38:39:00:32:8B
designated root 8.000.44:38:39:00:32:8B
regional root
8.000.44:38:39:00:32:8B
root port
none
path cost
0
internal path cost
0
max age
20
bridge max age
20
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forward delay 15
bridge forward delay 15
tx hold count 6
max hops
20
hello time
ageing time
300
2
force protocol version
rstp
time since topology change 333040s
topology change count
1
topology change
no
topology change port
swp2.100
last topology change port
None
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mstpctl showportdetail br-tag100
| grep -B 2 state
br-tag100:bond2.100 CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.003
state
forwarding
-br-tag100:swp1.100 CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.001
state
forwarding
-br-tag100:swp2.100 CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.002
state
forwarding
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /proc/net/vlan/config
VLAN Dev name
| VLAN ID
Name-Type: VLAN_NAME_TYPE_RAW_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD
bond2.100
| 100
| bond2
bond2.120
| 120
| bond2
bond2.130
| 130
| bond2
swp1.100
| 100
| swp1
swp2.100
| 100
| swp2
swp2.120
| 120
| swp2
swp3.120
| 120
| swp3
swp3.130
| 130
| swp3
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond2
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.7.1 (April 27, 2011)
Bonding Mode: IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation
Transmit Hash Policy: layer3+4 (1)
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 100
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
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802.3ad info
LACP rate: fast
Min links: 0
Aggregator selection policy (ad_select): stable
Active Aggregator Info:
Aggregator ID: 3
Number of ports: 4
Actor Key: 33
Partner Key: 33
Partner Mac Address: 44:38:39:00:32:cf
Slave Interface: swp4
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:32:8e
Aggregator ID: 3
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: swp5
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:32:8f
Aggregator ID: 3
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: swp6
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:32:90
Aggregator ID: 3
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: swp7
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:32:91
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Aggregator ID: 3
Slave queue ID: 0
A single bridge cannot contain multiple subinterfaces of the same port as members.
Attempting to apply such a configuration will result in an error:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo
brctl addbr another_bridge
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo
brctl addif another_bridge swp9 swp9.100
bridge cannot contain multiple subinterfaces of the same port: swp9,
swp9.100
VLAN Translation
By default, Cumulus Linux does not allow VLAN subinterfaces associated with different VLAN IDs to be
part of the same bridge. Base interfaces are not explicitly associated with any VLAN IDs and are exempt
from this restriction:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addbr br_mix
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link add link swp10 name swp10.100 type vlan id
100
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link add link swp11 name swp11.200 type vlan id
200
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif br_mix swp10.100 swp11.200
can't add swp11.200 to bridge br_mix: Invalid argument
In some cases, it may be useful to relax this restriction. For example, two servers may be connected to
the switch using VLAN trunks, but the VLAN numbering provisioned on the two servers are not
consistent. You can choose to just bridge two VLAN subinterfaces of different VLAN IDs from the
servers. You do this by enabling the sysctl net.bridge.bridge-allow-multiple-vlans. Packets
entering a bridge from a member VLAN subinterface will egress another member VLAN subinterface
with the VLAN ID translated.
A bridge in VLAN-aware mode (see page 175) cannot have VLAN translation enabled for it;
only bridges configured in traditional mode can utilize VLAN translation.
The following example enables the VLAN translation sysctl:
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cumulus@switch:~$ echo net.bridge.bridge-allow-multiple-vlans = 1 | sudo
tee /etc/sysctl.d/multiple_vlans.conf
net.bridge.bridge-allow-multiple-vlans = 1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/multiple_vlans.conf
net.bridge.bridge-allow-multiple-vlans = 1
If the sysctl is enabled and you want to disable it, run the above example, setting the sysctl net.
bridge.bridge-allow-multiple-vlans to 0.
Once the sysctl is enabled, ports with different VLAN IDs can be added to the same bridge. In the
following example, packets entering the bridge br-mix from swp10.100 will be bridged to swp11.200
with the VLAN ID translated from 100 to 200:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif br_mix swp10.100 swp11.200
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show br_mix
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br_mix
8000.4438390032bd
yes
swp10.100
swp11.200
VLAN-aware Bridge Mode for Large-scale Layer 2 Environments
Cumulus Linux bridge driver supports two configuration modes, one that is VLAN-aware, and one that
follows a more traditional Linux bridge model.
For traditional Linux bridges, the kernel supports VLANs in the form of VLAN subinterfaces. Enabling
bridging on multiple VLANs means configuring a bridge for each VLAN and, for each member port on a
bridge, creating one or more VLAN subinterfaces out of that port. This mode poses scalability
challenges in terms of configuration size as well as boot time and run time state management, when
the number of ports times the number of VLANs becomes large.
The VLAN-aware mode in Cumulus Linux implements a configuration model for large-scale L2
environments, with one single instance of Spanning Tree (see page 118). Each physical bridge
member port is configured with the list of allowed VLANs as well as its port VLAN ID (either PVID or
native VLAN — see below). MAC address learning, filtering and forwarding are VLAN-aware. This
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native VLAN — see below). MAC address learning, filtering and forwarding are VLAN-aware. This
significantly reduces the configuration size, and eliminates the large overhead of managing the port
/VLAN instances as subinterfaces, replacing them with lightweight VLAN bitmaps and state updates.
You can configure both VLAN-aware and traditional mode bridges on the same network in
Cumulus Linux; however you should not have more than one VLAN-aware bridge on a given
switch. If you are implementing VXLANs (see page 226), you must use non-aware bridges.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 176)
Defining VLAN-aware Bridge Attributes (see page 176)
Basic Trunking (see page 176)
VLAN Filtering/VLAN Pruning (see page 177)
Untagged/Access Ports (see page 178)
VLAN Layer 3 Addressing/Switch Virtual Interfaces and other VLAN Attributes (see page 179)
Using the glob Keyword to Configure Multiple Ports in a Range (see page 179)
Example Configuration with Access Ports and Pruned VLANs (see page 179)
Example Configuration with Bonds (see page 180)
Converting a Traditional Bridge to VLAN-aware or Vice Versa (see page 182)
Caveats and Errata (see page 183)
Defining VLAN-aware Bridge Attributes
To configure a VLAN-aware bridge, include the bridge-vlan-aware attribute, setting it to yes. Name
the bridge bridge to help ensure it is the only VLAN-aware bridge on the switch. The following attributes
are useful for configuring VLAN-aware bridges:
bridge-vlan-aware: Set to yes to indicate that the bridge is in VLAN-aware mode.
bridge-pvid: A PVID is the bridge's Primary VLAN Identifer. The PVID defaults to 1; specifying
the PVID identifies that VLAN as the native VLAN.
bridge-vids: A VID is the VLAN Identifier, which declares the VLANs associated with this bridge.
bridge-access: Declares the physical switch port as an access port. Access ports ignore all
tagged packets; put all untagged packets into the bridge-pvid.
For a definitive list of bridge attributes, run ifquery --syntax-help and look for the entries under
bridge, bridgevlan and mstpctl.
Basic Trunking
A basic configuration for a VLAN-aware bridge configured for STP that contains two switch ports looks
like this:
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auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp1
swp2
bridge-vids 100 200
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
The above configuration actually includes 3 VLANs: the tagged VLANs 100 and 200 and the untagged
(native) VLAN of 1.
The bridge-pvid 1 is implied by default. You do not have to specify bridge-pvid. And
while it does not hurt the configuration, it helps other users for readability.
The following configurations are identical to each other and the configuration above:
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlanaware yes
bridge-ports
swp1 swp2
bridge-vids
1 100 200
bridge-stp on
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlanaware yes
bridge-ports
swp1 swp2
bridge-vids
1 100 200
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlanaware yes
bridge-ports
swp1 swp2
bridge-vids
100 200
bridge-stp on
VLAN Filtering/VLAN Pruning
By default, the bridge port inherits the bridge VIDs. A port's configuration can override the bridge VIDs.
Do this by specifying port-specific VIDs using the bridge-vids attribute.
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auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp1 swp2
swp3
bridge-vids 100 200
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
auto swp3
iface swp3
bridge-vids 200
Untagged/Access Ports
As described above, access ports ignore all tagged packets. In the configuration below, swp1 and swp2
are configured as access ports. All untagged traffic goes to the specified VLAN, which is VLAN 100 in the
example below.
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp1
swp2
bridge-vids 100 200
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-stp on
auto swp1
iface swp1
bridge-access 100
auto swp2
iface swp2
bridge-access 100
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VLAN Layer 3 Addressing/Switch Virtual Interfaces and other VLAN Attributes
When configuring the VLAN attributes for the bridge, put the attributes in a separate stanza for each
VLAN interface: <bridge>.<vlanid>. If you are configuring the SVI for the native VLAN, you must declare
the native VLAN in its own stanza and specify its IP address. Specifying the IP address in the bridge
stanza itself returns an error.
auto bridge.100
iface bridge.100
address 192.168.10.1/24
address 2001:db8::1/32
hwaddress 44:38:39:ff:00:00
# l2 attributes
auto bridge.100
vlan bridge.100
bridge-igmp-querier-src 172.16.101.1
You can specify a range of VLANs as well. For example:
auto bridge.[1-2000]
vlan bridge.[1-2000]
ATTRIBUTE VALUE
Using the glob Keyword to Configure Multiple Ports in a Range
The glob keyword referenced in the bridge-ports attribute indicates that swp1 through swp52 are
part of the bridge, which is a short cut that saves you from enumerating each port individually:
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports glob swp1-52
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 310 700 707 712 850 910
Example Configuration with Access Ports and Pruned VLANs
The following example contains an access port and a switch port that is pruned; that is, it only sends
and receives traffic tagged to and from a specific set of VLANs declared by the bridge-vids attribute.
It also contains other switch ports that send and receive traffic from all the defined VLANs.
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# ports swp3-swp48 are trunk ports which inherit vlans from the
'bridge'
# ie vlans 310,700,707,712,850,910
#
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports glob swp1-52
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 310 700 707 712 850 910
auto swp1
iface swp1
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
bridge-access 310
# The following is a trunk port that is "pruned".
# native vlan is 1, but only .1q tags of 707, 712, 850 are
# sent and received
#
auto swp2
iface swp2
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
bridge-vids 707 712 850
# The following port is the trunk uplink and inherits all vlans
# from 'bridge'; bridge assurance is enabled using 'portnetwork'
attribute
auto swp49
iface swp49
mstpctl-portpathcost 10
mstpctl-portnetwork yes
# The following port is the trunk uplink and inherits all vlans
# from 'bridge'; bridge assurance is enabled using 'portnetwork'
attribute
auto swp50
iface swp50
mstpctl-portpathcost 0
mstpctl-portnetwork yes
Example Configuration with Bonds
This configuration demonstrates a VLAN-aware bridge with a large set of bonds. The bond
configurations are generated from a Mako template.
#
# vlan-aware bridge with bonds example
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#
# uplink1, peerlink and downlink are bond interfaces.
# 'bridge' is a vlan aware bridge with ports uplink1, peerlink
# and downlink (swp2-20).
#
# native vlan is by default 1
#
# 'bridge-vids' attribute is used to declare vlans.
# 'bridge-pvid' attribute is used to specify native vlans if other
than 1
# 'bridge-access' attribute is used to declare access port
#
auto lo
iface lo
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
# bond interface
auto uplink1
iface uplink1
bond-slaves swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
bridge-vids 2000-2079
# bond interface
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp30 swp31
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
bridge-vids 2000-2079 4094
# bond interface
auto downlink
iface downlink
bond-slaves swp1
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
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bridge-vids 2000-2079
#
# Declare vlans for all swp ports
# swp2-20 get vlans from 2004 to 2022.
# The below uses mako templates to generate iface sections
# with vlans for swp ports
#
%for port, vlanid in zip(range(2, 20), range(2004, 2022)) :
auto swp${port}
iface swp${port}
bridge-vids ${vlanid}
%endfor
# svi vlan 4094
auto bridge.4094
iface bridge.4094
address 11.100.1.252/24
# l2 attributes for vlan 4094
auto bridge.4094
vlan bridge.4094
bridge-igmp-querier-src 172.16.101.1
#
# vlan-aware bridge
#
auto bridge
iface bridge
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports uplink1 peerlink downlink glob swp2-20
bridge-stp on
# svi peerlink vlan
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 192.168.10.1/30
broadcast 192.168.10.3
Converting a Traditional Bridge to VLAN-aware or Vice Versa
You cannot automatically convert a traditional bridge to/from a VLAN-aware bridge simply by changing
the configuration in the /etc/network/interfaces file. If you need to change the mode for a bridge,
do the following:
1. Delete the traditional mode bridge from the configuration and bring down all its member switch
port interfaces.
2. Create a new VLAN-aware bridge, as described above.
3. Bring up the bridge.
These steps assume you are converting a traditional mode bridge to a VLAN-aware one. To do the
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These steps assume you are converting a traditional mode bridge to a VLAN-aware one. To do the
opposite, delete the VLAN-aware bridge in step 1, and create a new traditional mode bridge in step 2.
Caveats and Errata
STP: Because Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning Tree (see page 118) (STP) are enabled on a perbridge basis, VLAN-aware mode essentially supports a single instance of STP across all VLANs. A
common practice when using a single STP instance for all VLANs is to define all every VLAN on
each switch in the spanning tree instance. mstpd continues to be the user space protocol
daemon, and Cumulus Linux supports RSTP.
IGMP snooping: IGMP snooping and group membership are supported on a per-VLAN basis,
though the IGMP snooping configuration (including enable/disable, mrouter port and so forth)
are defined on a per-bridge port basis.
VXLANs: Use the traditional configuration mode for VXLAN configuration (see page 226).
Reserved VLAN range: For hardware data plane internal operations, the switching silicon
requires VLANs for every physical port, Linux bridge, and layer 3 subinterface. Cumulus Linux
reserves a range of 700 VLANs by default; this range is 3300-3999. In case any of your userdefined VLANs conflict with the default reserved range, you can modify the range, as long as the
new range is a contiguous set of VLANs with IDs anywhere between 2 and 4094, and the
minimum size of the range is 300 VLANs:
1. Edit /etc/cumulus/switchd.conf, uncomment resv_vlan_range and specify the
new range.
2. Restart switchd (see page 85) (sudo service switchd restart) for the new range
to take effect.
While restarting switchd, all running ports will flap and forwarding will be
interrupted (see page 85).
VLAN translation: A bridge in VLAN-aware mode cannot have VLAN translation enabled for it;
only bridges configured in traditional mode (see page 154) can utilize VLAN translation.
Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation - MLAG
Host HA is a set of L2 and L3 features supporting high availability for hosts, including multi-Chassis Link
Aggregation (MLAG) for L2 and redistribute neighbor (an experimental L3 feature).
Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation, or MLAG, enables a server or switch with a two-port bond (such as a
link aggregation group/LAG, EtherChannel, port group, or trunk) to connect those ports to different
switches and operate as if they are connected to a single, logical switch. This provides greater
redundancy and greater system throughput.
Dual-connected devices can create LACP bonds that contain links to each physical switch. Thus, activeactive links from the dual-connected devices are supported even though they are connected to two
different physical switches.
A basic setup looks like this:
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The two switches, S1 and S2, known as peer switches, cooperate so that they appear as a single device
to host H1's bond. H1 distributes traffic between the two links to S1 and S2 in any manner that you
configure on the host. Similarly, traffic inbound to H1 can traverse S1 or S2 and arrive at H1.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 184)
MLAG Requirements (see page 185)
LACP and Dual-Connectedness (see page 186)
Understanding Switch Roles (see page 186)
Configuring MLAG (see page 187)
Configuring the Host or Switch (see page 187)
Configuring the Interfaces (see page 188)
Example MLAG Configuration (see page 189)
Configuring MLAG with a Traditional Mode Bridge (see page 193)
Using the clagd Command Line Interface (see page 193)
Peer Link Interfaces and the PROTO_DOWN State (see page 194)
Specifying a Backup Link (see page 195)
Monitoring Dual-Connected Peers (see page 196)
IGMP Snooping with MLAG (see page 196)
Monitoring the Status of the clagd Service (see page 197)
MLAG Best Practices (see page 198)
Understanding MTU in an MLAG Configuration (see page 198)
STP Interoperability with MLAG (see page 199)
Debugging STP with MLAG (see page 199)
Best Practices for STP with MLAG (see page 200)
Troubleshooting MLAG (see page 200)
Caveats and Errata (see page 200)
Configuration Files (see page 200)
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Configuration Files (see page 200)
MLAG Requirements
MLAG has these requirements:
There must be a direct connection between the two peer switches implementing MLAG (S1 and
S2). This is typically a bond for increased reliability and bandwidth.
There must be only two peer switches in one MLAG configuration, but you can have multiple
configurations in a network for switch-to-switch MLAG (see below).
The peer switches implementing MLAG must be running Cumulus Linux version 2.5 or later.
You must specify a unique clag-id for every dual-connected bond on each peer switch; the
value must be between 1 and 65535 and must be the same on both peer switches in order for
the bond to be considered dual-connected.
The dual-connected devices (hosts or switches) must use LACP (IEEE 802.3ad/802.1ax) to form
the bond. The peer switches must also use LACP.
More elaborate configurations are also possible. The number of links between the host and the
switches can be greater than two, and does not have to be symmetrical:
Additionally, since S1 and S2 appear as a single switch to other bonding devices, pairs of MLAG
switches can also be connected to each other in a switch-to-switch MLAG setup:
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In this case, L1 and L2 are also MLAG peer switches, and thus present a two-port bond from a single
logical system to S1 and S2. S1 and S2 do the same as far as L1 and L2 are concerned. For a switch-toswitch MLAG configuration, each switch pair must have a unique system MAC address. In the above
example, switches L1 and L2 each have the same system MAC address configured. Switch pair S1 and
S2 each have the same system MAC address configured; however, it is a different system MAC address
than the one used by the switch pair L1 and L2.
LACP and Dual-Connectedness
In order for MLAG to operate correctly, the peer switches must know which links are dual-connected, or
are connected to the same host or switch. To do this, specify a clag-id for every dual-connected bond
on each peer switch; the clag-id must be the same for the corresponding bonds on both peer
switches. Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), the IEEE standard protocol for managing bonds, is
used for verifying dual-connectedness. LACP runs on the dual-connected device and on each of the
peer switches. On the dual-connected device, the only configuration requirement is to create a bond
that will be managed by LACP.
On each of the peer switches the links connected to the dual-connected host or switch must be placed
in the bond. This is true even if the links are a single port on each peer switch, where each port is
placed into a bond, as shown below:
All of the dual-connected bonds on the peer switches have their system ID set to the MLAG system ID.
Therefore, from the point of view of the hosts, each of the links in its bond is connected to the same
system, and so the host will use both links.
Each peer switch periodically makes a list of the LACP partner MAC addresses of all of their bonds and
sends that list to its peer (using the clagd service; see below). The LACP partner MAC address is the
MAC address of the system at the other end of a bond, which in the figure above would be hosts H1
and H2. When a switch receives this list from its peer, it compares the list to the LACP partner MAC
addresses on its switch. If any matches are found and the clag-id for those bonds match, then that
bond is a dual-connected bond. You can also find the LACP partner MAC address in the /sys/class
/net/<bondname>/bonding/ad_partner_mac sysfs file for each bond.
Understanding Switch Roles
Each MLAG-enabled switch in the pair has a role. When the peering relationship is established between
the two switches, one switch will be in primary role, and the other one will be in secondary role. When
an MLAG-enabled switch is in the secondary role, it does not send STP BPDUs on dual-connected links;
it only sends BPDUs on single-connected links. The switch in the primary role sends STP BPDUs on all
single- and dual-connected links.
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By default, the role is determined by comparing the MAC addresses of the two sides of the peering link;
the switch with the lower MAC address assumes the primary role. You can override this by setting the
priority configuration, either by specifying the clagd-priority option in /etc/network/interfaces
, or by using clagctl. The switch with the lower priority value is given the primary role; the default
value is 32768, and the range is 0 to 65535. Read the clagd(8) and clagctl(8) man pages for more
information.
When the clagd service is exited during switch reboot or the service is stopped in the primary switch,
the peer switch that is in the secondary role will become primary. If the primary switch goes down
without stopping the clagd service for any reason or the peer link goes down, the secondary switch
will not change its role. In case the peer switch is determined to be not alive, the switch in the
secondary role will roll back the LACP system ID to be the bond interface MAC address instead of the
clagd-sys-mac and the switch in primary role uses the clagd-sys-mac as the LACP system ID on the
bonds.
Configuring MLAG
Configuring MLAG involves:
On the dual-connected devices, create a bond that uses LACP.
On each peer switch, configure the interfaces, including bonds, VLANs, bridges and peer links.
MLAG synchronizes the dynamic state between the two peer switches, but it does not
synchronize the switch configurations. After modifying the configuration of one peer switch,
you must make the same changes to the configuration on the other peer switch. This applies
to all configuration changes, including:
Port configuration: For example, VLAN membership, MTU (see page 198), and bonding
parameters.
Bridge configuration: For example, spanning tree parameters or bridge properties.
Static address entries: For example, static FDB entries and static IGMP entries.
QoS configuration: For example, ACL entries.
You can verify the configuration of VLAN membership using the clagctl -v verifyvlans
command.
Configuring the Host or Switch
On your dual-connected device, create a bond that uses LACP. The method you use varies with the type
of device you are configuring. The following image is a basic MLAG configuration, showing all the
essential elements; a more detailed two-leaf/two-spine configuration is below (see page ).
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Configuring the Interfaces
Every interface that connects to the MLAG pair from a dual-connected device should be placed into a
bond (see page 151), even if the bond contains only a single link on a single physical switch (since the
MLAG pair contains two or more links). Layer 2 data travels over this bond. In the examples throughout
this chapter, peerlink is the name of the bond.
Single-attached hosts, also known as orphan ports, can be just a member of the bridge.
Additionally, the fast mode of LACP should be configured on the bond to allow more timely updates of
the LACP state. These bonds will then be placed in a bridge, which will include the peer link between
the switches.
In order to enable communication between the clagd services on the peer switches, you should
choose an unused VLAN (also known as a switched virtual interface or SVI here) and assign an
unrouteable link-local address to give the peer switches layer 3 connectivity between each other. To
ensure that the VLAN is completely independent of the bridge and spanning tree forwarding decisions,
configure the VLAN as a VLAN subinterface on the peer link bond rather than the VLAN-aware bridge.
Cumulus Networks recommends you use 4094 for the peerlink VLAN (peerlink.4094 below) if possible.
You can also specify a backup interface, which is any layer 3 backup interface for your peer links in the
event that the peer link goes down. See below (see page 195) for more information about the backup
link.
For example, if peerlink is the inter-chassis bond, and VLAN 4094 is the peerlink VLAN, configure
peerlink.4094 using:
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.1.1/30
clagd-enable yes
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.1.2
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.1.50
clagd-sys-mac 44:39:39:FF:40:94
Then run ifup on the peerlink VLAN interface. In this example, the command would be sudo ifup
peerlink.4094.
There is no need to add VLAN 4094 to the bridge VLAN list, as it is unnecessary there.
Keep in mind that when you change the MLAG configuration in the interfaces file, the
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Keep in mind that when you change the MLAG configuration in the interfaces file, the
changes take effect when you bring the peerlink interface up with ifup. Do not use service
clagd restart to apply the new configuration.
Example MLAG Configuration
An example configuration is included below. It configures two bonds for MLAG, each with a single port,
a peer link that is a bond with two member ports, and three VLANs on each port. You store the
configuration in /etc/network/interfaces on each peer switch.
Configuring these interfaces uses syntax from ifupdown2 and the VLAN-aware bridge driver mode (see
page 175). The bridges use these Cumulus Linux-specific keywords:
bridge-vids, which defines the allowed list of tagged 802.1q VLAN IDs for all bridge member
interfaces. You can specify non-contiguous ranges with a space-separated list, like
bridge-vids 100-200 300 400-500.
bridge-pvid, which defines the untagged VLAN ID for each port. This is commonly referred to
as the native VLAN.
The bridge configurations below indicate that each bond carries tagged frames on VLANs 1000 to 3000
but untagged frames on VLAN 1. Also, take note on how you configure the VLAN subinterface used for
clagd communication (peerlink.4094 in the sample configuration below).
At minimum, this VLAN subinterface should not be in your Layer 2 domain, and you should
give it a very high VLAN ID (up to 4094). Read more about the range of VLAN IDs you can use
(see page ).
The configuration for the spines should look like the following (note that the clag-id and clagd-sysmac must be the same for the corresponding bonds on spine1 and spine2):
spine1
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# The loopback network
interface auto lo
iface lo
inet loopback
# The loopback network
interface auto lo
iface lo
inet loopback
# The primary network
interface
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 10.0.0.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
# The primary network
interface
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 10.0.0.2
netmask 255.255.255.0
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp31 swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp31 swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-priority 4096
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.2
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.2
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:
00:01
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.2
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-priority 8192
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.1
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.1
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:
00:01
# ToR pair #1
auto downlink1
iface downlink1
bond-slaves swp29 swp30
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 1
# ToR pair #1
auto downlink1
iface downlink1
bond-slaves swp29 swp30
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 1
# ToR pair #2
auto downlink2
iface downlink2
# ToR pair #2
auto downlink2
iface downlink2
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bond-slaves swp27 swp28
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 2
bond-slaves swp27 swp28
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 2
auto br
iface br
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports uplinkA
peerlink downlink1 downlink2
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 1000-3000
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-mcsnoop 1
auto br
iface br
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports uplinkA
peerlink downlink1 downlink2
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 1000-3000
bridge-pvid 1
bridge-mcsnoop 1
Here is an example configuration file for the switches leaf1 and leaf2. Note that the clag-id and
clagd-sys-mac must be the same for the corresponding bonds on leaf1 and leaf2:
leaf1
leaf2
# The loopback network
interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The loopback network
interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 10.0.0.3
netmask 255.255.255.0
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0
address 10.0.0.4
netmask 255.255.255.0
auto spine1-2
iface spine1-2
bond-slaves swp49 swp50
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 1
auto spine1-2
iface spine1-2
bond-slaves swp49 swp50
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 1
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auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp51 swp52
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp51 swp52
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.3
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-priority 4096
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.4
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.4
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:
01:02
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.4
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-priority 8192
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.3
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.3
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:
01:02
auto host1
iface host1
bond-slaves swp1
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 2
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
auto host1
iface host1
bond-slaves swp1
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 2
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
auto host2
iface host2
bond-slaves swp2
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 3
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
auto host2
iface host2
bond-slaves swp2
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+4
clag-id 3
mstpctl-portadminedge yes
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
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auto br0
iface br0
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports spine1-2
peerlink host1 host2
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 1000-3000
bridge-pvid 1
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports spine1-2
peerlink host1 host2
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 1000-3000
bridge-pvid 1
The configuration is almost identical, except for the IP addresses used for managing the clagd service.
In the configurations above, the clagd-peer-ip and clagd-sys-mac parameters are
mandatory, while the rest are optional. When mandatory clagd commands are present
under a peer link subinterface, by default clagd-enable is treated as yes; to disable clagd
on the subinterface, set clagd-enable to no. Use clagd-priority to set the role of the
MLAG peer switch to primary or secondary. Each peer switch in an MLAG pair must have the
same clagd-sys-mac setting. Each clagd-sys-mac setting should be unique to each MLAG
pair in the network. For more details refer to man clagd.
Configuring MLAG with a Traditional Mode Bridge
It's possible to configure MLAG with a bridge in traditional mode (see page 154) instead of VLAN-aware
mode (see page 175). In order to do so, the peer link and all dual-connected links must be configured
as untagged/native (see page 164) ports on a bridge (note the absence of any VLANs in the bridgeports line and the lack of the bridge-vlan-aware parameter below):
auto br
iface br
bridge-ports peerlink spine1-2 host1 host2
For a deeper comparison of traditional versus VLAN-aware bridge modes, read this
knowledge base article.
Using the clagd Command Line Interface
A command line utility called clagctl is available for interacting with a running clagd service to get
status or alter operational behavior. For detailed explanation of the utility, please refer to the clagctl
(8)man page. The following is a sample output of the MLAG operational status displayed by the utility:
cumulus@switch$ clagctl
The peer is alive
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Our Priority, ID, and Role: 8192 00:e0:ec:26:50:89 primary
Peer Priority, ID, and Role: 8192 00:e0:ec:27:49:f6 secondary
Peer Interface and IP: peerlink.4094 169.254.255.2
System MAC: 44:38:39:ff:00:01
Dual Attached Ports
Our Interface
Peer Interface
CLAG Id
----------------
----------------
-------
downlink1
downlink1
1
downlink2
downlink2
2
Peer Link Interfaces and the PROTO_DOWN State
In addition to the standard UP and DOWN states, an interface that is a member of an MLAG bond or
one of its slaves can also be in a PROTO_DOWN state. When MLAG detects a problem that could result
in connectivity issues such as traffic black-holing or a network meltdown if the link carrier was left in an
UP state, it can put that interface into PROTO_DOWN state. Such connectivity issues include:
When the peer link goes down but the peer switch is up (that is, the backup link is active).
When the bond is configured with an MLAG ID, but the clagd service is not running (whether it
was deliberately stopped or simply died).
When an MLAG-enabled node is booted or rebooted, the MLAG bonds are placed in a
PROTO_DOWN state until the node establishes a connection to its peer switch, or five minutes
have elapsed.
Only Cumulus Linux can place an interface in PROTO_DOWN state. You cannot do this with any
administrative commands.
If a virtual link such as a bond or VXLAN goes into a PROTO_DOWN state, it results in a local OPER
DOWN state.
The following ip link show command output shows an interface in PROTO_DOWN state. Notice that
the link carrier is down (NO-CARRIER):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip link show swp1
3: swp1: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,PROTO_DOWN > mtu 1500
qdisc pfifo_fast master bond20 state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 500 protodown
on <MLAG>
link/ether 44:38:39:00:69:84 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
The PROTO_DOWN state is an experimental feature. As such, the name and format could
change in a future version of Cumulus Linux.
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Specifying a Backup Link
You can specify a backup link for your peer links in the event that the peer link goes down. When this
happens, the clagd service uses the backup link to check the health of the peer switch. To configure
this, edit /etc/network/interfaces and add clag-backup-ip <ADDRESS> to the peer link
configuration. Here's an example:
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-enable yes
clagd-priority 8192
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.2
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.1.50
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:00:01
clagd-args --priority 1000
The backup IP address must be different than the peer link IP address ( clagd-peer-ip
above). It must be reachable by a route that doesn't use the peer link and it must be in the
same network namespace as the peer link IP address.
Cumulus Networks recommends you use the switch's management IP address for this
purpose.
You can also specify the backup UDP port. The port defaults to 5342, but you can configure it as an
argument in clagd-args using --backupPort <PORT>.
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 169.254.255.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
clagd-enable yes
clagd-priority 8192
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.255.2
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.1.50
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:00:01
clagd-args --backupPort 5400
You can see the backup IP address if you run clagctl:
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cumulus@switch$ clagctl
The peer is alive
Our Priority, ID, and Role: 8192 00:e0:ec:26:50:89 primary
Peer Priority, ID, and Role: 8192 00:e0:ec:27:49:f6 secondary
Peer Interface and IP: peerlink.4094 169.254.255.2
Backup IP: 10.0.1.50
System MAC: 44:38:39:ff:00:01
Dual Attached Ports
Our Interface
Peer Interface
CLAG Id
----------------
----------------
-------
downlink1
downlink1
1
downlink2
downlink2
2
Monitoring Dual-Connected Peers
Upon receipt of a valid message from its peer, the switch knows that clagd is alive and executing on
that peer. This causes clagd to change the system ID of each bond that was assigned a clag-id from
the default value (the MAC address of the bond) to the system ID assigned to both peer switches. This
makes the hosts connected to each switch act as if they are connected to the same system so that they
will use all ports within their bond. Additionally, clagd determines which bonds are dual-connected
and modifies the forwarding and learning behavior to accommodate these dual-connected bonds.
If the peer does not receive any messages for three update intervals, then that peer switch is assumed
to no longer be acting as an MLAG peer. In this case, the switch reverts all configuration changes so
that it operates as a standard non-MLAG switch. This includes removing all statically assigned MAC
addresses, clearing the egress forwarding mask, and allowing addresses to move from any port to the
peer port. Once a message is again received from the peer, MLAG operation starts again as described
earlier. You can configure a custom timeout setting by adding --peerTimeout <VALUE> to clagdargs in /etc/network/interfaces.
Once bonds are identified as dual-connected, clagd sends more information to the peer switch for
those bonds. The MAC addresses (and VLANs) that have been dynamically learned on those ports are
sent along with the LACP partner MAC address for each bond. When a switch receives MAC address
information from its peer, it adds MAC address entries on the corresponding ports. As the switch learns
and ages out MAC addresses, it informs the peer switch of these changes to its MAC address table so
that the peer can keep its table synchronized. Periodically, at 45% of the bridge ageing time, a switch
will send its entire MAC address table to the peer, so that peer switch can verify that its MAC address
table is properly synchronized.
The switch sends an update frequency value in the messages to its peer, which tells clagd how often
the peer will send these messages. You can configure a different frequency by adding --lacpPoll
<SECONDS> to clagd-args in /etc/network/interfaces.
IGMP Snooping with MLAG
IGMP snooping processes IGMP reports received on a bridge port in a bridge to identify hosts that are
configured to receive multicast traffic destined to that group. An IGMP query message received on a
port is used to identify the port that is connected to a router and configured to receive multicast traffic.
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IGMP snooping is enabled by default on the bridge. IGMP snooping multicast database entries and
router port entries are synced to the peer MLAG switch. If there is no multicast router in the VLAN, the
IGMP querier can be configured on the switch to generate IGMP query messages by adding a
configuration like the following to /etc/network/interfaces:
auto br.100
vlan br.100
#igmp snooping is enabled by default, but is shown here for completeness
bridge-mcsnoop 1
# If you need to specify the querier IP address
bridge-igmp-querier-source 123.1.1.1
To display multicast group and router port information, use the bridge -d mdb show command:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge -d mdb show
dev br port bond0 vlan 100 grp 234.1.1.1 temp
router ports on br: bond0
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl setmcqv4src br 100 123.1.1.1
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl setmcquerier br 1
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl showmcqv4src br
vlan
querier address
100
123.1.1.1
Monitoring the Status of the clagd Service
Due to the critical nature of the clagd service, an external process, called jdoo, continuously monitors
the status of clagd. If the clagd service dies or becomes unresponsive for any reason, the jdoo
process will get clagd up and running again. This monitoring is automatically configured and enabled
as long as clagd is enabled (that is, clagd-peer-ip and clagd-sys-mac are configured in /etc
/network/interfaces) and clagd been started. When clagd is explicitly stopped, for example with
the service clagd stop command, monitoring of clagd is also stopped.
The jdoo process checks two things to make sure the clagd service is operating properly:
The result of the service clagd status command. If the command returns that clagd is
running, or that clagd is not configured to run, then jdoo does nothing. If service clagd
status returns that clagd is not running but was configured to run, jdoo will start the clagd
service. This check is performed every 30 seconds. Due to the way the jdoo process implements
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service. This check is performed every 30 seconds. Due to the way the jdoo process implements
this check, it may start the clagd process twice. This is harmless, since clagd checks to make
sure another instance is not already running when it begins executing. This is indicated with a
message in the clagd log file, /var/log/clagd.log.
The modification time of the /var/run/clagd.alive file. As clagd runs, it periodically
updates the modification time of the /var/run/clagd.alive file (by default, every 4 seconds).
If jdoo notices that this file's modification time has not been updated within the last 4 minutes,
it will assume clagd is alive, but hung, and will restart clagd. If clagd is not enabled to run,
this check still occurs and jdoo will start clagd. But since clagd is not configured to run,
nothing will happen except that a message is written to the jdoo log file that it tried to start
clagd.
You can check the status of clagd monitoring by using the jdoo summary command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo jdoo summary
The jdoo daemon 5.4 uptime: 15m
...
Program 'clagd'
Status ok
File 'clagd.alive'
Waiting
...
MLAG Best Practices
For MLAG to function properly, the dual-connected hosts' interfaces should be configured identically on
the pair of peering switches. See the note above in the Configuring MLAG (see page 187) section.
Understanding MTU in an MLAG Configuration
Note that the MTU (see page 106) in MLAG traffic is determined by the bridge MTU. Bridge MTU is
determined by the lowest MTU setting of an interface that is a member of the bridge. If an MTU other
than the default of 1500 bytes is desired, you must configure the MTU on each physical interface and
bond interface that are members of the MLAG bridges in the entire bridged domain.
For example, if an MTU of 9000 is desired through the MLAG domain in the example shown above:
On the the leaf switches, configure mtu 9000 (see page 106) for each of following interfaces, since they
are members of bridge br0: spine1-2, peerlink, host1, host2.
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports spine1-2 peerlink host1 host2
<- List of bridge member
interfaces
...
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Likewise, to ensure the MTU 9000 path is respected through the spine switches above, also change the
MTU setting for bridge br by configuring mtu 9000 for each of the following members of bridge br on
spine1 and spine2: uplinkA, peerlink, downlink1, downlink2.
auto br
iface br
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports uplinkA peerlink downlink1 downlink2
...
STP Interoperability with MLAG
Cumulus Networks recommends that you always enable STP in your layer 2 network.
Further, with MLAG, Cumulus Networks recommends you enable BPDU guard on the host-facing bond
interfaces. (For more information about BPDU guard, see BPDU Guard and Bridge Assurance (see page
129).)
Debugging STP with MLAG
/var/log/daemon.log has mstpd logs.
Run mstpctl debuglevel 3 to see MLAG-related logs in /var/log/daemon.log:
root@se3-sp1:~# mstpctl showportdetail br peer-bond
br:peer-bond CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.008
state
forwarding
...............
bpdufilter port
no
clag ISL
yes
clag ISL Oper UP
yes
clag role
primary
clag dual conn mac
0:0:0:0:0:
clag system mac
44:38:39:
0
clag remote portID F.FFF
ff:0:1
root@se3-sp1:~#
root@se3-sp1:~# mstpctl showportdetail br downlink-1
br:downlink-1 CIST info
enabled
yes
role
Designated
port id
8.006
state
forwarding
..............
bpdufilter port
no
clag ISL
no
clag ISL Oper UP
no
clag role
primary
clag dual conn mac
0:0:0:3:
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11:1
clag remote portID F.FFF
clag system mac
44:38:39:
ff:0:1
root@se3-sp1:~#
Best Practices for STP with MLAG
The STP global configuration must be the same on both the switches.
The STP configuration for dual-connected ports should be the same on both peer switches.
Use mstpctl commands for all spanning tree configurations, including bridge priority, path cost
and so forth. Do not use brctl commands for spanning tree, except for brctl stp on/off,
as changes are not reflected to mstpd and can create conflicts.
Troubleshooting MLAG
By default, when clagd is running, it logs its status to the /var/log/clagd.log file and syslog.
Example log file output is below:
Jan 14 23:45:10 se3-sp1 clagd[3704]: Beginning execution of clagd version
1.0.0
Jan 14 23:45:10 se3-sp1 clagd[3704]: Invoked with: /usr/sbin/clagd --daemon
169.254.2.2 peer-bond.4000 44:38:39:ff:00:01 --priority 8192
Jan 14 23:45:11 se3-sp1 clagd[3995]: Role is now secondary
Jan 14 23:45:31 se3-sp1 clagd[3995]: Role is now primary
Jan 14 23:45:32 se3-sp1 clagd[3995]: The peer switch is active.
Jan 14 23:45:35 se3-sp1 clagd[3995]: downlink-1 is now dual connected.
Caveats and Errata
If both the backup and peer connectivity are lost within a 30-second window, the switch in the
secondary role misinterprets the event sequence, believing the peer switch is down, so it takes over as
the primary.
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
LACP Bypass
On Cumulus Linux, LACP Bypass is a feature that allows a bond (see page 151) configured in 802.3ad
mode to become active and forward traffic even when there is no LACP partner. A typical use case for
this feature is to enable a host, without the capability to run LACP, to PXE boot while connected to a
switch on a bond configured in 802.3ad mode. Once the pre-boot process finishes and the host is
capable of running LACP, the normal 802.3ad link aggregation operation takes over.
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 200)
Understanding LACP Bypass Modes (see page 201)
LACP Bypass Timeout (see page 201)
LACP Bypass and MLAG Deployments (see page 202)
Configuring LACP Bypass (see page 202)
Configuration Examples (see page 202)
Default Configuration with Priority Mode and Optional Timeout Period (see page 202)
All-active Mode Configuration with Multiple Simultaneous Active Interfaces (see page 204)
Understanding LACP Bypass Modes
When a bond has multiple slave interfaces, you can control which of them should go into LACP bypass
using one of two modes:
Priority mode: This is the default mode. On a switch, if a bond has multiple slave interfaces, you
can configure a bypass priority value (default is 0) for each interface in the bond; the one with
higher numerical priority value wins. A string comparison of the interface names serves as a
tiebreaker in case the priority values are equal; the string with the lower ASCII values wins. Note
that the priority value is significant within a switch; there is no coordination between two
switches in an MLAG (see page 183) peering relationship.
All-active mode: In this mode, each bond slave interface operates as an active link while the bond
is in bypass mode. This mode is useful during PXE boot of a server with multiple NICs, when the
user cannot determine beforehand which port needs to be active. By default, all-active mode is
disabled.
All-active mode is not supported on bonds that are not specified as bridge ports on
the switch.
STP does not run on the individual bond slave interfaces, when the LACP bond is in allactive mode. Therefore, only use all-active mode on host-facing LACP bonds. Cumulus
Networks highly recommends you configure STP BPDU guard along with all-active
mode.
LACP Bypass Timeout
As a safeguard, you can configure a timeout period to limit the duration in which bypass is enabled.
The timeout period works with both modes. The valid range of timeout period is 0 to 900 seconds; the
default is 0 seconds, which indicates no timeout. If no LACP partner is detected before the timeout
period expires, the bond becomes inactive and stops forwarding traffic. The timer is restarted when an
slave interfaces are enabled; which can be achieved by setting the interface down and then up. At any
point in time, receiving LACP PDU on any slave interface aborts the bypass, and normal LACP protocol
negotiation takes over. Enabling or disabling bypass during LACP exchange does not affect link
aggregation.
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LACP Bypass and MLAG Deployments
In an MLAG deployment (see page 183) where bond slaves of a host are connected to two switches and
the bond is in priority mode , the bypass priority is determined using the MLAG switch role. The bond
on the switch with the primary role has a higher bypass priority than the bond on the switch with the
secondary role. When multiple slave interfaces of a bond are connected to each switch, the slave with
the highest priority on the primary MLAG switch will be the active interface. All other slaves on the
same device will not be active during bypass mode.
When a dual-connected (MLAG) bond is in all-active mode , all the slaves of bond are active on both the
primary and secondary MLAG nodes.
Configuring LACP Bypass
You configure LACP bypass in the /etc/network/interfaces file.
To enable LACP bypass on the host-facing bond, under the bond interface stanza, set bond-lacpbypass-allow to 1. Then optionally configure one of the following:
To configure priority mode, which is the default mode, set bond-lacp-bypass-priority to a
value, with the priority values for each slave interface. The default priority value is 0.
To configure all-active mode for multiple active interfaces, set bond-lacp-bypass-allactive to 1. This enables all interfaces to pass traffic (become active) until the server can form
an LACP bond.
(Optional): To configure a timeout period for either mode, set bond-lacp-bypass-period to a valid
value (0-900); however, it is recommended to not configure this, and use the default value of 0.
Configuration Examples
Default Configuration with Priority Mode and Optional Timeout Period
The following configuration shows LACP bypass enabled in the default priority mode, with a timeout
period set. Here there are two slave interfaces, and swp2 will be preferred as the active bypass
interface:
auto bond0
iface bond0
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-lacp-bypass-allow 1
bond-slaves swp4 swp5
bond-lacp-bypass-period 300
bond-lacp-bypass-priority swp4=2 swp5=1
The following command shows that swp4 bypass timeout has expired and the bond is operationally
down:
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cumulus@switch$ ip link show bond0
7: bond0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,MASTER,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
state DOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 00:02:00:00:00:02 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@switch$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.7.1 (April 27, 2011)
Bonding Mode: IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation
Transmit Hash Policy: layer2 (0)
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 0
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
802.3ad info
LACP rate: fast
Min links: 1
Aggregator selection policy (ad_select): stable
System Identification: 65535 00:02:00:00:00:02
Active Aggregator Info:
Aggregator ID: 1
Number of ports: 1
Actor Key: 33
Partner Key: 1
Partner Mac Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00
Fall back Info:
Allowed: 1
Timeout: 300
Slave Interface: swp4
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 00:02:00:00:00:02
Aggregator ID: 1
LACP bypass priority: 2
LACP bypass: expired
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: swp5
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 00:02:00:00:00:01
Aggregator ID: 2
Bypass priority: 1
Slave queue ID: 0
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All-active Mode Configuration with Multiple Simultaneous Active Interfaces
The following configuration shows LACP bypass enabled for multiple active interfaces (all-active mode)
with a bridge in VLAN-aware mode (see page 175):
auto bond1
iface bond1 inet static
bond-slaves swp3 swp4
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-lacp-bypass-allow 1
bond-lacp-bypass-all-active 1
mstpctl-bpduguard yes
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports bond1 bond2 bond3 bond4 peer5
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 100-105
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show bond1
58: bond1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,MASTER,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
master br0 state UP mode DORMANT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:38:44 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show swp3
5: swp3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond1 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:38:44 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@switch:~$ ip link show swp4
6: swp4: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,SLAVE,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
master bond1 state UP mode DEFAULT qlen 500
link/ether 44:38:39:00:38:44 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond1
Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.7.1 (April 27, 2011)
Bonding Mode: IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation
Transmit Hash Policy: layer3+4 (1)
MII Status: up
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MII Polling Interval (ms): 100
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0
802.3ad info
LACP rate: fast
Min links: 1
Aggregator selection policy (ad_select): stable
System Identification: 65535 00:00:00:aa:bb:01
Active Aggregator Info:
Aggregator ID: 1
Number of ports: 1
Actor Key: 33
Partner Key: 33
Partner Mac Address: 00:02:00:00:00:05
LACP Bypass Info:
Allowed: 1
Timeout: 0
All-active: 1
Slave Interface: swp3
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 1
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:38:44
Aggregator ID: 1
LACP bypass priority: 0
LACP bypass: on
Slave queue ID: 0
Slave Interface: swp4
MII Status: up
Speed: 10000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 1
Permanent HW addr: 44:38:39:00:38:45
Aggregator ID: 2
LACP bypass priority: 0
LACP bypass: on
Slave queue ID: 0
The following configuration shows LACP bypass enabled for multiple active interfaces (all-active mode)
with a bridge in traditional bridge mode (see page 154):
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auto bond1
iface bond1 inet static
bond-slaves swp3 swp4
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-lacp-bypass-allow 1
bond-lacp-bypass-all-active 1
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
bridge-ports bond1 bond2 bond3 bond4 peer5
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-bpduguard bond1=yes
Virtual Router Redundancy - VRR
VRR provides virtualized router redundancy in network configurations, which enables the hosts to
communicate with any redundant router without:
Needing to be reconfigured
Having to run dynamic router protocols
Having to run router redundancy protocols
A basic VRR-enabled network configuration is shown below. The network consists of several hosts, two
routers running Cumulus Linux and configured with MLAG (see page 183), and the rest of the network:
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An actual implementation will have many more server hosts and network connections than are shown
here. But this basic configuration provides a complete description of the important aspects of the VRR
setup.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 207)
Configuring the Network (see page 208)
Configuring the Hosts (see page 209)
Configuring the Routers (see page 209)
Other Network Connections (see page 209)
Handling ARP Requests (see page 209)
Monitoring Peer Links and Uplinks (see page 209)
Using ifplugd (see page 210)
Notes (see page 211)
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Configuring the Network
Configuring this network is fairly straightforward. First create the bridge subinterface, then create the
secondary address for the virtual router. Configure each router with a bridge; edit each router’s /etc
/network/interfaces file and add a configuration like the following:
auto bridge.500
iface bridge.500
address 192.168.0.252/24
address-virtual 00:00:5e:00:01:01 192.168.0.254/24
Notice the simpler configuration of the bridge with ifupdown2. For more information, see
Configuring and Managing Network Interfaces (see page 89).
You should always use ifupdown2 to configure VRR, because it ensures correct ordering
when bringing up the virtual and physical interfaces and it works best with VLAN-aware
bridges (see page 175).
If you are using the non-VLAN-aware bridge driver, the configuration would look like this:
auto bridge500
iface bridge500
address 192.168.0.252/24
address-virtual 00:00:5e:00:01:01 192.168.0.254/24
bridge-ports bond1.500 bond2.500 bond3.500
The IP address assigned to the bridge is the unique address for the bridge. The parameters of this
configuration are:
bridge.500: 500 represents a VLAN subinterface of the bridge, sometimes called a switched
virtual interface, or SVI.
192.168.0.252/24: The unique IP address assigned to this bridge. It is unique because, unlike
the 192.168.0.254 address, it is assigned only to this bridge, not the bridge on the other router.
00:00:5e:00:01:01: The MAC address of the virtual router. This must be the same on all
virtual routers.
192.168.0.254/24: The IP address of the virtual router, including the routing prefix. This must
be the same on all the virtual routers and must match the default gateway address configured
on the servers as well as the size of the subnet.
address-virtual: This keyword enables and configures VRR.
The above bridge configuration enables VRR by creating a MAC VLAN interface on the SVI. This MAC
VLAN interface is:
Named bridge-500-v0, which is the name of the SVI with dots changed to dashes and "-v0"
appended to the end.
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appended to the end.
Assigned a MAC address of 00:00:5e:00:01:01.
Assigned an IP address of 192.168.0.254.
Configuring the Hosts
Each host should have two network interfaces. The routers configure the interfaces as bonds running
LACP; the hosts should also configure its two interfaces using teaming, port aggregation, port group, or
EtherChannel running LACP. Configure the hosts, either statically or via DHCP, with a gateway address
that is the IP address of the virtual router; this default gateway address never changes.
Configure the links between the hosts and the routers in active-active mode for First Hop Redundancy
Protocol.
If you are configuring VRR without MLAG (see page 183), use active-standby mode instead.
Configuring the Routers
The routers implement the layer 2 network interconnecting the hosts, as well as the redundant routers.
If you are using MLAG (see page 183), configure each router with a bridge interface, named bridge in
our example, with these different types of interfaces:
One bond interface to each host (swp1-swp5 in the image above).
One or more interfaces to each peer router (peerbond in the image above). Multiple inter-peer
links are typically bonded interfaces in order to accommodate higher bandwidth between the
routers and to offer link redundancy.
If you are not using MLAG, then the bridge should have one switch port interface to each host
instead of a bond.
Other Network Connections
Other interfaces on the router can connect to other subnets and are accessed through layer 3
forwarding (swp7 in the image above).
Handling ARP Requests
The entire purpose of this configuration is to have all the redundant routers respond to ARP requests
from hosts for the virtual router IP address (192.168.0.254 in the example above) with the virtual router
MAC address (00:00:5e:00:01:01 in the example above). All of the routers should respond in an identical
manner, but if one router fails, the other redundant routers will continue to respond in an identical
manner, leaving the hosts with the impression that nothing has changed.
Since the bridges in each of the redundant routers are connected, they will each receive and reply to
ARP requests for the virtual router IP address. Each ARP request made by a host will receive multiple
replies (typically two). But these replies will be identical and so the host that receives these replies will
not get confused over which response is "correct" and will either ignore replies after the first, or accept
them and overwrite the previous reply with identical information.
Monitoring Peer Links and Uplinks
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Monitoring Peer Links and Uplinks
When an uplink on a switch in active-active mode goes down, the peer link may get congested. When
this occurs, you should monitor the uplink and shut down all host-facing ports using ifplugd (or
another script).
When the peer link goes down in a MLAG environment, one of the switches becomes secondary and all
host-facing dual-connected bonds go down. The host side bond sees two different system MAC
addresses, so the link to primary is active on host. If any traffic from outside this environment goes to
the secondary MLAG switch, traffic will be black-holed. To avoid this, shut down all the uplinks when
the peer link goes down using ifplugd.
Using ifplugd
ifplugd is a link state monitoring daemon that can execute user-specified scripts on link transitions
(not admin-triggered transitions, but transitions when a cable is plugged in or removed).
Run the following commands to install the ifplugd service:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo apt-get update
cumulus@switch:$ sudo apt-get install ifplugd
Next, configure ifplugd. The example below indicates that when the peerbond goes down in a MLAG
environment, ifplugd brings down all the uplinks. Run the following ifplugd script on both the
primary and secondary MLAG (see page 183) switches.
To configure ifplugd, modify /etc/default/ifplugd and add the appropriate peerbond interface
name. /etc/default/ifplugd will look like this:
INTERFACES="peerbond"
HOTPLUG_INTERFACES=""
ARGS="-q -f -u0 -d1 -w -I"
SUSPEND_ACTION="stop"
Next, modify the /etc/ifplugd/action.d/ifupdown script.
#!/bin/sh
set -e
case "$2" in
up)
clagrole=$(clagctl | grep "Our Priority" | awk '{print $8}')
if [ "$clagrole" = "secondary" ]
then
#List all the interfaces below to bring up when clag
peerbond comes up.
for interface in swp1 bond1 bond3 bond4
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do
echo "bringing up : $interface"
ip link set $interface up
done
fi
;;
down)
clagrole=$(clagctl | grep "Our Priority" | awk '{print $8}')
if [ "$clagrole" = "secondary" ]
then
#List all the interfaces below to bring down when clag
peerbond goes down.
for interface in swp1 bond1 bond3 bond4
do
echo "bringing down : $interface"
ip link set $interface down
done
fi
;;
esac
Finally, restart ifplugd for your changes to take effect:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo service ifplugd restart
Notes
The default shell is /bin/sh, which is dash and not bash. This makes for faster execution of the
script since dash is small and quick, but consequently less featureful than bash. For example, it
doesn't handle multiple uplinks.
Network Virtualization
Cumulus Linux supports these forms of network virtualization:
VXLAN (Virtual Extensible LAN), is a standard overlay protocol that abstracts logical virtual networks
from the physical network underneath. You can deploy simple and scalable layer 3 Clos architectures
while extending layer 2 segments over that layer 3 network.
VXLAN uses a VLAN-like encapsulation technique to encapsulate MAC-based layer 2 Ethernet frames
within layer 3 UDP packets. Each virtual network is a VXLAN logical L2 segment. VXLAN scales to 16
million segments – a 24-bit VXLAN network identifier (VNI ID) in the VXLAN header – for multi-tenancy.
Hosts on a given virtual network are joined together through an overlay protocol that initiates and
terminates tunnels at the edge of the multi-tenant network, typically the hypervisor vSwitch or top of
rack. These edge points are the VXLAN tunnel end points (VTEP).
Cumulus Linux can initiate and terminate VTEPs in hardware and supports wire-rate VXLAN with
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Cumulus Linux can initiate and terminate VTEPs in hardware and supports wire-rate VXLAN with
Trident II platforms. VXLAN provides an efficient hashing scheme across IP fabric during the
encapsulation process; the source UDP port is unique, with the hash based on L2-L4 information from
the original frame. The UDP destination port is the standard port 4789.
Cumulus Linux includes the native Linux VXLAN kernel support and integrates with controller-based
overlay solutions like VMware NSX and Midokura MidoNet.
VXLAN is supported only on switches in the Cumulus Linux HCL using Trident II chipsets.
VXLAN encapsulation over layer 3 subinterfaces is not supported. Therefore, VXLAN uplinks
should be only configured as layer 3 interfaces without any subinterfaces.
Commands
brctl
bridge fdb
ip link
ovs-pki
ovsdb-client
vtep-ctl
Useful Links
VXLAN IETF draft
ovsdb-server
Integrating with VMware NSX
Switches running Cumulus Linux can integrate with VMware NSX to act as VTEP gateways. The VMware
NSX controller provides consistent provisioning across virtual and physical server infrastructures.
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 213)
Getting Started (see page 213)
Caveats and Errata (see page 213)
Bootstrapping the NSX Integration (see page 214)
Enabling the openvswitch-vtep Package (see page 214)
Using the Bootstrapping Script (see page 214)
Manually Bootstrapping the NSX Integration (see page 215)
Generating the Credentials Certificate (see page 215)
Configuring the Switch as a VTEP Gateway (see page 217)
Configuring the Transport Layer (see page 220)
Configuring the Logical Layer (see page 221)
Defining Logical Switches (see page 221)
Defining Logical Switch Ports (see page 223)
Verifying the VXLAN Configuration (see page 225)
Persistent VXLAN Configuration in NSX (see page 226)
Troubleshooting VXLANs in NSX (see page 226)
Getting Started
Before you integrate VXLANs with NSX, make sure you have the following components:
A switch (L2 gateway) with a Trident II chipset running Cumulus Linux 2.0 or later;
OVSDB server (ovsdb-server), included in Cumulus Linux 2.0 and later
VTEPd (ovs-vtepd), included in Cumulus Linux 2.0 and later
Integrating a VXLAN with NSX involves:
Bootstrapping the NSX Integration
Configuring the Transport Layer
Configuring the Logical Layer
Verifying the VXLAN Configuration
Once you finish the integration, you can make the configuration persistent across upgrades (see
Persistent VXLAN Configuration in NSX (see page 226) below).
Caveats and Errata
The switch with the sourcing VTEP must connect to a router.
There is no support for VXLAN routing in the Trident II chip; use a loopback interface or external
router.
Do not use 0 or 16777215 as the VNI ID, as they are reserved values under Cumulus Linux.
For more information about NSX, see the VMware NSX User Guide, version 4.0.0 or later.
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For more information about NSX, see the VMware NSX User Guide, version 4.0.0 or later.
Bootstrapping the NSX Integration
Before you start configuring the gateway service and logical switches and ports that comprise the
VXLAN, you need to complete some steps to bootstrap the process. You need to do the bootstrapping
just once, before you begin the integration.
Enabling the openvswitch-vtep Package
Before you start bootstrapping the integration, you need to enable the openvswitch-vtep package,
as it is disabled by default in Cumulus Linux.
1. In /etc/default/openvswitch-vtep, change the START option from no to yes:
cumulus@switch$ cat /etc/default/openvswitch-vtep
# This is a POSIX shell fragment
-*- sh -*-
# Start openvswitch at boot ? yes/no
START=yes
# FORCE_COREFILES: If 'yes' then core files will be enabled.
# FORCE_COREFILES=yes
# BRCOMPAT: If 'yes' and the openvswitch-brcompat package is
installed, then
# Linux bridge compatibility will be enabled.
# BRCOMPAT=no
2. Start the daemon:
cumulus@switch$ sudo service openvswitch-vtep start
Make sure to include this file in your persistent configuration (see Persistent VXLAN Configuration in
NSX (see page 226) below) so it’s available after you upgrade Cumulus Linux.
Using the Bootstrapping Script
A script is available so you can do the bootstrapping automatically. For information, read man vtepbootstrap. The output of the script is displayed here:
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In the above example, the following information was passed to the vtep-bootstrap script:
--credentials-path /var/lib/openvswitch: Is the path to where the certificate and key
pairs for authenticating with the NSX controller are stored.
vtep7: is the ID for the VTEP.
192.168.100.17: is the IP address of the NSX controller.
172.16.20.157: is the datapath IP address of the VTEP.
192.168.100.157: is the IP address of the management interface on the switch.
These IP addresses will be used throughout the rest of the examples below.
Manually Bootstrapping the NSX Integration
If you don’t use the script, then you must:
Initialize the OVS database instance
Generate a certificate and key pair for authentication by NSX
Configure a switch as a VTEP gateway
These steps are described next.
Generating the Credentials Certificate
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Generating the Credentials Certificate
First, in Cumulus Linux, you must generate a certificate that the NSX controller uses for authentication.
1. In a terminal session connected to the switch, run the following commands:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ovs-pki init
Creating controllerca...
Creating switchca...
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ovs-pki req+sign cumulus
cumulus-req.pem Wed Oct 23 05:32:49 UTC 2013
fingerprint b587c9fe36f09fb371750ab50c430485d33a174a
cumulus@switch:~$
cumulus@switch:~$ ls -l
total 12
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4028 Oct 23 05:32 cumulus-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 1679 Oct 23 05:32 cumulus-privkey.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3585 Oct 23 05:32 cumulus-req.pem
2. In /usr/share/openvswitch/scripts/ovs-ctl-vtep, make sure the lines containing
private-key, certificate and bootstrap-ca-cert point to the correct files; bootstrap-ca-cert is
obtained dynamically the first time the switch talks to the controller:
# Start ovsdb-server.
set ovsdb-server "$DB_FILE"
set "$@" -vANY:CONSOLE:EMER -vANY:SYSLOG:ERR -vANY:FILE:INFO
set "$@" --remote=punix:"$DB_SOCK"
set "$@" --remote=db:Global,managers
set "$@" --remote=ptcp:6633:$LOCALIP
set "$@" --private-key=/root/cumulus-privkey.pem
set "$@" --certificate=/root/cumulus-cert.pem
set "$@" --bootstrap-ca-cert=/root/controller.cacert
If files have been moved or regenerated, restart the OVSDB server and vtepd:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service openvswitch-vtep restart
3. Define the NSX controller cluster IP address in OVSDB. This causes the OVSDB server to start
contacting the NSX controller:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtep-ctl set-manager ssl:192.168.100.17:6632
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4. Define the local IP address on the VTEP for VXLAN tunnel termination. First, find the physical
switch name as recorded in OVSDB:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtep-ctl list-ps
vtep7
Then set the tunnel source IP address of the VTEP. This is the datapath address of the VTEP,
which is typically an address on a loopback interface on the switch that is reachable from the
underlying L3 network:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtep-ctl set Physical_Switch vtep7
tunnel_ips=172.16.20.157
Once you finish generating the certificate, keep the terminal session active, as you need to paste the
certificate into NSX Manager when you configure the VTEP gateway.
Configuring the Switch as a VTEP Gateway
After you create a certificate, connect to NSX Manager in a browser to configure a Cumulus Linux
switch as a VTEP gateway. In this example, the IP address of the NSX manager is 192.168.100.12.
1.
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1. In NSX Manager, add a new gateway. Click the Network Components tab, then the Transport
Layer category. Under Transport Node, click Add, then select Manually Enter All Fields. The
Create Gateway wizard appears.
2. In the Create Gateway dialog, select Gateway for the Transport Node Type, then click Next.
3. In the Display Name field, give the gateway a name, then click Next.
4. Enable the VTEP service. Select the VTEP Enabled checkbox, then click Next.
5. From the terminal session connected to the switch where you generated the certificate, copy the
certificate and paste it into the Security Certificate text field. Copy only the bottom portion,
including the BEGIN CERTIFICATE and END CERTIFICATE lines. For example, copy all the
highlighted text in the terminal:
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And paste it into NSX Manager:
Then click Next.
6. In the Connectors dialog, click Add Connector to add a transport connector. This defines the
tunnel endpoint that terminates the VXLAN tunnel and connects NSX to the physical gateway.
You must choose a tunnel Transport Type of VXLAN. Choose an existing transport zone for the
connector, or click Create to create a new transport zone.
7. Define the connector’s IP address (that is, the underlay IP address on the switch for tunnel
termination).
8. Click OK to save the connector, then click Save to save the gateway.
Once communication is established between the switch and the controller, a controller.cacert file
will be downloaded onto the switch.
Verify the controller and switch handshake is successful. In a terminal connected to the switch, run this
command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ovsdb-client dump -f list | grep -A 7 "Manager"
Manager table
_uuid
: 505f32af-9acb-4182-a315-022e405aa479
inactivity_probe
: 30000
is_connected
: true
max_backoff
: []
other_config
: {}
status
: {sec_since_connect="18223", sec_since_disconnect="
18225", state=ACTIVE}
target
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Configuring the Transport Layer
After you finish bootstrapping the NSX integration, you need to configure the transport layer. For each
host-facing switch port that is to be associated with a VXLAN instance, define a Gateway Service for
the port.
1. In NSX Manager, add a new gateway service. Click the Network Components tab, then the
Services category. Under Gateway Service, click Add. The Create Gateway Service wizard
appears.
2. In the Create Gateway Service dialog, select VTEP L2 Gateway Service as the Gateway Service Type
.
3. Give the service a Display Name to represent the VTEP in NSX.
4. Click Add Gateway to associate the service with the gateway you created earlier.
5. In the Transport Node field, choose the name of the gateway you created earlier.
6. In the Port ID field, choose the physical port on the gateway (for example, swp10) that will
connect to a logical L2 segment and carry data traffic.
7. Click OK to save this gateway in the service, then click Save to save the gateway service.
The gateway service shows up as type VTEP L2 in NSX.
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Next, you will configure the logical layer on NSX.
Configuring the Logical Layer
To complete the integration with NSX, you need to configure the logical layer, which requires defining a
logical switch (the VXLAN instance) and all the logical ports needed.
Defining Logical Switches
To define the logical switch, do the following:
1. In NSX Manager, add a new logical switch. Click the Network Components tab, then the Logical
Layer category. Under Logical Switch, click Add. The Create Logical Switch wizard appears.
2. In the Display Name field, enter a name for the logical switch, then click Next.
3. Under Replication Mode, select Service Nodes, then click Next.
4. Specify the transport zone bindings for the logical switch. Click Add Binding. The Create
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4. Specify the transport zone bindings for the logical switch. Click Add Binding. The Create
Transport Zone Binding dialog appears.
5. In the Transport Type list, select VXLAN, then click OK to add the binding to the logical switch.
6. In the VNI field, assign the switch a VNI ID, then click OK.
Do not use 0 or 16777215 as the VNI ID, as they are reserved values under Cumulus
Linux.
7. Click Save to save the logical switch configuration.
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Defining Logical Switch Ports
As the final step, define the logical switch ports. They can be virtual machine VIF interfaces from a
registered OVS, or a VTEP gateway service instance on this switch, as defined above in the Configuring
the Transport Laye. A VLAN binding can be defined for each VTEP gateway service associated with the
particular logical switch.
To define the logical switch ports, do the following:
1.
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1. In NSX Manager, add a new logical switch port. Click the Network Components tab, then the
Logical Layer category. Under Logical Switch Port, click Add. The Create Logical Switch Port
wizard appears.
2. In the Logical Switch UUID list, select the logical switch you created above, then click Create.
3. In the Display Name field, give the port a name that indicates it is the port that connects the
gateway, then click Next.
4. In the Attachment Type list, select VTEP L2 Gateway.
5. In the VTEP L2 Gateway Service UUID list, choose the name of the gateway service you created
earlier.
6. In the VLAN list, you can optionally choose a VLAN if you wish to connect only traffic on a specific
VLAN of the physical network. Leave it blank to handle all traffic.
7.
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7. Click Save to save the logical switch port. Connectivity is established. Repeat this procedure for
each logical switch port you want to define.
Verifying the VXLAN Configuration
Once configured, you can verify the VXLAN configuration using these Cumulus Linux commands in a
terminal connected to the switch:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip –d link show vxln100
71: vxln100: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
master br-vxln100 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether d2:ca:78:bb:7c:9b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 100 local 172.16.20.157 port 32768 61000 nolearning ageing 300
svcnode 172.16.21.125
or
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
52:54:00:ae:2a:e0 dev vxln100 dst 172.16.21.150 self permanent
d2:ca:78:bb:7c:9b dev vxln100 permanent
90:e2:ba:3f:ce:34 dev swp2s1.100
90:e2:ba:3f:ce:35 dev swp2s0.100
44:38:39:00:48:0e dev swp2s1.100 permanent
44:38:39:00:48:0d dev swp2s0.100 permanent
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Persistent VXLAN Configuration in NSX
If you want your VXLAN configuration to persist across upgrades of Cumulus Linux (see Making
Configurations Persist across Upgrades (see page )), you need to include the following items in the
persistent configuration. Use scp to copy the files to /mnt/persist:
/usr/share/openvswitch/ovs-ctl-vtep
Certificates and key pairs, as above
/etc/default/openvswitch-vtep
The ovsdb database file; the default is /var/lib/openvswitch/conf.db
Copying the ovsdb database file is optional; the persistent database file helps to
speed up convergence on a system upgrade. NSX Manager pushes any configuration
created or changed in NSX Manager when the connection with the VTEP is
reestablished, which overwrites the database file.
Troubleshooting VXLANs in NSX
Use ovsdb-client dump to troubleshoot issues on the switch. It verifies that the controller and switch
handshake is successful. This command works only for VXLANs integrated with NSX:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ovsdb-client dump -f list | grep -A 7 "Manager"
Manager table
_uuid
: 505f32af-9acb-4182-a315-022e405aa479
inactivity_probe
: 30000
is_connected
: true
max_backoff
: []
other_config
: {}
status
: {sec_since_connect="18223", sec_since_disconnect="
18225", state=ACTIVE}
target
: "ssl:192.168.100.17:6632"
Configuring a VXLAN without a Controller
Cumulus Linux includes the native Linux VXLAN kernel support, without need for a controller like
VMware NSX or Midokura MidoNet. VXLAN constructs can be leveraged for rapid integration with
existing overlay solutions by simply translating the overlay controller instructions into a standard Linux
kernel VXLAN construct.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 226)
Requirements (see page 227)
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Requirements (see page 227)
Example VXLAN Configuration (see page 227)
Configuring the Controller-less VXLAN (see page 228)
Troubleshooting VXLANs in Cumulus Linux (see page 231)
Requirements
A VXLAN configuration requires a platform with hardware support for:
Switches with a Trident II chipset running Cumulus Linux 2.0 or later.
A service to carry unknown destination, broadcast and multicast frames. As mentioned in the
VXLAN IETF documents, you can do this through various mechanisms such as a learning-based
control plane (like multicast) or through a central authority (like a service node).
For a basic VXLAN configuration, you should ensure that:
The VXLAN has a network identifier (VNI); do not use 0 or 16777215 as the VNI ID, as they are
reserved values under Cumulus Linux.
The VXLAN instance is modeled as a link (netdev).
The VXLAN link and local interfaces are added to bridge to create the association between port,
VLAN and VXLAN instance.
Each bridge on the switch has only one VXLAN interface. Cumulus Linux does not support more
than one VXLAN link in a bridge; however a switch can have multiple bridges.
You use static ARP entries to assign MAC addresses to a VXLAN interface.
Example VXLAN Configuration
Consider the following example:
You can recreate this configuration two ways:
By creating a persistent configuration using ifupdown2 (see page 89)
By creating a runtime configuration with ip commands
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Pre-configuring remote MAC addresses does not scale. A better solution is to use a VXLAN
controller, such as LNV (see page 232), or implement an integrated solution such as VMware
NSX (see page 212).
Configuring the Controller-less VXLAN
To configure VXLANs following the configuration above in Cumulus Linux, add the following
configuration to the /etc/network/interfaces file on switch1:
auto vtep1000
iface vtep1000
vxlan-id 1000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 172.10.1.1
auto br-100
iface br-100
bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100 vtep1000
post-up bridge fdb add 0:00:10:00:00:0C dev vtep1000 dst 172.20.1.1 vni
1000
Next, add the following configuration to the /etc/network/interfaces file on switch2:
auto vtep1000
iface vtep1000
vxlan-id 1000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 172.20.1.1
auto br-100
iface br-100
bridge-ports swp1.100 swp2.100 vtep1000
post-up bridge fdb add 00:00:10:00:00:0A dev vtep1000 dst 172.10.1.1
vni 1000
post-up bridge fdb add 00:00:10:00:00:0B dev vtep1000 dst 172.10.1.1
vni 1000
Runtime Configuration (Advanced)
A runtime configuration is non-persistent, which means the configuration you create here
does not persist after you reboot the switch.
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In general, to configure a VXLAN in Cumulus Linux without a controller, run the following commands in
a terminal connected to the switch:
1. Create a VXLAN link:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link add <name> type vxlan id <vni> local
<ip addr> [group <mcast group address>] [no] nolearning [ttl] [tos]
[dev] [port MIN MAX] [ageing <value>] [svcnode addr]
If you are specifying ageing, you must specify the service node (svcnode) .
2. Add a VXLAN link to a bridge:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo brctl addif br-vxlan <name>
3. Install a static MAC binding to a remote tunnel IP:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb add <mac addr> dev <device> dst <ip
addr> vni <vni> port <port> via <device>
4. Show VXLAN link and FDB:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip –d link show
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
To create a runtime configuration that matches the image above, do the following:
1. Configure hosts A and B as part of the same tenant as C (VNI 10) on switch1. Hosts A and B are
part of VLAN 100. To configure the VTEP interface with VNI 10, run the following commands in a
terminal connected to switch1 running Cumulus Linux:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link add link swp1 name swp1.100 type vlan
id 100
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link add link swp2 name swp2.100 type vlan
id 100
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link add vtep1000 type vxlan id 10 local
172.10.1.1 nolearning
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link set swp1 up
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cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link set swp2 up
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link set vtep1000 up
2. Configure VLAN 100 and VTEP 1000 to be part of the same bridge br-100 on switch1:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo brctl addbr br-100
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip link set br-100 up
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo brctl addif br-100 swp1.100 swp2.100
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo brctl addif br-100 vtep1000
3. Install a static MAC binding to a remote tunnel IP, assuming the MAC address for host C is 00:00:
10:00:00:0C:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb add 00:00:10:00:00:0C dev vtep1000
dst 172.20.1.1
4. Configure host C as part of the same tenant as hosts A and B on switch2:
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip link add link swp1 name swp1.100 type vlan
id 100
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip link add name vtep1000 type vxlan id 10
local 172.20.1.1 nolearning
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip link set swp1 up
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip link set vtep1000 up
5. Configure VLAN 100 and VTEP 1000 to be part of the same bridge br-100 on switch2:
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo brctl addbr br-100
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip link set br-100 up
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo brctl addif br-100 swp1.100
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo brctl addif br-100 vtep1000
6. Install a static MAC binding to a remote tunnel IP on switch2, assuming the MAC address for host
A is 00:00:10:00:00:0A and the MAC address for host B is 00:00:10:00:00:0B:
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo bridge fdb add 00:00:10:00:00:0A dev vtep1000
dst 172.10.1.1
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo bridge fdb add 00:00:10:00:00:0B dev vtep1000
dst 172.10.1.1
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7. Verify the configuration on switch1, then on switch2:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip –d link show
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo ip –d link show
cumulus@switch2:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
8. Set the static arp for hosts B and C on host A:
root@hostA:~# sudo arp –s 10.1.1.3 00:00:10:00:00:0C
9. Set the static arp for hosts A and C on host B:
root@hostB:~# sudo arp –s 10.1.1.3 00:00:10:00:00:0C
10. Set the static arp for hosts A and B on host C:
root@hostC:~# arp –s 10.1.1.1 00:00:10:00:00:0A
root@hostC:~# arp –s 10.1.1.2 00:00:10:00:00:0B
Troubleshooting VXLANs in Cumulus Linux
Use the following commands to troubleshoot issues on the switch:
brctl show: Verifies the VXLAN configuration in a bridge:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br-vxln100
8000.44383900480d
no
swp2s0.100
swp2s1.
100
vxln100
bridge fdb show: Displays the list of MAC addresses in an FDB:
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cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo bridge fdb show
52:54:00:ae:2a:e0 dev vxln100 dst 172.16.21.150 self permanent
d2:ca:78:bb:7c:9b dev vxln100 permanent
90:e2:ba:3f:ce:34 dev swp2s1.100
90:e2:ba:3f:ce:35 dev swp2s0.100
44:38:39:00:48:0e dev swp2s1.100 permanent
44:38:39:00:48:0d dev swp2s0.100 permanent
ip -d link show: Displays information about the VXLAN link:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo ip –d link show vxln100
71: vxln100: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
noqueue master br-vxln100 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether d2:ca:78:bb:7c:9b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 100 local 172.16.20.103 port 32768 61000 nolearning
ageing 300 svcnode 172.16.21.125
Lightweight Network Virtualization - LNV
Lightweight Network Virtualization (LNV) is a technique for deploying VXLANs (see page 211) without a
central controller on bare metal switches. This solution requires no external controller or software
suite; it runs the VXLAN service and registration daemons on Cumulus Linux itself. The data path
between bridge entities is established on top of a layer 3 fabric by means of a simple service node
coupled with traditional MAC address learning.
To see an example of a full solution before reading the following background information, please read
this chapter (see page 259).
LNV is a lightweight controller option. Please contact Cumulus Networks with your scale
requirements so we can make sure this is the right fit for you. There are also other controller
options that can work on Cumulus Linux.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 232)
Understanding LNV Concepts (see page 233)
Acquiring the Forwarding Database at the Service Node (see page 234)
MAC Learning and Flooding (see page 234)
Handling BUM Traffic (see page 234)
Requirements (see page 235)
Hardware Requirements (see page 235)
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Hardware Requirements (see page 235)
Configuration Requirements (see page 235)
Installing the LNV Packages (see page 236)
Sample LNV Configuration (see page 236)
Network Connectivity (see page 236)
Layer 3 IP Addressing (see page 237)
Layer 3 Fabric (see page 238)
Host Configuration (see page 239)
Configuring the VLAN to VXLAN Mapping (see page 240)
Verifying the VLAN to VXLAN Mapping (see page 242)
Enabling and Managing Service Node and Registration Daemons (see page 242)
Enabling the Service Node Daemon (see page 242)
Enabling the Registration Daemon (see page 243)
Checking the Daemon Status (see page 244)
Configuring the Registration Node (see page 244)
Configuring the Service Node (see page 246)
Verification and Troubleshooting (see page 247)
Verifying the Registration Node Daemon (see page 248)
Verifying the Service Node Daemon (see page 249)
Verifying Traffic Flow and Checking Counters (see page 249)
Pinging to Test Connectivity (see page 250)
Troubleshooting with MAC Addresses (see page 251)
Checking the Service Node Configuration (see page 252)
Creating a Layer 3 Gateway (see page 252)
Advanced LNV Usage (see page 253)
Scaling LNV by Load Balancing with Anycast (see page 253)
Additional Resources (see page 258)
See Also (see page 259)
Understanding LNV Concepts
To best describe this feature, consider the following example deployment:
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The two switches running Cumulus Linux, called leaf1 and leaf2, each have a bridge configured. These
two bridges contain the physical switch port interfaces connecting to the servers as well as the logical
VXLAN interface associated with the bridge. By creating a logical VXLAN interface on both leaf switches,
the switches become VTEPs (virtual tunnel end points). The IP address associated with this VTEP is most
commonly configured as its loopback address — in the image above, the loopback address is 10.2.1.1
for leaf1 and 10.2.1.2 for leaf2.
Acquiring the Forwarding Database at the Service Node
In order to connect these two VXLANs together and forward BUM (Broadcast, Unknown-unicast,
Multicast) packets to members of a VXLAN, the service node needs to acquire the addresses of all the
VTEPs for every VXLAN it serves. The service node daemon does this through a registration daemon
running on each leaf switch that contains a VTEP participating in LNV. The registration process informs
the service node of all the VXLANs to which the switch belongs.
MAC Learning and Flooding
With LNV, as with traditional bridging of physical LANs or VLANs, a bridge automatically learns the
location of hosts as a side effect of receiving packets on a port.
For example, when server1 sends an L2 packet to server3, leaf2 learns that server1's MAC address is
located on that particular VXLAN, and the VXLAN interface learns that the IP address of the VTEP for
server1 is 10.2.1.1. So when server3 sends a packet to server1, the bridge on leaf2 forwards the packet
out of the port to the VXLAN interface and the VXLAN interface sends it, encapsulated in a UDP packet,
to the address 10.2.1.1.
But what if server3 sends a packet to some address that has yet to send it a packet (server2, for
example)? In this case, the VXLAN interface sends the packet to the service node, which sends a copy to
every other VTEP that belongs to the same VXLAN.
Handling BUM Traffic
Cumulus Linux has two ways of handling BUM (Broadcast Unknown-Unicast and Multicast) traffic:
Head end replication
Service node replication
Head end replication is enabled by default in Cumulus Linux.
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You cannot have both service node and head end replication configured simultaneously, as
this causes the BUM traffic to be duplicated — both the source VTEP and the service node
sending their own copy of each packet to every remote VTEP.
Head End Replication
The Trident II chipset is capable of head end replication — the ability to generate all the BUM
(Broadcast Unknown-Unicast and Multicast) traffic in hardware. The most scalable solution available
with LNV is to have each VTEP (top of rack switch) generate all of its own BUM traffic rather than relying
on an external service node.
Cumulus Linux supports up to 64 VTEPs with head end replication.
To disable head end replication, edit /etc/vxrd.conf and set head_rep to False.
Service Node Replication
Cumulus Linux also supports service node replication for VXLAN BUM packets. This is useful with LNV if
you have more than 64 VTEPs. However, it is not recommended because it forces the spine switches
running the vxsnd (service node daemon) to replicate the packets in software instead of in hardware,
unlike head end replication. If you're not using a controller but have more than 64 VTEPs, contact a
Cumulus Networks consultant.
To enable service node replication:
1. Disable head end replication; set head_rep to False in /etc/vxrd.conf.
2. Edit /etc/network/interfaces and configure a service node IP address for VXLAN interfaces
using vxrd-svcnode-ip <>.
3. Edit /etc/vxsnd.conf, and configure the following:
Set the same service node IP address that you did in the previous step:
svcnode_ip = <>
To forward VXLAN data traffic, set the following variable to True:
enable_vxlan_listen = true
Requirements
Hardware Requirements
Switches with a Trident II chipset running Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 or later. Please refer to the
Cumulus Networks hardware compatibility list for a list of supported switch models.
Configuration Requirements
The VXLAN has an associated VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI), also interchangeably called a
VXLAN ID.
The VNI should not be 0 or 16777215, as these two numbers are reserved values under
Cumulus Linux.
The VXLAN link and physical interfaces are added to the bridge to create the association
between the port, VLAN and VXLAN instance.
Each bridge on the switch has only one VXLAN interface. Cumulus Linux does not support more
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Each bridge on the switch has only one VXLAN interface. Cumulus Linux does not support more
than one VXLAN link in a bridge; however, a switch can have multiple bridges.
Only use bridges in traditional mode (see page 154); VLAN-aware bridges (see page 175) are not
supported with VXLAN at this time.
An SVI (Switch VLAN Interface) or L3 address on the bridge is not supported. For example, you
can't ping from the leaf1 SVI to the leaf2 SVI via the VXLAN tunnel; you would need to use
server1 and server2 to verify. See Creating a Layer 3 Gateway (see page 252) below for more
information.
Installing the LNV Packages
The LNV packages are not installed automatically if you upgrade Cumulus Linux. You can install LNV in
one of two ways:
Do a binary image install (see page 17) of Cumulus Linux, using cl-img-install
Install the LNV packages for the registration and service node daemons using apt-get
install vxfld-vxrd and/or apt-get install vxfld-vxsnd, depending upon how you
intend to use LNV
Sample LNV Configuration
The following images illustrate the configuration that is referenced throughout this chapter.
Physical Cabling Diagram
Network Virtualization Diagram
Want to try out configuring LNV and don't have a Cumulus Linux switch? Sign up to use the
Cumulus Workbench, which has this exact topology.
Network Connectivity
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Network Connectivity
There must be full network connectivity before you can configure LNV. The layer 3 IP addressing
information as well as the OSPF configuration (/etc/quagga/Quagga.conf) below is provided to
make the LNV example easier to understand.
OSPF is not a requirement for LNV, LNV just requires L3 connectivity. With Cumulus Linux this
can be achieved with static routes, OSPF or BGP.
Layer 3 IP Addressing
Here is the configuration for the IP addressing information used in this example.
spine1: /etc/network/interfaces
spine2: /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.3/32
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.4/32
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto swp49
iface swp49
address 10.1.1.2/30
auto swp49
iface swp49
address 10.1.1.18/30
auto swp50
iface swp50
address 10.1.1.6/30
auto swp50
iface swp50
address 10.1.1.22/30
auto swp51
iface swp51
address 10.1.1.50/30
auto swp51
iface swp51
address 10.1.1.34/30
auto swp52
iface swp52
address 10.1.1.54/30
auto swp52
iface swp52
address 10.1.1.38/30
leaf1: /etc/network/interfaces
leaf2: /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.1/32
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.2/32
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
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auto swp1s0
iface swp1s0
address 10.1.1.1/30
auto swp1s0
iface swp1s0
address 10.1.1.17/30
auto swp1s1
iface swp1s1
address 10.1.1.5/30
auto swp1s1
iface swp1s1
address 10.1.1.21/30
auto swp1s2
iface swp1s2
address 10.1.1.33/30
auto swp1s2
iface swp1s2
address 10.1.1.49/30
auto swp1s3
iface swp1s3
address 10.1.1.37/30
auto swp1s3
iface swp1s3
address 10.1.1.53/30
Layer 3 Fabric
The service nodes and registration nodes must all be routable between each other. The L3 fabric on
Cumulus Linux can either be BGP (see page 318) or OSPF (see page 305). In this example, OSPF is used
to demonstrate full reachability. Expand the Quagga configurations below.
Quagga configuration using OSPF:
spine1
interface lo
spine2
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp49
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp49
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
interface swp50
interface swp50
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
interface swp51
interface swp51
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
interface swp52
interface swp52
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf network point-to-point
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
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!
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.3
router-id 10.2.1.4
router ospf
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.3
leaf1
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1s0
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.1
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.1
ospf router-id 10.2.1.4
leaf2
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1s0
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.2
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.2
Host Configuration
In this example, the servers are running Ubuntu 14.04. There needs to be a trunk mapped from server1
and server2 to the respective switch. In Ubuntu this is done with subinterfaces. You can expand the
configurations below.
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server1
server2
auto eth3.10
iface eth3.10 inet
static
address 10.10.10.1/24
auto eth3.10
iface eth3.10 inet
static
address 10.10.10.2/24
auto eth3.20
iface eth3.20 inet
static
address 10.10.20.1/24
auto eth3.20
iface eth3.20 inet
static
address 10.10.20.2/24
auto eth3.30
iface eth3.30 inet
static
address 10.10.30.1/24
auto eth3.30
iface eth3.30 inet
static
address 10.10.30.2/24
On Ubuntu it is more reliable to use ifup and if down to bring the interfaces up and down
individually, rather than restarting networking entirely (that is, there is no equivalent to if reload like
there is in Cumulus Linux):
cumulus@server1:~$ sudo ifup eth3.10
Set name-type for VLAN subsystem. Should be visible in /proc/net/vlan
/config
Added VLAN with VID == 10 to IF -:eth3:cumulus@server1:~$ sudo ifup eth3.20
Set name-type for VLAN subsystem. Should be visible in /proc/net/vlan
/config
Added VLAN with VID == 20 to IF -:eth3:cumulus@server1:~$ sudo ifup eth3.30
Set name-type for VLAN subsystem. Should be visible in /proc/net/vlan
/config
Added VLAN with VID == 30 to IF -:eth3:-
Configuring the VLAN to VXLAN Mapping
Configure the VLANS and associated VXLANs. In this example, there are 3 VLANs and 3 VXLAN IDs
(VNIs). VLANs 10, 20 and 30 are used and associated with VNIs 10, 2000 and 30 respectively. The
loopback address, used as the vxlan-local-tunnelip, is the only difference between leaf1 and leaf2
for this demonstration.
For leaf1:
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cumulus@leaf1$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
Add the following to the loopback stanza
Add the following to the loopback stanza
auto lo
iface lo
vxrd-src-ip 10.2.1.1
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.2.1.3
auto lo
iface lo
vxrd-src-ip 10.2.1.2
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.2.1.3
Now append the following for the VXLAN
configuration itself:
Now append the following for the VXLAN
configuration itself:
leaf1: /etc/network/interfaces
leaf2: /etc/network/interfaces
auto vni-10
iface vni-10
vxlan-id 10
vxlan-local-tunnelip
10.2.1.1
auto vni-10
iface vni-10
vxlan-id 10
vxlan-local-tunnelip
10.2.1.2
auto vni-2000
iface vni-2000
vxlan-id 2000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
auto vni-2000
iface vni-2000
vxlan-id 2000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.2
auto vni-30
iface vni-30
vxlan-id 30
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
auto vni-30
iface vni-30
vxlan-id 30
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.2
auto br-10
iface br-10
bridge-ports swp32s0.10 vni10
auto br-10
iface br-10
bridge-ports swp32s0.10 vni10
auto br-20
iface br-20
bridge-ports swp32s0.20 vni2000
auto br-20
iface br-20
bridge-ports swp32s0.20 vni2000
auto br-30
iface br-30
bridge-ports swp32s0.30 vni30
auto br-30
iface br-30
bridge-ports swp32s0.30 vni30
To bring up the bridges and VNIs, use the
ifreload command:
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To bring up the bridges and VNIs, use the
ifreload command:
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cumulus@leaf1$ sudo ifreload -a
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo ifreload -a
Why is br-20 not vni-20? For example, why not tie VLAN 20 to VNI 20, or why was 2000 used?
VXLANs and VLANs do not need to be the same number. This was done on purpose to
highlight this fact. However if you are using fewer than 4096 VLANs, there is no reason not to
make it easy and correlate VLANs to VXLANs. It is completely up to you.
Verifying the VLAN to VXLAN Mapping
Use the brctl show command to see the physical and logical interfaces associated with that bridge:
cumulus@leaf1:~$ brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
br-10
8000.443839008404
no
br-20
8000.443839008404
no
br-30
8000.443839008404
no
STP enabled
interfaces
swp32s0.10
vni-10
swp32s0.20
vni-2000
swp32s0.30
vni-30
As with any logical interfaces on Linux, the name does not matter (other than a 15-character limit). To
verify the associated VNI for the logical name, use the ip -d link show command:
cumulus@leaf1$ ip -d link show vni-10
43: vni-10: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
master br-10 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 02:ec:ec:bd:7f:c6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 10 srcport 32768 61000 dstport 4789 ageing 300
bridge_slave
The vxlan id 10 indicates the VXLAN ID/VNI is indeed 10 as the logical name suggests.
Enabling and Managing Service Node and Registration Daemons
Every VTEP must run the registration daemon (vxrd). Typically, every leaf switch acts as a VTEP. A
minimum of 1 switch (a switch not already acting as a VTEP) must run the service node daemon (vxsnd
). The instructions for enabling these daemons follows.
Enabling the Service Node Daemon
The service node daemon (vxsnd) is included in the Cumulus Linux repository as vxfld-vxsnd. The
service node daemon can run on any switch running Cumulus Linux as long as that switch is not also a
VXLAN VTEP. In this example, enable the service node only on the spine1 switch.
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Do not run vxsnd on a switch that is already acting as a VTEP.
Edit the /etc/default/vxsnd configuration file:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo nano /etc/default/vxsnd
Change the vxsnd file by changing no to yes:
START=yes
Save and quit the text editor and reboot the vxsnd daemon:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo service vxsnd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxsnd ....
Enabling the Registration Daemon
The registration daemon (vxrd) is included in the Cumulus Linux package as vxfld-vxrd. The
registration daemon must run on each VTEP participating in LNV, so you must enable it on every TOR
(leaf) switch acting as a VTEP.
Edit the /etc/default/vxrd configuration file on leaf1:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo nano /etc/default/vxrd
Change the vxrd file by changing no to yes:
START=yes
1Save and quit the text editor and reboot the vxrd daemon:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo service vxrd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxrd ....
Open the vxrd configuration file on leaf2 with the following commands:
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo nano /etc/default/vxrd
Change the vxsnd file by changing no to yes:
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START=yes
Save and quit the text editor and reboot the vxrd daemon:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo service vxrd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxrd ....
Checking the Daemon Status
To determine if the daemon is running, use the service <daemon name> status command.
For the service node daemon:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo service vxsnd status
[ ok ] vxsnd is running.
For the registration daemon:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo service vxrd status
[ ok ] vxrd is running.
Configuring the Registration Node
The registration node was configured earlier in /etc/network/interfaces in the VXLAN mapping
(see page 240) section above; no additional configuration is typically needed. However, if you need to
modify the registration node configuration, edit /etc/vxrd.conf.
To further configure the registration node, read the following:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo nano /etc/vxrd.conf
Then edit the svcnode_ip variable:
svcnode_ip = 10.2.1.3
Then perform the same on leaf2:
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo nano /etc/vxsnd.conf
And again edit the svcnode_ip variable:
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svcnode_ip = 10.2.1.3
Restart the registration node daemon for the change to take effect:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo service vxrd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxrd ....
Restart the daemon on leaf2:
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo service vxrd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxrd ....
The complete list of options you can configure is listed below:
Name
Description
Default
loglevel
The log level, which can be DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL.
INFO
logdest
The destination for log messages. It can be a file name, stdout or
syslog.
syslog
logfilesize
Log file size in bytes. Used when logdest is a file name.
512000
logbackupcount
Maximum number of log files stored on the disk. Used when logdest
is a file name.
14
pidfile
The PIF file location for the vxrd daemon.
/var/run
/vxrd.
pid
udsfile
The file name for the Unix domain socket used for management.
/var/run
/vxrd.
sock
vxfld_port
The UDP port used for VXLAN control messages.
10001
svcnode_ip
The address to which registration daemons send control messages for
registration and/or BUM packets for replication. This can also be
configured under /etc/network/interfaces with the vxrdsvcnode-ip keyword.
holdtime
Hold time (in seconds) for soft state, which is how long the service
node waits before ageing out an IP address for a VNI. The vxrd
includes this in the register messages it sends to a vxsnd.
90
seconds
src_ip
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Name
Description
Default
Local IP address to bind to for receiving control traffic from the service
node daemon.
refresh_rate
Number of times to refresh within the hold time. The higher this
number, the more lost UDP refresh messages can be tolerated.
3
seconds
config_check_rate
The number of seconds to poll the system for current VXLAN
membership.
5
seconds
head_rep
Enables self replication. Instead of using the service node to replicate
BUM packets, it will be done in hardware on the VTEP switch.
true
Use 1, yes, true or on for True for each relevant option. Use 0, no, false or off for False.
Configuring the Service Node
To configure the service node daemon, edit the /etc/vxsnd.conf configuration file.
For the example configuration, default values are used, except for the svcnode_ip field.
cumulus@spine1$ sudo nano /etc/vxsnd.conf
The address field is set to the loopback address of the switch running the vxsnd dameon.
svcnode_ip = 10.2.1.3
Restart the service node daemon for the change to take effect:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo service vxsnd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxsnd ....
The complete list of options you can configure is listed below:
Name
Description
Default
loglevel
The log level, which can be DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR,
CRITICAL.
INFO
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Name
Description
Default
logdest
Destination for log messages. It can be a file name, stdout or
syslog.
syslog
logfilesize
The log file size in bytes. Used when logdest is a file name.
512000
logbackupcount
Maximum number of log files stored on disk. Used when logdest is
a file name.
14
pidfile
The PID file location for the vxrd daemon.
/var/run
/vxrd.
pid
udsfile
The file name for the Unix domain socket used for management.
/var/run
/vxrd.
sock
vxfld_port
The UDP port used for VXLAN control messages.
10001
svcnode_ip
This is the address to which registration daemons send control
messages for registration and/or BUM packets for replication.
0.0.0.0
holdtime
Holdtime (in seconds) for soft state. It is used when sending a
register message to peers in response to learning a <vni, addr> from
a VXLAN data packet.
90
src_ip
Local IP address to bind to for receiving inter-vxsnd control traffic.
0.0.0.0
svcnode_peers
Space-separated list of IP addresses with which the vxsnd shares its
state.
enable_vxlan_listen
When set to true, the service node listens for VXLAN data traffic.
true
install_svcnode_ip
When set to true, the snd_peer_address gets installed on the
loopback interface. It gets withdrawn when the vxsnd is not in
service. If set to true, you must define the snd_peer_address
configuration variable.
false
age_check
Number of seconds to wait before checking the database to age out
stale entries.
90
seconds
Use 1, yes, true or on for True for each relevant option. Use 0, no, false or off for False.
Verification and Troubleshooting
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Verification and Troubleshooting
Verifying the Registration Node Daemon
Use the vxrdctl vxlans command to see the configured VNIs, the local address being used to source
the VXLAN tunnel and the service node being used.
cumulus@leaf1$ vxrdctl vxlans
VNI
Local Addr
Svc
Node
===
==========
========
10
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
30
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
2000
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
cumulus@leaf2$ vxrdctl vxlans
VNI
Local Addr
Svc
Node
===
==========
========
10
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
30
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
2000
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
Use the vxrdctl peers command to see configured VNIs and all VTEPs (leaf switches) within the
network that have them configured.
cumulus@leaf1$
vxrdctl peers
VNI
Peer Addrs
===
==========
10
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
30
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
2000
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
cumulus@leaf2$
vxrdctl peers
VNI
Peer Addrs
===
==========
10
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
30
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
2000
10.2.1.1,
10.2.1.2
When head end replication mode is disabled, the command won't work.
Use the vxrdctl peers command to see the other VTEPs (leaf switches) and what VNIs are
associated with them. This does not show anything unless you enabled head end replication
mode by setting the head_rep option to True. Otherwise, replication is done by the service
node.
cumulus@leaf2$ vxrdctl peers
Head-end replication is turned off on this device.
This command will not provide any output
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Verifying the Service Node Daemon
Use the vxsndctl fdb command to verify which VNIs belong to which VTEP (leaf switches).
cumulus@spine1$ vxsndctl fdb
VNI
Address
Ageout
===
=======
======
10
10.2.1.1
82
10
10.2.1.2
77
30
10.2.1.1
82
30
10.2.1.2
77
2000
10.2.1.1
82
2000
10.2.1.2
77
Verifying Traffic Flow and Checking Counters
VXLAN transit traffic information is stored in a flat file located at /cumulus/switchd/run/stats
/vxlan/all.
cumulus@leaf1$ cat /cumulus/switchd/run/stats/vxlan/all
VNI
: 10
Network In Octets
: 1090
Network In Packets
: 8
Network Out Octets
: 1798
Network Out Packets
: 13
Total In Octets
: 2818
Total In Packets
: 27
Total Out Octets
: 3144
Total Out Packets
: 39
VN Interface
: vni: 10, swp32s0.10
Total In Octets
: 1728
Total In Packets
: 19
Total Out Octets
: 552
Total Out Packets
: 18
VNI
: 30
Network In Octets
: 828
Network In Packets
: 6
Network Out Octets
: 1224
Network Out Packets
: 9
Total In Octets
: 2374
Total In Packets
: 23
Total Out Octets
: 2300
Total Out Packets
: 32
VN Interface
: vni: 30, swp32s0.30
Total In Octets
: 1546
Total In Packets
: 17
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Total Out Octets
Total Out Packets
VNI
Network In Octets
Network In Packets
Network Out Octets
Network Out Packets
Total In Octets
Total In Packets
Total Out Octets
Total Out Packets
VN Interface
Total In Octets
Total In Packets
Total Out Octets
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
552
17
2000
676
5
1072
8
2030
20
2042
30
vni: 2000, swp32s0.20
1354
15
446
Pinging to Test Connectivity
To test the connectivity across the VXLAN tunnel with an ICMP echo request (ping), make sure to ping
from the server rather than the switch itself.
As mentioned above, SVIs (switch VLAN interfaces) are not supported when using VXLAN. That
is, there cannot be an IP address on the bridge that also contains a VXLAN.
Following is the IP address information used in this example configuration.
VNI
server1
server2
10
10.10.10.1
10.10.10.2
2000
10.10.20.1
10.10.20.2
30
10.10.30.1
10.10.30.2
To test connectivity between VNI 10 connected servers by pinging from server1:
cumulus@server1:~$ ping 10.10.10.2
PING 10.10.10.2 (10.10.10.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.10.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.90 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.10.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.202 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.10.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.195 ms
^C
--- 10.10.10.2 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.195/1.432/3.900/1.745 ms
cumulus@server1:~$
The other VNIs were also tested and can be viewed in the expanded output below.
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The other VNIs were also tested and can be viewed in the expanded output below.
Test connectivity between VNI-2000 connected servers by pinging from server1:
cumulus@server1:~$ ping 10.10.20.2
PING 10.10.20.2 (10.10.20.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.20.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.81 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.20.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.194 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.20.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.206 ms
^C
--- 10.10.20.2 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.194/0.739/1.819/0.763 ms
Test connectivity between VNI-30 connected servers by pinging from server1:
cumulus@server1:~$ ping 10.10.30.2
PING 10.10.30.2 (10.10.30.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.85 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.239 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.185 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=0.212 ms
^C
--- 10.10.30.2 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.185/0.622/1.853/0.711 ms
Troubleshooting with MAC Addresses
Since there is no SVI, there is no way to ping from the server to the directly attached leaf (top of rack)
switch without cabling the switch to itself (see Creating a Layer 3 Gateway (see page 252) below). The
easiest way to see if the server can reach the leaf switch is to check the MAC address table of the leaf
switch.
First, get the MAC address of the server:
cumulus@server1:~$ ip addr show eth3.10 | grep ether
link/ether 90:e2:ba:55:f0:85 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
Next, check the MAC address table of the leaf switch:
cumulus@leaf1$ brctl showmacs br-10
port name mac addr
vlan
is local?
vni-10
46:c6:57:fc:1f:54
0
yes
swp32s0.10 90:e2:ba:55:f0:85
0
no
vni-10
90:e2:ba:7e:a9:c1
0
no
swp32s0.10 ec:f4:bb:fc:67:a1
0
yes
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ageing timer
0.00
75.87
75.87
0.00
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90:e2:ba:55:f0:85 appears in the MAC address table, which indicates that connectivity is occurring
between leaf1 and server1.
Checking the Service Node Configuration
Use ip -d link show to verify the service node, VNI and administrative state of a particular logical
VNI interface:
cumulus@leaf1$ ip -d link show vni-10
35: vni-10: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
master br-10 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 46:c6:57:fc:1f:54 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 10 remote 10.2.1.3 local 10.2.1.1 srcport 32768 61000
dstport 4789 ageing 300 svcnode 10.2.1.3
bridge_slave
Creating a Layer 3 Gateway
Currently there is no A-A (active-active) gateway solution. Hosts attached to a TOR (leaf) switch are
restricted to a single gateway. In addition, because of a restriction in the hardware, no SVIs are allowed.
This means a physical cable must be attached from one port on leaf1 to another port on leaf1. One
port is an L3 port while the other is a member of the bridge. For example, following the configuration
above, in order for a layer 3 address to be used as the gateway for vni-10, you could configure the
following on leaf1:
auto swp47
iface swp47
alias l2 port connected to swp48
auto swp48
iface swp48
alias gateway
address 10.10.10.3/24
auto vni-10
iface vni-10
vxlan-id 10
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
auto br-10
iface br-10
bridge-ports swp47 swp32s0.10 vni-10
A loopback cable must be connected between swp47 and swp48 for this to work. This will be addressed
in a future version of Cumulus Linux so a physical port does not need to be used for this purpose.
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Advanced LNV Usage
Scaling LNV by Load Balancing with Anycast
The above configuration assumes a single service node. A single service node can quickly be
overwhelmed by BUM traffic. To load balance BUM traffic across multiple service nodes, use Anycast.
Anycast enables BUM traffic to reach the topologically nearest service node rather than overwhelming
a single service node.
Enabling the Service Node Daemon on Additional Spine Switches
In this example, spine1 already has the service node daemon enabled. Enable it on the spine2 switch
with the following commands:
Edit the /etc/default/vxsnd configuration file:
cumulus@spine2$ sudo nano /etc/default/vxsnd
Change the vxsnd file by changing no to yes:
START=yes
Save and quit the text editor and reboot the vxsnd daemon:
cumulus@spine2$ sudo service vxsnd restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxsnd ....
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Configuring the AnyCast Address on All Participating Service Nodes
spine1
spine2
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
cumulus@spine2$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
Add the 10.10.10.10/32 address to the loopback
address:
Add the 10.10.10.10/32 address to the loopback
address:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.3/32
address 10.10.10.10/32
Run ifreload -a:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo ifreload a
Verify the IP address is configured:
cumulus@spine1$ ip addr show lo
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP>
mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state
UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:
00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope
host lo
inet 10.2.1.3/32 scope
global lo
inet 10.10.10.10/32 scope
global lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever
preferred_lft forever
254
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.4/32
address 10.10.10.10/32
Run ifreload -a:
cumulus@spine2$ sudo ifreload a
Verify the IP address is configured:
cumulus@spine2$ ip addr show lo
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP>
mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state
UNKNOWN
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:
00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope
host lo
inet 10.2.1.4/32 scope
global lo
inet 10.10.10.10/32 scope
global lo
inet6 ::1/128 scope host
valid_lft forever
preferred_lft forever
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
Configuring the Service Node vxsnd.conf File
spine1
spine2
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
cumulus@spine1$ sudo nano /etc
/vxsnd.conf
Change the following values:
cumulus@spine2$ sudo nano /etc
/vxsnd.conf
Change the following values:
svcnode_ip = 10.10.10.10
svcnode_ip = 10.10.10.10
svcnode_peers = 10.2.1.4
svcnode_peers = 10.2.1.3
src_ip = 10.2.1.3
src_ip = 10.2.1.4
This sets the address on which the
service node listens to VXLAN messages
to the configured Anycast address and
sets it to sync with spine2.
Restart the vxsnd daemon:
cumulus@spine1$ service vxsnd
restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxsnd
....
cumulusnetworks.com
This sets the address on which the
service node listens to VXLAN messages
to the configured Anycast address and
sets it to sync with spine1.
Restart the vxsnd daemon:
cumulus@spine1$ service vxsnd
restart
[ ok ] Starting /usr/bin/vxsnd
....
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Cumulus Networks
Reconfiguring the VTEPs (Leafs) to Use the Anycast Address
leaf1
leaf2
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
Use a text editor to edit the network
configuration:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
Change the vxrd-svcnode-ip field to the
Anycast address:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.1
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.10.10.10
Run ifreload -a:
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo ifreload -a
Verify the new service node is configured:
cumulus@leaf1$ ip -d link show
vni-10
35: vni-10: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br10 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 46:c6:57:fc:1f:
54 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 10 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.1
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
cumulus@leaf1$ ip -d link show
vni-2000
256
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo nano /etc
/network/interfaces
Change the vxrd-svcnode-ip field to the
Anycast address:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.2
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.10.10.10
Run ifreload -a:
cumulus@leaf2$ sudo ifreload -a
Verify the new service node is configured:
cumulus@leaf2$ ip -d link show
vni-10
35: vni-10: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br10 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 4e:03:a7:47:a7:
9d brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 10 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.2
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
cumulus@leaf2$ ip -d link show
vni-2000
39: vni-2000: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br20 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
39: vni-2000: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br20 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 4a:fd:88:c3:fa:
df brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 2000 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.1
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
cumulus@leaf1$ ip -d link show
vni-30
37: vni-30: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br30 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 3e:b3:dc:f3:bd:
2b brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 30 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.1
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
link/ether 72:3a:bd:06:00:
b7 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 2000 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.2
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
cumulus@leaf2$ ip -d link show
vni-30
37: vni-30: <BROADCAST,
MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu
1500 qdisc noqueue master br30 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether 22:65:3f:63:08:
bd brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
vxlan id 30 remote
10.10.10.10 local 10.2.1.2
srcport 32768 61000 dstport
4789 ageing 300 svcnode
10.10.10.10
bridge_slave
The svcnode 10.10.10.10 means the
interface has the correct service node
configured.
The svcnode 10.10.10.10 means the
interface has the correct service node
configured.
Use the vxrdctl vxlans command to check
the service node:
cumulus@leaf1$ vxrdctl vxlans
VNI
Local Addr
Svc
Node
===
==========
========
10
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
30
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
2000
10.2.1.1
10.2.1.3
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Use the vxrdctl vxlans command to check
the service node:
cumulus@leaf2$ vxrdctl vxlans
VNI
Local Addr
Svc
Node
===
==========
========
10
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
30
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
2000
10.2.1.2
10.2.1.3
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Testing Connectivity
Repeat the ping tests from the previous section. Here is the table again for reference:
VNI
server1
server2
10
10.10.10.1
10.10.10.2
2000
10.10.20.1
10.10.20.2
30
10.10.30.1
10.10.30.2
cumulus@server1:~$ ping 10.10.10.2
PING 10.10.10.2 (10.10.10.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.10.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=5.32 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.10.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.206 ms
^C
--- 10.10.10.2 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.206/2.767/5.329/2.562 ms
PING 10.10.20.2 (10.10.20.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.20.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.64 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.20.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.187 ms
^C
--- 10.10.20.2 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.187/0.914/1.642/0.728 ms
cumulus@server1:~$ ping 10.10.30.2
PING 10.10.30.2 (10.10.30.2) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.63 ms
64 bytes from 10.10.30.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.191 ms
^C
--- 10.10.30.2 ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.191/0.913/1.635/0.722 ms
Additional Resources
Both vxsnd and vxrd have man pages in Cumulus Linux.
For vxsnd:
cumulus@spine1$ man vxsnd
For vxrd:
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For vxrd:
cumulus@leaf1$ man vxrd
See Also
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7348
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anycast
LNV Full Example
Lightweight Network Virtualization (LNV) is a technique for deploying VXLANs (see page 211) without a
central controller on bare metal switches. This a full example complete with diagram. Please reference
the Lightweight Network Virtualization chapter (see page 232) for more detailed information. This full
example uses the recommended way of deploying LNV, which is to use Anycast to load balance the
service nodes.
LNV is a lightweight controller option. Please contact Cumulus Networks with your scale
requirements and we can make sure this is the right fit for you. There are also other
controller options that can work on Cumulus Linux.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 259)
Example LNV Configuration (see page 259)
Layer 3 IP Addressing (see page 260)
Quagga Configuration (see page 262)
Host Configuration (see page 263)
Service Node Configuration (see page 265)
See Also (see page 266)
Example LNV Configuration
The following images illustrate the configuration:
Physical Cabling Diagram
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Network Virtualization Diagram
259
Cumulus Networks
Want to try out configuring LNV and don't have a Cumulus Linux switch? Sign up to use the
Cumulus Workbench, which has this exact topology.
Feeling Overwhelmed? Come join a Cumulus Boot Camp and get instructor-led
training!
Layer 3 IP Addressing
Here is the configuration for the IP addressing information used in this example:
spine1: /etc/network/interfaces
spine2: /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.3/32
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.4/32
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto swp49
iface swp49
address 10.1.1.2/30
auto swp49
iface swp49
address 10.1.1.18/30
auto swp50
iface swp50
address 10.1.1.6/30
auto swp50
iface swp50
address 10.1.1.22/30
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auto swp51
iface swp51
address 10.1.1.50/30
auto swp51
iface swp51
address 10.1.1.34/30
auto swp52
iface swp52
address 10.1.1.54/30
auto swp52
iface swp52
address 10.1.1.38/30
leaf1: /etc/network/interfaces
leaf2: /etc/network/interfaces
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.1/32
vxrd-src-ip 10.2.1.1
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.10.10.10
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
address 10.2.1.2/32
vxrd-src-ip 10.2.1.2
vxrd-svcnode-ip 10.10.10.10
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto swp1s0
iface swp1s0
address 10.1.1.1/30
auto swp1s0
iface swp1s0 inet static
address 10.1.1.17/30
auto swp1s1
iface swp1s1
address 10.1.1.5/30
auto swp1s1
iface swp1s1 inet static
address 10.1.1.21/30
auto swp1s2
iface swp1s2
address 10.1.1.33/30
auto swp1s2
iface swp1s2 inet static
address 10.1.1.49/30
auto swp1s3
iface swp1s3
address 10.1.1.37/30
auto swp1s3
iface swp1s3 inet static
address 10.1.1.53/30
auto vni-10
iface vni-10
vxlan-id 10
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
auto vni-10
iface vni-10
vxlan-id 10
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.2
auto vni-2000
iface vni-2000
vxlan-id 2000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
auto vni-2000
iface vni-2000
vxlan-id 2000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.2
auto vni-30
iface vni-30
auto vni-30
iface vni-30
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vxlan-id 30
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.1
vxlan-id 30
vxlan-local-tunnelip 10.2.1.2
auto br-10
iface br-10
bridge-ports swp32s0.10 vni10
auto br-10
iface br-10
bridge-ports swp32s0.10 vni10
auto br-20
iface br-20
bridge-ports swp32s0.20 vni2000
auto br-20
iface br-20
bridge-ports swp32s0.20 vni2000
auto br-30
iface br-30
bridge-ports swp32s0.30 vni30
auto br-30
iface br-30
bridge-ports swp32s0.30 vni30
Quagga Configuration
The service nodes and registration nodes must all be routable between each other. The L3 fabric on
Cumulus Linux can either be BGP (see page 318) or OSPF (see page 305). In this example, OSPF is used
to demonstrate full reachability.
Here is the Quagga configuration using OSPF:
spine1:/etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp49
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp50
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp51
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp52
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
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spine2: /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp49
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp50
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp51
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp52
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
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!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.3
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.3
leaf1: /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1s0
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.1
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.1
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.4
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.4
leaf2: /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1s0
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp1s3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.2
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.2
Host Configuration
In this example, the servers are running Ubuntu 14.04. A trunk must be mapped from server1 and
server2 to the respective switch. In Ubuntu this is done with subinterfaces.
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server1
server2
auto eth3.10
iface eth3.10 inet
static
address 10.10.10.1/24
auto eth3.10
iface eth3.10 inet
static
address 10.10.10.2/24
auto eth3.20
iface eth3.20 inet
static
address 10.10.20.1/24
auto eth3.20
iface eth3.20 inet
static
address 10.10.20.2/24
auto eth3.30
iface eth3.30 inet
static
address 10.10.30.1/24
auto eth3.30
iface eth3.30 inet
static
address 10.10.30.2/24
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Service Node Configuration
spine1:/etc/vxsnd.conf
[common]
# Log level is one of DEBUG,
INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL
#loglevel = INFO
# Destination for log
message. Can be a file name, '
stdout', or 'syslog'
#logdest = syslog
# log file size in bytes. Used
when logdest is a file
#logfilesize = 512000
# maximum number of log files
stored on disk. Used when
logdest is a file
#logbackupcount = 14
# The file to write the pid.
If using monit, this must
match the one
# in the vxsnd.rc
#pidfile = /var/run/vxsnd.pid
# The file name for the unix
domain socket used for mgmt.
#udsfile = /var/run/vxsnd.sock
# UDP port for vxfld control
messages
#vxfld_port = 10001
# This is the address to which
registration daemons send
control messages for
# registration and/or BUM
packets for replication
svcnode_ip = 10.10.10.10
# Holdtime (in seconds) for
soft state. It is used when
sending a
# register msg to peers in
response to learning a <vni,
addr> from a
# VXLAN data pkt
#holdtime = 90
# Local IP address to bind to f
or receiving inter-vxsnd
control traffic
src_ip = 10.2.1.3
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spine2:/etc/vxsnd.conf
[common]
# Log level is one of DEBUG,
INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL
#loglevel = INFO
# Destination for log
message. Can be a file name, '
stdout', or 'syslog'
#logdest = syslog
# log file size in bytes. Used
when logdest is a file
#logfilesize = 512000
# maximum number of log files
stored on disk. Used when
logdest is a file
#logbackupcount = 14
# The file to write the pid.
If using monit, this must
match the one
# in the vxsnd.rc
#pidfile = /var/run/vxsnd.pid
# The file name for the unix
domain socket used for mgmt.
#udsfile = /var/run/vxsnd.sock
# UDP port for vxfld control
messages
#vxfld_port = 10001
# This is the address to which
registration daemons send
control messages for
# registration and/or BUM
packets for replication
svcnode_ip = 10.10.10.10
# Holdtime (in seconds) for
soft state. It is used when
sending a
# register msg to peers in
response to learning a <vni,
addr> from a
# VXLAN data pkt
#holdtime = 90
# Local IP address to bind to f
or receiving inter-vxsnd
control traffic
src_ip = 10.2.1.4
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[vxsnd]
# Space separated list of IP
addresses of vxsnd to share
state with
svcnode_peers = 10.2.1.4
# When set to true, the
service node will listen for
vxlan data traffic
# Note: Use 1, yes, true, or
on, for True and 0, no, false,
or off,
# for False
#enable_vxlan_listen = true
# When set to true, the
svcnode_ip will be installed
on the loopback
# interface, and it will be
withdrawn when the vxsnd is no
longer in
# service. If set to true,
the svcnode_ip configuration
# variable must be defined.
# Note: Use 1, yes, true, or
on, for True and 0, no, false,
or off,
# for False
#install_svcnode_ip = false
# Seconds to wait before
checking the database to age
out stale entries
#age_check = 90
[vxsnd]
# Space separated list of IP
addresses of vxsnd to share
state with
svcnode_peers = 10.2.1.3
# When set to true, the
service node will listen for
vxlan data traffic
# Note: Use 1, yes, true, or
on, for True and 0, no, false,
or off,
# for False
#enable_vxlan_listen = true
# When set to true, the
svcnode_ip will be installed
on the loopback
# interface, and it will be
withdrawn when the vxsnd is no
longer in
# service. If set to true,
the svcnode_ip configuration
# variable must be defined.
# Note: Use 1, yes, true, or
on, for True and 0, no, false,
or off,
# for False
#install_svcnode_ip = false
# Seconds to wait before
checking the database to age
out stale entries
#age_check = 90
See Also
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7348
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anycast
Detailed LNV Configuration Guide (see page 232)
Cumulus Networks Training
VXLAN Active-Active Mode
VXLAN active-active mode allows a pair of MLAG switches to act as a single VTEP, providing active-active
VXLAN termination for bare metal as well as virtualized workloads.
Contents
Contents (see page 266)
Requirements (see page 267)
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Requirements (see page 267)
Anycast IP Addresses (see page 267)
Checking VXLAN Interface Configuration Consistency (see page 268)
Configuring VXLAN Active-Active Mode (see page 268)
Configuring the Anycast IP Address (see page 268)
Configuring MLAG (see page 268)
Configuration LNV (see page 268)
Configuring STP (see page 269)
Example VXLAN Active-Active Configuration (see page 269)
leaf1 Configuration (see page 269)
leaf2 Configuration (see page 271)
Quagga Configuration (see page 273)
LNV Configuration (see page 274)
leaf1 Configuration (see page 274)
leaf2 Configuration (see page 274)
VXLAN PROTO_DOWN State (see page 274)
Caveats and Errata (see page 275)
Requirements
Each MLAG switch should be provisioned with a virtual IP address in the form of an anycast IP
address for VXLAN datapath termination.
All MLAG requirements (see page 185) apply for VXLAN Active-Active mode.
LNV (see page 232) is the only supported control plane option for VXLAN active-active mode in
this release. LNV can be configured for either service node replication or head-end replication.
If STP (see page 118) is enabled on the bridge that is connected to VXLAN, then BPDU filter and
BPDU guard (see page 129) should be enabled in the VXLAN interface.
Anycast IP Addresses
The VXLAN termination address is an anycast IP address that you configure as a clagd parameter (
clagd-vxlan-anycast-ip) under the loopback interface. clagd dynamically adds and removes this
address as the loopback interface address as follows:
When the switches come up, ifupdown2 places all VXLAN interfaces in a PROTO_DOWN state
(see page 274).
Upon MLAG peering and a successful VXLAN interface consistency check between the switches,
clagd adds the anycast address as the interface address to the loopback interface. It then
changes the local IP address of the VXLAN interface from a unique non-virtual IP address to an
anycast virtual IP address and puts the interface in an UP state.
If after establishing MLAG peering, the peer link goes down, then the primary switch continues
to keep all VXLAN interfaces up with the anycast IP address while the secondary switch brings
down all VXLAN interfaces and places them in a PROTO_DOWN state. It also removes the
anycast IP address from the loopback interface and changes the local IP address of the VXLAN
interface to a unique non-virtual IP address.
If after establishing MLAG peering, one of the switches goes down, then the other running
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If after establishing MLAG peering, one of the switches goes down, then the other running
switch continues to use the anycast IP address.
If after establishing MLAG peering, clagd is stopped, all VXLAN interfaces are put in a
PROTO_DOWN state. The anycast IP address is removed from the loopback interface and the
local IP addresses of the VXLAN interfaces are changed from the anycast IP address to unique
non-virtual IP addresses.
If MLAG peering could not be established between the switches, clagd brings up all the VXLAN
interfaces after the reload timer expires with unique non-virtual IP addresses. This allows the
VXLAN interface to be up and running on both switches even though peering is not established.
Checking VXLAN Interface Configuration Consistency
The VXLAN active-active configuration for a given VNI has to be consistent between the MLAG switches
for correct traffic behavior. clagd ensures that the configuration consistency is met before bringing
the VXLAN interfaces operationally up. The consistency checks include:
The anycast virtual IP address for VXLAN termination must be the same on both switches
A VXLAN interface with the same VNI must be configured and administratively up on both
switches
Configuring VXLAN Active-Active Mode
Configuring the Anycast IP Address
With MLAG peering, both switches use an anycast IP address for VXLAN encapsulation and
decapsulation. This allows remote VTEPs to learn the host MAC addresses attached to the MLAG
switches against one logical VTEP even though the switches independently encapsulate and
decapsulate layer 2 traffic originating from the host. You configure this anycast address under the
loopback interface as shown below.
auto lo
iface lo
address 27.0.0.11/32
clagd-vxlan-anycast-ip 36.0.0.11
This is not a loopback interface address configuration. It's a clagd parameter configuration
under the loopback interface. Only clagd can add or remove an anycast virtual IP address as
an interface address to the loopback interface.
Configuring MLAG
Refer to the MLAG chapter (see page 187) for configuration information.
Configuration LNV
Refer to the LNV chapter (see page 232) for configuration information.
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Configuring STP
You should enable BPDU filter and BPDU guard (see page 129) in the VXLAN interfaces if STP (see page
118) is enabled in the bridge that is connected to the VXLAN.
Example VXLAN Active-Active Configuration
The following example configures two bonds for MLAG, each with a single port, a peer link that is a
bond with two member ports, and two traditional Linux bridges. It is a Clos network with spine nodes
(spine1-4), 2 MLAG switches (leaf1, leaf2), 2 hosts connected to those switches and 2 standalone
switches (leaf3 and leaf4) with hosts connected to them. The configuration is stored in /etc/network
/interfaces on each peer switch.
Note the configuration of the local IP address in the VXLAN interfaces below. They are configured with
individual IP addresses, which clagd changes to anycast upon MLAG peering.
leaf1 Configuration
leaf1 configuration; click here to expand...
auto eth0
address 10.0.0.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
auto lo
iface lo
address 27.0.0.11/32
clagd-vxlan-anycast-ip 36.0.0.11
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.1/30
mtu 9050
auto swp2
iface swp2
address 10.1.1.5/30
mtu 9050
auto swp3
iface swp3
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address 10.1.1.33/30
mtu 9050
auto swp4
iface swp4
address 10.1.1.37/30
mtu 9050
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp31 swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 27.0.0.11/32
address 169.254.0.1/30
mtu 9050
clagd-priority 4096
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:ff:01
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.0.2
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.2
auto host1
iface host1
bond-slaves swp5
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
clag-id 1
auto host2
iface host2
bond-slaves swp6
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
clag-id 2
auto vxlan-1000
iface vxlan-1000
vxlan-id 1000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 27.0.0.11
mtu 9000
auto vxlan-2000
iface vxlan-2000
vxlan-id 2000
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vxlan-local-tunnelip 27.0.0.11
mtu 9000
auto br1000
iface br1000
bridge-ports host1 host2.1000 peerlink.1000 vxlan-1000
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-portbpdufilter vxlan-1000=yes
mstpctl-bpduguard vxlan-1000=yes
mstpctl-portautoedge host1=yes host2.1000=yes peerlink.1000=yes
auto br2000
iface br2000
bridge-ports host1.2000 host2 peerlink.2000 vxlan-2000
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-portbpdufilter vxlan-2000=yes
mstpctl-bpduguard vxlan-2000=yes
mstpctl-portautoedge host1.2000=yes host2=yes peerlink.2000=yes
leaf2 Configuration
leaf2 configuration; click here to expand...
auto eth0
address 10.0.0.2
netmask 255.255.255.0
auto lo
iface lo
address 27.0.0.12/32
clagd-vxlan-anycast-ip 36.0.0.11
auto swp1
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.17/30
mtu 9050
auto swp2
iface swp2
address 10.1.1.21/30
mtu 9050
auto swp3
iface swp1
address 10.1.1.49/30
mtu 9050
auto swp4
iface swp2
address 10.1.1.53/30
mtu 9050
auto peerlink
iface peerlink
bond-slaves swp31 swp32
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
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bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
auto peerlink.4094
iface peerlink.4094
address 27.0.0.12/32
address 169.254.0.2/30
mtu 9050
clagd-priority 4096
clagd-sys-mac 44:38:39:ff:ff:01
clagd-peer-ip 169.254.0.1
clagd-backup-ip 10.0.0.1
auto host1
iface host1
bond-slaves swp5
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
clag-id 1
auto host2
iface host2
bond-slaves swp6
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit_hash_policy layer3+4
bond-lacp-rate 1
mtu 9050
clag-id 2
auto vxlan-1000
iface vxlan-1000
vxlan-id 1000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 27.0.0.12
mtu 9000
auto vxlan-2000
iface vxlan-2000
vxlan-id 2000
vxlan-local-tunnelip 27.0.0.12
mtu 9000
auto br1000
iface br1000
bridge-ports host1 host2.1000 peerlink.1000 vxlan-1000
bridge-stp on
mstpctl-portbpdufilter vxlan-1000=yes
mstpctl-bpduguard vxlan-1000=yes
mstpctl-portautoedge host1=yes host2.1000=yes peerlink.1000=yes
auto br2000
iface br2000
bridge-ports host1.2000 host2 peerlink.2000 vxlan-2000
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bridge-stp on
mstpctl-portbpdufilter vxlan-2000=yes
mstpctl-bpduguard vxlan-2000=yes
mstpctl-portautoedge host1.2000=yes host2=yes peerlink.2000=yes
Quagga Configuration
The layer 3 fabric can be configured using BGP (see page 318) or OSPF (see page 305). The following
example uses OSPF; the configuration needed in the MLAG switches in the above specified topology is
as follows:
leaf1: /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp4
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.1
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.1
cumulusnetworks.com
leaf2: /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
interface lo
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
interface swp1
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp2
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp3
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
interface swp4
ip ospf network point-topoint
ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
!
!
!
!
!
router-id 10.2.1.2
router ospf
ospf router-id 10.2.1.2
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LNV Configuration
The following configuration variables should be set in leaf1 and leaf2 in /etc/vxrd.conf. This
configuration assumes head-end replication is used to replicate BUM traffic. If service node based
replication is used, then svcnode_ip variable has to be set with service node address. Please refer to
Configuring the Registration Node (see page 244) for setting that variable.
leaf1 Configuration
# Local IP address to bind to for receiving control traffic from the snd
src_ip = 27.0.0.11
# Enable self replication
# Note: Use true, or on, for True and 0, no, false, or off,
# for False
head_rep = true
leaf2 Configuration
# Local IP address to bind to for receiving control traffic from the snd
src_ip = 27.0.0.12
# Enable self replication
# Note: Use true, or on, for True and 0, no, false, or off,
# for False
head_rep = true
VXLAN PROTO_DOWN State
Similar to a bond interface, if MLAG detects a problem that could result in connectivity issues such as
traffic black-holing or a network meltdown if the link carrier was left in an UP state, it can put VXLAN
interface into a PROTO_DOWN state (see page ). Such connectivity issues include:
When the peer link goes down but the peer switch is up (that is, the backup link is active).
When an MLAG-enabled node is booted or rebooted, VXLAN interfaces are placed in a
PROTO_DOWN state until the node establishes a connection to its peer switch, detects existence
of corresponding VXLAN interfaces in the peer switch, or five minutes have elapsed.
If the anycast address is not configured or if it is not the same in both MLAG switches, the
VXLAN interfaces are placed into a PROTO_DOWN state.
A configuration mismatch between the MLAG switches, such as the VXLAN interface is
configured on just one of the switches or if the interface is shut down on one of the switches,
then the VXLAN interface is placed into a PROTO_DOWN state on the secondary switch.
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You can use the clagctl command to check if any VXLAN devices are in a PROTO_DOWN state. As
shown below, VXLAN devices are kept in a PROTO_DOWN state due to the missing anycast
configuration.
cumulus@switch$ clagctl
The peer is alive
Our Priority, ID, and Role: 4096 c4:54:44:bd:01:71 primary
Peer Priority, ID, and Role: 8192 00:02:00:00:00:36 secondary
Peer Interface and IP: peerlink.4094 169.254.0.2
Backup IP: 10.0.0.2 (active)
System MAC: 44:38:39:ff:ff:01
CLAG Interfaces
Our Interface
Peer Interface
CLAG Id
Conflicts
----------------
-------
--------------------
host1
host2
1
-
host1
host2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
Proto-Down Reason
-------------------------------vxlan-1000
vxlan-single,no-anycast-ip
vxlan-2000
-
vxlan-single,no-anycast-ip
Caveats and Errata
VLAN-aware bridge mode (see page 175) is not supported for VXLAN active-active mode in this
release.
The VLAN used for the peer link layer 3 subinterface should not be reused for any other
interface in the system. It is recommended to use a high VLAN ID value. Read more about the
range of VLAN IDs you can use (see page 183).
Active-active mode works only with LNV in this release. Integration with controller-based VXLANs
such as VMware NSX and Midokura MidoNet will be supported in the future.
IGMP and MLD Snooping
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) and MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery) snooping
functionality is implemented in the bridge driver in the kernel. IGMP snooping processes IGMP v1/v2/v3
reports received on a bridge port in a bridge to identify the hosts which would like to receive multicast
traffic destined to that group.
When an IGMPv2 leave message is received, a group specific query is sent to identify if there are any
other hosts interested in that group, before the group is deleted.
An IGMP query message received on a port is used to identify the port that is connected to a router and
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An IGMP query message received on a port is used to identify the port that is connected to a router and
is interested in receiving multicast traffic.
MLD snooping processes MLD v1/v2 reports, queries and v1 done messages for IPv6 groups. If IGMP or
MLD snooping is disabled, multicast traffic will be flooded to all the bridge ports in the bridge. The
multicast group IP address is mapped to a multicast MAC address and a forwarding entry is created
with a list of ports interested in receiving multicast traffic destined to that group.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 276)
Commands (see page 277)
Creating a Bridge and Configuring IGMP/MLD Snooping (see page 277)
Configuring IGMP/MLD Snooping Parameters (see page 279)
Persistent Configuration (see page 279)
Querier and Fast Leave Configuration (see page 280)
Static Group and Router Port Configuration (see page 280)
Configuration Files (see page 281)
Man Pages (see page 281)
Useful Links (see page 281)
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Commands
brctl
bridge
Creating a Bridge and Configuring IGMP/MLD Snooping
Create a bridge and add bridge ports to the bridge. IGMP and MLD snooping are enabled by default on
the bridge:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addbr br0
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl addif br0 swp1 swp2 swp3
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifconfig br0 up
To get the IGMP/MLD snooping bridge state, use:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl showstp br0
br0
bridge id
8000.7072cf8c272c
designated root
8000.7072cf8c272c
root port
max age
0
20.00
path cost
0
bridge max age
20.00
hello time
2.00
bridge hello time
2.00
forward delay
15.00
bridge forward delay
15.00
ageing time
300.00
hello timer
0.00
tcn timer
0.00
gc timer
0.00
topology change timer
263.70
hash elasticity
4096
hash max
4096
mc last member count
2
mc init query count
2
mc router
1
mc snooping
1
mc last member timer
1.00
mc membership timer
260.00
mc querier timer
255.00
mc query interval
125.00
mc response interval
10.00
mc init query interval
31.25
mc querier
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mc query ifaddr
0
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flags
swp1 (1)
port id
8001
state
designated root
8000.7072cf8c272c
path cost
designated bridge
8000.7072cf8c272c
message age timer
8001
forward delay timer
forwarding
2
0.00
designated port
0.00
designated cost
0
hold timer
1
mc fast leave
0.00
mc router
0
flags
swp2 (2)
port id
8002
state
designated root
8000.7072cf8c272c
path cost
designated bridge
8000.7072cf8c272c
message age timer
8002
forward delay timer
forwarding
2
0.00
designated port
0.00
designated cost
0
hold timer
1
mc fast leave
0.00
mc router
0
flags
swp3 (3)
port id
8003
state
designated root
8000.7072cf8c272c
path cost
designated bridge
8000.7072cf8c272c
message age timer
8003
forward delay timer
forwarding
2
0.00
designated port
8.98
designated cost
0
hold timer
1
mc fast leave
0.00
mc router
0
flags
To get the groups and bridge port state, use bridge mdb show command. To display router ports and
group information use bridge -d mdb show command:
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cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge -d mdb show
dev br0 port swp2 grp 234.10.10.10 temp
dev br0 port swp1 grp 238.39.20.86 permanent
dev br0 port swp1 grp 234.1.1.1 temp
dev br0 port swp2 grp ff1a::9 permanent
router ports on br0: swp3
cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge mdb show
dev br0 port swp2 grp 234.10.10.10 temp
dev br0 port swp1 grp 238.39.20.86 permanent
dev br0 port swp1 grp 234.1.1.1 temp
dev br0 port swp2 grp ff1a::9 permanent
To disable IGMP and MLD snooping, use:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcsnoop br0 0
Configuring IGMP/MLD Snooping Parameters
For an explanation of these parameters, see the brctl and bridge-utils-interfaces man pages:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmclmc br0 2
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcrouter br0 1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcsqc br0 2
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl sethashel br0 4096
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl sethashmax br0 4096
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmclmi br0 1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcmi br0 260
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcqpi br0 255
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcqi br0 125
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcqri br0 10
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmsqi br0 31
Persistent Configuration
The configuration in /etc/network/interfaces below is for the example bridge above:
auto br0
iface br0 inet static
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bridge-ports swp1 swp2 swp3
bridge-mclmc 2
bridge-mcrouter 1
bridge-mcsnoop
1
bridge-mcsqc
2
bridge-mcqifaddr 0
bridge-mcquerier 0
bridge-hashel 4096
bridge-hashmax 4096
bridge-mclmi 1
bridge-mcmi 260
bridge-mcqpi 255
bridge-mcqi
125
bridge-mcqri 10
bridge-mcsqi 31
bridge-portmcrouter swp1=1 swp2=1
bridge-portmcfl swp1=0 swp2=0
Querier and Fast Leave Configuration
If there is no multicast router in the VLAN, the IGMP/MLD snooping querier can be configured to
generate query messages.
To send queries with a non-zero IP address, configure an IP address on the bridge device, then set
setmcqifaddr to 1:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl setmcquerier br0 1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl setmcqifaddr br0 1
If only one host is attached to each host port, fast leave can be configured on that port. When a leave
message is received on that port, no query messages will be sent and the group will be deleted
immediately:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl setportmcfl br0 swp1 1
Static Group and Router Port Configuration
To configure static permanent multicast group on a port, use:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge mdb add dev br0 port swp2 grp ff1a::9
permanent
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cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge mdb add dev br0 port swp1 grp 238.39.20.86
permanent
A static temporary multicast group can also be configured on a port, which would be deleted after the
membership timer expires, if no report is received on that port:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo bridge mdb add dev br0 port swp1 grp 238.39.20.86
temp
To configure a static router port, use:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo brctl setportmcrouter br0 swp3 2
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
Man Pages
brctl(8)
bridge(8)
bridge-utils-interfaces(5)
Useful Links
http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/networking/bridge#Snooping
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4541
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IGMP_snooping
http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2236.txt
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3376
http://tools.ietf.org/search/rfc2710
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3810
Layer
3 Features
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Layer 3 Features
Routing
This chapter discusses routing on switches running Cumulus Linux.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 282)
Commands (see page 282)
Static Routing via ip route (see page 282)
Persistently Adding a Static Route (see page 284)
Static Routing via quagga (see page 284)
Persistent Configuration (see page 286)
Supported Route Table Entries (see page 286)
Configuration Files (see page 287)
Useful Links (see page 287)
Caveats and Errata (see page 287)
Commands
ip route
Static Routing via ip route
The ip route command allows manipulating the kernel routing table directly from the Linux shell. See
man ip(8) for details. quagga monitors the kernel routing table changes and updates its own routing
table accordingly.
To display the routing table:
cumulus@switch:~$ ip route show
default via 10.0.1.2 dev eth0
10.0.1.0/24 dev eth0
192.0.2.0/24 dev swp1
proto kernel
scope link
proto kernel
scope link
192.0.2.10/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
192.0.2.20/24
proto zebra
src 10.0.1.52
proto zebra
src 192.0.2.12
metric 20
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
192.0.2.30/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
proto zebra
192.0.2.40/24 dev swp2
scope link
proto kernel
192.0.2.50/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
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proto zebra
metric 20
src 192.0.2.42
metric 20
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192.0.2.60/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
192.0.2.70/24
proto zebra
proto zebra
metric 20
metric 30
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
198.51.100.0/24 dev swp3
proto kernel
198.51.100.10/24 dev swp4
scope link
proto kernel
198.51.100.20/24 dev br0
src 198.51.100.1
scope link
proto kernel
src 198.51.100.11
scope link
src 198.51.100.21
To add a static route (does not persist across reboots):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip route add 203.0.113.0/24 via 198.51.100.2
cumulus@switch:~$ ip route
default via 10.0.1.2 dev eth0
10.0.1.0/24 dev eth0
proto kernel
192.0.2.0/24 dev swp1
scope link
proto kernel
192.0.2.10/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
192.0.2.20/24
proto zebra
src 10.0.1.52
scope link
src 192.0.2.12
proto zebra
metric 20
metric 20
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
192.0.2.30/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
proto zebra
192.0.2.40/24 dev swp2
scope link
proto kernel
metric 20
src 192.0.2.42
192.0.2.50/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
proto zebra
metric 20
192.0.2.60/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
proto zebra
metric 20
192.0.2.70/24
proto zebra
metric 30
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
198.51.100.0/24 dev swp3
198.51.100.10/24 dev swp4
proto kernel
scope link
198.51.100.20/24 dev br0
proto kernel
proto kernel
scope link
src 198.51.100.1
scope link
src 198.51.100.11
src 198.51.100.21
203.0.113.0/24 via 198.51.100.2 dev swp3
To delete a static route (does not persist across reboots):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ip route del 203.0.113.0/24
cumulus@switch:~$ ip route
default via 10.0.1.2 dev eth0
10.0.1.0/24 dev eth0
192.0.2.0/24 dev swp1
proto kernel
scope link
proto kernel
scope link
192.0.2.10/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
192.0.2.20/24
proto zebra
src 192.0.2.12
proto zebra
metric 20
metric 20
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
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192.0.2.30/24 via 192.0.2.1 dev swp1
proto zebra
192.0.2.40/24 dev swp2
scope link
proto kernel
metric 20
src 192.0.2.42
192.0.2.50/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
proto zebra
metric 20
192.0.2.60/24 via 192.0.2.2 dev swp2
proto zebra
metric 20
192.0.2.70/24
proto zebra
metric 30
nexthop via 192.0.2.1
dev swp1 weight 1
nexthop via 192.0.2.2
dev swp2 weight 1
198.51.100.0/24 dev swp3
proto kernel
198.51.100.10/24 dev swp4
198.51.100.20/24 dev br0
proto kernel
proto kernel
scope link
scope link
scope link
src 198.51.100.1
src 198.51.100.11
src 198.51.100.21
Persistently Adding a Static Route
A static route can be persistently added by adding up ip route add .. into /etc/network
/interfaces. For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ cat /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto swp3
iface swp3
address 198.51.100.1/24
up ip route add 203.0.113.0/24 via 198.51.100.2
Notice the simpler configuration of swp3 due to ifupdown2. For more information, see
Configuring Network Interfaces with ifupdown (see page 89).
Static Routing via quagga
Static routes can also be managed via the quagga CLI. The routes are added to the quagga routing
table, and then will be updated into the kernel routing table as well.
To add a static route (does not persist across reboot):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
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Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
switch# conf t
switch(config)# ip route 203.0.113.0/24 198.51.100.2
switch(config)# end
switch# show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 10.0.1.2, eth0
C>* 10.0.1.0/24 is directly connected, eth0
O
192.0.2.0/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp1, 00:13:25
C>* 192.0.2.0/24 is directly connected, swp1
O>* 192.0.2.10/24 [110/20] via 192.0.2.1, swp1, 00:13:09
O>* 192.0.2.20/24 [110/20] via 192.0.2.1, swp1, 00:13:09
*
via 192.0.2.41, swp2, 00:13:09
O>* 192.0.2.30/24 [110/20] via 192.0.2.1, swp1, 00:13:09
O
192.0.2.40/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp2, 00:13:25
C>* 192.0.2.40/24 is directly connected, swp2
O>* 192.0.2.50/24 [110/20] via 192.0.2.41, swp2, 00:13:09
O>* 192.0.2.60/24 [110/20] via 192.0.2.41, swp2, 00:13:09
O>* 192.0.2.70/24 [110/30] via 192.0.2.1, swp1, 00:13:09
*
O
via 192.0.2.41, swp2, 00:13:09
198.51.100.0/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp3, 00:13:22
C>* 198.51.100.0/24 is directly connected, swp3
O
198.51.100.10/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp4, 00:13:22
C>* 198.51.100.10/24 is directly connected, swp4
O
198.51.100.20/24 [110/10] is directly connected, br0, 00:13:22
C>* 198.51.100.20/24 is directly connected, br0
S>* 203.0.113.0/24 [1/0] via 198.51.100.2, swp3
C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo
To delete a static route (does not persist across reboot):
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
switch# conf t
switch(config)# no ip route 203.0.113.0/24 198.51.100.2
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switch(config)# end
switch# show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 10.0.1.2, eth0
C>* 10.0.1.0/24 is directly connected, eth0
O
192.0.2.0/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp1, 00:13:55
C>* 192.0.2.0/24 is directly connected, swp1
O>* 192.0.2.10/24 [110/20] via 11.0.0.1, swp1, 00:13:39
O>* 192.0.2.20/24 [110/20] via 11.0.0.1, swp1, 00:13:39
*
via 11.0.4.1, swp2, 00:13:39
O>* 192.0.2.30/24 [110/20] via 11.0.0.1, swp1, 00:13:39
O
192.0.2.40/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp2, 00:13:55
C>* 192.0.2.40/24 is directly connected, swp2
O>* 192.0.2.50/24 [110/20] via 11.0.4.1, swp2, 00:13:39
O>* 192.0.2.60/24 [110/20] via 11.0.4.1, swp2, 00:13:39
O>* 192.0.2.70/24 [110/30] via 11.0.0.1, swp1, 00:13:39
*
O
via 11.0.4.1, swp2, 00:13:39
198.51.100.0/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp3, 00:13:52
C>* 198.51.100.0/24 is directly connected, swp3
O
198.51.100.10/24 [110/10] is directly connected, swp4, 00:13:52
C>* 198.51.100.10/24 is directly connected, swp4
O
198.51.100.20/24 [110/10] is directly connected, br0, 00:13:52
C>* 198.51.100.20/24 is directly connected, br0
C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo
switch#
Persistent Configuration
From the quagga CLI, the running configuration can be saved so it persists between reboots:
switch# write mem
Configuration saved to /etc/quagga/zebra.conf
switch# end
Supported Route Table Entries
Cumulus Linux supports different numbers of route entries, depending upon your switch platform
(Trident, Trident+, or Trident II; see the HCL) and whether the routes are IPv4 or IPv6.
In addition, switches on the Trident II platform are configured to manage route table entries using
Algorithm Longest Prefix Match (ALPM). In ALPM mode, the hardware can store significantly more route
entries.
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Following are the number of route supported on Trident II switches with ALPM:
32K IPv4 routes
16K IPv6 routes
32K total routes (both IPv4 and IPv6)
Following are the number of route supported on Trident and Trident+ switches:
16K IPv4 routes
8K IPv6 routes
16K total routes (both IPv4 and IPv6)
Configuration Files
/etc/network/interfaces
/etc/quagga/zebra.conf
Useful Links
http://linux-ip.net/html/tools-ip-route.html
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#Static-Route-Commands
Caveats and Errata
Static routes added via quagga can be deleted via Linux shell. This operation, while possible,
should be avoided. Routes added by quagga should only be deleted by quagga, otherwise
quagga might not be able to clean up all its internal state completely and incorrect routing can
occur as a result.
Introduction to Routing Protocols
This chapter discusses the various routing protocols, and how to configure them.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 287)
Defining Routing Protocols (see page 287)
Configuring Routing Protocols (see page 288)
Protocol Tuning (see page 288)
Configuration Files (see page 289)
Defining Routing Protocols
A routing protocol dynamically computes reachability between various end points. This enables
communication to work around link and node failures, and additions and withdrawals of various
addresses.
IP routing protocols are typically distributed; that is, an instance of the routing protocol runs on each of
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IP routing protocols are typically distributed; that is, an instance of the routing protocol runs on each of
the routers in a network.
Cumulus Linux does not support running multiple instances of the same protocol on a router.
Distributed routing protocols compute reachability between end points by disseminating relevant
information and running a routing algorithm on this information to determine the routes to each end
station. To scale the amount of information that needs to be exchanged, routes are computed on
address prefixes rather than on every end point address.
Configuring Routing Protocols
A routing protocol needs to know three pieces of information, at a minimum:
Who am I (my identity)
To whom to disseminate information
What to disseminate
Most routing protocols use the concept of a router ID to identify a node. Different routing protocols
answer the last two questions differently.
The way they answer these questions affects the network design and thereby configuration. For
example, in a link-state protocol such as OSPF (see Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol (see page
305)) or IS-IS, complete local information (links and attached address prefixes) about a node is
disseminated to every other node in the network. Since the state that a node has to keep grows rapidly
in such a case, link-state protocols typically limit the number of nodes that communicate this way. They
allow for bigger networks to be built by breaking up a network into a set of smaller subnetworks (which
are called areas or levels), and by advertising summarized information about an area to other areas.
Besides the two critical pieces of information mentioned above, protocols have other parameters that
can be configured. These are usually specific to each protocol.
Protocol Tuning
Most protocols provide certain tunable parameters that are specific to convergence during changes.
Wikipedia defines convergence as the “state of a set of routers that have the same topological
information about the network in which they operate”. It is imperative that the routers in a network
have the same topological state for the proper functioning of a network. Without this, traffic can be
blackholed, and thus not reach its destination. It is normal for different routers to have differing
topological states during changes, but this difference should vanish as the routers exchange
information about the change and recompute the forwarding paths. Different protocols converge at
different speeds in the presence of changes.
A key factor that governs how quickly a routing protocol converges is the time it takes to detect the
change. For example, how quickly can a routing protocol be expected to act when there is a link failure.
Routing protocols classify changes into two kinds: hard changes such as link failures, and soft changes
such as a peer dying silently. They’re classified differently because protocols provide different
mechanisms for dealing with these failures.
It is important to configure the protocols to be notified immediately on link changes. This is also true
when a node goes down, causing all of its links to go down.
Even if a link doesn’t fail, a routing peer can crash. This causes that router to usually delete the routes it
has computed or worse, it makes that router impervious to changes in the network, causing it to go out
of sync with the other routers in the network because it no longer shares the same topological
information as its peers.
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information as its peers.
The most common way to detect a protocol peer dying is to detect the absence of a heartbeat. All
routing protocols send a heartbeat (or “hello”) packet periodically. When a node does not see a
consecutive set of these hello packets from a peer, it declares its peer dead and informs other routers
in the network about this. The period of each heartbeat and the number of heartbeats that need to be
missed before a peer is declared dead are two popular configurable parameters.
If you configure these timers very low, the network can quickly descend into instability under stressful
conditions when a router is not able to keep sending the heartbeats quickly as it is busy computing
routing state; or the traffic is so much that the hellos get lost. Alternately, configuring this timer to very
high values also causes blackholing of communication because it takes much longer to detect peer
failures. Usually, the default values initialized within each protocol are good enough for most networks.
Cumulus Networks recommends you do not adjust these settings.
Configuration Files
/etc/quagga/daemons
Network Topology
In computer networks, topology refers to the structure of interconnecting various nodes. Some
commonly used topologies in networks are star, hub and spoke, leaf and spine, and broadcast.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 289)
Clos Topologies (see page 289)
Over-Subscribed and Non-Blocking Configurations (see page 290)
Containing the Failure Domain (see page 290)
Load Balancing (see page 290)
Clos Topologies
In the vast majority of modern data centers, Clos or fat tree topology is very popular. This topology is
shown in the figure below. It is also commonly referred to as leaf-spine topology. We shall use this
topology throughout the routing protocol guide.
This topology allows the building of networks of varying size using nodes of different port counts and
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This topology allows the building of networks of varying size using nodes of different port counts and
/or by increasing the tiers. The picture above is a three-tiered Clos network. We number the tiers from
the bottom to the top. Thus, in the picture, the lowermost layer is called tier 1 and the topmost tier is
called tier 3.
The number of end stations (such as servers) that can be attached to such a network is determined by
a very simple mathematical formula.
In a 2-tier network, if each node is made up of m ports, then the total number of end stations that can
be connected is m^2/2. In more general terms, if tier-1 nodes are m-port nodes and tier-2 nodes are nport nodes, then the total number of end stations that can be connected are (m*n)/2. In a three tier
network, where tier-3 nodes are o-port nodes, the total number of end stations that can be connected
are (m*n*o)/2^(number of tiers-1).
Let’s consider some practical examples. In many data centers, it is typical to connect 40 servers to a topof-rack (ToR) switch. The ToRs are all connected via a set of spine switches. If a ToR switch has 64 ports,
then after hooking up 40 ports to the servers, the remaining 24 ports can be hooked up to 24 spine
switches of the same link speed or to a smaller number of higher link speed switches. For example, if
the servers are all hooked up as 10GE links, then the ToRs can connect to the spine switches via 40G
links. So, instead of connecting to 24 spine switches with 10G links, the ToRs can connect to 6 spine
switches with each link being 40G. If the spine switches are also 64-port switches, then the total
number of end stations that can be connected is 2560 (40*64) stations.
In a three tier network of 64-port switches, the total number of servers that can be connected are
(40*64*64)/2 = 81920. As you can see, this kind of topology can serve quite a large network with three
tiers.
Over-Subscribed and Non-Blocking Configurations
In the above example, the network is over-subscribed; that is, 400G of bandwidth from end stations (40
servers * 10GE links) is serviced by only 240G of inter-rack bandwidth. The over-subscription ratio is 0.6
(240/400).
This can lead to congestion in the network and hot spots. Instead, if network operators connected 32
servers per rack, then 32 ports are left to be connected to spine switches. Now, the network is said to
be rerrangably non-blocking. Now any server in a rack can talk to any other server in any other rack
without necessarily blocking traffic between other servers.
In such a network, the total number of servers that can be connected are (64*64)/2 = 2048. Similarly, a
three-tier version of the same can serve up to (64*64*64)/4 = 65536 servers.
Containing the Failure Domain
Traditional data centers were built using just two spine switches. This means that if one of those
switches fails, the network bandwidth is cut in half, thereby greatly increasing network congestion and
adversely affecting many applications. To avoid this, vendors typically try and make the spine switches
resilient to failures by providing such features as dual control line cards and attempting to make the
software highly available. However, as Douglas Adams famously noted, “>>>”. In many cases, HA is
among the top two or three causes of software failure (and thereby switch failure).
To support a fairly large network with just two spine switches also means that these switches have a
large port count. This can make the switches quite expensive.
If the number of spine switches were to be merely doubled, the effect of a single switch failure is
halved. With 8 spine switches, the effect of a single switch failure only causes a 12% reduction in
available bandwidth.
So, in modern data centers, people build networks with anywhere from 4 to 32 spine switches.
Load Balancing
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Load Balancing
In a Clos network, traffic is load balanced across the multiple links using equal cost multi-pathing
(ECMP).
Routing algorithms compute shortest paths between two end stations where shortest is typically the
lowest path cost. Each link is assigned a metric or cost. By default, a link’s cost is a function of the link
speed. The higher the link speed, the lower its cost. A 10G link has a higher cost than a 40G or 100G
link, but a lower cost than a 1G link. Thus, the link cost is a measure of its traffic carrying capacity.
In the modern data center, the links between tiers of the network are homogeneous; that is, they have
the same characteristics (same speed and therefore link cost) as the other links. As a result, the first
hop router can pick any of the spine switches to forward a packet to its destination (assuming that
there is no link failure between the spine and the destination switch). Most routing protocols recognize
that there are multiple equal-cost paths to a destination and enable any of them to be selected for a
given traffic flow.
Quagga Overview
Cumulus Linux uses quagga, an open source routing software suite, to provide the routing protocols
for dynamic routing. Cumulus Linux supports the l atest Quagga version, 0.99.23.1. Quagga is a fork of
the GNU Zebra project.
Quagga provides many routing protocols, of which Cumulus Linux supports the following:
Open Shortest Path First ( v2 (see page 305) and v3 (see page 315))
Border Gateway Protocol (see page 318)
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 291)
Architecture (see page 292)
Zebra (see page 292)
Configuration Files (see page 292)
Useful Links (see page 293)
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Architecture
As shown in the figure above, the Quagga routing suite consists of various protocol-specific daemons
and a protocol-independent daemon called zebra. Each of the protocol-specific daemons are
responsible for running the relevant protocol and building the routing table based on the information
exchanged.
It is not uncommon to have more than one protocol daemon running at the same time. For example, at
the edge of an enterprise, protocols internal to an enterprise (called IGP for Interior Gateway Protocol)
such as OSPF (see page 305) or RIP run alongside the protocols that connect an enterprise to the rest of
the world (called EGP or Exterior Gateway Protocol) such as BGP (see page 318).
zebra is the daemon that resolves the routes provided by multiple protocols (including static routes
specified by the user) and programs these routes in the Linux kernel via netlink (in Linux). zebra
does more than this, of course.
Zebra
The quagga documentation defines zebra as the IP routing manager for quagga that “provides kernel
routing table updates, interface lookups, and redistribution of routes between different routing
protocols.”
Configuration Files
/etc/quagga/bgpd.conf
/etc/quagga/daemons
/etc/quagga/debian.conf
/etc/quagga/ospf6d.conf
/etc/quagga/ospfd.conf
/etc/quagga/vtysh.conf
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/etc/quagga/zebra.conf
Useful Links
http://www.quagga.net/
http://packages.debian.org/quagga
Configuring Quagga
This section provides an overview of configuring quagga.
Before you run quagga, make sure all relevant daemons, such as zebra, are running. Make your
changes in /etc/quagga/daemons then restart quagga with service quagga restart.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 293)
Configuration Files (see page 294)
Starting Quagga (see page 294)
Understanding Integrated Configurations (see page 294)
Interface IP Addresses (see page 296)
Using the vtysh Modal CLI (see page 296)
Using the Cumulus Linux Non-Modal CLI (see page 300)
Comparing vtysh and Cumulus Linux Commands (see page 301)
Displaying the Routing Table (see page 301)
Creating a New Neighbor (see page 301)
Redistributing Routing Information (see page 301)
Defining a Static Route (see page 302)
Configuring an IPv6 Interface (see page 302)
Enabling PTM (see page 302)
Configuring MTU in IPv6 Network Discovery (see page 303)
Logging OSPF Adjacency Changes (see page 303)
Setting OSPF Interface Priority (see page 303)
Configuring Timing for OSPF SPF Calculations (see page 304)
Configuring Hello Packet Intervals (see page 304)
Displaying OSPF Debugging Status (see page 304)
Displaying BGP Information (see page 305)
Useful Links (see page 305)
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Configuration Files
At startup, quagga reads a set of files to determine the startup configuration. The files and what they
contain are specified below:
File
Description
Quagga.conf
The default, integrated, single configuration file for all quagga daemons.
daemons
Contains the list of quagga daemons that must be started.
zebra.conf
Configuration file for the zebra daemon.
ospfd.conf
Configuration file for the OSPFv2 daemon.
ospf6d.conf
Configuration file for the OSPFv3 daemon.
bgpd.conf
Configuration file for the BGP daemon.
Starting Quagga
Quagga does not start by default in Cumulus Linux 2.0 and later versions.
Before you start quagga, modify /etc/quagga/daemons to enable the corresponding daemons:
zebra=yes (* this one is mandatory to bring the others up)
bgpd=yes
ospfd=yes
ospf6d=yes
ripd=no
ripngd=no
isisd=no
babeld=no
Then, start quagga:
cumulus@switch1:~$ sudo service quagga start
Understanding Integrated Configurations
By default in Cumulus Linux, quagga saves the configuration of all daemons in a single integrated
configuration file, Quagga.conf.
You can disable this mode by running:
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quagga(config)# no service integrated-vtysh-config
quagga(config)#
To enable the integrated configuration file mode again, run:
quagga(config)# service integrated-vtysh-config
quagga(config)#
If you disable the integrated configuration mode, quagga saves each daemon-specific configuration file
in a separate file. At a minimum for a daemon to start, that daemon must be specified in the daemons
file and the daemon-specific configuration file must be present, even if that file is empty.
For example, to start bgpd, the daemons file needs to be formatted as follows, at minimum:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cat /etc/quagga/daemons
zebra=yes
bgpd=yes
The current configuration can be saved by running:
quagga# write mem
Building Configuration...
Integrated configuration saved to /etc/quagga/Quagga.conf
[OK]
You can use write file instead of write mem.
When the integrated configuration mode disabled, the output looks like this:
quagga# write mem
Building Configuration...
Configuration saved to /etc/quagga/zebra.conf
Configuration saved to /etc/quagga/bgpd.conf
[OK]
The daemons file is not written using the write mem command.
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Interface IP Addresses
Quagga inherits the IP addresses for the network interfaces from the /etc/network/interfaces file.
This is the recommended way to define the addresses. For more information, see Configuring IP
Addresses (see page 92).
Using the vtysh Modal CLI
Quagga provides a CLI – vtysh – for configuring and displaying the state of the protocols. It is invoked
by running:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
quagga#
Launching vtysh brings you into zebra initially. From here, you can log into other protocol daemons,
such as bgpd, ospfd or babeld.
vtysh provides a Cisco-like modal CLI, and many of the commands are similar to Cisco IOS commands.
By modal CLI, we mean that there are different modes to the CLI, and certain commands are only
available within a specific mode. Configuration is available with the configure terminal command,
which is invoked thus:
quagga# configure terminal
quagga(config)#
The prompt displays the mode the CLI is in. For example, when the interface-specific commands are
invoked, the prompt changes to:
quagga(config)# interface swp1
quagga(config-if)#
When the routing protocol specific commands are invoked, the prompt changes to:
quagga(config)# router ospf
quagga(config-router)#
At any level, ”?” displays the list of available top-level commands at that level:
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At any level, ”?” displays the list of available top-level commands at that level:
quagga(config-if)# ?
babel
Babel interface commands
bandwidth
Set bandwidth informational parameter
description
Interface specific description
end
End current mode and change to enable mode
exit
Exit current mode and down to previous mode
ip
Interface Internet Protocol config commands
ipv6
Interface IPv6 config commands
isis
IS-IS commands
link-detect
Enable link detection on interface
list
Print command list
mpls-te
MPLS-TE specific commands
multicast
Set multicast flag to interface
no
Negate a command or set its defaults
ospf
OSPF interface commands
quit
Exit current mode and down to previous mode
shutdown
Shutdown the selected interface
?-based completion is also available to see the parameters that a command takes:
quagga(config-if)# bandwidth ?
<1-10000000>
Bandwidth in kilobits
quagga(config-if)# ip ?
address
Set the IP address of an interface
irdp
Alter ICMP Router discovery preference this interface
ospf
OSPF interface commands
rip
Routing Information Protocol
router
IP router interface commands
Displaying state can be done at any level, including the top level. For example, to see the routing table
as seen by zebra, you use:
quagga# show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.2, eth0
C>* 192.0.2.11/24 is directly connected, swp1
C>* 192.0.2.12/24 is directly connected, swp2
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B>* 203.0.113.30/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
B>* 203.0.113.31/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
B>* 203.0.113.32/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo
C>* 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, eth0
To run the same command at a config level, you prepend do to it:
quagga(config-router)# do show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.2, eth0
C>* 192.0.2.11/24 is directly connected, swp1
C>* 192.0.2.12/24 is directly connected, swp2
B>* 203.0.113.30/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
B>* 203.0.113.31/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
B>* 203.0.113.32/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 10:43:05
C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo
C>* 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, eth0
Running single commands with vtysh is possible using the -c option of vtysh:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh -c 'sh ip route'
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.2, eth0
C>* 192.0.2.11/24 is directly connected, swp1
C>* 192.0.2.12/24 is directly connected, swp2
B>* 203.0.113.30/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 11:05:10
B>* 203.0.113.31/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 11:05:10
B>* 203.0.113.32/24 [200/0] via 192.0.2.2, swp1, 11:05:10
C>* 127.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, lo
C>* 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, eth0
Running a command multiple levels down is done thus:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh -c 'configure terminal' -c 'router ospf' -c
'area 0.0.0.1 range 10.10.10.0/24'
Notice that the commands also take a partial command name (for example, sh ip route above) as
long as the partial command name is not aliased:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh -c 'sh ip r'
% Ambiguous command.
A command or feature can be disabled by prepending the command with no. For example:
quagga(config-router)# no area 0.0.0.1 range 10.10.10.0/24
The current state of the configuration can be viewed via:
quagga# show running-config
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
!
hostname quagga
log file /media/node/zebra.log
log file /media/node/bgpd.log
log timestamp precision 6
!
service integrated-vtysh-config
!
password xxxxxx
enable password xxxxxx
!
interface eth0
ipv6 nd suppress-ra
link-detect
!
interface lo
link-detect
!
interface swp1
ipv6 nd suppress-ra
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link-detect
!
interface swp2
ipv6 nd suppress-ra
link-detect
!
router bgp 65000
bgp router-id 0.0.0.9
bgp log-neighbor-changes
bgp scan-time 20
network 29.0.1.0/24
timers bgp 30 90
neighbor tier-2 peer-group
neighbor 192.0.2.2 remote-as 65000
neighbor 192.0.2.2 ttl-security hops 1
neighbor 192.0.2.2 advertisement-interval 30
neighbor 192.0.2.2 timers 30 90
neighbor 192.0.2.2 timers connect 30
neighbor 192.0.2.2 next-hop-self
neighbor 192.0.2.12 remote-as 65000
neighbor 192.0.2.12 next-hop-self
neighbor 203.0.113.1 remote-as 65000
!
ip forwarding
ipv6 forwarding
!
line vty
exec-timeout 0 0
!
end
Using the Cumulus Linux Non-Modal CLI
The vtysh modal CLI can be difficult to work with and even more difficult to script. As an alternative to
this, Cumulus Linux contains a non-modal version of these commands, structured similar to the Linux
ip command. The available commands are:
Command
Description
cl-bgp
BGP (see page 318) commands. See man cl-bgp for details.
cl-ospf
OSPFv2 (see page 305) commands. For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf area 0.0.0.1 range 10.10.10.0/24
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Command
Description
cl-ospf6
OSPFv3 (see page 315)commands.
cl-ra
Route advertisement commands. See man cl-ra for details.
cl-rctl
Zebra and non-routing protocol-specific commands. See man cl-rctl for details.
Comparing vtysh and Cumulus Linux Commands
This section describes how you can use the various Cumulus Linux CLI commands to configure Quagga,
without using vtysh.
Displaying the Routing Table
To display the routing table under Quagga, you would run:
quagga# show ip route
To display the routing table with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-rctl route
Creating a New Neighbor
To create a new neighbor under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# router bgp 65002
quagga(config-router)# neighbor 14.0.0.22 remote-as 65007
To create a new neighbor with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-bgp as 65002 neighbor add 14.0.0.22 remote-as
65007
Redistributing Routing Information
To redistribute routing information from static route entries into RIP tables under Quagga, you would
run:
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quagga(config)# router bgp 65002
quagga(config-router)# redistribute static
To redistribute routing information from static route entries into RIP tables with the Cumulus Linux CLI,
run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-bgp as 65002 redistribute add static
Defining a Static Route
To define a static route under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# ip route 155.1.2.20/24 br2 45
To define a static route with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-rctl ip route add 175.0.0.0/28 interface br1
distance 25
Configuring an IPv6 Interface
To configure an IPv6 address under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# int br3
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 address
3002:2123:1234:1abc::21/64
To configure an IPv6 address with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-rctl interface add swp3 ipv6 address 3002:2123:
abcd:2120::41/64
Enabling PTM
To enable topology checking (PTM) under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# ptm-enable
To enable topology checking (PTM) with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
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To enable topology checking (PTM) with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-rctl ptm-enable set
Configuring MTU in IPv6 Network Discovery
To configure MTU (see page 106) in IPv6 network discovery for an interface under Quagga, you would
run:
quagga(config)# int swp3
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 nd mtu 9000
To configure MTU in IPv6 network discovery for an interface with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ra interface swp3 set mtu 9000
Logging OSPF Adjacency Changes
To log adjacency of OSPF changes under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# router ospf
quagga(config-router)# router-id 2.0.0.21
quagga(config-router)# log-adjacency-changes
To log adjacency changes of OSPF with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf log-adjacency-changes set
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router-id set 3.0.0.21
Setting OSPF Interface Priority
To set the OSPF interface priority under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# int swp3
quagga(config-if)# ip ospf priority
120
To set the OSPF interface priority with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf interface set swp3 priority 120
Configuring Timing for OSPF SPF Calculations
To configure timing for OSPF SPF calculations under Quagga, you would run:
quagga(config)# router ospf6
quagga(config-ospf6)# timer throttle spf 40 50 60
To configure timing for OSPF SPF calculations with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 timer add throttle spf 40 50 60
Configuring Hello Packet Intervals
To configure the OSPF Hello packet interval in number of seconds for an interface under Quagga, you
would run:
quagga(config)# int swp4
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 hello-interval
60
To configure the OSPF Hello packet interval in number of seconds for an interface with the Cumulus
Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 interface set swp4 hello-interval 60
Displaying OSPF Debugging Status
To display OSPF debugging status under Quagga, you would run:
quagga# show debugging ospf
To display OSPF debugging status with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf debug show
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Displaying BGP Information
To display BGP information under Quagga, you would run:
quagga# show ip bgp summary
To display BGP information with the Cumulus Linux CLI, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-bgp summary
Useful Links
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#BGP
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#IPv6-Support
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#Zebra
Open Shortest Path First - OSPF - Protocol
OSPFv2 is a link-state routing protocol for IPv4. OSPF maintains the view of the network topology
conceptually as a directed graph. Each router represents a vertex in the graph. Each link between
neighboring routers represents a unidirectional edge. Each link has an associated weight (called cost)
that is either automatically derived from its bandwidth or administratively assigned. Using the weighted
topology graph, each router computes a shortest path tree (SPT) with itself as the root, and applies the
results to build its forwarding table. The computation is generally referred to as SPF computation and
the resultant tree as the SPF tree.
An LSA ( link-state advertisement) is the fundamental quantum of information that OSPF routers
exchange with each other. It seeds the graph building process on the node and triggers SPF
computation. LSAs originated by a node are distributed to all the other nodes in the network through a
mechanism called flooding. Flooding is done hop-by-hop. OSPF ensures reliability by using link state
acknowledgement packets. The set of LSAs in a router’s memory is termed link-state database (LSDB), a
representation of the network graph. Thus, OSPF ensures a consistent view of LSDB on each node in
the network in a distributed fashion (eventual consistency model); this is key to the protocol’s
correctness.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 305)
Scalability and Areas (see page 306)
Configuring OSPFv2 (see page 307)
Activating the OSPF and Zebra Daemons (see page 307)
Enabling OSPF (see page 307)
Defining (Custom) OSPF Parameters on the Interfaces (see page 309)
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Scaling Tip: Summarization (see page 310)
Scaling Tip: Stub Areas (see page 311)
Configuration Tip: Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 311)
ECMP (see page 312)
Topology Changes and OSPF Reconvergence (see page 312)
Example Configurations (see page 313)
Debugging OSPF (see page 313)
Configuration Files (see page 315)
Supported RFCs (see page 315)
Useful Links (see page 315)
Scalability and Areas
An increase in the number of nodes affects OSPF scalability in the following ways:
Memory footprint to hold the entire network topology,
Flooding performance,
SPF computation efficiency.
The OSPF protocol advocates hierarchy as a divide and conquer approach to achieve high scale. The
topology may be divided into areas, resulting in a two-level hierarchy. Area 0 (or 0.0.0.0), called the
backbone area, is the top level of the hierarchy. Packets traveling from one non-zero area to another
must go via the backbone area. As an example, the leaf-spine topology we have been referring to in the
routing section can be divided into areas as follows:
Here are some points to note about areas and OSPF behavior:
Routers that have links to multiple areas are called area border routers (ABR). For example,
routers R3, R4, R5, R6 are ABRs in the diagram. An ABR performs a set of specialized tasks, such
as SPF computation per area and summarization of routes across areas.
Most of the LSAs have an area-level flooding scope. These include router LSA, network LSA, and
summary LSA.
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In the diagram, we reused the same non-zero area address. This is fine since the area address
is only a scoping parameter provided to all routers within that area. It has no meaning outside
the area. Thus, in the cases where ABRs do not connect to multiple non-zero areas, the same
area address can be used, thus reducing the operational headache of coming up with area
addresses.
Configuring OSPFv2
Configuring OSPF involves the following tasks:
Activating the OSPF daemon
Enabling OSPF
Defining (Custom) OSPF parameters on the interfaces
Activating the OSPF and Zebra Daemons
1. Add the following to /etc/quagga/daemons:
zebra=yes
ospfd=yes
2. Restart the quagga service to start the new daemons:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service quagga restart
Enabling OSPF
As we discussed in Introduction to Routing Protocols (see page 287), there are three steps to the
configuration:
1. Identifying the router with the router ID.
2. With whom should the router communicate?
3. What information (most notably the prefix reachability) to advertise?
There are two ways to achieve (2) and (3) in the Quagga OSPF:
1. The network statement under router ospf does both. The statement is specified with an IP
subnet prefix and an area address. All the interfaces on the router whose IP address matches
the network subnet are put into the specified area. OSPF process starts bringing up peering
adjacency on those interfaces. It also advertises the interface IP addresses formatted into LSAs
(of various types) to the neighbors for proper reachability.
From the Cumulus Linux shell:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
R3# configure terminal
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R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# router-id 0.0.0.1
R3(config-router)# log-adjacency-changes detail
R3(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0/16 area 0.0.0.0
R3(config-router)# network 192.0.2.0/16 area 0.0.0.1
R3(config-router)#
Or through cl-ospf, from the Cumulus Linux shell:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router set id 0.0.0.1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router set log-adjacency-changes detail
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router set network 10.0.0.0/16 area
0.0.0.0
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router set network 192.0.2.0/16 area
0.0.0.1
The subnets in the network subnet can be as coarse as possible to cover the most number of
interfaces on the router that should run OSPF.
There may be interfaces where it’s undesirable to bring up OSPF adjacency. For example, in a
data center topology, the host-facing interfaces need not run OSPF; however the corresponding
IP addresses should still be advertised to neighbors. This can be achieved using the passiveinterface construct.
From the vytsh/quagga CLI:
R3# configure terminal
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# passive-interface swp10
R3(config-router)# passive-interface swp11
Or use the passive-interface default command to put all interfaces as passive and
selectively remove certain interfaces to bring up protocol adjacency:
R3# configure terminal
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# passive-interface default
R3(config-router)# no passive-interface swp1
2. Explicitly enable OSPF for each interface by configuring it under the interface configuration
mode:
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R3# configure terminal
R3(config)# interface swp1
R3(config-if)# ip ospf area 0.0.0.0
If OSPF adjacency bringup is not desired, you should configure the corresponding interfaces as
passive as explained above.
This model of configuration is required for unnumbered interfaces as discussed later in this
guide.
For achieving step (3) alone, the quagga configuration provides another method: redistribution.
For example:
R3# configure terminal
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# redistribute connected
Redistribution, however, unnecessarily loads the database with type-5 LSAs and should be
limited to generating real external prefixes (for example, prefixes learned from BGP). In general,
it is a good practice to generate local prefixes using network and/or passive-interface
statements.
Defining (Custom) OSPF Parameters on the Interfaces
1. Network type, such as point-to-point, broadcast.
2. Timer tuning, like hello interval.
3. For unnumbered interfaces (see below), enable OSPF.
Using Quagga's vtysh:
R3(config)# interface swp1
R3(config-if)# ospf network point-to-point
R3(config-if)# ospf hello-interval 5
Or through cl-ospf, from the Cumulus Linux shell:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf interface swp1 set network point-to-point
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf interface swp1 set hello-interval 5
The OSPF configuration is saved in /etc/quagga/ospfd.conf.
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Scaling Tip: Summarization
By default, an ABR creates a summary (type-3) LSA for each route in an area and advertises it in
adjacent areas. Prefix range configuration optimizes this behavior by creating and advertising one
summary LSA for multiple routes.
To configure a range:
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# area 0.0.0.1 range 30.0.0.0/8
Summarize in the direction to the backbone. The backbone receives summarized routes and
injects them to other areas already summarized.
Summarization can cause non-optimal forwarding of packets during failures. Here is an
example scenario:
As shown in the diagram, the ABRs in the right non-zero area summarize the host prefixes as 10.1.0.0
/16. When the link between R5 and R10 fails, R5 will send a worse metric for the summary route (metric
for the summary route is the maximum of the metrics of intra-area routes that are covered by the
summary route. Upon failure of the R5-R10 link, the metric for 10.1.2.0/24 goes higher at R5 as the path
is R5-R9-R6-R10). As a result, other backbone routers shift traffic destined to 10.1.0.0/16 towards R6.
This breaks ECMP and is an under-utilization of network capacity for traffic destined to 10.1.1.0/24.
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Scaling Tip: Stub Areas
Nodes in an area receive and store intra-area routing information and summarized information about
other areas from the ABRs. In particular, a good summarization practice about inter-area routes
through prefix range configuration helps scale the routers and keeps the network stable.
Then there are external routes. External routes are the routes redistributed into OSPF from another
protocol. They have an AS-wide flooding scope. In many cases, external link states make up a large
percentage of the LSDB.
Stub areas alleviate this scaling problem. A stub area is an area that does not receive external route
advertisements.
To configure a stub area:
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# area 0.0.0.1 stub
Stub areas still receive information about networks that belong to other areas of the same OSPF
domain. Especially, if summarization is not configured (or is not comprehensive), the information can
be overwhelming for the nodes. Totally stubby areas address this issue. Routers in totally stubby areas
keep in their LSDB information about routing within their area, plus the default route.
To configure a totally stubby area:
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# area 0.0.0.1 stub no-summary
Here is a brief tabular summary of the area type differences:
Type
Behavior
Normal non- zero
area
LSA types 1, 2, 3, 4 area-scoped, type 5 externals, inter-area routes
summarized
Stub area
LSA types 1, 2, 3, 4 area-scoped, No type 5 externals, inter-area routes
summarized
Totally stubby area
LSA types 1, 2 area-scoped, default summary, No type 3, 4, 5 LSA types
allowed
Configuration Tip: Unnumbered Interfaces
Unnumbered interfaces are interfaces without unique IP addresses. In OSPFv2, configuring
unnumbered interfaces reduces the links between routers into pure topological elements, which
dramatically simplifies network configuration and reconfiguration. In addition, the routing database
contains only the real networks, so the memory footprint is reduced and SPF is faster.
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Unnumbered is usable for point-to-point interfaces only.
If there is a network <network number>/<mask> area <area ID> command present in
the Quagga configuration, the ip ospf area <area ID> command is rejected with the
error “Please remove network command first.” This prevents you from configuring other
areas on some of the unnumbered interfaces. You can use either the network area
command or the ospf area command in the configuration, but not both.
Unless the Ethernet media is intended to be used as a LAN with multiple connected routers,
we recommend configuring the interface as point-to-point. It has the additional advantage of
a simplified adjacency state machine; there is no need for DR/BDR election and LSA reflection.
See RFC5309 for a more detailed discussion.
To configure an unnumbered interface, take the IP address of another interface (called the anchor) and
use that as the IP address of the unnumbered interface:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifconfig lo 192.0.2.1/24
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifconfig swp1 192.0.2.1/24
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifconfig swp2 192.0.2.1/24
To enable OSPF on an unnumbered interface from within Quagga's vtysh:
R3(config)# interface swp1
R3(config-if)# ip ospf area 0.0.0.1
ECMP
During SPF computation for an area, if OSPF finds multiple paths with equal cost (metric), all those
paths are used for forwarding. For example, in the reference topology diagram, R8 uses both R3 and R4
as next hops to reach a destination attached to R9.
Topology Changes and OSPF Reconvergence
Topology changes usually occur due to one of four events:
1. Maintenance of a router node
2. Maintenance of a link
3. Failure of a router node
4. Failure of a link
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For the maintenance events, operators typically raise the OSPF administrative weight of the link(s) to
ensure that all traffic is diverted from the link or the node (referred to as costing out). The speed of
reconvergence does not matter. Indeed, changing the OSPF cost causes LSAs to be reissued, but the
links remain in service during the SPF computation process of all routers in the network.
For the failure events, traffic may be lost during reconvergence; that is, until SPF on all nodes computes
an alternative path around the failed link or node to each of the destinations. The reconvergence
depends on layer 1 failure detection capabilities and at the worst case DeadInterval OSPF timer.
Example Configurations
Example configuration for event 1, using vtysh:
R3(config)# router ospf
R3(config-router)# max-metric router-lsa administrative
Or, with the non-modal shell command approach:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf router set max-metric router-lsa
administrative
Example configuration for event 2, using vtysh:
R3(config)# interface swp1
R3(config-if)# ospf cost 65535
Or, with the non-modal shell command approach:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf interface swp1 set cost 65535
Debugging OSPF
OperState lists all the commands to view the operational state of OSPF.
The three most important states while troubleshooting the protocol are:
1. Neighbors, with show ip ospf neighbor. This is the starting point to debug neighbor states
(also see tcpdump below).
2.
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2. Database, with show ip ospf database. This is the starting point to verify that the LSDB is, in
fact, synchronized across all routers in the network. For example, sweeping through the output
of show ip ospf database router taken from all routers in an area will ensure if the
topology graph building process is complete; that is, every node has seen all the other nodes in
the area.
3. Routes, with show ip ospf route. This is the outcome of SPF computation that gets
downloaded to the forwarding table, and is the starting point to debug, for example, why an
OSPF route is not being forwarded correctly.
Compare the route output with kernel by using show ip route | grep zebra and
with the hardware entries using cl-route-check -V.
Using cl-ospf:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf neighbor show [all | detail]
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf database show [asbr-summary | network |
opaque-area |
opaque-link | summary | external |
nssa-external | opaque-as | router]
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf route show
Debugging-OSPF lists all of the OSPF debug options.
Using cl-ospf:
Usage: cl-ospf debug { COMMAND | help }
COMMANDs
{ set | clear } (all | event | ism | ism [OBJECT] | lsa | lsa
[OBJECT] |
nsm | nsm [OBJECT] | nssa | packet | packet [OBJECT] |
zebra [OBJECT] | zebra all)
Using zebra under vtysh:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
R3# show [zebra]
IOBJECT := { events | status | timers }
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OOBJECT := { interface | redistribute }
POBJECT := { all | dd | hello | ls-ack | ls-request | ls-update }
ZOBJECT := { all | events | kernel | packet | rib |
Using tcpdump to capture OSPF packets:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo tcpdump -v -i swp1 ip proto ospf
Configuration Files
/etc/quagga/daemons
/etc/quagga/ospfd.conf
Supported RFCs
RFC2328
RFC3137
RFC5309
Useful Links
Bidirectional forwarding detection (see page 339) (BFD) and OSPF
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#OSPFv2
Perlman, Radia (1999). Interconnections: Bridges, Routers, Switches, and Internetworking
Protocols (2 ed.). Addison-Wesley.
Moy, John T. OSPF: Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol. Addison-Wesley.
Open Shortest Path First v3 - OSPFv3 - Protocol
OSPFv3 is a revised version of OSPFv2 to support the IPv6 address family. Refer to Open Shortest Path
First (OSPF) Protocol (see page 305) for a discussion on the basic concepts, which remain the same
between the two versions.
OSPFv3 has changed the formatting in some of the packets and LSAs either as a necessity to support
IPv6 or to improve the protocol behavior based on OSPFv2 experience. Most notably, v3 defines a new
LSA, called intra-area prefix LSA to separate out the advertisement of stub networks attached to a
router from the router LSA. It is a clear separation of node topology from prefix reachability and lends
itself well to an optimized SPF computation.
IETF has defined extensions to OSPFv3 to support multiple address families (that is, both IPv6
and IPv4). Quagga (see page 291) does not support it yet.
Contents
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 315)
Configuring OSPFv3 (see page 316)
Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 317)
Debugging OSPF (see page 317)
Configuration Files (see page 318)
Supported RFCs (see page 318)
Useful Links (see page 318)
Configuring OSPFv3
Configuring OSPFv3 involves the following tasks:
1. Activating the OSPF6 and Zebra daemons:
a. Add the following to /etc/quagga/daemons:
zebra=yes
ospf6d=yes
b. Restart the quagga service to start the new daemons:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service quagga restart
2. Enabling OSPF6 and map interfaces to areas. From Quagga's vtysh shell:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
R3# conf t
R3# configure
terminal
R3(config)# router ospf6
R3(config-router)# router-id 0.0.1
R3(config-router)# log-adjacency-changes detail
R3(config-router)# interface swp1 area 0.0.0.0
R3(config-router)# interface swp2 area 0.0.0.1
R3(config-router)#
Or through cl-ospf6, from the Cumulus Linux shell:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 router set id 0.0.0.1
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 router set log-adjacency-changes detail
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 interface swp1 set area 0.0.0.0
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 interface swp2 set area 0.0.0.1
3. Defining (custom) OSPF6 parameters on the interfaces:
a. Network type (such as point-to-point, broadcast)
b. Timer tuning (for example, hello interval)
Using Quagga's vtysh:
R3(config)# interface swp1
R3(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 network point-to-point
R3(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 hello-interval 5
Or through cl-ospf6, from the Cumulus Linux shell:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 interface swp1 set network point-topoint
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-ospf6 interface swp1 set hello-interval 5
The OSPFv3 configuration is saved in /etc/quagga/ospf6d.conf.
Unnumbered Interfaces
Unlike OSPFv2, OSPFv3 intrinsically supports unnumbered interfaces. Forwarding to the next hop
router is done entirely using IPv6 link local addresses. Therefore, you are not required to configure any
global IPv6 address to interfaces between routers.
Debugging OSPF
See Debugging OSPF (see page 313) for OSPFv2 for the troubleshooting discussion. The equivalent
commands are:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
R3# show ipv6 ospf6 neighbor
R3# show ipv6 ospf6 database [detail | dump | internal |
as-external | group-membership |
inter-prefix | inter-router |
intra-prefix | link | network |
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router | type-7 | * | adv-router |
linkstate-id | self-originated]
R3# show ip ospf route
Another helpful command is show ipv6 ospf6 [area <id>] spf tree. It dumps the node
topology as computed by SPF to help visualize the network view.
Configuration Files
/etc/quagga/daemons
/etc/quagga/ospf6d.conf
Supported RFCs
RFC5340
RFC3137
Useful Links
Bidirectional forwarding detection (see page 339) (BFD) and OSPF
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First
http://www.nongnu.org/quagga/docs/docs-info.html#OSPFv3
Configuring Border Gateway Protocol - BGP
BGP is the routing protocol that runs the Internet. It is an increasingly popular protocol for use in the
data center as it lends itself well to the rich interconnections in a Clos topology. Specifically:
It does not require routing state to be periodically refreshed unlike OSPF.
It is less chatty than its link-state siblings. For example, a link or node transition can result in a
bestpath change, causing BGP to send updates.
It is multi-protocol and extensible.
There are many robust vendor implementations.
The protocol is very mature and comes with many years of operational experience.
This IETF draft provides further details of the use of BGP within the data center.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 318)
Commands (see page 319)
Autonomous System Number (ASN) (see page 320)
eBGP and iBGP (see page 320)
Route Reflectors (see page 320)
ECMP with BGP (see page 321)
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ECMP with BGP (see page 321)
BGP for both IPv4 and IPv6 (see page 321)
Configuring BGP (see page 321)
Using BGP Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 323)
BGP and Extended Next-hop Encoding (see page 324)
Configuring BGP Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 324)
Managing Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 324)
How traceroute Interacts with BGP Unnumbered Interfaces (see page 326)
Advanced: Understanding How Next-hop Fields Are Set (see page 326)
Limitations (see page 328)
Fast Convergence Design Considerations (see page 328)
Specifying the Interface Name in the neighbor Command (see page 328)
Configuring BGP Peering Relationships across Switches (see page 329)
Configuration Tips (see page 330)
Using peer-group to Simplify Configuration (see page 330)
Preserving the AS_PATH Setting (see page 330)
Troubleshooting (see page 331)
Debugging Tip: Logging Neighbor State Changes (see page 333)
Troubleshooting Link-local Addresses (see page 334)
Enabling Read-only Mode (see page 335)
Applying a Route Map for Route Updates (see page 336)
Protocol Tuning (see page 336)
Converging Quickly On Link Failures (see page 336)
Converging Quickly On Soft Failures (see page 336)
Reconnecting Quickly (see page 337)
Advertisement Interval (see page 338)
Configuration Files (see page 339)
Useful Links (see page 339)
Caveats and Errata (see page 339)
ttl-security Issue (see page 339)
Commands
Cumulus Linux:
bgp
vtysh
Quagga:
bgp
neighbor
router
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router
show
Autonomous System Number (ASN)
One of the key concepts in BGP is an autonomous system number or ASN. An autonomous system is
defined as a set of routers under a common administration. Since BGP was originally designed to peer
between independently managed enterprises and/or service providers, each such enterprise is treated
as an autonomous system, responsible for a set of network addresses. Each such autonomous system
is given a unique number called its ASN. ASNs are handed out by a central authority (ICANN). However,
ASNs between 64512 and 65535 are reserved for private use. Using BGP within the data center relies
on either using this number space or else using the single ASN you own.
The ASN is central to how BGP builds a forwarding topology. A BGP route advertisement carries with it
not only the originator’s ASN, but also the list of ASNs that this route advertisement has passed
through. When forwarding a route advertisement, a BGP speaker adds itself to this list. This list of ASNs
is called the AS path. BGP uses the AS path to detect and avoid loops.
ASNs were originally 16-bit numbers, but were later modified to be 32-bit. Quagga supports both 16-bit
and 32-bit ASNs, but most implementations still run with 16-bit ASNs.
eBGP and iBGP
When BGP is used to peer between autonomous systems, the peering is referred to as external BGP or
eBGP. When BGP is used within an autonomous system, the peering used is referred to as internal BGP
or iBGP. eBGP peers have different ASNs while iBGP peers have the same ASN.
While the heart of the protocol is the same when used as eBGP or iBGP, there is a key difference in the
protocol behavior between use as eBGP and iBGP: an iBGP node does not forward routing information
learned from one iBGP peer to another iBGP peer. It expects the originating iBGP peer to send this
information to all iBGP peers.
This implies that iBGP peers are all connected to each other. In a large network, this requirement can
quickly become unscalable. The most popular method to avoid this problem is to introduce a route
reflector.
Route Reflectors
Route reflectors are quite easy to understand in a Clos topology. In a two-tier Clos network, the leaf (or
tier 1) switches are the only ones connected to end stations. Subsequently, this means that the spines
themselves do not have any routes to announce. They’re merely reflecting the routes announced by
one leaf to the other leaves. Thus, the spine switches function as route reflectors while the leaf
switches serve as route reflector clients.
In a three-tier network, the tier 2 nodes (or mid-tier spines) act as both route reflector servers and
route reflector clients. They act as route reflectors because they announce the routes learned from the
tier 1 nodes to other tier 1 nodes and to tier 3 nodes. They also act as route reflector clients to the tier
3 nodes, receiving routes learned from other tier 2 nodes. Tier 3 nodes act only as route reflectors.
In the following illustration, tier 2 node 2.1 is acting as a route reflector server, announcing the routes
between tier 1 nodes 1.1 and 1.2 to tier 1 node 1.3. It is also a route reflector client, learning the routes
between tier 2 nodes 2.2 and 2.3 from the tier 3 node, 3.1.
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ECMP with BGP
If a BGP node hears a prefix p from multiple peers, it has all the information necessary to program the
routing table to forward traffic for that prefix p through all of these peers. Thus, BGP supports equalcost multipathing.
BGP for both IPv4 and IPv6
Unlike OSPF, which has separate versions of the protocol to announce IPv4 and IPv6 routes, BGP is a
multi-protocol routing engine, capable of announcing both IPv4 and IPv6 prefixes. It supports
announcing IPv4 prefixes over an IPv4 session and IPv6 prefixes over an IPv6 session. It also supports
announcing prefixes of both these address families over a single IPv4 session or over a single IPv6
session.
Configuring BGP
1. Activate the BGP and Zebra daemons:
Add the following line to /etc/quagga/daemons:
zebra=yes
bgpd = yes
Touch an empty bgpd configuration file:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo touch /etc/quagga/bgpd.conf
A slightly more useful configuration file would contain the following lines:
hostname R7
password *****
enable password *****
log timestamp precision 6
log file /var/log/quagga/bgpd.log
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!
line vty
exec-timeout 0 0
!
The most important information here is the specification of the location of the log file,
where the BGP process can log debugging and other useful information. A common
convention is to store the log files under /var/log/quagga.
You must restart quagga when a new daemon is enabled:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service quagga restart
2. Identify the BGP node by assigning an ASN and router-id:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
R7# configure
terminal
R7(config)# router bgp 65000
R7(config-router)# bgp router-id 0.0.0.1
3. Specify to whom it must disseminate routing information:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 remote-as 65001
If it is an iBGP session, the remote-as is the same as the local AS:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 remote-as 65000
Specifying the peer’s IP address allows BGP to set up a TCP socket with this peer, but it doesn’t
distribute any prefixes to it, unless it is explicitly told that it must via the activate command:
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
R7(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 activate
R7(config-router-af)# exit
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv6
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R7(config-router-af)# neighbor 2002:0a00:0002::0a00:0002 activate
R7(config-router-af)# exit
As you can see, activate has to be specified for each address family that is being announced by
the BGP session.
4. Specify some properties of the BGP session:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 next-hop-self
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths 64
For iBGP, the maximum-paths is selected by typing:
R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths ibgp 64
If this is a route-reflector client, it can be specified as follows:
R3(config-router-af)# neighbor 10.0.0.1 route-reflector-client
It is node R3, the route reflector, on which the peer is specified as a client.
5. Specify what prefixes to originate:
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
R7(config-router-af)# network 192.0.2.0/24
R7(config-router-af)# network 203.0.113.1/24
Using BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Unnumbered interfaces are interfaces without unique IP addresses. In BGP, you configure
unnumbered interfaces using extended next-hop encoding (ENHE), which is defined by RFC 5549. BGP
unnumbered interfaces provide a means of advertising an IPv4 route with an IPv6 next-hop. Prior to
RFC 5549, an IPv4 route could be advertised only with an IPv4 next-hop.
BGP unnumbered interfaces are particularly useful in deployments where IPv4 prefixes are advertised
through BGP over a section without any IPv4 address configuration on links. As a result, the routing
entries are also IPv4 for destination lookup and have IPv6 next-hops for forwarding purposes.
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BGP and Extended Next-hop Encoding
Once enabled and active, BGP makes use of the available IPv6 next-hops for advertising any IPv4
prefixes. BGP learns the prefixes, calculates the routes and installs them in IPv4 AFI to IPv6 AFI format.
However, ENHE in Cumulus Linux does not install routes into the kernel in IPv4 prefix to IPv6 next-hop
format. For link-local peerings enabled by dynamically learning the other end's link-local address using
IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements, an IPv6 next-hop is converted into an IPv4 link-local
address and a static neighbor entry is installed for this IPv4 link-local address with the MAC address
derived from the link-local address of the other end.
It is assumed that the IPv6 implementation on the peering device will use the MAC address as
the interface ID when assigning the IPv6 link-local address, as suggested by RFC 4291.
Configuring BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Configuring a BGP unnumbered interface requires enabling IPv6 neighbor discovery router
advertisements. The interval you specify is measured in seconds, and defaults to 600 seconds.
Extended next-hop encoding is sent only for the link-local address peerings:
interface swp1
no ipv6 nd suppress-ra
ipv6 nd ra-interval 5
!
router bgp 10
neighbor swp1 interface
neighbor swp1 remote-as
20
neighbor swp1 capability extended-nexthop
!
Managing Unnumbered Interfaces
All the relevant BGP commands are now capable of showing IPv6 next-hops and/or the interface name
for any IPv4 prefix:
#
show ip bgp
BGP table version is 66, local router ID is 6.0.0.5
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, =
multipath,
i internal, r RIB-failure, S Stale, R Removed
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
Network
Next Hop
*> 6.0.0.5/32
0.0.0.0
*= 6.0.0.6/32
swp2
324
Metric LocPrf Weight Path
0
32768 ?
0 65534 64503 ?
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*=
swp6
0 65002 64503 ?
*=
swp5
0 65001 64503 ?
*=
swp1
0 65534 64503 ?
*=
swp4
0 65534 64503 ?
*>
swp3
0 65534 64503 ?
# show ip bgp 6.0.0.14/32
BGP routing table entry for 6.0.0.14/32
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
Advertised to non peer-group peers:
swp1 swp2 swp3 swp4 swp5 swp6
65534
fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d from swp2 (6.0.0.14)
(fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d) (used)
Origin incomplete, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, external, best
Last update: Tue May 12 17:18:41 2015
Quagga RIB commands are also modified:
# show ip route
Codes: K - kernel route, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP,
O - OSPF, I - IS-IS, B - BGP, A - Babel, T - Table,
> - selected route, * - FIB route
K>* 0.0.0.0/0 via 192.168.0.2, eth0
C>* 6.0.0.5/32 is directly connected, lo
B>* 6.0.0.6/32 [20/0] via fe80::202:ff:fe00:45, swp3, 00:46:12
*
via fe80::202:ff:fe00:35, swp1, 00:46:12
*
via fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d, swp2, 00:46:12
*
via fe80::202:ff:fe00:4d, swp4, 00:46:12
*
via fe80::202:ff:fe00:55, swp5, 00:46:12
*
via fe80::202:ff:fe00:5a, swp6, 00:46:12
The following commands show how the IPv4 link-local address 169.254.0.1 is used to install the route
and static neighbor entry to facilitate proper forwarding without having to install an IPv4 prefix with
IPv6 next-hop in the kernel:
# ip route show 6.0.0.6
6.0.0.6
proto zebra
metric 20
nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp3 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp1 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp2 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp4 weight 1 onlink
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nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp5 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 169.254.0.1
dev swp6 weight 1 onlink
# ip neigh
fe80::202:ff:fe00:35 dev swp1 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:35 router REACHABLE
fe80::202:ff:fe00:5a dev swp6 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:5a router REACHABLE
fe80::202:ff:fe00:3d dev swp2 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:3d router REACHABLE
fe80::202:ff:fe00:55 dev swp5 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:55 router REACHABLE
fe80::202:ff:fe00:45 dev swp3 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:45 router REACHABLE
fe80::202:ff:fe00:4d dev swp4 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:4d router REACHABLE
169.254.0.1 dev swp5 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:55 PERMANENT
192.168.0.2 dev eth0 lladdr 52:55:c0:a8:00:02 REACHABLE
169.254.0.1 dev swp3 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:45 PERMANENT
169.254.0.1 dev swp1 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:35 PERMANENT
169.254.0.1 dev swp4 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:4d PERMANENT
169.254.0.1 dev swp6 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:5a PERMANENT
169.254.0.1 dev swp2 lladdr 00:02:00:00:00:3d PERMANENT
How traceroute Interacts with BGP Unnumbered Interfaces
Every router or end host must have an IPv4 address in order to complete a traceroute of IPv4
addresses. In this case, the IPv4 address used is that of the loopback device.
Even if ENHE is not used in the data center, link addresses are not typically advertised. This is because:
Link addresses take up valuable FIB resources. In a large Clos environment, the number of such
addresses can be quite large.
Link addresses expose an additional attack vector for intruders to use to either break in or
engage in DDOS attacks.
Therefore, assigning an IP address to the loopback device is essential.
Advanced: Understanding How Next-hop Fields Are Set
This section describes how the IPv6 next-hops are set in the MP_REACH_NLRI (multiprotocol reachable
NLRI) initiated by the system, which applies whether IPv6 prefixes or IPv4 prefixes are exchanged with
ENHE. There are two main aspects to determine — how many IPv6 next-hops are included in the
MP_REACH_NLRI (since the RFC allows either one or two next-hops) and the values of the next-hop(s).
This section also describes how a received MP_REACH_NLRI is handled as far as processing IPv6 nexthops.
Whether peering to a global IPv6 address or link-local IPv6 address, the determination whether
to send one or two next-hops is as follows:
1. If reflecting the route, two next-hops are sent only if the peer has nexthop-local
unchanged configured and the attribute of the received route has an IPv6 link-local nexthop; otherwise, only one next-hop is sent.
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2. Otherwise (if it's not reflecting the route), two next-hops are sent if explicitly configured (
nexthop-local unchanged) or the peer is directly connected (that is, either peering is
on link-local address or the global IPv4 or IPv6 address is directly connected) and the route
is either a local/self-originated route or the peer is an eBGP peer.
3. In all other cases, only one next-hop gets sent, unless an outbound route-map adds
another next-hop.
route-map can impose two next-hops in scenarios where Cumulus Linux would only send one
next-hop — by specifying set ipv6 nexthop link-local.
For all routes to eBGP peers and self-originated routes to iBGP peers, the global next-hop (first
value) is the peering address of the local system. If the peering is on the link-local address, this is
the global IPv6 address on the peering interface, if present; otherwise, it is the link-local IPv6
address on the peering interface.
For other routes to iBGP peers (eBGP to iBGP or reflected), the global next-hop will be the global
next-hop in the received attribute.
If this address were a link-local IPv6 address, it would get reset so that the link-local
IPv6 address of the eBGP peer is not passed along to an iBGP peer, which most likely
may be on a different link.
route-map and/or the peer configuration can change the above behavior. For example, routemap can set the global IPv6 next-hop or the peer configuration can set it to self — which is
relevant for iBGP peers. The route-map or peer configuration can also set the next-hop to
unchanged, which ensures the source IPv6 global next-hop is passed around — which is
relevant for eBGP peers.
Whenever two next-hops are being sent, the link-local next-hop (the second value of the two) is
the link-local IPv6 address on the peering interface unless it is due to nh-local-unchanged or
route-map has set the link-local next-hop.
Network administrators cannot set martian values for IPv6 next-hops in route-map. Also, global
and link-local next-hops are validated to ensure they match the respective address types.
In a received update, a martian check is imposed for the IPv6 global next-hop. If the check fails,
it gets treated as an implicit withdraw.
If two next-hops are received in an update and the second next-hop is not a link-local address, it
gets ignored and the update is treated as if only one next-hop was received.
Whenever two next-hops are received in an update, the second next-hop is used to install the
route into zebra. As per the previous point, it is already assured that this is a link-local IPv6
address. Currently, this is assumed to be reachable and is not registered with NHT.
When route-map specifies the next-hop as peer-address, the global IPv6 next-hop as well as
the link-local IPv6 next-hop (if it's being sent) is set to the peering address. If the peering is on a
link-local address, the former could be the link-local address on the peering interface, unless
there is a global IPv6 address present on this interface.
The above rules imply that there are scenarios where a generated update has two IPv6 next-hops, and
both of them are the IPv6 link-local address of the peering interface on the local system. If you are
peering with a switch or router that is not running Cumulus Linux and expects the first next-hop to be a
global IPv6 address, a route-map can be used on the sender to specify a global IPv6 address. This
conforms with the recommendations in the Internet draft draft-kato-bgp-ipv6-link-local-00.txt, "BGP4+
Peering Using IPv6 Link-local Address".
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Limitations
Interface-based peering with separate IPv4 and IPv6 sessions is not supported.
ENHE is sent for IPv6 link-local peerings only.
If a IPv4 /30 or /31 IP address is assigned to the interface IPv4 peering will be used over IPv6 linklocal peering.
Fast Convergence Design Considerations
Without getting into the why (see the IETF draft cited in Useful Links below that talks about BGP use
within the data center), we strongly recommend the following use of addresses in the design of a BGPbased data center network:
Use of interface addresses: Set up BGP sessions only using interface-scoped addresses. This
allows BGP to react quickly to link failures.
Use of next-hop-self: Every BGP node says that it knows how to forward traffic to the prefixes it
is announcing. This reduces the requirement to announce interface-specific addresses and
thereby reduces the size of the forwarding table.
Specifying the Interface Name in the neighbor Command
When you are configuring BGP for the neighbors of a given interface, you can specify the interface
name instead of its IP address. All the other neighbor command options remain the same.
This is equivalent to BGP peering to the link-local IPv6 address of the neighbor on the given interface.
The link-local address is learned via IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements.
Consider the following example configuration:
router bgp 65000
bgp router-id 0.0.0.1
neighbor swp1 interface
neighbor swp1 remote-as 65000
neighbor swp1 next-hop-self
!
address-family ipv6
neighbor swp1 activate
exit-address-family
Make sure that IPv6 neighbor discovery router advertisements are supported and not
suppressed. In Quagga, you do this by checking the running configuration. Under the
interface configuration, use no ipv6 nd suppress-ra to remove router suppression.
Cumulus Networks recommends you adjust the router advertisement's interval to a shorter
value (ipv6 nd ra-interval <interval>) to address scenarios when nodes come up and
miss router advertisement processing to relay the neighbor’s link-local address to BGP. The
interval is measured in seconds and defaults to 600 seconds.
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Configuring BGP Peering Relationships across Switches
A BGP peering relationship is typically initiated with the neighbor x.x.x.x remote-as <AS
number> command. In order to simplify configuration across multiple switches, you can specify the
internal or external keyword to the configuration instead of the AS number.
Specifying internal signifies an iBGP peering; that is, the neighbor will only create or accept a connection
with the specified neighbor if the remote peer AS number matches this BGP's AS number.
Specifying external signifies an eBGP peering; that is, the neighbor will only create a connection with the
neighbor if the remote peer AS number does not match this BGP AS number.
You can make this distinction using the neighbor command or the peer-group command.
In general, use the following syntax with the neighbor command:
neighbor (ipv4 addr|ipv6 addr|WORD) remote-as (<14294967295>|internal|external)
Some example configurations follow.
To connect to the same AS using the neighbor command, modify your configuration similar to the
following:
router bgp 500
neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as internal
To connect to a different AS using the neighbor command, modify your configuration similar to the
following:
router bgp 500
neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as external
To connect to the same AS using the peer-group command, modify your configuration similar to the
following:
router bgp 500
neighbor swp1 interface
neighbor IBGP peer-group
neighbor IBGP remote-as internal
neighbor swp1 peer-group IBGP
neighbor 6.0.0.3 peer-group IBGP
neighbor 6.0.0.4 peer-group IBGP
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To connect to a different AS using the peer-group command, modify your configuration similar to
the following:
router bgp 500
neighbor swp2 interface
neighbor EBGP peer-group
neighbor EBGP remote-as external
neighbor 6.0.0.2 peer-group EBGP
neighbor swp2 peer-group EBGP
neighbor 6.0.0.4 peer-group EBGP
Configuration Tips
Using peer-group to Simplify Configuration
When there are many peers to connect to, the amount of redundant configuration becomes
overwhelming. For example, repeating the activate and next-hop-self commands for even 60
neighbors makes for a very long configuration file. Using peer-group addresses this problem.
Instead of specifying properties of each individual peer, Quagga allows for defining one or more peergroups and associating all the attributes common to that peer session to a peer-group.
After doing this, the only task is to associate an IP address with a peer-group. Here is an example of
defining and using peer-groups:
R7(config-router)# neighbor tier-2 peer-group
R7(config-router)# neighbor tier-2 remote-as 65000
R7(config-router)# address-family ipv4 unicast
R7(config-router-af)# neighbor tier-2 activate
R7(config-router-af)# neighbor tier-2 next-hop-self
R7(config-router-af)# maximum-paths ibgp 64
R7(config-router-af)# exit
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 peer-group tier-2
R7(config-router)# neighbor 192.0.2.2 peer-group tier-2
If you're using eBGP, besides specifying the neighbor's IP address, you also have to specify the
neighbor's ASN, since it is different for each neighbor. In such a case, you wouldn't specify the remoteas for the peer-group.
Preserving the AS_PATH Setting
If you plan to use multipathing with the multipath-relax option, Quagga generates an AS_SET in
place of the current AS_PATH for the bestpath. This helps to prevent loops but is unusual behavior. To
preserve the AS_PATH setting, use the no-as-set option when configuring bestpath:
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R7(config-router)# bgp bestpath as-path multipath-relax no-as-set
The license could not be verified: License Certificate has expired!
Troubleshooting
The most common starting point for troubleshooting BGP is to view the summary of neighbors
connected to and some information about these connections. A sample output of this command is as
follows:
R7# show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 0.0.0.9, local AS number 65000
RIB entries 7, using 672 bytes of memory
Peers 2, using 9120 bytes of memory
Neighbor
V
AS MsgRcvd MsgSent
TblVer
InQ OutQ Up/Down
State
/PfxRcd
10.0.0.2
4 65000
11
10
0
0
0 00:06:38
3
192.0.2.2
4 65000
11
10
0
0
0 00:06:38
3
Total number of neighbors 2
(Pop quiz: Are these iBGP or eBGP sessions? Hint: Look at the ASNs.)
It is also useful to view the routing table as defined by BGP:
R7# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 0, local router ID is 0.0.0.9
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i internal,
r RIB-failure, S Stale, R Removed
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
Network
Next Hop
Metric LocPrf Weight Path
*> 192.0.2.29/24
0.0.0.0
0
*>i192.0.2.30/24
10.0.0.2
0
100
32768 i
0 i
* i
192.0.2.2
0
100
0 i
*>i192.0.2.31/24
10.0.0.2
0
100
0 i
* i
192.0.2.2
0
100
0 i
*>i192.0.2.32/24
10.0.0.2
0
100
0 i
* i
192.0.2.2
0
100
0 i
Total number of prefixes 4
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A more detailed breakdown of a specific neighbor can be obtained using show ip bgp neighbor
<neighbor ip address>:
R7# show ip bgp
neighbor 10.0.0.2
BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5
BGP state = Established, up for 00:14:03
Last read 14:52:31, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Neighbor capabilities:
4 Byte AS: advertised and received
Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new)
Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received
Message statistics:
Inq depth is 0
Outq depth is 0
Sent
Rcvd
Opens:
1
1
Notifications:
0
0
Updates:
1
3
Keepalives:
16
15
Route Refresh:
0
0
Capability:
0
0
18
19
Total:
Minimum time between advertisement runs is 5 seconds
For address family: IPv4 Unicast
NEXT_HOP is always this router
Community attribute sent to this neighbor(both)
3 accepted prefixes
Connections established 1; dropped 0
Last reset never
Local host: 10.0.0.1, Local port: 35258
Foreign host: 10.0.0.2, Foreign port: 179
Nexthop: 10.0.0.1
Nexthop global: fe80::202:ff:fe00:19
Nexthop local: ::
BGP connection: non shared network
Read thread: on
Write thread: off
To see the details of a specific route such as from whom it was received, to whom it was sent, and so
forth, use the show ip bgp <ip address/prefix> command:
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R7# show ip bgp 192.0.2.0
BGP routing table entry for 192.0.2.0/24
Paths: (2 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
Not advertised to any peer
Local
10.0.0.2 (metric 1) from 10.0.0.2 (0.0.0.10)
Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
Originator: 0.0.0.10, Cluster list: 0.0.0.5
Last update: Mon Jul
8 10:12:17 2013
Local
192.0.2.2 (metric 1) from 192.0.2.2 (0.0.0.10)
Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal
Originator: 0.0.0.10, Cluster list: 0.0.0.6
Last update: Mon Jul
8 10:12:17 2013
This shows that the routing table prefix seen by BGP is 192.0.2.0/24, that this route was not advertised
to any neighbor, and that it was heard by two neighbors, 10.0.0.2 and 192.0.2.2.
Here is another output of the same command, on a different node in the network:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh -c 'sh ip bgp 192.0.2.0'
BGP routing table entry for 192.0.2.0/24
Paths: (1 available, best #1, table Default-IP-Routing-Table)
Advertised to non peer-group peers:
10.0.0.1 192.0.2.21 192.0.2.22
Local, (Received from a RR-client)
203.0.113.1 (metric 1) from 203.0.113.1 (0.0.0.10)
Origin IGP, metric 0, localpref 100, valid, internal, best
Last update: Mon Jul
8 09:07:41 2013
Debugging Tip: Logging Neighbor State Changes
It is very useful to log the changes that a neighbor goes through to troubleshoot any issues associated
with that neighbor. This is done using the log-neighbor-changes command:
R7(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
The output is sent to the specified log file, usually /var/log/quagga/bgpd.log, and looks like this:
2013/07/08 10:12:06.572827 BGP: %NOTIFICATION: sent to neighbor 10.0.0.2 6
/3 (Cease/Peer Unconfigured) 0 bytes
2013/07/08 10:12:06.572954 BGP: Notification sent to neighbor 10.0.0.2:
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type 6/3
2013/07/08 10:12:16.682071 BGP: %ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.0.2.2 Up
2013/07/08 10:12:16.682660 BGP: %ADJCHANGE: neighbor 10.0.0.2 Up
Troubleshooting Link-local Addresses
To verify that quagga learned the neighboring link-local IPv6 address via the IPv6 neighbor discovery
router advertisements on a given interface, use the show interface <if-name> command. If ipv6
nd suppress-ra isn't enabled on both ends of the interface, then Neighbor address(s): should
have the other end's link-local address. That is the address that BGP would use when BGP is enabled
on that interface.
Use vtysh to run quagga, then verify the configuration:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
R7# show interface
swp1
Interface swp1 is up, line protocol is up
PTM status: disabled
Description: rut
index 3 metric 1 mtu 1500
flags: <UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>
HWaddr: 00:02:00:00:00:09
inet 11.0.0.1/24 broadcast 11.0.0.255
inet6 fe80::202:ff:fe00:9/64
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND router advertisements are sent every 600 seconds
ND router advertisements lifetime tracks ra-interval
ND router advertisement default router preference is medium
Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.
Neighbor address(s):
inet6 fe80::4638:39ff:fe00:129b/128
Instead of the IPv6 address, the peering interface name is displayed in the show ip bgp summary
command and wherever else applicable:
R7# show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 0.0.0.1, local AS number 65000
RIB entries 1, using 112 bytes of memory
Peers 1, using 8712 bytes of memory
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Neighbor
V
AS MsgRcvd MsgSent
TblVer
InQ OutQ Up/Down
State
/PfxRcd
swp1
4 65000
161
170
0
0
0 00:02:28
0
Most of the show commands can take the interface name instead of the IP address, if that level of
specificity is needed:
R7# show ip bgp neighbors
<cr>
A.B.C.D
Neighbor to display information about
WORD
Neighbor on bgp configured interface
X:X::X:X
Neighbor to display information about
R7# show ip bgp neighbors swp1
Enabling Read-only Mode
You can enable read-only mode for when the BGP process restarts or when the BGP process is cleared
using clear ip bgp *. When enabled, read-only mode begins as soon as the first peer reaches its
established state and a timer for <max-delay> seconds is started.
While in read-only mode, BGP doesn't run best-path or generate any updates to its peers. This mode
continues until:
All the configured peers, except the shutdown peers, have sent an explicit EOR (End-Of-RIB) or
an implicit EOR. The first keep-alive after BGP has reached the established state is considered an
implicit EOR. If the <establish-wait> option is specified, then BGP will wait for peers to reach
the established state from the start of the update-delay until the <establish-wait> period
is over; that is, the minimum set of established peers for which EOR is expected would be peers
established during the establish-wait window, not necessarily all the configured neighbors.
The max-delay period is over.
Upon reaching either of these two conditions, BGP resumes the decision process and generates
updates to its peers.
To enable read-only mode:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo bgp update-delay <max-delay in seconds> [<establishwait in seconds>]
The default <max-delay> is 0 — the feature is off by default.
Use output from show ip bgp summary for information about the state of the update delay.
This feature can be useful in reducing CPU/network usage as BGP restarts/clears. It's particularly useful
in topologies where BGP learns a prefix from many peers. Intermediate best paths are possible for the
same prefix as peers get established and start receiving updates at different times. This feature is also
valuable if the network has a high number of such prefixes.
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Applying a Route Map for Route Updates
You can apply a route map on route updates from BGP to Zebra. All the applicable match operations
are allowed, such as match on prefix, next-hop, communities, and so forth. Set operations for this
attach-point are limited to metric and next-hop only. Any operation of this feature does not affect BGPs
internal RIB.
Both IPv4 and IPv6 address families are supported. Route maps work on multi-paths as well. However,
the metric setting is based on the best path only.
To apply a route map for route updates:
cumulus@switch:$ sudo cl-bgp table-map <route-map-name>
Protocol Tuning
Converging Quickly On Link Failures
In the Clos topology, we recommend that you only use interface addresses to set up peering sessions.
This means that when the link fails, the BGP session is torn down immediately, triggering route updates
to propagate through the network quickly. This requires the following commands be enabled for all
links: link-detect and ttl-security hops <hops>. ttl-security hops specifies how many
hops away the neighbor is. For example, in a Clos topology, every peer is at most 1 hop away.
See Caveats and Errata below for information regarding ttl-security hops.
Here is an example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo vtysh
Hello, this is Quagga (version 0.99.21).
Copyright 1996-2005 Kunihiro Ishiguro, et al.
R7# configure
terminal
R7(config)# interface
swp1
R7(config-if)# link-detect
R7(config-if)# exit
R7(config)# router bgp 65000
R7(config-router)# neighbor
10.0.0.2 ttl-security
hops
1
Converging Quickly On Soft Failures
It is possible that the link is up, but the neighboring BGP process is hung or has crashed. If a BGP
process crashes, Quagga’s watchquagga daemon, which monitors the various quagga daemons, will
attempt to restart it. If the process is also hung, watchquagga will attempt to restart the process. BGP
itself has a keepalive timer that is exchanged between neighbors. By default, this keepalive timer is set
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itself has a keepalive timer that is exchanged between neighbors. By default, this keepalive timer is set
to 60 seconds. This time can be reduced to a lower number, but this has the disadvantage of increasing
the CPU load, especially in the presence of a lot of neighbors. keepalive-time is the periodicity with
which the keepalive message is sent. hold-time specifies how many keepalive messages can be lost
before the connection is considered invalid. It is usually set to 3 times the keepalive time. Here is an
example of reducing these timers:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 timers 30 90
We can make these the default for all BGP neighbors using a different command:
R7(config-router)# timers bgp 30 90
The following display snippet shows that the default values have been modified for this neighbor:
R7(config-router)# do show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2
BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5
BGP state = Established, up for 05:53:59
Last read 14:53:25, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Configured hold time is 90, keepalive interval is 30 seconds
....
When you're in a configuration mode, such as when you're configuring BGP parameters, you
can run any show command by adding do to the original command. For example, do show
ip bgp neighbor was shown above. Under a non-configuration mode, you'd simply run:
show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2
Reconnecting Quickly
A BGP process attempts to connect to a peer after a failure (or on startup) every connect-time
seconds. By default, this is 120 seconds. To modify this value, use:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 timers connect 30
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This command has to be specified per each neighbor, peer-group doesn’t support this option in quagga
.
Advertisement Interval
BGP by default chooses stability over fast convergence. This is very useful when routing for the
Internet. For example, unlike link-state protocols, BGP typically waits for a duration of advertisementinterval seconds between sending consecutive updates to a neighbor. This ensures that an unstable
neighbor flapping routes won’t be propagated throughout the network. By default, this is set to 30
seconds for an eBGP session and 5 seconds for an iBGP session. For very fast convergence, set the
timer to 0 seconds. You can modify this as follows:
R7(config-router)# neighbor 10.0.0.2 advertisement-interval 0
The following output shows the modified value:
R7(config-router)# do show ip bgp neighbor 10.0.0.2
BGP neighbor is 10.0.0.2, remote AS 65000, local AS 65000, internal link
BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.5
BGP state = Established, up for 06:01:49
Last read 14:53:15, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Configured hold time is 90, keepalive interval is 30 seconds
Neighbor capabilities:
4 Byte AS: advertised and received
Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new)
Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received
Message statistics:
Inq depth is 0
Outq depth is 0
Sent
Rcvd
Opens:
1
1
Notifications:
0
0
Updates:
1
3
363
362
Route Refresh:
0
0
Capability:
0
0
365
366
Keepalives:
Total:
Minimum time between advertisement runs is 0 seconds
....
This command is not supported with peer-groups.
See this IETF draft for more details on the use of this value.
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See this IETF draft for more details on the use of this value.
Configuration Files
/etc/quagga/daemons
/etc/quagga/bgpd.conf
Useful Links
Bidirectional forwarding detection (see page 339) (BFD) and BGP
Wikipedia entry for BGP (includes list of useful RFCs)
Quagga online documentation for BGP (may not be up to date)
IETF draft discussing BGP use within data centers
Caveats and Errata
ttl-security Issue
Enabling ttl-security does not cause the hardware to be programmed with the relevant
information. This means that frames will come up to the CPU and be dropped there. It is
recommended that you use the cl-acltool command to explicitly add the relevant entry to
hardware.
For example, you can configure a file, like /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/01control_plane_bgp.
rules, with a rule like this for TTL:
INGRESS_INTF = swp1
INGRESS_CHAIN = INPUT, FORWARD
[iptables]
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bgp -m
ttl --ttl 255 POLICE --set-mode pkt --set-rate 2000 --set-burst 1000
-A $INGRESS_CHAIN --in-interface $INGRESS_INTF -p tcp --dport bgp DROP
For more information about ACLs and cl-acltool, see Netfilter (ACLs) (see page 71).
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection - BFD
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) provides low overhead and rapid detection of failures in the
paths between two network devices. It provides a unified mechanism for link detection over all media
and protocol layers. Use BFD to detect failures for IPv4 and IPv6 single or multihop paths between any
two network devices, including unidirectional path failure detection.
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Cumulus Linux does not support demand mode in BFD.
Using BFD Multihop Routed Paths
BFD multihop sessions are built over arbitrary paths between two systems, which results in some
complexity that does not exist for single hop sessions. Here are some best practices for using multihop
paths:
Spoofing: To avoid spoofing with multihop paths, configure max_hop_cnt (maximum hop count
) for each peer, which limits the number of hops for a BFD session. All BFD packets exceeding
the max hop count will be dropped.
Demultiplexing: Since multihop BFD sessions can take arbitrary paths, demultiplex the initial
BFD packet based on the source/destination IP address pair. Use Quagga, which monitors
connectivity to the peer, to determine the source/destination IP address pairs.
Multihop BFD sessions are supported for both IPv4 and IPv6 peers. See below for more details.
BFD Parameters
You can configure the following BFD parameters for both IPv4 and IPv6 sessions:
The required minimum interval between the received BFD control packets.
The minimum interval for transmitting BFD control packets.
The detection time multiplier.
Configuring BFD
You configure BFD one of two ways: by specifying the configuration in the PTM topology.dot file (see
page 139), or using Quagga (see page 291).
The Quagga CLI (see page ) can track IPv4 and IPv6 peer connectivity — both single hop and
multihop, and both link-local IPv6 peers and global IPv6 peers — using BFD sessions without needing
the topology.dot file. Use Quagga to register multihop peers with PTM and BFD as well as for
monitoring the connectivity to the remote BGP multihop peer. Quagga can dynamically register and
unregister both IPv4 and IPv6 peers with BFD when the BFD-enabled peer connectivity is established or
de-established, respectively. Also, you can configure BFD parameters for each BGP or OSPF peer using
Quagga.
The BFD parameter configured in the topology file is given higher precedence over the clientconfigured BFD parameters for a BFD session that has been created by both topology file and
client (Quagga).
BFD in BGP
For Quagga when using BGP, neighbors are registered and de-registered with PTM (see page 139)
dynamically when you enable BFD in BGP:
quagga(config)# router bgp X
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip> bfd
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You can configure BFD parameters for each BGP neighbor. For example:
BFD in BGP
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip>
<2-255> Detect Multiplier
<cr>
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip>
<50-60000> Required min receive interval
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip>
<50-60000> Desired min transmit interval
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip>
<cr>
quagga(config-router)# neighbor <neighbor ip>
bfd
bfd 4
bfd 4 400
bfd 4 400 400
bfd 4 400 400
To see neighbor information in BGP, including BFD status, run show bgp neighbors <IP address>.
Show BGP Neighbor
quagga# show bgp neighbors 12.12.12.1
BGP neighbor is 12.12.12.1, remote AS 65001, local AS 65000, external
link
Hostname: r1
BGP version 4, remote router ID 0.0.0.1
BGP state = Established, up for 00:01:39
Last read 00:00:39, Last write 00:01:09
Hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
Neighbor capabilities:
4 Byte AS: advertised and received
AddPath:
IPv4 Unicast: RX advertised and received
Route refresh: advertised and received(old & new)
Address family IPv4 Unicast: advertised and received
Hostname Capability: advertised and received
Graceful Restart Capabilty: advertised and received
Remote Restart timer is 120 seconds
Address families by peer:
none
Graceful restart informations:
End-of-RIB send: IPv4 Unicast
End-of-RIB received: IPv4 Unicast
Message statistics:
Inq depth is 0
Outq depth is 0
Sent
Rcvd
Opens:
1
1
Notifications:
0
0
Updates:
2
2
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Keepalives:
2
1
Route Refresh:
0
0
Capability:
0
0
Total:
5
4
Minimum time between advertisement runs is 30 seconds
Update source is 12.12.12.7
For address family: IPv4 Unicast
Update group 1, subgroup 1
Packet Queue length 0
NEXT_HOP is always this router
Community attribute sent to this neighbor(both)
1 accepted prefixes
Connections established 1; dropped 0
Last reset never
External BGP neighbor may be up to 2 hops away.
Local host: 12.12.12.7, Local port: 34274
Foreign host: 12.12.12.1, Foreign port: 179
Nexthop: 12.12.12.7
Nexthop global: ::
Nexthop local: ::
BGP connection: non shared network
Read thread: on Write thread: off
BFD: Type: multi hop
Detect Mul: 3, Min Rx interval: 300, Min Tx interval: 300
Status: Down, Last update: 0:00:00:13
BFD in OSPF
For Quagga using OSFP, neighbors are registered and de-registered dynamically with PTM (see page
139) when you enable or disable BFD in OSPF. A neighbor is registered with BFD when two-way
adjacency is established and deregistered when adjacency goes down if the BFD is enabled on the
interface. The BFD configuration is per interface and any IPv4 and IPv6 neighbors discovered on that
interface inherit the configuration.
BFD in OSPF
quagga(config)# interface X
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 bfd
<2-255> Detect Multiplier
<cr>
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 bfd 5
<50-60000> Required min receive
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 bfd 5
<50-60000> Desired min transmit
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 bfd 5
<cr>
quagga(config-if)# ipv6 ospf6 bfd 5
interval
500
interval
500 500
500 500
OSPF Show Commands
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OSPF Show Commands
The BFD lines at the end of each code block shows the corresponding IPv6 or IPv4 OSPF interface or
neighbor information.
Show IPv6 OSPF Interface
quagga# show ipv6 ospf6 interface swp2s0
swp2s0 is up, type BROADCAST
Interface ID: 4
Internet Address:
inet : 11.0.0.21/30
inet6: fe80::4638:39ff:fe00:6c8e/64
Instance ID 0, Interface MTU 1500 (autodetect: 1500)
MTU mismatch detection: enabled
Area ID 0.0.0.0, Cost 10
State PointToPoint, Transmit Delay 1 sec, Priority 1
Timer intervals configured:
Hello 10, Dead 40, Retransmit 5
DR: 0.0.0.0 BDR: 0.0.0.0
Number of I/F scoped LSAs is 2
0 Pending LSAs for LSUpdate in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
0 Pending LSAs for LSAck in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
BFD: Detect Mul: 3, Min Rx interval: 300, Min Tx interval: 300
Show IPv6 OSPF Neighbor
quagga# show ipv6 ospf6 neighbor detail
Neighbor 0.0.0.4%swp2s0
Area 0.0.0.0 via interface swp2s0 (ifindex 4)
His IfIndex: 3 Link-local address: fe80::202:ff:fe00:a
State Full for a duration of 02:32:33
His choice of DR/BDR 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0, Priority 1
DbDesc status: Slave SeqNum: 0x76000000
Summary-List: 0 LSAs
Request-List: 0 LSAs
Retrans-List: 0 LSAs
0 Pending LSAs for DbDesc in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
0 Pending LSAs for LSReq in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
0 Pending LSAs for LSUpdate in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
0 Pending LSAs for LSAck in Time 00:00:00 [thread off]
BFD: Type: single hop
Detect Mul: 3, Min Rx interval: 300, Min Tx interval: 300
Status: Up, Last update: 0:00:00:20
Show IPv4 OSPF Interface
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quagga# show ip ospf interface swp2s0
swp2s0 is up
ifindex 4, MTU 1500 bytes, BW 0 Kbit <UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,
MULTICAST>
Internet Address 11.0.0.21/30, Area 0.0.0.0
MTU mismatch detection:enabled
Router ID 0.0.0.3, Network Type POINTOPOINT, Cost: 10
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State Point-To-Point, Priority 1
No designated router on this network
No backup designated router on this network
Multicast group memberships: OSPFAllRouters
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10s, Dead 40s, Wait 40s,
Retransmit 5
Hello due in 7.056s
Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1
BFD: Detect Mul: 5, Min Rx interval: 500, Min Tx interval: 500
Show IPv4 OSPF Neighbor
quagga# show ip ospf neighbor detail
Neighbor 0.0.0.4, interface address 11.0.0.22
In the area 0.0.0.0 via interface swp2s0
Neighbor priority is 1, State is Full, 5 state changes
Most recent state change statistics:
Progressive change 3h59m04s ago
DR is 0.0.0.0, BDR is 0.0.0.0
Options 2 *|-|-|-|-|-|E|*
Dead timer due in 38.501s
Database Summary List 0
Link State Request List 0
Link State Retransmission List 0
Thread Inactivity Timer on
Thread Database Description Retransmision off
Thread Link State Request Retransmission on
Thread Link State Update Retransmission on
BFD: Type: single hop
Detect Mul: 5, Min Rx interval: 500, Min Tx interval: 500
Status: Down, Last update: 0:00:01:29
Troubleshooting BFD
To troubleshoot BFD, use ptmctl -b. For more information, see Prescriptive Topology Manager - PTM
(see page 139).
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Equal Cost Multipath Load Sharing - Hardware ECMP
Cumulus Linux supports hardware-based equal cost multipath (ECMP) load sharing. ECMP is enabled
by default in Cumulus Linux. Load sharing occurs automatically for all routes with multiple next hops
installed. ECMP load sharing supports both IPv4 and IPv6 routes.
ECMP is not supported in Cumulus RMP.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 345)
Understanding Equal Cost Routing (see page 345)
Understanding ECMP Hashing (see page 346)
Using cl-ecmpcalc to Determine the Hash Result (see page 346)
cl-ecmpcalc Limitations (see page 347)
ECMP Hash Buckets (see page 347)
Resilient Hashing (see page 349)
Resilient Hash Buckets (see page 350)
Removing Next Hops (see page 350)
Adding Next Hops (see page 352)
Configuring Resilient Hashing (see page 352)
Caveats (see page 353)
Useful Links (see page 353)
Understanding Equal Cost Routing
ECMP operates only on equal cost routes in the Linux routing table.
In this example, the 10.1.1.0/24 route has two possible next hops that have been installed in the
routing table:
$ ip route show 10.1.1.0/24
10.1.1.0/24
proto zebra
metric 20
nexthop via 192.168.1.1 dev swp1 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 192.168.2.1 dev swp2 weight 1 onlink
For routes to be considered equal they must:
Originate from the same routing protocol. Routes from different sources are not considered
equal. For example, a static route and an OSPF route are not considered for ECMP load sharing.
Have equal cost. If two routes from the same protocol are unequal, only the best route is
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Have equal cost. If two routes from the same protocol are unequal, only the best route is
installed in the routing table.
BGP does not install multiple routes by default. To do so, use the maximum-paths command.
See the ECMP section (see page 318) of the BGP chapter for more information.
Understanding ECMP Hashing
Once multiple routes are installed in the routing table, a hash is used to determine which path a packet
follows.
Cumulus Linux hashes on the following fields:
IP protocol
Ingress interface
Source IPv4 or IPv6 address
Destination IPv4 or IPv6 address
For TCP/UDP frames, Cumulus Linux also hashes on:
Source port
Destination port
To prevent out of order packets, ECMP hashing is done on a per-packet basis. However, all packets with
the same source and destination IP addresses and the same source and destination ports always hash
to the same next hop. ECMP hashing does not keep a record of flow states.
ECMP hashing does not keep a record of packets that have hashed to each next hop and does not
guarantee that traffic sent to each next hop is equal.
Using cl-ecmpcalc to Determine the Hash Result
Since the hash is deterministic and always provides the same result for the same input, you can query
the hardware and determine the hash result of a given input. This is useful when determining exactly
which path a flow takes through a network.
On Cumulus Linux, use the cl-ecmpcalc command to determine a hardware hash result.
In order to use cl-ecmpcalc, all fields that are used in the hash must be provided. This includes
ingress interface, layer 3 source IP, layer 3 destination IP, layer 4 source port and layer 4 destination
port.
$ sudo cl-ecmpcalc -i swp1 -s 10.0.0.1 -d 10.0.0.1 -p tcp --sport 20000 -dport 80
ecmpcalc: will query hardware
swp3
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If any field is omitted, cl-ecmpcalc fails.
$ sudo cl-ecmpcalc -i swp1 -s 10.0.0.1 -d 10.0.0.1 -p tcp
ecmpcalc: will query hardware
usage: cl-ecmpcalc [-h] [-v] [-p PROTOCOL] [-s SRC] [--sport SPORT] [-d
DST]
[--dport DPORT] [--vid VID] [-i IN_INTERFACE]
[--sportid SPORTID] [--smodid SMODID] [-o OUT_INTERFACE]
[--dportid DPORTID] [--dmodid DMODID] [--hardware]
[--nohardware] [-hs HASHSEED]
[-hf HASHFIELDS [HASHFIELDS ...]]
[--hashfunction {crc16-ccitt,crc16-bisync}] [-e EGRESS]
[-c MCOUNT]
cl-ecmpcalc: error: --sport and --dport required for TCP and UDP frames
cl-ecmpcalc Limitations
cl-ecmpcalc can only take input interfaces that can be converted to a single physical port in the port
tab file, like the physical switch ports (swp). Virtual interfaces like bridges, bonds, and subinterfaces are
not supported.
ECMP Hash Buckets
When multiple routes are installed in the routing table, each route is assigned to an ECMP bucket. When
the ECMP hash is executed the result of the hash determines which bucket gets used.
In the following example, 4 next hops exist. Three different flows are hashed to different hash buckets.
Each next hop is assigned to a unique hash bucket.
Adding a Next Hop
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Adding a Next Hop
When a next hop is added, a new hash bucket is created. The assignment of next hops to hash buckets,
as well as the hash result, may change when additional next hops are added.
A new next hop is added and a new hash bucket is created. As a result, the hash and hash bucket
assignment changed, causing the existing flows to be sent to different next hops.
Removing a Next Hop
When a next hop is removed, the remaining hash bucket assignments may change, again, potentially
changing the next hop selected for an existing flow.
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A next hop fails and the next hop and hash bucket are removed. The remaining next hops may be
reassigned.
In most cases, the modification of hash buckets has no impact on traffic flows as traffic is being forward
to a single end host. In deployments where multiple end hosts are using the same IP address (anycast),
resilient hashing must be used.
Resilient Hashing
In Cumulus Linux when a next hop fails is or is removed from an ECMP pool, the hashing or hash
bucket assignment can change. For deployments where there is a need for flows to always use the
same next hop, like TCP anycast deployments, this can create session failures.
The ECMP hash performed with resilient hashing is exactly the same as the default hashing mode. Only
the method in which next hops are assigned to hash buckets differs.
Resilient hashing supports both IPv4 and IPv6 routes.
Resilient hashing is not enabled by default. See below for steps on configuring it.
Resilient hashing prevents disruptions when new next hops are removed. It does not prevent
disruption when next hops are added.
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Resilient Hash Buckets
When resilient hashing is configured, a fixed number of buckets are defined. Next hops are then
assigned in round robin fashion to each of those buckets. In this example, 12 buckets are created and
four next hops are assigned.
Removing Next Hops
Unlike default ECMP hashing, when a next hop needs to be removed, the number of hash buckets does
not change.
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With 12 buckets assigned and four next hops, instead of reducing the number of buckets — which
would impact flows to known good hosts — the remaining next hops replace the failed next hop.
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After the failed next hop is removed, the remaining next hops are installed as replacements. This
prevents impact to any flows that hash to working next hops.
Adding Next Hops
Resilient hashing does not prevent possible impact to existing flows when new next hops are added.
Due to the fact there are a fixed number of buckets, a new next hop requires reassigning next hops to
buckets.
As a result, some flows may hash to new next hops, which can impact anycast deployments.
Configuring Resilient Hashing
Resilient hashing is not enabled by default. When resilient hashing is enabled, 65,536 buckets are
created to be shared among all ECMP routes.
An ECMP route counts as a single route with multiple next hops. The following example is
considered to be a single ECMP route:
$ ip route show 10.1.1.0/24
10.1.1.0/24
proto zebra
metric 20
nexthop via 192.168.1.1 dev swp1 weight 1 onlink
nexthop via 192.168.2.1 dev swp2 weight 1 onlink
All ECMP routes must use the same number of buckets (the number of buckets cannot be configured
per ECMP route).
The number of buckets can be configured as 64, 128, 256, 512 or 1024; the default is 128:
Number of Hash Buckets
Number of Supported ECMP Routes
64
1024
128
512
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Number of Hash Buckets
Number of Supported ECMP Routes
256
256
512
128
1024
64
A larger number of ECMP buckets reduces the impact on adding new next hops to an ECMP route.
However, the system supports fewer ECMP routes. If the maximum number of ECMP routes have been
installed, new ECMP routes log an error and are not installed.
To enable resilient hashing, edit /etc/cumulus/datapath/traffic.conf:
1. Enable resilient hashing:
# Enable resilient hashing
resilient_hash_enable = TRUE
2. (Optional) Edit the number of hash buckets:
# Resilient hashing flowset entries per ECMP group
# Valid values - 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024
resilient_hash_entries_ecmp = 256
3. Restart the switchd service:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service switchd restart
Caveats
Resilient hashing is only supported on switches with the Trident II chipsets. If netshow is installed, you
can run netshow system to determine the chipset.
Useful Links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equal-cost_multi-path_routing
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Management VRF
Management VRF (multiple routing tables and forwarding) provides routing separation between the outof-band management network and the in-band data plane network. When management VRF is
enabled, applications running on control plane processor communicate out from the management
network unless configured otherwise.
Management VRF creates two routing tables within the Linux kernel:
main: This is the routing table for all the data plane switch ports.
mgmt: This is the routing table for eth0.
Cumulus Linux only supports eth0 as the management interface. VLAN subinterfaces, bonds, bridges
and the front panel switch ports are not supported as management interfaces.
Management VRF assumes all traffic generated by the switch (except via Quagga) will exit eth0 by default,
so unless there is application-level intervention, any packet generated by an application on the switch
will only reference the eth0 routing table (the mgmt table). Applications that need to communicate over
the data plane network (the main table) must bind to the loopback IP address.
For example, if the switch is responding to an inbound SSH connection or inbound ping, management
VRF does not force the traffic out through eth0. However, if you attempt to SSH from the switch
outbound, then management VRF will force the traffic to exit eth0, unless you specify otherwise. For
example, when initiating an SSH connection, you can use -b <loopback IP address> to SSH to a
device via the data plane network.
Enabling Management VRF
To enable management VRF, complete the following steps:
1. Update the apt source list:
$ sudo apt-get update
2. Install the management VRF package:
sudo apt-get install cl-mgmtvrf
3. Run the management VRF script:
sudo cl-mgmtvrf --enable
Management VRF has hooks in the eth0 DHCP client to force the correct mgmt table
routes when the DHCP address is obtained. If you use static IP address assignment on
eth0, you have to manually configure the routes before you execute this step. See the
'Using Static IP Addresses on eth0' section below for more information.
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4. Restart Quagga:
sudo service quagga restart
You can also bounce adjacency to the peer advertising the default route to get the
default route from the data plane network into the main routing table.
Verifying Management VRF
To check the status of management VRF, run:
cl-mgmtvrf --status
This will display cl-mgmtvrf is NOT enabled or cl-mgmtvrf is enabled, depending upon
whether management VRF is disabled or enabled.
Disabling Management VRF
To disable managment VRF, run:
sudo cl-mgmtvrf --disable
If management VRF is disabled and the data plane adds a default route, the default route via
the management interface will not be added to main routing table.
Using ping or traceroute
By default, issuing a ping or traceroute assumes the packet should be sent to the dataplane network
(the main routing table). If you wish to use ping or traceroute on the control plane network, use the
-I flag for ping and -i for traceroute.
ping -I eth0
or
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sudo traceroute -i eth0
DNS does not work with traceroute or ping unless you explicitly add support for the DNS
server in the main routing table.
OSPF and BGP
No changes are required for either BGP or OSPF. Quagga has been updated in Cumulus Linux 2.5.3 to
be aware of the management VRF and automatically sends packets based on the switch port routing
table. This includes BGP peering via loopback interfaces. BGP does routing lookups in the default table.
SNMP and sFlow
Both SNMP and sFlow do not currently have a method to use a switch port to send data. For any
netflow collectors or SNMP traps, this traffic gets sent out to eth0. Cumulus Networks will support
switch ports in the future.
Note: For SNMP, this restriction only applies to traps. SNMP polling is not affected.
SSH
If you SSH to the switch through a switch port, it works as expected. If you need to SSH from the device
out a switch port, use ssh -b <ip_address_of_swp_port>. For example:
cumulus@leaf1$ ip addr show swp17
19: swp17: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast
state UP qlen 500
link/ether ec:f4:bb:fc:19:23 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.23.23.2/24 scope global swp17
inet6 fe80::eef4:bbff:fefc:1923/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
cumulus@leaf1$ ssh -b 10.23.23.2 10.3.3.3
Viewing the Routing Tables
When you look at the routing table with ip route show, you are looking at the switch port (main)
table. You can also see the dataplane routing table with ip route show table main.
To look at information about eth0 (the management routing table), use ip route show table mgmt.
cumulus@leaf1$ ip route show table mgmt
default via 192.168.0.1 dev eth0
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cumulus@leaf1$ ip route show
default via 10.23.23.3 dev swp17
proto zebra
metric 20
10.3.3.3 via 10.23.23.3 dev swp17
10.23.23.0/24 dev swp17
proto kernel
scope link
src 10.23.23.2
192.168.0.0/24 dev eth0
proto kernel
scope link
src 192.168.0.11
Viewing a Single Route
Note that if you use ip route get to return information about a single route, the command resolves
over the mgmt table by default. To get information about the route in the switching silicon, use:
ip route get <addr> from <loopback IP>
Or:
sudo cl-rctl ip route show <addr>
Using Static IP Addresses on eth0
If you're using DHCP on your management network, the Management VRF feature has hooks in the
eth0 DHCP client to automatically add the correct default and interface routes into the mgmt table
when the DHCP address is obtained.
If a static IP address is used in the eth0 definition, you must manually control the connected and static
routes attached to eth0 before running cl-mgmtvrf --enable
To do this change the configuration in the /etc/network/interfaces as follows:
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.1.1.254/24
post-up ip route add 192.1.1.0/24 dev eth0 table mgmt
post-up ip route add default via 192.1.1.1 dev eth0 table mgmt
post-up ip route del 192.1.1.0/24 dev eth0 table main
post-down ip route del 192.1.1.0/24 dev eth0 table mgmt
post-down ip route del default via 192.1.1.1 dev eth0 table mgmt
Then bounce eth0:
sudo ifdown eth0; sudo ifup eth0
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Enabling management VRF via cl-mgmtvrf --enable after this step should lead to the expected
routing behavior.
The post-down commands are there to ensure that no routing race condition can occur on
an interface experiencing route flapping. As a result, the following error messages during a
link flap are harmless and can be ignored:
warning: eth0: post-down cmd 'ip route del 192.1.1.0/24 dev eth0
table mgmt' failed (RTNETLINK answers: No such process)
warning: eth0: post-down cmd 'ip route del default 192.1.1.1 via
eth0 table mgmt' failed (Error: either "to" is duplicate, or
"192.1.1.1" is a garbage.)
Incompatibility with cl-ns-mgmt
If you are using the Cumulus Linux management namespace feature (via the cl-ns-mgmt
utility), you cannot enable management VRF, as the two features are incompatible.
Management VRF does not run if Cumulus Linux detects that you have management
namespaces enabled, and vice versa.
Log Files
/var/log/cl-mgmtvrf.log
Caveats and Errata
If you are using an MLAG configuration (see page 183) when the eth0 management interface is
enabled, you cannot specify a backup link (via clagd-backup-ip) over the switch ports.
Duplicate IP addresses are not supported i.e. you cannot have the same IP address in both the
management network and the data network.
DHCP relay does not work with cl-mgmtvrf when the host and server facing ports are in the data
plane. For more information, refer to the knowledge base article.
Monitoring
and Troubleshooting
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Monitoring and Troubleshooting
This chapter introduces monitoring and troubleshooting Cumulus Linux.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 359)
Commands (see page 359)
Using the Serial Console (see page 359)
Configuring the Serial Console on PowerPC or ARM Switches (see page 359)
Configuring the Serial Console on x86 Switches (see page 360)
Diagnostics Using cl-support (see page 361)
Sending Log Files to a syslog Server (see page 362)
Next Steps (see page 364)
Commands
cl-support
fw_setenv
Using the Serial Console
The serial console can be a useful tool for debugging issues, especially when you find yourself
rebooting the switch often or if you don’t have a reliable network connection.
The default serial console baud rate is 115200, which is the baud rate ONIE uses.
Configuring the Serial Console on PowerPC or ARM Switches
On PowerPC switches, the U-Boot environment variable baudrate identifies the baud rate of the serial
console. To change the baudrate variable, use the fw_setenv command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo fw_setenv baudrate 9600
Updating environment variable: `baudrate'
Proceed with update [N/y]? y
You must reboot the switch for the baudrate change to take effect.
The valid values for baudrate are:
300
600
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600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
38400
115200
Configuring the Serial Console on x86 Switches
On x86 switches, you configure serial console baud rate by editing grub.
Incorrect configuration settings in grub can cause the switch to be inaccessible via the
console. Grub changes should be carefully reviewed before implementation.
The valid values for the baud rate are:
300
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
38400
115200
To change the serial console baud rate:
1. Edit /etc/default/grub. The two relevant lines in /etc/default/grub are as follows;
replace the 115200 value with a valid value specified above in the --speed variable in the first
line and in the console variable in the second line:
GRUB_SERIAL_COMMAND="serial --port=0x2f8 --speed=115200 --word=8 -parity=no --stop=1"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="console=ttyS1,115200n8
cl_platform=accton_as5712_54x"
2. After you save your changes to the grub configuration, type the following at the command
prompt:
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cumulus@switch:~$ update-grub
3. If you plan on accessing your switch's BIOS over the serial console, you need to update the baud
rate in the switch BIOS. For more information, see this knowledge base article.
4. Reboot the switch.
Diagnostics Using cl-support
You can use cl-support to generate a single export file that contains various details and the
configuration from a switch. This is useful for remote debugging and troubleshooting.
You should run cl-support before you submit a support request to Cumulus Networks as this file
helps in the investigation of issues:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-support -h
Usage: cl-support [-h] [reason]...
Args:
[reason]: Optional reason to give for invoking cl-support.
Saved into tarball's reason.txt file.
Options:
-h: Print this usage statement
Example output:
cumulus@switch:~$ ls /var/support
cl_support_20130806_032720.tar.xz
The directory structure is compressed using LZMA2 compression and can be extracted using the unxz
command:
cumulus@switch:~$ cd /var/support
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo unxz cl_support_20130729_140040.tar.xz
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo tar xf cl_support_20130729_140040.tar
cumulus@switch:~$ ls -l cl_support_20130729_140040/
-rwxr-xr-x
1 root root 7724 Jul 29 14:00 cl-support
-rw-r--r--
1 root root
drwxr-xr-x
2 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 core
52 Jul 29 14:00 cmdline.args
drwxr-xr-x 64 root root 4096 Jul 29 13:51 etc
drwxr-xr-x
4 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 proc
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drwxr-xr-x
2 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:01 support
drwxr-xr-x
3 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 sys
drwxr-xr-x
3 root root 4096 Aug
8 15:22 var
The directory contains the following elements:
Directory
Description
core
Contains the core files generated from Cumulus Linux HAL process, switchd.
etc
Is a replica of the switch’s /etc directory. /etc contains all the general Linux
configuration files, as well as configurations for the system’s network interfaces, quagga,
jdoo, and other packages.
log
Is a replica of the switch's /var/log directory. Most Cumulus Linux log files are located
in this directory. Notable log files include switchd.log, daemon.log, quagga log files,
and syslog. For more information, read this knowledge base article.
proc
Is a replica of the switch’s /proc directory. In Linux, /proc contains runtime system
information (like system memory, devices mounted, and hardware configuration). These
files are not actual files but the current state of the system.
support
Is a set of files containing further system information, which is obtained by cl-support
running commands such as ps -aux, netstat -i, and so forth — even the routing
tables.
cl-support, when untarred, contains a reason.txt file. This file indicates what reason triggered it.
When contacting Cumulus Networks technical support, please attach the cl-support file if possible.
For more information about cl-support, read Understanding and Decoding the cl-support Output File
(see page 386).
Sending Log Files to a syslog Server
All logging on Cumulus Linux is done with rsyslog. rsyslog provides both local logging to the syslog
file as well as the ability to export logs to an external syslog server.
Local logging: Most logs within Cumulus Linux are sent to files in the /var/log directory. Most
relevant information is placed within the /var/log/syslog file. For more information on specific log
files, see Troubleshooting Log Files (see page 389).
Export logging: To send syslog files to an external syslog server, add a rule specifying to copy all
messages (*.*) to the IP address and switch port of your syslog server in the rsyslog configuration
files as described below.
In the following example, 192.168.1.2 is the remote syslog server and 514 is the port number. For UDPbased syslog, use a single @ before the IP address: @192.168.1.2:514. For TCP-based syslog, use two
@@ before the IP address: @@192.168.1.2:514.
1.
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1. Create a file called something like /etc/rsyslog.d/90-remotesyslog.conf. Make sure it
starts with a number lower than 99-rsyslog.conf. Add content like the following.
*.*
@192.168.1.2:514
2. Restart rsyslog.
service rsyslog restart
Starting with Cumulus Linux 2.5.4, all Cumulus Linux rules have been moved from /etc
/rsyslog.conf into separate files in /etc/rsyslog.d/, which are called at the end of the
GLOBAL DIRECTIVES section of /etc/rsyslog.conf. As a result, the RULES section at the
end of rsyslog.conf is ignored because the messages have to be processed by the rules in
/etc/rsyslog.d and then dropped by the last line in /etc/rsyslog.d/99-syslog.conf.
If you need to send other log files to a syslog server, configure a new file in /etc/rsyslog.d, as
above, and add the following lines:
$ModLoad imfile
$InputFileName /var/log/switchd.log
$InputFileStateFile logfile-log
$InputFileTag switchd:
$InputFileSeverity info
$InputFileFacility local7
$InputFilePollInterval 5
$InputRunFileMonitor
if $programname == 'switchd' then @192.168.1.2:514
Then restart syslog:
service rsyslog restart
In the above configuration, each setting is defined as follows:
Setting
Description
$ModLoad imfile
Enables the rsyslog module to watch file contents.
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Setting
Description
$InputFileName
The file to be sent to the syslog server. In this example, you are going to
send changes made to /var/log/switchd.log to the syslog server.
$InputFileStateFile
This is used by rsyslog to track state of the file being monitored. This must
be unique for each file being monitored.
$InputFileTag
Defines the syslog tag that will precede the syslog messages. In this
example, all logs are prefaced with switchd.
$InputFileSeverity
Defines the logging severity level sent to the syslog server.
$InputFileFacility
Defines the logging format. local7 is common.
$InputFilePollInterval
Defines how frequently in seconds rsyslog looks for new information in the
file. Lower values provide faster updates but create slightly more load on the
CPU.
$InputRunFileMonitor
Enables the file monitor module with the configured settings.
In most cases, the settings to customize include:
Setting
Description
$InputFileName
The file to stream to the syslog server.
$InputFileStateFile
A unique name for each file being watched.
$InputFileTag
A prefix to the log message on the server.
Finally, the if $programname line is what sends the log files to the syslog server. It follows the same
syntax as the /var/log/syslog file, where @ indicates UDP, 192.168.1.2 is the IP address of the
syslog server, and 514 is the UDP port. The value switchd must match the value in $InputFileTag.
Next Steps
The links below discuss more specific monitoring topics.
Single User Mode - Boot Recovery
Use single user mode to assist in troubleshooting system boot issues or for password recovery.
Entering single user mode is platform-specific, so follow the appropriate steps for your x86, ARM or
PowerPC switch.
Contents
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Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 364)
Entering Single User Mode on a PowerPC or ARM Switch (see page 365)
Entering Single User Mode on an x86 Switch (see page 365)
Entering Single User Mode on a PowerPC or ARM Switch
1. From the console, boot the switch, interrupting the U-Boot countdown to enter the U-Boot
prompt. Enter the following:
=> setenv lbootargs init=/bin/sh
=> boot
2. After the system boots, the shell command prompt appears. In this mode, you can change the
root password or test a boot service that is hanging the boot process.
3. Reboot the system.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo reboot -f
Restarting the system.
Entering Single User Mode on an x86 Switch
From the console, boot the switch. At the GRUB menu, select the image slot you wish to boot into with
a password:
GNU GRUB
version 1.99-27+deb7u2
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Cumulus Linux 2.5.0-be24dc3-201412021541-build - slot 1
|
|Cumulus Linux 2.5.0-be24dc3-201412021541-build - slot 1 (recovery mode)
|
|Cumulus Linux 2.5.0-b1bb3b7-201412090640-build - slot 2
|
|Cumulus Linux 2.5.0-b1bb3b7-201412090640-build - slot 2 (recovery mode)
|
|ONIE
|
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------|
In this example, you are selecting the slot2 image. Under the linux option, add init=/bin/bash:
GNU GRUB
version 1.99-27+deb7u2
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| insmod part_gpt
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|^
| insmod ext2
|
| set root='(hd0,gpt3)'
|
| search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root c42be287-5321-4e77-975f-54e237a\|
| d72b0
|
| echo 'Loading Linux
...'
|
| linux /cl-vmlinuz-3.2.60-1+deb7u1+cl2.5-slot-2 root=UUID=f01a2d40-d2fe-\|
| 435b-b3d1-7edc1eb0c42f console=ttyS0,115200n8 cl_platform=dell_s6000_s1\|
| 220 quiet active=2 init=/bin/bash
|
| echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...' A
|
| initrd /cl-initrd.img-3.2.60-1+deb7u1+cl2.5-slot-2
|
|
|
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Type Ctrl+x or F10 to boot with this change.
When you are done making changes as a single user, run reboot -f to boot the switch back to a
normal state:
Begin: Running /scripts/init-bottom ... done.
bash: cannot set terminal process group (-1): Inappropriate ioctl for device
bash: no job control in this shell
cumulus@switch:/# sudo reboot -f
Monitoring Interfaces and Transceivers Using ethtool
The ethtool command enables you to query or control the network driver and hardware settings. It
takes the device name (like swp1) as an argument. When the device name is the only argument to
ethtool, it prints the current settings of the network device. See man ethtool(8) for details. Not all
options are currently supported on switch port interfaces.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 366)
Commands (see page 366)
Monitoring Interfaces Using ethtool (see page 367)
Viewing and Clearing Interface Counters (see page 368)
Monitoring Switch Port SFP/QSFP Using ethtool (see page 369)
Commands
cl-netstat
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ethtool
Monitoring Interfaces Using ethtool
To check the status of an interface using ethtool:
cumulus@switch:~$ ethtool swp1
Settings for swp1:
Supported ports: [ FIBRE ]
Supported link modes:
1000baseT/Full
10000baseT/Full
Supported pause frame use: No
Supports auto-negotiation: No
Advertised link modes:
1000baseT/Full
Advertised pause frame use: No
Advertised auto-negotiation: No
Speed: 10000Mb/s
Duplex: Full
Port: FIBRE
PHYAD: 0
Transceiver: external
Auto-negotiation: off
Current message level: 0x00000000 (0)
Link detected: yes
To query interface statistics:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ethtool -S swp1
NIC statistics:
HwIfInOctets: 1435339
HwIfInUcastPkts: 11795
HwIfInBcastPkts: 3
HwIfInMcastPkts: 4578
HwIfOutOctets: 14866246
HwIfOutUcastPkts: 11791
HwIfOutMcastPkts: 136493
HwIfOutBcastPkts: 0
HwIfInDiscards: 0
HwIfInL3Drops: 0
HwIfInBufferDrops: 0
HwIfInAclDrops: 28
HwIfInDot3LengthErrors: 0
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HwIfInErrors: 0
SoftInErrors: 0
SoftInDrops: 0
SoftInFrameErrors: 0
HwIfOutDiscards: 0
HwIfOutErrors: 0
HwIfOutQDrops: 0
HwIfOutNonQDrops: 0
SoftOutErrors: 0
SoftOutDrops: 0
SoftOutTxFifoFull: 0
HwIfOutQLen: 0
Viewing and Clearing Interface Counters
Interface counters contain information about an interface. You can view this information when you run
cl-netstat, ifconfig, or cat /proc/net/dev. You can also use cl-netstat to save or clear this
information:
cumulus@switch:~# sudo cl-netstat
Kernel Interface table
Iface
MTU Met
TX_DRP TX_OVR
RX_OK RX_ERR RX_DRP RX_OVR
TX_OK TX_ERR
Flg
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------eth0
1500
0
0
lo
0
611
0
0
0
487
0
16436
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
BMRU
0
0
swp1
1500
0
0
0
LRU
0
BMU
cumulus@switch:~# sudo :~# cl-netstat -c
Cleared counters
Option
Description
-c
Copies and clears statistics. It does not clear counters in the kernel or hardware.
-d
Deletes saved statistics, either the uid or the specified tag.
-D
Deletes all saved statistics.
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Option
Description
-l
Lists saved tags.
-r
Displays raw statistics (unmodified output of cl-netstat).
-t <tag name>
Saves statistics with <tag name>.
-v
Prints cl-netstat version and exits.
Monitoring Switch Port SFP/QSFP Using ethtool
The ethtool -m command provides switch port SFP information. It shows connector information,
vendor data, and more:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ethtool -m swp1
swp1: SFP detected
Connector : CopperPigtail
EncodingCodes : Unspecified
ExtIdentOfTypeOfTransceiver : GBIC/SFP defined by twowire interface ID
LengthCable(UnitsOfm) : 1
NominalSignallingRate(UnitsOf100Mbd) : 103
RateIdentifier : Unspecified
ReceivedPowerMeasurementType : OMA
TransceiverCodes :
SFP+CableTechnology : Passive Cable
TypeOfTransceiver : SFP or SFP Plus
VendorDataCode(yymmdd) : 110830
VendorName : Amphenol
VendorOUI : Amp
VendorPN : 571540001
VendorRev : M
VendorSN : APF11350017C4V
Resource Diagnostics Using cl-resource-query
You can use cl-resource-query to retrieve information about host entries, MAC entries, L2 and L3
routes, and ECMPs (equal-cost multi-path routes, see Load Balancing (see page 290)) that are in use.
This is especially useful because Cumulus Linux syncs routes between the kernel and the switching
silicon. If the required resource pools in hardware fill up, new kernel routes can cause existing routes
to move from being fully allocated to being partially allocated.
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In order to avoid this, routes in the hardware should be monitored and kept below the ASIC limits. For
example, on systems with a Trident II chipset, the limits are as follows:
routes: 8092 <<<< if all routes are IPv6, or 16384 if all routes are IPv4
long mask routes 2048 <<<< these are routes with a mask longer than the
route mask limit
route mask limit 64
host_routes: 8192
ecmp_nhs: 16346
ecmp_nhs_per_route: 52
This translates to about 314 routes with ECMP next hops, if every route has the maximum ECMP NHs.
For systems with a Trident+ chipset, the limits are as follows:
routes: 16384 <<<< if all routes are IPv4
long mask routes 256 <<<< these are routes with a mask longer than the
route mask limit
route mask limit 64
host_routes: 8192
ecmp_nhs: 4044
ecmp_nhs_per_route: 52
This translates to about 77 routes with ECMP next hops, if every route has the maximum ECMP NHs.
You can monitor this in Cumulus Linux with the cl-resource-query command. Results vary between
switches running on Trident+ and Trident II chipsets.
cl-resource-query results for a Trident II switch:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-resource-query
Host entries:
1,
0% of maximum value
8192 <<<< this is
the default software-imposed limit, 50% of the hardware limit
IPv4 neighbors:
1
<<<< these are counts of the number
of valid entries in the table
IPv6 neighbors:
0
IPv4 entries:
13,
0% of maximum value
32668
IPv6 entries:
18,
0% of maximum value
16384
IPv4 Routes:
13
IPv6 Routes:
18
Total Routes:
31,
0% of maximum value
32768
0,
0% of maximum value
16346
12,
0% of maximum value
32768
ECMP nexthops:
MAC entries:
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cl-resource-query results for a Trident+ switch:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-resource-query
Host entries:
6,
0% of maximum value
4096 <<< same as
above
IPv4 neighbors:
6
IPv6 neighbors:
0
IPv4/IPv6 entries:
33,
0% of maximum value
16284
0,
0% of maximum value
256
31,
0% of maximum value
32768
ECMP nexthops:
0,
0% of maximum value
4041
MAC entries:
0,
0% of maximum value 131072
Long IPv6 entries:
IPv4 Routes:
29
IPv6 Routes:
2
Total Routes:
Monitoring System Hardware
You monitor system hardware in these ways, using:
decode-syseeprom
sensors
smond
Net-SNMP
watchdog
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 371)
Commands (see page 372)
Monitoring Hardware Using decode-syseeprom (see page 372)
Command Options (see page 372)
Related Commands (see page 373)
Monitoring Hardware Using sensors (see page 373)
Command Options (see page 374)
Monitoring Switch Hardware Using SNMP (see page 375)
Starting SNMP daemon (see page 375)
Managing the Switch (see page 375)
Public Community Disabled (see page 377)
Monitoring System Units Using smond (see page 377)
Command Options (see page 378)
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Keeping the Switch Alive Using the Hardware Watchdog (see page 378)
Configuration Files (see page 379)
Useful Links (see page 379)
Commands
decode-syseeprom
dmidecode
lshw
sensors
smond
Monitoring Hardware Using decode-syseeprom
The decode-syseeprom command enables you to retrieve information about the switch's EEPROM. If
the EEPROM is writable, you can set values on the EEPROM.
For example:
cumulus@switch:~# decode-syseeprom
TlvInfo Header:
Id String:
TlvInfo
Version:
1
Total Length: 114
TLV Name
Code Len Value
-------------------- ---- --- ----Product Name
0x21
4 4804
Part Number
0x22
Device Version
0x26
Serial Number
0x23
19 D1012023918PE000012
Manufacture Date
0x25
19 10/09/2013 20:39:02
Base MAC Address
0x24
6 00:E0:EC:25:7B:D0
MAC Addresses
0x2A
Vendor Name
0x2D
Label Revision
0x27
4 4804
Manufacture Country
0x2C
2 CN
CRC-32
0xFE
4 0x96543BC5
14 R0596-F0009-00
1 2
2 53
17 Penguin Computing
(checksum valid)
Command Options
Usage: /usr/cumulus/bin/decode-syseeprom [-a][-r][-s [args]][-t]
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Option
Description
-h, –
help
Displays the help message and exits.
-a
Prints the base MAC address for switch interfaces.
-r
Prints the number of MACs allocated for switch interfaces.
-s
Sets the EEPROM content if the EEPROM is writable. args can be supplied in command line
in a comma separated list of the form '<field>=<value>, ...'. ',' and '=' are
illegal characters in field names and values. Fields that are not specified will default to their
current values. If args are supplied in the command line, they will be written without
confirmation. If args is empty, the values will be prompted interactively.
-t
TARGET
Selects the target EEPROM (board, psu2, psu1) for the read or write operation; default is
board.
-e, –
serial
Prints the device serial number.
Related Commands
You can also use the dmidecode command to retrieve hardware configuration information that’s been
populated in the BIOS.
You can use apt-get to install the lshw program on the switch, which also retrieves hardware
configuration information.
Monitoring Hardware Using sensors
The sensors command provides a method for monitoring the health of your switch hardware, such as
power, temperature and fan speeds. This command executes lm-sensors.
For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sensors
tmp75-i2c-6-48
Adapter: i2c-1-mux (chan_id 0)
temp1:
+39.0 C
(high = +75.0 C, hyst = +25.0 C)
tmp75-i2c-6-49
Adapter: i2c-1-mux (chan_id 0)
temp1:
+35.5 C
(high = +75.0 C, hyst = +25.0 C)
ltc4215-i2c-7-40
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Adapter: i2c-1-mux (chan_id 1)
in1:
+11.87 V
in2:
+11.98 V
power1:
12.98 W
curr1:
+1.09 A
max6651-i2c-8-48
Adapter: i2c-1-mux (chan_id 2)
fan1:
13320 RPM
fan2:
13560 RPM
(div = 1)
Output from the sensors command varies depending upon the switch hardware you use, as
each platform ships with a different type and number of sensors.
Command Options
Usage: sensors [OPTION]... [CHIP]...
Option
Description
-c, --config- Specify a config file; use - after -c to read the config file from stdin; by default,
file
sensors references the configuration file in /etc/sensors.d/.
-s, --set
Executes set statements in the config file (root only); sensors -s is run once at boot
time and applies all the settings to the boot drivers.
-f, -fahrenheit
Show temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit.
-A, --noadapter
Do not show the adapter for each chip.
--bus-list
Generate bus statements for sensors.conf.
If [CHIP] is not specified in the command, all chip info will be printed. Example chip names include:
lm78-i2c-0-2d *-i2c-0-2d
lm78-i2c-0-* *-i2c-0-*
lm78-i2c-*-2d *-i2c-*-2d
lm78-i2c-*-* *-i2c-*-*
lm78-isa-0290 *-isa-0290
lm78-isa-* *-isa-*
lm78-*
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Monitoring Switch Hardware Using SNMP
Starting SNMP daemon
Cumulus Linux ships with Net-SNMP v5.4.3. However, it is disabled by default in Cumulus Linux 2.0.x
and later. To enable Net-SNMP, use jdoo, which is the fork of monit version 5.2.5.
jdoo and monit are mutually exclusive, so the monit package is not installed on Cumulus
Linux 2.5.2 and later. If you would prefer to use monit, it will uninstall jdoo from Cumulus
Linux. However, Cumulus Networks will not provide support for issues with monit. Read this
knowledge base article for more information about upgrading to jdoo.
1. Edit /etc/default/snmpd and verify that SNMPDRUN=yes.
2. In order to use jdoo with snmpd, you need to add a configuration file called something like
snmpd.rc (the .rc suffix is required) to the /etc/jdoo/jdoorc.d/ directory. Add the following
content under the Services banner:
#######################################################################
#######
## Services
#######################################################################
#######
check process snmpd with pidfile /var/run/snmpd.pid
every 6 cycles
group networking
start program = "/etc/init.d/snmpd start"
stop program = "/etc/init.d/snmpd stop"
3. Then reload jdoo:
# sudo service jdoo reload
jdoo takes care of monitoring snmpd and starts the service, if it is not already running.
Managing the Switch
Once enabled, you can use SNMP to manage various components on the switch. The supported MIBs
include many publicly used MIBs as well as some MIBs developed by Cumulus Networks for Cumulus
Linux:
SNMP-FRAMEWORK
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SNMP-FRAMEWORK
SNMP-MPD
SNMP-USER-BASED-SM
SNMP-VIEW-BASED-ACM
SNMPv2
IP (includes ICMP)
TCP
UDP
UCD-SNMP (For information on exposing CPU and memory information via SNMP, see this
knowledge base article.)
IF-MIB
LLDP (note, you need to enable the SNMP subagent (see page 138) in LLDP)
LM-SENSORS MIB
NET-SNMP-EXTEND-MIB (See also this knowledge base article on extending NET-SNMP in
Cumulus Linux to include data from power supplies, fans and temperature sensors.)
Resource utilization: Cumulus Linux includes its own resource utilization MIB, which is similar to
using cl-resource-query. It monitors L3 entries by host, route, nexthops, ECMP groups and
L2 MAC/BDPU entries. The MIB is defined in /usr/share/snmp/Cumulus-Resource-QueryMIB.txt.
Discard counters: Cumulus Linux also includes its own counters MIB, defined in /usr/share
/snmp/Cumulus-Counters-MIB.txt.
The overall Cumulus Linux MIB is defined in /usr/share/snmp/Cumulus-Snmp-MIB.txt.
The Quagga and Zebra routes MIB is disabled in Cumulus Linux.
Some MIBs, like storage information, are not included by default in snmpd.conf in Cumulus
Linux. This results in some default views on common network tools (like librenms) to return
less than optimal data.
To include more of these MIBs, consider enabling all of the .1.3.6.1.2.1 range. This provides
for a very simple configuration file with little worry of any "default" MIBs being missed by the
monitoring system. However, this grants access to a large number of MIBs (all of the MIB2
MIBS), which could reveal more data than expected and consumes more CPU resources.
To enable the .1.3.6.1.2.1 range, replace line 39 - 71 in smpd.conf with the following code
snippet:
#####################################################################
##########
#
#
ACCESS CONTROL
#
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# system
view
systemonly
included
.1.3.6.1.2.1
included
.1.3.6.1.3.102
included
.1.0.8802.1.1.2
included
.1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.13.16
# quagga ospf6
view
systemonly
# lldpd
view
systemonly
#lmsensors
view
systemonly
# Cumulus specific
view
systemonly
included
.1.3.6.1.4.1.40310.1
view
systemonly
included
.1.3.6.1.4.1.40310.2
#rocommunity public
default
-V systemonly
Public Community Disabled
Public community is disabled by default in Cumulus Linux. To enable querying by agent, uncomment
the following line in /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf:
#rocommunity public default -V systemonly
Then restart snmpd:
cumulus@switch:!$ sudo service snmpd restart
Monitoring System Units Using smond
The smond daemon monitors system units like power supply and fan, updates their corresponding
LEDs, and logs the change in the state. Changes in system unit state are detected via the cpld
registers. smond utilizes these registers to read all sources, which impacts the health of the system unit,
determines the unit's health, and updates the system LEDs.
Use smonctl to display sensor information for the various system units:
cumulus@switch:~$ smonctl
Board
:
OK
Fan
:
OK
PSU1
:
OK
PSU2
:
BAD
):
OK
Temp1
(Networking ASIC Die Temp Sensor
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Temp10
(Right side of the board
):
OK
Temp2
(Near the CPU (Right)
):
OK
Temp3
(Top right corner
):
OK
Temp4
(Right side of Networking ASIC
):
OK
Temp5
(Middle of the board
):
OK
Temp6
(P2020 CPU die sensor
):
OK
Temp7
(Left side of the board
):
OK
Temp8
(Left side of the board
):
OK
Temp9
(Right side of the board
):
OK
Command Options
Usage: smonctl [OPTION]... [CHIP]...
Option
Description
-s SENSOR, --sensor SENSOR
Displays data for the specified sensor.
-v, --verbose
Displays detailed hardware sensors data.
For more information, read man smond and man smonctl.
Keeping the Switch Alive Using the Hardware Watchdog
Cumulus Linux includes a simplified version of the wd_keepalive(8) daemon from the standard
Debian package watchdog. wd_keepalive writes to a file called /dev/watchdog periodically to keep
the switch from resetting, at least once per minute. Each write delays the reboot time by another
minute. After one minute of inactivity where wd_keepalive doesn't write to /dev/watchdog, the
switch resets itself.
The watchdog is enabled by default on QuantaMesh BMS T1048-LB9 switches only; you must enable
the watchdog on all other switch platforms. When enabled, it starts when you boot the switch, before
switchd starts.
To enable the hardware watchdog, edit the /etc/watchdog.d/<your_platform> file and set
run_watchdog to 1:
run_watchdog=1
To disable the watchdog, edit the /etc/watchdog.d/<your_platform> file and set run_watchdog
to 0:
run_watchdog=0
Then stop the daemon:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service wd_keepalive stop
You can modify the settings for the watchdog — like the timeout setting and scheduler priority — in its
configuration file, /etc/watchdog.conf.
Configuration Files
/etc/cumulus/switchd.conf
/etc/cumulus/sysledcontrol.conf
/etc/sensors.d/<switch>.conf - sensor configuration file (do not edit it!)
/etc/watchdog.conf
Useful Links
http://packages.debian.org/search?keywords=lshw
http://lm-sensors.org
Net-SNMP tutorials
Monitoring System Statistics and Network Traffic with sFlow
sFlow is a monitoring protocol that samples network packets, application operations, and system
counters. sFlow enables you to monitor your network traffic as well as your switch state and
performance metrics. An outside server, known as an sFlow collector, is required to collect and analyze
this data.
hsflowd is the daemon that samples and sends sFlow data to configured collectors. hsflowd is not
included in the base Cumulus Linux installation. After installation, hsflowd will automatically start
when the switch boots up.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 379)
Installing hsflowd (see page 379)
Configuring sFlow (see page 380)
Configuring sFlow via DNS-SD (see page 380)
Manually Configuring /etc/hsflowd.conf (see page 380)
Configuring sFlow Visualization Tools (see page 381)
Configuration Files (see page 381)
Useful Links (see page 381)
Installing hsflowd
To download and install the hsflowd package, use apt-get:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get update
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo apt-get install -y hsflowd
Configuring sFlow
You can configure hsflowd to send to the designated collectors via two methods:
DNS service discovery (DNS-SD)
Manually configuring /etc/hsflowd.conf
Configuring sFlow via DNS-SD
With this method, you need to configure your DNS zone to advertise the collectors and polling
information to all interested clients. Add the following content to the zone file on your DNS server:
_sflow._udp SRV 0 0 6343 collector1
_sflow._udp SRV 0 0 6344 collector2
_sflow._udp TXT (
"txtvers=1"
"sampling.1G=2048"
"sampling.10G=4096"
"sampling.40G=8192"
"polling=20"
)
The above snippet instructs hsflowd to send sFlow data to collector1 on port 6343 and to collector2
on port 6344. hsflowd will poll counters every 20 seconds and sample 1 out of every 2048 packets.
After the initial configuration is ready, bring up the sFlow daemon by running:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service hsflowd start
No additional configuration is required in /etc/hsflowd.conf.
Manually Configuring /etc/hsflowd.conf
With this method you will set up the collectors and variables on each switch.
Edit /etc/hsflowd.conf and change DNSSD = on to DNSSD = off:
DNSSD = off
Then set up your collectors and sampling rates in /etc/hsflowd.conf:
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Then set up your collectors and sampling rates in /etc/hsflowd.conf:
# Manual Configuration (requires DNSSD=off above)
#################################################
# Typical configuration is to send every 30 seconds
polling = 20
sampling.1G=2048
sampling.10G=4096
sampling.40G=8192
collector {
ip = 192.0.2.100
udpport = 6343
}
collector {
ip = 192.0.2.200
udpport = 6344
}
This configuration polls the counters every 20 seconds, samples 1 of every 2048 packets and sends this
information to a collector at 192.0.2.100 on port 6343 and to another collector at 192.0.2.200 on port
6344.
Some collectors require each source to transmit on a different port, others may listen on only
one port. Please refer to the documentation for your collector for more information.
Configuring sFlow Visualization Tools
For information on configuring various sFlow visualization tools, read this Help Center article.
Configuration Files
/etc/hsflowd.conf
Useful Links
sFlow Collectors
sFlow Wikipedia page
Monitoring Virtual Device Counters
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Monitoring Virtual Device Counters
Cumulus Linux gathers statistics for VXLANs and VLANs using virtual device counters. These counters
are supported on Trident II-based platforms only; see the Cumulus Networks HCL for a list of
supported Trident II platforms.
You can retrieve the data from these counters using tools like ip -s link show, ifconfig, /proc
/net/dev, or netstat -i.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 382)
Sample VXLAN Statistics (see page 382)
Sample VLAN Statistics (see page 383)
For VLANs Using the non-VLAN-aware Bridge Driver (see page 383)
For VLANs Using the VLAN-aware Bridge Driver (see page 384)
Configuring the Counters in switchd (see page 385)
Configuring the Poll Interval (see page 385)
Configuring Internal VLAN Statistics (see page 385)
Clearing Statistics (see page 385)
Caveats and Errata (see page 386)
Sample VXLAN Statistics
VXLAN statistics are available as follows:
Aggregate statistics are available per VNI; this includes access and network statistics.
Network statistics are available for each VNI and displayed against the VXLAN device. This is
independent of the VTEP used, so this is a summary of the VNI statistics across all tunnels.
Access statistics are available per VLAN subinterface.
First, get interface information regarding the VXLAN bridge:
root@switch:~# brctl show br-vxln16757104
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
-vxln16757104
8000.443839006988
no
swp2s0.6
swp2s1.6
swp2s2.6
swp2s3.6
vxln16757104
To get VNI statistics, run:
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root@switch:~# ip -s link show br-vxln16757104
62: br-vxln16757104: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
noqueue state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:69:88 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
RX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped overrun mcast
10848
158
0
0
TX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped carrier collsns
27816
541
0
0
0
0
0
0
To get access statistics, run:
root@switch:~# ip -s link show swp2s0.6
63: swp2s0.6@swp2s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc
noqueue master br-vxln16757104 state UP mode DEFAULT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:69:88 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
RX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped overrun mcast
2680
39
0
0
TX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped carrier collsns
7558
140
0
0
0
0
0
0
To get network statistics, run:
root@switch:~# ip -s link show vxln16757104
61: vxln16757104: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue
master br-vxln16757104 state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
link/ether e2:37:47:db:f1:94 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
RX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped overrun mcast
0
0
0
0
TX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped carrier collsns
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
Sample VLAN Statistics
For VLANs Using the non-VLAN-aware Bridge Driver
In this case, each bridge is a single L2 broadcast domain and is associated with an internal VLAN. This
internal VLAN's counters are displayed as bridge netdev stats.
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root@switch:~# brctl show br0
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br0
8000.443839006989
yes
bond0.100
swp2s2.100
root@switch:~# ip -s link show br0
42: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP
mode DEFAULT
link/ether 44:38:39:00:69:89 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
RX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped overrun mcast
23201498
227514
0
0
TX: bytes
packets
errors
dropped carrier collsns
18198262
178443
0
0
0
0
0
0
For VLANs Using the VLAN-aware Bridge Driver
For a bridge using the VLAN-aware driver (see page 175), the bridge is a just a container and each VLAN
(VID/PVID) in the bridge is an independent L2 broadcast domain. As there is no netdev available to
display these VLAN statistics, the switchd nodes are used instead:
root@switch:~# ifquery bridge
auto bridge
iface bridge inet static
bridge-vlan-aware yes
bridge-ports swp2s0 swp2s1
bridge-stp on
bridge-vids 2000-2002 4094
root@switch:~# ls /cumulus/switchd/run/stats/vlan/
2
2000
2001
2002
all
root@switch:~# cat /cumulus/switchd/run/stats/vlan/2000/aggregate
Vlan id
: 2000
L3 Routed In Octets
: -
L3 Routed In Packets
: -
L3 Routed Out Octets
: -
L3 Routed Out Packets
: -
Total In Octets
: 375
Total In Packets
: 3
Total Out Octets
: 387
Total Out Packets
: 3
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Configuring the Counters in switchd
These counters are enabled by default. To configure them, use cl-cfg and configure them as you
would any other switchd parameter (see page 82). The switchd parameters are as follows:
stats.vlan.aggregate, which controls the statistics available for each VLAN. Its value
defaults to BRIEF.
stats.vxlan.aggregate, which controls the statistics available for each VNI (access and
network). Its value defaults to DETAIL.
stats.vxlan.member, which controls the statistics available for each local/access port in a
VXLAN bridge. Its value defaults to BRIEF.
The values for each parameter can be one of the following:
NONE: This disables the counter.
BRIEF: This provides tx/rx packet/byte counters for the associated parameter.
DETAIL: This provides additional feature-specific counters. In the case of stats.vxlan.
aggregate, DETAIL provides access vs. network statistics. For the other types, DETAIL has the
same effect as BRIEF.
If you change one of these settings on the fly, the new configuration applies only to those
VNIs or VLANs set up after the configuration changed; previously allocated counters remain
as is.
Configuring the Poll Interval
The virtual device counters are polled periodically. This can be CPU intensive, so the interval is
configurable in switchd, with a default of 2 seconds.
# Virtual devices hw-stat poll interval (in seconds)
#stats.vdev_hw_poll_interval = 2
Configuring Internal VLAN Statistics
For debugging purposes, you may need to access packet statistics associated with internal VLAN IDs.
These statistics are hidden by default, but can be configured in switchd:
#stats.vlan.show_internal_vlans = FALSE
Clearing Statistics
Since ethtool is not supported for virtual devices, you cannot clear the statistics cache maintained by
the kernel. You can clear the hardware statistics via switchd:
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root@switch:~# echo 1 > /cumulus/switchd/clear/stats/vlan
root@switch:~# echo 1 > /cumulus/switchd/clear/stats/vxlan
root@switch:~#
Caveats and Errata
Currently the CPU port is internally added as a member of all VLANs. Because of this, packets
sent to the CPU are counted against the corresponding VLAN's tx packets/bytes. There is no
workaround.
When checking the virtual counters for the bridge, the TX count is the number of packets
destined to the CPU before any hardware policers take effect. For example, if 500 broadcast
packets are sent into the bridge, the CPU is also sent 500 packets. These 500 packets are policed
by the default ACLs in Cumulus Linux, so the CPU might receive fewer than the 500 packets if
the incoming packet rate is too high. The TX counter for the bridge should be equal to 500*
(number of ports in the bridge - incoming port + CPU port) or just 500 * number of ports in the
bridge.
You cannot use ethtool -S for virtual devices. This is because the counters available via
netdev are sufficient to display the vlan/vxlan counters currently supported in the hardware
(only rx/tx packets/bytes are supported currently).
Understanding and Decoding the cl-support Output File
The cl-support command generates a tar archive of useful information for
troubleshooting that can be auto-generated or manually created. To manually
create it, run the cl-support command. The cl-support file is automatically
generated when:
There is a core file dump of any application (not specific to Cumulus Linux, but something all
Linux distributions support)
Memory usage surpasses 90% of the total system memory (memory usage > 90% for 1 cycle)
The loadavg over 15 minutes has on average greater than 2 (loadavg (15min) > 2)
All of these conditions are triggered by jdoo, located at /etc/jdoo/jdoorc.
The Cumulus Networks support team may request you submit the output from cl-support to help
with the investigation of issues you might experience with Cumulus Linux.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-support -h
Usage: cl-support [-h] [reason]...
Args:
[reason]: Optional reason to give for invoking cl-support.
Saved into tarball's reason.txt file.
Options:
-h: Print this usage statement
Example output:
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Example output:
cumulus@switch:~$ ls /var/support
cl_support__switch_20141204_203833
(Click to expand)
The cl-support command generates a tar archive of useful information for troubleshooting that
can be auto-generated or manually created. To manually create it, run the cl-support command.
The cl-support file is automatically generated when: (see page 386)
Understanding the File Naming Scheme (see page 387)
Decoding the Output (see page 387)
Understanding the File Naming Scheme
The cl-support command generates a file under /var/support with the following naming scheme.
The following example describes the file called cl_support__switch_20141204_203833.tar.xz.
cl_support
switch
20141204
203833
This is always
prepended to
the tar.gz
output.
This is the hostname
of the switch where
cl-support was
executed.
The date in year,
month, day; so
20141204 is
December, 4th,
2014.
The time in hours, minutes,
seconds; so 203833 is 20, 38, 33
(20:38:33) or the equivalent to 8:
38:33 PM.
Decoding the Output
Decoding a cl_support file is a simple process performed using the tar command. The following
example illustrates extracting the cl_support file:
tar -xf cl_support__switch_20141204_203834.tar.xz
The -xf options are defined here:
Option
Description
-x
Extracts to disk from the archive.
-f
Reads the archive from the specified file.
cumulus@switch:~$ ls -l cl_support__switch_20141204_203834/
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-rwxr-xr-x
1 root root 7724 Jul 29 14:00 cl-support
-rw-r--r--
1 root root
drwxr-xr-x
2 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 core
52 Jul 29 14:00 cmdline.args
drwxr-xr-x 64 root root 4096 Jul 29 13:51 etc
drwxr-xr-x
4 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 proc
drwxr-xr-x
2 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:01 support
drwxr-xr-x
3 root root 4096 Jul 29 14:00 sys
drwxr-xr-x
3 root root 4096 Aug
8 15:22 var
The cl_support file, when untarred, contains a reason.txt file. This file indicates what reason
triggered the event. When contacting Cumulus Networks technical support, please attach the clsupport file if possible.
The directory contains the following elements:
Directory
Description
clsupport
This is a copy of the cl-support script that generated the cl_support file. It is copied
so Cumulus Networks knows exactly which files were included and which weren't. This
helps to fix future cl-support requests in the future.
core
Contains the core files generated from the Cumulus Linux HAL (hardware abstraction
layer) process, switchd.
etc
etc is the core system configuration directory. cl-support replicates the switch’s /etc
directory. /etc contains all the general Linux configuration files, as well as
configurations for the system’s network interfaces, quagga, jdoo, and other packages.
var/log
/var is the "variable" subdirectory, where programs record runtime information. System
logging, user tracking, caches and other files that system programs create and monitor
go into /var. cl-support includes only the log subdirectory of the var system-level
directory and replicates the switch’s /var/log directory. Most Cumulus Linux log files
are located in this directory. Notable log files include switchd.log, daemon.log,
quagga log files, and syslog. For more information, read this knowledge base article.
proc
proc (short for processes) provides system statistics through a directory-and-file
interface. In Linux, /proc contains runtime system information (like system memory,
devices mounted, and hardware configuration). cl-support simply replicates the switch’
s /proc directory to determine the current state of the system.
support
support is not a replica of the Linux file system like the other folders listed above.
Instead, it is a set of files containing the output of commands from the command line.
Examples include the output of ps -aux , netstat -i , and so forth — even the routing
tables are included.
Here is more information on the file structure:
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Troubleshooting the etc Directory (see page 391) — In terms of sheer numbers of files, /etc
contains the largest number of files to send to Cumulus Networks by far. However, log files
could be significantly larger in file size.
Troubleshooting Log Files (see page 389) — This guide highlights the most important log files to
look at. Keep in mind, cl-support includes all of the log files.
Troubleshooting the support Directory (see page 402) — This is an explanation of the support
directory included in the cl-support output.
Troubleshooting Log Files
The only real unique entity for logging on Cumulus Linux compared to any other Linux distribution is
switchd.log, which logs the HAL (hardware abstraction layer) from hardware like the Broadcom ASIC.
This guide on NixCraft is amazing for understanding how /var/log works. The green highlighted rows
below are the most important logs and usually looked at first when debugging.
Log
Description
Why is this
important?
/var/log
Information from the update-alternatives are logged into this log
/alternatives. file.
log
/var/log/apt
Information the apt utility can send logs here; for example, from
apt-get install and apt-get remove.
/var/log
/audit/
Contains log information stored by the Linux audit daemon, auditd
.
/var/log
/auth.log
Authentication logs.
/var/log
/boot.log
Contains information that is logged when the system boots.
/var/log
/btmp
This file contains information about failed login attempts. Use the
last command to view the btmp file. For example:
last -f /var/log/btmp | more
/var/log
/daemon.
log
Contains information logged by the various background daemons
that run on the system.
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Log
Description
Why is this
important?
/var/log
/dmesg
Contains kernel ring buffer information. When the system boots up,
it prints number of messages on the screen that display information
about the hardware devices that the kernel detects during boot
process. These messages are available in the kernel ring buffer and
whenever a new message arrives, the old message gets overwritten.
You can also view the content of this file using the dmesg command.
dmesg is one of
the few places
to determine
hardware
errors.
/var/log
/dpkg.log
Contains information that is logged when a package is installed or
removed using the dpkg command.
/var/log
/faillog
Contains failed user login attempts. Use the faillog command to
display the contents of this file.
/var/log/fsck
/*
The fsck utility is used to check and optionally repair one or more
Linux filesystems.
/var/log
/jdoo.log
jdoo is a utility for managing and monitoring processes, files,
directories and filesystems on a Unix system.
/var/log
/mail.log
Mail server logs.
/var/log
/messages
General messages and system related information.
/var/log
/news/*
The news command keeps you informed of news concerning the
system.
/var/log
/ntpstats
Logs for network configuration protocol.
/var/log
/kern.log
Kernel logs.
/var/log
/quagga/*
Where Quagga logs to once enabled.
This is how
Cumulus
Networks
troubleshoots
routing. For
example an
md5 or mtu
mismatch with
OSPF.
The HAL log for Cumulus Linux.
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Log
Description
Why is this
important?
/var/log
/switchd.
log/
This is specific
to Cumulus
Linux. Any
switchd
crashes are
logged here.
/var/log
/syslog
The main system log, which logs everything except auth-related
messages.
The primary
log; it's easiest
to grep this file
to see what
occurred
during a
problem.
/var/log
/wtmp
Login records file.
/var/log
/yum.log
apt command log file.
Troubleshooting the etc Directory
The cl-support (see page 386) script replicates the /etc directory.
Files that cl-support deliberately excludes are:
File
Description
/etc/nologin
nologin prevents unprivileged users from logging into the system.
/etc
/alternatives
update-alternatives creates, removes, maintains and displays information about
the symbolic links comprising the Debian alternatives system.
This is the alphabetical of the output from running ls -l on the /etc directory structure created by
cl-support. The green highlighted rows are the ones Cumulus Networks finds most important when
troubleshooting problems.
File
Description
Why is this important?
adduser.conf
The file /etc/adduser.conf contains defaults for
the programs adduser, addgroup, deluser, and
delgroup.
adjtime
Corrects the time to synchronize the system clock.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
apt
apt (Advanced Package Tool) is the command-line
tool for handling packages. This folder contains all
the configurations.
apt interactions or
unsupported apps can
affect machine
performance.
audisp
The directory that contains audisp-remote.conf,
which is the file that controls the configuration of
the audit remote logging subsystem.
audit
The directory that contains the /etc/audit
/auditd.conf , which contains configuration
information specific to the audit daemon.
bash.bashrc
Bash is an sh-compatible command language
interpreter that executes commands read from
standard input or from a file.
bash_completion
This points to /usr/share/bash-completion
/bash_completion.
bash_completion. This folder contains app-specific code for Bash
d
completion on Cumulus Linux, such as mstpctl.
bcm.d
Broadcom-specific ASIC file structure (hardware
interaction). If there are questions contact the
Cumulus Networks Support team. This is unique to
Cumulus Linux.
bindresvport.
blacklist
This file contains a list of port numbers between
600 and 1024, which should not be used by
bindresvport.
ca-certificates
The folder for ca-certificates. It is empty by
default on Cumulus Linux; see below for more
information.
ca-certificates.
conf
Each lines list the pathname of activated CA
certificates under /usr/share/ca-certificates
.
calendar
The system-wide default calendar file.
chef
This is an example of something that is not
included by default. In this instance, cl-support
included the chef folder for some reason.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
This is not installed by
default, but this tool could
have been installed or
configured incorrectly,
which is why it's included
in the cl-support output.
cron.d
cron is a daemon that executes scheduled
commands.
cron.daily
See above.
cron.hourly
See above.
cron.monthly
See above.
cron.weekly
See above.
crontab
See above.
cumulus
This directory contains the following:
This folder is specific to
Cumulus Linux and does
not exist on other Linux
platforms. For example,
while you can configure
iptables, to hardware
accelerate rules into the
hardware you need to use
cl-acltool and have the
rules under the /etc
/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/<filename.rules)
ACL information, stored in the acl directory.
switchd configuration file, switchd.conf.
qos, which is under the datapath directory.
The routing protocol process priority, nice.
conf.
The breakout cable configuration, under
ports.conf.
debconf.conf
Debconf is a configuration system for Debian
packages.
debian_version
The complete Debian version string.
debsums-ignore
debsums verifies installed package files against
their MD5 checksums. This file identifies the
packages to ignore.
default
This folder contains files with configurable flags for
many different applications (most installed by
default or added manually). For example, /etc
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File
Description
Why is this important?
/default/networking has a flag for
EXCLUDE_INTERFACES=, which is set to nothing by
default, but a user could change it to something
like swp3.
deluser.conf
The file /etc/deluser.conf contains defaults for
the programs deluser and delgroup.
dhcp
This directory contains DHCP-specific information.
dpkg
The package manager for Debian.
e2fsck.conf
The configuration file for e2fsck . It controls the
default behavior of e2fsck while it checks ext2,
ext3 or ext4 filesystems.
environment
Utilized by pam_env for setting and unsetting
environment variables.
ethertypes
This file can be used to show readable characters
instead of hexadecimal numbers for the protocols.
For example, 0x0800 will be represented by IPv4.
fstab
Static information about the filesystems.
fstab.d
The directory that can contain additional fstab
information; it is empty by default.
fw_env.config
Configuration file utilized by U-Boot.
gai.conf
Configuration file for sorting the return information
from getaddrinfo.
groff
The directory containing information for groffer,
an application used for displaying Unix man pages.
group
The /etc/group file is a text file that defines the
groups on the system.
group-
Backup for the /etc/group file.
gshadow
/etc/gshadow contains the shadowed information
for group accounts .
gshadow-
Backup for the /etc/gshadow file.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
host.conf
Resolver configuration file, which contains options
like multi that determines whether /etc/hosts
will respond with multiple entries for DNS names.
hostname
The system host name, such as leaf1, spine1, sw1.
hosts
The static table lookup for hostnames.
hosts.allow
The part of the host_access program for controlling
a simple access control language. hosts.
allow=Access is granted when a daemon/client
pair matches an entry.
hosts.deny
See hosts.allow above, except that access is denied
when a daemon/client pair matches an entry.
init
Default location of the system job configuration files .
init.d
In order for a service to start when the switch
boots, you should add the necessary script to the
director here. The differences between init and
init.d are explained well here.
inittab
The format of the inittab file used by the sysvcompatible init process.
inputrc
The initialization file utilized by readline.
insserv
This application enables installed system init scripts
; this directory is empty by default.
insserv.conf
Configuration file for insserv.
insserv.conf.d
Additional directory for insserv configurations.
iproute2
Directory containing values for the Linux command
line tool ip.
issue
/etc/issue is a text file that contains a message
or system identification to be printed before the
login prompt.
issue.net
Identification file for telnet sessions.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
jdoo
jdoo is a utility for monitoring services (see page
371) on a Cumulus Linux system; this directory has
configuration files beneath it.
ld.so.cache
Contains a compiled list of candidate libraries
previously found in the augmented library path.
ld.so.conf
Used by the ldconfig tool, which configures
dynamic linker run-time bindings.
ld.so.conf.d
The directory that contains additional ld.so.conf
configuration (see above).
ldap
The directory containing the ldap.conf
configuration file used to set the system-wide
default to be applied when running LDAP clients.
libaudit.conf
Configuration file utilized by get_auditfail_action.
libnl-3
Directory for the configuration relating to the libnl library, which is the core library for implementing
the fundamentals required to use the netlink
protocol such as socket handling, message
construction and parsing, and sending and
receiving of data.
lldpd.d
Directory containing configuration files whose
commands are executed by lldpcli at startup.
localtime
Copy of the original data file for /etc/timezone.
logcheck
Directory containing logcheck.conf and logfiles
utilized by the log check program, which scans
system logs for interesting lines.
login.defs
Shadow password suite configuration.
logrotate.conf
Rotates, compresses and mails system logs.
logrotate.d
Directory containing additional log rotate
configurations.
lsb-release
Shows the current version of Linux on the system.
Run cat /etc/lsb-release for output.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
This shows you the version
of the operating system
you are running; also
compare this to the output
of cl-img-select.
magic
Used by the file command to determine file type.
magic tests check for files with data in particular
fixed formats.
magic.mime
The magic MIME type causes the file command
to output MIME type strings rather than the more
traditional human readable ones.
mailcap
The mailcap file is read by the metamail program
to determine how to display non-text at the local
site.
mailcap.order
The order of entries in the /etc/mailcap file can
be altered by editing the /etc/mailcap.order
file.
manpath.config
The manpath configuration file is used by the
manual page utilities to assess users’ manpaths at
run time, to indicate which manual page
hierarchies (manpaths) are to be treated as system
hierarchies and to assign them directories to be
used for storing cat files.
mime.types
MIME type description file for cups.
mke2fs.conf
Configuration file for mke2fs, which is a program
that creates an ext, ext3 or ext4 filesystem.
modprobe.d
Configuration directory for modprobe, which is a
utility that can add and remove modules from the
Linux kernel.
modules
The kernel modules to load at boot time.
motd
The contents of /etc/motd ("message of the day")
are displayed by pam_motd after a successful login
but just before it executes the login shell.
mtab
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File
Description
Why is this important?
The programs mount and umount maintain a list of
currently mounted filesystems in the /etc/mtab
file. If no arguments are given to mount, this list is
printed.
nanorc
The GNU nano rcfile.
network
Contains the network interface configuration for
ifup and ifdown.
The main configuration file
is under /etc/network
/interfaces. This is
where you configure L2
and L3 information for all
of your front panel ports
(swp interfaces). Settings
like MTU, link speed, IP
address information,
VLANs are all done here.
networks
Network name information.
nsswitch.conf
System databases and name service switch
configuration file.
ntp.conf
NTP (network time protocol) server configuration
file.
openvswitch
The directory containing the conf.db file, which is
used by ovsdb-server.
openvswitchvtep
Configuration files used for the VTEP daemon and
ovsdb-server.
opt
Host-specific configuration files for add-on
applications installed in /opt.
os-release
Operating system identification.
pam.conf
The PAM (pluggable authentication module)
configuration file. When a PAM-aware privilege
granting application is started, it activates its
attachment to the PAM-API. This activation
performs a number of tasks, the most important
being the reading of the configuration file(s).
pam.d
Alternate directory to configure PAM (see above).
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File
Description
Why is this important?
passwd
User account information.
passwd-
Backup file for /etc/passwd.
perl
Perl is an available scripting language. /etc/perl
contains configuration files specific to Perl.
profile
/etc/profile is utilized by sysprofile, a
modular centralized shell configuration.
profile.d
The directory version of the above, which contains
configuration files.
protocols
The protocols definition file, a plain ASCII file that
describes the various DARPAnet protocols that are
available from the TCP/IP subsystem.
ptm.d
The directory containing scripts that are run if PTM
(see page 139) passes or fails.
Cumulus Linux-specific
folder for PTM (prescriptive
topology manager).
python
python is an available scripting language.
python2.6
The 2.6 version of python.
python2.7
The 2.7 version of python.
quagga
Contains the configuration files for the Quagga
routing suite (see page 293), the preferred Cumulus
Linux routing engine.
rc.local
The /etc/rc.local script is used by the system
administrator to execute after all the normal
system services are started, at the end of the
process of switching to a multiuser runlevel. You
can use it to start a custom service, for example, a
server that's installed in /usr/local. Most
installations don't need /etc/rc.local; it's
provided for the minority of cases where it's needed
.
rc0.d
Like rc.local, these scripts are booted by default,
but the number of the folder represents the Linux
runlevel. This folder 0 represents runlevel 0 (halt
the system).
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File
Description
Why is this important?
rc1.d
This is run level 1, which is single-user/minimal
mode.
rc2.d
Runlevels 2 through 5 are multiuser modes. Debian
systems (such as Cumulus Linux) come with id=2,
which indicates that the default runlevel will be 2
when the multi-user state is entered, and the
scripts in /etc/rc2.d/ will be run.
rc3.d
See above.
rc4.d
See above.
rc5.d
See above.
rc6.d
Runlevel 6 is reboot the system.
rcS.d
S stands for single and is equivalent to rc1.
resolv.conf
Resolver configuration file, which is where DNS is
set (domain, nameserver and search).
You need DNS to reach the
Cumulus Linux repository.
rmt
This is not a mistake. The shell script /etc/rmt is
provided for compatibility with other Unix-like
systems, some of which have utilities that expect to
find (and execute) rmt in the /etc directory on
remote systems.
rpc
The rpc file contains human-readable names that
can be used in place of RPC program numbers.
rsyslog.conf
The rsyslog.conf file is the main configuration
file for rsyslogd, which logs system messages on
*nix systems.
rsyslog.d
The directory containing additional configuration
for rsyslog.conf (see above).
securetty
This file lists terminals into which the root user can
log in.
security
The /etc/security directory contains securityrelated configurations files. Whereas PAM concerns
itself with the methods used to authenticate any
given user, the files under /etc/security are
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File
Description
Why is this important?
concerned with just what a user can or cannot do.
For example, the /etc/security/access.conf
file contains a list of which users are allowed to log
in and from what host (for example, using telnet).
The /etc/security/limits.conf file contains
various system limits, such as maximum number of
processes.
selinux
NSA Security-Enhanced Linux.
sensors.d
The directory from which the sensors program
loads its configuration; this is unique for each
hardware platform. See also Monitoring System
Hardware (see page 371).
sensors3.conf
The sensors.conf file describes how libsensors
, and thus all programs using it, should translate
the raw readings from the kernel modules to realworld values.
services
services is a plain ASCII file providing a mapping
between human-readable textual names for
internet services and their underlying assigned port
numbers and protocol types.
shadow
shadow is a file that contains the password
information for the system's accounts and optional
aging information.
shadow-
The backup for the /etc/shadow file.
shells
The pathnames of valid login shells.
skel
The skeleton directory (usually /etc/ skel ) is
used to copy default files and also sets a umask for
the creation used by pam_mkhomedir.
snmp
Interface functions to the SNMP (simple network
management protocol) toolkit.
ssh
The ssh configuration.
ssl
The OpenSSL ssl library implements the Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer
Security (TLS v1) protocols. This directory holds
certificates and configuration.
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File
Description
Why is this important?
staff-group-forusr-local
Use cat or more on this file to learn more
information, see http://bugs.debian.org/299007.
sudoers
The sudoers policy plugin determines a user's
sudo privileges.
sudoers.d
The directory file containing additional sudoers
configuration (see above).
sysctl.conf
Configures kernel parameters at boot.
sysctl.d
The directory file containing additional
configuration (see above).
systemd
systemd system and service manager.
terminfo
Terminal capability database.
timezone
If this file exists, it is read and its contents are used
as the time zone name.
ucf.conf
The update configuration file preserves user
changes in configuration files.
udev
Dynamic device management.
ufw
Provides both a command line interface and a
framework for managing a netfilter firewall.
vim
Configuration file for command line tool vim.
wgetrc
Configuration file for command line tool wget.
Troubleshooting the support Directory
The support directory is unique in the fact that it is not a copy of the switch's filesystem. Actually, it is
the output from various commands. For example:
File
support
/ip.addr
402
Equivalent
Command
Description
This shows you all the interfaces (including swp front panel ports), IP
address information, admin state and physical state.
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File
Equivalent
Command
Description
cumulus@sw
$ ip addr
show
Managing Application Daemons
You manage application daemons in Cumulus Linux in the following ways:
Identifying active listener ports
Identifying daemons currently active or stopped
Identifying boot time state of a specific daemon
Disabling or enabling a specific daemon
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 403)
Identifying Active Listener Ports for IPv4 and IPv6 (see page 403)
Identifying Daemons Currently Active or Stopped (see page 404)
Identifying Boot Time State of a Specific Daemon (see page 404)
Disabling or Enabling a Specific Daemon (see page 405)
Identifying Active Listener Ports for IPv4 and IPv6
You can identify the active listener ports under both IPv4 and IPv6 using the lsof command:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lsof -Pnl +M -i4
COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
ntpd 1882 104 16u IPv4 3954 0t0 UDP *:123
ntpd 1882 104 18u IPv4 3963 0t0 UDP 127.0.0.1:123
ntpd 1882 104 19u IPv4 3964 0t0 UDP 192.168.8.37:123
snmpd 1987 105 8u IPv4 5423 0t0 UDP *:161
zebra 1993 103 10u IPv4 5151 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:2601 (LISTEN)
sshd 2496 0 3u IPv4 5809 0t0 TCP *:22 (LISTEN)
jdoo 2622 0 6u IPv4 6132 0t0 TCP 127.0.0.1:2812 (LISTEN)
sshd 31700 0 3r IPv4 187630 0t0 TCP 192.168.8.37:22->192.168.8.3:50386
(ESTABLISHED)
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo lsof -Pnl +M -i6
COMMAND PID USER FD TYPE DEVICE SIZE/OFF NODE NAME
ntpd 1882 104 17u IPv6 3955 0t0 UDP *:123
ntpd 1882 104 20u IPv6 3965 0t0 UDP [::1]:123
ntpd 1882 104 21u IPv6 3966 0t0 UDP [fe80::7272:cfff:fe96:6639]:123
sshd 2496 0 4u IPv6 5811 0t0 TCP *:22 (LISTEN)
Identifying Daemons Currently Active or Stopped
To determine which daemons are currently active or stopped, use the service --status-all
command, then pipe the results to grep, using the - or + operators:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service --status-all | grep +
[ ? ] aclinit
[ + ] arp_refresh
[ + ] auditd
...
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo service --status-all | grep [ - ] isc-dhcp-server
[ - ] openvswitch-vtep
[ - ] ptmd
...
Identifying Boot Time State of a Specific Daemon
The ls command can provide the boot time state of a daemon. A file link with a name starting with S
identifies a boot-time-enabled daemon. A file link with a name starting with K identifies a disabled
daemon.
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo ls -l rc*.d | grep <daemon name>
For example:
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo ls -l rc*.d | grep snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
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lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
Disabling or Enabling a Specific Daemon
To enable or disable a specific daemon, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ update-rc.d <daemon> disable | enable
For example:
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo update-rc.d snmpd disable
update-rc.d: using dependency based boot sequencing
insserv: warning: current start runlevel(s) (empty) of script `snmpd'
overrides LSB defaults (2 3 4 5).
insserv: warning: current stop runlevel(s) (0 1 2 3 4 5 6) of script
`snmpd' overrides LSB defaults (0 1 6).
insserv: warning: current start runlevel(s) (empty) of script `snmpd'
overrides LSB defaults (2 3 4 5).
insserv: warning: current stop runlevel(s) (0 1 2 3 4 5 6) of script
`snmpd' overrides LSB defaults (0 1 6).
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo ls -l rc*.d | grep snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo update-rc.d snmpd enable
update-rc.d: using dependency based boot sequencing
cumulus@switch:~/etc$ sudo ls -l rc*.d | grep snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
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lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Feb 13 17:35 S01snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Apr 4 2014 K02snmpd -> ../init.d/snmpd
Troubleshooting Network Interfaces
The following sections describe various ways you can troubleshoot ifupdown2.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 406)
Enabling Logging for Networking (see page 406)
Using ifquery to Validate and Debug Interface Configurations (see page 407)
Debugging Mako Template Errors (see page 408)
ifdown Cannot Find an Interface that Exists (see page 409)
Removing All References to a Child Interface (see page 410)
MTU Set on a Logical Interface Fails with Error: "Numerical result out of range" (see page 410)
Interpreting iproute2 batch Command Failures (see page 411)
Understanding the "RTNETLINK answers: Invalid argument" Error when Adding a Port to a Bridge
(see page 411)
Enabling Logging for Networking
The /etc/default/networking file contains two settings for logging:
To get ifupdown2 logs when the switch boots (stored in syslog)
To enable logging when you run service networking [start|stop|reload]
This file also contains an option for excluding interfaces when you boot the switch or run service
networking start|stop|reload. You can exclude any interface specified in /etc/network
/interfaces. These interfaces do not come up when you boot the switch or start/stop/reload the
networking service.
$cat /etc/default/networking
#
#
# Parameters for the /etc/init.d/networking script
#
#
# Change the below to yes if you want verbose logging to be enabled
VERBOSE="no"
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# Change the below to yes if you want debug logging to be enabled
DEBUG="no"
# Change the below to yes if you want logging to go to syslog
SYSLOG="no"
# Exclude interfaces
EXCLUDE_INTERFACES=
Using ifquery to Validate and Debug Interface Configurations
You use ifquery to print parsed interfaces file entries.
To use ifquery to pretty print iface entries from the interfaces file, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery bond0
auto bond0
iface bond0
address 14.0.0.9/30
address 2001:ded:beef:2::1/64
bond-slaves swp25 swp26
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-miimon 100
bond-use-carrier 1
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
Use ifquery --check to check the current running state of an interface within the interfaces file. It
will return exit code 0 or 1 if the configuration does not match. The line bond-xmit-hash-policy
layer3+7 below fails because it should read bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --check bond0
iface bond0
bond-mode 802.3ad
[pass]
bond-miimon 100
[pass]
bond-use-carrier 1
[pass]
bond-lacp-rate 1
[pass]
bond-min-links 1
[pass]
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+7
[fail]
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bond-slaves swp25 swp26
[pass]
address 14.0.0.9/30
[pass]
address 2001:ded:beef:2::1/64
[pass]
ifquery --check is an experimental feature.
Use ifquery --running to print the running state of interfaces in the interfaces file format:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifquery --running bond0
auto bond0
iface bond0
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
bond-miimon 100
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-slaves swp25 swp26
bond-mode 802.3ad
address 14.0.0.9/30
address 2001:ded:beef:2::1/64
ifquery --syntax-help provides help on all possible attributes supported in the interfaces file.
For complete syntax on the interfaces file, see man interfaces and man ifupdown-addonsinterfaces.
You can use ifquery --print-savedstate to check the ifupdown2 state database. ifdown works
only on interfaces present in this state database.
cumulus@leaf1$ sudo ifquery --print-savedstate eth0
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
Debugging Mako Template Errors
An easy way to debug and get details about template errors is to use the mako-render command on
your interfaces template file or on /etc/network/interfaces itself.
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mako-render /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).
# The loopback network interface
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auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
# The primary network interface
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
#auto eth1
#iface eth1 inet dhcp
# Include any platform-specific interface configuration
source /etc/network/interfaces.d/*.if
# ssim2 added
auto swp45
iface swp45
auto swp46
iface swp46
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mako-render /etc/network/interfaces.d
/<interfaces_stub_file>
ifdown Cannot Find an Interface that Exists
If you are trying to bring down an interface that you know exists, use ifdown with the --usecurrent-config option to force ifdown to check the current /etc/network/interfaces file to find
the interface. This can solve issues where the ifup command issues for that interface was interrupted
before it updated the state database. For example:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown br0
error: cannot find interfaces: br0 (interface was probably never up ?)
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo brctl show
bridge name
bridge id
STP enabled
interfaces
br0
8000.44383900279f
yes
downlink
peerlink
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo ifdown br0 --use-current-config
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Removing All References to a Child Interface
If you have a configuration with a child interface, whether it's a VLAN, bond or another physical
interface, and you remove that interface from a running configuration, you must remove every
reference to it in the configuration. Otherwise, the interface continues to be used by the parent
interface.
For example, consider the following configuration:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto bond1
iface bond1
bond-miimon 100
bond-slaves swp2 swp1
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
auto bond3
iface bond3
bond-miimon 100
bond-slaves swp8 swp6 swp7
bond-mode 802.3ad
bond-lacp-rate 1
bond-min-links 1
bond-xmit-hash-policy layer3+4
auto br0
iface br0
bridge-ports swp3 swp5 bond1 swp4 bond3
bridge-pathcosts
swp3=4 swp5=4 swp4=4
address 11.0.0.10/24
address 2001::10/64
Notice that bond1 is a member of br0. If you comment out or simply delete bond1 from /etc/network
/interfaces, you must remove the reference to it from the br0 configuration. Otherwise, if you
reload the configuration with ifreload -a, bond1 is still part of br0.
MTU Set on a Logical Interface Fails with Error: "Numerical result out of range"
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MTU Set on a Logical Interface Fails with Error: "Numerical result out of range"
This error occurs when the MTU (see page 106) you are trying to set on an interface is higher than the
MTU of the lower interface or dependent interface. Linux expects the upper interface to have an MTU
less than or equal to the MTU on the lower interface.
In the example below, the swp1.100 VLAN interface is an upper interface to physical interface swp1. If
you want to change the MTU to 9000 on the VLAN interface, you must include the new MTU on the
lower interface swp1 as well.
auto swp1.100
iface swp1.100
mtu 9000
auto swp1
iface swp1
mtu 9000
Interpreting iproute2 batch Command Failures
ifupdown2 batches iproute2 commands for performance reasons. A batch command contains ip force -batch - in the error message. The command number that failed is at the end of this line:
Command failed -:1.
Below is a sample error for the command 1: link set dev host2 master bridge. There was an
error adding the bond host2 to the bridge named bridge because host2 did not have a valid address.
error: failed to execute cmd 'ip -force -batch - [link set dev host2 master
bridge
addr flush dev host2
link set dev host1 master bridge
addr flush dev host1
]'(RTNETLINK answers: Invalid argument
Command failed -:1)
warning: bridge configuration failed (missing ports)
Understanding the "RTNETLINK answers: Invalid argument" Error when Adding
a Port to a Bridge
This error can occur when the bridge port does not have a valid hardware address.
This can typically occur when the interface being added to the bridge is an incomplete bond; a bond
without slaves is incomplete and does not have a valid hardware address.
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Network Troubleshooting
Cumulus Linux contains a number of command line and analytical tools to help you troubleshoot
issues with your network.
Contents
(Click to expand)
Contents (see page 412)
Commands (see page 412)
Checking Reachability Using ping (see page 412)
Printing Route Trace Using traceroute (see page 413)
Manipulating the System ARP Cache (see page 413)
Generating Traffic Using mz (see page 414)
Creating Counter ACL Rules (see page 415)
Configuring SPAN and ERSPAN (see page 416)
Configuring SPAN for Switch Ports (see page 417)
Configuring SPAN for Bonds (see page 420)
Configuring ERSPAN (see page 421)
Removing SPAN Rules (see page 422)
Monitoring Control Plane Traffic with tcpdump (see page 422)
Configuration Files (see page 423)
Useful Links (see page 423)
Caveats and Errata (see page 423)
Commands
arp
cl-acltool
ip
mz
ping
tcpdump
traceroute
Checking Reachability Using ping
ping is used to check reachability of a host. ping also calculates the time it takes for packets to travel
the round trip. See man ping for details.
To test the connection to an IPv4 host:
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cumulus@switch:~$ ping 206.190.36.45
PING 206.190.36.45 (206.190.36.45) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 206.190.36.45: icmp_req=1 ttl=53 time=40.4 ms
64 bytes from 206.190.36.45: icmp_req=2 ttl=53 time=39.6 ms
...
To test the connection to an IPv6 host:
cumulus@switch:~$ ping6 -I swp1 fe80::202:ff:fe00:2
PING fe80::202:ff:fe00:2(fe80::202:ff:fe00:2) from fe80::202:ff:fe00:1
swp1: 56 data bytes
64 bytes from fe80::202:ff:fe00:2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.43 ms
64 bytes from fe80::202:ff:fe00:2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.927 ms
Printing Route Trace Using traceroute
traceroute tracks the route that packets take from an IP network on their way to a given host. See
man traceroute for details.
To track the route to an IPv4 host:
cumulus@switch:~$ traceroute www.google.com
traceroute to www.google.com (74.125.239.49), 30 hops max, 60 byte packets
1
fw.cumulusnetworks.com (192.168.1.1)
0.614 ms
0.863 ms
2
router.hackerdojo.com (157.22.42.1)
15.459 ms
16.447 ms
3
gw-cpe-hackerdojo.via.net (157.22.10.97)
4
ge-1-5-v223.core1.uspao.via.net (157.22.10.81)
18.470 ms
0.932 ms
16.818 ms
18.473 ms
18.897 ms
20.419 ms
20.422 ms
22.347 ms
22.584 ms
21.026 ms
5
core2-1-1-0.pao.net.google.com (198.32.176.31)
24.328 ms
6
216.239.49.250 (216.239.49.250)
24.371 ms
7
72.14.232.35 (72.14.232.35)
8
nuq04s19-in-f17.1e100.net (74.125.239.49)
27.505 ms
25.757 ms
22.925 ms
25.987 ms
22.323 ms
23.544 ms
21.851 ms
22.604
ms
Manipulating the System ARP Cache
arp manipulates or displays the kernel’s IPv4 network neighbor cache. See man arp for details.
To display the ARP cache:
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cumulus@switch:~$ arp -a
? (11.0.2.2) at 00:02:00:00:00:10 [ether] on swp3
? (11.0.3.2) at 00:02:00:00:00:01 [ether] on swp4
? (11.0.0.2) at 44:38:39:00:01:c1 [ether] on swp1
To delete an ARP cache entry:
cumulus@switch:~$ arp -d 11.0.2.2
cumulus@switch:~$ arp -a
? (11.0.2.2) at <incomplete> on swp3
? (11.0.3.2) at 00:02:00:00:00:01 [ether] on swp4
? (11.0.0.2) at 44:38:39:00:01:c1 [ether] on swp1
To add a static ARP cache entry:
cumulus@switch:~$ arp -s 11.0.2.2 00:02:00:00:00:10
cumulus@switch:~$ arp -a
? (11.0.2.2) at 00:02:00:00:00:10 [ether] PERM on swp3
? (11.0.3.2) at 00:02:00:00:00:01 [ether] on swp4
? (11.0.0.2) at 44:38:39:00:01:c1 [ether] on swp1
Generating Traffic Using mz
mz is a fast traffic generator. It can generate a large variety of packet types at high speed. See man mz
for details.
For example, to send two sets of packets to TCP port 23 and 24, with source IP 11.0.0.1 and destination
11.0.0.2, do the following:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo mz swp1 -A 11.0.0.1 -B 11.0.0.2 -c 2 -v -t tcp
"dp=23-24"
Mausezahn 0.40 - (C) 2007-2010 by Herbert Haas - http://www.perihel.at/sec
/mz/
Use at your own risk and responsibility!
-- Verbose mode -This system supports a high resolution clock.
The clock resolution is 4000250 nanoseconds.
Mausezahn will send 4 frames...
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IP:
ver=4, len=40, tos=0, id=0, frag=0, ttl=255, proto=6, sum=0, SA=11.
0.0.1, DA=11.0.0.2,
payload=[see next layer]
TCP: sp=0, dp=23, S=42, A=42, flags=0, win=10000, len=20, sum=0,
payload=
IP:
ver=4, len=40, tos=0, id=0, frag=0, ttl=255, proto=6, sum=0, SA=11.
0.0.1, DA=11.0.0.2,
payload=[see next layer]
TCP: sp=0, dp=24, S=42, A=42, flags=0, win=10000, len=20, sum=0,
payload=
IP:
ver=4, len=40, tos=0, id=0, frag=0, ttl=255, proto=6, sum=0, SA=11.
0.0.1, DA=11.0.0.2,
payload=[see next layer]
TCP: sp=0, dp=23, S=42, A=42, flags=0, win=10000, len=20, sum=0,
payload=
IP:
ver=4, len=40, tos=0, id=0, frag=0, ttl=255, proto=6, sum=0, SA=11.
0.0.1, DA=11.0.0.2,
payload=[see next layer]
TCP: sp=0, dp=24, S=42, A=42, flags=0, win=10000, len=20, sum=0,
payload=
Creating Counter ACL Rules
In Linux, all ACL rules are always counted. To create an ACL rule for counting purposes only, set the
rule action to ACCEPT. See the Netfilter (see page 71) chapter for details on how to use cl-acltool
to set up iptables-/ip6tables-/ebtables-based ACLs.
Always place your rules files under /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/.
To count all packets going to a Web server:
cumulus@switch$ cat sample_count.rules
[iptables]
-A FORWARD -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
cumulus@switch:$ sudo cl-acltool -i -p sample_count.rules
Using user provided rule file sample_count.rules
Reading rule file sample_count.rules ...
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Processing rules in file sample_count.rules ...
Installing acl policy... done.
cumulus@switch$ sudo iptables -L -v
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 16 packets, 2224 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
destination
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
tcp
any
anywhere
destination
2
156 ACCEPT
anywhere
--
any
tcp dpt:http
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 44 packets, 8624 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
destination
The -p option clears out all other rules, and the -i option is used to reinstall all the rules.
Configuring SPAN and ERSPAN
SPAN (Switched Port Analyzer) provides for the mirroring of all packets coming in from or going out of
an interface to a local port for monitoring. This port is referred to as a mirror-to-port (MTP). The
original packet is still switched, while a mirrored copy of the packet is sent to the MTP port.
ERSPAN (Encapsulated Remote SPAN) enables the mirrored packets to be sent to a monitoring node
located anywhere across the routed network. The switch finds the outgoing port of the mirrored
packets by doing a lookup of the destination IP address in its routing table. The original L2 packet is
encapsulated with GRE for IP delivery. The encapsulated packets have the following format:
---------------------------------------------------------| MAC_HEADER | IP_HEADER | GRE_HEADER | L2_Mirrored_Packet |
----------------------------------------------------------
SPAN and ERSPAN are configured via cl-acltool, the same utility for security ACL configuration (see
page 71). The match criteria for SPAN and ERSPAN can only be an interface; more granular match
terms are not supported. The interface can be a port, a subinterface or a bond interface. Both ingress
and egress interfaces can be matched.
Cumulus Linux supports a maximum of 2 SPAN destinations. Multiple rules can point to the same SPAN
destination. The MTP interface can be a physical port, a subinterface, or a bond interface. The SPAN
/ERSPAN action is independent of security ACL actions. If packets match both a security ACL rule and a
SPAN rule, both actions will be carried out.
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Always place your rules files under /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/.
Configuring SPAN for Switch Ports
This section describes how to set up, install, verify and uninstall SPAN rules. In the examples that
follow, you will span (mirror) switch port swp4 input traffic and swp4 output traffic to destination switch
port swp19.
First, create a rules file in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo bash -c 'cat <<EOF > /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span.
rules
[iptables]
-A FORWARD --in-interface swp4 -j SPAN --dport swp19
-A FORWARD --out-interface swp4 -j SPAN --dport swp19
EOF'
Using cl-acltool with the --out-interface rule applies to transit traffic only; it does not
apply to traffic sourced from the switch.
Install the rules:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
[sudo] password for cumulus:
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/99control_plane_catch_all.rules
...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/99control_plane_catch_all.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span.rules ...
Installing acl policy
done.
Running the following command is incorrect and will remove all existing control-plane rules
or other installed rules and only install the rules defined in span.rules:
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cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
-P /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/span.rules
Verify that the SPAN rules were installed:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -L all | grep SPAN
38025 7034K SPAN
anywhere
all
--
swp4
any
anywhere
50832
swp4
anywhere
dport:swp19
55M SPAN
anywhere
all
--
any
dport:swp19
Or to verify all the rules are currently installed, run:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -L -v
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
240.0.0.0/5
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
loopback/8
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
base-address.mcast.net/8
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
255.255.255.255
0 SETCLASS
ospf --
swp+
any
anywhere
any
anywhere
destination
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
SETCLASS
0 POLICE
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
0 POLICE
0 SETCLASS
0
418
swp+
any
tcp
--
any
tcp
--
0 POLICE
tcp
--
any
tcp
--
swp+
any
any
swp+
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:2000 burst:2000
anywhere
class:7
any
tcp spt:bgp POLICE
0 SETCLASS
anywhere
class:7
tcp spt:bgp SETCLASS
anywhere
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:2000 burst:2000
--
tcp dpt:bgp POLICE
anywhere
0
tcp
any
tcp dpt:bgp SETCLASS
anywhere
0
ospf -POLICE
0 SETCLASS
class:7
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:2000 burst:2000
any
tcp dpt:5342 SETCLASS
anywhere
class:7
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0
0 POLICE
anywhere
tcp
0
tcp
anywhere
tcp
anywhere
POLICE
15
udp
5205 SETCLASS
anywhere
udp
anywhere
udp
anywhere
0 SETCLASS
tcp
any
anywhere
swp+
mode:pkt rate:2000 burst:2000
any
anywhere
any
any
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:100 burst:40
--
swp+
any
anywhere
--
any
any
--
any
any
--
swp+
any
tcp
--
any
any
tcp dpt:bootps POLICE
0 POLICE
anywhere
tcp
--
any
any
tcp dpt:bootpc POLICE
1088 SETCLASS
anywhere
igmp -SETCLASS
1156 POLICE
mode:pkt rate:100 burst:100
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:100 burst:100
anywhere
POLICE
394 41060 POLICE
all
anywhere
class:2
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:100 burst:100
anywhere
mode:pkt rate:100 burst:100
any
anywhere
any
anywhere
class:6
igmp --
anywhere
swp+
class:2
anywhere
tcp dpts:bootps:bootpc SETCLASS
0 POLICE
anywhere
17
any
class:7
udp dpt:bootpc POLICE
anywhere
17
anywhere
udp dpt:bootps POLICE
0 POLICE
0
mode:pkt rate:2000 burst:2000
any
udp dpts:bootps:bootpc SETCLASS
3865 POLICE
0
swp+
class:2
icmp --
anywhere
0
--
SETCLASS
0 POLICE
0
--
icmp --
anywhere
11
anywhere
tcp spt:5342 POLICE
0 SETCLASS
0
any
tcp spt:5342 SETCLASS
0 POLICE
0
any
tcp dpt:5342 POLICE
0 SETCLASS
0
--
any
mode:pkt rate:300 burst:100
--
swp+
any
anywhere
ADDRTYPE match dst-type LOCAL POLICE
mode:pkt rate:
1000 burst:1000 class:0
0
0 POLICE
anywhere
all
--
swp+
any
anywhere
ADDRTYPE match dst-type IPROUTER POLICE
mode:pkt rate:
400 burst:100 class:0
988
279K SETCLASS
anywhere
all
--
SETCLASS
swp+
any
anywhere
class:0
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT 0 packets, 0 bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
240.0.0.0/5
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
loopback/8
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
base-address.mcast.net/8
0 DROP
all
--
swp+
any
255.255.255.255
destination
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
anywhere
0
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anywhere
26864 4672K SPAN
all
anywhere
--
swp4
40722
dport:swp19
47M SPAN
anywhere
all
any
anywhere
--
<---- input packets on swp4
any
dport:swp19
swp4
anywhere
<---- output packets on swp4
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT 67398 packets, 5757K bytes)
pkts bytes target
prot opt in
out
source
destination
Configuring SPAN for Bonds
This section describes how to configure SPAN for all packets going out of bond0 locally to bond1.
First, create a rules file in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo bash -c 'cat <<EOF > /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/span_bond.rules
[iptables]
-A FORWARD --out-interface bond0 -j SPAN --dport bond1
EOF'
Using cl-acltool with the --out-interface rule applies to transit traffic only; it does not
apply to traffic sourced from the switch.
Install the rules:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
[sudo] password for cumulus:
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/99control_plane_catch_all.rules
...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/99control_plane_catch_all.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span_bond.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span_bond.rules ...
Installing acl policy
done.
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Verify that the SPAN rules were installed:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -L -v | grep SPAN
19
1938 SPAN
all
anywhere
--
any
bond0
anywhere
dport:bond1
Configuring ERSPAN
This section describes how to configure ERSPAN for all packets coming in from swp1 to 12.0.0.2:
First, create a rules file in /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo bash -c 'cat <<EOF > /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/erspan.rules
[iptables]
-A FORWARD --in-interface swp1 -j ERSPAN --src-ip 12.0.0.1 --dst-ip
12.0.0.2
--ttl 64
EOF'
Install the rules:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/00control_plane.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/99control_plane_catch_all.rules
...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d
/99control_plane_catch_all.rules ...
Reading rule file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/erspan.rules ...
Processing rules in file /etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/erspan.rules ...
Installing acl policy
done.
Verify that the ERSPAN rules were installed:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo iptables -L -v | grep SPAN
69
6804 ERSPAN
anywhere
cumulusnetworks.com
all
--
swp1
any
anywhere
ERSPAN src-ip:12.0.0.1 dst-ip:12.0.0.2
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The src-ip option can be any IP address, whether it exists in the routing table or not. The dst-ip
option must be an IP address reachable via the routing table. The destination IP address must be
reachable from a front-panel port, and not the management port. Use ping or ip route get <ip>
to verify that the destination IP address is reachable. Setting the --ttl option is recommended.
When using Wireshark to review the ERSPAN output, Wireshark may report the message
"Unknown version, please report or test to use fake ERSPAN preference", and the trace is
unreadable. To resolve this, go into the General preferences for Wireshark, then go to
Protocols > ERSPAN and check the Force to decode fake ERSPAN frame option.
Removing SPAN Rules
To remove your SPAN rules, run:
#Remove rules file:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo rm
/etc/cumulus/acl/policy.d/span.rules
#Reload the default rules
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -i
cumulus@switch:~$
To verify that the SPAN rules were removed:
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo cl-acltool -L all | grep SPAN
cumulus@switch:~$
Monitoring Control Plane Traffic with tcpdump
You can use tcpdump to monitor control plane traffic — traffic sent to and coming from the switch
CPUs. tcpdump does not monitor data plane traffic; use cl-acltool instead (see above).
For more information on tcpdump, read the tcpdump documentation and the tcpdump man page.
The following example incorporates a few tcpdump options:
-i bond0, which captures packets from bond0 to the CPU and from the CPU to bond0
host 169.254.0.2, which filters for this IP address
-c 10, which captures 10 packets then stops
cumulus@switch:~$ sudo tcpdump -i bond0 host 169.254.0.2 -c 10
tcpdump: WARNING: bond0: no IPv4 address assigned
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on bond0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
16:24:42.532473 IP 169.254.0.2 > 169.254.0.1: ICMP echo request, id 27785,
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seq 6, length 64
16:24:42.532534 IP 169.254.0.1 > 169.254.0.2: ICMP echo reply, id 27785,
seq 6, length 64
16:24:42.804155 IP 169.254.0.2.40210 > 169.254.0.1.5342: Flags [.], seq
266275591:266277039, ack 3813627681, win 58, options [nop,nop,TS val
590400681 ecr 530346691], length 1448
16:24:42.804228 IP 169.254.0.1.5342 > 169.254.0.2.40210: Flags [.], ack
1448, win 166, options [nop,nop,TS val 530348721 ecr 590400681], length 0
16:24:42.804267 IP 169.254.0.2.40210 > 169.254.0.1.5342: Flags [P.], seq
1448:1836, ack 1, win 58, options [nop,nop,TS val 590400681 ecr 530346691],
length 388
16:24:42.804293 IP 169.254.0.1.5342 > 169.254.0.2.40210: Flags [.], ack
1836, win 165, options [nop,nop,TS val 530348721 ecr 590400681], length 0
16:24:43.532389 IP 169.254.0.2 > 169.254.0.1: ICMP echo request, id 27785,
seq 7, length 64
16:24:43.532447 IP 169.254.0.1 > 169.254.0.2: ICMP echo reply, id 27785,
seq 7, length 64
16:24:43.838652 IP 169.254.0.1.59951 > 169.254.0.2.5342: Flags [.], seq
2555144343:2555145791, ack 2067274882, win 58, options [nop,nop,TS val
530349755 ecr 590399688], length 1448
16:24:43.838692 IP 169.254.0.1.59951 > 169.254.0.2.5342: Flags [P.], seq
1448:1838, ack 1, win 58, options [nop,nop,TS val 530349755 ecr 590399688],
length 390
10 packets captured
12 packets received by filter
0 packets dropped by kernel
Configuration Files
/etc/cumulus/acl/policy.conf
Useful Links
www.perihel.at/sec/mz/mzguide.html
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ping
www.tcpdump.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traceroute
Caveats and Errata
SPAN rules cannot match outgoing subinterfaces.
ERSPAN rules must include ttl for versions 1.5.1 and earlier.
Index
cumulusnetworks.com
423
Cumulus Networks
Index
4
40G ports 110
logical limitations 110
8
802.1p 113
class of service 113
802.3ad link aggregation 200
A
ABRs 306
area border routers 306
access control lists 71
access ports 169
ACL policy files 75
ACL rules 115
ACLs 71
active-active mode 209, 266
VRR 209
VXLAN 266
active image slot 31
active listener ports 403
active-standby mode 209
VRR 209
Algorithm Longest Prefix Match 286
routing 286
ALPM mode 286
routing 286
alternate image slot 25, 30, 31, 35
accessing 35
installing a new image 25
selecting 30
AOC cables 11
apt-get 41
area border routers 306
ABRs 306
arp cache 413
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Cumulus Linux 2.5.4 User Guide
ARP requests 209
VRR 209
AS_PATH setting 330
BGP 330
ASN 320
autonomous system number 320
auto-negotiation 106
autonomous system number 320
BGP 320
autoprovision command 55
autoprovisioning 47
B
bestpath 330
BGP 330
BFD 139, 143, 145
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection 139, 143
echo function 145
BGP 318, 321
Border Gateway Protocol 318
ECMP 321
BGP peering relationships 329, 329
external 329
internal 329
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection 139
bonds 151, 200
LACP Bypass 200
boot recovery 364
bpdufilter 132
and STP 132
BPDU guard 130
and STP 130
brctl 13, 119, 156, 157, 277, 277
and STP 119
IGMP snooping 277
MLD snooping 277
bridge assurance 129
and STP 129
bridges 154, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 158, 162, 164, 169, 169, 175, 183
access ports 169
adding interfaces 156, 157
adding IP addresses 162
IGMP snooping 183
cumulusnetworks.com
425
Cumulus Networks
MAC addresses 158
MTU 158
physical interfaces 155
trunk ports 169
untagged frames 164
VLAN-aware 154, 175
C
cable connectivity 11
cabling 139
Prescriptive Topology Manager 139
cl-acltool 71, 115, 415
CLAG 209
and VRR 209
clagctl 193
class of service 113
cl-bgp 300
cl-cfg 84, 385
cl-ecmpcalc 346
cl-img-clear-overlay 37, 37
cl-img-install 25
cl-img-pkg 39
cl-img-select 30, 37, 38, 39
cl-license 11
cl-netstat 368
cl-ospf 300, 308
cl-ospf6 301, 316
Clos topology 289
cl-ra 301
cl-rctl 301
cl-resource-query 85, 369
cl-route-check 314
cl-support 361
convergence 288
routing 288
Cumulus Linux 7, 8, 17, 37, 37, 38, 183, 226
installing 7, 17
reprovisioning 37
reserved VLAN ranges 183
reverting 37
uninstalling 38
upgrading 8
VXLAN 226
426
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cumulus user 61
D
DAC cables 11
daemons 403
datapath 113
datapath.conf 113
date 58
setting 58
deb 45
debugging 359
decode-syseeprom 372
differentiated services code point 113
dmidecode 373
dpkg 43
dpkg-reconfigure 57
DSCP 113
differentiated services code point 113
DSCP marking 115
dual-connected hosts 186
duplex interfaces 105
dynamic routing 146, 291
and PTM 146
quagga 291
E
eBGP 320
external BGP 320
ebtables 71, 74
memory spaces 74
echo function 145, 145
BFD 145
PTM 145
ECMP 291, 312, 321, 1
BGP 321
equal cost multi-pathing 291
monitoring 1
OSPF 312
ECMP hashing 346, 349
resilient hashing 349
EGP 292
cumulusnetworks.com
427
Cumulus Networks
Exterior Gateway Protocol 292
equal cost multipath 346
ECMP hashing 346
equal cost multi-pathing 291
ECMP 291
ERSPAN 416
network troubleshooting 416
Ethernet management port 9
ethtool 112, 366
switch ports 112
external BGP 320
eBGP 320
F
fast convergence 328
BGP 328
fast leave 280
IGMP/MLD snooping 280
First Hop Redundancy Protocol 209
VRR 209
G
globs 100
Graphviz 139
H
hardware 371
monitoring 371
hardware compatibility list 7
hash distribution 154
HCL 7
head end replication 235
LNV 235
high availability 183, 290
host entries 369
monitoring 369
Host HA 183
hostname 9
hsflowd 379
hwclock 58
428
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I
iBGP 320
internal BGP 320
ifdown 91
ifplugd 210
VRR 210
ifquery 95, 407
ifup 91
ifupdown 90
ifupdown2 99, 167, 406, 406, 406
excluding interfaces 406
logging 406
purging IP addresses 99
troubleshooting 406
VLAN tagging 167
IGMP snooping 183, 196, 275
MLAG 196
VLAN-aware bridges 183
IGP 292
Interior Gateway Protocol 292
image contents 39
image slots 31, 32, 33, 34
PowerPC 32
resizing 34
x86 33
installing 7
Cumulus Linux 7
interface counters 368
interface dependencies 94
interfaces 103, 111
statistics 111
internal BGP 320
iBGP 320
ip6tables 71
IP addresses 99
purging 99
iproute2 411
failures 411
iptables 71
IPv4 routes 321
BGP 321
IPv6 routes 321
cumulusnetworks.com
429
Cumulus Networks
BGP 321
J
jdoo 197, 375
L
LACP 151, 183
MLAG 183
LACP Bypass 200
layer 3 access ports 13
configuring 13
LDAP 69
leaf-spine topology 289
license 10
installing 10
lightweight network virtualization 232, 235, 235, 259
head end replication 235
service node replication 235
link aggregation 151
Link Layer Discovery Protocol 133
link-local IPv6 addresses 334
BGP 334
link pause 116
datapath 116
link-state advertisement 305
link state monitoring 210
VRR 210
LLDP 133, 138
SNMP 138
lldpcli 135
lldpd 133, 140
LNV 232, 232, 235, 235, 259, 259
head end replication 235
service node replication 235
VXLAN 232, 259
load balancing 291
logging 362, 406, 406
ifupdown2 406
networking service 406
logging neighbor state changes 333
BGP 333
430
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logical switch 183
longest prefix match 1
routing 1
loopback interface 14
configuring 14
LSA 305
link-state advertisement 305
LSDB 305
link-state database 305
lshw 373
M
MAC entries 369
monitoring 369
Mako templates 101, 408
debugging 408
mangle table 116
ACL rules 116
memory spaces 74
ebtables 74
MLAG 183, 194, 194, 195, 196, 198, 199, 274, 1
backup link 195
IGMP snooping 196
MTU 198
peer link states 194, 1
PROTO_DOWN state 194, 274
STP 199
MLD snooping 276
monitoring 57, 359, 366, 369, 378, 379, 382
hardware watchdog 378
network traffic 379
mount points 33
mstpctl 119, 171
MTU 106, 158, 198, 411
bridges 158
failures 411
MLAG 198
multi-Chassis Link Aggregation 183
MLAG 183
multiple bridges 159
mz 414
traffic generator 414
cumulusnetworks.com
431
Cumulus Networks
N
name switch service 68
Netfilter 71
Net-SNMP 375
networking service 406
logging 406
network interfaces 90, 103
ifupdown 90
network traffic 379
monitoring 379
network troubleshooting 422
tcpdump 422
network virtualization 211, 212, 226
VMware NSX 212
no-as-set 330
BGP 330
nonatomic updates 73
switchd 73
non-blocking networks 290
NSS 68
name switch service 68
NTP 59
time 59
ntpd 59
O
ONIE 7, 39
rescue mode 39
Open Network Install Environment 7
Open Shortest Path First Protocol 305, 315
OSPFv2 305
OSPFv3 315
open source contributions 6
OSPF 1, 311, 312, 312, 315
ECMP 312
reconvergence 312
summary LSA 1
supported RFCs 315
unnumbered interfaces 311
ospf6d.conf 317
OSPFv2 305
OSPFv3 315, 317, 318
432
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supported RFCs 318
unnumbered interfaces 317
overlayfs file system 32
over-subscribed networks 290
P
packages 40
managing 40
packet buffering 113
datapath 113
packet filtering 72
packet queueing 113
datapath 113
packet scheduling 113
datapath 113
PAM 68
pluggable authentication modules 68
parent interfaces 97
password 61
default 61
passwordless access 61
passwords 9
peer-groups 330
BGP 330
Per VLAN Spanning Tree 119
PVST 119
ping 412
pluggable authentication modules 68
policy.conf 77
port lists 100
port speeds 105
Prescriptive Topology Manager 139
primary image slot 31
priority groups 113
datapath 113
privileged commands 62
PROTO_DOWN state 194, 274
MLAG 194, 274
protocol tuning 288, 336
BGP 336
routing 288
PTM 139, 145
echo function 145
cumulusnetworks.com
433
Cumulus Networks
Prescriptive Topology Manager 139
ptmctl 147
ptmd 139
PTM scripts 146
public community 377
PVRST 119
Rapid PVST 119
PVST 119
Per VLAN Spanning Tree 119
Q
QSFP 369
Quagga 146, 146, 284, 291, 293
and PTM 146, 146
configuring 293
dynamic routing 291
static routing 284
quality of service 117
querier 280
IGMP/MLD snooping 280
R
Rapid PVST 119
PVRST 119
read-only mode 335
BGP 335
recommended configuration 26
reconvergence 312
OSPF 312
remote access 60
repositories 45
other packages 45
rescue mode 39
reserved VLAN ranges 183
resilient hashing 349
restart 85
switchd 85
root user 9, 61
route advertisements 320
BGP 320
route entries 287, 287
434
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ALPM 287
limitations 287
route maps 336
BGP 336
route reflectors 320
BGP 320
routes 369
monitoring 369
routing protocols 287
RSTP 119
S
sensors command 373
serial console management 9
service node replication 235
LNV 235
services 403
sFlow 379
sFlow visualization tools 381
SFP 112, 369
switch ports 112
single user mode 364
smonctl 377
smond 377
SNMP 375
snmpd 375
sources.list 45
SPAN 416
network troubleshooting 416
spanning tree parameters 122
Spanning Tree Protocol 118, 175
STP 118
VLAN-aware bridges 175
SSH 60
SSH keys 60
static routing 282, 284
with ip route 282
with Quagga 284
STP 118, 129, 199
and bridge assurance 129
MLAG 199
Spanning Tree Protocol 118
stub areas 311
cumulusnetworks.com
435
Cumulus Networks
OSPF 311
sudo 61, 62
sudoers 62, 63
examples 63
summary LSA 310
OSPF 310
SVI 188
switched virtual interface 188
switchd 73, 82, 82, 85, 385
configuring 82
counters 385
file system 82
nonatomic updates 73
restarting 85
switched virtual interface 188
SVI 188
switch ports 12, 110
configuring 12
logical limitations 110
syslog 362
system management 359
T
tcpdump 422
network troubleshooting 422
templates 101
time 58
setting 58
time zone 10, 57
topology 139, 289
data center 139
traceroute 413
traffic.conf 113
traffic distribution 154
traffic generator 414
mz 414
traffic marking 115
datapath 115
troubleshooting 359, 364, 422
single user mode 364
tcpdump 422
trunk ports 164, 169
tzdata 57
436
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U
U-Boot 7, 359
unnumbered interfaces 311, 317
OSPF 311
OSPFv3 317
untagged frames 164
bridges 164
upgrading 8
Cumulus Linux 8
user accounts 61, 61
cumulus 61
root 61
user authentication 68
user commands 99
interfaces 99
V
virtual device counters 382, 385, 385
monitoring 382
poll interval 385
VLAN statistics 385
virtual router redundancy 206
visudo 62
VLAN 188, 382
statistics 382
switched virtual interface 188
VLAN-aware bridges 154, 175, 175, 176, 183
configuring 176
IGMP snooping 183
Spanning Tree Protocol 175
VLAN tagging 167, 167, 169
advanced example 169
basic example 167
VLAN translation 174
VRR 206
virtual router redundancy 206
VTEP 211, 213
vtysh 296
quagga CLI 296
VXLAN 211, 213, 226, 232, 259, 266, 382
active-active mode 266
cumulusnetworks.com
437
Cumulus Networks
LNV 232, 259
no controller 226
statistics 382
VMware NSX 213
W
watchdog 378
monitoring 378
Z
zebra 292
routing 292
zero touch provisioning 47, 50
USB 50
ZTP 47
438
14 December 2015
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